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Sample records for labirinto em cruz

  1. Santa Cruz River Options

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation summarizes qualitative research insights gained during development of a nonmarket valuation survey for changes to the Santa Cruz River in Southern Arizona. Qualitative research provides an important avenue for understanding how the public interprets valuation s...

  2. Santa Cruz River Options

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation summarizes qualitative research insights gained during development of a nonmarket valuation survey for changes to the Santa Cruz River in Southern Arizona. Qualitative research provides an important avenue for understanding how the public interprets valuation s...

  3. 33 CFR 80.1138 - Santa Cruz Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Santa Cruz Harbor, CA. 80.1138... NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1138 Santa Cruz Harbor, CA. A line drawn from the seaward extremity of the Santa Cruz Harbor East Breakwater to Santa Cruz Harbor West...

  4. USEPA Santa Cruz River Public Survey Research

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA Office of Research and Development, Western Ecology Division is investigating how urban households value different possibilities for the Santa Cruz River in southern Arizona. A random sample of households in the Phoenix and Tucson areas are being asked to provide their ...

  5. USEPA Santa Cruz River Public Survey Research

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA Office of Research and Development, Western Ecology Division is investigating how urban households value different possibilities for the Santa Cruz River in southern Arizona. A random sample of households in the Phoenix and Tucson areas are being asked to provide their ...

  6. Public Values Related to the Santa Cruz River

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Santa Cruz Basin is a focus geography for EPA Southwestern ecosystem services research, and the focal resource is water. The goal of one component of the Santa Cruz effort is to characterize the ways in which basin residents value the river, and environmental resources relate...

  7. 33 CFR 80.1138 - Santa Cruz Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Santa Cruz Harbor, CA. 80.1138 Section 80.1138 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1138 Santa Cruz Harbor, CA. A line drawn from...

  8. 33 CFR 80.1138 - Santa Cruz Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Santa Cruz Harbor, CA. 80.1138 Section 80.1138 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1138 Santa Cruz Harbor, CA. A line drawn from...

  9. 33 CFR 80.1138 - Santa Cruz Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Santa Cruz Harbor, CA. 80.1138 Section 80.1138 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1138 Santa Cruz Harbor, CA. A line drawn from...

  10. 33 CFR 80.1138 - Santa Cruz Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Santa Cruz Harbor, CA. 80.1138 Section 80.1138 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1138 Santa Cruz Harbor, CA. A line drawn from...

  11. Public Values Related to the Santa Cruz River

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Santa Cruz Basin is a focus geography for EPA Southwestern ecosystem services research, and the focal resource is water. The goal of one component of the Santa Cruz effort is to characterize the ways in which basin residents value the river, and environmental resources relate...

  12. Reconnaissance Report for Navigation Improvements (Reduction of Shoaling) at Santa Cruz Harbor Santa Cruz County, California

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-05-01

    Sincerely, Stephen B. Scheiblauer Harbormaster I SBS:keb Enclosures: 3 Photos I I .... -’ ."• ,I • , -4. - Il "e I -- " ," ’e . m ..- ,... .. ... ,••. ___-a a...visit on 14 December 1991. There we met with personnel from the Corps (Jeff Cole) and the Santa Cruz Port District (Brian Foss, Director; Stephen ...fish such as the northern anchovy, Pacific herring, jack mackerel,Pacific sardine, king salmon, add juvenile sablefish. Rocky Intertidal I The rocky

  13. Variation resources at UC Santa Cruz.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Daryl J; Trumbower, Heather; Kern, Andrew D; Rhead, Brooke L; Kuhn, Robert M; Haussler, David; Kent, W James

    2007-01-01

    The variation resources within the University of California Santa Cruz Genome Browser include polymorphism data drawn from public collections and analyses of these data, along with their display in the context of other genomic annotations. Primary data from dbSNP is included for many organisms, with added information including genomic alleles and orthologous alleles for closely related organisms. Display filtering and coloring is available by variant type, functional class or other annotations. Annotation of potential errors is highlighted and a genomic alignment of the variant's flanking sequence is displayed. HapMap allele frequencies and linkage disequilibrium (LD) are available for each HapMap population, along with non-human primate alleles. The browsing and analysis tools, downloadable data files and links to documentation and other information can be found at http://genome.ucsc.edu/.

  14. 27 CFR 9.31 - Santa Cruz Mountains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...—Santa Cruz County”; (7) “Franklin Point Quadrangle, California”; (8) “Half Moon Bay Quadrangle... 400-foot contour line intersect (Half Moon Bay Quadrangle), the boundary line follows Highway 92...

  15. 27 CFR 9.31 - Santa Cruz Mountains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...—Santa Cruz County”; (7) “Franklin Point Quadrangle, California”; (8) “Half Moon Bay Quadrangle... 400-foot contour line intersect (Half Moon Bay Quadrangle), the boundary line follows Highway 92...

  16. 27 CFR 9.31 - Santa Cruz Mountains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...—Santa Cruz County”; (7) “Franklin Point Quadrangle, California”; (8) “Half Moon Bay Quadrangle... 400-foot contour line intersect (Half Moon Bay Quadrangle), the boundary line follows Highway 92...

  17. 27 CFR 9.31 - Santa Cruz Mountains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...—Santa Cruz County”; (7) “Franklin Point Quadrangle, California”; (8) “Half Moon Bay Quadrangle... 400-foot contour line intersect (Half Moon Bay Quadrangle), the boundary line follows Highway 92...

  18. Streamflow in the upper Santa Cruz River basin, Santa Cruz and Pima Counties, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Condes de la Torre, Alberto

    1970-01-01

    Streamflow records obtained in the upper Santa Cruz River basin of southern Arizona, United States, and northern Sonora, Mexico, have been analyzed to aid in the appraisal of the surface-water resources of the area. Records are available for 15 sites, and the length of record ranges from 60 years for the gaging station on the Santa .Cruz River at Tucson to 6 years for Pantano Wash near Vail. The analysis provides information on flow duration, low-flow frequency magnitude, flood-volume frequency and magnitude, and storage requirements to maintain selected draft rates. Flood-peak information collected from the gaging stations has been projected on a regional basis from which estimates of flood magnitude and frequency may be made for any site in the basin. Most streams in the 3,503-square-mile basin are ephemeral. Ground water sustains low flows only at Santa Cruz River near Nogales, Sonoita Creek near Patagonia, and Pantano Wash near Vail. Elsewhere, flow occurs only in direct response to precipitation. The median number of days per year in which there is no flow ranges from 4 at Sonoita Creek near Patagonia to 335 at Rillito Creek near Tomson. The streamflow is extremely variable from year to year, and annual flows have a coefficient of variation close to or exceeding unity at most stations. Although the amount of flow in the basin is small most of the time, the area is subject to floods. Most floods result from high-intensity precipitation caused by thunderstorms during the period ,July to September. Occasionally, when snowfall at the lower altitudes is followed by rain, winter floods produce large volumes of flow.

  19. Earthquake site response in Santa Cruz, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carver, D.; Hartzell, S.H.

    1996-01-01

    Aftershocks of the 1989 Loma Prieta, California, earthquake are used to estimate site response in a 12-km2 area centered on downtown Santa Cruz. A total of 258 S-wave records from 36 aftershocks recorded at 33 sites are used in a linear inversion for site-response spectra. The inversion scheme takes advantage of the redundancy of the large data set for which several aftershocks are recorded at each site. The scheme decomposes the observed spectra into source, path, and site terms. The path term is specified before the inversion. The undetermined degree of freedom in the decomposition into source and site spectra is removed by specifying the site-response factor to be approximately 1.0 at two sites on crystalline bedrock. The S-wave site responses correlate well with the surficial geology and observed damage pattern of the mainshock. The site-response spectra of the floodplain sites, which include the heavily damaged downtown area, exhibit significant peaks. The largest peaks are between 1 and 4 Hz. Five floodplain sites have amplification factors of 10 or greater. Most of the floodplain site-response spectra also have a smaller secondary peak between 6 and 8 Hz. Residential areas built on marine terraces above the flood-plain experienced much less severe damage. Site-response spectra for these areas also have their largest peaks between 1 and 4 Hz, but the amplification is generally below 6. Several of these sites also have a secondary peak between 6 and 8 Hz. The response peaks seen at nearly all sites between 1 and 4 Hz are probably caused by the natural resonance of the sedimentary rock column. The higher amplifications at floodplain sites may be caused by surface waves generated at the basin margins. The secondary peak between 6 and 8 Hz at many sites may be a harmonic of the 1- to 4-Hz peaks. We used waveforms from a seven-station approximately linear array located on the floodplain to calculate the apparent velocity and azimuth of propagation of coherent

  20. Seafloor off Lighthouse Point Park, Santa Cruz, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Storlazzi, Curt D.; Golden, Nadine E.; Gibbons, Helen

    2013-01-01

    The seafloor off Lighthouse Point Park, Santa Cruz, California, is extremely varied, with sandy flats, boulder fields, faults, and complex bedrock ridges. These ridges support rich marine ecosystems; some of them form the "reefs" that produce world-class surf breaks. Colors indicate seafloor depth, from red-orange (about 2 meters or 7 feet) to magenta (25 meters or 82 feet).

  1. Seafloor off Natural Bridges State Beach, Santa Cruz, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Storlazzi, Curt D.; Golden, Nadine E.; Gibbons, Helen

    2013-01-01

    The seafloor off Natural Bridges State Beach, Santa Cruz, California, is extremely varied, with sandy flats, boulder fields, faults, and complex bedrock ridges. These ridges support rich marine ecosystems; some of them form the "reefs" that produce world-class surf breaks. Colors indicate seafloor depth, from red-orange (about 2 meters or 7 feet) to magenta (25 meters or 82 feet).

  2. Seafloor off Pleasure Point, Santa Cruz County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Storlazzi, Curt D.; Golden, Nadine E.; Gibbons, Helen

    2013-01-01

    The seafloor off Pleasure Point, Santa Cruz County, California, is extremely varied, with sandy flats, boulder fields, faults, and complex bedrock ridges. These ridges support rich marine ecosystems; some of them form the "reefs" that produce world-class surf breaks. Colors indicate seafloor depth, from red-orange (about 2 meters or 7 feet) to magenta (25 meters or 82 feet)

  3. Geochemistry of Isla Santa Cruz, Galapagos Archipelago, Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, E. L.; Schwartz, D. M.; Van Kirk, R.; Harpp, K.

    2012-12-01

    The geochemistry of Galapagos volcanoes extends to more depleted signatures than most hotspots, and do not appear to follow a classical tholeiitic to alkalic evolutionary sequence (i.e., Hawaiian Islands). Thus far, no such predictable sequence has been identified for Galapagos volcanoes. Isla Santa Cruz is one of the oldest volcanoes in the archipelago. Bow (1979) identified 3 volcanic stages: the Platform Series, the Shield Series, and the Shield-Modifying stage. The Platform Series defines a liquid line of descent that differs from the one shared by the Shield and Shield-Modifying units, which are genetically related to each other. Within the Shield and Shield-Modifying lavas, K2O/TiO2 ratios reveal three distinct compositional sub-groups: 1) a MORB-like, low-K suite (<0.10); 2) a tholeiitic suite (0.10-0.25); and 3) an alkaline suite (>0.25). These 3 sub-groups are geographically distributed across the island; the low-K suite is only in the north, whereas the alkaline suite constitutes the center highlands and the tholeiitic suite is on the eastern and northern flanks. Variations in La/Sm and Sm/Yb indicate that the magmas supplying the Shield and Shield-Modifying units were generated over a wide range of melting conditions: the alkaline suite melts were generated at the greatest depths and from the smallest melt fraction of the three suites, whereas the low-K suite originates from shallower, greater extents of melting; the tholeiitic lavas were generated at depths intermediate between the other 2 sub-groups. None of the lavas from Santa Cruz resemble material erupted at Fernandina volcano, the presumed center of the plume; radiogenic isotope ratios from previous research indicate that all Santa Cruz lavas are significantly more depleted than western Galapagos lavas. The ~1.2 Ma Platform Series is the most enriched of the Santa Cruz units. The Shield and Shield-Modifying lavas are all shifted towards more depleted signatures, approaching those of MORB, in terms

  4. Mycobacterium fortuitum Cruz from the tropical fish Hyphessobrycon innesi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ross, A.J.; Brancato, F.P.

    1959-01-01

    Mycobacterium fortuitum, a rapid-growing, acid-fast bacillus, isolated from a cold abscess of human origin was described by Cruz (1938). Gordon and Smith (1955), in a taxonomic study embracing a group of acid-fast bacteria capable of relatively rapid growth on ordinary media, classified a number of cultures in their collection as M. fortuitum Cruz. In this group were strains isolated from human beings, cattle, soil, and cold-blooded animals including marine fishes. The present study was undertaken to determine the identity of a rapid-growing, acid-fast bacillus isolated at the New York Aquarium from lesions present in a population of freshwater tropical fishes commonly known as the Neon Tetra (Hyphessobrycon innesi). The symptomatology and pathology of this disease have been described by Nigrelli (1953).

  5. Soil chemistry and mineralogy of the Santa Cruz coastal terraces

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pinney, Colin; Aniku, Jacob; Burke, Raymond; Harden, Jennifer; Singer, Michael; Munster, Jennie

    2002-01-01

    Marine terraces in the central coast of California provide an opportunity to study a soil chronosequence in which similar materials (beach deposits) have been weathered under similar slope, climatic, and vegetation conditions during the Quaternary. The terraces between Santa Cruz and Año Nuevo, California, have been studied for decades and are thought to be one of the best example of marine terraces in California {Lawson (1893), Wilson (1907); Branner and others (1909), Rode (1930) Page and Holmes (1945), Alexander (1953), Bradley (1956, 1957, 1958, and 1965), Bradley and Addicott (1968), Clark (1966 and 1970), Jahns and Hamilton (1971), Lajoie and others (1972), Bradley and Griggs (1976). Hanks and others (1986), Aniku (1986), Fine and others (1988), Anderson (1990 and 1994), and Rosenbloom and Anderson (1994).} Here we report morphological, chemical, physical, and mineralogical data for the soils that were formed in deposits on the Santa Cruz marine terraces in order to examine soil characteristics as a function of increasing terrace age.

  6. Late Quaternary slip on the Santa Cruz Island fault, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pinter, N.; Lueddecke, S.B.; Keller, E.A.; Simmons, K.R.

    1998-01-01

    The style, timing, and pattern of slip on the Santa Cruz Island fault were investigated by trenching the fault and by analysis of offset late Quaternary landforms. A trench excavated across the fault at Christi Beach, on the western coast of the island, exposed deformation of latest Pleistocene to Holocene sediments and pre-Quaternary rocks, recording repeated large-magnitude rupture events. The most recent earthquake at this site occurred ca. 5 ka. Coastal terraces preserved on western Santa Cruz Island have been dated using the uranium-series technique and by extrapolation using terrace elevations and the eustatic record. Offset of terraces and other landforms indicates that the Santa Cruz Island fault is predominantly left lateral, having a horizontal slip rate of not more than 1.1 mm/yr and probably about 0.8 mm/yr. The fault also has a smaller reverse component, slipping at a rate of between 0.1 and 0.2 mm/yr. Combined with measurements of slip per event, this information suggests a long-term average recurrence interval of at least 2.7 k.y. and probably 4-5 k.y., and average earthquake magnitudes of Mw 7.2-7.5. Sense of slip, recurrence interval, and earthquake magnitudes calculated here for the Santa Cruz Island fault are very similar to recent results for other faults along the southern margin of the western Transverse Range, including the Malibu Coast fault, the Santa Monica fault, the Hollywood fault, and the Raymond fault, supporting the contention that these faults constitute a continuous and linked fault system, which is characterized by large but relatively infrequent earthquakes.

  7. A quantitative analysis of surgical capacity in Santa Cruz, Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Markin, Abraham; Barbero, Roxana; Leow, Jeffrey J; Groen, Reinou S; Skow, Evan J; Apelgren, Keith N; Kushner, Adam L; Nwomeh, Benedict C

    2013-11-01

    This investigation aimed to document surgical capacity at public medical centers in a middle-income Latin American country using the Surgeons OverSeas (SOS) Personnel, Infrastructure, Procedures, Equipment, and Supplies (PIPES) survey tool. We applied the PIPES tool at six urban and 25 rural facilities in Santa Cruz, Bolivia. Outcome measures included the availability of items in five domains (Personnel, Infrastructure, Procedures, Equipment, and Supplies) and the PIPES index. PIPES indices were calculated by summing scores from each domain, dividing by the total number of survey items, and multiplying by 10. Thirty-one of the 32 public facilities that provide surgical care in Santa Cruz were assessed. Santa Cruz had at least 7.8 surgeons and 2.8 anesthesiologists per 100,000 population. However, these providers were unequally distributed, such that nine rural sites had no anesthesiologist. Few rural facilities had blood banking (4/25), anesthesia machines (11/25), postoperative care (11/25), or intensive care units (1/25). PIPES indices ranged from 5.7-13.2, and were significantly higher in urban (median 12.6) than rural (median 7.8) areas (P < 0.01). This investigation is novel in its application of a Spanish-language version of the PIPES tool in a middle-income Latin American country. These data document substantially greater surgical capacity in Santa Cruz than has been reported for Sierra Leone or Rwanda, consistent with Bolivia's development status. Unfortunately, surgeons are limited in rural areas by deficits in anesthesia and perioperative services. These results are currently being used to target local quality improvement initiatives. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Urbanisation of yellow fever in Santa Cruz, Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Van der Stuyft, P; Gianella, A; Pirard, M; Cespedes, J; Lora, J; Peredo, C; Pelegrino, J L; Vorndam, V; Boelaert, M

    1999-05-08

    Until recently, urban yellow fever had not been reported from the Americas since 1954, but jungle yellow fever increasingly affects forest dwellers in Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. The reinvasion by Aedes aegypti of cities in the Americas now threatens to urbanize yellow fever. After yellow fever infection was identified in a resident of Santa Cruz, Bolivia, in December 1997, all subsequent suspected cases were investigated. Active surveillance of yellow fever was introduced in the Santa Cruz area, with hospitals and selected urban and rural health centers reporting all suspected cases. Patients were serologically screened for yellow fever, dengue, hepatitis A and B, and leptospirosis; clinical and epidemiological data were collected from patients' records and through interviews; and a population-based serosurvey was conducted in the neighborhood of one case. Between December 1997 and June 1998, symptomatic yellow fever infection was confirmed in 6 residents of Santa Cruz, of whom 5 died. 5 lived in the southern sector of the city. 2 cases did not leave the city during their incubation period, and 1 had visited only an area in which sylvatic transmission was deemed impossible. Of the 281 people covered in the serosurvey, 16 (6%) were positive for IgM antibody to yellow fever. Among 5 people for whom that result could not be explained by recent vaccination, there were 2 pairs of neighbors. This instance of urban yellow fever transmission was limited in both time and space.

  9. Historical review of clinical vaccine studies at Oswaldo Cruz Institute and Oswaldo Cruz Foundation - technological development issues

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Reinaldo de Menezes; Possas, Cristina de Albuquerque; Homma, Akira

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents, from the perspective of technological development and production, the results of an investigation examining 61 clinical studies with vaccines conducted in Brazil between 1938-2013, with the participation of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute (IOC) and the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (Fiocruz). These studies have been identified and reviewed according to criteria, such as the kind of vaccine (viral, bacterial, parasitic), their rationale, design and methodological strategies. The results indicate that IOC and Fiocruz have accumulated along this time significant knowledge and experience for the performance of studies in all clinical phases and are prepared for the development of new vaccines products and processes. We recommend national policy strategies to overcome existing regulatory and financing constraints. PMID:25742271

  10. Space Radar Image of Santa Cruz Island, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This space radar image shows the rugged topography of Santa Cruz Island, part of the Channel Islands National Park in the Pacific Ocean off the coast of Santa Barbara and Ventura, Calif. Santa Cruz, the largest island of the national park, is host to hundreds of species of plants, animals and birds, at least eight of which are known nowhere else in the world. The island is bisected by the Santa Cruz Island fault, which appears as a prominent line running from the upper left to the lower right in this image. The fault is part of the Transverse Range fault system, which extends eastward from this area across Los Angeles to near Palm Springs, Calif. Color variations in this image are related to the different types of vegetation and soils at the surface. For example, grass-covered coastal lowlands appear gold, while chaparral and other scrub areas appear pink and blue. The image is 35 kilometers by 32 kilometers (22 miles by 20 miles) and is centered at 33.8 degrees north latitude, 119.6 degrees west longitude. North is toward upper right. The colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is C-band, horizontally transmitted and received; and blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) on October 10, 1994, onboard the space shuttle Endeavour. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program.

  11. Tucson's Santa Cruz River and the Arroyo Legacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betancourt, Julio Luis

    1990-01-01

    Between 1865 and 1915, arroyos developed in the southwestern United States across diverse hydrological, ecological and cultural settings. That they developed simultaneously has encouraged the search for a common cause --some phenomenon that was equally widespread and synchronous. There are few southwestern streams for which we have even a qualitative understanding of timelines and processes involved in initiation and extension of historic arroyos. Tucson's Santa Cruz River, often cited in the arroyo literature, offers a unique opportunity to chronicle the arroyo legacy and evaluate its causes. The present study reconstructs both the physical and cultural circumstances of channel entrenchment along the Santa Cruz River. Primary data include newspaper accounts, notes and plants of General Land Office surveys, eyewitness accounts, legal depositions, and repeat photography. On the Santa Cruz River, arroyo initiation and extension happened during relatively wet decades associated with frequent warm episodes in the tropical Pacific (El Nino conditions). Intensified El Nino activity during the period 1864-1891 may be symptomatic of long-term climatic change, perhaps indicative of global warming and destabilization of Pacific climate at the end of the Little Ice Age. During this period all but one of the years registering more than three days with rain exceeding 2.54 cm (1 in) in Tucson were El Nino events. The one exception was the summer of 1890, when the central equatorial Pacific was relatively cold but when prevailing low-surface pressures and low -level winds nevertheless steered tropical moisture from the west coast of Mexico into southern Arizona. In the twentieth century, catastrophic channel widening was caused by floods during El Nino events in 1905, 1915, 1977 and 1983. The Santa Cruz River arroyo formed when climatic conditions heightened the probabilities for occurrence of large floods in southern Arizona. Inadequate engineering of ditches that resulted in

  12. Prevalence of Diabetes on Santa Cruz Island in Galapagos Archipelago

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Tahseen

    2015-01-01

    This was an observational study offering a screening program for diabetes in a health clinic in Puerto Ayora town on Santa Cruz Island to determine the prevalence of this disorder and identify those at risk. A 1-month screening program was undertaken. Of 141 patients screened, 85% of men and 83% of women were overweight or obese; 16 (11%) had suspected undiagnosed diabetes and 22 (16%) were at high risk of developing diabetes. This is the first reported study of glucose intolerance prevalence in Galapagos. Urgent education and prevention programs are required to address this public health problem. PMID:26086607

  13. The Santa Cruz eddy and United States wind power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archer, Cristina Lozej

    In the first part of this dissertation, a shallow cyclonic circulation that occurs in the summer over the Monterey Bay (California) is investigated. Since it is often centered over the city of Santa Cruz, it was named "Santa Cruz Eddy" (SCE). Its horizontal size is 10--40 km and its vertical extent 100--200 m. The SCE is unique because it forms 75--79% of the days during the summer, more frequently than any other known vortex. The SCE frequency was determined after analyzing two years of satellite imagery and data from an observational network. Simulations with the MM5 model showed that two eddies form, one in the early evening and one at night. Both eddies are formed by the vorticity generated baroclinically by the interaction of the synoptic northwesterly flow and the western side of the Santa Cruz mountains. Friction against these mountains further enhances vorticity production. In the late afternoon, the sea breeze and a favorable pressure gradient cause more vorticity to form near Santa Cruz. Since the latter two mechanisms do not act at night, the evening eddy is stronger, deeper, and larger than the nocturnal one. The second part of this dissertation aims at quantifying U.S. wind power at 80 m (the hub height of large wind turbines) and investigating whether winds from a network of farms can provide electric power steadily and reliably. A new method to extrapolate 10-m wind measurements (from 1327 surface stations and 88 soundings) to 80 m was introduced, which resulted in 80-m wind speeds that are, on average, 1.3--1.7 m/s faster than those obtained from other methods. It was found that 22% of all stations (and 35% of all coastal/offshore stations) are suitable for wind power generation. The greatest previously uncharted reservoir of wind power is offshore and near shore along the southeastern and southern U.S. coasts. When multiple wind sites are considered, the number of days with no wind power and the standard deviation of the wind speed are

  14. 75 FR 22835 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits, Santa Cruz County, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-30

    ... Stanton and the San Lorenzo Valley Water District (applicants) for incidental take permits under the... applicants' take of the Federally endangered Mount Hermon June beetle (Polyphylla barbata) incidental to...)) of Mount Hermon June beetle habitat near Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz County, California. We invite...

  15. Sung with Ink and Paper: Nicomedes Santa Cruz and the African Strand in Peru

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Swanson, Rosario

    2017-01-01

    The poem "Ritmos negros del Perú" by Afro-Peruvian writer Nicomedes Santa Cruz recovers Afro-Peruvian history and agency through the retelling of the journey of a mythical grandmother. Through the retelling of her story, the poet claims blackness and African roots as pillars of Peruvian culture. In so doing, Santa Cruz opens the door not…

  16. [Don Rodolfo Armas Cruz: physician, professor and teacher].

    PubMed

    1996-05-01

    The present issue of Revista Médica de Chile contains tributes to the late Profesor Rodolfo Armas Cruz prepared by the Editors and, by invitation by two of his closest disciples and collaborators. With the decease of Professor Dr Rodolfo Armas Cruz on November 26, 1995, disappeared a representative of a medical generation, whose unique work transformed national medical tasks, lending prestige to Chilean medicine. His peers recognized in him as a distinguished master and his work was so vast that is difficult to underscore a particular aspect. Over and above his books and scientific reports, remains the testimony of hundreds of his disciples distributed along Chile that, marked by his teachings trying to follow his path. The honors, awards and titles never separated him from an austere way of life, dedicated to work besides the ill, his students and his beloved Medical Service at the San Juan de Dios Hospital. His transcendental name and work, incorporated to the history of Chilean medicine, will be an example for actual and future medical generations.

  17. 77 FR 49863 - Iowa Pacific Holdings, LLC and Permian Basin Railways-Continuance in Control Exemption-Santa Cruz...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-17

    ... Control Exemption--Santa Cruz and Monterey Bay Railway Company Iowa Pacific Holdings, LLC, and Permian....2(d)(2) to continue in control of Santa Cruz and Monterey Bay Railway Company (SCMB) upon SCMB's... Pacific Railroad Company (UP). The Line, known as the Santa Cruz Branch, extends from milepost 0.433...

  18. 77 FR 49862 - Santa Cruz and Monterey Bay Railway Company-Assignment of Lease Exemption-Union Pacific Railroad...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-17

    ... Surface Transportation Board Santa Cruz and Monterey Bay Railway Company--Assignment of Lease Exemption--Union Pacific Railroad Company and Sierra Northern Railway Santa Cruz and Monterey Bay Railway Company...) owned by Union Pacific Railroad Company (UP). The Line, known as the Santa Cruz Branch, extends...

  19. 76 FR 6154 - Notice of Realty Action: Modified Competitive Bid Sale of Public Lands in Santa Cruz County, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-03

    ... Lands in Santa Cruz County, CA AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of realty... public land consisting of approximately 12.55 acres in Santa Cruz County, California, for not less than..., 2, and 9. The area described contains 12.55 acres, more or less, in Santa Cruz County. The...

  20. Loma Prieta earthquake, October 17, 1989, Santa Cruz County, California

    SciTech Connect

    McNutt, S.

    1990-01-01

    On Tuesday, October 17, 1989 at 5:04 p.m. Pacific Daylight Time, a magnitude 7.1 earthquake occurred on the San Andreas fault 10 miles northeast of Santa Cruz. This earthquake was the largest earthquake to occur in the San Francisco Bay area since 1906, and the largest anywhere in California since 1952. The earthquake was responsible for 67 deaths and about 7 billion dollars worth of damage, making it the biggest dollar loss natural disaster in United States history. This article describes the seismological features of the earthquake, and briefly outlines a number of other geologic observations made during study of the earthquake, its aftershocks, and its effects. Much of the information in this article was provided by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).

  1. Geothermal development plan: Cochise-Santa Cruz counties

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.H.

    1981-01-01

    A total of five hot springs and 25 thermal wells are located within the combined counties. The water discharged from these hot springs and wells may be suitable for applications such as process heat and space heating and cooling. Within Cochise county there are two large firms which are capable of using 70/sup 0/C (158/sup 0/F) geothermal water for their process heat requirements but the potential use of geothermal energy in Santa Cruz county is limited due to the absence of industry within the county. The amount of geothermal energy on line as a function of time under both private and city-owned utility development is also predicted using a computer simulation model.

  2. Priority River Metrics for Urban Residents of the Santa Cruz River Watershed

    EPA Science Inventory

    Indicator selection is a persistent question in river and stream assessment and management. We employ qualitative research techniques to identify features of rivers and streams important to urban residents recruited from the general public in the Santa Cruz watershed. Interviews ...

  3. Priority River Metrics for Urban Residents of the Santa Cruz River Watershed

    EPA Science Inventory

    Indicator selection is a persistent question in river and stream assessment and management. We employ qualitative research techniques to identify features of rivers and streams important to urban residents recruited from the general public in the Santa Cruz watershed. Interviews ...

  4. Conservation efforts and possibilities for increased collaboration in the Santa Cruz River watershed

    Treesearch

    Claire A. Zugmeyer; Emily M. Brott

    2013-01-01

    Attendees of the annual Santa Cruz River Researchers’ Day meetings have identified a need to expand collaboration, partnership, and sharing of lessons learned across the watershed. To help guide this interest, Sonoran Institute organized a symposium on 2 May 2012 entitled “Santa Cruz River Conservation.” The symposium had simultaneous Spanish/English translation and...

  5. Source process for the 2013 Santa Cruz Islands earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Eun Hee; Park, Sun-Cheon; Lee, Jun-Whan

    2015-04-01

    Many places in the world have experienced damage from tsunami. Most tsunamis are induced by large earthquakes that occur under the sea along the trench. Therefore understanding the characteristics of large earthquakes is important to evaluate tsunami hazard as well as earthquake damage. In order to understand the characteristics of large tsunamigenic earthquakes, in this study we analyzed the source process of the 2013 Santa Cruz earthquake (M8.0) on Feb. 6, 2013. According to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), 56 earthquakes with magnitudes greater than 5.5 occurred in Jan. 27 - March 8, 2013. Among them, eleven events happened for a week before the mainshock and the maximum magnitude was 6.4. A large aftershock with magnitude of 7.1 occurred immediately after the mainshock, about 10 minutes later. Including this event, the 2013 Santa Cruz event seems to be followed by two large aftershocks of M~7. The length of spatial distribution of aftershocks in 30 days was about 200 km. And this value of the length was used for rough estimation of the fault length during the waveform inversion process. We carried out teleseismic body-wave inversion to obtain the slip distribution of the 2013 earthquake. Teleseismic P waveform data from 19 stations in the epicentral distance between 30° and 90° were used and band-pass filter at 0.005 - 1.0 Hz was applied. And focal depth was assumed to be 28.7 km, according the USGS catalog. And the initial value of source time window was assumed as 120 seconds by the duration of high-frequency energy radiation. According to our inversion results, the fault plane seems the northwesterly striking (strike = 291) and shallowly dipping (dip = 24) fault plane. Large slip area was seen near the hypocenter. Rupture velocity was obtained to be 2.0 km/s. And moment magnitude of 7.9 and maximum dislocation of 1.4 m had the smallest variance between the observed and synthetic waveforms. These values were smaller than the result of previous study. To

  6. Women of Apelo Cruz. Organizing for change: the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Bolido, L

    1995-01-01

    In the Philippines, the Apelo Women's Health Association (AWHA) was organized in 1991 to help economically depressed women take control of their lives, their health, and their fertility. One woman being helped by AWHA is 17-year-old Vilma, who was married and separated at 13, became a bar girl at 14, miscarried at 15, bore a son at 16, and had an abortion. Because of AWHA, Vilma is now using oral contraceptives and insisting that her customers use condoms. AWHA was set up by GABRIELA (the General Assembly Binding Women for Reforms, Integrity, Equality, Leadership, and Action) to replace the free, occasional medical care formerly available in the slum area of Apelo Cruz, in Pasay City. The free medical care fostered dependency instead of self-reliance among the women. AWHA, therefore, is a health cooperative which requires members to pay a minimal amount for services. AWHA also runs monthly educational activities to inform women of their rights, duties, and responsibilities. It provides a forum for the women in the neighborhood to speak their minds freely. The women are also grateful for the ability to control their fertility through the use of contraception.

