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Sample records for labial frenum

  1. Early diagnosis and surgical treatment of the lower labial frenum in infancy: a case report.

    PubMed

    Mello-Moura, Anna Carolina Volpi; Cadioli, Isabela Capparelli; Corrêa, Maria Salete Narras Pires; Rodrigues, Célia Regina Martins Delgado; De Nardi Fonoff, Ricardo

    2008-01-01

    The lower labial frenum attached to the free gingival margin can promote local tension, resulting in tissue ischemia, promoting the development of gingival recession, as well as complicating oral hygiene, resulting in a local biofilm accumulation and chronic inflammation. In such cases, periodontal surgery is recommended and the local anatomic characteristics will be improved as early as school age. In this case report, a 7 years old patient had the lower labial frenum repositioned. After this procedure, the suture of the mucosa to the periosteum was performed around the surgical wound to provide local healing by secondary intention. This case report suggests that early diagnosis and surgical treatment of the lower labial frenum in school age children is fundamental in eliminating etiological factors, reestablishing normal anatomic characteristics and preventing periodontal diseases.

  2. Surgery management of rare hypertrophic frenum in an infant.

    PubMed

    Stroppa, Sheila de Carvalho; da Silva, Juliana Yassue Barbosa; Tavares, Maria Cristina Reis; Duda, João Gilberto; Losso, Estela Maris

    2014-01-01

    To report a rare case of a lateral frenum hypertrophy in an infant, this paper describes the case of a girl who came to a first dental appointment when she was 4 months old. A hypertrophic lateral frenum in the upper left canine region was detected. A great depression in the gingival rodet separated the anterior maxillary segment from the posterior one and also decreased the lip mobility in this region. A frenectomy was performed when the patient was 11 months old and the clinical follow-up was done up to the age of 30 months. There was normalization in the vestibular insertion of the lateral frenum, lip mobility, physiological development of the maxilla, and eruption of the upper incisors, canines, and first primary molars. Infants should go to a dental examination precociously in order to detect possible congenital and development alterations. PMID:25180104

  3. Use of CO2 laser in lingual and labial frenectomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorotti, Renata C.; Bellini, Bruno S.; Cassitas, Nilceu P.; Baldin, Diva H. Z.; Nicola, Ester M. D.

    2000-03-01

    Ankiloglossia or frenum lingual alteration leads to important tongue dysfunction, which, besides discomfort and pain during function, is generally responsible for the difficulty to express specific phonemes. In other cases, a heavy muscular abnormal attachment of labial frenum can promote clinical changes. In such case, an eventual orthodontic therapy is indicated and aesthetic alteration is observed. In both cases, surgical removal is indicated. The surgery, for prevention purposes, must be done as soon as possible, but considering that the majority of patients are young (5 - 14 years old), difficulties during surgery are expected to occur. Correction of speech or orthodontic dysfunction in advanced ages is much more complex and difficult than in childhood. In the present work we demonstrate that the use of CO2 lasers in these cases are advantageous and simple. The laser energy causes the tissue of the frenum to open in the classic shape with no bleeding and no need for suture, reducing the risk of cross- contamination and of postoperative infection. Scarring and other complications are also minimized. A CO2 laser (continuous, 8 W, 10.6 micrometers) was used assisted with local anesthesia. The major advantage of laser is the possibility of its application in early ages, preventing further problems.

  4. Interventions in the Alteration on Lingual Frenum: Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Priscilla Poliseni; Cardoso, Carolina Louise; Gomes, Erissandra

    2015-01-01

    Introduction  Altered lingual frenum modifies the normal tongue mobility, which may influence the stomatognathic functions, resulting in anatomical, physiological and social damage to the subject. It is necessary that health professionals are aware of the process of evaluation, diagnostics and treatment used today, guiding their intervention. Objective  To perform a systematic review of what are the treatment methods used in cases of lingual frenum alteration. Data Synthesis  The literature searches were conducted in MEDLINE, LILACS, SciELO, Cochrane and IBECS, delimited by language (Portuguese, English, Spanish), date of publication (January 2000 to January 2014) and studies performed in humans. The selection order used to verify the eligibility of the studies were related to: full text availability; review the abstract; text analysis; final selection. Of the total 443 publications, 26 remained for analysis. The surgical approach was used in all studies, regardless of the study population (infants, children and adults), with a range of tools and techniques employed; speech therapy was recommended in the post surgical in 4 studies. Only 4 studies, all with infants, showed scientific evidence. Conclusion  Surgical intervention is effective for the remission of the limitations caused by the alteration on lingual frenum, but there is a deficit of studies with higher methodological quality. The benefits of speech therapy in the post surgical period are described from improvement in the language of mobility aspects and speech articulation. PMID:27413412

  5. Labial salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Neville, B W; Damm, D D; Weir, J C; Fantasia, J E

    1988-05-15

    A study was conducted on labial salivary gland tumors from four oral pathology laboratories. Of the 103 identified tumors, 87 (84.5%) were from the upper lip, whereas 16 (15.5%) were from the lower lip. Of the 87 upper lip tumors, 80 (92.0%) were benign. Forty-three of these were monomorphic adenomas and 37 were pleomorphic adenomas. Seven malignant tumors of the upper lip were as follows: four adenoid cystic carcinomas, two acinic cell carcinomas, and one adenocarcinoma. Of the 16 lower lip tumors, 15 (93.8%) were malignant. Thirteen of these were mucoepidermoid carcinomas and two were acinic cell carcinomas. The only benign lower lip tumor was an intraductal papilloma. These results confirm the findings of previous investigations, showing that minor salivary gland tumors are much more common in the upper lip than the lower lip, but that lower lip tumors are more likely to be malignant.

  6. Caliber-persistent labial artery.

    PubMed

    Lewis, David M

    2003-01-01

    Caliber-persistent labial artery presents as a soft tissue elevation of labial mucosa that can be bluish or normal in color, disappears when stretched, and pulsates on gentle palpation. Often the artery can be visualized through the stretched mucosa. Such lesions occur in an elderly population (average age = 58 years), are equally distributed between males and females, and are twice as common in the upper lip than in the lower (Figs. 4 & 5). The occurrence of multiple lesions has been reported, along with increased incidence of other vascular lesions. The [figure: see text] lesions are usually asymptomatic with a few being associated with surface ulceration. When the lesion is clinically mistaken for a mucocele, fibroma [figure: see text] or other vascular lesion and biopsied, brisk bleeding is encountered. PMID:12674712

  7. A labial gesture for /l/

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Fiona; Gick, Bryan

    2003-04-01

    Both in language change and in substitutions during language acquisition and disordered speech, /l/ has often been observed to alternate with labial sounds such as [w] or rounded vowels, particularly in postvocalic position. While there are many possible explanations for this alternation, including acoustic enhancement and articulator coupling, one possibility that has not been tested is whether normal adult speakers of English actually produce lip rounding for /l/. A study was conducted to test for the presence of a labial gesture in normal productions of /l/. Front and side video data of lip positions were collected from three adult English speakers during productions of /l/ and /d/. Significant differences were found for all subjects in lip protrusion (upper and lower) and/or lip aperture (horizontal and vertical) in post-vocalic allophones, as well as between the pre- and post-vocalic allophones of /l/. No significant differences were observed in comparisons of pre-vocalic /l/ and /d/. Results suggest that there is in fact a labial gesture in the post-vocalic allophone of /l/, but not in the pre-vocalic allophone. These findings are consistent with a notion of gestural simplification as a possible explanation for substitutions and in language change. [Research supported by NSERC.

  8. Calibre-persistent labial artery: often misdiagnosed as a mucocoele.

    PubMed

    Rosdy, N M M N M; Firth, N A; Rich, A M

    2010-12-01

    The authors present five cases of calibre-persistent labial artery (CPLA) all of which were diagnosed clinically as a labial mucocoele. The purpose of this article is to bring this rarely reported lesion to the attention of clinicians.

  9. [How I treat...recurrent labial herpes].

    PubMed

    Nikkels, A F; Piérard, G E

    2008-11-01

    Recurrent oro-labial herpes is predominantly caused by the herpes simplex virus type 1. Following the primary infection, the virus remains in a latent stage in the trigeminal ganglion. After episodic reactivations, it is transported via the V1 or V2 axons to the lower or upper lip. Although no causal treatment exists, a series of therapeutic options are currently available. It now appears that recurrent oro-labial herpes can be treated with shorter treatment schedules with the currently available antiviral drugs. In these instances, similar clinical efficacy was obtained with increased compliance of the patient, and reduction in both the economical impact and the amount of drug intake. Newer treatment strategies are emerging including non medicated hydrocolloid dressings and combinations of a systemic antiviral drug with a topical corticosteroid. PMID:19112988

  10. A Perceptual Correlate of the Labial-Coronal Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sato, Marc; Vallee, Nathalie; Schwartz, Jean-Luc; Rousset, Isabelle

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Statistical studies conducted in various languages on both infants and adults have revealed an intersyllabic preference for initiating words with a labial consonant-vowel-coronal consonant sequence. Speech motor constraints have been proposed to explain this so-called "labial-coronal effect." This study was designed to test for a possible…

  11. On the Interaction of Velar Fronting and Labial Harmony

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinnsen, Daniel A.; Green, Christopher R.; Morrisette, Michele L.; Gierut, Judith A.

    2011-01-01

    This article documents the typological occurrence and interactions of two seemingly independent error patterns, namely Velar Fronting and Labial Harmony, in a cross-sectional investigation of the sound systems of 235 children with phonological delays (ages 3;0 to 7;9). The results revealed that the occurrence of Labial Harmony depends on the…

  12. Primary Labial Tuberculosis: A Rare Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, A; Narwal, A; Singh, H

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis is one of the oldest scorches of mankind that has not left this world even today. The disease is more common in the developing countries. Oral tuberculosis has been considered in 0.1-5% of all tuberculous infections. Mostly, the oral tuberculous lesions are secondary to pulmonary tuberculosis, but rarely primary lesions may occur. Primary lesions occur due to direct inoculation of the microorganism into the oral mucosa and mainly seen in the young individuals. Tongue is the most common oral site involved. Of all the sites involved, labial involvement is extremely rare. This case report intends to throw light on one such unique case, where a young male patient presented with a primary tubercular lesion of the lip. The lesion resolved immediately after anti tubercular therapy. PMID:24669346

  13. Primary labial tuberculosis: a rare presentation.

    PubMed

    Gupta, A; Narwal, A; Singh, H

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis is one of the oldest scorches of mankind that has not left this world even today. The disease is more common in the developing countries. Oral tuberculosis has been considered in 0.1-5% of all tuberculous infections. Mostly, the oral tuberculous lesions are secondary to pulmonary tuberculosis, but rarely primary lesions may occur. Primary lesions occur due to direct inoculation of the microorganism into the oral mucosa and mainly seen in the young individuals. Tongue is the most common oral site involved. Of all the sites involved, labial involvement is extremely rare. This case report intends to throw light on one such unique case, where a young male patient presented with a primary tubercular lesion of the lip. The lesion resolved immediately after anti tubercular therapy. PMID:24669346

  14. Silks produced by insect labial glands

    PubMed Central

    Sutherland, Tara

    2008-01-01

    Insect silks are secreted from diverse gland types; this chapter deals with the silks produced by labial glands of Holometabola (insects with pupa in their life cycle). Labial silk glands are composed of a few tens or hundreds of large polyploid cells that secrete polymerizing proteins which are stored in the gland lumen as a semi-liquid gel. Polymerization is based on weak molecular interactions between repetitive amino acid motifs present in one or more silk proteins; cross-linking by disulfide bonds may be important in the silks spun under water. The mechanism of long-term storage of the silk dope inside the glands and its conversion into the silk fiber during spinning is not fully understood. The conversion occurs within seconds at ambient temperature and pressure, under minimal drawing force and in some cases under water. The silk filament is largely built of proteins called fibroins and in Lepidoptera and Trichoptera coated by glue-type proteins known as sericins. Silks often contain small amounts of additional proteins of poorly known function. The silk components controlling dope storage and filament formation seem to be conserved at the level of orders, while the nature of polymerizing motifs in the fibroins, which determine the physical properties of silk, differ at the level of family and even genus. Most silks are based on fibroin β-sheets interrupted with other structures such as α-helices but the silk proteins of certain sawflies have predominantly a collagen-like or polyglycine II arrangement and the silks of social Hymenoptera are formed from proteins in a coiled coil arrangement. PMID:19221523

  15. Representing female desire within a labial framework of sexuality.

    PubMed

    Schiller, Britt-Marie

    2012-12-01

    Sexual experiences, rather than being neutral, are specifically male or female. Yet at present no conceptual framework exists for representing female sexual desire. This has resulted in frequent misrepresentations of female sexual experience. To correct this, a labial framework is proposed, not to replace or oppose a phallic framework, but to exist alongside it. The lips of the mouth and those of the genitals provide a felicitous doubling of sexuality and speech to represent female desire and sexual pleasure as labial. Phallic and labial rhythms are organized differently in sexual arousal and desire, since, as Simone de Beauvoir put it, "Man 'gets stiff,' but woman 'gets wet.'" The labial framework therefore represents female psychosexuality more in terms of "wetware" than of "hardware."

  16. Comparative study of the labial gland secretion in termites (Isoptera).

    PubMed

    Sillam-Dussès, David; Krasulová, Jana; Vrkoslav, Vladimír; Pytelková, Jana; Cvačka, Josef; Kutalová, Kateřina; Bourguignon, Thomas; Miura, Toru; Šobotník, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Labial glands are present in all castes and developmental stages of all termite species. In workers, their secretion contains a food-marking pheromone and digestive enzymes, while soldier secretion plays a defensive role. However, these functions were studied only in a limited set of species, and do not allow drawing general conclusions. Hence, we have investigated the chemical composition of the labial gland extracts from soldiers and workers in 15 termite species belonging to 6 families using an integrative approach based on proteomic and small-molecule profiling. We confirmed the presence of hydroquinone and cellulase in the labial glands of workers, and we identified new toxic compounds in soldiers and workers of several species. Our results highlight the dual role of labial gland secretion, i.e. the defensive role in soldiers and workers of several termite species, and the digestive function in workers.

  17. Comparative Study of the Labial Gland Secretion in Termites (Isoptera)

    PubMed Central

    Sillam-Dussès, David; Krasulová, Jana; Vrkoslav, Vladimír; Pytelková, Jana; Cvačka, Josef; Kutalová, Kateřina; Bourguignon, Thomas; Miura, Toru; Šobotník, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Labial glands are present in all castes and developmental stages of all termite species. In workers, their secretion contains a food-marking pheromone and digestive enzymes, while soldier secretion plays a defensive role. However, these functions were studied only in a limited set of species, and do not allow drawing general conclusions. Hence, we have investigated the chemical composition of the labial gland extracts from soldiers and workers in 15 termite species belonging to 6 families using an integrative approach based on proteomic and small-molecule profiling. We confirmed the presence of hydroquinone and cellulase in the labial glands of workers, and we identified new toxic compounds in soldiers and workers of several species. Our results highlight the dual role of labial gland secretion, i.e. the defensive role in soldiers and workers of several termite species, and the digestive function in workers. PMID:23071569

  18. [Labial fusion in postmenopausal women--a clinical case].

    PubMed

    Ganovska, A; Kovachev, S

    2016-01-01

    Labial fusion is benign genital disorder, which more frequent in children at 6 years old and less in women in reproductive and postmenopausal age. It can be congenital or acquired condition. Its etiology is unclear. The low serum estrogen concentration is the basic cause of labial fusion. As a result of physiological hypoestrogenism in the vulvar skin and mucosa come on atrophic changes, which together with the chronic inflammatory changes lead to labial adhesia with subsequent partial or total obstruction of the vagina and/or the urethra. The treatment can be conservative or surgical depending on the degree of labial fusion. We perform two clinical cases respectively of total and partial vulvarsynechiae in postmenopausal women. The clinical picture of the patient with total synechiae is represented by a difficult and prolonged micturition and urinary incontinence, while in patients with partial synechiae is represented by an inability to carry out sexual intercourse. PMID:27514170

  19. [TREATMENT MODALITIES OF LABIAL FUSION IN PREPUBERTAL GIRLS].

    PubMed

    Morić, Bernardica Valent; Lesar, Tatjana

    2014-12-01

    Labial adhesion is a thin membranous fusion of the labia minora of varying length. It is not a rare condition in prepubertal girls, but since it is often asymptomatic, it remains undiagnosed. It is usually discovered during regular check-ups or when the fusion results in post-void dripping, bacteriuria, vaginal irritation, dysuria, urinary tract infection or obstruction. The cause of labial adhesions is unclear. Chronic irritation of the vulva in combination with poor hygiene is believed to be important etiologic factors. A theory of hypoestrogenic status in prepubertal girls as a potential etiologic factor for labial adhesions is no longer widely accepted, since a recent study concluded that there was no difference in estrogen levels between children with and those without labial adhesions. Treatment options include conservative management with topical estrogen or betmethasone creams or, when indicated, manual separation or surgery. Topical estrogen and betamethasone creams are generally considered safe and effective treatment of labial adhesions, even over prolonged periods of time, with minimal if any side effects. No guidelines have been structured for the limits or duration of topical therapy, but most authors agree that optimal treatment should last from 1 to 2 or 3 months on twice-a-day regimen. Parental education concerning appropriate application technique is important not only for the success of treatment, but also to avoid the possible side effects. PMID:26285472

  20. Differential expression of three labial genes during earthworm head regeneration.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sung-Jin; Koh, Ki Seok; Lee, Eun; Park, Soon Cheol

    2009-12-01

    The earthworm provides an excellent model for investigating regeneration. Here we report the full-length cloning of three labial genes (Pex-lab01, Pex-lab02, and Pex-lab03) in the earthworm Perionyx excavatus. To analyze their expression pattern during head and tail regeneration, we used the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Our results indicate that the three labial genes were expressed only in the head-regenerating tissues. Also, we found that the expression of Pex-lab01 and Pex-lab02 is up-regulated, and this indicates their involvement in wound healing and the blastema formation processes during early head regeneration. PMID:19966495

  1. Calibre Persistent Labial Artery: Clinical Features and Immunohistochemistry Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Santagata, M; Maglione, M; Colella, G; D'Amato, S

    2015-09-01

    Calibre persistent labial artery (CPLA) usually presents as an asymptomatic papule on the lower lip and can be easily misdiagnosed as a mucocele, haemangioma, venous lake, varix or fibroma. When it is ulcerated, squamous cell carcinoma is the most usual differential diagnosis. Here, we report a case of a 25-year-old woman with no previous relevant medical history who presented with a complaint of an asymptomatic, non-ulcerated, progressively growing nodule (over the last 5 months) on the upper lip. In this case, the diagnosis was made clinically and confirmed by immunohistochemical analysis. We conclude that clinicians should be aware of CPLA and it should be included in the differential diagnosis of labial mucosal papules. Sometimes, the immunohistochemical analysis is necessary to make a correct diagnosis. PMID:26225087

  2. On the interaction of velar fronting and labial harmony

    PubMed Central

    Dinnsen, Daniel A.; Green, Christopher R.; Morrisette, Michele L.; Gierut, Judith A.

    2012-01-01

    This article documents the typological occurrence and interactions of two seemingly independent error patterns, namely Velar Fronting and Labial Harmony, in a cross-sectional investigation of the sound systems of 235 children with phonological delays (ages 3;0 to 7;9). The results revealed that the occurrence of Labial Harmony depends on the occurrence of Velar Fronting, and that, when these processes co-occurred, all three predicted types of interactions were attested. A constrained version of Optimality Theory is put forward that offers a unified explanation for the implicational relationship between these error patterns and their observed interactions. The findings are compared with the results from other studies and are considered for their theoretical and clinical implications. PMID:21080824

  3. Caliber-persistent labial artery. A common vascular anomaly.

    PubMed

    Lovas, J G; Rodu, B; Hammond, H L; Allen, C M; Wysocki, G P

    1998-09-01

    Sixteen cases of caliber-persistent labial artery of the lips have been reported to date in the English literature. Six of these were clinically misdiagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma and treated with wedge resection. To date, we have seen 187 cases clinically and an additional 23 cases through our surgical oral pathology services. Careful clinical observation usually reveals a soft linear or papular bluish elevation above the labial mucosal surface. The unique feature is pulsation--not simply pulsation toward and away from the observer, which can be caused by an underlying artery, but lateral pulsation, which only an artery can exhibit. All but 2 of our 187 clinical cases were asymptomatic. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of caliber-persistent labial artery of the upper lip. The upper:lower lip ratio for the clinical cases was almost 2:1. Three times as many lower lip as upper lip lesions were biopsied. Males and females were almost equally affected (clinical cases, 76:86; histopathologic cases, 9:13). Although a vascular term (artery, hemangioma, phlebolith, varix, vascular malformation) was used on the biopsy form in one half of the clinical differential diagnoses, none of the clinical histories mentioned pulsation. In contrast to the cases of Miko et al. in 1980 and 1983, none of our cases manifested itself as an ulcer, nor was carcinoma ever mentioned in the clinical differential diagnosis. The purpose of this article is to familiarize clinicians and pathologists with the clinical and histopathologic features of this seldom reported but common vascular anomaly. Clinicians should carefully look for lateral pulsation in lip mucosal papules so as to avoid unnecessary surgery and intraoperative arterial bleeding. Pathologists should recognize that a relatively large-caliber superficial artery in a lip biopsy may not be an incidental finding but rather the clinical lesion that was biopsied. PMID:9768420

  4. [Face replantation using labial artery for revascularization. Case report].

    PubMed

    de la Parra-Márquez, Miguel; Mondragón-González, Sergio; López-Palazuelos, Jaime; Naal-Mendoza, Norberto; Rangel-Flores, Jesús María

    2013-01-01

    antecedentes: la restauración cosmética y funcional de la cara luego de un traumatismo complejo es todo un reto para el cirujano plástico. En el ámbito internacional se han reportado pocos casos de reimplante facial. Objetivo: reportar el caso del primer reimplante parcial de cara con la utilización de la arteria labial como aporte vascular. Caso clínico: paciente masculino de siete años de edad. Ingresó al servicio de Cirugía Plástica en el mes de junio de 2011 por lesiones secundarias en la cara ocasionadas por la mordedura de un perro. A la exploración física se encontró avulsión de 75% del labio superior, 33% del labio inferior, incluida la comisura oral, y 75% de la mejilla izquierda. Los músculos avulsionados incluían: el orbicular de los labios, depresor del ángulo oral y depresor del labio inferior. El tiempo total de isquemia fue de ocho horas. La anastomosis término-terminal de la arteria coronaria labial se efectuó con nylon 11-0, posteriormente se escogió la vena con mejor retorno y la anastomosis se realizó con nylon 11-0. Se hizo miorrafía de los músculos mencionados con vicril 4-0, la sutura de la mucosa oral se realizó con vicril 5-0, y de la piel con nylon 5-0. Seis meses después de la cirugía, el resultado cosmético y funcional se consideró excelente, con restablecimiento total de la continencia labial y articulación completa de las palabras. Conclusiones: las amputaciones de cualquier componente facial deben ser inicialmente tratadas con reimplante. La arteria coronaria labial es una buena opción para revascularización, incluso en 25% del total de la cara (labios y mejilla).

  5. Osseous choristoma of the labial mucosa: A rare case report

    PubMed Central

    Bastian, T. S.; Selvamani, M.; Ashwin, S.; Rahul, V. K.; Cyriac, Maria Bobby

    2015-01-01

    Osseous choristoma is a normal bone tissue in an ectopic position. These are slow growing lesions that are usually completely asymptomatic and only present when there is a disruption in the function of the organ due to its large size as it grows. Definitive diagnosis is obtained only after the histopathological examination. The etiology remains still questionable. The treatment of choice is surgical excision. Here we report a case of choristoma in the lower labial mucosa in a 47-year-old female. PMID:26538953

  6. The Labial-Coronal Effect Revisited: Japanese Adults Say Pata, but Hear Tapa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsuji, Sho; Gomez, Nayeli Gonzalez; Medina, Victoria; Nazzi, Thierry; Mazuka, Reiko

    2012-01-01

    The labial-coronal effect has originally been described as a bias to initiate a word with a labial consonant-vowel-coronal consonant (LC) sequence. This bias has been explained with constraints on the human speech production system, and its perceptual correlates have motivated the suggestion of a perception-production link. However, previous…

  7. Calibre persistent labial artery: clinical features and noninvasive radiological diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Kocyigit, P; Kocyigit, D; Akay, B N; Ustuner, E; Kisnisci, R

    2006-07-01

    Calibre persistent labial artery (CPLA) is defined as a primary arterial branch that penetrates into the submucosal tissue without division or decrease in diameter. It usually presents as an asymptomatic papule on the lower lip and can be easily misdiagnosed as a varix, haemangioma, venous lake, mucocele or fibroma. When it is ulcerated, squamous cell carcinoma is the most usual differential diagnosis. The most frequently used method to confirm the diagnosis of CPLA has been excisional biopsy, which carries the risk of profuse bleeding. Angiography, another invasive method, has also been used. Here, we report a case of a 20-year-old woman with a 5-year history of multiple CPLA lesions involving both upper and lower lips. In this case, the diagnosis was made clinically and confirmed by Doppler ultrasonography, which is a noninvasive and simple diagnostic tool. PMID:16716155

  8. Labial hair tourniquet: unusual complication of an unrepaired genital laceration.

    PubMed

    Dua, Anahita; Jamshidi, Ramin; Lal, Dave R

    2013-07-01

    Hair tourniquet syndrome has been recognized as a medical entity since the 1600 s. Appendages develop acute ischemia from tightening of hair strands circumferentially wrapped around them. Most commonly affected sites are fingers, toes, and penis, but limited reports have described involvement of the female genitalia. Although hair strangulation involving the labia minora or clitoris has been described, it typically occurs in young children. We present a case of an adolescent girl with a labial appendage hair tourniquet resulting from a previous unrepaired genital laceration. This is one of the oldest patients in whom a genital hair tourniquet has been reported, as well as description of a posttraumatic genital appendage. Genital hair tourniquets are medical emergencies that require prompt diagnosis and treatment to avoid tissue necrosis and possible amputation. Genital trauma in general requires surgical evaluation.

  9. Digital, labial, and velopharyngeal reaction times in normal speakers.

    PubMed

    Dalston, R M; Keefe, M J

    1988-07-01

    The relationship between inherent speed limitations of the velopharyngeal mechanism and the observed phenomenon of assimilation nasality was investigated by studying the reaction times of 10 normal adults performing three movements: (1) lip closing, (2) velopharyngeal closing, and (3) pressing a response key with a finger. The first two movements were monitored using a photodetector system. Across nearly 300 responses for each of the motor responses, the average reaction times, in milliseconds, were 194 for the digital, 203 for the labial, and 206 for the velopharyngeal movements. An analysis of variance revealed no consistent differences among these responses. The significance of these data is discussed with respect to speech motor control and clinical evaluation of patients with velopharyngeal impairments.

  10. Labial food challenge in children with food allergy.

    PubMed

    Rance, F; Dutau, G

    1997-02-01

    The current increase in the prevalence of food allergies appears to have several causes including better screening, improved diagnosis and changes in both the techniques used by food manufacturers and eating habits. Labial food challenge (LFC)is simple, rapid to perform and is associated with only low risks of systemic reaction. It is thus an appealing alternative to the oral food challenge (OFC) for pediatric use. We report a series of 202 LFC performed over two years in 142 children with food allergy suspected from the case history, positive skin prick tests and specific serum IgE assays: 156 LFC were positive; and 46 negative, followed by positive single-blind, placebo-controlled food challenges (SBPCFC). The foods provoking reactions were egg white (75 cases), peanut (60 cases), mustard (23 cases), cow's milk (13 cases), cod (8 cases), kiwi fruit, shrimp (4 cases each), chicken, peanut oil (3 cases each), hazel nuts (2 cases), and snails, apple, fennel, garlic, chilli peppers, pepper, and duck (1 case each). LFC positivity was mostly (89.7% of cases) manifested as a labial edema with contiguous urticaria. There were systemic reactions in 4.5% of cases: generalized urticaria, hoarseness and rapid-onset and generalized eczema. The 46 infants with negative LFC results had positive SBPCFC. The reactions were in 34 cases generalized urticaria, 10 cases asthma attacks, 2 cases early and generalized eczema, and in one case general anaphylactic shock. The sensitivity of the LFC was 77%. The LFC was easy to perform with children. Positive results indicate the presence of food allergy, but negative results require further investigations preferably double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC).

  11. Lip interactions and closure duration in labial consonants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lofqvist, Anders

    2003-04-01

    This study examines interactions between the upper and lower lips in labial consonants where the duration of the oral closure is varied for linguistic purposes. Earlier work has shown that such interactions occur and that their magnitude is partly related to the duration of the oral closure. Lip movements were recorded in native Japanese speakers using a magnetometer system. Results show a positive correlation between the vertical positions of the upper and lower, when both are measured at the point in time where the lower lip reached its peak position during the oral closure. Since the peak vertical position of the lower lip increased with closure duration, the upper lip also had a higher vertical position at the same point in time for long than for short consonants. During the oral closure, the lower lip continued to move upward with a larger movement for long than for short consonants. Due to the mechanical interaction between the lips, the upper lip reversed its downward movement at the onset of the oral closure and also moved upward during the closure, again with a larger movement for long than for short consonants. [Work supported by NIH.

  12. Clinical diagnosis of caliber-persistent labial artery of the lower lip.

    PubMed

    Lovas, J G; Goodday, R H

    1993-10-01

    Only 14 cases of caliber-persistent labial artery of the lower lip have been reported to date. Six of these were misdiagnosed and treated as squamous cell carcinoma, another as a mucocele. The correct diagnosis emerged only after the wedge resections were examined histopathologically. We report the first cases of caliber-persistent labial artery to be diagnosed clinically since the original description of the condition by Howell and Freeman in 1973. Our first case was a nonpulsatile hard, linear, "gooseneck lamp" submucosal nodule of the lower lip. On the basis of an initial misdiagnosis of sclerosing sialadenitis, a biopsy was attempted. Brisk pulsatile bleeding proved the lesion to be an artery, and the superficial location and large diameter of the vessel lead to the clinical diagnosis of caliber-persistent labial artery. The "gooseneck lamp" hardening is typical of Monckeberg's arteriosclerosis. The second case was a pulsatile blue linear submucosal nodule of the lower lip. The clinical diagnosis of caliber-persistent labial artery was confirmed when angiography showed the lesion to be an abnormally dilated labial artery. Both cases were successfully ligated with no complications at 16 and 10 months after surgery. PMID:8233429

  13. Electron microprobe analysis of human labial gland secretory granules in cystic fibrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Izutsu, K.; Johnson, D.; Schubert, M.; Wang, E.; Ramsey, B.; Tamarin, A.; Truelove, E.; Ensign, W.; Young, M.

    1985-06-01

    X-ray microanalysis of freeze-dried labial gland cryosections revealed that Na concentration was doubled and the Ca/S concentration ratio was decreased in secretory granules of labial glands from patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) when compared with glands from normal subjects. Other results suggested that the decrease in the Ca/S concentration ratio resulted from an increase in S concentration. These findings imply that mucous granules in labial saliva showed a CF-related increase in Na and S content, and such changes would be expected to affect the rheology of the mucus after exocytosis. In contrast with a previous study in human parotid glands, no evidence was found for CF-related changes in cytoplasmic or nuclear Na, K, and Ca concentrations. Significant elemental differences were found between secretory granules and nuclei and cytoplasm of control cells.

  14. Labial Salivary Glands in Infants: Histochemical Analysis of Cytoskeletal and Antimicrobial Proteins.

    PubMed

    Stoeckelhuber, Mechthild; Loeffelbein, Denys J; Olzowy, Bernhard; Schmitz, Christoph; Koerdt, Steffen; Kesting, Marco R

    2016-08-01

    Human labial glands secrete mucous and serous substances for maintaining oral health. The normal microbial flora of the oral cavity is regulated by the acquired and innate immune systems. The localization and distribution of proteins of the innate immune system were investigated in serous acinar cells and the ductal system by the method of immunohistochemistry. Numerous antimicrobial proteins could be detected in the labial glands: β-defensin-1, -2, -3; lysozyme; lactoferrin; and cathelicidin. Cytoskeletal components such as actin, myosin II, cytokeratins 7 and 19, α- and β-tubulin were predominantly observed in apical cell regions and may be involved in secretory activities. PMID:27439958

  15. Regressive evolution of the arthropod tritocerebral segment linked to functional divergence of the Hox gene labial

    PubMed Central

    Pechmann, Matthias; Schwager, Evelyn E.; Turetzek, Natascha; Prpic, Nikola-Michael

    2015-01-01

    The intercalary segment is a limbless version of the tritocerebral segment and is present in the head of all insects, whereas other extant arthropods have retained limbs on their tritocerebral segment (e.g. the pedipalp limbs in spiders). The evolutionary origin of limb loss on the intercalary segment has puzzled zoologists for over a century. Here we show that an intercalary segment-like phenotype can be created in spiders by interfering with the function of the Hox gene labial. This links the origin of the intercalary segment to a functional change in labial. We show that in the spider Parasteatoda tepidariorum the labial gene has two functions: one function in head tissue maintenance that is conserved between spiders and insects, and a second function in pedipalp limb promotion and specification, which is only present in spiders. These results imply that labial was originally crucial for limb formation on the tritocerebral segment, but that it has lost this particular subfunction in the insect ancestor, resulting in limb loss on the intercalary segment. Such loss of a subfunction is a way to avoid adverse pleiotropic effects normally associated with mutations in developmental genes, and may thus be a common mechanism to accelerate regressive evolution. PMID:26311666

  16. Regressive evolution of the arthropod tritocerebral segment linked to functional divergence of the Hox gene labial.

    PubMed

    Pechmann, Matthias; Schwager, Evelyn E; Turetzek, Natascha; Prpic, Nikola-Michael

    2015-09-01

    The intercalary segment is a limbless version of the tritocerebral segment and is present in the head of all insects, whereas other extant arthropods have retained limbs on their tritocerebral segment (e.g. the pedipalp limbs in spiders). The evolutionary origin of limb loss on the intercalary segment has puzzled zoologists for over a century. Here we show that an intercalary segment-like phenotype can be created in spiders by interfering with the function of the Hox gene labial. This links the origin of the intercalary segment to a functional change in labial. We show that in the spider Parasteatoda tepidariorum the labial gene has two functions: one function in head tissue maintenance that is conserved between spiders and insects, and a second function in pedipalp limb promotion and specification, which is only present in spiders. These results imply that labial was originally crucial for limb formation on the tritocerebral segment, but that it has lost this particular subfunction in the insect ancestor, resulting in limb loss on the intercalary segment. Such loss of a subfunction is away to avoid adverse pleiotropic effects normally associated with mutations in developmental genes, and may thus be a common mechanism to accelerate regressive evolution.

  17. Characterization of Neutral Lipase BT-1 Isolated from the Labial Gland of Bombus terrestris Males

    PubMed Central

    Brabcová, Jana; Prchalová, Darina; Demianová, Zuzana; Bučánková, Alena; Vogel, Heiko; Valterová, Irena; Pichová, Iva; Zarevúcka, Marie

    2013-01-01

    Background In addition to their general role in the hydrolysis of storage lipids, bumblebee lipases can participate in the biosynthesis of fatty acids that serve as precursors of pheromones used for sexual communication. Results We studied the temporal dynamics of lipolytic activity in crude extracts from the cephalic part of Bombus terrestris labial glands. Extracts from 3-day-old males displayed the highest lipolytic activity. The highest lipase gene expression level was observed in freshly emerged bumblebees, and both gene expression and lipase activity were lower in bumblebees older than 3 days. Lipase was purified from labial glands, further characterized and named as BT-1. The B. terrestris orthologue shares 88% sequence identity with B. impatiens lipase HA. The molecular weight of B. terrestris lipase BT-1 was approximately 30 kDa, the pH optimum was 8.3, and the temperature optimum was 50°C. Lipase BT-1 showed a notable preference for C8-C10 p-nitrophenyl esters, with the highest activity toward p-nitrophenyl caprylate (C8). The Michaelis constant (Km) and maximum reaction rate (Vmax) for p-nitrophenyl laurate hydrolysis were Km = 0.0011 mM and Vmax = 0.15 U/mg. Conclusion This is the first report describing neutral lipase from the labial gland of B. terrestris. Our findings help increase understanding of its possible function in the labial gland. PMID:24260337

  18. Phylogenetic signals from Nepomorpha (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera) mouthparts: stylets bundle, sense organs, and labial segments.

    PubMed

    Brożek, Jolanta

    2014-01-01

    The present study is a cladistic analysis of morphological characters focusing on the file of the mandible, the apices of the maxillae, the rupturing device on the maxillae, the internal structures of the mouthparts, and the external morphology of the labial segments as well as the distribution of labial sensilla in true water bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera, infraorder Nepomorpha). The study is based on data referring to sixty-two species representing all nepomorphan families (Heteroptera), together with one outgroup species representing the infraorders Gerromorpha (Mesoveliidae). The morphological data matrix consists of forty-eight characters. The present hypothesis supports the monophyly of the Nepomorpha and the monophyly of all families. The new modification in the systematic classification has been proposed: ((Nepidae + Belostomatidae), (Diaprepocoridae + Corixidae + Micronectidae), (Ochteridae + Gelastocoridae), Aphelocheiridae, Potamocoridae, Naucoridae, Notonectidae, and (Pleidae + Helotrephidae)).

  19. Even at 4 months, a labial is a good enough coronal, but not vice versa.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Sho; Mazuka, Reiko; Cristia, Alejandrina; Fikkert, Paula

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have revealed an asymmetry tied to the perception of coronal place of articulation: participants accept a labial mispronunciation of a coronal target, but not vice versa. Whether or not this asymmetry is based on language-general properties or arises from language-specific experience has been a matter of debate. The current study suggests a bias of the first type by documenting an early, cross-linguistic asymmetry related to coronal place of articulation. Japanese and Dutch 4- and 6-month-old infants showed evidence of discrimination if they were habituated to a labial and then tested on a coronal sequence, but not vice versa. This finding has important implications for both phonological theories and infant speech perception research.

  20. Phylogenetic signals from Nepomorpha (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera) mouthparts: stylets bundle, sense organs, and labial segments.

    PubMed

    Brożek, Jolanta

    2014-01-01

    The present study is a cladistic analysis of morphological characters focusing on the file of the mandible, the apices of the maxillae, the rupturing device on the maxillae, the internal structures of the mouthparts, and the external morphology of the labial segments as well as the distribution of labial sensilla in true water bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera, infraorder Nepomorpha). The study is based on data referring to sixty-two species representing all nepomorphan families (Heteroptera), together with one outgroup species representing the infraorders Gerromorpha (Mesoveliidae). The morphological data matrix consists of forty-eight characters. The present hypothesis supports the monophyly of the Nepomorpha and the monophyly of all families. The new modification in the systematic classification has been proposed: ((Nepidae + Belostomatidae), (Diaprepocoridae + Corixidae + Micronectidae), (Ochteridae + Gelastocoridae), Aphelocheiridae, Potamocoridae, Naucoridae, Notonectidae, and (Pleidae + Helotrephidae)). PMID:24883360

  1. Comparison of speech performance in labial and lingual orthodontic patients: A prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Ambesh Kumar; Rozario, Joe E.; Ganeshkar, Sanjay V.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The intensity and duration of speech difficulty inherently associated with lingual therapy is a significant issue of concern in orthodontics. This study was designed to evaluate and to compare the duration of changes in speech between labial and lingual orthodontics. Materials and Methods: A prospective longitudinal clinical study was designed to assess speech of 24 patients undergoing labial or lingual orthodontic treatment. An objective spectrographic evaluation of/s/sound was done using software PRAAT version 5.0.47, a semiobjective auditive evaluation of articulation was done by four speech pathologists and a subjective assessment of speech was done by four laypersons. The tests were performed before (T1), within 24 h (T2), after 1 week (T3) and after 1 month (T4) of the start of therapy. The Mann-Whitney U-test for independent samples was used to assess the significance difference between the labial and lingual appliances. A speech alteration with P < 0.05 was considered to be significant. Results: The objective method showed a significant difference to be present between the two groups for the/s/sound in the middle position (P < 0.001) at T3. The semiobjective assessment showed worst speech performance in the lingual group to be present at T3 for vowels and blends (P < 0.01) and at T3 and T4 for alveolar and palatal consonants (P < 0.01). The subjective assessment also showed a significant difference between the two groups at T3 (P < 0.01) and T4 (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Both appliance systems caused a comparable speech difficulty immediately after bonding (T2). Although the speech recovered within a week in the labial group (T3), the lingual group continued to experience discomfort even after a month (T4). PMID:25540661

  2. Hydrocele of the Canal of Nuck (Female Hydrocele): A Rare Differential for Inguino-Labial Swelling.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Santanu; Panja, Soumyajyoti; Kumar, Sandeep

    2016-02-01

    The inguinal canal is traversed by the spermatic cord in men and the round ligament of uterus in women. The round ligament is attached to the uterine cornu near the origin of fallopian tube at one end and to the ipsilateral labia majora at the other. The round ligament accompanies a pouch of parietal peritoneum in the inguinal canal, which is known as 'canal of nuck'. It is analogous to the processus vaginalis in males. Incomplete obliteration of the peritoneal pouch causes indirect inguinal hernia or hydrocele of the canal of nuck; a very rare condition in women. As these types of cases are rarely seen in surgical practice we present a case of such little-known developmental disorder in a three-year-old girl. She presented with irreducible, tender right inguino-labial swelling with tachycardia simulating incarcerated inguinal hernia, which necessitates emergency surgical exploration. On exploration it was found to be an encysted hydrocele of canal of nuck; so although rare, this entity should be considered in differential diagnosis in a female child presented with inguino-labial swelling.

  3. The labial-coronal effect revisited: Japanese adults say pata, but hear tapa.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Sho; Gomez, Nayeli Gonzalez; Medina, Victoria; Nazzi, Thierry; Mazuka, Reiko

    2012-12-01

    The labial-coronal effect has originally been described as a bias to initiate a word with a labial consonant-vowel-coronal consonant (LC) sequence. This bias has been explained with constraints on the human speech production system, and its perceptual correlates have motivated the suggestion of a perception-production link. However, previous studies exclusively considered languages in which LC sequences are globally more frequent than their counterpart. The current study examined the LC bias in speakers of Japanese, a language that has been claimed to possess more CL than LC sequences. We first conducted an analysis of Japanese corpora that qualified this claim, and identified a subgroup of consonants (plosives) exhibiting a CL bias. Second, focusing on this subgroup of consonants, we found diverging results for production and perception such that Japanese speakers exhibited an articulatory LC bias, but a perceptual CL bias. The CL perceptual bias, however, was modulated by language of presentation, and was only present for stimuli recorded by a Japanese, but not a French, speaker. A further experiment with native speakers of French showed the opposite effect, with an LC bias for French stimuli only. Overall, we find support for a universal, articulatory motivated LC bias in production, supporting a motor explanation of the LC effect, while perceptual biases are influenced by distributional frequencies of the native language.

  4. Hydrocele of the Canal of Nuck (Female Hydrocele): A Rare Differential for Inguino-Labial Swelling

    PubMed Central

    Panja, Soumyajyoti; Kumar, Sandeep

    2016-01-01

    The inguinal canal is traversed by the spermatic cord in men and the round ligament of uterus in women. The round ligament is attached to the uterine cornu near the origin of fallopian tube at one end and to the ipsilateral labia majora at the other. The round ligament accompanies a pouch of parietal peritoneum in the inguinal canal, which is known as ‘canal of nuck’. It is analogous to the processus vaginalis in males. Incomplete obliteration of the peritoneal pouch causes indirect inguinal hernia or hydrocele of the canal of nuck; a very rare condition in women. As these types of cases are rarely seen in surgical practice we present a case of such little-known developmental disorder in a three-year-old girl. She presented with irreducible, tender right inguino-labial swelling with tachycardia simulating incarcerated inguinal hernia, which necessitates emergency surgical exploration. On exploration it was found to be an encysted hydrocele of canal of nuck; so although rare, this entity should be considered in differential diagnosis in a female child presented with inguino-labial swelling. PMID:27042529

  5. Comparison of two different labial salivary gland biopsy incision techniques: A randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Ati775 i?kler, Mert; Ergun, Sertan; Ofluo?lu, Duygu; Tanyeri775 i?, Hakk?

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the reliability of two different labial salivary gland biopsy (LSGB) incision techniques (vertical versus horizontal incision techniques) and to report the related complications and discomfort. Study Design: 163 patients who underwent LSGB were included in this study. Patients were randomly divided as vertical incision group (n=81) and horizontal incision group (n=82). Demographic and clinical information of each patient were recorded. A questionnaire was prepared and applied together with Visual Analog Scale (VAS) on the subjects verbally at the 7th day, postoperatively. Intraoperative, short- term and delayed complications were evaluated. Results: The mean age of patients (117 female, 46 male) was 47.3 years (range 19-79 years). Vertical incision technique was associated with less pain (p<0.001), less swelling (p<0.05), less scar formation (p<0.05) and less difficulty in eating (p<0.05) when compared with horizontal incision technique. No statistically significant differences were observed between the 2 groups in terms of hematoma, parasthesia and speech difficulty (p>0.05). Additionally, two subjects in the horizontal incision group revealed permanent paresthesia during the follow-up period of two years. Conclusions: This prospective study demonstrated that the subjects in the vertical incision group had less complication rates and discomfort after labial salivary gland procedure than those in the horizontal incision group. Key words:Salivary gland, biopsy, incision. PMID:23986021

  6. Goniometer Measurements of Oral Labial Angle and Evaluation of Oral Motor Reflexes in Preterm Infants: Comparison to Findings in Term Infants.

    PubMed

    Ince, Deniz Anuk; Tugcu, Ali Ulas; Ecevit, Ayşe; Ciyiltepe, Muzeyyen; Kurt, Abdullah; Abbasoğlu, Aslıhan; Tekindal, Mustafa Agah; Tarcan, Aylin

    2015-10-01

    To date, no study has evaluated changes in oral labial angle as preterm infants mature. The main purpose of this study was to document goniometer measurements of the labial angle of the mouth in preterm infants, to assess changes with development, to compare to findings in healthy term infants, and also evaluate oral motor reflexes in these groups. Seventy-eight preterm infants and 45 healthy term infants were recruited for the prospective study. Labial angle was assessed via goniometer, and oral motor reflexes and the volume of milk ingested were evaluated. There was significant difference between term and preterm infants' labial angles (P < .01). The distribution of preterm infants' angles were similar to term infants' by 36 to 40 weeks' postmenstrual age. Goniometer measurements of the oral labial angle may reveal oral motor performance in preterm infants and may be relevant for feeding skills assessment in this group of infants.

  7. Clitoral and labial sizes in women wıth PCOS.

    PubMed

    Köşüş, A; Kamalak, Z; Köşüş, N; Hizli, D; Eser, A

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the external genital features in Turkish women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Thirty-two newly diagnosed PCOS cases and 35 healthy women were included the study. All women underwent a thorough gynaecological examination. Clitoral length, and labia minora length and width were recorded. The groups were compared for features of external genital structures. Clitoral and labial lengths were significantly higher in PCOS group. There was a strong correlation between clitoral length and modified Ferriman-Gallwey score. The most effective predictor of PCOS was found to be clitoral length. Clitoral length alone predicted 99.9% of PCOS patients. There were some subclinical genital changes in women with PCOS. These changes in PCOS patients may be a sign of hyperandrogenism and might have diagnostic value in indistinct cases.

  8. Modified Labial Button Technique for Maintaining Occlusion After Caudal Mandibular Fracture/Temporomandibular Joint Luxation in the Cat.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Alice E; Carmichael, Daniel T

    2016-03-01

    Maxillofacial trauma in cats often results in mandibular symphyseal separation in addition to injuries of the caudal mandible and/or temporomandibular joint (TMJ). Caudal mandibular and TMJ injuries are difficult to access and stabilize using direct fixation techniques, thus indirect fixation is commonly employed. The immediate goals of fixation include stabilization for return to normal occlusion and function with the long-term objective of bony union. Indirect fixation techniques commonly used for stabilization of caudal mandibular and temporomandibular joint fracture/luxation include maxillomandibular fixation (MMF) with acrylic composite, interarcade wiring, tape muzzles, and the bignathic encircling and retaining device (BEARD) technique. This article introduces a modification of the previously described "labial reverse suture through buttons" technique used by Koestlin et al and the "labial locking with buttons" technique by Rocha et al. In cases with minimally displaced subcondylar and pericondylar fractures without joint involvement, the labial button technique can provide sufficient stabilization for healing. Advantages of the modified labial button technique include ease of application, noninvasive nature, and use of readily available materials. The construct can remain in place for a variable of amount of time, depending on its intended purpose. It serves as an alternative to the tape muzzle, which is rarely tolerated by cats. This technique can be easily used in conjunction with other maxillomandibular repairs, such as cerclage wire fixation of mandibular symphyseal separation. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate a modified labial button technique for maintaining occlusion of feline caudal mandibular fractures/TMJ luxations in a step-by-step fashion. PMID:27487655

  9. Labial frenectomy with Nd:YAG laser and conventional surgery: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Medeiros Júnior, Rui; Gueiros, Luiz Alcino; Silva, Igor Henrique; de Albuquerque Carvalho, Alessandra; Leão, Jair Carneiro

    2015-02-01

    Labial frenulums are sagittal fibrous folds of oral mucosa with a periosteal insertion that extend from the lips to the alveolar or gingival mucosa. Occasionally, they assume inadequate size or location and may lead to functional and esthetic limitations. The aim of the present study was to compare pre-, trans-, and postsurgical clinical parameters of labial frenectomies performed with conventional surgery and neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser. Forty individuals were assessed as a convenience sample and were divided into two groups according to the treatment: group 1 (G1), conventional surgery (n = 22), and G2, Nd:YAG laser surgery (n = 18). Clinical parameters such as frenulum insertion, location, bleeding, surgical time, suturing, preoperative fear, and postoperative discomfort/functional limitations were evaluated. All surgeries were performed by the same operator, and the level of fear, pain, and discomfort related to oral functions were assessed with a visual numeric scale. Most of the frenulums (90%) were classified as papillary or transpapillary insertion. Preoperative fear was similar between groups (p = 0.593). All G2 patients did not require suture (p < 0.001), did not bleed during the procedure (p < 0.001), and had surgical time diminished (p < 0.001). No significant statistical difference regarding pain or oral function could be observed. Three individuals (7.5%) experienced postsurgical complications. Nd:YAG laser frenectomies reduces transoperative bleeding, avoiding the need of suturing, and promotes a significant reduction of surgical time in comparison with conventional surgery. Therefore, further studies are necessary to provide a complete understanding and standardization of the technique as well as the expected clinical results.

  10. [Histochemical properties of secretory granules and fine structure of terminal portion in the Japanese Macaque labial gland].

    PubMed

    Tsutusumi, T; Kurabuchi, S; Aiyama, S

    1989-06-01

    The terminal portion of the Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata) labial gland was examined ultrastructurally and histochemically. The results obtained are as follows. 1) The Japanese macaque, Macaca fuscata has the upper and the lower labial glands, which can be described as a compound tubulo-acinar gland. 2) The terminal portion of the labial gland appears to be consisted of the mucous acini and the demilunes when examined with the light microscope. 3) The secretory granules containing in the glandular cells of the mucous acini and the demilunes are negative with napthol yellow S, ninhydrin-Schiff and DMAB nitrite. 4) The secretory granules containing in the glandular cells of mucous acini stain intensely with PAS, alcian blue (pH1.0, 2.5, 3.5), colloidal iron and PA-methenamine silver, while those of demilunes are negative with alcian blue (pH1.0). The glandular cells of demilune with the PA-methenamine silver method shows weak positive granules and positive granules which are limited to the hallo of them. 5) In the mucous acini the mucous granules are ejected from glandular cells by the process of exocytosis. 6) The myoepithelial cell can be seen in the terminal portion. This cell surrounds the acini with long processes. These findings suggest that the glandular cells of the demilune have the granules containing mucopoly saccharides and a small quantity of protein in addition to the mucous granules, although the terminal portion of the Japanese macaque labial gland is nearly composed of mucous cells.

  11. Parameter estimation of labial movements in speech production: implications for speech motor control.

    PubMed

    Hinton, V A; Robey, R R

    1995-08-01

    Central to theories of speech motor control are estimates on magnitudes of lip activity expressed in terms of central tendency, variability, and interrelatedness. In fact, the tenability of each of two competing theories of motor control for speech production rests solely on the observation of the predicted direction of the correlation coefficient (one positive and one negative) that indexes the relationship of concurrent lip activity. Each theory, however, predicts a relationship that is the complete opposite of the relationship predicted by the other. That is, one theory proposes that the labial system functions on the basis of complementary variation, whereas the other assumes positive covariation, or complementary modulation. In apparent contradiction, each prediction has been observed under laboratory conditions. The explanation for this apparent contradiction resides in the small sample sizes upon which each estimate was based. The minimum number of observations that are necessary to achieve accurate estimates of lip displacement parameters has remained unclear. This paper addresses three fundamental questions: (a) how many observations of on-task behavior are necessary to accurately estimate mean and variance values for the magnitude of upper lip displacement in a speech production experiment?, (b) what is the analogous number of observations for estimating the same values of lower lip displacement (together with the mandible) in the same context?, and (c) how many observations are necessary to accurately estimate the correlation coefficient indexing the relationship of lip displacements during the production of speech? Answers to these questions are accomplished through a review of estimator properties, a Monte Carlo computer simulation, and through laboratory observations.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Patient Satisfaction of Surgical Treatment of Clitoral Phimosis and Labial Adhesions Caused by Lichen Sclerosus

    PubMed Central

    King, Michelle; Rieff, Mollie; Krapf, Jill; Goldstein, Andrew T.

    2015-01-01

    with surgical correction of clitoral phimosis and lysis of vulvar adhesions for VGF caused by LS. Patients reported improvement in clitoral sensation and ability to achieve orgasm, as well as decreased dyspareunia. Surgical correction of vulvar scarring is a viable option to restore vulvar anatomy and sexual function in appropriate candidates with anogenital LS. Flynn AN, King M, Rieff M, Krapf J, and Goldstein AT. Patient satisfaction of surgical treatment of clitoral phimosis and labial adhesions caused by lichen sclerosus. Sex Med 2015;3:251–255. PMID:26797058

  13. The effect of caste and reproductive state on the chemistry of the cephalic labial glands secretion of Bombus terrestris.

    PubMed

    Amsalem, Etya; Kiefer, Julia; Schulz, Stefan; Hefetz, Abraham

    2014-08-01

    The cephalic labial glands are well developed in many bee species. In bumble bee males, they cover most of the head volume, and their secretion is used in marking reproductive territories and attracting virgin queens. In females, however, they are poorly studied. Here, we present chemical analyses of their secretion in queens and workers of Bombus terrestris under various social conditions. The secretion revealed a context-dependent composition with sterile females possessing large amounts of fatty acid dodecyl esters, ranging from dodecyl hexanoate to dodecyl oleate, compared to small amounts in fertile females. Significant reduction in the dodecyl esters also was found in queens at the competition phase, where worker reproduction, aggression, and gyne differentiation occur. The exclusive production of esters by sterile individuals also is typical of Dufour's gland secretion in this species, albeit in this case these are octyl rather than dodecyl esters, and the differences between sterile and fertile individuals are qualitative rather than quantitative. We propose that the labial gland esters provide yet another signal of reproductive inactivity. In virgin queens, it may signal that egg laying is deferred to the next season, while in workers it reinforces the message "I am sterile and out of the reproductive competition". Whether the reduction in dodecyl esters in fertile queens as a function of colony social development is involved in regulating gyne production and the onset of the competition phase is yet to be deciphered.

  14. Variations in the frenal morphology in the diverse population: A clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Jindal, Vikas; Kaur, Rupinder; Goel, Amit; Mahajan, Atika; Mahajan, Neha; Mahajan, Atin

    2016-01-01

    Background: The upper labial frenum is a normal anatomic structure with inherent morphological variations. Frenum has variations depending upon the attachment of fibers along with the presence of structural variations. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of frenal variations in a diverse ethnic population of Sundernagar, Himachal Pradesh. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 500 subjects within age group of 16–40 years (285 females, 215 males). Intraoral examination was done to evaluate the variations in frenum and photographs were taken. Results: In this study, depending upon structural variations, normal frenum was most common followed by frenum with nodule while frenum with appendix was found to be least common. However, no significant difference was found between males and females (P > 0.05) with respect to all frenal attachments. Furthermore, other structural variations were found in the diverse population of Sundernagar, Himachal Pradesh. Conclusion: Upper labial frenum is a small anatomical landmark in the oral cavity found to have diverse morphology. The dentist needs to give due importance for frenum assessment during the oral examination. PMID:27563207

  15. First Chemical Analysis and Characterization of the Male Species-Specific Cephalic Labial-Gland Secretions of South American Bumblebees.

    PubMed

    Brasero, Nicolas; Martinet, Baptiste; Urbanová, Klára; Valterová, Irena; Torres, Alexandra; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Rasmont, Pierre; Lecocq, Thomas

    2015-10-01

    The evolution of signals and reproductive traits involved in the pre-mating recognition has been in focus of abundant research in several model species, such as bumblebees (genus Bombus). However, the most-studied bumblebee reproductive trait, the male cephalic labial gland secretions (CLGS), remains unknown among bumblebee species from South America. In this study, the CLGS of five South American bumblebees of the subgenera Thoracobombus (Bombus excellens and B. atratus) and Cullumanobombus (B. rubicundus, B. hortulanus, and B. melaleucus) were investigated, by comparing the chemical compositions of their secretions to those of closely related European species. The results showed an obvious interspecific differentiation in both subgenera. The interspecific differentiation among the species of the Thoracobombus subgenus involved different compounds present at high contents (main compounds), while those of the Cullumanobombus subgenus shared the same main components. This suggests that among the species of the Cullumanobombus subgenus, the differentiation in minor components could lead to species discrimination.

  16. Formation of the insect head involves lateral contribution of the intercalary segment, which depends on Tc-labial function.

    PubMed

    Posnien, Nico; Bucher, Gregor

    2010-02-01

    The insect head is composed of several segments. During embryonic development, the segments fuse to form a rigid head capsule where obvious segmental boundaries are lacking. Hence, the assignment of regions of the insect head to specific segments is hampered, especially with respect to dorsal (vertex) and lateral (gena) parts. We show that upon Tribolium labial (Tc-lab) knock down, the intercalary segment is deleted but not transformed. Furthermore, we find that the intercalary segment contributes to lateral parts of the head cuticle in Tribolium. Based on several additional mutant and RNAi phenotypes that interfere with gnathal segment development, we show that these segments do not contribute to the dorsal head capsule apart from the dorsal ridge. Opposing the classical view but in line with findings in the vinegar fly Drosophila melanogaster and the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus, we propose a "bend and zipper" model for insect head capsule formation.

  17. Deliberations on the External Morphology and Modification of the Labial Segments in the Nepomorpha (Heteroptera: Insecta) with Notes on the Phylogenetic Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Brożek, Jolanta

    2013-01-01

    The present study provides new data concerning the external morphology of the labial segments of 46 species from nine Nepomorpha families using the scanning electron microscope. The labial segments are described in detail and images of their structures are presented for the systematic groups. Subsequent segments of the labium (I, II, III, and IV) are shaped similarly in all investigated taxa but carry individual characters in some (sub-)families. Five morphologically distinct forms of the apical plate and five intercalary sclerites have been identified. Additionally, three types of the articulation on the dorsal side between the third and second segments are interpreted as the new characters. The presence of the midventral condyle on the distal edge of the first segment and the third segment has been reanalyzed. New position of the midventral condyle on the proximal edge of the fourth labial segment has been distinguished in several groups. The new set of characters has been estimated from the plesiomorphic taxa of the Nepoidea (Nepidae and Belostomatidae) and subsequently through the more advanced taxa in the relation to the outgroup (Gerromorpha). The evaluation of these characters has revealed twenty-seven new apomorphies for the labium in the Nepomorpha. PMID:24294137

  18. How should we treat prepubertal labial adhesions? Retrospective comparison of topical treatments: estrogen only, betamethasone only, and combination estrogen and betamethasone.

    PubMed

    Eroğlu, Egemen; Yip, Marcus; Oktar, Tayfun; Kayiran, Sinan Mahir; Mocan, Hilal

    2011-12-01

    Labial adhesion is a common finding in prepubertal girls. Traditionally, topical estrogen cream application has been the choice of conservative treatment, however, topical betamethasone treatment has also recently been employed with some success. In this retrospective study, we analysed 131 children with labial adhesions. Eleven of 71 (15.4%) patients were treated successfully with topical estrogen cream only, and 5 of 32 (15.6%) patients were treated successfully with betamethasone cream only. We successfully treated 5 of 28 (28.5%) patients with a combination of estrogen and betamethasone creams. The mean time of treatment for each regimen of therapy was 4 weeks. There was no significance between the single-therapy estrogen and single-therapy betamethasone groups (P = 1.00), between single-therapy estrogen and the combination therapy (P = .16), and the single therapy betamethasone to combination therapy (P = .35) groups. There was also no significant difference between combination estrogen and betamethasone therapy and the combined data of the single therapies (relative risk 1.85; 95% confidence interval 0.89-3.89; P =.11). For the treatment of prepubertal labial adhesions, topical estrogen and betamethasone creams were found to have similar success rates, with limited satisfactory results. The combination therapy was mildly more efficacious than each of the single therapies but was not found to be statistically significant. Surgical separation is recommended if conservative treatment fails.

  19. Untangle lip through Z-plasty

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Jolly; Kumar, Vivek; Tripathi, Amitandra Kumar; Saimbi, Charanjit Singh

    2014-01-01

    An aberrant frenum causes gingival recession either due to an interference in the plaque control or due to a muscle pull. It also presents an aesthetic problem and may compromise the orthodontic result in midline diastema cases, thus causing a recurrence after the treatment. The management of such an aberrant frenum is accomplished by performing a frenectomy. The present case report shows the removal of the abnormal maxillary labial frenum in a 26-year-old male patient and an 18-year-old female patient through the Z-plasty technique. PMID:25240003

  20. The Relationship Between the Mid-Point and Most-Prominent Point on the Labial Curve of Upper Anterior Teeth

    PubMed Central

    Smith, R.N; Brook, A.H; Karmo, M

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: This study investigates coincidence of the most-prominent point and the mid-point on upper anterior teeth in relation to the use of straight-wire appliances. Materials and Methods: Alginate impressions of the upper jaw were obtained from forty Caucasian patients. Impressions were cast using hard dental stone. The teeth on each upper study model (canine to canine) were marked along the facial axis of the clinical crown (FACC line) then separated using a very thin diamond disc. Each tooth was mounted on a glass slide using sticky wax and cut into two halves down this FACC line. Images were acquired of the sections and a straight line connecting the gingival margin and the incisal edge was drawn on the flat cut surfaces (now the proximal crosssectional view). From this line, perpendicular lines were drawn at the mid-point and most prominent point to the labial curve. Coincidence rate was calculated or whether the most prominent point was gingival or incisal to the mid-point. Results: Approximately 80% of upper central incisors had coincident mid- and most-prominent points. Upper lateral incisors and canine teeth had approximately 50% coincidence. The vast majority of cases without coincidence showed the most-prominent point incisal to the mid-point for all tooth kinds with just 5% or less gingival. Conclusions: The high proportions of non-coincident examples found suggest that clinicians should be aware of individual variation and that this may possibly effect 3rd order alignment. PMID:19672333

  1. Electronically monitored labial dabbing and stylet 'probing' behaviors of brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys, in simulated environments.

    PubMed

    Wiman, Nik G; Walton, Vaughn M; Shearer, Peter W; Rondon, Silvia I

    2014-01-01

    Brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål), (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) is an invasive polyphagous agricultural and urban nuisance pest of Asian origin that is becoming widespread in North America and Europe. Despite the economic importance of pentatomid pests worldwide, their feeding behavior is poorly understood. Electronically monitored insect feeding (EMIF) technology is a useful tool in studies of feeding behavior of Hemiptera. Here we examined H. halys feeding behavior using an EMIF system designed for high throughput studies in environmental chambers. Our objectives were to quantify feeding activity by monitoring proboscis contacts with green beans, including labial dabbing and stylet penetration of the beans, which we collectively define as 'probes'. We examined frequency and duration of 'probes' in field-collected H. halys over 48 hours and we determined how environmental conditions could affect diel and seasonal periodicity of 'probing' activity. We found differences in 'probing' activity between months when the assays were conducted. These differences in activity may have reflected different environmental conditions, and they also coincide with what is known about the phenology of H. halys. While a substantial number of 'probes' occurred during scotophase, including some of the longest mean 'probe' durations, activity was either lower or similar to 'probing' activity levels during photophase on average. We found that temperature had a significant impact on H. halys 'probing' behavior and may influence periodicity of activity. Our data suggest that the minimal temperature at which 'probing' of H. halys occurs is between 3.5 and 6.1 °C (95% CI), and that 'probing' does not occur at temperatures above 26.5 to 29.6 °C (95% CI). We estimated that the optimal temperature for 'probing' is between 16 and 17 °C. PMID:25474148

  2. Electronically Monitored Labial Dabbing and Stylet ‘Probing’ Behaviors of Brown Marmorated Stink Bug, Halyomorpha halys, in Simulated Environments

    PubMed Central

    Wiman, Nik G.; Walton, Vaughn M.; Shearer, Peter W.; Rondon, Silvia I.

    2014-01-01

    Brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål), (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) is an invasive polyphagous agricultural and urban nuisance pest of Asian origin that is becoming widespread in North America and Europe. Despite the economic importance of pentatomid pests worldwide, their feeding behavior is poorly understood. Electronically monitored insect feeding (EMIF) technology is a useful tool in studies of feeding behavior of Hemiptera. Here we examined H. halys feeding behavior using an EMIF system designed for high throughput studies in environmental chambers. Our objectives were to quantify feeding activity by monitoring proboscis contacts with green beans, including labial dabbing and stylet penetration of the beans, which we collectively define as ‘probes’. We examined frequency and duration of ‘probes’ in field-collected H. halys over 48 hours and we determined how environmental conditions could affect diel and seasonal periodicity of ‘probing’ activity. We found differences in ‘probing’ activity between months when the assays were conducted. These differences in activity may have reflected different environmental conditions, and they also coincide with what is known about the phenology of H. halys. While a substantial number of ‘probes’ occurred during scotophase, including some of the longest mean ‘probe’ durations, activity was either lower or similar to ‘probing’ activity levels during photophase on average. We found that temperature had a significant impact on H. halys ‘probing’ behavior and may influence periodicity of activity. Our data suggest that the minimal temperature at which ‘probing’ of H. halys occurs is between 3.5 and 6.1°C (95% CI), and that ‘probing’ does not occur at temperatures above 26.5 to 29.6°C (95% CI). We estimated that the optimal temperature for ‘probing’ is between 16 and 17°C. PMID:25474148

  3. The role of a labial salivary gland biopsy in the diagnostic procedure for Sjögren’s syndrome; a study of 94 cases

    PubMed Central

    van Stein-Callenfels, Dewi; Tan, Jonathan; Bloemena, Elisabeth; van Vugt, Richard M.; Voskuyl, Alexandre E.; Santana, Nathalie T.Y.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of the present study is to examine the role of the outcome of the labial salivary gland biopsy (LSGB) in the diagnostic procedure of patients suspected of suffering from Sjögren’s syndrome (SS). Material and Methods: In a retrospective study the result of histopathological assessment of 94 consecutively taken labial salivary gland biopsies has been examined. For the diagnosis of SS the American-European Consensus Group classification (AECG, 2002) have been used. The outcome of the assessment has been discussed in relation to a recently reported classification provided by the American College of Rheumatology (ACR, 2012). Results: In the 94 LSGBs support for a diagnosis of SS has been encountered in 24 out of 26 patients with SS. In the 68 patients with a negative diagnosis of SS only six positive LSGBs were observed. The sensitivity of the labial biopsy amounted 0.92; the specificity was 0.91, while the positive predictive value and the negative predictive value amounted 0.80 and 0.97 respectively. LSGBs taken by or on the request of the departments of Rheumatology or Internal Medicine had a significant higher yield compared to LSGBs taken in other clinical departments. Conclusions: The LSGB may play a role in the diagnostic procedure of Sjögren’s syndrome when using either the AECG classification or the ACR classification. A LSGB should preferably taken after counseling for the possible presence of SS by a department of Rheumatology or Internal Medicine since the yield of such biopsies is much higher than in patients who have not been counseled by these departments prior to the taking of a LSGB. When using the ACR classification, a positive serologic result and a positive ocular test make the taking of a LSGB redundant. Only in case of a negative serologic outcome or a negative result of the ocular test a LSGB is indicated. Since both the serologic test and the ocular test carry hardly any morbidity, these tests should, indeed, be

  4. MALT LYMPHOMA IN LABIAL SALIVARY GLAND BIOPSY FROM SJÖGREN’S SYNDROME (SS): IMPORTANCE OF FOLLOW-UP IN EARLY DETECTION

    PubMed Central

    Keszler, A; Adler, LI; Gandolfo, MS; Masquijo Bisio, PA; Smith, AC; Vollenweider, CF; Heidenreich, AM; de Stefano, G; Kambo, MV; Cox, DP; Narbaitz, M; Lanfranchi, HE

    2012-01-01

    Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas are known to occur in Sjögren syndrome (SS) patients, but reported cases in labial salivary glands (LSG) are rare. We report a case of 60-year-old female patient with SS who developed MALT lymphoma in the labial salivary glands during a 2-year time interval when she was participating in the Sjögren’s International Clinical Collaborative Alliance (SICCA). SICCA is an ongoing longitudinal multisite observational study funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) of the United States. At follow-up exam, LSG biopsy showed atypical diffuse infiltration by mononuclear cells of variable size and atypical nuclei affecting the whole specimen with destruction of glandular architecture, leading to a diagnosis of B-cell MALT lymphoma. Computed tomography and bone marrow biopsy failed to show additional evidence of disease. Clinical, serological, ocular, histologic and immunohistochemical findings are presented. A “watch and wait” policy was adopted with regular examinations. PMID:23157989

  5. Workers make the queens in melipona bees: identification of geraniol as a caste determining compound from labial glands of nurse bees.

    PubMed

    Jarau, Stefan; van Veen, Johan W; Twele, Robert; Reichle, Christian; Gonzales, Eduardo Herrera; Aguilar, Ingrid; Francke, Wittko; Ayasse, Manfred

    2010-06-01

    Reproductive division of labor in advanced eusocial honey bees and stingless bees is based on the ability of totipotent female larvae to develop into either workers or queens. In nearly all species, caste is determined by larval nutrition. However, the mechanism that triggers queen development in Melipona bees is still unresolved. Several hypotheses have been proposed, ranging from the proximate (a genetic determination of caste development) to the ultimate (a model in which larvae have complete control over their own caste fate). Here, we showed that the addition of geraniol, the main compound in labial gland secretions of nurse workers, to the larval food significantly increases the number of larvae that develop into queens. Interestingly, the proportion of queens in treated brood exactly matched the value (25%) predicted by the two-locus, two-allele model of genetic queen determination, in which only females that are heterozygous at both loci are capable of developing into queens. We conclude that labial gland secretions, added to the food of some cells by nurse bees, trigger queen development, provided that the larvae are genetically predisposed towards this developmental pathway. In Melipona beecheii, geraniol acts as a primer pheromone representing the first caste determination substance identified to date.

