ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wilbourn, Makeba Parramore; Sims, Jacqueline Prince
2013-01-01
In the early stages of word learning, children demonstrate considerable flexibility in the type of symbols they will accept as object labels. However, around the 2nd year, as children continue to gain language experience, they become focused on more conventional symbols (e.g., words) as opposed to less conventional symbols (e.g., gestures). During…
Sokol, Serguei; Portais, Jean-Charles
2015-01-01
The dynamics of label propagation in a stationary metabolic network during an isotope labeling experiment can provide highly valuable information on the network topology, metabolic fluxes, and on the size of metabolite pools. However, major issues, both in the experimental set-up and in the accompanying numerical methods currently limit the application of this approach. Here, we propose a method to apply novel types of label inputs, sinusoidal or more generally periodic label inputs, to address both the practical and numerical challenges of dynamic labeling experiments. By considering a simple metabolic system, i.e. a linear, non-reversible pathway of arbitrary length, we develop mathematical descriptions of label propagation for both classical and novel label inputs. Theoretical developments and computer simulations show that the application of rectangular periodic pulses has both numerical and practical advantages over other approaches. We applied the strategy to estimate fluxes in a simulated experiment performed on a complex metabolic network (the central carbon metabolism of Escherichia coli), to further demonstrate its value in conditions which are close to those in real experiments. This study provides a theoretical basis for the rational interpretation of label propagation curves in real experiments, and will help identify the strengths, pitfalls and limitations of such experiments. The cases described here can also be used as test cases for more general numerical methods aimed at identifying network topology, analyzing metabolic fluxes or measuring concentrations of metabolites.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Davison, Elizabeth; Dey, Biswadip; Leonard, Naomi
Mathematical studies of synchronization in networks of neuronal oscillators offer insight into neuronal ensemble behavior in the brain. Systematic means to understand how network structure and external input affect synchronization in network models have the potential to improve methods for treating synchronization-related neurological disorders such as epilepsy and Parkinson's disease. To elucidate the complex relationships between network structure, external input, and synchronization, we investigate synchronous firing patterns in arbitrary networks of neuronal oscillators coupled through gap junctions with heterogeneous external inputs. We first apply a passivity-based Lyapunov analysis to undirected networks of homogeneous FitzHugh-Nagumo (FN) oscillators with homogeneous inputs and derive a sufficient condition on coupling strength that guarantees complete synchronization. In biologically relevant regimes, we employ Gronwall's inequality to obtain a bound tighter than those previously reported. We extend both analyses to a homogeneous FN network with heterogeneous inputs and show how cluster synchronization emerges under conditions on the symmetry of the coupling matrix and external inputs. Our results can be generalized to any network of semi-passive oscillators.
Method for guessing the response of a physical system to an arbitrary input
Wolpert, David H.
1996-01-01
Stacked generalization is used to minimize the generalization errors of one or more generalizers acting on a known set of input values and output values representing a physical manifestation and a transformation of that manifestation, e.g., hand-written characters to ASCII characters, spoken speech to computer command, etc. Stacked generalization acts to deduce the biases of the generalizer(s) with respect to a known learning set and then correct for those biases. This deduction proceeds by generalizing in a second space whose inputs are the guesses of the original generalizers when taught with part of the learning set and trying to guess the rest of it, and whose output is the correct guess. Stacked generalization can be used to combine multiple generalizers or to provide a correction to a guess from a single generalizer.
Brown, M Christian; Mukerji, Sudeep; Drottar, Marie; Windsor, Alanna M; Lee, Daniel J
2013-10-01
Olivocochlear (OC) neurons respond to sound and provide descending input that controls processing in the cochlea. The identities of neurons in the pathways providing inputs to OC neurons are incompletely understood. To explore these pathways, the retrograde transneuronal tracer pseudorabies virus (Bartha strain, expressing green fluorescent protein) was used to label OC neurons and their inputs in guinea pigs. Labeling of OC neurons began 1 day after injection into the cochlea. On day 2 (and for longer survival times), transneuronal labeling spread to the cochlear nucleus, inferior colliculus, and other brainstem areas. There was a correlation between the numbers of these transneuronally labeled neurons and the number of labeled medial (M) OC neurons, suggesting that the spread of labeling proceeds mainly via synapses on MOC neurons. In the cochlear nucleus, the transneuronally labeled neurons were multipolar cells including the subtype known as planar cells. In the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus, transneuronally labeled neurons were of two principal types: neurons with disc-shaped dendritic fields and neurons with dendrites in a stellate pattern. Transneuronal labeling was also observed in pyramidal cells in the auditory cortex and in centers not typically associated with the auditory pathway such as the pontine reticular formation, subcoerulean nucleus, and the pontine dorsal raphe. These data provide information on the identity of neurons providing input to OC neurons, which are located in auditory as well as non-auditory centers.
Haworth, Kevin J.; Fowlkes, J. Brian; Carson, Paul L.; Kripfgans, Oliver D.
2009-01-01
A theoretical shot noise model to describe the output of a time-reversal experiment in a multiple-scattering medium is developed. This (non-wave equation based) model describes the following process. An arbitrary waveform is transmitted through a high-order multiple-scattering environment and recorded. The recorded signal is arbitrarily windowed and then time-reversed. The processed signal is retransmitted into the environment and the resulting signal recorded. The temporal and spatial signal and noise of this process is predicted statistically. It is found that the time when the noise is largest depends on the arbitrary windowing and this noise peak can occur at times outside the main lobe. To determine further trends, a common set of parameters is applied to the general result. It is seen that as the duration of the input function increases, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) decreases (independent of signal bandwidth). It is also seen that longer persisting impulse responses result in increased main lobe amplitudes and SNR. Assumptions underpinning the generalized shot noise model are compared to an experimental realization of a multiple-scattering medium (a time-reversal chaotic cavity). Results from the model are compared to random number numerical simulation. PMID:19425655
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Donegan, James J; Huss, Carl R
1957-01-01
Several methods of obtaining the time response of Linear systems to either a unit impulse or an arbitrary input from frequency-response data are described and compared. Comparisons indicate that all the methods give good accuracy when applied to a second-order system; the main difference is the required computing time. The methods generally classified as inverse Laplace transform methods were found to be most effective in determining the response to a unit impulse from frequency-response data of higher order systems. Some discussion and examples are given of the use of such methods as flight-data-analysis techniques in predicting loads and motions of a flexible aircraft on the basis of simple calculations when the aircraft frequency response is known.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Noriki, Akihiro; Amano, Takeru; Mori, Masahiko; Sakakibara, Yoichi
2017-04-01
Mirror-based surface optical coupling is an attractive technology for the optical input/output of Si photonics. For the practical use of the mirror-based surface optical coupling, we evaluated its coupling angle controllability. Different angular mirrors were integrated into 3 × 3-µm-square single-mode silicon oxynitride optical waveguides on Si substrates. Near- and far-field patterns of optical beams output from the mirrors were measured to evaluate the beam characteristics and coupling angles. We successfully controlled the coupling angle over a wide range of more than 20° without beam characteristic variation, and perfect vertical output, which is difficult to achieve using grating couplers, was successfully demonstrated. The coupling angle error was less than ±1°, which was sufficiently small to ignore additional coupling loss. The wavelength dependence of the coupling angle was also evaluated and found to be less than ±0.5° over wide wavelength ranges of 1.26–1.36 and 1.52–1.62 µm.
Shi, Ran; Chen, Xiao-Juan; Wu, Xiao-Hong; Jian, Yan; Yuan, Hong-Zhao; Ge, Ti-Da; Sui, Fang-Gong; Tong, Cheng-Li; Wu, Jin-Shui
2013-07-01
Soil autotrophic microbe has been found numerous and widespread. However, roles of microbial autotrophic processes and the mechanisms of that in the soil carbon sequestration remain poorly understood. Here, we used soils incubated for 110 days in a closed, continuously labeled 14C-CO2 atmosphere to measure the amount of labeled C incorporated into the microbial biomass. The allocation of 14C-labeled assimilated carbon in variable soil C pools such as dissolved organic C (DOC) and microbial biomass C (MBC) were also examined over the 14C labeling span. The results showed that significant amounts of 14C-SOC were measured in paddy soils, which ranged from 69.06-133.81 mg x kg(-1), accounting for 0.58% to 0.92% of the total soil organic carbon (SOC). The amounts of 14C in the dissolved organic C (14C-DOC) and in the microbial biomass C (14C-MBC) were dependent on the soils, ranged from 2.54 to 8.10 mg x kg(-1), 19.50 to 49.16 mg x kg(-1), respectively. There was a significantly positive linear relationship between concentrations of 14C-SOC and 14C-MBC (R2 = 0.957**, P < 0.01). The 14C-DOC and 14C-MBC as proportions of total DOC, MBC, were 5.65%-24.91% and 4.23%-20.02%, respectively. Moreover, the distribution and transformation of microbes-assimilated-derived C had a greater influence on the dynamics of DOC and MBC than that on the dynamics of SOC. These data provide new insights into the importance of microorganisms in the fixation of atmospheric CO2 and of the potentially significant contributions made by microbial autotrophy to terrestrial C cycling.
Arbitrary Metrics in Psychology
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Blanton, Hart; Jaccard, James
2006-01-01
Many psychological tests have arbitrary metrics but are appropriate for testing psychological theories. Metric arbitrariness is a concern, however, when researchers wish to draw inferences about the true, absolute standing of a group or individual on the latent psychological dimension being measured. The authors illustrate this in the context of 2…
Monaghan, Padraic; Shillcock, Richard C.; Christiansen, Morten H.; Kirby, Simon
2014-01-01
It is a long established convention that the relationship between sounds and meanings of words is essentially arbitrary—typically the sound of a word gives no hint of its meaning. However, there are numerous reported instances of systematic sound–meaning mappings in language, and this systematicity has been claimed to be important for early language development. In a large-scale corpus analysis of English, we show that sound–meaning mappings are more systematic than would be expected by chance. Furthermore, this systematicity is more pronounced for words involved in the early stages of language acquisition and reduces in later vocabulary development. We propose that the vocabulary is structured to enable systematicity in early language learning to promote language acquisition, while also incorporating arbitrariness for later language in order to facilitate communicative expressivity and efficiency. PMID:25092667
Arbitrary waveform generator to improve laser diode driver performance
Fulkerson, Jr, Edward Steven
2015-11-03
An arbitrary waveform generator modifies the input signal to a laser diode driver circuit in order to reduce the overshoot/undershoot and provide a "flat-top" signal to the laser diode driver circuit. The input signal is modified based on the original received signal and the feedback from the laser diode by measuring the actual current flowing in the laser diode after the original signal is applied to the laser diode.
A Simple Arbitrary Solid Slicer
Yao, J
2005-06-23
The intersection of a given plane and an arbitrary (possibly non-convex, with multiple connectivities) meshed solid is exactly expressed by a set of planar cross-sections. A rule for marching on the edges of an arbitrary polyhedron is set for obtaining the topology of the cross-section. The method neither seeks triangulation of the surface mesh nor utilizes look-up tables, therefore it has optimal efficiency.
How many clusters: a validation index for arbitrary-shaped clusters.
Bayá, Ariel E; Granitto, Pablo M
2013-01-01
Clustering validation indexes are intended to assess the goodness of clustering results. Many methods used to estimate the number of clusters rely on a validation index as a key element to find the correct answer. This paper presents a new validation index based on graph concepts, which has been designed to find arbitrary shaped clusters by exploiting the spatial layout of the patterns and their clustering label. This new clustering index is combined with a solid statistical detection framework, the gap statistic. The resulting method is able to find the right number of arbitrary-shaped clusters in diverse situations, as we show with examples where this information is available. A comparison with several relevant validation methods is carried out using artificial and gene expression data sets. The results are very encouraging, showing that the underlying structure in the data can be more accurately detected with the new clustering index. Our gene expression data results also indicate that this new index is stable under perturbation of the input data.
Arbitrary shape surface Fresnel diffraction.
Shimobaba, Tomoyoshi; Masuda, Nobuyuki; Ito, Tomoyoshi
2012-04-09
Fresnel diffraction calculation on an arbitrary shape surface is proposed. This method is capable of calculating Fresnel diffraction from a source surface with an arbitrary shape to a planar destination surface. Although such calculation can be readily calculated by the direct integral of a diffraction calculation, the calculation cost is proportional to O(N²) in one dimensional or O(N⁴) in two dimensional cases, where N is the number of sampling points. However, the calculation cost of the proposed method is O(N log N) in one dimensional or O(N² log N) in two dimensional cases using non-uniform fast Fourier transform.
Representing Arbitrary Boosts for Undergraduates.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Frahm, Charles P.
1979-01-01
Presented is a derivation for the matrix representation of an arbitrary boost, a Lorentz transformation without rotation, suitable for undergraduate students with modest backgrounds in mathematics and relativity. The derivation uses standard vector and matrix techniques along with the well-known form for a special Lorentz transformation. (BT)
HCP: A Flexible CNN Framework for Multi-label Image Classification.
Wei, Yunchao; Xia, Wei; Lin, Min; Huang, Junshi; Ni, Bingbing; Dong, Jian; Zhao, Yao; Yan, Shuicheng
2015-10-26
Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) has demonstrated promising performance in single-label image classification tasks. However, how CNN best copes with multi-label images still remains an open problem, mainly due to the complex underlying object layouts and insufficient multi-label training images. In this work, we propose a flexible deep CNN infrastructure, called Hypotheses-CNN-Pooling (HCP), where an arbitrary number of object segment hypotheses are taken as the inputs, then a shared CNN is connected with each hypothesis, and finally the CNN output results from different hypotheses are aggregated with max pooling to produce the ultimate multi-label predictions. Some unique characteristics of this flexible deep CNN infrastructure include: 1) no ground-truth bounding box information is required for training; 2) the whole HCP infrastructure is robust to possibly noisy and/or redundant hypotheses; 3) the shared CNN is flexible and can be well pre-trained with a large-scale single-label image dataset, e.g., ImageNet; and 4) it may naturally output multi-label prediction results. Experimental results on Pascal VOC 2007 and VOC 2012 multi-label image datasets well demonstrate the superiority of the proposed HCP infrastructure over other state-of-the-arts. In particular, the mAP reaches 90.5% by HCP only and 93.2% after the fusion with our complementary result in [44] based on hand-crafted features on the VOC 2012 dataset.
Perturbative gadgets at arbitrary orders
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jordan, Stephen P.; Farhi, Edward
2008-06-01
Adiabatic quantum algorithms are often most easily formulated using many-body interactions. However, experimentally available interactions are generally two-body. In 2004, Kempe, Kitaev, and Regev introduced perturbative gadgets, by which arbitrary three-body effective interactions can be obtained using Hamiltonians consisting only of two-body interactions. These three-body effective interactions arise from the third order in perturbation theory. Since their introduction, perturbative gadgets have become a standard tool in the theory of quantum computation. Here we construct generalized gadgets so that one can directly obtain arbitrary k -body effective interactions from two-body Hamiltonians. These effective interactions arise from the k th order in perturbation theory.
Arbitrary bending plasmonic light waves.
Epstein, Itai; Arie, Ady
2014-01-17
We demonstrate the generation of self-accelerating surface plasmon beams along arbitrary caustic curvatures. These plasmonic beams are excited by free-space beams through a two-dimensional binary plasmonic phase mask, which provides the missing momentum between the two beams in the direction of propagation and sets the required phase for the plasmonic beam in the transverse direction. We examine the cases of paraxial and nonparaxial curvatures and show that this highly versatile scheme can be designed to produce arbitrary plasmonic self-accelerating beams. Several different plasmonic beams, which accelerate along polynomial and exponential trajectories, are demonstrated both numerically and experimentally, with a direct measurement of the plasmonic light intensity using a near-field scanning optical microscope.
Photonic Arbitrary Waveform Generation Technology
2006-06-01
filters or ring resonator based technologies [26-29]. Key aspects of the filter technology are the flatness of the filter channel, the crosstalk...photodetectors would also be warranted. 28 References [1] K. Nosu, “ Advanced coherent lightwave technologies ,” IEEE Commun. Magn,, vol. 26...AFRL-SN-RS-TR-2006-208 Final Technical Report June 2006 PHOTONIC ARBITRARY WAVEFORM GENERATION TECHNOLOGY University of
Style-independent document labeling: design and performance evaluation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mao, Song; Kim, Jong Woo; Thoma, George R.
2003-12-01
The Medical Article Records System or MARS has been developed at the U.S. National Library of Medicine (NLM) for automated data entry of bibliographical information from medical journals into MEDLINE, the premier bibliographic citation database at NLM. Currently, a rule-based algorithm (called ZoneCzar) is used for labeling important bibliographical fields (title, author, affiliation, and abstract) on medical journal article page images. While rules have been created for medical journals with regular layout types, new rules have to be manually created for any input journals with arbitrary or new layout types. Therefore, it is of interest to label any journal articles independent of their layout styles. In this paper, we first describe a system (called ZoneMatch) for automated generation of crucial geometric and non-geometric features of important bibliographical fields based on string-matching and clustering techniques. The rule based algorithm is then modified to use these features to perform style-independent labeling. We then describe a performance evaluation method for quantitatively evaluating our algorithm and characterizing its error distributions. Experimental results show that the labeling performance of the rule-based algorithm is significantly improved when the generated features are used.
Arbitrary Inequality in Reputation Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Frey, Vincenz; van de Rijt, Arnout
2016-12-01
Trust is an essential condition for exchange. Large societies must substitute the trust traditionally provided through kinship and sanctions in small groups to make exchange possible. The rise of internet-supported reputation systems has been celebrated for providing trust at a global scale, enabling the massive volumes of transactions between distant strangers that are characteristic of modern human societies. Here we problematize an overlooked side-effect of reputation systems: Equally trustworthy individuals may realize highly unequal exchange volumes. We report the results of a laboratory experiment that shows emergent differentiation between ex ante equivalent individuals when information on performance in past exchanges is shared. This arbitrary inequality results from cumulative advantage in the reputation-building process: Random initial distinctions grow as parties of good repute are chosen over those lacking a reputation. We conjecture that reputation systems produce artificial concentration in a wide range of markets and leave superior but untried exchange alternatives unexploited.
Arbitrary Inequality in Reputation Systems.
Frey, Vincenz; van de Rijt, Arnout
2016-12-20
Trust is an essential condition for exchange. Large societies must substitute the trust traditionally provided through kinship and sanctions in small groups to make exchange possible. The rise of internet-supported reputation systems has been celebrated for providing trust at a global scale, enabling the massive volumes of transactions between distant strangers that are characteristic of modern human societies. Here we problematize an overlooked side-effect of reputation systems: Equally trustworthy individuals may realize highly unequal exchange volumes. We report the results of a laboratory experiment that shows emergent differentiation between ex ante equivalent individuals when information on performance in past exchanges is shared. This arbitrary inequality results from cumulative advantage in the reputation-building process: Random initial distinctions grow as parties of good repute are chosen over those lacking a reputation. We conjecture that reputation systems produce artificial concentration in a wide range of markets and leave superior but untried exchange alternatives unexploited.
Arbitrary Inequality in Reputation Systems
Frey, Vincenz; van de Rijt, Arnout
2016-01-01
Trust is an essential condition for exchange. Large societies must substitute the trust traditionally provided through kinship and sanctions in small groups to make exchange possible. The rise of internet-supported reputation systems has been celebrated for providing trust at a global scale, enabling the massive volumes of transactions between distant strangers that are characteristic of modern human societies. Here we problematize an overlooked side-effect of reputation systems: Equally trustworthy individuals may realize highly unequal exchange volumes. We report the results of a laboratory experiment that shows emergent differentiation between ex ante equivalent individuals when information on performance in past exchanges is shared. This arbitrary inequality results from cumulative advantage in the reputation-building process: Random initial distinctions grow as parties of good repute are chosen over those lacking a reputation. We conjecture that reputation systems produce artificial concentration in a wide range of markets and leave superior but untried exchange alternatives unexploited. PMID:27995957
SAMBA: Sparse Approximation of Moment-Based Arbitrary Polynomial Chaos
Ahlfeld, R. Belkouchi, B.; Montomoli, F.
2016-09-01
A new arbitrary Polynomial Chaos (aPC) method is presented for moderately high-dimensional problems characterised by limited input data availability. The proposed methodology improves the algorithm of aPC and extends the method, that was previously only introduced as tensor product expansion, to moderately high-dimensional stochastic problems. The fundamental idea of aPC is to use the statistical moments of the input random variables to develop the polynomial chaos expansion. This approach provides the possibility to propagate continuous or discrete probability density functions and also histograms (data sets) as long as their moments exist, are finite and the determinant of the moment matrix is strictly positive. For cases with limited data availability, this approach avoids bias and fitting errors caused by wrong assumptions. In this work, an alternative way to calculate the aPC is suggested, which provides the optimal polynomials, Gaussian quadrature collocation points and weights from the moments using only a handful of matrix operations on the Hankel matrix of moments. It can therefore be implemented without requiring prior knowledge about statistical data analysis or a detailed understanding of the mathematics of polynomial chaos expansions. The extension to more input variables suggested in this work, is an anisotropic and adaptive version of Smolyak's algorithm that is solely based on the moments of the input probability distributions. It is referred to as SAMBA (PC), which is short for Sparse Approximation of Moment-Based Arbitrary Polynomial Chaos. It is illustrated that for moderately high-dimensional problems (up to 20 different input variables or histograms) SAMBA can significantly simplify the calculation of sparse Gaussian quadrature rules. SAMBA's efficiency for multivariate functions with regard to data availability is further demonstrated by analysing higher order convergence and accuracy for a set of nonlinear test functions with 2, 5 and 10
Waite, Anthony; /SLAC
2011-09-07
Serial Input/Output (SIO) is designed to be a long term storage format of a sophistication somewhere between simple ASCII files and the techniques provided by inter alia Objectivity and Root. The former tend to be low density, information lossy (floating point numbers lose precision) and inflexible. The latter require abstract descriptions of the data with all that that implies in terms of extra complexity. The basic building blocks of SIO are streams, records and blocks. Streams provide the connections between the program and files. The user can define an arbitrary list of streams as required. A given stream must be opened for either reading or writing. SIO does not support read/write streams. If a stream is closed during the execution of a program, it can be reopened in either read or write mode to the same or a different file. Records represent a coherent grouping of data. Records consist of a collection of blocks (see next paragraph). The user can define a variety of records (headers, events, error logs, etc.) and request that any of them be written to any stream. When SIO reads a file, it first decodes the record name and if that record has been defined and unpacking has been requested for it, SIO proceeds to unpack the blocks. Blocks are user provided objects which do the real work of reading/writing the data. The user is responsible for writing the code for these blocks and for identifying these blocks to SIO at run time. To write a collection of blocks, the user must first connect them to a record. The record can then be written to a stream as described above. Note that the same block can be connected to many different records. When SIO reads a record, it scans through the blocks written and calls the corresponding block object (if it has been defined) to decode it. Undefined blocks are skipped. Each of these categories (streams, records and blocks) have some characteristics in common. Every stream, record and block has a name with the condition that each
Use of labeled primers for differential display
Paunesku, T.; Woloschak, G.E.
1995-02-01
The differential display of eukaryotic cDNAs using PCR allows for determination of mRNA species differentially expressed when comparing two similar cell populations. This procedure uses a (T){sub 12}XY oligonucleotide as the 3 ft primer and an arbitrary 8-10-mer as the 5 ft primer. Labeling occurs by inclusion of {alpha}[{sup 33}P]-dATP in the PCR reaction. Two artifacts caused by this approach are (1) random printing from dT present from affinity purification of PolyA+RNA and (2) hybridization of the arbitrary primer to template target sequences on both cDNA strands. In this work, we have developed an approach for both eliminating smearing and identifying nonspecific bands on sequencing gels. By separately using 5 ft-end-labeled (T){sub 12}XY and arbitrary primers to label bands and comparing two differential display patterns rather than including labeled nucleotides in the PCR reaction itself, we can detect only those products incorporating the M{sub 12}XY primer on the 3 ft ends and the arbitrary primer on 5 ft ends. Those bands that are generated randomly in the PCR reaction are readily detectable and can be ignored. If on the other hand, one is interested only in a diagnostic banding pattern for differential display, benefit can be derived from the simplicity of the pattern obtained when labeled (T){sub 12}XY is used.
Bessel-like optical beams with arbitrary trajectories.
Chremmos, Ioannis D; Chen, Zhigang; Christodoulides, Demetrios N; Efremidis, Nikolaos K
2012-12-01
A method is proposed for generating Bessel-like optical beams with arbitrary trajectories in free space. The method involves phase-modulating an optical wavefront so that conical bundles of rays are formed whose apexes write a continuous focal curve with pre-specified shape. These ray cones have circular bases on the input plane; thus their interference results in a Bessel-like transverse field profile that propagates along the specified trajectory with a remarkably invariant main lobe. Such beams can be useful as hybrids between non-accelerating and accelerating optical waves that share diffraction-resisting and self-healing properties.
Controlling electromagnetic fields at boundaries of arbitrary geometries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Teo, Jonathon Yi Han; Wong, Liang Jie; Molardi, Carlo; Genevet, Patrice
2016-08-01
Rapid developments in the emerging field of stretchable and conformable photonics necessitate analytical expressions for boundary conditions at metasurfaces of arbitrary geometries. Here, we introduce the concept of conformal boundary optics: a design theory that determines the optical response for designer input and output fields at such interfaces. Given any object, we can realize coatings to achieve exotic effects like optical illusions and anomalous diffraction behavior. This approach is relevant to a broad range of applications from conventional refractive optics to the design of the next-generation of wearable optical components. This concept can be generalized to other fields of research where designer interfaces with nontrivial geometries are encountered.
Optical arbitrary waveform characterization using linear spectrograms.
Jiang, Zhi; Leaird, Daniel E; Long, Christopher M; Boppart, Stephen A; Weiner, Andrew M
2010-08-01
We demonstrate the first application of linear spectrogram methods based on electro-optic phase modulation to characterize optical arbitrary waveforms generated under spectral line-by-line control. This approach offers both superior sensitivity and self-referencing capability for retrieval of periodic high repetition rate optical arbitrary waveforms.
Mapping language to the world: the role of iconicity in the sign language input.
Perniss, Pamela; Lu, Jenny C; Morgan, Gary; Vigliocco, Gabriella
2017-03-12
Most research on the mechanisms underlying referential mapping has assumed that learning occurs in ostensive contexts, where label and referent co-occur, and that form and meaning are linked by arbitrary convention alone. In the present study, we focus on iconicity in language, that is, resemblance relationships between form and meaning, and on non-ostensive contexts, where label and referent do not co-occur. We approach the question of language learning from the perspective of the language input. Specifically, we look at child-directed language (CDL) in British Sign Language (BSL), a language rich in iconicity due to the affordances of the visual modality. We ask whether child-directed signing exploits iconicity in the language by highlighting the similarity mapping between form and referent. We find that CDL modifications occur more often with iconic signs than with non-iconic signs. Crucially, for iconic signs, modifications are more frequent in non-ostensive contexts than in ostensive contexts. Furthermore, we find that pointing dominates in ostensive contexts, and suggest that caregivers adjust the semiotic resources recruited in CDL to context. These findings offer first evidence for a role of iconicity in the language input and suggest that iconicity may be involved in referential mapping and language learning, particularly in non-ostensive contexts.
Use of labeled primers for differential display
Paunesku, T.; Woloschak, G.E.
1995-01-01
Two artifacts introduced in using differential display technology are (1) random priming from dT present from affinity purification of PolyA+ RNA and (2) hybridization of the arbitrary primer to template target sequences on both cDNA strands. We have developed a method eliminating both problems. By separately using 5`-end-labeled (T){sub 12}XY and arbitrary primers to label bands and comparing two differential display patterns, we can detect only those products incorporating the (T){sub 12}XY primer on the 3` ends and the arbitrary primer on 5` ends. Those bands that are generated randomly in the PCR are readily detectable and can be ignored.
... in the U.S. have food labels. On every food label you will see Serving size, number of servings, and number of calories per serving Information on the amount of dietary fat, cholesterol, dietary fiber, dietary sodium, carbohydrates, dietary proteins, vitamins, ...
... the food came from, whether the food is organic, and certain health claims. So who decides what ... make that claim. Foods that are labeled "USDA organic" are required to have at least 95% organic ...
Arbitrary order permanent Cartesian multipolar electrostatic interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boateng, H. A.; Todorov, I. T.
2015-01-01
Recently, there has been a concerted effort to implement advanced classical potential energy surfaces by adding higher order multipoles to fixed point charge electrostatics in a bid to increase the accuracy of simulations of condensed phase systems. One major hurdle is the unwieldy nature of the expressions which in part has limited developers mostly to including only dipoles and quadrupoles. In this paper, we present a generalization of the Cartesian formulation of electrostatic multipolar interactions that enables the specification of an arbitrary order of multipoles. Specifically, we derive formulas for arbitrary order implementation of the particle mesh Ewald method and give a closed form formula for the stress tensor in the reciprocal space. In addition, we provide recurrence relations for common electrostatic potentials employed in molecular simulations, which allows for the generalization to arbitrary order and guarantees a computational cost that scales as O(p3) for Cartesian multipole interactions of order p.
Arbitrary Symmetric Running Gait Generation for an Underactuated Biped Model
Esmaeili, Mohammad; Macnab, Chris
2017-01-01
This paper investigates generating symmetric trajectories for an underactuated biped during the stance phase of running. We use a point mass biped (PMB) model for gait analysis that consists of a prismatic force actuator on a massless leg. The significance of this model is its ability to generate more general and versatile running gaits than the spring-loaded inverted pendulum (SLIP) model, making it more suitable as a template for real robots. The algorithm plans the necessary leg actuator force to cause the robot center of mass to undergo arbitrary trajectories in stance with any arbitrary attack angle and velocity angle. The necessary actuator forces follow from the inverse kinematics and dynamics. Then these calculated forces become the control input to the dynamic model. We compare various center-of-mass trajectories, including a circular arc and polynomials of the degrees 2, 4 and 6. The cost of transport and maximum leg force are calculated for various attack angles and velocity angles. The results show that choosing the velocity angle as small as possible is beneficial, but the angle of attack has an optimum value. We also find a new result: there exist biped running gaits with double-hump ground reaction force profiles which result in less maximum leg force than single-hump profiles. PMID:28118401
Universal Approach to FRAP Analysis of Arbitrary Bleaching Patterns
Blumenthal, Daniel; Goldstien, Leo; Edidin, Michael; Gheber, Levi A.
2015-01-01
The original approach to calculating diffusion coefficients of a fluorescent probe from Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching (FRAP) measurements assumes bleaching with a circular laser beam of a Gaussian intensity profile. This method was used without imaging the bleached cell. An empirical equation for calculating diffusion coefficients from a rectangular bleaching geometry, created in a confocal image, was later published, however a single method allowing the calculation of diffusion coefficients for arbitrary geometry does not exist. Our simulation approach allows computation of diffusion coefficients regardless of bleaching geometry used in the FRAP experiment. It accepts a multiple-frame TIFF file, representing the experiment as input, and simulates the (pure) diffusion of the fluorescent probes (2D random walk) starting with the first post-bleach frame of the actual data. It then fits the simulated data to the real data and extracts the diffusion coefficient. We validate our approach using a well characterized diffusing molecule (DiIC18) against well-established analytical procedures. We show that the algorithm is able to calculate the absolute value of diffusion coefficients for arbitrary bleaching geometries, including exaggeratedly large ones. It is provided freely as an ImageJ plugin, and should facilitate quantitative FRAP measurements for users equipped with standard fluorescence microscopy setups. PMID:26108191
Arbitrary segments of absolute negative mobility
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Ruyin; Nie, Linru; Chen, Chongyang; Wang, Chaojie
2017-01-01
In previous research work, investigators have reported only one or two segments of absolute negative mobility (ANM) in a periodic potential. In fact, many segments of ANM also occur in the system considered here. We investigate transport of an inertial particle in a gating ratchet periodic potential subjected to a constant bias force. Our numerical results show that its mean velocity can decrease with the bias force increasing, i.e. ANM phenomenon. Furthermore, the ANM can take place arbitrary segments, even up to more than thirty. Intrinsic physical mechanism and conditions for arbitrary segments of ANM to occur are discussed in detail.
Agile high resolution arbitrary waveform generator with jitterless frequency stepping
Reilly, Peter T. A.; Koizumi, Hideya
2010-05-11
Jitterless transition of the programmable clock waveform is generated employing a set of two coupled direct digital synthesis (DDS) circuits. The first phase accumulator in the first DDS circuit runs at least one cycle of a common reference clock for the DDS circuits ahead of the second phase accumulator in the second DDS circuit. As a phase transition through the beginning of a phase cycle is detected from the first phase accumulator, a first phase offset word and a second phase offset word for the first and second phase accumulators are calculated and loaded into the first and second DDS circuits. The programmable clock waveform is employed as a clock input for the RAM address controller. A well defined jitterless transition in frequency of the arbitrary waveform is provided which coincides with the beginning of the phase cycle of the DDS output signal from the second DDS circuit.
Arbitrary mechanical system description by a symbolic line
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dmitrochenko, O.; Mikkola, A.; Olshevskiy, A.
2016-04-01
A single-line symbolic notation is proposed for description of an arbitrary multibody system. The kinematics is represented by a sequence of elementary transformations, each of those being marked by a reserved alphabetic character. Force and constraint links between the bodies are also defined by reserved characters. The parameters of the system, such as identifiers of degrees of freedom, inertia parameters and others, are assigned default names if not specified. However, user-defined names, parameters and functions can be placed instead if needed. The proposed description in its shortest form is suitable for academic purpose to identify only the essential properties of a multibody system. In an extended form, by explicit mentioning names of variables and parameters and other data like initial conditions, this description can serve as input data for a multibody analysis software. Lots of examples from the academic area and technical applications are given to show the applicability of the description.
Microwave Power Combiners for Signals of Arbitrary Amplitude
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Conroy, Bruce; Hoppe, Daniel
2009-01-01
Schemes for combining power from coherent microwave sources of arbitrary (unequal or equal) amplitude have been proposed. Most prior microwave-power-combining schemes are limited to sources of equal amplitude. The basic principle of the schemes now proposed is to use quasi-optical components to manipulate the polarizations and phases of two arbitrary-amplitude input signals in such a way as to combine them into one output signal having a specified, fixed polarization. To combine power from more than two sources, one could use multiple powercombining stages based on this principle, feeding the outputs of lower-power stages as inputs to higher-power stages. Quasi-optical components suitable for implementing these schemes include grids of parallel wires, vane polarizers, and a variety of waveguide structures. For the sake of brevity, the remainder of this article illustrates the basic principle by focusing on one scheme in which a wire grid and two vane polarizers would be used. Wire grids are the key quasi-optical elements in many prior equal-power combiners. In somewhat oversimplified terms, a wire grid reflects an incident beam having an electric field parallel to the wires and passes an incident beam having an electric field perpendicular to the wires. In a typical prior equal-power combining scheme, one provides for two properly phased, equal-amplitude signals having mutually perpendicular linear polarizations to impinge from two mutually perpendicular directions on a wire grid in a plane oriented at an angle of 45 with respect to both beam axes. The wires in the grid are oriented to pass one of the incident beams straight through onto the output path and to reflect the other incident beam onto the output path along with the first-mentioned beam.
A New Component Labelling And Merging Algorithm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lochovsky, Amelia F.
1987-10-01
Component labelling is an important part of region analysis in image processing. Component labelling consists of assigning labels to pixels in the image such that adjacent pixels are given the same labels. There are various approaches to component labelling. Some require random access to the processed image; some assume special structure of the image such as a quad tree. Algorithms based on sequential scan of the image are attractive to hardware implementation. One method of labelling is based on a fixed size local window which includes the previous line. Due to the fixed size window and the sequential fashion of the labelling process, different branches of the same object may be given different labels and later found to be connected to each other. These labels are con-sidered to be equivalent and must later be collected to correctly represent one single object. This approach can be found in [F,FE,R]. Assume an input binary image of size NxM. Using these labelling algorithms, the number of equivalent pair generated is bounded by O(N*M). The number of distinct labels is also bounded by O(N*M). There is no known algorithm that merge the equivalent label pairs in time linear to the number of pairs, that is in time bounded by O(N*M). We propose a new labelling algorithm which interleaves the labelling with the merging process. The labelling and the merging are combined in one algorithm. Merged label information is kept in an equivalent table which is used to guide the labelling. In general , the algorithm produces fewer equivalent label pairs. The combined labelling and merging algorithm is O(N*M), where NxM is the size of the image. Section II describes the algorithm. Section III gives some examples We discuss implementation issues in section IV and further discussion and conclusion are given in Section V.
GEO label: The General Framework for Labeling and Certification
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bye, B. L.; McCallum, I.; Maso, J.
2012-04-01
providers; it will create trustworthiness; and it will stimulate increased production and sharing of data and services. The survey of labeling and analysis with respect to certification, user ratings and user requirements management constitutes a useful input to the general discussion on data distribution and management of data.
Dynamic Input Conductances Shape Neuronal Spiking(1,2).
Drion, Guillaume; Franci, Alessio; Dethier, Julie; Sepulchre, Rodolphe
2015-01-01
Assessing the role of biophysical parameter variations in neuronal activity is critical to the understanding of modulation, robustness, and homeostasis of neuronal signalling. The paper proposes that this question can be addressed through the analysis of dynamic input conductances. Those voltage-dependent curves aggregate the concomitant activity of all ion channels in distinct timescales. They are shown to shape the current-voltage dynamical relationships that determine neuronal spiking. We propose an experimental protocol to measure dynamic input conductances in neurons. In addition, we provide a computational method to extract dynamic input conductances from arbitrary conductance-based models and to analyze their sensitivity to arbitrary parameters. We illustrate the relevance of the proposed approach for modulation, compensation, and robustness studies in a published neuron model based on data of the stomatogastric ganglion of the crab Cancer borealis.
Optimal cloning of qubits given by an arbitrary axisymmetric distribution on the Bloch sphere
Bartkiewicz, Karol; Miranowicz, Adam
2010-10-15
We find an optimal quantum cloning machine, which clones qubits of arbitrary symmetrical distribution around the Bloch vector with the highest fidelity. The process is referred to as phase-independent cloning in contrast to the standard phase-covariant cloning for which an input qubit state is a priori better known. We assume that the information about the input state is encoded in an arbitrary axisymmetric distribution (phase function) on the Bloch sphere of the cloned qubits. We find analytical expressions describing the optimal cloning transformation and fidelity of the clones. As an illustration, we analyze cloning of qubit state described by the von Mises-Fisher and Brosseau distributions. Moreover, we show that the optimal phase-independent cloning machine can be implemented by modifying the mirror phase-covariant cloning machine for which quantum circuits are known.
D'Ariano, G M; Lo Presti, P
2001-05-07
Quantum operations describe any state change allowed in quantum mechanics, including the evolution of an open system or the state change due to a measurement. We present a general method based on quantum tomography for measuring experimentally the matrix elements of an arbitrary quantum operation. As input the method needs only a single entangled state. The feasibility of the technique for the electromagnetic field is shown, and the experimental setup is illustrated based on homodyne tomography of a twin beam.
CASIM input parameters for various materials
Malensek, A.J.; Elwyn, A.J.
1994-07-14
During the past year, the computer program CASIM has been placed in a common area from which copies can be obtained by a wide array of users. The impetus for this arrangement was the need to have a standard code that could be maintained and transported to other platforms. In addition, an historical record would be kept of each version as the program evolved. CASIM requires a series of parameters (input by the user) that describe the medium in which the cascade develops. Presently a total of 9 materials can be defined. Occasions arise when one needs to know the properties of materials (elements, compounds, and mixtures) that have not been defined. Because it is desirable to have a uniform set of values for all CASIM users, this note presents a methodology for obtaining the input parameters for an arbitrary material. They are read in by the Subroutine CASIM{underscore}PROG from the user supplied file CASIM.DAT.
Potential flow about arbitrary biplane wing sections
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Garrick, I E
1937-01-01
A rigorous treatment is given of the problem of determining the two-dimensional potential flow around arbitrary biplane cellules. The analysis involves the use of elliptic functions and is sufficiently general to include the effects of such elements as the section shapes, the chord ratio, gap, stagger, and decalage, which elements may be specified arbitrarily. The flow problem is resolved by making use of the methods of conformal representation. Thus the solution of the problem of transforming conformally two arbitrary contours into two circles is expressed by a pair of simultaneous integral equations, for which a method of numerical solution is outlined. As an example of the numerical process, the pressure distribution over certain arrangements of the NACA 4412 airfoil in biplane combinations is presented and compared with the monoplane pressure distribution.
General Potential Theory of Arbitrary Wing Sections
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Theodorsen, T.; Garrick, I. E.
1979-01-01
The problem of determining the two dimensional potential flow around wing sections of any shape is examined. The problem is condensed into the compact form of an integral equation capable of yielding numerical solutions by a direct process. An attempt is made to analyze and coordinate the results of earlier studies relating to properties of wing sections. The existing approximate theory of thin wing sections and the Joukowski theory with its numerous generalizations are reduced to special cases of the general theory of arbitrary sections, permitting a clearer perspective of the entire field. The method which permits the determination of the velocity at any point of an arbitrary section and the associated lift and moments is described. The method is also discussed in terms for developing new shapes of preassigned aerodynamical properties.
Quantum Fidelity for Arbitrary Gaussian States.
Banchi, Leonardo; Braunstein, Samuel L; Pirandola, Stefano
2015-12-31
We derive a computable analytical formula for the quantum fidelity between two arbitrary multimode Gaussian states which is simply expressed in terms of their first- and second-order statistical moments. We also show how such a formula can be written in terms of symplectic invariants and used to derive closed forms for a variety of basic quantities and tools, such as the Bures metric, the quantum Fisher information, and various fidelity-based bounds. Our result can be used to extend the study of continuous-variable protocols, such as quantum teleportation and cloning, beyond the current one-mode or two-mode analyses, and paves the way to solve general problems in quantum metrology and quantum hypothesis testing with arbitrary multimode Gaussian resources.
The arbitrariness and normativity of social conventions.
Al-Amoudi, Ismael; Latsis, John
2014-06-01
This paper investigates a puzzling feature of social conventions: the fact that they are both arbitrary and normative. We examine how this tension is addressed in sociological accounts of conventional phenomena. Traditional approaches tend to generate either synchronic accounts that fail to consider the arbitrariness of conventions, or diachronic accounts that miss central aspects of their normativity. As a remedy, we propose a processual conception that considers conventions as both the outcome and material cause of much human activity. This conceptualization, which borrows from the économie des conventions as well as critical realism, provides a novel perspective on how conventions are nested and defined, and on how they are established, maintained and challenged.
Unsteady aerodynamic modeling for arbitrary motions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Edwards, J. W.; Ashley, H.; Breakwell, J. V.
1977-01-01
A study is presented on the unsteady aerodynamic loads due to arbitrary motions of a thin wing and their adaptation for the calculation of response and true stability of aeroelastic modes. In an Appendix, the use of Laplace transform techniques and the generalized Theodorsen function for two-dimensional incompressible flow is reviewed. New applications of the same approach are shown also to yield airloads valid for quite general small motions. Numerical results are given for the two-dimensional supersonic case. Previously proposed approximate methods, starting from simple harmonic unsteady theory, are evaluated by comparison with exact results obtained by the present approach. The Laplace inversion integral is employed to separate the loads into 'rational' and 'nonrational' parts, of which only the former are involved in aeroelastic stability of the wing. Among other suggestions for further work, it is explained how existing aerodynamic computer programs may be adapted in a fairly straightforward fashion to deal with arbitrary transients.
Fraunhofer diffraction by arbitrary-shaped obstacles.
Malinka, Aleksey V; Zege, Eleonora P
2009-08-01
We consider Fraunhofer diffraction by an ensemble of large arbitrary-shaped screens that are randomly oriented in the plane of a wavefront and have edges of arbitrary shape. It is shown that far outside the main diffraction peak the differential scattering cross section behaves asymptotically as theta(-3), where theta is the diffraction angle. Moreover, the differential scattering cross section depends only on the length of the contours bordering the screens and does not depend on the shape of the obstacles. As both strictly forward and total diffraction cross sections are specified by obstacle area only, the differential cross section of size-distributed obstacles is expected to be nearly independent of obstacle shape over the entire region of the diffraction angles.
Quantum Fidelity for Arbitrary Gaussian States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Banchi, Leonardo; Braunstein, Samuel L.; Pirandola, Stefano
2015-12-01
We derive a computable analytical formula for the quantum fidelity between two arbitrary multimode Gaussian states which is simply expressed in terms of their first- and second-order statistical moments. We also show how such a formula can be written in terms of symplectic invariants and used to derive closed forms for a variety of basic quantities and tools, such as the Bures metric, the quantum Fisher information, and various fidelity-based bounds. Our result can be used to extend the study of continuous-variable protocols, such as quantum teleportation and cloning, beyond the current one-mode or two-mode analyses, and paves the way to solve general problems in quantum metrology and quantum hypothesis testing with arbitrary multimode Gaussian resources.