  7. Geothermal development plan: Cochise/Santa Cruz Counties

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.H.; Goldstone, L.A.

    1982-08-01

    The Cochise/Santa Cruz Counties Area Development Plan evaluated the regional market potential for utilizing geothermal energy. The study identified three potential geothermal resource areas with potential for resource temperatures less than 90/sup 0/C (194/sup 0/F). Geothermal resources are found to occur near the towns of Willcox, San Simon, and Bowier. Population growth rates are expected to average three percent per year over the next 30 years in Willcox; Bowie and San Simon are expected to grow much slower. Regional employment is based on agriculture and copper mining, though future growth in trade, services and international trade is expected. A regional energy-use analysis is also included. Urban use, copper mining and agriculture are the principal water users in the region and substantial reductions in water use are anticipated in the future. The development plan also contains a section identifying potential geothermal energy users in the region. Geothermal energy utilization projections suggest that by the year 2000, geothermal energy might economically provide the energy equivalent of 3,250,000 barrels of oil per year to the industrial sector. In addition, geothermal energy utilization might help stimulate an agricultural and livestock processing industry.

  8. Monitoring Domoic Acid production by Solid Phase Adsorption Toxin Tracking off the Santa Cruz Municipal Warf, Santa Cruz, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolan, M.; Ziccarelli, L.; Kudela, R. M.

    2013-12-01

    Certain species of the diatom genus Pseudo-nitzschia are producers of the neurotoxin, domoic acid (DA). DA is known to cause amnesic shellfish poisoning also known as domoic acid poisoning, which can lead to permanent brain damage in humans and marine mammals. DA accumulates at higher trophic levels, generally due to consumption of toxic cells or through trophic transfer, and can potentially cause death of both humans and marine wildlife. The Santa Cruz Municipal Warf experiences periodic rises in DA concentrations, which can reach toxic levels in shellfish, fish, and other marine organisms. While these increases in toxicity often occur during Pseudo-nitzschia blooms, several periods of elevated DA have occurred when diatom abundance is restricted and/or dominated by non-toxic species, and there is increasing evidence that DA dissolved in seawater may be prevalent. One theory suggests that senescent or dead Pseudo-nitzschia cells sink to the benthos while retaining their toxin and are buried in sediment following the death of a bloom. Therefore, DA may accumulate in the benthos, where it is eventually released during storms or wave and tide conditions that disturb the sediment. We sampled DA in situ using Solid Phase Adsorption Toxin Tracking (SPATT) bags SPATT uses a synthetic resin to capture dissolved DA, allowing for the determination of integrated DA concentrations at known time intervals. The alternative method is mussel biotoxin monitoring, but it is less accurate due to uncertainties in the time of DA accumulation within the mussel, and the lack of uptake of dissolved DA by the mussel. We deployed and collected SPATT off the Santa Cruz Municipal Wharf at multiple depths beginning in February 2013. We expect to see increasing DA following the death of a harmful algal bloom. Under pre-bloom conditions, little to no DA has been detected in mussels or surface SPATT, but DA from SPATT is frequently observed at depth, suggesting that the sediment is exposed to

  9. Congenital Trypanosoma cruzi Transmission in Santa Cruz, Bolivia

    PubMed Central

    Bern, Caryn; Verastegui, Manuela; Gilman, Robert H.; LaFuente, Carlos; Galdos-Cardenas, Gerson; Calderon, Maritza; Pacori, Juan; Abastoflor, Maria del Carmen; Aparicio, Hugo; Brady, Mark F.; Ferrufino, Lisbeth; Angulo, Noelia; Marcus, Sarah; Sterling, Charles; Maguire, James H.

    2017-01-01

    Background We conducted a study of congenital Trypanosoma cruzi infection in Santa Cruz, Bolivia. Our objective was to apply new tools to identify weak points in current screening algorithms, and find ways to improve them. Methods Women presenting for delivery were screened by rapid and conventional serological tests. For infants of infected mothers, blood specimens obtained on days 0, 7, 21, 30, 90, 180, and 270 were concentrated and examined microscopically; serological tests were performed for the day 90, 180, and 270 specimens. Maternal and infant specimens, including umbilical tissue, were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the kinetoplast minicircle and by quantitative PCR. Results Of 530 women, 154 (29%) were seropositive. Ten infants had congenital T. cruzi infection. Only 4 infants had positive results of microscopy evaluation in the first month, and none had positive cord blood microscopy results. PCR results were positive for 6 (67%) of 9 cord blood and 7 (87.5%) of 8 umbilical tissue specimens. PCR-positive women were more likely to transmit T. cruzi than were seropositive women with negative PCR results (P < .05). Parasite loads determined by quantitative PCR were higher for mothers of infected infants than for seropositive mothers of uninfected infants (P < .01). Despite intensive efforts, only 58% of at-risk infants had a month 9 specimen collected. Conclusions On the basis of the low sensitivity of microscopy in cord blood and high rate of loss to follow-up, we estimate that current screening programs miss one-half of all infected infants. Molecular techniques may improve early detection. PMID:19877966

  10. Channel change on the Santa Cruz River, Pima County, Arizona, 1936-86

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parker, J.T.

    1993-01-01

    The Santa Cruz River, an ephemeral river that drains 8,581 square miles in southeastern Arizona, has a long history of channel instability. Since the late 19th century, lateral channel erosion has caused extensive property damage, particularly in Pima County. During the flood of 1983, about $100 million damage was caused in the Tucson area alone; most damage resulted from bank erosion on the Santa Cruz River and its tributaries. The nature, magni- tude, location, and frequency of channel change on the Santa Cruz River were highly variable in time and space from 1936 through 1986 along a 70-mile reach in Pima County, Arizona. Four mechanisms of lateral channel change--channel migration, avulsion and meander cutoff, channel widening, and arroyo widening--were identified on the Santa Cruz River. The dominant mechanism in a reach depends on channel morphology and flood magnitude. The dominant vertical change has been degradation. The timing and magnitude of channel change at a particular location are controlled primarily by hydroclimatic factors such as magnitude, duration, intensity, and frequency of precipitation and floods. The location of channel change and its magnitude in response to a given discharge are controlled largely by topographic, geologic, hydraulic, and artificial factors. Although much of the present morphology of the Santa Cruz River is the result of recent large floods, a direct link between hydroclimatic con- ditions and channel change is not always evident because resistance of the channel to erosion varies with time. (USGS)

  11. Hydrates in the California Borderlands Revisited: Results from a Controlled-Source Electromagnetic Survey of the Santa Cruz Basin.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kannberg, P. K.; Constable, S.

    2014-12-01

    Methane hydrate, an ice-like clathrate of water and methane, forms in shallow continental slope sediments, and is both a potential energy source and geologic hazard. Hydrates presence is traditionally inferred from the presence of the bottom simulating reflector (BSR), a seismic velocity inversion resulting from free gas pooling at the base of the hydrate stability field. The BSR is not a measure of hydrate, but rather a proxy for free gas presence. Whereas seismic methods are sensitive to velocity anomalies, controlled-source electromagnetic (CSEM) methods are sensitive to conductivity anomalies. The electrically resistive methane hydrate makes a favorable target for CSEM surveys, which are capable of detecting and potentially quantifying the presence of methane hydrate directly. Building on previous work 100km to the south in the San Nicolas Basin, we present initial results from a 6-day June 2014 survey in the Santa Cruz Basin, located 100km west of Los Angeles. CSEM surveys are performed by deep-towing an EM source that is transmitting a known signal; this signal is detected by towed and seafloor receivers. The initial EM source signal is altered by the electrical properties of the surrounding environment. Conductors such as brine and seawater are attenuating mediums, while resistors such as methane hydrate, gas, and oil are preservative of the original signal. Twenty-one seafloor receivers, as well as a 4 receiver towed array were deployed to image the resistivity structure of the Santa Cruz Basin. Using 30-year-old 2D seismic profiles as a guide, potential hydrate targets were identified, and the transmitter and array were towed over 150 km on 6 lines with 5 seafloor receivers each. The 6 towed lines were coincident with legacy seismic lines. The towed array is sensitive to sediment depths less than 1km, allowing for high data density through the hydrate stability field. The larger transmitter-receiver offsets of the seafloor receivers allow sensitivity to at

  12. 77 FR 49862 - Santa Cruz and Monterey Bay Railway Company-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-Union Pacific...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-17

    ... Surface Transportation Board Santa Cruz and Monterey Bay Railway Company--Acquisition and Operation Exemption--Union Pacific Railroad Company Santa Cruz and Monterey Bay Railway Company (SCMB), a noncarrier... Company (UP) and operate a permanent and exclusive operating easement over a 31.0-mile line (the Line...

  13. The De-Genderization of Knowledge Production: The Case of Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salazar, Norma

    1994-01-01

    All societies have official knowledge. Life of Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz, 17th-century nun and literary genius, illustrates who discovers knowledge is more important than what knowledge is promulgated. Real issue was not what Sor Juana wrote but whether nun or woman should engage in producing and publishing knowledge. Her efforts have inspired…

  14. CruzDB: software for annotation of genomic intervals with UCSC genome-browser database

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Brent S.; Yang, Ivana V.; De, Subhajyoti

    2013-01-01

    Motivation: The biological significance of genomic features is often context dependent. Annotating a particular dataset with existing external data can provide insight into function. Results: We present CruzDB, a fast and intuitive programmatic interface to the University of California, Santa Cruz (UCSC) genome browser that facilitates integrative analyses of diverse local and remotely hosted datasets. We showcase the syntax of CruzDB using microRNA binding sites as examples, and further demonstrate its utility with three biological discoveries. First, DNA replication timing is stratified in gene regions—exons tend to replicate early and introns late during S phase. Second, several non-coding variants associated with cognitive functions map to lincRNA transcripts of relevant function, suggesting potential function of these regulatory RNAs in neuronal diseases. Third, lamina-associated genomic regions are highly enriched in olfaction-related genes, indicating a role of nuclear organization in their regulation. Availability: CruzDB is available at https://github.com/brentp/cruzdb under the MIT open-source license. Contact: bpederse@gmail.com or subhajyoti.de@ucdenver.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:24037212

  15. Special Education Management System Project Document. 2. Santa Cruz BCP Observation Booklet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santa Cruz County Superintendent of Schools, CA.

    Presented in booklet and chart form is the Behavioral Characteristics Progression (BCP), part of the Santa Cruz Special Education Management Project, consisting of 2400 observable traits grouped into 50 behavioral strands. The BCP is seen to be a nonstandardized criterion referenced tool which replaces conventional age and disability labels with…

  16. 75 FR 20619 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permit, Santa Cruz County, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-20

    ... the permanent loss of 483 square feet of habitat for the species in Scotts Valley, Santa Cruz County... result in permanent impacts to a total of 483 square feet of habitat for the Mount Hermon June beetle... Mount Hermon June beetle habitat within the permit area: (1) Applicants will purchase 483 square feet of...

  17. 75 FR 52969 - Final Environmental Impact Statement; Prisoners Harbor Wetland Restoration, Santa Cruz Island...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-30

    ... National Park Service Final Environmental Impact Statement; Prisoners Harbor Wetland Restoration, Santa... coastal wetland on Santa Cruz Island, Channel Islands National Park. The requisite no-action ``wait period... restoration of palustrine wetlands and deepwater habitat at Prisoners Harbor, as well as remove a...

  18. 75 FR 35504 - San Rafael Cattle Company; Habitat Conservation Plan; Santa Cruz County, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-22

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service San Rafael Cattle Company; Habitat Conservation Plan; Santa Cruz County, AZ AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability; Draft Low-Effect Habitat... habitat from specified actions conducted under the authority of the San Rafael Cattle Company. We invite...

  19. A Historical Perspective on the University of California, Santa Cruz 1965-2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Lynda M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to trace the organizational history of the University of California Santa Cruz from its inception in 1965 to its 40th anniversary in 2005. The study investigated the original vision of small residential colleges as modeled after the Oxford University plan. The study chronicled the critical turning points of…

  20. Holistically Evaluating the Impact of Water and Land Use Management in the Santa Cruz Watershed

    EPA Science Inventory

    Governments, tribal leaders and citizens within the Santa Cruz watershed (United States, Mexico, the Tohono O'odham and the Pascua Yaqui Tribes) face environmental and economic issues of ensuring people have access to clean water and sanitation while vital ecosystems are protect...

  1. A Historical Perspective on the University of California, Santa Cruz 1965-2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Lynda M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to trace the organizational history of the University of California Santa Cruz from its inception in 1965 to its 40th anniversary in 2005. The study investigated the original vision of small residential colleges as modeled after the Oxford University plan. The study chronicled the critical turning points of…

  2. The De-Genderization of Knowledge Production: The Case of Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salazar, Norma

    1994-01-01

    All societies have official knowledge. Life of Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz, 17th-century nun and literary genius, illustrates who discovers knowledge is more important than what knowledge is promulgated. Real issue was not what Sor Juana wrote but whether nun or woman should engage in producing and publishing knowledge. Her efforts have inspired…

  3. Holistically Evaluating the Impact of Water and Land Use Management in the Santa Cruz Watershed

    EPA Science Inventory

    Governments, tribal leaders and citizens within the Santa Cruz watershed (United States, Mexico, the Tohono O'odham and the Pascua Yaqui Tribes) face environmental and economic issues of ensuring people have access to clean water and sanitation while vital ecosystems are protect...

  4. The dynamics of fine-grain sediment dredged from Santa Cruz Harbor

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Storlazzi, Curt D.; Conaway, Christopher H.; Presto, M. Katherine; Logan, Joshua B.; Cronin, Katherine; van Ormondt, Maarten; Lescinski, Jamie; Harden, E. Lynne; Lacy, Jessica R.; Tonnon, Pieter K.

    2011-01-01

    In the fall and early winter of 2009, a demonstration project was done at Santa Cruz Harbor, California, to determine if 450 m3/day of predominantly (71 percent) mud-sized sediment could be dredged from the inner portion of the harbor and discharged to the coastal ocean without significant impacts to the beach and inner shelf. During the project, more than 7600 m3 of sediment (~5400 m3 of fine-grain material) was dredged during 17 days and discharged approximately 60 m offshore of the harbor at a depth of 2 m on the inner shelf. The U.S. Geological Survey's Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center was funded by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the Santa Cruz Port District to do an integrated mapping and process study to investigate the fate of the mud-sized sediment dredged from the inner portion of Santa Cruz Harbor and to determine if any of the fine-grain material settled out on the shoreline and/or inner shelf during the fall and early winter of 2009. This was done by collecting highresolution oceanographic and sediment geochemical measurements along the shoreline and on the continental shelf of northern Monterey Bay to monitor the fine-grain sediment dredged from Santa Cruz Harbor and discharged onto the inner shelf. These in place measurements, in conjunction with beach, water column, and seabed surveys, were used as boundary and calibration information for a three-dimensional numerical circulation and sediment dynamics model to better understand the fate of the fine-grain sediment dredged from Santa Cruz Harbor and the potential consequences of disposing this type of material on the beach and on the northern Monterey Bay continental shelf.

  5. The role of nitrification in silicate hydrolysis in soils near Santa Cruz, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyker-Snowman, E.; White, A.; Lawrence, C. R.; Schulz, M. S.

    2013-12-01

    In some ecosystems, nitrification (microbial conversion of ammonium to nitrate) may supplant carbonic acid as a source of acidity and drive silicate weathering. Recent studies have explored the impact that ammonium fertilizer addition to soils has on weathering of various mineral types (Pacheco et al. 2013) and demonstrated directly that ammonium addition to soils can increase carbonate weathering (Gandois et al. 2011). Some evidence points to a role for nitrification in silicate weathering at a series of coastal grassland terraces near Santa Cruz, CA. Weathering rates in these soils have been estimated using the byproducts of silicate hydrolysis (Cl--adjusted Na+ and other cations). If carbonic acid from dissolved CO2 is the source of acidity in silicate hydrolysis, bicarbonate should balance the cations produced during weathering. However, in the Santa Cruz soils nitrate is the dominant anion balancing cation concentrations. High concentrations of CO2 (>1%) at depths greater than 1m may provide additional support for nitrification-based silicate hydrolysis at Santa Cruz. We evaluate the role of nitrification in silicate weathering for soils from the Santa Cruz Marine Terrace Chronosequence using a column ammonium-addition experiment and a basic weathering model. The column experiment uses ammonium inputs in excess of natural inputs and measures weathering products in eluted fluids over time. The model incorporates more realistic estimates of ammonium input and explores whether the observed concentrations of cations, nitrate and CO2 seen at Santa Cruz can be explained by nitrification-driven acidity or if other inputs need to be considered. Gandois, L, Perrin, A-S, and Probst, A. 2011. Impact of nitrogenous fertiliser-induced proton release on cultivated soils with contrasting carbonate contents: A column experiment. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 75 pp. 1185-1198. Pacheco, F, Landim, P, and Szocs, T. 2013. Anthropogenic impacts on mineral weathering: A

  6. Damage and mortality assessment of redwood and mixed conifer forest types in Santa Cruz County following wildfire

    Treesearch

    Steve R. Auten; Nadia. Hamey

    2012-01-01

    On August 12, 2009, the Lockheed Fire ignited the west slope of the Santa Cruz Mountains burning approximately 7,819 acres. A mixture of vegetation types were in the path of the fire, including approximately 2,420 acres of redwood forest and 1,951 acres of mixed conifer forest types representative of the Santa Cruz Mountains. Foresters and land managers were left with...

  7. [A critical appraisal of an institutional journal: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz].

    PubMed

    de Lemos, A A

    1993-01-01

    The journal Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, founded and maintained over the course of many years for the exclusive publication of research results from one single institution, has undergone changes over the last decade which have resulted in an open journal. Conditions leading to the journal's founding and the excellent role it has played in the dissemination of knowledge produced by the Instituto Oswaldo Cruz are examined. The fact that it has differed from journals published by scientific societies does not diminish its importance. The present option to give this journal an international slant, with possibilities for competing on the foreign market, and which would be facilitated by the preference given to papers written in English, raises some questions about the role of Brazilian specialized journals within the framework of our scientific development.

  8. Population size of island loggerhead shrikes on Santa Rosa and Santa Cruz Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanley, Thomas R.; Teel, Susan; Hall, Linnea S.; Dye, Linda C.; Laughrin, Lyndal L.

    2012-01-01

    Island loggerhead shrikes (Lanius ludovicianus anthonyi) are an endemic, genetically distinct subspecies of loggerhead shrike on California's Santa Rosa, Santa Cruz, and Santa Catalina Islands (USA). This subspecies is listed as a Species of Special Concern by the California Department of Fish and Game and has been petitioned for federal listing under the Endangered Species Act. The combination of suspected low numbers and the possibility of federal listing, prompted us to undertake a study to rigorously estimate the number of remaining individuals on Santa Rosa and Santa Cruz Islands. During the 2009 and 2010 breeding seasons, we surveyed sample units on Santa Rosa and Santa Cruz Islands using a double-observer method with independent observers to estimate joint detection probabilities (p), where we selected units under a stratified random sampling design. We estimated shrike abundance to be 169 in 2009 (p = 0.476) and 240 in 2010 (p = 0.825) for Santa Rosa Island, and 35 in 2009 (p = 0.816) and 42 in 2010 (p = 0.710) for Santa Cruz Island. These numbers, especially for Santa Rosa Island, are higher than previously reported but nevertheless are still low. Rapid vegetation change on both islands due to recent removal of nonnative herbivores may threaten the habitat and status of this subspecies and, therefore, we suggest that intensive demographic and habitat use research be initiated immediately to obtain additional information vital for the management of this subspecies. Published 2012. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  9. Effects of climate change and population growth on the transboundary Santa Cruz aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, Christopher A.; Megdal, Sharon; Oroz, Lucas Antonio; Callegary, James; Vandervoet, Prescott

    2012-01-01

    The USA and Mexico have initiated comprehensive assessment of 4 of the 18 aquifers underlying their 3000 km border. Binational management of groundwater is not currently proposed. University and agency researchers plus USA and Mexican federal, state, and local agency staff have collaboratively identified key challenges facing the Santa Cruz River Valley Aquifer located between the states of Arizona and Sonora. The aquifer is subject to recharge variability, which is compounded by climate change, and is experiencing growing urban demand for groundwater. In this paper, we briefly review past, current, and projected pressures on Santa Cruz groundwater. We undertake first-order approximation of the relative magnitude of climate change and human demand drivers on the Santa Cruz water balance. Global circulation model output for emissions scenarios A1B, B1, and A2 present mixed trends, with annual precipitation projected to vary by ±20% over the 21st century. Results of our analysis indicate that urban water use will experience greater percentage change than climate-induced recharge (which remains the largest single component of the water balance). In the Mexican portion of the Santa Cruz, up to half of future total water demand will need to be met from non-aquifer sources. In the absence of water importation and with agricultural water use and rights increasingly appropriated for urban demand, wastewater is increasingly seen as a resource to meet urban demand. We consider decision making on both sides of the border and conclude by identifying short- and longer-term opportunities for further binational collaboration on transboundary aquifer assessment.

  10. Channel change on the Santa Cruz River, Pima County, Arizona, 1936-86

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parker, John T.

    1995-01-01

    The Santa Cruz River in southeastern Arizona has a long history of channel instability. Since the late 19th century, lateral channel erosion has caused extensive property damage, particularly in Pima County. The dominant mechanism of channel change in a reach depends on channel morphology and flood magnitude. The timing and magnitude of channel change are controlled primarily by hydroclimatic factors. The location of change is controlled largely by topographic, geologic, hydraulic, and artificial factors.

  11. Field-trip guide to the geology of the Lexington Reservoir and Loma Prieta areas in the Santa Cruz Mountains, Santa Clara and Santa Cruz counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stoffer, Philip W.; Messina, Paula

    2002-01-01

    This guide contains a road log and five stop descriptions for a field trip in the southern Santa Cruz Mountains. The trip officially begins at the boat dock parking area on Alma Bridge Road near the dam of Lexington Reservoir. Stop 1 involves a walk up the Limekiln Trail to examine a large landslide in serpentinite that frequently takes out the trail. Stop 2 is at Miller Point picnic area along the shore of the reservoir where exposures of massive, fractured graywacke sandstone are capped with terrace gravel deposits. Stop 3 is along Highland Way in the Santa Cruz Mountains where large landslides have occasionally force the closure of the road. Stop 4A-C are several closely spaced outcrop areas along Loma Prieta Avenue and Summit-Mt. Madonna Road in the Loma Prieta summit area. A walk to scenic vista points provide opportunity to discuss the evolution of regional landscape along the crest of the Sierra Azul. In addition, a variety of rock types are exposed in the Stop 4 area along a series of road cuts, including Cretaceous age conglomerate, turbidites (consisting of interbedded sandstone and shale), and fossiliferous mudstone. Stop 5 involves returning to the boat dock parking area to examine geology and the placement of the Lexington Dam in the Los Gatos Creek canyon.

  12. Evidence for latest Pleistocene to Holocene movement on the Santa Cruz Island fault, California

    SciTech Connect

    Pinter, N.; Sorlien, C. )

    1991-09-01

    Timing of the latest movement on the Santa Cruz Island fault, a dramatic physiographic feature of the southern boundary of the California Transverse Ranges, is demonstrated to be latest Pleistocene to Holocene in age. Faulting of dated terrace gravels confirms that the most recent rupture on the fault is no older than 11.78 {plus minus}0.1 ka. This represents an order of magnitude increase over the recency suggested by previous work and requires proportional increases in estimates of the minimum slip rate and seismic hazard posed by the fault. Uplifted latest Pleistocene to Holocene fill terraces are consistent with models of high rates of uplift and high sediment supply. Numerical solution of the interaction of sea-level rise with uplift at the west end of Santa Cruz Island predicts that the youngest strata in the faulted terrace sequence are about 6.1 ka. Reevaluation of high-resolution seismic sections just west of the island supports the latest Pleistocene to Holocene timing of the most recent rupture on the fault. The Santa Cruz Island fault apparently represents an active seismogenic element of southern California, the recent and high rate of activity of which have not been previously recognized.

  13. Estimating the population size of island loggerhead shrikes on Santa Rosa and Santa Cruz Islands, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanley, Thomas R.; Teel, Susan; Hall, Linnea S.; Dye, Linda C.; Laughrin, Lyndal L.

    2012-01-01

    Island loggerhead shrikes (Lanius ludovicianus anthonyi) are an endemic, genetically distinct subspecies of loggerhead shrike on California’s Santa Rosa and Santa Cruz Islands. This subspecies is listed as a Species of Special Concern by the California Department of Fish and Game and has been petitioned for federal listing under the Endangered Species Act. Because of suspected low numbers and the possibility of federal listing, there was an urgent need to rigorously estimate the number of remaining individuals on the Islands. In 2009 and 2010, biologists from the U.S. Geological Survey and the National Park Service surveyed sample units on Santa Rosa and Santa Cruz Islands using a double-observer method with independent observers, where units were selected under a stratified random sampling design. Shrike abundance was estimated to be 169 in 2009 and 240 in 2010 for Santa Rosa Island, and 35 in 2009 and 42 in 2010 for Santa Cruz Island. These numbers, especially for Santa Rosa Island, are higher than previously reported but nevertheless are still low. Rapid vegetation change on both islands due to recent removal of non-native herbivores may threaten the habitat and status of this subspecies. In view of this circumstance and the still-low numbers of shrikes, additional intensive demographic and habitat-use studies are critical for obtaining information vital for the perpetuation of this subspecies.

  14. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in Santa Cruz, Bolivia: outbreak investigation and antibody prevalence study.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Joel M; Blair, Patrick J; Carroll, Darin S; Mills, James N; Gianella, Alberto; Iihoshi, Naomi; Briggiler, Ana M; Felices, Vidal; Salazar, Milagros; Olson, James G; Glabman, Raisa A; Bausch, Daniel G

    2012-01-01

    We report the results of an investigation of a small outbreak of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in 2002 in the Department of Santa Cruz, Bolivia, where the disease had not previously been reported. Two cases were initially reported. The first case was a physician infected with Laguna Negra virus during a weekend visit to his ranch. Four other persons living on the ranch were IgM antibody-positive, two of whom were symptomatic for mild hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. The second case was a migrant sugarcane worker. Although no sample remained to determine the specific infecting hantavirus, a virus 90% homologous with Río Mamoré virus was previously found in small-eared pygmy rice rats (Oligoryzomys microtis) trapped in the area. An antibody prevalence study conducted in the region as part of the outbreak investigation showed 45 (9.1%) of 494 persons to be IgG positive, illustrating that hantavirus infection is common in Santa Cruz Department. Precipitation in the months preceding the outbreak was particularly heavy in comparison to other years, suggesting a possible climatic or ecological influence on rodent populations and risk of hantavirus transmission to humans. Hantavirus infection appears to be common in the Santa Cruz Department, but more comprehensive surveillance and field studies are needed to fully understand the epidemiology and risk to humans.

  15. Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome in Santa Cruz, Bolivia: Outbreak Investigation and Antibody Prevalence Study

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, Joel M.; Blair, Patrick J.; Carroll, Darin S.; Mills, James N.; Gianella, Alberto; Iihoshi, Naomi; Briggiler, Ana M.; Felices, Vidal; Salazar, Milagros; Olson, James G.; Glabman, Raisa A.; Bausch, Daniel G.

    2012-01-01

    We report the results of an investigation of a small outbreak of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in 2002 in the Department of Santa Cruz, Bolivia, where the disease had not previously been reported. Two cases were initially reported. The first case was a physician infected with Laguna Negra virus during a weekend visit to his ranch. Four other persons living on the ranch were IgM antibody-positive, two of whom were symptomatic for mild hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. The second case was a migrant sugarcane worker. Although no sample remained to determine the specific infecting hantavirus, a virus 90% homologous with Río Mamoré virus was previously found in small-eared pygmy rice rats (Oligoryzomys microtis) trapped in the area. An antibody prevalence study conducted in the region as part of the outbreak investigation showed 45 (9.1%) of 494 persons to be IgG positive, illustrating that hantavirus infection is common in Santa Cruz Department. Precipitation in the months preceding the outbreak was particularly heavy in comparison to other years, suggesting a possible climatic or ecological influence on rodent populations and risk of hantavirus transmission to humans. Hantavirus infection appears to be common in the Santa Cruz Department, but more comprehensive surveillance and field studies are needed to fully understand the epidemiology and risk to humans. PMID:23094116

  16. U-Pb geochronology of the Santa Cruz Formation (early Miocene) at the Río Bote and Río Santa Cruz (southernmost Patagonia, Argentina): Implications for the correlation of fossil vertebrate localities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuitiño, José I.; Fernicola, Juan Carlos; Kohn, Matthew J.; Trayler, Robin; Naipauer, Maximiliano; Bargo, M. Susana; Kay, Richard F.; Vizcaíno, Sergio F.

    2016-10-01

    The early Miocene Santa Cruz Formation (SCF) in southern Patagonia hosts the Santacrucian South American Land Mammal Age (SALMA), whose age is known mainly from exposures along the Atlantic coast. Zircon U-Pb ages were obtained from intercalated tuffs from four inland sections of the SCF: 17.36 ± 0.63 Ma for the westernmost Río Bote locality, and 17.04 ± 0.55 Ma-16.32 ± 0.62 Ma for central Río Santa Cruz localities. All ages agree with the bounding age of underlying marine units and with equivalent strata in coastal exposures. New ages and available sedimentation rates imply time spans for each section of ∼18.2 to 17.36 Ma for Río Bote and 17.45-15.63 Ma for central Río Santa Cruz (Burdigalian). These estimates support the view that deposition of the SCF began at western localities ∼1 Ma earlier than at eastern localities, and that the central Río Santa Cruz localities expose the youngest SCF in southern Santa Cruz Province. Associated vertebrate faunas are consistent with our geochronologic synthesis, showing older (Notohippidian) taxa in western localities and younger (Santacrucian) taxa in central localities. The Notohippidian fauna (19.0-18.0 Ma) of the western localities is synchronous with Pinturan faunas (19.0-18.0 Ma), but older than Santacrucian faunas of the Río Santa Cruz (17.2-15.6 Ma) and coastal localities (18.0-16.2 Ma). The Santacrucian faunas of the central Río Santa Cruz localities temporally overlap Colloncuran (15.7 Ma), Friasian (16.5 Ma), and eastern Santacrucian faunas.

  17. Physical data of soil profiles formed on late Quaternary marine terraces near Santa Cruz, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Munster, Jennie; Harden, Jennifer W.

    2002-01-01

    The marine terraces in and around Santa Cruz, California, represent a set of well-preserved terraces formed as a product of geology, sea level, and climate. A marine terrace begins as a wave cut platform. Eustatic sea level changes, seacliff erosion, and tectonic uplift work together to generate marine terraces. "When a wave-cut platform is raised (due to tectonic activity) above sea level and cliffed by wave action it becomes a marine terrace" (Bradley, 1957, p. 424). During glacial periods, eustatic sea level is estimated to have dropped by 150 meters (Fairbanks, 1989). Cliff retreat measured from aerial photographs between 1930 and 1980 vary from 0.0 to 0.2 m yr–1 (Best and Griggs, 1991). Estimates of uplift rates along the Santa Cruz coastline vary from 0.10 to 0.48 m kyr–1 (Bradley and Griggs, 1976; Weber and others, 1999). Uplift mechanisms include coseismic uplift associated both with a reverse component of slip on the steeply SW dipping Loma Prieta fault in the restraining bend of the San Andreas Fault and a small component of reverse slip on the steeply SE dipping San Gregorio fault (Anderson and Menking 1994). Previous work studying physical properties on these terraces include Pinney and others (in press) and Aniku (1986) and Bowman and Estrada (1980). Sedimentary deposits of the marine terraces are a mixture of terrestrial and marine sediments but generally consist of a sheet of marine deposits overlying the old platform and a wedge of nonmarine deposits banked against the old sea cliff (Bradley, 1957). Bedrock underlying the terraces in the Santa Cruz area is generally either Santa Margarita Sandstone or Santa Cruz Mudstone. The Santa Margarita Sandstone represents an upper Miocene, transgressive, tidally dominated marine-shelf deposit with crossbedded sets of sand and gravel and horizontally stratified and bioturbated invertebrate-fossils beds (Phillips, 1990). The siliceous Santa Cruz Mudstone, of late Miocene age, conformably overlies the Santa

  18. Hematology and serum chemistry of the island spotted skunk on Santa Cruz Island.

    PubMed

    Crooks, Kevin R; Garcelon, D K; Scott, Cheryl A; Wilcox, Jeffery T; Timm, Steven F; Van Vuren, Dirk H

    2003-04-01

    We determined serum biochemistry and hematologic values for island spotted skunks (Spilogale gracilis amphiala) on Santa Cruz Island (California, USA). Samples were collected from island spotted skunks chemically restrained with ketamine hydrochloride and acepromazine in August 1999 (dry season) and from skunks manually restrained in August 2000 (dry season) and January 2001 (wet season). One parameter, glucose, significantly differed with season, with higher levels during the wet season. Serum chemistry and hematologic profiles suggest that method of restraint (manual or chemical), as well as other methodologic details, may influence blood characteristics in the island spotted skunk.