  6. Elevated p16ink4a Expression in Human Labial Salivary Glands as a Potential Correlate of Cognitive Aging in Late Midlife

    PubMed Central

    Sørensen, Christiane Elisabeth; Tritsaris, Katerina; Reibel, Jesper; Lauritzen, Martin; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Osler, Merete; Pedersen, Anne Marie Lynge

    2016-01-01

    Background The cell-cycle inhibitor and tumor suppressor cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor, p16ink4a, is one of the two gene products of the ink4a/ARF (cdkn2a) locus on chromosome 9q21. Up-regulation of p16ink4a has been linked to cellular senescence, and findings from studies on different mammalian tissues suggest that p16ink4a may be a biomarker of organismal versus chronological age. Objective The aim of this study was to examine the immunolocalization pattern of p16ink4a in human labial salivary gland (LSG) tissue, and to analyze whether its expression level in LSGs is a peripheral correlate of cognitive decline in late midlife. Methods The present study was a part of a study of causes and predictors of cognitive decline in middle-aged men in a Danish birth cohort. It is based on data from 181 male participants from the Danish Metropolit birth cohort, born in 1953, who were examined for age-associated alterations in cognition, dental health, and morphological and autonomic innervation characteristics of the LSGs. The participants were allocated to two groups based on the relative change in cognitive performance from young adulthood to late midlife. LSG biopsies were analyzed by qRT-PCR for the expression level of p16ink4a. Immunohistochemistry was performed on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections of LSGs. Results p16ink4a immunoreactivity was observed in LSG ductal, myoepithelial, and stromal cells, but not in acinar cells. The mean relative expression of p16ink4a in LSGs was higher in the group of participants with decline in cognitive performance. A logistic regression analysis revealed that the relative p16 expression was predictive of the participant’s group assignment. A negative correlation was found between relative p16ink4a expression and the participant’s standardized regression residuals from early adulthood to late midlife cognitive performance scores. Conclusions p16ink4a expression in human LSGs may constitute a potential peripheral

  7. Effect of the tongue rotation exercise training on the oral functions in normal adults - Part 1 investigation of tongue pressure and labial closure strength.

    PubMed

    Arakawa, I; Koide, K; Takahashi, M; Mizuhashi, F

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the tongue rotation exercise training on the oral functions using the measurement of maximum tongue pressure (MTP) and labial closure strength (LCS) in normal adults. In experiment 1, the differences in MTP and LCS at the measurement point for both groups with and without tongue rotation exercise training were examined. We instructed subjects to perform the tongue rotation exercise for 2 months. We measured MTP and LCS at the point before training and at the points of 1 and 2 months after the beginning of training. In experiment 2, the changes of MTP and LCS based on the sex differences and the measurement points in training were examined. We instructed subjects to perform the tongue rotation exercise for 3 months, and measured MTP and LCS at the point before training and at the points of 2 weeks and 1, 2 and 3 months after the beginning of training. The results of experiment 1 showed MTP and LCS increased with the progress of continuous training. The results of experiment 2 showed MTP and LCS were always higher in men than in women and increased significantly at 2 weeks of training in both sexes (P < 0.01). These results might be suggested that the tongue rotation exercise training was effective for the recovery of the activity of the stomatognathic system.

  8. Evaluation of a three-stage method for improving mandibular retrognathia with labially inclined incisors using genioplasty, segmental osteotomy, and two-jaw surgery.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, Kazuhiro; Yamaguchi, Hiro-O; Koshikawa-Matsuno, Mino; Inoue, Nobuo

    2014-01-01

    We have sometimes encountered difficulty in improving labially inclined teeth, particularly in patients with mandibular retrognathia, because the symphysis menti is often thin and insufficient space is available to permit sagittal rotation of the teeth without root exposure from the alveolar bone. We have previously described a three-stage method to overcome this problem, involving genioplasty for improving the retruded chin, and to construct the infrastructure for subsequent subapical segmental alveolar osteotomy, subapical segmental alveolar osteotomy itself, and, finally, two-jaw surgery. Bone augmentation with thin cortical bone at the gap created on the upper surface of the advanced genial segment was also addressed in the previous report. In the present study, to confirm the benefits of the three-stage method using objective data, cephalometric evaluation was performed in each step. In all cases, pogonion (Pog) was moved forward substantially. Net linear forward movement of Pog and net changes in SN-Pog were from 12 mm to 20 mm and from 4.8° to 7.0°, respectively. Angle of mandibular incisors and interincisal angle also improved to desirable levels. Although this method requires three separate surgeries, the approach safely improves the clinical situation and accentuates treatment efficacy. PMID:24963302

  9. Characterisation of Acetyl-CoA Thiolase: The First Enzyme in the Biosynthesis of Terpenic Sex Pheromone Components in the Labial Gland of Bombus terrestris.

    PubMed

    Brabcová, Jana; Demianová, Zuzana; Kindl, Jiří; Pichová, Iva; Valterová, Irena; Zarevúcka, Marie

    2015-05-01

    Buff-tailed bumblebees, Bombus terrestris, use a male sex pheromone for premating communication. Its main component is a sesquiterpene, 2,3-dihydrofarnesol. This paper reports the isolation of a thiolase (acetyl-CoA thiolase, AACT_BT), the first enzyme involved in the biosynthetic pathway leading to formation of isoprenoids in the B. terrestris male sex pheromone. Characterisation of AACT_BT might contribute to a better understanding of pheromonogenesis in the labial gland of B. terrestris males. The protein was purified to apparent homogeneity by column chromatography with subsequent stepwise treatment. AACT_BT showed optimum acetyltransferase activity at pH 7.1 and was strongly inhibited by iodoacetamide. The enzyme migrated as a band with an apparent mass of 42.9 kDa on SDS-PAGE. MS analysis of an AACT_BT tryptic digest revealed high homology to representatives of the thiolase family. AACT_BT has 96 % amino acid sequence identity with the previously reported Bombus impatiens thiolase.

  10. Comparison of effects of adjuvants on efficacy of virion envelope herpes simplex virus vaccine against labial infection of BALB/c mice.

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, T A; Hilfenhaus, J; Moser, H; Morahan, P S

    1983-01-01

    A subunit virion envelope vaccine of herpes simplex virus type 1 was evaluated for its ability to protect labially infected mice from development of the primary herpetic lesion, encephalitic death, and latent virus infection in the trigeminal ganglion. Several adjuvants, including aluminum hydroxide and polyriboinosinic acid-polyribocytidylic acid complexed with poly-L-lysine and carboxymethyl cellulose were investigated for their ability to enhance protection of the subunit vaccine and were compared in effectiveness with complete Freund adjuvant. The subunit vaccine was demonstrated to be immunogenic, as shown by development of antibody detectable by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The humoral immune response was correlated with protection from herpetic encephalitis and, at a lower degree, with prevention of the appearance of primary herpetic lesions and acceleration of lesion resolution. The efficacy of the vaccine was most apparent in protecting mice from encephalitic death. To reduce or prevent the development of latent infection was most difficult, but was achieved with some vaccine regimens. Repeated administrations of vaccine with adjuvant were required for this protection. The most effective adjuvant was complete Freund adjuvant, but several synthetic adjuvants were effective, particularly aluminum hydroxide and the polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidylic acid-poly-L-lysine-carboxymethyl cellulose immunoadjuvant. PMID:6307874

  11. Rescue of Drosophila labial null mutant by the chicken ortholog Hoxb-1 demonstrates that the function of Hox genes is phylogenetically conserved.

    PubMed

    Lutz, B; Lu, H C; Eichele, G; Miller, D; Kaufman, T C

    1996-01-15

    Hox complexes are important players in the establishment of the body plan of invertebrates and vertebrates. Sequence comparison demonstrates a remarkable phylogenetic conservation of key structural features of Hox genes. The correlation between the physical order of genes along the chromosomes and their domains of function along the body axis is conserved between arthropods and vertebrates. Ectopic expression experiments suggest that the functions of homeo proteins also are conserved between invertebrates and vertebrates. However, it remains an open question whether vertebrate Hox genes expressed under the control of Drosophila regulatory sequences can substitute the function of Drosophila Hox genes. We have studied this issue with the Drosophila labial (lab) gene and its chicken ortholog gHoxb-1. We fused the entire protein-coding region of gHoxb-1 with previously identified regulatory sequences of lab. This approach places gHoxb-1 into the normal embryonic spatiotemporal context in which lab acts. Ten transgenic lines carrying gHoxb-1 were established and tested for their ability to rescue lab null mutant animals. Eight lines rescued with high efficiency, embryonic lethality, and abnormal head morphogenesis, two defects observed in lab null mutant embryos. The rescue with the gHoxb-1 minigene was close to the efficiency of that obtained with the Drosophila lab minigene. This indicates that gHoxb-1 protein can regulate lab target genes and thereby restore embryonic viability. This is striking, as Lab and gHoxb-1 proteins are divergent except for their homeo domains and a short stretch of amino acids amino-terminal to the homeo domain. Our findings demonstrate a functional conservation of the lab class homeo proteins between insects and vertebrates and support the view that function of Hox genes resides in relatively few conserved motifs and largely in the homeo domain. PMID:8566751

  12. Treatment of relapse in herpes simplex on labial and facial areas and of primary herpes simplex on genital areas and "area pudenda" with low-power He-Ne laser or Acyclovir administered orally

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velez-Gonzalez, Mariano; Urrea-Arbelaez, Alejandro; Nicolas, M.; Serra-Baldrich, E.; Perez, J. L.; Pavesi, M.; Camarasa, J. M.; Trelles, Mario A.

    1996-01-01

    Sixty patients (greater than 16 yrs old) suffering primary or relapse genital herpes simplex viruses (HSV) and relapse labial HSV were appointed for this study. Three or more relapses were experienced per year. Patients (under treatment) were divided into two groups (distribution areas), corresponding to either labial herpes or genital herpes. These groups were sub-divided into 3 groups. The total number of labial or facial HSV patients was 36 (10 in group 1, 12 in group 2, 14 in group 3) and 24 for genital, buttocks, or 'area pudenda' HSV patients (6 in group 1, 8 in group 2, 10 in group 3). The design was a randomized, double- blind study. The setting was hospital and outpatient. The patients diagnosed as having the HVS disease were sent to the dermatology department and were assigned to a group at random. Treatment was begun as follows: During the treatment signs and symptoms were assessed and after the treatment, the relapses were also assessed (biochemical and hematological tests before and after the treatment) and the diagnosis of the HSV type I and II. The statistical evaluation of the results was performed and carried out with the SPSS and BMDP program. The relapses of the herpes infection in the lips and the face were significantly reduced (p less than 0.026) in patients treated with laser He-Ne and laser He-Ne plus Acyclovir. The interim between the relapses also increased significantly (p less than 0.005) in relation with the group treated with Acyclovir. The duration of the herpetic eruptions was clearly reduced in all locations in patients treated with laser He-Ne plus Acyclovir. No differences were noted between patients treated with laser He-Ne only or Acyclovir only. Therefore it is probable that therapeutic synergism took place. In relation with this, laser He-Ne shows the same therapeutic efficacy as Acyclovir taken orally. The association of Acyclovir and laser Ne-Ne could be an alternative method for the treatment of HSV in the face. The number

  13. Paralleling technique for frenectomy and oral hygiene evaluation after frenectomy

    PubMed Central

    Abullais, Shahabe Saquib; Dani, Nitin; Ningappa, Priyanka; Golvankar, Kapil; Chavan, Amit; Malgaonkar, Nikhil; Gore, Anup

    2016-01-01

    Background: High frenum attachment is a very common problem in the population. Various conventional techniques are available which has certain disadvantages; in addition to that high frenum also hinders oral hygiene maintenance. This study aims to evaluate patient's response to two different frenectomy technique, and oral hygiene maintenance before and after frenectomy. Materials and Methods: Twenty patients with high labial frenum were randomly selected from the outpatient department. Patients were divided into two groups according to the technique used. Each group contained ten patients. One group was treated by “conventional scalpel technique” and other group by “new paralleling technique”. To evaluate patients response, visual analogue scale for pain and speech were taken at first postoperative day, 1-week and 1-month. In other part of the study the oral hygiene maintenance was evaluated by using plaque and gingival bleeding index at baseline before frenectomy, 1-week and 1-month after frenectomy. Results: Results showed that new paralleling technique for frenectomy causes less postoperative discomfort and also there was significant improvement in the oral hygiene maintenance by the patient after frenectomy. Conclusion: High maxillary frenum causes hindrance in oral hygiene maintenance. Paralleling technique for frenectomy causes less discomfort to the patient during healing phase when compared with the conventional technique. PMID:27041834

  14. Modified lip repositioning: A surgical approach to treat the gummy smile

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Aditya Gopinath; Koganti, Vijay Prasad; Prabhakar, Ashok Kodangala; Soni, Sweta

    2015-01-01

    Gummy smile has been an esthetic concern for many patients. This clinical report describes a successful surgical coverage obtained by modified lip repositioning, thus surgically treating the gummy smile. The technique was performed to limit the retraction of elevator muscles (e.g., zygomaticus minor, orbicularis oris, leviator anguli oris and levator labi oris.) The technique is fulfilled by removing two strips of mucosa from maxillary buccal vestibule on both the sides leaving the frenum untouched and creating a partial thickness flap between mucogingival junction and upper lip musculature, and suturing the lip mucosa with mucogingival junction, resulting in a narrow vestibule and restricted muscle pull, thereby reducing gingival display. This technique is different from the conventional surgical lip repositioning as labial frenum is left untouched over here as it helps in maintain Litton the midline for lip repositioning and reduces the morbidity associated with it. PMID:26229285

  15. Labial Adhesions: A Guide for Parents

    MedlinePlus

    ... prescription from her health care provider. How is estrogen cream applied to the labia? When possible have ... is discontinued. How will I know if the (estrogen) cream is working? Over time small openings will ...

  16. Necrotizing sialometaplasia affecting the minor labial glands.

    PubMed

    Matilla, A; Flores, T; Nogales, F F; Galera, H

    1979-02-01

    A case of necrotizing sialometaplasia of the lower lip, a previously unreported location for this lesion, is presented. In the past, other cases of this benign process occuring in this site may have been confused with squamous-cell or mucoepidermoid carcinoma. In order to arrive at the correct diagnosis, an ample biopsy of the lesion is mandatory.

  17. Multifocal canalicular adenoma of the minor labial salivary glands

    PubMed Central

    Samar, María Elena; Avila, Rodolfo Esteban; Fonseca, Ismael Bernardo; Anderson, William; Fonseca, Gabriel M; Cantín, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Canalicular adenoma (CA) is an uncommon benign neoplasia of salivary glands which is clinically difficult to recognise. Despite having an excellent prognosis, the histological diagnosis and clinical management of this entity can be troublesome. While the main differential diagnosis to consider is basal cell adenoma (BCA), similar histological patterns and multifocality have been observed in adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) and polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma (PLGA), both locally-aggressive malignancies which require radically different treatment to CA. An emphasis has been placed on the value of immunohistochemistry in avoiding diagnostic and surgical errors. CA is positive for AE1/AE3, CD117 and S-100 protein, and negative for p63, α-SMA, Ki 67 and vimentin. Here we discuss the case of a 61-year-old female with CA in her right upper lip, showing multifocal growth histologically. The differential diagnosis with other adenomas is discussed in addition to the role of immunohistochemical studies that can confirm the clinical and surgical findings. PMID:25550873

  18. Multifocal canalicular adenoma of the minor labial salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Samar, María Elena; Avila, Rodolfo Esteban; Fonseca, Ismael Bernardo; Anderson, William; Fonseca, Gabriel M; Cantín, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Canalicular adenoma (CA) is an uncommon benign neoplasia of salivary glands which is clinically difficult to recognise. Despite having an excellent prognosis, the histological diagnosis and clinical management of this entity can be troublesome. While the main differential diagnosis to consider is basal cell adenoma (BCA), similar histological patterns and multifocality have been observed in adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) and polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma (PLGA), both locally-aggressive malignancies which require radically different treatment to CA. An emphasis has been placed on the value of immunohistochemistry in avoiding diagnostic and surgical errors. CA is positive for AE1/AE3, CD117 and S-100 protein, and negative for p63, α-SMA, Ki 67 and vimentin. Here we discuss the case of a 61-year-old female with CA in her right upper lip, showing multifocal growth histologically. The differential diagnosis with other adenomas is discussed in addition to the role of immunohistochemical studies that can confirm the clinical and surgical findings.

  19. Remedy for Repeated Implant Retained Denture Fracture-A Challenging Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Reddy M, Ramu; Metta, Kiran Kumar; Charry N, Sudheer; B, Chittaranjan

    2014-01-01

    The most common site of fracture in a maxillary or a mandibular complete denture is along an anteroposterior line that coincides with the labial notch in in the denture which used to provide the frenum relief. Osseointegrated implants have been a boon to the patients who are completelly edentulous and are not satisfied with the conventional removable complete denture approach.Implant supported dentures have proven to provide superior retention and support for removable complete dentures. Nevertheless, fracture of the denture bases is a common complication of implant-supported mandibular overlay dentures,ecspecially when the artificial denture is opposing natural dentition. This article describes and illustrates a method of reinforcing implant-supported mandibular overdentures to overcome this problem. PMID:25584333

  20. Conservative management of severe intrusion in a primary tooth: a 4-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Ruviére, Denise Belucio; Costa, Mariana Machado Teixeira de Moraes; Cunha, Robson Frederico

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this report was to describe the case of an 18-month-old boy who was referred to the pediatric clinic of the School of Dentistry of Araçatuba, São Paulo State University, Araçatuba, São Paulo, Brazil, 3 days after sustaining severe trauma that led to the complete intrusion of the primary maxillary right lateral incisor, a crown fracture of the primary maxillary right central incisor without pulp involvement, and disruption of the superior labial frenum. Four months later, spontaneous re-eruption was observed in the intruded tooth and no endodontic intervention was necessary in either traumatized teeth. Four years after the trauma, a morphological change in the germ of the permanent successor was noted. Clinical follow-up and periodic radiographies are necessary after traumatic intrusion of primary teeth to monitor possible sequelae in the permanent successors.

  1. Improved communication with the laboratory for the fabrication of labial veneers.

    PubMed

    Schwartzman, Aaron; Zweig, Alan E

    2015-04-01

    Advances in dental materials and adhesive technologies have changed the way we practice dentistry. Consequently, restorative dentistry has seen the adoption and almost exponential increase in usage of materials like zirconia and lithium disilicate. Unlike the incidence of ceramic failure in the past, these newer materials are paving the road to better looking dentistry. This paper focuses on lithium disilicate and predominantly glassy ceramics, as well as improving communication with the laboratory.

  2. Patient Presentation and Management of Labial Ulceration Following Uterine Artery Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Gonsalves, Carin Franciosa, Stefan V.; Shah, Suken; Bonn, Joseph; Wu, Christine

    2007-11-15

    Uterine artery embolization is a safe and effective procedure for the treatment of symptomatic uterine fibroids. Nontarget embolization of adjacent internal iliac artery branches is a reported complication of uterine artery embolization. The following report describes the presentation and management of ulcerations of the labium minora due to nontarget embolization of the internal pudendal artery.

  3. Changes in labial capillary density on ascent to and descent from high altitude

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert-Kawai, Edward; Coppel, Jonny; Phillip, Hennis; Grocott, Michael; Ince, Can; Martin, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Present knowledge of how the microcirculation is altered by prolonged exposure to hypoxia at high altitude is incomplete and modification of existing analytical techniques may improve our knowledge considerably. We set out to use a novel simplified method of measuring in vivo capillary density during an expedition to high altitude using a CytoCam incident dark field imaging video-microscope. The simplified method of data capture involved recording one-second images of the mucosal surface of the inner lip to reveal data about microvasculature density in ten individuals. This was done on ascent to, and descent from, high altitude. Analysis was conducted offline by two independent investigators blinded to the participant identity, testing conditions and the imaging site.  Additionally we monitored haemoglobin concentration and haematocrit data to see if we could support or refute mechanisms of altered density relating to vessel recruitment. Repeated sets of paired values were compared using Kruskall Wallis Analysis of Variance tests, whilst comparisons of values between sites was by related samples Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test. Correlation between different variables was performed using Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient, and concordance between analysing investigators using intra-class correlation coefficient. There was a significant increase in capillary density from London on ascent to high altitude; median capillaries per field of view area increased from 22.8 to 25.3 (p=0.021). There was a further increase in vessel density during the six weeks spent at altitude (25.3 to 32.5, p=0.017). Moreover, vessel density remained high on descent to Kathmandu (31.0 capillaries per field of view area), despite a significant decrease in haemoglobin concentration and haematocrit. Using a simplified technique, we have demonstrated an increase in capillary density on early and sustained exposure to hypobaric hypoxia at thigh altitude, and that this remains elevated on descent to normoxia. The technique is simple, reliable and reproducible. PMID:27746908

  4. Improved communication with the laboratory for the fabrication of labial veneers.

    PubMed

    Schwartzman, Aaron; Zweig, Alan E

    2015-04-01

    Advances in dental materials and adhesive technologies have changed the way we practice dentistry. Consequently, restorative dentistry has seen the adoption and almost exponential increase in usage of materials like zirconia and lithium disilicate. Unlike the incidence of ceramic failure in the past, these newer materials are paving the road to better looking dentistry. This paper focuses on lithium disilicate and predominantly glassy ceramics, as well as improving communication with the laboratory. PMID:25916014

  5. Adult patients' adjustability to orthodontic appliances. Part I: a comparison between Labial, Lingual, and Invisalign™.

    PubMed

    Shalish, Miri; Cooper-Kazaz, Rena; Ivgi, Inbal; Canetti, Laura; Tsur, Boaz; Bachar, Eytan; Chaushu, Stella

    2012-12-01

    This prospective study examined the adult patient's perception of recovery after insertion of three types of orthodontic appliances: Buccal, Lingual and Invisalign. The sample consisted of sixty-eight adult patients (45 females and 23 males) who comprised three groups: 28 Buccal, 19 Lingual, and 21 Invisalign patients. After appliance insertion, patients completed a Health-Related Quality of Life questionnaire daily for the first week and again on day 14, in order to assess patients' perception of pain and analgesic consumption. In addition, four areas of dysfunction were assessed: oral dysfunction, eating disturbances, general activity parameters, and oral symptoms. Lingual appliance was associated with more severe pain and analgesic consumption, the greatest oral and general dysfunction, and the most difficult and longest recovery. The Invisalign patients complained of relatively high levels of pain in the first days after insertion; however this group was characterized by the lowest level of oral symptoms and by a similar level of general activity disturbances and oral dysfunction compared to the Buccal appliance. Many Lingual and some Buccal patients did not reach a full recovery from their eating difficulties by the end of the study period. The present study provides information to adult patients and clinicians assisting them in choosing the most appropriate treatment modality in relation to Health-Related Quality of Life parameters.

  6. [Velopharyngeal sequels in labial-alveolar-velopalatine clefts. Pharyngoplasty by pharynx Lipostructure].

    PubMed

    Bardot, J; Salazard, B; Casanova, D; Pech, C; Magalon, G

    2007-09-01

    Advancing the posterior pharyngeal wall is a classic technique to treat velopharyngeal insufficiency. Injection of autologous fat behind the posterior pharyngeal mucosa according to the Coleman Lipostructure technique is a recent development. The authors report their experience in six cases using this modification. The preoperative work-up was performed by a speech therapist with a physical examination and measurement of the nasal air loss was performed using an aerophonometer. Fat was harvested either on the abdominal wall or on a buttock and then centrifuged. Fat injection was performed using a curved blunt cannula under the mucosa of the lateral and posterior pharyngeal walls. Injecting fat is an autologous graft of fat tissue: after a postoperative period of three months, the volume of fat becomes permanently stable. In five out of the six patients who presented moderate velopharyngeal insufficiency, speech improvement was significant. The single failure was a patient with bilateral cleft lip and palate sequels after previous pharyngoplasty using the Orticochea procedure. Treatment of moderate velopharyngeal insufficiency using fat injection is an efficient method. The advantages are its innocuousness and that scaring of the pharynx is avoided.

  7. [Pre-prosthetic plastics of labial vestibule in patients with toothless lower jaws].

    PubMed

    Dimitrov, D

    1988-01-01

    The acquired practical experience in the treatment of 20 in-patients is shared. All of them had advanced and severe atrophy of alveolar process and the body of mandibule. Two methods of vestibuloplastics were mainly applied: according to K. Schuchardt and the method of H. Pichler. The very good early and late results attained as regards the prosthetic field enabled the accomplishment of functionally fit prosthetic construction.

  8. Unusual labial glands in snakes of the genus Geophis Wagler, 1830 (Serpentes: Dipsadinae).

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Leonardo; da Costa Prudente, Ana Lúcia; Zaher, Hussam

    2014-01-01

    Geophis belongs to the goo-eating dipsadine assemblage of snakes that are known to feed exclusively on earthworms, snails, and slugs. Although the unusual feeding strategies of the goo-eating dipsadines are well known (but poorly documented), little attention has been paid to their internal anatomy. Here, we describe a new and noteworthy morphological and histochemical condition of the infralabial glands in three species of Geophis (G. brachycephalus, G. nasalis and G. semidoliatus), all earthworm feeders. Their infralabial glands are constituted of two distinct parts: an anterolateral portion composed of mucous and seromucous cells that stretches from the tip of the dentary to the corner of the mouth, and a tubular posteromedial portion that is exclusively seromucous. The anterolateral portion receives fibers of the levator anguli oris muscle that attaches on its posterodorsal extremity while the posteromedial portion extends posteriorly to the corner of the mouth where it receives fibers of the adductor mandibulae externus medialis muscle. Furthermore, the posteromedial portion of the infralabial gland is constituted by large acini filled with secretion that is periodic acid-Schiff positive. These acini release their secretion directly into a large lumen located in the middle of the glandular portion. In the three species examined, the supralabial glands show a traditional configuration, being constituted of mucous and seromucous cells and retaining an enlarged part in its caudal region that resembles a Duvernoy's gland. The presence in Geophis of an expanded lumen in part of the infralabial gland that is compressed by an adjacent muscle suggests a more specialized role for the secretion produced by these glands that may not be related to envenomation but rather to prey transport and mucus control.

  9. Common variable immunodeficiency with unusual vegetative lesions of the tongue and labial mucosa: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kishimoto, H; Urade, M; Noguchi, K; Sakurai, K

    2001-01-01

    A case of common variable immunodeficiency with unusual vegetative lesions of the tongue and lower lip in a 28-year-old man is presented. The vegetative lesions developed over the preceding 10 months and clinically were suggestive of malignancy. The biopsy specimens showed no malignancy, and a bacterial culture of the tongue detected abundant Staphylococcus aureus. Combined treatment with a corticosteroid antibiotic ointment and povidone iodine rinse produced remarkable resolution of the lesions. Laboratory examination showed markedly decreased levels of serum immunoglobulins. Intravenous gamma globulin replacement therapy resulted in good control of infection and disappearance of the lesions. PMID:11174577

  10. [Contribution of immediate orthopedic-orthodontic treatment in maxillo-palatine-labial clefts].

    PubMed

    Boboc, G; Tolea, M; Oltean, D; Găucan, C; Tănăsescu, D; Drăgoi, E; Gavrilescu, G; Enescu, S; Alexandrescu, M; Soiman, A

    1988-01-01

    Labio-maxillo-palatine clefts are pathological conditions accompanied by severe handicaps, congenital malformations of particular interest for medical assistance because of several reasons, including the following: they are the most frequent congenital malformations of the bucco-maxillo-facil region: in certain cases there are other teratologic conditions in other parts of the organism that are associated to these clefts; there are no disturbances from the intellectual viewpoint; there are efficient possibilities for therapy as a result of a multidisciplinary approach, and the progress achieved in each of the fields involved may contribute to continuous improvement of the therapeutical prognosis; because of the therapeutical problems that these pathological conditions may raise, and because of the long duration of the treatment, the pathology involved in labio-maxillo-palatine clefts has a special social character which renders necessary the support of extra-medical factors (special schooling, special conditions for work, etc.). All these aspects explain the world-wide interest for this type of pathology, as it is also reflected in the large number of scientific manifestations dedicated exclusively, or in association to this problem, aimed at achieving a permanent therapeutic progress in this field. In the period between 1986 and 1987 the authors have selected 60 patients out of those hospitalized for this defect in the Clinic. The patients were aged between 2 and 43 years. Orthodontal therapy is the type of therapy which takes the longest time in these patients. This is achieved by the successive application of orthodontal devices, which necessitate a long-term therapeutic strategy. In the course of this therapy a permanent cooperation is necessary between the specialist in orthodontics and the maxillofacial surgeon. A common approach is beneficial for both specialties. The number of specialists in orthodontics involved in the orthodontal therapy of labio-maxillo-palatine clefts is alarmingly low, and thus there is no possibility to evolve a special program for their further special education. Another difficulty is the fact that patients from all over the country demand the services of the same specialist, and a series of aspects evolve from this situation, as follows: the patients (usually accompanied by one of the parents) have to perform long trips, which are also expensive; when incidents occur, in relation with the use of a orthodontal device these patients cannot require immediately the assistance of specialized services, and, as a result, the number of recidives is alarmingly high.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

  11. Compensation for Complete Assimilation in Speech Perception: The Case of Korean Labial-to-Velar Assimilation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitterer, Holger; Kim, Sahyang; Cho, Taehong

    2013-01-01

    In connected speech, phonological assimilation to neighboring words can lead to pronunciation variants (e.g., "garden bench" [arrow right] "garde'm' bench"). A large body of literature suggests that listeners use the phonetic context to reconstruct the intended word for assimilation types that often lead to incomplete assimilations (e.g., a…

  12. Clinical manifestations and oral findings in Fraser syndrome.

    PubMed

    Diniz, Michele Baffi; Lima, Luciana Monti; Sacono, Nancy Tomoko; de Paula, Andréia Bolzan; dos Santos-Pinto, Lourdes

    2007-01-01

    This article is the first known case report of Fraser syndrome in the dental literature. Its purpose was to present the clinical manifestations, oral findings, and dental treatment of a 14-year, 10-month-old female patient. Fraser syndrome is a rare recessive autosomal genetic disorder characterized by multisystemic malformation, usually comprising cryptophthalmos, syndactyly, and renal defects. The child presented with: (1) hydrocephaly; (2) face asymmetry; (3) low-inserted ears; (4) flat nose bridge; (5) cryptophthalmos; (6) bilateral absence of eyeballs; (7) hypertelorism; (8) syndactyly on the left fingers and toes; (9) skeletal defects; and (10) lower limb asymmetry. The intraoral examination revealed: (1) complete primary denture; (2) malocclusion; (3) tooth crowding; (4) ogival palate; (5) normal labial frena; (6) absence of lingual frenum (not compromising the tongue movements); (7) parched lips; (8) supragingival calculus adhered to all tooth surfaces; and (9) moderate gingivitis. The dental treatment consisted of periodic monitoring of the patient's oral health status and supragingival scaling associated with topical applications of 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate gel at 2-week intervals to reduce gingivitis.

  13. Revisiting the Factors Underlying Maxillary Midline Diastema

    PubMed Central

    Jaija, Abdullah M. Zakria; El-Beialy, Amr Ragab; Mostafa, Yehya A.

    2016-01-01

    Aim. The aim of this study is to analyze the etiological factors underlying the presence of maxillary midline diastema in a sample of orthodontic patients. Materials and Methods. One hundred patients who fulfill the inclusion criteria were selected from 1355 patients seeking orthodontic treatment. The pretreatment orthodontic records were analyzed. The width of the maxillary midline diastema was measured clinically with a digital caliper at two levels: the mesioincisal angles of the central incisors and five millimeters from the incisal edge. The two measurements were averaged, and patients with diastema of more than 0.5 millimeter in width were enrolled. Results. Diastema is a multifactorial clinical finding with more than one underlying etiological cause. The interrelationship between the familial pattern of midline diastema and the microdontia, macroglossia, labial frenum, and alveolar cleft conforms was clear. The effect of a mesiodens and the upper lateral incisor whether bilaterally missing, unerupted, or peg shaped was minimal. Conclusion. Etiological factors underlying maxillary midline diastema are interconnected. Using a checklist as a guide during handling maxillary midline diastema is important in the different stages of treatment. PMID:27239374

  14. Dynamical account of how /b, d, g/ differ from /p, t, k/ in Spanish: Evidence from labials

    PubMed Central

    PARRELL, BENJAMIN

    2013-01-01

    This study examines articulatory lenition of intervocalic stops in Spanish and tests the theories that 1) /b, d, g/ have an intended target for closure equal to that of /p, t, k/ and 2) spirantization of /b, d, g/ is caused by undershoot due to their short duration phrase medially. Consistent with past acoustic studies, subjects produce /b/ with incomplete closure phrase medially and complete closure phrase initially. Additionally, /b/ is shorter than /p/ phrase medially though not initially. For /b/, though not for /p/, there is a correlation between constriction degree and duration, consistent with the theory of dynamical undershoot. The results from the study are accurately modeled with a virtual target for /b/ slightly beyond the point of articulator contact. Such a target results in full closure at long durations (such as found phrase initially) and incomplete closure at shorter durations. Based on this evidence, it is proposed that /b, d, g/ differ from /p, t, k/ in three ways: they are shorter, lack a devoicing gesture, and have a target closer to – but still beyond – the point of articulator contact. PMID:23843928

  15. Motor control of sound frequency in birdsong involves the interaction between air sac pressure and labial tension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso, Rodrigo; Goller, Franz; Mindlin, Gabriel B.

    2014-03-01

    Frequency modulation is a salient acoustic feature of birdsong. Its control is usually attributed to the activity of syringeal muscles, which affect the tension of the labia responsible for sound production. We use experimental and theoretical tools to test the hypothesis that for birds producing tonal sounds such as domestic canaries (Serinus canaria), frequency modulation is determined by both the syringeal tension and the air sac pressure. For different models, we describe the structure of the isofrequency curves, which are sets of parameters leading to sounds presenting the same fundamental frequencies. We show how their shapes determine the relative roles of syringeal tension and air sac pressure in frequency modulation. Finally, we report experiments that allow us to unveil the features of the isofrequency curves.

  16. Association of serum IgM kappa monoclonicity in patients with Sjögren's syndrome with an increased proportion of kappa positive plasma cells infiltrating the labial minor salivary glands.

    PubMed Central

    Moutsopoulos, H M; Tzioufas, A G; Bai, M K; Papadopoulos, N M; Papadimitriou, C S

    1990-01-01

    Minor salivary gland biopsy specimens from 11 patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome with circulating monoclonal IgM kappa cryoglobulins, seven without cryoglobulins, and four patients with rheumatoid arthritis and Sjögren's syndrome (one with monoclonal and three with polyclonal cryoglobulins) were examined by the peroxidase antiperoxidase bridge technique, using antihuman kappa and lambda antibodies. In 6/11 patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome and in one patient with Sjögren's syndrome and rheumatoid arthritis with monoclonal cryoglobulins a predominance of plasma cells containing intracytoplasmic kappa light chains was found (kappa:lambda greater than 3:1). Two of those seven patients had immunohistological features of immunocytomas. In the other five patients with circulating monoclonal cryoglobulins the kappa:lambda ratio of positive cells did not exceed 3:1, while six out of seven patients without cryoglobulins and the patients with rheumatoid arthritis and Sjögren's syndrome with polyclonal cryoglobulins had almost equal numbers of kappa and lambda stained cells. One of seven patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome without cryoglobulins had an increased number of lambda light chain positive cells, indicating a non-secretory lambda monoclonal population. These findings suggest that the main area of B cell monoclonal expansion in primary Sjögren's syndrome may be the affected exocrine glands. PMID:2124096

  17. Er, Cr:YSGG laser for the treatment of ankyloglossia.

    PubMed

    Lamba, Arundeep K; Aggarwal, Kamal; Faraz, Farrukh; Tandon, Shruti; Chawla, Kirti

    2015-01-01

    Ankyloglossia or tongue-tie is the result of a short and tight lingual frenum causing difficulty in speech, feeding problems in infants due to the limitation of tongue movement. This report presents a case of a 22-year-old female with tongue-tie who complained of difficulty in speech following which she underwent frenectomy procedure with erbium, chromium: yattrium-scandium-gallium-garnet laser without any complications. She was referred to the speech therapist after the procedure. PMID:26392733

  18. An In-Vivo Correlation Analysis of the Distance Between Lingual Frenal Attachment and Mandibular Incisal Edge Position as an Aid in Establishing Mandibular Occlusal Plane in South Indian Population

    PubMed Central

    Balasubramanian, R; Raj, Krishna

    2015-01-01

    Statement of problem: The aim of the study is to find the reliability in measuring the distance between the anterior attachment of the lingual frenum and the incisal edge of the mandibular central incisor on casts to be used as a pre-extraction record. Purpose: The objective of this study is to give a range of numerical values from anterior attachment of lingual frenum to mandibular central incisors in a class I ridge relation in south Indian population, which may be used in establishing the vertical dimension of the edentulous patient and also to locate the mandibular incisors in teeth arrangement of complete denture fabrication. Materials and Methods: One hundred subjects (50 males and 50 females) under the age group of 21-28y, with class I dental relationship and who have never undergone orthodontic treatment were selected. Two models were made for each subject using irreversible hydrocolloid impression material and type III gypsum product to obtain an average value for each subject. The distance between the incisal edges of the lower central incisor and the anterior attachment of the lingual frenum is measured using a divider and digital vernier caliper. Statistical Analysis: Mean and Standard deviation using descriptive statistics tool using SPSS software version 18. Result: The distance between the anterior attachment of the lingual frenum and incisal edges of mandibular central incisors among the 100 subjects was 14.50mm ± 2.2245 mm. Conclusion: The value obtained aided in establishing the vertical dimension easier by making a pre-determined height of mandibular occlusal rim. PMID:25859527

  19. Benign lymphoepithelial lesion in a patient with Sjögren's disease and an IgG paraprotein.

    PubMed

    Basu, M K; Price, J D; Matthews, J B

    1983-12-01

    Clinical and laboratory investigations were performed on a patient presenting with xerostomia and swelling of the parotid gland. Lymphoid infiltration of the salivary glands (parotid and labial) and paraproteinaemia were found. Immunoperoxidase studies of labial and parotid glands revealed that local immunoglobulin synthesis was essentially polyclonal although monoclonal staining of Russell bodies within the labial tissue suggested that at least some of the serum paraprotein was being synthesised locally. The implications of these findings are discussed in terms of diagnosis and treatment.

  20. The acoustics of uvulars in Tlingit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denzer-King, Ryan E.

    This paper looks at the acoustics of uvulars in Tlingit, an Athabaskan language spoken in Alaska and Canada. Data from five native speakers was used for acoustic analysis for tokens from five phoneme groups (alveolars, plain velars, labialized velars, plain uvulars, and labialized uvulars). The tokens were analyzed by computing spectral moments of plosive bursts and fricatives, and F2 and F3 values for post-consonantal vowels, which were used to calculate locus equations, a descriptive measure of the relationship between F2 at vowel onset and midpoint. Several trends were observed, including a greater difference between F2 and F 3 after uvulars than after velars, as well as a higher center of gravity (COG) and lower skew and kurtosis for uvulars than for velars. The comparison of plain versus labialized consonants supports the finding of Suh (2008) that labialization lowers mean burst energy, or COG, and additionally found labialization to raise skew and kurtosis.

  1. Cone beam computed tomographic analyses of alveolar bone anatomy at the maxillary anterior region in Chinese adults.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhixuan; Chen, Wu; Shen, Ming; Sun, Chao; Li, Jun; Chen, Ning

    2014-11-01

    To provide an anatomical basis for clinical implant esthetics, we evaluated the morphology of the nasopalatine canal (NPC) and analyzed labial and interproximal bone anatomy at the maxillary anterior region. We sought to investigate the effect of maxillary protrusion and tooth labiolingual inclination on labial bone anatomy in Chinese adults. Three dimensional (3D) images were reconstructed using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images from 80 Chinese subjects and by SimPlant 11.04. The dimensions of the NPC, the thickness and profile of the labial bone, the width and height of the interproximal bone, angle sella-nasion-subspinale (SNA) and angle upper central incisor-nasion,subspinale (U1-NA) were measured. The incisive foramen of the NPC was markedly wider than its nasal foramen. The dimension of its labial bone wall demonstrated an increasing width from the crestal to apical measurements. The labial bone at the maxillary anterior region was rather thin, especially at 3 mm below the cemento-enamel junction (CEJ) and the mid-root level; the profile of the labial bone was more curved at the central incisor, and the interproximal bone became wider and shorter posteriorly. There were significant relationships between maxillary protrusion and labial bone profile, tooth labiolingual inclination and labial bone thickness (P < 0.02). To achieve optimal esthetic outcome of implant, bone augmentation is necessary at the maxillary anterior region. For immediate or early placement at the maxillary anterior region, the implant should be located palatally to reduce labial bone resorption and marginal recession; its apex should be angulated palatally to avoid labial perforation at the apical region. To protect the NPC, implants at the central incisor region should be placed away from NPC. PMID:25469120

  2. Effect of labiolingual inclination of a maxillary central incisor and surrounding alveolar bone loss on periodontal stress: A finite element analysis

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sung-Hwan; Kim, Young-Hoon; Lee, Kee-Joon

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate whether labial tooth inclination and alveolar bone loss affect the moment per unit of force (Mt/F) in controlled tipping and consequent stresses on the periodontal ligament (PDL). Methods Three-dimensional models (n = 20) of maxillary central incisors were created with different labial inclinations (5°, 10°, 15°, and 20°) and different amounts of alveolar bone loss (0, 2, 4, and 6 mm). The Mt/F necessary for controlled tipping (Mt/Fcont) and the principal stresses on the PDL were calculated for each model separately in a finite element analysis. Results As labial inclination increased, Mt/Fcont and the length of the moment arm decreased. In contrast, increased alveolar bone loss caused increases in Mt/Fcont and the length of the moment arm. When Mt/F was near Mt/Fcont, increases in Mt/F caused compressive stresses to move from a predominantly labial apical region to a palatal apical position, and tensile stresses in the labial area moved from a cervical position to a mid-root position. Although controlled tipping was applied to the incisors, increases in alveolar bone loss and labial tooth inclination caused increases in maximum compressive and tensile stresses at the root apices. Conclusions Increases in alveolar bone loss and labial tooth inclination caused increases in stresses that might cause root resorption at the root apex, despite the application of controlled tipping to the incisors. PMID:27226961

  3. A new, mesophotic Coryphopterus goby (Teleostei, Gobiidae) from the southern Caribbean, with comments on relationships and depth distributions within the genus.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Carole C; Robertson, D Ross

    2015-01-01

    A new species of western Atlantic Coryphopterus is described from mesophotic depths off Curaçao, southern Caribbean. Coryphopteruscurasub sp. n., is similar to Coryphopterusdicrus in, among other features, having two prominent pigment spots of roughly equal intensity on the pectoral-fin base, the pelvic fins fused to form a disk, and no pelvic frenum. The two species can be differentiated by body depth (shallower in Coryphopteruscurasub at origin of dorsal fin and caudal peduncle); differences in the pigmentation on the head, trunk, and basicaudal region; and usually by total number of rays (spinous plus soft) in the second dorsal fin (10-11, usually 11, in Coryphopteruscurasub, 10 in Coryphopterusdicrus). Coryphopteruscurasub differs from other Coryphopterus species that have a prominent pigment spot on the lower portion of the pectoral-fin base (Coryphopteruspunctipectophorus and Coryphopterusvenezuelae) in, among other features, lacking a pelvic frenum. Coryphopteruscurasub was collected between 70 and 80 m, the deepest depth range known for the genus. Collections of Coryphopterusvenezuelae at depths of 65-69 m extend the depth range of that species by approximately 50 m. Mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) data corroborate the recognition of Coryphopteruscurasub as a distinct species but do not rigorously resolve its relationships within the genus. A revised key to the western Atlantic species of Coryphopterus is presented.

  4. A new, mesophotic Coryphopterus goby (Teleostei, Gobiidae) from the southern Caribbean, with comments on relationships and depth distributions within the genus

    PubMed Central

    Baldwin, Carole C.; Robertson, D. Ross

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A new species of western Atlantic Coryphopterus is described from mesophotic depths off Curaçao, southern Caribbean. Coryphopterus curasub sp. n., is similar to Coryphopterus dicrus in, among other features, having two prominent pigment spots of roughly equal intensity on the pectoral-fin base, the pelvic fins fused to form a disk, and no pelvic frenum. The two species can be differentiated by body depth (shallower in Coryphopterus curasub at origin of dorsal fin and caudal peduncle); differences in the pigmentation on the head, trunk, and basicaudal region; and usually by total number of rays (spinous plus soft) in the second dorsal fin (10–11, usually 11, in Coryphopterus curasub, 10 in Coryphopterus dicrus). Coryphopterus curasub differs from other Coryphopterus species that have a prominent pigment spot on the lower portion of the pectoral-fin base (Coryphopterus punctipectophorus and Coryphopterus venezuelae) in, among other features, lacking a pelvic frenum. Coryphopterus curasub was collected between 70 and 80 m, the deepest depth range known for the genus. Collections of Coryphopterus venezuelae at depths of 65–69 m extend the depth range of that species by approximately 50 m. Mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) data corroborate the recognition of Coryphopterus curasub as a distinct species but do not rigorously resolve its relationships within the genus. A revised key to the western Atlantic species of Coryphopterus is presented. PMID:26257572

  5. A new, mesophotic Coryphopterus goby (Teleostei, Gobiidae) from the southern Caribbean, with comments on relationships and depth distributions within the genus.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Carole C; Robertson, D Ross

    2015-01-01

    A new species of western Atlantic Coryphopterus is described from mesophotic depths off Curaçao, southern Caribbean. Coryphopteruscurasub sp. n., is similar to Coryphopterusdicrus in, among other features, having two prominent pigment spots of roughly equal intensity on the pectoral-fin base, the pelvic fins fused to form a disk, and no pelvic frenum. The two species can be differentiated by body depth (shallower in Coryphopteruscurasub at origin of dorsal fin and caudal peduncle); differences in the pigmentation on the head, trunk, and basicaudal region; and usually by total number of rays (spinous plus soft) in the second dorsal fin (10-11, usually 11, in Coryphopteruscurasub, 10 in Coryphopterusdicrus). Coryphopteruscurasub differs from other Coryphopterus species that have a prominent pigment spot on the lower portion of the pectoral-fin base (Coryphopteruspunctipectophorus and Coryphopterusvenezuelae) in, among other features, lacking a pelvic frenum. Coryphopteruscurasub was collected between 70 and 80 m, the deepest depth range known for the genus. Collections of Coryphopterusvenezuelae at depths of 65-69 m extend the depth range of that species by approximately 50 m. Mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) data corroborate the recognition of Coryphopteruscurasub as a distinct species but do not rigorously resolve its relationships within the genus. A revised key to the western Atlantic species of Coryphopterus is presented. PMID:26257572

  6. Comparative Study of Fracture Resistance of Porcelain in Metal Ceramic Restorations by Using Different Metal Coping Designs- An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Motwani, B. K.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to compare effect of different metal coping designs on fracture resistance of porcelain in metal ceramic restorations. Materials and Methods: Fracture resistance of porcelain was assessed in porcelain fused to metal crowns with three different coping designs i.e. metal coping extension on labial surface upto gingivoaxial line angle, metal coping extension 1mm short of the gingivoaxial line angle and metal coping with 0.4mm wide labial metal collar. For crowns without labial metal collar margin; shoulder porcelain was used to build the labial cervical margin of the crowns. Results: Results were assessed with statistical analysis using the student unpaired‘t’ test. Visual examination of the fractured specimens of group A, B and C showed remarkably similar failure modes with nearly all specimens failing through a shear fracture of porcelain from load point to facial margin of the crown. Conclusion: Within the scope of this study, it was observed that the mean facture strength of the samples with shoulder porcelain labial margins having metal coping design extending upto gingivoaxial line angle of the finish line was highest as compared to samples with shoulder porcelain labial margins having metal coping design 1mm short of gingivoaxial line angle & samples having porcelain fused to metal coping design with 0.4mm wide metal collar. PMID:25584302

  7. Functional equivalence of Hox gene products in the specification of the tritocerebrum during embryonic brain development of Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Hirth, F; Loop, T; Egger, B; Miller, D F; Kaufman, T C; Reichert, H

    2001-12-01

    Hox genes encode evolutionarily conserved transcription factors involved in the specification of segmental identity during embryonic development. This specification of identity is thought to be directed by differential Hox gene action, based on differential spatiotemporal expression patterns, protein sequence differences, interactions with co-factors and regulation of specific downstream genes. During embryonic development of the Drosophila brain, the Hox gene labial is required for the regionalized specification of the tritocerebral neuromere; in the absence of labial, the cells in this brain region do not acquire a neuronal identity and major axonal pathfinding deficits result. We have used genetic rescue experiments to investigate the functional equivalence of the Drosophila Hox gene products in the specification of the tritocerebral neuromere. Using the Gal4-UAS system, we first demonstrate that the labial mutant brain phenotype can be rescued by targeted expression of the Labial protein under the control of CNS-specific labial regulatory elements. We then show that under the control of these CNS-specific regulatory elements, all other Drosophila Hox gene products, except Abdominal-B, are able to efficiently replace Labial in the specification of the tritocerebral neuromere. We also observe a correlation between the rescue efficiency of the Hox proteins and the chromosomal arrangement of their encoding loci. Our results indicate that, despite considerably diverged sequences, most Hox proteins are functionally equivalent in their ability to replace Labial in the specification of neuronal identity. This suggests that in embryonic brain development, differences in Hox gene action rely mainly on cis-acting regulatory elements and not on Hox protein specificity. PMID:11731458

  8. The impact of frenulum height on strains in maxillary denture bases

    PubMed Central

    Bilhan, Hakan; Baysal, Gokhan; Sunbuloglu, Emin; Bozdag, Ergun

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE The midline fracture of maxillary complete dentures is a frequently encountered complication. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of frenulum height on midline strains of maxillary complete dentures. MATERIALS AND METHODS A removable maxillary complete denture was fabricated and duplicated seven times. Four different labial frenulum heights were tested for stresses occurring on the palatal cameo surface. The strains were measured with strain gauges placed on 5 different locations and the stresses were calculated. To mimic occlusal forces bilaterally 100 N of load was applied from the premolar and molar region. RESULTS A statistically significant association between the height of the labial frenulum and the calculated stresses and strains was shown (P<.05) predominantly on the midline and especially on the incisive papilla. The results showed that stress on the anterior midline of the maxillary complete denture increases with a higher labial frenulum. CONCLUSION Within the limitations of this in vitro study, it can be concluded that the stress on the anterior midline of the maxillary complete denture increases with a higher labial frenulum. Surgical or mechanical precautions should be taken to prevent short-term failure of maxillary complete dentures due to stress concentration and low cycle fatigue tendency at the labial frenulum region. PMID:24353878

  9. FoxK mediates TGF-β signalling during midgut differentiation in flies

    PubMed Central

    Casas-Tinto, Sergio; Gomez-Velazquez, Melisa; Granadino, Begoña; Fernandez-Funez, Pedro

    2008-01-01

    Inductive signals across germ layers are important for the development of the endoderm in vertebrates and invertebrates (Tam, P.P., M. Kanai-Azuma, and Y. Kanai. 2003. Curr. Opin. Genet. Dev. 13:393–400; Nakagoshi, H. 2005. Dev. Growth Differ. 47:383–392). In flies, the visceral mesoderm secretes signaling molecules that diffuse into the underlying midgut endoderm, where conserved signaling cascades activate the Hox gene labial, which is important for the differentiation of copper cells (Bienz, M. 1997. Curr. Opin. Genet. Dev. 7:683–688). We present here a Drosophila melanogaster gene of the Fox family of transcription factors, FoxK, that mediates transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) signaling in the embryonic midgut endoderm. FoxK mutant embryos fail to generate midgut constrictions and lack Labial in the endoderm. Our observations suggest that TGF-β signaling directly regulates FoxK through functional Smad/Mad-binding sites, whereas FoxK, in turn, regulates labial expression. We also describe a new cooperative activity of the transcription factors FoxK and Dfos/AP-1 that regulates labial expression in the midgut endoderm. This regulatory activity does not require direct labial activation by the TGF-β effector Mad. Thus, we propose that the combined activity of the TGF-β target genes FoxK and Dfos is critical for the direct activation of lab in the endoderm. PMID:19075113

  10. Buccinator muscle repositioning: a case report.

    PubMed

    Baghele, Om N; Baghele, Mangala O

    2012-09-01

    Anatomical abnormalities are frequently associated with problems. One such abnormality is crestal attachment of the frenum or muscle on the alveolar process. Crestal attachment of buccinator muscle is a rare phenomenon. It may cause various problems in routine oral exercises or restoring the edentulous area. Presented here is a case of abnormal buccinator muscle attachment, which was relocated apically by surgical means using an acrylic stent. The healing was uneventful, and significant apical repositioning was observed. The area was then considered for prosthodontic therapy. A fixed bridge was fabricated and the long-term results of the fixed bridge therapy were assured, because the patient could maintain oral hygiene well after the muscle repositioning operation.

  11. A Novel Surgical Pre-suturing Technique for the Management of Ankyloglossia

    PubMed Central

    Khairnar, Mayur; Pawar, Babita; Khairnar, Darshana

    2014-01-01

    Ankyloglossia or “tongue-tie” is a congenital anomaly caused by tight lingual frenulum that abnormally connects the tongue base to the floor of the mouth. Ankyloglossia can results in difficulty during speech and deglutition. This case series presents a novel surgical technique in the management of ankyloglossia in using presuturing technique in which different sets of sutures are given on lingual frenum before severing it. This results in reduced opening of the wound, minimal bleeding, pain and discomfort. Two male patients with severe ankyloglossia had been managed with this technique and after 2 years of follow-up of these cases showed satisfactory protrusive and lateral movement of the tongue with minimal scarring and discomfort. PMID:25598942

  12. Minimally invasive treatment of soft tissue deficiency around an implant-supported restoration in the esthetic zone: modified VISTA technique case report.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chun-Teh; Hamalian, Techkouhie; Schulze-Späte, Ulrike

    2015-02-01

    The horizontal and vertical soft tissue dimension around an implant-supported restoration in the maxillary anterior is one of the determining factors for achieving an esthetic result. In this case report, the patient presented with a deficiency in both dimensions around a single-tooth implanted-supported restoration in the anterior maxilla. The soft tissue defects were augmented with a connective tissue graft that was placed underneath the buccal peri-implant tissue using a frenum access incision and a supraperiosteal tunneling approach (modified vestibular Incision supraperiosteal tunnel access [VISTA] technique). This novel technique resulted in an increase in tissue height and width, which suggests its potential use around implant-supported restorations.

  13. Modified Whale's tail technique for the management of bone-defect in anterior teeth.

    PubMed

    Kuriakose, Anu; Ambooken, Majo; Jacob, Jayan; John, Priya

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this case report is to describe the efficacy of a modified Whale's tail technique to achieve primary closure and thereby aid in regeneration of an interdental osseous defect between maxillary central incisors complicated by an aberrant frenal attachment. A healthy 32-year-old female patient reported with the complaint of spacing between her upper front teeth. Clinical examination revealed an aberrant frenum extending into the interdental papilla in relation to the central incisors. There was a 6 mm periodontal pocket in relation to the mesiopalatal aspect of maxillary left central incisor. Intraoral periapical radiograph showed vertical bone loss in relation to mesial aspect of maxillary left central incisor. A modified Whale's tail flap was employed to access the area. The defect was filled with an alloplastic graft. Six months postoperative review showed complete elimination of the pocket along with radiographic bone fill of the defect.

  14. Esthetic crown lengthening for maxillary anterior teeth.

    PubMed

    Sonick, M

    1997-08-01

    In the maxillary anterior region, the gingival labial margin position is an important parameter in the achievement of an ideal smile. The relationship between the periodontium and the restoration is critical if gingival health and esthetics are to be achieved. Periodontal therapy is a necessary and useful adjunct when any anterior restoration is undertaken. Anterior surgical crown lengthening may be undertaken to avoid restorative margin impingement on the biologic width. Crown lengthening is also used to alter the gingival labial profiles. This article discusses the esthetic parameters of ideal gingival labial positions and presents a classification of crown-lengthening procedures and the procedure for a two-stage crown-lengthening technique. The two-stage crown-lengthening technique is surgically precise because healing is predictable.

  15. Phenotypic flexibility of gape anatomy fine-tunes the aquatic prey-capture system of newts.

    PubMed

    Van Wassenbergh, Sam; Heiss, Egon

    2016-01-01

    A unique example of phenotypic flexibility of the oral apparatus is present in newts (Salamandridae) that seasonally change between an aquatic and a terrestrial habitat. Newts grow flaps of skin between their upper and lower jaws, the labial lobes, to partly close the corners of the mouth when they adopt an aquatic lifestyle during their breeding season. Using hydrodynamic simulations based on μCT-scans and cranial kinematics during prey-capture in the smooth newt (Lissotriton vulgaris), we showed that this phenotypic flexibility is an adaptive solution to improve aquatic feeding performance: both suction distance and suction force increase by approximately 15% due to the labial lobes. As the subsequent freeing of the corners of the mouth by resorption of the labial lobes is assumed beneficial for the terrestrial capture of prey by the tongue, this flexibility of the mouth fine-tunes the process of capturing prey throughout the seasonal switching between water and land. PMID:27383663

  16. Apis cerana japonica discriminates between floral color phases of the oriental orchid, Cymbidium floribundum.

    PubMed

    Sugahara, Michio; Minamoto, Toshifumi; Fuchikawa, Taro; Michinomae, Masanao; Shimizu, Isamu

    2010-12-01

    Foragers of the Japanese honeybee (Apis cerana japonica) were attracted by flowers of an oriental orchid (Cymbidium floribundum) and were observed to carry the pollinia on their scutella. After the removal of pollinia from the flowers, their labial color changed from white to reddish brown. Both artificial removal of pollinia and ethrel treatment of the flowers also induced this labial color change. Labia in color-changed flowers showed a decreased reflectance of wavelengths less than 670 nm compared to control intact flower. Both reflectance irradiance spectra and ultraviolet photographs showed that only the nectar guide in white (unchanged) flowers reflected ultraviolet light, and that this reflectance decreased with labial color change. Dual choice experiments showed that the honeybee foragers preferentially visited flowers having white labia rather than reddish brown. We suggest that Japanese honeybees discriminate between the floral phases of C. floribundum using color vision.

  17. Phenotypic flexibility of gape anatomy fine-tunes the aquatic prey-capture system of newts.

    PubMed

    Van Wassenbergh, Sam; Heiss, Egon

    2016-07-07

    A unique example of phenotypic flexibility of the oral apparatus is present in newts (Salamandridae) that seasonally change between an aquatic and a terrestrial habitat. Newts grow flaps of skin between their upper and lower jaws, the labial lobes, to partly close the corners of the mouth when they adopt an aquatic lifestyle during their breeding season. Using hydrodynamic simulations based on μCT-scans and cranial kinematics during prey-capture in the smooth newt (Lissotriton vulgaris), we showed that this phenotypic flexibility is an adaptive solution to improve aquatic feeding performance: both suction distance and suction force increase by approximately 15% due to the labial lobes. As the subsequent freeing of the corners of the mouth by resorption of the labial lobes is assumed beneficial for the terrestrial capture of prey by the tongue, this flexibility of the mouth fine-tunes the process of capturing prey throughout the seasonal switching between water and land.

  18. Phenotypic flexibility of gape anatomy fine-tunes the aquatic prey-capture system of newts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Wassenbergh, Sam; Heiss, Egon

    2016-07-01

    A unique example of phenotypic flexibility of the oral apparatus is present in newts (Salamandridae) that seasonally change between an aquatic and a terrestrial habitat. Newts grow flaps of skin between their upper and lower jaws, the labial lobes, to partly close the corners of the mouth when they adopt an aquatic lifestyle during their breeding season. Using hydrodynamic simulations based on μCT-scans and cranial kinematics during prey-capture in the smooth newt (Lissotriton vulgaris), we showed that this phenotypic flexibility is an adaptive solution to improve aquatic feeding performance: both suction distance and suction force increase by approximately 15% due to the labial lobes. As the subsequent freeing of the corners of the mouth by resorption of the labial lobes is assumed beneficial for the terrestrial capture of prey by the tongue, this flexibility of the mouth fine-tunes the process of capturing prey throughout the seasonal switching between water and land.

  19. Lexical and phonotactic effects on the perception of rate induced resyllabification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jong, Kenneth; Nagao, Kyoko; Lim, Byung-Jin; Okamura, Kyoko

    2002-05-01

    Stetson (1951) noted that, when repeated, singleton coda consonants (VC) appear to modulate into onset consonants (CV) as the rate of repetition increases. de Jong et al. (2001) found that naEe listeners robustly perceive such resyllabifications with labial consonants, and in a later study, that such perceptions broadly corresponded to changes in glottal timing. In the current study, stimuli included labial, coronal, and velar stops, creating mixtures of real words (such as ``eat''), and nonwords (such as ``ead''). A comparison of the perception of real and nonreal words reveals no robust effect of lexical status. In addition, vowels in the corpus were either tense or lax, so that the CV combination is phonotactically illegal in half of the corpus. The perception of resyllabification also does occur with these lax vowels, though only for voiced coronal and labial stops. Other stops did not exhibit resyllabification. Analyses of glottal and acoustic recordings are currently underway. [Work supported by NIDCD and NSF.

  20. Phenotypic flexibility of gape anatomy fine-tunes the aquatic prey-capture system of newts

    PubMed Central

    Van Wassenbergh, Sam; Heiss, Egon

    2016-01-01

    A unique example of phenotypic flexibility of the oral apparatus is present in newts (Salamandridae) that seasonally change between an aquatic and a terrestrial habitat. Newts grow flaps of skin between their upper and lower jaws, the labial lobes, to partly close the corners of the mouth when they adopt an aquatic lifestyle during their breeding season. Using hydrodynamic simulations based on μCT-scans and cranial kinematics during prey-capture in the smooth newt (Lissotriton vulgaris), we showed that this phenotypic flexibility is an adaptive solution to improve aquatic feeding performance: both suction distance and suction force increase by approximately 15% due to the labial lobes. As the subsequent freeing of the corners of the mouth by resorption of the labial lobes is assumed beneficial for the terrestrial capture of prey by the tongue, this flexibility of the mouth fine-tunes the process of capturing prey throughout the seasonal switching between water and land. PMID:27383663

  1. Two new species of Coryogalops (Perciformes: Gobiidae) from the Red Sea .

    PubMed

    Kovačić, Marcelo; Bogorodsky, Sergey V; Mal, Ahmad O

    2014-11-10

    Two new species of the gobiid genus Coryogalops, C. guttatus sp. nov. and C. pseudomonospilus sp. nov., are described from the Red Sea. Coryogalops guttatus sp. nov. is distinguished from its congeners by having dorsal-fin rays VI + I,12; anal-fin rays I,10-11; pectoral-fin rays 17, three upper rays with free tips; pelvic fins I,5, joined to form a disc, weakly emarginate, with pelvic frenum reduced; longitudinal scale series 33-35; transverse scale rows 9-10; circumpeduncular scales 10-11; seven transverse suborbital rows of sensory papillae on cheek; no tentacle above upper eye margin; anterior nostril tubular, with triangular lappet extending from posterior rim, posterior nostril slightly raised; dark orange spots on many of the scales below body midline form a longitudinal pattern, each spot covering one scale; two distinct dark spots behind edge of preopercle, and similar pair of spots at pectoral-fin base. Coryogalops pseudomonospilus sp. nov. is distinguished from congeners by having dorsal-fin rays VI + I,11; anal-fin rays I,10; pectoral-fin rays 16-17, two upper rays with free tips; pelvic fins I,5, joined to form a disc, moderately emarginate, with pelvic frenum well-developed; longitudinal scale series 33-35; transverse scales rows 9; circumpeduncular scales 12; seven transverse suborbital rows of sensory papillae on cheek; no tentacle above upper eye margin; anterior nostril tubular, without lappet from posterior rim, posterior nostril slightly raised; and irregular dark maroon mark covering lower part of the first three membranes between spines of first dorsal fin. The distribution of species restricted to the western Indian Ocean is discussed, and a key to the species of the genus is provided.

  2. [Simplified oral hygiene index for ages 4 to 6 and 7 to 10 (deciduous and mixed dentition)].

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, C R; Ando, T; Guimarães, L O

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to obtain simplified index to evaluate oral hygiene in children. They are divided in two groups: 1) 4-6 years and; 2) 7-10 years. The criteria described by GREEN & VERMILLION, 1960 and 1964 were selected. Calculus was excluded. Once obtained the total data, a simplified of the total index was performed. For the ages 4 to 6 years, we selected labial surfaces of the 54, 61, 82 and the lingual surface of 75. For the mixed dentition we added the labial surface of 26 and the lingual surface of 46. In both dentition, simplified index showed significant correlation with the total index.

  3. Underlying Phoneme Velar Nasal with Lip Rounding in Hueyapan Nahuatl

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, R. Joe

    1976-01-01

    Reasons are given for the idea that Hueyapan (Morelos) Nahuatl has an underlying velar nasal with lip rounding phoneme which never has the surface reflex of a rounded velar nasal allophone, but occurs phonetically as a velar nasal allophone or a labial dental voiced allophone or disappears. (SCC)

  4. Face-Referenced Measurement of Perioral Stiffness and Speech Kinematics in Parkinson's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Shin Ying; Barlow, Steven M.; Lee, Jaehoon

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Perioral biomechanics, labial kinematics, and associated electromyographic signals were sampled and characterized in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) as a function of medication state. Method: Passive perioral stiffness was sampled using the OroSTIFF system in 10 individuals with PD in a medication ON and a medication OFF state…

  5. Hox proteins coordinate peripodial decapentaplegic expression to direct adult head morphogenesis in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Stultz, Brian G.; Park, Sung Yeon; Mortin, Mark A.; Kennison, James A.; Hursh, Deborah A.

    2012-01-01

    The Drosophila BMP, decapentaplegic (dpp), controls morphogenesis of the ventral adult head through expression limited to the lateral peripodial epithelium of the eye-antennal disc by a 3.5 kb enhancer in the 5’ end of the gene. We recovered a 15 bp deletion mutation within this enhancer that identified a homeotic (Hox) response element that is a direct target of labial and the homeotic cofactors homothorax and extradenticle. Expression of labial and homothorax are required for dpp expression in the peripodial epithelium, while the Hox gene Deformed represses labial in this location, thus limiting its expression and indirectly that of dpp to the lateral side of the disc. The expression of these homeodomain genes is in turn regulated by the dpp pathway, as dpp signaling is required for labial expression but represses homothorax. This Hox-BMP regulatory network is limited to the peripodial epithelium of the eye-antennal disc, yet is crucial to the morphogenesis of the head, which fate maps suggest arises primarily from the disc proper, not the peripodial epithelium. Thus Hox/BMP interactions in the peripodial epithelium of the eye-antennal disc contribute inductively to the shape of the external form of the adult Drosophila head. PMID:22824425

  6. Sjögren's syndrome: a stepwise approach to the use of diagnostic tests.

    PubMed Central

    Coll, J; Porta, M; Rubiés-Prat, J; Gutiérrez-Cebollada, J; Tomás, S

    1992-01-01

    One hundred and forty two patients (62 with definite Sjögren's syndrome, 24 with probable Sjögren's syndrome, and 56 in whom Sjögren's syndrome was finally ruled out) were studied. Schirmer's test and rose bengal staining for the diagnosis of keratoconjunctivitis sicca and salivary scintigraphy and a labial biopsy sample for the diagnosis of xerostomaia were studied in all patients. Rose bengal staining showed high specificity (98%) but low sensitivity (55%). All patients with positive rose bengal staining results had associated xerostomia. In the rose bengal staining positive patients, scintigraphy had 100% specificity. A labial biopsy sample showed high sensitivity in the rose bengal staining, salivary scintigraphy positive group, and high specificity in the rose bengal staining positive, salivary scintigraphy negative group. In patients with negative rose bengal staining, salivary scintigraphy showed 96% specificity and 36% sensitivity. A labial biopsy sample had a sensitivity and specificity greater than 90% in rose bengal staining negative patients. Only 29 biopsy samples were needed to achieve a diagnosis of Sjögren's syndrome in 142 patients (20%). Hence the suggested approach may make it unnecessary to take biopsy samples in approximately 80% of patients with suspected Sjögren's syndrome. Using the stepwise approach of first rose bengal staining, then salivary scintigraphy, and eventually a labial biopsy sample in patients with suspected Sjögren's syndrome, the diagnosis is relatively simple. PMID:1616324

  7. Angled Screw Channel: An Alternative to Cemented Single-Implant Restorations--Three Clinical Examples.

    PubMed

    Gjelvold, Björn; Sohrabi, Majid Melvin; Chrcanovic, Bruno Ramos

    2016-01-01

    This article presents three cases of single labially tilted implants restored with screw-retained single crowns. Individualized abutments with an angled screw channel were used to avoid an unesthetic vestibular access channel. This individualized abutment allows the dentist and dental technician to use the screw-retained restorations where a cemented reconstruction would otherwise have been needed. PMID:26757334

  8. Asymptomatic lower lip hyperpigmentation from Laugier-Hunziker syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kosari, Payman; Kelly, Kristen M

    2011-11-01

    Laugier-Hunziker syndrome is a rare mucocutaneous pigmentary disorder. It is considered benign, but other mucocutaneous pigmentation disorders are in the differential diagnosis and should be ruled out. This report describes a woman with pigmentation of the labial mucosa of the lower lip who was successfully treated with a Q-switched 532-nm laser.

  9. Towards a Phonetic Explanation for Universal Preferences in Implosives and Ejections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Javkin, Hector

    Two possible explanations based on elementary facts of physics are suggested for the universal preference for place of articulation of implosives and ejectives. Languages show a preference for ejectives in the order: velar, alveolar, and labial while implosives occur most often in the opposite order. A language will only have velar implosives if…

  10. Phonological and Phonetic Asymmetries of Cw Combinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suh, Yunju

    2009-01-01

    This thesis investigates the relationship between the phonological distribution of Cw combinations, and the acoustic/perceptual distinctiveness between syllables with plain C onsets and with Cw combination onsets. Distributional asymmetries of Cw combinations discussed in this thesis include the avoidance of Cw combinations in the labial consonant…

  11. 78 FR 2647 - Dental Devices; Reclassification of Blade-Form Endosseous Dental Implant

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-14

    ... effectiveness of the device. II. Regulatory History of the Device On December 30, 1980 (45 FR 86025), FDA... lingual and labial bony plates of the upper and lower jaws. On August 12, 1987 (52 FR 30082), a final rule...) classifying these devices as class III. On December 7, 1989 (54 FR 50592), FDA published a proposed rule...