Probabilistically teleporting arbitrary two-qubit states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choudhury, Binayak S.; Dhara, Arpan
2016-12-01
In this paper we make use of two non-maximally entangled three-qubit channels for probabilistically teleporting arbitrary two particle states from a sender to a receiver. We also calculate the success probability of the teleportation. In the protocol we use two measurements of which one is a POVM and the other is a projective measurement. The POVM provides the protocol with operational advantage.
Distinguishing Proteins From Arbitrary Amino Acid Sequences
Yau, Stephen S.-T.; Mao, Wei-Guang; Benson, Max; He, Rong Lucy
2015-01-01
What kinds of amino acid sequences could possibly be protein sequences? From all existing databases that we can find, known proteins are only a small fraction of all possible combinations of amino acids. Beginning with Sanger's first detailed determination of a protein sequence in 1952, previous studies have focused on describing the structure of existing protein sequences in order to construct the protein universe. No one, however, has developed a criteria for determining whether an arbitrary amino acid sequence can be a protein. Here we show that when the collection of arbitrary amino acid sequences is viewed in an appropriate geometric context, the protein sequences cluster together. This leads to a new computational test, described here, that has proved to be remarkably accurate at determining whether an arbitrary amino acid sequence can be a protein. Even more, if the results of this test indicate that the sequence can be a protein, and it is indeed a protein sequence, then its identity as a protein sequence is uniquely defined. We anticipate our computational test will be useful for those who are attempting to complete the job of discovering all proteins, or constructing the protein universe. PMID:25609314
High input impedance amplifier
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kleinberg, Leonard L.
1995-01-01
High input impedance amplifiers are provided which reduce the input impedance solely to a capacitive reactance, or, in a somewhat more complex design, provide an extremely high essentially infinite, capacitive reactance. In one embodiment, where the input impedance is reduced in essence, to solely a capacitive reactance, an operational amplifier in a follower configuration is driven at its non-inverting input and a resistor with a predetermined magnitude is connected between the inverting and non-inverting inputs. A second embodiment eliminates the capacitance from the input by adding a second stage to the first embodiment. The second stage is a second operational amplifier in a non-inverting gain-stage configuration where the output of the first follower stage drives the non-inverting input of the second stage and the output of the second stage is fed back to the non-inverting input of the first stage through a capacitor of a predetermined magnitude. These amplifiers, while generally useful, are very useful as sensor buffer amplifiers that may eliminate significant sources of error.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson-Throop, Kathy A.; Vowell, C. W.; Smith, Byron; Darcy, Jeannette
2006-01-01
This viewgraph presentation reviews the inputs to the MDS Medical Information Communique (MIC) catalog. The purpose of the group is to provide input for updating the MDS MIC Catalog and to request that MMOP assign Action Item to other working groups and FSs to support the MITWG Process for developing MIC-DDs.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Berliss-Vincent, Jane; Whitford, Gigi
2002-01-01
This article presents both the factors involved in successful speech input use and the potential barriers that may suggest that other access technologies could be more appropriate for a given individual. Speech input options that are available are reviewed and strategies for optimizing use of speech recognition technology are discussed. (Contains…
Introduction to Pesticide Labels
Pesticide product labels provide critical information about how to safely and legally handle and use pesticide products. Unlike most other types of product labels, pesticide labels are legally enforceable. Learn about pesticide product labels.
Gaussian Quadrature Formulae for Arbitrary Positive Measures
Fernandes, Andrew D.; Atchley, William R.
2007-01-01
We present computational methods and subroutines to compute Gaussian quadrature integration formulas for arbitrary positive measures. For expensive integrands that can be factored into well-known forms, Gaussian quadrature schemes allow for efficient evaluation of high-accuracy and -precision numerical integrals, especially compared to general ad hoc schemes. In addition, for certain well-known density measures (the normal, gamma, log-normal, Student’s t, inverse-gamma, beta, and Fisher’s F) we present exact formulae for computing the respective quadrature scheme. PMID:19455218
Confined systems within arbitrary enclosed surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burrows, B. L.; Cohen, M.
2016-06-01
A new model of electronic confinement in atoms and molecules is presented. This is based on the electronic flux J which is assumed to vanish on some notional bounding surface of arbitrary shape. J is necessarily calculated using an approximate wave-function, whose parameters are chosen to satisfy the required surface conditions. This model embraces the results of all previous calculations for which the wave-functions or their derivatives vanish on conveniently shaped surfaces, but now extends the theory to more general surfaces. Examples include one-centre hydrogen-like atoms, the valence state of Li and the two centre molecular systems {{{H}}}2+ and {{HeH}}++.
You, Wenping; Chen, Baoguo; Dunlap, Susan
2009-01-01
Frequency trajectory is a better measure to investigate age-limited learning effects than age of acquisition (AoA) ratings (Zevin, J. D., & Seidenberg, M. S. (2002). Age of acquisition effects in word reading and other tasks. Journal of Memory and Language, 47(1), 1-29). The current study uses frequency trajectory as a variable to investigate age-limited learning effects in Chinese character recognition, and tests predictions of the arbitrary mapping hypothesis as applied in a non-alphabetic writing system. In Experiment 1, regression analyses showed that, compared to rated AoA, frequency trajectory of characters was less affected by other lexical properties, and could explain a significant proportion of variance of AoA. In Experiment 2, the frequency trajectory and predictability from orthography to pronunciation of characters were orthogonally manipulated in a character naming task. The frequency trajectory effect appeared only for the arbitrary mapping condition. In Experiment 3, frequency trajectory and predictability from orthography to meaning of characters were manipulated in a semantic category judgment task. The frequency trajectory effects were found only when the mapping from orthography to semantic is less consistent. In summary, the study confirmed that AoA is a genuine factor affecting word processing, and the AoA effects were limited to those situations in which mapping between input and output representation was arbitrary. These results provide strong cross-linguistic evidence in support of the arbitrary mapping hypothesis.
Arbitrary Order Hierarchical Bases for Computational Electromagnetics
Rieben, R N; White, D; Rodrigue, G
2002-12-20
We present a clear and general method for constructing hierarchical vector bases of arbitrary polynomial degree for use in the finite element solution of Maxwell's equations. Hierarchical bases enable p-refinement methods, where elements in a mesh can have different degrees of approximation, to be easily implemented. This can prove to be quite useful as sections of a computational domain can be selectively refined in order to achieve a greater error tolerance without the cost of refining the entire domain. While there are hierarchical formulations of vector finite elements in publication (e.g. [1]), they are defined for tetrahedral elements only, and are not generalized for arbitrary polynomial degree. Recently, Hiptmair, motivated by the theory of exterior algebra and differential forms presented a unified mathematical framework for the construction of conforming finite element spaces [2]. In [2], both 1-form (also called H(curl)) and 2-form (also called H(div)) conforming finite element spaces and the definition of their degrees of freedom are presented. These degrees of freedom are weighted integrals where the weighting function determines the character of the bases, i.e. interpolatory, hierarchical, etc.
Input and Input Processing in Second Language Acquisition.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Alcon, Eva
1998-01-01
Analyzes second-language learners' processing of linguistic data within the target language, focusing on input and intake in second-language acquisition and factors and cognitive processes that affect input processing. Input factors include input simplification, input enhancement, and interactional modifications. Individual learner differences…
Inputs to combination-sensitive neurons of the inferior colliculus.
Wenstrup, J J; Mittmann, D H; Grose, C D
1999-07-12
In the mustached bat, combination-sensitive neurons display integrative responses to combinations of acoustic elements in biosonar or social vocalizations. One type of combination-sensitive neuron responds to multiple harmonics of the frequency-modulated (FM) components in the sonar pulse and echo of the bat. These neurons, termed FM-FM neurons, are sensitive to the pulse-echo delay and may encode the distance of sonar targets. FM-FM neurons are common in high-frequency regions of the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC) and may be created there. If so, they must receive low-frequency inputs in addition to the expected high-frequency inputs. We placed single deposits of a tracer at FM-FM recording sites in the ICC and then analyzed retrograde labeling in the brainstem and midbrain. We were particularly interested in labeling patterns suggestive of low-frequency input to these FM-FM neurons. In most nuclei containing labeled cells, there was a single focus of labeling in regions thought to be responsive to high-frequency sounds. More complex labeling patterns were observed in three nuclei. In the anteroventral cochlear nucleus, labeling in the anterior and marginal cell divisions occurred in regions thought to respond to low-frequency sounds. This labeling comprised 6% of total brainstem labeled cells. Labeling in the intermediate nucleus of the lateral lemniscus and the magnocellular part of the ventral nucleus of the lateral lemniscus together comprised nearly 40% of all labeled cells. In both nuclei, multiple foci of labeling occurred. These different foci may represent groups of cells tuned to different frequency bands. Thus, one or more of these three nuclei may provide low-frequency input to high-frequency-sensitive cells in the ICC, creating FM-FM responses. We also examined whether ICC neurons responsive to lower frequencies project to high-frequency-sensitive ICC regions; only 0.15% of labeling originated from these lower frequency
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tumer, Kagan; Oza, Nikunj C.; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
Using an ensemble of classifiers instead of a single classifier has been shown to improve generalization performance in many pattern recognition problems. However, the extent of such improvement depends greatly on the amount of correlation among the errors of the base classifiers. Therefore, reducing those correlations while keeping the classifiers' performance levels high is an important area of research. In this article, we explore input decimation (ID), a method which selects feature subsets for their ability to discriminate among the classes and uses them to decouple the base classifiers. We provide a summary of the theoretical benefits of correlation reduction, along with results of our method on two underwater sonar data sets, three benchmarks from the Probenl/UCI repositories, and two synthetic data sets. The results indicate that input decimated ensembles (IDEs) outperform ensembles whose base classifiers use all the input features; randomly selected subsets of features; and features created using principal components analysis, on a wide range of domains.
Two-Volt Josephson Arbitrary Waveform Synthesizer Using Wilkinson Dividers.
Flowers-Jacobs, Nathan E; Fox, Anna E; Dresselhaus, Paul D; Schwall, Robert E; Benz, Samuel P
2016-09-01
The root-mean-square (rms) output voltage of the NIST Josephson arbitrary waveform synthesizer (JAWS) has been doubled from 1 V to a record 2 V by combining two new 1 V chips on a cryocooler. This higher voltage will improve calibrations of ac thermal voltage converters and precision voltage measurements that require state-of-the-art quantum accuracy, stability, and signal-to-noise ratio. We achieved this increase in output voltage by using four on-chip Wilkinson dividers and eight inner-outer dc blocks, which enable biasing of eight Josephson junction (JJ) arrays with high-speed inputs from only four high-speed pulse generator channels. This approach halves the number of pulse generator channels required in future JAWS systems. We also implemented on-chip superconducting interconnects between JJ arrays, which reduces systematic errors and enables a new modular chip package. Finally, we demonstrate a new technique for measuring and visualizing the operating current range that reduces the measurement time by almost two orders of magnitude and reveals the relationship between distortion in the output spectrum and output pulse sequence errors.
Two-Volt Josephson Arbitrary Waveform Synthesizer Using Wilkinson Dividers
Flowers-Jacobs, Nathan E.; Fox, Anna E.; Dresselhaus, Paul D.; Schwall, Robert E.; Benz, Samuel P.
2016-01-01
The root-mean-square (rms) output voltage of the NIST Josephson arbitrary waveform synthesizer (JAWS) has been doubled from 1 V to a record 2 V by combining two new 1 V chips on a cryocooler. This higher voltage will improve calibrations of ac thermal voltage converters and precision voltage measurements that require state-of-the-art quantum accuracy, stability, and signal-to-noise ratio. We achieved this increase in output voltage by using four on-chip Wilkinson dividers and eight inner-outer dc blocks, which enable biasing of eight Josephson junction (JJ) arrays with high-speed inputs from only four high-speed pulse generator channels. This approach halves the number of pulse generator channels required in future JAWS systems. We also implemented on-chip superconducting interconnects between JJ arrays, which reduces systematic errors and enables a new modular chip package. Finally, we demonstrate a new technique for measuring and visualizing the operating current range that reduces the measurement time by almost two orders of magnitude and reveals the relationship between distortion in the output spectrum and output pulse sequence errors. PMID:27453676
Generalized sheath criterion for arbitrary degenerate plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akbari-Moghanjoughi, M.
2017-01-01
In this research, we study the generalized sheath criterion for plasmas with an arbitrary degree of electron degeneracy and temperature, ranging from the classical dilute regime to the fully degenerate quantum plasmas. The latter may be relevant to warm dense matter and/or laboratory high energy density matter or even astrophysical stellar plasmas. The hydrostatic one dimensional model is used to establish the generalized Bohm's criterion for sheath entrance ion speed limits, and the small amplitude theory of the sheath problem, which accurately describes the sheath parameters for lower ion acoustic Mach numbers, is developed. Our results indicate that the sheath characteristic parameters such as electrostatic potential and density profiles, as well as the wall potential and the sheath length, are significantly affected by plasma parameters such as the ion and electron temperature and number densities in the plasma region. In particular, there are fundamental differences between sheath structures of the dilute classical plasmas and those of dense quantum ones.
Aerodynamic shape optimization of arbitrary hypersonic vehicles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dulikravich, George S.; Sheffer, Scott G.
1991-01-01
A new method was developed to optimize, in terms of aerodynamic wave drag minimization, arbitrary (nonaxisymmetric) hypersonic vehicles in modified Newtonian flow, while maintaining the initial volume and length of the vehicle. This new method uses either a surface fitted Fourier series to represent the vehicle's geometry or an independent point motion algorithm. In either case, the coefficients of the Fourier series or the spatial locations of the points defining each cross section were varied and a numerical optimization algorithm based on a quasi-Newton gradient search concept was used to determine the new optimal configuration. Results indicate a significant decrease in aerodynamic wave drag for simple and complex geometries at relatively low CPU costs. In the case of a cone, the results agreed well with known analytical optimum ogive shapes. The procedure is capable of accepting more complex flow field analysis codes.
Fast polar decomposition of an arbitrary matrix
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Higham, Nicholas J.; Schreiber, Robert S.
1988-01-01
The polar decomposition of an m x n matrix A of full rank, where m is greater than or equal to n, can be computed using a quadratically convergent algorithm. The algorithm is based on a Newton iteration involving a matrix inverse. With the use of a preliminary complete orthogonal decomposition the algorithm can be extended to arbitrary A. How to use the algorithm to compute the positive semi-definite square root of a Hermitian positive semi-definite matrix is described. A hybrid algorithm which adaptively switches from the matrix inversion based iteration to a matrix multiplication based iteration due to Kovarik, and to Bjorck and Bowie is formulated. The decision when to switch is made using a condition estimator. This matrix multiplication rich algorithm is shown to be more efficient on machines for which matrix multiplication can be executed 1.5 times faster than matrix inversion.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gao, Bindong; Zhang, Fangzheng; Pan, Shilong
2017-01-01
Arbitrary waveform generation by a serial photonic digital-to-analog converter (PDAC) is demonstrated in this paper. To construct the PDAC, an intensity weighted, time and wavelength interleaved optical pulse train is first generated by phase modulation and fiber dispersion. Then, on-off keying modulation of the optical pulses is implemented according to the input serial digital bits. After proper dispersion compensation, a combined optical pulse is obtained with its total power proportional to the weighted sum of the input digital bits, and digital-to-analog conversion is achieved after optical-to-electronic conversion. By properly designing the input bits and using a low pass filter for signal smoothing, arbitrary waveforms can be generated. Performance of the PDAC is experimentally investigated by establishing a 2.5 GSa/s 4-bit PDAC. The established PDAC is found to have a good linear transfer function and the effective number of bits (ENOB) reaches as high as 3.49. Based on the constructed PDAC, generation of multiple waveforms including triangular, parabolic, square and sawtooth pulses are implemented with the generated waveforms very close to the ideal waveforms.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cota, Steve A.; Kalman, Linda S.
2010-08-01
In an earlier paper [Cota et al., Proc. SPIE 7087, 1-31 (2008)] we described how The Aerospace Corporation's Parameterized Image Chain Analysis & Simulation SOftware (PICASSO) may be used with a reflectance calibrated input scene, in conjunction with a limited number of runs of AFRL's MODTRAN4 radiative transfer code, to quickly predict the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiance received by an earth viewing sensor, for any arbitrary combination of solar and sensor elevation angles. In the present paper, we extend the method to the short and midwave IR, where reflected solar and emitted thermal radiation both contribute to the TOA radiance received by a downlooking sensor.
Solving Nonlinear Euler Equations with Arbitrary Accuracy
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dyson, Rodger W.
2005-01-01
A computer program that efficiently solves the time-dependent, nonlinear Euler equations in two dimensions to an arbitrarily high order of accuracy has been developed. The program implements a modified form of a prior arbitrary- accuracy simulation algorithm that is a member of the class of algorithms known in the art as modified expansion solution approximation (MESA) schemes. Whereas millions of lines of code were needed to implement the prior MESA algorithm, it is possible to implement the present MESA algorithm by use of one or a few pages of Fortran code, the exact amount depending on the specific application. The ability to solve the Euler equations to arbitrarily high accuracy is especially beneficial in simulations of aeroacoustic effects in settings in which fully nonlinear behavior is expected - for example, at stagnation points of fan blades, where linearizing assumptions break down. At these locations, it is necessary to solve the full nonlinear Euler equations, and inasmuch as the acoustical energy is of the order of 4 to 5 orders of magnitude below that of the mean flow, it is necessary to achieve an overall fractional error of less than 10-6 in order to faithfully simulate entropy, vortical, and acoustical waves.
Understanding rigid body motion in arbitrary dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leyvraz, Francois
2015-05-01
Why would anyone wish to generalize the already unappetizing subject of rigid body motion to an arbitrary number of dimensions? At first sight, the subject seems to be both repellent and superfluous. The author will try to argue that an approach involving no specific three-dimensional constructs is actually easier to grasp than the traditional approach and might thus be generally useful to understand rigid body motion both in three dimensions and in the general case. Specific differences between the viewpoint suggested here and the usual one include the following: here angular velocities are systematically treated as antisymmetric matrices, a symmetric tensor I quite different from the moment of inertia tensor plays a central role, whereas the latter is shown to be a far more complex object, namely a tensor of rank four. A straightforward way to define it is given. The Euler equation is derived and the use of Noether’s theorem to obtain conserved quantities is illustrated. Finally the equations of motion for a heavy top as well as for two bodies linked by a spherical joint are derived to display the simplicity and the power of the method.
Heterotic string in an arbitrary background field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sen, Ashoke
1985-10-01
An expression for the light-cone gauge action for the first-quantized heterotic string in the presence of arbitrary background gauge, gravitational, and antisymmetric tensor fields is derived. The result is a two-dimensional local field theory with N=1/2 supersymmetry. The constraints imposed on the background fields in order to make this theory one-loop finite are derived. These constraints are identical to the equations of motion for the massless fields at the linearized level. Finally, it is shown that if there is no background antisymmetric tensor field, and if the gauge connection is set equal to the spin connection, the effective action is that of an N=1 supersymmetric nonlinear and N=2 supersymmetric Georgi-Glashow models the occurrence of the fermion fractionization is the necessity; the ignorance of it results in the inconsistency in the perturbative calculation of the mass splittings among the members of the supermultiplets. The notable feature of our result is that the degeneracy due to the Jackiw-Rebbi zero mode is not independent of the one required by the supersymmetry, suggesting a nontrivial structure in embedding the topology of Higgs fields into supersymmetric gauge theories.
Ion trajectory simulation for electrode configurations with arbitrary geometries.
Wu, Guangxiang; Cooks, R Graham; Ouyang, Zheng; Yu, Meng; Chappell, William J; Plass, Wolfgang R
2006-09-01
A multi-particle ion trajectory simulation program ITSIM 6.0 is described, which is capable of ion trajectory simulations for electrode configurations with arbitrary geometries. The electrode structures are input from a 3D drawing program AutoCAD and the electric field is calculated using a 3D field solver COMSOL. The program CreatePot acts as interface between the field solver and ITSIM 6.0. It converts the calculated electric field into a field array file readable by ITSIM 6.0 and ion trajectories are calculated by solving Newton's equation using Runge-Kutta integration methods. The accuracy of the field calculation is discussed for the ideal quadrupole ion trap in terms of applied mesh density. Electric fields of several different types of devices with 3D geometry are simulated, including ion transport through an ion optical system as a function of pressure. Ion spatial distributions, including the storage of positively charged ions only and simultaneous storage of positively/negatively charged ions in commercial linear ion traps with various geometries, are investigated using different trapping modes. Inelastic collisions and collision induced dissociation modeled using RRKM theory are studied, with emphasis on the fragmentation of n-butylbenzene inside an ideal quadrupole ion trap. The mass spectrum of 1,3-dichlorobenzene is simulated for the rectilinear ion trap device and good agreement is observed between the simulated and the experimental mass spectra. Collisional cooling using helium at different pressures is found to affect mass resolution in the rectilinear ion trap.
An Innovative Class Registration Method Based on Bar Code Input.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Freeman, Raoul J.
1983-01-01
Describes system of computerized class registration utilizing bar code input which is part of the Student Data System, developed by Management Information Division of the Los Angeles Unified School District. An explanation of the system notes the hardware used, printing of bar code labels, registration procedures, and operational aspects. (EJS)
Acquisition of the Cardinal Word Principle: The Role of Input
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mix, Kelly S.; Sandhofer, Catherine M.; Moore, Julie Anne; Russell, Christina
2012-01-01
We investigated whether specific input helps 3-1/2-year-olds discover that the last word in a count represents its cardinal value (i.e., the cardinal word principle). In Study 1, we contrasted four training approaches. The only approach to yield significant improvement was to label a set's cardinality and then immediately count it. This training…
Arbitrary Shape Deformation in CFD Design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Landon, Mark; Perry, Ernest
2014-01-01
Sculptor(R) is a commercially available software tool, based on an Arbitrary Shape Design (ASD), which allows the user to perform shape optimization for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) design. The developed software tool provides important advances in the state-of-the-art of automatic CFD shape deformations and optimization software. CFD is an analysis tool that is used by engineering designers to help gain a greater understanding of the fluid flow phenomena involved in the components being designed. The next step in the engineering design process is to then modify, the design to improve the components' performance. This step has traditionally been performed manually via trial and error. Two major problems that have, in the past, hindered the development of an automated CFD shape optimization are (1) inadequate shape parameterization algorithms, and (2) inadequate algorithms for CFD grid modification. The ASD that has been developed as part of the Sculptor(R) software tool is a major advancement in solving these two issues. First, the ASD allows the CFD designer to freely create his own shape parameters, thereby eliminating the restriction of only being able to use the CAD model parameters. Then, the software performs a smooth volumetric deformation, which eliminates the extremely costly process of having to remesh the grid for every shape change (which is how this process had previously been achieved). Sculptor(R) can be used to optimize shapes for aerodynamic and structural design of spacecraft, aircraft, watercraft, ducts, and other objects that affect and are affected by flows of fluids and heat. Sculptor(R) makes it possible to perform, in real time, a design change that would manually take hours or days if remeshing were needed.
Universal filters of arbitrary order and type employing square-root-domain technique
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khanday, F. A.; Psychalinos, C.; Shah, N. A.
2014-07-01
Novel Single Input Multiple Output (SIMO) and Multiple Input Single Output (MISO) universal filter topologies of arbitrary order and type are introduced in this paper. The proposed topologies have been realised by employing Square-Root Domain (SRD) technique. An offered benefit of the universal filter topologies is that only grounded capacitors are required for their implementations and the resonant frequency of the filters can be electronically controlled by an appropriate dc current. The proposed universal filters simultaneously offer all the five standard filtering functions i.e. Lowpass (LP), Highpass (HP) and Bandpass (BP), Bandstop (BS) and Allpass (AP) frequency responses. In addition, the SIMO topology is generic in the sense that it can yield four different stable filter configurations. Two design examples are provided in each configuration and the correct operation of the corresponding topologies has been evaluated through the PSPICE software with BSIM 0.35-µm CMOS process model parameters.
1977-07-29
retrieve data necessary for the other modules to function. Initially there are 13 inputs, with the CRT dis - playing the information to be entered...id 46aý .0sso somma % 4bt--f. ft Aa W #4t - lQ *a - 4 c ,0 45 40 aK 43 ’ C = 04 ZSC 0 de *020.4 %- li’l ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ & 1&.1 gol~ -,.-’ ow. -6 -N*4••1L...tv Z ( - C- ft %- ftb 0*4 *- -1 *4* (30 w ag &h 0 a _6a .N I 0 A. 6.2 IL ILN ’ S MS 6C 0 to ~ 0 " di a S 0 m J *- -j f’ md op9 -9 $-. -6 = -A U .Af
Samani, Mohsen Mosayebi; Mahnam, Amin; Hosseini, Nasrin
2014-01-01
Portable wireless neuro-stimulators have been developed to facilitate long-term cognitive and behavioral studies on the central nervous system in freely moving animals. These stimulators can provide precisely controllable input(s) to the nervous system, without distracting the animal attention with cables connected to its body. In this study, a low power backpack neuro-stimulator was developed for animal brain researches that can provides arbitrary stimulus waveforms for the stimulation, while it is small and light weight to be used for small animals including rats. The system consists of a controller that uses an RF link to program and activate a small and light microprocessor-based stimulator. A Howland current source was implemented to produce precise current controlled arbitrary waveform stimulations. The system was optimized for ultra-low power consumption and small size. The stimulator was first tested for its electrical specifications. Then its performance was evaluated in a rat experiment when electrical stimulation of medial longitudinal fasciculus induced circling behavior. The stimulator is capable of delivering programmed stimulations up to ± 2 mA with adjusting steps of 1 μA, accuracy of 0.7% and compliance of 6 V. The stimulator is 15 mm × 20 mm × 40 mm in size, weights 13.5 g without battery and consumes a total power of only 5.l mW. In the experiment, the rat could easily carry the stimulator and demonstrated the circling behavior for 0.1 ms current pulses of above 400 μA. The developed system has a competitive size and weight, whereas providing a wide range of operation and the flexibility of generating arbitrary stimulation patterns ideal for long-term experiments in the field of cognitive and neuroscience research. PMID:24761373
Microwave beam power transmission at an arbitrary range
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pinero, L. R.; Christian, J. L., Jr.; Acosta, R. J.
1992-01-01
The power transfer efficiency between two circular apertures at an arbitrary range is obtained numerically. The apertures can have generally different sizes and arbitrary taper illuminations. The effects of distance and taper illumination on the transmission efficiency are investigated for equal size apertures. The result shows that microwave beam power is more effective at close ranges, namely distances less than 2D(exp 2)/lambda. Also shown was the power transfer efficiency increase with taper illumination for close range distances. A computer program was developed for calculating the power transfer efficiency at an arbitrary range.
Progressive multi-atlas label fusion by dictionary evolution.
Song, Yantao; Wu, Guorong; Bahrami, Khosro; Sun, Quansen; Shen, Dinggang
2017-02-01
Accurate segmentation of anatomical structures in medical images is important in recent imaging based studies. In the past years, multi-atlas patch-based label fusion methods have achieved a great success in medical image segmentation. In these methods, the appearance of each input image patch is first represented by an atlas patch dictionary (in the image domain), and then the latent label of the input image patch is predicted by applying the estimated representation coefficients to the corresponding anatomical labels of the atlas patches in the atlas label dictionary (in the label domain). However, due to the generally large gap between the patch appearance in the image domain and the patch structure in the label domain, the estimated (patch) representation coefficients from the image domain may not be optimal for the final label fusion, thus reducing the labeling accuracy. To address this issue, we propose a novel label fusion framework to seek for the suitable label fusion weights by progressively constructing a dynamic dictionary in a layer-by-layer manner, where the intermediate dictionaries act as a sequence of guidance to steer the transition of (patch) representation coefficients from the image domain to the label domain. Our proposed multi-layer label fusion framework is flexible enough to be applied to the existing labeling methods for improving their label fusion performance, i.e., by extending their single-layer static dictionary to the multi-layer dynamic dictionary. The experimental results show that our proposed progressive label fusion method achieves more accurate hippocampal segmentation results for the ADNI dataset, compared to the counterpart methods using only the single-layer static dictionary.
Input Multiplicities in Process Control.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Koppel, Lowell B.
1983-01-01
Describes research investigating potential effect of input multiplicity on multivariable chemical process control systems. Several simple processes are shown to exhibit the possibility of theoretical developments on input multiplicity and closely related phenomena are discussed. (JN)
Modeling and generating input processes
Johnson, M.E.
1987-01-01
This tutorial paper provides information relevant to the selection and generation of stochastic inputs to simulation studies. The primary area considered is multivariate but much of the philosophy at least is relevant to univariate inputs as well. 14 refs.
Diff-invariant kinetic terms in arbitrary dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barbero G., J. Fernando; Villaseñor, Eduardo J.
2002-06-01
We study the physical content of quadratic diff-invariant Lagrangians in arbitrary dimensions by using covariant symplectic techniques. This paper extends previous results in dimension four. We discuss the difference between the even and odd dimensional cases.
Skin effect with arbitrary specularity in Maxwellian plasma
Latyshev, A. V.; Yushkanov, A. A.
2010-11-15
The problem of the skin effect with arbitrary specularity in Maxwellian plasma with specular-diffuse boundary conditions is solved. A new analytical method is developed that makes it possible to obtain a solution up to an arbitrary degree of accuracy. The method is based on the idea of symmetric continuation of not only the electric field, but also electron distribution function. The solution is obtained in a form of von Neumann series.
Closed description of arbitrariness in resolving quantum master equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Batalin, Igor A.; Lavrov, Peter M.
2016-07-01
In the most general case of the Delta exact operator valued generators constructed of an arbitrary Fermion operator, we present a closed solution for the transformed master action in terms of the original master action in the closed form of the corresponding path integral. We show in detail how that path integral reduces to the known result in the case of being the Delta exact generators constructed of an arbitrary Fermion function.
Semiotic labelled deductive systems
Nossum, R.T.
1996-12-31
We review the class of Semiotic Models put forward by Pospelov, as well as the Labelled Deductive Systems developed by Gabbay, and construct an embedding of Semiotic Models into Labelled Deductive Systems.
The 2012 updated pesticide labels include new safety requirements for buffer zones and related measures. Find labels for each different type of fumigant: chloropicrin, dazomet, dimethyl disulfide, metam sodium/potassium, and methyl bromide.
Electronic Submission of Labels
Pesticide registrants can provide draft and final labels to EPA electronically for our review as part of the pesticide registration process. The electronic submission of labels by registrants is voluntary but strongly encouraged.
Soil Fumigant Labels - Dazomet
Updated labels include new safety requirements for buffer zones and related measures. Find information from the Pesticide Product Labeling System (PPLS) for products such as Basamid G, manufactured by Amvac.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hyatt, I. Ralph
1977-01-01
Discusses the ease with which mental labels become imprinted in our system, six basic axioms for maintaining negative mental tattoos, and psychological processes for eliminating mental tattoos and labels. (RK)
Pesticide Labeling Questions & Answers
Pesticide manufacturers, applicators, state regulatory agencies, and other stakeholders raise questions or issues about pesticide labels. The questions on this page are those that apply to multiple products or address inconsistencies among product labels.
Soil Fumigant Labels - Chloropicrin
Search by EPA registration number, product name, or company name, and follow the link to the Pesticide Product Label System (PPLS) for details on each fumigant. Updated labels include new safety requirements for buffer zones and related measures.
Orthogonal topography in the parallel input architecture of songbird HVC.
Elliott, Kevin C; Wu, Wei; Bertram, Richard; Hyson, Richard L; Johnson, Frank
2017-02-11
Neural activity within the cortical premotor nucleus HVC (acronym is name) encodes the learned songs of adult male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata). HVC activity is driven and/or modulated by a group of five afferent nuclei (the Medial Magnocellular nucleus of the Anterior Nidopallium, MMAN; Nucleus Interface, NIf; nucleus Avalanche, Av; the Robust nucleus of the Arcopallium, RA; the Uvaeform nucleus, Uva). While earlier evidence suggested that HVC receives a uniformly distributed and nontopographic pattern of afferent input, recent evidence suggests this view is incorrect (Basista et al., ). Here, we used a double-labeling strategy (varying both the distance between and the axial orientation of dual tracer injections into HVC) to reveal a massively parallel and in some cases topographic pattern of afferent input. Afferent neurons target only one rostral or caudal location within medial or lateral HVC, and each HVC location receives convergent input from each afferent nucleus in parallel. Quantifying the distributions of single-labeled cells revealed an orthogonal topography in the organization of afferent input from MMAN and NIf, two cortical nuclei necessary for song learning. MMAN input is organized across the lateral-medial axis whereas NIf input is organized across the rostral-caudal axis. To the extent that HVC activity is influenced by afferent input during the learning, perception, or production of song, functional models of HVC activity may need revision to account for the parallel input architecture of HVC, along with the orthogonal input topography of MMAN and NIf. J. Comp. Neurol., 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Latham, D. W.; Brown, T. M.; Monet, D. G.; Everett, M.; Esquerdo, G. A.; Hergenrother, C. W.
2005-12-01
The Kepler mission will monitor 170,000 planet-search targets during the first year, and 100,000 after that. The Kepler Input Catalog (KIC) will be used to select optimum targets for the search for habitable earth-like transiting planets. The KIC will include all known catalogued stars in an area of about 177 square degrees centered at RA 19:22:40 and Dec +44:30 (l=76.3 and b=+13.5). 2MASS photometry will be supplemented with new ground-based photometry obtained in the SDSS g, r, i, and z bands plus a custom filter centered on the Mg b lines, using KeplerCam on the 48-inch telescope at the Whipple Observatory on Mount Hopkins, Arizona. The photometry will be used to estimate stellar characteristics for all stars brighter than K 14.5 mag. The KIC will include effective temperature, surface gravity, metallicity, reddening, distance, and radius estimates for these stars. The CCD images are pipeline processed to produce instrumental magnitudes at PSI. The photometry is then archived and transformed to the SDSS system at HAO, where the astrophysical analysis of the stellar characteristics is carried out. The results are then merged with catalogued data at the USNOFS to produce the KIC. High dispersion spectroscopy with Hectochelle on the MMT will be used to supplement the information for many of the most interesting targets. The KIC will be released before launch for use by the astronomical community and will be available for queries over the internet. Support from the Kepler mission is gratefully acknowledged.
Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 22
This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Learn about what labels require review.
Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 27
This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. See examples of mandatory and advisory label statements.
Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 21
This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Learn about types of labels.
Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 24
This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. This page is about which labels require review.
Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 17
This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. See an overview of the importance of labels.
Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 23
This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Lists types of labels that do not require review.
Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 16
This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Learn about the importance of labels and the role in enforcement.
Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 15
This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Learn about the consequences of improper labeling.
SDR Input Power Estimation Algorithms
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nappier, Jennifer M.; Briones, Janette C.
2013-01-01
The General Dynamics (GD) S-Band software defined radio (SDR) in the Space Communications and Navigation (SCAN) Testbed on the International Space Station (ISS) provides experimenters an opportunity to develop and demonstrate experimental waveforms in space. The SDR has an analog and a digital automatic gain control (AGC) and the response of the AGCs to changes in SDR input power and temperature was characterized prior to the launch and installation of the SCAN Testbed on the ISS. The AGCs were used to estimate the SDR input power and SNR of the received signal and the characterization results showed a nonlinear response to SDR input power and temperature. In order to estimate the SDR input from the AGCs, three algorithms were developed and implemented on the ground software of the SCAN Testbed. The algorithms include a linear straight line estimator, which used the digital AGC and the temperature to estimate the SDR input power over a narrower section of the SDR input power range. There is a linear adaptive filter algorithm that uses both AGCs and the temperature to estimate the SDR input power over a wide input power range. Finally, an algorithm that uses neural networks was designed to estimate the input power over a wide range. This paper describes the algorithms in detail and their associated performance in estimating the SDR input power.
Intermediate inputs and economic productivity.
Baptist, Simon; Hepburn, Cameron
2013-03-13
Many models of economic growth exclude materials, energy and other intermediate inputs from the production function. Growing environmental pressures and resource prices suggest that this may be increasingly inappropriate. This paper explores the relationship between intermediate input intensity, productivity and national accounts using a panel dataset of manufacturing subsectors in the USA over 47 years. The first contribution is to identify sectoral production functions that incorporate intermediate inputs, while allowing for heterogeneity in both technology and productivity. The second contribution is that the paper finds a negative correlation between intermediate input intensity and total factor productivity (TFP)--sectors that are less intensive in their use of intermediate inputs have higher productivity. This finding is replicated at the firm level. We propose tentative hypotheses to explain this association, but testing and further disaggregation of intermediate inputs is left for further work. Further work could also explore more directly the relationship between material inputs and economic growth--given the high proportion of materials in intermediate inputs, the results in this paper are suggestive of further work on material efficiency. Depending upon the nature of the mechanism linking a reduction in intermediate input intensity to an increase in TFP, the implications could be significant. A third contribution is to suggest that an empirical bias in productivity, as measured in national accounts, may arise due to the exclusion of intermediate inputs. Current conventions of measuring productivity in national accounts may overstate the productivity of resource-intensive sectors relative to other sectors.
Sample Pesticide Label for Label Review Training
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The Pesticide Product Label System (PPLS) provides a collection of pesticide product labels (Adobe PDF format) that have been approved by EPA under Section 3 of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA). New labels were added to PPLS on November 21, 2014. Pesticide product labels provide critical information about how to safely handle and use registered pesticide products. An approved pesticide product label represents the full content of EPAs registration decision regarding that product. Pesticide labels contain detailed information on the use, storage, and handling of a product. This information will be found on EPA stamped-approved labels and, in some cases, in subsequent related correspondence, which is also included in PPLS. You may need to review several PDF files for a single product to determine the complete current terms of registration.
Vomeronasal inputs to the rodent ventral striatum.
Ubeda-Bañon, I; Novejarque, A; Mohedano-Moriano, A; Pro-Sistiaga, P; Insausti, R; Martinez-Garcia, F; Lanuza, E; Martinez-Marcos, A
2008-03-18
Vertebrates sense chemical signals through the olfactory and vomeronasal systems. In squamate reptiles, which possess the largest vomeronasal system of all vertebrates, the accessory olfactory bulb projects to the nucleus sphericus, which in turn projects to a portion of the ventral striatum known as olfactostriatum. Characteristically, the olfactostriatum is innervated by neuropeptide Y, tyrosine hydroxylase and serotonin immunoreactive fibers. In this study, the possibility that a structure similar to the reptilian olfactostriatum might be present in the mammalian brain has been investigated. Injections of dextran-amines have been aimed at the posteromedial cortical amygdaloid nucleus (the putative mammalian homologue of the reptilian nucleus sphericus) of rats and mice. The resulting anterograde labeling includes the olfactory tubercle, the islands of Calleja and sparse terminal fields in the shell of the nucleus accumbens and ventral pallidum. This projection has been confirmed by injections of retrograde tracers into the ventral striato-pallidum that render retrograde labeling in the posteromedial cortical amygdaloid nucleus. The analysis of the distribution of neuropeptide Y, tyrosine hydroxylase, serotonin and substance P in the ventral striato-pallidum of rats, and the anterograde tracing of the vomeronasal amygdaloid input in the same material confirm that, similar to reptiles, the ventral striatum of mammals includes a specialized vomeronasal structure (olfactory tubercle and islands of Calleja) displaying dense neuropeptide Y-, tyrosine hydroxylase- and serotonin-immunoreactive innervations. The possibility that parts of the accumbens shell and/or ventral pallidum could be included in the mammalian olfactostriatum cannot be discarded.
Photonic arbitrary waveform generator based on Taylor synthesis method.
Liao, Shasha; Ding, Yunhong; Dong, Jianji; Yan, Siqi; Wang, Xu; Zhang, Xinliang
2016-10-17
Arbitrary waveform generation has been widely used in optical communication, radar system and many other applications. We propose and experimentally demonstrate a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) on chip optical arbitrary waveform generator, which is based on Taylor synthesis method. In our scheme, a Gaussian pulse is launched to some cascaded microrings to obtain first-, second- and third-order differentiations. By controlling amplitude and phase of the initial pulse and successive differentiations, we can realize an arbitrary waveform generator according to Taylor expansion. We obtain several typical waveforms such as square waveform, triangular waveform, flat-top waveform, sawtooth waveform, Gaussian waveform and so on. Unlike other schemes based on Fourier synthesis or frequency-to-time mapping, our scheme is based on Taylor synthesis method. Our scheme does not require any spectral disperser or large dispersion, which are difficult to fabricate on chip. Our scheme is compact and capable for integration with electronics.
REL - English Bulk Data Input.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bigelow, Richard Henry
A bulk data input processor which is available for the Rapidly Extensible Language (REL) English versions is described. In REL English versions, statements that declare names of data items and their interrelationships normally are lines from a terminal or cards in a batch input stream. These statements provide a convenient means of declaring some…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Saleemi, Anjum P.
1989-01-01
Major approaches of describing or examining linguistic data from a potential target language (input) are analyzed for adequacy in addressing the concerns of second language learning theory. Suggestions are made for making the best of these varied concepts of input and for reformulation of a unified concept. (MSE)
Input in Second Language Acquisition.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gass, Susan M., Ed.; Madden, Carolyn G., Ed.
This collection of conference papers includes: "When Does Teacher Talk Work as Input?"; "Cultural Input in Second Language Learning"; "Skilled Variation in a Kindergarten Teacher's Use of Foreigner Talk"; "Teacher-Pupil Interaction in Second Language Development"; "Foreigner Talk in the University…
All-optical isolator under arbitrary linearly polarized fundamental wave in an optical superlattice.
Yuan, Liang; Shi, Jianhong; Chen, Xianfeng
2011-12-01
We theoretically investigate an all-optical isolator under arbitrary linearly polarized fundamental wave (FW) input in an optical superlattice (OSL). The scheme is based on simultaneously phase matching the first-order Type I (oo-e) quasi-phase-matching (QPM) second-harmonic generation (SHG) process and higher-order Type 0 (ee-e) QPM SHG process in an OSL with a defect inserted in an asymmetrical position. Simulation results show that the contrast ratio of the all-optical isolator can maintain close to 1 under arbitrary linearly polarized FW. Thus, an all-optical isolator based on an OSL that is not sensitive to the direction of linear polarization can be realized. We also show that, with the defect in a strong asymmetry position, the length of the defect can be designed flexibly to maintain a high contrast ratio. Additionally, if the length of the OSL is longer, the nonreciprocal response can be realized for low optical intensities.
Characterization of arbitrary femtosecond pulses using frequency-resolved optical gating
Kane, D.J. ); Trebino, R. )
1993-02-01
The authors introduce a new technique, which they call frequency-resolved optical gating (FROG), for characterizing and displaying arbitrary femtosecond pulses. The method is simple, general, broad-band, and does not require a reference pulse. Using virtually any instantaneous nonlinear-optical effect, FROG involves measuring the spectrum of the signal pulse as a function of the delay between two input pulses. The resulting trace of intensity versus frequency and delay is related to the pulse's spectrogram, a visually intuitive transform containing both time and frequency information. They prove, using phase retrieval concepts, that the FROG trace yields the full intensity l(t) and phase [var phi](t) of an arbitrary ultrashort pulse with no physically significant ambiguities. They argue, in analogy with acoustics problems, that the FROG trace is in many ways as useful a representation of the pulse as the field itself. FROG appears to have temporal resolution limited only by the response of the nonlinear medium. They demonstrate the method using self-diffraction via the electronic Kerr effect in BK-7 glass and few [mu]J, 620 nm, linearly chirped, [approximately]200 fs pulses.
Nonrelativistic equations of motion for particles with arbitrary spin
Fushchich, V.I.; Nikitin, A.G.
1981-09-01
First- and second-order Galileo-invariant systems of differential equations which describe the motion of nonrelativistic particles of arbitrary spin are derived. The equations can be derived from a Lagrangian and describe the dipole, quadrupole, and spin-orbit interaction of the particles with an external field; these interactions have traditionally been regarded as purely relativistic effects. The problem of the motion of a nonrelativistic particle of arbitrary spin in a homogeneous magnetic field is solved exactly on the basis of the obtained equations. The generators of all classes of irreducible representations of the Galileo group are found.
Quark-gluon vertex in arbitrary gauge and dimension
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Davydychev, A. I.; Osland, P.; Saks, L.
2001-01-01
One-loop off-shell contributions to the quark-gluon vertex are calculated, in an arbitrary covariant gauge and in arbitrary space-time dimension, including quark-mass effects. It is shown how one can get results for all on-shell limits of interest directly from the off-shell expressions. In order to demonstrate that the Ward-Slavnov-Taylor identity for the quark-gluon vertex is satisfied, we have also calculated the corresponding one-loop contribution involving the quark-quark-ghost-ghost vertex.