  19. Energy future Santa Cruz: A citizens' plan for energy self-reliance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohn, J.; Stayton, R.

    The results of a grassroots energy conservation project which involved more than 3,100 residents of Santa Cruz, California, is discussed. Citizens attended forums and town meetings to suggest ideas for solving the community's energy problems. These ideas were then evaluated by the Energy Future Advisory Board and compiled into the Energy Future Plan. The energy plan covers such topics as new residences, residential retrofit, automobile efficiency, farm efficiency, commercial greenhouses, local food production, commercial efficiency, land use planning, energy education and financing, and solar, wind, and ocean energy. An energy implementation guide and glossary are included.

  20. Simulation of ground-water flow and potential land subsidence, upper Santa Cruz Basin, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanson, R.T.; Benedict, J.F.

    1994-01-01

    A numerical ground-water flow model of the upper Santa Cruz basin in Pinal, Pima, and Santa Cruz Counties was developed to evaluate predevelopment conditions in 1940, ground-water withdrawals for 1940-86, and potential water-level declines and land subsidence for 1987-2024. Simulations of steady-state ground-water conditions indicate 12,900 acre-feet of ground-water inflow, 15,260 acre-feet of outflow, 53,000 acre-feet of pre- development pumpage, 29,840 acre-feet of mountain- front recharge, and 34,020 acre-feet of streamflow infiltration in 1940. Simulations of transient ground-water conditions indicate a total of 6.6 million acre-feet of net pumpage and 3.4 million acre-feet of water removed from aquifer storage for 1941-86. A difference of 1.2 million acre-feet between estimated and net pumpage is attributed to increased recharge from irrigation return flow, mine return flow, and infiltration of sewage effluent. Estimated natural recharge represents 40 percent of pumpage for 1966-86 and averaged 63,860 acre-feet per year for 1940-57 and 76,250 acre-feet per year for 1958-86. The increase in recharge after 1958 was coincident with above- average winter streamflow in the Santa Cruz River for 1959-86. Increased recharge after 1958 and decreased pumpage after 1975 contributed to decreased water-level declines or to recoveries after 1977 in wells near the Santa Cruz River and its tributaries. The results of projection simu- lations indicate that a maximum potential subsi- dence for 1987-2024 ranges from 1.2 feet for an inelastic specific storage of .0001 ft to 12 feet for an inelastic specific storage of .0015 ft. The simulations were made on the basis of pumpage and recharge rates from 1986 and by using a preconso- lidation-stress threshold of 100 feet. A permanent reduction in acquitard storage can range from 1 to 12 percent of the potential loss of 3.9 million acre-feet in aquifer-system storage for 1987-2024.

  1. Using FORSEE and continuous forest inventory information to evaluate implementation of uneven-aged management in Santa Cruz County coast redwood forests

    Treesearch

    Douglas D. Piirto; Scott Sink; Dominic Ali; Steve Auten; Christopher Hipkin; Reid. Cody

    2012-01-01

    Swanton Pacific Ranch in northern Santa Cruz County has been owned and managed by California Polytechnic State University (Cal Poly) Foundation since 1987. The California Forest Practice Rules specific to Santa Cruz County limit harvest rate and opening size. Cal Poly forest managers are implementing uneven-aged forest management on 1,182 acres of 80 to 110...

  2. Biologic origin of iron nodules in a marine terrace chronosequence, Santa Cruz, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schulz, M.S.; Vivit, D.; Schulz, C.; Fitzpatrick, J.; White, A.

    2010-01-01

    The distribution, chemistry, and morphology of Fe nodules were studied in a marine terrace soil chronosequence northwest of Santa Cruz, California. The Fe nodules are found at depths <1 m on all terraces. The nodules consisted of soil mineral grains cemented by Fe oxides. The nodules varied in size from 0.5 to 25 mm in diameter. Nodules did not occur in the underlying regolith. The Fe-oxide mineralogy of the nodules was typically goethite; however, a subset of nodules consisted of maghemite. There was a slight transformation to hematite with time. The abundance of soil Fe nodules increased with terrace age on the five terraces studied (aged 65,000-226,000 yr). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed Fe-oxide-containing fungal hyphae throughout the nodules, including organic structures incorporating fine-grained Fe oxides. The fine-grained nature of the Fe oxides was substantiated by M??ssbauer spectroscopy. Our microscopic observations led to the hypothesis that the nodules in the Santa Cruz terrace soils are precipitated by fungi, perhaps as a strategy to sequester primary mineral grains for nutrient extraction. The fungal structures are fixed by the seasonal wetting and dry cycles and rounded through bioturbation. The organic structures are compacted by the degradation of fungal C with time. ?? Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  3. California State Waters Map Series—Offshore of Santa Cruz, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cochrane, Guy R.; Dartnell, Peter; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Golden, Nadine E.; Greene, H. Gary; Dieter, Bryan E.; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Ritchie, Andrew C.; Finlayson, David P.; Endris, Charles A.; Watt, Janet T.; Davenport, Clifton W.; Sliter, Ray W.; Maier, Katherine L.; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Cochrane, Guy R.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2016-03-24

    IntroductionIn 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of high-resolution bathymetry, marine benthic habitats, and geology within the limit of California’s State Waters. The CSMP approach is to create highly detailed seafloor maps through collection, integration, interpretation, and visualization of swath sonar data, acoustic backscatter, seafloor video, seafloor photography, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, and bottom-sediment sampling data. The map products display seafloor morphology and character, identify potential marine benthic habitats, and illustrate both the surficial seafloor geology and shallow subsurface geology.The Offshore of Santa Cruz map area is located in central California, on the Pacific Coast about 98 km south of San Francisco. The city of Santa Cruz (population, about 63,000), the largest incorporated city in the map area and the county seat of Santa Cruz County, lies on uplifted marine terraces between the shoreline and the northwest-trending Santa Cruz Mountains, part of California’s Coast Ranges. All of California’s State Waters in the map area is part of the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary.The map area is cut by an offshore section of the San Gregorio Fault Zone, and it lies about 20 kilometers southwest of the San Andreas Fault Zone. Regional folding and uplift along the coast has been attributed to a westward bend in the San Andreas Fault Zone and to right-lateral movement along the San Gregorio Fault Zone. Most of the coastal zone is characterized by low, rocky cliffs and sparse, small pocket beaches backed by low, terraced hills. Point Santa Cruz, which forms the north edge of Monterey Bay, provides protection for the beaches in the easternmost part of the map area by sheltering them from the predominantly northwesterly waves.The shelf in the map area is underlain by variable amounts (0 to 25 m) of

  4. Methanotrophy under Versatile Conditions in the Water Column of the Ferruginous Meromictic Lake La Cruz (Spain).

    PubMed

    Oswald, Kirsten; Jegge, Corinne; Tischer, Jana; Berg, Jasmine; Brand, Andreas; Miracle, María R; Soria, Xavier; Vicente, Eduardo; Lehmann, Moritz F; Zopfi, Jakob; Schubert, Carsten J

    2016-01-01

    Lakes represent a considerable natural source of methane to the atmosphere compared to their small global surface area. Methanotrophs in sediments and in the water column largely control methane fluxes from these systems, yet the diversity, electron accepting capacity, and nutrient requirements of these microorganisms have only been partially identified. Here, we investigated the role of electron acceptors alternative to oxygen and sulfate in microbial methane oxidation at the oxycline and in anoxic waters of the ferruginous meromictic Lake La Cruz, Spain. Active methane turnover in a zone extending well below the oxycline was evidenced by stable carbon isotope-based rate measurements. We observed a strong methane oxidation potential throughout the anoxic water column, which did not vary substantially from that at the oxic/anoxic interface. Both in the redox-transition and anoxic zones, only aerobic methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) were detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization and sequencing techniques, suggesting a close coupling of cryptic photosynthetic oxygen production and aerobic methane turnover. Additions of nitrate, nitrite and to a lesser degree iron and manganese oxides also stimulated bacterial methane consumption. We could not confirm a direct link between the reduction of these compounds and methane oxidation and we cannot exclude the contribution of unknown anaerobic methanotrophs. Nevertheless, our findings from Lake La Cruz support recent laboratory evidence that aerobic methanotrophs may be able to utilize alternative terminal electron acceptors under oxygen limitation.

  5. Radon Indicates Hydrological Connection between the Ocean and Lagoon, Santa Cruz, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vattadi, N.; Foley, N.; Lecher, A.; Murray, J.

    2013-12-01

    Lagoons are common along the coastline of Santa Cruz, CA. In the summer dry season, Corcoran Lagoon in Santa Cruz, California is separated from the ocean by a 100 meter long sand berm. Because sand is a porous medium, water can flow through the berm with a maximum calculated speed of 0.427 meters per hour at Corcoran Lagoon. Previous studies have shown that radon can be used as an indicator of submarine groundwater discharge into the ocean and that discharge into the ocean fluctuates as a function of tide. We used similar techniques in the lagoon to measure 222Rn as groundwater stored in the berm is pushed into the lagoon by the advancing tide. We also measured the salinity of water stored in the berm water at three temporary wells and compared it to seawater and lagoon water at the same time as our radon measurements. As the tide advanced, we observed a radon and salinity increase near the midpoint of the lagoon. The highest salinity measurements, which were higher than both the ocean and the lagoon, were recorded in the berm at the temporary well nearest to the lagoon. These data indicate that the berm stores high salinity and radon rich groundwater which is then pushed into the lagoon with a rising tide which demonstrates the hydrological connection between the lagoon and the ocean.

  6. Configuration of Miocene Basins Along the Santa Cruz-Catalina Ridge, California Continental Borderland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoller, A. R.; Legg, M.; Malone, D. H.

    2015-12-01

    Miocene basins associated with the oblique rifting of the Inner Continental Borderland offshore Southern California are preserved along the flanks of the transpressional Santa Cruz-Catalina Ridge. Using 184 lines of two-dimensional seismic data including high resolution records from Oregon State University and deep penetration data from Western Geco archived in USGS/NAMSS, we were able to map the configuration of the Miocene basin along the flanks of the northern core complex on the Santa Cruz-Catalina Ridge. There are distinct early and middle Miocene basins along the flanks of the ridge, which we are using to try to define the initial configuration of the Inner Borderland Rift. Along the hinge, between the uplifted ridge and the sub-horizontal basement in the Santa Monica Basin, lies the thickest part of the sequence. Pliocene to Recent sediments lap on to the tilted and uplifted Miocene basin sequences and constrain timing of uplift when transpression commenced. Segmentation and other distinctive character of the basin along the ridge flank may be correlated with similar features in the Miocene basin on the conjugate margin of the rift. Our working model for oblique rifting in the Borderland resembles of the Gulf of California, where right-stepping echelon transform faults link left-stepping extensional basins. The objective of our project is to reconstruct the configuration of the middle Miocene rift and to further our quest to understand the rifting process and tectonic evolution of the Pacific-North American plate boundary.

  7. Rapid assessment of drug consumption at Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Caris, L; Suarez, R; Covarrubias, G; Fernández, E; Roca, E

    1996-01-01

    The present paper describes a rapid assessment carried out in 1996 at Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Bolivia, with a view to defining the sociocultural groups at risk and gaining insight, through the comments of those interviewed, into their perceptions of the phenomenon of drug abuse, their reasons for abusing drugs, the drugs most frequently abused and the psychological and social factors involved when they enter, remain in and finally leave drug-abusing circles. By using qualitative methodology and techniques it was possible to gain access to the typical world inhabited by the interviewees, and thus to characterize the subjects of the study in the light of their closest social reference points (family, peer group, education and work). Among the conclusions of the study are the following: drug abuse is a complex and dynamic phenomenon that has occurred throughout the society of Santa Cruz, fostered by cultural and economic factors; there is a need for society, and especially the Government, to devise a specific, focused and diversified range of services, both in prevention and in rehabilitation, with integration and participation being key features of such initiatives; and the mechanisms for controlling the production of drugs and drug trafficking need to be strengthened.

  8. Evaluation of ground-water monitoring network, Santa Cruz County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blankenbaker, G.G.; Farrar, Christopher D.

    1981-01-01

    The Santa Cruz County Flood Control and Water Conservation District seeks to improve the existing network of observation wells to monitor water levels and ground-water quality in the Pajaro Valley subarea and the Aptos-Soquel, San Lorenzo, and Santa Cruz Coastal subbasins in California. The proposed network , consisting of 92 wells, is designed to monitor changes in storage and quality of ground water resulting from climatic changes and management-induced stresses. In the proposed network , water levels in all wells would be measured semiannually, in April and September, and monthly in a few key wells. The water-level measurements would provide data that could be used to determine changes in ground-water storage. In addition to the currently monitored characteristics--temperature, specific conductance, pH, and chloride ion concentration--inclusion of annual sampling and analysis for major ions and nutrients is proposed. The network would also include sampling and analysis for trace elements once every 4 years. More frequent analyses are proposed in areas where water-quality problems are known to exist or where potential water-quality problems are recognized. Analyses for major ions, nutrients, and trace elements are included in the proposed network to provide baseline data for monitoring long-term changes in water quality and to detect any unexpected changes in quality. (USGS)

  9. Genetic Status and Timing of a Weevil Introduction to Santa Cruz Island, Galápagos

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Successful invasive species can overcome or circumvent the potential genetic loss caused by an introduction bottleneck through a rapid population expansion and admixture from multiple introductions. We explore the genetic makeup and the timing of a species introduction to Santa Cruz Island in the Galápagos archipelago. We investigate the presence of processes that can maintain genetic diversity in populations of the broad-nosed weevil Galapaganus howdenae howdenae. Analyses of combined genotypes for 8 microsatellite loci showed evidence of past population size reductions through moment and likelihood-based estimators. No evidence of admixture through multiple introductions was found, but substantial current population sizes (N0 298, 95% credible limits 50–2300), genetic diversity comparable with long-established endemics (Mean number of alleles = 3.875), and lack of genetic structure across the introduced range (F ST = 0.01359) could suggest that foundations are in place for populations to rapidly recover any loss of genetic variability. The time estimates for the introduction into Santa Cruz support an accidental transfer during the colonization period (1832–1959) predating the spurt in human population growth. Our evaluation of the genetic status of G. h. howdenae suggests potential for population growth in addition to our field observations of a concurrent expansion in range and feeding preferences towards protected areas and endemic host plants. PMID:24399746

  10. Methanotrophy under Versatile Conditions in the Water Column of the Ferruginous Meromictic Lake La Cruz (Spain)

    PubMed Central

    Oswald, Kirsten; Jegge, Corinne; Tischer, Jana; Berg, Jasmine; Brand, Andreas; Miracle, María R.; Soria, Xavier; Vicente, Eduardo; Lehmann, Moritz F.; Zopfi, Jakob; Schubert, Carsten J.

    2016-01-01

    Lakes represent a considerable natural source of methane to the atmosphere compared to their small global surface area. Methanotrophs in sediments and in the water column largely control methane fluxes from these systems, yet the diversity, electron accepting capacity, and nutrient requirements of these microorganisms have only been partially identified. Here, we investigated the role of electron acceptors alternative to oxygen and sulfate in microbial methane oxidation at the oxycline and in anoxic waters of the ferruginous meromictic Lake La Cruz, Spain. Active methane turnover in a zone extending well below the oxycline was evidenced by stable carbon isotope-based rate measurements. We observed a strong methane oxidation potential throughout the anoxic water column, which did not vary substantially from that at the oxic/anoxic interface. Both in the redox-transition and anoxic zones, only aerobic methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) were detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization and sequencing techniques, suggesting a close coupling of cryptic photosynthetic oxygen production and aerobic methane turnover. Additions of nitrate, nitrite and to a lesser degree iron and manganese oxides also stimulated bacterial methane consumption. We could not confirm a direct link between the reduction of these compounds and methane oxidation and we cannot exclude the contribution of unknown anaerobic methanotrophs. Nevertheless, our findings from Lake La Cruz support recent laboratory evidence that aerobic methanotrophs may be able to utilize alternative terminal electron acceptors under oxygen limitation. PMID:27891115

  11. The Solomon Islands tsunami of 6 February 2013 field survey in the Santa Cruz Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz, H. M.; Papantoniou, A.; Biukoto, L.; Albert, G.

    2013-12-01

    On February 6, 2013 at 01:12:27 UTC (local time: UTC+11), a magnitude Mw 8.0 earthquake occurred 70 km to the west of Ndendo Island (Santa Cruz Island) in the Solomon Islands. The under-thrusting earthquake near a 90° bend, where the Australian plate subducts beneath the Pacific plate generated a locally focused tsunami in the Coral Sea and the South Pacific Ocean. The tsunami claimed the lives of 10 people and injured 15, destroyed 588 houses and partially damaged 478 houses, affecting 4,509 people in 1,066 households corresponding to an estimated 37% of the population of Santa Cruz Island. A multi-disciplinary international tsunami survey team (ITST) was deployed within days of the event to document flow depths, runup heights, inundation distances, sediment and coral boulder depositions, land level changes, damage patterns at various scales, performance of the man-made infrastructure and impact on the natural environment. The 19 to 23 February 2013 ITST covered 30 locations on 4 Islands: Ndendo (Santa Cruz), Tomotu Noi (Lord Howe), Nea Tomotu (Trevanion, Malo) and Tinakula. The reconnaissance completely circling Ndendo and Tinakula logged 240 km by small boat and additionally covered 20 km of Ndendo's hard hit western coastline by vehicle. The collected survey data includes more than 80 tsunami runup and flow depth measurements. The tsunami impact peaked at Manoputi on Ndendo's densely populated west coast with maximum tsunami height exceeding 11 m and local flow depths above ground exceeding 7 m. A fast tide-like positive amplitude of 1 m was recorded at Lata wharf inside Graciosa Bay on Ndendo Island and misleadingly reported in the media as representative tsunami height. The stark contrast between the field observations on exposed coastlines and the Lata tide gauge recording highlights the importance of rapid tsunami reconnaissance surveys. Inundation distance and damage more than 500 m inland were recorded at Lata airport on Ndendo Island. Landslides were

  12. Ranching and conservation in the Santa Cruz River Region, Sonora: Milpillas Case Study (Ganaderia y Conservacion en la Region del Rio Santa Cruz, Sonora: El Caso del Grupo Milpillas)

    Treesearch

    Joaquin Murrieta-Saldivar

    2006-01-01

    The Sonoran Institute (SI) is a non-profit organization working with people toward common conservation goals. Two objectives guide the work of the Sonoran Institute in the Santa Cruz River Region in Sonora, Mexico: to establish projects with community participation that can result in tangible and long-lasting benefits to the environment, and to ensure success by...

  13. 78 FR 35951 - Proposed Low-Effect Habitat Conservation Plan for the City of Santa Cruz Graham Hill Water...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-14

    ... Graham Hill Water Treatment Plant, Santa Cruz County, California AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service... existing Graham Hill Water Treatment Plant, construction of new facilities, which have the potential for... system, the applicant operates the Graham Hill Water Treatment Plant. The Graham Hill Water...

  14. Implementation of a thinning and burning study in tanoak-redwood stands in Santa Cruz and Mendocino counties

    Treesearch

    Kevin L. O?Hara; Kristen M. Waring

    2008-01-01

    Three silvicultural treatment study sites are being established to examine the effects of thinning and prescribed burning on infection and spread of Phytophthora ramorum. Study sites are located in Mendocino and Santa Cruz counties, California. Stands are even-aged redwood/tanoak mixtures.

  15. Map showing locations of damaging landslides in Santa Cruz County, California, resulting from 1997-98 El Nino rainstorms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baum, Rex L.; Schuster, Robert L.; Godt, Jonathan W.

    1999-01-01

    Heavy rainfall associated with a strong El Nino caused over $150 million in landslide damage in the 10-county San Francisco Bay region during the winter and spring of 1998. A team of USGS scientists collected information on landslide locations and damage costs. About $14.5 million in damages were assessed in Santa Cruz County.

  16. List of the type-specimens of Reduviidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) in the Triatomines Collection of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Juliana Mourão Dos Santos; Moreira, Felipe Ferraz Figueiredo; Cordeiro, Isabelle Da Rocha Silva; De Almeida, Magaly Dolsan; Jurberg, José

    2015-03-19

    The Triatomines Collection of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute (CTIOC) holds 90 holotypes, seven syntypes, and 619 paratypes of the family Reduviidae, distributed in 44 genera and nine subfamilies: Chryxinae, Emesinae, Hammacerinae, Harpactorinae, Peiratinae, Reduviinae, Stenopodainae, Triatominae, and Vesciinae. A detailed list containing nomenclatural, taxonomic, and locality information about all these types is herein presented for the first time.

  17. High-resolution topographic, bathymetric, and oceanographic data for the Pleasure Point Area, Santa Cruz County, California: 2005-2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Storlazzi, Curt D.; Barnard, Patrick L.; Collins, Brian D.; Finlayson, David P.; Golden, Nadine E.; Hatcher, Gerry A.; Kayen, Robert E.; Ruggiero, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The County of Santa Cruz Department of Public Works and the County of Santa Cruz Redevelopment Agency requested the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Western Coastal and Marine Geology Team (WCMG) to provide baseline geologic and oceanographic information on the coast and inner shelf at Pleasure Point, Santa Cruz County, California. The rationale for this proposed work is a need to better understand the environmental consequences of a proposed bluff stabilization project on the beach, the nearshore and the surf at Pleasure Point, Santa Cruz County, California. To meet these information needs, the USGS-WCMG Team collected baseline scientific information on the morphology and waves at Pleasure Point. This study provided high-resolution topography of the coastal bluffs and bathymetry of the inner shelf off East Cliff Drive between 32nd Avenue and 41st Avenue. The spatial and temporal variation in waves and their breaking patterns at the study site were documented. Although this project did not actively investigate the impacts of the proposed bluff stabilization project, these data provide the baseline information required for future studies directed toward predicting the impacts of stabilization on the sea cliffs, beach and nearshore sediment profiles, natural rock reef structures, and offshore habitats and resources. They also provide a basis for calculating potential changes to wave transformations into the shore at Pleasure Point.

  18. Fire History in Coast Redwood Stands in San Mateo County Parks and Jasper Ridge, Santa Cruz Mountains

    Treesearch

    Scott L. Stephens; Danny L. Fry

    2007-01-01

    Fire regimes in coast redwood forests in the northeastern Santa Cruz Mountains were determined by ring counts from 46 coast redwood stumps and live trees. The earliest recorded fire from two live samples was in 1615 and the last fire recorded was in 1884, although samples were not crossdated. For all sites combined, the mean fire return interval (FRI) was 12.0 years;...

  19. The Border Environmental Health Initiative: Investigation of the Transboundary Santa Cruz Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norman, L. M.; Callegary, J. B.; van Riper, C.; Gray, F.; Paretti, N.; Villarreal, M.

    2009-12-01

    In the borderland region of the desert southwest, human health and the ecosystems upon which humans rely largely depend on the quality, quantity, and distribution of water resources. In the Santa Cruz River Watershed (SCW), located in the Arizona and Sonora, Mexico border region, surface water is scarce and unreliable, and, during much of the year, is composed of effluent from the local wastewater treatment plant. This makes groundwater the preferred and, consequently, primary source for industrial, agricultural, and domestic use. USGS scientists are using an integrative approach, incorporating the expertise of the Geography, Water, Biology, and Geology disciplines to identify risks to water resources in the SCW, and the potential for impacts to riparian ecosystems and ultimately, human health. This includes tracking organic and inorganic contaminants and their effects from sources to sinks in sediment, water, plants, and animals. Existing ground- and surface-water models will be used and modified to assess contaminant and sediment transport. Water quality, sediment, aquatic macro invertebrates, aquatic plants (macrophytes), algae, riparian grasses, fish, and birds will be sampled at five locations along the Santa Cruz River. Field sampling data will be obtained at sites that coincide with historical sampling programs. Site locations include (i.) the Santa Cruz River headwaters (which should be unaffected by downstream contaminant sources), (ii.) a tributary routed through an abandoned mining district, (iii.) a binational tributary that flows though highly urbanized areas, (iv.) effluent from the local wastewater treatment plant, and (v.) the downstream confluence of the first four sources. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model will be used in combination with field data to identify key sources of contaminants, contributing areas, and transport modes to track their movement to surface waters. These data will be used together to test relationships between

  20. Blaming Machismo: How the Social Imaginary is Failing Men with HIV in Santa Cruz, Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Heckert, Carina

    2017-01-01

    Drawing from an ethnography of HIV care in Santa Cruz, Bolivia, in this article I explore how the social imaginary surrounding gender relations shapes men's experiences of seeking care for and living with HIV. Popular understandings of gender relations, which draw heavily on the machismo concept, intersect with a global health master narrative that frames women as victims in the AIDS epidemic in a way that generates a strong sentiment of blaming machismo within local HIV/AIDS-related services. Statements such as, "it's because of machismo" are used to explain away epidemiological trends. Participant observation in the context of HIV care, coupled with illness narrative interviews, illuminate how blaming machismo shapes men's experiences of care and the ways that they feel excluded from various forms of support. Thus, the illness experiences of men with HIV problematize the machismo concept and how it is drawn upon in the context of care.

  1. Lamniform Shark Teeth from the Late Cretaceous of Southernmost South America (Santa Cruz Province, Argentina)

    PubMed Central

    Schroeter, Elena R.; Egerton, Victoria M.; Ibiricu, Lucio M.; Lacovara, Kenneth J.

    2014-01-01

    Here we report multiple lamniform shark teeth recovered from fluvial sediments in the (Campanian-Maastrichtian) Cerro Fortaleza Formation, Santa Cruz Province, Argentina. This small tooth assemblage is compared to various lamniform sharks possessing similar dental morphologies, including Archaeolamna, Cretalamna, Dwardius, Dallasiella, and Cretodus. Although the teeth share numerous morphological features with the genus Archaeolamna, including a developed neck that maintains a relatively consistent width along the base of the crown, the small sample size and incomplete nature of these specimens precludes definitive taxonomic assignment. Regardless, the discovery of selachian teeth unique from those previously described for the region broadens the known diversity of Late Cretaceous South American sharks. Additionally, the discovery of the teeth in fluvial sandstone may indicate a euryhaline paleobiology in the lamniform taxon or taxa represented by this tooth assemblage. PMID:25141301

  2. Free-living marine nematodes from San Julián Bay (Santa Cruz, Argentina)

    PubMed Central

    Pastor de Ward, Catalina; Lo Russo, Virginia; Villares, Gabriela; Milano, Viviana; Miyashiro, Lidia; Mazzanti, Renato

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The free-living marine nematodes of San Julián Bay dataset is based on sediment samples collected in January 2009 during the project PICT AGENCIA-FONCYT 2/33345-2005. A total of 36 samples have been taken at three locations in the San Julián Bay, Santa Cruz Province, Argentina on the coastal littoral at three tidal levels. This presents a unique and important collection for the nematode benthic biodiversity assessment as this area remains one of the least known regions in Patagonia. In total 10,030 specimens of free-living marine nematodes belonging to 2 classes, 9 orders, 35 families, 78 genera and 125 species were collected. The San Julián city site presented a very high species richness. PMID:25878534

  3. Assessment of benthic changes during 20 years of monitoring the Mexican Salina Cruz Bay.

    PubMed

    González-Macías, C; Schifter, I; Lluch-Cota, D B; Méndez-Rodríguez, L; Hernández-Vázquez, S

    2009-02-01

    In this work a non-parametric multivariate analysis was used to assess the impact of metals and organic compounds in the macro infaunal component of the mollusks benthic community using surface sediment data from several monitoring programs collected over 20 years in Salina Cruz Bay, Mexico. The data for benthic mollusks community characteristics (richness, abundance and diversity) were linked to multivariate environmental patterns, using the Alternating Conditional Expectations method to correlate the biological measurements of the mollusk community with the physicochemical properties of water and sediments. Mollusks community variation is related to environmental characteristics as well as lead content. Surface deposit feeders are increasing their relative density, while subsurface deposit feeders are decreasing with respect to time, these last are expected to be more related with sediment and more affected then by its quality. However gastropods with predatory carnivore as well as chemosymbiotic deposit feeder bivalves have maintained their relative densities along time.

  4. Bacterial community profiles before, during, and after Pseudo-nitzschia bloom events in Santa Cruz, CA.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehic, S.; Sison-Mangus, M. P.; Jiang, S.; Kudela, R. M.

    2014-12-01

    Pseudo-nitzschia blooms are known to occur in coastal environments, sometimes leading to the production of the neurotoxin domoic acid. Various environmental factors (nutrients, temperature, pH, UV radiation etc.) have been implicated in the promotion and demise of these blooms but it is currently unknown if bacteria also plays a role in this ecological phenomenon. Studies suggest that bacteria have a profound effect on Pseudo-nitzschia physiology and toxin production, which influences its dominance in coastal environment. Here, we investigate the microbial assemblages before, during and after toxic and nontoxic Pseudo-nitzschia blooms to determine the patterns of bacterial succession in these events. Bacterial community profiles were determined weekly at the Santa Cruz Wharf using next generation sequencing and analyzed together with domoic acid levels, nutrients, temperature and phytoplankton structure. Bacterial structures and environmental trends will be correlated with the bloom events and will be subsequently discussed.

  5. Analysis of Pollution Potential of the Upper San Pedro and Upper Santa Cruz Aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lincicome, A. D.; Brusseau, M. L.

    2011-12-01

    Transboundary aquifers along the U.S.-Mexico border are subject to unique demands and constraints, and are a focus of priority assessment under the auspices of the Transboundary Aquifer Assessment Program. The Upper Santa Cruz and Upper San Pedro basins in southern Arizona are experiencing rapid population growth and development, and the associated water and environmental resource demands are stressors to water resource sustainability. A groundwater vulnerability assessment was performed to evaluate groundwater resources within these two basins using DRASTIC (Depth to water, net Recharge, Aquifer media, Soil media, Topography, Impact of vadose zone media, and hydraulic Conductivity of the aquifer). DRASTIC analysis is a standardized method developed by the Environmental Protection Agency for evaluating groundwater pollution potential. DRASTIC was used to characterize the potential for contamination of groundwater by land surface sources. Data layers for the DRASTIC analysis were compiled and analyzed separately based on rating methods from DRASTIC. These methods rate each layer on a scale of one to ten, one being the least vulnerable to contamination and ten being the most vulnerable. Weights for each layer were also provided by DRASTIC based on each layer's contribution to the overall vulnerability of the aquifer. These layers were then analyzed using the equation: DRDW+RRRW+ARAw+SRSW+TRTW+IRIW+CRCW = Pollution Potential, where R = rating, and W = weight. This assessment was coupled with current knowledge of groundwater contamination and current land use practices to identify zones of potential concern. This information can be used to better direct city planning, zoning programs, and groundwater monitoring and remediation efforts throughout the Upper Santa Cruz and Upper San Pedro basins.

  6. Reconnaissance of alluvial fans as potential sources of gravel aggregate, Santa Cruz River valley, Southeast Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindsey, David A.; Melick, Roger

    2002-01-01

    This investigation was conducted to provide information on the aggregate potential of alluvial fan sediments in the Santa Cruz River valley. Pebble lithology, roundness, and particle size were determined in the field, and structures and textures of alluvial fan sediments were photographed and described. Additional measurements of particle size on digital photographs were made on a computer screen. Digital elevation models were acquired and compiled for viewing the areal extent of selected fans. Alluvial fan gravel in the Santa Cruz River valley reflects the lithology of its source. Gravel derived from granitic and gneissic terrane of the Tortolita, Santa Catalina, and Rincon Mountains weathers to grus and is generally inferior for use as aggregate. Gravel derived from the Tucson, Sierrita, and Tumacacori Mountains is composed mostly of angular particles of volcanic rock, much of it felsic in composition. This angular volcanic gravel should be suitable for use in asphalt but may require treatment for alkali-silica reaction prior to use in concrete. Gravel derived from the Santa Rita Mountains is of mixed plutonic (mostly granitic rocks), volcanic (mostly felsic rocks), and sedimentary (sandstone and carbonate rock) composition. The sedimentary component tends to make gravel derived from the Santa Rita Mountains slightly more rounded than other fan gravel. The coarsest (pebble, cobble, and boulder) gravel is found near the heads (proximal part) of alluvial fans. At the foot (distal part) of alluvial fans, most gravel is pebble-sized and interbedded with sand and silt. Some of the coarsest gravel was observed near the head of the Madera Canyon, Montosa Canyon, and Esperanza Wash fans. The large Cienega Creek fan, located immediately south and southeast of Tucson, consists entirely of distal-fan pebble gravel, sand, and silt.

  7. Climatic variability and flood frequency of the Santa Cruz River, Pima County, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Webb, Robert H.; Betancourt, Julio L.