  12. Ordered Rules and the Morphophonemics of the N-Class in Swahili. York Papers in Linguistics, No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goyvaerts, D.L.

    This article argues for a set of ordered rules for morphophonemic alternations in the N-class in Swahili, positing /n/ as the class prefix and an abstract segment as stem initial in certain words. The rules are: (1) liquids and the labial glide become corresponding voiced stops; (2) the nasal prefix assimilates in coronality and backness, and…

  13. Toward improved spectral measures of /s/: Results from adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Koenig, Laura L.; Shadle, Christine H.; Preston, Jonathan L.; Mooshammer, Christine R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To introduce theoretically-driven acoustic measures of /s/ that reflect aerodynamic and articulatory conditions. The measures were evaluated by assessing whether they revealed expected changes over time and labiality effects, along with possible gender differences suggested by past work. Method Productions of /s/ were extracted from various speaking tasks from typically-speaking adolescents (6 boys; 6 girls). Measures were made of relative spectral energies in low- (550–3000 Hz), mid- (3000–7000 Hz), and high-frequency regions (7000–11025 Hz); the mid-frequency amplitude peak; and temporal changes in these parameters. Spectral moments were also obtained to permit comparison with existing work. Results Spectral balance measures in low–mid and mid–high frequency bands varied over the time course of /s/, capturing the development of sibilance at mid-fricative along with showing some effects of gender and labiality. The mid-frequency spectral peak was significantly higher in non-labial contexts, and in girls. Temporal variation in the mid-frequency peak differentiated ±labial contexts while normalizing over gender. Discussion The measures showed expected patterns, supporting their validity. Comparison of these data with studies of adults suggests some developmental patterns that call for further study. The measures may also serve to differentiate some cases of typical and misarticulated /s/. PMID:23785194

  14. A new species of Lysiphlebus Förster 1862 (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Aphidiinae) attacking soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hem., Aphididae) from China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    LYSIPHLEBUS ORIENTALIS sp. n. is described from China. The new species was reared from the APHIS GLYCINES Matsumura/ GLYCINE MAX association. On the basis of the forewing venation pattern (short R1 vein) and the number of maxillary and labial palpomeres we can preliminarily classify L. ORIENTALIS sp...

  15. Geocenamus angelescresti n. sp., a Diagnostic Key and Compendium to the Species of the Genus Geocenamus Thorne &Malek, 1968 (Nematoda: Belonolaimidae)

    PubMed Central

    Chitambar, John J.; Ferris, Howard

    2005-01-01

    Geocenamus angelescresti n. sp. (Nematoda: Belonolaimidae) was found in rhizosphere of Pinus ponderosa and Arctostaphylos patula growing along Angeles Crest Highway in the San Gabriel mountains of California. The nematode species is characterized by a round-to-hexagonal labial disc with six bulging sectors, lateral sectors of first labial annule smaller than the submedian sectors, six to eight labial annules, distinct deirids, stylet length (45-57 µm), body length (666-996 µm), lateral field with or without areolation of outer bands on tail, and a rounded, smooth tail terminus. Geocenamus angelescresti n. sp. most closely resembles G. superbus but differs from it by a shorter stylet (45-57 µm vs. 67 µm), shorter body length (666-996 µm vs. 1,200 µm), bulged sectors and smaller diameter of the labial disc (2.3-2.8 µm vs. 4.0 µm, round, smooth), longer female tail (54-68 µm vs. 41 µm), and a narrower tail terminus. An emended description of the genus and a list of valid species are provided. Geocenamus arcticus (Mulvey, 1969) Tarjan 1973 and G. uralensis Baydulova 1983 are proposed as junior synonyms of G. tenuidens Thorne &Malek 1968. An identification key to 12 species of Geocenamus and a compendium of important diagnostic morphological characters used in the identification of species are included. PMID:19262887

  16. Superficial mucocele: report of 4 cases.

    PubMed

    Bermejo, A; Aguirre, J M; López, P; Saez, M R

    1999-10-01

    Four cases of the lesion first described as superficial mucocele by Eveson in 1988 are reported. All of the lesions developed in adult women; two of the women had concurrent oral lichen planus. The mucoceles were found on the soft palate, the buccal mucosa, and the upper and lower labial mucosa. The etiologic factors and pathogenesis of this lesion are discussed. PMID:10519757

  17. Rare case report of Traumatic neuroma of anterior superior alveolar nerve associated with high frenal attachment

    PubMed Central

    Ananthaneni, Anuradha; Srilekha, Namala; Guduru, Vijay Srinivas; Kiresur, Mohammad Asif

    2015-01-01

    We present an incredible case of traumatic neuroma (TN) in the anterior superior alveolar nerve leading to the swelling in the upper labial mucosa. This paper attempts to highlight the rarity of site of occurrence of this lesion and reports the first case of TN of anterior superior alveolar nerve. PMID:25972959

  18. In-Situ Onlay Grafting Combined with Titanium Mesh for Three-Dimensional Reconstruction of the Anterior Maxillary Ridge.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tianlu; Wu, Qingqing; Qu, Yili; Gong, Ping; Yu, Haiyang; Man, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Reconstruction of anterior maxillary ridge defects involving both horizontal and vertical dimensions has always been a challenge. This case report proposes a novel approach to reconstruct labial bony walls with onlay bone blocks harvested in situ held by titanium mesh covered with concentrated growth factor. Favorable outcomes were shown because of better space maintenance and nutrition supply. PMID:26697557

  19. Development and Psychometric Evaluation of the Treatment-Emergent Activation and Suicidality Assessment Profile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Jeannette M.; Storch, Eric A.; Murphy, Tanya K.; Bodzin, Danielle; Mutch, P. Jane; Lehmkuhl, Heather; Aman, Michael; Goodman, Wayne K.

    2010-01-01

    Although effective in treating a range of childhood psychiatric conditions, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) have been implicated in the induction of an "activation syndrome" (characterized by symptoms of irritability, restlessness, emotional labiality, etc.) that may represent an intermediary state change that fosters suicidality.…

  20. Biomechanically Preferred Consonant-Vowel Combinations Fail to Appear in Adult Spoken Corpora

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whalen, D. H.; Giulivi, Sara; Nam, Hosung; Levitt, Andrea G.; Halle, Pierre; Goldstein, Louis M.

    2012-01-01

    Certain consonant/vowel (CV) combinations are more frequent than would be expected from the individual C and V frequencies alone, both in babbling and, to a lesser extent, in adult language, based on dictionary counts: Labial consonants co-occur with central vowels more often than chance would dictate; coronals co-occur with front vowels, and…

  1. Constraints on statistical computations at 10 months of age: the use of phonological features.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Gomez, Nayeli; Nazzi, Thierry

    2015-11-01

    Recently, several studies have argued that infants capitalize on the statistical properties of natural languages to acquire the linguistic structure of their native language, but the kinds of constraints which apply to statistical computations remain largely unknown. Here we explored French-learning infants' perceptual preference for labial-coronal (LC) words over coronal-labial words (CL) words (e.g. preferring bat over tab) to determine whether this phonotactic preference is based on the acquisition of the statistical properties of the input based on a single phonological feature (i.e. place of articulation), multiple features (i.e. place and manner of articulation), or individual consonant pairs. Results from four experiments revealed that infants had a labial-coronal bias for nasal sequences (Experiment 1) and for all plosive sequences (Experiments 2 and 4) but a coronal-labial bias for all fricative sequences (Experiments 3 and 4), independently of the frequencies of individual consonant pairs. These results establish for the first time that constellations of multiple phonological features, defining broad consonant classes, constrain the early acquisition of phonotactic regularities of the native language.

  2. On the Acquisition of Estonian. Papers and Reports on Child Language Development No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vihman, Marilyn May

    The speech of a 2-year-old monolingual Estonian child was studied over a period of six months. The child's initial and medial consonants and clusters were examined and charted to highlight her difficulties. Stops and nasals were easier than fricatives and sonorants; by 1 year 7 months the labials were essentially mastered; fricatives were more…

  3. Hox proteins coordinate peripodial decapentaplegic expression to direct adult head morphogenesis in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Stultz, Brian G; Park, Sung Yeon; Mortin, Mark A; Kennison, James A; Hursh, Deborah A

    2012-09-15

    The Drosophila BMP, decapentaplegic (dpp), controls morphogenesis of the ventral adult head through expression limited to the lateral peripodial epithelium of the eye-antennal disc by a 3.5 kb enhancer in the 5' end of the gene. We recovered a 15 bp deletion mutation within this enhancer that identified a homeotic (Hox) response element that is a direct target of labial and the homeotic cofactors homothorax and extradenticle. Expression of labial and homothorax are required for dpp expression in the peripodial epithelium, while the Hox gene Deformed represses labial in this location, thus limiting its expression and indirectly that of dpp to the lateral side of the disc. The expression of these homeodomain genes is in turn regulated by the dpp pathway, as dpp signalling is required for labial expression but represses homothorax. This Hox-BMP regulatory network is limited to the peripodial epithelium of the eye-antennal disc, yet is crucial to the morphogenesis of the head, which fate maps suggest arises primarily from the disc proper, not the peripodial epithelium. Thus Hox/BMP interactions in the peripodial epithelium of the eye-antennal disc contribute inductively to the shape of the external form of the adult Drosophila head.

  4. On the design of looped orthodontic retainer wires.

    PubMed

    Nikolai, R J; Horner, K D; Blackwell, D A; Carr, R J

    1991-01-01

    Removable Hawley orthodontic retainers have long been prescribed by clinicians following completion of active therapy. Only minor changes have occurred in the design of the retainer over the past 40 years. Structural, in-service failures of this appliance are typically: 1) permanent (inelastic) deformation of the as-prepared labial bow from masticatory action that induces unwanted force transmitted by the appliance to the dentition; or 2) accumulated material damage from removal and replacement of the retainer that eventually results in fracture of the labial bow. This paper reports the results of a series of experimental studies; the overall objective was the optimization of the appliance design, focusing on the labial bow. Wire size, material, temper, canine-loop height, markings for bend placements, heat-treatment of the prepared bow, and two procedures for removing and replacing the appliance were investigated. The collective outcomes suggest a combination of design-parameter values to help maximize the life of the labial bow of the retainer. PMID:1928823

  5. Grandfather Effects: A Longitudinal Case Study of the Phonological Acquisition of Intervocalic Consonants in English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barlow, Jessica A.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, I present a longitudinal study of a child's (male, aged 3;0-3;4) acquisition of intervocalic consonants characterized within the framework of Optimality Theory (OT). At Stage I, the child presents with unusual error patterns, weakening and labial substitution, and shows evidence of phonologically opaque surface forms. These…

  6. Segmental Properties of Input to Infants: A Study of Korean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Soyoung; Davis, Barbara L.; MacNeilage, Peter F.

    2008-01-01

    Segmental distributions of Korean infant-directed speech (IDS) and adult-directed speech (ADS) were compared. Significant differences were found in both consonant and vowel patterns. Korean-speaking mothers using IDS displayed more frequent labial consonantal place and less frequent coronal and glottal place and fricative manner. They showed more…

  7. [The short nose].

    PubMed

    Levet, Y

    2014-12-01

    Short noses are not only depending on the length of the dorsum, but also if there is a saddle deformity, or a too lower situation of the fronto-nasal angle, or an open naso-labial angle or a rim retraction. All the cases are treated, often with the help of cartilage grafts and with a closed approach.

  8. Constraint Conflict: The Source of an Unusual Error Pattern

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinnsen, Daniel A.; Farris, Ashley W.

    2006-01-01

    Certain phonological error patterns have been judged to be "unusual" or "idiosyncratic", posing a number of theoretical and clinical problems. This paper reconsiders an especially challenging case of an unusual error pattern documented by Leonard and Brown (1984). T (age 3;8) replaced all word-final consonants (except for labial stops) with [s]…

  9. Metastatic Vulvar Crohn's Disease—A Rare Case Report and Short Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Das, Debajit; Gupta, Bhaskar; Saha, Mahimanjan

    2016-01-01

    Metastatic Crohn's disease (CD), a type of extraintestinal CD may present with gynecological manifestation which causes diagnostic dilemma and needs multidisciplinary approach. Vulvar lesions occur in very small number of cases with CD of which asymmetrical labial swelling and edema is the most common presentation. We report a case of hypertrophic exophytic variety of vulvar CD because of its rarity. PMID:26955098

  10. External morphology of stable fly (Diptera: Muscidae) larvae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the external morphology of first-, second-, and third-instar stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans (L.)). In the cephalic region, the antennae, labial lobe, and maxillary palpi are morphologically similar among instars. Antennae comprise a prominent ante...

  11. Urological complications in pediatric renal transplantation: management and prevention.

    PubMed

    Zaontz, M R; Hatch, D A; Firlit, C F

    1988-11-01

    From 1973 through 1986, 166 consecutive renal transplants were performed in 143 patients. Urological complications included ureteral leakage/obstruction/necrosis, urinary tract infection, pyelonephritis, pelvic lymphocele, pelvic abscess, pelvic hematoma, infected hydrocele, bladder calculus, labial edema, renal artery/segmental stenosis, hydronephrosis, urinary incontinence, renal allograft malrotation and kidney rupture. Management options and preventive measures to avoid some of these dilemmas are highlighted.

  12. Interarticulator Coordination in Dysarthria: An X-Ray Microbeam Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weismer, Gary; Yunusova, Yana; Westbury, John R.

    2003-01-01

    Articulatory discoordination is often said to be an important feature of the speech production disorder in dysarthria, but little experimental work has been done to identify and specify the coordination difficulties. The present study evaluated the coordination of labial and lingual gestures for /u/ production in persons with Parkinson's disease…

  13. Neurogenesis of cephalic sensory organs of Aplysia californica.

    PubMed

    Wollesen, Tim; Wanninger, Andreas; Klussmann-Kolb, Annette

    2007-11-01

    The opisthobranch gastropod Aplysia californica serves as a model organism in experimental neurobiology because of its simple and well-known nervous system. However, its nervous periphery has been less intensely studied. We have reconstructed the ontogeny of the cephalic sensory organs (labial tentacles, rhinophores, and lip) of planktonic, metamorphic, and juvenile developmental stages. FMRFamide and serotonergic expression patterns have been examined by immunocytochemistry in conjunction with epifluorescence and confocal laser scanning microscopy. We have also applied scanning electron microscopy to analyze the ciliary distribution of these sensory epithelia. Labial tentacles and the lip develop during metamorphosis, whereas rhinophores appear significantly later, in stage 10 juveniles. Our study has revealed immunoreactivity against FMRFamides and serotonin in all major nerves. The common labial nerve develops first, followed by the labial tentacle base nerve, oral nerve, and rhinophoral nerve. We have also identified previously undescribed neuronal pathways and other FMRFamide-like-immunoreactive neuronal elements, such as peripheral ganglia and glomerulus-like structures, and two groups of conspicuous transient FMRFamide-like cell somata. We have further found two distinct populations of FMRFamide-positive cell somata located both subepidermally and in the inner regions of the cephalic sensory organs in juveniles. The latter population partly consists of sensory cells, suggesting an involvement of FMRFamide-like peptides in the modulation of peripheral sensory processes. This study is the first concerning the neurogenesis of cephalic sensory organs in A. californica and may serve as a basis for future studies of neuronal elements in gastropod molluscs.

  14. Variations of midfacial soft-tissue thickness in subjects aged between 6 and 18years for the reconstruction of the profile: A study on an Italian sample.

    PubMed

    Gibelli, Daniele; Collini, Federica; Porta, Davide; Zago, Matteo; Dolci, Claudia; Cattaneo, Cristina; Sforza, Chiarella

    2016-09-01

    Facial approximation techniques used in forensic anthropology are based on soft-tissue thickness databases. However most of articles deal with adult populations, and very few studies were conducted on minors. This study aims at providing data concerning facial thickness for George reconstruction, preliminary to the 3D facial approximation. Diagnostic cephalometric X-ray films were obtained from 222 healthy Caucasoid children (91 boys and 131 girls), aged between 6 and 18years, treated in a Department of Orthodontics of Northern Italy. After setting the Frankfurt plane horizontal, 14 measurements were taken at the mid-facial landmarks: supraglabella, glabella, nasion, nasale, subnasale, superior labial sulcus, labrale superius, stomion, labrale inferius, inferior labial sulcus, suprapogonion, pogonion, gnathion, menton. Mean and standard deviation of soft-tissues thickness at each point were calculated. A two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to test the modifications of facial parameters with age and sex (p<0.01). The results demonstrated that there is an increase in tissue thickness as individuals grow; in most occasions, males showed thicker soft tissues than females of the same age, especially after the adolescent growth spurt. Facial thicknesses at subnasale, superior labial sulcus, labrale superius, labrale inferius, inferior labial sulcus, suprapogonion, pogonion and gnathion significantly modified with age, whereas the same parameters at subnasale, superior labial sulcus, labrale superius, labrale inferius, stomion and suprapogonion were significantly sexually dimorphic. In addition, a database for soft-tissue thicknesses in children aged between 6 and 18years was created, which may be of interest in cases of facial approximation of Italian minors. PMID:27591543

  15. An Integrated Gene Regulatory Network Controls Stem Cell Proliferation in Teeth

    PubMed Central

    Felszeghy, Szabolcs; Zelarayan, Laura C; Alonso, Maria T; Plikus, Maksim V; Maas, Richard L; Chuong, Cheng-Ming; Schimmang, Thomas; Thesleff, Irma

    2007-01-01

    Epithelial stem cells reside in specific niches that regulate their self-renewal and differentiation, and are responsible for the continuous regeneration of tissues such as hair, skin, and gut. Although the regenerative potential of mammalian teeth is limited, mouse incisors grow continuously throughout life and contain stem cells at their proximal ends in the cervical loops. In the labial cervical loop, the epithelial stem cells proliferate and migrate along the labial surface, differentiating into enamel-forming ameloblasts. In contrast, the lingual cervical loop contains fewer proliferating stem cells, and the lingual incisor surface lacks ameloblasts and enamel. Here we have used a combination of mouse mutant analyses, organ culture experiments, and expression studies to identify the key signaling molecules that regulate stem cell proliferation in the rodent incisor stem cell niche, and to elucidate their role in the generation of the intrinsic asymmetry of the incisors. We show that epithelial stem cell proliferation in the cervical loops is controlled by an integrated gene regulatory network consisting of Activin, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), and Follistatin within the incisor stem cell niche. Mesenchymal FGF3 stimulates epithelial stem cell proliferation, and BMP4 represses Fgf3 expression. In turn, Activin, which is strongly expressed in labial mesenchyme, inhibits the repressive effect of BMP4 and restricts Fgf3 expression to labial dental mesenchyme, resulting in increased stem cell proliferation and a large, labial stem cell niche. Follistatin limits the number of lingual stem cells, further contributing to the characteristic asymmetry of mouse incisors, and on the basis of our findings, we suggest a model in which Follistatin antagonizes the activity of Activin. These results show how the spatially restricted and balanced effects of specific components of a signaling network can regulate stem cell proliferation in

  16. Enamel Thickness After Preparation of Tooth for Porcelain Laminate

    PubMed Central

    Pahlevan, Ayoub; Mirzaee, Mansoreh; Yassine, Esmaeil; Ranjbar Omrany, Ladan; Hasani Tabatabaee, Masumeh; Kermanshah, Hamid; Arami, Sakineh; Abbasi, Mehdy

    2014-01-01

    Objective: In this investigation the thickness of enamel in the gingival, middle, and incisal thirds of the labial surface of the anterior teeth were measured regarding preparation of the teeth for porcelain laminate veneers. Materials and Methods: Part one, 20 extracted intact human maxillary central and lateral incisors ten of each were selected. The teeth were imbedded in autopolimerize acrylic resin. Cross section was preformed through the midline of the incisal, middle and cervical one-third of the labial surface of the teeth. The samples were observed under reflected stereomicroscope and the thickness of enamel was recorded. Part II, the effect of different types of preparation on dentin exposure was evaluated. Thirty maxillary central incisor teeth were randomly divided into two groups: A: Knife-edge preparation. B: Chamfer preparation. All samples were embedded in autopolimerize acrylic resin using a silicon mold. The samples were cut through the midline of the teeth. The surface of the samples were polished and enamel and dentin were observed under the stereomicroscope. Results: Data were analyzed by ANOVA-one way test. The results of this study showed that the least enamel thickness in the central incisor was 345 and in lateral incisor is 235 μ this thickness is related to the one-third labial cervical area. Maximum thickness in maxillary central and lateral incisors in the one-third labial incisal surface was 1260 μ and 1220μ, respectively. In the second part of the study, the tendency of dentinal exposure was shown with the chamfer preparation, but no dentinal exposure was found in the knife-edge preparation. The differences between groups were significant (p<0.05). Conclusion: The knowledge of enamel thickness in different part of labial surface is very important. The thickness of enamel in the gingival area does not permit a chamfer preparation. The knife edge preparation is preferable in gingival area. PMID:25584054

  17. Anesthetic efficacy of an infiltration in mandibular anterior teeth following an inferior alveolar nerve block.

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Kenneth; Reader, Al; Beck, Mike; Meyers, William J.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this prospective, randomized, blinded study was to measure the degree of pulpal anesthesia obtained with an inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) block followed by an infiltration in mandibular anterior teeth. Through use of a repeated-measures design, 40 patients randomly received 3 injection combinations at 3 separate appointments: an IAN block followed by a mock lingual infiltration and a mock labial infiltration, an IAN block followed by a mock lingual infiltration and a labial infiltration, and an IAN block followed by a mock labial infiltration and a lingual infiltration. Each IAN block used 3.6 mL of 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine, and each infiltration used 1.8 mL of 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine administered over the lateral incisor apex. Mandibular anterior teeth were blindly pulp tested at 2-minute cycles for 60 minutes following the IAN-infiltration injections. No response from the patient to the maximum output (80 reading) of the pulp tester was used as the criterion for pulpal anesthesia. Anesthesia was considered successful when 2 consecutive 80 readings were obtained within 15 minutes and the 80 reading was sustained for 60 minutes. Anesthesia was considered a failure if 2 consecutive 80 readings were not obtained during the 60 minutes. The results of this study showed that 100% of the patients had lip numbness with all IAN blocks. For the lateral incisor, the success rate of the IAN block alone was 40% and the failure rate was 30%. For the IAN block plus labial infiltration, the success rate was 62% and the failure rate was 12% for the lateral incisor. There was a significant difference (P < .05) between the IAN block alone and the IAN block plus labial infiltration. In conclusion, a labial infiltration, over the lateral incisor apex, of 1.8 mL of 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine following an IAN block significantly improved pulpal anesthesia for the lateral incisor compared with the IAN block alone. PMID:15384292

  18. Prevalence and intensity of pathologies induced by the toxic dinoflagellate, Heterocapsa circularisquama, in the Mediterranean mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    PubMed

    Basti, Leila; Endo, Makoto; Segawa, Susumu; Shumway, Sandra E; Tanaka, Yuji; Nagai, Satoshi

    2015-06-01

    The harmful dinoflagellate, Heterocapsa circularisquama, has been causing mass mortalities of bivalve molluscs in Japan, at relatively low cell densities. Although several studies have been conducted to determine the toxicity mechanisms, the specific cause of death is still unclear. In a previous study, in our laboratory, it was shown that H. circularisquama (10(3) cells ml(-1)) caused extensive cytotoxicity in the gills of short-neck clams, Ruditapes philippinarum. In the present study, Mediterranean mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis, were exposed to H. circularisquama at four cell densities (5, 50, 500, 10(3) cells ml(-1)), three temperatures (15, 20, and 25°C), and three exposure durations (3, 24, and 48 h), and the pathologies in nine organs (gills, labial palps, mantle, hepatopancreas, stomach, intestines, exhalant siphon, adductor muscles, and foot) were assessed. Foot, adductor muscles, and exhalent siphons of mussels were not affected; however, 16 inflammatory (hemocytic infiltration and aggregation, diapedesis, hyperplasia, hypertrophy, edema, melanization, and firbrosis) and degenerative (thrombus, thrombosed edema, cilia matting and exfoliation, epithelial desquamation, atrophy, and necrosis) pathologies were identified in the gills, labial palps, mantle, hepatopancreas, stomach, and intestines. The total prevalence and total intensity of pathology in each individual mussel, and the prevalence and intensity of pathology in each organ increased significantly with increased cell density, exposure duration, and temperature. The prevalence of pathology was the highest in gills, followed by the prevalence in labial palps, mantle, stomach, and intestines. Pathology was least prevalent in the hepatopancreas. The intensity of pathology was the highest in the gills, followed by the labial palps and mantle, the stomach and intestines, and the hepatopancreas. This detailed quantitative histopathological study demonstrates that exposure to H. circularisquama

  19. [The effect of glial cells in the function and development of the nervous system in Caenorhabditis elegans].

    PubMed

    Yulan, X U; Yadan, Xue; Lijun, Kang

    2016-05-25

    There are three types of glial cells in Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans for short): sheath glia, socket glia and glutamate receptor glia. They are mainly located in four sensory organs including the amphid, the cephalic organ, the outer labial sensilla and the inner labial sensilla. C. elegans glial cells play key roles in dendrite extension, neurite guidance and extension, and are essential for synaptogenesis and maintain the normal morphology and the function of sensory nerve endings as well. A recent study shown that some nematode neurons are derived from the glial cells. Moreover, nematodes glial cells can directly modulate the function of sensory neurons. Some glial cells can also respond to certain external stimuli, such as mechanical stimulation, and adjust the accompanying neuronal activities.The article summarizes the progress on effects of nematodes glial cells on the nervous system development and function. PMID:27651199

  20. A survey of conservation of sea spider and Drosophila Hox protein activities.

    PubMed

    Saadaoui, Mehdi; Litim-Mecheri, Isma; Macchi, Meiggie; Graba, Yacine; Maurel-Zaffran, Corinne

    2015-11-01

    Hox proteins have well-established functions in development and evolution, controlling the final morphology of bilaterian animals. The common phylogenetic origin of Hox proteins and the associated evolutionary diversification of protein sequences provide a unique framework to explore the relationship between changes in protein sequence and function. In this study, we aimed at questioning how sequence variation within arthropod Hox proteins influences function. This was achieved by exploring the functional impact of sequence conservation/divergence of the Hox genes, labial, Sex comb reduced, Deformed, Ultrabithorax and abdominalA from two distant arthropods, the sea spider and the well-studied Drosophila. Results highlight a correlation between sequence conservation within the homeodomain and the degree of functional conservation, and identify a novel functional domain in the Labial protein.

  1. Five-Year Volumetric Evaluation of Periodontally Compromised Sites Restored by Immediate Implant Restorations.

    PubMed

    Tripodakis, Aris Petros; Gousias, Hercules; Mastoris, Michael; Likouresis, Dionysios

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was the retrospective evaluation of the distance of the labial hard and soft tissue margins from the implant shoulder in 24 periodontally compromised sites that were restored by immediate implant restorations. Volumetric analysis was performed 5 years postoperatively using cone beam computed tomography with limited field of view. In all cases, a labial radiopaque plate component was apparent 5 years postoperatively coronal to the implant shoulder (3.1 ± 0.6 mm), supporting the soft tissue margin, which was extending above this level (5.2 ± 1.1 mm). In 12 of the sites, preoperative evaluation showed that this plate was missing at the time of implant placement. PMID:27560669

  2. Evemphyron sinense, a new genus and species infesting legume seedpods in China (Coleoptera, Attelabidae, Rhynchitinae).

    PubMed

    Lv, Xiangyang; Alonso-Zarazaga, Miguel A; Xiao, Zhishu; Wang, Zhiliang; Zhang, Runzhi

    2016-01-01

    A new genus Evemphyron Alonso-Zarazaga, Lv & Wang, gen. n., belonging to Attelabidae Rhynchitinae, is described. Its single species, Evemphyron sinense Alonso-Zarazaga, Lv & Wang, sp. n., was reared from larvae found inside seed pods of the legume Callerya dielsiana (Fabaceae, Millettieae) in Sichuan Province (China). The species is figured and placed in the Deporaini because of the presence of minute labial palpi, the strongly crescentic apex of the postmentum, and the apodemes of male IX sternite and female VIII sternite curved sinistro-anterially near their cephalic end. It shows 3-segmented labial palpi and male sex patches on the procoxae, characters that suggest a basal position in the tribe. PMID:27408602

  3. Evemphyron sinense, a new genus and species infesting legume seedpods in China (Coleoptera, Attelabidae, Rhynchitinae)

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Xiangyang; Alonso-Zarazaga, Miguel A.; Xiao, Zhishu; Wang, Zhiliang; Zhang, Runzhi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new genus Evemphyron Alonso-Zarazaga, Lv & Wang, gen. n., belonging to Attelabidae Rhynchitinae, is described. Its single species, Evemphyron sinense Alonso-Zarazaga, Lv & Wang, sp. n., was reared from larvae found inside seed pods of the legume Callerya dielsiana (Fabaceae, Millettieae) in Sichuan Province (China). The species is figured and placed in the Deporaini because of the presence of minute labial palpi, the strongly crescentic apex of the postmentum, and the apodemes of male IX sternite and female VIII sternite curved sinistro-anterially near their cephalic end. It shows 3-segmented labial palpi and male sex patches on the procoxae, characters that suggest a basal position in the tribe. PMID:27408602

  4. Two new species of Parasaveljevia Wieser, 1953 (Thoracostomopsidae, Nematoda) from Argentinean coasts (Chubut, Argentina).

    PubMed

    Pastor, Catalina; Lo Russo, Virginia; Villares, Gabriela

    2015-10-06

    Two new Parasavaljevia species are described, one from Puerto Madryn, and one from El Límite beach, San Jorge Gulf, Chubut Province, Argentina. The two species are characterised by a combination of characters. Parasavaljevia uncinoa n. sp. is characterised by having a long rectangular cirrus, positioned at the level of the inner labial setae, rectangular mandibles with prominent lateral hooks bearing denticles in three lines of nine each, and six cephalic setae of the same length, inserted at the anterior end of a small head capsule. Parasavaljevia limitense n. sp. is characterized by having a cirrus posterior positioned, between the labial and cephalic setae, rectangular-arched mandibles bearing denticles in five lines of ten each in a gradient of sizes; a small buccal cavity, small cephalic capsule and abundant cervical setae (4+10). An emendation of the genus diagnosis and a new key are given and discussed.

  5. Cheilitis granulomatosa. Successful treatment with combined local triamcinolone injections and surgery.

    PubMed

    Krutchkoff, D; James, R

    1978-08-01

    Cheilitis granulomatosa is a rare condition that has traditionally proved difficult to treat satisfactorily. Excellent results were obtained in our case with local triamcinolone acetonide injections and surgery. Histopathologic features of the classic, untreated condition were reviewed and compared to the histopathologic features of labial tissues after a seris of triamcinolone injections. It was found that the injected medication was effective in achieving some reduction of labial volume, apparently through a necrotizing effect of granulomas with subsequent replacement by fibrous scars. Discontinuation of local injections after initial surgery apparently contributed to an exacerbation, as shown by the histopathology of a second cheiloplastic procedure. We therefore recommended that patients with chelitis granulomatosa who are receiving combinaed triamcinolone-surgical therapy continue to receive local triamcinolone injections after surgery in order to minimize the tendency for recurrence.

  6. [Forensic medical diagnostics of chronic alcoholic intoxication based on histological changes in the soft tissues of oral cavity and salivary glands].

    PubMed

    Pigolkin, Iu I; Dolzhanskiĭ, O V; Mamsurova, T S; Chertovskikh, A A

    2011-01-01

    Histological studies of oral cavity mucosa and salivary glands in subjects with chronic alcoholic intoxication revealed changes at the surface of the tongue and in the glandular tissues. Specific features of chronic alcoholic intoxication include acinar and ductal hyperplasia, reduction of the adipose tissue mass in salivary gland stroma, predominance of T-lymphocytes in hard palate minor salivary glands and B-lymphocytes in the stroma of labial minor salivary gland, the absence of plasma cells in the stroma of hard palate minor salivary glands and labial mucosa. Leukoplakia, dysplasia, and hyperplasia of the basal epithelial layer of oral cavity mucosa are considered to be the signs of long-term (over 12 months) alcohol consumption. PMID:21866840

  7. Clinical limitations of Invisalign.

    PubMed

    Phan, Xiem; Ling, Paul H

    2007-04-01

    Adult patients seeking orthodontic treatment are increasingly motivated by esthetic considerations. The majority of these patients reject wearing labial fixed appliances and are looking instead to more esthetic treatment options, including lingual orthodontics and Invisalign appliances. Since Align Technology introduced the Invisalign appliance in 1999 in an extensive public campaign, the appliance has gained tremendous attention from adult patients and dental professionals. The transparency of the Invisalign appliance enhances its esthetic appeal for those adult patients who are averse to wearing conventional labial fixed orthodontic appliances. Although guidelines about the types of malocclusions that this technique can treat exist, few clinical studies have assessed the effectiveness of the appliance. A few recent studies have outlined some of the limitations associated with this technique that clinicians should recognize early before choosing treatment options.

  8. Description of Distorhabditis poonchiana n. gen., n. sp. (Nematoda: Rhabditidae) from Jammu and Kashmir, India.

    PubMed

    Shah, Ali Asghar; Vaid, Shavish; Hussain, Abid; Ahmad, Rakeeb

    2015-12-01

    Distorhabditis poonchiana n. gen., n. sp. from humus in Jammu and Kashmir, India, is described and illustrated. The new genus is characterized by a small body; slightly setoff labial region; long tubular gymnostom; prominently cuticularized cheilostom; absence of glottoid apparatus; monoprodelphic reproductive system; vulva (V) = 81 to 84; spicules with trifurcated distal ends, simple gubernaculum, peloderan bursa with eight pairs of bursal papillae arranged in 1 + 1 + 1 + 2 + 1 + 2 arrangement. PMID:26941466

  9. Description of Distorhabditis poonchiana n. gen., n. sp. (Nematoda: Rhabditidae) from Jammu and Kashmir, India.

    PubMed

    Shah, Ali Asghar; Vaid, Shavish; Hussain, Abid; Ahmad, Rakeeb

    2015-12-01

    Distorhabditis poonchiana n. gen., n. sp. from humus in Jammu and Kashmir, India, is described and illustrated. The new genus is characterized by a small body; slightly setoff labial region; long tubular gymnostom; prominently cuticularized cheilostom; absence of glottoid apparatus; monoprodelphic reproductive system; vulva (V) = 81 to 84; spicules with trifurcated distal ends, simple gubernaculum, peloderan bursa with eight pairs of bursal papillae arranged in 1 + 1 + 1 + 2 + 1 + 2 arrangement.

  10. Parotid Gland Biopsy, the Alternative Way to Diagnose Sjögren Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Spijkervet, Fred K L; Haacke, Erlin; Kroese, Frans G M; Bootsma, Hendrika; Vissink, Arjan

    2016-08-01

    Salivary gland biopsy is a technique broadly applied for the diagnosis of Sjögren syndrome (SS), lymphoma in SS, and connective tissue disorders (sarcoidosis, amyloidosis). In SS characteristic histology findings are found, including lymphocytic infiltration surrounding the excretory ducts in combination with destruction of acinar tissue. In this article the main techniques are described for taking labial and parotid salivary gland biopsies with respect to their advantages, postoperative complications, and usefulness for diagnostic procedures, monitoring disease progression, and evaluation of treatment.

  11. Laser in dentistry: Biostimulation and surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barzè, Franco; Palmieri, Beniamino; Scalise, Lorenzo; Rottigni, Valentina

    2012-09-01

    Laser therapy has achieved an important rule in cosmetic dentistry especially in the treatment of several complications such as leukoplakia, oral lichen planus, glossitis, oral mucositis, labial herpes virus, stomatitis, frenulum and oral hemangioma. In our study we enrolled 40 patients affected by these diseases to treat them with a new infrared dental laser demonstrating that it is extremely safe and effective in pain and postoperative discomforts reduction.

  12. The adaptive significance of enamel loss in the mandibular incisors of cercopithecine primates (Mammalia: Cercopithecidae): a finite element modelling study.

    PubMed

    Kupczik, Kornelius; Lev-Tov Chattah, Netta

    2014-01-01

    In several primate groups enamel is reduced or absent from the lingual (tongue) side of the mandibular incisor crowns akin to other placental and marsupial mammalian groups such as rodents, lagomorphs and wombats. Here we investigate the presumed adaptation of crowns with unilateral enamel to the incision of tough foods in cercopithecines, an Old World monkey subfamily, using a simulation approach. We developed and validated a finite element model of the lower central incisor of the rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) with labial enamel only to compute three-dimensional displacements and maximum principal stresses on the crown subjected to compressive loads varying in orientation. Moreover, we developed a model of a macaque incisor with enamel present on both labial and lingual aspects, thus resembling the ancestral condition found in the sister taxon, the leaf-eating colobines. The results showed that, concomitant with experimental results, the cercopithecine crown with unilateral enamel bends predominantly towards the inside of the mouth, while displacements decreased when both labial and lingual enamel are present. Importantly, the cercopithecine incisor crown experienced lower maximum principal stress on the lingual side compared to the incisor with enamel on the lingual and labial aspects under non-axial loads directed either towards the inside or outside of the mouth. These findings suggest that cercopithecine mandibular incisors are adapted to a wide range of ingestive behaviours compared to colobines. We conclude that the evolutionary loss of lingual enamel in cercopithecines has conferred a safeguard against crown failure under a loading regime assumed for the ingestion (peeling, scraping) of tough-skinned fruits. PMID:24831704

  13. [Effects and side effects of estrogens and gestagens in pediatric and adolescent gynecology].

    PubMed

    Lauritzen, C

    1990-10-01

    An overview is given on the indications and possibilities of estrogen-progestagen medication in girls during childhood and adolescence. The physiological effects of estrogen and progestagen treatment are described, and practical advice is given for the management with estrogens-progestagens of labial adhesions, lichen sclerosus, vulvovaginitis, breast anomalies, the different forms of amenorrhoeas, pubertas tarda, anorexia-bulimia, bleeding anomalies and high stature. PMID:2079940

  14. Is bodily advancement of the lower incisors possible?

    PubMed

    Strahm, Catherine; De Sousa, Ana Paula; Grobéty, Dominique; Mavropoulos, Anestis; Kiliaridis, Stavros

    2009-08-01

    Some Class II malocclusions are due, at least in part, to a retruded lower dental arch relative to the mandibular body. The purpose of this study was to determine if a direct anterior force on the lower incisors could lead to bodily movement of these teeth. Twenty-seven patients (9 males, 18 females; mean age: 9.8 years) were treated with a reverse headgear (RHG) in the lower dental arch combined with labial root torque of the lower incisors. An activator was added to disclude the arches. This group was compared with 26 patients (10 males, 16 females; mean age: 9.7 years) treated with an activator combined with conventional posterior extraoral traction on the upper molars. All patients had a second stage of treatment with fixed appliances and Class II elastic wear. At the end of treatment, all patients had a Class I relationship and a normal overjet. Lateral cephalograms were taken before (T1), after the first stage (T2), and at the end of active (T3) treatment. Independent sample t-tests were used to assess the differences between the two groups of patients. In the RHG group, despite the applied root torque, the lower incisors showed anterior crown tipping. Labial root displacement was not observed. At T2, this labial tipping partially relapsed. Furthermore, the use of RHG appeared to decrease bone apposition in the anterior part of the symphysis, leading to a reduction in width. Bodily advancement of the lower incisors was not achieved with the application of labial root torque and anteriorly directed force on the mandibular arch. The width limit of the lower anterior apical base should be respected during orthodontic treatment planning.

  15. Description of Distorhabditis poonchiana n. gen., n. sp. (Nematoda: Rhabditidae) from Jammu and Kashmir, India

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Ali Asghar; Vaid, Shavish; Hussain, Abid; Ahmad, Rakeeb

    2015-01-01

    Distorhabditis poonchiana n. gen., n. sp. from humus in Jammu and Kashmir, India, is described and illustrated. The new genus is characterized by a small body; slightly setoff labial region; long tubular gymnostom; prominently cuticularized cheilostom; absence of glottoid apparatus; monoprodelphic reproductive system; vulva (V) = 81 to 84; spicules with trifurcated distal ends, simple gubernaculum, peloderan bursa with eight pairs of bursal papillae arranged in 1 + 1 + 1 + 2 + 1 + 2 arrangement. PMID:26941466

  16. Gingival pigmentation index proposal of a new index with a brief review of current indices

    PubMed Central

    Peeran, Syed Wali; Ramalingam, Karthikeyan; Peeran, Syed Ali; Altaher, Omar Basheer; Alsaid, Fatma Mojtaba; Mugrabi, Marei Hamed

    2014-01-01

    Cosmetic expectations have increased with time and current trends speak volumes about gingival esthetics and smile designing. Gingival pigmentation especially on the labial aspect of anterior teeth has become an important component of general esthetics. Various physiologic and pathologic factors cause gingival pigmentation. The existing indices do not deal with the etiology, extent and severity of gingival pigmentation. Hence, we propose a new classification and index for gingival pigmentation to assess the treatment needs for the patient. PMID:24966785

  17. Laser vaporization of extravasation type of mucocele of the lower lip with 940-nm diode laser.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, G; Mehra, A; Agarwal, A

    2013-01-01

    A 43-year-old male presented with an asymptomatic swelling of the lower labial mucosa. Examination revealed that the tip of maxillary canine was causing trauma on the affected side. A diagnosis of extravasation type of mucocele was established clinically. Vaporization of the mucocele was done with a 940-nm diode laser in contact mode. The lesion healed uneventfully and there has been no recurrence for 3 months. PMID:23965466

  18. Fibro-epithelial hyperplasia mimicking mucocele.

    PubMed

    Jain, K; Singh, B D; Dubey, A; Avinash, A

    2014-01-01

    The effects of chronic local irritation have been seen commonly in the form of fibroma or mucocele in children. We report a ten year old girl with the chief complaint of swelling in the lower right region of labial mucosa which was diagnosed clinically as mucocele and histologically as fibro-epithelial hyperplasia. Surgical excision was done under local anesthesia with no post-operative complication. PMID:25552222

  19. Beyond harmonic sounds in a simple model for birdsong production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amador, Ana; Mindlin, Gabriel B.

    2008-12-01

    In this work we present an analysis of the dynamics displayed by a simple bidimensional model of labial oscillations during birdsong production. We show that the same model capable of generating tonal sounds can present, for a wide range of parameters, solutions which are spectrally rich. The role of physiologically sensible parameters is discussed in each oscillatory regime, allowing us to interpret previously reported data.

  20. [Laser navigation guided cleft lip repair].

    PubMed

    Bing, Shi

    2016-06-01

    A new method using the ideal mid-facial line as the navigating reference was introduced to improve the outcome of cleft lip repair. Using the verticle coordinate crossing the middle point of the intercanthus line, surgeons could observe and correct the distortion of the fine structures in labial-nasal area. This laser projecting mid-facial-line navigation was repeatable, while not interfere the operating. In conclusion, generalizing laser navigation is a valuable supplementary for cleft lip repair. PMID:27526442

  1. The Adaptive Significance of Enamel Loss in the Mandibular Incisors of Cercopithecine Primates (Mammalia: Cercopithecidae): A Finite Element Modelling Study

    PubMed Central

    Kupczik, Kornelius; Lev-Tov Chattah, Netta

    2014-01-01

    In several primate groups enamel is reduced or absent from the lingual (tongue) side of the mandibular incisor crowns akin to other placental and marsupial mammalian groups such as rodents, lagomorphs and wombats. Here we investigate the presumed adaptation of crowns with unilateral enamel to the incision of tough foods in cercopithecines, an Old World monkey subfamily, using a simulation approach. We developed and validated a finite element model of the lower central incisor of the rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) with labial enamel only to compute three-dimensional displacements and maximum principal stresses on the crown subjected to compressive loads varying in orientation. Moreover, we developed a model of a macaque incisor with enamel present on both labial and lingual aspects, thus resembling the ancestral condition found in the sister taxon, the leaf-eating colobines. The results showed that, concomitant with experimental results, the cercopithecine crown with unilateral enamel bends predominantly towards the inside of the mouth, while displacements decreased when both labial and lingual enamel are present. Importantly, the cercopithecine incisor crown experienced lower maximum principal stress on the lingual side compared to the incisor with enamel on the lingual and labial aspects under non-axial loads directed either towards the inside or outside of the mouth. These findings suggest that cercopithecine mandibular incisors are adapted to a wide range of ingestive behaviours compared to colobines. We conclude that the evolutionary loss of lingual enamel in cercopithecines has conferred a safeguard against crown failure under a loading regime assumed for the ingestion (peeling, scraping) of tough-skinned fruits. PMID:24831704

  2. The adaptive significance of enamel loss in the mandibular incisors of cercopithecine primates (Mammalia: Cercopithecidae): a finite element modelling study.

    PubMed

    Kupczik, Kornelius; Lev-Tov Chattah, Netta

    2014-01-01

    In several primate groups enamel is reduced or absent from the lingual (tongue) side of the mandibular incisor crowns akin to other placental and marsupial mammalian groups such as rodents, lagomorphs and wombats. Here we investigate the presumed adaptation of crowns with unilateral enamel to the incision of tough foods in cercopithecines, an Old World monkey subfamily, using a simulation approach. We developed and validated a finite element model of the lower central incisor of the rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) with labial enamel only to compute three-dimensional displacements and maximum principal stresses on the crown subjected to compressive loads varying in orientation. Moreover, we developed a model of a macaque incisor with enamel present on both labial and lingual aspects, thus resembling the ancestral condition found in the sister taxon, the leaf-eating colobines. The results showed that, concomitant with experimental results, the cercopithecine crown with unilateral enamel bends predominantly towards the inside of the mouth, while displacements decreased when both labial and lingual enamel are present. Importantly, the cercopithecine incisor crown experienced lower maximum principal stress on the lingual side compared to the incisor with enamel on the lingual and labial aspects under non-axial loads directed either towards the inside or outside of the mouth. These findings suggest that cercopithecine mandibular incisors are adapted to a wide range of ingestive behaviours compared to colobines. We conclude that the evolutionary loss of lingual enamel in cercopithecines has conferred a safeguard against crown failure under a loading regime assumed for the ingestion (peeling, scraping) of tough-skinned fruits.

  3. Growth characteristics underlying lack of a chin in pigs: a histomorphometric study

    PubMed Central

    Price, J.; Tee, B. C.; Vig, K.; Shanker, S.; Kennedy, K.; Sun, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Despite similar mandibular growth to that of humans, pigs lack a chin projection as shown in most humans. To understand whether this divergence is contributed to differences in local symphyseal growth, this project characterized bone modeling activities at the symphyseal surfaces of juvenile pigs. Material and Methods Symphyseal specimens from 2 age groups (4- and 6-month-old, n=10) were processed into histological sections with and without decalcification, which were assessed for surface mineral apposition and bone resorption, respectively. In a blinded fashion, measurements of four parameters (MAR: mineral apposition rate, MAZ: mineral apposition zone; ES/BS: eroded surface; OC.N/BS: osteoclast number) were obtained and tested by a multivariate two-way mixed-model analyses of variance (MANOVA) for the differences between symphyseal regions and ages. Results Qualitatively, pig symphyseal labial and lingual surfaces were horizontally oriented and characterized by mineral apposition and bone resorption, respectively. Quantitatively, labial mineral apposition tended to be greater rostrally than caudally at 4 months, which became greater caudally than rostrally at 6 months (region/age interactions: p=0.127 for MAR, p=0.012 for MAZ). Lingual bone resorption tended to be greater caudally than rostrally, but only ES/BS measurements was significant (p=0.039) regardless of age while OC.N/BS measurements varied with ages and regions (age/region interaction, p=0.087). Conclusions Insufficient differential in symphyseal surface modeling between the labial-caudal and labial-rostral regions contributes to the lack of chin projection in the pig. PMID:26250613

  4. Bronchogenic carcinoma presenting as a periapical infection.

    PubMed

    Seddon, S V; Absi, E G; Shepherd, J P

    1993-06-19

    This case report describes a metastatic bronchogenic deposit involving the lower lip and the adjacent bone in the lower incisor region. The presenting symptoms were very similar to those of a dentoalveolar infection and extraction of the lower incisor teeth failed to provide any relief. Comparison of radiographs taken 6 months earlier suggested that the metastatic deposit very probably spread from the lower labial sulcus into a site of periapical infection, involving the lower incisors and the adjacent bone. PMID:8518050

  5. Herpes simplex virus infection during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Stephenson-Famy, Alyssa; Gardella, Carolyn

    2014-12-01

    Genital herpes in pregnancy continues to cause significant maternal morbidity, with an increasing number of infections being due to oral-labial transmission of herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1. Near delivery, primary infections with HSV-1 or HSV-2 carry the highest risk of neonatal herpes infection, which is a rare but potentially devastating disease for otherwise healthy newborns. Prevention efforts have been limited by lack of an effective intervention for preventing primary infections and the unclear role of routine serologic testing.

  6. Cheilitis glandularis.

    PubMed

    Stuller, C B; Schaberg, S J; Stokos, J; Pierce, G L

    1982-06-01

    Cheilitis glandularis is an uncommon lesion affecting the lower lip. Its origin remains obscure, although it is hypothesized that chronic irritation secondary to prolonged solar exposure causes hypertrophy of the labial salivary glands and eventual enlargement and ectropion of the lower lip. Although carcinoma of the lower lip has been reported in association with it, cheilitis glandularis is still considered a benign process that is adequately managed with conservative surgery. A case is presented and its surgical management is described.

  7. A new species of Coryogalops (Perciformes: Gobiidae) and the first adult record of Feia nympha from the Red Sea.

    PubMed

    Kovačić, Marcelo; Bogorodsky, Sergey V; Mal, Ahmad O

    2016-01-01

    A new species of the gobiid genus Coryogalops, C. nanus sp. nov. is described from the Red Sea. Coryogalops nanus sp. nov. is distinguished from congeners in having dorsal-fin rays VI + I,10; anal-fin rays I,9; pectoral-fin rays 12-14 (lowest count known for the genus), two upper rays with free tips; pelvic fins I,5, joined to form an emarginate disc, no pelvic frenum; predorsal area and narrow area at base of first dorsal fin naked; longitudinal scale series 26-29; transverse scale rows counted forward 6-7; transverse scale rows counted backward 7-8; circumpeduncular scale rows 11-12; seven transverse suborbital rows of sensory papillae; no tentacle above upper eye margin; anterior nostril tubular, without flap at its tip, posterior nostril pore-like; body semitranslucent, covered with small scattered orange-yellow spots and speckles, those in predorsal area contain black dots; an internal row of white spots along ventral part of body above anal-fin base and on caudal peduncle; head with small scattered orange to yellowish brown spots; first dorsal fin with two broad white bands at base of fin and distally, and with hyaline area densely dotted with melanophores in the middle of fin; preserved specimens opaque white to yellowish with sparse melanophores. An adult specimen of Feia nympha is recorded for the first time in the Red Sea and the lateral line system of this species is described. PMID:27394550

  8. The effect of laterally positioned flap-revised technique and 24% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid root conditioning on root coverage: A case report.

    PubMed

    Singh, Jagmohan; Bharti, Vipin

    2014-07-01

    Complete root coverage is considered the true goal of treatment of gingival recession defects because only complete coverage assures recovery from the hypersensitivity and esthetic defects associated with recession areas. Previous studies have shown that the laterally positioned flap (LPF) technique or root surface biomodification yields a higher percentage of complete root coverage upon gingival recession treatment. This article highlights the use of the laterally positioned pedicle flap-revised technique (LPFRT) as a modification of the LPF technique, along with 24% EDTA gel as a root surface biomodification agent, in the management of localized gingival recession defects. Clinical examination revealed a Miller class II recession defect on the buccal aspect of the lower right central incisor, as well as the presence of aberrant frenum pull adjacent to the recession defect. The LPFRT, together with 24% EDTA gel, was speculated to cover the gingival recession defect. The frenectomy, along with periosteal fenestration, was planned simultaneously with LPFRT. After 6 months of therapy, the clinical condition was stable with complete root coverage and satisfactory healing of the gingival tissues at both the donor and recipient sites with no signs of inflammation.

  9. The effect of laterally positioned flap-revised technique and 24% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid root conditioning on root coverage: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Jagmohan; Bharti, Vipin

    2014-01-01

    Complete root coverage is considered the true goal of treatment of gingival recession defects because only complete coverage assures recovery from the hypersensitivity and esthetic defects associated with recession areas. Previous studies have shown that the laterally positioned flap (LPF) technique or root surface biomodification yields a higher percentage of complete root coverage upon gingival recession treatment. This article highlights the use of the laterally positioned pedicle flap-revised technique (LPFRT) as a modification of the LPF technique, along with 24% EDTA gel as a root surface biomodification agent, in the management of localized gingival recession defects. Clinical examination revealed a Miller class II recession defect on the buccal aspect of the lower right central incisor, as well as the presence of aberrant frenum pull adjacent to the recession defect. The LPFRT, together with 24% EDTA gel, was speculated to cover the gingival recession defect. The frenectomy, along with periosteal fenestration, was planned simultaneously with LPFRT. After 6 months of therapy, the clinical condition was stable with complete root coverage and satisfactory healing of the gingival tissues at both the donor and recipient sites with no signs of inflammation. PMID:25057234

  10. A new species of Coryogalops (Perciformes: Gobiidae) and the first adult record of Feia nympha from the Red Sea.

    PubMed

    Kovačić, Marcelo; Bogorodsky, Sergey V; Mal, Ahmad O

    2016-03-31

    A new species of the gobiid genus Coryogalops, C. nanus sp. nov. is described from the Red Sea. Coryogalops nanus sp. nov. is distinguished from congeners in having dorsal-fin rays VI + I,10; anal-fin rays I,9; pectoral-fin rays 12-14 (lowest count known for the genus), two upper rays with free tips; pelvic fins I,5, joined to form an emarginate disc, no pelvic frenum; predorsal area and narrow area at base of first dorsal fin naked; longitudinal scale series 26-29; transverse scale rows counted forward 6-7; transverse scale rows counted backward 7-8; circumpeduncular scale rows 11-12; seven transverse suborbital rows of sensory papillae; no tentacle above upper eye margin; anterior nostril tubular, without flap at its tip, posterior nostril pore-like; body semitranslucent, covered with small scattered orange-yellow spots and speckles, those in predorsal area contain black dots; an internal row of white spots along ventral part of body above anal-fin base and on caudal peduncle; head with small scattered orange to yellowish brown spots; first dorsal fin with two broad white bands at base of fin and distally, and with hyaline area densely dotted with melanophores in the middle of fin; preserved specimens opaque white to yellowish with sparse melanophores. An adult specimen of Feia nympha is recorded for the first time in the Red Sea and the lateral line system of this species is described.

  11. [The oto-meniscal relationship of temporo-mandibular joint in the new-born man (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Couly, G; Hureau, J

    1976-01-01

    Although they are anatomically immature at the time of birth, the temporo-mandibular joints are able to ensure efficient suction due to the branchial blastema interposed between the two articular nuclei. This conjunctive formation is the principal factor in the constitution of the meniscus and its frena, the articular surfaces, the capsule and the ligaments. This constitutes not only an embryological but also a functional entity. The joint runs the risk of paying heavily for this functionnal availability, by its relationship with the ear-drum which is a potentially infectious cavity. In fact, at birth there is still evidence of the original branchial continuum between the unknit tympanal and squamosal in the shape of the posterior meniscal frenum, the conjunctivo-vascular isthmus which puts the vascularization of the mucosa of the ear-drum in communication with the very rich vascularization of the neonatal temporo-mandibular joint. Therefore, 1/3 of the so-called congenital temporo-mandibular ankyloses, apparently without cause, could probably be explained by the otomeniscal relationship existing in the new-born baby and continuing during the first few months of life in the form of a conjunctivo-vascular link.

  12. Mucus extravasation and retention phenomena: a 24-year study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Mucoceles are benign lesions related to the minor salivary glands and their respective ducts frequently affecting oral structures which are generally asymptomatic. Mucoceles are generally characterized by swollen nodular lesions preferentially located on the lower lip and differ from the so-called ranulas, which are lesions located on the floor of the mouth and related to the sublingual or submandibular glands. Methods The objective of the present study was to analyze data such as age, gender, race and site of the lesion of 173 mucocele cases diagnosed at the Discipline of Stomatology, São José dos Campos Dental School, UNESP, over a period of 24 years (April 1980 to February 2003). Results Of the 173 cases analyzed, 104 (60.12%) were females and 69 (39.88%) were males. Age ranged from 4 to 70 years (mean ± SD: 17 ± 9.53) and most patients were in the second decade of life (n = 86, 49.42%); white (n = 124, 71.68%). The lower lip was the site most frequently affected by the lesions (n = 135, 78.03%), whereas the lowest prevalence was observed for the soft palate, buccal mucosa, and lingual frenum. Conclusion In this study, mucoceles predominated in white female subjects in the second decade of life, with the lower lip being the most frequently affected site. PMID:20529263

  13. Treatment of gingival recession using free gingival graft with fibrin fibronectin sealing system: A novel approach

    PubMed Central

    Srinivas, B. V. V.; Rupa, N.; Halini Kumari, K. V.; Rajender, A.; Reddy, M. Narendra

    2015-01-01

    Periodontal plastic surgery is the branch of periodontology that is focused mainly on the correction or elimination of mucogingival problems associated with lack of attached gingiva, a shallow vestibule and aberrant frenum. Various mucogingival surgical procedures are used to halt the progression of the gingival recession and to correct poor esthetic appearance. Free gingival autograft is one of the most common techniques used for a gingival recession in areas of inadequate attached gingiva in the mandibular anterior region. Fibrin sealants are human plasma derivatives that mimic the final stages of blood coagulation, forming a fibrin clot. Fibrin Sealants enhances the overall outcome of surgical intervention because of their hemostatic, adhesive, and healing properties. These properties of fibrin sealants may reduce operating time, prevent complications, and enhance the overall outcome of many surgical interventions. Hence, this case report aims to investigate the clinical effectiveness of free gingival graft along with the commercially available fibrin-fibronectin sealing system (Tissucol®) in the treatment of Miller's class II gingival recession. PMID:26538956

  14. Management of an Adult with Spaced Dentition, Class III Malocclusion and Open-bite Tendency

    PubMed Central

    Kaya, Demet; Taner, Tulin Ugur

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this case report was to present the orthodontic treatment of an adult with spaced dentition, Class III malocclusion, and open-bite tendency. A 28.4-year-old adult woman was concerned about the unesthetic appearance of her spaced dentition localized at both upper and lower arches while smiling. She had a mild tongue thrust, hypertropic upper frenum, and mild speech difficulty while pronouncing “s”. Her profile was straight with prominent lips. Molar relationship was Class III on both sides. Anterior teeth were in an end-to-end relationship. Lower dental midline was deviated to the left side. Cephalometric analysis revealed a skeletal Class III relationship with hyperdivergent facial pattern. The treatment plan included myotherapeutic exercises for the tongue thrust habit and a diagnostic set-up for closure of diastemas. A strict retention protocol was followed combined with gingivoplasty, fiberotomy, and frenectomy procedures. All spaces were closed successfully, adequate overbite and overjet relationships were obtained, and tongue thrust habit and speech difficulty while pronouncing “s” were eliminated. Clinical and cephalometric results indicated the maintenance of the treatment outcome at 6-months post-retention period. PMID:21228963

  15. Taxonomic notes on the genus Baetiella Uéno from China, with the descriptions of three new species (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae).

    PubMed

    Shi, Weifang; Tong, Xiaoli

    2015-09-04

    Nine Baetiella species, including three new species, are reported from China. Baetiella lanpingensis n. sp. is diagnosed by the 2nd segment of labial palpus without inner-apical lobe, the posteromedian margin of terga I-VI each with a single protuberance, posterior margin of sterna V-IX each with a row of continuous long spatulate setae and median caudal filament with only one segment. Baetiella sexta n. sp. is characterized by the 2nd segment of labial palpus bearing an inner-apical lobe, the posteromedian margins of terga I-VI each with a single protuberance, posterior margins of sterna I-VII smooth and median caudal filament with 3-5 segments. Baetiella spathae n. sp. is distinguished from its congeners by the terminal segment of labial palpus asymmetric coniform, the posteromedian margin of terga I-IX each with a single protuberance and posterior margin of sterna V-IX each with a row of long spatulate setae. Additionally, B. macani (Müller-Liebenau, 1985) is removed from the synonymy with B. bispinosa (Gose, 1980) and considered as a valid species. B. marginata Braasch, 1983 is recorded for the first time from China. A key to fourteen species of Baetiella known from mature nymphal stages in the world is provided.

  16. Soft tissue facial morphometry before and after total oral rehabilitation with implant-supported prostheses.

    PubMed

    Tartaglia, Gianluca M; Dolci, Claudia; Sidequersky, Fernanda V; Ferrario, Virgilio F; Sforza, Chiarella

    2012-11-01

    The objective of the current study was to assess a low-cost, noninvasive facial morphometric digitizer to assist the practitioner in three-dimensional soft-tissue changes before and after oral rehabilitation. Twenty-two patients aged 45 to 82 years, all with edentulous maxilla and mandible, were assessed both before and after receiving their definitive complete implant-supported prostheses (each received 4-11 implants in each dental arch; full-arch fixed prostheses were made). The three-dimensional coordinates of 50 soft-tissue facial landmarks were collected with a noninvasive digitizer; labial and facial areas, volumes, angles, and distances were compared without and with the prostheses. Dental prostheses induced significant reductions in the nasolabial, mentolabial, and interlabial angles, with increased labial prominence (P < 0.05, Wilcoxon test). Lip vermilion area and volume significantly increased; significant increments were found in the vertical and anteroposterior labial dimensions. The presence of the dental prostheses significantly (P < 0.001) modified the three-dimensional positions of several soft-tissue facial landmarks. In conclusion, the current approach enabled quantitative evaluation of the final soft-tissue results of oral rehabilitation with implant-supported prostheses, without submitting the patients to invasive procedures. The method could assess the three-dimensional appearance of the facial soft tissues of the patient while planning the provisional prosthetic restoration, providing quantitative information to prepare the best definitive prosthesis. PMID:23147286

  17. Hydroquinone: a general phagostimulating pheromone in termites.

    PubMed

    Reinhard, Judith; Lacey, Michael J; Ibarra, Fernando; Schroeder, Frank C; Kaib, Manfred; Lenz, Michael

    2002-01-01

    The organization of termite societies depends predominantly on intraspecific chemical signals (pheromones) produced by exocrine glands, which induce and modulate individual behavioral responses. Here, the saliva-producing labial glands of termites were investigated with respect to their pheromonal role in communal food exploitation of termite colonies. From these glands, we identified for the first time hydroquinone (1,4-dihydroxybenzene) as a phagostimulating pheromone in the Australian termite species Mastotermes darwiniensis. Hydroquinone is released from the labial glands of termite workers and applied onto the food. It stimulates nestmates to feed at the spot of application and is, thus, employed to mark feeding sites. No synergistic effect with other identified labial gland compounds, such as glucose, inositol, and arbutin, was evident. Significantly, we show that termite species from all over the world, irrespective of taxonomic position and biological traits, produce and employ hydroquinone as phagostimulating signal. The use of the same chemical signal throughout an order is a unique phenomenon, not reported before in animals. Its possible biosynthetic pathway, ecological significance, and evolution are discussed.

  18. Enfleurage, lipid recycling and the origin of perfume collection in orchid bees.

    PubMed

    Eltz, Thomas; Zimmermann, Yvonne; Haftmann, Jenny; Twele, Robert; Francke, Wittko; Quezada-Euan, J Javier G; Lunau, Klaus

    2007-11-22

    Enfleurage, the extraction of elusive floral scents with the help of a lipophilic carrier (grease), is widely used in the perfume industry. Male neotropical orchid bees (Euglossini), which accumulate exogenous fragrances as pheromone analogues, use a similar technique. To collect fragrances, the bees apply large amounts of straight-chain lipids to odoriferous surfaces from their cephalic labial glands, which dissolve the volatiles, and the mixture is then transferred to voluminous hind-leg pockets. Here, we show that males do in fact operate a lipid conveyor belt to accumulate and concentrate their perfume. From the hind-leg pockets of caged male Euglossa viridissima, deuterated derivatives of carrier lipids were consecutively sequestered, shuttled back to the labial glands and reused on consecutive bouts of fragrance collection. Such lipid cycling is instrumental in creating complex perfume bouquets. Furthermore, we found that labial glands of male orchid bees are strikingly similar to those of scent-marking male bumblebees in terms of size, form and structure. This, and a prominent overlap in secretory products, led us to propose that perfume collection evolved from scent-marking in ancestral corbiculate bees.

  19. Two new species of Cylicospirura Vevers, 1922 (Nematoda: Spirocercidae) from carnivores in southern Africa, with validation of the related genera Gastronodus Singh, 1934 and Skrjabinocercina Matschulsky, 1952.

    PubMed

    Junker, Kerstin; Lane, Emily P; McRee, Anna E; Foggin, Chris; van Dyk, D Schalk; Mutafchiev, Yasen

    2013-09-01

    Two new species of Cylicospirura Vevers, 1922 are described from carnivores from southern Africa. Cylicospirura crocutae Junker et Mutafchiev sp. n. from Crocuta crocuta (Erxleben) in Zimbabwe is distinguished from its congeners by combinations of characters, including the presence of four cephalic and four external labial papillae, while internal labial papillae were not distinct, the presence of groups of small accessory teeth between the six large tricuspid teeth, the fifth and the sixth pairs of the caudal papillae being equidistant from the cloaca, and a large ratio of length of the muscular oesophagus to that of the glandular oesophagus. Cylicospirura pardalis Junker et Mutafchiev sp. n. from Panthera pardus (Linnaeus) in the Republic of South Africa is characterized by having tricuspid teeth with large, claw-like, abaxial cusps, four cephalic and six internal labial papillae. Based on the number of caudal papillae and the position of the vulva, the subgenera Gastronodus Singh, 1934 and Skrjabinocercina Matschulsky, 1952 are re-elevated to generic rank. Amended diagnoses are proposed for the genera Cylicospirura, Gastronodus and Skrjabinocercina. Petrowospirura lyncis Matschulsky, 1952 is recognized as valid and, together with P. petrowi Sadykhov, 1957 and P. barusi Arya, 1979, is transferred to Cylicospirura as C. lyncis (Matschulsky, 1952) Junker et Mutafchiev comb. n., C. petrowi (Sadykhov, 1957) Junker et Mutafchiev comb. n. and C. barusi (Arya, 1979) Junker et Mutafchiev comb. n., respectively. PMID:24261135

  20. The effects of alveolar bone loss and miniscrew position on initial tooth displacement during intrusion of the maxillary anterior teeth: Finite element analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Sun-Mi; Choi, Sung-Hwan; Sung, Sang-Jin; Yu, Hyung-Seog

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to determine the optimal loading conditions for pure intrusion of the six maxillary anterior teeth with miniscrews according to alveolar bone loss. Methods A three-dimensional finite element model was created for a segment of the six anterior teeth, and the positions of the miniscrews and hooks were varied after setting the alveolar bone loss to 0, 2, or 4 mm. Under 100 g of intrusive force, initial displacement of the individual teeth in three directions and the degree of labial tilting were measured. Results The degree of labial tilting increased with reduced alveolar bone height under the same load. When a miniscrew was inserted between the two central incisors, the amounts of medial-lateral and anterior-posterior displacement of the central incisor were significantly greater than in the other conditions. When the miniscrews were inserted distally to the canines and an intrusion force was applied distal to the lateral incisors, the degree of labial tilting and the amounts of displacement of the six anterior teeth were the lowest, and the maximum von Mises stress was distributed evenly across all the teeth, regardless of the bone loss. Conclusions Initial tooth displacement similar to pure intrusion of the six maxillary anterior teeth was induced when miniscrews were inserted distal to the maxillary canines and an intrusion force was applied distal to the lateral incisors. In this condition, the maximum von Mises stresses were relatively evenly distributed across all the teeth, regardless of the bone loss.

  1. Health status of tadpoles and metamorphs of Rhinella arenarum (Anura, Bufonidae) that inhabit agroecosystems and its implications for land use.

    PubMed

    Babini, María Selene; Bionda, Clarisa de Lourdes; Salas, Nancy Edith; Martino, Adolfo Ludovico

    2015-08-01

    Perturbations of water bodies near agricultural and livestock systems can affect embryonic and larval stages of anurans and negatively impact adult populations and structure of amphibian communities. This study is focused on early development of Rhinella arenarum, for which body growth, abnormalities in the oral disc and genetic damage on erythrocytes were analyzed to establish the impact of agroecosystems on local populations of amphibians. Tadpoles and metamorphs of R. arenarum were collected in three agroecosystems (namely, C1, C2, and C3) and in a site without agricultural and livestock activities (SM) from central Argentina. Egg masses of C1 were extracted for breeding tadpoles under laboratory conditions (Lab). Tadpoles were in small size and lighter in weight in C1 and C2. Metamorphs were shorter and lighter in weight in C1 and C3. In SM and Lab samples, no tadpoles with abnormal LTRF (labial tooth row formula) or without labial teeth were observed. In C1, the highest frequency of abnormal LTRF was recorded and was the only site in which tadpoles without labial teeth were found. In C1 and C2 the tadpoles had highest micronucleus frequencies and nuclear abnormalities. C1 can be considered as the site with the highest anthropogenic perturbation and with less healthy tadpoles. Livestock practices such as alternating cattle between parcel and keeping a buffer between crops and water bodies, would allow a better development of the first aquatic stages that are essential for the conservation of the anuran populations.

  2. Mapping Electrical Impedance Spectra of the Healthy Oral Mucosa: a Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Ivica; Alajbeg, Ivan; Boras, Vanja Vučićević; Rogulj, Ana Andabak

    2015-01-01

    Objective Electrical impedance is the resistance to the electric current flow through a tissue and depends on the tissue’s structure and chemical composition. The aim of this study was to map electrical impedance spectra for each region of the healthy oral mucosa. Materials and Methods Electrical impedance was measured in 30 participants with healthy oral mucosa. Measurements were performed in 14 points on the right and the left side of the oral cavity, and repeated after 7 and 14 days respectively. Results The lowest values were measured on the tongue dorsum and the highest values were measured on the hard palate. No significant differences were found between the right and the left side. Significantly higher values were found in females on the upper labial mucosa, tongue dorsum and the ventral tongue. Significant difference between smokers and non-smokers on the lower labial mucosa and floor of the mouth was found. Electrical impedance was negatively correlated with salivary flow on the upper labial mucosa, hard palate, tongue dorsum and sublingual mucosa. Higher variability of measurements was found at low frequencies. Conclusions Electrical impedance mostly depends on the degree of mucosal keratinization. Demographic and clinical factors probably affect its values. Further studies with bigger number of participants are required. PMID:27688418

  3. The salivary glands of Ameiva ameiva (Teiidae, Lacertilia). A morphological, morphometric and histochemical study.

    PubMed

    Lopes, R A; Costa, J R; Piccolo, A M; Petenusci, S O

    1982-01-01

    The authors studied morphological, morphometric, and histochemically the mucosubstances and proteins in the salivary glands of the lizard Ameiva. Based on the results, the authors concluded: 1. The labial salivary gland is formed by small mucous and mucoserous glands; the sublingual gland by mucoserous cells. 2. Mucous cells show neutral and sulphated mucosubstances and sialic acid. Mucoserous cells of the labial gland show neutral mucosubstance, sialic acid, hyaluronic acid and protein radicals. Mucoserous cells of the sublingual gland show neutral mucosubstance, sialic acid and protein radicals. 3. The average values for acinar area were: 1,198.11 microns 2 for mucoserous acini and 2,105.95 microns 2 for mucous acini of the labial salivary gland. The average values for nucleus volume were: 47.41 microns 3 for mucoserous cells and 38.97 microns 4 for mucous cells. 4. The average values for acinar area and nuclear volume of the mucoserous cells of the subingual gland were respectively: 1,474.62 microns 2 and 67.77 microns 3. PMID:7072972

  4. Two new species of Cylicospirura Vevers, 1922 (Nematoda: Spirocercidae) from carnivores in southern Africa, with validation of the related genera Gastronodus Singh, 1934 and Skrjabinocercina Matschulsky, 1952.