Emami, F.; Hatami, M.; Keshavarz, A. R.; Jafari, A. H.
2009-08-13
Using a combination of Runge-Kutta and Jacobi iterative method, we could solve the nonlinear Schroedinger equation describing the pulse propagation in FBGs. By decomposing the electric field to forward and backward components in fiber Bragg grating and utilizing the Fourier series analysis technique, the boundary value problem of a set of coupled equations governing the pulse propagation in FBG changes to an initial condition coupled equations which can be solved by simple Runge-Kutta method.
Dynamic optical arbitrary waveform shaping based on cascaded optical modulators of single FBG.
Chen, Jingyuan; Li, Peili
2015-08-10
A dynamic optical arbitrary waveform generation (O-AWG) with amplitude and phase independently controlled in optical modulators of single fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) has been proposed. This novel scheme consists of several optical modulators. In the optical modulator (O-MOD), a uniform FBG is used to filter spectral component of the input signal. The amplitude is controlled by fiber stretcher (FS) in Mach-Zehnder interference (MZI) structure through interference of two MZI arms. The phase is manipulated via the second FS in the optical modulator. This scheme is investigated by simulation. Consequently, optical pulse trains with different waveforms as well as pulse trains with nonuniform pulse intensity, pulse spacing and pulse width within each period are obtained through FSs adjustment to alter the phase shifts of signal in each O-MOD.
Dopaminergic Input to the Inferior Colliculus in Mice
Nevue, Alexander A.; Elde, Cameron J.; Perkel, David J.; Portfors, Christine V.
2016-01-01
The response of sensory neurons to stimuli can be modulated by a variety of factors including attention, emotion, behavioral context, and disorders involving neuromodulatory systems. For example, patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) have disordered speech processing, suggesting that dopamine alters normal representation of these salient sounds. Understanding the mechanisms by which dopamine modulates auditory processing is thus an important goal. The principal auditory midbrain nucleus, the inferior colliculus (IC), is a likely location for dopaminergic modulation of auditory processing because it contains dopamine receptors and nerve terminals immunoreactive for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme in dopamine synthesis. However, the sources of dopaminergic input to the IC are unknown. In this study, we iontophoretically injected a retrograde tracer into the IC of mice and then stained the tissue for TH. We also immunostained for dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH), an enzyme critical for the conversion of dopamine to norepinephrine, to differentiate between dopaminergic and noradrenergic inputs. Retrogradely labeled neurons that were positive for TH were seen bilaterally, with strong ipsilateral dominance, in the subparafascicular thalamic nucleus (SPF). All retrogradely labeled neurons that we observed in other brain regions were TH-negative. Projections from the SPF were confirmed using an anterograde tracer, revealing TH-positive and DBH-negative anterogradely labeled fibers and terminals in the IC. While the functional role of this dopaminergic input to the IC is not yet known, it provides a potential mechanism for context dependent modulation of auditory processing. PMID:26834578
Arbitrary-ratio power splitter based on nonlinear multimode interference coupler
Tajaldini, Mehdi; Jafri, Mohd Zubir Mat
2015-04-24
We propose an ultra-compact multimode interference (MMI) power splitter based on nonlinear effects from simulations using nonlinear modal propagation analysis (NMPA) cooperation with finite difference Method (FDM) to access free choice of splitting ratio. Conventional multimode interference power splitter could only obtain a few discrete ratios. The power splitting ratio may be adjusted continuously while the input set power is varying by a tunable laser. In fact, using an ultra- compact MMI with a simple structure that is launched by a tunable nonlinear input fulfills the problem of arbitrary-ratio in integrated photonics circuits. Silicon on insulator (SOI) is used as the offered material due to the high contrast refractive index and Centro symmetric properties. The high-resolution images at the end of the multimode waveguide in the simulated power splitter have a high power balance, whereas access to a free choice of splitting ratio is not possible under the linear regime in the proposed length range except changes in the dimension for any ratio. The compact dimensions and ideal performance of the device are established according to optimized parameters. The proposed regime can be extended to the design of M×N arbitrary power splitters ratio for programmable logic devices in all optical digital signal processing. The results of this study indicate that nonlinear modal propagation analysis solves the miniaturization problem for all-optical devices based on MMI couplers to achieve multiple functions in a compact planar integrated circuit and also overcomes the limitations of previously proposed methods for nonlinear MMI.
Input management of production systems.
Odum, E P
1989-01-13
Nonpoint sources of pollution, which are largely responsible for stressing regional and global life-supporting atmosphere, soil, and water, can only be reduced (and ultimately controlled) by input management that involves increasing the efficiency of production systems and reducing the inputs of environmentally damaging materials. Input management requires a major change, an about-face, in the approach to management of agriculture, power plants, and industries because the focus is on waste reduction and recycling rather than on waste disposal. For large-scale ecosystem-level situations a top-down hierarchical approach is suggested and illustrated by recent research in agroecology and landscape ecology.
Unveiling Reality of the Mind: Cultural Arbitrary of Consumerism
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Choi, Su-Jin
2012-01-01
This paper discusses the cultural arbitrary of consumerism by focusing on a personal realm. That is, I discuss what consumerism appeals to and how it flourishes in relation to our minds. I argue that we need to unveil reality of the mind, be aware of ourselves in relation to the perpetuation of consumerism, in order to critically intervene in the…
Arbitrary unitary transformations on optical states using a quantum memory
Campbell, Geoff T.; Pinel, Olivier; Hosseini, Mahdi; Buchler, Ben C.; Lam, Ping Koy
2014-12-04
We show that optical memories arranged along an optical path can perform arbitrary unitary transformations on frequency domain optical states. The protocol offers favourable scaling and can be used with any quantum memory that uses an off-resonant Raman transition to reversibly transfer optical information to an atomic spin coherence.
Information balance in quantum teleportation with an arbitrary pure state
Li Li; Chen Zengbing
2005-07-15
We study a general teleportation scheme with an arbitrary two-party pure state and derive a tight bound of the teleportation fidelity with a predesigned estimation of the unknown state to be teleported. This bound shows a piecewise balance between information gain and state disturbance. We also explain possible physical significance of the balance.
Chaotic correlations in barrier billiards with arbitrary barriers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Osbaldestin, A. H.; Adamson, L. N. C.
2013-06-01
We study autocorrelation functions in symmetric barrier billiards for golden mean trajectories with arbitrary barriers. Renormalization analysis reveals the presence of a chaotic invariant set and thus that, for a typical barrier, there are chaotic correlations. The chaotic renormalization set is the analogue of the so-called orchid that arises in a generalized Harper equation.
System monitors discrete computer inputs
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Burns, J. J.
1966-01-01
Computer system monitors inputs from checkout devices. The comparing, addressing, and controlling functions are performed in the I/O unit. This leaves the computer main frame free to handle memory, access priority, and interrupt instructions.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Adams, Mike S.; Robertson, Craig T.; Gray-Ray, Phyllis; Ray, Melvin C.
2003-01-01
Index comprised of six contrasting descriptive adjectives was used to measure incarcerated youths' perceived negative labeling from the perspective of parents, teachers, and peers. Results provided partial support for hypothesis that juveniles who choose a greater number of negative labels will report more frequent delinquent involvement. Labeling…
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cebeci, T.; Kaups, K.; Ramsey, J. A.
1977-01-01
A computer program for calculating three dimensional compressible laminar and turbulent boundary layers on arbitrary wings is described and presented. The computer program consists of three separate programs, namely, a geometry program to represent the wing analytically, a velocity program to compute the external velocity components from a given experimental pressure distribution and a finite difference boundary layer method to solve the governing equations for compressible flows. To illustrate the usage of the computer program, three different test cases are presented and the preparation of the input data as well as the computed output data is discussed in some detail.
Ouadghiri-Idrissi, Ismail; Giust, Remo; Froehly, Luc; Jacquot, Maxime; Furfaro, Luca; Dudley, John M; Courvoisier, Francois
2016-05-30
Arbitrary shaping of the on-axis intensity of Bessel beams requires spatial modulation of both amplitude and phase. We develop a non-iterative direct space beam shaping method to generate Bessel beams with high energy throughput from direct space with a single phase-only spatial light modulator. For this purpose, we generalize the approach of Bolduc et al. to non-uniform input beams. We point out the physical limitations imposed on the on-axis intensity profile for unidirectional beams. Analytical, numerical and experimental results are provided.
Government perspective: food labeling.
Philipson, Tomas
2005-07-01
The Food and Drug Administration acknowledges the severity of the obesity epidemic. The Food and Drug Administration recognizes the importance of food labeling as a vehicle for dietary messages and, thus, enforces stringent guidelines to maintain the integrity of the food label. As food labels await another upgrade to make them more effective and easier to understand, the Food and Drug Administration considers what information will be most useful for consumers to make healthy choices. The causal relationship between food labels and subsequent diet choice is not well understood; more research in this area is needed. The Commissioner of the Food and Drug Administration has recently appointed an Obesity Working Group to develop proposals on pertinent topics of obesity, including the role of food labeling as a dietary guide.
Monosynaptic inputs to new neurons in the dentate gyrus.
Vivar, Carmen; Potter, Michelle C; Choi, Jiwon; Lee, Ji-Young; Stringer, Thomas P; Callaway, Edward M; Gage, Fred H; Suh, Hoonkyo; van Praag, Henriette
2012-01-01
Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is considered important for cognition. The integration of newborn dentate gyrus granule cells into the existing network is regulated by afferent neuronal activity of unspecified origin. Here we combine rabies virus-mediated retrograde tracing with retroviral labelling of new granule cells (21, 30, 60, 90 days after injection) to selectively identify and quantify their monosynaptic inputs in vivo. Our results show that newborn granule cells receive afferents from intra-hippocampal cells (interneurons, mossy cells, area CA3 and transiently, mature granule cells) and septal cholinergic cells. Input from distal cortex (perirhinal (PRH) and lateral entorhinal cortex (LEC)) is sparse 21 days after injection and increases over time. Patch-clamp recordings support innervation by the LEC rather than from the medial entorhinal cortex. Mice with excitotoxic PRH/LEC lesions exhibit deficits in pattern separation but not in water maze learning. Thus, PRH/LEC input is an important functional component of new dentate gyrus neuron circuitry.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsoumakas, Grigorios; Katakis, Ioannis; Vlahavas, Ioannis
A large body of research in supervised learning deals with the analysis of single-label data, where training examples are associated with a single label λ from a set of disjoint labels L. However, training examples in several application domains are often associated with a set of labels Y ⊆ L. Such data are called multi-label.
Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 29
This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. This page is a quiz on Module 1.
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Soil Fumigant Labels - Methyl Bromide
Search soil fumigant pesticide labels by EPA registration number, product name, or company, and follow the link to The Pesticide Product Label System (PPLS) for details. Updated labels include new safety requirements for buffer zones and related measures.
A supervised patch-based approach for human brain labeling.
Rousseau, Françcois; Habas, Piotr A; Studholme, Colin
2011-10-01
We propose in this work a patch-based image labeling method relying on a label propagation framework. Based on image intensity similarities between the input image and an anatomy textbook, an original strategy which does not require any nonrigid registration is presented. Following recent developments in nonlocal image denoising, the similarity between images is represented by a weighted graph computed from an intensity-based distance between patches. Experiments on simulated and in vivo magnetic resonance images show that the proposed method is very successful in providing automated human brain labeling.
A supervised patch-based approach for human brain labeling
Rousseau, François; Habas, Piotr A.; Studholme, Colin
2012-01-01
We propose in this work a patch-based image labeling method relying on a label propagation framework. Based on image intensity similarities between the input image and an anatomy textbook, an original strategy which does not require any non-rigid registration is presented. Following recent developments in non-local image denoising, the similarity between images is represented by a weighted graph computed from an intensity-based distance between patches. Experiments on simulated and in-vivo MR images show that the proposed method is very successful in providing automated human brain labeling. PMID:21606021
Arlowe, H.D.
1983-07-15
A capacitive label reader includes an outer ring transmitting portion, an inner ring transmitting portion, and a plurality of insulated receiving portions. A label is the mirror-image of the reader except that identifying portions corresponding to the receiving portions are insulated from only one of two coupling elements. Positive and negative pulses applied, respectively, to the two transmitting rings biased a CMOS shift register positively to either a 1 or 0 condition. The output of the CMOS may be read as an indication of the label.
Arlowe, H.D.
1985-11-12
A capacitive label reader includes an outer ring transmitting portion, an inner ring transmitting portion, and a plurality of insulated receiving portions. A label is the mirror-image of the reader except that identifying portions corresponding to the receiving portions are insulated from only one of two coupling elements. Positive and negative pulses applied, respectively, to the two transmitting rings biased a CMOS shift register positively to either a 1 or 0 condition. The output of the CMOS may be read as an indication of the label. 5 figs.
Arlowe, H. Duane
1985-01-01
A capacitive label reader includes an outer ring transmitting portion, an inner ring transmitting portion, and a plurality of insulated receiving portions. A label is the mirror-image of the reader except that identifying portions corresponding to the receiving portions are insulated from only one of two coupling elements. Positive and negative pulses applied, respectively, to the two transmitting rings biased a CMOS shift register positively to either a 1 or 0 condition. The output of the CMOS may be read as an indication of the label.
Input Type and Parameter Resetting: Is Naturalistic Input Necessary?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rothman, Jason; Iverson, Michael
2007-01-01
It has been argued that extended exposure to naturalistic input provides L2 learners with more of an opportunity to converge of target morphosyntactic competence as compared to classroom-only environments, given that the former provide more positive evidence of less salient linguistic properties than the latter (e.g., Isabelli 2004). Implicitly,…
On 4 D, =1 massless gauge superfields of arbitrary superhelicity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gates, S. James; Koutrolikos, Konstantinos
2014-06-01
We present an alternative method of exploring the component structure of an arbitrary super-helicity (integer Y = s, or half odd integer Y = s+1 /2 for any integer s) irreducible representation of the Super-Poincaré group. We use it to derive the component action and the SUSY transformation laws. The effectiveness of this approach is based on the equations of motion and their properties, like the Bianchi identities. These equations are generated by the superspace action when it is expressed in terms of prepotentials. For that reason we reproduce the superspace action for arbitrary superhelicity, using unconstrained superfields. The appropriate, to use, superfields are dictated by the representation theory of the group and the requirement that there is a smooth limit between the massive and massless case.
Bistatic synthetic aperture radar imaging for arbitrary flight trajectories.
Yarman, Can Evren; Yazici, Birsen; Cheney, Margaret
2008-01-01
In this paper, we present an analytic, filtered backprojection (FBP) type inversion method for bistatic synthetic aperture radar (BISAR). We consider a BISAR system where a scene of interest is illuminated by electromagnetic waves that are transmitted, at known times, from positions along an arbitrary, but known, flight trajectory and the scattered waves are measured from positions along a different flight trajectory which is also arbitrary, but known. We assume a single-scattering model for the radar data, and we assume that the ground topography is known but not necessarily flat. We use microlocal analysis to develop the FBP-type reconstruction method. We analyze the computational complexity of the numerical implementation of the method and present numerical simulations to demonstrate its performance.
Arbitrary multicolor photodetection by hetero-integrated semiconductor nanostructures.
Sang, Liwen; Hu, Junqing; Zou, Rujia; Koide, Yasuo; Liao, Meiyong
2013-01-01
The typical photodetectors can only detect one specific optical spectral band, such as InGaAs and graphene-PbS quantum dots for near-infrared (NIR) light detection, CdS and Si for visible light detection, and ZnO and III-nitrides for UV light detection. So far, none of the developed photodetector can achieve the multicolor detection with arbitrary spectral selectivity, high sensitivity, high speed, high signal-to-noise ratio, high stability, and simplicity (called 6S requirements). Here, we propose a universal strategy to develop multicolor photodetectors with arbitrary spectral selectivity by integrating various semiconductor nanostructures on a wide-bandgap semiconductor or an insulator substrate. Because the photoresponse of each spectral band is determined by each semiconductor nanostructure or the semiconductor substrate, multicolor detection satisfying 6S requirements can be readily satisfied by selecting the right semiconductors.
Rapid Teaching of Arbitrary Matching in Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities
Morro, Greg; Mackay, Harry A.; Carlin, Michael T.
2014-01-01
This research extended to arbitrary matching-to-sample procedures a method that was successful in rapidly establishing identity matching in children with and without intellectual disabilities (Mackay et al., 2002). The method involves increasing the number of identical comparison stimuli in a choice array in order to create a homogenous background that makes the target more salient, thus likely to prompt selection. The number of comparison stimuli then is faded systematically contingent on accurate responding. This method unites cognitive research on visual search and behavior analytic research on conditional stimulus control. Two experiments examined use of the method to teach arbitrary relations between visual stimuli (numerals and colors and their printed names) and between visual and auditory stimuli (e.g., numerals and colors and their dictated names). Results demonstrated the generality of the method to symbolic matching. This finding is important for conceptual reasons and for its relevance to special education. PMID:25408559
Arbitrary Multicolor Photodetection by Hetero-integrated Semiconductor Nanostructures
Sang, Liwen; Hu, Junqing; Zou, Rujia; Koide, Yasuo; Liao, Meiyong
2013-01-01
The typical photodetectors can only detect one specific optical spectral band, such as InGaAs and graphene-PbS quantum dots for near-infrared (NIR) light detection, CdS and Si for visible light detection, and ZnO and III-nitrides for UV light detection. So far, none of the developed photodetector can achieve the multicolor detection with arbitrary spectral selectivity, high sensitivity, high speed, high signal-to-noise ratio, high stability, and simplicity (called 6S requirements). Here, we propose a universal strategy to develop multicolor photodetectors with arbitrary spectral selectivity by integrating various semiconductor nanostructures on a wide-bandgap semiconductor or an insulator substrate. Because the photoresponse of each spectral band is determined by each semiconductor nanostructure or the semiconductor substrate, multicolor detection satisfying 6S requirements can be readily satisfied by selecting the right semiconductors. PMID:23917790
Locally indistinguishable orthogonal product bases in arbitrary bipartite quantum system
Xu, Guang-Bao; Yang, Ying-Hui; Wen, Qiao-Yan; Qin, Su-Juan; Gao, Fei
2016-01-01
As we know, unextendible product basis (UPB) is an incomplete basis whose members cannot be perfectly distinguished by local operations and classical communication. However, very little is known about those incomplete and locally indistinguishable product bases that are not UPBs. In this paper, we first construct a series of orthogonal product bases that are completable but not locally distinguishable in a general m ⊗ n (m ≥ 3 and n ≥ 3) quantum system. In particular, we give so far the smallest number of locally indistinguishable states of a completable orthogonal product basis in arbitrary quantum systems. Furthermore, we construct a series of small and locally indistinguishable orthogonal product bases in m ⊗ n (m ≥ 3 and n ≥ 3). All the results lead to a better understanding of the structures of locally indistinguishable product bases in arbitrary bipartite quantum system. PMID:27503634
Delivering sound energy along an arbitrary convex trajectory.
Zhao, Sipei; Hu, Yuxiang; Lu, Jing; Qiu, Xiaojun; Cheng, Jianchun; Burnett, Ian
2014-10-15
Accelerating beams have attracted considerable research interest due to their peculiar properties and various applications. Although there have been numerous research on the generation and application of accelerating light beams, few results have been published on the generation of accelerating acoustic beams. Here we report on the experimental observation of accelerating acoustic beams along arbitrary convex trajectories. The desired trajectory is projected to the spatial phase profile on the boundary which is discretized and sampled spatially. The sound field distribution is formulated with the Green function and the integral equation method. Both the paraxial and the non-paraxial regimes are examined and observed in the experiments. The effect of obstacle scattering in the sound field is also investigated and the results demonstrate that the approach is robust against obstacle scattering. The realization of accelerating acoustic beams will have an impact on various applications where acoustic information and energy are required to be delivered along an arbitrary convex trajectory.
Adaptive reconnection-based arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian method
Bo, Wurigen; Shashkov, Mikhail
2015-07-21
We present a new adaptive Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) method. This method is based on the reconnection-based ALE (ReALE) methodology of Refs. [35], [34] and [6]. The main elements in a standard ReALE method are: an explicit Lagrangian phase on an arbitrary polygonal (in 2D) mesh in which the solution and positions of grid nodes are updated; a rezoning phase in which a new grid is defined by changing the connectivity (using Voronoi tessellation) but not the number of cells; and a remapping phase in which the Lagrangian solution is transferred onto the new grid. Furthermore, in the standard ReALEmore » method, the rezoned mesh is smoothed by using one or several steps toward centroidal Voronoi tessellation, but it is not adapted to the solution in any way.« less
Adaptive reconnection-based arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian method
Bo, Wurigen; Shashkov, Mikhail
2015-07-21
We present a new adaptive Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) method. This method is based on the reconnection-based ALE (ReALE) methodology of Refs. [35], [34] and [6]. The main elements in a standard ReALE method are: an explicit Lagrangian phase on an arbitrary polygonal (in 2D) mesh in which the solution and positions of grid nodes are updated; a rezoning phase in which a new grid is defined by changing the connectivity (using Voronoi tessellation) but not the number of cells; and a remapping phase in which the Lagrangian solution is transferred onto the new grid. Furthermore, in the standard ReALE method, the rezoned mesh is smoothed by using one or several steps toward centroidal Voronoi tessellation, but it is not adapted to the solution in any way.
Creating arbitrary quantum vibrational states in a carbon nanotube
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Heng; Burkard, Guido
2016-11-01
We theoretically study the creation of single- and multiphonon Fock states and arbitrary superpositions of quantum phonon states in a nanomechanical carbon nanotube (CNT) resonator. In our model, a doubly clamped CNT resonator is initialized in the ground state, and a single electron is trapped in a quantum dot which is formed by an electric gate potential and brought into the magnetic field of a micromagnet. The preparation of arbitrary quantum phonon states is based on the coupling between the mechanical motion of the CNT and the electron spin which acts as a nonlinearity. We assume that electrical driving pulses with different frequencies are applied on the system. The quantum information is transferred from the spin qubit to the mechanical motion by the spin-phonon coupling, and the electron spin qubit can be reset by the single-electron spin resonance. We describe Wigner tomography which can be applied at the end to obtain the phase information of the prepared phonon states.
Generalization of the electronic susceptibility for arbitrary molecular geometries.
Scherrer, Arne; Dreßler, Christian; Ahlert, Paul; Sebastiani, Daniel
2016-04-14
We generalize the explicit representation of the electronic susceptibility χ[R](r, r') for arbitrary molecular geometries R. The electronic susceptibility is a response function that yields the response of the molecular electronic charge density at linear order to an arbitrary external perturbation. We address the dependence of this response function on the molecular geometry. The explicit representation of the molecular geometry dependence is achieved by means of a Taylor expansion in the nuclear coordinates. Our approach relies on a recently developed low-rank representation of the response function χ[R](r, r') which allows a highly condensed storage of the expansion and an efficient application within dynamical chemical environments. We illustrate the performance and accuracy of our scheme by computing the vibrationally induced variations of the response function of a water molecule and its resulting Raman spectrum.
Kinematic dynamo theory for an arbitrary mean flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hoyng, P.
1984-11-01
Arbitrary, incompressible mean flow (vo) in kinematic dynamo theory is analyzed via stochastic differential equations. When the first order smoothing approximation is made the only effect of a nonzero vo is that in the definition of the tensors the turbulent velocity v is replaced by the effect of passive advection by vo. Dynamo action depends only on velocity correlations measured in a frame comoving with and distorted by the mean flow through passive advection. Conclusions apply when the analysis is extended to arbitrary order, relevant for a long correlation time. The result admits straightforward evaluation for given model mean flows. The shear in vo causes a (kinematic) anisotropy in the tensors. This can be a large effect, which comes on top of the intrinsic (dynamical) anisotropy in the velocity correlation functions. Conditions for applicability are very large magnetic Reynolds number; incompressible flows; stationary vo; and correlation time period of the dynamo.
Collisionless Plasma Modeling in an Arbitrary Potential Energy Distribution
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liemohn, M. W.; Khazanov, G. V.
1997-01-01
A new technique for calculating a collisionless plasma along a field line is presented. The primary feature of the new model is that it can handle an arbitrary (including nonmonotonic) potential energy distribution. This was one of the limiting constraints on the existing models in this class, and these constraints are generalized for an arbitrary potential energy composition. The formulation for relating current density to the field-aligned potential as well as formulas for density, temperature and energy flux calculations are presented for several distribution functions, ranging from a bi-Lorentzian with a loss cone to an isotropic Maxwellian. A comparison of these results with previous models shows that the formulation reduces.to the earlier models under similar assumptions.
Fast RBF OGr for solving PDEs on arbitrary surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Piret, Cécile; Dunn, Jarrett
2016-10-01
The Radial Basis Functions Orthogonal Gradients method (RBF-OGr) was introduced in [1] to discretize differential operators defined on arbitrary manifolds defined only by a point cloud. We take advantage of the meshfree character of RBFs, which give us a high accuracy and the flexibility to represent complex geometries in any spatial dimension. A large limitation of the RBF-OGr method was its large computational complexity, which greatly restricted the size of the point cloud. In this paper, we apply the RBF-Finite Difference (RBF-FD) technique to the RBF-OGr method for building sparse differentiation matrices discretizing continuous differential operators such as the Laplace-Beltrami operator. This method can be applied to solving PDEs on arbitrary surfaces embedded in ℛ3. We illustrate the accuracy of our new method by solving the heat equation on the unit sphere.
Convergence Rates for Arbitrary Statistical Moments of Random Quantum Circuits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brown, Winton G.; Viola, Lorenza
2010-06-01
We consider a class of random quantum circuits where at each step a gate from a universal set is applied to a random pair of qubits, and determine how quickly averages of arbitrary finite-degree polynomials in the matrix elements of the resulting unitary converge to Haar measure averages. This is accomplished by mapping the superoperator that describes t order moments on n qubits to a multilevel SU(4t) Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick Hamiltonian. We show that, for arbitrary fixed t, the ground-state manifold is exactly spanned by factorized eigenstates and, under the assumption that a mean-field ansatz accurately describes the low-lying excitations, the spectral gap scales as 1/n in the thermodynamic limit. Our results imply that random quantum circuits yield an efficient implementation of γ approximate unitary t designs.
Chordwise and compressibility corrections for arbitrary planform slender wings
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Levin, D.; Seginer, A.
1982-01-01
The Lomax and Sluder method for adapting slender-wing theory to delta or rectangular wings by making chordwise and compressibility corrections is extended to cover wings of any arbitrary planform in subsonic and supersonic flows. The numerical accuracy of the present work is better than that of the Lomax-Sluder results. Comparison of the results of this work with those of the vortex-lattice method and Kernel function method for a family of Gothic and arrowhead wings shows good agreement. A universal curve is proposed for the evaluation of the lift coefficient of a low aspect ratio wing of an arbitrary planform in subsonic flow. The location of the center of pressure can also be estimated.
Mass exchange processes with input
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krapivsky, P. L.
2015-05-01
We investigate a system of interacting clusters evolving through mass exchange and supplemented by input of small clusters. Three possibilities depending on the rate of exchange generically occur when input is homogeneous: continuous growth, gelation, and instantaneous gelation. We mostly study the growth regime using scaling methods. An exchange process with reaction rates equal to the product of reactant masses admits an exact solution which allows us to justify the validity of scaling approaches in this special case. We also investigate exchange processes with a localized input. We show that if the diffusion coefficients are mass-independent, the cluster mass distribution becomes stationary and develops an algebraic tail far away from the source.
Sum uncertainty relations for arbitrary N incompatible observables
Chen, Bin; Fei, Shao-Ming
2015-01-01
We formulate uncertainty relations for arbitrary N observables. Two uncertainty inequalities are presented in terms of the sum of variances and standard deviations, respectively. The lower bounds of the corresponding sum uncertainty relations are explicitly derived. These bounds are shown to be tighter than the ones such as derived from the uncertainty inequality for two observables [Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 260401 (2014)]. Detailed examples are presented to compare among our results with some existing ones. PMID:26370360
Exact equation for curved stationary flames with arbitrary gas expansion.
Kazakov, Kirill A
2005-03-11
An exact equation describing freely propagating stationary flames with arbitrary values of the gas expansion coefficient is obtained. This equation respects all conservation laws at the flame front, and provides a consistent nonperturbative account of the effect of vorticity produced by the curved flame on the front structure. It is verified that the new equation is in agreement with the approximate equations derived previously in the case of weak gas expansion.
Adaptive Haar transforms with arbitrary time and scale splitting
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Egiazarian, Karen O.; Astola, Jaakko T.
2001-05-01
The Haar transform is generalized to the case of an arbitrary time and scale splitting. To any binary tree we associate an orthogonal system of Haar-type functions - tree-structured Haar (TSH) functions. Unified fast algorithm for computation of the introduced tree-structured Haar transforms is presented. It requires 2(N - 1) additions and 3N - 2 multiplications, where N is transform order or, equivalently, the number of leaves of the binary tree.
Light evolution in arbitrary two-dimensional waveguide arrays
Szameit, Alexander; Pertsch, Thomas; Dreisow, Felix; Nolte, Stefan; Tuennermann, Andreas; Peschel, Ulf; Lederer, Falk
2007-05-15
We introduce an analytical formula for the dynamics of light propagation in a two-dimensional waveguide lattice including diagonal coupling. A superposition of infinite arrays created by imaginary sources is used to derive an expression for boundary reflections. It is shown analytically that for large propagation distances the propagating field reaches uniformity. Furthermore, periodic field recovery is studied and discrete anomalous refraction and diffraction are investigated in arbitrary two-dimensional lattices.
A Dynamically Adaptive Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian Method for Hydrodynamics
Anderson, R W; Pember, R B; Elliott, N S
2002-10-19
A new method that combines staggered grid Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) techniques with structured local adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) has been developed for solution of the Euler equations. The novel components of the combined ALE-AMR method hinge upon the integration of traditional AMR techniques with both staggered grid Lagrangian operators as well as elliptic relaxation operators on moving, deforming mesh hierarchies. Numerical examples demonstrate the utility of the method in performing detailed three-dimensional shock-driven instability calculations.
A Dynamically Adaptive Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian Method for Hydrodynamics
Anderson, R W; Pember, R B; Elliott, N S
2004-01-28
A new method that combines staggered grid Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) techniques with structured local adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) has been developed for solution of the Euler equations. The novel components of the combined ALE-AMR method hinge upon the integration of traditional AMR techniques with both staggered grid Lagrangian operators as well as elliptic relaxation operators on moving, deforming mesh hierarchies. Numerical examples demonstrate the utility of the method in performing detailed three-dimensional shock-driven instability calculations.
Self-forces on static bodies in arbitrary dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harte, Abraham I.; Flanagan, Éanna É.; Taylor, Peter
2016-06-01
We derive exact expressions for the scalar and electromagnetic self-forces and self-torques acting on arbitrary static extended bodies in arbitrary static spacetimes with any number of dimensions. Nonperturbatively, our results are identical in all dimensions. Meaningful point particle limits are quite different in different dimensions, however. These limits are defined and evaluated, resulting in simple "regularization algorithms" which can be used in concrete calculations. In these limits, self-interaction is shown to be progressively less important in higher numbers of dimensions; it generically competes in magnitude with increasingly high-order extended-body effects. Conversely, we show that self-interaction effects can be relatively large in 1 +1 and 2 +1 dimensions. Our motivations for this work are twofold: First, no previous derivation of the self-force has been provided in arbitrary dimensions, and heuristic arguments presented by different authors have resulted in conflicting conclusions. Second, the static self-force problem in arbitrary dimensions provides a valuable test bed with which to continue the development of general, nonperturbative methods in the theory of motion. Several new insights are obtained in this direction, including a significantly improved understanding of the renormalization process. We also show that there is considerable freedom to use different "effective fields" in the laws of motion—a freedom which can be exploited to optimally simplify specific problems. Different choices give rise to different inertias, gravitational forces, and electromagnetic or scalar self-forces, but there is a sense in which none of these quantities are individually accessible to experiment. Certain combinations are observable, however, and these remain invariant under all possible field redefinitions.
Irreducible Cartesian tensors of highest weight, for arbitrary order
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mane, S. R.
2016-03-01
A closed form expression is presented for the irreducible Cartesian tensor of highest weight, for arbitrary order. Two proofs are offered, one employing bookkeeping of indices and, after establishing the connection with the so-called natural tensors and their projection operators, the other one employing purely coordinate-free tensor manipulations. Some theorems and formulas in the published literature are generalized from SO(3) to SO(n), for dimensions n ≥ 3.
Unsteady aerodynamic modeling for arbitrary motions. [for active control techniques
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Edwards, J. W.
1977-01-01
Results indicating that unsteady aerodynamic loads derived under the assumption of simple harmonic motions executed by airfoil or wing can be extended to arbitrary motions are summarized. The generalized Theodorsen (1953) function referable to loads due to simple harmonic oscillations of a wing section in incompressible flow, the Laplace inversion integral for unsteady aerodynamic loads, calculations of root loci of aeroelastic loads, and analysis of generalized compressible transient airloads are discussed.
Scattering of point source illumination by an arbitrary configuration
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Solakiewicz, Richard
1994-01-01
The problem of electromagnetic scattering of an incident plane wave by an arbitrary configuration of obstacles was solved by Twersky. In this report, the results are extended to point source incidence corresponding to a Hertz dipole. Knowledge of the response of a fixed configuration of scatterers excited by a point source may provide insight to improve the accuracy of the values of bulk parameters for clouds which have been found using plane wave excitation.
Growing multiplex networks with arbitrary number of layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Momeni, Naghmeh; Fotouhi, Babak
2015-12-01
This paper focuses on the problem of growing multiplex networks. Currently, the results on the joint degree distribution of growing multiplex networks present in the literature pertain to the case of two layers and are confined to the special case of homogeneous growth and are limited to the state state (that is, the limit of infinite size). In the present paper, we first obtain closed-form solutions for the joint degree distribution of heterogeneously growing multiplex networks with arbitrary number of layers in the steady state. Heterogeneous growth means that each incoming node establishes different numbers of links in different layers. We consider both uniform and preferential growth. We then extend the analysis of the uniform growth mechanism to arbitrary times. We obtain a closed-form solution for the time-dependent joint degree distribution of a growing multiplex network with arbitrary initial conditions. Throughout, theoretical findings are corroborated with Monte Carlo simulations. The results shed light on the effects of the initial network on the transient dynamics of growing multiplex networks and takes a step towards characterizing the temporal variations of the connectivity of growing multiplex networks, as well as predicting their future structural properties.
A compact, multichannel, and low noise arbitrary waveform generator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Govorkov, S.; Ivanov, B. I.; Il'ichev, E.; Meyer, H.-G.
2014-05-01
A new type of high functionality, fast, compact, and easy programmable arbitrary waveform generator for low noise physical measurements is presented. The generator provides 7 fast differential waveform channels with a maximum bandwidth up to 200 MHz frequency. There are 6 fast pulse generators on the generator board with 78 ps time resolution in both duration and delay, 3 of them with amplitude control. The arbitrary waveform generator is additionally equipped with two auxiliary slow 16 bit analog-to-digital converters and four 16 bit digital-to-analog converters for low frequency applications. Electromagnetic shields are introduced to the power supply, digital, and analog compartments and with a proper filter design perform more than 110 dB digital noise isolation to the output signals. All the output channels of the board have 50 Ω SubMiniature version A termination. The generator board is suitable for use as a part of a high sensitive physical equipment, e.g., fast read out and manipulation of nuclear magnetic resonance or superconducting quantum systems and any other application, which requires electromagnetic interference free fast pulse and arbitrary waveform generation.
A compact, multichannel, and low noise arbitrary waveform generator.
Govorkov, S; Ivanov, B I; Il'ichev, E; Meyer, H-G
2014-05-01
A new type of high functionality, fast, compact, and easy programmable arbitrary waveform generator for low noise physical measurements is presented. The generator provides 7 fast differential waveform channels with a maximum bandwidth up to 200 MHz frequency. There are 6 fast pulse generators on the generator board with 78 ps time resolution in both duration and delay, 3 of them with amplitude control. The arbitrary waveform generator is additionally equipped with two auxiliary slow 16 bit analog-to-digital converters and four 16 bit digital-to-analog converters for low frequency applications. Electromagnetic shields are introduced to the power supply, digital, and analog compartments and with a proper filter design perform more than 110 dB digital noise isolation to the output signals. All the output channels of the board have 50 Ω SubMiniature version A termination. The generator board is suitable for use as a part of a high sensitive physical equipment, e.g., fast read out and manipulation of nuclear magnetic resonance or superconducting quantum systems and any other application, which requires electromagnetic interference free fast pulse and arbitrary waveform generation.
A compact, multichannel, and low noise arbitrary waveform generator
Govorkov, S.; Ivanov, B. I.; Il'ichev, E.; Meyer, H.-G.
2014-05-15
A new type of high functionality, fast, compact, and easy programmable arbitrary waveform generator for low noise physical measurements is presented. The generator provides 7 fast differential waveform channels with a maximum bandwidth up to 200 MHz frequency. There are 6 fast pulse generators on the generator board with 78 ps time resolution in both duration and delay, 3 of them with amplitude control. The arbitrary waveform generator is additionally equipped with two auxiliary slow 16 bit analog-to-digital converters and four 16 bit digital-to-analog converters for low frequency applications. Electromagnetic shields are introduced to the power supply, digital, and analog compartments and with a proper filter design perform more than 110 dB digital noise isolation to the output signals. All the output channels of the board have 50 Ω SubMiniature version A termination. The generator board is suitable for use as a part of a high sensitive physical equipment, e.g., fast read out and manipulation of nuclear magnetic resonance or superconducting quantum systems and any other application, which requires electromagnetic interference free fast pulse and arbitrary waveform generation.
... milk dairy products also contribute to cholesterol level. Sodium Sodium, a component of salt, is listed on the Nutrition Facts label in milligrams. Small amounts of sodium are necessary for keeping proper body fluid balance, ...
Label Review Training - Resources
Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human health and the environment.
Field, Michele
2010-01-01
The descriptive “conventions” used on food labels are always evolving. Today, however, the changes are so complicated (partly driven by legislation requiring disclosures about environmental impacts, health issues, and geographical provenance) that these labels more often baffle buyers than enlighten them. In a light-handed manner, the article points to how sometimes reading label language can be like deciphering runes—and how if we are familiar with the technical terms, we can find a literal meaning, but still not see the implications. The article could be ten times longer because food labels vary according to cultures—but all food-exporting cultures now take advantage of our short attention-span when faced with these texts. The question is whether less is more—and if so, in this contest for our attention, what “contestant” is voted off.
Multi-input distributed classifiers for synthetic genetic circuits.
Kanakov, Oleg; Kotelnikov, Roman; Alsaedi, Ahmed; Tsimring, Lev; Huerta, Ramón; Zaikin, Alexey; Ivanchenko, Mikhail
2015-01-01
For practical construction of complex synthetic genetic networks able to perform elaborate functions it is important to have a pool of relatively simple modules with different functionality which can be compounded together. To complement engineering of very different existing synthetic genetic devices such as switches, oscillators or logical gates, we propose and develop here a design of synthetic multi-input classifier based on a recently introduced distributed classifier concept. A heterogeneous population of cells acts as a single classifier, whose output is obtained by summarizing the outputs of individual cells. The learning ability is achieved by pruning the population, instead of tuning parameters of an individual cell. The present paper is focused on evaluating two possible schemes of multi-input gene classifier circuits. We demonstrate their suitability for implementing a multi-input distributed classifier capable of separating data which are inseparable for single-input classifiers, and characterize performance of the classifiers by analytical and numerical results. The simpler scheme implements a linear classifier in a single cell and is targeted at separable classification problems with simple class borders. A hard learning strategy is used to train a distributed classifier by removing from the population any cell answering incorrectly to at least one training example. The other scheme implements a circuit with a bell-shaped response in a single cell to allow potentially arbitrary shape of the classification border in the input space of a distributed classifier. Inseparable classification problems are addressed using soft learning strategy, characterized by probabilistic decision to keep or discard a cell at each training iteration. We expect that our classifier design contributes to the development of robust and predictable synthetic biosensors, which have the potential to affect applications in a lot of fields, including that of medicine and industry.
Minimal input sets determining phase-covariant and universal quantum cloning
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jing, Li; Wang, Yi-Nan; Shi, Han-Duo; Mu, Liang-Zhu; Fan, Heng
2012-12-01
We study the minimal input sets which can determine completely the universal and the phase-covariant quantum cloning machines. We find that the universal quantum cloning machine, which can copy an arbitrary input qubit to two identical copies, however, can be determined completely by only four input states located at the four vertices of a tetrahedron in a Bloch sphere. The phase-covariant quantum cloning machine, which can create two copies from an arbitrary qubit located on the equator of the Bloch sphere, can be determined by three qubits located symmetrically on the equator of the Bloch sphere with equal relative phase. These results sharpen further the well-known results that Bennett-Brassard 1984 protocol (BB84) states and six states used in quantum cryptography can determine completely the phase-covariant and universal quantum cloning machines. This can simplify the testing procedure of whether the quantum clone machines are successful or not; namely, we only need to check that the minimal input sets can be cloned optimally, which can ensure that the quantum clone machines can work well for all input states.
An improved arbitrary primed PCR method for rapid characterization of transposon insertion sites.
Das, Sankar; Noe, Jody C; Paik, Sehmi; Kitten, Todd
2005-10-01
Modifications were made to published arbitrary primed polymerase chain reaction (AP-PCR) procedures that resulted in increased specificity and sensitivity. Several arbitrary primer sequences were also evaluated, resulting in recommendations for primer design.
Paramonov, L.E.
1994-12-01
Scattering of electromagnetic radiation from the elementary volume containing particles of an arbitrary shape with an arbitrary square integrable orientation distribution function is considered. Based on the T-matrix approach and the quantum theory of angular momentum, an analytical method is suggested for estimating the Mueller matrix elements and the Stokes vector of radiation scattered from an ensemble of particles in the case of an arbituary number of incident radiation sources. The constructive existence theorem is proved for the expansion of the scattering matrix elements as a power series in Wigner functions in the elementary volume having a rotational symmetry relative to the direction of the incident radiation propagation. Corollaries of the results obtained are considered. 24 refs.
Analog Input Data Acquisition Software
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Arens, Ellen
2009-01-01
DAQ Master Software allows users to easily set up a system to monitor up to five analog input channels and save the data after acquisition. This program was written in LabVIEW 8.0, and requires the LabVIEW runtime engine 8.0 to run the executable.
Optimal Inputs for System Identification.
1995-09-01
The derivation of the power spectral density of the optimal input for system identification is addressed in this research. Optimality is defined in...identification potential of general System Identification algorithms, a new and efficient System Identification algorithm that employs Iterated Weighted Least
Cerina, Federica; Zhu, Zhen; Chessa, Alessandro; Riccaboni, Massimo
2015-01-01
Production systems, traditionally analyzed as almost independent national systems, are increasingly connected on a global scale. Only recently becoming available, the World Input-Output Database (WIOD) is one of the first efforts to construct the global multi-regional input-output (GMRIO) tables. By viewing the world input-output system as an interdependent network where the nodes are the individual industries in different economies and the edges are the monetary goods flows between industries, we analyze respectively the global, regional, and local network properties of the so-called world input-output network (WION) and document its evolution over time. At global level, we find that the industries are highly but asymmetrically connected, which implies that micro shocks can lead to macro fluctuations. At regional level, we find that the world production is still operated nationally or at most regionally as the communities detected are either individual economies or geographically well defined regions. Finally, at local level, for each industry we compare the network-based measures with the traditional methods of backward linkages. We find that the network-based measures such as PageRank centrality and community coreness measure can give valuable insights into identifying the key industries. PMID:26222389
The advanced LIGO input optics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mueller, Chris L.; Arain, Muzammil A.; Ciani, Giacomo; DeRosa, Ryan. T.; Effler, Anamaria; Feldbaum, David; Frolov, Valery V.; Fulda, Paul; Gleason, Joseph; Heintze, Matthew; Kawabe, Keita; King, Eleanor J.; Kokeyama, Keiko; Korth, William Z.; Martin, Rodica M.; Mullavey, Adam; Peold, Jan; Quetschke, Volker; Reitze, David H.; Tanner, David B.; Vorvick, Cheryl; Williams, Luke F.; Mueller, Guido
2016-01-01
The advanced LIGO gravitational wave detectors are nearing their design sensitivity and should begin taking meaningful astrophysical data in the fall of 2015. These resonant optical interferometers will have unprecedented sensitivity to the strains caused by passing gravitational waves. The input optics play a significant part in allowing these devices to reach such sensitivities. Residing between the pre-stabilized laser and the main interferometer, the input optics subsystem is tasked with preparing the laser beam for interferometry at the sub-attometer level while operating at continuous wave input power levels ranging from 100 mW to 150 W. These extreme operating conditions required every major component to be custom designed. These designs draw heavily on the experience and understanding gained during the operation of Initial LIGO and Enhanced LIGO. In this article, we report on how the components of the input optics were designed to meet their stringent requirements and present measurements showing how well they have lived up to their design.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tinker, Robert
1984-01-01
The game paddle inputs of Apple microcomputers provide a simple way to get laboratory measurements into the computer. Discusses these game paddles and the necessary interface software. Includes schematics for Apple built-in paddle electronics, TRS-80 game paddle I/O, Commodore circuit for user port, and bus interface for Sinclair/Timex, Commodore,…
The advanced LIGO input optics
Mueller, Chris L. Arain, Muzammil A.; Ciani, Giacomo; Feldbaum, David; Fulda, Paul; Gleason, Joseph; Heintze, Matthew; Martin, Rodica M.; Reitze, David H.; Tanner, David B.; Williams, Luke F.; Mueller, Guido; DeRosa, Ryan T.; Effler, Anamaria; Kokeyama, Keiko; Frolov, Valery V.; Mullavey, Adam; Kawabe, Keita; Vorvick, Cheryl; King, Eleanor J.; and others
2016-01-15
The advanced LIGO gravitational wave detectors are nearing their design sensitivity and should begin taking meaningful astrophysical data in the fall of 2015. These resonant optical interferometers will have unprecedented sensitivity to the strains caused by passing gravitational waves. The input optics play a significant part in allowing these devices to reach such sensitivities. Residing between the pre-stabilized laser and the main interferometer, the input optics subsystem is tasked with preparing the laser beam for interferometry at the sub-attometer level while operating at continuous wave input power levels ranging from 100 mW to 150 W. These extreme operating conditions required every major component to be custom designed. These designs draw heavily on the experience and understanding gained during the operation of Initial LIGO and Enhanced LIGO. In this article, we report on how the components of the input optics were designed to meet their stringent requirements and present measurements showing how well they have lived up to their design.