    1992-01-01

    Past estimates of the 100-year flood for the Santa Cruz River at Tucson, Arizona, range from 572 to 2,780 cubic meters per second. An apparent increase in flood magnitude during the past two decades raises concern that the annual flood series is nonstationary in time. The apparent increase is accompanied by more annual floods occurring in fall and winter and fewer in summer. This greater mixture of storm types that produce annual flood peaks is caused by a higher frequency of meridional flow in the upper-air circulation and increased variance of ocean-atmosphere conditions in the tropical Pacific Ocean. Estimation of flood frequency on the Santa Cruz River is complicated because climate affects the magnitude and frequency of storms that cause floods. Mean discharge does not change significantly, but the variance and skew coefficient of the distribution of annual floods change with time. The 100-year flood during El Niffo-Southern Oscillation conditions is 1,300 cubic meters per second, more than double the value for other years. The increase is mostly caused by an increase in recurvature of dissipating tropical cyclones into the Southwestern United States during El Niffo-Southern Oscillation conditions. Flood frequency based on hydroclimatology was determined by combining populations of floods caused by monsoonal storms, frontal systems, and dissipating tropical cyclones. For 1930-59, annual flood frequency is dominated by monsoonal floods, and the estimated 100-year flood is 323 cubic meters per second. For 1960-86, annual flood frequency at recurrence intervals of greater than 10 years is dominated by floods caused by dissipating tropical cyclones, and the estimated 100-year flood is 1,660 cubic meters per second. For design purposes, 1,660 cubic meters per second might be an appropriate value for the 100-year flood at Tucson, assuming that climatic conditions during 1960-86 are representative of conditions expected in the immediate future.

  8. Geochemistry of oil from Santa Cruz basin, Bolivia: case study of migration-fractionation

    SciTech Connect

    Illich, H.A.; Haney, F.R.; Mendoza, M.

    1981-11-01

    Geochemical studies provide important data relevant to the origin of the oils in the Santa Cruz basin, Bolivia. Production from this basin occurs from rocks of Devonian, Carboniferous, Cretaceous, and Tertiary ages. The productive structures are usually undisturbed by major faulting. The Devonian sediments are composed of sandstones and dark marine shales. The post-Devonian rocks are generally oxidized and probably nonmarine. The Tertiary and Cretaceous reservoirs usually contain the highest API/sup 0/ gravity oils. Comparison of geochemical data (N/sub 5/-N/sub 10/ molecular weight range) shows that the oils are very similar; however, systematic compositional trends occur as a function of API/sup 0/ gravity. These trends are interpreted from gross structural group data. Isoparaffins and cycloparaffins increase in relative abundance, while normal paraffins and aromatics decrease with increasing API/sup 0/ gravity. A model is proposed that rationalizes these compositional trends by a mechanism of accommodation in water. The model requires enrichment of hydrocarbons of intermediate solubility, partial exclusion of hydrocarbons of low solubility, and retention in solution of the more soluble hydrocarbons. Processes such as thermal fractionation and biodegradation fail to account satisfactorily for the observed compositional trends. The compositional interrelationships of the oils coupled with the geologic framework suggest that these oils have a common source, most probably the Devonian. Differences between the oils are attributed to fractionation occurring during migration. Exploration risk for areas such as the Santa Cruz basin can be substantially reduced by use of the knowledge derived from petroleum geochemistry.

  9. Evaluation of toxicity of polluted marine sediments from Bahia Salina Cruz, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Lozano, Maria Cristina; Mendez-Rodriguez, Lia C; Maeda-Martinez, Alejandro M; Murugan, Gopal; Vazquez-Botello, Alfonso

    2010-01-01

    Bahia Salina Cruz, Oaxaca, Mexico is a major center of oil and refined product distribution on the Mexican Pacific coast. From the start of oil industry operations in 1979, negative effects from discharges of treated effluents in the bay have been a constant concern for local communities. We analyzed 28 surface sediment samples obtained in June, 2002 to evaluate the level of toxicity in the littoral zone, port-harbor, and La Ventosa estuary in Bahia Salina Cruz. The extractable organic matter concentration was high (1,213 to 7,505 micro g g(-1)) in 5 of 7 stations from the port and harbor, whereas it was low in 12 of 16 stations in the littoral zone (36 to 98 micro g g(-1)). The total aromatic hydrocarbon concentration was highest (57 to 142 micro g g(-1)) in the port and harbor compared to the La Ventosa estuary and the littoral zone. Among the heavy metals analyzed, cadmium exceeded the effects range-low values associated with adverse biological effects. The geo-accumulation index of sediments was moderate to strong contamination at 5 stations in the nonlittoral and 6 stations in the littoral zone. The enrichment of lead, zinc, and cadmium at 5 stations from the littoral, port, and harbor suggest that these metals are of anthropogenic origin. Bioassay tests of elutriates of sediments on nauplii of Artemia franciscana and Artemia sp. showed that the port and harbor were more toxic than the La Ventosa estuary and the coastal zone. The Microtox test (Vibrio fischeri) did not show a similar response with the solid phase of the sediments. The results of this study indicate that the high levels of organic content and metals in the sediments of port-harbor and the La Ventosa estuary are mainly caused by anthropogenic activities.

  10. Reconnaissance of alluvial fans as potential sources of gravel aggregate, Santa Cruz River valley, Southeast Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindsey, David A.; Melick, Roger

    2002-01-01

    This investigation was conducted to provide information on the aggregate potential of alluvial fan sediments in the Santa Cruz River valley. Pebble lithology, roundness, and particle size were determined in the field, and structures and textures of alluvial fan sediments were photographed and described. Additional measurements of particle size on digital photographs were made on a computer screen. Digital elevation models were acquired and compiled for viewing the areal extent of selected fans. Alluvial fan gravel in the Santa Cruz River valley reflects the lithology of its source. Gravel derived from granitic and gneissic terrane of the Tortolita, Santa Catalina, and Rincon Mountains weathers to grus and is generally inferior for use as aggregate. Gravel derived from the Tucson, Sierrita, and Tumacacori Mountains is composed mostly of angular particles of volcanic rock, much of it felsic in composition. This angular volcanic gravel should be suitable for use in asphalt but may require treatment for alkali-silica reaction prior to use in concrete. Gravel derived from the Santa Rita Mountains is of mixed plutonic (mostly granitic rocks), volcanic (mostly felsic rocks), and sedimentary (sandstone and carbonate rock) composition. The sedimentary component tends to make gravel derived from the Santa Rita Mountains slightly more rounded than other fan gravel. The coarsest (pebble, cobble, and boulder) gravel is found near the heads (proximal part) of alluvial fans. At the foot (distal part) of alluvial fans, most gravel is pebble-sized and interbedded with sand and silt. Some of the coarsest gravel was observed near the head of the Madera Canyon, Montosa Canyon, and Esperanza Wash fans. The large Cienega Creek fan, located immediately south and southeast of Tucson, consists entirely of distal-fan pebble gravel, sand, and silt.

  11. Map Showing Seacliff Response to Climatic and Seismic Events, Seabright Beach, Santa Cruz County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hapke, Cheryl J.; Richmond, Bruce M.; D'Iorio, Mimi M.

    2002-01-01

    Introduction The coastal cliffs along much of the central California coast are actively retreating. Large storms and periodic earthquakes are responsible for most of the documented sea cliff slope failures. Long-term average erosion rates calculated for this section of coast do not provide the spatial or temporal data resolution necessary to identify the processes responsible for retreat of the sea cliffs where episodic retreat threatens homes and community infrastructure. Research suggests that more erosion occurs along the California coast over a short time scale, during periods of severe storms or seismic activity, than occurs during decades of normal weather or seismic quiescence. This is the third map in a series of maps prepared to document the processes of short-term sea cliff retreat through the identification of slope failure styles, spatial variability of failures, and temporal variation in retreat amounts in an area that has been identified as an erosion hotspot. This map presents sea cliff failure and retreat data from the Seabright Beach section, California, which is located on the east side of Santa Cruz along the northern Monterey Bay coast. The data presented in this map series provide high-resolution spatial and temporal information on the location, amount, and processes of sea cliff retreat in Santa Cruz, California. These data show the response of the sea cliffs to both large magnitude earthquakes and severe climatic events such as El Ni?os; this information may prove useful in predicting the future response of the cliffs to events of similar magnitude. The map data can also be incorporated into Global Information System (GIS) for use by researchers and community planners. During this study we developed a method for investigating short-term processes of sea cliff evolution using rectified photographic stereo models. This method allows us to document the linear extent of cliff failures, the spatial and temporal relationship between failures, and

  12. Large-scale mapping of landslides in the epicentral area Loma Prieta earthquake of October 17, 1989, Santa Cruz County

    SciTech Connect

    Spittler, T.E.; Sydnor, R.H.; Manson, M.W.; Levine, P.; McKittrick, M.M.

    1990-01-01

    The Loma Prieta earthquake of October 17, 1989 triggered landslides throughout the Santa Cruz Mountains in central California. The California Department of Conservation, Division of Mines and Geology (DMG) responded to a request for assistance from the County of Santa Cruz, Office of Emergency Services to evaluate the geologic hazard from major reactivated large landslides. DMG prepared a set of geologic maps showing the landslide features that resulted from the October 17 earthquake. The principal purpose of large-scale mapping of these landslides is: (1) to provide county officials with regional landslide information that can be used for timely recovery of damaged areas; (2) to identify disturbed ground which is potentially vulnerable to landslide movement during winter rains; (3) to provide county planning officials with timely geologic information that will be used for effective land-use decisions; (4) to document regional landslide features that may not otherwise be available for individual site reconstruction permits and for future development.

  13. Challenges and Perspectives for Tertiary Level Hospitals in Bolivia: The case of Santa Cruz de La Sierra Department.

    PubMed

    Medici, André

    2015-01-01

    Current legislation transferred public tertiary hospitals in Bolivia from the Municipalities to the Regional Level. However, the Regional Governments are experiencing technical and financial constraints to reform infrastructure, modernize equipment and introduce reforms to allow better governance, management and sustainability of these hospitals. This articles summarizes the recent experience of the Government of Santa Cruz de la Sierra in Bolivia where five tertiary hospitals and blood bank (most of them in precarious working conditions) has been transferred in 2012 from the Municipal Government of Santa Cruz (the capital) to the Regional Government of Santa Cruz. To face the challenges, the Regional Government of Santa Cruz implement several improvements, such as contract new clinical and administrative personal, increases hospital budgetary autonomy, outsource hospitals' auxiliary services, take measures to eliminate waiting lists and make several new investments to modernize and equip the hospitals. The World Bank was contracted to evaluated the future financial sustainability of these investments and to advice the Government to propose changes to increase the hospitals' management performance. The article describes the remaining challenges in these hospitals and the proposals from the World Bank Study. In the area of quality of care, the main challenge is to improve client satisfaction and continuous outcomes monitoring and evaluation according quality standards. In the area of financing, the challenge is how to assure the sustainability of these hospitals with the current level of health financing and the insufficient financial transfers from the National Government. In the area of Governance, reforms to streamline and simplify internal processes need to be introduced in order to establish mechanisms to increase transparency and accountability, allowing the hospital to have a good administration and adequate participation of the main actors in the guidance of

  14. Geologic map of the Rio Rico and Nogales 7.5’ quadrangles, Santa Cruz County, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Page, William R.; Menges, Christopher M.; Gray, Floyd; Berry, Margaret E.; Bultman, Mark W.; Cosca, Michael A.; VanSistine, D. Paco

    2016-04-15

    The objectives of our mapping were to define the geologic framework for the Nogales area and the upper Santa Cruz basin to support ongoing multidisciplinary projects. This new work will improve understanding of the Nogales Formation to more fully assess its groundwater resource potential. We significantly revised the Miocene Nogales Formation based on geologic mapping combined with new geochronologic, geophysical, and petrographic studies. 

  15. Scientific collections, tropical medicine and the development of entomology in Brazil: the contribution of Instituto Oswaldo Cruz.

    PubMed

    Sá, M Romero

    2008-12-01

    The entomological collection of the Institute Oswaldo Cruz is one of the most representative of neotropical insects, comprising a diverse variety of specimens of distinct taxonomic groups, including those not linked to research in tropical medicine. The present work retraces the history of the collection and reports on its main actors and their professional relationships, emphasizing the peculiarity of such an important collection still being housed in a medical research institution.

  16. The Border Environmental Health Initiative-investigating the transboundary Santa Cruz watershed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Norman, Laura M.; Callegary, James; van Riper, Charles; Gray, Floyd

    2010-01-01

    In 2004 the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) launched the Border Environmental Health Initiative (BEHI), a major project encompassing the entire U.S.-Mexico border region. In 2009, a study of the Santa Cruz River Watershed (SCW), located in the border region of Arizona and Sonora, Mexico, was initiated as part of the BEHI. In this borderland region of the desert Southwest, human health and the ecosystems on which humans rely depend critically on limited water resources. Surface water is scarce during much of the year, and groundwater is the primary source for industrial, agricultural, and domestic use. In order to identify risks to water resources in the SCW, and the potential consequences to riparian ecosystems and ultimately human health, the USGS is using an interdisciplinary and integrative approach that incorporates the expertise of geographers, hydrologists, biologists, and geologists to track organic and inorganic contaminants and their effects from sources to sinks in sediment, water, plants, and animals. Existing groundwater and surface-water models are being used and modified to assess contaminant and sediment transport.

  17. Macrohabitat of Sonora Chub (Gila ditaenia) in Sycamore Creek, Santa Cruz County, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carpenter, Jeanette; Maughan, O. Eugene

    1993-01-01

    Physical characteristics and persistence of macrohabitat used by different life stages of Sonora chub (Gila ditaenia) were determined by repeatedly measuring distinct reaches in Sycamore Creek, Santa Cruz County, Arizona, in 1990 and 1991. At the beginning of summer drought, habitats occupied by adult Sonora chub were deeper and larger than areas with only immature fish and unoccupied areas. The medians of maximum depth were 47.0 cm (1990) and 39.7 cm (1991) for habitats with adults, 21.3 cm (1990) and 22.9 cm (1991) for habitats with only immature fish, and 14.6 cm (1990) and 19.7 cm (1991) for unoccupied areas. At the end of summer drought, adults occupied habitats that were deeper and larger, and the percent decrease in area and depth was less than areas containing only immature fish or no fish. The medians of percent decrease in maximum depth were 13% (1990) and 21% (1991) for habitats with adults, 48% (1990) and 41% (1991) for habitats with only immature fish, and 42% (1990) and 33% (1991) for unoccupied areas. By the end of summer drought, habitats with only immature fish were not physically different from unoccupied areas. Loss of total surface area was highest in reaches that contained only immature fish or no fish (range = 36% to 94%). Most Sonora chub lost from evaporating surface waters were immature fish. Ephemeral and unoccupied areas had higher percentages of floating cover and coarser substrates than persistent, occupied areas.

  18. Data collection at the Lockheed Santa Cruz facility using midwave hyperspectral imagers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaffer, William A.; Schaum, Alan P.; Hinnrichs, Michelle; Massie, Mark A.; Fields, David

    1995-02-01

    From September 12-15, 1994, two midwave hyperspectral imagers (the Infrared Multispectral Sensor (IMSS) of Pacific Advanced Technology and the Livermore Imaging Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (LIFTIRS) of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory) made measurements of particular patches of forest background and a Lockheed Santa Cruz Facility test stand at various times of day and observed the firing of the rocket engine from a sensitive piece of hardware mounted in the Lockheed test stand. The hyperspectral image cubes of the same patch of background observed at various times will be used to investigate the temporal nature of the constituent-temperature interaction. The data of the rocket firing was collected as part of a classified program of the U.S. Army Missile Command. Two sets of data cubes taken of the same background region by IMSS and LIFTIRS simultaneously will be used both to compare the two instruments and to aid in instrument characterization. This paper describes the instruments used in this data collection, the types of backgrounds observed and the experiments performed, and the data collected.

  19. [History of the scientific work of Eduardo Cruz-Coke Lassabe].

    PubMed

    Cruz-Coke, R

    2001-04-01

    Eduardo Cruz Coke M.D., (1899-1974) was one of the precursors and pioneers of biomedical research in Chile, as professor of Physiological and Pathological Chemistry at the University of Chile, from 1925 to 1962. He was a disciple of Dr. Juan Noe and studied in Europe with the Nobel Prize winners Otto Warburg, Jean Perrin, Louis de Broglie and Frederic G. Hopkins. In Chile, he founded a scientific academy with disciples that later obtained the National Sciences Award, such as Hector Croxatto, Jorge Mardones, Hermann Niemeyer, Luis Vargas and Jorge Allende. He carried out pioneering research in metabolism, nutrition, endocrinology, oncology and nephrogenic hypertension. He published more than 50 scientific papers in French, English and Spanish. He founded scientific societies, edited journals and created the National Commission of Nuclear Energy. His books were "The ionic acidity in the clinic", "Preventive and directed medicine", "The adrenal cortex". He was Ministry of Health between 1937 and 1938 and passed important socio-medical bills. He obtained the distinguished international awards in Europe, the U.S.A. and Latin America. The Biomedical Sciences Institute of the University of Chile carries his name.

  20. Geochemistry of soils from the San Rafael Valley, Santa Cruz County, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Folger, Helen W.; Gray, Floyd

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine whether surficial geochemical methods can be used to identify subsurface mineraldeposits covered by alluvium derived from surrounding areas. The geochemical investigation focused on an anomalous geo-physical magnetic high located in the San Rafael Valley in Santa Cruz County, Arizona. The magnetic high, inferred to be asso-ciated with a buried granite intrusion, occurs beneath Quaternary alluvial and terrace deposits. Soil samples were collected at a depth of 10 to 30 centimeters below land surface along transects that traverse the inferred granite. The samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and by the partial-leach Mobile Metal Ion™ method. Principal component and factor analyses showed a strong correlation between the soils and source rocks hosting base-metal replacement deposits in the Harshaw and Patagonia Mining Districts. Factor analysis also indicated areas of high metal concentrations associated with the Meadow Valley Flat. Although no definitive geochemical signature was identified for the inferred granite, concentrations otungsten and iron in the surrounding area were slightly elevated.

  1. The Santa Cruz - Tarija Province of Central South America: Los Monos - Machareti(!) Petroleum System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindquist, Sandra J.

    1999-01-01

    The Los Monos - Machareti(!) total petroleum system is in the Santa Cruz - Tarija Province of Bolivia, Argentina and Paraguay. Province history is that of a Paleozoic, intracratonic, siliciclastic rift basin that evolved into a Miocene (Andean) foreland fold and thrust belt. Existing fields are typified by alternating reservoir and seal rocks in post-Ordovician sandstones and shales on anticlines. Thick Devonian and Silurian shale source rocks, depositionally and erosionally confined to this province, at a minimum have generated 4.1 BBOE known ultimate recoverable reserves (as of 1995, 77% gas, 15% condensate, 8% oil) into dominantly Carboniferous reservoirs with average 20% porosity and 156 md permeability. Major detachment surfaces within the source rocks contributed to the thin-skinned and laterally continuous nature of the deformation. Tertiary foreland burial adequate for significant source maturation coincided with the formation of compressional traps. Further hydrocarbon discovery in the fold and thrust belt is expected. In the foreland basin, higher thermal gradients and variable burial history - combined with the presence of unconformity and onlap wedges - create potential there for stratigraphic traps and pre-Andean, block-fault and forced-fold traps.

  2. Channel-changing processes on the Santa Cruz River, Pima County, Arizona, 1936-86

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parker, John T.C.; ,

    1990-01-01

    Lateral channel change on the mainly ephemeral Santa Cruz River, Pima County, Arizona, causes damage and has spawned costly efforts to control bank erosion. Aerial photographs, historical data, and field observations are used to document the history of channel change since 1936. Variability in the nature and degree of channel change over time and space is shown. Three major channel change processes are: (1) migration by bank erosion during meander migration or initiation; (2) avulsion by overbank flooding and flood plain incision; (3) widening by erosion of low, cohesionless banks during floods and arroyo widening by undercutting and mass wasting of deeply incised vertical walls. The first process generally is a product of low to moderate flows or waning high flows; the others result mainly from higher flows, though sensitive arroyo walls may erode during relatively low flows. Channel morphology, bank resistance, and hydrology are factors determining the dominant channel-changing process on a particular reach of the river. Present river morphology reflects high flows since the 1960's.

  3. Sedimentary paleoenvironments of fossil platyrrhine localities, Miocene Pinturas Formation, Santa Cruz Province, Argentina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bown, T.M.

    1990-01-01

    The Pinturas Formation is a pyroclastic and epiclastic aeolian deposit of Miocene age lying discordantly upon Jurassic rocks in the elevated Andean precordillera of northwest Santa Cruz Province, Argentina. The history of development of the Pinturas Formation was significantly affected by the gradual, though sporadic, draping of this aeolian sediment across a profound, slowly filling paleotopography. The Pinturas depositional cycle consisted of: (1) minor aeolian deposition followed by soil formation, and (2) major aeolian deposition followed by intervals of regional erosion. Fluvial action seems to have been almost wholly confined to intraformational erosion, and two significant intraformational erosional unconformities divide the Pinturas Formation into three sequences. The lower sequence is dominated by pyroclastic mudrocks upon which were formed very mature, probably mollic, paleosols; the middle sequence is composed largely of epiclastic sand occurring as barchanoid paleodunes; and the upper sequence consists of massive, poorly bedded pyroclastic mudrocks. Many Pinturas lacunae were reconstructed on the basis of locally preserved strata, and a novel method of holostrome reconstruction using relative paleosol maturities places Pinturas sedimentation in a more accurate temporal light. It also indicates: (1) that the Pinturas sediment accumulation rate increased with time; (2) that regional erosive intervals are correlated directly with major influxes of pyroclastic material; and (3) that the introduction of the Pinturas platyrrhine primates occurred in the sequence:Carlocebus carmenensis, C. intermedius andSoriacebus ameghinorum. Soriacebus adrianae. Pinturas paleosols appear to have formed under moist conditions, and both mature and immature varieties yield a host of ichnofossils. These include the burrows and nests of bees, scarabeid beetles, termites, and at least two different kinds of colonial rodents, in addition to rhizoliths and the calcified boles and

  4. Map Showing Seacliff Response to Climatic and Seismic Events, Seacliff State Beach, Santa Cruz County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hapke, Cheryl J.; Richmond, Bruce M.; D'Iorio, Mimi M.

    2002-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The coastal cliffs along much of the central California coast are actively retreating. Large storms and periodic earthquakes are responsible for most of the documented seacliff slope failures. Long-term average erosion rates calculated for this section of coast (Moore and others, 1999) do not provide the spatial or temporal data resolution necessary to identify the processes responsible for retreat of the seacliffs, where episodic retreat threatens homes and community infrastructure. Research suggests that more erosion occurs along the California coast over a short time scale, during periods of severe storms or seismic activity, than occurs during decades of normal weather or seismic quiescence (Griggs and Scholar, 1998; Griggs, 1994; Plant and Griggs, 1990; Griggs and Johnson, 1979 and 1983; Kuhn and Shepard, 1979). This is the second map in a series of maps documenting the processes of short-term seacliff retreat through the identification of slope failure styles, spatial variability of failures, and temporal variation in retreat amounts in an area that has been identified as an erosion hotspot (Moore and others, 1999; Griggs and Savoy, 1985). This map presents seacliff failure and retreat data from Seacliff State Beach, California, which is located seven kilometers east of Santa Cruz (fig. 1) along the northern Monterey Bay coast. The data presented in this map series provide high-resolution spatial and temporal information on the location, amount, and processes of seacliff retreat in Santa Cruz, California. These data show the response of the seacliffs to both large magnitude earthquakes and severe climatic events such as El Ni?os; this information may prove useful in predicting the future response of the cliffs to events of similar magnitude. The map data can also be incorporated into Global Information System (GIS) for use by researchers and community planners. Four sets of vertical aerial photographs (Oct. 18, 1989; Jan. 27, 1998; Feb. 9, 1998

  5. Map Showing Seacliff Response to Climatic and Seismic Events, Depot Hill, Santa Cruz County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hapke, Cheryl J.; Richmond, Bruce M.; D'Iorio, Mimi M.

    2002-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The coastal cliffs along much of the central California coast are actively retreating. Large storms and periodic earthquakes are responsible for most of the documented seacliff slope failures. Long-term average erosion rates calculated for this section of coast (Moore and others, 1999) do not provide the spatial or temporal data resolution necessary to identify the processes responsible for retreat of the seacliffs, where episodic retreat threatens homes and community infrastructure. Research suggests that more erosion occurs along the California coast over a short time scale, during periods of severe storms or seismic activity, than occurs during decades of normal weather or seismic quiescence (Griggs and Scholar, 1998; Griggs, 1994; Plant and Griggs, 1990; Griggs and Johnson, 1979 and 1983; Kuhn and Shepard, 1979). This is the first map in a series of maps documenting the processes of short-term seacliff retreat through the identification of slope failure styles, spatial variability of failures, and temporal variation in retreat amounts in an area that has been identified as an erosion hotspot (Moore and others, 1999; Griggs and Savoy, 1985). This map presents seacliff failure and retreat data from Depot Hill, California, which is located five kilometers east of Santa Cruz (fig.1) near the town of Capitola, along the northern Monterey Bay coast. The data presented in this map series provide high-resolution spatial and temporal information on the location, amount, and processes of seacliff retreat in Santa Cruz, California. These data show the response of the seacliffs to both large magnitude earthquakes and severe climatic events such as El NiOos; this information may prove useful in predicting the future response of the cliffs to events of similar magnitude. The map data can also be incorporated into Global Information System (GIS) for use by researchers and community planners. Four sets of vertical aerial photographs (Oct. 18, 1989; Jan. 27, 1998

  6. Integrated assessment of air pollution using observations and modelling in Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Canary Islands).

    PubMed

    Baldasano, José M; Soret, Albert; Guevara, Marc; Martínez, Francesc; Gassó, Santiago

    2014-03-01

    The present study aims to analyse the atmospheric dynamics of the Santa Cruz de Tenerife region (Tenerife, Canary Islands). This area is defined by the presence of anthropogenic emissions (from a refinery, a port and road traffic) and by very specific meteorological and orographic conditions-it is a coastal area with a complex topography in which there is an interaction of regional atmospheric dynamics and a low thermal inversion layer. These factors lead to specific atmospheric pollution episodes, particularly in relation to SO2 and PM10. We applied a methodology to study these dynamics based on two complementary approaches: 1) the analysis of the observations from the air quality network stations and 2) simulation of atmospheric dynamics using the WRF-ARW/HERMESv2/CMAQ/BSC-DREAM8b and WRF-ARW/HYSPLIT modelling systems with a high spatial resolution (1×1 km(2)). The results of our study show that the refinery plume plays an important role in the maximum SO2 observed levels. The area of maximum impact of the refinery is confined to a radius of 3 km around this installation. A cluster analysis performed for the period: 1998-2011 identified six synoptic situations as predominant in the area. The episodes of air pollution by SO2 occur mainly in those with more limited dispersive conditions, such as the northeastern recirculation, the northwestern recirculation and the western advection, which represent 33.70%, 11.23% and 18.63% of the meteorological situations affecting the study area in the year 2011, respectively. In the case of particulate matter, Saharan dust intrusions result in episodes with high levels of PM10 that may exceed the daily limit value in all measurement station; these episodes occur when the synoptic situation is from the east (3.29% of the situations during the year 2011). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Paleogeodesy of the Southern Santa Cruz Mountains Frontal Thrusts, Silicon Valley, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aron, F.; Johnstone, S. A.; Mavrommatis, A. P.; Sare, R.; Hilley, G. E.

    2015-12-01

    We present a method to infer long-term fault slip rate distributions using topography by coupling a three-dimensional elastic boundary element model with a geomorphic incision rule. In particular, we used a 10-m-resolution digital elevation model (DEM) to calculate channel steepness (ksn) throughout the actively deforming southern Santa Cruz Mountains in Central California. We then used these values with a power-law incision rule and the Poly3D code to estimate slip rates over seismogenic, kilometer-scale thrust faults accommodating differential uplift of the relief throughout geologic time. Implicit in such an analysis is the assumption that the topographic surface remains unchanged over time as rock is uplifted by slip on the underlying structures. The fault geometries within the area are defined based on surface mapping, as well as active and passive geophysical imaging. Fault elements are assumed to be traction-free in shear (i.e., frictionless), while opening along them is prohibited. The free parameters in the inversion include the components of the remote strain-rate tensor (ɛij) and the bedrock resistance to channel incision (K), which is allowed to vary according to the mapped distribution of geologic units exposed at the surface. The nonlinear components of the geomorphic model required the use of a Markov chain Monte Carlo method, which simulated the posterior density of the components of the remote strain-rate tensor and values of K for the different mapped geologic units. Interestingly, posterior probability distributions of ɛij and K fall well within the broad range of reported values, suggesting that the joint use of elastic boundary element and geomorphic models may have utility in estimating long-term fault slip-rate distributions. Given an adequate DEM, geologic mapping, and fault models, the proposed paleogeodetic method could be applied to other crustal faults with geological and morphological expressions of long-term uplift.

  8. Slope Stability Analysis for Shallow Landslides using TRIGRS: A Case Study for Sta. Cruz, Zambales, Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, J. P. A.

    2016-12-01

    The Philippines, being located in the circum-Pacific, bounded by multiple subduction zones, open seas and ocean, is one of the most hazard-prone countries in the world (Benson, 1997). This widespread recurrence of natural hazards in the country requires much attention for disaster management (Aurelio, 2006). On the average, 21 typhoons enter the Philippine area of responsibility annually with 6-9 making a landfall. Several rainfall-induced landslide events are reported annually particularly during and after the inundation of major typhoons which imposes hazards to communities and causes destruction of properties due to the moving mass and possible flash floods it may induce. Shallow landslides are the most commonly observed failure involving soil-mantled slopes and are considered major geohazards, often causing property damage and other economic loss. Hence numerous studies on landslide susceptibility including numerical models based on infinite slope equation are used in order to identify slopes prone to occurrences of shallow landslides. The study aims to determine the relationships between the slope and elevation to the factor of safety for laterite-mantled topography by incorporating precipitation values in the determination of landslide susceptibility. Using a DEM, flow direction map and slope map of the Sta Cruz (Zambales, Philippines), the FORTRAN based program TRIGRS, was used to generate the values for the factors of safety in the study area. Overlays with a generated slope map and elevation map were used to determine relationships of the mentioned factors and the factors of safety. A slope in a topography mantled with lateritic soil will fail at a slope angle higher than 20 degrees. Generally, the factor of safety decreases as the slope angle increases; this increases the probability and risk of slope failure. Elevation has no bearing on the computation for the factor of safety. The factor of safety is heavily dependent on the slope angle. The value of

  9. Native plant recovery in study plots after fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) control on Santa Cruz Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Power, Paula; Stanley, Thomas R.; Cowan, Clark; Robertson, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Santa Cruz Island is the largest of the California Channel Islands and supports a diverse and unique flora which includes 9 federally listed species. Sheep, cattle, and pigs, introduced to the island in the mid-1800s, disturbed the soil, browsed native vegetation, and facilitated the spread of exotic invasive plants. Recent removal of introduced herbivores on the island led to the release of invasive fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), which expanded to become the dominant vegetation in some areas and has impeded the recovery of some native plant communities. In 2007, Channel Islands National Park initiated a program to control fennel using triclopyr on the eastern 10% of the island. We established replicate paired plots (seeded and nonseeded) at Scorpion Anchorage and Smugglers Cove, where notably dense fennel infestations (>10% cover) occurred, to evaluate the effectiveness of native seed augmentation following fennel removal. Five years after fennel removal, vegetative cover increased as litter and bare ground cover decreased significantly (P < 0.0001) on both plot types. Vegetation cover of both native and other (nonfennel) exotic species increased at Scorpion Anchorage in both seeded and nonseeded plots. At Smugglers Cove, exotic cover decreased significantly (P = 0.0001) as native cover comprised of Eriogonum arborescensand Leptosyne gigantea increased significantly (P < 0.0001) in seeded plots only. Nonseeded plots at Smugglers Cove were dominated by exotic annual grasses, primarily Avena barbata. The data indicate that seeding with appropriate native seed is a critical step in restoration following fennel control in areas where the native seed bank is depauperate.

  10. Nine endangered taxa, one recovering ecosystem: Identifying common ground for recovery on Santa Cruz Island, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McEachern, A. Kathryn; Wilken, Dieter H.