    PubMed

    Junker, Kerstin; Lane, Emily P; McRee, Anna E; Foggin, Chris; van Dyk, D Schalk; Mutafchiev, Yasen

    2013-09-01

    Two new species of Cylicospirura Vevers, 1922 are described from carnivores from southern Africa. Cylicospirura crocutae Junker et Mutafchiev sp. n. from Crocuta crocuta (Erxleben) in Zimbabwe is distinguished from its congeners by combinations of characters, including the presence of four cephalic and four external labial papillae, while internal labial papillae were not distinct, the presence of groups of small accessory teeth between the six large tricuspid teeth, the fifth and the sixth pairs of the caudal papillae being equidistant from the cloaca, and a large ratio of length of the muscular oesophagus to that of the glandular oesophagus. Cylicospirura pardalis Junker et Mutafchiev sp. n. from Panthera pardus (Linnaeus) in the Republic of South Africa is characterized by having tricuspid teeth with large, claw-like, abaxial cusps, four cephalic and six internal labial papillae. Based on the number of caudal papillae and the position of the vulva, the subgenera Gastronodus Singh, 1934 and Skrjabinocercina Matschulsky, 1952 are re-elevated to generic rank. Amended diagnoses are proposed for the genera Cylicospirura, Gastronodus and Skrjabinocercina. Petrowospirura lyncis Matschulsky, 1952 is recognized as valid and, together with P. petrowi Sadykhov, 1957 and P. barusi Arya, 1979, is transferred to Cylicospirura as C. lyncis (Matschulsky, 1952) Junker et Mutafchiev comb. n., C. petrowi (Sadykhov, 1957) Junker et Mutafchiev comb. n. and C. barusi (Arya, 1979) Junker et Mutafchiev comb. n., respectively.

  5. Soft tissue facial morphometry before and after total oral rehabilitation with implant-supported prostheses.

    PubMed

    Tartaglia, Gianluca M; Dolci, Claudia; Sidequersky, Fernanda V; Ferrario, Virgilio F; Sforza, Chiarella

    2012-11-01

    The objective of the current study was to assess a low-cost, noninvasive facial morphometric digitizer to assist the practitioner in three-dimensional soft-tissue changes before and after oral rehabilitation. Twenty-two patients aged 45 to 82 years, all with edentulous maxilla and mandible, were assessed both before and after receiving their definitive complete implant-supported prostheses (each received 4-11 implants in each dental arch; full-arch fixed prostheses were made). The three-dimensional coordinates of 50 soft-tissue facial landmarks were collected with a noninvasive digitizer; labial and facial areas, volumes, angles, and distances were compared without and with the prostheses. Dental prostheses induced significant reductions in the nasolabial, mentolabial, and interlabial angles, with increased labial prominence (P < 0.05, Wilcoxon test). Lip vermilion area and volume significantly increased; significant increments were found in the vertical and anteroposterior labial dimensions. The presence of the dental prostheses significantly (P < 0.001) modified the three-dimensional positions of several soft-tissue facial landmarks. In conclusion, the current approach enabled quantitative evaluation of the final soft-tissue results of oral rehabilitation with implant-supported prostheses, without submitting the patients to invasive procedures. The method could assess the three-dimensional appearance of the facial soft tissues of the patient while planning the provisional prosthetic restoration, providing quantitative information to prepare the best definitive prosthesis.

  6. The effects of alveolar bone loss and miniscrew position on initial tooth displacement during intrusion of the maxillary anterior teeth: Finite element analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Sun-Mi; Choi, Sung-Hwan; Sung, Sang-Jin; Yu, Hyung-Seog

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to determine the optimal loading conditions for pure intrusion of the six maxillary anterior teeth with miniscrews according to alveolar bone loss. Methods A three-dimensional finite element model was created for a segment of the six anterior teeth, and the positions of the miniscrews and hooks were varied after setting the alveolar bone loss to 0, 2, or 4 mm. Under 100 g of intrusive force, initial displacement of the individual teeth in three directions and the degree of labial tilting were measured. Results The degree of labial tilting increased with reduced alveolar bone height under the same load. When a miniscrew was inserted between the two central incisors, the amounts of medial-lateral and anterior-posterior displacement of the central incisor were significantly greater than in the other conditions. When the miniscrews were inserted distally to the canines and an intrusion force was applied distal to the lateral incisors, the degree of labial tilting and the amounts of displacement of the six anterior teeth were the lowest, and the maximum von Mises stress was distributed evenly across all the teeth, regardless of the bone loss. Conclusions Initial tooth displacement similar to pure intrusion of the six maxillary anterior teeth was induced when miniscrews were inserted distal to the maxillary canines and an intrusion force was applied distal to the lateral incisors. In this condition, the maximum von Mises stresses were relatively evenly distributed across all the teeth, regardless of the bone loss. PMID:27668194

  7. Facial movement before and after masseteric-facial nerves anastomosis: a three-dimensional optoelectronic pilot study.

    PubMed

    Sforza, Chiarella; Frigerio, Alice; Mapelli, Andrea; Mandelli, Filippo; Sidequersky, Fernanda V; Colombo, Valeria; Ferrario, Virgilio F; Biglioli, Federico

    2012-07-01

    To quantify the effects of facial palsy reanimation, 14 patients aged 17-66 years were analysed. All patients had unilateral facial paralysis, and were candidates for surgical masseteric to facial nerve anastomosis. Two patient groups were measured: seven patients were waiting for surgery, the other seven patients had already been submitted to surgery, and had regained facial mimicry. Each patient performed three facial animations: brow raise; free smile; lip purse. These were recorded using an optoelectronic motion analyser. The three-dimensional coordinates of facial landmarks were obtained, their movements were computed, and asymmetry indices calculated (differential movements between the two hemi-faces: healthy and paretic/rehabilitated). Before surgery, mobility was larger in the healthy than in the paretic side; after surgery, the differences were reduced (brow raise and lip purse), or even reversed (smile). Before surgery, lip purse was performed with significant labial asymmetry (p=0.042; larger healthy side movement). After surgery, asymmetry indices reduced. Total labial asymmetry during smiling was significantly different from 0 before surgery (p=0.018, larger healthy side movement). After surgery, all asymmetry indices became non-significant. Before surgery the lateral displacements of all labial landmarks were towards the healthy side, while they normalized after surgery.

  8. Patterns in the perception of VC(C)V strings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nearey, Terrance M.; Smits, Roel

    2002-05-01

    A set of 144 /aC(C)a/ stimuli were constructed (inspired by, e.g., B. Repp, Percept. Psychophys. 24, 471-485 (1978)]). Each consisted of: a vocoid (135 ms steady state followed by 50 ms VC closing transitions); a silent portion; and another vocoid (50 ms CV opening transition plus 250 ms steady state). Four different silent periods [80, 120, 190, and 300 ms] were crossed with six closing transition patterns (ranging from b-like to d-like closures) and with six analogous opening transitions. Thirteen listeners classified each stimulus ten times. Polytomous logistic regression showed that singletons, heterorganic clusters, and geminates all have distinct duration weights. Contrary to expectations, results for place were remarkably simple. Weights for closing transitions show labial closures (/b, bd, bb/) to be widely separated from the coronal closures (/d, db, dd/), but are otherwise homogeneous. Weights for opening cues show a similar dichotomy of labial releases /b, db, bb/ versus coronal releases (/d, bd, dd/); here, however, the singleton /b/ differs slightly from the other labials. A related experiment in Dutch will be discussed and results from both experiments will be compared against proposals from the literature and our own models. [Work supported by SSHRC.].

  9. Prevalence of developmental defects of enamel in children and young adults in the Cook Islands.

    PubMed

    Crooks, M C

    1990-04-01

    The prevalence of developmental defects of enamel of 1,417 Cook Island children aged 9-20 years on the island of Rarotonga was recorded in 1987. The labial surfaces of the 12 anterior teeth were examined and classified using the modified Developmental Defects of Enamel Index (DDE). At least 1 tooth with defective enamel was seen in 403 (28.4 percent) of subjects; 7.1 percent of all teeth were affected. These results show overall an intermediate prevalence in comparison with studies in other countries. The three most prevalent defects were: diffuse patchy opacities (2.4 percent of all teeth), demarcated white-cream opacities (1.6 percent), and hypoplasias (1.2 percent). The upper central incisors were the teeth most frequently affected. The prevalence of defects did not differ by age or sex. Most defects (40 percent) were located over the incisal third of the labial surface, and affected less than one-third of the labial tooth surface (76 percent). PMID:2371001

  10. Photographic assessment of the antiplaque properties of sanguinarine and chlorhexidine.

    PubMed

    Gazi, M I

    1988-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of rinsing and topical application of sanguinarine on labial surface plaque accumulation, compared with topically applied water, and compared with rinsing with chlorhexidine, while refraining from all oral hygiene measures for 5 days. Color photographs of the disclosed plaque were taken at the end of each phase of treatment and blindly traced using an Apple II micro-computer graphic tablet digitizer. The plaque score for each tooth was calculated by dividing the computer reading of the labial plaque surface area by the total labial surface area of the tooth. Topically applied sanguinarine showed better plaque reduction than mouthrinsing with sanguinarine. There was a significant reduction in plaque accumulation after rinsing with chlorhexidine compared with topically applied sanguinarine, water, and mouthrinsing with sanguinarine. The results of this study indicate that chlorhexidine is a more superior antiplaque agent than sanguinarine. The use of an Apple II micro-computer graphic tablet digitizer provided a valuable method for accurate plaque assessments.

  11. Descriptions of Four New Species of Criconematoidea (Tylenchina: Nemata) from Southern Chile

    PubMed Central

    Raski, Dewey J.; Valenzuela-A., Adelina

    1986-01-01

    Four new species of Criconematoidea are described from Hoste Island, Chile. Criconema certesi n. sp. is distinguished by the fine, spine-like, cuticular extensions on body annuli; projection of annuli into rows of scales on posterior part of body; single, smooth, labial annulus set off by short collar from second (first body) annulus which is about same diameter as first (labial) annulus. Male with prominent caudal alae, slender curved spicules, and four incisures in lateral field. Ogma terrestris n. sp. is distinguished by small scales with rounded tips bearing minute, short bristles; scales number 21 at mid-body; and first (labial) annulus rounded, not retrorse, not set off from succeeding annuli, narrower in diameter from second (first body) annulus. Hemicycliophora macrodorata n. sp. is distinguished by its large size (L = 1.52 [1.28-1.72] mm); large stylet (146 [127-161] μm); annuli = 297 (280-315); tail slightly spicate, lateral field with or without interruptions of incisures, occasional anastomoses; and males with U-shaped spicules. Paratylenchus fueguensis n. sp. is distinguished by its prominent stylet with large, rounded knobs (4-5 μm across); cephalic region rounded not at all set off; lateral field with four incisures; lateral vulvar membranes present; and male tail short, strongly curved (almost 180°) ventrad. PMID:19294175

  12. The effect of incomplete crown ferrules on fracture resistance and failure modes of endodontically treated maxillary incisors restored with quartz fiber post, composite core, and crowns

    PubMed Central

    Muangamphan, Panorjit; Sattapan, Boonrat; Kukiattrakoon, Boonlert; Thammasitboon, Kewalin

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the fracture resistance of restored endodontically treated teeth (RETT) with fiber posts, cores, and crowns with limited ferrules. Materials and Methods: Sixty maxillary anterior teeth were endodontically treated and decoronated 2 mm above the cemento-enamel junction, and then divided into 6 groups of 10 teeth each; Group circumferential ferrule (2FR), Group ferrule in the labial, mesial, and palatal region (2FR-LaMPa), Group ferrule in the labial, and palatal region (2FR-LaPa), Group 2FR-Pa and 2FR-La respectively, and Group 0FR (no ferrule). All 60 prepared teeth were then restored with quartz fiber posts, resin composite cores, and metal crowns. The specimens were subjected to load until failure occurred. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and Tukey's tests (α = 0.05). The mode of failure was determined under a stereoscope. Results: A statistical significant difference was found among groups 2FR-LaMPa, 2FR-Pa, 2FR-LaPa, and 2FR from the group 2FR-La, and from the group 0FR (P < 0.01). The predominant mode of failure was an oblique palatal to labial root fracture for the groups with remaining ferrules. Conclusion: For RETT that have incomplete crown ferrules, the location of the ferrules may affect their fracture resistance. PMID:26069401

  13. Mapping Electrical Impedance Spectra of the Healthy Oral Mucosa: a Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Ivica; Alajbeg, Ivan; Boras, Vanja Vučićević; Rogulj, Ana Andabak

    2015-01-01

    Objective Electrical impedance is the resistance to the electric current flow through a tissue and depends on the tissue’s structure and chemical composition. The aim of this study was to map electrical impedance spectra for each region of the healthy oral mucosa. Materials and Methods Electrical impedance was measured in 30 participants with healthy oral mucosa. Measurements were performed in 14 points on the right and the left side of the oral cavity, and repeated after 7 and 14 days respectively. Results The lowest values were measured on the tongue dorsum and the highest values were measured on the hard palate. No significant differences were found between the right and the left side. Significantly higher values were found in females on the upper labial mucosa, tongue dorsum and the ventral tongue. Significant difference between smokers and non-smokers on the lower labial mucosa and floor of the mouth was found. Electrical impedance was negatively correlated with salivary flow on the upper labial mucosa, hard palate, tongue dorsum and sublingual mucosa. Higher variability of measurements was found at low frequencies. Conclusions Electrical impedance mostly depends on the degree of mucosal keratinization. Demographic and clinical factors probably affect its values. Further studies with bigger number of participants are required.

  14. Hexyl decanoate, the first trail pheromone compound identified in a stingless bee, Trigona recursa.

    PubMed

    Jarau, Stefan; Schulz, Claudia M; Hrncir, Michael; Francke, Wittko; Zucchi, Ronaldo; Barth, Friedrich G; Ayasse, Manfred

    2006-07-01

    Foragers of many species of stingless bees guide their nestmates to food sources by means of scent trails deposited on solid substrates between the food and the nest. The corresponding trail pheromones are generally believed to be produced in the mandibular glands, although definitive experimental proof has never been provided. We tested the trail following behavior of recruits of Trigona recursa in field experiments with artificial scent trails branching off from natural scent trails of this stingless bee. First-time recruits (newcomers) did not follow these trails when they were laid with pure solvent or mandibular gland extract. However, they did follow trails made with labial gland extract. Chemical analyses of labial gland secretions revealed that hexyl decanoate was the dominant component (72.4 +/- 1.9% of all volatiles). Newcomers were significantly attracted to artificial trails made with synthetic hexyl decanoate, demonstrating its key function in eliciting scent-following behavior. According to our experiments with T. recursa, the trail pheromone is produced in the labial glands and not in the mandibular glands. Hexyl decanoate is the first component of a trail pheromone identified and proved to be behaviorally active in stingless bees.

  15. Anesthetic efficacy of infiltrations in mandibular anterior teeth.

    PubMed Central

    Yonchak, T.; Reader, A.; Beck, M.; Clark, K.; Meyers, W. J.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this prospective, randomized, double-blind study was to measure the degree of anesthesia obtained with a labial infiltration of either 2% lidocaine with 1:50,000 or 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine in mandibular anterior teeth. Another objective was to measure the degree of anesthesia obtained with a lingual infiltration of 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine in mandibular anterior teeth. Through use of a repeated-measures design, 40 subjects randomly received a labial infiltration at the lateral incisor apex of either 1.8 mL of 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine or 1.8 mL of 2% lidocaine with 1:50,000 epinephrine at 2 separate appointments. An additional 40 subjects received a lingual infiltration at the lateral incisor apex of 1.8 mL of 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine. The mandibular anterior teeth were blindly pulp tested at 4-minute cycles for 60 minutes postinjection. No response from the subject to the maximum output (80 reading) of the pulp tester was used as the criterion for pulpal anesthesia. Anesthesia was considered successful when 2 consecutive 80 readings were obtained. For the 3 infiltrations, success rates for the lateral incisor ranged from 43 to 50%. Adjacent teeth had success rates of 27 to 63%. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in success between the labial infiltration of 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine and 2% lidocaine with 1:50,000 epinephrine or the lingual infiltration of 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine when compared with the labial infiltration of 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine. Duration of pulpal anesthesia declined steadily for all solutions over the 60 minutes. In conclusion, the success rate of 43-50% and declining duration of pulpal anesthesia over an hour indicates that a labial infiltration of 1.8 mL of either 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine or 1: 50,000 epinephrine or a lingual infiltration of 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine over the

  16. A review of the literature on the prevalence of Class III malocclusion and the mandibular prognathic growth hypotheses.

    PubMed

    van Vuuren, C

    1991-03-01

    From this review of the literature it appears that we may draw the following conclusions. The incidence of Class III malocclusions is at most 4.2% (Goose et al. 1957, Ast et al. 1965; Knowles 1966, Thylander and Myrberg 1973). The development of various condyle growth hypotheses have lead us to believe that the condyle behaves in a rather unique manner. The condyle does not appear to be an epiphysis, neither does it behave the same as the cranium. It is a unique cartilaginous structure that cannot grow against intermittent or continuous forces (Copray 1985). The cybernetic model as proposed by Petrovic and co workers (1977) that eloquently describes the condyle to be stimulated by a cybernetic switch that connects to the periodontal ligament also does not seem to have much validity. It appears that the lateral pterygoid muscle and the temporo-mandibular condylar frenum have been ascribed capabilities that do not comply to the results of condylotomy studies. Gorette-Nicaise, Awn, and Dhem (1983) as well as the study by Whetten, and Johnston (1985) have shown that neither the absence of the lateral pterygoid muscle nor the physical volumetric expansion of the airway increases condylar growth. It appears that increase in the pressure applied to the condyle could decrease condyle cell proliferation (Armstrong 1961; Thilander 1963; 1965: Janzen and Bluher 1965; Graber 1969; Petrovic 1972; Graber and Muller 1974; Graber 1975;) with resulting growth attenuation. Accordingly, condylar growth is controlled by physical restraint, the absence which leads to incremental growht. The presence of mechanical pressure of adequate duration and magnitude, thus, should limit growth of the young actively growing condyle. PMID:1843780

  17. Assessment of the Etiologic Factors of Gingival Recession in a Group of Patients in Northwest Iran

    PubMed Central

    Lafzi, Ardeshir; Abolfazli, Nader; Eskandari, Amir

    2009-01-01

    Background and aims Gingival recession (GR), a common problem in periodontium, is associated with various etiologic factors. There is controversy over the role and importance of these factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the etiologic factors of GR in a group of subjects in Northwest Iran. Materials and methods In this case-control study, patients referring to a university clinic (123 patients with GR and 123 patients without GR) were evaluated. Patients were examined by an experienced periodontist. A checklist assessing the history of systemic disease, smoking, radiotherapy, orthodontic treatment, chemical and mechanical trauma, tooth-brushing method, type of occlusion, axial inclination of tooth, width and thickness of keratinized gingiva, presence of calculus, prosthesis, faulty restorations and food impaction, and frenum pull was completed for each patient. Chi-square test was used for data analysis. Results Presence of calculus was significantly associated with GR in the evaluated patients (P = 0.000). Low width and thickness of keratinized gingiva, smoking and traumatic tooth brushing were other significant factors (P < 0.05). The type of occlusion, axial inclination of teeth, existence of prosthesis, high frenal attachment, radiotherapy, systemic diseases and chemical trauma were not significantly associated with GR in the evaluated patients (P > 0.05). Conclusion Supra- and sub-gingival calculus, inadequate width and thickness of keratinized tissue, and incorrect tooth brushing techniques are most important etiologic factors of GR. Oral hygiene instructions including correct tooth brushing techniques as well as scaling and root planing with periodic recalls can play a significant role in prevention of GR. PMID:23230492

  18. Oral and dental signs of child abuse and neglect

    PubMed Central

    COSTACURTA, M.; BENAVOLI, D.; ARCUDI, G.; DOCIMO, R.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Aim The aim of this report is to identify the main oral and dental aspects of physical and sexual abuse and dental neglect in childhood, contributing to the precocious identification and diagnosis in a dental practice. Methods The oral and dental manifestations were divided and classified according to the type of child abuse: physical abuse, sexual abuse, neglect. Physical abuse Several studies in the literature have shown that oral or facial trauma occurs in about 50% of physically abused children; the oral cavity may be a central focus for physical abuse. Oro-facial manifestations of physical abuse include bruising, abrasions or lacerations of tongue, lips, oral mucosa, hard and soft palate, gingiva, alveolar mucosa, frenum; dental fractures, dental dislocations, dental avulsions; maxilla and mandible fractures. Sexual abuse Although the oral cavity is a frequent site of sexual abuse in children, visible oral injuries or infections are rare. Some oral signs may represent significant indications of sexual abuse, as erythema, ulcer, vescicle with purulent drainage or pseudomembranus and condylomatous lesions of lips, tongue, palate and nose-pharynx. Furthermore, if present erythema and petechiae, of unknown etiology, found on soft and hard palates junction or on the floor of the mouth, can be certainly evident proofs of forced oral sex. Dental neglect Oral signs of neglect are easily identifiable and are: poor oral hygiene, halitosis, Early Childhood Caries (ECC), odontogenous infections (recurrent and previous abscesses), periodontal disease, aptha lesions as a consequence of a nutritional deficiency status. Moreover, it is analyzed the assessment of bite marks because often associated with child abuse, the identification and collection of clinical evidence of this type of injury. Conclusion A precocious diagnosis of child abuse, in a dental practice, could considerably contribute in the identification of violence cases and in an early intervention. PMID

  19. Multidisciplinary management of ankyloglossia in childhood. Treatment of 101 cases. A protocol

    PubMed Central

    Pastor-Vera, Tomasa; Ferrés-Amat, Eduard; Mareque-Bueno, Javier; Prats-Armengol, Jordi; Ferrés-Padró, Eduard

    2016-01-01

    Background Partial ankyloglossia is a limitation which restricts the possibility of protrusion and elevation of the tip of the tongue due to the shortness of either the lingual frenulum or the genioglossus muscles or both. The principal objective of this paper is to present our protocol of action for the treatment of ankyloglossia. The specific objectives are to study patients with ankyloglossia treated by the Service of Maxillofacial Surgery and the Service of Speech Therapy of our pediatric Hospital, describe the diagnostic procedures, the pre-surgical intervention, the surgical technique undertaken and the post-surgical rehabilitation taking into account the level of collaboration of the patients, and finally, describe the surgical complications and the referral of patients. Material and Methods This is a descriptive study of healthy patients, without any diagnosis of syndrome, ranging between 4 and 14 years that have been surgically treated and rehabilitated post-surgery within a period of 2 years. Results 101 frenectomies and lingual plasties have been performed and patients have been treated following the protocol of action that we hereby present. After the surgical intervention, the degree of ankyloglossia has been improved, considering correction in 29 (28%) of the patients (95% CI: 20%, 38%), reaching, with the post-surgical orofacial rehabilitation, a correction of 97 (96%) of the participants (95% CI: 90%, 98%). Conclusions The chosen surgical technique for moderate-severe ankyloglossia in our centre is the frenectomy and lingual plasty. The myofunctional training begins one week before the surgical intervention so that the patients learn the exercises without pain. Key words:Ankyloglossia, tongue-tie, lingual frenum. PMID:26595832

  20. Alveolar Ridge Contouring with Free Connective Tissue Graft at Implant Placement: A 5-Year Consecutive Clinical Study.

    PubMed

    Hanser, Thomas; Khoury, Fouad

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated volume stability after alveolar ridge contouring with free connective tissue grafts at implant placement in single-tooth gaps. A total of 52 single-tooth gaps with labial volume deficiencies in the maxilla (incisors, canines, and premolars) were consecutively treated with implants and concomitant free palatal connective tissue grafts in 46 patients between 2006 and 2009. Implants had to be covered with at least 2 mm peri-implant local bone after insertion. At implant placement, a free connective tissue graft from the palate was fixed inside a labial split-thickness flap to form an existing concave buccal alveolar ridge contour due to tissue volume deficiency into a convex shape. Standardized volumetric measurements of the labial alveolar contour using a template were evaluated before connective tissue grafting and at 2 weeks, 1 year, and 5 years after implantprosthetic incorporation. Tissue volume had increased significantly (P < .05) in all six reference points representing the outer alveolar soft tissue contour of the implant before connective tissue grafting to baseline (2 weeks after implant-prosthetic incorporation). Statistically, 50% of the reference points (P > .05) kept their volume from baseline to 1 year after prosthetic incorporation and from baseline to 5 years after prosthetic incorporation, respectively, whereas reference points located within the area of the implant sulcus showed a significant (P < .05) decrease in volume. Clinically, 5 years after prosthetic incorporation the originally concave buccal alveolar contour was still convex in all implants, leading to a continuous favorable anatomical shape and improved esthetic situation. Intraoral radiographs confirmed osseointegration and stable peri-implant parameters with a survival rate of 100% after a follow-up of approximately 5 years. Implant placement with concomitant free connective tissue grafting appears to be an appropriate long-term means to contour preexisting buccal

  1. Complete 3-D reconstruction of dental cast shape using perceptual grouping.

    PubMed

    Hirogaki, Y; Sohmura, T; Satoh, H; Takahashi, J; Takada, K

    2001-10-01

    To achieve the complete three-dimensional (3-D) data retrieval of the shape of dentition, dental casts were measured from four directions; occlusal, right, left, and labial sides using a line laser scanner. Reconstruction of the entire shape, including undercuts and tooth crowding area, was attempted by applying a perceptual grouping algorithm, which is one of pattern-recognition theories. In the data measured from occlusal, right and left sides, the rows of measurements were parallel to the frontal plane, and three-directionally combined data (3-DC data) was accomplished by affine transformation. While, in the labial side, transformation to the frontal plane was done since rows of the measured data were parallel to the sagittal plane. To combine the labial data with the 3-DC data and reconstruct the complete image, rearrangement of the order of the data in the file was attempted by applying the perceptual grouping. That is, the minimum total length of data combining was examined by considering the factor of proximity and continuity between the data. The most appropriate order of data combining and recognition of islands were accomplished. Using a computer graphic (CG) with a wire-frame model, complicated regions such as anterior segments showing tooth crowding and undercut area were found to be successfully reconstructed without any data defects. The accuracy of reconstruction was ascertained by comparing the characteristic distances between apexes of molars in the reconstructed model with the real cast. The difference was within 0.3 mm, and present method for dental cast reconstruction is considered to be satisfactory for the present purpose such as orthodontics.

  2. Photographic Facial Soft Tissue Analysis by Means of Linear and Angular Measurements in an Adolescent Persian Population

    PubMed Central

    Moshkelgosha, Vahid; Fathinejad, Sheida; Pakizeh, Zeinab; Shamsa, Mohammad; Golkari, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Objective : To obtain objective average measurements of the profile and frontal facial soft tissue to be used as a guide for aesthetic treatment goals. Methods and Materials : This observational study included 110 females and 130 males high school students aged 16-18 years. None of the subjects had any facial deformities. All of them and their parents gave consent to take part in this study. In each case, two standard photographs of profile and frontal views were taken 27 landmarks were digitized on photographs. The mean, standard deviation, and range for a total of 43 facial indices were calculated digitally by computer software. The Student’s t-test was used to compare males and females. Results : The ratio between the lower and middle facial thirds was one to one, but the height of the upper facial third was proportionally smaller than the other two-thirds in both sexes. Boys had greater nasal length, depth, and prominence than girls with statistically significant differences. Both upper and lower lips were more prominent in girls than in boys. All measurements of the chin showed sexual dimorphism characterized by greater chin height and prominence and deeper mentolabial sulcus. Boys had greater facial dimensions than girls. Mouth width, nasal base width, and intercanthal distance were significantly greater in boys. Conclusion : The labial, nasal, and chin areas showed sexual dimorphism in most of the parameters used in this study. Boys had larger faces, greater facial heights, longer nasal, labial, and chin lengths, and greater nasal, labial, and chin prominence. PMID:26464606

  3. Age-dependent changes in ultrastructure of the defensive glands of Neocapritermes taracua workers (Isoptera, Termitidae).

    PubMed

    Sobotník, Jan; Kutalová, Kateřina; Vytisková, Blahoslava; Roisin, Yves; Bourguignon, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Protection against predators and competitors is one of the main concerns of termite colonies, which developed a specialised defensive caste, the soldiers. However, soldiers are rare or even missing in several lineages of termites, while workers often develop new defence strategies especially in soil-feeding species. Here, we describe the morphology and ultrastructure of the autothysis-associated glands of Neocapritermes taracua workers and report their age-related changes in structure. The defensive glands of N. taracua workers consist of a pair of labial and a pair of crystal glands, whose secretions mix together through autothysis. Autothysis always occurs at the line of weakness connecting the anterior parts of the crystal-bearing pouches. The crystal glands consist of groups of bicellular secretory units (secretory and corresponding canal cells) which secrete the blue crystal material into external pouches. Their secretory activity is maximal in the middle of worker life, and is considerably lower in very young and old workers. The labial glands are composed of two types of secretory cells: the central and the parietal cells. While the central cells are developed similarly to other termites and secrete proteinaceous secretion into labial gland ducts, the parietal cells develop proteinaceous granules which may eventually bud off the cells. The secretory function of parietal cells is so far unique to N. taracua and differs from other termite species in which they are only responsible of water uptake by acini. The defensive device of N. taracua is truly exceptional as it involves a new gland and a previously undescribed function for parietal cells, being a remarkable example of evolution of morphological innovation.

  4. Unique features of pedicellate attachment of the upper jaw teeth in the adult gobiid fish Sicyopterus japonicus (Teleostei, Gobiidiae): morphological and structural characteristics and development.

    PubMed

    Sahara, Noriyuki; Moriyama, Keita; Iida, Midori; Watanabe, Shun

    2013-05-01

    Sicyopterus japonicus (Teleostei, Gobiidae), a hill-stream herbivorous gobiid fish, possesses an unusual oral dentition among teleost fishes on account of its feeding habitat. By using scanning electron microscopy, light microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy, including vital staining with tetracycline, we examined the development of the attachment tissues of the upper jaw teeth in this fish. The functional teeth of S. japonicus had an asymmetrical dentine shaft. The dentine shaft attached to the underlying uniquely shaped pedicel by means of two different attachment mechanisms. At the lingual base, collagen fiber bundles connected the dentine shaft with the pedicel (hinged attachment), whereas the labial base articulated with an oval-shaped projection of the pedicel (articulate attachment). The pedicel bases were firmly ankylosed to the crest of the thin flange of porous spongy bone on the premaxillary bone, which afforded a flange-groove system on the labial surface of the premaxillary bone. Developmentally, the pedicel and thin flange of spongy bone were completely different mineralized attachment tissues. The pedicel had a dual origin, i.e., the dental papilla cells, which differentiated into odontoblasts that constructed the internal surface of the pedicel, and the mesenchymal cells, which differentiated into osteoblasts that formed the outer face of the pedicel. A thin flange of spongy bone was deposited on the superficial resorbed labial side of the premaxillary bone proper, and later rapid bone remodeling proceeded toward the pedicel base. These unique features of pedicellate tooth attachment for the upper jaw teeth in the adult S. japonicus are highly modified teeth for enhancing the ability of individual functional teeth to move closely over irregularities in the rock surfaces during the scraping of algae.

  5. The assessment of crowding without the need to record arch perimeter. Part I: Arches with acceptable alignment.

    PubMed

    Battagel, J M

    1996-05-01

    A simplified, mathematically determined technique for calculating arch perimeter (the overlap method) is described and its validity in determining an accurate assessment of crowding is tested. Indices, expressed in millimetres of crowding or spacing, were computed for both the whole arch and the labial segment alone. Study casts of 36 individuals with clinically acceptable lower arches were used to validate the method. The degree of crowding or spacing calculated was compared with a "clinical' assessment of each arch, in which the irregularity was measured directly using a steel ruler. Various calculation schemes were tested. Depending on exactly how the overlap was determined, the results varied slightly. Although the arches showed acceptable alignment, it was preferable to include a strategy for normalizing the positions of any rotated teeth before the overlaps were calculated. Repositioning any bucco-lingually displaced teeth into the line of the arch, however, was not useful. For the complete arch good agreement with the clinical assessment was reached on 31 occasions and for the labial segment, all but one appraisals were within 0.5 mm of each other. In the remaining instances (five complete arches and one labial segment), the degree of crowding or spacing was between 0.5 and 1 mm of the clinical assessment. Considering that clinical measurement of minor degrees of crowding and spacing cannot be precise, these results were considered acceptable. The method was easy to use, relying only on the recording of mesio-distal tooth widths and was acceptably reproducible. The technique would therefore appear to provide a valid yet simple research tool with which to record the degree of crowding. Its ability to cope with irregular and crowded arches will be the subject of a subsequent review.

  6. Speech motor control and acute mountain sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cymerman, Allen; Lieberman, Philip; Hochstadt, Jesse; Rock, Paul B.; Butterfield, Gail E.; Moore, Lorna G.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An objective method that accurately quantifies the severity of Acute Mountain Sickness (AMS) symptoms is needed to enable more reliable evaluation of altitude acclimatization and testing of potentially beneficial interventions. HYPOTHESIS: Changes in human articulation, as quantified by timed variations in acoustic waveforms of specific spoken words (voice onset time; VOT), are correlated with the severity of AMS. METHODS: Fifteen volunteers were exposed to a simulated altitude of 4300 m (446 mm Hg) in a hypobaric chamber for 48 h. Speech motor control was determined from digitally recorded and analyzed timing patterns of 30 different monosyllabic words characterized as voiced and unvoiced, and as labial, alveolar, or velar. The Environmental Symptoms Questionnaire (ESQ) was used to assess AMS. RESULTS: Significant AMS symptoms occurred after 4 h, peaked at 16 h, and returned toward baseline after 48 h. Labial VOTs were shorter after 4 and 39 h of exposure; velar VOTs were altered only after 4 h; and there were no changes in alveolar VOTs. The duration of vowel sounds was increased after 4 h of exposure and returned to normal thereafter. Only 1 of 15 subjects did not increase vowel time after 4 h of exposure. The 39-h labial (p = 0.009) and velar (p = 0.037) voiced-unvoiced timed separations consonants and the symptoms of AMS were significantly correlated. CONCLUSIONS: Two objective measures of speech production were affected by exposure to 4300 m altitude and correlated with AMS severity. Alterations in speech production may represent an objective measure of AMS and central vulnerability to hypoxia.

  7. Two new species of Sinella from Guangdong Province, China (Collembola: Entomobryidae).

    PubMed

    Xu, Guo-Liang; Chen, Wei-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Two new blind species of Sinella are described from Guangdong Province, China. Sinella colubra sp. n. possesses minute smooth postlabial chaetae, long mucronal spine, and 4+4(5) lateral mac on Abd. IV, and can be distinguished from two closely related species by the postlabial chaetae and the dorsal macrochaetotaxy. Sinella zhangi sp. n. is also described and can be diagnosed by having minute labial chaeta r and postlabial chaetae X and X4, 5+5 mac on Abd. I, 4+4 central mac on Abd. II, and 4+4 central and 5+5 lateral mac on Abd. IV. PMID:27594797

  8. Larva of Palaemnema brasiliensis Machado (Odonata: Platystictidae), from Amazonas, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Neiss, Ulisses Gaspar; Hamada, Neusa

    2016-02-09

    The larva of Palaemnema brasiliensis Machado, 2009 is described and illustrated based on last-instar larvae and exuviae of reared larvae collected in a blackwater stream in Barcelos and Presidente Figueiredo municipalities, Amazonas state, Brazil. The larva of P. brasiliensis can be distinguished from the two South American species of the genus with described larvae (P. clementia Selys and P. mutans Calvert), mainly by presence of a single obtuse cusp on the labial palp, the presence and configuration of setae in the caudal lamellae, and the proportional length of terminal filaments of the caudal lamellae. The family is recorded here for the first time in Brazilian state of Amazonas.

  9. Divided café-au-lait macule of the mouth.

    PubMed

    Sergay, Amanda; Silverberg, Nanette B

    2007-05-01

    We describe a 4-year-old, otherwise healthy boy with a congenital history of a perioral and labial segmental café-au-lait macule, who was noted to have unilateral localized gingival hyperpigmentation that aligned with the café-au-lait macule. This case is highly illustrative of the embryologic timing of the genetic event locally, which leads to café-au-lait type hyperpigmentation. Because the facial features and the ectoderm overlying the facial muscles develop around the third to fourth week of gestation, the distribution of this café-au-lait macule suggests development at the same time.

  10. A new species of the genus Xenylla Tullberg, 1869 (Collembola: Hypogastruridae) from Korea, with a key for East Asian species.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyung-Hwa

    2016-01-01

    A new species of Hypogastruridae from Korea, Xenylla namia sp. nov., is described and illustrated. The new species is easily distinguished from previously described Xenylla species by a combination of the following characters: labral setae arrangement of 2/5,5,4, labial papilla E with one guard seta (e3), head without c2 seta, thoracic sterna II and III with a pair of medial setae, abdominal sternum III with 1 median seta above the retinaculum, abdominal sternum IV with seta m1. An identification key to East Asian species of Xenylla with detailed differences between East Asian Xenylla species is provided.

  11. Data set for Tifinagh handwriting character recognition.

    PubMed

    Bencharef, Omar; Chihab, Younes; Mousaid, Nouredine; Oujaoura, Mustapha

    2015-09-01

    The Tifinagh alphabet-IRCAM is the official alphabet of the Amazigh language widely used in North Africa [1]. It includes thirty-one basic letter and two letters each composed of a base letter followed by the sign of labialization. Normalized only in 2003 (Unicode) [2], ICRAM-Tifinagh is a young character repertoire. Which needs more work on all levels. In this context we propose a data set for handwritten Tifinagh characters composed of 1376 image; 43 Image For Each character. The dataset can be used to train a Tifinagh character recognition system, or to extract the meaning characteristics of each character. PMID:26217753

  12. Non-syndromic multiple hyperdontia in monozygotic twin sisters: a report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Ratson, Tal; Peretz, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Supernumerary teeth are common in the general population, with a prevalence that varies between 0.1 percent to 3.8 percent. Multiple supernumerary teeth are associated with Gardner's syndrome, Fabry-Anderson syndrome, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, labial palatal cleft, and cleidocranial dysplasia. Multiple hyperdontia not associated with syndromes is rare and ranges between 0.04 percent to 0.1 percent. The purpose of this report was to describe the occurrence of nonsyndromic multiple hyperdontia in monozygotic twin sisters. PMID:24709435

  13. Two new species of Sinella from Guangdong Province, China (Collembola: Entomobryidae)

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Guo-Liang; Chen, Wei-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Two new blind species of Sinella are described from Guangdong Province, China. Sinella colubra sp. n. possesses minute smooth postlabial chaetae, long mucronal spine, and 4+4(5) lateral mac on Abd. IV, and can be distinguished from two closely related species by the postlabial chaetae and the dorsal macrochaetotaxy. Sinella zhangi sp. n. is also described and can be diagnosed by having minute labial chaeta r and postlabial chaetae X and X4, 5+5 mac on Abd. I, 4+4 central mac on Abd. II, and 4+4 central and 5+5 lateral mac on Abd. IV.

  14. Bumba, a replacement name for Maraca Pérez-Miles, 2005 and Bumba lennoni, a new tarantula species from western Amazonia (Araneae, Theraphosidae, Theraphosinae)

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Miles, Fernando; Bonaldo, Alexandre Bragio; Miglio, Laura Tavares

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We propose the name Bumba as a new name for Maraca, preoccupied by Maraca Hebard, 1926 (Orthoptera). We describe and illustrate Bumba lennoni, a new theraphosid species from Caxiuanã, Pará, Brazil. This species differs from the other species of the genus in the extremely reduced keel on male palpal organ and in the higher number of labial and maxillary cuspules. Females additionally differ in the spermathecal morphology. As a consequence of the name replacement, three new combinations are established. PMID:25408606

  15. Reconstruction of the lower lip in Van der Woude syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bozkurt, Mehmet; Kulahci, Yalcin; Zor, Fatih; Kapi, Emin; Yucetas, Altan

    2009-04-01

    Van der Woude syndrome (VWS) is a congenital disease characterized by labial cysts, accessory salivary glands, congenital lower lip pits, fistula, and paramedian sinuses, and is often accompanied by cleft lip and palate. VWS is an autosomal dominant craniofacial syndrome, which represents only lower lip pits due to variable gene expression. The principles of VWS surgery include excision of lower lip pits and accessory glands, reconstruction of the lip and nose, and correction of accompanying anomalies. In this article, we present a technique with dermal allograft reconstruction to prevent deformities after excision of the accessory gland in the lower lip pit. PMID:19325355

  16. Laugier-Hunziker syndrome: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Nikitakis, Nikolaos G; Koumaki, Dimitra

    2013-07-01

    Laugier-Hunziker syndrome is a rare acquired disorder characterized by diffuse pigmented macules of the oral mucosa. Other mucosal and cutaneous surfaces may be affected, and nail involvement is frequent. A case of Laugier-Hunziker syndrome in a Greek female with multiple buccal and labial mucosal lesions and unusual conjunctival involvement is presented here. In addition, a thorough review of the English language literature of this rather under-recognized syndrome is included and the main differential diagnostic possibilities are discussed.

  17. Esthetic Management of Gingival Lesions in Anterior Maxilla: The Role of VIP-CT Flap, a Technical Note

    PubMed Central

    Rahpeyma, Amin; Khajehahmadi, Saeedeh

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Anterior maxilla is a high esthetic demand region. Reconstruction of the soft tissue loss after pathologic resection needs special techniques. Materials and Methods: This article describes the novel use of vascularized interpositional periosteal connective tissue flap of palate (VIP-CT) for reconstruction after resection of long-lasting pyogenic granuloma in anterior maxilla with underlying bone resorption in interdental region. Results: Good esthetic results both in labial gingiva and interdental region were obtained. Conclusion: VIP-CT flap is an ideal option for reconstruction of the pathologic lesions that affect the anterior maxilla and create pathologic space in interdental region. PMID:25013545

  18. Phonological development of Kuwaiti Arabic: preliminary data.

    PubMed

    Ayyad, Hadeel; Bernhardt, B May

    2009-11-01

    An overview of Kuwaiti Arabic is presented, with very preliminary data from two typically developing brothers (ages 2;4 and 5;2) and a 6-year-old with a severe sensorineural hearing impairment. The siblings show early mastery of many aspects of the complex Arabic phonological system, with universally expected later mastery of coronal fricatives and /r/. The 6-year-old shows patterns typical of children with hearing impairments, e.g. hypernasality, a prevalence of 'visible' segments, particularly labials, and simplified syllable structure. Her accurate use of /l/, /r/, and some gutturals, however, raise questions about the enhanced perceptibility and functionality of these segments in Arabic. PMID:19891521

  19. An unusual presentation of pyogenic granuloma of the lower lip.

    PubMed

    Asha, V; Dhanya, M; Patil, Bharati A; Revanna, G

    2014-10-01

    Exophytic growth of the oral cavity often presents a diagnostic challenge because a diverse group of the pathologic process can produce such lesions. Inflammatory hyperplasia is one of the important etiology behind the exophytic growths of the oral cavity. The pyogenic granuloma (PG) is the most common type of inflammatory hyperplasia found in the oral cavity especially in the gingiva. Extragingival occurrence of PG is very rare. This case report has described an extragingival PG which occurred on the lower labial mucosa in a 54-year-old male patient.

  20. Larva of Palaemnema brasiliensis Machado (Odonata: Platystictidae), from Amazonas, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Neiss, Ulisses Gaspar; Hamada, Neusa

    2016-01-01

    The larva of Palaemnema brasiliensis Machado, 2009 is described and illustrated based on last-instar larvae and exuviae of reared larvae collected in a blackwater stream in Barcelos and Presidente Figueiredo municipalities, Amazonas state, Brazil. The larva of P. brasiliensis can be distinguished from the two South American species of the genus with described larvae (P. clementia Selys and P. mutans Calvert), mainly by presence of a single obtuse cusp on the labial palp, the presence and configuration of setae in the caudal lamellae, and the proportional length of terminal filaments of the caudal lamellae. The family is recorded here for the first time in Brazilian state of Amazonas. PMID:27395963

  1. Description of the larva of Gynacantha millardi Selys, 1891 (Odonata: Aeshnidae) from Chhattisgarh, India.

    PubMed

    Dawn, Prosenjit; Chandra, Kailash

    2016-01-01

    The larva of Gynacantha millardi Selys is described here from female larvae and male and female exuviae collected from Chhattisgarh, India. Unlike other Gynacantha larvae known so far, G. millardi has 7 palpal setae almost equal in length; in other species, the palpal setae are of different lengths. The larvae lack a tooth on each side of the median cleft and have a distinct blunt tooth on the inner margin corner of each labial palp. The larvae were found in a semi-stagnant forest pool with enormous growth of aquatic vegetation. PMID:27395672

  2. Necrotizing sialometaplasia of the palate. Ulcerative or necrotizing stage of leukokeratosis nicotina palati?

    PubMed

    Philipsen, H P; Petersen, J K; Simonsen, B H

    1976-12-01

    A typical case of the recently described tumor-suspect lesion, necrotizing sialometaplasia (NS) of the palate, in a 54-year old Caucasian male is presented. Results of complete blood- and urinanalysis including serum electrophoresis and labial salivary gland biopsy strongly pointed at a local etiologic factor. Previous statements that the disease represents a new entity are questioned. The present authors favor the idea that NS is the necrotizing (ulcerative) or terminal stage of leukokeratosis nicotina palati (nicotinic stomatitis). It is of particular importance that this lesion is not diagnosed as a malignancy, as it heals spontaneously and uneventfully.

  3. Nasoalveolar cyst: an enigma for the dentist.

    PubMed

    Misra, Satya Ranjan; Gopal, Maragathavalli; Mohanty, Neeta; Rastogi, Varun

    2015-01-07

    A nasoalveolar cyst is a rare, non-odontogenic soft tissue cyst encountered in the anterior maxillary labial sulcus as an asymptomatic soft tissue swelling. Often, patients with these cysts report them to the dental clinic where they are mistaken for odontogenic lesions by the dental surgeon, especially if concomitant dental problems are present. They cannot be detected by routine conventional dental radiography as they are peripheral, lying within the mucosa thereby posing a diagnostic challenge. We document a case of a 47-year-old woman with a nasoalveolar cyst.

  4. [Diagnostic pitfall: herpes simplex recidivans on the finger].

    PubMed

    Weisenseel, Peter; Sander, Erika; Prinz, Jörg

    2003-11-01

    Herpes simplex recidivans is one of the most common dermatological infections. In typical (perioral, labial or genital) localization, the diagnosis is simple and often made by the patient. In atypical locations, the disease may be misdiagnosed by the physician. A 28-year-old patient presented with recurrent herpes simplex virus exacerbations on his left index finger, accompanied by neuralgic pains and lymphadenitis. He had been misdiagnosed by a variety of specialists for several years and had often been unable to work. The diagnosis of recurrent herpes simplex was made by the patient's history and the clinical symptoms and was confirmed by the detection of Herpes simplex virus-specific DNA by PCR.

  5. Two new species of Sinella from Guangdong Province, China (Collembola: Entomobryidae)

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Guo-Liang; Chen, Wei-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Two new blind species of Sinella are described from Guangdong Province, China. Sinella colubra sp. n. possesses minute smooth postlabial chaetae, long mucronal spine, and 4+4(5) lateral mac on Abd. IV, and can be distinguished from two closely related species by the postlabial chaetae and the dorsal macrochaetotaxy. Sinella zhangi sp. n. is also described and can be diagnosed by having minute labial chaeta r and postlabial chaetae X and X4, 5+5 mac on Abd. I, 4+4 central mac on Abd. II, and 4+4 central and 5+5 lateral mac on Abd. IV. PMID:27594797

  6. Correction of dental Class III with posterior open bite by simple biomechanics using an anterior C-tube miniplate

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Hyo-Won; Chung, Kyu-Rhim; Kang, Suk-Man; Lin, Lu; Nelson, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    In the correction of dental Class III molar relationship in skeletal Class II patients, uprighting of the mandibular posterior segments without opening the mandible is an important treatment objective. In the case reported herein, a C-tube miniplate fixed to the lower labial symphysis and connected with a nickel-titanium reverse-curved archwire provided effective uprighting of the lower molars, without the need of orthodontic appliances on the mandibular anteriors. Using this approach, an appropriate magnitude of force is exerted on the molars while avoiding any negative effect on the mandibular anteriors. PMID:23173121

  7. A new species of gecko from arid inland regions of eastern Australia (Diplodactylus; Diplodactylidae).

    PubMed

    Couper, Patrick J; Oliver, Paul M

    2016-01-01

    We describe a new species of small terrestrial gecko in the genus Diplodactylus from inland regions of western Queensland and New South Wales, Australia. Diplodactylus ameyi sp. nov. can be distinguished from its congeners in the Diplodactylus conspicillatus species-group by its relatively large size, bulbous tail which lacks an acute attenuated extension at tip, small first labial scale and comparatively robust head morphology (which includes a broadly rounded snout and no well-defined canthus rostralis). Related populations from eastern and central Queensland currently referred to D. platyurus include further deeply divergent lineages but additional material is required to resolve systematic boundaries in this region. PMID:27394511

  8. Bumba, a replacement name for Maraca Pérez-Miles, 2005 and Bumbalennoni, a new tarantula species from western Amazonia (Araneae, Theraphosidae, Theraphosinae).

    PubMed

    Pérez-Miles, Fernando; Bonaldo, Alexandre Bragio; Miglio, Laura Tavares

    2014-01-01

    We propose the name Bumba as a new name for Maraca, preoccupied by Maraca Hebard, 1926 (Orthoptera). We describe and illustrate Bumbalennoni, a new theraphosid species from Caxiuanã, Pará, Brazil. This species differs from the other species of the genus in the extremely reduced keel on male palpal organ and in the higher number of labial and maxillary cuspules. Females additionally differ in the spermathecal morphology. As a consequence of the name replacement, three new combinations are established. PMID:25408606

  9. Practice Bulletin No. 165 Summary: Prevention and Management of Obstetric Lacerations at Vaginal Delivery.

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    Lacerations are common after vaginal birth. Trauma can occur on the cervix, vagina, and vulva, including the labial, periclitoral, and periurethral regions, and the perineum. Most of these lacerations do not result in adverse functional outcomes. Severe perineal lacerations, extending into or through the anal sphincter complex, although less frequent, are more commonly associated with increased risk of pelvic floor injury, fecal and urinary incontinence, pain, and sexual dysfunction with symptoms that may persist or be present many years after giving birth. The purpose of this document is to provide evidence-based guidelines for the prevention, identification, and repair of obstetric lacerations and for episiotomy. PMID:27333355

  10. Practice Bulletin No. 165: Prevention and Management of Obstetric Lacerations at Vaginal Delivery.

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    Lacerations are common after vaginal birth. Trauma can occur on the cervix, vagina, and vulva, including the labial, periclitoral, and periurethral regions, and the perineum. Most of these lacerations do not result in adverse functional outcomes. Severe perineal lacerations, extending into or through the anal sphincter complex, although less frequent, are more commonly associated with increased risk of pelvic floor injury, fecal and urinary incontinence, pain, and sexual dysfunction with symptoms that may persist or be present many years after giving birth. The purpose of this document is to provide evidence-based guidelines for the prevention, identification, and repair of obstetric lacerations and for episiotomy. PMID:27333357

  11. Treatment of gummy smile: Gingival recontouring with the containment of the elevator muscle of the upper lip and wing of nose. A surgery innovation technique

    PubMed Central

    Storrer, Carmen Lucia Mueller; Valverde, Fabiane Kristine Bochenek; Santos, Felipe Rychuv; Deliberador, Tatiana Miranda

    2014-01-01

    The containment of the elevator muscle of the upper lip and wing of nose was used for the treatment of patients with gummy smile. This technique had corrected esthetic alterations of smile, reducing the upper lip elevation, which results in a smaller gingival display. An upper lip lengthening as well as a reduction in the upper lip shortening when the patient smiled could be observed. The high smile line was corrected without compromising the labial harmony. This study presents an innovative and effective therapeutic option to obtain a natural and harmonious smile. The patient expressed a high degree of satisfaction. PMID:25425832

  12. Oral cysticercosis: a clinical dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Wanjari, Sangeeta Panjab; Patidar, Kalpana A; Parwani, Rajkumar N; Tekade, Satyajitraje A

    2013-01-01

    Cysticercosis is a potentially fatal parasitic disease caused by cysticercus cellulosae, the larval stage of Taenia solium. Oral cysticercosis is a rare entity and represents difficulty in clinical diagnosis. This article reports two cases of oral cysticercosis involving buccal and labial mucosa. Both the cases presented with solitary, nodular swelling that had been clinically diagnosed as a mucocele. Histopathology of excisional biopsy revealed it to be cysticercosis. Single, cystic nodular swelling of oral cavity may be the only evidence of cysticercosis and may present first to dentist. These cases emphasise the role of dentist and thorough histopathological examination in the early diagnosis of disease that can prevent potential systemic complication. PMID:23580668

  13. Mucocele Accompanied by a Traumatic Neuroma: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Jaafari Ashkavandi, Z; Dehghani Nazhvani, A; Hamzavi, M

    2013-01-01

    Mucocele and traumatic neuroma are two lesions related to the traumatic events; however there is only one reported case in which these two entities were perceived simultaneously. The current study reported a 21-year-old man who complained of painless recurrent swelling, accompanied by paresthesia on his left lower labial mucosa. He had a previous history of similar lesion and had been treated with surgery and cauterization last year. The primary clinical impression was a recurrent mucocele. Microscopic surveys displayed a traumatic neuroma in the vicinity of a mucocele which seems to be arising from the previous surgical treatment. PMID:24724117

  14. Effect of host plant and immune challenge on the levels of chemosensory and odorant-binding proteins in caterpillar salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Celorio-Mancera, Maria de la Paz; Ytterberg, A Jimmy; Rutishauser, Dorothea; Janz, Niklas; Zubarev, Roman A

    2015-06-01

    More than half of the proteome from mandibular glands in caterpillars is represented by chemosensory proteins. Based on sequence similarity, these proteins are putative transporters of ligands to gustatory receptors in sensory organs of insects. We sought to determine whether these proteins are inducible by comparing, both qualitatively and quantitatively, the salivary (mandibular and labial) proteomes from caterpillars (Vanessa cardui) reared on different plants and artificial diet containing either bacteria or bacterial cell-walls. We included a treatment where the caterpillars were switched from feeding on artificial diet to plant material at some point in their development. Additionally, we evaluated the degree of overlap between the proteomes in the hemolymph-filled coelom and salivary glands of caterpillars reared on plant material. We found that the quality and quantity of the identified proteins differed clearly between hemolymph-filled coelome, labial and mandibular glands. Our results indicated that even after molting and two-day feeding on a new diet, protein production is affected by the previous food source used by the caterpillar. Candidate proteins involved in chemosensory perception by insects were detected: three chemosensory (CSPs) and two odorant-binding proteins (OBPs). Using the relative amounts of these proteins across tissues and treatments as criteria for their classification, we detected hemolymph- and mandibular gland-specific CSPs and observed that their levels were affected by caterpillar diet. Moreover, we could compare the protein and transcript levels across tissues and treatment for at least one CSP and one OBP. Therefore, we have identified specific isoforms for testing the role of CSPs and OBPs in plant and pathogen recognition. We detected catalase, immune-related protein and serine proteases and their inhibitors in high relative levels in the mandibular glands in comparison to the labial glands. These findings suggest that the

  15. Parotid Gland Biopsy, the Alternative Way to Diagnose Sjögren Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Spijkervet, Fred K L; Haacke, Erlin; Kroese, Frans G M; Bootsma, Hendrika; Vissink, Arjan

    2016-08-01

    Salivary gland biopsy is a technique broadly applied for the diagnosis of Sjögren syndrome (SS), lymphoma in SS, and connective tissue disorders (sarcoidosis, amyloidosis). In SS characteristic histology findings are found, including lymphocytic infiltration surrounding the excretory ducts in combination with destruction of acinar tissue. In this article the main techniques are described for taking labial and parotid salivary gland biopsies with respect to their advantages, postoperative complications, and usefulness for diagnostic procedures, monitoring disease progression, and evaluation of treatment. PMID:27431350

  16. Effects of Er:YAG laser on enamel bonding of composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Ulrich; Hibst, Raimund

    1993-07-01

    Cylinders of microfil light-cured composite resin were bonded to the labial enamel surface of bovine incisor teeth which had previously been subjected to different laser treatments. One part of the tooth surfaces were laser treated in a defocused way only, another part with a different overlaying pattern of focused laser pulses. Specimens were thermocycled and the adhesion of the composites were determined by tensile strength tests. The best results were obtained by laser conditioning of the enamel surface in a defocused way with an overlaying fine pattern of focused single shots. The tensile strength reached 92.5% of the acid etched bonding.

  17. De Novo Mutation in ABCC9 Causes Hypertrichosis Acromegaloid Facial Features Disorder.

    PubMed

    Afifi, Hanan H; Abdel-Hamid, Mohamed S; Eid, Maha M; Mostafa, Inas S; Abdel-Salam, Ghada M H

    2016-01-01

    A 13-year-old Egyptian girl with generalized hypertrichosis, gingival hyperplasia, coarse facial appearance, no cardiovascular or skeletal anomalies, keloid formation, and multiple labial frenula was referred to our clinic for counseling. Molecular analysis of the ABCC9 gene showed a de novo missense mutation located in exon 27, which has been described previously with Cantu syndrome. An overlap between Cantu syndrome, acromegaloid facial syndrome, and hypertrichosis acromegaloid facial features disorder is apparent at the phenotypic and molecular levels. The patient reported here gives further evidence that these syndromes are an expression of the ABCC9-related disorders, ranging from hypertrichosis and acromegaloid facies to the severe end of Cantu syndrome.

  18. Contributions to the tooth morphology in early embryos of three species of hammerhead sharks (Elasmobranchii: Sphyrnidae) and their evolutionary implications.

    PubMed

    Mello, Waldiney; Brito, Paulo Marques Machado

    2013-09-01

    The tooth types in the embryos of the hammerhead sharks Sphyrna tiburo, Sphyrna tudes and Eusphyra blochii are here described in labial and lingual views, and, in some cases, in additional views. The presence of cusplets was observed in the anterior teeth of S. tiburo and S. tudes, which is secondarily lost after early embryonic stages. Many aligned root foramina were detected in the sphyrnids, which, as the cusplets, are shared by many phylogenetic-related carcharhinids. Other anatomic features, related to the root and central cusp, are presented for the first time. Such characters represent the first step to compare the teeth of extant and fossil species.

  19. Memoan ciceroi gen. et sp. nov., a remarkable new firefly genus and species from the Atlantic Rainforest (Coleoptera: Lampyridae).

    PubMed

    Da Silveira, Luiz Felipe Lima; Mermudes, José Ricardo M

    2013-01-01

    A species of firefly discovered in a fragile and rapidly disappearing Atlantic Rainforest biome in Brazil does not fit into any of the existing subfamilies nor described generic categories in the Lampyridae and is described here as Memoan ciceroi gen. et sp. nov. and classed as Lampyridae Incertae sedis, as it exhibits features of both the Amydetinae and Lampyrinae. An overview of subfamily arrangements and relevant generic characters is given to support this action. Memoan gen. nov. can be distinguished by its alveolate pronotum and elytra; subserrate antennae, antenommeres II-IX compressed, antennal sockets obliquely inserted on tubercles; labial palp one-segmented and obconic, and by its conspicuous pleuroventral suture.

  20. Electromyographic analysis of lip muscle function in operated cleft subjects.

    PubMed

    Genaro, K F; Trindade Júnior, A S; Trindade, I E

    1994-01-01

    EMG activity of the upper lip was measured with bipolar surface electrodes during speech and nonspeech tasks in order to assess labial function in subjects with repaired clefts. Eighteen patients between 15 and 23 years of age with repaired unilateral cleft lip (isolated or combined with repaired cleft palate) were compared to 24 matched noncleft subjects. Data analysis demonstrated that the amplitude of action potentials of the upper lip was significantly greater in the cleft group. We hypothesize that the enhanced activity of the repaired upper lip during function may contribute to the facial growth abnormalities usually seen in the cleft population.

  1. An Analysis of the Frame-Content Theory in Babble of Nine-Month-Old Babies with Cleft Lip and Palate

    PubMed Central

    Stout, Gwendolyn; Hardin-Jones, Mary; Chapman, Kathy L.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the consonant-vowel co-occurrence patterns predicted by the Frame-Content theory in 16 nine-month-old babies with unrepaired cleft palate (± cleft lip) and 16 age-matched non-cleft babies. Babble from these babies was phonetically transcribed and grouped according to the intrasyllabic predictions of the theory (labial-central, alveolar-front, and velar-back). Both groups demonstrated the three consonant-vowel co-occurrence patterns predicted by the Frame-Content theory. Other patterns not predicted by the Frame-Content theory emerged as strong patterns as well. PMID:21889772

  2. A new species of gecko from arid inland regions of eastern Australia (Diplodactylus; Diplodactylidae).

    PubMed

    Couper, Patrick J; Oliver, Paul M

    2016-03-24

    We describe a new species of small terrestrial gecko in the genus Diplodactylus from inland regions of western Queensland and New South Wales, Australia. Diplodactylus ameyi sp. nov. can be distinguished from its congeners in the Diplodactylus conspicillatus species-group by its relatively large size, bulbous tail which lacks an acute attenuated extension at tip, small first labial scale and comparatively robust head morphology (which includes a broadly rounded snout and no well-defined canthus rostralis). Related populations from eastern and central Queensland currently referred to D. platyurus include further deeply divergent lineages but additional material is required to resolve systematic boundaries in this region.

  3. Hydrocele of the canal of Nuck - Rare differential for vulval swelling

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Anubha; Jain, Shivi; Verma, Ashish; Jain, Madhu; Srivastava, Arvind; Shukla, Ram C

    2014-01-01

    Patent canal of Nuck is one of the rare developmental entities in females, presenting clinically as an inguino-labial swelling. The usual content of this sac is fluid being secreted by the peritoneal mesothelium. In rare cases, ovary alone or with fallopian tube may prolapsed out into the sac. We report the rationale use of diagnostic algorithm in a case of ovarian hernia into the patent canal of Nuck, to differentiate it from more common clinical mimics. Furthermore, in the present case, a knowledge of the entity and targeted scrutiny, led to a correct identification of the prolapsed ovary, preventing an unwarranted oophorectomy in the garb of neoplasia. PMID:25024529

  4. Orthodontic-associated localized gingival recession of lower incisors: who should treat it?

    PubMed

    Chaushu, Stella; Stabholz, Ayala

    2013-07-01

    Gingival recession of lower incisors in the young population has become more prevalent in association with the increased uptake of orthodontic treatment. The two main predisposing factors are thin gingival biotype and bone dehiscence caused by labially displaced roots. Management is sometimes challenging, and the achievement of a successful result requires close cooperation between the orthodontist and periodontist. This article proposes a decision tree, which includes both orthodontic and periodontal considerations, to help the clinician in making the correct diagnosis and choosing the most suitable treatment in post-orthodontic gingival recessions. PMID:24568245

  5. Multiple recurrent vesicles in oral mucosa suggestive of superficial mucocele: An unusual presentation of allergic stomatitis

    PubMed Central

    Motallebnejad, Mina; Shirzad, Atena; Molania, Tahere; Seyedmajidi, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    Background: Superficial mucocele presents as small, clear vesicle on noninflamed mucosa. In this study, we report several vesicles on the bucal mucosa of a woman diagnosed as superficial mucocele. Case Presentation: A 48-year old woman presented with multiple vesicles on her labial mucosa, ventral surface of the tongue, floor of the mouth and palate. A mucosal biopsy was taken from the vesicle. Histopathologically, intraepithelial mucocele was diagnosed. The lesion was successfully treated with mouthwash betamethasone. There has been no recurrence for 18 months. Conclusion: In the present study, several mucoceles were seen in the oral mucosa. No similar case was reported previously. PMID:24294477

  6. Review article: orofacial granulomatosis.

    PubMed

    Leão, J C; Hodgson, T; Scully, C; Porter, S

    2004-11-15

    Orofacial granulomatosis is an uncommon clinicopathological entity describing patients who have oral lesions characterized by persistent and/or recurrent labial enlargement, oral ulcers and a variety of other orofacial features, who on lesional biopsy have lymphoedema and non-caseating granulomas. The aetiology of oral lesions with non-caseating granulomas includes oral Crohn's disease (some patients with oral lesions will develop typical bowel symptoms of Crohn's disease in ensuing months to years), tooth-associated infections, sarcoidosis and food or contact allergies. Treatment of orofacial granulomatosis is not reliably effective and may not be always necessary, although most patients do require some medical intervention.

  7. Interdisciplinary approach for the management of bilaterally impacted maxillary canines

    PubMed Central

    Sukh, Ram; Singh, Gyan P.; Tandon, Pradeep

    2014-01-01

    Interdisciplinary approach for the management of malocclusion provides a holistic approach of patient management. Prudent treatment planning is necessary to achieve the various treatment goals. This case report describes the orthodontic management of a 16-year-old adolescent female patient with bilateral labially impacted maxillary canines. The problems associated with impacted maxillary canines and the biomechanical interventions used for this patient are discussed. The treatment protocol involved surgical intervention, followed by sequential traction of the impacted teeth. An interdisciplinary approach to treatment with different mechanical strategies led to the achievement of the desired esthetic, functional, and occlusal treatment goals. PMID:25395776

  8. Leiomyoma of the Vulva: A Diagnostic Challenge Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kurdi, Saad; Almegbel, Maysan; Aladham, Mayson

    2016-01-01

    Uterine leiomyomas are common and can affect up to 30% of women older than 35 years. Despite this, leiomyomas of the vulva are rare, masquerading, and usually misdiagnosed as Bartholin cyst preoperatively. These smooth muscle tumors are typically painless, solitary, and well circumscribed and can affect female of any age group. We present a case of a 46-year-old female that presented to the clinic with 2-year history of right labial mass and was diagnosed as Bartholin cyst initially. The patient underwent elective excision under spinal anaesthesia and the mass was removed. The final diagnosis after microscopy result showed benign vulvar leiomyoma.

  9. Descriptions and biological notes on three unusual mantellid tadpoles (Amphibia: Anura: Mantellidae) from southeastern Madagascar

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Altig, R.; McDiarmid, R.W.

    2006-01-01

    The morphologies of three unusual tadpoles from slow-flowing, sandy-bottomed, rain forest streams in southeastern Madagascar are described. The large oral apparatus of the tadpole of Boophis picturatus Glaw, Vences, Andreone, and Vallan, 2001 lacks all keratinized structures and has an elaborately-folded lower labium with five, radially oriented, flattopped ridges. The tadpole of Mantidactylus guttulatus (Boulenger, 1881) lacks all keratinized mouthparts and has three immense papillae where the upper jaw normally occurs. The tadpole of Mantidactylus lugubris (Dumeril, 1853) has an ornate oral apparatus involving greatly hypertrophied derivatives of jaw serrations and unique structures on the lower labium that resemble labial teeth.

  10. Lymphomatoid granulomatosis of the lung, associated with a long history of benign lymphoepithelial lesions of the salivary glands and lymphoid interstitial pneumonitis. Report of a case.

    PubMed

    Weisbrot, I M

    1976-11-01

    A case of a man who had bilateral benign lymphoepithelial lesions of major salivary glands, subsequently had lymphoid interstitial pneumonitis at the age of 26 years, and progressed to lymphomatoid granulomatosis of the lung at the age of 42 years is reported, A labial gland biopsy was consistent with Sjögren's syndrome, which the patient was clinically suspected of having although his disease lacked many of the classic clinical features of that disorder. There was no evidence of malignant lymphoma of lymph nodes. Immunoglobulin distribances were minor, limited to slightly elevated IgG.

  11. Sex differences in the relationship of recall to subvocal speech in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Garrity, L I

    1979-01-01

    Previous research findings indicating that preschool-age boys use verbal means to encode pictorial material whereas preschool-age girls do not were further investigated. Detailed examinations were made of the polygraph tracings and serial position curves of recall of younger (mean age = 50 months) and older (mean age = 66 months) boys and girls. The older boys were different than the other sex by age groups in that their recall and subvocal speech scores were significantly correlated; they engaged in greater amounts of raw EMG activity on both high-labial and low-labial trials; and they recalled only a small per cent of the names of pictures they did not subvocalize. Analysis of the serial position curves of recall revealed a greater recency effect for older boys and a greater primary effect for older girls. These data strongly support the notion that girls as young as 5 and 6 years of age are using other than verbal means to encode information, whereas boys similar in age are highly reliant upon verbal encoding methods.

  12. Four new species of free-living marine nematodes of the family Comesomatidae (Nematoda: Araeolaimida) from coast of Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Gagarin, Vladimir G

    2013-01-24

    Specimens of four new nematode species of the family Comesomatidae were isolated from the sediments of littoral zone of South China Sea at the coast of Vietnam and described and illustrated. Sabatieria curvispiculata sp. n. is characterized by the long and slender tail, short cephalic setae and strongly curved spicules in males. Setosabatiera orientalis sp. n. is close to S. australis Riera, Nunez, Brito, 2006, but differs from it in the comparatively shorter and more slender tail, small-er number of amphidial fovea turns, greater number of precloacal supplements in males and shape and structure of spic-ules. Dorylaimopsis intermedia sp. n. is morphologically closest to D. mediterranea Grimaldi-de Zio, 1968 and D. magellanense Chen, Vincx, 1968, but differs from both species in the longer outer labial setae and absence of precloacal supplements in males. D. brevispiculata sp. n. is similar to D. turneri Zhang, 1992 and D. coomansi Muthumbi, Soetaert, Vincx, 1977, but differs from both species in the shape of outer labial sensillae and absence of precloacal supplements in males. A pictorial key for determination of valid species in the genus Setosabatieria Rouville, 1903 is given.