Signal Prediction With Input Identification
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Juang, Jer-Nan; Chen, Ya-Chin
1999-01-01
A novel coding technique is presented for signal prediction with applications including speech coding, system identification, and estimation of input excitation. The approach is based on the blind equalization method for speech signal processing in conjunction with the geometric subspace projection theory to formulate the basic prediction equation. The speech-coding problem is often divided into two parts, a linear prediction model and excitation input. The parameter coefficients of the linear predictor and the input excitation are solved simultaneously and recursively by a conventional recursive least-squares algorithm. The excitation input is computed by coding all possible outcomes into a binary codebook. The coefficients of the linear predictor and excitation, and the index of the codebook can then be used to represent the signal. In addition, a variable-frame concept is proposed to block the same excitation signal in sequence in order to reduce the storage size and increase the transmission rate. The results of this work can be easily extended to the problem of disturbance identification. The basic principles are outlined in this report and differences from other existing methods are discussed. Simulations are included to demonstrate the proposed method.
DAC-board based X-band EPR spectrometer with arbitrary waveform control
Kaufmann, Thomas; Keller, Timothy J.; Franck, John M.; Barnes, Ryan P.; Glaser, Steffen J.; Martinis, John M.; Han, Songi
2013-01-01
We present arbitrary control over a homogenous spin system, demonstrated on a simple, home-built, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrometer operating at 8–10 GHz (X-band) and controlled by a 1 GHz arbitrary waveform generator (AWG) with 42 dB (i.e. 14-bit) of dynamic range. Such a spectrometer can be relatively easily built from a single DAC (digital to analog converter) board with a modest number of stock components and offers powerful capabilities for automated digital calibration and correction routines that allow it to generate shaped X-band pulses with precise amplitude and phase control. It can precisely tailor the excitation profiles “seen” by the spins in the microwave resonator, based on feedback calibration with experimental input. We demonstrate the capability to generate a variety of pulse shapes, including rectangular, triangular, Gaussian, sinc, and adiabatic rapid passage waveforms. We then show how one can precisely compensate for the distortion and broadening caused by transmission into the microwave cavity in order to optimize corrected waveforms that are distinctly different from the initial, uncorrected waveforms. Specifically, we exploit a narrow EPR signal whose width is finer than the features of any distortions in order to map out the response to a short pulse, which, in turn, yields the precise transfer function of the spectrometer system. This transfer function is found to be consistent for all pulse shapes in the linear response regime. In addition to allowing precise waveform shaping capabilities, the spectrometer presented here offers complete digital control and calibration of the spectrometer that allows one to phase cycle the pulse phase with 0.007° resolution and to specify the inter-pulse delays and pulse durations to ≤250 ps resolution. The implications and potential applications of these capabilities will be discussed. PMID:23999530
DAC-board based X-band EPR spectrometer with arbitrary waveform control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaufmann, Thomas; Keller, Timothy J.; Franck, John M.; Barnes, Ryan P.; Glaser, Steffen J.; Martinis, John M.; Han, Songi
2013-10-01
We present arbitrary control over a homogenous spin system, demonstrated on a simple, home-built, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrometer operating at 8-10 GHz (X-band) and controlled by a 1 GHz arbitrary waveform generator (AWG) with 42 dB (i.e. 14-bit) of dynamic range. Such a spectrometer can be relatively easily built from a single DAC (digital to analog converter) board with a modest number of stock components and offers powerful capabilities for automated digital calibration and correction routines that allow it to generate shaped X-band pulses with precise amplitude and phase control. It can precisely tailor the excitation profiles "seen" by the spins in the microwave resonator, based on feedback calibration with experimental input. We demonstrate the capability to generate a variety of pulse shapes, including rectangular, triangular, Gaussian, sinc, and adiabatic rapid passage waveforms. We then show how one can precisely compensate for the distortion and broadening caused by transmission into the microwave cavity in order to optimize corrected waveforms that are distinctly different from the initial, uncorrected waveforms. Specifically, we exploit a narrow EPR signal whose width is finer than the features of any distortions in order to map out the response to a short pulse, which, in turn, yields the precise transfer function of the spectrometer system. This transfer function is found to be consistent for all pulse shapes in the linear response regime. In addition to allowing precise waveform shaping capabilities, the spectrometer presented here offers complete digital control and calibration of the spectrometer that allows one to phase cycle the pulse phase with 0.007° resolution and to specify the inter-pulse delays and pulse durations to ⩽250 ps resolution. The implications and potential applications of these capabilities will be discussed.
DAC-board based X-band EPR spectrometer with arbitrary waveform control.
Kaufmann, Thomas; Keller, Timothy J; Franck, John M; Barnes, Ryan P; Glaser, Steffen J; Martinis, John M; Han, Songi
2013-10-01
We present arbitrary control over a homogenous spin system, demonstrated on a simple, home-built, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrometer operating at 8-10 GHz (X-band) and controlled by a 1 GHz arbitrary waveform generator (AWG) with 42 dB (i.e. 14-bit) of dynamic range. Such a spectrometer can be relatively easily built from a single DAC (digital to analog converter) board with a modest number of stock components and offers powerful capabilities for automated digital calibration and correction routines that allow it to generate shaped X-band pulses with precise amplitude and phase control. It can precisely tailor the excitation profiles "seen" by the spins in the microwave resonator, based on feedback calibration with experimental input. We demonstrate the capability to generate a variety of pulse shapes, including rectangular, triangular, Gaussian, sinc, and adiabatic rapid passage waveforms. We then show how one can precisely compensate for the distortion and broadening caused by transmission into the microwave cavity in order to optimize corrected waveforms that are distinctly different from the initial, uncorrected waveforms. Specifically, we exploit a narrow EPR signal whose width is finer than the features of any distortions in order to map out the response to a short pulse, which, in turn, yields the precise transfer function of the spectrometer system. This transfer function is found to be consistent for all pulse shapes in the linear response regime. In addition to allowing precise waveform shaping capabilities, the spectrometer presented here offers complete digital control and calibration of the spectrometer that allows one to phase cycle the pulse phase with 0.007° resolution and to specify the inter-pulse delays and pulse durations to ≤ 250 ps resolution. The implications and potential applications of these capabilities will be discussed.
Systems and methods for reconfiguring input devices
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lancaster, Jeff (Inventor); De Mers, Robert E. (Inventor)
2012-01-01
A system includes an input device having first and second input members configured to be activated by a user. The input device is configured to generate activation signals associated with activation of the first and second input members, and each of the first and second input members are associated with an input function. A processor is coupled to the input device and configured to receive the activation signals. A memory coupled to the processor, and includes a reconfiguration module configured to store the input functions assigned to the first and second input members and, upon execution of the processor, to reconfigure the input functions assigned to the input members when the first input member is inoperable.
What Learning to See Arbitrary Motion Tells Us about Biological Motion Perception
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hiris, Eric; Krebeck, Aurore; Edmonds, Jennifer; Stout, Alexandra
2005-01-01
In separate studies, observers viewed upright biological motion, inverted biological motion, or arbitrary motion created from systematically randomizing the positions of point-light dots. Results showed that observers (a) could learn to detect the presence of arbitrary motion, (b) could not learn to discriminate the coherence of arbitrary motion,…
A novel measuring method for arbitrary optical vortex by three spiral spectra
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ni, Bo; Guo, Lana; Yue, Chengfeng; Tang, Zhilie
2017-02-01
In this letter, the topological charge of non-integer vortices determined by three arbitrary spiral spectra is theoretically demonstrated for the first time. Based on the conclusion, a novel method to measure non-integer vortices is presented. This method is applicable not only to arbitrary non-integer vortex but also to arbitrary integer vortex.
Incorporating User Input in Template-Based Segmentation.
Vidal, Camille; Beggs, Dale; Younes, Laurent; Jain, Sanjay K; Jedynak, Bruno
2011-01-01
We present a simple and elegant method to incorporate user input in a template-based segmentation method for diseased organs. The user provides a partial segmentation of the organ of interest, which is used to guide the template towards its target. The user also highlights some elements of the background that should be excluded from the final segmentation. We derive by likelihood maximization a registration algorithm from a simple statistical image model in which the user labels are modeled as Bernoulli random variables. The resulting registration algorithm minimizes the sum of square differences between the binary template and the user labels, while preventing the template from shrinking, and penalizing for the inclusion of background elements into the final segmentation. We assess the performance of the proposed algorithm on synthetic images in which the amount of user annotation is controlled. We demonstrate our algorithm on the segmentation of the lungs of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infected mice from μCT images.
Afferent Inputs to Neurotransmitter-Defined Cell Types in the Ventral Tegmental Area.
Faget, Lauren; Osakada, Fumitaka; Duan, Jinyi; Ressler, Reed; Johnson, Alexander B; Proudfoot, James A; Yoo, Ji Hoon; Callaway, Edward M; Hnasko, Thomas S
2016-06-21
The ventral tegmental area (VTA) plays a central role in the neural circuit control of behavioral reinforcement. Though considered a dopaminergic nucleus, the VTA contains substantial heterogeneity in neurotransmitter type, containing also GABA and glutamate neurons. Here, we used a combinatorial viral approach to transsynaptically label afferents to defined VTA dopamine, GABA, or glutamate neurons. Surprisingly, we find that these populations received qualitatively similar inputs, with dominant and comparable projections from the lateral hypothalamus, raphe, and ventral pallidum. However, notable differences were observed, with striatal regions and globus pallidus providing a greater share of input to VTA dopamine neurons, cortical input preferentially on to glutamate neurons, and GABA neurons receiving proportionally more input from the lateral habenula and laterodorsal tegmental nucleus. By comparing inputs to each of the transmitter-defined VTA cell types, this study sheds important light on the systems-level organization of diverse inputs to VTA.
National hospital input price index.
Freeland, M S; Anderson, G; Schendler, C E
1979-01-01
The national community hospital input price index presented here isolates the effects of prices of goods and services required to produce hospital care and measures the average percent change in prices for a fixed market basket of hospital inputs. Using the methodology described in this article, weights for various expenditure categories were estimated and proxy price variables associated with each were selected. The index is calculated for the historical period 1970 through 1978 and forecast for 1979 through 1981. During the historical period, the input price index increased an average of 8.0 percent a year, compared with an average rate of increase of 6.6 percent for overall consumer prices. For the period 1979 through 1981, the average annual increase is forecast at between 8.5 and 9.0 per cent. Using the index to deflate growth in expenses, the level of real growth in expenditures per inpatient day (net service intensity growth) averaged 4.5 percent per year with considerable annual variation related to government and hospital industry policies.
Thomson scattering in a magnetic field. II - Arbitrary field orientation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Whitney, Barbara A.
1991-01-01
This paper presents solutions to the equation of transfer for Thomson scattering in a constant magnetic field of arbitrary orientation. Results from several atmospheres are combined to give the flux from a dipole star. The results are compared to the polarization data of the magnetic white dwarf Grw + 70 deg 8247. The fit is good, though it implies a very large polarization in the ultraviolet. Thomson scattering is not thought to be an important opacity source in white dwarfs, so the good fit is either fortuitous or is perhaps explained by assuming the magnetic field affects the polarization processes in all opacities similarly.
Conditioning arbitrary stimuli to cigarette smoke intake: a preliminary study.
Payne, T J; Etscheidt, M; Corrigan, S A
1990-01-01
This study represents an attempt to classically condition arbitrary stimuli to cigarette smoke intake. A smoker either smoked or mock-smoked a cigarette in two discriminative contexts for 20 sessions. The contingencies were reversed during an additional last two sessions. Measures of heart rate, skin temperature, and puff duration were monitored during all sessions. Results suggested that both manipulations of smoke delivery and context cues were related to puff duration. The pattern of psychophysiological reactivity was mixed and not easily interpreted. This experimental paradigm may be useful in the investigation of conditioning factors underlying addictive behaviors.
Shrinking an arbitrary object as one desires using metamaterials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Wei Xiang; Cui, Tie Jun; Yang, Xin Mi; Ma, Hui Feng; Cheng, Qiang
2011-05-01
Based on transformation optics, we present a shrinking device, which can transform an arbitrary object virtually into a small-size object with different material parameters as one desires. Such an illusion device will confuse the detectors or the viewers, and hence the real size and material parameters of the enclosed object cannot be perceived. We fabricated and measured a shrinking device by using metamaterials, which works at the nonresonant frequency and has low loss. The device has been validated by both numerical simulations and experiments on circular and square objects. Good shrinking performance has been demonstrated.
Arbitrary GRIN component fabrication in optically driven diffusive photopolymers.
Urness, Adam C; Anderson, Ken; Ye, Chungfang; Wilson, William L; McLeod, Robert R
2015-01-12
We introduce a maskless lithography tool and optically-initiated diffusive photopolymer that enable arbitrary two-dimensional gradient index (GRIN) polymer lens profiles. The lithography tool uses a pulse-width modulated deformable mirror device (DMD) to control the 8-bit gray-scale intensity pattern on the material. The custom polymer responds with a self-developing refractive index profile that is non-linear with optical dose. We show that this nonlinear material response can be corrected with pre-compensation of the intensity pattern to yield high fidelity, optically induced index profiles. The process is demonstrated with quadratic, millimeter aperture GRIN lenses, Zernike polynomials and GRIN Fresnel lenses.
Kustaanheimo-Stiefel transformation with an arbitrary defining vector
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Breiter, Slawomir; Langner, Krzysztof
2017-02-01
Kustaanheimo-Stiefel (KS) transformation depends on the choice of some preferred direction in the Cartesian 3D space. This choice, seldom explicitly mentioned, amounts typically to the direction of the first or the third coordinate axis in Celestial Mechanics and atomic physics, respectively. The present work develops a canonical KS transformation with an arbitrary preferred direction, indicated by what we call a defining vector. Using a mix of vector and quaternion algebra, we formulate the transformation in a reference frame independent manner. The link between the oscillator and Keplerian first integrals is given. As an example of the present formulation, the Keplerian motion in a rotating frame is re-investigated.
Partitioning and modularity of graphs with arbitrary degree distribution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reichardt, Jörg; Bornholdt, Stefan
2007-07-01
We solve the graph bipartitioning problem in dense graphs with arbitrary degree distribution using the replica method. We find the cut size to scale universally with ⟨k⟩ . In contrast, earlier results studying the problem in graphs with a Poissonian degree distribution had found a scaling with ⟨k⟩ [Fu and Anderson, J. Phys. A 19, 1605 (1986)]. Our results also generalize to the problem of q partitioning. They can be used to find the expected modularity Q [Newman and Girvan, Phys. Rev. E 69, 026113 (2004)] of random graphs and allow for the assessment of the statistical significance of the output of community detection algorithms.
Rigorous KAM results around arbitrary periodic orbits for Hamiltonian systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kapela, Tomasz; Simó, Carles
2017-03-01
We set up a methodology for computer assisted proofs of the existence and the KAM stability of an arbitrary periodic orbit for Hamiltonian systems. We give two examples of application for systems with two and three degrees of freedom. The first example verifies the existence of tiny elliptic islands inside large chaotic domains for a quartic potential. In the 3-body problem we prove the KAM stability of the well-known figure eight orbit and two selected orbits of the so called family of rotating eights. Some additional theoretical and numerical information is also given for the dynamics of both examples.
Algebraic Classification of Weyl Anomalies in Arbitrary Dimensions
Boulanger, Nicolas
2007-06-29
Conformally invariant systems involving only dimensionless parameters are known to describe particle physics at very high energy. In the presence of an external gravitational field, the conformal symmetry may generalize to the Weyl invariance of classical massless field systems in interaction with gravity. In the quantum theory, the latter symmetry no longer survives: A Weyl anomaly appears. Anomalies are a cornerstone of quantum field theory, and, for the first time, a general, purely algebraic understanding of the universal structure of the Weyl anomalies is obtained, in arbitrary dimensions and independently of any regularization scheme.
Isotropy theorem for arbitrary-spin cosmological fields
Cembranos, J.A.R.; Maroto, A.L.; Jareño, S.J. Núñez E-mail: maroto@ucm.es
2014-03-01
We show that the energy-momentum tensor of homogeneous fields of arbitrary spin in an expanding universe is always isotropic in average provided the fields remain bounded and evolve rapidly compared to the rate of expansion. An analytic expression for the average equation of state is obtained for Lagrangians with generic power-law kinetic and potential terms. As an example we consider the behavior of a spin-two field in the standard Fierz-Pauli theory of massive gravity. The results can be extended to general space-time geometries for locally inertial observers.
Two-body quantum propagation in arbitrary potentials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grasselli, Federico; Bertoni, Andrea; Goldoni, Guido
2016-08-01
We have implemented a unitary, numerically exact, Fourier split step method, based on a proper Suzuki-Trotter factorization of the quantum evolution operator, to propagate a two-body complex in arbitrary external potential landscapes taking into account exactly the internal structure. We have simulated spatially indirect Wannier-Mott excitons - optically excited electron-hole pairs with the two charges confined to different layers of a semiconductor heterostructure with prototypical 1D and 2D potentials emphasizing the effects of the internal dynamics and the insufficiency of mean-field methods in this context.
Arbitrary waveform generation using optical direct digital synthesis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chester-Parsons, J.
2013-11-01
The objective of this paper is to describe the progress of a project designed to build on recent photonic capabilities in order to develop an ultra-wide band, true Arbitrary Waveform Generator (AWG) capable of providing radar quality signals in the 500MHz to 20GHz spectrum using photonic integration. Within this scope, it is planned to create a single channel radar environment simulator based on a photonic waveform generator, which will demonstrate the dynamic range, stability, and high signal fidelity required to simulate the modern complex radar environment. The paper will present recent measurements of critical parameters that are vital for the practical realisation of this system on a chip.
Quantum Simulations of One-Dimensional Nanostructures under Arbitrary Deformations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koskinen, Pekka
2016-09-01
A powerful technique is introduced for simulating mechanical and electromechanical properties of one-dimensional nanostructures under arbitrary combinations of bending, twisting, and stretching. The technique is based on an unconventional control of periodic symmetry which eliminates artifacts due to deformation constraints and quantum finite-size effects and allows transparent electronic-structure analysis. Via density-functional tight-binding implementation, the technique demonstrates its utility by predicting nonlinear electromechanical properties in carbon nanotubes and abrupt behavior in the structural yielding of Au7 and Mo6 S6 nanowires. The technique drives simulations markedly closer to the realistic modeling of these slender nanostructures under experimental conditions.
Image processing technique for arbitrary image positioning in holographic stereogram
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kang, Der-Kuan; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Honda, Toshio; Ohyama, Nagaaki
1990-12-01
In a one-step holographic stereogram, if the series of original images are used just as they are taken from perspective views, three-dimensional images are usually reconstructed in back of the hologram plane. In order to enhance the sense of perspective of the reconstructed images and minimize blur of the interesting portions, we introduce an image processing technique for making a one-step flat format holographic stereogram in which three-dimensional images can be observed at an arbitrary specified position. Experimental results show the effect of the image processing. Further, we show results of a medical application using this image processing.
Discussion on massive gravitons and propagating torsion in arbitrary dimensions
Hernaski, C. A.; Vargas-Paredes, A. A.; Helayeel-Neto, J. A.
2009-12-15
In this paper, we reassess a particular R{sup 2}-type gravity action in D dimensions, recently studied by Nakasone and Oda, now taking torsion effects into account. Considering that the vielbein and the spin connection carry independent propagating degrees of freedom, we conclude that ghosts and tachyons are absent only if torsion is nonpropagating, and we also conclude that there is no room for massive gravitons. To include these excitations, we understand how to enlarge Nakasone-Oda's model by means of explicit torsion terms in the action and we discuss the unitarity of the enlarged model for arbitrary dimensions.
Scattering matrix of arbitrary tight-binding Hamiltonians
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ramírez, C.; Medina-Amayo, L. A.
2017-03-01
A novel efficient method to calculate the scattering matrix (SM) of arbitrary tight-binding Hamiltonians is proposed, including cases with multiterminal structures. In particular, the SM of two kinds of fundamental structures is given, which can be used to obtain the SM of bigger systems iteratively. Also, a procedure to obtain the SM of layer-composed periodic leads is described. This method allows renormalization approaches, which permits computations over macroscopic length systems without introducing additional approximations. Finally, the transmission coefficient of a ring-shaped multiterminal system and the transmission function of a square-lattice nanoribbon with a reduced width region are calculated.
16 CFR 305.17 - Television labeling.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
... manufacturer may include the ENERGY STAR logo on the label as illustrated in Sample Labels 10, 11, and 12 in... labeled may add the ENERGY STAR logo to those labels. (g) Distribution of labels. For each...
Spectroscopy of the Schwarzschild black hole at arbitrary frequencies.
Casals, Marc; Ottewill, Adrian
2012-09-14
Linear field perturbations of a black hole are described by the Green function of the wave equation that they obey. After Fourier decomposing the Green function, its two natural contributions are given by poles (quasinormal modes) and a largely unexplored branch cut in the complex frequency plane. We present new analytic methods for calculating the branch cut on a Schwarzschild black hole for arbitrary values of the frequency. The branch cut yields a power-law tail decay for late times in the response of a black hole to an initial perturbation. We determine explicitly the first three orders in the power-law and show that the branch cut also yields a new logarithmic behavior T(-2ℓ-5)lnT for late times. Before the tail sets in, the quasinormal modes dominate the black hole response. For electromagnetic perturbations, the quasinormal mode frequencies approach the branch cut at large overtone index n. We determine these frequencies up to n(-5/2) and, formally, to arbitrary order. Highly damped quasinormal modes are of particular interest in that they have been linked to quantum properties of black holes.
Spin susceptibility of Anderson impurities in arbitrary conduction bands
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fang, Tie-Feng; Tong, Ning-Hua; Cao, Zhan; Sun, Qing-Feng; Luo, Hong-Gang
2015-10-01
Spin susceptibility of Anderson impurities is a key quantity in understanding the physics of Kondo screening. Traditional numerical renormalization group (NRG) calculation of the impurity contribution χimp to susceptibility, defined originally by Wilson in a flat wide band, has been generalized before to structured conduction bands. The results brought about non-Fermi-liquid and diamagnetic Kondo behaviors in χimp, even when the bands are not gapped at the Fermi energy. Here, we use the full density-matrix (FDM) NRG to present high-quality data for the local susceptibility χloc and to compare them with χimp obtained by the traditional NRG. Our results indicate that those exotic behaviors observed in χimp are unphysical. Instead, the low-energy excitations of the impurity in arbitrary bands only without gap at the Fermi energy are still a Fermi liquid and paramagnetic. We also demonstrate that unlike the traditional NRG yielding χloc less accurate than χimp, the FDM method allows a high-precision dynamical calculation of χloc at much reduced computational cost, with an accuracy at least one order higher than χimp. Moreover, artifacts in the FDM algorithm to χimp and origins of the spurious non-Fermi-liquid and diamagnetic features are clarified. Our work provides an efficient high-precision algorithm to calculate the spin susceptibility of impurity for arbitrary structured bands, while negating the applicability of Wilson's definition to such cases.
Grid adaptation and remapping for arbitrary lagrangian eulerian (ALE) methods
Lapenta, G. M.
2002-01-01
Methods to include automatic grid adaptation tools within the Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) method are described. Two main developments will be described. First, a new grid adaptation approach is described, based on an automatic and accurate estimate of the local truncation error. Second, a new method to remap the information between two grids is presented, based on the MPDATA approach. The Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) method solves hyperbolic equations by splitting the operators is two phases. First, in the Lagrangian phase, the equations under consideration are written in a Lagrangian frame and are discretized. In this phase, the grid moves with the solution, the velocity of each node being the local fluid velocity. Second, in the Eulerian phase, a new grid is generated and the information is transferred to the new grid. The advantage of considering this second step is the possibility of avoiding mesh distortion and tangling typical of pure Lagrangian methods. The second phase of the ALE method is the primary topic of the present communication. In the Eulerian phase two tasks need to be completed. First, a new grid need to be created (we will refer to this task as rezoning). Second, the information is transferred from the grid available at the end of the Lagrangian phase to the new grid (we will refer to this task as remapping). New techniques are presented for the two tasks of the Eulerian phase: rezoning and remapping.
Self-forces on static bodies in arbitrary dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taylor, Peter
2016-03-01
I will present exact expressions for the scalar and electromagnetic self-forces and self-torques acting on arbitrary static extended bodies in arbitrary static spacetimes with any number of dimensions. Non-perturbatively, these results are identical in all dimensions. Meaningful point particle limits are quite different, however. I will discuss how such limits are defined and evaluated, resulting in simple ``regularization algorithms'' which can be used in concrete calculations. In them, self-interaction is shown to be progressively less important in higher numbers of dimensions, generically competing in magnitude with increasingly high-order extended-body effects. Conversely, self-interaction effects can be relatively large in 1 + 1 and 2 + 1 dimensions. It will further be shown that there is considerable freedom to use different ``effective fields'' in the laws of motion. Different choices give rise to different inertias, gravitational forces, and electromagnetic or scalar self-forces. However, the particular combinations of these quantities which are observable remain invariant under all possible field redefinitions.
Cell assemblies at multiple time scales with arbitrary lag constellations
Russo, Eleonora; Durstewitz, Daniel
2017-01-01
Hebb's idea of a cell assembly as the fundamental unit of neural information processing has dominated neuroscience like no other theoretical concept within the past 60 years. A range of different physiological phenomena, from precisely synchronized spiking to broadly simultaneous rate increases, has been subsumed under this term. Yet progress in this area is hampered by the lack of statistical tools that would enable to extract assemblies with arbitrary constellations of time lags, and at multiple temporal scales, partly due to the severe computational burden. Here we present such a unifying methodological and conceptual framework which detects assembly structure at many different time scales, levels of precision, and with arbitrary internal organization. Applying this methodology to multiple single unit recordings from various cortical areas, we find that there is no universal cortical coding scheme, but that assembly structure and precision significantly depends on the brain area recorded and ongoing task demands. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19428.001 PMID:28074777
Double layers and double wells in arbitrary degenerate plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akbari-Moghanjoughi, M.
2016-06-01
Using the generalized hydrodynamic model, the possibility of variety of large amplitude nonlinear excitations is examined in electron-ion plasma with arbitrary electron degeneracy considering also the ion temperature effect. A new energy-density relation is proposed for plasmas with arbitrary electron degeneracy which reduces to the classical Boltzmann and quantum Thomas-Fermi counterparts in the extreme limits. The pseudopotential method is employed to find the criteria for existence of nonlinear structures such as solitons, periodic nonlinear structures, and double-layers for different cases of adiabatic and isothermal ion fluids for a whole range of normalized electron chemical potential, η0, ranging from dilute classical to completely degenerate electron fluids. It is observed that there is a Mach-speed gap in which no large amplitude localized or periodic nonlinear excitations can propagate in the plasma under consideration. It is further revealed that the plasma under investigation supports propagation of double-wells and double-layers the chemical potential and Mach number ranges of which are studied in terms of other plasma parameters. The Mach number criteria for nonlinear waves are shown to significantly differ for cases of classical with η0 < 0 and quantum with η0 > 0 regimes. It is also shown that the localized structure propagation criteria possess significant dissimilarities for plasmas with adiabatic and isothermal ions. Current research may be generalized to study the nonlinear structures in plasma containing positrons, multiple ions with different charge states, and charged dust grains.
Precisely synchronous and cascadable multi-channel arbitrary waveform generator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Ke; Tian, Shulin; Guo, Guangkun; Xiao, Yindong
2017-03-01
The output bandwidth and the capability to generate multiple analog outputs with accurately adjustable relative phase are important specifications of arbitrary waveform generator (AWG). To increase the output bandwidth, AWG with a multi-memory paralleled direct digital synthesizer structure (DDS) was proposed to break through operating speed limitations of memory and field programmable gate array. But this structure does complicate synchronization of the analog outputs. This paper proposes a structure for synchronization of the outputs of multi-channel high speed AWG that generates arbitrary waveforms using a multi-memory paralleled DDS. Careful distribution of the clock and trigger signals enables elimination of the random initial phase caused by the frequency divider. Based on this structure, a four-channel 600 mega samples per second AWG is designed. An embedded clock synchronization calibration module is designed to eliminate the random phase difference caused by a frequency divider inside a digital-to-analog converter. The AWG provides a 240 MHz bandwidth, 16 mega-samples storage depth, inter-channel initial skew accuracy less than 150 ps, and 0.0001° phase resolution, which can be used to generate two pairs of I/Q signals or a pair of differential I/Q signals for the quadrature modulator. Additionally, more AWGs can be cascaded to obtain more output channels with an output timing skew between adjacent channels of less than 1.6 ns.
Precisely synchronous and cascadable multi-channel arbitrary waveform generator.
Liu, Ke; Tian, Shulin; Guo, Guangkun; Xiao, Yindong
2017-03-01
The output bandwidth and the capability to generate multiple analog outputs with accurately adjustable relative phase are important specifications of arbitrary waveform generator (AWG). To increase the output bandwidth, AWG with a multi-memory paralleled direct digital synthesizer structure (DDS) was proposed to break through operating speed limitations of memory and field programmable gate array. But this structure does complicate synchronization of the analog outputs. This paper proposes a structure for synchronization of the outputs of multi-channel high speed AWG that generates arbitrary waveforms using a multi-memory paralleled DDS. Careful distribution of the clock and trigger signals enables elimination of the random initial phase caused by the frequency divider. Based on this structure, a four-channel 600 mega samples per second AWG is designed. An embedded clock synchronization calibration module is designed to eliminate the random phase difference caused by a frequency divider inside a digital-to-analog converter. The AWG provides a 240 MHz bandwidth, 16 mega-samples storage depth, inter-channel initial skew accuracy less than 150 ps, and 0.0001° phase resolution, which can be used to generate two pairs of I/Q signals or a pair of differential I/Q signals for the quadrature modulator. Additionally, more AWGs can be cascaded to obtain more output channels with an output timing skew between adjacent channels of less than 1.6 ns.
DC artifact correction for arbitrary phase-cycling sequence.
Han, Paul Kyu; Park, HyunWook; Park, Sung-Hong
2017-05-01
In magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), a non-zero offset in the receiver baseline signal during acquisition results in a bright spot or a line artifact in the center of the image known as a direct current (DC) artifact. Several methods have been suggested in the past for the removal or correction of DC artifacts in MR images, however, these methods cannot be applied directly when a specific phase-cycling technique is used in the imaging sequence. In this work, we proposed a new, simple technique that enables correction of DC artifacts for any arbitrary phase-cycling imaging sequences. The technique is composed of phase unification, DC offset estimation and correction, and phase restoration. The feasibility of the proposed method was demonstrated via phantom and in vivo experiments with a multiple phase-cycling balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) imaging sequence. Results showed successful removal of the DC artifacts in images acquired using bSSFP with phase-cycling angles of 0°, 90°, 180°, and 270°, indicating potential feasibility of the proposed method to any imaging sequence with arbitrary phase-cycling angles.
Arbitrary optical frequency synthesis traced to an optical frequency comb
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cai, Zihang; Zhang, Weipeng; Yang, Honglei; Li, Yan; Wei, Haoyun
2016-11-01
An arbitrary optical frequency synthesizer with a broad tuning range and high frequency accuracy is presented. The system includes an external cavity diode laser (ECDL) as the output laser, an Erbium-doped optical frequency comb being a frequency reference, and a control module. The optical frequency from the synthesizer can be continuously tuned by the large-scale trans-tooth switch and the fine intra-tooth adjustment. Robust feedback control by regulating the current and PZT voltage enables the ECDL to phase-lock to the Erbium-doped optical frequency comb, therefore to keep stable frequency output. In the meanwhile, the absolute frequency of the synthesizer is determined by the repetition rate, the offset frequency and the beat frequency. All the phase lock loops in the system are traced back to a Rubidium clock. A powerful and friendly software is developed to make the operation convenient by integrating the functions of frequency setting, tuning, tracing, locking and measuring into a LabVIEW interface. The output frequency tuning span and the uncertainty of the system are evaluated as >6 THz and <3 kHz, respectively. The arbitrary optical frequency synthesizer will be a versatile tool in diverse applications, such as synthetic wavelength based absolute distance measurement and frequency-stabilized Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lum, Lydia
2009-01-01
The author reports on the growing debate among educators on whether the umbrella Asian Pacific Islander label conceals disparities among Asian American students or provides political power in numbers. Nationally, experts say that support services aimed at not only Southeast Asians, but all Asian Pacific Islander students, remain scarce in higher…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Charlton, Eric Frederick
An octree-based method is presented for the automatic grid generation and computational solution of flows around complicated geometries. The use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) for aerodynamic analysis and design is still delayed by three major operations: surface definition, grid generation, and flow solution. Through oscar, a parametric model is used for the aircraft surface definition allowing rapid production of aircraft shapes, an octree forms the framework for an automatic grid generator than can run with minimal user input, and a parallel flow solver is built with Message Passing Interface (MPI) to accelerate the solution of the Euler equations using a Godunov-type finite-volume second-order (MUSCL) method on parallel supercomputers. Octrees are recursive data structures where each tree-node may have eight geometrically-similar children. The octree is used to fill the space around the body; cells which intersect the body are labeled as cut-cells, and they are computed as the input body subtracted from the base Cartesian cell. The flow solver is validated through comparison with an exact subsonic concentric cylinder flow and through comparison to Onera data for the M-6 wing. Another design-oriented benefit of oscar's method is that it decouples the input surface and resultant volume grid, such that the user needs only to be concerned with the actual input geometry and flow conditions. To support more realistic modeling of aircraft flows, embedded boundary conditions are included to handle jet engines and propellors. Additionally, an object-oriented programming system (OOPS) is used to encourage simpler development and extension. Examples include subsonic reconnaissance aircraft, propellor-driven aircraft, a supercritical business-jet, an airliner configuration, and the flow around a set of buildings.
Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 7
Page 7, Label Training, Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human he
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Norment, H. G.
1980-01-01
Calculations can be performed for any atmospheric conditions and for all water drop sizes, from the smallest cloud droplet to large raindrops. Any subsonic, external, non-lifting flow can be accommodated; flow into, but not through, inlets also can be simulated. Experimental water drop drag relations are used in the water drop equations of motion and effects of gravity settling are included. Seven codes are described: (1) a code used to debug and plot body surface description data; (2) a code that processes the body surface data to yield the potential flow field; (3) a code that computes flow velocities at arrays of points in space; (4) a code that computes water drop trajectories from an array of points in space; (5) a code that computes water drop trajectories and fluxes to arbitrary target points; (6) a code that computes water drop trajectories tangent to the body; and (7) a code that produces stereo pair plots which include both the body and trajectories. Code descriptions include operating instructions, card inputs and printouts for example problems, and listing of the FORTRAN codes. Accuracy of the calculations is discussed, and trajectory calculation results are compared with prior calculations and with experimental data.
Microwave-assisted arbitrary optical-pulse generation in a thermal vapor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rajitha K., V.; Dey, Tarak N.
2016-11-01
The propagation of a weak optical field through an atomic system in closed Λ configuration is investigated in which the hyperfine levels are coupled by a microwave pulse. Under the three-photon resonance condition, it is observed that a new pulse of the shape of a microwave field is generated at the probe transition while the input probe is absorbed. The generated probe pulse follows the temporal position of the microwave pulse and maintains shape through the propagation. A simple propagation equation for the probe field in the Fourier domain has been employed to study this effect. This shape preservation of the probe pulse is due to the ground state coherence of the hyperfine transitions induced by the weaker intensity of the microwave field. The generation of an arbitrary shaped probe pulse is also possible at comparable strength of control and microwave fields. The intensity and detuning of the microwave field can play an important role to control probe pulse properties such as gain, broadening, and preservation of shape. The mechanism of efficient generation and manipulation of an optical pulse may have important applications in information science and optical communications.
Power Scaling of Uplink Massive MIMO Systems With Arbitrary-Rank Channel Means
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Qi; Jin, Shi; Wong, Kai-Kit; Zhu, Hongbo; Matthaiou, Michail
2014-10-01
This paper investigates the uplink achievable rates of massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) antenna systems in Ricean fading channels, using maximal-ratio combining (MRC) and zero-forcing (ZF) receivers, assuming perfect and imperfect channel state information (CSI). In contrast to previous relevant works, the fast fading MIMO channel matrix is assumed to have an arbitrary-rank deterministic component as well as a Rayleigh-distributed random component. We derive tractable expressions for the achievable uplink rate in the large-antenna limit, along with approximating results that hold for any finite number of antennas. Based on these analytical results, we obtain the scaling law that the users' transmit power should satisfy, while maintaining a desirable quality of service. In particular, it is found that regardless of the Ricean $K$-factor, in the case of perfect CSI, the approximations converge to the same constant value as the exact results, as the number of base station antennas, $M$, grows large, while the transmit power of each user can be scaled down proportionally to $1/M$. If CSI is estimated with uncertainty, the same result holds true but only when the Ricean $K$-factor is non-zero. Otherwise, if the channel experiences Rayleigh fading, we can only cut the transmit power of each user proportionally to $1/\\sqrt M$. In addition, we show that with an increasing Ricean $K$-factor, the uplink rates will converge to fixed values for both MRC and ZF receivers.
Synaptic input to vasopressin neurons of the paraventricular nucleus (PVN)
Silverman, A.J.; Oldfield, B.J.
1984-01-01
Following injections of horseradish peroxidase into the PVN, retrogradely filled cells were found in regions of the limbic system known to contain glucocorticoid concentrating neurons. To determine if these regions which include the lateral septum, medial amygdala and ventral subiculum have a monosynaptic input to vasopressin neurons the authors developed a double label ultrastructural technique to simultaneously visualize immunoreactive neuropeptide and anterogradely transported HRP. Following injections of tracer into all three of these regions, HRP labeled fibers were seen at the light microscopic level to form a halo in the perinuclear, cell poor zone around the PVN. Ultrastructural examination of this area resulted in the discovery of a small number of limbic system synapses on vasopressin dendrites. In a similar fashion they were interested in determining the distribution of noradrenergic terminals on vasopressin neurons in the various subnuclei of the PVN. The authors have combined immunocytochemistry for vasopressin with radioautography for /sup 3/H-norepinephrine (NE) at the ultrastructural level. NE terminals were numerous in the periventricular zone, innervating both vasopressin containing dendrites and non-immunoreactive dendrites and cell bodies. These studies demonstrate the need for ultrastructural analysis of synaptic input to neurosecretory cells.
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3D linear dispersion relation for arbitrary shear currents
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ellingsen, Simen; Smeltzer, Benjamin
2016-11-01
Dispesion properties of waves can be strongly affected by the presence of a sub-surface shear current. A number of approximation techniques exist to calculate dispersion properties of waves on shear currents, most relying on assumptions such as long wavelength, weak vorticity or near-potentiality. Another approach has been to approximate the shear current by a piecewise linear function, corresponding to dividing the fluid phase into a sequence of layers with constant vorticity in each layer. We discuss the practical implementation of this scheme in 3D for arbitrary wavelengths, and how how it may be applied to 3D linear surface waves problems where the full Fourier spectrum in the horizontal plane is required. Solutions to particular implementation challenges such as optimal choice of layer distribution and the nature and removal of spurious solutions are presented, as are several validation cases and tests of convergence. Applications to ring waves and ship waves are provided as examples. Norwegian Research Council (FRINATEK).
Anisotropic zero-index waveguide with arbitrary shapes
Luo, Jie; Lai, Yun
2014-01-01
We design a series of waveguides composed of uniform anisotropic epsilon-near-zero media. Unlike normal waveguides in which the transmission rate strongly depends on the width and the boundary shape, such waveguides can achieve high transmission with almost arbitrary width and boundary shapes, leading to applications such as unusual waveguides, wave expanders and compressors, splitters, bends, and devices with combined purposes. The physical origin of such high transmission can be explained by using transformation optics and the condition for total transmission is derived. Numerical simulations with multilayers consisting of dielectric and negative-permittivity materials proved our theory. Our work provides a unified physical picture for waveguide structures based on anisotropic epsilon-near-zero media. PMID:25070679
Block Hadamard measurement matrix with arbitrary dimension in compressed sensing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Shaoqiang; Yan, Xiaoyan; Fan, Xiaoping; Li, Fei; Xu, Wen
2017-01-01
As Hadamard measurement matrix cannot be used for compressing signals with dimension of a non-integral power-of-2, this paper proposes a construction method of block Hadamard measurement matrix with arbitrary dimension. According to the dimension N of signals to be measured, firstly, construct a set of Hadamard sub matrixes with different dimensions and make the sum of these dimensions equals to N. Then, arrange the Hadamard sub matrixes in a certain order to form a block diagonal matrix. Finally, take the former M rows of the block diagonal matrix as the measurement matrix. The proposed measurement matrix which retains the orthogonality of Hadamard matrix and sparsity of block diagonal matrix has highly sparse structure, simple hardware implements and general applicability. Simulation results show that the performance of our measurement matrix is better than Gaussian matrix, Logistic chaotic matrix, and Toeplitz matrix.
Universal Quantum Computing with Arbitrary Continuous-Variable Encoding.
Lau, Hoi-Kwan; Plenio, Martin B
2016-09-02
Implementing a qubit quantum computer in continuous-variable systems conventionally requires the engineering of specific interactions according to the encoding basis states. In this work, we present a unified formalism to conduct universal quantum computation with a fixed set of operations but arbitrary encoding. By storing a qubit in the parity of two or four qumodes, all computing processes can be implemented by basis state preparations, continuous-variable exponential-swap operations, and swap tests. Our formalism inherits the advantages that the quantum information is decoupled from collective noise, and logical qubits with different encodings can be brought to interact without decoding. We also propose a possible implementation of the required operations by using interactions that are available in a variety of continuous-variable systems. Our work separates the "hardware" problem of engineering quantum-computing-universal interactions, from the "software" problem of designing encodings for specific purposes. The development of quantum computer architecture could hence be simplified.
Gyrokinetic Theory for Arbitrary Wavelength Electromagnetic Modes in Tokamaks
Qin, H.; Rewoldt, G.; Tang, W.M.
1997-10-01
A linear gyrokinetic system for arbitrary wavelength electromagnetic modes is developed. A wide range of modes in inhomogeneous plasmas, such as the internal kink modes, the toroidal Alfvén eigenmode (TAE) modes, and the drift modes, can be recovered from this system. The inclusion of most of the interesting physical factors into a single framework enables us to look at many familiar modes simultaneously and thus to study the modifications of and the interactions between them in a systematic way. Especially, we are able to investigate self-consistently the kinetic MHD phenomena entirely from the kinetic side. Phase space Lagrangian Lie perturbation methods and a newly developed computer algebra package for vector analysis in general coordinate system are utilized in the analytical derivation. In tokamak geometries, a 2D finite element code has been developed and tested. In this paper, we present the basic theoretical formalism and some of the preliminary results.
Surface acoustic wave micromotor with arbitrary axis rotational capability
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tjeung, Ricky T.; Hughes, Mark S.; Yeo, Leslie Y.; Friend, James R.