    2011-01-01

    It is not uncommon to have several rare and listed taxa occupying habitats in one landscape or management area where conservation amounts to defense against the possibility of further loss. It is uncommon and extremely exciting, however, to have several listed taxa occupying one island that is managed cooperatively for conservation and recovery. On Santa Cruz Island, the largest of the northern California island group in the Santa Barbara Channel, we have a golden opportunity to marry ecological knowledge and institutional "good will" in a field test of holistic rare plant conservation. Here, the last feral livestock have been removed, active weed control is underway, and management is focused on understanding and demonstrating system response to conservation management. Yet funding limitations still exist and we need to plan the most fiscally conservative and marketable approach to rare plant restoration. We still experience the tension between desirable quick results and the ecological pace of system recovery. Therefore, our research has focused on identifying fundamental constraints on species recovery at individual, demographic, habitat, and ecosystem levels, and then developing suites of actions that might be taken across taxa and landscapes. At the same time, we seek a performance middle ground that balances an institutional need for quick demonstration of hands-on positive results with a contrasting approach that allows ecosystem recovery to facilitate species recovery in the long term. We find that constraints vary across breeding systems, life-histories, and island locations. We take a hybrid approach in which we identify several actions that we can take now to enhance population size or habitat occupancy for some taxa by active restoration, while allowing others to recover at the pace of ecosystem change. We make our recommendations on the basis of data we have collected over the last decade, so that management is firmly grounded in ecological observation.

  11. Misperceiving Bullshit as Profound Is Associated with Favorable Views of Cruz, Rubio, Trump and Conservatism.

    PubMed

    Pfattheicher, Stefan; Schindler, Simon

    2016-01-01

    The present research investigates the associations between holding favorable views of potential Democratic or Republican candidates for the US presidency 2016 and seeing profoundness in bullshit statements. In this contribution, bullshit is used as a technical term which is defined as communicative expression that lacks content, logic, or truth from the perspective of natural science. We used the Bullshit Receptivity scale (BSR) to measure seeing profoundness in bullshit statements. The BSR scale contains statements that have a correct syntactic structure and seem to be sound and meaningful on first reading but are actually vacuous. Participants (N = 196; obtained via Amazon Mechanical Turk) rated the profoundness of bullshit statements (using the BSR) and provided favorability ratings of three Democratic (Hillary Clinton, Martin O'Malley, and Bernie Sanders) and three Republican candidates for US president (Ted Cruz, Marco Rubio, and Donald Trump). Participants also completed a measure of political liberalism/conservatism. Results revealed that favorable views of all three Republican candidates were positively related to judging bullshit statements as profound. The smallest correlation was found for Donald Trump. Although we observe a positive association between bullshit and support for the three Democrat candidates, this relationship is both substantively small and statistically insignificant. The general measure of political liberalism/conservatism was also related to judging bullshit statements as profound in that individuals who were more politically conservative had a higher tendency to see profoundness in bullshit statements. Of note, these results were not due to a general tendency among conservatives to see profoundness in everything: Favorable views of Republican candidates and conservatism were not significantly related to profoundness ratings of mundane statements. In contrast, this was the case for Hillary Clinton and Martin O'Malley. Overall, small

  12. Source of the 6 February 2013 Mw 8.0 Santa Cruz Islands Tsunami.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romano, F.; Molinari, I.; Lorito, S.; Piatanesi, A.

    2014-12-01

    On February 6, 2013 a Mw8.0 interplate earthquake occurred in the Santa Cruz Islands region. The epicenter is located near a complex section of the Australia-Pacific plate boundary, where a short segment of dominantly strike-slip plate motion links the Solomon Trench to the New Hebrides Trench. In this region, the Australia plate subducts beneath the Pacific plate with a convergence rate of ~9cm/yr. This earthquake generated a tsunami that struck the city of Lata and several villages located on the Nendo island with tsunami height exceeding 11m (Fritz et al.,2014). The tsunami has been distinctly recorded by 5 DART buoys in the Pacific Ocean and by some tide-gauges at Solomon Islands, Fiji Islands, and New Caledonia. In this work we retrieve the source of the tsunami by inverting the signals recorded by both DART buoys and tide-gauges, and using an earthquake fault model that accounts for the variability of the subduction plate geometry. We compare and discuss our tsunamigenic slip model with previous coseismic slip models obtained by teleseismic data (Hayes et al.,2013) and telesismic data constrained by tsunami records (Lay et al.,2013). Our preferred tsunami source (maximum slip value of ~10m) is located southeast from the hypocenter and the slip direction is in agreement with the convergence direction that becomes progressively more oblique in the NW segment. We find a tsunami source roughly consistent to a possible source of low frequency radiation (http://www.iris.edu/spud/backprojection) and/or to the region of aseismic slip argued by Hayes et al. (2013). However, we do not find significantly tsunamigenic slip in the region of seismic high frequency radiation around the hypocenter.

  13. Viral aetiology influenza like illnesses in Santa Cruz, Bolivia (2010–2012)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Acute respiratory infections represent a serious public health issue worldwide but virological aetiologies of Influenza Like Illnesses (ILIs) remain largely unknown in developing countries. This study represents the first attempt to characterise viral aetiologies of ILIs in Bolivia. Methods It was performed in Santa Cruz city from January 2010 to September 2012, based on 564 naso-pharyngeal swabs collected in a National Reference Laboratory and real-time PCR techniques, viral cultures and phylogenetic analyses. Results 50.2% of samples were positive for at least one virus with influenza viruses (Flu A: ~15%; Flu B: ~9%), rhinoviruses (~8%), coronaviruses (~5%) and hRSV (~4%) being the most frequently identified. The pattern of viral infections varied according to age groups. The elucidation rate was the highest (>60%) amongst patients under 10 yo and the lowest (<40%) amongst patients ≥60 yo. Nearly 3% of samples showed dual viral infections. Epidemiological peaks were associated with a predominant virus but generally included 30-50% of infections by different viruses. Unexpectedly, the frequency of influenza in the 0–4 yo population was very low and a complete hRSV eclipse occurred in 2011. Genetic analyses indicated that distinct evolutionary lineages of Flu A(H1N1)pdm2009, Flu A/H3N2 and Flu B have co-circulated in Bolivia in the study period, originating from Central and North America, Europe, Asia and Australia. Conclusion Our results emphasise the requirement for a reinforced epidemiological and genetic follow-up of influenza and other ILIs in Bolivia to further inform the preparation of vaccines used in the region, guide vaccination campaigns and improve the medical management of patients. PMID:24564892

  14. The Purisima Formation at Capitola Beach, Santa Cruz County, CA: A Deeper Examination of Pliocene Fossils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, L. D.; Brooks, K.; Chen, R.; Chen, T.; James, T.; Gonzales, J.; Schumaker, D.; Williams, D.

    2005-12-01

    Fossil samples from the Pliocene Purisima Formation at Capitola Beach in Santa Cruz County, CA were collected in July-August 2005. The Purisima Formation composes the bulk of the cliffs exposed at Capitola Beach and a rich assemblage of well-preserved fossils occur in gray to brown sandstone and siltstone. Erosion of the cliff face averages 0.3 meter/year and fresh cliff falls in the winter and spring months of 2005 provided an excellent opportunity to resample the Capitola Beach section of the Purisima Formation previously documented by Perry (1988). Organisms were identified from information in Perry (1988) and were compared with collections at the California Academy of Sciences. The most abundant fossils found are from the phylum Mollusca, classes Bivalvia and Gastropoda. Abundant bivalve taxa are: Anadara trilineata, Clinocardium meekianum, Macoma sp., Protothaca staleyi, and Tresus pajaroanus. Also common are the gastropods, Calyptraea fastigata, Crepdiula princeps, Mitrella gausapata, Nassarius grammatus, Nassarius californianus, Natica clausa, and Olivella pedroana. Less common invertebrate fossils are from the phylum Echinodermata ( Dendraster sp., the extinct fossil sand dollar) and from the phylum Arthropoda ( Crustacea), crab fragments ( Cancer) and barnacles ( Balanus). Because numerous fossils are concentrated as fragments in shell beds, Norris (1986) and Perry (1988) believe many were redeposited as storm beds during strong current events that promoted rapid burial. In contrast, whale and other vertebrate bones are common in certain horizons and their presence may be related to the conditions that promoted phosphate mineralization, such as episodes of low sedimentation rates and prolonged exposure on the seafloor (Föllmi and Garrison, 1991). The bone beds, together with the rich infaunal and epifaunal invertebrate assemblages, represent a community of invertebrate organisms that thrived in a shallow marine sea during the Pliocene epoch, approximately

  15. Evolution of dengue disease and entomological monitoring in Santa Cruz, Bolivia 2002 - 2008.

    PubMed

    Brémond, Philippe; Roca, Yelin; Brenière, Simone Frédérique; Walter, Annie; Barja-Simon, Zaira; Fernández, Roberto Torres; Vargas, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    In the context of a rapid increase of dengue cases in the Americas, a monitoring system based on systematic serological control (IgM) of patients consulting for suspected dengue was developed in Bolivia at the end of the 1990s. In the most affected city of Santa Cruz, this system was complemented by an entomological surveillance program based on periodical search for immature stages of Aedes aegypti in dwelling water-holding containers. Here, we analyze these data and describe dengue patterns over 6 years (2002-2008), highlighting the spatial distribution of patients and vectors. Data mining concerned six annual epidemic cycles (2002-2008), with continuous serological and clinical results and entomological data from 16 surveys, examined at the scales of 36 urban areas and four concentric areas covering the entire city. Annual incidence varied from 0.28‰ to 0.95‰; overall incidence was higher in women and adults, and dengue dynamics followed successive periods of high (January-June) and low (July-December) transmission. Lower numbers of cases from the city center to the periphery were observed, poorly related to the more homogeneous and permanent distribution of A. aegypti. "Plant pots" were a major vector source in the city center, and "Tires" and "Odds and ends" beyond the second ring of the city. Over the years, the increasing trend of dengue cases has been highlighted as well as its widespread distribution over the entire city, but an underestimation of the number of cases is strongly suspected. Contrary to popular belief, the city center appears more affected than the periphery, and dengue is not particularly related to waste. Interestingly, the clinical diagnosis of dengue by physicians improved over the years, whatever the gender, age and residential area of suspected cases.

  16. Evolution of Dengue Disease and Entomological Monitoring in Santa Cruz, Bolivia 2002 – 2008

    PubMed Central

    Brémond, Philippe; Roca, Yelin; Brenière, Simone Frédérique; Walter, Annie; Barja-Simon, Zaira; Fernández, Roberto Torres; Vargas, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Background In the context of a rapid increase of dengue cases in the Americas, a monitoring system based on systematic serological control (IgM) of patients consulting for suspected dengue was developed in Bolivia at the end of the 1990s. In the most affected city of Santa Cruz, this system was complemented by an entomological surveillance program based on periodical search for immature stages of Aedes aegypti in dwelling water-holding containers. Here, we analyze these data and describe dengue patterns over 6 years (2002–2008), highlighting the spatial distribution of patients and vectors. Methodology /Principal Findings Data mining concerned six annual epidemic cycles (2002–2008), with continuous serological and clinical results and entomological data from 16 surveys, examined at the scales of 36 urban areas and four concentric areas covering the entire city. Annual incidence varied from 0.28‰ to 0.95‰; overall incidence was higher in women and adults, and dengue dynamics followed successive periods of high (January–June) and low (July–December) transmission. Lower numbers of cases from the city center to the periphery were observed, poorly related to the more homogeneous and permanent distribution of A. aegypti. "Plant pots" were a major vector source in the city center, and "Tires" and "Odds and ends" beyond the second ring of the city. Conclusions/Significance Over the years, the increasing trend of dengue cases has been highlighted as well as its widespread distribution over the entire city, but an underestimation of the number of cases is strongly suspected. Contrary to popular belief, the city center appears more affected than the periphery, and dengue is not particularly related to waste. Interestingly, the clinical diagnosis of dengue by physicians improved over the years, whatever the gender, age and residential area of suspected cases. PMID:25706631

  17. Viral aetiology influenza like illnesses in Santa Cruz, Bolivia (2010-2012).

    PubMed

    Delangue, Julie; Roca Sanchez, Yelin; Piorkowski, Géraldine; Bessaud, Maël; Baronti, Cécile; Thirion-Perrier, Laurence; Mafayle, Roxana Loayza; Ardaya, Cinthia Avila; Aguilera, Gabriela Añez; Guzman, Jimmy Revollo; Riera, Javier Lora; de Lamballerie, Xavier

    2014-02-24

    Acute respiratory infections represent a serious public health issue worldwide but virological aetiologies of Influenza Like Illnesses (ILIs) remain largely unknown in developing countries. This study represents the first attempt to characterise viral aetiologies of ILIs in Bolivia. It was performed in Santa Cruz city from January 2010 to September 2012, based on 564 naso-pharyngeal swabs collected in a National Reference Laboratory and real-time PCR techniques, viral cultures and phylogenetic analyses. 50.2% of samples were positive for at least one virus with influenza viruses (Flu A: ~15%; Flu B: ~9%), rhinoviruses (~8%), coronaviruses (~5%) and hRSV (~4%) being the most frequently identified. The pattern of viral infections varied according to age groups. The elucidation rate was the highest (>60%) amongst patients under 10 yo and the lowest (<40%) amongst patients ≥60 yo. Nearly 3% of samples showed dual viral infections. Epidemiological peaks were associated with a predominant virus but generally included 30-50% of infections by different viruses. Unexpectedly, the frequency of influenza in the 0-4 yo population was very low and a complete hRSV eclipse occurred in 2011. Genetic analyses indicated that distinct evolutionary lineages of Flu A(H1N1)pdm2009, Flu A/H3N2 and Flu B have co-circulated in Bolivia in the study period, originating from Central and North America, Europe, Asia and Australia. Our results emphasise the requirement for a reinforced epidemiological and genetic follow-up of influenza and other ILIs in Bolivia to further inform the preparation of vaccines used in the region, guide vaccination campaigns and improve the medical management of patients.

  18. Misperceiving Bullshit as Profound Is Associated with Favorable Views of Cruz, Rubio, Trump and Conservatism

    PubMed Central

    Pfattheicher, Stefan; Schindler, Simon

    2016-01-01

    The present research investigates the associations between holding favorable views of potential Democratic or Republican candidates for the US presidency 2016 and seeing profoundness in bullshit statements. In this contribution, bullshit is used as a technical term which is defined as communicative expression that lacks content, logic, or truth from the perspective of natural science. We used the Bullshit Receptivity scale (BSR) to measure seeing profoundness in bullshit statements. The BSR scale contains statements that have a correct syntactic structure and seem to be sound and meaningful on first reading but are actually vacuous. Participants (N = 196; obtained via Amazon Mechanical Turk) rated the profoundness of bullshit statements (using the BSR) and provided favorability ratings of three Democratic (Hillary Clinton, Martin O’Malley, and Bernie Sanders) and three Republican candidates for US president (Ted Cruz, Marco Rubio, and Donald Trump). Participants also completed a measure of political liberalism/conservatism. Results revealed that favorable views of all three Republican candidates were positively related to judging bullshit statements as profound. The smallest correlation was found for Donald Trump. Although we observe a positive association between bullshit and support for the three Democrat candidates, this relationship is both substantively small and statistically insignificant. The general measure of political liberalism/conservatism was also related to judging bullshit statements as profound in that individuals who were more politically conservative had a higher tendency to see profoundness in bullshit statements. Of note, these results were not due to a general tendency among conservatives to see profoundness in everything: Favorable views of Republican candidates and conservatism were not significantly related to profoundness ratings of mundane statements. In contrast, this was the case for Hillary Clinton and Martin O’Malley. Overall

  19. Bedrock morphology and structure, upper Santa Cruz Basin, south-central Arizona, with transient electromagnetic survey data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bultman, Mark W.; Page, William R.

    2016-10-31

    The upper Santa Cruz Basin is an important groundwater basin containing the regional aquifer for the city of Nogales, Arizona. This report provides data and interpretations of data aimed at better understanding the bedrock morphology and structure of the upper Santa Cruz Basin study area which encompasses the Rio Rico and Nogales 1:24,000-scale U.S. Geological Survey quadrangles. Data used in this report include the Arizona Aeromagnetic and Gravity Maps and Data referred to here as the 1996 Patagonia Aeromagnetic survey, Bouguer gravity anomaly data, and conductivity-depth transforms (CDTs) from the 1998 Santa Cruz transient electromagnetic survey (whose data are included in appendixes 1 and 2 of this report).Analyses based on magnetic gradients worked well to identify the range-front faults along the Mt. Benedict horst block, the location of possibly fault-controlled canyons to the west of Mt. Benedict, the edges of buried lava flows, and numerous other concealed faults and contacts. Applying the 1996 Patagonia aeromagnetic survey data using the horizontal gradient method produced results that were most closely correlated with the observed geology.The 1996 Patagonia aeromagnetic survey was used to estimate depth to bedrock in the upper Santa Cruz Basin study area. Three different depth estimation methods were applied to the data: Euler deconvolution, horizontal gradient magnitude, and analytic signal. The final depth to bedrock map was produced by choosing the maximum depth from each of the three methods at a given location and combining all maximum depths. In locations of rocks with a known reversed natural remanent magnetic field, gravity based depth estimates from Gettings and Houser (1997) were used.The depth to bedrock map was supported by modeling aeromagnetic anomaly data along six profiles. These cross sectional models demonstrated that by using the depth to bedrock map generated in this study, known and concealed faults, measured and estimated magnetic

  20. Influence of the Nogales International Wastewater Treatment Plant on surface water in the Santa Cruz River and local aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaBrie, H. M.; Brusseau, M. L.; Huth, H.

    2015-12-01

    As water resources become limited in Arizona due to drought and excessive use of ground water, treated wastewater effluent is becoming essential in creating natural ecosystems and recharging the decreasing groundwater supplies. Therefore, future water supplies are heavily dependent of the flow (quantity) and quality of the treated effluent. The Nogales International Wastewater Treatment Plant (NIWTP) releases treated wastewater from both Nogales, Arizona and Nogales, Sonora, Mexico into the Santa Cruz River. This released effluent not only has the potential to impact surface water, but also groundwater supplies in Southern Arizona. In the recent past, the NIWTP has had reoccurring issues with elevated levels of cadmium, in addition to other, more infrequent, releases of high amounts of other metals. The industrial demographic of the region, as well as limited water quality regulations in Mexico makes the NIWTP and its treated effluent an important area of study. In addition, outdated infrastructure can potentially lead to damaging environmental impacts, as well as human health concerns. The Santa Cruz River has been monitored and studied in the past, but in recent years, there has been a halt in research regarding the state of the river. Data from existing water quality databases and recent sampling reports are used to address research questions regarding the state of the Santa Cruz River. These questions include: 1) How will change in flow eventually impact surface water and future groundwater supplies 2) What factors influence this flow (such as extreme flooding and drought) 3) What is the impact of effluent on surface water quality 4) Can changes in surface water quality impact groundwater quality 5) How do soil characteristics and surface flow impact the transport of released contaminants Although outreach to stakeholders across the border and updated infrastructure has improved the quality of water in the river, there are many areas to improve upon as the

  1. [Characteristics and limits of Professional Master in the Health area: study with alumni from Oswaldo Cruz Foundation].

    PubMed

    Hortale, Virginia Alonso; Leal, Maria do Carmo; Moreira, Carlos Otávio Fiúza; de Aguiar, Adriana Cavalcanti

    2010-07-01

    This paper discuss findings of a follow-up study with alumni of three graduate courses known as "professional master" oriented toward institutional innovation in management of science and technology, offered by Oswaldo Cruz Foundation to its employees. The study analyzed alumni profile and characteristics, identified evidence of changes in their original workplace and assessed the relationship between the courses proposals, institutional needs and alumni expectations. The paper presents limits and possibilities of this new format of graduate courses, emphasizing its evaluation as strategic for institutional development. Despite of respondents' satisfaction with the courses, this inquiry discloses institutional difficulties to incorporate some innovations, including those concerned to its institutional management.

  2. Data report for seismic refraction surveys conducted from 1980 to 1982 in the Livermore Valley and the Santa Cruz Mountains, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Angela J.; Brocher, Thomas M.; Mooney, Walter D.; Boken, Annette

    1999-01-01

    We provide documentation for two seismic refraction profiles acquired by the U.S. Geological Survey in the San Francisco Bay area between 1980 and 1982 in Livermore Valley and the Santa Cruz Mountains. We also include the waveforms and travel times from five aftershocks of the April 1980 Livermore earthquake that were recorded on temporary seismic stations and that have not been published. Although seismic refraction profiles from the 1980 Livermore study have been published, none of the other data for this experiment, including shot times and locations, receiver locations, data quality, and travel times, have been reported. Similarly, such data from the 1981 to 1982 seismic refraction survey in the Santa Cruz Mountains included here have not been published. The first-arrival travel times from these profiles are reported in the hope that they can be used for three-dimensional velocity models in the San Francisco Bay area, particularly for the Livermore Valley and Santa Cruz Mountains.

  3. Animal-based remedies as complementary medicines in Santa Cruz do Capibaribe, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Rômulo RN; Lima, Helenice N; Tavares, Marília C; Souto, Wedson MS; Barboza, Raynner RD; Vasconcellos, Alexandre

    2008-01-01

    Background The use of animal products in healing is an ancient and widespread cross-cultural practice. In northeastern Brazil, especially in the semi-arid region, animals and plants are widely used in traditional medicine and play significant roles in healing practices. Zootherapies form an integral part of these cultures, and information about animals is passed from generation to generation through oral folklore. Nevertheless, studies on medicinal animals are still scarce in northeastern Brazil, especially when compared to those focusing on medicinal plants. This paper examines the use and commercialization of animals for medicinal purposes in Brazil's semi-arid caatinga region. Methods Data was obtained through field surveys conducted in the public markets in the city of Santa Cruz do Capibaribe, Pernambuco State, Brazil. We interviewed 16 merchants (9 men and 7 women) who provided information regarding folk remedies based on animal products. Results A total of 37 animal species (29 families), distributed among 7 taxonomic categories were found to be used to treat 51 different ailments. The most frequently cited treatments focused on the respiratory system, and were mainly related to problems with asthma. Zootherapeutic products are prescribed as single drugs or are mixed with other ingredients. Mixtures may include several to many more valuable medicinal animals added to other larger doses of more common medicinal animals and plants. The uses of certain medicinal animals are associated with popular local beliefs known as 'simpatias'. We identified 2 medicinal species (Struthio camelus and Nasutitermes macrocephalus) not previously documented for Brazil. The use of animals as remedies in the area surveyed is associated with socio economic and cultural factors. Some of the medicinal animal species encountered in this study are included in lists of endangered species. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that a large variety of animals are used in traditional

  4. Potential for Large Transpressional Earthquakes along the Santa Cruz-Catalina Ridge, California Continental Borderland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legg, M.; Kohler, M. D.; Weeraratne, D. S.; Castillo, C. M.

    2015-12-01

    Transpressional fault systems comprise networks of high-angle strike-slip and more gently-dipping oblique-slip faults. Large oblique-slip earthquakes may involve complex ruptures of multiple faults with both strike-slip and dip-slip. Geophysical data including high-resolution multibeam bathymetry maps, multichannel seismic reflection (MCS) profiles, and relocated seismicity catalogs enable detailed mapping of the 3-D structure of seismogenic fault systems offshore in the California Continental Borderland. Seafloor morphology along the San Clemente fault system displays numerous features associated with active strike-slip faulting including scarps, linear ridges and valleys, and offset channels. Detailed maps of the seafloor faulting have been produced along more than 400 km of the fault zone. Interpretation of fault geometry has been extended to shallow crustal depths using 2-D MCS profiles and to seismogenic depths using catalogs of relocated southern California seismicity. We examine the 3-D fault character along the transpressional Santa Cruz-Catalina Ridge (SCCR) section of the fault system to investigate the potential for large earthquakes involving multi-fault ruptures. The 1981 Santa Barbara Island (M6.0) earthquake was a right-slip event on a vertical fault zone along the northeast flank of the SCCR. Aftershock hypocenters define at least three sub-parallel high-angle fault surfaces that lie beneath a hillside valley. Mainshock rupture for this moderate earthquake appears to have been bilateral, initiating at a small discontinuity in the fault geometry (~5-km pressure ridge) near Kidney Bank. The rupture terminated to the southeast at a significant releasing step-over or bend and to the northeast within a small (~10-km) restraining bend. An aftershock cluster occurred beyond the southeast asperity along the East San Clemente fault. Active transpression is manifest by reverse-slip earthquakes located in the region adjacent to the principal displacement zone

  5. Hydrodynamic properties of the basal aquifer of Santa Cruz Island using seismic refraction, Galapagos - Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loaiza, S.; Fortin, J.; Adelinet, M.; Guéguen, Y.; Violette, S.

    2012-04-01

    Santa Cruz Island is the most inhabited of the Galapagos archipelago, Ecuador. It faces important water resource problems which might lead to a major impact on their unique and pristine ecosystem, Endangered World Heritage list (2007). The scarcity of geological and hydrological data combined with the difficulty of access for field measurements lead to a poor understanding of the island hydrogeology. The Island is formed by series of thick fractured basaltic lava flows dissected by faults. The low-lying, extensive "basal" aquifer is the unique groundwater body identified on the island. This basal aquifer is subjected to sea-water intrusion, which has been mapped from electrical resistivity imaging with an airborne electromagnetic SkyTEM survey (D'Ozouville et al. 2008). In order to better understand the hydrodynamic properties of the basal aquifer, we acquired, in summer 2011, geophysical data based on seismic refraction. The experiment was conducted on three study sites located at different altitudes above the see level (Beagle site altitude +7m , Mirador +20m, and Villacis +393m). The P-wave refraction data were obtained using 24 geophones (1 component) and an acquisition system Daklink III. A hammer was used as an energy source. This source was the most environmentally friendly source that could be obtained and used in the Galapagos Island. Geophone spacing for the spreads was 1.2 or 5 m depending on the site. From our geophysical data, we could identify the different geological layers that constitute this basal aquifer and to estimate the thickness of these layers. We could as well clearly see the water level in the aquifer. More interesting, we found a P-wave velocity of ~1600 m/s in the dry fractured basalt lava flow, and a P-wave velocity of ~2700 m/s in the water saturated fractured basalt lava flow. The same velocity values were obtained in the different sites. This tends to show that the elastic properties of the aquifer are homogeneous and isotropic (at

  6. Trends in landscape and vegetation change and implications for the Santa Cruz Watershed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Villarreal, Miguel; Norman, Laura M.; Webb, Robert H.; Turner, Raymond M.

    2013-01-01

    Monitoring and characterizing the interactive effects of land use and climate on land surface processes is a primary focus of land change science, and of particular concern in arid Wells Distribution in Shallow Groundwater Areas Pumping Trends Increase Streamflow Extent Declines 27 environments where both landscapes and livelihoods can be impacted by short-term climate variability. Using a multi-observational approach to land-change analysis that included landownership data as a proxy for land-use practices, multitemporal land-cover maps, and repeat photography dating to the late 19th century, we examine changing spatial and temporal distributions of two vegetation types with high conservation value in the southwestern United States: grasslands and riparian vegetation. Our study area is the bi-national Santa Cruz Watershed, a topographically complex watershed that straddles the Sonoran Desert and the Madrean Archipelago Ecoregions. In this presentation we focus on historical changes in vegetation and land use in grasslands and riparian areas of the Madrean Ecoregion (San Raphael Valley, Cienega Creek, Sonoita), and compare changes in these areas to changes in the warmer and drier Sonoran Ecoregion. Analysis of historical photography confirms major 20th century vegetation shifts documented in other research: woody plant encroachment, desertification of grasslands, and changing riparian and xeroriparian vegetation occurred in both ecoregions following human settlement. However, vegetation changes over the past decade appear to be more subtle and some of the past trajectories appear to be reversing; most notable are recent mesquite declines in xeroriparian and upland areas, and changes from shrubland to grassland area in the Madrean ecoregion. Land cover changes were temporally variable, reflecting broad climate changes. The most dynamic cover changes occurred during the period from 1989 to 1999, a period with two intense droughts. The degree of vegetation change

  7. Biotechnical performance of vegetal species in slope conservation in Cruz Alta, RS, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prates Bisso, Fernando; Durlo, Miguel

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this work was the evaluation of biotechnical performance of different vegetal species growth in the slope soil conservation and reforest (revegetate). The study was performed with oxic soil talus, in Cruz Alta - RS, Brazil (28°23'28.14" S and 53°22'25.61" W) and began in January 2010. The sow treatments employed were: 1) cuttings of Ateleia glazioveana; 2) cuttings of Pyrostegia venusta; 3) seedlings of Baccharis trimera; 4) Seedlings of Cynodom plectostachyus; 5) blank, no sow. The evaluated parameters were: plant survival ratio (%); vegetal covered percentage; natural revegetation (plants/m2); the slope soil level reduction (cm); and water and soil runoff. C. plectostachyus and B. trimera afforded considerable higher survival (92% and 78.5%, respectively) and vegetation cover of the slope (99.6% and 82.9%) than other species. The natural revegetation showed an increase according to the ground above the slope (146.9 plants/m2) compared with the slope ramp (22.1 plants/m2). Moreover, C. plectostachyus, A. glazioveana, P. venusta, B. trimera and C. plectostachyus treatments showed 34.9, 28.6, 23.0 and 21.0 plants/m2, respectively, when compared with the blank (2.5 plants/m2) in the slope ramp region. Furthermore, the sow line regions gave 91.2 plants/m2) whereas the regions among lines afforded 8.6 plants/m2. Additionally, C. plectostachyus showed soil average drawdown profile decrease of 12.8 mm after 360 days after planting, and A. glazioveana reached 16.9 mm after 540 days according to the blank (34.0 mm). Considering the period of 60 to 360 days, it was observed significant differences in the soil loss estimative and reduction percentage compared to blank were: Blank 127.9 ton/ha/year; A. glazioveana, 117.9 ton/ha/year (-8%); P. venusta, 116.3 ton/ha/year (-9%); B. trimera, 106.7 ton/ha/year (-17%); and C. plectostachyus, 73.2 ton/ha/year (-43%). Thus, C. plectostachyus showed the best survival and vegetal coverage producing significant reduction of

  8. Animal-based remedies as complementary medicines in Santa Cruz do Capibaribe, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Alves, Rômulo R N; Lima, Helenice N; Tavares, Marília C; Souto, Wedson M S; Barboza, Raynner R D; Vasconcellos, Alexandre

    2008-07-22

    The use of animal products in healing is an ancient and widespread cross-cultural practice. In northeastern Brazil, especially in the semi-arid region, animals and plants are widely used in traditional medicine and play significant roles in healing practices. Zootherapies form an integral part of these cultures, and information about animals is passed from generation to generation through oral folklore. Nevertheless, studies on medicinal animals are still scarce in northeastern Brazil, especially when compared to those focusing on medicinal plants. This paper examines the use and commercialization of animals for medicinal purposes in Brazil's semi-arid caatinga region. Data was obtained through field surveys conducted in the public markets in the city of Santa Cruz do Capibaribe, Pernambuco State, Brazil. We interviewed 16 merchants (9 men and 7 women) who provided information regarding folk remedies based on animal products. A total of 37 animal species (29 families), distributed among 7 taxonomic categories were found to be used to treat 51 different ailments. The most frequently cited treatments focused on the respiratory system, and were mainly related to problems with asthma. Zootherapeutic products are prescribed as single drugs or are mixed with other ingredients. Mixtures may include several to many more valuable medicinal animals added to other larger doses of more common medicinal animals and plants. The uses of certain medicinal animals are associated with popular local beliefs known as 'simpatias'. We identified 2 medicinal species (Struthio camelus and Nasutitermes macrocephalus) not previously documented for Brazil. The use of animals as remedies in the area surveyed is associated with socio economic and cultural factors. Some of the medicinal animal species encountered in this study are included in lists of endangered species. Our results demonstrate that a large variety of animals are used in traditional medicinal practices in Brazil's semi

  9. Determination of source process and the tsunami simulation of the 2013 Santa Cruz earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, S. C.; Lee, J. W.; Park, E.; Kim, S.