  13. Angiosarcoma of Anterior Mandibular Gingiva Showing Recurrence – A Case Report with Immunohistochemistry

    PubMed Central

    Koneru, Anila; Vanishree, M.; Manvikar, Vardendra

    2016-01-01

    Angiosarcomas of oral cavity and salivary gland represent 1% of all cases reported in the literature and are therefore considered as extremely rare. To the best of our knowledge very few cases of angiosarcomas involving mandibular gingiva have been reported previously. Here, we report a case of angiosarcoma occurring in the gingiva with review of literature on clinical features. A 30-year-old female patient presented with a complaint of a small growing mass in relation to lower front teeth. Intraoral examination revealed a soft sessile growth arising from the labial gingiva in relation to 31 and 41 on the labial aspect extending distally to 32. The lesion was locally excised. Histolopathological analysis showed that the tumour was composed of spindle shaped to polygonal cells with hyperchromatic nuclei, conspicuous nucleoli and intracytoplasmic vacuoles, mitotic figure were also scattered. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that the tumour cells was positive for factor VIII-related antigen, CD31 and CD34. An excisional biopsy showed a diagnosis of angiosarcoma. After two months patient reported back with the same chief complaint. This present case is a 17th case report of angiosarcoma arising in anterior mandiblular gingiva.

  14. An articulatory-perceptual account of vocalization and elision of dark /l/ in the Romance languages.

    PubMed

    Recasens, D

    1996-01-01

    This investigation seeks to understand the factors causing vocalization and elision of dark/l/ in the Romance languages. Contrary to articulatory- and perceptual-based arguments in the literature it is claimed that preconsonantal vocalization conveys the phonemic categorization of the /w/-like formant transitions generated by the tongue dorsum retraction gesture (in a similar fashion to other processes such as /[symbol: see text] /Vjn/). The evolution /VwlC/ > /VwC/ may be explained using articulatory and perceptual arguments. A dissimilatory perceptual mechanism is required in order to account for a much higher frequency of vocalizations before dentals and alveolars than before labials and velars in the Romance languages. Through this process listeners assign the gravity property of dark /l/ to a following grave labial or velar consonant but not so to a following acute dental or alveolar consonant in spite of the alveolar lateral being equally dark (i.e., grave) in the three consonantal environments. Other articulatory facts appear to play a role in the vocalization of final /l/ (i.e., the occurrence of closure after voicing has ceased) and of geminate /ll/ (i.e., its being darker than non-geminate /l/). The elision of dark /l/ may occur preconsonantally and word finally either after vocalization has applied or not. This study illustrates the multiple causal factors and the articulatory-perceptual nature of sound change processes.

  15. Comparative evaluation of soft and hard tissue dimensions in the anterior maxilla using radiovisiography and cone beam computed tomography: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Mallikarjun, Savita; Babu, Harsha Mysore; Das, Sreedevi; Neelakanti, Abhilash; Dawra, Charu; Shinde, Sachin Vaijnathrao

    2016-01-01

    Aims: To assess and compare the thickness of gingiva in the anterior maxilla using radiovisiography (RVG) and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and its correlation with the thickness of underlying alveolar bone. Settings and Design: This cross-sectional study included 10 male subjects in the age group of 20–45 years. Materials and Methods: After analyzing the width of keratinized gingiva of the maxillary right central incisor, the radiographic assessment was done using a modified technique for RVG and CBCT, to measure the thickness of both the labial gingiva and labial plate of alveolar bone at 4 predetermined locations along the length of the root in each case. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was performed using Student's t-test and Pearson's correlation test, with the help of statistical software (SPSS V13). Results: No statistically significant differences were obtained in the measurement made using RVG and CBCT. The results of the present study also failed to reveal any significant correlation between the width of gingiva and the alveolar bone in the maxillary anterior region. Conclusions: Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that both CBCT and RVG can be used as valuable tools in the assessment of the soft and hard tissue dimensions. PMID:27143830

  16. Two new genera and five new species of Tullbergiidae (Collembola) from the southern Appalachian Mountains of North America, with redescription of Tullbergia clavata Mills.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Ernest C

    2016-01-01

    Two new genera and five new species of Tullbergiidae (Collembola) are described from the North American Appalachian zone in eastern Tennessee and western North Carolina. Ameritulla n. gen. is established for species with 15 setae on the middle tibiotarsus, blunt papilla A on the labial palpus, two long rows of vesicles in the postantennal organ (PAO), two dorsal sensilla on the third antennal segment and crescentic pseudocelli. Ameritulla clavata (Mills, 1934) n. comb. (=Tullbergia clavata Mills, 1934) is designated as type species and redescribed from type specimens, and A. obscura n. sp. is described. On Mixturatulla ozwini n. gen., n. sp. papillae A and B of the labial palpus are thick and blunt, the second row of the PAO is laterally broken into numerous spherical vesicles, and the dorsum of Abd. VI has two rows of large, coalesced tubercles. Psammophorura miniclavata n. sp. lacks pseudocelli on the third abdominal segment, which are present in previously described species. Stenaphorura shaconage n. sp. is the first species of its genus reliably recorded from North America. It differs from its Palaearctic relatives in having 2+2 pseudocelli on most body segments. Tullbergia nearctica n. sp. resembles T. arctica (Wahlgren, 1900) but differs in several chaetotaxic characters. Sensilliform setae traditionally considered as ordinary pointed setae are recognized and charted. A new setal nomenclature is proposed for the ventral setae of the sixth abdominal segment. PMID:27615985

  17. Ultramorphological characteristics of mature larvae of Nitidula carnaria (Schaller 1783) (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae), a beetle species of forensic importance.

    PubMed

    Ortloff, Alexander; Zanetti, Noelia; Centeno, Néstor; Silva, Ricardo; Bustamante, Felipe; Olave, Alvaro

    2014-06-01

    Beetles of the genus Nitidula Fabricius are forensically important, and their adults and larvae have been found associated with human corpses and animal carcasses in many places of the world. The external morphology of the larvae of Nitidula carnaria (Schaller 1783) was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to provide a description enabling identification of this forensically important species. The ultrastructure of the head was examined, antennae, mandibles, epipharynx, maxillary and labial palpi, spiracles, thorax, legs, and abdominal segments (especially segments 9 and 10); the tegument was also emphasised in this examination. Several types of sensilla were observed on the maxillary and labial palpi, including sensilla basiconica, sensilla styloconica, and perhaps a different type of sensilla digitiformia. In abdominal segment 10, a sensilla campaniformia was observed. Two types of plates were noticed in the abdominal tegument. The characteristics described here can be used to identify this species. No other study of the ultrastructure of Nitidulidae larvae is available for comparison. This is the first report of N. carnaria in carcasses in Chile.

  18. Effects of warm air-drying on intra-pulpal temperature.

    PubMed

    Galan, D; Kasloff, Z; Williams, P T

    1991-08-01

    This study was designed to determine what effects different warm air-drying conditions have on the intra-pulpal temperature (IPT), with or without chamber preparation and with or without an acid-etching treatment of the enamel. Four human maxillary centrals and four cuspids had lingual access openings prepared to accommodate a thermal sensor probe. Half of the specimens received a labial chamber preparation and half were acid-etched. All specimens were stored in water at 37 degrees C prior to testing. Labial aspects were positioned at 2 cm and 6 cm from the nozzle of a 500W hair dryer and IPTs were recorded after 15, 30, 45, and 60-second exposures. Exposure times for the acid-etched samples were modified to 10 seconds at 2 cm and 15 seconds at 6 cm. Results showed that for unetched teeth, increases in the IPT were greater at the 2 cm/15-second exposure (a 10.4-12.0 degrees C increase) than at the 6 cm/15-second exposure (a 3.9-6.6 degrees C increase). Even greater temperature changes were seen as the exposure times were increased to 30, 45, and 60 seconds. When the teeth were acid-etched, IPT rises of 5.6-10.1 degrees C and 5.8-8.7 degrees C were measured at 2 cm/10 seconds and at 6 cm/15 seconds, respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Two new genera and five new species of Tullbergiidae (Collembola) from the southern Appalachian Mountains of North America, with redescription of Tullbergia clavata Mills.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Ernest C

    2016-01-01

    Two new genera and five new species of Tullbergiidae (Collembola) are described from the North American Appalachian zone in eastern Tennessee and western North Carolina. Ameritulla n. gen. is established for species with 15 setae on the middle tibiotarsus, blunt papilla A on the labial palpus, two long rows of vesicles in the postantennal organ (PAO), two dorsal sensilla on the third antennal segment and crescentic pseudocelli. Ameritulla clavata (Mills, 1934) n. comb. (=Tullbergia clavata Mills, 1934) is designated as type species and redescribed from type specimens, and A. obscura n. sp. is described. On Mixturatulla ozwini n. gen., n. sp. papillae A and B of the labial palpus are thick and blunt, the second row of the PAO is laterally broken into numerous spherical vesicles, and the dorsum of Abd. VI has two rows of large, coalesced tubercles. Psammophorura miniclavata n. sp. lacks pseudocelli on the third abdominal segment, which are present in previously described species. Stenaphorura shaconage n. sp. is the first species of its genus reliably recorded from North America. It differs from its Palaearctic relatives in having 2+2 pseudocelli on most body segments. Tullbergia nearctica n. sp. resembles T. arctica (Wahlgren, 1900) but differs in several chaetotaxic characters. Sensilliform setae traditionally considered as ordinary pointed setae are recognized and charted. A new setal nomenclature is proposed for the ventral setae of the sixth abdominal segment.

  20. Molecular Mechanism of the Two-Component Suicidal Weapon of Neocapritermes taracua Old Workers.

    PubMed

    Bourguignon, Thomas; Šobotník, Jan; Brabcová, Jana; Sillam-Dussès, David; Buček, Aleš; Krasulová, Jana; Vytisková, Blahoslava; Demianová, Zuzana; Mareš, Michael; Roisin, Yves; Vogel, Heiko

    2016-03-01

    In termites, as in many social insects, some individuals specialize in colony defense, developing diverse weaponry. As workers of the termite Neocapritermes taracua (Termitidae: Termitinae) age, their efficiency to perform general tasks decreases, while they accumulate defensive secretions and increase their readiness to fight. This defensive mechanism involves self-sacrifice through body rupture during which an enzyme, stored as blue crystals in dorsal pouches, converts precursors produced by the labial glands into highly toxic compounds. Here, we identify both components of this activated defense system and describe the molecular basis responsible for the toxicity of N. taracua worker autothysis. The blue crystals are formed almost exclusively by a specific protein named BP76. By matching N. taracua transcriptome databases with amino acid sequences, we identified BP76 to be a laccase. Following autothysis, the series of hydroquinone precursors produced by labial glands get mixed with BP76, resulting in the conversion of relatively harmless hydroquinones into toxic benzoquinone analogues. Neocapritermes taracua workers therefore rely on a two-component activated defense system, consisting of two separately stored secretions that can react only after suicidal body rupture, which produces a sticky and toxic cocktail harmful to opponents. PMID:26609080

  1. Angiosarcoma of Anterior Mandibular Gingiva Showing Recurrence – A Case Report with Immunohistochemistry

    PubMed Central

    Koneru, Anila; Vanishree, M.; Manvikar, Vardendra

    2016-01-01

    Angiosarcomas of oral cavity and salivary gland represent 1% of all cases reported in the literature and are therefore considered as extremely rare. To the best of our knowledge very few cases of angiosarcomas involving mandibular gingiva have been reported previously. Here, we report a case of angiosarcoma occurring in the gingiva with review of literature on clinical features. A 30-year-old female patient presented with a complaint of a small growing mass in relation to lower front teeth. Intraoral examination revealed a soft sessile growth arising from the labial gingiva in relation to 31 and 41 on the labial aspect extending distally to 32. The lesion was locally excised. Histolopathological analysis showed that the tumour was composed of spindle shaped to polygonal cells with hyperchromatic nuclei, conspicuous nucleoli and intracytoplasmic vacuoles, mitotic figure were also scattered. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that the tumour cells was positive for factor VIII-related antigen, CD31 and CD34. An excisional biopsy showed a diagnosis of angiosarcoma. After two months patient reported back with the same chief complaint. This present case is a 17th case report of angiosarcoma arising in anterior mandiblular gingiva. PMID:27630964

  2. An anatomical study of the cutaneous branches of the mental nerve.

    PubMed

    Alsaad, K; Lee, T C; McCartan, B

    2003-06-01

    Minor surgical procedures to the inner (mucosal) aspect of the lower lip may occasionally cause numbness of the overlying skin. This study was designed to find, by means of dissection and computerized three-dimensional reconstruction, why surgical interference with nerve fibres in the deep aspect of the lip can cause neurological deficit in the superficial layers. Thirteen cadaveric lips were examined by dissection under a surgical microscope (9 lips) or serial sectioning and computerized three-dimensional reconstruction (4 lips). Muscle mass, minor labial salivary glands and nerve fibres were identified and traced. Three patterns of mental nerve distribution were seen on dissection and two on computerized reconstruction; these latter corresponded to two of the patterns seen on dissection. Fibres passing close to the labial minor salivary gland mass were seen to travel towards the superficial aspect of the lip, terminating in the dermis. It is clear that there is no safe anatomical space for minor surgical procedures to the inner (mucosal) aspect of the lower lip if avoidance of cutaneous numbness is an important consideration. However, we describe a technique that may minimize the possibility of cutaneous numbness.

  3. Dimensional Changes in Alveolar Ridge Following Extraction of Teeth in the Maxillary Premolar Area in Subjects with Thick and Thin Gingival Biotypes: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Abdelhafez, Reem S; Alhabashneh, Rola; Khader, Yousef; Hijazi, Mohammed; Jarah, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated changes in residual ridge dimensions after tooth extraction among thin and thick gingival biotypes. Fifteen patients who required extraction of maxillary premolars were classified according to gingival biotypes (10 teeth in 9 participants were included in the thick group, and 6 teeth in 6 participants were included in the thin group). Minimally traumatic extractions were carried out using periotomes and rotational movement of teeth. At the time of extraction an osteometer was used to measure the thickness of the labial plate and the bony alveolar ridge at the extraction site by penetrating the tissues until bone was reached 5 mm, 7 mm, and 10 mm below the midpoint of the crest of the facial and palatal gingival margins. Standardized radiographs were taken immediately and after 3 months. The results of this study show minimal differences in dimensional changes following extraction of premolar teeth in thick and thin gingival biotypes. Significantly greater bone loss was detected in both gingival biotypes when the labial plate thickness was less than 1.5 mm, especially in alveolar ridge height.

  4. Angiosarcoma of Anterior Mandibular Gingiva Showing Recurrence - A Case Report with Immunohistochemistry.

    PubMed

    Hunasgi, Santosh; Koneru, Anila; Vanishree, M; Manvikar, Vardendra

    2016-07-01

    Angiosarcomas of oral cavity and salivary gland represent 1% of all cases reported in the literature and are therefore considered as extremely rare. To the best of our knowledge very few cases of angiosarcomas involving mandibular gingiva have been reported previously. Here, we report a case of angiosarcoma occurring in the gingiva with review of literature on clinical features. A 30-year-old female patient presented with a complaint of a small growing mass in relation to lower front teeth. Intraoral examination revealed a soft sessile growth arising from the labial gingiva in relation to 31 and 41 on the labial aspect extending distally to 32. The lesion was locally excised. Histolopathological analysis showed that the tumour was composed of spindle shaped to polygonal cells with hyperchromatic nuclei, conspicuous nucleoli and intracytoplasmic vacuoles, mitotic figure were also scattered. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that the tumour cells was positive for factor VIII-related antigen, CD31 and CD34. An excisional biopsy showed a diagnosis of angiosarcoma. After two months patient reported back with the same chief complaint. This present case is a 17(th) case report of angiosarcoma arising in anterior mandiblular gingiva. PMID:27630964

  5. An unusual recruitment strategy in a mass-recruiting stingless bee, Partamona orizabaensis.

    PubMed

    Flaig, Isabelle C; Aguilar, Ingrid; Schmitt, Thomas; Jarau, Stefan

    2016-10-01

    Foragers of several stingless bee species deposit attractive scent marks on solid substrates to precisely recruit nestmates to food. Interestingly, Partamona workers quickly recruit large numbers of nest mates to resources, likely even without the deposition of attractive scent marks. However, systematic studies of the recruitment system of these bees are lacking. We now studied the recruitment behavior of P. orizabaensis. Our findings show that foragers of this species can recruit large numbers of nestmates to food sources at a particular location. The precise nestmate recruitment does not rely on attractive scent marks deposited on substrates. We never observed any scent marking behavior and feeders baited with labial or mandibular gland extracts were not attractive for the bees. Chemical analyses showed that the foragers' labial gland secretions exclusively contain long chain hydrocarbons, which render their role in recruitment communication unlikely. Whether mandibular gland secretions, which contain esters and alcohols that are known as attractive pheromones in other bee species, are used to guide recruits toward food during flight, remains elusive. We conclude that Partamona's quick recruitment system that does not rely on conspicuous scent marks has evolved as a strategy against competition with sympatrically occurring and more aggressive bee species. PMID:27412298

  6. A Rare Case of an Artery Passing through the Median Perforating Canal of the Mandible

    PubMed Central

    Iwanaga, Joe; Watanabe, Koichi; Saga, Tsuyoshi; Tabira, Yoko; Yamaki, Koh-ichi

    2016-01-01

    Along with the popularization of dental implant surgery, there has been considerable research on the lingual foramen using cone-beam computed tomography. Anatomical research has also revealed that the arteries entering the lingual foramina are branches of the submental and sublingual arteries. There have been no reports, however, of the submental or sublingual artery entering the mandible from the lingual foramen, perforating it, and then distributing to the inferior labial region. A 69-year-old man who donated his body to our department in 2015 was dissected. The mandible with overlying soft tissue of the mental region was resected and examined with microcomputed tomography, which showed that the canal perforated from the lingual foramen to the midline of the labial cortical plate. The canal was thus named the median perforating canal. To the best of our knowledge, there have been no other reports of a perforating artery of the mandible, so this case is thought to be rare. Hence, the existence of perforating arteries, such as in the present case, should be taken into consideration in preoperative diagnoses such as for dental implant surgery. Thus, the fusion of anatomical and radiological study is useful and necessary to understand surgical anatomy. PMID:27213060

  7. How do ants stick out their tongues?

    PubMed

    Paul, Jürgen; Roces, Flavio; Hölldobler, Bert

    2002-10-01

    The mouthparts are very important tools for almost any task performed by ants. In particular, the labiomaxillary complex is essential for food intake. In the present study we investigated the anatomical design of the labiomaxillary complex in various ant species, focusing on movement mechanisms. Six labial and six maxillary muscles with different functions control the several joints and ensure the proper performance of the labiomaxillary complex. According to our measurements of sarcomere lengths, muscle fiber lengths and diameters, and the relative muscle volumes, the labial and maxillary muscles feature rather slow than fast muscle characteristics and do not seem to be specialized for specific tasks. Since glossa protractor muscles are absent, the protraction of the glossa, the distal end of the labium, is a nonmuscular movement. By histological measurements of hemolymph volumes we could exclude a pressure-driven mechanism. Additional experiments showed that, upon relaxation of the glossa retractor muscles, the glossa protracts elastically. This elastic mechanism possibly sets an upper limit to licking frequency, thus influencing food intake rates and ultimately foraging behavior. In contrast to many other elastic mechanisms among arthropods, glossa protraction in ants is based on a mechanism where elasticity works as an actual antagonist to muscles. We compared the design of the labiomaxillary complex of ants with that of the honeybee and suggest an elastic mechanism for glossa protraction in honeybees as well.

  8. Eighteenth and nineteenth century dental restoration, treatment and consequences in a British nobleman.

    PubMed

    Cox, M; Chandler, J; Boyle, A; Kneller, P; Haslam, R

    2000-12-01

    This paper examines unusual eighteenth and nineteenth century dental treatment and its consequences, in a nobleman excavated from beneath St. Nicholas' Church, Sevenoaks, Kent, UK in the early 1990s. This rare archaeological case exhibits erosion of dental enamel on the labial surface of all the anterior dentition. A programme of historical research suggests that this might be attributed to the application of an acid-based dental tincture or the use of an abrasive substance to whiten the teeth. Palliative treatment for the consequence of this application was prescribed by Dr Robert Blake of Dublin. Further, it bears witness to three dental restorations, two of gold and one tin. The two gold (foil) fillings are an occlusal in the upper-right second molar and a cervical on the labial surface of the upper left canine. The tin filling is an occlusal in the upper left second molar. Excavation of the carious tissue appears to have been undertaken using a spoon shaped implement.

  9. Anatomy-based image processing analysis of the running pattern of the perioral artery for minimally invasive surgery.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Hee; Lee, Minho; Kim, Hee-Jin

    2014-10-01

    We aimed to elucidate the tortuous course of the perioral artery with the aid of image processing, and to suggest accurate reference points for minimally invasive surgery. We used 59 hemifaces from 19 Korean and 20 Thai cadavers. A perioral line was defined to connect the point at which the facial artery emerged on the mandibular margin, and the ramification point of the lateral nasal artery and the inferior alar branch. The course of the perioral artery was reproduced as a graph based on the perioral line and analysed by adding the image of the artery using MATLAB. The course of the artery could be classified into 2 according to the course of the alar branch - oblique and vertical. Two distinct inflection points appeared in the course of the artery along the perioral line at the ramification points of the alar branch and the inferior labial artery, respectively, and the course of the artery across the face can be predicted based on the following references: the perioral line, the ramification point of the alar branch (5∼10 mm medial to the perioral line at the level of the lower third of the upper lip) and the inferior labial artery (5∼10 mm medial to the perioral line at the level of the middle of the lower lip).

  10. Full-field characterization of wishboning strain in the colobine mandibular symphysis.

    PubMed

    Bucinell, Ronald B; Daegling, David J; McGraw, W Scott; Rapoff, Andrew J

    2010-04-01

    The masticatory loading regime of lateral transverse bending (wishboning) is hypothesized to be instrumental in the evolution of symphyseal form among primates. The biomechanics of wishboning have largely been inferred by assuming that the mandible behaves as a curved beam under this load; however, the characterization of stress and strain in the anthropoid symphysis has been interpretively challenging. This is due, in part, to both limitations of sampling strain in an in vivo context and the incongruence of beam theory assumptions on the one hand, and the anatomical complexity of mandibular morphology on the other. Utilizing three-dimensional (3D) Digital Image Correlation (DIC), we employ an in vitro approach to characterize the strain field in a sample of colobine mandibles under simulated wishboning loads in order to assess the utility of idealized curved beam models for characterizing strain gradients in symphyseal bone. Conventional theory of curved beams suggest that colobine mandibles should exhibit reduced disparity of labial and lingual stresses relative to papionin primates given differences in overall mandibular architecture. This prediction is borne out by our analysis: whereas macaques experience lingual:labial strain disparities of 3.5:1, the colobine mandibles exhibit ratios on the order of 2-3:1. However, despite the fact that wishboning loads represent a case of asymmetric bending, details of the wishboning strain field do not conform to expected stress distribution under this model.

  11. Ethmolaimus riparius sp. n. and Paramononchus major sp. n. (Nematoda) from Lake Baikal, Russia.

    PubMed

    Gagarin, Vladimir G; Naumova, Tatyana V

    2016-01-01

    Two new nematode species found in Lake Baikal (Russia) are described and illustrated. Ethmolaimus riparius sp. n. is morphologically close to E. pilosus Shoshin, 1998 and E. lanatus Shoshin, 1998. The new species differs from E. pilosus by the longer and thinner body (L = 1228-1501 µm, a = 26-34 vs L = 720-1070 µm, a = 19-23), larger stoma (26-32 µm long vs 19-24 µm long), longer spicules and gubernaculum (45-50 µm long and 21-25 µm long vs accordingly 32-37 µm long and 8 µm long). E. riparius sp. n. differs from E. lanatus by the longer body (L = 1228-1501 µm vs L = 680-1180), shorter cephalic setae (its length is equal 1.1-1.4 labial region diameter vs 1.6-2.1 labial region diameter) and longer spicules and gubernaculum (45-50 µm long and 21-25 µm long vs accordingly 25-30 µm long and 7-8 µm long). Paramononchus major sp. n is close to P. orientalis Gagarin & Naumova, 2012, but differs from it by the longer body (L = 5926-7820 µm vs L = 3081-3778 µm), longer spicules (410-475 µm long vs 208-238 µm long) and larger number of precloacal supplements (52-61 vs 21-24). Keys for the identification of valid species of the genera Ethmolaimus and Paramononchus are given. PMID:27394603

  12. Investigation of vacuum forming techniques for reduction of loss in mouthguard thickness: part 2—effects of sheet grooving and thermal shrinkage.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Mutsumi; Koide, Kaoru; Mizuhashi, Fumi; Sato, Toshihide

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate vacuum forming techniques for reduction of loss in mouthguard thickness effects of sheet grooving and thermal shrinkage of extruded sheets on molded mouthguard thickness. Mouthguards were fabricated with ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) sheets (4.0 mm thick) using a vacuum forming machine. Sheet form was a convexing v-shaped groove toward the back, 10-40 mm from the anterior end. The sheets were placed in the forming machine with the sheet extrusion direction either vertical or parallel to the model's centerline of right and left. Molding was performed by crimping the sheet using suction when the most descending portion of the sheet sagged downwards from the clamp, 15 mm below the basal surface. Postmolding thickness was determined using a measuring device. Measurement points were the incisal portion (incisal edge and labial surface) and molar portion (cusp and buccal surface). Differences in molded mouthguard thickness with the sheet orientation of extruded EVA sheets were analyzed by student's t-test. The sheet in parallel axis orientation with the model's centerline yielded higher thickness than vertical orientation at the labial surface and the buccal surface. The present results suggested that addition of a groove to the sheet in conjunction with placement of the sheet with its axis of orientation parallel the centerline of the working model can effectively reduce thickness loss in the molded mouthguard with the equipment and materials used in this study. PMID:25572017

  13. Marginal adaptation of Spinell InCeram and feldspathic porcelain laminate veneers

    PubMed Central

    Ghaffari, Tahereh; Hamedi-Rad, Fahimeh; Fakhrzadeh, Vahid

    2016-01-01

    Background: This in vitro study investigated the marginal fit of two porcelain laminate veneers to help the selection of more accurate veneers in discolored teeth. Materials and Methods: Thirty impressions of metal master die created from the prepared labial surface of an acrylic maxillary central incisor were made and poured with Type IV stone. The dies were distributed into test groups (n = 15) for the construction of DuCeram and InCeram laminate veneers. An image-analysis program was used to measure the gap between the veneers and the master die at the labial, lingual, and proximal margins. Statistical analysis was performed with repeated measures ANOVA. Independent t-test was used to compare the mean values between the two groups. Values of P < 0.05 were judged to be significant. Results: Differences between marginal fit of two groups were significant (P < 0.001). The overall mean marginal gap values (μm) for InCeram and DuCeram were, respectively, 114.4 ± 40.81 and 282.3 ± 82.82. Independent t-test revealed significant differences between the marginal gaps of two materials at different predetermined points. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, the marginal gap in InCeram laminate veneer was within the clinically acceptable standard set at 120 μm. PMID:27274344

  14. Functional Morphology and Sexual Dimorphism of Mouthparts of the Short-Faced Scorpionfly Panorpodes kuandianensis (Mecoptera: Panorpodidae)

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Na; Huang, Jing; Hua, Baozhen

    2013-01-01

    Mouthparts are closely associated with the feeding behavior and feeding habits of insects. The features of mouthparts frequently provide important traits for evolutionary biologists and systematists. The short-faced scorpionflies (Panorpodidae) are distinctly different from other families of Mecoptera by their extremely short rostrum. However, their feeding habits are largely unknown so far. In this study, the mouthpart morphology of Panorpodes kuandianensis Zhong et al., 2011 was investigated using scanning electron microscopy and histological techniques. The mandibulate mouthparts are situated at the tip of the short rostrum. The clypeus and labrum are short and lack distinct demarcation between them. The epipharynx is furnished with sublateral and median sensilla patches. The blade-shaped mandibles are sclerotized and symmetrical, bearing apical teeth and serrate inner margins. The maxilla and labium retain the structures of the typical pattern of biting insects. The hirsute galea, triangular pyramid-shaped lacinia, and labial palps are described in detail at ultrastructural level for the first time. Abundant sensilla are distributed on the surface of maxillary and labial palps. The sexual dimorphism of mouthparts is found in Panorpodes for the first time, mainly exhibiting on the emargination of the labrum and apical teeth of mandibles. Based on the features of mouthparts, the potential feeding strategy and feeding mechanism are briefly discussed in Panorpodes. PMID:23533677

  15. Three-dimensional analysis of facial morphology: growth, development and aging of the orolabial region.

    PubMed

    Sforza, Chiarella; Ferrario, Virgilio F

    2010-01-01

    Soft tissue analysis plays an increasing, strategic role in the recognition of facial alterations, but there are scanty three-dimensional reference data during normal growth, development and aging. In the current study, 532 male and 386 female healthy subjects aged 4 to 73 years were analyzed using a non-invasive, computerized electromagnetic digitizer, and normal dimensions of mouth and lips were obtained in the three-dimensional space. Labial thickness and curvature were also assessed in a selected group of 40 men and women, equally divided into young (age 21-30 yr, mean 25 yr) and old persons (age 45-65 yr, mean 55 yr). Lip vermilion area to volume, and vermilion height to cutaneous lip height ratios decreased with age in both sexes. On average, the lips were thicker in men and in young persons than in women and in old persons. Mean labial curvature was larger in young men than in the other groups, and it was more variable in young than in old persons. Data collected in the present investigation can be used as a data base for the quantitative description of human lip morphology during normal growth, development and aging.

  16. Structure and Sensilla of the Mouthparts of the Spotted Lanternfly Lycorma delicatula (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Fulgoridae), a Polyphagous Invasive Planthopper

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Yanan; Dietrich, Christopher H.; Dai, Wu

    2016-01-01

    Mouthparts are among the most important sensory and feeding structures in insects and comparative morphological study may help explain differences in feeding behavior and diet breadth among species. The spotted lanternfly Lycorma delicatula (White) (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Fulgoridae) is a polyphagous agricultural pest originating in China, recently established and becoming widespread in Korea, and more recently introduced into eastern North America. It causes severe economic damage by sucking phloem sap and the sugary excrement produced by nymphs and adults serves as a medium for sooty mold. To facilitate future study of feeding mechanisms in this insect, the fine-structural morphology of mouthparts focusing on the distribution of sensilla located on the labium in adult L. delicatula was observed using a scanning electron microscope. The mouthparts consist of a small cone-shaped labrum, a tubular labium and a stylet fascicle consisting of two inner interlocked maxillary stylets partially surrounded by two shorter mandibular stylets similar to those found in other hemipteran insects. The five-segmented labium is unusual (most other Fulgoromorpha have four segments) and is provided with several types of sensilla and cuticular processes situated on the apex of its distal labial segment. In general, nine types of sensilla were found on the mouthparts. Six types of sensilla and four types of cuticular processes are present on sensory fields of the labial apex. The proposed taxonomic and functional significance of the sensilla are discussed. Morphological similarities in the interlocking mechanism of the stylets suggest a relationship between Fulgoromorpha and Heteroptera. PMID:27253390

  17. Modeling the acoustics of American English /r/ using configurable articulatory synthesis (CASY)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehnert-Lehouillier, Heike; Iskarous, Khalil; Whalen, Douglas H.

    2001-05-01

    The claim that articulatory variation in /r/ production exhibits systematic tradeoffs to achieve a stable acoustic signal (Guenther et al., 1999) was tested using configurable articulatory synthesis (CASY) and ultrasound data. In particular, the hypothesis was tested that multiple constrictions during /r/ production are necessary to achieve a low enough F3. Ultrasound and Optotrak data from four speakers pronouncing /r/ in different vocalic contexts were used to determine where in the vocal tract the tongue gestures are placed. This data was then modeled using CASY parameters and was used to determine how the three gestures in /r/ (labial, palatal, and pharyngeal) contribute to the F3 value observed in the speech signal simultaneously recorded with the ultrasound. This was done by varying the degree and location of the lingual constrictions and the degree of the labial constriction and determining the effect on F3. It was determined that the three gestures in /r/ contribute in differing amounts to the overall F3 lowering. Furthermore, it does not seem that all three gestures are necessary for F3 lowering. This lends support to the hypothesis that the goal in /r/ production is the simultaneous achievement of three gestures. [Work supported by NIH Grant DC-02717.

  18. Cross-linguistic preference and the phonetics of geminates: Place of articulation and duration of phonologically short and long consonants in Guinaang Bontok

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoyama, Katsura

    2003-10-01

    It is reported that there is a preference for the place-of-articulation in geminates among world languages; alveolar, labial, velar geminate consonants always appear in that order with respect to one another (G. Thurgood, Papers in Honor of Frederick H. Brengelman, 1993, pp. 129-137). This study investigated whether the phonetic contrasts in duration are larger in cross-linguistically favored place-of-articulation (e.g., alveolar) than in the less favored place-of-articulation (e.g., velar). The data is from a language called Guinaang Bontok. Four speakers of Guinaang Bontok produced thirty-five words that have either a singleton or a geminate of /p t k m n rhookn/. Eighteen words included a singleton and the other seventeen words included a geminate. The participants produced the target word in isolation first, and then repeated it in a frame sentence twice. The recordings were digitized at 22.05 Hz, and the durations of the consonants were measured. A total of 420 tokens (35 words ×3 repetitions ×4 participants) were analyzed. The results partially supported the hypothesis; the durational contrasts were indeed larger in alveolar consonants (/t n/) than in labial consonants (/p m/) and velar consonants (/rhookn/). However, contrasts in velar stop (/k/) were as large as in the alveolar stop (/t/).

  19. The stability of locus equation slopes across stop consonant voicing/aspiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sussman, Harvey M.; Modarresi, Golnaz

    2001-05-01

    The consistency of locus equation slopes as phonetic descriptors of stop place in CV sequences across voiced and voiceless aspirated stops was explored in the speech of five male speakers of American English and two male speakers of Persian. Using traditional locus equation measurement sites for F2 onsets, voiceless labial and coronal stops had significantly lower locus equation slopes relative to their voiced counterparts, whereas velars failed to show voicing differences. When locus equations were derived using F2 onsets for voiced stops that were measured closer to the stop release burst, comparable to the protocol for measuring voiceless aspirated stops, no significant effects of voicing/aspiration on locus equation slopes were observed. This methodological factor, rather than an underlying phonetic-based explanation, provides a reasonable account for the observed flatter locus equation slopes of voiceless labial and coronal stops relative to voiced cognates reported in previous studies [Molis et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 95, 2925 (1994); O. Engstrand and B. Lindblom, PHONUM 4, 101-104]. [Work supported by NIH.

  20. Two new free-living marine nematode species of the genus Anoplostoma (Anoplostomatidae) from the mangrove habitats of Xiamen Bay, East China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yongxiang; Guo, Yuqing

    2016-02-01

    Two new species of free-living marine nematode from mangrove habitats in Xiamen Bay are identified. Anoplostoma tumidum sp. nov. is characterized by relatively short outer labial setae (0.86-1.00 h. d.), long tail (c 7.2-8.9, c' 8.3-10.5), an instinct swollen distal portion of slender spicule (Sc 94-101 µm), and well developed copulatory bursae without bursal papillae. A. tumidum sp. nov. differs from all valid species of genus Anoplostoma in copulatory apparatus of males with a distinct swollen distal portion of spicule, and a relatively obvious constriction of head. A. paraviviparum sp. nov. is characterized by relatively long outer labial setae (1.11-1.22 h. d.), and tail (c 6.6-8.5, c' 8.6-10.2); elongated spicules with distinct knob-like proximal and pointed distal ends (Sc 46-69 µm); distinct strip-like gubernaculum (length with 11-15µm); well developed copulatory bursae with precloacal papillae and post-cloacal papillae; and a distinct constriction of head. A. paraviviparum sp. nov. is similar to A. viviparum Bastian, 1865, but differs in the reproductive mode of female and the constriction of head.

  1. Perceptual learning of a talker resolves lexical ambiguity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piorkowski, Rebecca L.; Badecker, William

    2005-09-01

    Recent evidence [Allen and Miller, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 115, 3171 (2004)] suggests that listeners are sensitive to talker-specific acoustic-phonetic properties. The present study examines whether experience with a particular talker's realization of place of articulation can eliminate the ambiguity that arises when a word like ``hen'' assimilates in place of articulation to ``hem'' in a labial context (hen best). Using a cross-modal priming paradigm, the priming effect of words that assimilate to other words was measured in two conditions. In the first condition, listeners heard examples of the talker's assimilation style in the form of words that assimilate to nonwords in a labial context (green beer) before the critical trials were heard. In the second condition, listeners did not hear any examples of the talker's assimilation style before the critical trials were heard. Evidence will be presented showing that, without previous experience with the talker's assimilation style, words that assimilate to other words create a lexical ambiguity for the listener. Additionally, evidence will be presented showing that experience with the talker's assimilation style eliminates this lexical ambiguity and allows the listener to perceive the talker's intended lexical form.

  2. Within- and across-language spectral and temporal variability of vowels in different phonetic and prosodic contexts: Russian and Japanese

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilichinskaya, Yana D.; Hisagi, Miwako; Law, Franzo F.; Berkowitz, Shari; Ito, Kikuyo

    2005-04-01

    Contextual variability of vowels in three languages with large vowel inventories was examined previously. Here, variability of vowels in two languages with small inventories (Russian, Japanese) was explored. Vowels were produced by three female speakers of each language in four contexts: (Vba) disyllables and in 3-syllable nonsense words (gaC1VC2a) embedded within carrier sentences; contexts included bilabial stops (bVp) in normal rate sentences and alveolar stops (dVt) in both normal and rapid rate sentences. Dependent variables were syllable durations and formant frequencies at syllable midpoint. Results showed very little variation across consonant and rate conditions in formants for /i/ in both languages. Japanese short /u, o, a/ showed fronting (F2 increases) in alveolar context relative to labial context (1.3-2.0 Barks), which was more pronounced in rapid sentences. Fronting of Japanese long vowels was less pronounced (0.3 to 0.9 Barks). Japanese long/short vowel ratios varied with speaking style (syllables versus sentences) and speaking rate. All Russian vowels except /i/ were fronted in alveolar vs labial context (1.1-3.1 Barks) but showed little change in either spectrum or duration with speaking rate. Comparisons of these patterns of variability with American English, French and German vowel results will be discussed.

  3. Piezoelectric surgery in mandibular split crest technique with immediate implant placement: a case report

    PubMed Central

    BELLEGGIA, F.; POZZI, A.; ROCCI, M.; BARLATTANI, A.; GARGARI, M.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Implant supported rehabilitation of thin edentulous ridges with horizontal atrophy necessitates a regenerative approach. Within the procedures for horizontal bone defects augmentation, ridge expansion techniques permit dislocation of the buccal bone plate in a labial direction and simultaneous implant insertion in single-stage surgery, abbreviating overall treatment time. The piezoelectric ridge expansion technique permits to obtain the expansion of very mineralized bone crests without excessive traumas or the risk of ridge fractures. The case reported shows an implant treatment for partial edentulous lower arch rehabilitation. A full-split thickness flap was raised. The mucoperiosteal reflection permitted to identify alveolar crest contour where osteotomies had to be performed. Split thickness dissection allowed periosteal blood supply to be mainteined on the buccal bone plate. After horizontal and vertical osteotomies were performed with OT7 piezoelectric microsaw (Piezo-surgery, Mectron), a single-bevel scalpel was used to move the buccal bone plate to the labial. Two Straumann TE 3.3/4.8 mm wide implants were inserted in the lower right premolar area, and 1 Straumann 4.8 mm Wide Neck implant was inserted to replace lower right first molar. The amount of bone expansion was equal to the cervical diameter of the placed implants (4.8 mm) and residual bone gap was packed with Bio-Oss granules (Geistlich). Healing was uneventful and 3 months later final restorations with implant-supported porcelain-fused-to-metal crowns were cemented. PMID:23285347

  4. Neuromagnetic evidence for a featural distinction of English consonants: Sensor- and source-space data

    PubMed Central

    Scharinger, Mathias; Merickel, Jennifer; Riley, Joshua; Idsardi, William J.

    2011-01-01

    Speech sounds can be classified on the basis of their underlying articulators or on the basis of the acoustic characteristics resulting from particular articulatory positions. Research in speech perception suggests that distinctive features are based on both articulatory and acoustic information. In recent years, neuroelectric and neuromagnetic investigations provided evidence for the brain’s early sensitivity to distinctive feature and their acoustic consequences, particularly for place of articulation distinctions. Here, we compare English consonants in a Mismatch Field design across two broad and distinct places of articulation - LABIAL and CORONAL - and provide further evidence that early evoked auditory responses are sensitive to these features. We further add to the findings of asymmetric consonant processing, although we do not find support for coronal underspecification. Labial glides (Experiment 1) and fricatives (Experiment 2) elicited larger Mismatch responses than their coronal counterparts. Interestingly, their M100 dipoles differed along the anterior/posterior dimension in the auditory cortex that has previously been found to spatially reflect place of articulation differences. Our results are discussed with respect to acoustic and articulatory bases of featural speech sound classifications and with respect to a model that maps distinctive phonetic features onto long-term representations of speech sounds. PMID:21185073

  5. A young woman with recurrent vesicles on the lower lip: fixed drug eruption mimicking herpes simplex.

    PubMed

    Benedix, Frauke; Schilling, Melany; Schaller, Martin; Röcken, Martin; Biedermann, Tilo

    2008-01-01

    A 23-year-old woman presented with recurrent herpetiform vesicles of the lower lip, but all diagnostic measures for herpes virus infection including herpes viridae specific PCR were negative. Medical history revealed that she also had chronic recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis, which had been treated with various regimes, including repetitive applications of fluconazole. Consequently, fluconazole-induced fixed drug eruption was suspected, but skin tests performed with fluconazole remained with-out response. Consecutive repeated oral provocation tests with fluconazole were carried out and resulted in the development of burning herpetiform vesicles of the lower lip. Histopathology revealed a subepidermal and superficial perivascular infiltrate, basal vacuolated and apoptotic keratinocytes, intra-epidermal lymphocytes and intra-epidermal multilocular vesicles. Together with the clinical history and picture, fluconazole-induced fixed drug eruption mimicking labial herpes simplex virus infection was diagnosed. Oral provocation tests with an alternative systemic antifungal treatment, itraconazole, were well tolerated, systemic therapy with itraconazole was initiated, and no further labial vesicles developed. PMID:18779889

  6. An unusual recruitment strategy in a mass-recruiting stingless bee, Partamona orizabaensis.

    PubMed

    Flaig, Isabelle C; Aguilar, Ingrid; Schmitt, Thomas; Jarau, Stefan

    2016-10-01

    Foragers of several stingless bee species deposit attractive scent marks on solid substrates to precisely recruit nestmates to food. Interestingly, Partamona workers quickly recruit large numbers of nest mates to resources, likely even without the deposition of attractive scent marks. However, systematic studies of the recruitment system of these bees are lacking. We now studied the recruitment behavior of P. orizabaensis. Our findings show that foragers of this species can recruit large numbers of nestmates to food sources at a particular location. The precise nestmate recruitment does not rely on attractive scent marks deposited on substrates. We never observed any scent marking behavior and feeders baited with labial or mandibular gland extracts were not attractive for the bees. Chemical analyses showed that the foragers' labial gland secretions exclusively contain long chain hydrocarbons, which render their role in recruitment communication unlikely. Whether mandibular gland secretions, which contain esters and alcohols that are known as attractive pheromones in other bee species, are used to guide recruits toward food during flight, remains elusive. We conclude that Partamona's quick recruitment system that does not rely on conspicuous scent marks has evolved as a strategy against competition with sympatrically occurring and more aggressive bee species.

  7. The tadpoles of two species of the Bokermannohyla circumdata group (Hylidae, Cophomantini).

    PubMed

    Pezzuti, Tiago Leite; Santos, Marcus Thadeu Teixeira; Martins, Sofia Velasquez; Leite, Felipe Sá Fortes; Garcia, Paulo Christiano Anchietta; Faivovich, Julián

    2015-01-01

    We describe the external morphology and oral cavity of the tadpoles of Bokermannohyla caramaschii and B. diamantina respectively from the states of Espírito Santo and Bahia, Brazil. Larvae of both species are distinguished from each other by external characters such as body shape, labial tooth-row formula, number of marginal papillae, coloration and internal oral anatomy features. Some of the character states of the tadpoles of B. caramaschii and B. diamantina that are shared with all other described tadpoles of the Bokermannohyla circumdata group, such as the absence/reduction of small flaps with accessory labial teeth laterally in the oral disc, and the absence/reduction of submarginal papillae, may represent morphological synapomorphies of this species group, or at least of some internal clade. The general pattern of brownish coloration with longitudinal stripes on the caudal muscle is also common to most species of the group. We did not find character states of the oral cavity that are exclusively shared by species of the B. circumdata group, or by other groups of Bokermannohyla. PMID:26624743

  8. The Effect of Changes in Lower Incisor Inclination on Gingival Recession

    PubMed Central

    Kamak, Gulen; Kamak, Hasan; Keklik, Hakan; Gurel, Hakan Gurcan

    2015-01-01

    Aim. Orthodontic treatment may promote development of recessions. The mechanism by which orthodontic treatment influences occurrence of recessions remains unclear. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that a change of mandibular incisor inclination promotes development of labial gingival recessions. Materials and Methods. The study sample comprised dental casts and lateral cephalograms obtained from 109 subjects before orthodontic treatment (Tb) and after orthodontic treatment (Ta). Depending on the change of lower incisor inclination during treatment, the subjects were divided into three groups: Retroclination (R), Stable Position (S), and Proclination (P). The presence of gingival recessions of mandibular incisors and clinical crown heights were assessed on plaster models. Results and Conclusions. From Tb to Ta, Inc_Incl showed a statistically significant change in the R, P, and S groups (p < 0.05). Increase of clinical crown heights of the lower incisors (42, 4, and 31) was not statistically significant in any group. The only statistically significant intergroup difference was the greater increase of the clinical crown height of tooth number 32 in the P group in comparison with the R group (p = 0.049). The change of lower incisor inclination during treatment did not lead to development of labial gingival recessions in the study sample. PMID:25961071

  9. Eighteenth and nineteenth century dental restoration, treatment and consequences in a British nobleman.

    PubMed

    Cox, M; Chandler, J; Boyle, A; Kneller, P; Haslam, R

    2000-12-01

    This paper examines unusual eighteenth and nineteenth century dental treatment and its consequences, in a nobleman excavated from beneath St. Nicholas' Church, Sevenoaks, Kent, UK in the early 1990s. This rare archaeological case exhibits erosion of dental enamel on the labial surface of all the anterior dentition. A programme of historical research suggests that this might be attributed to the application of an acid-based dental tincture or the use of an abrasive substance to whiten the teeth. Palliative treatment for the consequence of this application was prescribed by Dr Robert Blake of Dublin. Further, it bears witness to three dental restorations, two of gold and one tin. The two gold (foil) fillings are an occlusal in the upper-right second molar and a cervical on the labial surface of the upper left canine. The tin filling is an occlusal in the upper left second molar. Excavation of the carious tissue appears to have been undertaken using a spoon shaped implement. PMID:11132689

  10. Vascular mapping of the face: B-mode and doppler ultrasonography study

    PubMed Central

    Tucunduva-Neto, Raul; Saieg, Mauro; Costa, Andre-Luiz; de Freitas, Cláudio

    2016-01-01

    Background To analyze the face vascularization pattern using B-mode and Doppler ultrasonography, and also propose an arterial vessel mapping. Material and Methods The investigation was performed on 20 ultrasonography exams of facial vessels through linear and endocavitary transducers. We analyzed and determined the average values for diameters, peak systolic velocity and resistive index of the following arteries: external carotid, lingual, deep lingual, sublingual, facial, submental, inferior labial, superior labial, angular, maxillary inferior alveolar, mental, buccal, greater palatine, infraorbital, superficial temporal, transverse facial and frontal. Results Data was obtained allowing the analysis of the tissue hemodynamics. We were able to map the vascularization of the face and it was possible to access three arteries of small diameter (0,60mm angular artery; 0,55mm greater palatine artery; 0,45mm infraorbital artery). Conclusions The results presented in this article are valid tool supporting the non-invasive mapping of facial vascularization. Key words:Anatomy, vascularization, ultrasonography, doppler. PMID:26827055

  11. Structure and Sensilla of the Mouthparts of the Spotted Lanternfly Lycorma delicatula (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Fulgoridae), a Polyphagous Invasive Planthopper.

    PubMed

    Hao, Yanan; Dietrich, Christopher H; Dai, Wu

    2016-01-01

    Mouthparts are among the most important sensory and feeding structures in insects and comparative morphological study may help explain differences in feeding behavior and diet breadth among species. The spotted lanternfly Lycorma delicatula (White) (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Fulgoridae) is a polyphagous agricultural pest originating in China, recently established and becoming widespread in Korea, and more recently introduced into eastern North America. It causes severe economic damage by sucking phloem sap and the sugary excrement produced by nymphs and adults serves as a medium for sooty mold. To facilitate future study of feeding mechanisms in this insect, the fine-structural morphology of mouthparts focusing on the distribution of sensilla located on the labium in adult L. delicatula was observed using a scanning electron microscope. The mouthparts consist of a small cone-shaped labrum, a tubular labium and a stylet fascicle consisting of two inner interlocked maxillary stylets partially surrounded by two shorter mandibular stylets similar to those found in other hemipteran insects. The five-segmented labium is unusual (most other Fulgoromorpha have four segments) and is provided with several types of sensilla and cuticular processes situated on the apex of its distal labial segment. In general, nine types of sensilla were found on the mouthparts. Six types of sensilla and four types of cuticular processes are present on sensory fields of the labial apex. The proposed taxonomic and functional significance of the sensilla are discussed. Morphological similarities in the interlocking mechanism of the stylets suggest a relationship between Fulgoromorpha and Heteroptera. PMID:27253390

  12. Incisor wear and age in Yellowstone bison

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christianson, D.A.; Gogan, P.J.P.; Podruzny, K.M.; Olexa, E.M.

    2005-01-01

    Biologists commonly use tooth eruption and wear patterns or cementum annuli techniques to estimate age of ungulates. However, in some situations the accuracy or sampling procedures of either approach are undesirable. We investigated the progression of several quantitative measures of wear with age, using permanent first incisors from Yellowstone bison (Bison bison), and tested for differences between sexes and herds. We further investigated the relationship of wear and age to explore an age-estimation method. Labial-lingual width (LLW) correlated best with assigned age (r2=0.66, males; r2=0.76 females). Labial-lingual width differed between sexes, with females showing ∼0.2 mm more wear than males. Additionally, differences in rate of wear existed between bison of the northern and central Yellowstone herds (1.2 and 0.9 mm/year, respectively). We developed a regression formula to test the power of LLW as an estimator of Yellowstone bison age. Our method provided estimated ages within 1 year of the assigned age 73% and 82% of the time for female and male bison, respectively.

  13. Growth and the modeling/remodeling of the alveolar bone of the rat incisor.

    PubMed

    Merzel, José; Salmon, Cristiane R

    2008-07-01

    The modeling and remodeling of the rat incisor alveolar bone was followed as the animals grew. The weight of the hemimandible, the length of the socket, and the width of the lower incisor were measured. Osteoclasts and resorption areas were identified by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining. Fluorochrome markers were used to detect and measure osteogenic activities. In the socket related to the periodontal ligament, osteoclasts appeared in scattered sites as well as isolated sites of osteogenic activity, apparently without any variation related to the age of the animals. At the socket facing the dental follicle of young rats, the inner surface was lined with osteoclasts. The number of osteoclasts decreased steadily as the rats grew. In 1-year-old rats, in addition to a few scattered osteoclasts, the internal aspect of the labial wall showed some sites lined with osteoblasts and cement lines indicative of prior bone formation. In young rats, there was a continuous osteogenic activity at the external surface of this wall. The thickness of the labial wall of the socket remained apparently constant; therefore, bone resorption must have occurred at the internal side of the wall. Such osteogenic activity was not observed in old rats. The main forces acting on rat incisors, biting and eruption, are continuous through the life of the animals. Thus, these results indicate that the modeling of the alveolar bone related to the dental follicle, in young rats, can only be associated with another force, specifically, the growth of the incisor. PMID:18461598

  14. Prevalence of primary Sjögren's syndrome in an elderly population.

    PubMed

    Drosos, A A; Andonopoulos, A P; Costopoulos, J S; Papadimitriou, C S; Moutsopoulos, H M

    1988-04-01

    Sixty-two elderly apparently healthy volunteers, inmates of a public nursing home, were examined for evidence of primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS). Evaluation included a specific questionnaire for subjective xerophthalmia and xerostomia, slit-lamp eye examination after rose Bengal staining. Schirmer's I test, stimulated parotid flow measurement, testing of sera for autoantibodies and labial minor salivary gland biopsy. A greater than or equal to 2+ lip biopsy score on Tarpley's scale was a sine qua non for the diagnosis of Sjögren's syndrome. Labial salivary gland (LSG) biopsy revealed fibrosis and/or fatty infiltration in the majority of the individuals, related to ageing. However, four people had a lip biopsy score of greater than or equal to 2+, which, supplemented by other objective criteria, classified three of them as having pSS. Another four had an LSG biopsy score of 1+, and although they fulfilled other objective criteria, they could not be characterized as pSS. All these individuals were completely asymptomatic, and none of them had anti-Ro(SSA) or anti-La(SSB) autoantibodies. The present study suggests that pSS in elderly people in elderly people is subclinical, benign and relatively common.

  15. A new species of the genus Xenylla Tullberg, 1869 (Collembola: Hypogastruridae) from Korea, with a key for East Asian species.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyung-Hwa

    2016-01-01

    A new species of Hypogastruridae from Korea, Xenylla namia sp. nov., is described and illustrated. The new species is easily distinguished from previously described Xenylla species by a combination of the following characters: labral setae arrangement of 2/5,5,4, labial papilla E with one guard seta (e3), head without c2 seta, thoracic sterna II and III with a pair of medial setae, abdominal sternum III with 1 median seta above the retinaculum, abdominal sternum IV with seta m1. An identification key to East Asian species of Xenylla with detailed differences between East Asian Xenylla species is provided. PMID:27395598

  16. New blind species and new records of Sinella from Nanjing, China (Collembola, Entomobryidae).

    PubMed

    Xu, Heng; Zhang, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Two new blind species of Sinella are described from Nanjing, China. Sinella quinseta sp. n. from Purple Mountain possesses unique 5+5 central macrochaetae on Abd. II, and can be distinguished from other species of the genus by the postlabial chaetae and the dorsal chaetotaxy. Sinella qixiaensis sp. n. from Qixia Mountain is characterized by the paddle-like S-chaetae of Ant. III organ and the smooth straight chaetae on the manubrium and base of dens; it differs from two closely related species by the smooth manubrial chaetae, the labial chaetae, the Ant. III organ, and the macrochaetae on Abd. II. Sinella fuyanensis Chen & Christiansen and Sinella quinocula Chen & Christiansen were also newly recorded from Nanjing. PMID:27551205

  17. Mycobacterium ulcerans Infection (Buruli Ulcer) on the Face: A Comparative Analysis of 13 Clinically Suspected Cases from the Democratic Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    Phanzu, Delphin M.; Mahema, Roger L.; Suykerbuyk, Patrick; Imposo, Désiré-Hubert B.; Lehman, Linda F.; Nduwamahoro, Elie; Meyers, Wayne M.; Boelaert, Marleen; Portaels, Françoise

    2011-01-01

    We report our experience in managing 13 consecutive clinically suspected cases of Buruli ulcer on the face treated at the hospital of the Institut Médical Evangélique at Kimpese, Democratic Republic of Congo diagnosed during 2003–2007. During specific antibiotherapy, facial edema diminished, thus minimizing the subsequent extent of surgery and severe disfigurations. The following complications were observed: 1) lagophthalmos from scarring in four patients and associated ectropion in three of them; 2) blindness in one eye in one patient; 3) disfiguring exposure of teeth and gums resulting from excision of the left labial commissure that affected speech, drinking, and eating in one patient; and 4) dissemination of Mycobacterium ulcerans infection in three patients. Our study highlights the importance of this clinical presentation of Buruli ulcer, and the need for health workers in disease-endemic areas to be aware of the special challenges management of Buruli ulcer on the face presents. PMID:22144452

  18. Use of a 10,600-nm CO2 Laser Mandibular Vestibular Extension in a Patient With a Chromosomal Abnormality.

    PubMed

    Levine, Robert; Vitruk, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Vestibuloplasty involves a series of surgical procedures designed to restore alveolar ridge height by lowering the muscles attached to the buccal, labial, and lingual aspects of the jaws. The technique is indicated in cases of insufficient vestibular depth that may result from atrophy of the alveolar ridge and/or high attachment of muscle or movable mucosa. This article focuses on a carbon dioxide (CO2) laser vestibular extension procedure performed in a patient with Klinefelter syndrome, which is caused by a chromosomal abnormality. The 10,600-nm CO2 laser is shown to offer several advantages over a conventional scalpel and other laser wavelengths for soft-tissue pre-prosthetic surgery, including vestibular extension. PMID:27608196

  19. Taxonomic and Molecular Identification of Mesocriconema and Criconemoides Species (Nematoda: Criconematidae)

    PubMed Central

    Cordero, Marco A.; Robbins, Robert T.; Szalanski, Allen L.

    2012-01-01

    Populations of Mesocriconema curvatum, M. kirjanovae, M. onoense, M. ornatum, M. sphaerocephala, M. surinamense, M. vadense, M. xenoplax, and Criconemoides informis from different geographical areas in the continental United States were characterized morphologically and molecularly. A new ring nematode from Washington County, Arkansas, is also described and named Mesocriconema ozarkiense n. sp., This new species is characterized by females with small flattened submedian lobes, lower than or at the same level as the labial disc, vagina straight, very well developed spermatheca without sperm, no more than one anastomoses, L=379-512 μm, V=89-93, stylet length = 49-61 μm, R=107-119, annuli with slightly crenate margins on tail portion and a simple anterior vulval lip. The molecular characterization of M. ozarkiense n. sp. using the ITS rRNA gene sequence and the phylogenesis relationship of this new species with the ring nematodes included in this study are provided. PMID:23482878

  20. Recurrent Facial Palsy and Electrophysiological Findings in Oligosymptomatic Melkersson Rosenthal Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Saini, Arushi Gahlot; Sankhyan, Naveen; Padmanabh, Hansashree; Das, Ashim; Singhi, Pratibha

    2016-10-01

    Melkersson Rosenthal Syndrome is a rare neuro-mucocutaneous disorder characterized by the classic triad of facial swelling, recurrent facial nerve palsy and fissured tongue. The clinical course is usually progressive, and etiology is unknown. The authors describe oligosymptomatic Melkersson Rosenthal Syndrome in a young girl presenting sequentially with recurrent, metachronous facial nerve palsy and hemifacial swelling in early childhood followed by fissuring in the tongue in late-childhood. Histopathological examination from the affected labial area showed non-granulomatous inflammation. Bilateral facial nerve conduction and blink reflex studies showed asymmetrical affection of both facial nerves with mixed features of axonal and demyelinating involvement. The patient remained steroid-refractory, and subsequent attacks remitted with partial recovery. The combination of facial edema and facial palsy in a child should alert the physicians to the diagnosis of Melkersson Rosenthal Syndrome. A diagnostic mucosal biopsy, evaluation for systemic and oro-facial granulomatous disorders, and short course of corticosteroid treatment are recommended. PMID:27165478

  1. Two new species of nematodes (Nematoda) from highly mineralized rivers of Lake El'ton basin, Russia.

    PubMed

    Gusakov, Vladimir A; Gagarin, Vladimir G

    2016-09-05

    Two new nematode species, Mesodorylaimus rivalis sp. n. and Allodiplogaster media sp. n., from the highly mineralized rivers of the El'ton Lake basin (Russia) are described and illustrated from numerous mature females and males. Mesodorylaimus rivalis sp. n. is similar to M. vulvapapillatus Bagaturia & Eliava, 1966, but differs from it in the longer body, shorter spicules and longer female prerectum. Allodiplogaster media sp. n. resembles A. lupata (Shoshin, 1989) Kanzaki, Ragsdale & Giblin-Davis, 2014 and A. mordax (Shoshin, 1989) Kanzaki, Ragsdale & Giblin-Davis, 2014, but differs from the first species in having a shorter pharynx, shorter outer labial setae, longer spicules and different ratio between anterior and posterior pharynx sections, and from A. mordax in the thinner body, shorter pharynx and longer spicules.

  2. Oral leiomyomatous hamartoma of the median maxillary gingiva: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    ALQahtani, Dalal; Qannam, Ahmed

    2013-08-01

    Oral leiomyomatous hamartoma (OLH) is a rare lesion seen in the oral cavity. It mainly presents on the median maxilla and tongue. In the literature in English, there are only 10 reported cases of OLH of the median maxilla. Most of the cases were found in patients of Japanese and Latin American origin. We report a case of OLH in an 18-month-old boy of Middle Eastern ancestry. The lesion presented as a pedunculated, light pink, soft swelling that was located on the labial gingiva of tooth number 21. Microscopically, it showed proliferative smooth-muscle fascicles dispersed in loose fibrous stroma and multiple small vessels. The lesional cells looked mature and elongated and were deeply eosinophilic spindle cells with basophilic, central "cigar-shaped" nuclei. The diagnosis of OLH was supported by positive immunohistochemical reactivity of smooth-muscle actin and desmin. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of OLH in a Middle Eastern patient.

  3. Altered Passive Eruption Complicating Optimal Orthodontic Bracket Placement: A Case Report and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Chitra, Prasad

    2015-01-01

    An unusual case of altered passive eruption with gingival hyperpigmentation and a Class I malocclusion in a 12-year-old girl having no previous history of medication is presented. The patient reported with spacing in the upper arch, moderate crowding in the lower arch, anterior crossbite and excessive gingival tissue on the labial surfaces of teeth in both the arches. The inadequate crown lengths made placement of the orthodontic brackets difficult. Preadjusted orthodontic brackets have a very precise placement protocol which can affect tooth movement in all 3 planes of space if violated. The periodontal condition was diagnosed as altered passive eruption Type IA. Interdisciplinary treatment protocols including periodontal surgical and orthodontic procedures were used. The periodontal surgical procedures were carried out prior to orthodontic therapy and the results obtained were satisfactory. It is suggested that orthodontists should be aware of conditions like altered passive eruption and modalities of management. In most instances, orthodontic therapy is not hindered. PMID:26672498

  4. Recurrent Facial Palsy and Electrophysiological Findings in Oligosymptomatic Melkersson Rosenthal Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Saini, Arushi Gahlot; Sankhyan, Naveen; Padmanabh, Hansashree; Das, Ashim; Singhi, Pratibha

    2016-10-01

    Melkersson Rosenthal Syndrome is a rare neuro-mucocutaneous disorder characterized by the classic triad of facial swelling, recurrent facial nerve palsy and fissured tongue. The clinical course is usually progressive, and etiology is unknown. The authors describe oligosymptomatic Melkersson Rosenthal Syndrome in a young girl presenting sequentially with recurrent, metachronous facial nerve palsy and hemifacial swelling in early childhood followed by fissuring in the tongue in late-childhood. Histopathological examination from the affected labial area showed non-granulomatous inflammation. Bilateral facial nerve conduction and blink reflex studies showed asymmetrical affection of both facial nerves with mixed features of axonal and demyelinating involvement. The patient remained steroid-refractory, and subsequent attacks remitted with partial recovery. The combination of facial edema and facial palsy in a child should alert the physicians to the diagnosis of Melkersson Rosenthal Syndrome. A diagnostic mucosal biopsy, evaluation for systemic and oro-facial granulomatous disorders, and short course of corticosteroid treatment are recommended.

  5. Use of a Piezosurgery Technique to Remove a Deeply Impacted Supernumerary Tooth in the Anterior Maxilla

    PubMed Central

    Sukegawa, Shintaro; Kanno, Takahiro; Kawakami, Kiyokazu; Shibata, Akane; Takahashi, Yuka; Furuki, Yoshihiko

    2015-01-01

    Deeply impacted supernumerary teeth in the anterior maxillary cannot be generally removed by the conventional labial or palatal surgical approach because of the risk of damaging the surrounding soft tissues and the possibility of injuring the roots of adjacent permanent teeth. In piezosurgery, bony tissues are selectively cut, thereby avoiding the soft tissue damage caused by rotary cutting instruments. We report the case of a 15-year-old Japanese boy from whom a deeply impacted supernumerary tooth in the anterior maxillary was safely removed through the floor of the nasal cavity. The surgical extraction was performed without damaging the nasal mucosa or adjacent structures such as the roots of the adjacent permanent teeth. Considering that piezosurgery limits the extent of surgical invasion, this technique can be practiced as a minimally invasive and safe surgical procedure for treating suitably selected cases with a deeply impacted supernumerary tooth. PMID:26779355

  6. Orthodontic Treatment of Maxillary Incisors with Severe Root Resorption Caused by Bilateral Canine Impaction in a Class II Division 1 Patient.

    PubMed

    Chang, Na-Young; Park, Jae Hyun; Lee, Mi-Young; Cho, Jin-Woo; Cho, Jin-Hyoung; An, Ki-Yong; Chae, Jong-Moon

    2016-01-01

    This case report shows the successful alignment of bilateral impacted maxillary canines. A 12-year-old male with the chief complaint of the protrusion of his maxillary anterior teeth happened to have bilateral maxillary canine impaction on the labial side of his maxillary incisors. Four maxillary incisors showed severe root resorption because of the impacted canines. The patient was diagnosed as skeletal Class II malocclusion with proclined maxillary incisors. The impacted canine was carefully retracted using sectional buccal arch wires to avoid further root resorption of the maxillary incisors. To distalize the maxillary dentition, two palatal miniscrews were used. After 25 months of treatment, the maxillary canines were well aligned without any additional root resorption of the maxillary incisors.

  7. Pine processionary caterpillar, Thaumetopoea pityocampa Denis and Schiffermüller, 1775 contact as a health risk for dogs.

    PubMed

    Kaszak, Ilona; Planellas, Marta; Dworecka-Kaszak, Bożena

    2015-01-01

    Pine processionary, Thaumetopoea pityocampa Denis and Schiffermüller, 1775 is a moth that belongs to the order of insects Lepidoptera, and family Notodontidae. The larvae of pine processionary moth are the main pest of pines all over the world, but mainly in Mediterranean region. The contact with pine processionary caterpillar (lepidopterism) can produce a strong inflammatory reaction on skin and mucous membranes. Other findings include hyperthermia, tachypnoea, respiratory distress, cyanosis and tongue oedema, labial angioedema, ptyalism, bilateral submandibular lymphadenomegaly, conjunctivitis and severe tongue necrosis. Tough, few veterinary cases have been published. Also in Poland pine processionary moth (Thaumetopoea pinivora) is present, especially near the Baltic coast and can be a possible health risk for both humans and animals (especially dogs). The aim of this article is to increase knowledge about the clinical manifestations of pine processionary caterpillar contact, which may be useful for diagnosis of this dangerous disease. PMID:26568988

  8. Evaluation of the Esthetic Properties of Developmental Defects of Enamel: A Spectrophotometric Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    Guerra, Fabrizio; Mazur, Marta; Corridore, Denise; Pasqualotto, Debora; Nardi, Gianna Maria; Ottolenghi, Livia

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Detailed clinical quantification of optical properties of developmental defect of enamel is possible with spectrophotometric evaluation. Developmental defects of enamel (DDE) are daily encountered in clinical practice. DDE are an alteration in quality and quantity of the enamel, caused by disruption and/or damage to the enamel organ during amelogenesis. Methods. Several clinical indices have been developed to categorize enamel defects based on their nature, appearance, microscopic features, or cause. A sample of 39 permanent teeth presenting DDE on labial surface was examined using the DDE Modified Index and SpectroShade evaluation. The spectrophotometric approach quantifies L* (luminosity), a* (quantity of green-red), and b* (quantity of blue-yellow) of different DDE. Conclusions. SpectroShade evaluation of the optical properties of the enamel defect enhances clinical understanding of severity and extent of the defect and characterizes the enamel alteration in terms of color discrepancy and surface characterization. PMID:25874260

  9. Multidisciplinary surgical management of Cowden syndrome: Report of a case

    PubMed Central

    Staderini, Edoardo; Gallenzi, Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    Cowden’s Syndrome (CS) is a rare congenital autosomal dominant disorder that affects around 1/200000 patients with an incomplete penetrance and variable expressivity, characterized by alterations in a tumor suppressor gene. A 14-year-old Caucasian male patient came to the attention of the authors complaining of palm nodules, gingival bleeding and painful pedunculated lesions on the lips and on the labial side of anterior sextants. After genetic investigation the final diagnosis of a Cowden Syndrome was made. The lesions were surgically removed under general anesthesia and no clinical signs of recurrence were found three months after surgical excision. Considering the severe symptoms of the syndrome and the strong tendency to malignant development of the associated lesions all clinicians should focus their efforts to the early diagnosis and, when possible, multidisciplinary treatment. Key words:Early diagnosis, multiple hamartoma syndrome, oral papillomatosis, cancer predisposition, case report. PMID:27703620

  10. [Congenital nasal obstruction due to pyriform aperture stenosis. A case series].

    PubMed

    Cuestas, G; José, G; Demarchi, V; Razetti, J; Boccio, C

    2015-01-01

    Nasal obstruction in neonates is a potentially fatal condition due to their exclusive nasal breathing. The main cause is inflammatory or infectious rhinitis. Congenital, neoplastic, traumatic or iatrogenic causes are less frequent. Choanal atresia is the most common congenital nasal anomaly. A less common etiology of congenital nasal obstruction is pyriform aperture stenosis. Suspicion might arise in any newborn with varying degrees of stridor and respiratory distress, associated with the difficulty of passing a probe through anterior nares. Diagnosis should be confirmed by a computed tomography of the craniofacial massif. The therapeutic approach will depend on the severity of symptoms. We describe our experience with 5 patients with this condition, treated surgically using a sub-labial approach, and followed by nasal stenting.

  11. Chondrosarcoma in the mental foramen region of the mandible: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hongwei; Chen, Xiuhong; Wan, Teng; Li, Ren

    2016-01-01

    Chondrosarcoma is a malignant tumor that is characterized by the formation of cartilage by tumor cells. The tumor is commonly observed in regions where cartilage is already present. In total, 5–12% of chondrosarcomas occur in the head and neck region. However, the occurrence of chondrosarcoma in the mental foramen region is extremely rare. The aim of the present study was to report a case of chondrosarcoma in the mental foramen region. An 18-year-old man presented with a 3-month history of a painless mass over the labial aspect of the right mandible, which was associated with the patient feeling unwell and the loosening of the lower anterior teeth. The patient underwent segmental mandibulectomy and the final pathological diagnosis was chondrosarcoma. Following mandibulectomy, the patient continued to receive routine follow-up. In addition, the present study reviewed the literature concerning chondrosarcomas in the head and neck region.