2011-11-01
A surface acoustic wave (SAW) actuated rotary motor is reported here, consisting of a millimeter-sized spherical metal rotor placed on the surface of a lead zirconate titanate piezoelectric substrate upon which the SAW is made to propagate. At the design frequency of 3.2 MHz and with a fixed preload of 41.1 μN, the maximum rotational speed and torque achieved were approximately 1900 rpm and 5.37 μN-mm, respectively, producing a maximum output power of 1.19 μW. The surface vibrations were visualized using laser Doppler vibrometry and indicate that the rotational motion arises due to retrograde elliptical motions of the piezoelectric surface elements. Rotation about orthogonal axes in the plane of the substrate has been obtained by using orthogonally placed interdigital electrodes on the substrate to generate SAW impinging on the rotor, offering a means to generate rotation about an arbitrary axis in the plane of the substrate.
Laplace-Runge-Lenz vector for arbitrary spin
Nikitin, A. G.
2013-12-15
A countable set of superintegrable quantum mechanical systems is presented which admit the dynamical symmetry with respect to algebra so(4). This algebra is generated by the Laplace-Runge-Lenz vector generalized to the case of arbitrary spin. The presented systems describe neutral particles with non-trivial multipole momenta. Their spectra can be found algebraically like in the case of hydrogen atom. Solutions for the systems with spins 1/2 and 1 are presented explicitly, solutions for spin 3/2 can be expressed via solutions of an ordinary differential equation of first order. A more extended version of this paper including detailed calculations is published as an e-print arXiv:1308.4279.
Drop trapping in axisymmetric constrictions with arbitrary contact angle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ratcliffe, Thomas; Davis, Robert H.
2012-06-01
The differential Young-Laplace equations are solved numerically with an iterative solution using the method of steepest descent to determine the shape of a drop trapped under gravity in an axisymmetric ring constriction. Prior work for non-wetting drops with a contact angle of π is extended to arbitrary values of the contact angle at the three-phase contact lines. The critical Bond number, representing a dimensionless ratio of gravitational and interfacial forces, and separating static trapping at lower Bond numbers from dynamic squeezing at higher Bond numbers, decreases with decreasing contact angle, indicating that drop squeezing occurs more easily at smaller contact angle. Indeed, a critical contact angle, which depends only on the drop-to-hole and ring-cross-section-to-hole size ratios, is found, below which all drops squeeze through the hole.
Generalized massive gravity in arbitrary dimensions and its Hamiltonian formulation
Huang, Qing-Guo; Zhang, Ke-Chao; Zhou, Shuang-Yong E-mail: zkc@itp.ac.cn
2013-08-01
We extend the four-dimensional de Rham-Gabadadze-Tolley (dRGT) massive gravity model to a general scalar massive-tensor theory in arbitrary dimensions, coupling a dRGT massive graviton to multiple scalars and allowing for generic kinetic and mass matrix mixing between the massive graviton and the scalars, and derive its Hamiltonian formulation and associated constraint system. When passing to the Hamiltonian formulation, two different sectors arise: a general sector and a special sector. Although obtained via different ways, there are two second class constraints in either of the two sectors, eliminating the BD ghost. However, for the special sector, there are still ghost instabilities except for the case of two dimensions. In particular, for the special sector with one scalar, there is a ''second BD ghost''.
Three-loop vacuum integrals with arbitrary masses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Freitas, Ayres
2016-11-01
Three-loop vacuum integrals are an important building block for the calculation of a wide range of three-loop corrections. Until now, analytical results for integrals with only one and two independent mass scales are known, but in the electroweak Standard Model and many extensions thereof, one often encounters more mass scales of comparable magnitude. For this reason, a numerical approach for the evaluation of three-loop vacuum integrals with arbitrary mass pattern is proposed here. Concretely, one can identify a basic set of three master integral topologies. With the help of dispersion relations, each of these can be transformed into one-dimensional or, for the most complicated case, two-dimensional integrals in terms of elementary functions, which are suitable for efficient numerical integration.
Photoacoustic microscopy of a three-dimensional arbitrary trajectory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yeh, Chenghung; Soetikno, Brian; Hu, Song; Maslov, Konstantin I.; Wang, Lihong V.
2014-03-01
We have developed three-dimensional arbitrary trajectory (3-DAT) scanning, which can rapidly image vessels of interest over a large field of view (FOV) and maintain a high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) along the depth direction. The concept of 3-DAT scanning was demonstrated by imaging a human hair within a FOV of 3.5 × 2.0 mm2. Further, we showed that hemoglobin oxygen saturation (sO2) and blood flow can be measured simultaneously. The frame rate was 67 times faster than a traditional two-dimensional raster scan. We also observed sO2 dynamics in response to a switch between systemic hyperoxia and hypoxia.
Simulation of sound propagation over porous barriers of arbitrary shapes.
Ke, Guoyi; Zheng, Z C
2015-01-01
A time-domain solver using an immersed boundary method is investigated for simulating sound propagation over porous and rigid barriers of arbitrary shapes. In this study, acoustic propagation in the air from an impulse source over the ground is considered as a model problem. The linearized Euler equations are solved for sound propagation in the air and the Zwikker-Kosten equations for propagation in barriers as well as in the ground. In comparison to the analytical solutions, the numerical scheme is validated for the cases of a single rigid barrier with different shapes and for two rigid triangular barriers. Sound propagations around barriers with different porous materials are then simulated and discussed. The results show that the simulation is able to capture the sound propagation behaviors accurately around both rigid and porous barriers.
Program manual for ASTOP, an Arbitrary space trajectory optimization program
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Horsewood, J. L.
1974-01-01
The ASTOP program (an Arbitrary Space Trajectory Optimization Program) designed to generate optimum low-thrust trajectories in an N-body field while satisfying selected hardware and operational constraints is presented. The trajectory is divided into a number of segments or arcs over which the control is held constant. This constant control over each arc is optimized using a parameter optimization scheme based on gradient techniques. A modified Encke formulation of the equations of motion is employed. The program provides a wide range of constraint, end conditions, and performance index options. The basic approach is conducive to future expansion of features such as the incorporation of new constraints and the addition of new end conditions.
Efficient scheme for parametric fitting of data in arbitrary dimensions.
Pang, Ning-Ning; Tzeng, Wen-Jer; Kao, Hisen-Ching
2008-07-01
We propose an efficient scheme for parametric fitting expressed in terms of the Legendre polynomials. For continuous systems, our scheme is exact and the derived explicit expression is very helpful for further analytical studies. For discrete systems, our scheme is almost as accurate as the method of singular value decomposition. Through a few numerical examples, we show that our algorithm costs much less CPU time and memory space than the method of singular value decomposition. Thus, our algorithm is very suitable for a large amount of data fitting. In addition, the proposed scheme can also be used to extract the global structure of fluctuating systems. We then derive the exact relation between the correlation function and the detrended variance function of fluctuating systems in arbitrary dimensions and give a general scaling analysis.
Generating arbitrary ultrasound fields with tailored optoacoustic surface profiles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brown, M. D.; Nikitichev, D. I.; Treeby, B. E.; Cox, B. T.
2017-02-01
Acoustic fields with multiple foci have many applications in physical acoustics ranging from particle manipulation to neural modulation. However, the generation of multiple foci at arbitrary locations in three-dimensional is challenging using conventional transducer technology. In this work, the optical generation of acoustic fields focused at multiple points using a single optical pulse is demonstrated. This is achieved using optically absorbing surface profiles designed to generate specific, user-defined, wavefields. An optimisation approach for the design of these tailored surface profiles is developed. This searches for a smoothly varying surface that will generate a high peak pressure at a set of target focal points. The designed surface profiles are then realised via a combination of additive manufacturing and absorber deposition techniques. Acoustic field measurements from a sample designed to generate the numeral "7" are used to demonstrate the design method.
Optimizing apparent display resolution enhancement for arbitrary videos.
Stengel, Michael; Eisemann, Martin; Wenger, Stephan; Hell, Benjamin; Magnor, Marcus
2013-09-01
Display resolution is frequently exceeded by available image resolution. Recently, apparent display resolution enhancement (ADRE) techniques show how characteristics of the human visual system can be exploited to provide super-resolution on high refresh rate displays. In this paper, we address the problem of generalizing the ADRE technique to conventional videos of arbitrary content. We propose an optimization-based approach to continuously translate the video frames in such a way that the added motion enables apparent resolution enhancement for the salient image region. The optimization considers the optimal velocity, smoothness, and similarity to compute an appropriate trajectory. In addition, we provide an intuitive user interface that allows to guide the algorithm interactively and preserves important compositions within the video. We present a user study evaluating apparent rendering quality and show versatility of our method on a variety of general test scenes.
Magnetic and electric black holes in arbitrary dimensions
Belhaj, Adil; Diaz, Pablo; Segui, Antonio
2009-08-15
In this work, we compare two different objects: electric black holes and magnetic black holes in arbitrary dimension. The comparison is made in terms of the corresponding moduli space and their extremal geometries. We treat parallelly the magnetic and the electric cases. Specifically, we discuss the gravitational solution of these spherically symmetric objects in the presence of a positive cosmological constant. Then, we find the bounded region of the moduli space allowing the existence of black holes. After identifying it in both the electric and the magnetic case, we calculate the geometry that comes out between the horizons at the coalescence points. Although the electric and magnetic cases are both very different (only dual in four dimensions), gravity solutions seem to clear up most of the differences and lead to very similar geometries.
Calculating fusion neutron energy spectra from arbitrary reactant distributions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eriksson, J.; Conroy, S.; Andersson Sundén, E.; Hellesen, C.
2016-02-01
The Directional Relativistic Spectrum Simulator (DRESS) code can perform Monte-Carlo calculations of reaction product spectra from arbitrary reactant distributions, using fully relativistic kinematics. The code is set up to calculate energy spectra from neutrons and alpha particles produced in the D(d, n)3He and T(d, n)4He fusion reactions, but any two-body reaction can be simulated by including the corresponding cross section. The code has been thoroughly tested. The kinematics calculations have been benchmarked against the kinematics module of the ROOT Data Analysis Framework. Calculated neutron energy spectra have been validated against tabulated fusion reactivities and against an exact analytical expression for the thermonuclear fusion neutron spectrum, with good agreement. The DRESS code will be used as the core of a detailed synthetic diagnostic framework for neutron measurements at the JET and MAST tokamaks.
Falcon: automated optimization method for arbitrary assessment criteria
Yang, Tser-Yuan; Moses, Edward I.; Hartmann-Siantar, Christine
2001-01-01
FALCON is a method for automatic multivariable optimization for arbitrary assessment criteria that can be applied to numerous fields where outcome simulation is combined with optimization and assessment criteria. A specific implementation of FALCON is for automatic radiation therapy treatment planning. In this application, FALCON implements dose calculations into the planning process and optimizes available beam delivery modifier parameters to determine the treatment plan that best meets clinical decision-making criteria. FALCON is described in the context of the optimization of external-beam radiation therapy and intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), but the concepts could also be applied to internal (brachytherapy) radiotherapy. The radiation beams could consist of photons or any charged or uncharged particles. The concept of optimizing source distributions can be applied to complex radiography (e.g. flash x-ray or proton) to improve the imaging capabilities of facilities proposed for science-based stockpile stewardship.
Universal Quantum Computing with Arbitrary Continuous-Variable Encoding
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lau, Hoi-Kwan; Plenio, Martin B.
2016-09-01
Implementing a qubit quantum computer in continuous-variable systems conventionally requires the engineering of specific interactions according to the encoding basis states. In this work, we present a unified formalism to conduct universal quantum computation with a fixed set of operations but arbitrary encoding. By storing a qubit in the parity of two or four qumodes, all computing processes can be implemented by basis state preparations, continuous-variable exponential-swap operations, and swap tests. Our formalism inherits the advantages that the quantum information is decoupled from collective noise, and logical qubits with different encodings can be brought to interact without decoding. We also propose a possible implementation of the required operations by using interactions that are available in a variety of continuous-variable systems. Our work separates the "hardware" problem of engineering quantum-computing-universal interactions, from the "software" problem of designing encodings for specific purposes. The development of quantum computer architecture could hence be simplified.
Sliding down an arbitrary curve in the presence of friction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
González-Cataldo, Felipe; Gutiérrez, Gonzalo; Yáñez, Julio M.
2017-02-01
The motion of a block sliding on a curve is a well studied problem for flat and circular surfaces, but the necessary conditions for the block to leave the surface deserve a deeper treatment. In this article, we generalize this problem to an arbitrary surface, including the effects of friction, and provide a general expression to determine under what conditions a particle will leave the surface. An explicit integral form for the speed is given, which is analytically integrable for some cases. We demonstrate general criteria to determine the critical speed at which the particle immediately leaves the surface. Three curves, a circle, a cycloid, and a catenary, are analyzed in detail, revealing several interesting features.
Broadband computation of the scattering coefficients of infinite arbitrary cylinders.
Blanchard, Cédric; Guizal, Brahim; Felbacq, Didier
2012-07-01
We employ a time-domain method to compute the near field on a contour enclosing infinitely long cylinders of arbitrary cross section and constitution. We therefore recover the cylindrical Hankel coefficients of the expansion of the field outside the circumscribed circle of the structure. The recovered coefficients enable the wideband analysis of complex systems, e.g., the determination of the radar cross section becomes straightforward. The prescription for constructing such a numerical tool is provided in great detail. The method is validated by computing the scattering coefficients for a homogeneous circular cylinder illuminated by a plane wave, a problem for which an analytical solution exists. Finally, some radiation properties of an optical antenna are examined by employing the proposed technique.
Method of preparing mercury with an arbitrary isotopic distribution
Grossman, M.W.; George, W.A.
1986-12-16
This invention provides for a process for preparing mercury with a predetermined, arbitrary, isotopic distribution. In one embodiment, different isotopic types of Hg[sub 2]Cl[sub 2], corresponding to the predetermined isotopic distribution of Hg desired, are placed in an electrolyte solution of HCl and H[sub 2]O. The resulting mercurous ions are then electrolytically plated onto a cathode wire producing mercury containing the predetermined isotopic distribution. In a similar fashion, Hg with a predetermined isotopic distribution is obtained from different isotopic types of HgO. In this embodiment, the HgO is dissolved in an electrolytic solution of glacial acetic acid and H[sub 2]O. The isotopic specific Hg is then electrolytically plated onto a cathode and then recovered. 1 fig.
Method of preparing mercury with an arbitrary isotopic distribution
Grossman, Mark W.; George, William A.
1986-01-01
This invention provides for a process for preparing mercury with a predetermined, arbitrary, isotopic distribution. In one embodiment, different isotopic types of Hg.sub.2 Cl.sub.2, corresponding to the predetermined isotopic distribution of Hg desired, are placed in an electrolyte solution of HCl and H.sub.2 O. The resulting mercurous ions are then electrolytically plated onto a cathode wire producing mercury containing the predetermined isotopic distribution. In a similar fashion, Hg with a predetermined isotopic distribution is obtained from different isotopic types of HgO. In this embodiment, the HgO is dissolved in an electrolytic solution of glacial acetic acid and H.sub.2 O. The isotopic specific Hg is then electrolytically plated onto a cathode and then recovered.
Growth and stability of interacting surface flaws of arbitrary shape
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Murakami, Y.; Nemat-Nasser, S.
1983-01-01
Growth regimes of interacting surface flaws of arbitrary shape are analyzed with the aid of the body force method, and the stability of the process is assessed on the basis of the variation of the load during the growth. It is shown that irregularly shaped flaws are often associated with very high stress intensity factors locally, which tend to change as the flaws grow into more regular shapes. Several examples of various flaw shapes are worked out for illustration, and it is shown that a simple formula seems to provide an accurate estimate of the maximum stress intensity factor for surface flaws of various shapes, which are not very slender. The formula involves the overall maximum tension, as well as the area of the projection of the flaw on the plane normal to the maximum tension.
Capacity of arbitrary-order orbital angular momentum multiplexing system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Yaqin; Zhong, Xin; Ren, Guanghui; He, Shengyang; Wu, Zhilu
2017-03-01
Arbitrary-order orbital angular momentum multiplexing (AOAMM) systems utilize OAM modes with both integer and fractional topological charges which are non-orthogonal. In this paper, the transmission matrix and the capacity per unit bandwidth, i.e., the spectral efficiency (SE) of an AOAMM system is derived based on the spatial cross correlations of the OAM submodes under different aperture conditions. The results show that in limited apertures, the SEs of AOAMM systems increase dramatically as the interval of two adjacent OAM submodes decreases by losing orthogonality. AOAMM systems are effective choices for satisfying the explosive growth of the communication requirements. This paper provides insight into the selection of spatially multiplexing approaches and the design of interference mitigation techniques for AOAMM systems with increased SEs.
Three-dimensional arbitrary trajectory scanning photoacoustic microscopy
Yeh, Chenghung; Soetikno, Brian; Hu, Song; Maslov, Konstantin I.; Wang, Lihong V.
2014-01-01
We have enhanced photoacoustic microscopy with three-dimensional arbitrary trajectory (3-DAT) scanning, which can rapidly image selected vessels over a large field of view (FOV) and maintain a high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) despite the depth variation of the vessels. We showed that hemoglobin oxygen saturation (sO2) and blood flow can be measured simultaneously in a mouse ear in vivo at a frame rate 67 times greater than that of a traditional two-dimensional raster scan. We also observed sO2 dynamics in response to switching from systemic hypoxia to hyperoxia. 3-DAT-scanning photoacoustic microscopy. Schematic diagram of the 3D scanning stage and method. PMID:25077689
Residual zonal flows in tokamaks and stellarators at arbitrary wavelengths
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Monreal, Pedro; Calvo, Iván; Sánchez, Edilberto; Parra, Félix I.; Bustos, Andrés; Könies, Axel; Kleiber, Ralf; Görler, Tobias
2016-04-01
In the linear collisionless limit, a zonal potential perturbation in a toroidal plasma relaxes, in general, to a non-zero residual value. Expressions for the residual value in tokamak and stellarator geometries, and for arbitrary wavelengths, are derived. These expressions involve averages over the lowest order particle trajectories, that typically cannot be evaluated analytically. In this work, an efficient numerical method for the evaluation of such expressions is reported. It is shown that this method is faster than direct gyrokinetic simulations performed with the Gene and EUTERPE codes. Calculations of the residual value in stellarators are provided for much shorter wavelengths than previously available in the literature. Electrons must be treated kinetically in stellarators because, unlike in tokamaks, kinetic electrons modify the residual value even at long wavelengths. This effect, that had already been predicted theoretically, is confirmed by gyrokinetic simulations.
Segregation of parallel inputs to the anteromedial and anteroventral thalamic nuclei of the rat.
Wright, Nicholas F; Vann, Seralynne D; Erichsen, Jonathan T; O'Mara, Shane M; Aggleton, John P
2013-09-01
Many brain structures project to both the anteroventral thalamic nucleus and the anteromedial thalamic nucleus. In the present study, pairs of different tracers were placed into these two thalamic sites in the same rats to determine the extent to which these nuclei receive segregated inputs. Only inputs from the laterodorsal tegmental nucleus, the principal extrinsic cholinergic source for these thalamic nuclei, showed a marked degree of collateralization, with approximately 13% of all cells labeled in this tegmental area projecting to both nuclei. Elsewhere, double-labeled cells were very scarce, making up ∼1% of all labeled cells. Three general patterns of anterior thalamic innervation were detected in these other areas. In some sites, e.g., prelimbic cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and secondary motor area, cells projecting to the anteromedial and anteroventral thalamic nuclei were closely intermingled, with often only subtle distribution differences. These same projections were also often intermingled with inputs to the mediodorsal thalamic nucleus, but again there was little or no collateralization. In other sites, e.g., the subiculum and retrosplenial cortex, there was often less overlap of cells projecting to the two anterior thalamic nuclei. A third pattern related to the dense inputs from the medial mammillary nucleus, where well-defined topographies ensured little intermingling of the neurons that innervate the two thalamic nuclei. The finding that a very small minority of cortical and limbic inputs bifurcates to innervate both anterior thalamic nuclei highlights the potential for parallel information streams to control their functions, despite arising from common regions.
Canopy Research Network seeks input
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
In July 1993, the Canopy Research Network was established with a 2-year planning grant from the National Science Foundation to bring together forest canopy researchers, quantitative scientists, and computer specialists to establish methods for collecting, storing, analyzing, interpreting, and displaying three-dimensional data that relate to tree crowns and forest canopies. The CRN is now soliciting input from scientists in other fields who may have developed techniques and software to help obtain answers to questions that concern the complex three-dimensional structure of tree crowns and forest canopies. Over the next 3 years, the CRN plans to compile an array of research questions and issues requiring information on canopy structure, examine useful information models and software tools already in use in allied fields, and develop conceptual models and recommendations for the types and format of information and analyses necessary to answer research questions posed by canopy researchers.
Generalizing Swendsen-Wang to sampling arbitrary posterior probabilities.
Barbu, Adrian; Zhu, Song-Chun
2005-08-01
Many vision tasks can be formulated as graph partition problems that minimize energy functions. For such problems, the Gibbs sampler provides a general solution but is very slow, while other methods, such as Ncut and graph cuts are computationally effective but only work for specific energy forms and are not generally applicable. In this paper, we present a new inference algorithm that generalizes the Swendsen-Wang method to arbitrary probabilities defined on graph partitions. We begin by computing graph edge weights, based on local image features. Then, the algorithm iterates two steps. 1) Graph clustering: It forms connected components by cutting the edges probabilistically based on their weights. 2) Graph relabeling: It selects one connected component and flips probabilistically, the coloring of all vertices in the component simultaneously. Thus, it realizes the split, merge, and regrouping of a "chunk" of the graph, in contrast to Gibbs sampler that flips a single vertex. We prove that this algorithm simulates ergodic and reversible Markov chain jumps in the space of graph partitions and is applicable to arbitrary posterior probabilities or energy functions defined on graphs. We demonstrate the algorithm on two typical problems in computer vision--image segmentation and stereo vision. Experimentally, we show that it is 100-400 times faster in CPU time than the classical Gibbs sampler and 20-40 times faster then the DDMCMC segmentation algorithm. For stereo, we compare performance with graph cuts and belief propagation. We also show that our algorithm can automatically infer generative models and obtain satisfactory results (better than the graphic cuts or belief propagation) in the same amount of time.
A reconstructed discontinuous Galerkin method for magnetohydrodynamics on arbitrary grids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karami Halashi, Behrouz; Luo, Hong
2016-12-01
A reconstructed discontinuous Galerkin (rDG) method, designed not only to enhance the accuracy of DG methods but also to ensure the nonlinear stability of the rDG method, is developed for solving the Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) equations on arbitrary grids. In this rDG(P1P2) method, a quadratic polynomial solution (P2) is first obtained using a Hermite Weighted Essentially Non-oscillatory (WENO) reconstruction from the underlying linear polynomial (P1) discontinuous Galerkin solution to ensure linear stability of the rDG method and to improves efficiency of the underlying DG method. By taking advantage of handily available and yet invaluable information, namely the first derivatives in the DG formulation, the stencils used in reconstruction involve only Von Neumann neighborhood (adjacent face-neighboring cells) and thus are compact. The first derivatives of the quadratic polynomial solution are then reconstructed using a WENO reconstruction in order to eliminate spurious oscillations in the vicinity of strong discontinuities, thus ensuring the nonlinear stability of the rDG method. The HLLD Riemann solver introduced in the literature for one-dimensional MHD problems is adopted in normal direction to compute numerical fluxes. The divergence free constraint is satisfied using the Locally Divergence Free (LDF) approach. The developed rDG method is used to compute a variety of 2D and 3D MHD problems on arbitrary grids to demonstrate its accuracy, robustness, and non-oscillatory property. Our numerical experiments indicate that the rDG(P1P2) method is able to capture shock waves sharply essentially without any spurious oscillations, and achieve the designed third-order of accuracy: one order accuracy higher than the underlying DG method.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Slatyer, Tracy R.
2016-01-01
Any injection of electromagnetically interacting particles during the cosmic dark ages will lead to increased ionization, heating, production of Lyman-α photons and distortions to the energy spectrum of the cosmic microwave background, with potentially observable consequences. In this paper we describe numerical results for the low-energy electrons and photons produced by the cooling of particles injected at energies from keV to multi-TeV scales, at arbitrary injection redshifts (but focusing on the post-recombination epoch). We use these data, combined with existing calculations modeling the cooling of these low-energy particles, to estimate the resulting contributions to ionization, excitation and heating of the gas, and production of low-energy photons below the threshold for excitation and ionization. We compute corrected deposition-efficiency curves for annihilating dark matter, and demonstrate how to compute equivalent curves for arbitrary energy-injection histories. These calculations provide the necessary inputs for the limits on dark matter annihilation presented in the accompanying paper I, but also have potential applications in the context of dark matter decay or deexcitation, decay of other metastable species, or similar energy injections from new physics. We make our full results publicly available at http://nebel.rc.fas.harvard.edu/epsilon, to facilitate further independent studies. In particular, we provide the full low-energy electron and photon spectra, to allow matching onto more detailed codes that describe the cooling of such particles at low energies.
Spuler, Martin
2015-08-01
A Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) allows to control a computer by brain activity only, without the need for muscle control. In this paper, we present an EEG-based BCI system based on code-modulated visual evoked potentials (c-VEPs) that enables the user to work with arbitrary Windows applications. Other BCI systems, like the P300 speller or BCI-based browsers, allow control of one dedicated application designed for use with a BCI. In contrast, the system presented in this paper does not consist of one dedicated application, but enables the user to control mouse cursor and keyboard input on the level of the operating system, thereby making it possible to use arbitrary applications. As the c-VEP BCI method was shown to enable very fast communication speeds (writing more than 20 error-free characters per minute), the presented system is the next step in replacing the traditional mouse and keyboard and enabling complete brain-based control of a computer.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wang, T. N. C.; Bell, T. F.
1972-01-01
A study is made of the input impedance Z of a small strip-loop antenna with arbitrary orientation in a cold collisionless uniform multicomponent magnetoplasma. Assuming a uniform current distribution, an integral expression for Z is derived which is valid for arbitrary values of driving frequency, plasma composition and density, loop orientation angle, and static magnetic field strength. The integral expression is evaluated numerically for the VLF/ELF range in a plasma modeled upon the inner magnetosphere. Approximate closed-form expressions for Z are also developed. It is found that the loop VLF/ELF input reactance is essentially identical to its free space self inductance. Also the loop radiation resistance is found to be a strong function of the loop orientation angle for frequencies near the lower-hybrid-resonance frequency or below the proton gyrofrequency.
Arbitrary nonlinearity is sufficient to represent all functions by neural networks - A theorem
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kreinovich, Vladik YA.
1991-01-01
It is proved that if we have neurons implementing arbitrary linear functions and a neuron implementing one (arbitrary but smooth) nonlinear function g(x), then for every continuous function f(x sub 1,..., x sub m) of arbitrarily many variables, and for arbitrary e above 0, we can construct a network that consists of g-neurons and linear neurons, and computes f with precision e.
Detection of Floating Inputs in Logic Circuits
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cash, B.; Thornton, M. G.
1984-01-01
Simple modification of oscilloscope probe allows easy detection of floating inputs or tristate outputs in digital-IC's. Oscilloscope probe easily modified with 1/4 W resistor and switch for detecting floating inputs in CMOS logic circuits.
Repositioning Recitation Input in College English Teaching
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Xu, Qing
2009-01-01
This paper tries to discuss how recitation input helps overcome the negative influences on the basis of second language acquisition theory and confirms the important role that recitation input plays in improving college students' oral and written English.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Maskew, B.
1982-01-01
VSAERO is a computer program used to predict the nonlinear aerodynamic characteristics of arbitrary three-dimensional configurations in subsonic flow. Nonlinear effects of vortex separation and vortex surface interaction are treated in an iterative wake-shape calculation procedure, while the effects of viscosity are treated in an iterative loop coupling potential-flow and integral boundary-layer calculations. The program employs a surface singularity panel method using quadrilateral panels on which doublet and source singularities are distributed in a piecewise constant form. This user's manual provides a brief overview of the mathematical model, instructions for configuration modeling and a description of the input and output data. A listing of a sample case is included.
Learning with imperfectly labeled patterns
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chittineni, C. B.
1979-01-01
The problem of learning in pattern recognition using imperfectly labeled patterns is considered. The performance of the Bayes and nearest neighbor classifiers with imperfect labels is discussed using a probabilistic model for the mislabeling of the training patterns. Schemes for training the classifier using both parametric and non parametric techniques are presented. Methods for the correction of imperfect labels were developed. To gain an understanding of the learning process, expressions are derived for success probability as a function of training time for a one dimensional increment error correction classifier with imperfect labels. Feature selection with imperfectly labeled patterns is described.
Flight Test Validation of Optimal Input Design and Comparison to Conventional Inputs
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morelli, Eugene A.
1997-01-01
A technique for designing optimal inputs for aerodynamic parameter estimation was flight tested on the F-18 High Angle of Attack Research Vehicle (HARV). Model parameter accuracies calculated from flight test data were compared on an equal basis for optimal input designs and conventional inputs at the same flight condition. In spite of errors in the a priori input design models and distortions of the input form by the feedback control system, the optimal inputs increased estimated parameter accuracies compared to conventional 3-2-1-1 and doublet inputs. In addition, the tests using optimal input designs demonstrated enhanced design flexibility, allowing the optimal input design technique to use a larger input amplitude to achieve further increases in estimated parameter accuracy without departing from the desired flight test condition. This work validated the analysis used to develop the optimal input designs, and demonstrated the feasibility and practical utility of the optimal input design technique.
Textual Enhancement of Input: Issues and Possibilities
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Han, ZhaoHong; Park, Eun Sung; Combs, Charles
2008-01-01
The input enhancement hypothesis proposed by Sharwood Smith (1991, 1993) has stimulated considerable research over the last 15 years. This article reviews the research on textual enhancement of input (TE), an area where the majority of input enhancement studies have aggregated. Methodological idiosyncrasies are the norm of this body of research.…
Input Devices for Young Handicapped Children.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Morris, Karen
The versatility of the computer can be expanded considerably for young handicapped children by using input devices other than the typewriter-style keyboard. Input devices appropriate for young children can be classified into four categories: alternative keyboards, contact switches, speech input devices, and cursor control devices. Described are…
Input filter compensation for switching regulators
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, F. C.
1984-01-01
Problems caused by input filter interaction and conventional input filter design techniques are discussed. The concept of feedforward control is modeled with an input filter and a buck regulator. Experimental measurement and comparison to the analytical predictions is carried out. Transient response and the use of a feedforward loop to stabilize the regulator system is described. Other possible applications for feedforward control are included.
The generation of arbitrary order, non-classical, Gauss-type quadrature for transport applications
Spence, Peter J.
2015-09-01
A method is presented, based upon the Stieltjes method (1884), for the determination of non-classical Gauss-type quadrature rules, and the associated sets of abscissae and weights. The method is then used to generate a number of quadrature sets, to arbitrary order, which are primarily aimed at deterministic transport calculations. The quadrature rules and sets detailed include arbitrary order reproductions of those presented by Abu-Shumays in [4,8] (known as the QR sets, but labelled QRA here), in addition to a number of new rules and associated sets; these are generated in a similar way, and we label them the QRS quadrature sets. The method presented here shifts the inherent difficulty (encountered by Abu-Shumays) associated with solving the non-linear moment equations, particular to the required quadrature rule, to one of the determination of non-classical weight functions and the subsequent calculation of various associated inner products. Once a quadrature rule has been written in a standard form, with an associated weight function having been identified, the calculation of the required inner products is achieved using specific variable transformations, in addition to the use of rapid, highly accurate quadrature suited to this purpose. The associated non-classical Gauss quadrature sets can then be determined, and this can be done to any order very rapidly. In this paper, instead of listing weights and abscissae for the different quadrature sets detailed (of which there are a number), the MATLAB code written to generate them is included as Appendix D. The accuracy and efficacy (in a transport setting) of the quadrature sets presented is not tested in this paper (although the accuracy of the QRA quadrature sets has been studied in [12,13]), but comparisons to tabulated results listed in [8] are made. When comparisons are made with one of the azimuthal QRA sets detailed in [8], the inherent difficulty in the method of generation, used there, becomes apparent
Nitrogen Inputs via Nitrogen Fixation in Northern Plants and Soils
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thorp, N. R.; Wieder, R. K.; Vile, M. A.
2015-12-01
Dominated by cold and often acidic water logged environments, mineralization of organic matter is slow in the majority of northern ecosystems. Measures of extractable ammonium and nitrate are generally low and can be undetectable in peat pore waters. Despite this apparent nitrogen limitation, many of these environments produce deep deposits of soil organic matter. Biological nitrogen fixation carried out by autotrophic and heterotrophic diazotrophs associated with cryptograms provides the majority of known nitrogen inputs in these northern ecosystems. Nitrogen fixation was assessed in a variety of northern soils within rhizospheres of dominant plant communities. We investigated the availability of this newly fixed nitrogen to the vascular plant community in nitrogen limited northern plant communities. We tracked nitrogen flow from 15N2 gas fixed in Sphagnum mosses into tissues of two native vascular plant species, boreal cranberry (Vaccinium oxycoccus) and black spruce (Picea mariana). 15N-labeled Sphagnum microcosms were grown within variable mesh size exclusion/inclusion fabrics in a nitrogen addition experiment in situ in order to investigate the role of mycorrhizal fungi in the uptake of newly fixed nitrogen. Up to 24% of daily fixed 15N label was transferred to vascular plant tissues during 2 months. Nitrogen addition resulted in decreased N2 fixation rates; however, with higher nitrogen availability there was a higher rate of 15N label uptake into the vascular plants, likely the result of increased production of dissolved organic nitrogen. Reliance on mycorrhizal networks for nitrogen acquisition was indicated by nitrogen isotope fractionation patterns. Moreover, N2 fixation activities in mosses were stimulated when vascular plants were grown in moss microcosms versus "moss only" treatments. Results indicate that bog vascular plants may derive considerable nitrogen from atmospheric N2 biologically fixed within Sphagnum mosses. This work demonstrates that
Biogenic inputs to ocean mixing.
Katija, Kakani
2012-03-15
Recent studies have evoked heated debate about whether biologically generated (or biogenic) fluid disturbances affect mixing in the ocean. Estimates of biogenic inputs have shown that their contribution to ocean mixing is of the same order as winds and tides. Although these estimates are intriguing, further study using theoretical, numerical and experimental techniques is required to obtain conclusive evidence of biogenic mixing in the ocean. Biogenic ocean mixing is a complex problem that requires detailed understanding of: (1) marine organism behavior and characteristics (i.e. swimming dynamics, abundance and migratory behavior), (2) mechanisms utilized by swimming animals that have the ability to mix stratified fluids (i.e. turbulence and fluid drift) and (3) knowledge of the physical environment to isolate contributions of marine organisms from other sources of mixing. In addition to summarizing prior work addressing the points above, observations on the effect of animal swimming mode and body morphology on biogenic fluid transport will also be presented. It is argued that to inform the debate on whether biogenic mixing can contribute to ocean mixing, our studies should focus on diel vertical migrators that traverse stratified waters of the upper pycnocline. Based on our understanding of mixing mechanisms, body morphologies, swimming modes and body orientation, combined with our knowledge of vertically migrating populations of animals, it is likely that copepods, krill and some species of gelatinous zooplankton and fish have the potential to be strong sources of biogenic mixing.
Supplementing national menu labeling.
Hodge, James G; White, Lexi C
2012-12-01
The US Food and Drug Administration's forthcoming national menu labeling regulations are designed to help curb the national obesity epidemic by requiring calorie counts on restaurants' menus. However, posted calories can be easily ignored or misunderstood by consumers and fail to accurately describe the healthiness of foods. We propose supplemental models that include nutritional information (e.g., fat, salt, sugar) or specific guidance (e.g., "heart-healthy" graphics). The goal is to empower restaurant patrons with better data to make healthier choices, and ultimately to reduce obesity prevalence.
PREVIMER : Meteorological inputs and outputs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ravenel, H.; Lecornu, F.; Kerléguer, L.
2009-09-01
PREVIMER is a pre-operational system aiming to provide a wide range of users, from private individuals to professionals, with short-term forecasts about the coastal environment along the French coastlines bordering the English Channel, the Atlantic Ocean, and the Mediterranean Sea. Observation data and digital modelling tools first provide 48-hour (probably 96-hour by summer 2009) forecasts of sea states, currents, sea water levels and temperatures. The follow-up of an increasing number of biological parameters will, in time, complete this overview of coastal environment. Working in partnership with the French Naval Hydrographic and Oceanographic Service (Service Hydrographique et Océanographique de la Marine, SHOM), the French National Weather Service (Météo-France), the French public science and technology research institute (Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, IRD), the European Institute of Marine Studies (Institut Universitaire Européen de la Mer, IUEM) and many others, IFREMER (the French public institute fo marine research) is supplying the technologies needed to ensure this pertinent information, available daily on Internet at http://www.previmer.org, and stored at the Operational Coastal Oceanographic Data Centre. Since 2006, PREVIMER publishes the results of demonstrators assigned to limited geographic areas and to specific applications. This system remains experimental. The following topics are covered : Hydrodynamic circulation, sea states, follow-up of passive tracers, conservative or non-conservative (specifically of microbiological origin), biogeochemical state, primary production. Lastly, PREVIMER provides researchers and R&D departments with modelling tools and access to the database, in which the observation data and the modelling results are stored, to undertake environmental studies on new sites. The communication will focus on meteorological inputs to and outputs from PREVIMER. It will draw the lessons from almost 3 years during
Turn customer input into innovation.
Ulwick, Anthony W
2002-01-01
It's difficult to find a company these days that doesn't strive to be customer-driven. Too bad, then, that most companies go about the process of listening to customers all wrong--so wrong, in fact, that they undermine innovation and, ultimately, the bottom line. What usually happens is this: Companies ask their customers what they want. Customers offer solutions in the form of products or services. Companies then deliver these tangibles, and customers just don't buy. The reason is simple--customers aren't expert or informed enough to come up with solutions. That's what your R&D team is for. Rather, customers should be asked only for outcomes--what they want a new product or service to do for them. The form the solutions take should be up to you, and you alone. Using Cordis Corporation as an example, this article describes, in fine detail, a series of effective steps for capturing, analyzing, and utilizing customer input. First come indepth interviews, in which a moderator works with customers to deconstruct a process or activity in order to unearth "desired outcomes." Addressing participants' comments one at a time, the moderator rephrases them to be both unambiguous and measurable. Once the interviews are complete, researchers then compile a comprehensive list of outcomes that participants rank in order of importance and degree to which they are satisfied by existing products. Finally, using a simple mathematical formula called the "opportunity calculation," researchers can learn the relative attractiveness of key opportunity areas. These data can be used to uncover opportunities for product development, to properly segment markets, and to conduct competitive analysis.
General description of circularly symmetric Bessel beams of arbitrary order
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Jia Jie; Wriedt, Thomas; Lock, James A.; Mädler, Lutz
2016-11-01
A general description of circularly symmetric Bessel beams of arbitrary order is derived in this paper. This is achieved by analyzing the relationship between different descriptions of polarized Bessel beams obtained using different approaches. It is shown that a class of circularly symmetric Davis Bessel beams derived using the Hertz vector potentials possesses the same general functional dependence as the aplanatic Bessel beams generated using the angular spectrum representation (ASR). This result bridges the gap between different descriptions of Bessel beams and leads to a general description of circularly symmetric Bessel beams, such that the Davis Bessel beams and the aplanatic Bessel beams are merely the two simplest cases of an infinite number of possible circularly symmetric Bessel beams. Additionally, magnitude profiles of the electric and magnetic fields, the energy density and the Poynting vector are displayed for Bessel beams in both paraxial and nonparaxial cases. The results presented in this paper provide a fresh perspective on the description of Bessel beams and cast some insights into the light scattering and light-matter interactions problems in practice.
Simulation of Rutherford backscattering spectrometry from arbitrary atom structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, S.; Nordlund, K.; Djurabekova, F.; Zhang, Y.; Velisa, G.; Wang, T. S.
2016-10-01
Rutherford backscattering spectrometry in a channeling direction (RBS/C) is a powerful tool for analysis of the fraction of atoms displaced from their lattice positions. However, it is in many cases not straightforward to analyze what is the actual defect structure underlying the RBS/C signal. To reveal insights of RBS/C signals from arbitrarily complex defective atomic structures, we develop here a method for simulating the RBS/C spectrum from a set of arbitrary read-in atom coordinates (obtained, e.g., from molecular dynamics simulations). We apply the developed method to simulate the RBS/C signals from Ni crystal structures containing randomly displaced atoms, Frenkel point defects, and extended defects, respectively. The RBS/C simulations show that, even for the same number of atoms in defects, the RBS/C signal is much stronger for the extended defects. Comparison with experimental results shows that the disorder profile obtained from RBS/C signals in ion-irradiated Ni is due to a small fraction of extended defects rather than a large number of individual random atoms.
Kinetic model of the inner magnetosphere with arbitrary magnetic field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ilie, Raluca; Liemohn, Michael W.; Toth, Gabor; Skoug, Ruth M.
2012-04-01
Theoretical and numerical modifications to an inner magnetosphere model—Hot Electron Ion Drift Integrator (HEIDI)—were implemented, in order to accommodate for a nondipolar arbitrary magnetic field. While the dipolar solution for the geomagnetic field during quiet times represents a reasonable assumption in the near-Earth closed field region, during storm activity this assumption becomes invalid. HEIDI solves the time-dependent, gyration- and bounce-averaged kinetic equation for the phase space density of one or more ring current species. New equations are derived for the bounce-averaged coefficients for the distribution function, and their numerical implementation is discussed. Also, numerically solving all the bounce-averaged coefficients for the dipole case does not change the results significantly from the analytical approximation of Ejiri (1978). However, distorting the magnetic field changes all bounce-averaged coefficients that make up the kinetic equation. Initial simulations show that changing the magnetic field changes the whole topology of the ring current. This is because the drifts are altered due to dayside compression and nightside stretching of the field. Therefore, at certain locations, the nondipolar magnetic drifts can dominate the convective drifts, considerably altering the pressure distribution in the equatorial plane.
A multiprojection noncontact fluorescence tomography setup for imaging arbitrary geometries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meyer, H.; Garofalakis, A.; Zacharakis, G.; Economou, E. N.; Mamalaki, C.; Kioussis, D.; Ntziachristos, V.; Ripoll, J.
2005-04-01
Optical imaging and tomography in tissues can facilitate the quantitative study of several important chromophores and fluorophores in-vivo. Due to this fact, there has been great interest in developing imaging systems offering quantitative information on the location and concentration of chromophores and fluorescent probes. However, most imaging systems currently used in research make use of fiber technology for delivery and detection, which restricts the size of the photon collecting arrays leading to insufficient spatial sampling and field of view. To enable large data sets and full 360o angular measurements, we developed a novel imaging system that enables 3D imaging of fluorescent signals in bodies of arbitrary shapes in a non-contact geometry in combination with a 3D surface reconstruction algorithm. The system consists of a rotating subject holder and a lens coupled Charge Coupled Device (CCD) camera in combination with a fiber coupled laser scanning device. An Argon ion laser is used as the source and different filters are used for the detection of various fluorophores or fluorescing proteins. With this new setup a large measurements dataset can be achieved while the use of inversion models give a high capacity for quantitative 3D reconstruction of fluorochrome distributions as well as high spatial resolution. The system is currently being tested in the observation of the distribution of Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) expressing T-lymphocytes in order to study the function of the immune system in a murine model.
Analytical solutions for elastic binary nanotubes of arbitrary chirality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Lai; Guo, Wanlin
2016-12-01
Analytical solutions for the elastic properties of a variety of binary nanotubes with arbitrary chirality are obtained through the study of systematic molecular mechanics. This molecular mechanics model is first extended to chiral binary nanotubes by introducing an additional out-of-plane inversion term into the so-called stick-spiral model, which results from the polar bonds and the buckling of binary graphitic crystals. The closed-form expressions for the longitudinal and circumferential Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio of chiral binary nanotubes are derived as functions of the tube diameter. The obtained inversion force constants are negative for all types of binary nanotubes, and the predicted tube stiffness is lower than that by the former stick-spiral model without consideration of the inversion term, reflecting the softening effect of the buckling on the elastic properties of binary nanotubes. The obtained properties are shown to be comparable to available density functional theory calculated results and to be chirality and size sensitive. The developed model and explicit solutions provide a systematic understanding of the mechanical performance of binary nanotubes consisting of III-V and II-VI group elements.
Integrated photonic power divider with arbitrary power ratios.