    2014-12-01

    In order to understand the characteristics of large tsunamigenic earthquakes, we analyzed the earthquake source process of the 2013 Santa Cruz earthquake and simulated the following tsunami. We first estimated the fault length of about 200 km using 3-day aftershock distribution and the source duration of about 110 seconds using the duration of high-frequency energy radiation (Hara, 2007). Moment magnitude was estimated to be 8.0 using the formula of Hara (2007). From the results of 200 km of fault length and 110 seconds of source duration, we used the initial value of rupture velocity as 1.8 km/s for teleseismic waveform inversions. Teleseismic body wave inversion was carried out using the inversion package by Kikuchi and Kanamori (1991). Teleseismic P waveform data from 14 stations were used and band-pass filter of 0.005 ~ 1 Hz was applied. Our best-fit solution indicated that the earthquake occurred on the northwesterly striking (strike = 305) and shallowly dipping (dip = 13) fault plane. Focal depth was determined to be 23 km indicating shallow event. Moment magnitude of 7.8 was obtained showing somewhat smaller than the result obtained above and that of previous study (Lay et al., 2013). Large slip area was seen around the hypocenter. Using the slip distribution obtained by teleseismic waveform inversion, we calculated the surface deformations using formulas of Okada (1985) assuming as the initial change of sea water by tsunami. Then tsunami simulation was carred out using Conell Multi-grid Coupled Tsunami Model (COMCOT) code and 1 min-grid topographic data for water depth from the General Bathymetric Chart of the Ocenas (GEBCO). According to the tsunami simulation, most of tsunami waves propagated to the directions of southwest and northeast which are perpendicular to the fault strike. DART buoy data were used to verify our simulation. In the presentation, we will discuss more details on the results of source process and tsunami simulation and compare them

  10. The Solomon Islands Tsunami of 6 February 2013 in the Santa Cruz Islands: Field Survey and Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz, Hermann M.; Papantoniou, Antonios; Biukoto, Litea; Albert, Gilly; Wei, Yong

    2014-05-01

    On February 6, 2013 at 01:12:27 UTC (local time: UTC+11), a magnitude Mw 8.0 earthquake occurred 70 km to the west of Ndendo Island (Santa Cruz Island) in the Solomon Islands. The under-thrusting earthquake near a 90° bend, where the Australian plate subducts beneath the Pacific plate generated a locally focused tsunami in the Coral Sea and the South Pacific Ocean. The tsunami claimed the lives of 10 people and injured 15, destroyed 588 houses and partially damaged 478 houses, affecting 4,509 people in 1,066 households corresponding to an estimated 37% of the population of Santa Cruz Island. A multi-disciplinary international tsunami survey team (ITST) was deployed within days of the event to document flow depths, runup heights, inundation distances, sediment and coral boulder depositions, land level changes, damage patterns at various scales, performance of the man-made infrastructure and impact on the natural environment. The 19 to 23 February 2013 ITST covered 30 locations on 4 Islands: Ndendo (Santa Cruz), Tomotu Noi (Lord Howe), Nea Tomotu (Trevanion, Malo) and Tinakula. The reconnaissance completely circling Ndendo and Tinakula logged 240 km by small boat and additionally covered 20 km of Ndendo's hard hit western coastline by vehicle. The collected survey data includes more than 80 tsunami runup and flow depth measurements. The tsunami impact peaked at Manoputi on Ndendo's densely populated west coast with maximum tsunami height exceeding 11 m and local flow depths above ground exceeding 7 m. A fast tide-like positive amplitude of 1 m was recorded at Lata wharf inside Graciosa Bay on Ndendo Island and misleadingly reported in the media as representative tsunami height. The stark contrast between the field observations on exposed coastlines and the Lata tide gauge recording highlights the importance of rapid tsunami reconnaissance surveys. Inundation distance and damage more than 500 m inland were recorded at Lata airport on Ndendo Island. Landslides were

  11. Documentation of model input and output values for the geohydrology and mathematical simulation of the Pajaro Valley aquifer system, Santa Cruz and Monterey counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mitten, H.T.; Londquist, C.J.

    1990-01-01

    This report contains listings of the model input and sample output for simulation of the Pajaro Valley aquifer system, Santa Cruz and Monterey Counties, California. The files are contained on a 5 1/4-inch diskette. The decompressed files require approximately 5.3 megabytes of disk space on an IBM-compatible microcomputer. (USGS)

  12. [List of the type species of Ceratopogonidae (Diptera, Nematocera) deposited in the Entomological Collection of Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Felippe-Bauer, M; Oliveira Sd, S

    2001-11-01

    A list of all type specimens of the Family Ceratopogonidae, present in the Entomological Collection of Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil is presented. This list includes the genera Bahiahelea, Culicoides, Dasyhelea, Downeshelea, Forcipomyia, Leptoconops, Mallochohelea, Monohelea, Neobezzia, Palpomyia and Sphaerohelea.

  13. Digital Compilation of "Preliminary Map of Landslide Deposits in Santa Cruz County, California, By Cooper-Clark and Associates, 1975": A Digital Map Database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Report by Roberts, Sebastian; Barron, Andrew D.; Preface by Brabb, Earl E.; Pike, Richard J.

    1998-01-01

    A 1:62,500-scale black-and-white map identifying some 2,000 landslides of various types in Santa Cruz County, California, has been converted to a digital-map database that can be acquired from the U.S. Geological Survey over the Internet or on magnetic tape.

  14. Metasomatic processes within the fertile lithospheric Mantle beneath Don Camilo, Santa Cruz, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ntaflos, Th.; Mundl, A.; Bjerg, E. A.; Tschegg, C.; Kosler, J.

    2009-04-01

    formed from residual melts. In contrast, clinopyroxene from mantle dunites enriched LREE (10 x PM) and LILE suggesting that the metasomatic agent was fluid-rich silicate melt. Calculated equilibrium P-T conditions cover a wide range from 800 to 1100 °C. Considering the crustal thickness in the area being around 35 km, a pressure between 12 and 17 kbar could be assumed as reasonable, indicating that these xenoliths were extracted from shallow depths of 40 to 60 km. Model calculations have shown that the lithospheric Mantle beneath Don Camilo, in Santa Cruz province is fertile and that spinel peridotites experienced low degrees of partial melting (2-8% batch melting in the spinel peridotite field). The metasomatic agent was a fluid-rich silicate melt of alkalibasaltic composition, presumably similar to this, which affected the Cerro Clark xenoliths north of Don Camilo locality. Don Camilo mantle xenoliths, like Tres Lagos, Cerro Redondo and Gobernador Gregores, does not show evidence for interaction of the lithospheric Mantle in southern Patagonia with subduction related components.

  15. Hydrogeologic investigations of the Miocene Nogales Formation in the Nogales Area, Upper Santa Cruz Basin, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Page, William R.; Gray, Floyd; Bultman, Mark W.; Menges, Christopher M.

    2016-07-28

    and mixed-layer clay. X-ray diffraction analyses verified clinoptilolite as the only zeolite in Nogales Formation samples; they also verified the presence of smectite and illite clay and some kaolinite. Samples which contain greater amounts of clinoptilolite and lesser amounts of smectite have high porosity and SHC in narrow ranges. However, samples with abundant smectite and lesser amounts of clinoptilolite span the entire ranges of porosity and SHC for the formation.All members of the Nogales Formation are fractured and faulted as a result of Tertiary Basin and Range extensional deformation, which was broadly contemporaneous with deposition of the formation. These structures may have significant influence on groundwater flow in the upper Santa Cruz basin because, although many of the sediments in the formation have characteristics indicating they may be productive aquifers based only on porous-media flow, fracturing in these sediments may further enhance permeability and groundwater flow in these basin-fill aquifers by orders of magnitude.

  16. How do Rivers Meander in Rock? Insights from the Santa Cruz Mountains, CA, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, K. N.; Finnegan, N. J.

    2011-12-01

    Meandering in bedrock rivers is not well understood, despite the fact that both sinuosity and strath terraces (both products of meandering) are commonly interpreted in tectonic or climatic contexts. To better understand bedrock river meandering, here we compare a meandering bedrock river in the Santa Cruz Mountains, USA (Pescadero Creek) to an adjacent river (Butano Creek) that does not meander. This natural experiment allows us to isolate the effects of lithology on lateral erosion processes since these two adjacent rivers have similar driving stress, valley orientation to prevailing weather systems, and structural setting, but incise contrasting lithologies: weak sandstone along Butano and weak mudstone along Pescadero. Building on published observations that some mudstones lose strength when subjected to wetting and drying of expansive clay minerals, we test the hypothesis that lateral bank erosion occurs in Pescadero Creek because wetting and drying of mudstone above the low water line weakens bank rock to the point where it can easily be detached by clear water flows on the exposed outside banks of river bends. We collected rock from below low summer water levels in order to explore how drying and rewetting influence the mechanical properties of the two sampled lithologies. Tensile strength measurements reveal that the mudstone was weak (~ 0.2 MPa, n = 6) before drying, visibly fractured but slightly stronger when measured dry (~ 0.6 MPa, n = 11), and upon rewetting disintegrated to washload, making strength testing impossible. Sandstone strength varied between sample sites (~0.1 - 0.8MPa, n=12) but has no consistent relationship to wetting, drying or rewetting. In the field, we tested the detachability of bedrock under a calibrated water jet and found that only mudstone above low water levels (subjected to repeated wetting and drying) was detachable by clear water flows. Saturated mudstone (from at the low water line) and sandstone (both dry and wet) did not

  17. Field Surveys of Rare Plants on Santa Cruz Island, California, 2003-2006: Historical Records and Current Distributions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McEachern, A. Kathryn; Chess, Katherine A.; Niessen, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Santa Cruz Island is the largest of the northern Channel Islands located off the coast of California. It is owned and managed as a conservation reserve by The Nature Conservancy and the Channel Islands National Park. The island is home to nine plant taxa listed in 1997 as threatened or endangered under the federal Endangered Species Act, because of declines related to nearly 150 years of ranching on the island. Feral livestock were removed from the island as a major conservation step, which was part of a program completed in early 2007 with the eradication of pigs and turkeys. For the first time in more than a century, the rare plants of Santa Cruz Island have a chance to recover in the wild. This study provides survey information and living plant materials needed for recovery management of the listed taxa. We developed a database containing information about historical collections of the nine taxa and used it to plan a survey strategy. Our objectives were to relocate as many of the previously known populations as possible, with emphasis on documenting sites not visited in several decades, sites that were poorly documented in the historical record, and sites spanning the range of environmental conditions inhabited by the taxa. From 2003 through 2006, we searched for and found 39 populations of the taxa, indicating that nearly 80 percent of the populations known earlier in the 1900s still existed. Most populations are small and isolated, occupying native-dominated habitat patches in a highly fragmented and invaded landscape; they are still at risk of declining through population losses. Most are not expanding beyond the edges of their habitat patches. However, most taxa appeared to have good seed production and a range of size classes in populations, indicating a good capacity for plant recruitment and population growth in these restricted sites. For these taxa, seed collection and outplanting might be a good strategy to increase numbers of populations for species

  18. The role of reaction affinity and secondary minerals in regulating chemical weathering rates at the Santa Cruz Soil Chronosequence, California

    SciTech Connect

    Maher, K.; Steefel, C. I.; White, A.F.; Stonestrom, D.A.

    2009-02-25

    In order to explore the reasons for the apparent discrepancy between laboratory and field weathering rates and to determine the extent to which weathering rates are controlled by the approach to thermodynamic equilibrium, secondary mineral precipitation and flow rates, a multicomponent reactive transport model (CrunchFlow) was used to interpret soil profile development and mineral precipitation and dissolution rates at the 226 ka marine terrace chronosequence near Santa Cruz, CA. Aqueous compositions, fluid chemistry, transport, and mineral abundances are well characterized (White et al., 2008, GCA) and were used to constrain the reaction rates for the weathering and precipitating minerals in the reactive transport modeling. When primary mineral weathering rates are calculated with either of two experimentally determined rate constants, the nonlinear, parallel rate law formulation of Hellmann and Tisser and [2006] or the aluminum inhibition model proposed by Oelkers et al. [1994], modeling results are consistent with field-scale observations when independently constrained clay precipitation rates are accounted for. Experimental and field rates, therefore, can be reconciled at the Santa Cruz site. Observed maximum clay abundances in the argillic horizons occur at the depth and time where the reaction fronts of the primary minerals overlap. The modeling indicates that the argillic horizon at Santa Cruz can be explained almost entirely by weathering of primary minerals and in situ clay precipitation accompanied by undersaturation of kaolinite at the top of the profile. The rate constant for kaolinite precipitation was also determined based on model simulations of mineral abundances and dissolved Al, SiO{sub 2}(aq) and pH in pore waters. Changes in the rate of kaolinite precipitation or the flow rate do not affect the gradient of the primary mineral weathering profiles, but instead control the rate of propagation of the primary mineral weathering fronts and thus total

  19. Multi-gauge Calibration for modeling the Semi-Arid Santa Cruz Watershed in Arizona-Mexico Border Area Using SWAT

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Niraula, Rewati; Norman, Laura A.; Meixner, Thomas; Callegary, James B.

    2012-01-01

    In most watershed-modeling studies, flow is calibrated at one monitoring site, usually at the watershed outlet. Like many arid and semi-arid watersheds, the main reach of the Santa Cruz watershed, located on the Arizona-Mexico border, is discontinuous for most of the year except during large flood events, and therefore the flow characteristics at the outlet do not represent the entire watershed. Calibration is required at multiple locations along the Santa Cruz River to improve model reliability. The objective of this study was to best portray surface water flow in this semiarid watershed and evaluate the effect of multi-gage calibration on flow predictions. In this study, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was calibrated at seven monitoring stations, which improved model performance and increased the reliability of flow, in the Santa Cruz watershed. The most sensitive parameters to affect flow were found to be curve number (CN2), soil evaporation and compensation coefficient (ESCO), threshold water depth in shallow aquifer for return flow to occur (GWQMN), base flow alpha factor (Alpha_Bf), and effective hydraulic conductivity of the soil layer (Ch_K2). In comparison, when the model was established with a single calibration at the watershed outlet, flow predictions at other monitoring gages were inaccurate. This study emphasizes the importance of multi-gage calibration to develop a reliable watershed model in arid and semiarid environments. The developed model, with further calibration of water quality parameters will be an integral part of the Santa Cruz Watershed Ecosystem Portfolio Model (SCWEPM), an online decision support tool, to assess the impacts of climate change and urban growth in the Santa Cruz watershed.

  20. The role of reaction affinity and secondary minerals in regulating chemical weathering rates at the Santa Cruz Soil Chronosequence, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maher, K.; Steefel, Carl; White, A.F.; Stonestrom, D.A.

    2009-01-01

    In order to explore the reasons for the apparent discrepancy between laboratory and field weathering rates and to determine the extent to which weathering rates are controlled by the approach to thermodynamic equilibrium, secondary mineral precipitation, and flow rates, a multicomponent reactive transport model (CrunchFlow) was used to interpret soil profile development and mineral precipitation and dissolution rates at the 226 ka Marine Terrace Chronosequence near Santa Cruz, CA. Aqueous compositions, fluid chemistry, transport, and mineral abundances are well characterized [White A. F., Schulz M. S., Vivit D. V., Blum A., Stonestrom D. A. and Anderson S. P. (2008) Chemical weathering of a Marine Terrace Chronosequence, Santa Cruz, California. I: interpreting the long-term controls on chemical weathering based on spatial and temporal element and mineral distributions. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 72 (1), 36-68] and were used to constrain the reaction rates for the weathering and precipitating minerals in the reactive transport modeling. When primary mineral weathering rates are calculated with either of two experimentally determined rate constants, the nonlinear, parallel rate law formulation of Hellmann and Tisserand [Hellmann R. and Tisserand D. (2006) Dissolution kinetics as a function of the Gibbs free energy of reaction: An experimental study based on albite feldspar. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 70 (2), 364-383] or the aluminum inhibition model proposed by Oelkers et al. [Oelkers E. H., Schott J. and Devidal J. L. (1994) The effect of aluminum, pH, and chemical affinity on the rates of aluminosilicate dissolution reactions. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 58 (9), 2011-2024], modeling results are consistent with field-scale observations when independently constrained clay precipitation rates are accounted for. Experimental and field rates, therefore, can be reconciled at the Santa Cruz site. Additionally, observed maximum clay abundances in the argillic horizons occur at

  1. Description of a New Galapagos Giant Tortoise Species (Chelonoidis; Testudines: Testudinidae) from Cerro Fatal on Santa Cruz Island

    PubMed Central

    Chiari, Ylenia; Garrick, Ryan C.; Russello, Michael A.; Benavides, Edgar; Watkins-Colwell, Gregory J.; Glaberman, Scott; Tapia, Washington; Gibbs, James P.; Cayot, Linda J.; Caccone, Adalgisa

    2015-01-01

    The taxonomy of giant Galapagos tortoises (Chelonoidis spp.) is currently based primarily on morphological characters and island of origin. Over the last decade, compelling genetic evidence has accumulated for multiple independent evolutionary lineages, spurring the need for taxonomic revision. On the island of Santa Cruz there is currently a single named species, C. porteri. Recent genetic and morphological studies have shown that, within this taxon, there are two evolutionarily and spatially distinct lineages on the western and eastern sectors of the island, known as the Reserva and Cerro Fatal populations, respectively. Analyses of DNA from natural populations and museum specimens, including the type specimen for C. porteri, confirm the genetic distinctiveness of these two lineages and support elevation of the Cerro Fatal tortoises to the rank of species. In this paper, we identify DNA characters that define this new species, and infer evolutionary relationships relative to other species of Galapagos tortoises. PMID:26488886

  2. Push moraines in the upper valley of Santa Cruz river, southwest Argentina. Structural analysis and relationship with Late Pleistocene paleoclimate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goyanes, Gabriel; Massabie, Armando

    2015-01-01

    The upper cliff of the Santa Cruz River was used to assess the proglacial environments of the Argentino Glacier outlet of Late Pleistocene age. These cliffs show glaciolacustrine, fluvioglacial and till deposits, where only the first one are deformed. Glacial landforms in the area and these structures suggest that the ice mass advanced, topographically controlled, towards the east from the Patagonian Ice Sheet pushing up the proglacial sediments. The spatial arrangement of thrusts and overturned folds, the drumlins-flutes moraine directions and the end moraines shape, allow inferring the dynamic and the Argentino glacier profile. Detailed analyses of the glaciotectonic structures indicate that these have two origins: load in the north with stress transfer to the southeast, and push from the west. Through the analysis of deformed sediments, their thickness and their sedimentary and structural features, three zones of deformations were recognized. Each of these zones was associated to glacial advances because of changes of the regional climate conditions.

  3. [The creation of the first anesthesiology service in Spain (Hospital de la Santa Cruz y San Pablo, Barcelona 1941)].

    PubMed

    Unzueta, M C; Hervás, C; Villar Landeira, J M

    2002-03-01

    On the sixtieth anniversary of the founding of the first Spanish anesthesia department, we review factors that led to its creation and its early development. Hospital de la Santa Cruz y San Pablo in Barcelona was the place where the service was established for several reasons. The first was the growing need for anesthesia to be administered by specialized physicians able to handle problems developing during and after surgery. The second was the presence of a prestigious surgeon, Dr. Juan Soler Juliá, who perceived the need, alongside the only physician in Spain who was completely dedicated to anesthesiology, Dr. José Miguel Martínez. Finally, the fact that professional anesthesiology allowed a physician to earn a decent income triggered interest in the specialty among physicians.

  4. Maps showing ground-water conditions in the lower Santa Cruz area, Pinal, Pima, and Maricopa Counties, Arizona, 1977

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Konieczki, A.D.; English, C.S.

    1979-01-01

    The lower Santa Cruz area includes about 5,400 square miles in south-central Arizona and is the second largest agricultural area in the State. The area depends mainly on ground water for irrigation, and in 1976 about 966,000 acre-feet of ground water was pumped from the area. As a result of the large-scale long-term withdrawal of ground water, water levels have declined , and the direction of ground-water flow has changed. Since 1923 , declines of nearly 500 feet have occurred near Stanfield. Information shown on the maps (scale 1:125,000) includes depth to water, altitude of the water level, specific conductance, fluoride concentration, change in water level (1923-77), and land use. Hydrographs of the water level in selected wells and a table of historical pumpage also are included. (Woodard-USGS)

  5. Processing and interpretation of aeromagnetic data for the Santa Cruz Basin - Patagonia Mountains area, south-central Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phillips, Jeffrey D.

    2002-01-01

    In 1997, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) contracted with Sial Geosciences Inc. for a detailed aeromagnetic survey of the Santa Cruz basin and Patagonia Mountains area of south-central Arizona. The contractor's Operational Report is included as an Appendix in this report. This section describes the data processing performed by the USGS on the digital aeromagnetic data received from the contractor. This processing was required in order to remove flight line noise, estimate the depths to the magnetic sources, and estimate the locations of the magnetic contacts. Three methods were used for estimating source depths and contact locations: the horizontal gradient method, the analytic signal method, and the local wavenumber method. The depth estimates resulting from each method are compared, and the contact locations are combined into an interpretative map showing the dip direction for some contacts.

  6. The role of reaction affinity and secondary minerals in regulating chemical weathering rates at the Santa Cruz Soil Chronosequence, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maher, Kate; Steefel, Carl I.; White, Art F.; Stonestrom, Dave A.

    2009-05-01

    In order to explore the reasons for the apparent discrepancy between laboratory and field weathering rates and to determine the extent to which weathering rates are controlled by the approach to thermodynamic equilibrium, secondary mineral precipitation, and flow rates, a multicomponent reactive transport model (CrunchFlow) was used to interpret soil profile development and mineral precipitation and dissolution rates at the 226 ka Marine Terrace Chronosequence near Santa Cruz, CA. Aqueous compositions, fluid chemistry, transport, and mineral abundances are well characterized [White A. F., Schulz M. S., Vivit D. V., Blum A., Stonestrom D. A. and Anderson S. P. (2008) Chemical weathering of a Marine Terrace Chronosequence, Santa Cruz, California. I: interpreting the long-term controls on chemical weathering based on spatial and temporal element and mineral distributions. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta72 (1), 36-68] and were used to constrain the reaction rates for the weathering and precipitating minerals in the reactive transport modeling. When primary mineral weathering rates are calculated with either of two experimentally determined rate constants, the nonlinear, parallel rate law formulation of Hellmann and Tisserand [Hellmann R. and Tisserand D. (2006) Dissolution kinetics as a function of the Gibbs free energy of reaction: An experimental study based on albite feldspar. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta70 (2), 364-383] or the aluminum inhibition model proposed by Oelkers et al. [Oelkers E. H., Schott J. and Devidal J. L. (1994) The effect of aluminum, pH, and chemical affinity on the rates of aluminosilicate dissolution reactions. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta58 (9), 2011-2024], modeling results are consistent with field-scale observations when independently constrained clay precipitation rates are accounted for. Experimental and field rates, therefore, can be reconciled at the Santa Cruz site. Additionally, observed maximum clay abundances in the argillic horizons occur at the

  7. Field-trip guide to the southeastern foothills of the Santa Cruz Mountains in Santa Clara County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stoffer, Philip W.; Messina, Paula

    2002-01-01

    This field trip is an introduction to the geology of the southeastern foothills of the Santa Cruz Mountains in southern Santa Clara County. Seven stops include four short hikes to access rock exposures and views of the foothills east of Loma Prieta Peak between Gilroy and San José. Field-trip destinations highlight the dominant rock types of the "Franciscan assemblage" including outcrops of serpentinite, basalt, limestone, ribbon chert, graywacke sandstone, and shale. General discussions include how the rocks formed, and how tectonism and stream erosion have changed the landscape through time. All field trip stops are on public land; most are near reservoir dams of the Santa Clara Valley Water District. In addition, stops include examination of an Ohlone Indian heritage site and the New Almaden Mining Museum.

  8. Description of a New Galapagos Giant Tortoise Species (Chelonoidis; Testudines: Testudinidae) from Cerro Fatal on Santa Cruz Island.

    PubMed

    Poulakakis, Nikos; Edwards, Danielle L; Chiari, Ylenia; Garrick, Ryan C; Russello, Michael A; Benavides, Edgar; Watkins-Colwell, Gregory J; Glaberman, Scott; Tapia, Washington; Gibbs, James P; Cayot, Linda J; Caccone, Adalgisa

    2015-01-01

    The taxonomy of giant Galapagos tortoises (Chelonoidis spp.) is currently based primarily on morphological characters and island of origin. Over the last decade, compelling genetic evidence has accumulated for multiple independent evolutionary lineages, spurring the need for taxonomic revision. On the island of Santa Cruz there is currently a single named species, C. porteri. Recent genetic and morphological studies have shown that, within this taxon, there are two evolutionarily and spatially distinct lineages on the western and eastern sectors of the island, known as the Reserva and Cerro Fatal populations, respectively. Analyses of DNA from natural populations and museum specimens, including the type specimen for C. porteri, confirm the genetic distinctiveness of these two lineages and support elevation of the Cerro Fatal tortoises to the rank of species. In this paper, we identify DNA characters that define this new species, and infer evolutionary relationships relative to other species of Galapagos tortoises.

  9. Nearshore disposal of fine-grained sediment in a high-energy environment: Santa Cruz Harbor case study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cronin, Katherine; van Ormondt, Maarten; Storlazzi, Curt D.; Presto, Katherine; Tonnon, Pieter K.; Rosati, Julie D.; Wang, Ping; Roberts, Tiffany M.

    2011-01-01

    Current regulations in California prohibit the disposal of more than 20% fine-grained sediment in the coastal zone; this threshold is currently being investigated to determine if this environmental regulation can be improved upon. A field monitoring and numerical modeling experiment took place late 2 009 to determine the fate of fine-grained dredge disposal material from Santa Cruz Harbor, California, U.S.A. A multi-nested, hydrodynamic-sediment transport modeling approach was used to simulate the direction and dispersal of the dredge plume. Result s show that the direction and dispersal of the plume was influenced by the wave  climate, a large proportion of which moved in a easterly direction during wave events. Therefore it is vitally important to accurately simulate the tides, waves, currents, temperature and salinity when modeling the dispersal of the fine-grained dredge plume. 

  10. A Multi-Gage Calibration Approach for Modeling a Semiarid Santa Cruz watershed in Arizona-Mexico Border

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niraula, R.; Meixner, T.; Norman, L. M.

    2011-12-01

    Flow at the outlet does not sufficiently represent underlying processes for an entire watershed in semiarid climates, where the flow from much of the catchment may not reach the outlet most of the time. For modeling these watersheds, calibration to discharge is required not only at the watershed outlet but also in various locations within the watershed to best capture real watershed conditions. The objective of this study is to develop a reliable model for the Santa Cruz watershed to analyze the impact of land use and climate change on hydrology and water quality in this semiarid basin. The semiarid Santa Cruz watershed (Lat:34oN and Long:-111oW) is 9,000 km2 and located in southern Arizona, United States (85%) and northern Sonora, Mexico (15%). In this study, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was used to calibrate the flow at seven monitoring stations to increase the reliability of flow and therefore water quality predictions for the entire basin. The model performance was evaluated based on observed hydrograph, Mass balance error (MBE) coefficient of determination (R2) and Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE). We began the calibration by identifying the most sensitive parameters using the Latin hypercube global sensitivity approach, identifying that the baseflow recession coefficient, the effective hydraulic conductivity in main channel (transmission loss), the curve number and the soil evaporation compensation factor as the most sensitive parameters. Next, we manually calibrated the model at the USGS gage near the outlet by modifying these parameters. Although the model was validated well at the outlet, the model was not able to validate the flow at other USGS gages inside the watershed. Thus we calibrated the model in sequential order from upstream to downstream gages by further adjusting these parameters. A significant amount of water is lost through transmission loss in our modeling of the Santa Cruz. In SWAT, by default the loss from the streambed is set

  11. Comparative study of two tsunamigenic earthquakes in the Solomon Islands: 2015 Mw 7.0 normal-fault and 2013 Santa Cruz Mw 8.0 megathrust earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidarzadeh, Mohammad; Harada, Tomoya; Satake, Kenji; Ishibe, Takeo; Gusman, Aditya Riadi

    2016-05-01

    The July 2015 Mw 7.0 Solomon Islands tsunamigenic earthquake occurred ~40 km north of the February 2013 Mw 8.0 Santa Cruz earthquake. The proximity of the two epicenters provided unique opportunities for a comparative study of their source mechanisms and tsunami generation. The 2013 earthquake was an interplate event having a thrust focal mechanism at a depth of 30 km while the 2015 event was a normal-fault earthquake occurring at a shallow depth of 10 km in the overriding Pacific Plate. A combined use of tsunami and teleseismic data from the 2015 event revealed the north dipping fault plane and a rupture velocity of 3.6 km/s. Stress transfer analysis revealed that the 2015 earthquake occurred in a region with increased Coulomb stress following the 2013 earthquake. Spectral deconvolution, assuming the 2015 tsunami as empirical Green's function, indicated the source periods of the 2013 Santa Cruz tsunami as 10 and 22 min.

  12. Soils of the coastal area of Santa Fé and Santa Cruz islands (Galápagos). Their micromorphology, mineralogy and genesis compared.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoops, Georges; Dumon, Mathijs; Van Ranst, Eric

    2015-04-01

    Santa Fé is a small island situated about 15 km SW of Santa Cruz and has a similar petrographic composition. The centre of Santa Cruz reaches up to 950 m a.s.l., Santa Fé is nowhere higher that 255 m. Even in the dry season the high mountain region of Santa Cruz profits therefore of an almost continuous drizzly rain (garrúa) resulting from the cooling of the rising moist air. The dry coastal zones are covered by sparse Opuntia vegetation. In the coastal soils a double to open spaced porphyric c/f related distribution pattern prevails. The micromass is greyish to yellowish brown on Santa Fé, reddish on Santa Cruz. The b-fabric is weakly granostriated, rarely calcitic crystallitic. The coarse material is restricted to fresh grains of plagioclase > iddingsite > augite > rare olivine, and some fresh basalt fragments. Remnants of illuvial clay coatings are more common on Santa Cruz. Only on Santa Fé hard, yellowish nodules (up to 700 µm) with a strongly mosaic speckled b-fabric and first order grey interference colours occur; their nature and genesis is a point of discussion. X-ray diffraction revealed the clay fraction of these soils to be comparable: poorly crystalline 2:1 phyllosilicates with broad irregular 001 reflections swelling to 1.8 nm after glycolation and collapsing to 1.0 nm after K-saturation and heating. Poorly crystalline kaolinite reflections are more prominent on Santa Cruz, whereas mica-like components (1.00 nm reflections) are restricted to Santa Fé. The presence of unweathered coarse material in an abundant micromass of alteration clay indicates a disequilibrium, and points to a transport of the fine material, in solid phase (colluvium) and/or as solution rather than an in situ weathering. Comparing the total chemical composition (corrected for LOI) of the coastal soils of Santa Cruz and Santa Fé with the average rock composition of both islands, one notes in the soils an increase in Al, Fe, Ti and K, and a loss of Mg, Ca and Na. On Santa F

  13. Measuring the impacts of natural amenities and the US-Mexico Border, on housing values in the Santa Cruz Watershed, using spatially-weighted hedonic modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amaya, Gladys; Norman, Laura M.; Frisvold, George

    2011-01-01

    This presentation will provide a synopsis of the quality of life and hedonics literature review used to develop this research agenda. Variables relevant for local environmental management, having significant effects on property values, will be discussed. The final results obtained from this study can be used determine the benefits of preserving or developing land binationally and will be uploaded to the Santa Cruz Watershed Ecosystem Portfolio Model (SCWEPM), an online Ecosystem Services tool, being created to promote sustainable development in the Borderlands.

  14. Fossil localities of the Santa Cruz Formation (Early Miocene, Patagonia, Argentina) prospected by Carlos Ameghino in 1887 revisited and the location of the Notohippidian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernicola, Juan Carlos; Cuitiño, José I.; Vizcaíno, Sergio F.; Bargo, M. Susana; Kay, Richard F.

    2014-07-01

    Between January and September of 1887 Carlos Ameghino carried out his first geologic and paleontological expedition to the Río Santa Cruz, Patagonia. Based on the fossils and geologic information compiled, in 1887 and 1889, Florentino Ameghino named more than 120 new species of extinct mammals and his Formación Santacruceña and Piso Santacruceño (Santacrucian stage). Data published by both brothers state that the specimens were collected in outcrops by the Río Santa Cruz, between 90 and 200 km west of its mouth. However, information in the posthumously published letters and Travel Diary of C. Ameghino allows us to recognize a fourth locality, Río Bote, at about 50 km further southwest. In 1900, 1902, F. Ameghino divided the Piso Santacruceño in a younger étage Santacruzienne and older étage Notohippidéen, restricting the geographical distribution of the latter to Kar Aiken locality, northeast of Lago Argentino. However, 15 of the 54 species that F. Ameghino listed as exclusively Notohippidian stage already had been named on specimens collected South to the Río Santa Cruz in 1887, two year prior to C. Ameghino's first visit to Kar Aiken. Based on historical information and several expeditions to the Río Santa Cruz and its environs, in this contribution we establish the geographical locations of the 1887 localities, formalize their names, evaluate the stratigraphic position of the fossil-bearing levels, and analyze the geographic extension of the Notohippidian, inferring that Río Bote is where C. Ameghino first collected species that came to define the Notohippidian.

  15. Type material of Platyhelminthes (Monogenoidea) housed in the Helminthological Collection of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute/ FIOCRUZ (CHIOC), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from 1979 to 2016.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Daniela A; Mainenti, Adriana; Sanches, Magda; Knoff, Marcelo; Gomes, Delir Corrêa

    2016-01-01

    A catalogue of type material of monogenoids deposited in the Helminthological Collection of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute, FIOCRUZ (CHIOC), between 1979 and 2016, is presented, given that the last list of types was produced in 1979. The monogenoid collection comprises type lots for 203 species, distributed across 14 families and 68 genera. Specific names are listed systematically, followed by type host, infection site, type locality, specimens with the collection numbers and references. The classification and the nomenclature of the species have been updated.