  12. Altered Passive Eruption Complicating Optimal Orthodontic Bracket Placement: A Case Report and Review of Literature.

    PubMed

    Pulgaonkar, Rohan; Chitra, Prasad

    2015-11-01

    An unusual case of altered passive eruption with gingival hyperpigmentation and a Class I malocclusion in a 12-year-old girl having no previous history of medication is presented. The patient reported with spacing in the upper arch, moderate crowding in the lower arch, anterior crossbite and excessive gingival tissue on the labial surfaces of teeth in both the arches. The inadequate crown lengths made placement of the orthodontic brackets difficult. Preadjusted orthodontic brackets have a very precise placement protocol which can affect tooth movement in all 3 planes of space if violated. The periodontal condition was diagnosed as altered passive eruption Type IA. Interdisciplinary treatment protocols including periodontal surgical and orthodontic procedures were used. The periodontal surgical procedures were carried out prior to orthodontic therapy and the results obtained were satisfactory. It is suggested that orthodontists should be aware of conditions like altered passive eruption and modalities of management. In most instances, orthodontic therapy is not hindered. PMID:26672498

  13. De Novo Mutation in ABCC9 Causes Hypertrichosis Acromegaloid Facial Features Disorder.

    PubMed

    Afifi, Hanan H; Abdel-Hamid, Mohamed S; Eid, Maha M; Mostafa, Inas S; Abdel-Salam, Ghada M H

    2016-01-01

    A 13-year-old Egyptian girl with generalized hypertrichosis, gingival hyperplasia, coarse facial appearance, no cardiovascular or skeletal anomalies, keloid formation, and multiple labial frenula was referred to our clinic for counseling. Molecular analysis of the ABCC9 gene showed a de novo missense mutation located in exon 27, which has been described previously with Cantu syndrome. An overlap between Cantu syndrome, acromegaloid facial syndrome, and hypertrichosis acromegaloid facial features disorder is apparent at the phenotypic and molecular levels. The patient reported here gives further evidence that these syndromes are an expression of the ABCC9-related disorders, ranging from hypertrichosis and acromegaloid facies to the severe end of Cantu syndrome. PMID:26871653

  14. Pseudoxanthoma elasticum of the palate: a case report and a brief review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Decani, Sem; Varoni, Elena Maria; Baruzzi, Elisa; Moneghini, Laura; Lodi, Giovanni; Sardella, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE), which is a genetic, multi-target disorder characterized by progressive calcification and fragmentation of elastic fibers, affects several organs, including the eyes, skin, and cardiovascular system. Diagnosis of PXE is currently based on cutaneous and ocular signs, histopathologic findings, and a patient's family history. PXE-related oral mucosal lesions are rarely reported, possibly due to the potential for misdiagnosis as Fordyce spots; however, when such lesions are reported, they are primarily localized to the vestibular mucosa of the lower lip. Here, we report the case of a female with an intraoral presentation of PXE at the labial and palatal sites. PXE was previously suspected in this patient because of the presence of cardiovascular, ocular, and cutaneous signs; however, a cutaneous biopsy showed findings not consistent with PXE. Incisional biopsy of the palatal lesion confirmed the PXE diagnosis, leading to proper management of the disorder to prevent ophthalmologic and cardiovascular complications.

  15. Syphilitic Chancre of the Lips Transmitted by Kissing: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xin; Zheng, Heyi

    2016-04-01

    Primary syphilic chancre most often involved genitalia, with 12% to 14% extragenital lesions. This article describes a rare case of a female patient with labial ulcer and diagnosed as oral syphilis (OS), an uncommon presentation of primary syphilis. OS is transmitted through orogenital contact.This study is case report and literature review.We report a 27-year-old woman with painless, ulcerative, and indurated lesion on her lower lip and a 7-day history of symmetrically distributed nonpruritic macules. OS was diagnosed based on clinical presentations and serologic test and patient's oral ulcer was cured with intramuscular penicillin G benzathine. However, both the patient and her husband denied any orogenital sexual history before. In addition, her husband was also diagnosed as syphilis later in our clinic. He reported having orogenital contact with other people.Therefore, this is a rare case of OS transmitted through kissing. PMID:27057901

  16. A new species of Holocephalus Hope from Paraguay (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae: Dichotomiini s. str.).

    PubMed

    Nunes, Rafael V; Vaz-de-Mello, Fernando Z

    2016-01-01

    It came to us from Svatopluk Pokorný a single Scarabaeinae specimen from Paraguay which we promptly diagnosed as belonging to the genus Holocephalus Hope, mainly due to the shape of first labial palpomere, head, cephalic carina, pronotum and other secondary charateristics (Smith & Génier 2001, Vaz-de-Mello et al. 2011). Comparisons with the diagnosis provided in the very fine and comprehensive revision of the genus (Smith & Génier 2001) and with specimens deposited at CEMT (Cuiabá-MT, Brazil) allowed us to confirm that this exemplar belongs to a new species of Holocephalus, which is described here. Besides providing illustrated description and diagnosis of the sixth discovered species of the genus, we differentiate it in a Holocephalus key adapted from Smith & Génier (2001) and also provide additional geographical records for other species in the genus.

  17. [The large nose--an esthetic, but also a functional problem].

    PubMed

    Gubisch, W

    1994-05-01

    The term "Big Nose" describes many deformities caused by hypertrophy of the bone or the cartilagenous framework of the nose or both. This leads to disharmony of the face, which discomforts the patients. By diminution of the naso-labial angle as for example in a "Pinocchio nose" or by the reduced angle of the inner valve like in a tension nose, a "Big Nose" presents not only an aesthetic problem but a functional one too. An exact analysis of the deformity is necessary to choose the adequate operative procedure. The reduction of the nose should lead to an improvement in "looks" as well as in breathing. The most challenging factor in nose reduction is the diminution of the tip projection. Two different methods are mainly available: the technique according to Goldman and to Lipsett. The pros and cons of both are compared and a few refinements suggested.

  18. Two new species of nematodes (Nematoda) from highly mineralized rivers of Lake El'ton basin, Russia.

    PubMed

    Gusakov, Vladimir A; Gagarin, Vladimir G

    2016-01-01

    Two new nematode species, Mesodorylaimus rivalis sp. n. and Allodiplogaster media sp. n., from the highly mineralized rivers of the El'ton Lake basin (Russia) are described and illustrated from numerous mature females and males. Mesodorylaimus rivalis sp. n. is similar to M. vulvapapillatus Bagaturia & Eliava, 1966, but differs from it in the longer body, shorter spicules and longer female prerectum. Allodiplogaster media sp. n. resembles A. lupata (Shoshin, 1989) Kanzaki, Ragsdale & Giblin-Davis, 2014 and A. mordax (Shoshin, 1989) Kanzaki, Ragsdale & Giblin-Davis, 2014, but differs from the first species in having a shorter pharynx, shorter outer labial setae, longer spicules and different ratio between anterior and posterior pharynx sections, and from A. mordax in the thinner body, shorter pharynx and longer spicules. PMID:27615928

  19. Chondrosarcoma in the mental foramen region of the mandible: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hongwei; Chen, Xiuhong; Wan, Teng; Li, Ren

    2016-01-01

    Chondrosarcoma is a malignant tumor that is characterized by the formation of cartilage by tumor cells. The tumor is commonly observed in regions where cartilage is already present. In total, 5–12% of chondrosarcomas occur in the head and neck region. However, the occurrence of chondrosarcoma in the mental foramen region is extremely rare. The aim of the present study was to report a case of chondrosarcoma in the mental foramen region. An 18-year-old man presented with a 3-month history of a painless mass over the labial aspect of the right mandible, which was associated with the patient feeling unwell and the loosening of the lower anterior teeth. The patient underwent segmental mandibulectomy and the final pathological diagnosis was chondrosarcoma. Following mandibulectomy, the patient continued to receive routine follow-up. In addition, the present study reviewed the literature concerning chondrosarcomas in the head and neck region. PMID:27602143

  20. Submaxillary gland mucocele: presentation of a case.

    PubMed

    Boneu-Bonet, Fernando; Vidal-Homs, Enric; Maizcurrana-Tornil, Aránzazu; González-Lagunas, Javier

    2005-01-01

    The term mucocele is referred to two concepts: the extravasation cysts resulting from salivary glandular duct rupture, with mucin leakage into the surrounding peri-glandular soft tissue, and the retention cysts, caused by a glandular duct obstruction and resulting in a decrease or even an absence of glandular secretion. Mucocele can not be considered as a true cyst because its wall lacks an epithelial lining. These lesions are very common in the minor salivary glands (particularly in the labial glands), but are very infrequent in the major salivary glands--including the submaxillary glands. The present study describes a clinical case of a right submaxillary gland mucocele resolved by surgical treatment and reviews the differential diagnosis with other clinical entities.

  1. Female genital cosmetic surgery: a review of techniques and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Iglesia, Cheryl B; Yurteri-Kaplan, Ladin; Alinsod, Red

    2013-12-01

    The aesthetic and functional procedures that comprise female genital cosmetic surgery (FGCS) include traditional vaginal prolapse procedures as well as cosmetic vulvar and labial procedures. The line between cosmetic and medically indicated surgical procedures is blurred, and today many operations are performed for both purposes. The contributions of gynecologists and reconstructive pelvic surgeons are crucial in this debate. Aesthetic vaginal surgeons may unintentionally blur legitimate female pelvic floor disorders with other aesthetic conditions. In the absence of quality outcome data, the value of FGCS in improving sexual function remains uncertain. Women seeking FGCS need to be educated about the range and variation of labia widths and genital appearance, and should be evaluated for true pelvic support disorders such as pelvic organ prolapse and stress urinary incontinence. Women seeking FGCS should also be screened for psychological conditions and should act autonomously without coercion from partners or surgeons with proprietary conflicts of interest.

  2. Effects of delayed auditory feedback on speech kinematics in fluent speakers

    PubMed Central

    Sasisekaran, Jayanthi

    2013-01-01

    Summary The effects of delayed auditory feedback on behavioral responses and speech kinematics were investigated. Participants were 10 males (M age = 22.2, SD = 3.7) and 10 females (M age = 20.5, SD = 2.2). Participants were required to repeat short (six-syllable) and longer (11-syllable) non-words in a reading task. Speech errors, lip movement variability, and movement duration of labial trajectories under delayed feedback were compared to effects under gated speech feedback and a control or synchronous auditory feedback condition. Repeated measures analysis indicated lower percent of correct productions, higher variability and slower duration of lip movements in the delayed feedback condition compared to the gated feedback and control conditions. Implications for auditory feedback of movement control in continuous speech and for theories of delayed auditory feedback that attribute a role to movements are discussed. PMID:23409597

  3. Combined endodontic therapy and periapical surgery with MTA and bone graft in treating palatogingival groove

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Mudit; Vashisth, Pallavi; Arora, Rachita; Dwivedi, Swati

    2013-01-01

    A 37-year-old male patient reported to our department with chief complaint of pain and pus discharge from the labial marginal gingiva in the maxillary right lateral incisor region since last 4 months. Clinically, the tooth was hypersensitive to percussion and palpation but failed to respond to pulp sensitivity testing. After periodontal probing, a palatal groove was observed which started at the cingulum and travelled apically and laterally, associated with a pocket depth of 8 mm. Occlusal radiograph showed circumscribed radiolucency measuring 5 mm×7 mm in diameter at the apex of the tooth. A clinical diagnosis of chronic apical abscess was established. The case was treated with a combination of mineral trioxide aggregate and bone graft. At the 6-month follow-up visit, the tooth showed progressive healing without sinus track and sulcular bleeding. PMID:23605830

  4. Orthodontic treatment of a mandibular incisor fenestration resulting from a broken retainer.

    PubMed

    Farret, Marcel M; Farret, Milton M B; da Luz Vieira, Gustavo; Assaf, Jamal Hassan; de Lima, Eduardo Martinelli S

    2015-08-01

    This article describes the orthodontic relapse with mandibular incisor fenestration in a 36-year-old man who had undergone orthodontic treatment 21 years previously. The patient reported that his mandibular 3 × 3 bonded retainer had been partially debonded and broken 4 years earlier. The mandibular left lateral incisor remained bonded to the retainer and received the entire load of the incisors; consequently, there was extreme labial movement of the root, resulting in dental avulsion. As part of the treatment, the root was repositioned lingually using a titanium-molybdenum segmented archwire for 8 months, followed by endodontic treatment, an apicoectomy, and 4 months of alignment and leveling of both arches. The treatment outcomes were excellent, and the tooth remained stable, with good integrity of the mesial, distal, and lingual alveolar bones and periodontal ligament. The 1-year follow-up showed good stability of the results. PMID:26232842

  5. A cognitive systematic approach to analyzing preparation design for a difficult space management case.

    PubMed

    Bassett, Joyce L

    2007-11-01

    There are at least two different techniques for preparing teeth prior to bonded porcelain restorations. The first involves using depth cutters guided by the existing tooth structure. A more recently developed approach integrates an additive wax-up that represents the final volume of the teeth, with indices used to guide the preparation design. This article illustrates in detail a clinical case that was prepared by combining the earlier simplified depth cutter approach with recontouring and preparation design principles determined clinically by the dentist. The same case was prepared in the laboratory on plastic models, using labial and incisal reduction preparation guides fabricated from a diagnostic wax-up. This combination of techniques will simplify preparation design for difficult space management cases and facilitate predictable and repeatable results that meet current esthetic standards while staying conservative and preserving tooth structure.

  6. Smoothing a rugged protein folding landscape by sequence-based redesign

    PubMed Central

    Porebski, Benjamin T.; Keleher, Shani; Hollins, Jeffrey J.; Nickson, Adrian A.; Marijanovic, Emilia M.; Borg, Natalie A.; Costa, Mauricio G. S.; Pearce, Mary A.; Dai, Weiwen; Zhu, Liguang; Irving, James A.; Hoke, David E.; Kass, Itamar; Whisstock, James C.; Bottomley, Stephen P.; Webb, Geoffrey I.; McGowan, Sheena; Buckle, Ashley M.

    2016-01-01

    The rugged folding landscapes of functional proteins puts them at risk of misfolding and aggregation. Serine protease inhibitors, or serpins, are paradigms for this delicate balance between function and misfolding. Serpins exist in a metastable state that undergoes a major conformational change in order to inhibit proteases. However, conformational labiality of the native serpin fold renders them susceptible to misfolding, which underlies misfolding diseases such as α1-antitrypsin deficiency. To investigate how serpins balance function and folding, we used consensus design to create conserpin, a synthetic serpin that folds reversibly, is functional, thermostable, and polymerization resistant. Characterization of its structure, folding and dynamics suggest that consensus design has remodeled the folding landscape to reconcile competing requirements for stability and function. This approach may offer general benefits for engineering functional proteins that have risky folding landscapes, including the removal of aggregation-prone intermediates, and modifying scaffolds for use as protein therapeutics. PMID:27667094

  7. Infantile hemangiomas, complications and treatments.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Carol Erin; Friedlander, Sheila Fallon

    2016-03-01

    Infantile hemangiomas (IHs) are the most common vascular tumors of infancy. While the majority regress without the need for intervention, approximately 10%, often site dependent, can cause serious complications and require treatment. IH complications can be categorized as life threatening, obstructive, ulcerative or disfiguring. Life threatening complications include airway and hepatic IHs. Functional complications obstructing vital structures or impairing function include periocular, nasal, labial, parotid, auricular, and breast IHs. Local complications arise from ulceration or those in cosmetically sensitive areas. Therapeutic options for complicated IHs include pharmacologic (topical or systemic), surgical, or laser interventions. Topical agents are best employed for small, superficial, and localized IHs; while systemic therapy is reserved for larger IHs and those with more aggressive growth characteristics with propranolol as first-line therapy. PMID:27607318

  8. 'Vulval oedema': a conundrum!

    PubMed

    Afshan, Nida; Gokhale, Leena

    2015-11-04

    Massive oedema of the vulva appears to be a sequel of an underlying systemic disease in pregnant women. Isolated vulval oedema in pregnancy is rare. Vulval oedema has been treated, depending on pathophysiology, with steroids, furosemide, albumin and continuous epidural analgaesia. We present a case of vulval oedema, where the oedema was confined to the labia minora in a healthy young pregnant woman. The patient was in pain and extreme discomfort due to the labial swelling, and caesarean section was being considered for delivery as the massive oedema would obstruct the birth canal. The swelling, however, resolved successfully by simple drainage. In the literature, there have been cases delivered by caesarean section as vulval swelling was causing an obstruction.

  9. Clear cell change in a lower lip mucocele

    PubMed Central

    Piña, Alicia Rumayor; Almeida, Luciana Yamamoto; Andrade, Bruno Augusto Benevenuto; León, Jorge Esquiche

    2013-01-01

    Oral mucocele is a common reactive lesion of the oral mucosa, which microscopically exhibits mucus extravasation surrounded by a wall of granulation tissue containing abundant foamy macrophages. Unusual variants, such as superficial mucoceles, mucoceles with myxoglobulosis-like change and mucoceles with synovial metaplasia-like change have been reported. We report a 74-year-old man who presented an asymptomatic translucent swelling on the lower labial mucosa diagnosed as mucocele showing a macrophage proliferation with extensive clear cytoplasmic vacuolation and signet-ring formation. This unusual presentation expands the microscopic spectrum of the oral mucoceles and can eventually lead to differential diagnosis with primary or metastatic clear cell neoplasms. In these cases, relevant clinical information, histochemistry and especially immunohistochemistry, are helpful for arriving at an accurate diagnosis. PMID:24250103

  10. Surgical endodontic management of infected lateral canals of maxillary incisors

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This case report presents surgical endodontic management outcomes of maxillary incisors that were infected via the lateral canals. Two cases are presented in which endodontically-treated maxillary central incisors had sustained lateral canal infections. A surgical endodontic treatment was performed on both teeth. Flap elevation revealed vertical bone destruction along the root surface and infected lateral canals, and microscopy revealed that the lateral canals were the origin of the lesions. After the infected lateral canals were surgically managed, both teeth were asymptomatic and labial fistulas were resolved. There were no clinical or radiographic signs of surgical endodontic management failure at follow-up visits. This case report highlights the clinical significance and surgical endodontic management of infected lateral canal of maxillary incisor. It is important to be aware of root canal anatomy variability in maxillary incisors. Maxillary central incisors infected via the lateral canal can be successfully managed by surgical endodontic treatment. PMID:25671217

  11. Facial granulomas secondary to Dermalive microimplants: Report of a case with histopathologic differential diagnosis among the granulomas secondary to different injectable permanent filler materials.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Machuca, Inmaculada; González-Guerra, Elena; Angulo, Jorge; del Carmen Fariña, María; Martín, Lucia; Requena, Luis

    2006-04-01

    Wrinkle reduction and the correction of skin defects using injectable aesthetic microimplants are now widely performed by dermatologists and plastic surgeons. In recent years, dermal filler substances containing polymer particle suspensions such as Bioplastique, Artecoll, and Dermalive are the most commonly used materials. These microimplants are permanent, non-biodegradable, and generally well tolerated, although various adverse reactions are still possible. We describe here a patient with facial granulomas secondary to Dermalive injections for correction of naso-labial folds and wrinkles. The particular shape of the injected particles allows for correct identification of the implanted material. Therefore, histopathologic examination is the best means to obtain the correct diagnosis of foreign body granuloma and to identify the type of filler particles. We discuss the histopathologic differential diagnosis among the granulomas secondary to the most commonly used aesthetic permanent filler materials.

  12. [Congenital nasal obstruction due to pyriform aperture stenosis. A case series].

    PubMed

    Cuestas, G; José, G; Demarchi, V; Razetti, J; Boccio, C

    2015-01-01

    Nasal obstruction in neonates is a potentially fatal condition due to their exclusive nasal breathing. The main cause is inflammatory or infectious rhinitis. Congenital, neoplastic, traumatic or iatrogenic causes are less frequent. Choanal atresia is the most common congenital nasal anomaly. A less common etiology of congenital nasal obstruction is pyriform aperture stenosis. Suspicion might arise in any newborn with varying degrees of stridor and respiratory distress, associated with the difficulty of passing a probe through anterior nares. Diagnosis should be confirmed by a computed tomography of the craniofacial massif. The therapeutic approach will depend on the severity of symptoms. We describe our experience with 5 patients with this condition, treated surgically using a sub-labial approach, and followed by nasal stenting. PMID:24635981

  13. The oldest known snakes from the Middle Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous provide insights on snake evolution.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, Michael W; Nydam, Randall L; Palci, Alessandro; Apesteguía, Sebastián

    2015-01-27

    The previous oldest known fossil snakes date from ~100 million year old sediments (Upper Cretaceous) and are both morphologically and phylogenetically diverse, indicating that snakes underwent a much earlier origin and adaptive radiation. We report here on snake fossils that extend the record backwards in time by an additional ~70 million years (Middle Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous). These ancient snakes share features with fossil and modern snakes (for example, recurved teeth with labial and lingual carinae, long toothed suborbital ramus of maxillae) and with lizards (for example, pronounced subdental shelf/gutter). The paleobiogeography of these early snakes is diverse and complex, suggesting that snakes had undergone habitat differentiation and geographic radiation by the mid-Jurassic. Phylogenetic analysis of squamates recovers these early snakes in a basal polytomy with other fossil and modern snakes, where Najash rionegrina is sister to this clade. Ingroup analysis finds them in a basal position to all other snakes including Najash.

  14. A new species of Holocephalus Hope from Paraguay (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae: Dichotomiini s. str.).

    PubMed

    Nunes, Rafael V; Vaz-de-Mello, Fernando Z

    2016-01-01

    It came to us from Svatopluk Pokorný a single Scarabaeinae specimen from Paraguay which we promptly diagnosed as belonging to the genus Holocephalus Hope, mainly due to the shape of first labial palpomere, head, cephalic carina, pronotum and other secondary charateristics (Smith & Génier 2001, Vaz-de-Mello et al. 2011). Comparisons with the diagnosis provided in the very fine and comprehensive revision of the genus (Smith & Génier 2001) and with specimens deposited at CEMT (Cuiabá-MT, Brazil) allowed us to confirm that this exemplar belongs to a new species of Holocephalus, which is described here. Besides providing illustrated description and diagnosis of the sixth discovered species of the genus, we differentiate it in a Holocephalus key adapted from Smith & Génier (2001) and also provide additional geographical records for other species in the genus. PMID:27395726

  15. A three-dimensional evaluation of human facial asymmetry.

    PubMed Central

    Ferrario, V F; Sforza, C; Miani, A; Serrao, G

    1995-01-01

    Soft-tissue facial asymmetry was studied in a group of 80 young healthy white Caucasian adults (40 men, 40 women) with no craniofacial, dental or mandibular disorders. For each subject, the 3-dimensional coordinates of 16 standardised soft-tissue facial landmarks (trichion, nasion, pronasale, subnasale, B point, pogonion, eye lateral canthi, nasal alae, labial commissures, tragi, gonia) were measured by infrared photogrammetry by an automated instrument. The form of the right and left hemifaces was assessed by calculating all the possible linear distances between pairs of landmarks within side. Side differences were tested by using euclidean distance matrix analysis. The mean faces of both groups were significantly asymmetric, i.e. the 2 sides of face showed significant differences in shape, but no differences in size. PMID:7649806

  16. A three-dimensional evaluation of human facial asymmetry.

    PubMed

    Ferrario, V F; Sforza, C; Miani, A; Serrao, G

    1995-02-01

    Soft-tissue facial asymmetry was studied in a group of 80 young healthy white Caucasian adults (40 men, 40 women) with no craniofacial, dental or mandibular disorders. For each subject, the 3-dimensional coordinates of 16 standardised soft-tissue facial landmarks (trichion, nasion, pronasale, subnasale, B point, pogonion, eye lateral canthi, nasal alae, labial commissures, tragi, gonia) were measured by infrared photogrammetry by an automated instrument. The form of the right and left hemifaces was assessed by calculating all the possible linear distances between pairs of landmarks within side. Side differences were tested by using euclidean distance matrix analysis. The mean faces of both groups were significantly asymmetric, i.e. the 2 sides of face showed significant differences in shape, but no differences in size.

  17. New species of springtails in the Proisotoma genus complex from Vermont and New York, USA with descriptive notes on Ballistura alpa Christiansen & Bellinger 1980 (Hexapoda, Collembola, Isotomidae).

    PubMed

    Soto-Adames, Felipe N; Giordano, Rosanna

    2011-01-01

    Three new species of Isotomidae springtails are described from the Lake Champlain Basin (Vermont and New York, USA), Lake Willoughby and Greater Averril Pond in Vermont. Subisotoma joyceisp. n. and Scutisotoma champisp. n. were collected in sandy beaches whereas Ballistura rossisp. n. was found only in a constructed wetland built and managed by the University of Vermont. Scutisotoma champisp. n. was found in Lakes Champlain and Willoughby, and Greater Averril Pond and is probably present in most lakes and large ponds in the area. Subisotoma joyceisp. n. was found only along the southern and eastern coast of South Hero, and the mainland coast facing eastern South Hero. Ballistura alpa is redescribed and transferred to the genus Pachyotoma based on the absence of tibiotarsal seta B4/B5, the presence of secondary cuticular granules, 4 prelabral setae, a full complement of guard setae on labial papilla E and in having a bifurcate outer maxillary lobe with 4 sublobal setae.

  18. Smoothing a rugged protein folding landscape by sequence-based redesign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porebski, Benjamin T.; Keleher, Shani; Hollins, Jeffrey J.; Nickson, Adrian A.; Marijanovic, Emilia M.; Borg, Natalie A.; Costa, Mauricio G. S.; Pearce, Mary A.; Dai, Weiwen; Zhu, Liguang; Irving, James A.; Hoke, David E.; Kass, Itamar; Whisstock, James C.; Bottomley, Stephen P.; Webb, Geoffrey I.; McGowan, Sheena; Buckle, Ashley M.

    2016-09-01

    The rugged folding landscapes of functional proteins puts them at risk of misfolding and aggregation. Serine protease inhibitors, or serpins, are paradigms for this delicate balance between function and misfolding. Serpins exist in a metastable state that undergoes a major conformational change in order to inhibit proteases. However, conformational labiality of the native serpin fold renders them susceptible to misfolding, which underlies misfolding diseases such as α1-antitrypsin deficiency. To investigate how serpins balance function and folding, we used consensus design to create conserpin, a synthetic serpin that folds reversibly, is functional, thermostable, and polymerization resistant. Characterization of its structure, folding and dynamics suggest that consensus design has remodeled the folding landscape to reconcile competing requirements for stability and function. This approach may offer general benefits for engineering functional proteins that have risky folding landscapes, including the removal of aggregation-prone intermediates, and modifying scaffolds for use as protein therapeutics.

  19. Accessory oral cavity

    PubMed Central

    Gnaneswaran, Manica Ramamoorthy; Varadarajan, Usha; Srinivasan, Ramesh; Kamatchi, Sangeetha

    2012-01-01

    This is a rare case report of a patient around 11 years with the complaint of extra mouth who reported to the hospital for removal of that extra mouth. On examination there was accessory oral cavity with small upper and lower lips, seven teeth and saliva was drooling out. Under general anesthesia crevicular incision from 32 to 43 was put and labial gingiva with alveolar mucosa was reflected completely and bone exposed to lower border of mandible. There were seven teeth resembling lower permanent anterior teeth in the accessory mouth, which was excised with the accessory lips. 41 extracted and osteotomy carried out extending the incision from the extracted site and osteotomy carried out. Dermoid cyst both below and above the mylohyoid muscle and rudimentary tongue found and excised and the specimen sent for histopathological examination. The wound was closed and uneventful healing noted to the satisfaction of the patient. This is a rare and interesting case which has been documented. PMID:23833508

  20. Oral lichen sclerosus expressing extracellular matrix proteins and IgG4-positive plasma cells.

    PubMed

    De Aquino Xavier, Flavia Calo; Prates, Alisio Alves; Gurgel, Clarissa Araujo; De Souza, Tulio Geraldo; Andrade, Rodrigo Guimaraes; Goncalves Ramos, Eduardo Antonio; Pedreira Ramalho, Luciana Maria; Dos Santos, Jean Nunes

    2014-09-16

    Lichen sclerosus (LS) is a mucocutaneous disease with uncommon oral involvement. The etiology is not yet well understood, but LS has been associated with autoimmune, genetic, and immunological factors. We report a 47-year-old man with LS that exhibited an asymptomatic white plaque with red patches on the maxillary alveolar mucosa extending to the labial mucosa. He had no other skin disease. Positive immunostaining for tenascin and scarcity of fibronectin suggested extracellular matrix reorganization. Elastin immunostaining indicated a reduction of elastic fibers. Immunoexpression of collagen IV in blood vessels and its absence in the epithelial basement membrane, together with diffuse MMP-9 immunoexpression, suggested altered proteolytic activity. Mast cell staining bordering areas of sclerosis indicated a possible role in the synthesis of collagen. IgG4 positivity in plasma cells suggested a role in the fibrogenesis. This is an unusual presentation of oral LS and we discuss immunohistochemical findings regarding cellular and extracellular matrix components.

  1. On the anatomy of a chain shift.

    PubMed

    Dinnsen, Daniel A; Green, Christopher R; Gierut, Judith A; Morrisette, Michele L

    2011-07-01

    Phonological chain shifts have been the focus of many theoretical, developmental, and clinical concerns. This paper considers an overlooked property of the problem by focusing on the typological properties of the widely attested 's > θ > f' chain shift involving the processes of Labialization and Dentalization in early phonological development. Findings are reported from a cross-sectional study of 234 children (ages 3 years; 0 months-7;9) with functional (nonorganic) phonological delays. The results reveal some unexpected gaps in the predicted interactions of these processes and are brought to bear on the evaluation of recent optimality theoretic proposals for the characterization of phonological interactions. A developmental modification to the theory is proposed that has the desired effect of precluding certain early-stage grammars. The proposal is further evaluated against the facts of another widely cited developmental chain shift known as the 'puzzle > puddle > pickle' problem (Smith 1973).

  2. Later Middle Pleistocene human remains from the Almonda Karstic system, Torres Novas, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Trinkaus, Erik; Marks, Anthony E; Brugal, Jean Philip; Bailey, Shara E; Rink, W Jack; Richter, Daniel

    2003-09-01

    Later Middle Pleistocene archeological deposits of the Galeria Pesada (Gruta da Aroeira), Almonda Karstic System, Torres Novas, Portugal, yielded two archaic human teeth, a mandibular canine and a maxillary third molar. The C(1)presents moderate and asymmetrical shoveling with a stout root. The slightly worn M(3)exhibits at least four cusps with a large hypocone, three roots with large radicular plates, and an absence of taurodontism. They are moderately large for later Middle Pleistocene humans in their buccolingual crown diameters, although the M(3)mesiodistal diameter is modest. The C(1)exhibits labial calculus and multiple linear hypoplastic defects, but the M(3)is lesion free. Both teeth are morphologically similar to those of other Middle Pleistocene European humans and reinforce a pattern of dental hypertrophy among these archaic Homo.

  3. Clear cell change in a lower lip mucocele.

    PubMed

    Piña, Alicia Rumayor; Almeida, Luciana Yamamoto; Andrade, Bruno Augusto Benevenuto; León, Jorge Esquiche

    2013-05-01

    Oral mucocele is a common reactive lesion of the oral mucosa, which microscopically exhibits mucus extravasation surrounded by a wall of granulation tissue containing abundant foamy macrophages. Unusual variants, such as superficial mucoceles, mucoceles with myxoglobulosis-like change and mucoceles with synovial metaplasia-like change have been reported. We report a 74-year-old man who presented an asymptomatic translucent swelling on the lower labial mucosa diagnosed as mucocele showing a macrophage proliferation with extensive clear cytoplasmic vacuolation and signet-ring formation. This unusual presentation expands the microscopic spectrum of the oral mucoceles and can eventually lead to differential diagnosis with primary or metastatic clear cell neoplasms. In these cases, relevant clinical information, histochemistry and especially immunohistochemistry, are helpful for arriving at an accurate diagnosis. PMID:24250103

  4. An Innovative Technique for Columellar Reconstruction using ‘Flip-Over’ Buccal Mucosa Flap

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Kapil S.; Pabari, Mansi

    2016-01-01

    Loss of columella is a significant deformity and its reconstruction proves to be quite difficult. An 18-year-old lady had loss of columella due to burn while steam inhalation at a young age and required reconstruction for the same. Labial mucosa has been used as a source of tissue for columellar reconstruction since long. We describe a modification of the buccal mucosal flap to manage a difficult case of columellar deficiency. The buccal mucosa flap was used to cover the columellar defect in the usual manner in the first stage and in second stage, along with division of the base, the residual length of the mucosal flap was used to add to the thickness of columella by doubling it on itself. PMID:27630898

  5. Pharyngeal sense organs drive robust sugar consumption in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    LeDue, Emily E; Chen, Yu-Chieh; Jung, Aera Y; Dahanukar, Anupama; Gordon, Michael D

    2015-01-01

    The fly pharyngeal sense organs lie at the transition between external and internal nutrient sensing mechanisms. Here, we investigate the function of pharyngeal sweet gustatory receptor neurons (GRNs), demonstrating that they express a subset of the nine previously identified sweet receptors and respond to stimulation with a panel of sweet compounds. We show that pox-neuro (poxn) mutants lacking taste function in the legs and labial palps have intact pharyngeal sweet taste, which is both necessary and sufficient to drive preferred consumption of sweet compounds by prolonging ingestion. Moreover, flies putatively lacking all sweet taste show little preference for nutritive or non-nutritive sugars in a short-term feeding assay. Together, our data demonstrate that pharyngeal sense organs play an important role in directing sustained consumption of sweet compounds, and suggest that post-ingestive sugar sensing does not effectively drive food choice in a simple short-term feeding paradigm. PMID:25807033

  6. Primary unilateral and bilateral cleft lip and nose in an older population.

    PubMed

    Rai, Kimit

    2005-01-01

    A one-stage procedure to reconstruct complete and incomplete unilateral/bilateral cleft lip and nose deformities is presented. Emphasis was made on closure of the lip muscles, correction of the nostril floor, correction of the alveolar cleft as well as reconstruction of the nose through an intranasal approach, with a supported suture technique for nasal correction. No dental or orthodontic treatment was available or performed in this older population. Emphasis was on primary closure of the muscles, using the rotation advancement principle. The repair that was performed was near anatomical, reconstructing the labial sulcus, the nostril floor, the alveolar cleft and the nasal deformity all in one stage. There was a high level of satisfaction both from the patient's and surgeon's point of view.

  7. A previously unrecognized group of Middle Jurassic triconodontan mammals from Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Thomas; Averianov, Alexander O.

    2007-01-01

    Ferganodon narynensis gen. et sp. nov. is represented by a lower molariform tooth from the Middle Jurassic (Callovian) Balabansai Svita in Kyrgyzstan. The new genus is allied with Klamelia zhaopengi Chow and Rich 1984 from the Middle Jurassic Shishugou Formation in Xinjiang, northwest China to the new family Klameliidae based on parallelogram-shaped lower molariforms, imbricating rather than interlocking of cusps e- d- f, by a peculiar distolabial cingulid cusp, and by vertical folding of the enamel on the labial crown side. The new family Klameliidae fam. nov. is most similar to Gobiconodontidae by the structure of the molariform teeth and represents a previously unrecognized radiation of eutriconodontan mammals possibly endemic to Central Asia.

  8. Feeding and functional morphology of the lobate ctenophore Mnemiopsis mccradyi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, R. J.

    1988-11-01

    In the laboratory, specimens of Mnemiopsis mccradyi caught prey during vertical foraging when their preoral lobes were expanded. The site of prey entrapment depended mostly on prey size and activity. Relatively small (0·2-0·5 mm) inactive nauplii were caught mostly by the tentacles which number in the thousands. Larger (1-2 mm) more active copepods were caught on the inner surfaces of the expansive preoral lobes by viscous mucus. The lobes generally closed in response to contact by active copepod prey, thus reducing the possibility of escape. Prey were transported from the lobes, by cilia, directly to the mouth, or to the labial grooves and then to the mouth. By having two different prey-capturing mechanisms, Mnemiopsis can feed on a greater range of prey sizes than if it had only one mechanism.

  9. Herpes zoster: A clinicocytopathological insight

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Snehal; Singaraju, Sasidhar; Einstein, A; Sharma, Ashish

    2016-01-01

    Herpes zoster or shingles is reactivation of the varicella zoster virus that had entered the cutaneous nerve endings during an earlier episode of chicken pox traveled to the dorsal root ganglia and remained in a latent form. This condition is characterized by occurrence of multiple, painful, unilateral vesicles and ulceration which shows a typical single dermatome involvement. In this case report, we present a patient with herpes zoster involving the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve, with unilateral vesicles over the right side of lower third of face along the trigeminal nerve tract, with intraoral involvement of buccal mucosa, labial mucosa and the tongue of the same side. Cytopathology revealed classic features of herpes infection including inclusion bodies, perinuclear halo and multinucleated cells. PMID:27721631

  10. The esthetic rehabilitation of misplaced dental arch after fracture of anterior maxillae: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Turna, Çagri

    2009-01-01

    Introduction In cases where the patient experiences trauma, the teeth may be fractured or a bone segment could be fractured causing misplaced teeth. Ceramic veneer restorations may be a solution for re-establishing the ideal position. The treatment of misplaced dental arch segment is presented and treatment options are discussed. Case presentation A 30-years-old female Turkish patient had a history of a dentoalveolar trauma and a surgical operation. Her main complaints were about the unpleasant appearance of her anterior teeth. The maxillary anterior teeth were positioned labially and had irregularities in vertical position inharmonious with each other and the horizontal plane. The misplaced sector treated with minimally invasive dentin bonded porcelain laminate veneers. Conclusion Ceramic veneers can be a solution for patients with malpositioned anterior teeth even the situation is severe and excessive tooth reduction is needed. PMID:19918401

  11. Removable orthodontic appliance with nickel-titanium spring to reposition the upper incisors in an autistic patient.

    PubMed

    Saito, Kan; Jang, Insan; Kubota, Kazumi; Hoshino, Tomonori; Hotokezaka, Hitoshi; Yoshida, Noriaki; Fujiwara, Taku

    2013-01-01

    A newly designed removable appliance with a shape-memory wire was used for the orthodontic treatment of the anterior teeth in an 11-year-old child who had autism and intellectual disability. The device was designed to reduce the lateral incisor crossbite and the central incisors' labial rotation. The child was treated for 1 year with this removable appliance. Tooth movement was analyzed using cephalograms and surface data were derived from study models. This device proved to be very durable. The lateral incisor crossbite was corrected, and the inclination of the upper central incisors and the interincisal angle were improved. This appliance exerts light and continuous orthodontic force, without requiring any adjustments of the spring wire. The appliance also facilitated orthodontic treatment in a child with intellectual disability in whom treatment with a standard orthodontic device would be unsuitable.

  12. Complete denture prescription--an audit of performance.

    PubMed

    Basker, R M; Ogden, A R; Ralph, J P

    1993-04-24

    The quality of clinical records obtained during the various stages of complete denture construction was assessed in a survey conducted in five large dental laboratories in 1989. The most common fault in approximately half of 188 upper and 158 lower impressions was overextension in the labial and buccal sulci. Of the 87 occlusal records examined, the rims indicated the intended incisal relationship in about 50% of cases. The border of the eventual denture was defined by the technician rather than by the dentist in most instances. The post-dam was prescribed by the dentist in only 16% of the 50 trial dentures inspected. It is argued that a major cause of the lack of prescription is the level of the NHS fee, coupled with the fact that the laboratory expenses are deducted from that fee.

  13. Surgical endodontic management of infected lateral canals of maxillary incisors.

    PubMed

    Jang, Ji-Hyun; Lee, Jung-Min; Yi, Jin-Kyu; Choi, Sung-Baik; Park, Sang-Hyuk

    2015-02-01

    This case report presents surgical endodontic management outcomes of maxillary incisors that were infected via the lateral canals. Two cases are presented in which endodontically-treated maxillary central incisors had sustained lateral canal infections. A surgical endodontic treatment was performed on both teeth. Flap elevation revealed vertical bone destruction along the root surface and infected lateral canals, and microscopy revealed that the lateral canals were the origin of the lesions. After the infected lateral canals were surgically managed, both teeth were asymptomatic and labial fistulas were resolved. There were no clinical or radiographic signs of surgical endodontic management failure at follow-up visits. This case report highlights the clinical significance and surgical endodontic management of infected lateral canal of maxillary incisor. It is important to be aware of root canal anatomy variability in maxillary incisors. Maxillary central incisors infected via the lateral canal can be successfully managed by surgical endodontic treatment.

  14. Comparison of tooth displacement between buccal mini-implants and palatal plate anchorage for molar distalization: a finite element study.

    PubMed

    Yu, Il-Jun; Kook, Yoon-Ah; Sung, Sang-Jin; Lee, Kee-Joon; Chun, Youn-Sic; Mo, Sung-Seo

    2014-08-01

    The purposes of this study were to mechanically evaluate distalization modalities through the application of skeletal anchorage using finite element analysis. Base models were constructed from commercial teeth models. A finite element model was created and three treatment modalities were modified to make 10 models. Modalities 1 and 2 placed mini-implants in the buccal side, and modality 3 placed a plate on the palatal side. Distalization with the palatal plate in modality 3 showed bodily molar movement and insignificant displacement of the incisors. Placing mini-implants on the buccal side in modalities 1 and 2 caused the first molar to be distally tipped and extruded, while the incisors were labially flared and intruded. Distalization with the palatal plate rather than mini-implants on the buccal side provided bodily molar movement without tipping or extrusion. It is recommended to use our findings as a clinical guide for the application of skeletal anchorage devices for molar distalization.

  15. Swedish Plectida (Nematoda). Part 5. Rhadinema timmi (Vitiello, 1971) comb. n.

    PubMed

    Holovachov, Oleksandr; Boström, Sven

    2014-03-18

    Leptolaimus timmi Vitiello, 1971 is redescribed from bottom sediments collected in the Skagerrak off the west coast of Sweden. New morphological data necessitate the transfer of this species to the genus Rhadinema Cobb, 1920. The main diagnostic characters of Rhadinema timmi (Vitiello, 1971) comb. n. include: 1.3-1.8 mm long body; rounded labial region weakly offset from body contour; cephalic setae 2-4 µm long; amphid located 12-19 µm from anterior end; first body pore located 22-30 µm from anterior end; lateral field absent; stoma tubular: cheilostom with six weakly cuticularised longitudinal rugae, gymnostom with sclerotized bar-shaped rhabdia, stegostom long, tubular; female without supplements, vagina without pars refringens, vulva midventral; male with 10-11 tubular and without alveolar supplements; spicules arcuate and 21-30 µm long.

  16. Pseudo Class III malocclusion

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hummayani, Fadia M.

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of deep anterior crossbite is technically challenging due to the difficulty of placing traditional brackets with fixed appliances. This case report represents a none traditional treatment modality to treat deep anterior crossbite in an adult pseudo class III malocclusion complicated by severely retruded, supraerupted upper and lower incisors. Treatment was carried out in 2 phases. Phase I treatment was performed by removable appliance “modified Hawley appliance with inverted labial bow,” some modifications were carried out to it to suit the presented case. Positive overbite and overjet was accomplished in one month, in this phase with minimal forces exerted on the lower incisors. Whereas, phase II treatment was performed with fixed appliances (braces) to align teeth and have proper over bite and overjet and to close posterior open bite, this phase was accomplished within 11 month. PMID:27052290

  17. An Innovative Technique for Columellar Reconstruction using 'Flip-Over' Buccal Mucosa Flap.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Kapil S; Shrotriya, Raghav; Pabari, Mansi

    2016-07-01

    Loss of columella is a significant deformity and its reconstruction proves to be quite difficult. An 18-year-old lady had loss of columella due to burn while steam inhalation at a young age and required reconstruction for the same. Labial mucosa has been used as a source of tissue for columellar reconstruction since long. We describe a modification of the buccal mucosal flap to manage a difficult case of columellar deficiency. The buccal mucosa flap was used to cover the columellar defect in the usual manner in the first stage and in second stage, along with division of the base, the residual length of the mucosal flap was used to add to the thickness of columella by doubling it on itself. PMID:27630898

  18. A study on evaluation of center of resistance of maxillary four incisors during simultaneous intrusion and retraction: A finite element study

    PubMed Central

    Aruna, J.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the center of resistance of maxillary incisors during simultaneous intrusion and retraction. Subjects and Methods: In this study, the following steps were employed namely, (1) Preprocessing - the creation of geometric model, mesh generation and boundary conditions. (2) Postprocessing - the tooth movement and determination of center of resistance. Results: The center of the mid-sagittal plane approximately 6 mm apical and 4 mm posterior to a line perpendicular to the occlusal plane from the labial alveolar crest of the central incisor resistance for the maxillary four incisors was located within the. Conclusion: Finite element is a sound mechanical method of analysis as it was sufficient enough to provide insight into interactions between orthodontic forces, and dental tissues and reliability of this study. Further by using this study clinically, the center of resistance can be precisely located in single rooted tooth during orthodontic treatment. PMID:25210384

  19. Solitary Extragnathic Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis – A Rare Case

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Eppalapally Sharath Kumar; Bhavani, Sangala Naga; A, Krishna; Sekhar, Mane Srinivas Muni

    2015-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH), mainly affects the skull, vertebrae, ribs and mandible in children and the long bones of adults. Symptoms range from none to pain, swelling and tenderness over the site of the lesion. This disease presents oral manifestations which can sometimes be the first expression of the condition. It occurs in three forms namely eosinophilic granuloma in which isolated or multiple bones are involved, But has a good prognosis whereas other variants Hand-Shuller-Christian disease (chronic dessiminated variant) and Letterer-Siwe disease (acute dessiminated form) have poor prognosis. Occasionally only soft tissues are affected without bony involvement. Males are more commonly affected than females. This article describes a rare variant of eosinophilic granuloma of labial mucosa without bony involvement. PMID:25954715

  20. New blind species and new records of Sinella from Nanjing, China (Collembola, Entomobryidae)

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Heng; Zhang, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Two new blind species of Sinella are described from Nanjing, China. Sinella quinseta sp. n. from Purple Mountain possesses unique 5+5 central macrochaetae on Abd. II, and can be distinguished from other species of the genus by the postlabial chaetae and the dorsal chaetotaxy. Sinella qixiaensis sp. n. from Qixia Mountain is characterized by the paddle-like S-chaetae of Ant. III organ and the smooth straight chaetae on the manubrium and base of dens; it differs from two closely related species by the smooth manubrial chaetae, the labial chaetae, the Ant. III organ, and the macrochaetae on Abd. II. Sinella fuyanensis Chen & Christiansen and Sinella quinocula Chen & Christiansen were also newly recorded from Nanjing. PMID:27551205

  1. Oral Manifestations of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases: Two Case Reports

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Manoela Seadi; Munerato, Maria Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are known as chronic inflammatory disorders of the digestive tract, represented mainly by Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). Among the main oral manifestations of IBD are cobblestoning of the oral mucosa, labial swellings with vertical fissures, pyostomatitis vegetans, angular cheilitis, perioral erythema, and glossitis. In this sense, understanding these nosological entities by dentists would help reach early and differential diagnosis. Thus, two case reports are presented and discussed based on theoretical references obtained by a literature review. The first case report refers to an adult patient whose IBD diagnosis was established after stomatological assessment. The second case was a patient with CD diagnosed in childhood with characteristic oral lesions. PMID:26864508

  2. The periodontal factor in esthetic smile design--altering gingival display.

    PubMed

    Bitter, Robert N

    2007-11-01

    The periodontal soft and hard tissues are an important determinant of restorative smile esthetics. Management of the periodontal tissues that "frame" each tooth is crucial to esthetic smile design. This article describes a four-step technique that makes it possible to sculpt the position of the labial gingival margin to provide additional crown height or length, a process the author describes as smile sculpting. This periodontal smile sculpting can aid in determining the pre-restorative treatment profile for teeth and create a blueprint for the restorative dentist to enhance a patient's final esthetic treatment results. Crucial to understanding this process is an appreciation of the periodontal principles that govern smile design, especially the periodontal biologic width and the influence of the underlying hard tissue bony architecture in defining the periodontal envelope from which the teeth emerge.

  3. A case of anterior open bite developing during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Yamada, K; Satou, Y; Hanada, K; Hayashi, T; Ito, J

    2001-03-01

    Imaging studies have reported on the relationship between temporomandibular joint (TMJ) degeneration and facial deformity. These studies have suggested that mandibular growth is affected by TMJ degeneration, resulting in altered skeletal structure as mandibular retrusion. However, there are very few longitudinal case reports on TMJ osteoarthrosis (OA). Progressive open bite occurred in an adolescent patient with TMJ OA. Cephalometric analysis showed a downward and backward rotated mandible, and a labial inclination of the upper incisor. Magnetic resonance imaging showed internal derangement without reduction and erosion in the right and the left condyles. Although the cause of open bite is unclear in this case, tongue thrusting, and internal derangements in the temporomandibular joint were suspected as causes of the open bite. PMID:11254799

  4. Contributions to the tooth morphology in early embryos of three species of hammerhead sharks (Elasmobranchii: Sphyrnidae) and their evolutionary implications.

    PubMed

    Mello, Waldiney; Brito, Paulo Marques Machado

    2013-09-01

    The tooth types in the embryos of the hammerhead sharks Sphyrna tiburo, Sphyrna tudes and Eusphyra blochii are here described in labial and lingual views, and, in some cases, in additional views. The presence of cusplets was observed in the anterior teeth of S. tiburo and S. tudes, which is secondarily lost after early embryonic stages. Many aligned root foramina were detected in the sphyrnids, which, as the cusplets, are shared by many phylogenetic-related carcharhinids. Other anatomic features, related to the root and central cusp, are presented for the first time. Such characters represent the first step to compare the teeth of extant and fossil species. PMID:24161244

  5. New species of springtails in the Proisotoma genus complex from Vermont and New York, USA with descriptive notes on Ballistura alpa Christiansen & Bellinger 1980 (Hexapoda, Collembola, Isotomidae).

    PubMed

    Soto-Adames, Felipe N; Giordano, Rosanna

    2011-01-01

    Three new species of Isotomidae springtails are described from the Lake Champlain Basin (Vermont and New York, USA), Lake Willoughby and Greater Averril Pond in Vermont. Subisotoma joyceisp. n. and Scutisotoma champisp. n. were collected in sandy beaches whereas Ballistura rossisp. n. was found only in a constructed wetland built and managed by the University of Vermont. Scutisotoma champisp. n. was found in Lakes Champlain and Willoughby, and Greater Averril Pond and is probably present in most lakes and large ponds in the area. Subisotoma joyceisp. n. was found only along the southern and eastern coast of South Hero, and the mainland coast facing eastern South Hero. Ballistura alpa is redescribed and transferred to the genus Pachyotoma based on the absence of tibiotarsal seta B4/B5, the presence of secondary cuticular granules, 4 prelabral setae, a full complement of guard setae on labial papilla E and in having a bifurcate outer maxillary lobe with 4 sublobal setae. PMID:22371662

  6. Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome associated with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Greco, M; Fiorillo, M A; Ribuffo, D; Corona, A; Vitagliano, T

    2010-07-01

    We present a clinical case of Melkersson-Rosenthal (M-R) syndrome associated with Down syndrome. No evidence of this association is described in the literature. We also present a technique for the macrocheilia treatment of lower lip caused by M-R syndrome in a patient with Down syndrome. This patient during pediatric age had many events of facial nerve paralysis and edematous episodes of lower lip with unknown etiology. This technique is based on a wedge full thickness central excision of the lower lip and on a transversal lozenge excision in the vermilion portion with orbicular muscle to reverse the chin-labial corner. The results are an agreeable aspect of the lip and physiological digestive and phonetic processes. The technique is safe and simple and the aesthetic functional result is very good. In our case, the postoperative complication is caused by an insufficient collaboration of the patient and it is solved in three weeks. PMID:20707255

  7. No place for /h/: an ERP investigation of English fricative place features

    PubMed Central

    Schluter, Kevin; Politzer-Ahles, Stephen; Almeida, Diogo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The representational format of speech units in long-term memory is a topic of debate. We present novel event-related brain potential evidence from the Mismatch Negativity (MMN) paradigm that is compatible with abstract, non-redundant feature-based models like the Featurally Underspecified Lexicon (FUL). First, we show that the fricatives /s/ and /f/ display an asymmetric pattern of MMN responses, which is predicted if /f/ has a fully specified place of articulation ([Labial]) but /s/ does not ([Coronal], which is lexically underspecified). Second, we show that when /s/ and /h/ are contrasted, no such asymmetric MMN pattern occurs. The lack of asymmetry suggests both that (i) oral and laryngeal articulators are represented distinctly and that (ii) /h/ has no oral place of articulation in long-term memory. The lack of asymmetry between /s/ and /h/ is also in-line with traditional feature-geometric models of lexical representations. PMID:27366758

  8. Description of the Blueberry Root-knot Nematode, Meloidogyne carolinensis n. sp.

    PubMed Central

    Eisenback, J. D.

    1982-01-01

    Meloidogyne carolinensis n. sp. is described from cultivated highbush blueberry (cultivars derived from hybrids of Vaccinium corymbosum L. and V. lamarckii Camp) in North Carolina. The perineal pattern of the female has a large cuticular ridge that surrounds the perivulval area, and the excretory pore is near the level of the base of the stylet. The stylet is 15.9 μm long and the knobs gradually merge with the shaft. The head shape and stylet morphology of the male are quite variable. The typical head and four variants, as well as the typical stylet and two variants, are described. The labial disc, medial lips, and lateral lips of second-stage juveniles are fused and in the same contour. The head region is not annulated. Mean juvenile length is 463.7 μm, stylet length is 11.9 μm, and tail length is 42.5 μm. PMID:19295713

  9. Prosthetic management of an extensive maxillary alveolar defect with an implant-supported restoration.

    PubMed

    Saadat, Fariborz; Mosharraf, Ramin

    2013-05-01

    Despite the recent developments in peri-implant surgical regenerative procedures, re-establishing the hard and soft tissue contour is still a challenge in cases with severe ridge deficiency. It becomes more difficult when incorrectly placed implants cause screw connections to come out onto the labial surfaces of the teeth. A two-part maxillary implant supported fixed restoration was constructed. The first part was consisted of a screw retained sub-structure that replaced gingival portions of the deficient maxilla and the second part was a cement retained super-structure that reconstructed the anatomical crowns of the lost teeth. In this way awkwardly placed implants did not interfere with the desired esthetic result. Another great advantage was that the alterations or repairs on cemented crowns can easily be carried out without compromising the entire construction. PMID:25512753

  10. Prosthetic Management of an Extensive Maxillary Alveolar Defect with an Implant-Supported Restoration

    PubMed Central

    Saadat, Fariborz; Mosharraf, Ramin

    2013-01-01

    Despite the recent developments in peri-implant surgical regenerative procedures, re-establishing the hard and soft tissue contour is still a challenge in cases with severe ridge deficiency. It becomes more difficult when incorrectly placed implants cause screw connections to come out onto the labial surfaces of the teeth. A two-part maxillary implant supported fixed restoration was constructed. The first part was consisted of a screw retained sub-structure that replaced gingival portions of the deficient maxilla and the second part was a cement retained super-structure that reconstructed the anatomical crowns of the lost teeth. In this way awkwardly placed implants did not interfere with the desired esthetic result. Another great advantage was that the alterations or repairs on cemented crowns can easily be carried out without compromising the entire construction. PMID:25512753

  11. Experimental model of developing and analysis of lip prints in atypical surface: A metallic straw (bombilla)

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Gabriel M.; Bonfigli, Esteban; Cantín, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Background: The interaction between the offender and the victim produces visible or latent prints on objects and utensils. The study of lip prints has reportedly stayed away from the basic cinematic concept of the lip-to-surface relationship. Materials and Methods: Three regular powders were used to reveal the latent lip prints on a typical metallic straw called bombilla, and the revealed prints were photographed, preserved, and analyzed. Results: Better definition was observed in the lower lip print, and nine anatomical patterns were identified, but a higher definition of wrinkles was observed with indestructible white powder. Conclusion: Knowledge of labial dynamics, the real value of the processed surfaces, and the need for testing in field conditions are discussed. PMID:25125921

  12. Anterior crossbite correction in primary and mixed dentition with removable inclined plane (Bruckl appliance).

    PubMed

    Jirgensone, Irena; Liepa, Andra; Abeltins, Andris

    2008-01-01

    Anterior crossbite correction in early mixed dentition is highly recommended as this kind of malocclusion do not diminish with age. Uncorrected anterior crossbite may lead to abnormal wear of the lower incisors, dental compensation of mandibular incisors leading to thinning of labial alveolar plate and/or gingival recession. There are several methods for solving this problem. In this article we would like to describe removable inclined plane. This is a removable simple functional appliance on the lower arch (jaw), which works as inclined plane. One of the advantage of the Bruckl appliance is that it can also be used as retention appliance after active treatment as well as it is possible to add acrylic teeth if necessary. Therefore it can be used as a removable partial denture in lower jaw in case where there is a premature loss of the primary teeth. The use of this appliance is illustrated with three cases.

  13. Management of an intruded primary central incisor with a natural crown under general anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Altunsoy, Mustafa; Bilgin, Mehmet Selim

    2014-01-01

    Tooth intrusion is the most common trauma during early infancy. Primary maxillary central incisors are the most affected teeth. There are a few treatment approaches which depend upon the severity of the trauma, and the treatment must be managed professionally. In this case report, a 3-year-old girl with a history of trauma 40 days before referring to our pediatric clinic is presented. Deciduous maxillary right central incisor was intruded through labial and alveolar socket and completely covered with soft tissue. The intruded deciduous incisor tooth was surgically extracted and impression was taken under general anesthesia. The removable partial prosthesis was completed by using the patient's own extracted tooth. Using natural crown on removable prosthesis gives psychological satisfaction to the patient and his/her family, and can be better tolerated since its shape, size, and color are exactly in harmony. PMID:24966781

  14. Description of the larva of Argia chelata Calvert, 1902 (Odonata: Coenagrionidae).

    PubMed

    Novelo-Gutiérrez, Rodolfo

    2013-12-06

    The larva of Argia chelata is described and figured. It falls into the group of Argia larvae with a moderately prominent ligula and two palpal seta, but it differs from its closest relatives by having labial palp with 2 setae plus one basal setella; the length of the ligula is 30% of its maximum width; basal tergites (1-5) lacking long, fine setae, mainly on midline; S8-10 mostly dark brown; paraprocts with spiniform setae on basal 0.25 and 0.55 of dorsal and ventral borders, respectively. Larvae were found in 2nd to 4th order shallow streams in cloud forest, crawling among debris, fine sand and mud where the water flow is slow or still, close to the shoreline. The larva is compared with A. lacrimans (Hagen), A. pima Garrison, and A. tonto Calvert, species apparently closely related. 

  15. New species of mayflies (Ephemeroptera) from Cape Verde.

    PubMed

    Soldán, Tomáš; Bojková, Jindřiška

    2015-01-01

    To date, no mayflies have been described from Cape Verde, an archipelago of volcanic islands in the Atlantic Ocean. Based on the material collected on two islands, Santo Antão and Santiago, two species of the genus Cloeon Leach, 1815 (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae) are described based on larvae and imagines. Cloeon morna sp. n., collected in Santo Antão, and C. sidadi sp. n., collected in Santiago, have 3-segmented maxillary palps and tapered labial palps of larvae. The new species can be distinguished from each other and from other West-African species of the genus mainly according to details of the lateral spines on larval abdominal segments and characteristic colourations of vitta and terga in female imagines and colours of male turbinate eyes. Affinities to the West African species of the genus are discussed. PMID:25781802

  16. Vulvovaginitis in prepubertal girls: the importance of group A Streptococcus.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, R H; Wientzen, R L; Barsanti, R G

    1982-04-01

    We report four cases of group A streptococcal vulvovaginitis in prepubertal children. All cases were acute in onset. This illness presents with nonspecific signs and symptoms of labial inflammation. In a suburban community, streptococcal vulvovaginitis in prepubescent girls may be more common then genital infections due to Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Since media used for the selective isolation of N gonorrhoeae do not readily support the growth of streptococci, we suggest that the routine bacteriologic approach to the diagnosis of vulvovaginitis in young girls include inoculation of the culture swab on 5% sheep blood agar and the application of a bacitracin disk (taxo A disc) to detect any small beta-hemolytic, presumptively group A streptococcal colonies after overnight incubation. Penicillin therapy results in prompt cure.

  17. [Pseudolymphoma in patients with primary Sjogren's syndrome].

    PubMed

    Dabrowska, M; Jórasz, I; Duda-Król, W; Polubiec, A

    2001-08-01

    Sjögren's syndrome is an inflammatory autoimmune disease affecting primarily the exocrine glands. In the abscence of other autoimmune diseases it is classified as primary Sjögren's syndrome. Patients with primary syndrome have about 40 times higher relative risk of developing lymphoma then normal population, which offers a possibility to study malignant transformation's mechanisms in these patients. In the study we report a case of a woman with pseudolymphoma. The clinical diagnose used to be based on symptoms of proliferate disease, quetionnable histological evaluation and good response to steroids. Nowadays, applying advanced molecular techniques make it possible to diagnose lymphoma in labial salivary biopsy much earlier. It allows recognizing an incipient lymphoma in a group of patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome. Therefore so-called pseudolymphoma can usually be diagnosed as either benign or malignant lymphoproliferative lesions.

  18. The assessment of lower face morphology changes in edentulous patients after prosthodontic rehabilitation, using two methods of measurement.

    PubMed

    Jivănescu, Anca; Bratu, Dana Cristina; Tomescu, Lucian; Măroiu, Alexandra Cristina; Popa, George; Bratu, Emanuel Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Using two measurement methods (a three-dimensional laser scanning system and a digital caliper), this study compares the lower face morphology of complete edentulous patients, before and after prosthodontic rehabilitation with bimaxillary complete dentures. Fourteen edentulous patients were randomly selected from the Department of Prosthodontics, at the Faculty of Dental Medicine, "Victor Babes" University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Timisoara, Romania. The changes that occurred in the lower third of the face after prosthodontic treatment were assessed quantitatively by measuring the vertical projection of the distances between two sets of anthropometric landmarks: Subnasale - cutaneous Pogonion (D1) and Labiale superius - Labiale inferius (D2). A two-way repeated measures ANOVA model design was carried out to test for significant interactions, main effects and differences between the two types of measuring devices and between the initial and final rehabilitation time points. The main effect of the type of measuring device showed no statistically significant differences in the measured distances (p=0.24 for D1 and p=0.39 for D2), between the initial and the final rehabilitation time points. Regarding the main effect of time, there were statistically significant differences in both the measured distances D1 and D2 (p=0.001), between the initial and the final rehabilitation time points. The two methods of measurement were equally reliable in the assessment of lower face morphology changes in edentulous patients after prosthodontic rehabilitation with bimaxillary complete dentures. The differences between the measurements taken before and after prosthodontic rehabilitation proved to be statistically significant.

  19. Enamelin Directs Crystallite Organization at the Enamel-Dentine Junction.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, S; Al-Jawad, M

    2016-05-01

    Enamel is an acellular material formed by the intricate process of amelogenesis. Disruption caused at the initial stages of development, by means of mutations in the ENAM gene encoding the enamelin protein, results in enamel hypoplasia. Little is known about the consequence of ENAM mutation on the enamel structure at a crystallographic level. The aim of this study was to characterize the structure of ENAM-mutated enamel to develop a deeper understanding of the role of enamelin protein during formation with regard to crystal organization. Synchrotron X-ray microdiffraction (SXRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) have been used to measure and correlate enamel crystallography and microstructure in hypoplastic and healthy enamel. Rietveld refinement carried out on 2-dimensional diffraction patterns, collected from the Advanced Photon Source, were used to quantify changes in the preferred orientation (crystallographic texture) within the labial regions of each tooth slice and then correlated with the local microstructure. In general, healthy deciduous incisors displayed a higher degree of crystal organization across the labial surface in comparison with the hypoplastic enamel. ENAM plays the greatest functional role at the enamel-dentine junction (EDJ), as it was the region that exhibited lowest texture relative to unaffected controls. Other areas within the tooth, however, such as the cusp tip, displayed greater organization in line with healthy enamel, suggesting its effects are restricted to the early stages of enamel secretion. Observed clinically, the surface of ENAM-mutated hypoplastic enamel can appear to be normal, yet severe sub-nano and microstructural defects appear beneath the subsurface layer. Quantitative characterization of the crystallographic properties from enamel with known genotype expands the understanding of enamel formation processes and can aid better clinical diagnosis and tailor-made treatment.

  20. Construction and analysis of cDNA libraries from the antennae of Batocera horsfieldi and expression pattern of putative odorant binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Zhang, Aijun; Chen, Li-Zhen; Zhang, Guoan; Wang, Man-Qun

    2014-01-01

    A high-quality cDNA library was constructed from female and male antenna of the longhorned beetle, Batocera horsfieldi (Hope) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), a serious pest of Populus (Salicales: Salicaceae). The titer was approximately 2.37 × 106 pfu/mL, and this complies with the test requirement. From the libraries, 692 clones were selected randomly, sequenced, and further analyzed, and the recombinational efficiency reached 93.85%. By alignment and cluster analysis, we identified four odorant binding proteins, two pheromone-binding proteins (have the characteristic six conserved cysteine residues), four Minus-C odorant binding proteins (lost two conserved cysteines), and three chemosensory proteins. In this study, we describe the identification and characterization of four new cDNAs that encode Minus-C odorant binding proteins (Minus-C OBPs) from B. horsfieldi antennal cDNA libraries. Our investigation focused on the expression pattern of the Minus-C OBP genes in various tissues in both sexes at different developmental stages, using reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) and realtime PCR (qPCR) strategies. Minus-C OBP1, 2, and 3 were expressed in all tested tissues, with the exception of the head (without antenna, labial palps, and maxillary palps). Minus-C OBP4 was expressed in the antenna, legs, and abdomen, but not in the labial palps, maxillary palps, or head. The qPCR results revealed MinusC OBPs were expressed in the antenna throughout the adult life, and that the transcript levels of these genes depended on the sex, age, and mating status of adults. PMID:25373204

  1. In vitro validation of a hand-held optical reflectometer to measure clinically observed erosive tooth wear.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Thiago Saads; Assunção, Cristiane Meira; Jost, Fabian; Bürgin, Walter Bruno; Rodrigues, Jonas Almeida; Lussi, Adrian

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we analyzed a newly developed optical reflectometer for measuring erosive tooth wear (ETW) in vitro. Three examiners independently assessed the labial surface of 80 deciduous canines and 75 permanent incisors. One examiner performed visual examinations (BEWE), and the other two used the optical pen-size reflectometer to measure surface reflection intensity (SRI) on the same labial surfaces. The examinations were made in duplicate with at least 1 week interval. Intra- and inter-rater agreements were calculated using weighted kappa analysis for BEWE, and intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) as well as Bland-Altman plots for SRI. The teeth were separated into without (BEWE 0) or with (BEWE 1-3) ETW, and SRI cut-off points were calculated. Intra-rater agreement for the visual examination was 0.46 and 0.82 for deciduous and permanent teeth, respectively. Inter-rater and intra-rater agreement for SRI were good (ICC > 0.7; p < 0.001). SRI measurements produced high specificity values for deciduous and permanent teeth (≥0.74 and ≥ 0.84, respectively), and lower sensitivity values (≥0.37 and ≥ 0.64, respectively), but permanent teeth had generally higher SRI values (p < 0.05). We observed a significant association between BEWE and SRI (p < 0.05). The optical pen-size reflectometer was able to adequately differentiate ETW on permanent teeth, with highly reliable and reproducible measurements, but ETW on deciduous teeth was less accurately differentiated. The reflectometer is a good candidate for clinical research.

  2. Static and dynamic activity of warm receptors in Boa constrictor.

    PubMed

    Hensel, H

    1975-01-01

    Afferent impulses from multi- and single-fiber preparations of the trigeminal nerve in Boa constrictor were recorded during exactly controlled thermal stimulation of the receptive field in the labial region. At constant temperatures in the range between 18 and 37 degrees C, multi-fiber preparations showed a continuous discharge with a maximum around 30 degrees C. Dynamic warming caused a high increase of the discharge, whereas dynamic cooling led to a complete inhibition. No cold-sensitive fivers have been found. Mechanical stimulation elicited large spikes from specific mechanoreceptors. Single-fiber preparations from labial warm receptors did not respond to mechanical stimulation. Their discharge was always regular at constant temperatures. The average frequency of a warm receptor population was zero at about 18 degrees C, reached a maximum of 13 sec-1 at 30 degrees C and fell again to zero at 37 degrees C. In addition, a few warm receptors increased their static discharge with temperature up to 36 degrees C, the highest frequency being 38 sec-1. Stepwise warming by delta T = + 5 degrees C caused a marked overshoot in frequency, after which the discharge usually fell to a minimum and then rose again to a new static level. Stepwise cooling by delta T = MINUS 5 DEGREES C led to a transient inhibition of activity followed by an increase until the new static level was reached. In the first group of warm receptors the height of the dynamic overshoot varied with the adapting temperature, the largest average overshoot of 160 sec-1 occurring at an adapting temperature of 30 degrees C. These receptors have their static maximum as well as their highest dynamic sensitivity in the temperature range of the natural tropical habitat of Boidae.

  3. The role of the input on the development of the LC bias: a crosslinguistic comparison.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Gomez, Nayeli; Hayashi, Akiko; Tsuji, Sho; Mazuka, Reiko; Nazzi, Thierry

    2014-09-01

    Previous studies have described the existence of a phonotactic bias called the Labial-Coronal (LC) bias, corresponding to a tendency to produce more words beginning with a labial consonant followed by a coronal consonant (i.e. "bat") than the opposite CL pattern (i.e. "tap"). This bias has initially been interpreted in terms of articulatory constraints of the human speech production system. However, more recently, it has been suggested that this presumably language-general LC bias in production might be accompanied by LC and CL biases in perception, acquired in infancy on the basis of the properties of the linguistic input. The present study investigates the origins of these perceptual biases, testing infants learning Japanese, a language that has been claimed to possess more CL than LC sequences, and comparing them with infants learning French, a language showing a clear LC bias in its lexicon. First, a corpus analysis of Japanese IDS and ADS revealed the existence of an overall LC bias, except for plosive sequences in ADS, which show a CL bias across counts. Second, speech preference experiments showed a perceptual preference for CL over LC plosive sequences (all recorded by a Japanese speaker) in 13- but not in 7- and 10-month-old Japanese-learning infants (Experiment 1), while revealing the emergence of an LC preference between 7 and 10 months in French-learning infants, using the exact same stimuli. These crosslinguistic behavioral differences, obtained with the same stimuli, thus reflect differences in processing in two populations of infants, which can be linked to differences in the properties of the lexicons of their respective native languages. These findings establish that the emergence of a CL/LC bias is related to exposure to a linguistic input.