Xu, Ke; Liu, Lu; Wen, Xiang; Sun, Wenzhao; Zhang, Nan; Yi, Ningbo; Sun, Shang; Xiao, Shumin; Song, Qinghai
2017-02-15
Integrated optical power splitters are one of the fundamental building blocks in photonic integrated circuits. Conventional multimode interferometer-based power splitters are widely used as they have reasonable footprints and are easy to fabricate. However, it is challenging to realize arbitrary split ratios, especially for multi-outputs. In this Letter, an ultra-compact power splitter with a QR code-like nanostructure is designed by a nonlinear fast search method. The highly functional structure is composed of a number of freely designed square pixels with the size of 120×120 nm which could be either dielectric or air. The light waves are scattered by a number of etched squares with optimized locations, and the scattered waves superimpose at the outputs with the desired power ratio. We demonstrate 1×2 splitters with 1:1, 1:2, and 1:3 split ratios, and a 1×3 splitter with the ratio of 1:2:1. The footprint for all the devices is only 3.6×3.6 μm. Well-controlled split ratios are measured for all the cases. The measured transmission efficiencies of all the splitters are close to 80% over 30 nm wavelength range.
The Casimir effect for fields with arbitrary spin
Stokes, Adam; Bennett, Robert
2015-09-15
The Casimir force arises when a quantum field is confined between objects that apply boundary conditions to it. In a recent paper we used the two-spinor calculus to derive boundary conditions applicable to fields with arbitrary spin in the presence of perfectly reflecting surfaces. Here we use these general boundary conditions to investigate the Casimir force between two parallel perfectly reflecting plates for fields up to spin-2. We use the two-spinor calculus formalism to present a unified calculation of well-known results for spin-1/2 (Dirac) and spin-1 (Maxwell) fields. We then use our unified framework to derive new results for the spin-3/2 and spin-2 fields, which turn out to be the same as those for spin-1/2 and spin-1. This is part of a broader conclusion that there are only two different Casimir forces for perfectly reflecting plates—one associated with fermions and the other with bosons.
ELECTRON COOLING SIMULATION FOR ARBITRARY DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRONS
SIDORIN,A.; SMIRNOV, A.; FEDOTOV, A.; BEN-ZVI, I.; KAYRAN, D.
2007-09-10
Typically, several approximations are being used in simulation of electron cooling process, for example, density distribution of electrons is calculated using an analytical expression and distribution in the velocity space is assumed to be Maxwellian in all degrees of freedom. However, in many applications, accurate description of the cooling process based on realistic distribution of electrons is very useful. This is especially true for a high-energy electron cooling system which requires bunched electron beam produced by an Energy Recovery Linac (Em). Such systems are proposed, for instance, for RHIC and electron - ion collider. To address unique features of the RHIC-I1 cooler, new algorithms were introduced in BETACOOL code which allow us to take into account local properties of electron distribution as well as calculate friction force for an arbitrary velocity distribution. Here, we describe these new numerical models. Results based on these numerical models are compared with typical approximations using electron distribution produced by simulations of electron bunch through ERL of RHIC-II cooler.
Discretized Abelian Chern-Simons gauge theory on arbitrary graphs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Kai; Kumar, Krishna; Fradkin, Eduardo
2015-09-01
In this paper, we show how to discretize the Abelian Chern-Simons gauge theory on generic planar lattices/graphs (with or without translational symmetries) embedded in arbitrary two-dimensional closed orientable manifolds. We find that, as long as a one-to-one correspondence between vertices and faces can be defined on the graph such that each face is paired up with a neighboring vertex (and vice versa), a discretized Abelian Chern-Simons theory can be constructed consistently. We further verify that all the essential properties of the Chern-Simons gauge theory are preserved in the discretized setup. In addition, we find that the existence of such a one-to-one correspondence is not only a sufficient condition for discretizing a Chern-Simons gauge theory but, for the discretized theory to be nonsingular and to preserve some key properties of the topological field theory, this correspondence is also a necessary one. A specific example will then be provided, in which we discretize the Abelian Chern-Simons gauge theory on a tetrahedron.
Nonlocal electron transport in magnetized plasmas with arbitrary atomic number
Bennaceur-Doumaz, D.; Bendib, A.
2006-09-15
The numerical solution of the steady-state electron Fokker-Planck equation perturbed with respect to a global equilibrium is presented in magnetized plasmas with arbitrary atomic number Z. The magnetic field is assumed to be constant and the electron-electron collisions are described by the Landau collision operator. The solution is derived in the Fourier space and in the framework of the diffusive approximation which captures the spatial nonlocal effects. The transport coefficients are deduced and used to close a complete set of nonlocal electron fluid equations. This work improves the results of A. Bendib et al. [Phys. Plasmas 9, 1555 (2002)] and of A. V. Brantov et al. [Phys. Plasmas 10, 4633 (2003)] restricted to the local and nonlocal high-Z plasma approximations, respectively. The influence of the magnetic field on the nonlocal effects is discussed. We propose also accurate numerical fits of the relevant transport coefficients with respect to the collisionality parameter {lambda}{sub ei}/L and the atomic number Z, where L is the typical scale length and {lambda}{sub ei} is the electron-ion mean-free-path.
Brownian motion of a particle with arbitrary shape
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wajnryb, Eligiusz; Cichocki, Bogdan; Ekiel-Jezewska, Maria L.
2015-11-01
We consider a single Brownian particle of an arbitrary shape, in general non-axisymmetric. Starting from the Smoluchowski equation we develop a new formalism, which allows to determine the particle rotational and translational motion in a much simpler way as this which is based on the Euler angles and Wigner functions. Our approach makes use of the rotational matrix and irreducible tensors. The essential result of our presentation is that using our new formalism, we derive simple explicit analytical expressions for the cross-correlations of the Brownian translational and rotational displacements. The role of the particle mobility center is determined and discussed. No such formulas have been known yet - instead, numerical Brownian simulations have been extensively used. We compare our analytical results with low Reynolds number experiment and numerical simulations performed at the time scales comparable with the characteristic time of the rotational Brownian diffusion. E.W. and M.L.E.-J. are supported by the Polish National Science Centre under Grant No. 2012/05/B/ST8/ 03010.
Simulation of Rutherford backscattering spectrometry from arbitrary atom structures
Zhang, S.; Univ. of Helsinki; Nordlund, Kai; ...
2016-10-25
Rutherford backscattering spectrometry in a channeling direction (RBS/C) is a powerful tool for analysis of the fraction of atoms displaced from their lattice positions. However, it is in many cases not straightforward to analyze what is the actual defect structure underlying the RBS/C signal. To reveal insights of RBS/C signals from arbitrarily complex defective atomic structures, we develop in this paper a method for simulating the RBS/C spectrum from a set of arbitrary read-in atom coordinates (obtained, e.g., from molecular dynamics simulations). We apply the developed method to simulate the RBS/C signals from Ni crystal structures containing randomly displaced atoms,more » Frenkel point defects, and extended defects, respectively. The RBS/C simulations show that, even for the same number of atoms in defects, the RBS/C signal is much stronger for the extended defects. Finally, comparison with experimental results shows that the disorder profile obtained from RBS/C signals in ion-irradiated Ni is due to a small fraction of extended defects rather than a large number of individual random atoms.« less
Simulation of Rutherford backscattering spectrometry from arbitrary atom structures
Zhang, S.; Nordlund, Kai; Djurabekova, Flyura; Zhang, Yanwen; Velisa, Gihan; Wang, T. S.
2016-10-25
Rutherford backscattering spectrometry in a channeling direction (RBS/C) is a powerful tool for analysis of the fraction of atoms displaced from their lattice positions. However, it is in many cases not straightforward to analyze what is the actual defect structure underlying the RBS/C signal. To reveal insights of RBS/C signals from arbitrarily complex defective atomic structures, we develop in this paper a method for simulating the RBS/C spectrum from a set of arbitrary read-in atom coordinates (obtained, e.g., from molecular dynamics simulations). We apply the developed method to simulate the RBS/C signals from Ni crystal structures containing randomly displaced atoms, Frenkel point defects, and extended defects, respectively. The RBS/C simulations show that, even for the same number of atoms in defects, the RBS/C signal is much stronger for the extended defects. Finally, comparison with experimental results shows that the disorder profile obtained from RBS/C signals in ion-irradiated Ni is due to a small fraction of extended defects rather than a large number of individual random atoms.
Approaches to modeling of plasmas containing impurity at arbitrary concentration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tokar, Mikhail Z.
2016-02-01
A new approximate method to modeling of two-ion-species plasmas with arbitrary concentration of impurity is developed. It based on the usage of equations for the electron density and the ratio of the ion species densities as new dependent variables. In contrast to motion equations for the ion mass velocities used normally, those for the new variables have a singularity at the Debye sheath only, as in the case of a one species plasma. Computations for the most critical situations of weak and intermediate friction between species due to Coulomb collisions reproduce nearly perfectly the results got by solving the original equations, however within a calculation time reduced by a factor of 102-103. In the case of strong friction, where ions’ velocities are very close each other, the normal procedure does not converge at all, but the new one, being precise in this limit, operates very reliably. Calculations are done for conditions typical in the linear device PSI-2, with deuterium plasmas seeded by neon impurity. For fixed electron and ion temperatures a critical density of impurity atoms is found, at which the electron density grows without limits. Such a catastrophic behavior does not occur if the electron and ion heat balances are taken into account to calculate the temperature profiles self-consistently.
Quasilossless acoustic transmission in an arbitrary pathway of a network
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dai, Hongqing; Liu, Tingting; Xia, Baizhan; Yu, Dejie
2017-02-01
Acoustic metamaterials have exhibited extraordinary potential for manipulating the propagation of sound waves. To date, it has been a challenge to control the propagation of a sound wave through arbitrary pathways in a network. Here, we design a symmetry-breaking, cross-shaped metamaterial comprising Helmholtz resonant cells and a square column. The square column is eccentrically arranged. The sound wave can be transmitted in a quasilossless manner through the channels along the eccentric direction with compressed spaces, which breaks through the general transmission phenomenon. This exotic propagation characteristic is verified by the band structure and the mode of the metamaterial. Two acoustic networks, including a 2 ×2 network and an 8 ×8 network, demonstrate the quasilossless propagation of the sound wave along various arbitrarily shaped pathways, which include a Great Wall shape, a stairway shape, and a serpentine shape, by reconfiguring the eccentric directions. This ability opens up a new method for routing sound waves and exhibits promising applications ranging from acoustic communication to energy transmission.
Random graphs with arbitrary degree distributions and their applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Newman, M. E. J.; Strogatz, S. H.; Watts, D. J.
2001-08-01
Recent work on the structure of social networks and the internet has focused attention on graphs with distributions of vertex degree that are significantly different from the Poisson degree distributions that have been widely studied in the past. In this paper we develop in detail the theory of random graphs with arbitrary degree distributions. In addition to simple undirected, unipartite graphs, we examine the properties of directed and bipartite graphs. Among other results, we derive exact expressions for the position of the phase transition at which a giant component first forms, the mean component size, the size of the giant component if there is one, the mean number of vertices a certain distance away from a randomly chosen vertex, and the average vertex-vertex distance within a graph. We apply our theory to some real-world graphs, including the world-wide web and collaboration graphs of scientists and Fortune 1000 company directors. We demonstrate that in some cases random graphs with appropriate distributions of vertex degree predict with surprising accuracy the behavior of the real world, while in others there is a measurable discrepancy between theory and reality, perhaps indicating the presence of additional social structure in the network that is not captured by the random graph.
Extending Landauer's Bound from Bit Erasure to Arbitrary Computation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wolpert, David
Recent analyses have calculated the minimal thermodynamic work required to perform any computation π whose output is independent of its input, e.g., bit erasure. First I extend these analyses to calculate the work required even if the output of π depends on its input. Next I show that if a physical computer C implementing a computation π will be re-used, then the work required depends only on the dynamics of the logical variables under π, independent of the physical details of C. This establishes a formal identity between the thermodynamics of (re-usable) computers and theoretical computer science. To illustrate this identity, I prove that the minimal work required to compute a bit string σ on a (physical) Turing machine M is kB Tln (2) [ Kolmogorov complexity(σ) + log (Bernoulli measure of the set of strings that compute σ) + log(halting probability of M) ] . I also prove that uncertainty about the distribution over inputs to the computer increases the minimal work required to run the computer. I end by using these results to relate the free energy flux incident on an organism / robot / biosphere to the maximal amount of computation that the organism / robot / biosphere can do per unit time.
The solid angle (geometry factor) for a spherical surface source and an arbitrary detector aperture
Favorite, Jeffrey A.
2016-01-13
It is proven that the solid angle (or geometry factor, also called the geometrical efficiency) for a spherically symmetric outward-directed surface source with an arbitrary radius and polar angle distribution and an arbitrary detector aperture is equal to the solid angle for an isotropic point source located at the center of the spherical surface source and the same detector aperture.
Bottlenose dolphins can use learned vocal labels to address each other
King, Stephanie L.; Janik, Vincent M.
2013-01-01
In animal communication research, vocal labeling refers to incidents in which an animal consistently uses a specific acoustic signal when presented with a specific object or class of objects. Labeling with learned signals is a foundation of human language but is notably rare in nonhuman communication systems. In natural animal systems, labeling often occurs with signals that are not influenced by learning, such as in alarm and food calling. There is a suggestion, however, that some species use learned signals to label conspecific individuals in their own communication system when mimicking individually distinctive calls. Bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) are a promising animal for exploration in this area because they are capable of vocal production learning and can learn to use arbitrary signals to report the presence or absence of objects. Bottlenose dolphins develop their own unique identity signal, the signature whistle. This whistle encodes individual identity independently of voice features. The copying of signature whistles may therefore allow animals to label or address one another. Here, we show that wild bottlenose dolphins respond to hearing a copy of their own signature whistle by calling back. Animals did not respond to whistles that were not their own signature. This study provides compelling evidence that a dolphin’s learned identity signal is used as a label when addressing conspecifics. Bottlenose dolphins therefore appear to be unique as nonhuman mammals to use learned signals as individually specific labels for different social companions in their own natural communication system. PMID:23878217
Principles of protein labeling techniques.
Obermaier, Christian; Griebel, Anja; Westermeier, Reiner
2015-01-01
Protein labeling methods prior to separation and analysis have become indispensable approaches for proteomic profiling. Basically, three different types of tags are employed: stable isotopes, mass tags, and fluorophores. While proteins labeled with stable isotopes and mass tags are measured and differentiated by mass spectrometry, fluorescent labels are detected with fluorescence imagers. The major purposes for protein labeling are monitoring of biological processes, reliable quantification of compounds and specific detection of protein modifications and isoforms in multiplexed samples, enhancement of detection sensitivity, and simplification of detection workflows. Proteins can be labeled during cell growth by incorporation of amino acids containing different isotopes, or in biological fluids, cells or tissue samples by attaching specific groups to the ε-amino group of lysine, the N-terminus, or the cysteine residues. The principles and the modifications of the different labeling approaches on the protein level are described; benefits and shortcomings of the methods are discussed.
Optimizing connected component labeling algorithms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Kesheng; Otoo, Ekow; Shoshani, Arie
2005-04-01
This paper presents two new strategies that can be used to greatly improve the speed of connected component labeling algorithms. To assign a label to a new object, most connected component labeling algorithms use a scanning step that examines some of its neighbors. The first strategy exploits the dependencies among them to reduce the number of neighbors examined. When considering 8-connected components in a 2D image, this can reduce the number of neighbors examined from four to one in many cases. The second strategy uses an array to store the equivalence information among the labels. This replaces the pointer based rooted trees used to store the same equivalence information. It reduces the memory required and also produces consecutive final labels. Using an array instead of the pointer based rooted trees speeds up the connected component labeling algorithms by a factor of 5 ~ 100 in our tests on random binary images.
Label Ranking Algorithms: A Survey
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vembu, Shankar; Gärtner, Thomas
Label ranking is a complex prediction task where the goal is to map instances to a total order over a finite set of predefined labels. An interesting aspect of this problem is that it subsumes several supervised learning problems, such as multiclass prediction, multilabel classification, and hierarchical classification. Unsurprisingly, there exists a plethora of label ranking algorithms in the literature due, in part, to this versatile nature of the problem. In this paper, we survey these algorithms.
Labeling conventions in isoelectronic sequences
Maniak, S.T.; Curtis, L.J. )
1990-08-01
The isoelectronic exposition of atomic structure properties involves labeling ambiguities when more than one level of the same total angular momentum and parity is present, and an energy ordered labeling of these levels can lead to apparent isoelectronic discontinuities. For example, in the recent oscillator strength calculations for S-like ions by Saloman and Kim (Phys. Rev. A 38, 577 (1988)), abrupt changes in the rates were sometimes observed between one isoelectronic element and the next. We suggest an alternative labeling scheme that removes these discontinuities and produces a smooth isoelectronic variation. This alternative labeling offers advantages for data exposition and for semiempirical interpolation and extrapolation.
Automated Quantification of Arbitrary Arm-Segment Structure in Spiral Galaxies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Davis, Darren Robert
This thesis describes a system that, given approximately-centered images of spiral galaxies, produces quantitative descriptions of spiral galaxy structure without the need for per-image human input. This structure information consists of a list of spiral arm segments, each associated with a fitted logarithmic spiral arc and a pixel region. This list-of-arcs representation allows description of arbitrary spiral galaxy structure: the arms do not need to be symmetric, may have forks or bends, and, more generally, may be arranged in any manner with a consistent spiral-pattern center (non-merging galaxies have a sufficiently well-defined center). Such flexibility is important in order to accommodate the myriad structure variations observed in spiral galaxies. From the arcs produced from our method it is possible to calculate measures of spiral galaxy structure such as winding direction, winding tightness, arm counts, asymmetry, or other values of interest (including user-defined measures). In addition to providing information about the spiral arm "skeleton" of each galaxy, our method can enable analyses of brightness within individual spiral arms, since we provide the pixel regions associated with each spiral arm segment. For winding direction, arm tightness, and arm count, comparable information is available (to various extents) from previous efforts; to the extent that such information is available, we find strong correspondence with our output. We also characterize the changes to (and invariances in) our output as a function of modifications to important algorithm parameters. By enabling generation of extensive data about spiral galaxy structure from large-scale sky surveys, our method will enable new discoveries and tests regarding the nature of galaxies and the universe, and will facilitate subsequent work to automatically fit detailed brightness models of spiral galaxies.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chamberlain, D. M.; Elliot, J. L.
1997-01-01
We present a method for speeding up numerical calculations of a light curve for a stellar occultation by a planetary atmosphere with an arbitrary atmospheric model that has spherical symmetry. This improved speed makes least-squares fitting for model parameters practical. Our method takes as input several sets of values for the first two radial derivatives of the refractivity at different values of model parameters, and interpolates to obtain the light curve at intermediate values of one or more model parameters. It was developed for small occulting bodies such as Pluto and Triton, but is applicable to planets of all sizes. We also present the results of a series of tests showing that our method calculates light curves that are correct to an accuracy of 10(exp -4) of the unocculted stellar flux. The test benchmarks are (i) an atmosphere with a l/r dependence of temperature, which yields an analytic solution for the light curve, (ii) an atmosphere that produces an exponential refraction angle, and (iii) a small-planet isothermal model. With our method, least-squares fits to noiseless data also converge to values of parameters with fractional errors of no more than 10(exp -4), with the largest errors occurring in small planets. These errors are well below the precision of the best stellar occultation data available. Fits to noisy data had formal errors consistent with the level of synthetic noise added to the light curve. We conclude: (i) one should interpolate refractivity derivatives and then form light curves from the interpolated values, rather than interpolating the light curves themselves; (ii) for the most accuracy, one must specify the atmospheric model for radii many scale heights above half light; and (iii) for atmospheres with smoothly varying refractivity with altitude, light curves can be sampled as coarsely as two points per scale height.
A Role for Synaptic Input Distribution in a Dendritic Computation of Motion Direction in the Retina.
Vlasits, Anna L; Morrie, Ryan D; Tran-Van-Minh, Alexandra; Bleckert, Adam; Gainer, Christian F; DiGregorio, David A; Feller, Marla B
2016-03-16
The starburst amacrine cell in the mouse retina presents an opportunity to examine the precise role of sensory input location on neuronal computations. Using visual receptive field mapping, glutamate uncaging, two-photon Ca(2+) imaging, and genetic labeling of putative synapses, we identify a unique arrangement of excitatory inputs and neurotransmitter release sites on starburst amacrine cell dendrites: the excitatory input distribution is skewed away from the release sites. By comparing computational simulations with Ca(2+) transients recorded near release sites, we show that this anatomical arrangement of inputs and outputs supports a dendritic mechanism for computing motion direction. Direction-selective Ca(2+) transients persist in the presence of a GABA-A receptor antagonist, though the directional tuning is reduced. These results indicate a synergistic interaction between dendritic and circuit mechanisms for generating direction selectivity in the starburst amacrine cell.
Goodman, Mark M.; Shi, Bing Zhi; Keil, Robert N.
1999-03-30
Novel methods for positron emission tomography or single photon emission spectroscopy using tracer compounds having the structure: ##STR1## where X in .beta. configuration is phenyl, naphthyl; 2,3 or 4-iodophenyl; 2,3 or 4-(trimethylsilyl)phenyl; 3,4,5 or 6-iodonaphthyl; 3,4,5 or 6-(trimethylsilyl)naphthyl; 2,3 or 4-(trialkylstannyl)phenyl; or 3,4,5 or 6-(trialkylstannyl)napthyl Y in .beta. configuration is 2-fluoroethoxy, 3-fluoropropoxy, 4-fluorobutoxy, 2-fluorocyclopropoxy, 2 or 3-fluorocyclobutoxy, R,S 1'-fluoroisopropoxy, R 1'-fluoroisopropoxy, S 1'-fluoroisopropoxy, 1',3'-difluoroisopropoxy, R,S 1'-fluoroisobutoxy, R 1'-fluoroisobutoxy, S 1'-fluoroisobutoxy, R,S 4'-fluoroisobutoxy, R 4'-fluoroisobutoxy, S 4'-fluoroisobutoxy, or 1',1'-di(fluoromethyl)isobutoxy, The compounds bind dopamine transporter protein and can be labeled with .sup.18 F or .sup.123 I for imaging.
Electrodynamics with Lorentz-violating operators of arbitrary dimension
Kostelecky, V. Alan; Mewes, Matthew
2009-07-01
The behavior of photons in the presence of Lorentz and CPT violation is studied. Allowing for operators of arbitrary mass dimension, we classify all gauge-invariant Lorentz- and CPT-violating terms in the quadratic Lagrange density associated with the effective photon propagator. The covariant dispersion relation is obtained, and conditions for birefringence are discussed. We provide a complete characterization of the coefficients for Lorentz violation for all mass dimensions via a decomposition using spin-weighted spherical harmonics. The resulting nine independent sets of spherical coefficients control birefringence, dispersion, and anisotropy in the photon propagator. We discuss the restriction of the general theory to various special models, including among others the minimal standard-model extension, the isotropic limit, the case of vacuum propagation, the nonbirefringent limit, and the vacuum-orthogonal model. The transformation of the spherical coefficients for Lorentz violation between the laboratory frame and the standard Sun-centered frame is provided. We apply the results to various astrophysical observations and laboratory experiments. Astrophysical searches of relevance include studies of birefringence and of dispersion. We use polarimetric and dispersive data from gamma-ray bursts to set constraints on coefficients for Lorentz violation involving operators of dimensions four through nine, and we describe the mixing of polarizations induced by Lorentz and CPT violation in the cosmic-microwave background. Laboratory searches of interest include cavity experiments. We present the general theory for searches with cavities, derive the experiment-dependent factors for coefficients in the vacuum-orthogonal model, and predict the corresponding frequency shift for a circular-cylindrical cavity.
A Self-Stabilizing Synchronization Protocol for Arbitrary Digraphs
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Malekpour, Mahyar R.
2011-01-01
This paper presents a self-stabilizing distributed clock synchronization protocol in the absence of faults in the system. It is focused on the distributed clock synchronization of an arbitrary, non-partitioned digraph ranging from fully connected to 1-connected networks of nodes while allowing for differences in the network elements. This protocol does not rely on assumptions about the initial state of the system, other than the presence of at least one node, and no central clock or a centrally generated signal, pulse, or message is used. Nodes are anonymous, i.e., they do not have unique identities. There is no theoretical limit on the maximum number of participating nodes. The only constraint on the behavior of the node is that the interactions with other nodes are restricted to defined links and interfaces. This protocol deterministically converges within a time bound that is a linear function of the self-stabilization period. We present an outline of a deductive proof of the correctness of the protocol. A bounded model of the protocol was mechanically verified for a variety of topologies. Results of the mechanical proof of the correctness of the protocol are provided. The model checking results have verified the correctness of the protocol as they apply to the networks with unidirectional and bidirectional links. In addition, the results confirm the claims of determinism and linear convergence. As a result, we conjecture that the protocol solves the general case of this problem. We also present several variations of the protocol and discuss that this synchronization protocol is indeed an emergent system.
Spin filter for arbitrary spins by substrate engineering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pal, Biplab; Römer, Rudolf A.; Chakrabarti, Arunava
2016-08-01
We design spin filters for particles with potentially arbitrary spin S≤ft(=1/2,1,3/2,\\ldots \\right) using a one-dimensional periodic chain of magnetic atoms as a quantum device. Describing the system within a tight-binding formalism we present an analytical method to unravel the analogy between a one-dimensional magnetic chain and a multi-strand ladder network. This analogy is crucial, and is subsequently exploited to engineer gaps in the energy spectrum by an appropriate choice of the magnetic substrate. We obtain an exact correlation between the magnitude of the spin of the incoming beam of particles and the magnetic moment of the substrate atoms in the chain desired for opening up of a spectral gap. Results of spin polarized transport, calculated within a transfer matrix formalism, are presented for particles having half-integer as well as higher spin states. We find that the chain can be made to act as a quantum device which opens a transmission window only for selected spin components over certain ranges of the Fermi energy, blocking them in the remaining part of the spectrum. The results appear to be robust even when the choice of the substrate atoms deviates substantially from the ideal situation, as verified by extending the ideas to the case of a ‘spin spiral’. Interestingly, the spin spiral geometry, apart from exhibiting the filtering effect, is also seen to act as a device flipping spins—an effect that can be monitored by an interplay of the system size and the period of the spiral. Our scheme is applicable to ultracold quantum gases, and might inspire future experiments in this direction.
Massive graviton on arbitrary background: derivation, syzygies, applications
Bernard, Laura; Deffayet, Cédric; Strauss, Mikael von E-mail: deffayet@iap.fr
2015-06-01
We give the detailed derivation of the fully covariant form of the quadratic action and the derived linear equations of motion for a massive graviton in an arbitrary background metric (which were presented in arXiv:1410.8302 [hep-th]). Our starting point is the de Rham-Gabadadze-Tolley (dRGT) family of ghost free massive gravities and using a simple model of this family, we are able to express this action and these equations of motion in terms of a single metric in which the graviton propagates, hence removing in particular the need for a ''reference metric' which is present in the non perturbative formulation. We show further how 5 covariant constraints can be obtained including one which leads to the tracelessness of the graviton on flat space-time and removes the Boulware-Deser ghost. This last constraint involves powers and combinations of the curvature of the background metric. The 5 constraints are obtained for a background metric which is unconstrained, i.e. which does not have to obey the background field equations. We then apply these results to the case of Einstein space-times, where we show that the 5 constraints become trivial, and Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker space-times, for which we correct in particular some results that appeared elsewhere. To reach our results, we derive several non trivial identities, syzygies, involving the graviton fields, its derivatives and the background metric curvature. These identities have their own interest. We also discover that there exist backgrounds for which the dRGT equations cannot be unambiguously linearized.
Randomness and arbitrary coordination in the reactive ultimatum game
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
da Silva, Roberto; Valverde, Pablo; Lamb, Luis C.
2016-07-01
Darwin's theory of evolution - as introduced in game theory by Maynard Smith - is not the only important evolutionary aspect in an evolutionary dynamics, since complex interdependencies, competition, and growth should be modeled by, for example, reactive aspects. In the ultimatum game, the reciprocity and the fifty-fifty partition seems to be a deviation from rational behavior of the players under the light of Nash equilibrium. Such equilibrium emerges, for example, from the punishment of the responder who generally tends to refuse unfair proposals. In the iterated version of the game, the proposers are able to improve their proposals by adding a value thus making fairer proposals. Such evolutionary aspects are not properly Darwinian-motivated, but they are endowed with a fundamental aspect: they reflect their actions according to value of the offers. Recently, a reactive version of the ultimatum game where acceptance occurs with fixed probability was proposed. In this paper, we aim at exploring this reactive version of the ultimatum game where the acceptance by players depends on the offer. In order to do so, we analyze two situations: (i) mean field and (ii) we consider players inserted within the networks with arbitrary coordination. We then show that the reactive aspect, here studied, thus far not analyzed in the evolutionary game theory literature can unveil an essential feature for the convergence to fifty-fifty split. Moreover we also analyze populations under four different polices ranging from a highly conservative to a moderate one, with respect to the decision in changing the proposal based on acceptances. We show that the idea of gaining less more times added to the reciprocity of the players is highly relevant to the concept of "healthy" societies population bargaining.
Arbitrary dimensional Majorana dualities and architectures for topological matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nussinov, Zohar; Ortiz, Gerardo; Cobanera, Emilio
2012-08-01
Motivated by the prospect of attaining Majorana modes at the ends of nanowires, we analyze interacting Majorana systems on general networks and lattices in an arbitrary number of dimensions, and derive universal spin duals. We prove that these interacting Majorana systems, quantum Ising gauge theories, and transverse-field Ising models with annealed bimodal disorder are all dual to one another on general planar graphs. This leads to an interesting connection between heavily disordered annealed Ising systems and uniform Ising theories with nearest-neighbor interactions. As any Dirac fermion (including electronic) operator can be expressed as a linear combination of two Majorana fermion operators, our results further lead to dualities between interacting Dirac fermionic systems on rather general lattices and graphs and corresponding spin systems. Such general complex Majorana architectures (other than those of simple square or other crystalline arrangements) might be of empirical relevance. As these systems display low-dimensional symmetries, they are candidates for realizing topological quantum order. The spin duals allow us to predict the feasibility of various standard transitions as well as spin-glass-type behavior in interacting Majorana fermion or electronic systems. Several systems that can be simulated by arrays of Majorana wires are further introduced and investigated: (1) the XXZ honeycomb compass model (intermediate between the classical Ising model on the honeycomb lattice and Kitaev's honeycomb model), (2) a checkerboard lattice realization of the model of Xu and Moore for superconducting (p+ip) arrays, and a (3) compass-type two-flavor Hubbard model with both pairing and hopping terms. By the use of our dualities (tantamount to high-dimensional fermionization), we show that all of these systems lie in the three-dimensional Ising universality class. We further discuss how the existence of topological orders and bounds on autocorrelation times can be
Beyond rational imitation: learning arbitrary means actions from communicative demonstrations.
Király, Ildikó; Csibra, Gergely; Gergely, György
2013-10-01
The principle of rationality has been invoked to explain that infants expect agents to perform the most efficient means action to attain a goal. It has also been demonstrated that infants take into account the efficiency of observed actions to achieve a goal outcome when deciding whether to reenact a specific behavior or not. It is puzzling, however, that they also tend to imitate an apparently suboptimal unfamiliar action even when they can bring about the same outcome more efficiently by applying a more rational action alternative available to them. We propose that this apparently paradoxical behavior is explained by infants' interpretation of action demonstrations as communicative manifestations of novel and culturally relevant means actions to be acquired, and we present empirical evidence supporting this proposal. In Experiment 1, we found that 14-month-olds reenacted novel arbitrary means actions only following a communicative demonstration. Experiment 2 showed that infants' inclination to reproduce communicatively manifested novel actions is restricted to behaviors they can construe as goal-directed instrumental acts. The study also provides evidence that infants' reenactment of the demonstrated novel actions reflects epistemic motives rather than purely social motives. We argue that ostensive communication enables infants to represent the teleological structure of novel actions even when the causal relations between means and end are cognitively opaque and apparently violate the efficiency expectation derived from the principle of rationality. This new account of imitative learning of novel means shows how the teleological stance and natural pedagogy--two separate cognitive adaptations to interpret instrumental versus communicative actions--are integrated as a system for learning socially constituted instrumental knowledge in humans.
Massive graviton on arbitrary background: derivation, syzygies, applications
Bernard, Laura; Deffayet, Cédric; Strauss, Mikael von
2015-06-23
We give the detailed derivation of the fully covariant form of the quadratic action and the derived linear equations of motion for a massive graviton in an arbitrary background metric (which were presented in arXiv:1410.8302 [hep-th]). Our starting point is the de Rham-Gabadadze-Tolley (dRGT) family of ghost free massive gravities and using a simple model of this family, we are able to express this action and these equations of motion in terms of a single metric in which the graviton propagates, hence removing in particular the need for a “reference metric' which is present in the non perturbative formulation. We show further how 5 covariant constraints can be obtained including one which leads to the tracelessness of the graviton on flat space-time and removes the Boulware-Deser ghost. This last constraint involves powers and combinations of the curvature of the background metric. The 5 constraints are obtained for a background metric which is unconstrained, i.e. which does not have to obey the background field equations. We then apply these results to the case of Einstein space-times, where we show that the 5 constraints become trivial, and Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker space-times, for which we correct in particular some results that appeared elsewhere. To reach our results, we derive several non trivial identities, syzygies, involving the graviton fields, its derivatives and the background metric curvature. These identities have their own interest. We also discover that there exist backgrounds for which the dRGT equations cannot be unambiguously linearized.
Massive graviton on arbitrary background: derivation, syzygies, applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bernard, Laura; Deffayet, Cédric; von Strauss, Mikael
2015-06-01
We give the detailed derivation of the fully covariant form of the quadratic action and the derived linear equations of motion for a massive graviton in an arbitrary background metric (which were presented in arXiv:1410.8302 [hep-th]). Our starting point is the de Rham-Gabadadze-Tolley (dRGT) family of ghost free massive gravities and using a simple model of this family, we are able to express this action and these equations of motion in terms of a single metric in which the graviton propagates, hence removing in particular the need for a ``reference metric" which is present in the non perturbative formulation. We show further how 5 covariant constraints can be obtained including one which leads to the tracelessness of the graviton on flat space-time and removes the Boulware-Deser ghost. This last constraint involves powers and combinations of the curvature of the background metric. The 5 constraints are obtained for a background metric which is unconstrained, i.e. which does not have to obey the background field equations. We then apply these results to the case of Einstein space-times, where we show that the 5 constraints become trivial, and Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker space-times, for which we correct in particular some results that appeared elsewhere. To reach our results, we derive several non trivial identities, syzygies, involving the graviton fields, its derivatives and the background metric curvature. These identities have their own interest. We also discover that there exist backgrounds for which the dRGT equations cannot be unambiguously linearized.
Solution of the quasispecies model for an arbitrary gene network
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tannenbaum, Emmanuel; Shakhnovich, Eugene I.
2004-08-01
In this paper, we study the equilibrium behavior of Eigen’s quasispecies equations for an arbitrary gene network. We consider a genome consisting of N genes, so that the full genome sequence σ may be written as σ=σ1σ2⋯σN , where σi are sequences of individual genes. We assume a single fitness peak model for each gene, so that gene i has some “master” sequence σi,0 for which it is functioning. The fitness landscape is then determined by which genes in the genome are functioning and which are not. The equilibrium behavior of this model may be solved in the limit of infinite sequence length. The central result is that, instead of a single error catastrophe, the model exhibits a series of localization to delocalization transitions, which we term an “error cascade.” As the mutation rate is increased, the selective advantage for maintaining functional copies of certain genes in the network disappears, and the population distribution delocalizes over the corresponding sequence spaces. The network goes through a series of such transitions, as more and more genes become inactivated, until eventually delocalization occurs over the entire genome space, resulting in a final error catastrophe. This model provides a criterion for determining the conditions under which certain genes in a genome will lose functionality due to genetic drift. It also provides insight into the response of gene networks to mutagens. In particular, it suggests an approach for determining the relative importance of various genes to the fitness of an organism, in a more accurate manner than the standard “deletion set” method. The results in this paper also have implications for mutational robustness and what C.O. Wilke termed “survival of the flattest.”
Phylogenetic mixtures and linear invariants for equal input models.
Casanellas, Marta; Steel, Mike
2016-09-07
The reconstruction of phylogenetic trees from molecular sequence data relies on modelling site substitutions by a Markov process, or a mixture of such processes. In general, allowing mixed processes can result in different tree topologies becoming indistinguishable from the data, even for infinitely long sequences. However, when the underlying Markov process supports linear phylogenetic invariants, then provided these are sufficiently informative, the identifiability of the tree topology can be restored. In this paper, we investigate a class of processes that support linear invariants once the stationary distribution is fixed, the 'equal input model'. This model generalizes the 'Felsenstein 1981' model (and thereby the Jukes-Cantor model) from four states to an arbitrary number of states (finite or infinite), and it can also be described by a 'random cluster' process. We describe the structure and dimension of the vector spaces of phylogenetic mixtures and of linear invariants for any fixed phylogenetic tree (and for all trees-the so called 'model invariants'), on any number n of leaves. We also provide a precise description of the space of mixtures and linear invariants for the special case of [Formula: see text] leaves. By combining techniques from discrete random processes and (multi-) linear algebra, our results build on a classic result that was first established by James Lake (Mol Biol Evol 4:167-191, 1987).
78 FR 66826 - Prior Label Approval System: Generic Label Approval
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2013-11-07
... poultry products inspection regulations to expand the circumstances in which FSIS will generically approve the labels of meat and poultry products. The Agency also is consolidating the regulations that provide for the approval of labels for meat products and poultry products into a new Code of...
76 FR 75809 - Prior Label Approval System: Generic Label Approval
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2011-12-05
... amend the meat and poultry products inspection regulations to expand the circumstances in which FSIS will generically approve the labels of meat and poultry products. The Agency also is proposing to combine the regulations that provide for the approval of labels for meat products and poultry...
Laser labeling, a safe technology to label produce
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Laser labeling of fruits and vegetables is an alternative means to label produce. Low energy CO2 laser beams etch the surface showing the contrasting underlying layer. These etched surfaces can promote water loss and potentially allow for entry of decay organisms. The long-term effects of laser labe...
Laser labeling, a safe technology to label produce
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Labeling of the produce has gained marked attention in recent years. Laser labeling technology involves the etching of required information on the surface using a low energy CO2 laser beam. The etching forms alphanumerical characters by pinhole dot matrix depressions. These openings can lead to wat...
An arbitrary order diffusion algorithm for solving Schrödinger equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chin, S. A.; Janecek, S.; Krotscheck, E.
2009-09-01
lowest few hundred states of 1D, 2D, and 3D local Schrödinger equations in configuration space. Solution method: Arbitrary even-order multi-product operator splitting, as well as a single product fourth-order factorization, of the imaginary time evolution operator. Additional comments: Sample input files for the 1D, 2D, and the 3D version as well as a gnuplot script for assessing convergence are included in the distribution file. Running time: Seconds to hours, depending on system size.
Guo, Qingchun; Wang, Daqing; He, Xiaobin; Feng, Qiru; Lin, Rui; Xu, Fuqiang; Fu, Ling; Luo, Minmin
2015-01-01
The dorsal striatum integrates inputs from multiple brain areas to coordinate voluntary movements, associative plasticity, and reinforcement learning. Its projection neurons consist of the GABAergic medium spiny neurons (MSNs) that express dopamine receptor type 1 (D1) or dopamine receptor type 2 (D2). Cholinergic interneurons account for a small portion of striatal neuron populations, but they play important roles in striatal functions by synapsing onto the MSNs and other local interneurons. By combining the modified rabies virus with specific Cre- mouse lines, a recent study mapped the monosynaptic input patterns to MSNs. Because only a small number of extrastriatal neurons were labeled in the prior study, it is important to reexamine the input patterns of MSNs with higher labeling efficiency. Additionally, the whole-brain innervation pattern of cholinergic interneurons remains unknown. Using the rabies virus-based transsynaptic tracing method in this study, we comprehensively charted the brain areas that provide direct inputs to D1-MSNs, D2-MSNs, and cholinergic interneurons in the dorsal striatum. We found that both types of projection neurons and the cholinergic interneurons receive extensive inputs from discrete brain areas in the cortex, thalamus, amygdala, and other subcortical areas, several of which were not reported in the previous study. The MSNs and cholinergic interneurons share largely common inputs from areas outside the striatum. However, innervations within the dorsal striatum represent a significantly larger proportion of total inputs for cholinergic interneurons than for the MSNs. The comprehensive maps of direct inputs to striatal MSNs and cholinergic interneurons shall assist future functional dissection of the striatal circuits. PMID:25830919
Guo, Qingchun; Wang, Daqing; He, Xiaobin; Feng, Qiru; Lin, Rui; Xu, Fuqiang; Fu, Ling; Luo, Minmin
2015-01-01
The dorsal striatum integrates inputs from multiple brain areas to coordinate voluntary movements, associative plasticity, and reinforcement learning. Its projection neurons consist of the GABAergic medium spiny neurons (MSNs) that express dopamine receptor type 1 (D1) or dopamine receptor type 2 (D2). Cholinergic interneurons account for a small portion of striatal neuron populations, but they play important roles in striatal functions by synapsing onto the MSNs and other local interneurons. By combining the modified rabies virus with specific Cre- mouse lines, a recent study mapped the monosynaptic input patterns to MSNs. Because only a small number of extrastriatal neurons were labeled in the prior study, it is important to reexamine the input patterns of MSNs with higher labeling efficiency. Additionally, the whole-brain innervation pattern of cholinergic interneurons remains unknown. Using the rabies virus-based transsynaptic tracing method in this study, we comprehensively charted the brain areas that provide direct inputs to D1-MSNs, D2-MSNs, and cholinergic interneurons in the dorsal striatum. We found that both types of projection neurons and the cholinergic interneurons receive extensive inputs from discrete brain areas in the cortex, thalamus, amygdala, and other subcortical areas, several of which were not reported in the previous study. The MSNs and cholinergic interneurons share largely common inputs from areas outside the striatum. However, innervations within the dorsal striatum represent a significantly larger proportion of total inputs for cholinergic interneurons than for the MSNs. The comprehensive maps of direct inputs to striatal MSNs and cholinergic interneurons shall assist future functional dissection of the striatal circuits.
Chemical input multiplicity facilitates arithmetical processing.
Margulies, David; Melman, Galina; Felder, Clifford E; Arad-Yellin, Rina; Shanzer, Abraham
2004-12-01
We describe the design and function of a molecular logic system, by which a combinatorial recognition of the input signals is utilized to efficiently process chemically encoded information. Each chemical input can target simultaneously multiple domains on the same molecular platform, resulting in a unique combination of chemical states, each with its characteristic fluorescence output. Simple alteration of the input reagents changes the emitted logic pattern and enables it to perform different algebraic operations between two bits, solely in the fluorescence mode. This system exhibits parallelism in both its chemical inputs and light outputs.
Input apparatus for dynamic signature verification systems
EerNisse, Errol P.; Land, Cecil E.; Snelling, Jay B.
1978-01-01
The disclosure relates to signature verification input apparatus comprising a writing instrument and platen containing piezoelectric transducers which generate signals in response to writing pressures.
Image annotation by input-output structural grouping sparsity.
Han, Yahong; Wu, Fei; Tian, Qi; Zhuang, Yueting
2012-06-01
Automatic image annotation (AIA) is very important to image retrieval and image understanding. Two key issues in AIA are explored in detail in this paper, i.e., structured visual feature selection and the implementation of hierarchical correlated structures among multiple tags to boost the performance of image annotation. This paper simultaneously introduces an input and output structural grouping sparsity into a regularized regression model for image annotation. For input high-dimensional heterogeneous features such as color, texture, and shape, different kinds (groups) of features have different intrinsic discriminative power for the recognition of certain concepts. The proposed structured feature selection by structural grouping sparsity can be used not only to select group-of-features but also to conduct within-group selection. Hierarchical correlations among output labels are well represented by a tree structure, and therefore, the proposed tree-structured grouping sparsity can be used to boost the performance of multitag image annotation. In order to efficiently solve the proposed regression model, we relax the solving process as a framework of the bilayer regression model for multilabel boosting by the selection of heterogeneous features with structural grouping sparsity (Bi-MtBGS). The first-layer regression is to select the discriminative features for each label. The aim of the second-layer regression is to refine the feature selection model learned from the first layer, which can be taken as a multilabel boosting process. Extensive experiments on public benchmark image data sets and real-world image data sets demonstrate that the proposed approach has better performance of multitag image annotation and leads to a quite interpretable model for image understanding.
A uniform input data convention for the CALL 3-D crash victim simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shaibani, S. J.
1982-07-01
Logical schemes for the labelling of planes (cards D) and functions (cards E) in the input decks used for the Calspan 3-D Crash Victim Simulation (CVS) program are proposed. One benefit of introducing such a standardized format for these inputs would be to facilitate greatly the interchange of data for different vehicles. A further advantage would be that the table of allowed contacts (cards F) could remain largely unaltered. It is hoped that the uniformity of the convention described by these schemes would help to promote the exchange of readily usable data between CVS users.