  16. Causes of mortality of wild birds submitted to the Charles Darwin Research Station, Santa Cruz, Galapagos, Ecuador from 2002-2004.

    PubMed

    Gottdenker, Nicole L; Walsh, Timothy; Jiménez-Uzcátegui, Gustavo; Betancourt, Franklin; Cruz, Marilyn; Soos, Catherine; Miller, R Eric; Parker, Patricia G

    2008-10-01

    Necropsy findings were reviewed from wild birds submitted to the Charles Darwin Research Station, Santa Cruz Island, Galápagos Archipelago between 2004 and 2006. One hundred and ninety cases from 27 different species were submitted, and 178 of these cases were evaluated grossly or histologically. Trauma and trauma-related deaths (n=141) dominated necropsy submissions. Infectious causes of avian mortality included myiasis due to Philornis sp. (n=6), avian pox (n=1), and schistosomosis (n=1).

  17. Development of a high-resolution binational vegetation map of the Santa Cruz River riparian corridor and surrounding watershed, southern Arizona and northern Sonora, Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wallace, Cynthia S.A.; Villarreal, Miguel L.; Norman, Laura M.

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes the development of a binational vegetation map developed for the Santa Cruz Watershed, which straddles the southern border of Arizona and the northern border of Sonora, Mexico. The map was created as an environmental input to the Santa Cruz Watershed Ecosystem Portfolio Model (SCWEPM) that is being created by the U.S. Geological Survey for the watershed. The SCWEPM is a map-based multicriteria evaluation tool that allows stakeholders to explore tradeoffs between valued ecosystem services at multiple scales within a participatory decision-making process. Maps related to vegetation type and are needed for use in modeling wildlife habitat and other ecosystem services. Although detailed vegetation maps existed for the U.S. side of the border, there was a lack of consistent data for the Santa Cruz Watershed in Mexico. We produced a binational vegetation classification of the Santa Cruz River riparian habitat and watershed vegetation based on NatureServe Terrestrial Ecological Systems (TES) units using Classification And Regression Tree (CART) modeling. Environmental layers used as predictor data were derived from a seasonal set of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images (spring, summer, and fall) and from a 30-meter digital-elevation-model (DEM) grid. Because both sources of environmental data are seamless across the international border, they are particularly suited to this binational modeling effort. Training data were compiled from existing field data for the riparian corridor and data collected by the NM-GAP (New Mexico Gap Analysis Project) team for the original Southwest Regional Gap Analysis Project (SWReGAP) modeling effort. Additional training data were collected from core areas of the SWReGAP classification itself, allowing the extrapolation of the SWReGAP mapping into the Mexican portion of the watershed without collecting additional training data.

  18. Panmixia supports divergence with gene flow in Darwin's small ground finch, Geospiza fuliginosa, on Santa Cruz, Galápagos Islands.

    PubMed

    Galligan, Toby H; Donnellan, Stephen C; Sulloway, Frank J; Fitch, Alison J; Bertozzi, Terry; Kleindorfer, Sonia

    2012-05-01

    The divergence-with-gene-flow model of speciation has a strong theoretical basis with a growing number of plausible examples in nature, but remains hotly debated. Darwin's finches of the Galápagos Archipelago have played an important role in our understanding of speciation processes. Recent studies suggest that this group may also provide insights into speciation via divergence with gene flow. On the island of Santa Cruz, recent studies found evidence for adaptive divergence in Darwin's small ground finch, Geospiza fuliginosa, between ecologically contrasting arid and humid zones. Despite the short geographical distance between these zones, strong disruptive selection during low rainfall periods is expected to generate and maintain adaptive divergence. Conversely, during high rainfall periods, when disruptive selection is predicted to be weakened, population divergence in adaptive traits is expected to break down. Because periods of low and high rainfall irregularly alternate, the geographical pattern of adaptive divergence can be assumed to break down and, importantly, regenerate in situ. Here, we use microsatellite allele frequency data to assess the genetic population structure of G. fuliginosa on Santa Cruz. We sample 21 sites and four ecological zones across the island. We reject hypotheses of population substructure linked to ecological and geographical differences among sites in favour of a single panmictic population. Panmixia implies high levels of gene flow within Santa Cruz, which favours selection over genetic drift as a valid process generating phenotypic divergence in G. fuliginosa on Santa Cruz. We discuss how our findings may support classic adaptation, phenotypic plasticity, matching habitat choice or any combination of these three processes.

  19. Dog overpopulation and burden of exposure to canine distemper virus and other pathogens on Santa Cruz Island, Galapagos.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Nicole M; Mendez, Gabriella S; Grijalva, C Jaime; Walden, Heather S; Cruz, Marilyn; Aragon, Eduardo; Hernandez, Jorge A

    2016-01-01

    Dog overpopulation and diseases are hazards to native island species and humans on the Galapagos. Vaccination and importation of dogs are prohibited on the Galapagos. Risk management of these hazards requires the use of science-based risk assessment and risk communication. The objectives of the study reported here were (i) to estimate the human:dog ratio and (ii) the prevalence of and identify exposure factors associated with positive antibody titers to canine distemper virus (CDV) and other pathogens, as well as infection with intestinal parasites in owned dogs on Santa Cruz Island, Galapagos in September 2014. The observed human:dog ratio was 6.148:1 which extrapolates to 2503 dogs (two times more than a recent dog count conducted by Galapagos Biosecurity Agency in March 2014). The proportion of spayed female dogs (50%) was higher, compared to neutered male dogs (30%) (p=0.04). Prevalence of dogs with positive antibody titers to CDV was 36% (95% CI=26, 46%), to canine parvovirus was 89% (95% CI=82, 95%), and to canine adenovirus was 40% (95% CI=30, 51%). The frequency of seropositive dogs to CDV was lower in urban dogs (26%), compared to rural dogs (53%) (p<0.05). A positive interaction effect between rural residence and spay/neuter status on seropositivity to CDV was observed, which we discuss in this report. Because vaccination is prohibited, the dog population on Santa Cruz is susceptible to an outbreak of CDV (particularly among urban dogs) with potential spill over to marine mammals. Dog's age (1-2 or 3-14 years old, compared to younger dogs), and residence (rural, urban) were associated with positive antibody titers to parvovirus, adenovirus, Ehrlichia spp., or Anaplasma spp., as well as infection with Ancylostoma spp., an intestinal parasite in dogs that can be transmitted to humans, particularly children. These results provide the most comprehensive assessment of dog overpopulation and exposure to CDV and other pathogens on the Galapagos to date

  20. Hydrogeologic Framework of the Upper Santa Cruz Basin (Arizona and Sonora) using Well Logs, Geologic Mapping, Gravity, Magnetics, and Electromagnetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callegary, J. B.; Page, W. R.; Megdal, S.; Gray, F.; Scott, C. A.; Berry, M.; Rangel, M.; Oroz Ramos, L.; Menges, C. M.; Jones, A.

    2011-12-01

    In 2006, the U.S. Congress passed the U.S.-Mexico Transboundary Aquifer Assessment Act which provides a framework for study of aquifers shared by the United States and Mexico. The aquifer of the Upper Santa Cruz Basin was chosen as one of four priority aquifers for several reasons, including water scarcity, a population greater than 300,000, groundwater as the sole source of water for human use, and a riparian corridor that is of regional significance for migratory birds and other animals. Several new mines are also being proposed for this area which may affect water quality and availability. To date, a number of studies have been carried out by a binational team composed of the U.S. Geological Survey, the Mexican National Water Commission, and the Universities of Arizona and Sonora. Construction of a cross-border hydrogeologic framework model of the basin between Amado, Arizona and its southern boundary in Sonora is currently a high priority. The relatively narrow Santa Cruz valley is a structural basin that did not experience the same degree of late Cenozoic lateral extension and consequent deepening as found in other basin-and-range alluvial basins, such as the Tucson basin, where basin depth exceeds 3000 meters. This implies that storage may be much less than that found in other basin-and-range aquifers. To investigate the geometry of the basin and facies changes within the alluvium, a database of over one thousand well logs has been developed, geologic mapping and transient electromagnetic (TEM) surveys have been carried out, and information from previous electromagnetic, magnetic, and gravity studies is being incorporated into the hydrogeologic framework. Initial geophysical surveys and analyses have focused on the portion of the basin west of Nogales, Arizona, because it supplies approximately 50% of that city's water. Previous gravity and magnetic modeling indicate that this area is a narrow, fault-controlled half graben. Preliminary modeling of airborne

  1. A multitemporal (1979-2009) land-use/land-cover dataset of the binational Santa Cruz Watershed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    2011-01-01

    Trends derived from multitemporal land-cover data can be used to make informed land management decisions and to help managers model future change scenarios. We developed a multitemporal land-use/land-cover dataset for the binational Santa Cruz watershed of southern Arizona, United States, and northern Sonora, Mexico by creating a series of land-cover maps at decadal intervals (1979, 1989, 1999, and 2009) using Landsat Multispectral Scanner and Thematic Mapper data and a classification and regression tree classifier. The classification model exploited phenological changes of different land-cover spectral signatures through the use of biseasonal imagery collected during the (dry) early summer and (wet) late summer following rains from the North American monsoon. Landsat images were corrected to remove atmospheric influences, and the data were converted from raw digital numbers to surface reflectance values. The 14-class land-cover classification scheme is based on the 2001 National Land Cover Database with a focus on "Developed" land-use classes and riverine "Forest" and "Wetlands" cover classes required for specific watershed models. The classification procedure included the creation of several image-derived and topographic variables, including digital elevation model derivatives, image variance, and multitemporal Kauth-Thomas transformations. The accuracy of the land-cover maps was assessed using a random-stratified sampling design, reference aerial photography, and digital imagery. This showed high accuracy results, with kappa values (the statistical measure of agreement between map and reference data) ranging from 0.80 to 0.85.

  2. Framework for incorporating climate change on flood magnitude and frequency analysis in the upper Santa Cruz River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Jennifer G.; Bai, Yang; Dominguez, F.; Rivera, E.; Meixner, Thomas

    2017-06-01

    Hourly precipitation for one historical (1991-2000) and two future periods (2031-2040 and 2071-2079) were generated using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Regional Climate Model (RCM). The climate simulations were conducted for the Southwest region of the United States using an hourly temporal and 10 km spatial resolution grid. The boundary forcing for the WRF model was developed by the Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research/Met Office's HadCM3 model with A2 emission scenario. The precipitation from the RCM-WRF model was bias-corrected using the observed data, and then used to quantify the impact of climate change on the magnitude and frequency of flood flow in the upper Santa Cruz River watershed (USCRW) in southern Arizona. The Computational Hydraulics and River Engineering two-dimensional (CHRE2D) model, a two-dimensional hydrodynamic and sediment transport model, was adapted for surface flow routing. The CHRE2D model was first calibrated using a storm event on July 15th, 1999, and then applied to the watershed for three selected periods. The simulated annual maximum discharges in two future periods were added to the historical records to obtain the flood frequency curve. Results indicate the peak discharges of 100-year, 200-year, and 500-year flood only increased slightly, and the increase is within the 90% confidence interval limits. Therefore, the flood magnitude and frequency curve will not change with the inclusion of projected future climate data for the study watershed.

  3. Conceptual Morphologic Consideration for Long-term Hydrodynamics Simulation in the Pirai River in Santa Cruz-Bolivia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villazon, M. F.

    2014-12-01

    Santa Cruz city is built along the Piraí River, part of the Amazonas basin, which has tremendous discharge variability from10 to almost 2000 m3/s. The width goes from 50 to 500 metres. Inflows were calculated and calibrated using a conceptual rainfall-runoff model in hourly time step for 14 years. A hydrodynamic model (Mike11) of the river is implemented and calibrated with two stations. It was found that the roughness coefficient decreases with increasing water level; therefore bed resistance equation in function of the velocity were calibrated for different historical events. The last part of the river has important morphological process during flood events, conceptual modification of the wet area and the hydraulic radio (in different cross sections) is proposed in order to estimate in a better way the water level changes. Even when the model (Mike11) is running with fixed bed, the water levels are well represented. The shape and the time of occurrence of the peak flow in outlet station were well represented with EF greater than 0,7.

  4. A new genus and species of Planopinae (Xenarthra: Tardigrada) from the Miocene of Santa Cruz Province, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Carlini, Alfredo A; Brandoni, Diego; Dal Molin, Carlos N

    2013-01-01

    Prepoplanops boleadorensis, a new genus and species of Planopinae (Xenarthra, Tardigrada), is described herein. The new taxon is based on a nearly complete specimen recovered from the Cerro Boleadoras Formation (Miocene, Rio Zeballos Group), in northwestern Santa Cruz Province, Argentina. The shape and length of the predentary region of the skull and the length of the diastema of Prepoplanops boleadorensis differ from those present in the species of Planops. The posterolateral opening of the mandibular canal and the position of the posterior margin of the mandibular symphysis differ from those of species of Prepotherium. In addition, Prepoplanops boleadorensis differs from Planops martini in the size of the humeral tuberosities, the development of the deltoid crest, the position of the distal margin of the humeral trochlea, the shape and position of the olecranon, the development of the femoral epicondyles, and the shape of the medial margins of the patellar trochlea and medial condyle. On the other hand, it differs from Prepotherium potens in the shape of the medial margin of the medial condyle. The recognition of Prepoplanops boleadorensis increases the diversity of Planopinae for the Miocene of Patagonia, Argentina.

  5. Geology and ground-water in western Santa Cruz County, California, with particular emphasis on the Santa Margarita Sandstone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Akers, J.P.; Jackson, L.E.

    1977-01-01

    The water-bearing potential of the geologic formations in the western part of Santa Cruz County, Calif., is evaluated. Most of the sedimentary formations in this area are fine-grained rocks of Tertiary age that have been folded and faulted. These rocks, in general, yield supplies of water sufficient only for individual domestic supplies. The Lompico and Santa Margarita Sandstones, however, are coarser grained and have the potential to yield moderate quantities of water (50-100 gallons per minute). Areas where the Lompico Sandstone might warrant explorations are (1) near and on the west side of the Ben Lomond fault, (2) near and south of the outcrop of the Lompico Sandstone between Ben Lomond and Felton, and (3) in the area near Bald Mountain School. The Santa Margarita Sandstone should be explored by test drilling in the area between Davenport and Bonnie Doon. The quality of ground water is generally good, although saline water occurs in the San Lorenzo Formation near Redwood Grove and Riverside Grove. (Woodard-USGS)

  6. The distribution and extent of heavy metal accumulation in song sparrows along Arizona's upper Santa Cruz River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lester, Michael B.; van Riper, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Heavy metals are persistent environmental contaminants, and transport of metals into the environment poses a threat to ecosystems, as plants and wildlife are susceptible to long-term exposure, bioaccumulation, and potential toxicity. We investigated the distribution and cascading extent of heavy metal accumulation in southwestern song sparrows (Melospiza melodia fallax), a resident riparian bird species that occurs along the US/Mexico border in Arizona’s upper Santa Cruz River watershed. This study had three goals: (1) quantify the degree of heavy metal accumulation in sparrows and determine the distributional patterns among study sites, (2) compare concentrations of metals found in this study to those found in studies performed prior to a 2009 international wastewater facility upgrade, and (3) assess the condition of song sparrows among sites with differing potential levels of exposure. We examined five study sites along with a reference site that reflect different potential sources of contamination. Body mass residuals and leukocyte counts were used to assess sparrow condition. Birds at our study sites typically had higher metal concentrations than birds at the reference site. Copper, mercury, nickel, and selenium in song sparrows did exceed background levels, although most metals were below background concentrations determined from previous studies. Song sparrows generally showed lower heavy metal concentrations compared to studies conducted prior to the 2009 wastewater facility upgrade. We found no cascading effects as a result of metal exposure.

  7. late Pleistocene and Holocene pollen record from Laguna de las Trancas, northern coastal Santa Cruz County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adam, David P.; Byrne, Roger; Luther, Edgar

    1981-01-01

    A 2.1-m core from Laguna de las Trancas, a marsh atop a landslide in northern Santa Cruz County, California, has yielded a pollen record for the period between about 30,000 B. P. and roughly 5000 B. P. Three pollen zones are recognized. The earliest is characterized by high frequencies of pine pollen and is correlated with a mid-Wisconsinan interstade of the mid-continent. The middle zone contains high frequencies of both pine and fir (Abies, probably A. grandis) pollen and is correlated with the last full glacial interval (upper Wisconsinan). The upper zone is dominated by redwood (Sequoia) pollen and represents latest Pleistocene to middle Holocene. The past few thousand years are not represented in the core. The pollen evidence indicates that during the full glacial period the mean annual temperature at the site was about 2°C to 3°C lower than it is today. We attribute this small difference to the stabilizing effect of marine upwelling on the temperature regime in the immediate vicinity of the coast. Precipitation may have been about 20 percent higher as a result of longer winter wet seasons.

  8. Study of the air quality in industrial areas of Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Spain) by active biomonitoring with Pseudoscleropodium purum.

    PubMed

    Ares, Ángela; Fernández, Jose Ángel; Aboal, Jesús Ramón; Carballeira, Alejo

    2011-03-01

    A biomonitoring technique with terrestrial moss transplants (50 sampling sites in a regular grid) was used in an area of the city of Santa Cruz de Tenerife, close to an oil refinery and to an area of dense road traffic for a period of 2 months. The concentration of metals and metalloids (As, Cd, Hg, Ni, Pb and V) and 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined. The density distribution was represented, the enrichment factors calculated and multifactorial analysis applied. In addition, contamination maps were elaborated on the basis of the bioconcentration obtained, and after confirming the existence of spatial structure, the response surfaces were represented. The results showed very high levels of contamination by Ni and V in the study area, with similar dispersal patterns observed for both. The concentrations of Cd, Hg, Pb and PAHs were lower. Active biomonitoring with terrestrial mosses was found to be a suitable technique for implementing inexpensive environmental monitoring programmes in urban and industrialized areas. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Triggered aseismic slip adjacent to the 6 February 2013 Mw 8.0 Santa Cruz Islands megathrust earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, Gavin P.; Furlong, Kevin P.; Benz, Harley M.; Herman, Matthew W.

    2014-02-01

    Aseismic or slow slip events have been observed in many subduction zones, but whether they affect the occurrence of earthquakes or result from stress changes caused by nearby events is unclear. In an area lacking direct geodetic observations, inferences can be made from seismological studies of co-seismic slip, associated stress changes and the spatiotemporal nature of aftershocks. These observations indicate that the February 2013 Mw 8.0 Santa Cruz Islands earthquake may have triggered slow or aseismic slip on an adjacent section of the subduction thrust over the following hours to days. This aseismic event was equivalent to Mw 7.6, significantly larger than any earthquakes in the aftershock sequence. The aseismic slip was situated within the seismogenic portion of the subduction interface, and must have occurred to the south of the main seismic slip and most aftershocks in order to promote right-lateral faulting in the upper plate, the dominant deformation style of the aftershock sequence. This plate boundary segment can support either stable sliding (aseismic) or stick-slip (seismic) deformation in response to different driving conditions. The complete lack of aftershocks on the thrust interface implies this pair of megathrust slip episodes (seismic and aseismic) released a substantial portion of the stored strain on the northernmost section of the Vanuatu subduction zone.

  10. Triggered aseismic slip adjacent to the 6 February 2013 Mw 8.0 Santa Cruz Islands megathrust earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hayes, Gavin P.; Furlong, Kevin P.; Benz, Harley M.; Herman, Matthew W.

    2014-01-01

    Aseismic or slow slip events have been observed in many subduction zones, but whether they affect the occurrence of earthquakes or result from stress changes caused by nearby events is unclear. In an area lacking direct geodetic observations, inferences can be made from seismological studies of co-seismic slip, associated stress changes and the spatiotemporal nature of aftershocks. These observations indicate that the February 2013 Mw 8.0 Santa Cruz Islands earthquake may have triggered slow or aseismic slip on an adjacent section of the subduction thrust over the following hours to days. This aseismic event was equivalent to Mw 7.6, significantly larger than any earthquakes in the aftershock sequence. The aseismic slip was situated within the seismogenic portion of the subduction interface, and must have occurred to the south of the main seismic slip and most aftershocks in order to promote right-lateral faulting in the upper plate, the dominant deformation style of the aftershock sequence. This plate boundary segment can support either stable sliding (aseismic) or stick-slip (seismic) deformation in response to different driving conditions. The complete lack of aftershocks on the thrust interface implies this pair of megathrust slip episodes (seismic and aseismic) released a substantial portion of the stored strain on the northernmost section of the Vanuatu subduction zone.

  11. Slip history of the La Cruz fault: Development of a late Miocene transform in response to increased rift obliquity in the northern Gulf of California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Scott E. K.; Oskin, Michael E.; Iriondo, Alexander; Kunk, Michael J.

    2016-12-01

    The Gulf of California rift has accommodated oblique divergence of the Pacific and North America plates in northwestern México since Miocene time. Due to its infancy, its rifted margins preserve a rare onshore record of early continental break-up processes and an opportunity to investigate the role of rift obliquity in strain localization. We map rift-related structures and syn-tectonic basins on southern Isla Tiburón, a proximal onshore exposure of the rifted North America margin. We integrate analysis and geochronology of syn-tectonic sedimentary basins and mapping of crosscutting relationships to characterize the style and timing of fault activity. On southern Isla Tiburón, an early phase of extension initiated between 19-17 Ma and 12.2 Ma. Subsequently, these normal faults and related basins were cut by the La Cruz strike-slip fault and buried by deposits of the La Cruz basin, an elongate, fault-controlled trough coextensive with the La Cruz fault. Crosscutting relationships show that the NW-striking La Cruz fault accrued 5 ± 2 km of dextral slip 8-4 Ma. The La Cruz fault and parallel Tiburón transform were kinematically linked to detachment faulting that accommodated latest Miocene to Pliocene oblique opening of the offshore Upper Tiburón pull-apart basin. The onset of strike-slip faulting on Isla Tiburón was synchronous with the 8-6 Ma onset of transform faulting and basin formation along > 1000 km of the reconstructed Pacific-North America plate boundary. This transition coincides with the commencement of a clockwise azimuthal shift in Pacific-North America relative plate motion that increased the obliquity of the Gulf of California rift and formed the Gulf of California shear zone. The record from the proto-Gulf of California illustrates how highly oblique rift geometries, where transform faults are kinematically linked to pull-apart basins, enhance the ability of continental lithosphere to rupture and, ultimately, hasten the formation of new oceanic

  12. Analysis of methods to determine storage capacity of, and sedimentation in, Loch Lomond Reservoir, Santa Cruz County, California, 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McPherson, Kelly R.; Freeman, Lawrence A.; Flint, Lorraine E.

    2011-01-01

    In 2009, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Santa Cruz, conducted bathymetric and topographic surveys to determine the water storage capacity of, and the loss of capacity owing to sedimentation in, Loch Lomond Reservoir in Santa Cruz County, California. The topographic survey was done as a supplement to the bathymetric survey to obtain information about temporal changes in the upper reach of the reservoir where the water is shallow or the reservoir may be dry, as well as to obtain information about shoreline changes throughout the reservoir. Results of a combined bathymetric and topographic survey using a new, state-of-the-art method with advanced instrument technology indicate that the maximum storage capacity of the reservoir at the spillway altitude of 577.5 feet (National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929) was 8,646 ±85 acre-feet in March 2009, with a confidence level of 99 percent. This new method is a combination of bathymetric scanning using multibeam-sidescan sonar, and topographic surveying using laser scanning (LiDAR), which produced a 1.64-foot-resolution grid with altitudes to 0.3-foot resolution and an estimate of total water storage capacity at a 99-percent confidence level. Because the volume of sedimentation in a reservoir is considered equal to the decrease in water-storage capacity, sedimentation in Loch Lomond Reservoir was determined by estimating the change in storage capacity by comparing the reservoir bed surface defined in the March 2009 survey with a revision of the reservoir bed surface determined in a previous investigation in November 1998. This revised reservoir-bed surface was defined by combining altitude data from the 1998 survey with new data collected during the current (2009) investigation to fill gaps in the 1998 data. Limitations that determine the accuracy of estimates of changes in the volume of sedimentation from that estimated in each of the four previous investigations (1960, 1971, 1982, and 1998

  13. Preliminary report on geology and ground water of the Pajaro Valley area, Santa Cruz and Monterey counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muir, K.S.

    1972-01-01

    The Pajaro Valley area, California, covering about 120 square miles, extends from the southern part of Santa Cruz County to several miles south of the county line into Monterey County. It borders the Pacific Ocean on the west and the Santa Cruz Mountains on the east. The city of Watsonville is the largest center of population. Deposits that range in age from Pliocene to Holocene make up the ground-water reservoir. These include, from oldest to youngest, the Purisima Formation, Aromas Red Sands of Allen (1946), terrace deposits, alluvium, and dune sand. These deposits underlie an area of about 80 square miles and have a maximum thickness of about 4,000 feet. The alluvium yields most of the water pumped from wells in the area. Pre-Pliocene rocks underlie and form the boundaries of the ground-water reservoir. These rocks contain ground water in fractures and in sandstone beds. However, they are not an important source of ground water. There is close continuity between the geology of the Pajaro Valley area and that of the Soquel-Aptos area, which is contiguous on the north. Ground water in the Pajaro Valley area is derived from three sources: (1) Precipitation within the Pajaro Valley area that reaches the ground-water body by direct infiltration or by seepage from streams, (2) seepage from the Pajaro River as it crosses the Pajaro Valley carrying runoff which originates upstream from the valley, and (3) precipitation in the Soquel-Aptos area that infiltrates and then moves southeastward at depth into the Pajaro Valley area. Ground water in most wells in the Pajaro Valley area occurs under confined (artesian) conditions; the only exception is ground water in the upper, near-surface part of the alluvium and that in the dune sand. It moves south from the north part of the area and southwest away from the San Andreas fault toward and out under Monterey Bay. In the south part of the area, ground-water movement is almost due west. The San Andreas fault probably is the only

  14. Use of remotely sensed imagery to map Sudden Oak Death (Phytophthora ramorum) in the Santa Cruz Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillis, Trinka

    This project sought a method to map Sudden Oak Death distribution in the Santa Cruz Mountains of California, a coastal mountain range and one of the locations where this disease was first observed. The project researched a method to identify forest affected by SOD using 30 m multi-spectral Landsat satellite imagery to classify tree mortality at the canopy-level throughout the study area, and applied that method to a time series of data to show pattern of spread. A successful methodology would be of interest to scientists trying to identify areas which escaped disease contagion, environmentalists attempting to quantify damage, and land managers evaluating the health of their forests. The more we can learn about the disease, the more chance we have to prevent further spread and damage to existing wild lands. The primary data source for this research was springtime Landsat Climate Data Record surface reflectance data. Non-forest areas were masked out using data produced by the National Land Cover Database and supplemental land cover classification from the Landsat 2011 Climate Data Record image. Areas with other known causes of tree death, as identified by Fire and Resource Assessment Program fire perimeter polygons, and US Department of Agriculture Forest Health Monitoring Program Aerial Detection Survey polygons, were also masked out. Within the remaining forested study area, manually-created points were classified based on the land cover contained by the corresponding Landsat 2011 pixel. These were used to extract value ranges from the Landsat bands and calculated vegetation indices. The range and index which best differentiated healthy from dead trees, SWIR/NIR, was applied to each Landsat scene in the time series to map tree mortality. Results Validation Points, classified using Google Earth high-resolution aerial imagery, were created to evaluate the accuracy of the mapping methodology for the 2011 data.

  15. Rabies-vaccination coverage and profiles of the owned-dog population in Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, K; Pereira, J A C; Frías, L A; López, R; Mutinelli, L E; Pons, E R

    2008-05-01

    The Bolivian government issued a regulation for rabies control in November 2005, owing to increasing the prevalence of dog and human rabies cases in recent years. An assessment of rabies-vaccination coverage and other factors that might influence the success of the on-going vaccination campaign was needed. The objective of this study was to investigate dog rabies vaccination coverage and risk factors associated with dogs being unvaccinated against rabies, and profiles of the owned-dog population in Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Bolivia, where dog rabies was endemic. Mainly due to logistical reasons, the WHO's expanded programme on immunization cluster-survey method was used. The 390 households were included in the study. Information about dog population and management characteristics was obtained for 542 dogs from 301 households. On average, households had 1.4 dogs and 1.8 dogs per dog-owning household (median = 1). The human-to-dog ratio was 4.6 : 1. During the last 1 year prior to the study, of the 539 dogs aged >or=1 month, 463 (85%; 95% CI 79-91; design effect 3.6) were classified as vaccinated. Amongst the study dogs, dogs aged 1-11 months were the higher risk of dogs not being vaccinated (OR = 8.2; 95% CI 4.3-15.6; P < 0.01). Almost two-thirds of the study dogs were allowed to roam freely throughout the day or in part. Community education efforts should address the importance of dog ownership and movement restriction, and the need to vaccinate young dogs.

  16. Earthquake Recurrence and Deformation in the Last Four Events on the Santa Cruz Mountains Section of the San Andreas Fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Streig, A. R.; Dawson, T. E.; Weldon, R. J.

    2012-12-01

    Paleoseismic investigations at the Hazel Dell site on the Santa Cruz Mountains section (SAS) of the San Andreas fault has yielded evidence of four earthquakes. We present evidence of the 1906 surface rupture (E1), and 3 earlier events, including new evidence for two 1800's earthquakes. Evidence for the penultimate event, E2, is expressed as upward fault terminations within a massive sand infilling a topographic low. This sand infilled a depression formed by the pre-penultimate earthquake, E3. We identified axe-cut wood stratigraphically below the pre-penultimate earthquake horizon, which suggests that surface rupturing earthquakes E2 and E3 occurred after deposition of the cut wood stratigraphic unit. Lumber harvesting began in the area around 1832, and new radiocarbon dates sampled from redwood growth rings demonstrate that earthquakes E2 and E3 are historical. E4 occurred between A.D. 1651 and 1497. These new event data for the SAS suggest more frequent surface rupturing earthquakes within historical time than previously recognized. The data require at least two modes of behavior in strain release on the SAS through time. One mode of strain release, is through large multi-segment earthquakes; the 1906 event was a large multi-segment earthquake that dominates the moment budget of the fault. During the period prior to 1906, analysis of the historic record suggests that the SAS was characterized by a second mode of moderate seismicity, with six M≥ 6 earthquakes between 1838 and 1890 (Bakun, 1999), all located along the southern half of the segment near the Hazel Dell study area. The two 1800's earthquakes identified in this study support this second mode of moderate seismicity on the SAS.

  17. Using dye tracing to establish groundwater flow paths in a limestone marble aquifer, University of California, Santa Cruz, California

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, J.; Bertschinger, V. ); Aley, T. )

    1993-04-01

    Areas underlain by karst aquifers are characterized by soluble rock with sinkholes, caves, and a complex underground drainage network. Groundwater issues such as flow direction, well pumping impacts, spring recharge areas, and potential contamination transport routes are greatly complicated by the unique structure of karst aquifers. Standard aquifer analysis techniques cannot be applied unless the structure of the karst aquifer is understood. Water soluble fluorescent dyes are a powerful tool for mapping the irregular subsurface connections and flow paths in karst aquifers. Mapping the subsurface connections allows reasonable estimates of the hydrologic behavior of the aquifer. Two different fluorescent dyes were injected at two points in a limestone karst aquifer system beneath the University of California, Santa Cruz campus. Flow paths in the marble were thought to be closely tied to easily recognized geomorphic alignments of sinkholes associated with fault and fracture zones. The dye tests revealed unexpected and highly complex interconnections. These complex flow paths only partially corresponded to previous surface mapping and aerial photo analysis of fracture systems. Several interfingering but hydrologically unconnected flow paths evidently exist within the cavernous aquifer. For example, dye did not appear at some discharge springs close to the dye injection points, but did appear at more distant springs. This study shows how a dye tracing study in a small, well-defined limestone body can shed light on a variety of environmental and hydrological issues, including potential well pumping impact areas, wellhead protection and recharge areas, parking lot runoff injection to aquifers, and drainage routes from hazardous materials storage areas.

  18. Density and reproduction of the Queen Conch EUSTROMBUS gigas (Mesogastropoda: Strombidae) at Cabo Cruz, Desembarco del Granma National Park, Cuba.