  4. Description of larva, redescription of adults and biology of Mortogenesia mesopotamica (Morton, 1921) (Ephemeroptera: Palingeniidae).

    PubMed

    Soldán, Tomáš; Godunko, Roman J

    2013-01-01

    All life stages of Mortogenesia mesopotamica (Morton, 1921) are described, on the basis of material collected in the lower Euphrates-Tigris River basin. Adults are redescribed, and larvae are described for the first time, based on sets of larval exuviae. The monotypic genus Mortogenesia Lestage, 1923 is redefined using both adult and larval characteristics: eyes not contiguous, distinctly separated by a wide gap; vestigial mandibular tusks present, with 3-4 rounded lateral projections; forewing veins MP1 and iMP not brought together; CuA furcation absent on forewing; both claws similarly shaped in males; hind tarsi five-segmented; penes with roughly triangular, apically rounded and divergent lobes (in adults); seven conspicuous stout teeth on outer margin of mandibular tusk, with no apical spine-like setae; maxillary palps two-segmented; distal segment of labial palps asymmetric and bulbous; basal segment of labial palps densely pilose; forelegs with relatively short, triangular claws that are basally wider than tarsi; foretibiae with stout spines only; and a simple, leaf-like gill 1 (in larvae). The burrowing larvae of M. mesopotamica occur solely in large permanent lowland rivers, in clayey or muddy sediments, with particles exceeding 0.025-0.075 mm. Based on observations of their burrows, larval density is approximately 100-200 individuals per square meter. Various evidence suggests a unique phenomenon of male neoteny in Mortogenesia. Preliminary results of male dissections suggests a missing teneral adult cuticle, and male "subimagoes" and females occur simultaneously after oviposition. Mortogenesia mesopotamica is known currently from the Euphrates-Tigris basin in Iraq and from the Karkheh River in Iran. PMID:25112988

  5. Examination of the relationship between mandibular position and body posture.

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, Kiwamu; Mehta, Noshir R; Abdallah, Emad F; Forgione, Albert G; Hirayama, Hiroshi; Kawasaki, Takao; Yokoyama, Atsuro

    2007-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of changing mandibular position on body posture and reciprocally, body posture on mandibular position. Forty-five (45) asymptomatic subjects (24 males and 21 females, ages 21-53 years, mean age 30.7 years) were included in this study and randomly assigned to one of two groups, based on the table of random numbers. The only difference between group I and group II was the sequence of the testing. The MatScan (Tekscan, Inc., South Boston, MA) system was used to measure the result of changes in body posture (center of foot pressure: COP) while subjects maintained the following 5 mandibular positions: (1) rest position, (2) centric occlusion, (3) clinically midlined jaw position with the labial frena aligned, (4) a placebo wax appliance, worn around the labial surfaces of the teeth and (5) right eccentric mandibular position. The T-Scan II (Tekscan, Inc., South Boston, MA) system was used to analyze occlusal force distribution in two postural positions, with and without a heel lift under the right foot. Total trajectory length of COP in centric occlusion was shorter than in the rest position (p < 0.05). COP area in right eccentric mandibular position was larger than in centric occlusion (p < 0.05). When subjects used a heel lift under the right foot, occlusal forces shifted to the right side compared to no heel lift (p < 0.01). Based on these findings, it was concluded that changing mandibular position affected body posture. Conversely, changing body posture affected mandibular position.

  6. Bending stiffness of two aesthetic orthodontic archwires: an in vitro comparative study.

    PubMed

    Lim, K F; Lew, K K; Toh, S L

    1994-01-01

    The aims of the study were to quantify the transverse stiffness of two aesthetic orthodontic archwires (0018 inch Teflon-coated stainless steel and 0017 inch Optiflex) in a simulated clinical setting and to assess the influence of deflection direction on the bending stiffness. The aesthetic archwires were randomly divided into three equal groups: group 1, lingual deflection; group 2, labial deflection; and group 3, occlusal deflection. Each group consisted of six archwires of the same type. The control group consisting of eighteen 0014 inch stainless steel archwires were also subjected to the same grouping. A total of 54 archwires were tested in the study. The deflection of the archwires was measured with a travelling microscope and the load measured with a calibrated strain gauge ring transducer. The mean stiffnesses of the archwires in the lingual, labial and occlusal deflection groups were found to be 29, 08 and 25 mN/mm respectively for 0017 inch Optiflex (r = 09, P less than 0001), 132, 105 and 245 mN/mm respectively for 0018 inch Teflon-coated stainless steel (r = 09, P less than 0001) and 266, 164 and 323 mN/mm respectively for the control (r = 09, P less than 0001). Springback was found to be poor for Optiflex and the archwire remained bent upon deactivation. ANOVA showed that the influence of arch curvature on the bending stiffness was significantly different for Optiflex (P less than 005), Teflon-coated stainless steel (P less than 0005) and the control group (P <0005).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:10147326

  7. Thickness of mouthguard sheets after vacuum-pressure formation: influence of mouthguard sheet material.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Mutsumi; Koide, Kaoru; Iwasaki, Shin-Ichi

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the thickness of mouthguard sheet after vacuum-pressure formation based on the mouthguard sheet material. Three mouthguard sheet materials (4.0 mm thick) were compared: ethylene-vinyl acetate co-polymer (EVA), olefin co-polymer (OL), and polyolefin-polystyrene co-polymer (OS). The working model was made by hard gypsum that was trimmed to the height of 20 mm at the cutting edge of the maxillary central incisor and 15 mm at the mesiobuccal cusp of the maxillary first molar. Where the center of the softened sheet sagged 15 mm lower than the clamp, the sheet was pressed against the working model, followed by vacuum forming for 10 s and compression molding for 2 min. The thickness of mouthguard sheets after fabrication was determined for the incisal portion (incisal edge and labial surface) and molar portion (cusp and buccal surface), and dimensional measurements were obtained using a measuring device. Differences in the change in thickness due to sheet materials were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (anova) followed by Bonferroni's multiple comparison tests. The OL sheet was thickest at all measurement points. At the incisal edge and cusp, thickness after formation was highest for OL, then EVA and finally OS. At the labial surface and buccal surface, the thickness after formation was highest for OL, then OS and finally EVA. This study suggested that post-fabrication mouthguard thickness differed according to sheet material, with the olefin co-polymer sheet having the smallest thickness reduction.

  8. The larvae of Epigomphus jannyae Belle, 1993 and E. tumefactus Calvert, 1903 (Insecta: Odonata: Gomphidae)

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez, Alonso; Delgado, Débora

    2016-01-01

    The taxonomic knowledge about immature stages of the insect order Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) is rather limited in tropical America. Here, the larvae of Epigomphus jannyae Belle, 1993 and E. tumefactus Calvert, 1903 are described, figured, and compared with other described congeners. E. jannyae larva is characterized by 3rd antennomere 1.6 times longer than its widest part; ligula very poorly developed, with ten short, truncate teeth on middle; apical lobe of labial palp rounded and smooth. Lateral margins on abdominal segments (S5–9) serrated, lateral spines on S6–9 small and divergent; male epiproct with a pair of dorsal tubercles at basal 0.66; tips of cerci and paraprocts strongly divergent. The larva of E. tumefactus is characterized by 3rd antennomere 2.3 times longer than its widest part, ligula with 6–7 truncate teeth, apical lobe of labial palp acute and finely serrate. Lateral margins of S6–9 serrate, lateral spines on S7–9; male epiproct with a pair of dorsal tubercles at basal 0.50. Differences with other species were found in 3rd antennomere, lateral spines of S7–9, and the caudal appendages. Epigomphus larvae inhabit small, shallow creeks (1st order streams) where they live in fine benthic sediments. When mature, the larva leaves the water in shady places, climbing small rocks at the water’s edge and metamorphosing horizontally on flat rocks. These new descriptions bring the total number of Epigomphus species with known larval stages to eight; only 28% of the species in this genus are known as larva. PMID:27635319

  9. The larvae of Epigomphus jannyae Belle, 1993 and E. tumefactus Calvert, 1903 (Insecta: Odonata: Gomphidae).

    PubMed

    Novelo-Gutiérrez, Rodolfo; Ramírez, Alonso; Delgado, Débora

    2016-01-01

    The taxonomic knowledge about immature stages of the insect order Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) is rather limited in tropical America. Here, the larvae of Epigomphus jannyae Belle, 1993 and E. tumefactus Calvert, 1903 are described, figured, and compared with other described congeners. E. jannyae larva is characterized by 3rd antennomere 1.6 times longer than its widest part; ligula very poorly developed, with ten short, truncate teeth on middle; apical lobe of labial palp rounded and smooth. Lateral margins on abdominal segments (S5-9) serrated, lateral spines on S6-9 small and divergent; male epiproct with a pair of dorsal tubercles at basal 0.66; tips of cerci and paraprocts strongly divergent. The larva of E. tumefactus is characterized by 3rd antennomere 2.3 times longer than its widest part, ligula with 6-7 truncate teeth, apical lobe of labial palp acute and finely serrate. Lateral margins of S6-9 serrate, lateral spines on S7-9; male epiproct with a pair of dorsal tubercles at basal 0.50. Differences with other species were found in 3rd antennomere, lateral spines of S7-9, and the caudal appendages. Epigomphus larvae inhabit small, shallow creeks (1st order streams) where they live in fine benthic sediments. When mature, the larva leaves the water in shady places, climbing small rocks at the water's edge and metamorphosing horizontally on flat rocks. These new descriptions bring the total number of Epigomphus species with known larval stages to eight; only 28% of the species in this genus are known as larva. PMID:27635319

  10. Mouthpart grooming behavior in honeybees: Kinematics and sectionalized friction between foreleg tarsi and proboscises.

    PubMed

    Linghu, Zelin; Wu, Jianing; Wang, Changlong; Yan, Shaoze

    2015-11-01

    The mouthpart of a honeybee is prone to contamination by granular particles such as pollen or dirt from the field. To clean the contaminated mouthparts, a honeybee swings its foreleg tarsi forward and backward to brush the proboscis continuously, sweeping the contaminant from the surfaces of the labial palpi, galeae, and bushy haired tongue (glossa). This grooming behavior has been documented but the dynamic characteristics therein have not been investigated yet. We quantified the grooming behavior of a honeybee from the perspective of kinematic and tribological properties. We captured high-speed videos that recorded the mouthpart grooming patterns of honeybees from the front and side views and measured the friction on the grooming surfaces using a precision dynamometer. During grooming, a honeybee first positions the mouthpart and then places a pair of foreleg tarsi to the tubular-folded galea. The tarsi press the galea and labial palpi and slide downward while keeping close contact with the galea. Then, the hairy glossa stretches out of the temporary tube with the glossa setae erected. The tarsi slowly slide down when grooming the glossa. In the return stroke of grooming, the foreleg tarsi detach from the mouthpart and retreat swiftly. Friction analysis shows that the honeybees can coordinate the velocity of the foreleg tarsi to the sectionalized tribological property of the tarsus-mouthpart interface. The specific grooming pattern enables honeybees to save energy and resist wear, resulting in a possible highly evolved grooming strategy. These findings lead to further understanding of the honeybee's grooming behavior facilitated by the special motion kinematics and friction characteristics. PMID:26453086

  11. Description of larva, redescription of adults and biology of Mortogenesia mesopotamica (Morton, 1921) (Ephemeroptera: Palingeniidae).

    PubMed

    Soldán, Tomáš; Godunko, Roman J

    2013-01-01

    All life stages of Mortogenesia mesopotamica (Morton, 1921) are described, on the basis of material collected in the lower Euphrates-Tigris River basin. Adults are redescribed, and larvae are described for the first time, based on sets of larval exuviae. The monotypic genus Mortogenesia Lestage, 1923 is redefined using both adult and larval characteristics: eyes not contiguous, distinctly separated by a wide gap; vestigial mandibular tusks present, with 3-4 rounded lateral projections; forewing veins MP1 and iMP not brought together; CuA furcation absent on forewing; both claws similarly shaped in males; hind tarsi five-segmented; penes with roughly triangular, apically rounded and divergent lobes (in adults); seven conspicuous stout teeth on outer margin of mandibular tusk, with no apical spine-like setae; maxillary palps two-segmented; distal segment of labial palps asymmetric and bulbous; basal segment of labial palps densely pilose; forelegs with relatively short, triangular claws that are basally wider than tarsi; foretibiae with stout spines only; and a simple, leaf-like gill 1 (in larvae). The burrowing larvae of M. mesopotamica occur solely in large permanent lowland rivers, in clayey or muddy sediments, with particles exceeding 0.025-0.075 mm. Based on observations of their burrows, larval density is approximately 100-200 individuals per square meter. Various evidence suggests a unique phenomenon of male neoteny in Mortogenesia. Preliminary results of male dissections suggests a missing teneral adult cuticle, and male "subimagoes" and females occur simultaneously after oviposition. Mortogenesia mesopotamica is known currently from the Euphrates-Tigris basin in Iraq and from the Karkheh River in Iran.

  12. Identification and Expression of Multiple CYP1-like and CYP3-like Genes in the Bivalve Mollusk Mytilus edulis

    PubMed Central

    Zanette, Juliano; Jenny, Matthew J.; Goldstone, Jared V.; Parente, Thiago; Woodin, Bruce R.; Bainy, Afonso C. D.; Stegeman, John J.

    2013-01-01

    Various sequencing projects over the last several years have aided the discovery of previously uncharacterized invertebrate sequences, including new cytochrome P450 genes (CYPs). Here we present data on the identification and characterization of two CYP1-like and three CYP3-like genes from the bivalve mollusk Mytilus edulis, and assess their potential as biomarkers based on their responses to several known vertebrate aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) agonists. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to measure CYP transcript levels in digestive gland, labial palps, adductor muscle, gill, foot, and different regions of the mantle. Levels of both CYP1-like genes were highest in digestive gland, whereas labial palps had the highest expression levels of the three CYP3-like genes followed by digestive gland and outer margin of the mantle. Mussels were exposed by injection to the AHR agonists, β-naphthoflavone (BNF; 25 μg.g−1), 3,3′,4,4′,5-polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB126; 2 μg.g−1), or 6-formylindolo[3,2-b]carbazole (FICZ; 0.1 μg.g−1), or to Aroclor 1254 (a mixture of PCBs; 50 μg.g−1) for 24 hours, followed by CYP expression analysis. There was no statistically significant change in expression of either of the CYP1-like genes after exposure to the various AHR agonists. The CYP3-like-1 gene was significantly up-regulated by BNF in gill tissues and the CYP3-like-2 gene was up-regulated in digestive gland by PCB126 and in gill tissue by BNF. These results suggest that distinct mechanisms of CYP gene activation could be present in M. edulis, although the importance of the CYP1-like and CYP3-like genes for xenobiotic and endogenous lipids biotransformation requires additional investigation. PMID:23277104

  13. Cephalometric and in vivo measurements of maxillomandibular anteroposterior discrepancies: a preliminary regression study.

    PubMed

    Ferrario, Virgilio Ferruccio; Serrao, Graziano; Ciusa, Veronica; Morini, Maria; Sforza, Chiarella

    2002-12-01

    One of the aims of the present investigation was to assess three-dimensionally the anteroposterior discrepancy of dental bases using a noninvasive direct procedure. A second aim was to verify the relationship of three-dimensional soft-tissue measurement to the well-established two-dimensional cephalometric assessments of anteroposterior discrepancy. Dental and facial landmarks were directly digitized on 20 orthodontic and maxillofacial surgery patients aged 8 to 26 years using an electromagnetic three-dimensional computerized digitizer. The anteroposterior maxillomandibular discrepancy was measured by calculating the linear distances between the projections of subnasal and sublabial landmarks on the occlusal plane, subnasal and sublabial landmarks on Camper's plane, and insertion of maxillary and mandibular median labial frenula on the occlusal plane. From lateral cephalograms of the same patients, the following measurements were obtained: subspinale point-nasion-supramentale point (ANB) angle; corrected ANB angle that compensates for the position of the maxilla and rotation of the mandible relative to the cranial base; Wits appraisal; MM-Wits, linear distance between the projections of points A and B on the bisector of the palatal plane to mandibular plane angle; and soft-tissue Wits, linear distance between the projections of soft-tissue points A and B on the bisecting occlusal plane. The best two-dimensional vs three-dimensional linear regression (r = 0.91) was found between Wits appraisal and the linear distances between the projections of maxillary and mandibular median labial frenula on the occlusal plane (Wits = -1.05 x 3D measurement - 3.75). The three-dimensional evaluation of the sagittal discrepancy of the jaws directly performed in vivo may allow a more complete analysis of a patient's soft-tissue drape together with the underlying hard-tissue structure.

  14. How is the McGurk effect modulated by Cued Speech in deaf and hearing adults?

    PubMed

    Bayard, Clémence; Colin, Cécile; Leybaert, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    Speech perception for both hearing and deaf people involves an integrative process between auditory and lip-reading information. In order to disambiguate information from lips, manual cues from Cued Speech may be added. Cued Speech (CS) is a system of manual aids developed to help deaf people to clearly and completely understand speech visually (Cornett, 1967). Within this system, both labial and manual information, as lone input sources, remain ambiguous. Perceivers, therefore, have to combine both types of information in order to get one coherent percept. In this study, we examined how audio-visual (AV) integration is affected by the presence of manual cues and on which form of information (auditory, labial or manual) the CS receptors primarily rely. To address this issue, we designed a unique experiment that implemented the use of AV McGurk stimuli (audio /pa/ and lip-reading /ka/) which were produced with or without manual cues. The manual cue was congruent with either auditory information, lip information or the expected fusion. Participants were asked to repeat the perceived syllable aloud. Their responses were then classified into four categories: audio (when the response was /pa/), lip-reading (when the response was /ka/), fusion (when the response was /ta/) and other (when the response was something other than /pa/, /ka/ or /ta/). Data were collected from hearing impaired individuals who were experts in CS (all of which had either cochlear implants or binaural hearing aids; N = 8), hearing-individuals who were experts in CS (N = 14) and hearing-individuals who were completely naïve of CS (N = 15). Results confirmed that, like hearing-people, deaf people can merge auditory and lip-reading information into a single unified percept. Without manual cues, McGurk stimuli induced the same percentage of fusion responses in both groups. Results also suggest that manual cues can modify the AV integration and that their impact differs between hearing and deaf people.

  15. Management of a Previously Treated, Calcified, and Dilacerated Maxillary Lateral Incisor: A Combined Nonsurgical/Surgical Approach Assisted by Cone-beam Computed Tomography.

    PubMed

    Dudeja, Pooja Gupta; Dudeja, Krishan Kumar; Garg, Arvind; Srivastava, Dhirendra; Grover, Shibani

    2016-06-01

    Teeth with calcified canals, dilacerated roots, and associated large periradicular lesions involving both cortical plates pose a challenge to dentists. In addition to the nonsurgical endodontic treatment, such teeth may require surgical intervention with concomitant use of bone grafting materials and barrier techniques. These techniques, when combined with the use of a host modulating agent such as platelet-rich fibrin (PRF), may improve the chances of success. A 26-year-old woman was referred for dental treatment with a recurrence of an intraoral sinus tract 2 months after periradicular surgery in the upper anterior region. Clinical and radiographic examinations revealed a calcified and perforated maxillary left lateral incisor with a severely dilacerated root as well as an associated large radiolucent lesion surrounding the roots of the maxillary left central and lateral incisors. A cone-beam computed tomographic scan of the anterior maxilla showed erosion of the labial and palatal cortical plates in the same region. A calcified canal in the lateral incisor was negotiated up to the straight line portion of the canal. Periradicular surgery with root-end resection was performed, and root-end filling was performed with mineral trioxide aggregate. The perforation present on the middle third of the labial surface of the root was repaired with mineral trioxide aggregate, and the canal was cleaned, shaped, and obturated. A PRF scaffold was prepared and used with a collagen membrane and a freeze-dried bone allograft. Follow-up visits after 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year revealed satisfactory clinical and radiographic healing. The combined use of nonsurgical and surgical modes of treatment cannot be overemphasized in this case. The use of PRF along with a bone graft and a barrier membrane may have enhanced the speed of healing and the resolution of periradicular radiolucency by enhancing bone regeneration. PMID:27140443

  16. Embryogenesis and tadpole description of Hyperolius castaneus Ahl, 1931 and H. jackie Dehling, 2012 (Anura, Hyperoliidae) from montane bog pools

    PubMed Central

    Lehr, Edgar; Dehling, J. Maximilian; Greenbaum, Eli; Sinsch, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Tadpoles of Hyperolius castaneus and Hyperolius jackie were found in the Nyungwe National Park in Rwanda and adjacent areas. Tadpoles of both species were identified by DNA-barcoding. At the shore of a bog pool three clutches of Hyperolius castaneus of apparently different age, all laid on moss pads (Polytrichum commune, Isotachis aubertii) or grass tussocks (Andropogon shirensis) 2–5 cm above the water level, were found. One clutch of Hyperolius castaneus was infested by larval dipterid flies. The most recently laid clutch contained about 20 eggs within a broad egg-jelly envelope. The eggs were attached to single blades of a tussock and distributed over a vertical distance of 8 cm. A pair of Hyperolius castaneus found in axillary amplexus was transported in a plastic container to the lab for observation. The pair deposited a total of 57 eggs (15 eggs attached to the upper wall of the transport container, 42 eggs floated in the water). Embryogenesis of the clutch was monitored in the plastic container at 20 ± 2 °C (air temperature) and documented by photos until Gosner Stage 25. The description of the tadpole of Hyperolius castaneus is based on a Gosner Stage 29 individual from a series of 57 tadpoles (Gosner stages 25–41). The description of the tadpole of Hyperolius jackie is based on a Gosner Stage 32 individual from a series of 43 tadpoles (Gosner stages 25–41). Egg laying behavior and embryogenesis are unknown for Hyperolius jackie. The labial tooth row formula for both species is 1/3(1) with a narrow median gap of the tooth row. Variation in external morphology was observed in size and labial tooth row formula within the species. With the tadpole descriptions of Hyperolius castaneus and Hyperolius jackie, 36 tadpoles of the 135 known Hyperolius species have been described, including five of the eleven Hyperolius species known from Rwanda. PMID:26798309

  17. Mouthpart grooming behavior in honeybees: Kinematics and sectionalized friction between foreleg tarsi and proboscises.

    PubMed

    Linghu, Zelin; Wu, Jianing; Wang, Changlong; Yan, Shaoze

    2015-11-01

    The mouthpart of a honeybee is prone to contamination by granular particles such as pollen or dirt from the field. To clean the contaminated mouthparts, a honeybee swings its foreleg tarsi forward and backward to brush the proboscis continuously, sweeping the contaminant from the surfaces of the labial palpi, galeae, and bushy haired tongue (glossa). This grooming behavior has been documented but the dynamic characteristics therein have not been investigated yet. We quantified the grooming behavior of a honeybee from the perspective of kinematic and tribological properties. We captured high-speed videos that recorded the mouthpart grooming patterns of honeybees from the front and side views and measured the friction on the grooming surfaces using a precision dynamometer. During grooming, a honeybee first positions the mouthpart and then places a pair of foreleg tarsi to the tubular-folded galea. The tarsi press the galea and labial palpi and slide downward while keeping close contact with the galea. Then, the hairy glossa stretches out of the temporary tube with the glossa setae erected. The tarsi slowly slide down when grooming the glossa. In the return stroke of grooming, the foreleg tarsi detach from the mouthpart and retreat swiftly. Friction analysis shows that the honeybees can coordinate the velocity of the foreleg tarsi to the sectionalized tribological property of the tarsus-mouthpart interface. The specific grooming pattern enables honeybees to save energy and resist wear, resulting in a possible highly evolved grooming strategy. These findings lead to further understanding of the honeybee's grooming behavior facilitated by the special motion kinematics and friction characteristics.

  18. [Oral findings in severely handicapped patients participating in the periodic dental check-up system for five years--dental caries, gingival recessions and hyperplasias, periodontal diseases].

    PubMed

    Ogasawara, T; Kasahara, H; Hosaka, K; Itou, A; Nohara, S; Hiraide, Y; Kawashima, S; Watanabe, T

    1990-01-01

    In March 1987, we investigated the quality of oral hygiene, and the incidence of dental caries and periodontal diseases in 140 severely handicapped patients who had been hospitalized in two national sanatorium. All of the patients had participated under the Matsumoto Dental College Hospital Periodic Dental Check-up System for five years. The results were as follows: 1. The teeth of all the subjects had been brushed by the sanatorium nursing staff twice per day. The prevailing brushing technique was the horizontal method. 2. 37.5% of the subjects showed complete adaptability to the tooth brushing by the nursing staff. However, 2.1% showed no adaptability whatsoever. 3. The mean value of the OHI-S was 1.53. The labial surfaces of the maxillary anterior teeth showed the lowest OHI-S value, while the mandibular left posterior teeth showed the highest. 4. The DMF-T was estimated to be 12.51 (DMFT ratio = 48.2%). The average D-T was 2.07 +/- 4.03, and the average F-T was 8.43 +/- 7.22. 5. 19.3% of the patients were diagnosed with gingival hyperplasia, and 10.7% had local gingival recessions. 1) Of the patients who had taken Phenytoin daily, 35.5% were diagnosed with hyperplasia. 2) Most local gingival recessions were found on the labial gingiva of the mandibular anterior teeth. A relationship was determined to exist the local recession and the horizontal brushing method. 6. 89.2% of the patients suffered from periodontal diseases.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. The larvae of Epigomphus jannyae Belle, 1993 and E. tumefactus Calvert, 1903 (Insecta: Odonata: Gomphidae)

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez, Alonso; Delgado, Débora

    2016-01-01

    The taxonomic knowledge about immature stages of the insect order Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) is rather limited in tropical America. Here, the larvae of Epigomphus jannyae Belle, 1993 and E. tumefactus Calvert, 1903 are described, figured, and compared with other described congeners. E. jannyae larva is characterized by 3rd antennomere 1.6 times longer than its widest part; ligula very poorly developed, with ten short, truncate teeth on middle; apical lobe of labial palp rounded and smooth. Lateral margins on abdominal segments (S5–9) serrated, lateral spines on S6–9 small and divergent; male epiproct with a pair of dorsal tubercles at basal 0.66; tips of cerci and paraprocts strongly divergent. The larva of E. tumefactus is characterized by 3rd antennomere 2.3 times longer than its widest part, ligula with 6–7 truncate teeth, apical lobe of labial palp acute and finely serrate. Lateral margins of S6–9 serrate, lateral spines on S7–9; male epiproct with a pair of dorsal tubercles at basal 0.50. Differences with other species were found in 3rd antennomere, lateral spines of S7–9, and the caudal appendages. Epigomphus larvae inhabit small, shallow creeks (1st order streams) where they live in fine benthic sediments. When mature, the larva leaves the water in shady places, climbing small rocks at the water’s edge and metamorphosing horizontally on flat rocks. These new descriptions bring the total number of Epigomphus species with known larval stages to eight; only 28% of the species in this genus are known as larva.

  20. How is the McGurk effect modulated by Cued Speech in deaf and hearing adults?

    PubMed Central

    Bayard, Clémence; Colin, Cécile; Leybaert, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    Speech perception for both hearing and deaf people involves an integrative process between auditory and lip-reading information. In order to disambiguate information from lips, manual cues from Cued Speech may be added. Cued Speech (CS) is a system of manual aids developed to help deaf people to clearly and completely understand speech visually (Cornett, 1967). Within this system, both labial and manual information, as lone input sources, remain ambiguous. Perceivers, therefore, have to combine both types of information in order to get one coherent percept. In this study, we examined how audio-visual (AV) integration is affected by the presence of manual cues and on which form of information (auditory, labial or manual) the CS receptors primarily rely. To address this issue, we designed a unique experiment that implemented the use of AV McGurk stimuli (audio /pa/ and lip-reading /ka/) which were produced with or without manual cues. The manual cue was congruent with either auditory information, lip information or the expected fusion. Participants were asked to repeat the perceived syllable aloud. Their responses were then classified into four categories: audio (when the response was /pa/), lip-reading (when the response was /ka/), fusion (when the response was /ta/) and other (when the response was something other than /pa/, /ka/ or /ta/). Data were collected from hearing impaired individuals who were experts in CS (all of which had either cochlear implants or binaural hearing aids; N = 8), hearing-individuals who were experts in CS (N = 14) and hearing-individuals who were completely naïve of CS (N = 15). Results confirmed that, like hearing-people, deaf people can merge auditory and lip-reading information into a single unified percept. Without manual cues, McGurk stimuli induced the same percentage of fusion responses in both groups. Results also suggest that manual cues can modify the AV integration and that their impact differs between hearing and deaf people

  1. Changes in tooth position in humans in relation to arterial blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Ioi, H; Nakata, S; Nakasima, A; Counts, A L; Nanda, R S

    2002-03-01

    The three-dimensional physiological tooth movement synchronized with the heartbeat is called periodontal pulsation. This study utilized a computer-assisted amorphous sensor to evaluate the relation between tooth position and arterial blood pressure, and also between the amplitude of periodontal pulsation and arterial blood pressure. The measuring device consisted of a small magnet attached to the tooth and an amorphous sensor that was used to detect displacement of the tooth without actually contacting it. The sample consisted of the upper left central incisors of six healthy Japanese volunteers. The three measuring points for each tooth were on the labial surface. The cold-pressor test was used as an autonomic nerve stimulus that induces an increase in blood pressure and heart rate. Periodontal pulsation, electrocardiogram, blood pressure and heart rate were recorded simultaneously during a 1 min pre-test relaxation, a 2 min cold-pressor test and a 1 min recovery. The results showed significant correlations between tooth position and mean blood pressure in five of the six volunteers and between tooth position and pulse pressure in four. Moreover, it was confirmed that tooth position shifted in the labial direction in conjunction with an increase of the mean blood pressure induced by cold stimulation. Significant correlations were found between the amplitude of periodontal pulsation and pulse pressure in four of the volunteers. These findings suggest that in humans tooth position might be affected by the force of blood pressure transmitted through periodontal vessels and that the amplitude of periodontal pulsation tends to reflect changes of pulse pressure rather than changes in mean blood pressure.

  2. Reduced affinity of the androgen receptor for 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone but not methyltrienolone in a form of partial androgen resistance. Studies on cultured genital skin fibroblasts.

    PubMed Central

    Pinsky, L; Kaufman, M; Chudley, A E

    1985-01-01

    We have studied a child with posterior labial fusion, clitoral phallus, female urethra, and a short, blind vagina born to a mother with decreased axillary and pubic hair. Her karyotype is 46,XY. At 2 yr of age, the child's basal level of plasma testosterone was less than 0.35 nM and after human chorionic gonadotropin stimulation, it rose to 2.6. Testis and epididymis histology were normal. Her cultured genital (labial) skin fibroblasts have normal testosterone 5 alpha-reductase activity, and metabolize 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) normally, but they do not augment (up-regulate) their basal androgen-receptor binding activity during prolonged incubation with DHT. With DHT, the androgen receptor in her genital skin fibroblasts has a normal binding capacity (maximum binding capacity = 25 fmol/mg protein), but an increased rate constant of dissociation (k = 11.6 X 10(-3) min-1; normal, 6 +/- 1.2 (+/- SD)), and a decreased apparent equilibrium binding affinity (Kd = 0.6 nM; normal, 0.22 +/- 0.09) that is evident in the results of 2-h assays but not of those lasting 0.5 h. With the synthetic androgen, methyltrienolone, all three binding properties of the receptor are normal, and her receptor activity up-regulates normally. We interpret these results to mean that the subject has a ligand-selective defect in the time-dependent transformation of initial, low-affinity androgen-receptor complexes to serial states of higher affinity, presumably as the result of a structural mutation at the X-linked locus that encodes the androgen receptor protein. PMID:3872888

  3. Expression pattern of Sox2 during mouse tooth development.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Yuan, Guohua; Liu, Huan; Lin, Heng; Wan, Chunyan; Chen, Zhi

    2012-01-01

    The transcription factor Sox2 plays important roles in maintaining the pluripotency of embryonic stem cells and adult progenitors. However, whether Sox2 is involved in odontogenesis has not been reported. In this study, we examined the expression pattern of Sox2 during mouse incisor and molar development using real-time PCR, in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Sox2 mRNA was expressed in the dental epithelium and mesenchyme while Sox2 protein was mainly detected in the epithelium from embryonic day (E) 11.5 to postnatal (PN) day 20. In the case of incisor, Sox2 mRNA and protein were expressed in most of dental epithelial cells from E11.5 to E14.5, and they were both highly expressed in the labial cervical loop area from E16.5 to PN20. During molar development, we observed an asymmetrical distribution of Sox2 protein in the epithelium from E13.5 to E16.5, with stronger signals in the lingual side. From E18.5 to PN2, Sox2 was expressed within the cervical loop area, and the stellate intermediate layer. From PN6 to PN14, Sox2 expression was confined mainly to the apical end of hertwig's epithelium root sheath (HERS) cells. Sox2 was also detected within the perivascular region of the dental pulp at PN14 and PN20. Our results suggested that: (1) Sox2 was involved in mouse odontogenesis, and (2) it might participate in maintaining the pluripotency of the epithelial stem cells of labial cervical loop in mouse incisor development and the epithelium progenitors during molar development, (3) Sox2 might be regulated at post-transcription level during mouse odontogenesis.

  4. Effect of impression technique on bond strength.

    PubMed

    Su, Jiaping; Hobson, Ross S; McCabe, John F

    2004-01-01

    If the effects of surface preparation (eg, acid etching, laser preparation, crystal growth) are to be investigated on the same tooth from which the bond strength is recorded, a method of surface replication is required that does not affect the subsequent bond. This study investigated the effect of 2 different methods of taking impressions on bond strength. Three groups of 11 mandibular incisors were used. The labial enamel was etched with 37% phosphoric acid for 30 seconds. Group A (control) had no impression taken; in group B (silicone), impressions were taken with silicone impression material before bonding; in group C (polyether), an impression was taken with polyether before bonding. After the impressions were taken, GAC brackets (A Company, San Diego, Calif) were bonded to the labial surfaces of the etched enamel with Transbond XT light-cured composite (3M Unitek, Monrovia, Calif). Teeth with bonded brackets were stored in water at 37 degrees C for 24 hours, and then bond strength was measured on a testing machine. The adhesive remnant index (ARI) was also recorded. The lowest bond strength was found after silicone replication (mean [standard deviation]: 8.6 [1.7] MPa) and the highest in the control group (21.2 [4.0] MPa). There was no significant difference between the control group and the polyether replication group (19.1 [4.7] MPa). The surface detail replications of polyether and silicone were found to be identical. It was concluded that polyether had no significant effect on bond strength and was suitable for surface replication before bonding. Polyether allows replication of the enamel surface without a significant effect on bond strength, and this technique could be used to examine the relationship between enamel preparation techniques and subsequent bond strength between composite and enamel.

  5. Dispersion assessment in the location of facial landmarks on photographs.

    PubMed

    Campomanes-Álvarez, B R; Ibáñez, O; Navarro, F; Alemán, I; Cordón, O; Damas, S

    2015-01-01

    The morphological assessment of facial features using photographs has played an important role in forensic anthropology. The analysis of anthropometric landmarks for determining facial dimensions and angles has been considered in diverse forensic areas. Hence, the quantification of the error associated to the location of facial landmarks seems to be necessary when photographs become a key element of the forensic procedure. In this work, we statistically evaluate the inter- and intra-observer dispersions related to the facial landmark identification on photographs. In the inter-observer experiment, a set of 18 facial landmarks was provided to 39 operators. They were requested to mark only those that they could precisely place on 10 photographs with different poses (frontal, oblique, and lateral views). The frequency of landmark location was studied together with their dispersion. Regarding the intra-observer evaluation, three participants identified 13 facial points on five photographs classified in the frontal and oblique views. Each landmark location was repeated five times at intervals of at least 24 h. The frequency results reveal that glabella, nasion, subnasale, labiale superius, and pogonion obtained the highest location frequency in the three image categories. On the contrary, the lowest rate corresponds to labiale inferius and menton. Meanwhile, zygia, gonia, and gnathion were significantly more difficult to locate than other facial landmarks. They produced a significant effect on the dispersion depending on the pose of the image where they were placed, regardless of the type of observer that positioned them. In particular, zygia and gonia presented a statistically greater variation in the three image poses, while the location of gnathion is less precise in oblique view photographs. Hence, our findings suggest that the latter landmarks tend to be highly variable when determining their exact position.

  6. Revision of the paraphyletic genus Koerneria Meyl, 1960 and resurrection of two other genera of Diplogastridae (Nematoda)

    PubMed Central

    Kanzaki, Natsumi; Ragsdale, Erik J.; Giblin-Davis, Robin M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Recent inferences of phylogeny from molecular characters, as well as a reexamination of morphological and biological characters, reject the monophyly of the nematode genus Koerneria Meyl, 1960 (Diplogastridae). Here, Koerneria sensu lato is revised. The genus, which previously consisted of 40 species, is separated into three genera. Almost all of the transferred species are moved to the resurrected genus Allodiplogaster Paramonov & Sobolev in Skrjabin et al. (1954). Koerneria and Allodiplogaster are distinguished from each other by a weakly vs. clearly striated body surface, an undivided vs. divided stomatal cheilostom, and arrangement of the terminal ventral triplet of male genital papillae, namely in that v5 and v6 are paired and separated from v7 vs. v5–v7 being close to each other. Allodiplogaster is further divided into two groups of species, herein called the henrichae and striata groups, based on both morphological and life-history traits. The henrichae group is characterized by papilliform labial sensilla and male genital papillae, a conical tail in both males and females, and an association with terrestrial habitats and insects, whereas the striata group is characterized by setiform labial sensilla and male genital papillae, an elongated conical tail in both sexes, and an association with aquatic habitats. A second genus, Anchidiplogaster Paramonov, 1952, is resurrected to include a single species that is characterized by its miniscule stoma and teeth, unreflexed testis, and a distinct lack of male genital papillae or stomatal apodemes. Lastly, one further species that was previously included in Koerneria sensu lato is transferred to the genus Pristionchus Kreis, 1932. The revision of Koerneria sensu lato is necessitated by the great variability in its subordinate taxa, which occupy a variety of habitats, in addition to the increased attention to Diplogastridae as a model system for comparative mechanistic biology. PMID:25349487

  7. Fine structure and sensory apparatus of the mouthparts of the pear psyllid, Cacopsylla chinensis (Yang et Li) (Hemiptera: Psyllidae).

    PubMed

    Liang, Xuemei; Zhang, Chunni; Li, Zhilin; Xu, Lingfei; Dai, Wu

    2013-11-01

    The pear psyllid, Cacopsylla chinensis (Yang et Li) (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is one of the most significant economic pests of pear in China, causing direct damage through feeding by the highly specialized piercing-sucking mouthparts. The ultrastructural morphology and sensory apparatus of the mouthparts of the adult were examined using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The piercing-sucking mouthparts of C. chinensis are composed of a three-segmented labium with a deep groove in the anterior side, a stylet fascicle consisting of two mandibular and two maxillary stylets, and a pyramid-shaped labrum. Proximal to the labium, the stylet fascicle forms a large loop within a membranous crumena. Mandibles, with more than ten teeth on the external convex region, can be seen on the distal extremity. Smooth maxillary stylets are interlocked to form a larger food canal and a smaller salivary canal. One dendritic canal housing 2 dendrites is also found in each mandible. Two types of sensilla trichodea, four types of sensilla basiconica, single as well as groups of sensilla campaniformia, and oval flattened sensilla occur in different locations on the labium, whereas a kind of sensilla basiconica is at the junction of the labrum and anteclypeus. Sensilla trichodea and sensilla campaniformia, always present with denticles, are present on the middle labial segment. Three types of sensilla basiconica, two types of sensilla trichodea and two oval flattened sensilla are located on the distal labial segment. The mouthpart morphology and abundance of sensilla located on the labium in C. chinensis are illustrated, along with a brief discussion of their taxonomic and putative functional significance.

  8. Swedish Plectida (Nematoda). Part 4. The genus Leptolaimus de Man, 1876.

    PubMed

    Holovachov, Oleksandr; Boström, Sven

    2013-11-25

    Twelve known and nine new species of Leptolaimus are described from bottom sediments collected in marine habitats of Sweden, including the Bothnian Sea and Bothnian Bay, the Baltic Sea proper, Gullmarn Fjord and the Skagerrak. Three of these species have been previously recorded in Sweden while nine are new records for the Swedish fauna. The following known species are redescribed: Leptolaimus papilliger de Man, 1876, L. cupulatus Lorenzen, 1972, L. danicus Jensen, 1978, L. donsi (Allgén, 1946) comb. n., L. mixtus Lorenzen, 1972, L. pellucidus (Southern, 1914) comb. n., L. venustus Lorenzen, 1972, L. lorenzeni (Boucher & de Bovée, 1972) comb. n., L. alatus Vitiello, 1971, L. macer Lorenzen, 1972, L. septempapillatus Platt, 1973, L. elegans (Schuurmans Stekhoven & De Coninck, 1933) Gerlach, 1958. Leptolaimus primus sp. n. is characterised by the 319-472 µm long body; rounded labial region continuous with body contour; cephalic setae 1.5-2.0 µm long; amphid located 7.0-11.5 µm from anterior end; first body pore located 18.5-28.0 µm from anterior end; lateral field originating 35 µm from anterior end; female without supplements, vagina without pars refringens, vulva midventral; male without tubular and with four alveolar supplements, alveolar supplements without sclerotized inner ring; spicules arcuate and 13.5-16.0 µm long. Leptolaimus secundus sp. n. is characterised by the 576-645 µm long body; rounded labial region continuous with body contour; cephalic setae 2.0 µm long; amphid located 6.5-7.0 µm from anterior end; first body pore located 23.0-28.5 µm from anterior end; lateral field originating 18.0-23.0 µm from anterior end; female without supplements, vagina without pars refringens, vulva midventral; male with single tubular and 9-15 alveolar supplements, tubular supplement weakly arcuate with blunt tips, alveolar supplements with sclerotized lining; spicules arcuate and 23.0-26.5 µm long. Leptolaimus tertius sp. n. is characterised by the 576

  9. Description of Paracrobeles deserticola sp. n. and Nothacrobeles hebetocaudatus sp. n. (Nematoda: Rhabditida: Cephalobidae) from Iran and the phylogenetic relationships of these two species.

    PubMed

    Abolafia, Joaquín; Divsalar, Nafiseh; Panahi, Hadi; Shokoohi, Ebrahim

    2014-01-01

    Two new species of nematodes belonging to the family Cephalobidae (Nematoda, Rhabditida) are described from natural areas in the province of Kerman, Iran. Paracrobeles deserticola sp. n. is characterized by its body length of 0.48-0.60 mm in females and 0.47-0.66 mm in males, cuticle annulated and weakly tessellated into rectangular blocks with striae discontinuous across annulations, lateral field with two wings, areolated, separated by a narrow groove, lip region slightly offset, 15-20 μm wide, lips asymmetrical with two long seta-like processes arising from its margin, primary axils bearing one triangular-elongate guard process, secondary axils with two setiform guard processes with one originating from each lip, labial probolae bifurcated with long and smooth prongs having a small basal ridge, stoma 11-14 μm long, metacorpus swollen, spermatheca 33-50 μm long, post-uterine sac 60-96 μm long or 2.9-4.5 times the corresponding body diameter, vulva located slightly posterior to mid-body length (V = 50-63), female tail conical with finely rounded tip (53-67 μm, c = 9.0-10.0, c' = 2.0-3.0), male tail conical and curved ventrad with finely rounded tip (48-54 μm, c = 9.0-13.0, c' = 1.8-2.0), spicules 46-56 μm long and curved ventrad, and gubernaculum 16-24 μm long. Nothacrobeles hebetocaudatus sp. n. is characterized by its body length (0.42-0.51 μm in females and 0.42-0.52 µm in males), "single" cuticle, lateral field with three incisures, asymmetrical lips divided in two sections at level of the labial papilla, each lip with four tines along its margin, primary axils deep bearing one triangular-elongate guard process originating from the incomplete first annulus, secondary axils demarcated by narrow incisures separating the lips of the pair and without guard processes, labial probolae bifurcated and without tines (7-11 μm long), pharyngeal corpus 2.0-3.7 times isthmus length, R(ex) = 28-38, spermatheca 24-55 μm long or 2.9-3.8 times the corresponding

  10. [Custom-made mouthguards and prevention of orofacial injuries in sports].

    PubMed

    Badel, Tomislav; Jerolimov, Vjekoslav; Pandurić, Josip; Carek, Vlado

    2007-01-01

    The importance of sports dentistry has become even greater due to the role that sports have in modern society. As the risk of sports-related injuries appears already in the period of children's play and is constantly present in various risk-related sporting activities, the role of dental profession has become extremely important. Custom-made mouthguards are the most highly recommended mouthguards used for successful prevention of orofacial and dental injuries. It is important to inform athletes of the best characteristics of a custom-made mouthguard such as retention, comfort, fit, ease of speech, resistance to tearing, ease of breathing as well as good protection of the teeth, gingiva and lips. The shape and surface of the mouthguard which encloses the teeth, the gingival and the hard palate can vary depending on the anatomical features of the athlete's jaw, his/her dental arch, the type of sports activity, as well as the materials used in the manufacture of the mouthguard. Mouthguards should not extend distally further than the first molars because some athletes complain of the vomiting reflex. In addition, mouthguards may interfere with breathing. They should reach the mucogingival border labially and extend a few millimeters palatally in order to provide the best protection for the labial gingival and good retention. The labial flange should extend up to 2 mm of the vestibular reflection. The palatal flange should extend about 10 mm above the gingival margin thus enclosing the greatest part of the anterior palate surface with a slight narrowing distally not further than the first molars. Materials used in the manufacture of mouthguards should satisfy a number of physical, mechanical and biological requirements. Essential properties of materials used in the manufacture of mouthguards include water absorption, density, thickness as well as temperature transmission, energy absorption and drawing strength (tensile strength) of custom-made mouthguards. Such

  11. Lesser forms of cleft lip associated with the branchio-oculo-facial syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lin, Angela E; Yuzuriha, Shunsuke; McLean, Scott; Mulliken, John B

    2009-03-01

    Lesser forms of incomplete cleft lip (CL) have been called microform, occult, forme fruste, and congenitally healed. The association of a minimal bilateral CL in branchio-oculo-facial syndrome (BOFS) is well described and commonly referred to as a "pseudocleft." We conducted a systematic analysis of CL types in BOFS, including a retrospective cross-sectional chart and photographic review with variable longitudinal follow-up of our patients and those described in the literature. We compared data on the type of CL and palate (CL/P) and craniofacial and extracranial anomalies in patients with BOFS and classified the lesser forms CL as either minor-form, microform, or mini-microform as defined by the extent of disruption at the vermilion-cutaneous junction. The study comprised 62 patients with BOFS (1 new and 61 in literature, 4 treated by J.B.M). Forty-four patients (71%) had CL only; 16 (26%) had CL/P; and 2 patients had neither CL nor isolated CP. Thirty-five patients with CL had adequate information for analysis (defined as either seen by J.B.M., having a published photograph, or having a detailed description). The most common type was bilateral symmetrical, lesser form CL (n = 20): minor-form (n = 2), microform (n = 6), or mini-microform (n = 12). Among 17 asymmetrical forms, the left side was more severely affected side than the right (12 vs 5). Of 9 patients with CL/P and adequate clinical description, 4 were bilaterally symmetrically complete. Other anomalies, in addition to the familiar cardinal features of BOFS, included facial nerve weakness (n = 6), chin dimple or cleft of the lower lip (n = 4), upper labial pits (n = 6), minor digital anomalies (n = 12), renal anomalies (n = 14), and ectopic thymus (n = 18). This analysis reaffirms the high frequency of CL or CL/P in BOFS and the rarity of isolated cleft palate and underscores that the term "pseudocleft" lip is incorrect. The more precise lesser form designations used in this study may prove useful for

  12. Cell-Autonomous and Non-cell-autonomous Function of Hox Genes Specify Segmental Neuroblast Identity in the Gnathal Region of the Embryonic CNS in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Henrike; Renner, Simone; Technau, Gerhard M.; Berger, Christian

    2016-01-01

    During central nervous system (CNS) development neural stem cells (Neuroblasts, NBs) have to acquire an identity appropriate to their location. In thoracic and abdominal segments of Drosophila, the expression pattern of Bithorax-Complex Hox genes is known to specify the segmental identity of NBs prior to their delamination from the neuroectoderm. Compared to the thoracic, ground state segmental units in the head region are derived to different degrees, and the precise mechanism of segmental specification of NBs in this region is still unclear. We identified and characterized a set of serially homologous NB-lineages in the gnathal segments and used one of them (NB6-4 lineage) as a model to investigate the mechanism conferring segment-specific identities to gnathal NBs. We show that NB6-4 is primarily determined by the cell-autonomous function of the Hox gene Deformed (Dfd). Interestingly, however, it also requires a non-cell-autonomous function of labial and Antennapedia that are expressed in adjacent anterior or posterior compartments. We identify the secreted molecule Amalgam (Ama) as a downstream target of the Antennapedia-Complex Hox genes labial, Dfd, Sex combs reduced and Antennapedia. In conjunction with its receptor Neurotactin (Nrt) and the effector kinase Abelson tyrosine kinase (Abl), Ama is necessary in parallel to the cell-autonomous Dfd pathway for the correct specification of the maxillary identity of NB6-4. Both pathways repress CyclinE (CycE) and loss of function of either of these pathways leads to a partial transformation (40%), whereas simultaneous mutation of both pathways leads to a complete transformation (100%) of NB6-4 segmental identity. Finally, we provide genetic evidences, that the Ama-Nrt-Abl-pathway regulates CycE expression by altering the function of the Hippo effector Yorkie in embryonic NBs. The disclosure of a non-cell-autonomous influence of Hox genes on neural stem cells provides new insight into the process of segmental

  13. Clinical follow up study of 87 patients with sicca symptoms (dryness of eyes or mouth, or both)

    PubMed Central

    Pertovaara, M.; Korpela, M.; Uusitalo, H.; Pukander, J.; Miettinen, A.; Helin, H.; Pasternack, A.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To assess the prognosis of patients with sicca symptoms and to identify the clinical and immunological factors that most sensitively predict the later development of primary Sjögren's syndrome (SS) or other connective tissue diseases.
METHODS—Eighty seven patients (72 female, 15 male) with sicca symptoms were re-evaluated after a median follow up time of 11 years (range 8-17). The clinical examination included ophthalmological examination (Schirmer's test, break up time and Rose-Bengal staining). Labial salivary gland biopsy was performed and histological findings graded according to the Chisholm-Mason scale. The immunoserological tests included determination of rheumatoid factor (RF), antinuclear antibodies (ANA), anti-extractable nuclear antigen-antibodies (ENA), serum immunoglobulins IgA, IgG, and IgM, and serum β2-microglobulin (β2m).
RESULTS—At follow up 31 patients (36%) fulfilled modified Californian criteria (salivary flow measurements were not performed and Chisholm-Mason grades 3-4 were regarded as diagnostic histological findings) for possible or definite SS. Likewise, a significant progression of the histological findings was observed. Labial salivary gland re-biopsy was performed in 42 patients with grade 0-2 findings at baseline, progression to grades 3-4 being observed in 21 (50%) at follow up. The patients who later developed SS were at baseline significantly older (mean (SD) 52 (9) v 44 (14) years, p⩽0.005) compared with those not fulfilling the SS criteria at follow up; they also had significantly higher serum β2m (p⩽0.0005) and IgG concentrations (p⩽0.005), and they had positive ANA more frequently (p⩽0.01).
CONCLUSION—These results suggest that high age, increased values of serum β2m, ANA positivity and increased concentrations of serum IgG, might be useful indicators for the subsequent development of SS in patients with sicca symptoms. The prognosis of patients with these symptoms was favourable, and

  14. Emended Description of Litomosoides molossi (Nematoda: Onchocercidae) and First Records of Litomosoides Species Parasitizing Argentinean Bats.

    PubMed

    Oviedo, Mirna C; Notarnicola, Juliana; Miotti, M Daniela; Claps, Lucía E

    2016-08-01

    :  During a long-term study on biodiversity of bats in the Yungas and Entre Ríos provinces, 1,304 specimens of bats included in the families Noctilionidae, Phyllostomidae, Vespertilionidae, and Molossidae were collected and checked for filarioids. Litomosoides molossi Esslinger, 1973 was recovered from the thoracic and abdominal cavities of Molossus molossus (prevalence [P] = 6.4%); Litomosoides chandleri Esslinger, 1973 from Artibeus planirostris (P = 6.9%), Sturnira oporaphilum (P = 66.6%), Sturnira erythromos (P = 23.8%), Sturnira lilium (P = 7.2%), and Eumops perotis (P = 50%); and Litomosoides saltensis n. sp. was collected from Eptesicus furinalis (P = 1.7%). In this paper, we emend the description of L. molossi; describe a new species, Litomosoides saltensis n. sp., on the basis of 1 female specimen; and report for the first time L. molossi and L. chandleri parasitizing Argentinean bats, expanding the host and locality records. Litomosoides molossi exhibits a slender buccal capsule, with an anterior segment transparent, and the posterior chitinous portion displays 2 thickenings in the first third; possesses 1 dorsal prominent cephalic papilla and 4 labial papillae distributed around the mouth; cuticle with lateral punctuations all along the hypodermic chords in both sexes; and male with area rugosa and tail without cloacal papillae. In L. chandleri, the lateral punctuations are distributed on the posterior extremity of the body in both sexes. Litomosoides saltensis n. sp. displays a thick buccal capsule with a posterior segment well cuticularized, possessing 2 thickenings in the anterior half; 4 labial and 2 ventral cephalic papillae; a globular vulva located anterior to the esophagus-intestine junction; cuticle with lateral punctuations in the posterior extremity of the body; and tail with salient phasmids. We also provide a taxonomic key for the identification of the Litomosoides sp. of bat dwelling. Long-term studies and large sample sizes are needed

  15. Evidence regarding lingual fixed orthodontic appliances' therapeutic and adverse effects is insufficient.

    PubMed

    Afrashtehfar, Kelvin I

    2016-06-01

    Data sourcesMedline, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Virtual Health Library and Web of Science were systematically searched up to July 2015 without limitations. Scopus, Google Scholar, ClinicalTrials.gov, the ISRCTN registry as well as reference lists of the trials included and relevant reviews were manually searched.Study selectionRandomised (RCTs) and prospective non-randomised clinical trials (non-RCTs) on human patients that compared therapeutic and adverse effects of lingual and labial appliances were considered. One reviewer initially screened titles and subsequently two reviewers independently screened the selected abstracts and full texts.Data extraction and synthesisThe data were extracted independently by the reviewers. Missing or unclear information, ongoing trials and raw data from split-mouth trials were requested from the authors of the trials. The quality of the included trials and potential bias across studies were assessed using Cochrane's risk of bias tool and the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. For parallel trials, mean difference (MD) and the relative risk (RR) were used for continuous (objective speech performance, subjective speech performance, intercanine width, intermolar width and sagittal anchorage loss) and binary outcomes (eating difficulty), respectively. The standardised mean difference (SMD) was chosen to pool, after conversion, the outcome (oral discomfort) that assessed both binary and continuous. Random-effects meta-analyses were conducted, followed by subgroup and sensitivity analyses.ResultsThirteen papers pertaining to 11 clinical trials (three parallel RCTs, one split-mouth RCT and seven parallel prospective non-RCTs) were included with a total of 407 (34% male/66% female) patients. All trials had at least one bias domain at high risk of bias. Compared with labial appliances

  16. Cell-Autonomous and Non-cell-autonomous Function of Hox Genes Specify Segmental Neuroblast Identity in the Gnathal Region of the Embryonic CNS in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Becker, Henrike; Renner, Simone; Technau, Gerhard M; Berger, Christian

    2016-03-01

    During central nervous system (CNS) development neural stem cells (Neuroblasts, NBs) have to acquire an identity appropriate to their location. In thoracic and abdominal segments of Drosophila, the expression pattern of Bithorax-Complex Hox genes is known to specify the segmental identity of NBs prior to their delamination from the neuroectoderm. Compared to the thoracic, ground state segmental units in the head region are derived to different degrees, and the precise mechanism of segmental specification of NBs in this region is still unclear. We identified and characterized a set of serially homologous NB-lineages in the gnathal segments and used one of them (NB6-4 lineage) as a model to investigate the mechanism conferring segment-specific identities to gnathal NBs. We show that NB6-4 is primarily determined by the cell-autonomous function of the Hox gene Deformed (Dfd). Interestingly, however, it also requires a non-cell-autonomous function of labial and Antennapedia that are expressed in adjacent anterior or posterior compartments. We identify the secreted molecule Amalgam (Ama) as a downstream target of the Antennapedia-Complex Hox genes labial, Dfd, Sex combs reduced and Antennapedia. In conjunction with its receptor Neurotactin (Nrt) and the effector kinase Abelson tyrosine kinase (Abl), Ama is necessary in parallel to the cell-autonomous Dfd pathway for the correct specification of the maxillary identity of NB6-4. Both pathways repress CyclinE (CycE) and loss of function of either of these pathways leads to a partial transformation (40%), whereas simultaneous mutation of both pathways leads to a complete transformation (100%) of NB6-4 segmental identity. Finally, we provide genetic evidences, that the Ama-Nrt-Abl-pathway regulates CycE expression by altering the function of the Hippo effector Yorkie in embryonic NBs. The disclosure of a non-cell-autonomous influence of Hox genes on neural stem cells provides new insight into the process of segmental

  17. Periodontal regeneration with stem cells-seeded collagen-hydroxyapatite scaffold.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zeping; Yin, Xing; Ye, Qingsong; He, Wulin; Ge, Mengke; Zhou, Xiaofu; Hu, Jing; Zou, Shujuan

    2016-07-01

    Re-establishing compromised periodontium to its original structure, properties and function is demanding, but also challenging, for successful orthodontic treatment. In this study, the periodontal regeneration capability of collagen-hydroxyapatite scaffolds, seeded with bone marrow stem cells, was investigated in a canine labial alveolar bone defect model. Bone marrow stem cells were isolated, expanded and characterized. Porous collagen-hydroxyapatite scaffold and cross-linked collagen-hydroxyapatite scaffold were prepared. Attachment, migration, proliferation and morphology of bone marrow stem cells, co-cultured with porous collagen-hydroxyapatite or cross-linked collagen-hydroxyapatite, were evaluated in vitro. The periodontal regeneration capability of collagen-hydroxyapatite scaffold with or without bone marrow stem cells was tested in six beagle dogs, with each dog carrying one sham-operated site as healthy control, and three labial alveolar bone defects untreated to allow natural healing, treated with bone marrow stem cells - collagen-hydroxyapatite scaffold implant or collagen-hydroxyapatite scaffold implant, respectively. Animals were euthanized at 3 and 6 months (3 animals per group) after implantation and the resected maxillary and mandibular segments were examined using micro-computed tomography scan, H&E staining, Masson's staining and histometric evaluation. Bone marrow stem cells were successfully isolated and demonstrated self-renewal and multi-potency in vitro. The porous collagen-hydroxyapatite and cross-linked collagen-hydroxyapatite had average pore sizes of 415 ± 20 µm and 203 ± 18 µm and porosity of 69 ± 0.5% and 50 ± 0.2%, respectively. The attachment, proliferation and migration of bone marrow stem cells were satisfactory on both porous collagen-hydroxyapatite and cross-linked collagen-hydroxyapatite scaffolds. Implantation of bone marrow stem cells - collagen-hydroxyapatite or collagen-hydroxyapatite scaffold in

  18. The Effect of Temperature on Shear Bond Strength of Clearfil SE Bond and Adper Single Bond Adhesive Systems to Dentin

    PubMed Central

    Sharafeddin, Farahnaz; Nouri, Hossein; Koohpeima, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Statement of the Problem Monomer viscosity and solvent evaporation can be affected by the adhesive system temperature. Higher temperature can elevate the vapor pressure in solution and penetration of adhesive in smear layer. Bonding mechanism may be influenced by the adhesive temperature. Purpose This study aimed to evaluate the effect of pre-heating on shear bond strength of etch-and-rinse and self-etching adhesives to ground bovine dentin surfaces, at temperatures of 4˚C, 25˚C and 40˚C. Materials and Method In this experimental study, 60 maxillary bovine incisors were randomly divided into 6 groups (n=10). The central part of labial dentin surfaces was exposed with a diamond bur and standardized smear layer was created by using silicon carbide paper (600 grit) under water-coolant while the specimens were mounted in acrylic resin. Two adhesive systems, an etch-and-rinse (Adper single bond) and a self-etch (Clearfil SE Bond) were stored at temperatures of 4˚C, 25˚C and 40˚C for 30 minutes and were then applied on the prepared labial surface according to the manufacturer’s instructions. The composite resin (Z350) was packed in Teflon mold (5 mm in diameter) on this surface and was cured. The shear bond strength (MPa) was evaluated by universal testing machine (Zwick/Roell Z020, Germany) at cross head speed of 1mm/min. The results were statistically analyzed by using ANOVA and Tukey tests (p< 0.05). Results No significant difference was found between the shear bond strength of Clearfil SE Bond adhesive in different temperature and single Bond adhesive system at 25 ˚C and 40 ˚C. However, there were significant differences between 4 ˚C of Adper single bond in comparison with 25˚C and 40˚C (p= 0.0001). Conclusion Pre-heating did not affect the shear bond strength of SE Bond, but could promote the shear bond strength of Adper Single Bond. PMID:25759852

  19. Taxonomy of the Proisotoma complex. V. Sexually dimorphic Ephemerotoma gen. nov. (Collembola: Isotomidae).

    PubMed

    Potapov, Mikhail; Kahrarian, Morteza; Deharveng, Louis; Shayanmehr, Masoumeh

    2015-01-01

    A new genus is proposed based on a new species from Iran, Ephemerotoma skarzynskii gen. et sp. nov., and three known species: E. huadongensis (Chen, 1985) comb. nov., E. multituberculata (Martynova, 1971) comb. nov. and E. porcella (Ellis, 1976) comb. nov. The genus shares the characters of Subisotoma Stach and Proctostephanus Börner and is distributed in southern areas of Eurasia (Eastern Mediterranean, Iran, Tajikistan, China). Ephemerotoma gen. nov. belongs to the Proisotoma-complex and is characterized by a simple maxillary palp, only 4 guards on labial papilla E and 2 prelabral chaetae. Four s-chaetae on Abd.V are arranged in two rows, two anterior and two posterior chaetae. All members of Ephemerotoma gen. nov. are redescribed or discussed based on type or fresh material, and a key to species of the genus is given. Scutisotoma potapovi Xie & Chen, 2008 is considered a synonym of E. huadongensis, while Proisotoma anopolitana is moved to the genus Proctostephanus. Sexual dimorphism is described for three species. PMID:26701434

  20. Morphological and karyotypic differences within and among populations of Radopholus similis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Chun-Ling; Li, Yun; Xie, Hui; Huang, Xin; Wu, Wen-Jia; Yu, Lu; Wang, Dong-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Twenty populations of Radopholus similis from three countries and different hosts (19 populations from ornamental plants and one population from ginger) were compared using morphological characters, morphometrics and karyotype between progeny from both single females and 30 females of each population. Morphological diversity existed in and among the populations, even within the progeny nematodes from single nematodes compared to that of 30 females. The labial disc shape, the number of head annuli, the terminated position of lateral lips, the number of genital papillae before cloacal apertures and female and male tail terminal shape showed variation. In addition, genital papillae arranged in a double row before cloacal apertures was first found in two ornamental populations. The karyotype of all the 20 populations was n = 5. Combining our results and previous studies, we support that Radopholus citrophilus is a synonym of Radopholus similis, and that it is not possible to distinguish physiological races or pathotypes of Radopholus similis according to morphological characters or karyotype. PMID:25349501

  1. Relationship of Salivary Lactoferrin and Lysozyme Concentrations with Early Childhood Caries

    PubMed Central

    Moslemi, Masoumeh; Sattari, Mandana; Kooshki, Fahimeh; Fotuhi, Faezeh; Modarresi, Neda; Khalili Sadrabad, Zahra; Shadkar, Mohammad Saeid

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. Lysozyme and lactoferrin are salivary proteins which play an important role in innate defense mechanisms against bacteria. This study investigated the association of salivary lysozyme and lactoferrin concentrations with early childhood caries (ECC). Materials and methods. This study was carried out on 42 healthy children (age range, 36 to 71 months), of whom 21 were caries free (CF) and 21 had ECC. Disposable needle-less syringes were used to collect unstimulated saliva from buccal and labial vestibules. Fifteen children who had ECC were treated completely and their saliva was collected in the same way for the second time, three months after treatment. Lysozyme and lactoferrin concentrations were measured and recorded by the ELISA method. The intergroup comparisons were carried out using chi-square, Student’s t-test and Wilcoxon signed ranked test. A P-value less than 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results. The mean concentration of lysozyme was significantly higher in CF group compared with that of ECC group (P = 0.04). Although the mean concentration of lactoferrin in ECC group was higher in comparison with ECC group, the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.06). After dental treatment, the mean concentrations of lysozyme and lactoferrin did not change in comparison with their concentrations before treatment. Conclusion. ECC may have a relationship with lower concentrations of unstimulated salivary lactoferrin and lysozyme and reduced amounts of these two salivary proteins may be a risk factor for dental caries in children. PMID:26236438

  2. Relationship of Salivary Lactoferrin and Lysozyme Concentrations with Early Childhood Caries.

    PubMed

    Moslemi, Masoumeh; Sattari, Mandana; Kooshki, Fahimeh; Fotuhi, Faezeh; Modarresi, Neda; Khalili Sadrabad, Zahra; Shadkar, Mohammad Saeid

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. Lysozyme and lactoferrin are salivary proteins which play an important role in innate defense mechanisms against bacteria. This study investigated the association of salivary lysozyme and lactoferrin concentrations with early childhood caries (ECC). Materials and methods. This study was carried out on 42 healthy children (age range, 36 to 71 months), of whom 21 were caries free (CF) and 21 had ECC. Disposable needle-less syringes were used to collect unstimulated saliva from buccal and labial vestibules. Fifteen children who had ECC were treated completely and their saliva was collected in the same way for the second time, three months after treatment. Lysozyme and lactoferrin concentrations were measured and recorded by the ELISA method. The intergroup comparisons were carried out using chi-square, Student's t-test and Wilcoxon signed ranked test. A P-value less than 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results. The mean concentration of lysozyme was significantly higher in CF group compared with that of ECC group (P = 0.04). Although the mean concentration of lactoferrin in ECC group was higher in comparison with ECC group, the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.06). After dental treatment, the mean concentrations of lysozyme and lactoferrin did not change in comparison with their concentrations before treatment. Conclusion. ECC may have a relationship with lower concentrations of unstimulated salivary lactoferrin and lysozyme and reduced amounts of these two salivary proteins may be a risk factor for dental caries in children. PMID:26236438

  3. Two New Mylagaulid Rodents from the Early Miocene of China

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xiaoyu; Ni, Xijun; Li, Lüzhou; Li, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Mylagaulid fossorial rodents are a common component of North American Miocene fossil faunas. However outside of North America, only three species are known from Asia. Here we report two new mylagaulids, Irtyshogaulus minor gen. et sp. nov. and Irtyshogaulus major gen. et sp. nov., recovered from early Miocene sediments in the Junggar Basin in northwestern China. The two new taxa are small-sized, high-crowned promylagauline rodents. Their lower molars possess high metastylid crests, small mesostylids, broad and posterolingually expanded labial inflections, and transversely extending metalophid IIs. The mesoconid is absent in both species. The anterior and posterior fossettids are large and equally developed. Their upper M1-2s possess a square occlusal surface with five deep fossettes. The two new taxa are distinguished from each other mainly by their size, the morphology of fossettes and fossettids, development of mesial and distal lophs, posterior reduction of M3, and the orientation of m2 hypolophid. Our phylogenetic analysis indicates that Irtyshogaulus and Lamugaulus (another early Miocene Asian mylagaulid) are sister taxa. The two genera are nested among the North American promylagaulines, and share a common ancestor from North America, indicating early Miocene intercontinental dispersal within this clade of rodents. PMID:27486803

  4. Influence of wearing a scuba diving mouthpiece on the stomatognathic system - considerations for mouthpiece design.

    PubMed

    Hirose, Toshiaki; Ono, Takahiro; Maeda, Yoshinobu

    2016-06-01

    Although diver's mouth syndrome (DMS) has long been recognized by scuba divers, little attention has been paid to the influence of wearing a scuba diving mouthpiece on the stomatognathic system. In this review, DMS-related stomatognathic events (DMS-SE) while wearing a mouthpiece, the relationship between components of the mouthpiece and those events, and design considerations to reduce the risk of those events are discussed based on evidence from 32 articles concerning scuba diving mouthpieces. Forward movement of the mandible, loss of molar occlusal support, and continuous jaw clenching while wearing a mouthpiece are considered to be pathogenic for DMS-SE. Several experimental studies have suggested a relationship between incidence of those events and the design of mouthpiece components such as the connector, labial flange, platform, and occlusal rug, and the possibility of reducing risk of those events through design customization of these components. Improvement of the shape of commercially available mouthpieces and creation of custom-made mouthpieces may thus contribute to the prevention and treatment of DMS-SE and the provision of a comfortable diving environment.

  5. Comparative Evaluation of Longevity of Fluoride Release From three Different Fluoride Varnishes – An Invitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Roshan, NM; Poornima, P; Nagaveni, NB; Neena, IE; Bharath, KP

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Fluoride varnishes play a pivotal role in inhibition of dental caries by increasing remineralization. Aim To determine the longevity of fluoride release from 3 different fluoride varnishes over a period of time through salivary fluoride estimation. Materials and Methods Twenty four extracted human deciduous anterior teeth were divided into four groups, i.e., ClinproTM XT, Flouritop SR, Flourprotector and Control group. Fluoride varnishes were applied on 3mm x 3mm window on labial surface of the teeth and then the teeth were immersed and stored in artificial saliva. The concentration of fluoride in ppm was measured after 1 week, 1 month, 3 months and 6 months. Fluoride release at each time interval for different groups was statistically analyzed using ANOVA and Post Hoc Tukey’s test. Results Although all the fluoride varnishes released fluoride, with greatest release observed during 1st week by Fluoritop SR (66.92±16.30ppm), ClinproTM XT Varnish released consistently and substantially more fluoride than Fluoritop SR and Fluorprotector during 6 months analysis (p<0.05). Fluorprotector showed the lowest rate of F release among all the groups compared. Conclusion Over a period of 6 months ClinproTM XT Varnish released consistently and substantially more fluoride than other tested products. PMID:27656559

  6. Locus equations are an acoustic expression of articulator synergy

    PubMed Central

    Iskarous, Khalil; Fowler, Carol A.; Whalen, D. H.