Nutrition Marketing on Food Labels
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Colby, Sarah E.; Johnson, LuAnn; Scheett, Angela; Hoverson, Bonita
2010-01-01
Objective: This research sought to determine how often nutrition marketing is used on labels of foods that are high in saturated fat, sodium, and/or sugar. Design and Setting: All items packaged with food labels (N = 56,900) in all 6 grocery stores in Grand Forks, ND were surveyed. Main Outcome Measure(s): Marketing strategy, nutrient label…
Analysis of UHF RFID CMOS rectifier structures and input impedance characteristics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jamali, Behnam; Ranasinghe, Damith C.; Cole, Peter H.
2005-12-01
Passive radio frequency identification (RFID) systems deployment efforts are revolutionizing supply chain logistics by providing unprecedented supply chain visibility. The widely used bandwidth of operation in modern systems is the UHF ISM (industrial, scientific, and medical) band. The performance of UHF RFID systems are largely reliant on low power CMOS circuits, efficient power rectification and the ability of RFID label antennas to match to the input impedance of the RFID label IC. This paper examines a new rectifying structure and considers it for its merits in RFID applications while analysing contribution of the rectifying structure to the input impedance of RFID chips as this is an important consideration in impedance matching to an external antenna.
Constrained Task Assignment and Scheduling On Networks of Arbitrary Topology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jackson, Justin Patrick
This dissertation develops a framework to address centralized and distributed constrained task assignment and task scheduling problems. This framework is used to prove properties of these problems that can be exploited, develop effective solution algorithms, and to prove important properties such as correctness, completeness and optimality. The centralized task assignment and task scheduling problem treated here is expressed as a vehicle routing problem with the goal of optimizing mission time subject to mission constraints on task precedence and agent capability. The algorithm developed to solve this problem is able to coordinate vehicle (agent) timing for task completion. This class of problems is NP-hard and analytical guarantees on solution quality are often unavailable. This dissertation develops a technique for determining solution quality that can be used on a large class of problems and does not rely on traditional analytical guarantees. For distributed problems several agents must communicate to collectively solve a distributed task assignment and task scheduling problem. The distributed task assignment and task scheduling algorithms developed here allow for the optimization of constrained military missions in situations where the communication network may be incomplete and only locally known. Two problems are developed. The distributed task assignment problem incorporates communication constraints that must be satisfied; this is the Communication-Constrained Distributed Assignment Problem. A novel distributed assignment algorithm, the Stochastic Bidding Algorithm, solves this problem. The algorithm is correct, probabilistically complete, and has linear average-case time complexity. The distributed task scheduling problem addressed here is to minimize mission time subject to arbitrary predicate mission constraints; this is the Minimum-time Arbitrarily-constrained Distributed Scheduling Problem. The Optimal Distributed Non-sequential Backtracking Algorithm
Computing Functions by Approximating the Input
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Goldberg, Mayer
2012-01-01
In computing real-valued functions, it is ordinarily assumed that the input to the function is known, and it is the output that we need to approximate. In this work, we take the opposite approach: we show how to compute the values of some transcendental functions by approximating the input to these functions, and obtaining exact answers for their…
Tools to Develop or Convert MOVES Inputs
The following tools are designed to help users develop inputs to MOVES and post-process the output. With the release of MOVES2014, EPA strongly encourages state and local agencies to develop local inputs based on MOVES fleet and activity categories.
EDP Applications to Musical Bibliography: Input Considerations
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Robbins, Donald C.
1972-01-01
The application of Electronic Data Processing (EDP) has been a boon in the analysis and bibliographic control of music. However, an extra step of encoding must be undertaken for input of music. The best hope to facilitate musical input is the development of an Optical Character Recognition (OCR) music-reading machine. (29 references) (Author/NH)
7 CFR 3430.607 - Stakeholder input.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Stakeholder input. 3430.607 Section 3430.607 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND... input and/or via Web site), as well as through a notice in the Federal Register, from the...
7 CFR 3430.607 - Stakeholder input.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Stakeholder input. 3430.607 Section 3430.607 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND... input and/or via Web site), as well as through a notice in the Federal Register, from the...
7 CFR 3430.607 - Stakeholder input.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Stakeholder input. 3430.607 Section 3430.607 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND... input and/or via Web site), as well as through a notice in the Federal Register, from the...
7 CFR 3430.607 - Stakeholder input.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Stakeholder input. 3430.607 Section 3430.607 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND... input and/or via Web site), as well as through a notice in the Federal Register, from the...
CREATING INPUT TABLES FROM WAPDEG FOR RIP
K.G. Mon
1998-08-10
The purpose of this calculation is to create tables for input into RIP ver. 5.18 (Integrated Probabilistic Simulator for Environmental Systems) from WAPDEG ver. 3.06 (Waste Package Degradation) output. This calculation details the creation of the RIP input tables for TSPA-VA REV.00.
Managing Input during Assistive Technology Product Design
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Choi, Young Mi
2011-01-01
Many different sources of input are available to assistive technology innovators during the course of designing products. However, there is little information on which ones may be most effective or how they may be efficiently utilized within the design process. The aim of this project was to compare how three types of input--from simulation tools,…
Input, Interaction, and Second Language Production.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gass, Susan M.; Varonis, Evangeline Marlos
1994-01-01
This study investigated the relationship among input, interaction, and second-language production among 16 native-nonnative dyads. The results indicated that both modified input and interaction initiated by the native speaker lead to greater comprehension by the nonnative speaker, as measured by task performance. (Contains 48 references.) (MDM)
Making Input Comprehensible: Do Interactional Modifications Help?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pica, Teresa; And Others
1990-01-01
A pilot study of a larger project on second language comprehension under two input conditions is reported. The first condition is characterized by the availability of samples of target input that have been modified a priori toward greater semantic redundancy and transparency and less complex syntax. The second condition is characterized by the…
Tian, Yuzhen; Guo, Jin; Wang, Rui; Wang, Tingfeng
2011-09-12
In order to research the statistical properties of Gaussian beam propagation through an arbitrary thickness random phase screen for adaptive optics and laser communication application in the laboratory, we establish mathematic models of statistical quantities, which are based on the Rytov method and the thin phase screen model, involved in the propagation process. And the analytic results are developed for an arbitrary thickness phase screen based on the Kolmogorov power spectrum. The comparison between the arbitrary thickness phase screen and the thin phase screen shows that it is more suitable for our results to describe the generalized case, especially the scintillation index.
Displacements and rotations of a body moving about an arbitrary axis in a global reference frame
Hollerbach, K.; Hollister, A.
1995-11-01
Measurement of human joint motion frequently involves the use of markers to describe joint motion in a global reference frame. Results may be quite arbitrary if the reference frame is not properly chosen with respect to the joint`s rotational axis(es). In nature joint axes can exist at any orientation and location relative to an arbitrarily chosen global reference frame. An arbitrary axis is any axis that is not coincident with a reference coordinate. Calculations are made of the errors that result when joint motion occurs about an arbitrary axis in a global reference frame.
On the plane potential flow past a lattice of arbitrary airfoils
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Garrick, I E
1944-01-01
The two-dimensional, incompressible potential flow past a lattice of airfoils of arbitrary shape is investigated theoretically. The problem is treated by usual methods of conformal mapping in several stages, one stage corresponding to the mapping of the framework of the arbitrary line lattice and another significant stage corresponding to the Theodorsen method for the mapping of the arbitrary single wing profile into a circle. A particular feature in the theoretical treatment is the special handling of the regions at an infinite distance in front of and behind the lattice. Expressions are given for evaluation of the velocity and pressure distribution at the airfoil boundary. An illustrative numerical example is included.
DNA-Templated Fabrication of Arbitrary-Structured Porous Carbon Materials
2016-07-11
AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0245 DNA-Templated Fabrication of Arbitrary- Structured Porous Carbon Materials HAITAO LIU UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH 3520 FIFTH...Arbitrary- Structured Porous Carbon Materials 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA9550-13-1-0083 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA9550-13-1-0083 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR...3D porous carbon materials with arbitrary structures . We have achieved the original objective of the project. We have coated both 1D and 2D DNA
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
... the Standard shall bear a permanent, conspicuous, and legible label(s) containing the following... with black text. The label text shall comply with the following format requirements: (1) All... as needed for varying information. The label must be white with black text. The label shall...
21 CFR 201.72 - Potassium labeling.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium labeling. 201.72 Section 201.72 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.72 Potassium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the potassium...
21 CFR 201.72 - Potassium labeling.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium labeling. 201.72 Section 201.72 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.72 Potassium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the potassium...
21 CFR 201.72 - Potassium labeling.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium labeling. 201.72 Section 201.72 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.72 Potassium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the potassium...
21 CFR 201.72 - Potassium labeling.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium labeling. 201.72 Section 201.72 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.72 Potassium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the potassium...
30 CFR 47.42 - Label contents.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Label contents. 47.42 Section 47.42 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING HAZARD COMMUNICATION (HazCom) Container Labels and Other Forms of Warning § 47.42 Label contents. When an operator must make a label, the label must— (a)...
30 CFR 47.42 - Label contents.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Label contents. 47.42 Section 47.42 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING HAZARD COMMUNICATION (HazCom) Container Labels and Other Forms of Warning § 47.42 Label contents. When an operator must make a label, the label must— (a)...
30 CFR 47.42 - Label contents.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Label contents. 47.42 Section 47.42 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING HAZARD COMMUNICATION (HazCom) Container Labels and Other Forms of Warning § 47.42 Label contents. When an operator must make a label, the label must— (a)...
30 CFR 47.42 - Label contents.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Label contents. 47.42 Section 47.42 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING HAZARD COMMUNICATION (HazCom) Container Labels and Other Forms of Warning § 47.42 Label contents. When an operator must make a label, the label must— (a)...
21 CFR 201.64 - Sodium labeling.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium labeling. 201.64 Section 201.64 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.64 Sodium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the sodium content...
21 CFR 201.64 - Sodium labeling.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium labeling. 201.64 Section 201.64 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.64 Sodium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the sodium content...
21 CFR 201.64 - Sodium labeling.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium labeling. 201.64 Section 201.64 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.64 Sodium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the sodium content...
21 CFR 201.64 - Sodium labeling.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium labeling. 201.64 Section 201.64 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.64 Sodium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the sodium content...
21 CFR 201.64 - Sodium labeling.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium labeling. 201.64 Section 201.64 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.64 Sodium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the sodium content...
30 CFR 47.42 - Label contents.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Label contents. 47.42 Section 47.42 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING HAZARD COMMUNICATION (HazCom) Container Labels and Other Forms of Warning § 47.42 Label contents. When an operator must make a label, the label must— (a)...
21 CFR 201.71 - Magnesium labeling.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Magnesium labeling. 201.71 Section 201.71 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.71 Magnesium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the magnesium...
21 CFR 201.71 - Magnesium labeling.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnesium labeling. 201.71 Section 201.71 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.71 Magnesium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the magnesium...
21 CFR 201.71 - Magnesium labeling.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Magnesium labeling. 201.71 Section 201.71 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.71 Magnesium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the magnesium...
21 CFR 201.71 - Magnesium labeling.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Magnesium labeling. 201.71 Section 201.71 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.71 Magnesium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the magnesium...
Statistical identification of effective input variables. [SCREEN
Vaurio, J.K.
1982-09-01
A statistical sensitivity analysis procedure has been developed for ranking the input data of large computer codes in the order of sensitivity-importance. The method is economical for large codes with many input variables, since it uses a relatively small number of computer runs. No prior judgemental elimination of input variables is needed. The sceening method is based on stagewise correlation and extensive regression analysis of output values calculated with selected input value combinations. The regression process deals with multivariate nonlinear functions, and statistical tests are also available for identifying input variables that contribute to threshold effects, i.e., discontinuities in the output variables. A computer code SCREEN has been developed for implementing the screening techniques. The efficiency has been demonstrated by several examples and applied to a fast reactor safety analysis code (Venus-II). However, the methods and the coding are general and not limited to such applications.
A Generalized Mixture Framework for Multi-label Classification
Hong, Charmgil; Batal, Iyad; Hauskrecht, Milos
2015-01-01
We develop a novel probabilistic ensemble framework for multi-label classification that is based on the mixtures-of-experts architecture. In this framework, we combine multi-label classification models in the classifier chains family that decompose the class posterior distribution P(Y1, …, Yd|X) using a product of posterior distributions over components of the output space. Our approach captures different input–output and output–output relations that tend to change across data. As a result, we can recover a rich set of dependency relations among inputs and outputs that a single multi-label classification model cannot capture due to its modeling simplifications. We develop and present algorithms for learning the mixtures-of-experts models from data and for performing multi-label predictions on unseen data instances. Experiments on multiple benchmark datasets demonstrate that our approach achieves highly competitive results and outperforms the existing state-of-the-art multi-label classification methods. PMID:26613069
Goodman, Mark M.; Shi, Bing Zhi; Keil, Robert N.
1999-01-26
Novel compounds having the structure: ##STR1## where X in .beta. configuration is phenyl, naphthyl; 2,3 or 4-iodophenyl; 2,3 or 4-(trimethylsilyl)phenyl; 3,4,5 or 6-iodonaphthyl; 3,4,5 or 6-(trimethylsilyl)naphthyl; 2,3 or 4-(trialkylstannyl)phenyl; or 3,4,5 or 6-(trialkylstannyl)naphthyl Y in .beta. configuration is Y.sub.1 or Y.sub.2, where Y.sub.1 is 2-fluoroethoxy, 3-fluoropropoxy, 4-fluorobutoxy, 2-fluorocyclopropoxy, 2 or 3-fluorocyclobutoxy, R,S 1'-fluoroisopropoxy, R 1'-fluoroisopropoxy, S 1'-fluoroisopropoxy, 1',3'-difluoroisopropoxy, R,S 1'-fluoroisobutoxy, R 1'-fluoroisobutoxy, S 1'-fluoroisobutoxy, R,S 4'-fluoroisobutoxy, R 4'-fluoroisobutoxy, S 4'-fluoroisobutoxy, or 1',1'-di(fluoromethyl)isobutoxy, and Y.sub.2 is 2-methanesulfonyloxy ethoxy, 3-methanesulfonyloxy propoxy, 4-methanesulfonyloxy butoxy, 2-methanesulfonyloxy cyclopropoxy, 2 or 3-methanesulfonyloxy cyclobutoxy, 1'methanesulfonyloxy isopropoxy, 1'-fluoro, 3'-methanesulfonyloxy isopropoxy, 1'-methanesulfonyloxy, 3'-fluoro isopropoxy, 1'-methanesulfonyloxy isobutoxy, or 4'-methanesulfonyloxy isobutoxy bind dopamine transporter protein and can be labeled with .sup.18 F or .sup.123 I for imaging.
Synthesis Of Labeled Metabolites
Martinez, Rodolfo A.; Silks, III, Louis A.; Unkefer, Clifford J.; Atcher, Robert
2004-03-23
The present invention is directed to labeled compounds, for example, isotopically enriched mustard gas metabolites including: [1,1',2,2'-.sup.13 C.sub.4 ]ethane, 1,1'-sulfonylbis[2-(methylthio); [1,1',2,2'-.sup.13 C.sub.4 ]ethane, 1-[[2-(methylsulfinyl)ethyl]sulfonyl]-2-(methylthio); [1,1',2,2'-.sup.13 C.sub.4 ]ethane, 1,1'-sulfonylbis[2-(methylsulfinyl)]; and, 2,2'-sulfinylbis([1,2-.sup.13 C.sub.2 ]ethanol of the general formula ##STR1## where Q.sup.1 is selected from the group consisting of sulfide (--S--), sulfone (--S(O)--), sulfoxide (--S(O.sub.2)--) and oxide (--O--), at least one C* is .sup.13 C, X is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen and deuterium, and Z is selected from the group consisting of hydroxide (--OH), and --Q.sup.2 --R where Q.sup.2 is selected from the group consisting of sulfide (--S--), sulfone(--S(O)--), sulfoxide (--S(O.sub.2)--) and oxide (--O--), and R is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, a C.sub.1 to C.sub.4 lower alkyl, and amino acid moieties, with the proviso that when Z is a hydroxide and Q.sup.1 is a sulfide, then at least one X is deuterium.
Lung nodule detection using 3D convolutional neural networks trained on weakly labeled data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anirudh, Rushil; Thiagarajan, Jayaraman J.; Bremer, Timo; Kim, Hyojin
2016-03-01
Early detection of lung nodules is currently the one of the most effective ways to predict and treat lung cancer. As a result, the past decade has seen a lot of focus on computer aided diagnosis (CAD) of lung nodules, whose goal is to efficiently detect, segment lung nodules and classify them as being benign or malignant. Effective detection of such nodules remains a challenge due to their arbitrariness in shape, size and texture. In this paper, we propose to employ 3D convolutional neural networks (CNN) to learn highly discriminative features for nodule detection in lieu of hand-engineered ones such as geometric shape or texture. While 3D CNNs are promising tools to model the spatio-temporal statistics of data, they are limited by their need for detailed 3D labels, which can be prohibitively expensive when compared obtaining 2D labels. Existing CAD methods rely on obtaining detailed labels for lung nodules, to train models, which is also unrealistic and time consuming. To alleviate this challenge, we propose a solution wherein the expert needs to provide only a point label, i.e., the central pixel of of the nodule, and its largest expected size. We use unsupervised segmentation to grow out a 3D region, which is used to train the CNN. Using experiments on the SPIE-LUNGx dataset, we show that the network trained using these weak labels can produce reasonably low false positive rates with a high sensitivity, even in the absence of accurate 3D labels.
Nonparametric Scene Parsing via Label Transfer.
Liu, Ce; Yuen, Jenny; Torralba, Antonio
2011-12-01
While there has been a lot of recent work on object recognition and image understanding, the focus has been on carefully establishing mathematical models for images, scenes, and objects. In this paper, we propose a novel, nonparametric approach for object recognition and scene parsing using a new technology we name label transfer. For an input image, our system first retrieves its nearest neighbors from a large database containing fully annotated images. Then, the system establishes dense correspondences between the input image and each of the nearest neighbors using the dense SIFT flow algorithm [28], which aligns two images based on local image structures. Finally, based on the dense scene correspondences obtained from SIFT flow, our system warps the existing annotations and integrates multiple cues in a Markov random field framework to segment and recognize the query image. Promising experimental results have been achieved by our nonparametric scene parsing system on challenging databases. Compared to existing object recognition approaches that require training classifiers or appearance models for each object category, our system is easy to implement, has few parameters, and embeds contextual information naturally in the retrieval/alignment procedure.
Measuring Input Thresholds on an Existing Board
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kuperman, Igor; Gutrich, Daniel G.; Berkun, Andrew C.
2011-01-01
A critical PECL (positive emitter-coupled logic) interface to Xilinx interface needed to be changed on an existing flight board. The new Xilinx input interface used a CMOS (complementary metal-oxide semiconductor) type of input, and the driver could meet its thresholds typically, but not in worst-case, according to the data sheet. The previous interface had been based on comparison with an external reference, but the CMOS input is based on comparison with an internal divider from the power supply. A way to measure what the exact input threshold was for this device for 64 inputs on a flight board was needed. The measurement technique allowed an accurate measurement of the voltage required to switch a Xilinx input from high to low for each of the 64 lines, while only probing two of them. Directly driving an external voltage was considered too risky, and tests done on any other unit could not be used to qualify the flight board. The two lines directly probed gave an absolute voltage threshold calibration, while data collected on the remaining 62 lines without probing gave relative measurements that could be used to identify any outliers. The PECL interface was forced to a long-period square wave by driving a saturated square wave into the ADC (analog to digital converter). The active pull-down circuit was turned off, causing each line to rise rapidly and fall slowly according to the input s weak pull-down circuitry. The fall time shows up as a change in the pulse width of the signal ready by the Xilinx. This change in pulse width is a function of capacitance, pulldown current, and input threshold. Capacitance was known from the different trace lengths, plus a gate input capacitance, which is the same for all inputs. The pull-down current is the same for all inputs including the two that are probed directly. The data was combined, and the Excel solver tool was used to find input thresholds for the 62 lines. This was repeated over different supply voltages and
Cortical inputs to the middle temporal visual area in New World owl monkeys.
Cerkevich, Christina M; Collins, Christine E; Kaas, Jon H
2014-12-23
We made eight retrograde tracer injections into the middle temporal visual area (MT) of three New World owl monkeys (Aotus nancymaae). These injections were placed across the representation of the retina in MT to allow us to compare the locations of labeled cells in other areas in order to provide evidence for any retinotopic organization in those areas. Four regions projected to MT: 1) early visual areas, including V1, V2, V3, the dorsolateral visual area, and the dorsomedial visual area, provided topographically organized inputs to MT; 2) all areas in the MT complex (the middle temporal crescent, the middle superior temporal area, and the fundal areas of the superior temporal sulcus) projected to MT. Somewhat variably across injections, neurons were labeled in other parts of the temporal lobe; 3) regions in the location of the medial visual area, the posterior parietal cortex, and the lateral sulcus provided other inputs to MT; 4) finally, projections from the frontal eye field, frontal visual field, and prefrontal cortex were also labeled by our injections. These results further establish the sources of input to MT, and provide direct evidence within and across cases for retinotopic patterns of projections from early visual areas to MT.
Algorithms for Labeling Focus Regions.
Fink, M; Haunert, Jan-Henrik; Schulz, A; Spoerhase, J; Wolff, A
2012-12-01
In this paper, we investigate the problem of labeling point sites in focus regions of maps or diagrams. This problem occurs, for example, when the user of a mapping service wants to see the names of restaurants or other POIs in a crowded downtown area but keep the overview over a larger area. Our approach is to place the labels at the boundary of the focus region and connect each site with its label by a linear connection, which is called a leader. In this way, we move labels from the focus region to the less valuable context region surrounding it. In order to make the leader layout well readable, we present algorithms that rule out crossings between leaders and optimize other characteristics such as total leader length and distance between labels. This yields a new variant of the boundary labeling problem, which has been studied in the literature. Other than in traditional boundary labeling, where leaders are usually schematized polylines, we focus on leaders that are either straight-line segments or Bezier curves. Further, we present algorithms that, given the sites, find a position of the focus region that optimizes the above characteristics. We also consider a variant of the problem where we have more sites than space for labels. In this situation, we assume that the sites are prioritized by the user. Alternatively, we take a new facility-location perspective which yields a clustering of the sites. We label one representative of each cluster. If the user wishes, we apply our approach to the sites within a cluster, giving details on demand.
Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 6
Page 6, Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human health and the environment
Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 5
Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human health and the environment.
Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 8
Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human he
Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 9
Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human health and the environment.
Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 2
Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human health and the environment.
Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 4
Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human health and the environment.
Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 3
Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human health and the environment.
Experimental demonstration of a technique for generation of arbitrary harmonic oscillator states.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ben-Kish, A.; Demarco, B.; Rowe, M.; Meyer, V.; Britton, J.; Itano, W. M.; Jelenković, B. M.; Langer, C.; Leibfried, D.; Rosenband, T.; Wineland, D. J.
2002-05-01
Synthesizing arbitrary quantum states is at the heart of such diverse fields as quantum computation and reaction control in chemistry. For harmonic oscillator states, particular interactions (in general, non-linear) can be used to generate special states such as squeezed states. However, it is usually intractable to realize the interactions required to create arbitrary states. Law and Eberly [1] have devised a technique for arbitrary harmonic oscillator state generation that couples the oscillator to a two-level atomic or spin system and applies a sequence of operations that use simple interactions. We demonstrate the general features of this technique on the harmonic motion of a single trapped ^9Be^+ ion and extend it to the generation of arbitrary spin-oscillator states [2]. [1] C. K. Law and J. H. Eberly, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1055 (1996). [2] B. Kneer and C. K. Law, Phys. Rev. A 57, 2096 (1998).
Simulation of a Single-Element Lean-Direct Injection Combustor Using Arbitrary Polyhedral Mesh
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wey, Thomas; Liu, Nan-Suey
2012-01-01
This paper summarizes procedures of generating the arbitrary polyhedral mesh as well as presents sample results from its application to the numerical solution of a single-element LDI combustor using a preliminary version of the new OpenNCC.
49 CFR 172.442 - CORROSIVE label.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE, SPECIAL... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.442 CORROSIVE label. (a) Except for size and color, the CORROSIVE label...
49 CFR 172.442 - CORROSIVE label.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE, SPECIAL... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.442 CORROSIVE label. (a) Except for size and color, the CORROSIVE label...
49 CFR 172.442 - CORROSIVE label.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE, SPECIAL... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.442 CORROSIVE label. (a) Except for size and color, the CORROSIVE label...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... shall be of a color that contrasts with the background of the label: (1) The label heading: Marine...) to be designated as Blue Sky Series engines must contain the statement on the label: “Blue Sky...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... shall be of a color that contrasts with the background of the label: (1) The label heading: Marine...) to be designated as Blue Sky Series engines must contain the statement on the label: “Blue Sky...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... shall be of a color that contrasts with the background of the label: (1) The label heading: Marine...) to be designated as Blue Sky Series engines must contain the statement on the label: “Blue Sky...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... shall be of a color that contrasts with the background of the label: (1) The label heading: Marine...) to be designated as Blue Sky Series engines must contain the statement on the label: “Blue Sky...
16 CFR 305.17 - Television labeling.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... STAR logo on the label as illustrated in Sample Labels in appendix L. The logo must be 0.375″ wide... Environmental Protection Agency covering the televisions to be labeled may add the ENERGY STAR logo to...
21 CFR 331.80 - Professional labeling.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
... HUMAN USE ANTACID PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER (OTC) HUMAN USE Labeling § 331.80 Professional labeling..., muscle weakness, and osteomalacia. (b) Professional labeling for an antacid-antiflatulent combination...
21 CFR 331.80 - Professional labeling.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
... HUMAN USE ANTACID PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER (OTC) HUMAN USE Labeling § 331.80 Professional labeling..., muscle weakness, and osteomalacia. (b) Professional labeling for an antacid-antiflatulent combination...
21 CFR 331.80 - Professional labeling.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... HUMAN USE ANTACID PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER (OTC) HUMAN USE Labeling § 331.80 Professional labeling..., muscle weakness, and osteomalacia. (b) Professional labeling for an antacid-antiflatulent combination...
Soil Fumigant Labels - Dimethyl Disulfide (DMDS)
Search by EPA registration number, product name, or company and follow the link to the Pesticide Product Labeling System (PPLS) for label details. Updated labels include new safety requirements for buffer zones and related measures.
Mobile Application for Pesticide Label Matching
The label matching application will give inspectors the ability to instantly compare pesticide product labels against state and federal label databases via their cell phone, tablet or other mobile device.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jarvis, Lorna Hernandez; Merriman, William E.; Barnett, Michelle; Hanba, Jessica; Van Haitsma, Kylee S.
2004-01-01
Children tend to choose an entity they cannot already label, rather than one they can, as the likely referent of a novel noun. The effect of input that contradicts this strategy on the interpretation of other novel nouns was investigated. In pre- and posttests, 4-year-olds were asked to judge whether novel nouns referred to "name-similar" familiar…
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Water-saturated column experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of input concentration (Co) and sand grain size on the transport and retention of low concentrations (1, 0.01, and 0.005 mg L/1) of functionalized 14C-labeled multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) under repulsive electrostat...
Muller, J.F.
1987-01-01
An ultrastructural double label has been employed to compare GABAergic and glycinergic systems in the inner plexiform layer (IPL) of the goldfish retina. Electron microscope autoradiography of /sup 3/H-GABA and /sup 3/H-glycine uptake was combined with retrograde HRP-labeling of ganglion cells. When surveyed for distribution, GABAergic and glycinergic synapses were found onto labeled ganglion cells throughout the IPL. This reinforces previous physiological work that described GABAergic and glycinergic influences on a variety of ganglion cells in goldfish and carp; These physiological effects often reflect direct inputs.
Regridding Scientific Mesh Data Using Arbitrary Cell Neighborhood Information
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rezaei Mahdiraji, Alireza; Baumann, Peter
2015-04-01
A spacial case of the regrid operator uses information of neighboring cells of a cell of interest to perform interpolation on scientific meshes. Example use-cases are smoothing skewed data fields, computing value of the first derivative in oceanographic applications, etc. Using neighbors' information is proved to improve the accuracy of the computations for a cell of interest. The regrid works in two steps: mapping step which assigns to each cell of a mesh a set of its neighboring cells and interpolation step which estimates the data on each cell by combining the data from its neighbors. The common method to specify a cell neighborhood is the stencil string which is originally defined only for structured meshes, e.g., five-point stencil. The stencil was later generalized to express neighborhood on unstructured meshes. A stencil w.r.t. an unstructured mesh consists of a sequence of digits representing the dimensions of neighboring cells of a cell. For instance, the stencil 010 w.r.t. a mesh means any calculation for a vertex needs to have access to all the adjacent vertices (i.e., vertices sharing an edge with the vertex of interest). The stencil uses hard coded dimensions and thus contains no topological abstraction. Moreover, it is not obvious whether the result is the union of elements visited in each intermediate layer (hull) or the elements only in the last layer (halo). In addition, it is not possible to filter intermediate cells using predicates. Finally, existing mesh libraries (e.g., GrAL and GridFields) which accommodate the stencil concept do not provide a generic implementation, i.e., a specific Python or C++ APIs needs to be implemented for each stencil. We propose a neighborhood expression which uses the topological relationships (i.e., boundary, co-boundary, and adjacencies) to express arbitrary cell neighborhood. The expression contains any number of the topological relationships w.r.t. to a mesh and a cell as initial context of the neighborhood
Exact solution of the one-dimensional Hubbard model with arbitrary boundary magnetic fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Yuan-Yuan; Cao, Junpeng; Yang, Wen-Li; Shi, Kangjie; Wang, Yupeng
2014-02-01
The one-dimensional Hubbard model with arbitrary boundary magnetic fields is solved exactly via the Bethe ansatz methods. With the coordinate Bethe ansatz in the charge sector, the second eigenvalue problem associated with the spin sector is constructed. It is shown that the second eigenvalue problem can be transformed into that of the inhomogeneous XXX spin chain with arbitrary boundary fields which can be solved via the off-diagonal Bethe ansatz method.
Lower bound on concurrence for arbitrary-dimensional tripartite quantum states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Wei; Fei, Shao-Ming; Zheng, Zhu-Jun
2016-09-01
In this paper, we study the concurrence of arbitrary-dimensional tripartite quantum states. An explicit operational lower bound of concurrence is obtained in terms of the concurrence of substates. A given example shows that our lower bound may improve the well-known existing lower bounds of concurrence. The significance of our result is to get a lower bound when we study the concurrence of arbitrary m⊗ n⊗ l-dimensional tripartite quantum states.
Ke, Yougang; Liu, Yachao; He, Yongli; Zhou, Junxiao; Luo, Hailu Wen, Shuangchun
2015-07-27
We report the realization of spin-dependent splitting with arbitrary intensity patterns based on all-dielectric metasurfaces. Compared with the plasmonic metasurfaces, the all-dielectric metasurface exhibits more high transmission efficiency and conversion efficiency, which makes it possible to achieve the spin-dependent splitting with arbitrary intensity patterns. Our findings suggest a way for generation and manipulation of spin photons, and thereby offer the possibility of developing spin-based nanophotonic applications.
Synthesis Of Arbitrary X-Ray Projections From A Finite Number Of Existing Projections
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Webber, R. L.; Ruttimann, U. E.; Groenhuis, R. A.; Edholm, P.
1985-06-01
By relating an arbitrary x-ray projection to several projections of the same object produced from a small array of source positions bearing a known circular geometric relationship to each other, it is possible to synthesize approximately an arbitrary projection not contained in the known data set. This investigation explores the underlying theory and applies it to radiographic images of diagnostic interest in dentistry.
Synthesis of Arbitrary Unitary Transformations in Quantum Systems by Householder Reflections
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ivanov, P. A.; Vitanov, N. V.
2007-12-01
We demonstrate that Householder reflections emerge naturally in the propagator of a coherently driven degenerate two-level system. Such reflections are a very powerful tool for constructing arbitrary unitary transformations of an N-state quantum system. We present examples for construction of discrete Fourier transforms, superposition-to-superposition navigation between pure states, engineering of arbitrary mixed states, and entanglement of trapped ions.
Remote Preparation of an Arbitrary Two-atom State in the Cavity QED
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Jianping
2016-11-01
A simple scheme for remote preparation of an arbitrary two-atom state in the cavity QED. An arbitrary two-atom entangled state can be prepared perfectly. Our protocol only need single qubit measurement instead of the conventional Bell-state measurement, then it is quite simple but also very robust to the cavity decay and the influence of the thermal field. The probability of the success in our scheme is 1.0.
Input-state approach to Boolean networks.
Cheng, Daizhan
2009-03-01
This paper investigates the structure of Boolean networks via input-state structure. Using the algebraic form proposed by the author, the logic-based input-state dynamics of Boolean networks, called the Boolean control networks, is converted into an algebraic discrete-time dynamic system. Then the structure of cycles of Boolean control systems is obtained as compounded cycles. Using the obtained input-state description, the structure of Boolean networks is investigated, and their attractors are revealed as nested compounded cycles, called rolling gears. This structure explains why small cycles mainly decide the behaviors of cellular networks. Some illustrative examples are presented.
Non-recursive sequential input deconvolution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bernal, Dionisio
2017-01-01
A scheme for sequential deconvolution of inputs from measured outputs is presented. The key feature in the formulation is elimination of the initial state from the input-output relations by projecting the output in the left null space of the observability block. Removal of the initial state allows the sequential format of the deconvolution, essential for computational reasons, to be implemented non-recursively, assuring unconditional stability. Identifiability is realized when the input-output arrangement does not have transmission zeros, and observability and controllability are shown immaterial. Comparison of results from the scheme with those from Dynamic Programming highlights the benefits of eliminating the initial state.
Wireless, relative-motion computer input device
Holzrichter, John F.; Rosenbury, Erwin T.
2004-05-18
The present invention provides a system for controlling a computer display in a workspace using an input unit/output unit. A train of EM waves are sent out to flood the workspace. EM waves are reflected from the input unit/output unit. A relative distance moved information signal is created using the EM waves that are reflected from the input unit/output unit. Algorithms are used to convert the relative distance moved information signal to a display signal. The computer display is controlled in response to the display signal.
Approximation Algorithms for Free-Label Maximization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Berg, Mark; Gerrits, Dirk H. P.
Inspired by air traffic control and other applications where moving objects have to be labeled, we consider the following (static) point labeling problem: given a set P of n points in the plane and labels that are unit squares, place a label with each point in P in such a way that the number of free labels (labels not intersecting any other label) is maximized. We develop efficient constant-factor approximation algorithms for this problem, as well as PTASs, for various label-placement models.
Power flow analysis of two coupled plates with arbitrary characteristics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cuschieri, J. M.
1988-01-01
The limitation of keeping two plates identical is removed and the vibrational power input and output are evaluated for different area ratios, plate thickness ratios, and for different values of the structural damping loss factor for the source plate (plate with excitation) and the receiver plate. In performing this parametric analysis, the source plate characteristics are kept constant. The purpose of this parametric analysis is to be able to determine the most critical parameters that influence the flow of vibrational power from the source plate to the receiver plate. In the case of the structural damping parametric analysis, the influence of changes in the source plate damping is also investigated. As was done previously, results obtained from the mobility power flow approach will be compared to results obtained using a statistical energy analysis (SEA) approach. The significance of the power flow results are discussed together with a discussion and a comparison between SEA results and the mobility power flow results. Furthermore, the benefits that can be derived from using the mobility power flow approach, are also examined.
Power flow analysis of two coupled plates with arbitrary characteristics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cuschieri, J. M.
1990-01-01
In the last progress report (Feb. 1988) some results were presented for a parametric analysis on the vibrational power flow between two coupled plate structures using the mobility power flow approach. The results reported then were for changes in the structural parameters of the two plates, but with the two plates identical in their structural characteristics. Herein, limitation is removed. The vibrational power input and output are evaluated for different values of the structural damping loss factor for the source and receiver plates. In performing this parametric analysis, the source plate characteristics are kept constant. The purpose of this parametric analysis is to determine the most critical parameters that influence the flow of vibrational power from the source plate to the receiver plate. In the case of the structural damping parametric analysis, the influence of changes in the source plate damping is also investigated. The results obtained from the mobility power flow approach are compared to results obtained using a statistical energy analysis (SEA) approach. The significance of the power flow results are discussed together with a discussion and a comparison between the SEA results and the mobility power flow results. Furthermore, the benefits derived from using the mobility power flow approach are examined.
Algorithm for efficient elastic transport calculations for arbitrary device geometries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mason, Douglas J.; Prendergast, David; Neaton, Jeffrey B.; Heller, Eric J.
2011-10-01
With the growth in interest in graphene, controlled nanoscale device geometries with complex form factors are now being studied and characterized. There is a growing need to understand new techniques to handle efficient electronic transport calculations for these systems. We present an algorithm that dramatically reduces the computational time required to find the local density of states and transmission matrix for open systems regardless of their topology or boundary conditions. We argue that the algorithm, which generalizes the recursive Green's function method by incorporating the reverse Cuthill-McKee algorithm for connected graphs, is ideal for calculating transmission through devices with multiple leads of unknown orientation and becomes a computational necessity when the input and output leads overlap in real space. This last scenario takes the Landauer-Buttiker formalism to general scattering theory in a computational framework that makes it tractable to perform full-spectrum calculations of the quantum scattering matrix in mesoscopic systems. We demonstrate the efficacy of these approaches on graphene stadiums, a system of recent scientific interest, and contribute to a physical understanding of Fano resonances which appear in these systems.
New Labeling for Neonicotinoid Pesticides
These documents, a graphic of the bee advisory box and letters to pesticide registrants, describe steps by EPA to change pesticide labels to better protect pollinators by being clearer and more precise in their directions for pesticide application.
Relaxation labeling using modular operators
Duncan, J.S.; Frei, W.
1983-01-01
Probabilistic relaxation labeling has been shown to be useful in image processing, pattern recognition, and artificial intelligence. The approaches taken to date have been encumbered with computationally extensive summations which generally prevent real-time operation and/or easy hardware implementation. The authors present a new and unique approach to the relaxation labeling problem using modular, VLSI-oriented hierarchical complex operators. One of the fundamental concepts of this work is the representation of the probability distribution of the possible labels for a given object (pixel) as an ellipse, which may be summed with neighboring object's distribution ellipses, resulting in a new, relaxed label space. The mathematical development of the elliptical approach will be presented and compared to more classical approaches, and a hardware block diagram that shows the implementation of the relaxation scheme using vlsi chips will be presented. Finally, results will be shown which illustrate applications of the modular scheme, iteratively, to both edges and lines. 13 references.
... the Connecticut Attorney General for possible promotion and marketing of the off-label uses of the drug. ... cited improved energy and quality of life. The marketing of these three drugs and the doses used ...
Meat and Poultry Labeling Terms
... Food Safety and Inspection Service and the Agriculture Marketing Service have officially evaluated a meat product for ... refer to these factsheets from the USDA Agricultural Marketing Service: Organic Food Standards and Labels: The Facts ...
... Home > Healthy Aging > Drugs and alternative medicine Healthy Aging How to read drug labels Printer-friendly version ... html Connect with other organizations National Institute on Aging, NIH, HHS http://www.nia.nih.gov/ U.S. ...
Locating the Vehicle Emissions Label
The EPA vehicle emissions label is entitled Vehicle Emission Control Information and contains the name and trademark of the manufacturer and an unconditional statement of compliance with EPA emission regulations.
7 CFR 3430.907 - Stakeholder input.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND... ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS New Era Rural Technology Competitive Grants Program § 3430.907 Stakeholder input..., for technology development, applied research, and/or training....
Electrothermal branding for embryo labeling.
Wang, L; Beebe, D J; Williams, A R; Easley, K D
1997-11-01
A novel embryo labeling technique based on electrothermal branding is developed. Two types of micro branding irons are fabricated and tested. One utilizes 25 microns tungsten wire as the heating element. The other utilizes surface micromachining techniques to fabricate polysilicon branding irons. The thermal behavior of the branding irons and the heat distributions in the embryos are analytically modeled. Micron-scale labels on unfertilized bovine embryos are achieved.
Computing functions by approximating the input
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goldberg, Mayer
2012-12-01
In computing real-valued functions, it is ordinarily assumed that the input to the function is known, and it is the output that we need to approximate. In this work, we take the opposite approach: we show how to compute the values of some transcendental functions by approximating the input to these functions, and obtaining exact answers for their output. Our approach assumes only the most rudimentary knowledge of algebra and trigonometry, and makes no use of calculus.
Combined LTP and LTD of modulatory inputs controls neuronal processing of primary sensory inputs.
Doiron, Brent; Zhao, Yanjun; Tzounopoulos, Thanos
2011-07-20
A hallmark of brain organization is the integration of primary and modulatory pathways by principal neurons. However, the pathway interactions that shape primary input processing remain unknown. We investigated this problem in mouse dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) where principal cells integrate primary, auditory nerve input with modulatory, parallel fiber input. Using a combined experimental and computational approach, we show that combined LTP and LTD of parallel fiber inputs to DCN principal cells and interneurons, respectively, broaden the time window within which synaptic inputs summate. Enhanced summation depolarizes the resting membrane potential and thus lowers the response threshold to auditory nerve inputs. Combined LTP and LTD, by preserving the variance of membrane potential fluctuations and the membrane time constant, fixes response gain and spike latency as threshold is lowered. Our data reveal a novel mechanism mediating adaptive and concomitant homeostatic regulation of distinct features of neuronal processing of sensory inputs.
Input filter compensation for switching regulators
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kelkar, S. S.; Lee, F. C.
1983-01-01
A novel input filter compensation scheme for a buck regulator that eliminates the interaction between the input filter output impedance and the regulator control loop is presented. The scheme is implemented using a feedforward loop that senses the input filter state variables and uses this information to modulate the duty cycle signal. The feedforward design process presented is seen to be straightforward and the feedforward easy to implement. Extensive experimental data supported by analytical results show that significant performance improvement is achieved with the use of feedforward in the following performance categories: loop stability, audiosusceptibility, output impedance and transient response. The use of feedforward results in isolating the switching regulator from its power source thus eliminating all interaction between the regulator and equipment upstream. In addition the use of feedforward removes some of the input filter design constraints and makes the input filter design process simpler thus making it possible to optimize the input filter. The concept of feedforward compensation can also be extended to other types of switching regulators.
Influential input classification in probabilistic multimedia models
Maddalena, Randy L.; McKone, Thomas E.; Hsieh, Dennis P.H.; Geng, Shu
1999-05-01
Monte Carlo analysis is a statistical simulation method that is often used to assess and quantify the outcome variance in complex environmental fate and effects models. Total outcome variance of these models is a function of (1) the uncertainty and/or variability associated with each model input and (2) the sensitivity of the model outcome to changes in the inputs. To propagate variance through a model using Monte Carlo techniques, each variable must be assigned a probability distribution. The validity of these distributions directly influences the accuracy and reliability of the model outcome. To efficiently allocate resources for constructing distributions one should first identify the most influential set of variables in the model. Although existing sensitivity and uncertainty analysis methods can provide a relative ranking of the importance of model inputs, they fail to identify the minimum set of stochastic inputs necessary to sufficiently characterize the outcome variance. In this paper, we describe and demonstrate a novel sensitivity/uncertainty analysis method for assessing the importance of each variable in a multimedia environmental fate model. Our analyses show that for a given scenario, a relatively small number of input variables influence the central tendency of the model and an even smaller set determines the shape of the outcome distribution. For each input, the level of influence depends on the scenario under consideration. This information is useful for developing site specific models and improving our understanding of the processes that have the greatest influence on the variance in outcomes from multimedia models.
OpenCL based machine learning labeling of biomedical datasets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amoros, Oscar; Escalera, Sergio; Puig, Anna
2011-03-01
In this paper, we propose a two-stage labeling method of large biomedical datasets through a parallel approach in a single GPU. Diagnostic methods, structures volume measurements, and visualization systems are of major importance for surgery planning, intra-operative imaging and image-guided surgery. In all cases, to provide an automatic and interactive method to label or to tag different structures contained into input data becomes imperative. Several approaches to label or segment biomedical datasets has been proposed to discriminate different anatomical structures in an output tagged dataset. Among existing methods, supervised learning methods for segmentation have been devised to easily analyze biomedical datasets by a non-expert user. However, they still have some problems concerning practical application, such as slow learning and testing speeds. In addition, recent technological developments have led to widespread availability of multi-core CPUs and GPUs, as well as new software languages, such as NVIDIA's CUDA and OpenCL, allowing to apply parallel programming paradigms in conventional personal computers. Adaboost classifier is one of the most widely applied methods for labeling in the Machine Learning community. In a first stage, Adaboost trains a binary classifier from a set of pre-labeled samples described by a set of features. This binary classifier is defined as a weighted combination of weak classifiers. Each weak classifier is a simple decision function estimated on a single feature value. Then, at the testing stage, each weak classifier is independently applied on the features of a set of unlabeled samples. In this work, we propose an alternative representation of the Adaboost binary classifier. We use this proposed representation to define a new GPU-based parallelized Adaboost testing stage using OpenCL. We provide numerical experiments based on large available data sets and we compare our results to CPU-based strategies in terms of time and
Spine labeling in axial magnetic resonance imaging via integral kernels.