    2010-01-01

    The study investigated the articulatory basis of locus equations, regression lines relating F2 at the start of a Consonant-Vowel (CV) transition to F2 at the middle of the vowel, with C fixed and V varying. Several studies have shown that consonants of different places of articulation have locus equation slopes that descend from labial to velar to alveolar, and intercept magnitudes that increase in the opposite order. Using formulas from the theory of bivariate regression that express regression slopes and intercepts in terms of standard deviations and averages of the variables, it is shown that the slope directly encodes a well-established measure of coarticulation resistance. It is also shown that intercepts are directly related to the degree to which the tongue body assists the formation of the constriction for the consonant. Moreover, it is shown that the linearity of locus equations and the linear relation between locus equation slopes and intercepts originates in linearity in articulation between the horizontal position of the tongue dorsum in the consonant and to that in the vowel. It is concluded that slopes and intercepts of acoustic locus equations are measures of articulator synergy. PMID:20968373

  7. Plant-Derived Chimeric Virus Particles for the Diagnosis of Primary Sjögren Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tinazzi, Elisa; Merlin, Matilde; Bason, Caterina; Beri, Ruggero; Zampieri, Roberta; Lico, Chiara; Bartoloni, Elena; Puccetti, Antonio; Lunardi, Claudio; Pezzotti, Mario; Avesani, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Plants are ideal for the production of protein-based nanomaterials because they synthesize and assemble complex multimeric proteins that cannot be expressed efficiently using other platforms. Plant viruses can be thought of as self-replicating proteinaceous nanomaterials generally stable and easily produced in high titers. We used Potato virus X (PVX), chimeric virus particles, and Cowpea mosaic virus, empty virus-like particles to display a linear peptide (lipo) derived from human lipocalin, which is immunodominant in Sjögren's syndrome (SjS) and is thus recognized by autoantibodies in SjS patient serum. These virus-derived nanoparticles were thus used to develop a diagnostic assay for SjS based on a direct enzyme linked immunosorbent assay format. We found that PVX-lipo formulations were more sensitive than the chemically synthesized immunodominant peptide and equally specific when used to distinguish between healthy individuals and SjS patients. Our novel assay therefore allows the diagnosis of SjS using a simple, low-invasive serum test, contrasting with the invasive labial biopsy required for current tests. Our results demonstrate that nanomaterials based on plant viruses can be used as diagnostic reagents for SjS, and could also be developed for the diagnosis of other diseases. PMID:26648961

  8. Magnet retained lip prosthesis in a geriatric patient.

    PubMed

    Rao, Srinivasa B; Gurram, Sunil Kumar; Mishra, Sunil Kumar; Chowdhary, Ramesh

    2015-01-01

    Surgical resection of lips is a relatively rare procedure. A defective lip may cause the patient to feel socially vulnerable as well as functionally handicapped and the defect will influence the patient's self-esteem and body image. Patients with labial defects also experience speech problems along with drying and crusting of the tissues in the area of defect. The lip and cheek provide a valve mechanism for speech. Rehabilitation of patients with this type of surgery creates numerous challenges for both the surgical and the maxillofacial prosthetic teams. The goals of prosthetic treatment include regaining favorable speech and restoration of esthetics. This case report presents a 65-year-old woman who was referred for restoration of her lost lip. This case paper describes a quick and simple method of positioning magnets with lip prosthesis attached to maxillary denture and thus esthetics and speech of the patient is restored. Use of retention magnets simplify the clinical and laboratory phase retains the denture and makes it stable and comfortable for the patient. The advent of magnets has enhanced the dental practitioner's capabilities with a remarkably improved potential for increasing prosthesis stability and preserving tissue. PMID:26929510

  9. Magnet retained lip prosthesis in a geriatric patient

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Srinivasa B; Gurram, Sunil Kumar; Mishra, Sunil Kumar; Chowdhary, Ramesh

    2015-01-01

    Surgical resection of lips is a relatively rare procedure. A defective lip may cause the patient to feel socially vulnerable as well as functionally handicapped and the defect will influence the patient's self-esteem and body image. Patients with labial defects also experience speech problems along with drying and crusting of the tissues in the area of defect. The lip and cheek provide a valve mechanism for speech. Rehabilitation of patients with this type of surgery creates numerous challenges for both the surgical and the maxillofacial prosthetic teams. The goals of prosthetic treatment include regaining favorable speech and restoration of esthetics. This case report presents a 65-year-old woman who was referred for restoration of her lost lip. This case paper describes a quick and simple method of positioning magnets with lip prosthesis attached to maxillary denture and thus esthetics and speech of the patient is restored. Use of retention magnets simplify the clinical and laboratory phase retains the denture and makes it stable and comfortable for the patient. The advent of magnets has enhanced the dental practitioner's capabilities with a remarkably improved potential for increasing prosthesis stability and preserving tissue. PMID:26929510

  10. Raising the Sugar Content – Orchid Bees Overcome the Constraints of Suction Feeding through Manipulation of Nectar and Pollen Provisions

    PubMed Central

    Pokorny, Tamara; Lunau, Klaus; Eltz, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Unlike most other bees, the long-tongued orchid bees ingest nectar using suction feeding. Although long tongues allow exploitation of flowers with deep spurs, the energy intake rate is optimal at 10–20% lower nectar sugar concentrations compared to that of lapping bees. This constraint might be compensated by a higher digestive throughput. Additionally, orchid bees might evaporate water from regurgitated droplets of crop contents. We found male Euglossa championi (n = 10) and Euglossa dodsoni (n = 12) to regularly regurgitate droplets of crop content to the base of their proboscis, generating a fluid film between the proximal parts of the galeae, glossa and labial palps. Rhythmic movements of the proboscis may help to increase convection. There was a significant change in sugar concentration between the initially imbibed solution and the resulting crop content (P<0.05) and the time individual bees had engaged in this liquid exposure behavior was positively correlated with the resulting crop sugar concentration. Female Euglossa townsendi and Euglossa viridissima showed the same behavior. Additionally, they manipulated their nectar-enriched pollen provisions for extensive periods of time before deposition in brood cells. The deposited pollen loads (n = 14) showed a significantly higher sugar concentration than the sugar-water available to the bees (P<0.001). Thus, both male and female euglossines show behaviors that promote evaporative water loss from nectar. We suggest that the behaviors have evolved in concert with suction feeding on dilute nectar from deep floral tubes. PMID:25422945

  11. Lip-reading abilities in a subject with congenital prosopagnosia.

    PubMed

    Wathour, J; Decat, M; Vander Linden, F; Deggouj, N

    2015-01-01

    We present the case of an individual with congenital prosopagnosia or "face blindness", a disorder where the ability to recognize faces is impaired. We studied the lip-reading ability and audiovisual perception of this subject using a DVD with four conditions (audiovisual congruent, auditory, visual, and audiovisual incongruent) and compared results with a normal patient cohort. The patient had no correct responses in the visual lip-reading task; whereas, he improved in the audiovisual congruent task. In the audiovisual incongruent task, the patient provided one response; thus, he was able to lip-read. (He was able to use lip-reading/to use labial informations) This patient perceived only global dynamic facial movements, not the fine ones. He had a sufficient complementary use of lip-reading in audiovisual tasks, but not visual ones. These data are consistent with abnormal development of the pathways used for visual speech perception and associated with second-order face processing disorders and normal development of the audiovisual network for speech perception.

  12. A new species of the genus Discolaimus Cobb, 1913 (Nematoda: Dorylaimida: Qudsianematidae) from Qinghai, China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wen-Jia; Yan, Lin; Xu, Chun-Ling; Wang, Ke; Jin, Sheng-Ying; Xie, Hui

    2016-01-01

    A new species of the family Qudsianematidae Jairajpuri, 1965 collected from soil from Qinghai Province, China is described as Discolaimus anemaqen n. sp. It is mainly characterized by having a disc-like lip region with six labial sectors separated by six Y-shaped radial grooves; amphid fovea an inverted-stirrup shape; odontostyle aperture 53-59% of its length; anterior part of pharynx with two swellings, basal part expanded gradually with a sheath of tissue visible ventrally and at the base; no groups of large cells observed in cardiac region; female genital system amphidelphic; tail dorsally convex, conoid, with flat ventral side and bluntly rounded terminus, and males not found. The new species is close to D. major Thorne, 1939, D. similis Thorne, 1939 and D. silvicolus Sauer & Annells, 1985 in most measurements, but can be differentiated from them by lip morphology, pharynx structure, body size, and tail shape. A key to the species of Discolaimus is also provided. PMID:27394329

  13. Description and SEM Observations of Stegelletina coprophila sp.n. (Nematoda: Rhabditida) from Caves of Andalucía Oriental, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Abolafia, J.; Peña-Santiago, R.

    2006-01-01

    A new species of the genus Stegelletina is described from caves of Andalucía Oriental (SE Iberian Peninsula). Stegelletina coprophila sp. n. is characterized by its body 386 to 536 μm long in females and 391 and 521 μm in males, lateral field with three incisures, lips bearing four tines, labial probolae 4 to 6 μm long and bifurcate, pharyngeal corpus 1.5 to 2.9 times isthmus length, spermatheca 18 to 43 μm long, postvulvar sac 0.5 to 1.6 times the corresponding body diameter long, female tail conical (24–34 μm, c = 14.2–17.2, c′ = 1.7–2.3), male tail conical (26–35 μm, c = 12.1–17.1, c′ = 1.4–1.8), spicules 20 to 25 μm long, and gubernaculum 10 to 13 μm long. Descriptions, measurements and illustrations, including SEM photographs, are provided for the species. PMID:19259457

  14. MANDIBULAR MORPHOMETRY APPLIED TO ANESTHETIC BLOCKAGE IN THE MANED WOLF (CHRYSOCYON BRACHYURUS).

    PubMed

    de Souza Junior, Paulo; de Moraes, Flavio Machado; de Carvalho, Natan da Cruz; Canelo, Evandro Alves; Thiesen, Roberto; Santos, André Luiz Quagliatto

    2016-03-01

    Chrysocyon brachyurus (maned wolf) is the biggest South American canid and has a high frequency of dental injuries, both in the wild and in captivity. Thus, veterinary procedures are necessary to preserve the feeding capacity of hundreds of captive specimens worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the mandibular morphometry of the maned wolf with emphasis on the establishment of anatomic references for anesthetic block of the inferior alveolar and mental nerves. Therefore, 16 measurements in 22 mandibles of C. brachyurus adults were taken. For extraoral block of the inferior alveolar nerve at the level of the mandibular foramen, the needle should be advanced close to the medial face of the mandibular ramus for 11.4 mm perpendicular to the palpable concavity. In another extraoral approach, the needle may be introduced for 30.4 mm from the angular process at a 20-25° angle to the ventral margin. For blocking only the mental nerve, the needle should be inserted for 10 mm from ventral border, close to the labial surface of the mandibular body, at the level of the lower first premolar. The mandibular foramen showed similar position, size, and symmetry in the maned wolf specimens examined. Comparison of the data observed here with those available for other carnivores indicates the need to determine these anatomic references specifically for each species. PMID:27010268

  15. Surgical extrusion technique for clinical crown lengthening: report of three cases.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chang-Sung; Choi, Seong-Ho; Chai, Jung-Kiu; Kim, Chong-Kwan; Cho, Kyoo-Sung

    2004-10-01

    Although a number of techniques have been proposed for clinical crown lengthening procedures, all have some limitation in terms of function and esthetics. This report presents the clinical and radiographic results of a surgical extrusion technique for clinical crown lengthening. Atraumatic surgical extrusion using a specially designed instrument (Periotome) was performed in three cases in which it was expected that extensive resective osseous surgery would have to be used for crown lengthening. Full-thickness mucoperiosteal flaps were raised both labially and palatally. The tooth was carefully luxated and extruded to the desired position without damaging the marginal bone area or root apex. No rigid splint was applied. Clinical examinations performed for more than 1 year after surgery revealed probing depths < or = 3 mm around the teeth at all sites, without bleeding on probing. The teeth functioned normally, with near-normal mobility. Radiographs showed normal periodontal contour consistent with new bone formation in the periapical area. Radiographic analysis did not show any evidence of root or crestal bone resorption or endodontic problems. The technique presented could constitute an alternative surgical approach to performing crown lengthening; it does not induce functional or esthetic deformities, especially in the anterior region.

  16. Age changes of facial measurements in European young adult males: implications for the identification of the living.

    PubMed

    Gibelli, D; Mapelli, A; Obertovà, Z; Poppa, P; Gabriel, P; Ratnayake, M; Tutkuviene, J; Sforza, C; Ritz-Timme, S; Cattaneo, C

    2012-12-01

    Metric and morphological analyses of facial features are currently applied in cases of personal identification of the living on images acquired from video surveillance systems. However, facial assessment in the forensic context needs to be based on reliable comparative data for facial measurements. Facial changes in the age range of early adulthood (20-30 years) have been rarely described so far, although such knowledge would be beneficial for comparative personal identification on images. This study investigates changes in facial measurements in European males aged between 20 and 30 years in order to identify metric characters that can be used for personal identification in young adults. A sample of 404 males of European ancestry, aged between 20 and 30 years from Germany, Italy and Lithuania were recruited for this project. Fourteen facial measurements were taken and correlation coefficients were calculated for each cranial measurement with age. Only two measurements - labial width and physiognomic ear length - seem to change between 20 and 30 years with a positive statistically significant correlation (p<0.05). These results suggest caution for what may concern personal identification by assessment of ear and mouth morphology. PMID:22990009

  17. A new large species of Myloplus (Characiformes, Serrasalmidae) from the Rio Madeira basin, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Marcelo C.; Jégu, Michel; Giarrizzo, Tommaso

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Myloplus zorroi sp. n. is described from the Rio Madeira Basin in Amazonia. The new species had been treated as an undescribed Tometes species because of the absence of a marked abdominal keel and few small spines forming its prepelvic serrae, features commonly found in the species of the Myleus clade of the Serrasalmidae (species of genera Myleus, Mylesinus, Ossubtus and Tometes) and also in species of Utiaritichthys. Myloplus zorroi sp. n. shares the following characters with its congeners and Utiaritichthys: molariform teeth (versus incisiform teeth in Myleus clade members); a labial row of premaxillary teeth separated from lingual row by an internal gap (versus absence of internal gap between premaxillary teeth rows); and an ascending process of premaxilla wide from its base to the tip (versus ascending process tapering from its base to the tip). Like other Myloplus species, Myloplus zorroi sp. n. differs from Utiariticthys by having a deeper body, approximately 60% of standard length (versus usually less than 50% of standard length). Considering all the morphological evidence, including the presence of 13–19 low spines forming the prepelvic serrae in Myloplus zorroi sp. n. versus more than 20 high spines forming a marked prepelvic keel in other species of Mylopus, the new species is here assigned to Myloplus. Comparisons of the new species with nominal species of Myloplus, representatives of the Myleus clade, and other related taxa are provided. PMID:27110164

  18. Nasolabial symmetry and aesthetics in children with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate.

    PubMed

    Fudalej, Piotr; Katsaros, Christos; Hozyasz, Kamil; Borstlap, Wilfred A; Kuijpers-Jagtman, Anne Marie

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between nasolabial symmetry and aesthetics in children with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate (CUCLP). Frontal and basal photographs of 60 consecutively treated children with CUCLP (cleft group: 41 boys and 19 girls, mean (SD) age 11 (2) years) and 44 children without clefts (control group: 16 boys and 28 girls, mean (SD) age 11(2) years), were used for evaluation of nasolabial symmetry and aesthetics. Nasal and labial measurements were made to calculate the coefficient of asymmetry (CA). The 5-grade aesthetic index described by Asher-McDade et al. was used to evaluate nasolabial appearance. Correlation and regression analysis were used to identify an association between aesthetics and CA, sex, and the presence of CUCLP. Ten measurements in the cleft, and 2 in the control, group differed significantly between the cleft and non-cleft (or right and left) sides, respectively. The significantly higher values of 9 of 11 CA in the children with CUCLP indicated that they had more asymmetrical nasolabial areas than children without clefts. However, the regression analyses showed that only a few CA were associated with nasolabial aesthetics. In conclusion, nasolabial aesthetics and nasolabial symmetry seem to be only weakly associated in patients with CUCLP.

  19. Upper canine inclination influences the aesthetics of a smile.

    PubMed

    Bothung, C; Fischer, K; Schiffer, H; Springer, I; Wolfart, S

    2015-02-01

    This current study investigated which angle of canine inclination (angle between canine tooth axis (CA-line) and the line between the lateral canthus and the ipsilateral labial angle (EM-line)) is perceived to be most attractive in a smile. The second objective was to determine whether laymen and dental experts share the same opinion. A Q-sort assessment was performed with 48 posed smile photographs to obtain two models of neutral facial attractiveness. Two sets of images (1 male model set, 1 female model set), each containing seven images with incrementally altered canine and posterior teeth inclinations, were generated. The images were ranked for attractiveness by three groups (61 laymen, 59 orthodontists, 60 dentists). The images with 0° inclination, that is CA-line (maxillary canine axis) parallel to EM-line (the line formed by the lateral canthus and the ipsilateral corner of the mouth) (male model set: 54·4%; female model set: 38·9%), or -5° (inward) inclination (male model set: 20%; female model set: 29·4%) were perceived to be most attractive within each set. Images showing inward canine inclinations were regarded to be more attractive than those with outward inclinations. Dental experts and laymen were in accordance with the aesthetics. Smiles were perceived to be most attractive when the upper canine tooth axis was parallel to the EM-line. In reconstructive or orthodontic therapy, it is thus important to incline canines more inwardly than outwardly.

  20. Scanning Electron Microscope Comparative Evaluation of Feldspathic Porcelain Surfaces under Irradiation by Different Powers of Neodymium-Doped Yttrium Aluminium Garnet (Nd:YAG) Laser

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, Mohammad Hashem; Sobouti, Farhad; Etemadi, Ardavan; Chiniforush, Nasim; Ayoub Bouraima, Stephane

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Recent use of lasers for porcelain surface treatment for adhesion of brackets to restorations has not only showed some promising results, but is also accompanied with less undesirable effects among other advantages. The purpose of this study is the comparative electron microscope evaluation of feldspathic porcelain surfaces under irradiation by Neodymium-Doped Yttrium Aluminium Garnet (Nd:YAG) with different powers (0.75, 1.5 and 2W) via the acid etching with hydrofluoric acid (HF) technique. Methods: The glazed porcelain samples were obtained by duplicating labial surfaces of maxillary central incisor teeth. The specimens were randomly treated by 4 different methods. Group1 was etched with hydrofluoric acid 9.6%. Samples in group 2 to 4 were also irradiated by Nd:YAG laser with different powers: 0.75, 1.5 and 2W. Then the samples were prepared for evaluation by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Results: Etching quality from a porosity point of view was similar for group2 and HF group. Laser with power of 0.75W has little potential to create mechanical porosity. Conclusion: In regard of the results of this study, it is possible to benefit from Nd:YAG laser with appropriate parameters for surface conditioning. PMID:25606311

  1. Direct Midline Diastema Closure with Composite Layering Technique: A One-Year Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Korkut, Bora; Yanikoglu, Funda; Tagtekin, Dilek

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Maxillary anterior spacing is a common aesthetic complaint of patients. Midline diastema has a multifactorial etiology such as labial frenulum, microdontia, mesiodens, peg-shaped lateral incisors, agenesis, cysts, habits such as finger sucking, tongue thrusting, or lip sucking, dental malformations, genetics, proclinations, dental-skeletal discrepancies, and imperfect coalescence of interdental septum. Appropriate technique and material for effective treatment are based on time, physical, psychological, and economical limitations. Direct composite resins in diastema cases allow dentist and patient complete control of these limitations and formation of natural smile. Clinical Considerations. In this case report a maxillary midline diastema was closed with direct composite resin restorations in one appointment without any preparation. One bottle total etch adhesive was used and translucent/opaque composite resin shades were layered on mesial surfaces of the teeth that were isolated with rubber dam and Teflon bands. Finishing and polishing procedures were achieved by using polishing discs. Patient was informed for recalls for every 6 months. Conclusions. At one-year recall no sensitivities, discolorations, or fractures were detected on teeth and restorations. Direct composite resins seemed to be highly aesthetic and durable restorations that can satisfy patients as under the conditions of case presented. PMID:26881147

  2. Assessment of post-contamination treatments affecting different bonding stages to dentin

    PubMed Central

    Elkassas, Dina; Arafa, Abla

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the effect of cleansing treatments following saliva and blood contamination at different bonding stages to dentin. Materials and Methods: Labial surfaces of 168 permanent maxillary central incisors were ground flat exposing superficial dentin. Specimens were divided into: uncontaminated control (A), contamination after etching (B), contamination after adhesive application (C), contamination after adhesive polymerization (D). Groups were further subdivided according to cleansing treatments into: rinsing (B1, C1, D1), re-etching (B2, D3), sodium hypochlorite application (B3), ethyl alcohol application (C2), acetone application (C3), rinsing and rebonding (D2), re-etching and rebonding (D4). Composite microcylinders were bonded to treated substrates and shear loaded micro-shear bond strength (μSBS) until failure and treated surfaces were examined with scanning electron microscope. Debonded surfaces were classified as adhesive, cohesive or mixed failure. The data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc test. Results: The μSBS values were ranked as follow; Group B: A > B3 > B2 > B1 > B, Group C: A > C3 > C2 > C1 > C, Group D: A > D4 > D1 = D2 ≥ D3. Debonded surfaces showed adhesive failure in Group B while cohesive failure in Groups C and D. Conclusions: Cleansing treatments differ according to bonding step; re-etching then rebonding suggested if etched substrate or polymerized adhesive were contaminated while acetone application decontaminated affected unpolymerized adhesive. PMID:27403048

  3. A More Favorable Lower-Lip Incision for the Removal of Deep Intraoral Malignancies.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Xian Wang; Feng, Da Jun; Chen, XiaoYang; Chen, Chuan Jun

    2016-05-01

    The straight midline lower lip-splitting incision has traditionally been performed with different types of deep intraoral malignancies for obtaining wide surgical access, and it can also be extended to the submandibular region or the neck to concurrently perform a neck dissection. But meanwhile, it is associated with unfavorable aesthetic and functional complications such as conspicuous facial scar, lip vermilion notching, stenosis of the labial sulcus, decreased lip sensation and movement, and oral incontinence. We designed a more favorable lower-lip incision, namely, para-lower lip incision, using the exposure and en blot resection of deep intraoral tumors. Compared with the traditional incision line, our designed line is shorter, and 20 outpatients (primary tumor site including buccal mucosa, tongue, mandibular gingiva, maxillary sinus, palate, and mouth floor) follow-ups indicated the postoperative scar is inconspicuous, no lip contour deformity and dysfunction or complications of facial paralysis such as distortion of commissure happened. This article reports one case of our patients who underwent para-lower-lip incision approach for the removal of squamous cell carcinoma (T3N2M0) in the left plate and the results of the patient were favorable. PMID:27159868

  4. Development of the Platysma Muscle and the Superficial Musculoaponeurotic System (Human Specimens at 8–17 Weeks of Development)

    PubMed Central

    De la Cuadra-Blanco, C.; Peces-Peña, M. D.; Carvallo-de Moraes, L. O.; Herrera-Lara, M. E.; Mérida-Velasco, J. R.

    2013-01-01

    There is controversy regarding the description of the different regions of the face of the superficial musculoaponeurotic system (SMAS) and its relationship with the superficial mimetic muscles. The purpose of this study is to analyze the development of the platysma muscle and the SMAS in human specimens at 8–17 weeks of development using an optical microscope. Furthermore, we propose to study the relationship of the anlage of the SMAS and the neighbouring superficial mimetic muscles. The facial musculature derives from the mesenchyme of the second arch and migrates towards the different regions of the face while forming premuscular laminae. During the 8th week of development, the cervical, infraorbital, mandibular, and temporal laminae are observed to be on the same plane. The platysma muscle derives from the cervical lamina and its mandibular extension enclosing the lower part of the parotid region and the cheek, while the SMAS derives from the upper region. During the period of development analyzed in this study, we have observed no continuity between the anlage of the SMAS and that of the superficial layer of the temporal fascia and the zygomaticus major muscle. Nor have we observed any structure similar to the SMAS in the labial region. PMID:24396304

  5. Apocrine Adenocarcinoma of the Vulva: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Aoyama, Kohei; Matsushima, Hiroshi; Sawada, Morio; Mori, Taisuke; Yasukawa, Satoru; Kitawaki, Jo

    2016-01-01

    Primary vulvar adenocarcinomas are very rare. We describe the rare case of primary vulvar apocrine adenocarcinoma, a histologically rare subtype of vulvar adenocarcinoma. A 57-year-old Japanese woman presented with an enlarging vulvar mass. A dark-red, hemorrhagic, ulcerated tumor was on the right side of the anterior labial commissure measuring approximately 3.5 × 3.5 cm. Preoperative biopsy showed poorly differentiated carcinoma with partial differentiation to adenocarcinoma. Systemic examination revealed lymph node metastases in both inguinal regions and no other primary source. We performed radical vulvectomy and bilateral inguinal and pelvic lymphadenectomy. Histopathologic diagnosis was apocrine adenocarcinoma of the vulva with inguinal lymph node metastases, pT1bN2bM0. Surgical margins were negative. The patient received no adjuvant chemotherapy or radiation. Inguinal lymph node recurrence occurred after six months. Reresection and adjuvant tomotherapy were performed. After a further 12 months of observation, no rerecurrence was observed. The patient is now on follow-up. PMID:27668109

  6. The Incidence of Impacted Maxillary Canines in a Kosovar Population

    PubMed Central

    Gashi, Ali; Kamberi, Blerim; Ademi-Abdyli, Resmije; Perjuci, Ferijale; Sahatçiu-Gashi, Arjeta

    2014-01-01

    Aim. The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence of impacted maxillary canines in a Kosovar population. Materials and Methods. The study consisted of a retrospective analysis of the records of 8101 patients treated in the University Dentistry Clinical Center of Kosovo between August 2001 and February 2004. The chi-squared test was used to examine potential differences in the distribution of impacted maxillary canines stratified by gender, age, location (left or right), and position. P < 0.05 was accepted as statistically significant. Results. It was found that the incidence of impacted maxillary canines was 1.62%. Of the 131 impacted maxillary canines, 101 were in female patients and 30 were in male patients, a statistically significant difference. Ages were in the range of 9 to >20 years, with a mean age of 24.38 ± 8.09 years. Of these subjects, 99 (75.57%) had unilaterally impacted maxillary canines, while 32 (24.43%) had bilateral impactions, a statistically significant difference (P < 0.00002). Impacted canines in 92 subjects (70.2%) were palatally placed, and 18 (13.7%) were labially placed. This difference was also statistically significant (P < 0.00001). Conclusion. The incidence of impacted maxillary canines in the sample Kosovar population was 1.62%, which is comparable to the findings from previous studies. PMID:27355063

  7. The British Orthodontic Society MOrth cases prize 2014.

    PubMed

    Sharif, Mohammad O

    2016-09-01

    This paper describes the orthodontic treatment of two cases that were successful in winning the British Orthodontic Society (BOS) Membership in Orthodonitcs (MOrth) cases prize in 2014. The first case describes the management of a 26-year-old female with a Class II division 2 incisor relationship on a Class III skeletal base with reduced vertical proportions. This was complicated by: an unerupted ectopic palatally displaced upper right permanent canine, an erupted palatally displaced upper left permanent canine, retained deciduous canines, generalised microdontia, an overall Bolton tooth size discrepancy, mild crowding in the upper arch, an increased overbite (complete to tooth tissue) and crossbites. Treatment involved a surgical exposure of the ectopic canine and the use of fixed pre-adjusted edgewise appliances over a period of 24 months. The second case describes the management of a 12-year-old female with a Class II division 2 incisor relationship on a Class 2 skeletal base with reduced vertical proportions. This was complicated by: an increased overjet and overbite (complete to soft tissue), mild upper and lower arch crowding and an increased naso-labial angle. Treatment involved an initial phase of modified Clark Twin Block and sectional fixed appliances followed by complete fixed pre-adjusted edgewise appliances over a period of 24 months. PMID:27086722

  8. A Reduction Technique for a Depressed and Impacted Nasomaxillary Buttress Fracture.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Kun; Kim, Hyung Mook

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study is to introduce an easy method of reducing the depressed and impacted segment in a nasomaxillary buttress fracture.Through the gingiva-labial vestibular incision, the fracture segments were exposed. A blunt end of the Cottle elevator was inserted to the cleft of the fracture segments. An upward and lateral force was applied until the impacted segment was released and reduced to its anatomical position. Then, the segments were fixed with a miniplate.Fifteen patients (12 males, 3 females, mean age: 34.5 ± 11.7 years) were operated on. In 14 patients, the fragments were reduced in the anatomical position and secondary surgery was not required. In 1 patient, however, the infraorbital rim could not be reduced enough through a gingival incision and a secondary surgery was performed to reduce the orbital rim.A blunt end of the Cottle elevator is shallow and long enough to be inserted into the cleft and strong enough to transfer the force to reduce it into its anatomical position. This reduction technique using a Cottle elevator is easy and can be used for reducing the depressed and impacted segment in nasomaxillary buttress fractures.

  9. Silk from Crickets: A New Twist on Spinning

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Andrew A.; Weisman, Sarah; Church, Jeffrey S.; Merritt, David J.; Mudie, Stephen T.; Sutherland, Tara D.

    2012-01-01

    Raspy crickets (Orthoptera: Gryllacrididae) are unique among the orthopterans in producing silk, which is used to build shelters. This work studied the material composition and the fabrication of cricket silk for the first time. We examined silk-webs produced in captivity, which comprised cylindrical fibers and flat films. Spectra obtained from micro-Raman experiments indicated that the silk is composed of protein, primarily in a beta-sheet conformation, and that fibers and films are almost identical in terms of amino acid composition and secondary structure. The primary sequences of four silk proteins were identified through a mass spectrometry/cDNA library approach. The most abundant silk protein was large in size (300 and 220 kDa variants), rich in alanine, glycine and serine, and contained repetitive sequence motifs; these are features which are shared with several known beta-sheet forming silk proteins. Convergent evolution at the molecular level contrasts with development by crickets of a novel mechanism for silk fabrication. After secretion of cricket silk proteins by the labial glands they are fabricated into mature silk by the labium-hypopharynx, which is modified to allow the controlled formation of either fibers or films. Protein folding into beta-sheet structure during silk fabrication is not driven by shear forces, as is reported for other silks. PMID:22355311

  10. Expression profile of the sex determination gene doublesex in a gynandromorph of bumblebee, Bombus ignitus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ugajin, Atsushi; Matsuo, Koshiro; Kubo, Ryohei; Sasaki, Tetsuhiko; Ono, Masato

    2016-04-01

    Gynandromorphy that has both male and female features is known in many insect orders, including Hymenoptera. In most cases, however, only external morphology and behavioral aspects have been studied. We found a gynandromorph of bumblebee, Bombus ignitus, that showed almost bilateral distribution of external sexual traits, with male characters observed on the left side and female characters on the right side. This individual never exhibited sexual behavior toward new queens. The dissection of the head part showed that it had bilaterally dimorphic labial glands, only the left of which was well developed and synthesized male-specific pheromone components. In contrast, the gynandromorph possessed an ovipositor and a pair of ovaries in the abdominal part, suggesting that it had a uniformly female reproductive system. Furthermore, we characterized several internal organs of the gynandromorph by a molecular biological approach. The expression analyses of a sex determination gene, doublesex, in the brain, the fat bodies, the hindgut, and the ovaries of the gynandromorph revealed a male-type expression pattern exclusively in the left brain hemisphere and consistent female-type expression in other tissues. These findings clearly indicate the sexual discordance between external traits and internal organs in the gynandromorph. The results of genetic analyses using microsatellite markers suggested that this individual consisted of both genetically male- and female-type tissues.

  11. Assessment of non-carious root surface defects in areas of gingival recession: A descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Caroline-Annette; Nainar, Deepavalli-Arumuga

    2016-01-01

    Background The purpose of this descriptive study was to observe the distribution of four different classes of non-carious cervical root surface discrepancies in teeth with gingival recession. Additionally to explore the different treatment modalities in the literature for each of these defects. Material and Methods A total of 150 subjects with at least one labial gingival recession were included in the study. 1400 teeth were evaluated using 2.5 X magnification loupes and UNC -15 probe for the presence of the cemento-enamel junction and step like defects according to Pini-Prato’s classification: A-, identifiable CEJ without defect; A+, identifiable CEJ with defect; B-, unidentifiable CEJ without defect, B+, unidentifiable CEJ with defect. Further a comprehensive electronic and hand search of pubmed indexed journals was performed to identify appropriate treatment modalities for these defects and their predictability following restorative/surgical or combination of both. Results A total of 1400 teeth with exposed root surfaces were examined (793 Maxillary; 607 mandibular). 499 teeth were A-, 405 were A+, 322 were B+ and 174 were B-. The distribution of these defects in different teeth was: 36% premolars, 32% molars, 21% incisors and 11% canines, collectively 68% in the aesthetic zone. Conclusions Majority of these lesions are in the maxillary aesthetic zone. Hence the presence of the CEJ and the defect must be taken into account while managing these defects surgically. Key words:Cervical abrasion, gingival recession, magnification loupes, root coverage, step defects. PMID:27703607

  12. Influence of splints and temporary crowns upon electric and thermal pulp-testing procedures.

    PubMed

    Fulling, H J; Andreasen, J O

    1976-09-01

    The influence of different splints and temporary crowns upon the reliability of electric and thermal pulp-testing procedures was examined in 10 patients with vital maxillary central incisors and 10 patients with vital maxillary central incisors and 10 patients with unilateral pulp necrosis of a central incisor. The pulp-testing procedures were: (1) Bofors Pulp Tester, (2) Siemens Sirotest, (3) heated guttapercha, (4) ice, and (5) carbon dioxide snow (Odontotest). The splints or temporary crowns were: (1) silver cap splint, (2) acrylic cap splint, (3) Hawley orthodontic plate, (4) Saur's arch bar, (5) orthodontic bands, (6) stainless steel crown, and (7) stainless steel crown with labial surface removed. A reliable electrometric pulp response could only be elicited if the pulp tester was applied directly upon enamel and preferably upon the incisal edge. In this instance metal splints or partial steel crowns applied to the tooth had no effect on the pain threshold. A false positive reaction in case of pulp necrosis was only elicited when the electrode was placed directly upon metal which contacted neighboring vital teeth. The use of ice and heated guttapercha appeared to be of limited value, due to inconsistent pulp responses. Carbon dioxide snow gave a reliable response, unless applied on the incisal edge.

  13. In vitro effects of retinoic acid on mouse incisor development.

    PubMed

    Bloch-Zupan, A; Mark, M P; Weber, B; Ruch, J V

    1994-10-01

    The developing dentition is known to express the complete set of retinoic acid (RA) nuclear receptors and cytoplasmic RA-binding proteins (CRABPI and II), and RA is required for in vitro mouse molar morphogenesis, so the role of RA during in vitro mouse incisor development was investigated. Histological procedures, immunocytochemical detection of proliferating cells, immunofluorescence detection of laminin, and in situ hybridization with RNA probes for CRABPI and II were done on the tooth-germ cultures either in the presence or in the absence of RA. RA appeared to control initial morphogenesis, particularly the asymmetrical growth of the cervical loop, and to regulate required differential mitotic activity. RA seemed also to be involved in asymmetrical laminin deposition. The distribution of the CRABP gene transcripts was similar during in vivo and in vitro incisor development. However, CRABPI gene transcript distribution in the labial part of the epithelial loop was detected in vitro only in the presence of RA. A direct role of the CRABPs during tooth development is, however, unlikely because Ch55, a synthetic RA analogue that does not bind to CRABP, had the same effects as RA on in vitro incisor development. PMID:7741659

  14. Raising the sugar content--orchid bees overcome the constraints of suction feeding through manipulation of nectar and pollen provisions.

    PubMed

    Pokorny, Tamara; Lunau, Klaus; Eltz, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Unlike most other bees, the long-tongued orchid bees ingest nectar using suction feeding. Although long tongues allow exploitation of flowers with deep spurs, the energy intake rate is optimal at 10-20% lower nectar sugar concentrations compared to that of lapping bees. This constraint might be compensated by a higher digestive throughput. Additionally, orchid bees might evaporate water from regurgitated droplets of crop contents. We found male Euglossa championi (n = 10) and Euglossa dodsoni (n = 12) to regularly regurgitate droplets of crop content to the base of their proboscis, generating a fluid film between the proximal parts of the galeae, glossa and labial palps. Rhythmic movements of the proboscis may help to increase convection. There was a significant change in sugar concentration between the initially imbibed solution and the resulting crop content (P<0.05) and the time individual bees had engaged in this liquid exposure behavior was positively correlated with the resulting crop sugar concentration. Female Euglossa townsendi and Euglossa viridissima showed the same behavior. Additionally, they manipulated their nectar-enriched pollen provisions for extensive periods of time before deposition in brood cells. The deposited pollen loads (n = 14) showed a significantly higher sugar concentration than the sugar-water available to the bees (P<0.001). Thus, both male and female euglossines show behaviors that promote evaporative water loss from nectar. We suggest that the behaviors have evolved in concert with suction feeding on dilute nectar from deep floral tubes.

  15. Dynamic formation of single-atom catalytic active sites on ceria-supported gold nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yanggang; Mei, Donghai; Glezakou, Vassiliki Alexandra; Li, Jun; Rousseau, Roger J.

    2015-03-04

    Ab initio Molecular Dynamics simulations and static Density Functional Theory calculations have been performed to investigate the reaction mechanism of CO oxidation on Au/CeO2 catalyst. It is found that under reaction condition CO adsorption significantly labializes the surface atoms of the Au cluster and leads to the formation of isolated Au+-CO species that resides on the support in the vicinity of the Au particle. In this context, we identified a dynamic single-atom catalytic mechanism at the interfacial area for CO oxidation on Au/CeO2 catalyst, which is a lower energy pathway than that of CO oxidation at the interface with the metal particle. This results from the ability of the single atom site to strongly couple with the redox properties of the support in a synergistic manner thereby lowering the barrier for redox reactions. We find that the single Au+ ion, which only exists under reaction conditions, breaks away from the Au cluster to catalyze CO oxidation and returns to the Au cluster after the catalytic cycle is completed. Generally, our study highlights the importance of the dynamic creation of active sites under reaction conditions and their essential role in a catalytic process.

  16. RARE DIAGNOSIS OF IGG4-RELATED SYSTEMIC DISEASE BY LIP BIOPSY IN AN INTERNATIONAL SJÖGREN SYNDROME REGISTRY

    PubMed Central

    Baer, Alan N.; Gourin, Christine; Westra, William H.; Cox, Darren; Greenspan, John; Daniels, Troy E.

    2012-01-01

    IgG4-related disease has been recently defined as a distinct clinic-pathologic entity, characterized by dense IgG-4 plasmacytic infiltration of diverse organs, fibrosis, and tumefactive lesions. Salivary and lacrimal glands are a target of this disease and, when affected, may clinically resemble Küttner tumor, Mikulicz disease, or orbital inflammatory pseudotumor. In some patients, the disease is systemic, with metachronous involvement of multiple organs, including the pancreas, aorta, kidneys, and biliary tract. We report a 66-year old man who presented with salivary gland enlargement and severe salivary hypofunction and was diagnosed with IgG4-related disease on the basis of a labial salivary gland biopsy. Additional features of his illness included a marked peripheral eosinophilia, obstructive pulmonary disease, and lymphoplasmacytic aortitis. He was evaluated in the context of a research registry for Sjögren syndrome and was the only one of 2594 registrants with minor salivary gland histopathologic findings supportive of this diagnosis. PMID:23146570

  17. Engrailed expression in subsets of adult Drosophila sensory neurons

    PubMed Central

    Blagburn, Jonathan M.

    2008-01-01

    Engrailed (En) has an important role in neuronal development in vertebrates and invertebrates. In adult Drosophila, although En expression persists throughout adulthood, a detailed description of its expression in sensory neurons has not been made. In this study, en-GAL4 was used to drive UAS-CD8::GFP expression and the projections of sensory neurons were examined with confocal microscopy. En protein expression was confirmed using immunocytochemistry. In the antenna, En is present in subsets of Johnston’s organ neurons and of olfactory neurons. En-driven GFP is expressed in axons projecting to 18 identifed olfactory glomeruli, originating from basiconic, trichoid and coeloconic sensilla. In most cases both neurons of a sensillum express En. En expression overlaps with that of Acj6, another transcription factor. En-driven GFP is also expressed in a subset of maxillary palp olfactory neurons and in all mechanosensory and gustatory sensilla in the posterior compartment of the labial palps. In the legs and halteres, en-driven GFP is expressed in only a subset of the sensory neurons of different modalities that arise in the posterior compartment. Finally, en-driven GFP is expressed in a single multidendritic sensory neuron in each abdominal segment. PMID:18597129

  18. Influence of force systems on archwire-bracket combinations.

    PubMed

    Kusy, Robert P

    2005-03-01

    Orthodontic forces and couples are presented for the 3 principal directions and planes by using simplified free-body diagrams, equilibrium principles, and equivalent force systems. These simplified free-body diagrams show only the forces and couples applied by the practitioner to a single tooth or a group of teeth-minus any frictional effects associated with appliances. By using equilibrium principles, these forces and couples are resisted by each root in an equal but opposite manner. When an equivalent force system is produced at the center of resistance, the simplified free-body diagram requires only 1 force and 1 couple at the center of resistance of a tooth or a group of teeth because the reactions are the same but opposite in magnitude. This approach not only is much easier to comprehend but also facilitates the conceptualization of tooth mechanics with regard to centers of rotation. Specific examples of this approach include cases in which a tooth is labially or lingually displaced, intruded or extruded, bodily translated, or bodily rotated, as well as the combined effects of translation and rotation with and without auxiliary appliances or friction. PMID:15775948

  19. Word-initial voicing in the productions of stops in normal and preterm Italian infants.

    PubMed

    Bortolini, U; Zmarich, C; Fior, R; Bonifacio, S

    1995-03-01

    It has been traditionally held that developmental anomalies in language acquisition are more frequent in neonatologically at-risk subjects. There is some suggestion that proficiency in phonology is correlated with motor control development. The purpose of this paper was to compare the patterns of acquisition of the control of the acoustic-phonetic cues for voicing in the speech of premature infants and controls. The measure studied was initial stop consonant voice onset time (VOT), which is known to be the most reliable acoustic cue for the distinction between voiced and voiceless stops. The total population of the study consisted of 7 infants born at less than 37 weeks gestation and a control group of 7 infants born full-term at normal weight; 7 adults, aged 24-26 years, also participated. Each child was recorded under standard recording conditions saying words contrasting labial, dental and velar voiced and voiceless initial stops. Elicited word productions were collected monthly from infants, at different age levels, ranging from 18 to 21 months. The results show that the subjects are more advanced in the acquisition of the appropriate VOT values for the voiceless than for the voiced consonants. This difficulty may be related to the increased neuromuscular control and more complex muscle activity necessary for maintaining voicing during the closure, especially for velar stops. It is important to recognize the possibility that increased variability in preterm children may be related to some neuromuscular immaturity.

  20. Nailfold capillaroscopic findings in primary Sjögren's syndrome with and without Raynaud's phenomenon and/or positive anti-SSA/Ro and anti-SSB/La antibodies.

    PubMed

    Corominas, Hèctor; Ortiz-Santamaría, Vera; Castellví, Iván; Moreno, Mireia; Morlà, Rosa; Clavaguera, Teresa; Erra, Alba; Martínez-Pardo, Silvia; Ordóñez, Sergi; Santo, Pilar; Reyner, Patricia; González, Maria José; Codina, Oriol; Gelman, Mario Saul; Juanola-Roura, Xavier; Olivé, Alex; Torrente-Segarra, Vicenç

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess nailfold capillaroscopic (NC) findings in patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (PSS) with and without Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) as well as in the presence of positive anti-SSA/Ro and anti-SSB/La antibodies. Videocapillaroscopy was performed in 150 patients with PSS. Data collected included demographics, presence of RP, PSS symptoms, antinuclear antibodies, rheumatoid factor, anti-Ro, anti-La, anti-CCP, salivary scintigraphy, labial biopsy, and NC findings. RP was present in 32% of PSS, keratoconjunctivitis sicca in 91%, oral xerosis in 93%, and skin or genital xerosis in 53%. In patients with positive anti-SSA/Ro (75%) and positive anti-SSB/La (40%), NC showed normal findings in 53% of cases and non-specific in 36%. In patients with PSS, NC was normal in 51% of cases and non-specific in 34%. Scleroderma pattern was found in 14 patients. RP associated with PSS had non-specific capillaroscopy in 40% of cases (p = 0.1). Pericapillary haemorrhages (p = 0.06) and capillary thrombosis (p = 0.2) were not increased, but more dilated capillaries were detected in 48% of cases. Patients with positive anti-Ro and/or anti-La have not a distinct NC profile. Patients with RP associated with PSS had more dilated capillaries, but neither pericapillary haemorrhages nor capillary thrombosis was observed.

  1. Evaluation of changes in Streptococcus mutans colonies in microflora of the Indian population with fixed orthodontics appliances

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Chandresh; Maurya, Raj Kumar; Singh, Vinod; Tijare, Manisha

    2016-01-01

    Background: Orthodontic therapy has oral ecological changes causing increased numbers of mutans streptococci in saliva and plaque. The purpose of this study was to estimate counts and colonization pattern of Streptococcus mutans after application of fixed orthodontic appliances. Materials and Methods: Plaque samples of randomly selected sixty patients were collected before placement of orthodontic appliances from buccal and labial aspects of the anterior teeth and four first molars and readings were recorded as T0. After placement of appliances (0.22 MBT preadjusted Gemini), i.e., 2nd and 3rd month, the plaque samples were collected again from same site and readings were recorded as T1 and T2, respectively. Counts of S. mutans in these patients were determined by using DM Strips (Orion Diagnostic, Espoo, Finland). Kruskal–Wallis test and Mann–Whitney U-test were used to find out significant differences between different time interval for Dentocult score for S. mutans in orthodontic patients (P < 0.001). Results: Prior to the treatment, 46 patients (76%) showed mild and 14 patients (24%) showed moderate colonization of S. mutans. After treatment, the severity of colonization increased showing fifty patients (84%) moderate and six patients (10%) showing severe colonization of S. mutans at T1, which further increased in severity at T2 with 54 patients (90%) showing severe colonization with S. mutans. Conclusion: Results showed that fixed orthodontic appliance increases colonization of S. mutans during orthodontic treatment. PMID:27605987

  2. A staged approach of implant placement in immediate extraction sockets for preservation of peri-implant soft and hard tissue

    PubMed Central

    Vinnakota, Dileep Nag; Akula, Sreenivasa Rao; Krishna Reddy, V. Vamsi; Sankar, V. Vijay

    2014-01-01

    Esthetic zone restoration is a challenging aspect in implant dentistry because of two critical factors such as level of bone support and soft tissue dimensions. Preservation of healthy peri-implant tissues is of primary importance for ensuring better esthetics over an extended period. The aim of the present case-series was to evaluate a new staged approach of implant placement in immediate extraction sockets for preservation of peri-implant soft and hard tissues. Four subjects scheduled for extraction of teeth in the esthetic zone with neither a periapical nor periodontal infection and with thick tissue biotype were included. For all the subjects sand blasted, large grit, acid etched platform switched implant with a diameter 2 mm less than the diameter of extraction socket and a conical abutment-implant connection (Morse taper) were placed 2 mm below the crest of the socket, with almost 2 mm gap between the labial plate and the implant with shoulder placed palatally/lingually. The implants were loaded after 2 months healing period and followed for a period of 1-2 years. In all the four patients there was preservation of both hard and soft tissues around the implant with a good esthetic outcome in all the follow up visits. Integrating immediate placement with stable implant-abutment connection, platform switching concept and careful case selection, we can achieve a very good esthetic outcome. PMID:24872643

  3. Epinephrine Affects Pharmacokinetics of Ropivacaine Infiltrated Into Palate.

    PubMed

    Yamashiro, Mikiko; Hashimoto, Shuichi; Yasuda, Asako; Sunada, Katsuhisa

    2016-01-01

    Pulpal anesthesia success rates for ropivacaine following maxillary infiltration anesthesia seem to be low. We investigated the hypothesis that the addition of epinephrine would affect the pharmacokinetics of ropivacaine by retaining ropivacaine in the mucosa of the injected area through the time-dependent distribution of ropivacaine in the rat maxilla and serum following maxillary infiltration anesthesia using (3)H-labeled ropivacaine. We then examined the vasoactivity of ropivacaine with or without epinephrine on local peripheral blood flow. The addition of epinephrine to ropivacaine increased ropivacaine concentrations in the palatal mucosa and adjacent maxilla by more than 3 times that of plain ropivacaine at 20 minutes. By observing the autoradiogram of (3)H-ropivacaine, plain ropivacaine in the maxilla was remarkably reduced 20 minutes after injection. However, it was definitely retained in the palatal mucosa, hard palate, adjacent maxilla, and maxillary nerve after the administration with epinephrine. Ropivacaine with epinephrine significantly decreased labial blood flow. This study suggests that 10 μg/mL epinephrine added to 0.5% ropivacaine could improve anesthetic efficacy and duration for maxillary infiltration anesthesia over plain ropivacaine.

  4. Smelling wrong: hormonal contraception in lemurs alters critical female odour cues.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Jeremy Chase; Boulet, Marylène; Drea, Christine M

    2011-01-01

    Animals, including humans, use olfaction to assess potential social and sexual partners. Although hormones modulate olfactory cues, we know little about whether contraception affects semiochemical signals and, ultimately, mate choice. We examined the effects of a common contraceptive, medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA), on the olfactory cues of female ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta), and the behavioural response these cues generated in male conspecifics. The genital odorants of contracepted females were dramatically altered, falling well outside the range of normal female variation: MPA decreased the richness and modified the relative abundances of volatile chemicals expressed in labial secretions. Comparisons between treatment groups revealed several indicator compounds that could reliably signal female reproductive status to conspecifics. MPA also changed a female's individual chemical 'signature', while minimizing her chemical distinctiveness relative to other contracepted females. Most remarkably, MPA degraded the chemical patterns that encode honest information about genetic constitution, including individual diversity (heterozygosity) and pairwise relatedness to conspecifics. Lastly, males preferentially investigated the odorants of intact over contracepted females, clearly distinguishing those with immediate reproductive potential. By altering the olfactory cues that signal fertility, individuality, genetic quality and relatedness, contraceptives may disrupt intraspecific interactions in primates, including those relevant to kin recognition and mate choice. PMID:20667870

  5. Impacted Canines: Our Clinical Experience

    PubMed Central

    Chawla, Sonia; Marya, Karan; Jhamb, Aakarsh; Bhatia, Hind Pal

    2011-01-01

    Background To discuss the management of impacted canines and the various approaches used for the same. Materials and methods The data of 33 cases, with 43 impacted canine teeth, seen and operated over a period of 3-year in Santosh Dental College and Hospital has been compiled. The diagnostic methods and treatment modalities undertaken are described and discussed. Results Canine impactions were more common in the maxilla as compared with mandible in our study, which was statistically significant. Impacted canine position was mostly palatal in maxilla and labial in mandible. Chi-square test yielded a p-value of 0.002 which shows that there is an association between arch and position. The treatment options used were surgical exposure and orthodontic repositioning, cyst enucleation with extraction of impacted canine and surgical removal of impacted canine. Conclusion Surgical exposure and orthodontic repositioning was successfully applied as first-line treatment for correcting ectopic positioned canine. In cases where exposure and subsequent orthodontic treatment was not indicated, the impacted canine was surgically removed to prevent future problems and surgical procedure was designed according to position of impacted canine.

  6. Proteomic characterization of mucosal secretions in the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica.

    PubMed

    Pales Espinosa, Emmanuelle; Koller, Antonius; Allam, Bassem

    2016-01-30

    The soft body surface of marine invertebrates is covered by a layer of mucus, a slippery gel secreted by mucocytes lining epithelia. The functions of this gel are diverse including locomotion, cleansing, food particles processing and defense against physicochemical injuries and infectious agents. In oysters, mucus covering pallial organs has been demonstrated to have a major importance in the processing of food particles and in the interactions with waterborne pathogens. Given the limited information available on mucus in bivalves and the apparent wide spectra of activity of bioactive molecules present in this matrix, the characterization of these mucosal secretions has become a research priority. In this study, mucus was separately collected from the mantle, gills and labial palps of the eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) and analyzed by liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. Results showed the presence of a wide variety of molecules involved in host-microbe interactions, including putative adhesion molecules (e.g. c-type lectins) confirming that transcripts previously identified in epithelial cells are translated into proteins secreted in mucus. Mucus composition was different among samples collected from different organs. These results generate a reference map for C. virginica pallial mucus to better characterize the various physiological functions of mucosal secretions.

  7. Analysis of fused maxillary incisor dentition in p53-deficient exencephalic mice

    PubMed Central

    KAUFMAN, M. H.; KAUFMAN, D. B.; BRUNE, R. M.; STARK, M.; ARMSTRONG, J. F.; CLARKE, A. R.

    1997-01-01

    Out of a total of 21 exencephalic p53-deficient embryonic and newborn mice, 6 (28.6%) possessed fused maxillary incisor teeth. On histological analysis of the 5 examples seen on day 19.5 of gestation and newborn mice, 3 varieties were observed: an example of ‘simple’ fusion, 3 examples of simple fusion each of which contained a ‘dens in dente’ (‘tooth within a tooth’), and a single example in which the fused teeth were associated with a median supernumerary incisor tooth which, while deeply indenting the labial surface of the fused teeth, was in all locations a completely separate unit. 3-D reconstructions of the fused teeth demonstrated that they were all of the fusio subtotalis variety. No gross abnormalities were observed in the other dentition in these mice. It is noted that in mice fused maxillary incisor teeth are relatively commonly associated with both hypervitaminosis A-induced and trypan blue-induced exencephaly. It is believed that the presence of dens in dente within fused maxillary incisor teeth has only once been reported in mice, and the association between fused maxillary incisor teeth and a median supernumerary incisor tooth has not previously been reported in this species. PMID:9279659

  8. Unique feeding morphology in a new prognathous extinct porpoise from the Pliocene of California.

    PubMed

    Racicot, Rachel A; Deméré, Thomas A; Beatty, Brian L; Boessenecker, Robert W

    2014-03-31

    Modern porpoises (Odontoceti: Phocoenidae) are some of the smallest cetaceans and usually feed near the seafloor on small fish and cephalopods [1-3]. Within both extinct and extant phocoenids, no evidence for specialized mandibular morphology has been documented [4-7]. Here we describe a new species of extinct porpoise, Semirostrum ceruttii, from the marine Pliocene San Diego (4.2-1.6 mega-annum, Ma) and Purisima (5-2.5 Ma) formations of California. The mandibles comprise a long, fused, and nearly edentulous prognathous symphysis, extending farther beyond the rostrum than in any known mammal. Phylogenetic analyses based on morphology reconstruct Semirostrum ceruttii as sister to extant (crown) porpoise species with moderate support. We describe the spectacularly preserved holotype specimen based on computed tomography (CT) scans, which allowed visualization of the elongate mental and accessory canals within the symphysis. The elongate canals are similar to those found in Rynchops birds [8] and were likely involved in sensory function. Oblique labial wear facets present on numerous small conical mandibular teeth posterior to the symphysis suggest regular contact with benthic substrate. The unique mandibular and dental characteristics, along with robust scapulae, sternum, and unfused cervical vertebrae, support the interpretation that this species employed a form of benthic skim feeding by using its mandible to probe for and obtain prey.

  9. An Unusual Basal Therizinosaur Dinosaur with an Ornithischian Dental Arrangement from Northeastern China

    PubMed Central

    Pu, Hanyong; Kobayashi, Yoshitsugu; Lü, Junchang; Xu, Li; Wu, Yanhua; Chang, Huali; Zhang, Jiming; Jia, Songhai

    2013-01-01

    Therizinosauria are an unusual group of theropod dinosaurs, found mostly in the Cretaceous deposits in Mongolia, China and western USA. The basal forms of this group are represented by incomplete or disarticulated material. Here, we report a nearly complete, articulated skeleton of a new basal therizinosaur from the Early Cretaceous Yixian Formation of Jianchang County, western part of Liaoning Province, which sheds light on our understanding of anatomy of basal therizinosaurs. This new dinosaur shows some typical therizinosaur features, such as neural spines of the anterior caudal vertebrae that possess anterior and posterior alae, a rectangular buttress on the ventrolateral side of the proximal end of metacarpal I, and appressed metatarsal shafts. Our phylogenetic analysis suggests that it is a basal therizinosaur (sister taxon to Therizinosauroidea) because it bears many basal therizinosaur characters in the dentition, pelvis and hind limbs. The new therizinosaur described here has unique tooth and jaw characters such as the offsetting of the tooth row by a shelf and dentary teeth with labially concave and lingually convex dentary teeth, similar to ornithopods and ceratopsians. PMID:23734177

  10. Pharyngostrongylus thylogale n. sp. (Nematoda: Strongylida) from the stomachs of macropodid marsupials defined by morphological and molecular criteria.

    PubMed

    Chilton, Neil B; Huby-Chilton, Florence; Gasser, Robin B; Koehler, Anson V; Beveridge, Ian

    2016-10-01

    Pharyngostrongylus thylogale n. sp. (Nematoda: Strongylida) is described from the stomach of the red-legged pademelon, Thylogale stigmatica (Gould) (Marsupialia: Macropodidae) from north-eastern Queensland and Papua New Guinea, having formerly been confused with P. iota Johnston & Mawson, 1939. Pharyngostrongylus thylogale n. sp. differs from all congeners in having 12 labial crown elements rather than eight or 16. Pharyngostrongylus iota was found in T. stigmatica, but only in southern Queensland and northern New South Wales, in the subspecies T. s. wilcoxi, compared with P. thylogale n. sp. which was found in T. s. stigmatica in northern Queensland and T. s. oriomo in Papua New Guinea. Differences in the sequences of the first and second internal transcribed spacers (ITS-1 and ITS-2) of the nuclear ribosomal DNA of P. thylogale n. sp. and ten congeners support the erection of the new species, and the validity of the morphospecies examined. However, results of the phylogenetic analyses of the molecular data also provide evidence for the existence of cryptic species within P. kappa Mawson, 1965. No obvious co-evolutionary relationships were observed between parasite species and their macropodid marsupial hosts. PMID:27638730

  11. Bone stress and strain modification in diastema closure: 3D analysis using finite element method.

    PubMed

    Geramy, Allahyar; Bouserhal, Joseph; Martin, Domingo; Baghaeian, Pedram

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the stress and strain distribution in the alveolar bone between two central incisors in the process of diastema closure with a constant force. A 3-dimensional computer modeling based on finite element techniques was used for this purpose. A model of an anterior segment of the mandible containing cortical bone, spongy bone, gingivae, PDL and two central incisors with a bracket in the labial surface of each tooth were designed. The von Mises stress and strain was evaluated in alveolar bone along a path of nodes defined in a cresto-apical direction in the midline between two teeth. It was observed that stress and strain of alveolar bone increased in midline with a constant force to close the diastema regardless of the type of movement in gradual steps of diastema closure, however the stress was higher in the tipping movement than the bodily so it can be suggested that a protocol of force system modification should be introduced to compensate for the stress and strain changes caused by the reduced distance to avoid the unwanted stress alteration during the diastema closure. PMID:26277458

  12. New long-proboscid lacewings of the mid-Cretaceous provide insights into ancient plant-pollinator interactions

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xiu-Mei; Zhang, Wei-Wei; Liu, Xing-Yue

    2016-01-01

    Many insects with long-proboscid mouthparts are among the pollinators of seed plants. Several cases of the long-proboscid pollination mode are known between fossil insects (e.g., true flies, scorpionflies, and lacewings) and various extinct gymnosperm lineages, beginning in the Early Permian and increasing during the Middle Jurassic to Early Cretaceous. However, details on the morphology of lacewing proboscides and the relevant pollination habit are largely lacking. Here we report on three lacewing species that belong to two new genera and a described genus from mid-Cretaceous (Albian-Cenomanian) amber of Myanmar. All these species possess relatively long proboscides, which are considered to be modified from maxillary and labial elements, probably functioning as a temporary siphon for feeding on nectar. Remarkably, these proboscides range from 0.4–1.0 mm in length and are attributed to the most diminutive ones among the contemporary long-proboscid insect pollinators. Further, they clearly differ from other long-proboscid lacewings which have a much longer siphon. The phylogenetic analysis indicates that these Burmese long-proboscid lacewings belong to the superfamily Psychopsoidea but cannot be placed into any known family. The present findings represent the first description of the mouthparts of long-proboscid lacewings preserved in amber and highlight the evolutionary diversification of the ancient plant-pollinator interactions. PMID:27149436

  13. Diagnostic Accuracy of Cone-Beam Computed Tomography and Periapical Radiography in Internal Root Resorption

    PubMed Central

    Madani, Zahrasadat; Moudi, Ehsan; Bijani, Ali; Mahmoudi, Elham

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic value of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and periapical (PA) radiography in detecting internal root resorption. Methods and Materials: Eighty single rooted human teeth with visible pulps in PA radiography were split mesiodistally along the coronal plane. Internal resorption like lesions were created in three areas (cervical, middle and apical) in labial wall of the canals in different diameters. PA radiography and CBCT images were taken from each tooth. Two observers examined the radiographs and CBCT images to evaluate the presence of resorption cavities. The data were statistically analyzed and degree of agreement was calculated using Cohen’s kappa (k) values. Results: The mean±SD of agreement coefficient of kappa between the two observers of the CBCT images was calculated to be 0.681±0.047. The coefficients for the direct, mesial and distal PA radiography were 0.405±0.059, 0.421±0.060 and 0.432±0.056, respectively (P=0.001). The differences in the diagnostic accuracy of resorption of different sizes were statistically significant (P<0.05); however, the PA radiography and CBCT, had no statistically significant differences in detection of internal resorption lesions in the cervical, middle and apical regions. Conclusion: Though, CBCT has a higher sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value in comparison with conventional radiography, this difference was not significant. PMID:26843878

  14. A Reduction Technique for a Depressed and Impacted Nasomaxillary Buttress Fracture.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Kun; Kim, Hyung Mook

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study is to introduce an easy method of reducing the depressed and impacted segment in a nasomaxillary buttress fracture.Through the gingiva-labial vestibular incision, the fracture segments were exposed. A blunt end of the Cottle elevator was inserted to the cleft of the fracture segments. An upward and lateral force was applied until the impacted segment was released and reduced to its anatomical position. Then, the segments were fixed with a miniplate.Fifteen patients (12 males, 3 females, mean age: 34.5 ± 11.7 years) were operated on. In 14 patients, the fragments were reduced in the anatomical position and secondary surgery was not required. In 1 patient, however, the infraorbital rim could not be reduced enough through a gingival incision and a secondary surgery was performed to reduce the orbital rim.A blunt end of the Cottle elevator is shallow and long enough to be inserted into the cleft and strong enough to transfer the force to reduce it into its anatomical position. This reduction technique using a Cottle elevator is easy and can be used for reducing the depressed and impacted segment in nasomaxillary buttress fractures. PMID:27428920

  15. [Oromandibular reconstruction with free peroneal flap and osseointegrated implants].

    PubMed

    Navarro Cuéllar, C; Cuesta Gil, M; Plasencia Delgado, J; Guerra Martínez, B; Acero Sanz, J; López de Atalaya, F J; Ochandiano Caicoya, S; Navarro Vila, C

    2003-01-01

    Free fibula flaps have proved to be one of the most versatile for oromandibular reconstruction due to the available length of bone and the possibility of incorporating a long skin paddle to cover intraoral soft tissues. The use of a osseointegrated dental implants is an important technique for the oral rehabilitation of these patients. Osseointegrated implants provide the most rigid prosthetic stabilization available to withstand masticatory forces. These implants can be placed immediately or in second time procedure. In our case, implantation in the fibula free flap is done after 6-9 months because of the large amount of osteosynthesis material required for the fixation of the flap. Four or six months later, when osseointegration has taken place, the implants are loaded with a dental rehabilitation. We analize 10 cases of mandibular reconstruction with fibula free flap and their aesthetic and functional rehabilitation with osseointegrated implants with a 2 year follow up. Forty-six dental implants were placed developing all of them but one a correct osseointegration. All these patients recovered masticatory function and underwent a considerable improvement in labial competence, salivary continence, speech articulation and facial harmony.

  16. Influence of wearing a scuba diving mouthpiece on the stomatognathic system - considerations for mouthpiece design.

    PubMed

    Hirose, Toshiaki; Ono, Takahiro; Maeda, Yoshinobu

    2016-06-01

    Although diver's mouth syndrome (DMS) has long been recognized by scuba divers, little attention has been paid to the influence of wearing a scuba diving mouthpiece on the stomatognathic system. In this review, DMS-related stomatognathic events (DMS-SE) while wearing a mouthpiece, the relationship between components of the mouthpiece and those events, and design considerations to reduce the risk of those events are discussed based on evidence from 32 articles concerning scuba diving mouthpieces. Forward movement of the mandible, loss of molar occlusal support, and continuous jaw clenching while wearing a mouthpiece are considered to be pathogenic for DMS-SE. Several experimental studies have suggested a relationship between incidence of those events and the design of mouthpiece components such as the connector, labial flange, platform, and occlusal rug, and the possibility of reducing risk of those events through design customization of these components. Improvement of the shape of commercially available mouthpieces and creation of custom-made mouthpieces may thus contribute to the prevention and treatment of DMS-SE and the provision of a comfortable diving environment. PMID:26486490

  17. In Vivo Evaluations of Inter-Observer Reliability Using VITA Easyshade® Advance 4.0 Dental Shade-Matching Device

    PubMed Central

    KNEZOVIĆ, Dubravka; ZLATARIĆ, Davor; Illeš, Iva Ž.; Alajbeg, Maja; Žagar

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the inter-observer reliability of dental shade-matching device using an in vivo model. Materials and methods Four observers who were well trained in color assessment and handling of the dental shade-matching device determined teeth color and CIE-Lab values on maxillary right central incisors in 10 patients with completely healthy and intact dentitions. VITA Easyshade® Advance 4.0 shade-matching device was utilized to measure the central region of the labial surface of all investigated teeth, twice by each observer. The inter-observer reliability of the measurements was observed and deviations between Lab and ∆E values between the observers were calculated. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were used to analyze inter-observer reliability. Results One-way ANOVA showed no statistically significant differences in color measurement of four observers in all the measured values (p>0.05). Delta E values ranged from 3.018 to 5.234. Although some small differences existed, statistically significant differences between the observers were not found (p>0.05). Inter-observer ICCs were very high for all observers (from 0.651 to 0.992). Conclusion Inter-examiner reliability of measurements using VITA Easyshade® Advance 4.0 shade-matching device was acceptable. Apart from the digital equipment, a well trained observer seems to be crucial in order to achieve correct dental color measurement.

  18. [Peutz-Jeghers syndrome manifested as massive melæna at CHU-JRA Madagascar hospital: a case report].

    PubMed

    Martinetti, Andrianimaro Florelia; Andriantsoa, Rasoanaivo Mamy; Andriambelo, Rajaonera Tovohery; Nicole, Rakotoarison Ratsaraharimanana Cathérine; Enintsoa, Raveloson Nasolotsiry

    2016-01-01

    Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (SPJ) is characterized by intestinal hamartomatous polyps in association with mucocutaneous lentiginosis. Patients are exposed to mechanical and bleeding complications. It is a cancer predisposition syndrome. Our study highlights the diagnostic criteria for Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (SPJ), the complications and the therapeutic progresses in patient care. We report the case of a 32-year-old male presenting with a massive melaena. It was hospitalized in the surgical intensive care unit with hypovolemic shock difficult to control. This required surgical intervention to stop bleeding. We found a hamartomatous polyps in the small intestine which caused bleeding. Peutz Jeghers Syndrome was diagnosed on the basis of labial lentigines during childhood. Clinical and paraclinical explorations did not reveal the presence of cancer. In Madagascar, this disease is still poorly understood. In the literature, the diagnosis of Peutz Jeghers syndrome is based on clinical findings or on the presence of complications such as haemorrhage, invagination or bowel obstruction. In our case, the disease was complicated by gastrointestinal bleeding with hypovolemic shock. Endoscopic polypectomy using double-balloon enteroscopy can reduce emergency small bowel surgery. Peutz-Jeghers syndrome is a rare disease. Despite this, it is important for clinicians to know it and to take it into consideration in case of gastrointestinal bleeding.

  19. Plant-Derived Chimeric Virus Particles for the Diagnosis of Primary Sjögren Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Tinazzi, Elisa; Merlin, Matilde; Bason, Caterina; Beri, Ruggero; Zampieri, Roberta; Lico, Chiara; Bartoloni, Elena; Puccetti, Antonio; Lunardi, Claudio; Pezzotti, Mario; Avesani, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Plants are ideal for the production of protein-based nanomaterials because they synthesize and assemble complex multimeric proteins that cannot be expressed efficiently using other platforms. Plant viruses can be thought of as self-replicating proteinaceous nanomaterials generally stable and easily produced in high titers. We used Potato virus X (PVX), chimeric virus particles, and Cowpea mosaic virus, empty virus-like particles to display a linear peptide (lipo) derived from human lipocalin, which is immunodominant in Sjögren’s syndrome (SjS) and is thus recognized by autoantibodies in SjS patient serum. These virus-derived nanoparticles were thus used to develop a diagnostic assay for SjS based on a direct enzyme linked immunosorbent assay format. We found that PVX-lipo formulations were more sensitive than the chemically synthesized immunodominant peptide and equally specific when used to distinguish between healthy individuals and SjS patients. Our novel assay therefore allows the diagnosis of SjS using a simple, low-invasive serum test, contrasting with the invasive labial biopsy required for current tests. Our results demonstrate that nanomaterials based on plant viruses can be used as diagnostic reagents for SjS, and could also be developed for the diagnosis of other diseases. PMID:26648961

  20. Plant-Derived Chimeric Virus Particles for the Diagnosis of Primary Sjögren Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tinazzi, Elisa; Merlin, Matilde; Bason, Caterina; Beri, Ruggero; Zampieri, Roberta; Lico, Chiara; Bartoloni, Elena; Puccetti, Antonio; Lunardi, Claudio; Pezzotti, Mario; Avesani, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Plants are ideal for the production of protein-based nanomaterials because they synthesize and assemble complex multimeric proteins that cannot be expressed efficiently using other platforms. Plant viruses can be thought of as self-replicating proteinaceous nanomaterials generally stable and easily produced in high titers. We used Potato virus X (PVX), chimeric virus particles, and Cowpea mosaic virus, empty virus-like particles to display a linear peptide (lipo) derived from human lipocalin, which is immunodominant in Sjögren's syndrome (SjS) and is thus recognized by autoantibodies in SjS patient serum. These virus-derived nanoparticles were thus used to develop a diagnostic assay for SjS based on a direct enzyme linked immunosorbent assay format. We found that PVX-lipo formulations were more sensitive than the chemically synthesized immunodominant peptide and equally specific when used to distinguish between healthy individuals and SjS patients. Our novel assay therefore allows the diagnosis of SjS using a simple, low-invasive serum test, contrasting with the invasive labial biopsy required for current tests. Our results demonstrate that nanomaterials based on plant viruses can be used as diagnostic reagents for SjS, and could also be developed for the diagnosis of other diseases.