Miles, Brandon; Ben Ayed, Ismail; Hojjat, Seyed-Parsa; Wang, Michael H; Li, Shuo; Fenster, Aaron; Garvin, Gregory J
2016-12-01
This study investigates a fast integral-kernel algorithm for classifying (labeling) the vertebra and disc structures in axial magnetic resonance images (MRI). The method is based on a hierarchy of feature levels, where pixel classifications via non-linear probability product kernels (PPKs) are followed by classifications of 2D slices, individual 3D structures and groups of 3D structures. The algorithm further embeds geometric priors based on anatomical measurements of the spine. Our classifier requires evaluations of computationally expensive integrals at each pixel, and direct evaluations of such integrals would be prohibitively time consuming. We propose an efficient computation of kernel density estimates and PPK evaluations for large images and arbitrary local window sizes via integral kernels. Our method requires a single user click for a whole 3D MRI volume, runs nearly in real-time, and does not require an intensive external training. Comprehensive evaluations over T1-weighted axial lumbar spine data sets from 32 patients demonstrate a competitive structure classification accuracy of 99%, along with a 2D slice classification accuracy of 88%. To the best of our knowledge, such a structure classification accuracy has not been reached by the existing spine labeling algorithms. Furthermore, we believe our work is the first to use integral kernels in the context of medical images.
Interaction between rod and cone inputs in mixed-input bipolar cells in goldfish retina.
Joselevitch, Christina; Kamermans, Maarten
2007-05-15
One class of goldfish bipolar cells, the mixed-input bipolar cell, contacts both rods and cones. Although the morphology of the different mixed-input bipolar cell subtypes has been described, insight into the interaction between rods and cones at the bipolar cell level is scarce. The aim of this study was to characterize this interaction in the different physiological types of mixed-input bipolar cells. We found mixed-input bipolar cells that depolarized, hyperpolarized, or showed a combination of the two types of response after center stimulation. The relative contributions of rod and cone inputs varied strongly in these cell populations. Depolarizing mixed-input bipolar cells are rod-dominated, having the highest sensitivity and the smallest dynamic range. Hyperpolarizing mixed-input bipolar cells, on the other hand, have a more balanced rod-cone input ratio. This extends their dynamic range and decreases their sensitivity. Finally, opponent mixed-input bipolar cells seem to be mostly cone-dominated, although some rod input is present. The antagonistic photoreceptor inputs form a push-pull system that makes these mixed-input bipolar cells very sensitive to changes in light intensity. Our finding that spectral tuning changes with light intensity conflicts with the idea that the separate non-opponent and opponent channels are related to coding of brightness and color, respectively. The organization of mixed-input bipolar cells into various classes with different dynamic ranges and absolute sensitivities might be a strategy to transmit information about all visual aspects most efficiently, given the sustained nature of bipolar cell responses and their limited voltage range.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Labeling. 225.180 Section 225.180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR MEDICATED FEEDS Labeling § 225.180 Labeling. Labels shall...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Labeling. 225.180 Section 225.180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR MEDICATED FEEDS Labeling § 225.180 Labeling. Labels shall...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Labeling. 225.180 Section 225.180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR MEDICATED FEEDS Labeling § 225.180 Labeling. Labels shall...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Labeling. 225.180 Section 225.180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR MEDICATED FEEDS Labeling § 225.180 Labeling. Labels shall...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labeling. 225.180 Section 225.180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR MEDICATED FEEDS Labeling § 225.180 Labeling. Labels shall...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... eliminated by labeling or a change in labeling, or change in advertising if the device is a restricted device... person(s) responsible for the labeling or advertising of the device specifying: (1) The deception or risk... labeling, or change in advertising if the device is a restricted device, necessary to correct the...
40 CFR 211.108 - Sample label.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sample label. 211.108 Section 211.108 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS PRODUCT NOISE LABELING General Provisions § 211.108 Sample label. Examples of labels conforming to the requirements...
40 CFR 156.10 - Labeling requirements.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 156.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS LABELING REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES AND DEVICES General Provisions § 156.10 Labeling requirements. (a) General—(1) Contents of the label. Every pesticide product shall bear a label containing the...
40 CFR 156.10 - Labeling requirements.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... 156.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS LABELING REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES AND DEVICES General Provisions § 156.10 Labeling requirements. (a) General—(1) Contents of the label. Every pesticide product shall bear a label containing the...
21 CFR 606.121 - Container label.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
... color scheme may be used for differentiating ABO Blood groups: Blood group Color of label O Blue A... CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR BLOOD AND BLOOD COMPONENTS Additional Labeling Standards for Blood and Blood Components § 606.121 Container label. (a) The container label requirements are designed...
40 CFR 211.104 - Label content.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Label content. 211.104 Section 211.104 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS PRODUCT NOISE LABELING General Provisions § 211.104 Label content. The following data and information must be on the label of all products for...
40 CFR 211.104 - Label content.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Label content. 211.104 Section 211.104 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS PRODUCT NOISE LABELING General Provisions § 211.104 Label content. The following data and information must be on the label of all products for...
40 CFR 211.104 - Label content.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Label content. 211.104 Section 211.104 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS PRODUCT NOISE LABELING General Provisions § 211.104 Label content. The following data and information must be on the label of all products for...
40 CFR 211.104 - Label content.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Label content. 211.104 Section 211.104 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS PRODUCT NOISE LABELING General Provisions § 211.104 Label content. The following data and information must be on the label of all products for...
40 CFR 211.104 - Label content.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Label content. 211.104 Section 211.104 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS PRODUCT NOISE LABELING General Provisions § 211.104 Label content. The following data and information must be on the label of all products for...
How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label
MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools
... to 2-Year-Old How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) KidsHealth > For Parents > How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) Print A A A en ... nutricionales (video) Most packaged foods come with a Nutrition Facts label. These labels have a lot of ...
21 CFR 610.60 - Container label.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Container label. 610.60 Section 610.60 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS Labeling Standards § 610.60 Container label. (a) Full label....
Six axis force feedback input device
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ohm, Timothy (Inventor)
1998-01-01
The present invention is a low friction, low inertia, six-axis force feedback input device comprising an arm with double-jointed, tendon-driven revolute joints, a decoupled tendon-driven wrist, and a base with encoders and motors. The input device functions as a master robot manipulator of a microsurgical teleoperated robot system including a slave robot manipulator coupled to an amplifier chassis, which is coupled to a control chassis, which is coupled to a workstation with a graphical user interface. The amplifier chassis is coupled to the motors of the master robot manipulator and the control chassis is coupled to the encoders of the master robot manipulator. A force feedback can be applied to the input device and can be generated from the slave robot to enable a user to operate the slave robot via the input device without physically viewing the slave robot. Also, the force feedback can be generated from the workstation to represent fictitious forces to constrain the input device's control of the slave robot to be within imaginary predetermined boundaries.
Local and commissural IC neurons make axosomatic inputs on large GABAergic tectothalamic neurons.
Ito, Tetsufumi; Oliver, Douglas L
2014-10-15
Large GABAergic (LG) neurons are a distinct type of neuron in the inferior colliculus (IC) identified by their dense vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGLUT2)-containing axosomatic synaptic terminals. Yet the sources of these terminals are unknown. Since IC glutamatergic neurons express VGLUT2, and IC neurons are known to have local collaterals, we tested the hypothesis that these excitatory, glutamatergic axosomatic inputs on LG neurons come from local axonal collaterals and commissural IC neurons. We injected a recombinant viral tracer into the IC which enabled Golgi-like green fluorescent protein (GFP) labeling in both dendrites and axons. In all cases, we found terminals positive for both GFP and VGLUT2 (GFP+/VGLUT2+) that made axosomatic contacts on LG neurons. One to six axosomatic contacts were made on a single LG cell body by a single axonal branch. The GFP-labeled neurons giving rise to the VGLUT2+ terminals on LG neurons were close by. The density of GFP+/VGLUT2+ terminals on the LG neurons was related to the number of nearby GFP-labeled cells. On the contralateral side, a smaller number of LG neurons received axosomatic contacts from GFP+/VGLUT2+ terminals. In cases with a single GFP-labeled glutamatergic neuron, the labeled axonal plexus was flat, oriented in parallel to the fibrodendritic laminae, and contacted 9-30 LG cell bodies within the plexus. Our data demonstrated that within the IC microcircuitry there is a convergence of inputs from local IC excitatory neurons on LG cell bodies. This suggests that LG neurons are heavily influenced by the activity of the nearby laminar glutamatergic neurons in the IC.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kabadayi, Abdulkadir
2006-01-01
Language, as is known, is acquired under certain conditions: rapid and sequential brain maturation and cognitive development, the need to exchange information and to control others' actions, and an exposure to appropriate speech input. This research aims at analyzing preschoolers' overgeneralizations of the object labeling process in different…
Andi's Story: An Oral History of a Woman Labeled Learning Disabled
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Polo, Maude Ann
2010-01-01
Traditional special education research has excluded personal stories told by those most affected by the special education system. Specialists continue to diagnose, label, and provide assistance to persons with learning disabilities with little input from the persons most affected. The field continues to rely on the medical model, placing the locus…
Disynaptic Subthalamic Input to the Posterior Cerebellum in Rat
Jwair, Saad; Coulon, Patrice; Ruigrok, Tom J. H.
2017-01-01
In the last decade, the interplay between basal ganglia and cerebellar functions has been increasingly advocated to explain their joint operation in both normal and pathological conditions. Yet, insight into the neuroanatomical basis of this interplay between both subcortical structures remains sparse and is mainly derived from work in primates. Here, in rodents, we have studied the existence of a potential disynaptic connection between the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and the cerebellar cortex as has been demonstrated earlier for the primate. A mixture of unmodified rabies virus (RABV: CVS 11) and cholera toxin B-subunit (CTb) was injected at places in the posterior cerebellar cortex of nine rats. The survival time was chosen to allow for disynaptic retrograde transneuronal infection of RABV. We examined the STN for neurons infected with RABV in all nine cases and related the results with the location of the RABV/CTb injection site, which ranged from the vermis of lobule VII, to the paravermis and hemispheres of the paramedian lobule and crus 2a. We found that cases with injection sites in the vermis of lobule VII showed prominent RABV labeling in the STN. In contrast, almost no subthalamic labeling was noted in cases with paravermal or hemispheral injection sites. We show circumstantial evidence that not only the pontine nuclei but also the pedunculotegmental nucleus may act as the intermediary in the connection from STN to cerebellar cortex. This finding implies that in the rat the STN links disynaptically to the vermal part of lobule VII of the cerebellar cortex, without any major involvement of the cerebellar areas that are linked to sensorimotor functions. As vermal lobule VII recently has been shown to process disynaptic input from the retrosplenial and orbitofrontal cortices, we hypothesize that in the rat the subthalamic input to cerebellar function might be used to influence more prominently non-motor functions of the cerebellum than motor functions. This
Disynaptic Subthalamic Input to the Posterior Cerebellum in Rat.
Jwair, Saad; Coulon, Patrice; Ruigrok, Tom J H
2017-01-01
In the last decade, the interplay between basal ganglia and cerebellar functions has been increasingly advocated to explain their joint operation in both normal and pathological conditions. Yet, insight into the neuroanatomical basis of this interplay between both subcortical structures remains sparse and is mainly derived from work in primates. Here, in rodents, we have studied the existence of a potential disynaptic connection between the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and the cerebellar cortex as has been demonstrated earlier for the primate. A mixture of unmodified rabies virus (RABV: CVS 11) and cholera toxin B-subunit (CTb) was injected at places in the posterior cerebellar cortex of nine rats. The survival time was chosen to allow for disynaptic retrograde transneuronal infection of RABV. We examined the STN for neurons infected with RABV in all nine cases and related the results with the location of the RABV/CTb injection site, which ranged from the vermis of lobule VII, to the paravermis and hemispheres of the paramedian lobule and crus 2a. We found that cases with injection sites in the vermis of lobule VII showed prominent RABV labeling in the STN. In contrast, almost no subthalamic labeling was noted in cases with paravermal or hemispheral injection sites. We show circumstantial evidence that not only the pontine nuclei but also the pedunculotegmental nucleus may act as the intermediary in the connection from STN to cerebellar cortex. This finding implies that in the rat the STN links disynaptically to the vermal part of lobule VII of the cerebellar cortex, without any major involvement of the cerebellar areas that are linked to sensorimotor functions. As vermal lobule VII recently has been shown to process disynaptic input from the retrosplenial and orbitofrontal cortices, we hypothesize that in the rat the subthalamic input to cerebellar function might be used to influence more prominently non-motor functions of the cerebellum than motor functions. This
Limited view CT reconstruction and segmentation via constrained metric labeling
Singh, Vikas; Mukherjee, Lopamudra; Dinu, Petru M.; Xu, Jinhui; Hoffmann, Kenneth R.
2008-01-01
This paper proposes a new discrete optimization framework for tomographic reconstruction and segmentation of CT volumes when only a few projection views are available. The problem has important clinical applications in coronary angiographic imaging. We first show that the limited view reconstruction and segmentation problem can be formulated as a “constrained” version of the metric labeling problem. This lays the groundwork for a linear programming framework that brings metric labeling classification and classical algebraic tomographic reconstruction (ART) together in a unified model. If the imaged volume is known to be comprised of a finite set of attenuation coefficients (a realistic assumption), given a regular limited view reconstruction, we view it as a task of voxels reassignment subject to maximally maintaining consistency with the input reconstruction and the objective of ART simultaneously. The approach can reliably reconstruct (or segment) volumes with several multiple contrast objects. We present evaluations using experiments on cone beam computed tomography. PMID:19802346
Appearance and incomplete label matching for diffeomorphic template based hippocampus segmentation.
Pluta, John; Avants, Brian B; Glynn, Simon; Awate, Suyash; Gee, James C; Detre, John A
2009-06-01
We present a robust, high-throughput, semiautomated template-based protocol for segmenting the hippocampus in temporal lobe epilepsy. The semiautomated component of this approach, which minimizes user effort while maximizing the benefit of human input to the algorithm, relies on "incomplete labeling." Incomplete labeling requires the user to quickly and approximately segment a few key regions of the hippocampus through a user-interface. Subsequently, this partial labeling of the hippocampus is combined with image similarity terms to guide volumetric diffeomorphic normalization between an individual brain and an unbiased disease-specific template, with fully labeled hippocampi. We solve this many-to-few and few-to-many matching problem, and gain robustness to inter and intrarater variability and small errors in user labeling, by embedding the template-based normalization within a probabilistic framework that examines both label geometry and appearance data at each label. We evaluate the reliability of this framework with respect to manual labeling and show that it increases minimum performance levels relative to fully automated approaches and provides high inter-rater reliability. Thus, this approach does not require expert neuroanatomical training and is viable for high-throughput studies of both the normal and the highly atrophic hippocampus.
Incorporation of probabilistic seismic phase labels into a Bayesian multiple-event seismic locator
Myers, S; Johannesson, G; Hanley, W
2008-01-17
We add probabilistic phase labels to the multiple-event joint probability function of Myers et al., 2007 that formerly included event locations, travel-time corrections, and arrival-time measurement precision. Prior information on any of the multiple-event parameters may be used. The phase-label model includes a null label that captures phases not belonging to the collection of phases under consideration. Using the Markov-Chain Monte Carlo method, samples are drawn from the multiple-event joint probability function to infer the posteriori distribution that is consistent with priors and the arrival-time data set. Using this approach phase-label error can be accessed and phase-label error is propagated to all other multiple-event parameters. We test the method using a ground-truth data set of nuclear explosions at the Nevada Test Site. We find that posteriori phase labels agree with the meticulously analyzed data set in more than 97% of instances and the results are robust even when the input phase-label information is discarded. Only when a large percentage of the arrival-time data are corrupted does prior phase label information improve resolution of multiple-event parameters. Simultaneous modeling of the entire multiple-event system results in accurate posteriori probability regions for each multiple-event parameter.
Decontextualized language input and preschoolers' vocabulary development.
Rowe, Meredith L
2013-11-01
This article discusses the importance of using decontextualized language, or language that is removed from the here and now including pretend, narrative, and explanatory talk, with preschool children. The literature on parents' use of decontextualized language is reviewed and results of a longitudinal study of parent decontextualized language input in relation to child vocabulary development are explained. The main findings are that parents who provide their preschool children with more explanations and narrative utterances about past or future events in the input have children with larger vocabularies 1 year later, even with quantity of parent input and child prior vocabulary skill controlled. Recommendations for how to engage children in decontextualized language conversations are provided.
49 CFR 172.430 - POISON label.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false POISON label. 172.430 Section 172.430... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.430 POISON label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON label must be as follows: EC02MR91.029 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background on the POISON label...
49 CFR 172.430 - POISON label.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON label. 172.430 Section 172.430... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.430 POISON label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON label must be as follows: EC02MR91.029 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background on the POISON label...
49 CFR 172.430 - POISON label.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false POISON label. 172.430 Section 172.430... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.430 POISON label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON label must be as follows: EC02MR91.029 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background on the POISON label...
49 CFR 172.430 - POISON label.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false POISON label. 172.430 Section 172.430... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.430 POISON label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON label must be as follows: EC02MR91.029 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background on the POISON label...
49 CFR 172.430 - POISON label.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false POISON label. 172.430 Section 172.430... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.430 POISON label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON label must be as follows: EC02MR91.029 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background on the POISON label...
Deng, Yunping; Lanciego, Jose; Goff, Lydia Kerkerian-Le; Coulon, Patrice; Salin, Pascal; Kachidian, Philippe; Lei, Wanlong; Del Mar, Nobel; Reiner, Anton
2015-01-01
In prior studies, we described the differential organization of corticostriatal and thalamostriatal inputs to the spines of direct pathway (dSPNs) and indirect pathway striatal projection neurons (iSPNs) of the matrix compartment. In the present electron microscopic (EM) analysis, we have refined understanding of the relative amounts of cortical axospinous vs. axodendritic input to the two types of SPNs. Of note, we found that individual dSPNs receive about twice as many axospinous synaptic terminals from IT-type (intratelencephalically projecting) cortical neurons as they do from PT-type (pyramidal tract projecting) cortical neurons. We also found that PT-type axospinous synaptic terminals were about 1.5 times as common on individual iSPNs as IT-type axospinous synaptic terminals. Overall, a higher percentage of IT-type terminals contacted dSPN than iSPN spines, while a higher percentage of PT-type terminals contacted iSPN than dSPN spines. Notably, IT-type axospinous synaptic terminals were significantly larger on iSPN spines than on dSPN spines. By contrast to axospinous input, the axodendritic PT-type input to dSPNs was more substantial than that to iSPNs, and the axodendritic IT-type input appeared to be meager and comparable for both SPN types. The prominent axodendritic PT-type input to dSPNs may accentuate their PT-type responsiveness, and the large size of axospinous IT-type terminals on iSPNs may accentuate their IT-type responsiveness. Using transneuronal labeling with rabies virus to selectively label the cortical neurons with direct input to the dSPNs projecting to the substantia nigra pars reticulata, we found that the input predominantly arose from neurons in the upper layers of motor cortices, in which IT-type perikarya predominate. The differential cortical input to SPNs is likely to play key roles in motor control and motor learning. PMID:25926776
Targeting single neuronal networks for gene expression and cell labeling in vivo.
Marshel, James H; Mori, Takuma; Nielsen, Kristina J; Callaway, Edward M
2010-08-26
To understand fine-scale structure and function of single mammalian neuronal networks, we developed and validated a strategy to genetically target and trace monosynaptic inputs to a single neuron in vitro and in vivo. The strategy independently targets a neuron and its presynaptic network for specific gene expression and fine-scale labeling, using single-cell electroporation of DNA to target infection and monosynaptic retrograde spread of a genetically modifiable rabies virus. The technique is highly reliable, with transsynaptic labeling occurring in every electroporated neuron infected by the virus. Targeting single neocortical neuronal networks in vivo, we found clusters of both spiny and aspiny neurons surrounding the electroporated neuron in each case, in addition to intricately labeled distal cortical and subcortical inputs. This technique, broadly applicable for probing and manipulating single neuronal networks with single-cell resolution in vivo, may help shed new light on fundamental mechanisms underlying circuit development and information processing by neuronal networks throughout the brain.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Filioglou, M.; Balis, D.; Siomos, N.; Poupkou, A.; Dimopoulos, S.; Chaikovsky, A.
2016-06-01
A targeted sensitivity study of the LIRIC algorithm was considered necessary to estimate the uncertainty introduced to the volume concentration profiles, due to the arbitrary selection of user-defined input parameters. For this purpose three different tests were performed using Thessaloniki's Lidar data. Overall, tests in the selection of the regularization parameters, an upper and a lower limit test were performed. The different sensitivity tests were applied on two cases with different predominant aerosol types, a dust episode and a typical urban case.
Nuclear reaction inputs based on effective interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hilaire, S.; Goriely, S.; Péru, S.; Dubray, N.; Dupuis, M.; Bauge, E.
2016-11-01
Extensive nuclear structure studies have been performed for decades using effective interactions as sole input. They have shown a remarkable ability to describe rather accurately many types of nuclear properties. In the early 2000s, a major effort has been engaged to produce nuclear reaction input data out of the Gogny interaction, in order to challenge its quality also with respect to nuclear reaction observables. The status of this project, well advanced today thanks to the use of modern computers as well as modern nuclear reaction codes, is reviewed and future developments are discussed.
An update of input instructions to TEMOD
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1973-01-01
The theory and operation of a FORTRAN 4 computer code, designated as TEMOD, used to calcuate tubular thermoelectric generator performance is described in WANL-TME-1906. The original version of TEMOD was developed in 1969. A description is given of additions to the mathematical model and an update of the input instructions to the code. Although the basic mathematical model described in WANL-TME-1906 has remained unchanged, a substantial number of input/output options were added to allow completion of module performance parametrics as required in support of the compact thermoelectric converter system technology program.
Metrics for Labeled Markov Systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Desharnais, Josee; Jagadeesan, Radha; Gupta, Vineet; Panangaden, Prakash
1999-01-01
Partial Labeled Markov Chains are simultaneously generalizations of process algebra and of traditional Markov chains. They provide a foundation for interacting discrete probabilistic systems, the interaction being synchronization on labels as in process algebra. Existing notions of process equivalence are too sensitive to the exact probabilities of various transitions. This paper addresses contextual reasoning principles for reasoning about more robust notions of "approximate" equivalence between concurrent interacting probabilistic systems. The present results indicate that:We develop a family of metrics between partial labeled Markov chains to formalize the notion of distance between processes. We show that processes at distance zero are bisimilar. We describe a decision procedure to compute the distance between two processes. We show that reasoning about approximate equivalence can be done compositionally by showing that process combinators do not increase distance. We introduce an asymptotic metric to capture asymptotic properties of Markov chains; and show that parallel composition does not increase asymptotic distance.
Positron emitter labeled enzyme inhibitors
Fowler, Joanna S.; MacGregor, Robert R.; Wolf, Alfred P.; Langstrom, Bengt
1990-01-01
This invention involves a new strategy for imaging and mapping enzyme activity in the living human and animal body using positron emitter-labeled suicide enzyme inactivators or inhibitors which become covalently bound to the enzyme as a result of enzymatic catalysis. Two such suicide inactivators for monoamine oxidase have been labeled with carbon-11 and used to map the enzyme subtypes in the living human and animal body using PET. By using positron emission tomography to image the distribution of radioactivity produced by the body penetrating radiation emitted by carbon-11, a map of functionally active monoamine oxidase activity is obtained. Clorgyline and L-deprenyl are suicide enzyme inhibitors and irreversibly inhibit monoamine oxidase. When these inhibitors are labeled with carbon-11 they provide selective probes for monoamine oxidase localization and reactivity in vivo using positron emission tomography.
Positron emitter labeled enzyme inhibitors
Fowler, J.S.; MacGregor, R.R.; Wolf, A.P.; Langstrom, B.
1990-04-03
This invention involves a new strategy for imaging and mapping enzyme activity in the living human and animal body using positron emitter-labeled suicide enzyme inactivators or inhibitors which become covalently bound to the enzyme as a result of enzymatic catalysis. Two such suicide inactivators for monoamine oxidase have been labeled with carbon-11 and used to map the enzyme subtypes in the living human and animal body using PET. By using positron emission tomography to image the distribution of radioactivity produced by the body penetrating radiation emitted by carbon-11, a map of functionally active monoamine oxidase activity is obtained. Clorgyline and L-deprenyl are suicide enzyme inhibitors and irreversibly inhibit monoamine oxidase. When these inhibitors are labeled with carbon-11 they provide selective probes for monoamine oxidase localization and reactivity in vivo using positron emission tomography.
Positron emitter labeled enzyme inhibitors
Fowler, J.S.; MacGregor, R.R.; Wolf, A.P.
1987-05-22
This invention involved a new strategy for imaging and mapping enzyme activity in the living human and animal body using positron emitter-labeled suicide enzyme inactivators or inhibitors which become covalently bound to the enzyme as a result of enzymatic catalysis. Two such suicide in activators for monoamine oxidase have been labeled with carbon-11 and used to map the enzyme subtypes in the living human and animal body using PET. By using positron emission tomography to image the distribution of radioactivity produced by the body penetrating radiation emitted by carbon-11, a map of functionally active monoamine oxidase activity is obtained. Clorgyline and L-deprenyl are suicide enzyme inhibitors and irreversibly inhibit monoamine oxidase. When these inhibitors are labeled with carbon-11 they provide selective probes for monoamine oxidase localization and reactivity in vivo using positron emission tomography. 2 figs.
Zonal organization of the mouse flocculus: physiology, input, and output.
Schonewille, Martijn; Luo, Chongde; Ruigrok, Tom J H; Voogd, Jan; Schmolesky, Matthew T; Rutteman, Mandy; Hoebeek, Freek E; De Jeu, Marcel T G; De Zeeuw, Chris I
2006-08-01
The zones of the flocculus have been mapped in many species with a noticeable exception, the mouse. Here, the functional map of the mouse was constructed via extracellular recordings followed by tracer injections of biotinylated-dextran-amine and immunohistochemistry for heat-shock protein-25. Zones were identified based on the Purkinje cell complex spike modulation occurring in response to optokinetic stimulation. In zones 1 and 3 Purkinje cells responded best to rotation about a horizontal axis oriented at 135 degrees ipsilateral azimuth, whereas in zones 2 and 4 they responded best to rotation about the vertical axis. The tracing experiments showed that Purkinje cells of zone 1 projected to the parvicellular part of lateral cerebellar nucleus and superior vestibular nucleus, while Purkinje cells of zone 3 projected to group Y and the superior vestibular nucleus. Purkinje cells of zones 2 and 4 projected to the magnocellular and parvicellular parts of the medial vestibular nucleus, while some also innervated the lateral vestibular nucleus or nucleus prepositus hypoglossi. The climbing fiber inputs to Purkinje cells in zones 1 and 3 were derived from neurons in the ventrolateral outgrowth of the contralateral inferior olive, whereas those in zones 2 and 4 were derived from the contralateral caudal dorsal cap. Purkinje cells in zones 1 and 2, but not in zones 3 and 4, were positively labeled for heat-shock protein-25. The present study illustrates that Purkinje cells in the murine flocculus are organized in discrete zones with specific functions, specific input - output relations, and a specific histochemical signature.
Learning With Auxiliary Less-Noisy Labels.
Duan, Yunyan; Wu, Ou
2016-04-06
Obtaining a sufficient number of accurate labels to form a training set for learning a classifier can be difficult due to the limited access to reliable label resources. Instead, in real-world applications, less-accurate labels, such as labels from nonexpert labelers, are often used. However, learning with less-accurate labels can lead to serious performance deterioration because of the high noise rate. Although several learning methods (e.g., noise-tolerant classifiers) have been advanced to increase classification performance in the presence of label noise, only a few of them take the noise rate into account and utilize both noisy but easily accessible labels and less-noisy labels, a small amount of which can be obtained with an acceptable added time cost and expense. In this brief, we propose a learning method, in which not only noisy labels but also auxiliary less-noisy labels, which are available in a small portion of the training data, are taken into account. Based on a flipping probability noise model and a logistic regression classifier, this method estimates the noise rate parameters, infers ground-truth labels, and learns the classifier simultaneously in a maximum likelihood manner. The proposed method yields three learning algorithms, which correspond to three prior knowledge states regarding the less-noisy labels. The experiments show that the proposed method is tolerant to label noise, and outperforms classifiers that do not explicitly consider the auxiliary less-noisy labels.
Dynamics of Networks of Excitatory and Inhibitory Neurons in Response to Time-Dependent Inputs
Ledoux, Erwan; Brunel, Nicolas
2011-01-01
We investigate the dynamics of recurrent networks of excitatory (E) and inhibitory (I) neurons in the presence of time-dependent inputs. The dynamics is characterized by the network dynamical transfer function, i.e., how the population firing rate is modulated by sinusoidal inputs at arbitrary frequencies. Two types of networks are studied and compared: (i) a Wilson–Cowan type firing rate model; and (ii) a fully connected network of leaky integrate-and-fire (LIF) neurons, in a strong noise regime. We first characterize the region of stability of the “asynchronous state” (a state in which population activity is constant in time when external inputs are constant) in the space of parameters characterizing the connectivity of the network. We then systematically characterize the qualitative behaviors of the dynamical transfer function, as a function of the connectivity. We find that the transfer function can be either low-pass, or with a single or double resonance, depending on the connection strengths and synaptic time constants. Resonances appear when the system is close to Hopf bifurcations, that can be induced by two separate mechanisms: the I–I connectivity and the E–I connectivity. Double resonances can appear when excitatory delays are larger than inhibitory delays, due to the fact that two distinct instabilities exist with a finite gap between the corresponding frequencies. In networks of LIF neurons, changes in external inputs and external noise are shown to be able to change qualitatively the network transfer function. Firing rate models are shown to exhibit the same diversity of transfer functions as the LIF network, provided delays are present. They can also exhibit input-dependent changes of the transfer function, provided a suitable static non-linearity is incorporated. PMID:21647353
China Refrigerator Information Label: Specification Development and Potential Impact
Fridley, David; Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina; Zhou, Nan; Aden, Nathaniel; Lin, Jiang; Jianhong, Cheng; Sakamoto, Tomoyuki
2008-02-01
In the last five years, China's refrigerator market has grown rapidly, and now urban markets are showing signs of saturation, with ownership rates in urban households reaching 92%. Rural markets continue to grow from a much lower base. As a result of this growth, the Chinese government in 2006 decided to revise the refrigerator standards and its associated efficiency grades for the mandatory energy information label. In the Chinese standards process, the efficiency grades for the information label are tied to the minimum standards. Work on the minimum standards revision began in 2006 and continued through the first half of 2007, when the draft standard was completed under the direction of the China National Institute of Standardization (CNIS). Development of the information label grades required consideration of stakeholder input, continuity with the previous grade classification, ease of implementation, and potential impacts on the market. In this process, CLASP, with the support of METI/IEEJ, collaborated with CNIS to develop the efficiency grades, providing technical input to the process, comment and advice on particular technical issues, and evaluation of the results. After three months of effort and three drafts of the final grade specifications, this work was completed. In addition, in order to effectively evaluate the impact of the label on China's market, CLASP further provided assistance to CNIS to collect data on both the efficiency distribution and product volume distribution of refrigerators on the market. The new information label thresholds to be implemented in 2008 maintain the approach first adopted in 2005 of establishing efficiency levels relative to the minimum standard, but increased the related required efficiency levels by 20% over those established in 2003 and implemented in 2005. The focus of improvement was on the standard refrigerator/freezer (class 5), which constitutes the bulk of the Chinese market. Indeed, the new requirements to
Strain-Induced Landau Levels in Arbitrary Dimensions with an Exact Spectrum.
Rachel, Stephan; Göthel, Ilja; Arovas, Daniel P; Vojta, Matthias
2016-12-23
Certain nonuniform strain applied to graphene flakes has been shown to induce pseudo-Landau levels in the single-particle spectrum, which can be rationalized in terms of a pseudomagnetic field for electrons near the Dirac points. However, this Landau level structure is, in general, approximate and restricted to low energies. Here, we introduce a family of strained bipartite tight-binding models in arbitrary spatial dimension d and analytically prove that their entire spectrum consists of perfectly degenerate pseudo-Landau levels. This construction generalizes the case of triaxial strain on graphene's honeycomb lattice to arbitrary d; in d=3, our model corresponds to tetraxial strain on the diamond lattice. We discuss general aspects of pseudo-Landau levels in arbitrary d.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chen, Xiaoqin; Mohan, Ram V.; Tamma, Kumar K.
1992-01-01
A generalized modeling and analysis approach of thermally-induced coupled vibrations of elastic thin-walled configurations with arbitrary open cross sections are presented in conjunction with a unified implicit transient methodology. Limited research appears in literature which takes into account the influence of rapid thermal heating effects on structures involving various forms of coupling. As a consequence, the dynamic response of such thin-walled structures of arbitrary open cross section due to rapid heating are described here. Effects involving triple, double, and no coupling between bending and torsional vibrations caused by sudden heating on these structures are examined. Numerical test cases are presented which describe the influence of sudden heating on elastic thin-walled structures of arbitrary open cross sections.
Electromagnetic complementary media with arbitrary geometries and non-conformal boundaries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Guochang; Li, Chao; Chen, Chao; Fang, Guangyou
2014-06-01
A generalized folded transformation procedure is presented for the space with arbitrary shapes. General expressions for the constitute parameters of complementary media are deduced, which can be readily applied to design complementary media based transformation optics devices (CMTOD) with arbitrary shapes. It's no longer limited to the situation when the inner and outer boundaries of the CMTOD are conformal or similar shapes, and can be available for the non-conformal situations. Three kinds of CMTOD are designed and studied, which involves a super-lens, an external cloak that hides object outside the cloaking shell, and an illusion optics device that transforms one object to another. Full-wave simulations are carried out to validate the proposed approach. The generalization introduced here makes a step forward for the flexible design of CMTOD with arbitrary geometries.
Sub-millisecond closed-loop feedback stimulation between arbitrary sets of individual neurons
Müller, Jan; Bakkum, Douglas J.; Hierlemann, Andreas
2012-01-01
We present a system to artificially correlate the spike timing between sets of arbitrary neurons that were interfaced to a complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) high-density microelectrode array (MEA). The system features a novel reprogrammable and flexible event engine unit to detect arbitrary spatio-temporal patterns of recorded action potentials and is capable of delivering sub-millisecond closed-loop feedback of electrical stimulation upon trigger events in real-time. The relative timing between action potentials of individual neurons as well as the temporal pattern among multiple neurons, or neuronal assemblies, is considered an important factor governing memory and learning in the brain. Artificially changing timings between arbitrary sets of spiking neurons with our system could provide a “knob” to tune information processing in the network. PMID:23335887
Strain-Induced Landau Levels in Arbitrary Dimensions with an Exact Spectrum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rachel, Stephan; Göthel, Ilja; Arovas, Daniel P.; Vojta, Matthias
2016-12-01
Certain nonuniform strain applied to graphene flakes has been shown to induce pseudo-Landau levels in the single-particle spectrum, which can be rationalized in terms of a pseudomagnetic field for electrons near the Dirac points. However, this Landau level structure is, in general, approximate and restricted to low energies. Here, we introduce a family of strained bipartite tight-binding models in arbitrary spatial dimension d and analytically prove that their entire spectrum consists of perfectly degenerate pseudo-Landau levels. This construction generalizes the case of triaxial strain on graphene's honeycomb lattice to arbitrary d ; in d =3 , our model corresponds to tetraxial strain on the diamond lattice. We discuss general aspects of pseudo-Landau levels in arbitrary d .
Realization of arbitrary discrete unitary transformations using spatial and internal modes of light
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dhand, Ish; Goyal, Sandeep K.
2015-10-01
Any lossless transformation on ns spatial and np internal modes of light can be described by an nsnp×nsnp unitary matrix, but there is no known procedure to effect an arbitrary nsnp×nsnp unitary matrix on light in ns spatial and np internal modes. We devise an algorithm to realize an arbitrary discrete unitary transformation on the combined spatial and internal degrees of freedom of light. Our realization uses beam splitters and operations on internal modes to effect arbitrary linear transformations. The number of beam splitters required to realize a unitary transformation is reduced as compared to existing realization by a factor np2/2 at the cost of increasing the number of internal optical elements by a factor of 2. Our algorithm thus enables the optical implementation of higher dimensional unitary transformations.
Charge transport in gapless electron-hole systems with arbitrary band dispersion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Das Sarma, S.; Hwang, E. H.
2015-05-01
Using the semiclassical Boltzmann transport theory, we analytically consider dc charge transport in gapless electron-hole (both chiral and nonchiral) systems in the presence of resistive scattering due to static disorder arising from random quenched impurities in the background. We obtain the dependence of the Boltzmann conductivity on carrier density and temperature for arbitrary band dispersion in arbitrary dimensionality assuming long-range (˜1 /r ) Coulomb disorder and zero-range white-noise disorder [˜δ (r ) ]. We establish that the temperature and the density dependence of the Boltzmann conductivity manifests scaling behaviors determining, respectively, the intrinsic semimetallic or the extrinsic metallic property of the gapless system. Our results apply equally well to both chiral and nonchiral gapless systems, and provide a qualitative understanding of the dependence of the Boltzmann conductivity on the band dispersion in arbitrary dimensionality.
Food labeling: gluten-free labeling of foods. Final rule.
2013-08-05
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or we) is issuing a final rule to define the term "gluten-free'' for voluntary use in the labeling of foods. The final rule defines the term "gluten-free'' to mean that the food bearing the claim does not contain an ingredient that is a gluten-containing grain (e.g., spelt wheat); an ingredient that is derived from a gluten-containing grain and that has not been processed to remove gluten (e.g., wheat flour); or an ingredient that is derived from a gluten-containing grain and that has been processed to remove gluten (e.g., wheat starch), if the use of that ingredient results in the presence of 20 parts per million (ppm) or more gluten in the food (i.e., 20 milligrams (mg) or more gluten per kilogram (kg) of food); or inherently does not contain gluten; and that any unavoidable presence of gluten in the food is below 20 ppm gluten (i.e., below 20 mg gluten per kg of food). A food that bears the claim "no gluten,'' "free of gluten,'' or "without gluten'' in its labeling and fails to meet the requirements for a "gluten-free'' claim will be deemed to be misbranded. In addition, a food whose labeling includes the term "wheat'' in the ingredient list or in a separate "Contains wheat'' statement as required by a section of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the FD&C Act) and also bears the claim "gluten-free'' will be deemed to be misbranded unless its labeling also bears additional language clarifying that the wheat has been processed to allow the food to meet FDA requirements for a "gluten-free'' claim. Establishing a definition of the term "gluten-free'' and uniform conditions for its use in food labeling will help ensure that individuals with celiac disease are not misled and are provided with truthful and accurate information with respect to foods so labeled. We are issuing the final rule under the Food Allergen Labeling and Consumer Protection Act of 2004 (FALCPA).
Comprehensible Input and Second Language Acquisition: What Is the Relationship?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Loschky, Lester
1994-01-01
Examined the influence of input and interactional modifications on second-language acquisition, assigning 41 learners of Japanese to 1 of 3 experimental groups: (1) unmodified input with no interaction; (2) premodified input with no interaction; and (3) unmodified input with the chance for negotiated input. Results indicated that comprehension was…
A reconfigurable arbitrary waveform generator using PWM modulation for ultrasound research
2013-01-01
Background In ultrasound imaging systems, the digital transmit beamformer is a critical module that generates accurate control over several transmission parameters. However, such transmit front-end module is not typically accessible to ultrasound researchers. To overcome this difficulty, we have been developing a compact and fully programmable digital transmit system using the pulse-width modulation (PWM) technique for generating simultaneous arbitrary waveforms, specifically designed for research purposes. Methods In this paper we present a reconfigurable arbitrary waveform generator (RAWG) for ultrasound research applications that exploits a high frequency PWM scheme implemented in a low-cost FPGA, taking advantage of its flexibility and parallel processing capability for independent controlling of multiple transmission parameters. The 8-channel platform consists of a FPGA-based development board including an USB 2.0 interface and an arbitrary waveform generator board with eight MD2130 beamformer source drivers for individual control of waveform, amplitude apodization, phase angle and time delay trigger. Results To evaluate the efficiency of our system, we used equivalent RC loads (1 kΩ and 220 pF) to produce arbitrary excitation waveforms with the Gaussian and Tukey profiles. The PWM carrier frequency was set at 160 MHz featuring high resolution while keeping a minimum time delay of 3.125 ns between pulses to enable the acoustic beam to be focused and/or steered electronically. Preliminary experimental results show that the RAWG can produce complex arbitrary pulses with amplitude over 100 Vpp and central frequency up to 20 MHz with satisfactory linearity of the amplitude apodization, as well as focusing phase adjustment capability with angular resolution of 7.5°. Conclusions The initial results of this study showed that the proposed research system is suitable for generating simultaneous arbitrary waveforms, providing extensive user control with direct
Input and Intake in Language Acquisition
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gagliardi, Ann C.
2012-01-01
This dissertation presents an approach for a productive way forward in the study of language acquisition, sealing the rift between claims of an innate linguistic hypothesis space and powerful domain general statistical inference. This approach breaks language acquisition into its component parts, distinguishing the input in the environment from…
7 CFR 3430.907 - Stakeholder input.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND... ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS New Era Rural Technology Competitive Grants Program § 3430.907 Stakeholder input. NIFA...: (a) Community college(s). (b) Advanced technological center(s), located in rural area, for...
7 CFR 3430.907 - Stakeholder input.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND... ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS New Era Rural Technology Competitive Grants Program § 3430.907 Stakeholder input. NIFA...: (a) Community college(s). (b) Advanced technological center(s), located in rural area, for...
7 CFR 3430.907 - Stakeholder input.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND... ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS New Era Rural Technology Competitive Grants Program § 3430.907 Stakeholder input. NIFA...: (a) Community college(s). (b) Advanced technological center(s), located in rural area, for...
Multiple Input Microcantilever Sensor with Capacitive Readout
Britton, C.L., Jr.; Brown, G.M.; Bryan, W.L.; Clonts, L.G.; DePriest, J.C.; Emergy, M.S.; Ericson, M.N.; Hu, Z.; Jones, R.L.; Moore, M.R.; Oden, P.I.; Rochelle, J.M.; Smith, S.F.; Threatt, T.D.; Thundat, T.; Turner, G.W.; Warmack, R.J.; Wintenberg, A.L.
1999-03-11
A surface-micromachined MEMS process has been used to demonstrate multiple-input chemical sensing using selectively coated cantilever arrays. Combined hydrogen and mercury-vapor detection was achieved with a palm-sized, self-powered module with spread-spectrum telemetry reporting.
Input-Based Incremental Vocabulary Instruction
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Barcroft, Joe
2012-01-01
This fascinating presentation of current research undoes numerous myths about how we most effectively learn new words in a second language. In clear, reader-friendly text, the author details the successful approach of IBI vocabulary instruction, which emphasizes the presentation of target vocabulary as input early on and the incremental (gradual)…
Treatments of Precipitation Inputs to Hydrologic Models
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Hydrological models are used to assess many water resources problems from agricultural use and water quality to engineering issues. The success of these models are dependent on correct parameterization; the most sensitive being the rainfall input time series. These records can come from land-based ...
Soil Organic Carbon Input from Urban Turfgrasses
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Turfgrass is a major vegetation type in the urban and suburban environment. Management practices such as species selection, irrigation, and mowing may affect carbon input and storage in these systems. Research was conducted to determine the rate of soil organic carbon (SOC) changes, soil carbon sequ...
Soil Organic Carbon Input from Urban Turfgrasses
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Turfgrass is a major vegetation type in the urban and suburban environment. Management practices such as species selection, irrigation, and mowing may affect carbon (C) input and storage in these systems. Research was conducted to determine the rate of soil organic carbon (SOC) changes, soil carbon ...
Young Children's Use of Microcomputer Input Devices.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
King, John; Alloway, Nola
1993-01-01
Reports on a study of the ability of preschoolers and first, second, and third graders to use three computer input devices: a joystick, a mouse, and a keyboard. For all grade levels, the mouse offered the greatest ease of use in manipulating icons, followed by the joystick and the keyboard. No effect for gender was found. (Contains 30 references.)…
Preschooler's Use of Microcomputers and Input Devices.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
King, John; Alloway, Nola
1992-01-01
Describes a study that measured preschoolers' use of microcomputers in the following areas: (1) efficiency of use of input devices, including the keyboard, the joystick, and the mouse; (2) use during free-play activities, including interaction with the microcomputer and with each other; and (3) gender differences. (40 references) (LRW)