    PubMed

    Cala, Yuself R; de Jesús-Navarrete, Alberto; Ocaña, Frank A; Oliva-Rivera, José

    2013-06-01

    The queen conch Eustrombus gigas is an important fisheries resource in the Caribbean region. In Cuba Island the studies about this resource are very scarce and particularly in the Southeastern regions of the country. With the aim to get important fishery information about this gastropod, adult Queen Conch density and frequency of reproductive activity were evaluated in Cabo Cruz, Cuba, during 2009-2010. Data from three seasons were obtained (rainy, dry and cold fronts periods) from three different areas: Farito, Guafe and Laguna. The highest density was observed in cold fronts season (468.5 ind./ha) and the lowest occurred during the dry season (268.5 ind./ha). The highest density was reported at Laguna (520.4 ind./ha) and the lowest at Farito (290.9ind./ha). In total, 158 reproductive events were observed. The highest frequency was reported in rainy season (36%), followed by dry (9%) and cold fronts (5%) seasons. Reproductive behavior (mating and egg laying) was related to temperature and photoperiod. Reproductive activity was observed during the whole year, which suggests the existence of an important Queen Conch reserve in the Southeastern region of Cuba and an apparently self-sufficient population for recruitment. From our results we may conclude that, the population's sustainable exploitation is viable if the following management measures are observed: functional zoning within the area, rotation of fishing areas and a closed season. We recommend that the Laguna site should be protected as a reproduction zone and banned for fishing activities.

  19. Investigating tree mortality at multiple spatial and temporal scales in the Bishop pine forest on Santa Cruz Island, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baguskas, S. A.; Bookhagen, B.; Peterson, S. H.; Asner, G. P.

    2010-12-01

    The rate of tree mortality has increased across the western United States in recent decades, and many studies attribute the cause to water stress induced by regional warming. To date, the geographical scope of study regions affected by widespread tree mortality in the American West has largely been limited to continental, montane climates. Much less is known about mortality events in other climatic regions, such as coastal forests. The relatively unvarying nature of the coastal, maritime climate has traditionally been assumed to buffer these forests from large climate variations; however, we have observed rapid tree mortality in this region which suggests coastal forests may be as susceptible to drought-induced mortality as inland forest locations. Santa Cruz Island (SCI), one of the California Channel Islands, harbors numerous relict and endemic plant species, including Bishop pine (Pinus muricata). Following extreme drought in southern California in two of the last three years (2007-2009), widespread mortality of Bishop pines has become evident. Bishop pine populations are restricted to the fog belt of coastal California and northern Baja California; therefore, a major reduction of existing populations on SCI would greatly reduce the distribution of the species as a whole. The focus of my research is to investigate the mechanisms underlying spatial and temporal patterns of Bishop pine mortality on SCI. I used remote sensing techniques to characterize spatiotemporal patterns of tree mortality and I have performed ground-data collection to validate remote-sensing results. Remote sensing in combination with field verification is a valuable tool to understand the spatiotemporal pattern of tree mortality and is a necessary step to help elucidate potential environmental and biological controls on tree mortality.

  20. Biomarkers in Trypanosoma cruzi-infected and uninfected individuals with varying severity of cardiomyopathy in Santa Cruz, Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Emi E; Sherbuk, Jacqueline E; Clark, Eva H; Marks, Morgan A; Gandarilla, Omar; Galdos-Cardenas, Gerson; Vasquez-Villar, Angel; Choi, Jeong; Crawford, Thomas C; Do, Rose Q; Q, Rose; Fernandez, Antonio B; Colanzi, Rony; Flores-Franco, Jorge Luis; Gilman, Robert H; Bern, Caryn

    2014-10-01

    Twenty to thirty percent of persons with Trypanosoma cruzi infection eventually develop cardiomyopathy. If an early indicator were to be identified and validated in longitudinal studies, this could enable treatment to be prioritized for those at highest risk. We evaluated cardiac and extracellular matrix remodeling markers across cardiac stages in T. cruzi infected (Tc+) and uninfected (Tc-) individuals. Participants were recruited in a public hospital in Santa Cruz, Bolivia and assigned cardiac severity stages by electrocardiogram and echocardiogram. BNP, NTproBNP, CKMB, troponin I, MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1, TIMP-2, TGFb1, and TGFb2 were measured in specimens from 265 individuals using multiplex bead systems. Biomarker levels were compared between Tc+ and Tc- groups, and across cardiac stages. Receivers operating characteristic (ROC) curves were created; for markers with area under curve>0.60, logistic regression was performed. Analyses stratified by cardiac stage showed no significant differences in biomarker levels by Tc infection status. Among Tc+ individuals, those with cardiac insufficiency had higher levels of BNP, NTproBNP, troponin I, MMP-2, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2 than those with normal ejection fraction and left ventricular diameter. No individual marker distinguished between the two earliest Tc+ stages, but in ROC-based analyses, MMP-2/MMP-9 ratio was significantly higher in those with than those without ECG abnormalities. BNP, NTproBNP, troponin I, MMP-2, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2 levels rose with increasing severity stage but did not distinguish between Chagas cardiomyopathy and other cardiomyopathies. Among Tc+ individuals without cardiac insufficiency, only the MMP-2/MMP-9 ratio differed between those with and without ECG changes.

  1. Earthquake travel time tomography of the southern Santa Cruz Mountains: Control of fault rupture by lithological heterogeneity of the San Andreas fault zone

    SciTech Connect

    Foxall, W.; Michelini, A.; McEvilly, T.V.

    1993-10-10

    The 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake occurred along the stretch of the San Andreas fault zone within the southern Santa Cruz Mountains that last failed as a major earthquake in 1906. The southeastern end of the 1989 rupture marks the transition from stable, aseismic slip on the central creeping section of the San Andreas fault to unstable failure on the locked 1906 segment. The authors investigate this transition and the rupture characteristics of the 1989 earthquake using a 3-D P wave velocity model of the southern Santa Cruz Mountains section of the fault zone. The model images a large anomalous high-velocity body at midcrustal depths within the rupture zone of the 1989 earthquake that the available evidence suggests might have gabbroic or other mafic composition. On the basis of the relationship of the lithological features interpreted from the velocity model to the seismicity and surface creep the authors propose a model in which the high-velocity body is primarily responsible for the transition from stable to unstable fault slip at Pajaro Gap. The active plane of the San Andreas fault cuts throughout the body. The fault system attempts to circumvent this barrier by transferring slip to secondary faults, including splay faults that have propagated along the frictionally favorable contact between the high-velocity rock mass and Franciscan country rocks. However, the near arrest of the stable sliding causes stress to concentrate within the body, and the high-strength, unstable contact within it evolves from a barrier to the asperity that failed in the 1989 earthquake. The general features of the 1989 rupture predicted by this asperity model agree with several rupture histories computed for the earthquake. The model implies that as proposed by other workers, the Loma Prieta earthquake did not involve a repeat of the 1906 slip, which has an important bearing on earthquake recurrence estimates for the Santa Cruz Mountains segment of the fault. 114 refs., 11 figs.

  2. Structure and Velocities of the Northeastern Santa Cruz Mountains and the Western Santa Clara Valley, California, from the SCSI-LR Seismic Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Catchings, R.D.; Goldman, M.R.; Gandhok, G.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: The Santa Clara Valley is located in the southern San Francisco Bay area of California and generally includes the area south of the San Francisco Bay between the Santa Cruz Mountains on the southwest and the Diablo Ranges on the northeast. The area has a population of approximately 1.7 million including the city of San Jose, numerous smaller cities, and much of the high-technology manufacturing and research area commonly referred to as the Silicon Valley. Major active strands of the San Andreas Fault system bound the Santa Clara Valley, including the San Andreas fault to the southwest and the Hayward and Calaveras faults to the northeast; related faults likely underlie the alluvium of the valley. This report focuses on subsurface structures of the western Santa Clara Valley and the northeastern Santa Cruz Mountains and their potential effects on earthquake hazards and ground-water resource management in the area. Earthquake hazards and ground-water resources in the Santa Clara Valley are important considerations to California and the Nation because of the valley's preeminence as a major technical and industrial center, proximity to major earthquakes faults, and large population. To assess the earthquake hazards of the Santa Clara Valley better, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has undertaken a program to evaluate potential earthquake sources and potential effects of strong ground shaking within the valley. As part of that program, and to better assess water resources of the valley, the USGS and the Santa Clara Valley Water District (SCVWD) began conducting collaborative studies to characterize the faults, stratigraphy, and structures beneath the alluvial cover of the Santa Clara Valley in the year 2000. Such geologic features are important to both agencies because they directly influence the availability and management of groundwater resources in the valley, and they affect the severity and distribution of strong shaking from local or regional

  3. Type material of Platyhelminthes (Monogenoidea) housed in the Helminthological Collection of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute/ FIOCRUZ (CHIOC), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from 1979 to 2016

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Daniela A.; Mainenti, Adriana; Sanches, Magda; Knoff, Marcelo; Gomes, Delir Corrêa

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A catalogue of type material of monogenoids deposited in the Helminthological Collection of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute, FIOCRUZ (CHIOC), between 1979 and 2016, is presented, given that the last list of types was produced in 1979. The monogenoid collection comprises type lots for 203 species, distributed across 14 families and 68 genera. Specific names are listed systematically, followed by type host, infection site, type locality, specimens with the collection numbers and references. The classification and the nomenclature of the species have been updated. PMID:27667946

  4. Type material of Platyhelminthes housed in the Helminthological Collection of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute/ FIOCRUZ (CHIOC), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from 1979 to 2016 (Rhabditophora, Trematoda and Cestoda).

    PubMed

    Lopes, Daniela A; Mainenti, Adriana; Knoff, Marcelo; Gomes, Delir Corrêa

    2017-01-01

    The second part of the catalogue of type material deposited in the Helminthological Collection of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute/ FIOCRUZ (CHIOC), between 1979 and 2016, is presented, to complement the first list of all types that was published in 1979. This part includes Platyhelminthes other than monogenoids, which were covered in the first part published in September 2016. The present catalogue comprises type material for 104 species, distributed across three classes, 40 families and 75 genera. Species names are listed systematically, followed by type host, infection site, type locality and specimens with their collection numbers and references. The classification and the nomenclature of the species have been updated.

  5. Paleoparasitologic, paleogenetic and paleobotanic analysis of XVIII century coprolites from the church La Concepción in Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain.

    PubMed

    Gijón Botella, Herminia; Afonso Vargas, José A; Arnay de la Rosa, Matilde; Leles, Daniela; González Reimers, Emilio; Vicente, Ana Carolina P; Iñiguez, Alena M

    2010-12-01

    We present the results of a paleoparasitologic, paleogenetic and paleobotanic analysis of coprolites recovered during the excavation of the church La Concepción in Santa Cruz de Tenerife. Coprolites (n = 4) were rehydrated and a multidisciplinary analysis was conducted. The paleobotanic analysis showed numerous silicates, seeds and fruits of the family Moraceae. In the paleoparasitologic study, Ascaris sp. eggs (n = 344) were identified. The paleogenetic results confirmed the Ascaris sp. infection as well as the European origin of human remains. These findings contribute to our knowledge of ancient helminthes infections and are the first paleoparasitological record of Ascaris sp. infection in Spain.

  6. Type material of Platyhelminthes housed in the Helminthological Collection of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute/ FIOCRUZ (CHIOC), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from 1979 to 2016 (Rhabditophora, Trematoda and Cestoda)

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Daniela A.; Mainenti, Adriana; Knoff, Marcelo; Gomes, Delir Corrêa

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The second part of the catalogue of type material deposited in the Helminthological Collection of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute/ FIOCRUZ (CHIOC), between 1979 and 2016, is presented, to complement the first list of all types that was published in 1979. This part includes Platyhelminthes other than monogenoids, which were covered in the first part published in September 2016. The present catalogue comprises type material for 104 species, distributed across three classes, 40 families and 75 genera. Species names are listed systematically, followed by type host, infection site, type locality and specimens with their collection numbers and references. The classification and the nomenclature of the species have been updated. PMID:28769607

  7. Nitrogen cycling and N2O production in the water column of the ferruginous meromictic Lake La Cruz (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tischer, Jana; Zopfi, Jakob; Frame, Caitlin H.; Jegge, Corinne; Kirsten, Oswald; Andreas, Brand; Miracle, Maria R.; Vicente, Eduardo; Lehmann, Moritz F.

    2016-04-01

    Ferruginous meromictic lakes are rare systems, considered potential modern analogues for an ancient Archean ferruginous Ocean. They may therefore represent valuable model ecosystems to study biogeochemical processes of early Earth history, in particular, the interaction between the iron (Fe) and other element cycles such as the complex nitrogen (N) cycle. In context of its exceptional water chemistry, we studied the N-cycling in the meromictic, ferruginous Lake La Cruz in the Central Iberian Ranges in Spain, combining i) general water column chemistry and detailed N speciation ii) stable isotope composition and intramolecular 15N distributions (site preference) of dissolved N2O and iii) 15N-isotope label incubation experiments, to identify and quantify biotic and abiotic N2O and N2 production pathways. Nitrification was identified as the main N2O production mechanism in the oxic zone, based on the N2O concentration profile and the isomeric composition of N2O (site preference = 24.7) at the depth of maximum concentration relative to the surface water. A second N2O peak of 23 nmol/L was observed within the chemocline, and relatively low values for the δ15N-N2O (-1.1) and a site preference of 16.1‰ with respect to the oxic water column suggest that here incomplete (nitrifier) denitrification is the dominant N2O production pathway. However, based on the bulk dual N-versus-O isotope signature, other production mechanisms cannot be excluded at this point. Within the anoxic water column, N2O is consumed quantitiatively to N2, consistent with 15N-NO3- incubation experiments, showing denitrification (and anammox) activity below the redox transition zone. The overlap of Fe and N-species (N2O, NO2-) in the water column is small, therefore abiotic N2O production is most likely negligible. The planned analysis of the NO3- and NH4+ isotopic signatures will provide further insight into the origin of N2O. Additionally, molecular biological analyses will provide information on

  8. Geochemical characterization of tarballs on beaches along the California coast. Part I - Shallow seepage impacting the Santa Barbara Channel Islands, Santa Cruz, Santa Rosa and San Miguel

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hostettler, F.D.; Rosenbauer, R.J.; Lorenson, T.D.; Dougherty, J.

    2004-01-01

    Tarballs are common along the southern California coastline. This study investigates tarballs from beaches along this coastline, with a focus on Santa Cruz, Santa Rosa, and San Miquel Islands in the Santa Barbara Channel. The tarballs were fingerprinted using biomarker and stable carbon isotope parameters, and then grouped according to genetic similarities. The data show that the tarballs are of natural and not anthropogenic origin and that all originate from source rock within the Miocene Monterey Formation via shallow seeps offshore. Sterane biomarker parameters were found to vary widely in the sample set. Biodegradation, especially of the regular steranes, is the primary process impacting the biomarker distributions in a large group of samples. The most common tarball occurrences appear to come from offshore seepage near the west end of Santa Cruz Island. Another major group most likely was transported north from near Santa Monica Bay. Several individual occurrences of some of these tarball groups also were found on beaches as far north as Pt. Reyes and as far south as San Diego, indicating significant long-distance dispersal by ocean currents. This study begins a library of tarball fingerprints to be used as a database to help distinguish between natural and anthropogenic tar occurrences all along the California coast, and to compare shallow seepage with future samples of deeper production oils from the same area.

  9. Changing levels of heavy metal accumulation in birds at Tumacacori National Historic Park along the Upper Santa Cruz River Watershed in southern Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Riper, Charles; Lester, Michael B.

    2016-01-01

    National Parks and other protected areas can be influenced by contamination from outside their boundaries. This is particularly true of smaller parks and those in riparian ecosystems, a habitat that in arid environments provides critical habitat for breeding, migratory, and wintering birds. Animals living in contaminated areas are susceptible to adverse health effects as a result of long-term exposure and bioaccumulation of heavy metals. We investigated the distribution and cascading extent of heavy metal accumulation in Song Sparrows (Melospiza melodia) at Tumacacori National Historic Park (TUMA) along the upper Santa Cruz River watershed in southern Arizona. This study had three goals: (1) quantify the concentrations and distributional patterns of heavy metals in blood and feathers of Song Sparrows at Tumacacori National Historic Park, (2) quantify hematocrit values, body conditions (that is, residual body mass), and immune conditions of Song Sparrows in the park (3) compare our findings with prior studies at the park to assess the extent of heavy metal accumulation in birds at downstream sites after the 2009 wastewater treatment plant upgrade, and (4) quantify concentrations and distributional patterns of heavy metals in blood and feathers of Song Sparrows among six study sites throughout the upper Santa Cruz River watershed. This study design would allow us to more accurately assess song sparrow condition and blood parameters among sites with differing potential sources of contamination exposure, and how each location could have contributed to heavy metal levels of birds in the park.

  10. Effects of environmental amenities and locational disamenities on home values in the Santa Cruz watershed: a hedonic analysis using census data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arora, Gaurav; Frisvold, George; Norman, Laura

    2014-01-01

    For this study, we used the hedonic pricing method to measure the effects of natural amenities on home prices in the U.S-side of the Santa Cruz Watershed. We employed multivariate spatial regression techniques to estimate how difference factors affect median home values in 613 census block groups of the 2000 Census, accounting for spatial autocorrelation, spatial lags, and/or spatial heterogeneity in the data. Diagnostic tests suggest that failure to account for the hedonic model can be classified as (1) physical features of the housing stock, (2) neighborhood characteristics, and (3) environmental attributes. Census data was combined with GIS data for vegetation and land cover, land administration, measures of species richness and open space, and proximity to amenities and disamenities. Census block groups close to the US-Mexico border of airports/air bases were negative. Results suggest that policies to maintain biodiversity and open space provide economic benefits to homeowners, reflected in higher home values. Future research will quantify the marginal effects of regression explanatory variables on home values to assess their economic and policy significant. These marginal effects will be used as input indicators to discern potential economic impacts of various scenarios in the Santa Cruz Watershed Ecosystem Portfolio Model (SCWEPM). Future research will also expand this effort into the Mexican-portion of the watershed.

  11. Developing an Ecosystem Services online Decision Support Tool to Assess the Impacts of Climate Change and Urban Growth in the Santa Cruz Watershed; Where We Live, Work, and Play

    EPA Science Inventory

    Processes through which ecosystems provide goods or benefit people can be referred to as "ecosystems services”, which may be quantified to clarify decision-making, with techniques including cost-benefit analysis. We are developing an online decision support tool, the Santa Cruz W...

  12. Passing the Baton: A New Program from ACSA and the New Teacher Center at UC Santa Cruz Is Improving the Way a New Generation of Site Leaders is Prepared and Supported

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Gary; Danilovich, Duff L.; Fogel, Janet

    2005-01-01

    Through a collaborative effort, the New Teacher Center at the University of California Santa Cruz and the Association of California School Administrators are offering intensive, coaching-based induction support to first- and second-year administrators that is integral to their professional certification. This program rests on the commitment and…

  13. Developing an Ecosystem Services online Decision Support Tool to Assess the Impacts of Climate Change and Urban Growth in the Santa Cruz Watershed; Where We Live, Work, and Play

    EPA Science Inventory

    Processes through which ecosystems provide goods or benefit people can be referred to as "ecosystems services”, which may be quantified to clarify decision-making, with techniques including cost-benefit analysis. We are developing an online decision support tool, the Santa Cruz W...

  14. High Resolution Mapping of an Alleged Chemical Weapons Dump Site in the Santa Cruz Basin, offshore California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewer, P. G.; Peltzer, E. T.; Walz, P. M.; Caress, D. W.; Thomas, H. J.

    2013-12-01

    Nautical charts record seven locations off the coast of California labeled as 'Chemical Munitions Dumping Area, Disused' that together cover some 12,000 km2 of sea floor. However only one such chemical munitions site is officially documented and no record exists of any chemical munitions disposed of at other locations, thus creating confusion. We have executed a one day AUV mapping survey of a corner of one such site in the Santa Cruz Basin, south of Port Hueneme, to examine and investigate the debris field. The region is covered with soft sediment and the overlying water is very low in oxygen at ~10 μmol/kg. The processed 110 kHz sidescan data revealed some 754 targets in 25.6 km2 for an average of 29 targets per km2. This was followed by two ROV dives to investigate the targets identified. We found but one false positives among the over 40 targets visited, and found items ranging from two distinct lines of unmarked or labeled and now empty barrels, two target drones, and much miscellaneous debris including 4-packs of cat food cans and a large ships mast over 30m in length. There was zero evidence of chemical weapons materiel as expected given the lack of official records. Almost all of the targets were covered in dense and colorful assemblages of invertebrates: sponges, anemones, and crabs. Where barrels were sufficiently open for full visual inspection, the interior sea floor appeared to have become fully anoxic and was covered in white and yellow bacterial mat. The area chosen for our survey (centered at 33.76 deg N 119.56 deg W) was across the north western boundary of the marked site, and represents only ~ 10% percent of the designated area. Our expectation, that human nature would drive the disposal activities to the nearest corner of the chosen area rather than the center of the field appears to have been confirmed. Objects were found both within and outside of the boundary of the dump site. We have not surveyed the full marked area but there appears to be

  15. Time-domain electromagnetic signatures of polymetallic vein deposits in Cottonwood Canyon area, Santa Cruz County, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bultman, Mark W.

    2002-01-01

    This report tests the usefulness of airborne time-domain electromagnetic (TEM) data on three mineral-resource-related issues: (1) to test whether known mineral deposits at or near the surface display any signal in the TEM data; 2) determine whether TEM data can be used to locate bedrock concealed by basin fill; and (3) if the exposed mineral deposits display a signal in the TEM data, to determine if whether deposits are recognizable at depth in outcropping bedrock or in bedrock concealed beneath basin fill. Because Earth's total-intensity magnetic field data are also acquired with the TEM data, these data are included in the analysis. The Cottonwood Canyon area in Santa Cruz County, Arizona, contains several polymetallic vein deposits, including those of the Tyndall, Salero, and Wrightson mining districts, all of which have had significant mineral production. Polymetallic vein deposits, which generally consist of veins of disseminated metallic minerals, commonly exhibit a response to electrical geophysical methods. Also, on the basis of other studies, the conditions that produced the polymetallic vein mineralization in the region are believed to extend offshore into the bedrock concealed by basin fill. The polymetallic vein deposits of the Cottonwood Canyon area all display a geophysical signature in the TEM data. These deposits occur in bedrock that has, in general, a very low resistivity. The polymetallic vein deposits are associated with high-conductivity regions that extend from deep in the bedrock to the surface. These high-conductivity regions can be quite narrow (100 m) or quite wide (1 km); most are relatively narrow. Every known mineral deposit or prospect is associated with a high-conductivity feature. High-conductivity regions can also occur without an association with known mineral deposits. Airborne TEM data appear to be able to locate the basin fill/bedrock contact beneath basin fill. The basin fill (both dry and saturated) is generally more

  16. Geohydrologic Framework of Recharge and Seawater Intrusion in the Pajaro Valley, Santa Cruz and Monterey Counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanson, Randall T.

    2003-01-01

    Pajaro Valley is a coastal watershed of 160 square miles located along Monterey Bay north of Elkhorn Slough and south of the city of Santa Cruz. The valley has been predominantly developed for agriculture since the late 1800s. In 1984 the Pajaro Valley Water Management Agency (PVWMA) was formed and was delegated with the responsibility of the management of the water resources within the Pajaro Valley by the State of California. About 84 percent of the water is used for agriculture and 16 percent is used for industrial and municipal water supply; almost all of the demand is supplied by ground water. Ground-water pumpage varies with seasonal and climatic periods. The alluvial aquifers are composed of Quaternary- and Tertiary-aged sediments that are layered marine and terrestrial coarse-grained deposits separated by extensive fine-grained deposits that potentially restrict vertical movement of ground water and seawater intrusion in the coastal subareas. The coarse-grained deposits, which persist over large areas, control pumpage and related seawater intrusion. The Aromas Sand crops out throughout the north and central parts of the PVWMA area and offshore on the continental shelf and in Monterey submarine canyon. Because many of the wells in the coastal and inland subregions are screened at depths of 200 to 400 feet below land surface, a direct avenue is provided for seawater intrusion through the coarse-grained deposits of the shallower alluvium and Aromas Sand. Geophysical logs from monitoring wells indicate discrete zones of saline water that are related to pumpage and seawater intrusion in the aquifers of the shallower alluvium and upper Aromas Sand in the upper-aquifer system and to deeper saline waters in the lower Aromas Sand within the lower-aquifer system. The precipitation data indicate that there were at least nine dry and nine wet periods that range from 2 to 19 years during the period of record, 1880?1997. The ground-water pumpage, runoff, streamflow and

  17. Paleoseismic investigations in the Santa Cruz mountains, California: Implications for recurrence of large-magnitude earthquakes on the San Andreas fault

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schwartz, D.P.; Pantosti, D.; Okumura, K.; Powers, T.J.; Hamilton, J.C.

    1998-01-01

    Trenching, microgeomorphic mapping, and tree ring analysis provide information on timing of paleoearthquakes and behavior of the San Andreas fault in the Santa Cruz mountains. At the Grizzly Flat site alluvial units dated at 1640-1659 A.D., 1679-1894 A.D., 1668-1893 A.D., and the present ground surface are displaced by a single event. This was the 1906 surface rupture. Combined trench dates and tree ring analysis suggest that the penultimate event occurred in the mid-1600s, possibly in an interval as narrow as 1632-1659 A.D. There is no direct evidence in the trenches for the 1838 or 1865 earthquakes, which have been proposed as occurring on this part of the fault zone. In a minimum time of about 340 years only one large surface faulting event (1906) occurred at Grizzly Flat, in contrast to previous recurrence estimates of 95-110 years for the Santa Cruz mountains segment. Comparison with dates of the penultimate San Andreas earthquake at sites north of San Francisco suggests that the San Andreas fault between Point Arena and the Santa Cruz mountains may have failed either as a sequence of closely timed earthquakes on adjacent segments or as a single long rupture similar in length to the 1906 rupture around the mid-1600s. The 1906 coseismic geodetic slip and the late Holocene geologic slip rate on the San Francisco peninsula and southward are about 50-70% and 70% of their values north of San Francisco, respectively. The slip gradient along the 1906 rupture section of the San Andreas reflects partitioning of plate boundary slip onto the San Gregorio, Sargent, and other faults south of the Golden Gate. If a mid-1600s event ruptured the same section of the fault that failed in 1906, it supports the concept that long strike-slip faults can contain master rupture segments that repeat in both length and slip distribution. Recognition of a persistent slip rate gradient along the northern San Andreas fault and the concept of a master segment remove the requirement that

  18. Paleoenvironmental reconstruction of the coastal Monte Léon and Santa Cruz formations (Early Miocene) at Rincón del Buque, Southern Patagonia: A revisited locality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raigemborn, M. Sol; Matheos, Sergio D.; Krapovickas, Verónica; Vizcaíno, Sergio F.; Bargo, M. Susana; Kay, Richard F.; Fernicola, Juan C.; Zapata, Luciano

    2015-07-01

    Sedimentological, ichnological and paleontological analyses of the Early Miocene uppermost Monte León Formation and the lower part of the Santa Cruz Formation were carried out in Rincón del Buque (RDB), a fossiliferous locality north of Río Coyle in Santa Cruz Province, Patagonia, Argentina. This locality is of special importance because it contains the basal contact between the Monte Léon (MLF) and the Santa Cruz (SCF) formations and because it preserves a rich fossil assemblage of marine invertebrates and marine trace fossils, and terrestrial vertebrates and plants, which has not been extensively studied. A ˜90 m-thick section of the MLF and the SCF that crops out at RDB was selected for this study. Eleven facies associations (FA) are described, which are, from base to top: subtidal-intertidal deposits with Crassotrea orbignyi and bioturbation of the Skolithos-Cruziana ichnofacies (FA1); tidal creek deposits with terrestrial fossil mammals and Ophiomorpha isp. burrows (FA2); tidal flat deposits with Glossifungites ichnofacies (FA3); deposits of tidal channels (FA4) and tidal sand flats (FA5) both with and impoverish Skolithos ichnofacies associated; marsh deposits (FA6); tidal point bar deposits recording a depauperate mixture of both the Skolithos and Cruziana ichnofacies (FA7); fluvial channel deposits (FA8); fluvial point bar deposits (FA9); floodplain deposits (FA10); and pyroclastic and volcaniclastic deposits of the floodplain where terrestrial fossil mammal remains occur (FA11). The transition of the MLF-SCF at RDB reflects a changing depositional environment from the outer part of an estuary (FA1) through the central (FA2-6) to inner part of a tide-dominated estuary (FA7). Finally a fluvial system occurs with single channels of relatively low energy and low sinuosity enclosed by a broad, low-energy floodplain dominated by partially edaphized ash-fall, sheet-flood, and overbank deposits (FA8-11). Pyroclastic and volcaniclastic materials throughout the

  19. The Interplay Between Deformation and Volcanism on Santa Cruz Island, Galápagos: A Multidisciplinary Study Using Structural, Geophysical, and Geochronological Analyses of Faults and Lavas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, D. M.; Harpp, K. S.; Mittelstaedt, E. L.

    2014-12-01

    Santa Cruz Island is one of the oldest volcanoes in the Galápagos Archipelago; little is known about its history or its evolutionary relationship to the younger western shield volcanoes. Of particular note, the island's northern and southern flanks are deformed by a series of major normal faults of unknown origin. Using an array of multidisciplinary tools, including field mapping, GPS, gravity, Ar-Ar and geochronology, and 3He exposure dating, we construct a structural and volcanic history of Santa Cruz. The Ar-Ar ages reveal that since ~1.5 Ma, the island has experienced two phases of volcanism, separated by ~0.4 My. The first occurred from 1620 ± 15 to 1160 ± 35 ka (1σ); the second lasted from 699 ± 45 to 74 ± 19 ka. Volcanism during the second phase was focused along an E-W trending summit vent system, from which all <200 ka lavas were deposited on the southern flank. Structural observations suggest that the island has experienced two major faulting episodes. North flank faults formed after 1160 ± 35 ka, whereas the southern faults were initiated between 416 ± 18 and 27 ± 16 ka. Gravity results indicate two E-W trending, intrusive complexes; one is centered north of the island's summit and the other is beneath the southern flank. When integrated, our data are consistent with a model wherein the northern faults are associated with regional uplift occurring after 1.1 Ma and before 0.78 Ma (paleomag.; Bow, 1979). This deformation event may be related to the formation of the summit vent system and the initiation of the second phase of volcanism. The second volcanism phase is coincident with the formation of the southern faults. Southward spreading along the island's southern flank accommodated extension initiated by intrusions, which ceased with volcanism at ~20 ka. The extended volcanic activity characteristic of Santa Cruz and of other older Galapagos Islands may be the result of rejuvenated volcanism linked to regional uplift event(s); it may also

  20. EMS Student Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogle, Patrick

    This student guide is one of a series of self-contained materials for students enrolled in an emergency medical services (EMS) training program. Discussed in the individual sections of the guide are the following topics: the purpose and history of EMS professionals; EMS training, certification and examinations (national and state certification and…

  1. Natural and anthropogenic factors affecting the structure of the benthic macroinvertebrate community in an effluent-dominated reach of the Santa Cruz River, AZ

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boyle, T.P.; Fraleigh, H.D.

    2003-01-01

    This study provides an assessment of the ecological conditions of a 46-km effluent-dominated stream section of the Santa Cruz River in the vicinity of the International Waste Water Treatment Plant, Nogales, AZ. We associated changes in the structure of the macroinvertebrate community to natural and anthropogenic chemical and physical variables using multivariate analysis. The analysis shows that biological criteria for effluent-dominated streams can be established using macroinvertebrate community attributes only with an understanding of the contribution of three classes of variables on the community structure: (1) low flow hydrological discharge as affected by groundwater withdrawals, treatment plant discharge, and subsurface geomorphology; (2) chemical composition of the treatment plant discharge and natural dilution; and (3) naturally produced floods resulting from seasonality of precipitation. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Production of sulfur gases and carbon dioxide by synthetic weathering of crushed drill cores from the Santa Cruz porphyry copper deposit near Casa Grande, Pinal County, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinkle, M.E.; Ryder, J.L.; Sutley, S.J.; Botinelly, T.

    1990-01-01

    Samples of ground drill cores from the southern part of the Santa Cruz porphyry copper deposit, Casa Grande, Arizona, were oxidized in simulated weathering experiments. The samples were also separated into various mineral fractions and analyzed for contents of metals and sulfide minerals. The principal sulfide mineral present was pyrite. Gases produced in the weathering experiments were measured by gas chromatography. Carbon dioxide, oxygen, carbonyl sulfide, sulfur dioxide and carbon disulfide were found in the gases; no hydrogen sulfide, organic sulfides, or mercaptans were detected. Oxygen concentration was very important for production of the volatiles measured; in general, oxygen concentration was more important to gas production than were metallic element content, sulfide mineral content, or mineral fraction (oxide or sulfide) of the sample. The various volatile species also appeared to be interactive; some of the volatiles measured may have been formed through gas reactions. ?? 1990.

  3. Report of the USGS Coastal and Marine Geology Modeling Workshop, Pacific Marine Science Center, Santa Cruz, CA, March 22-23, 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherwood, Christopher R.

    2006-01-01

    A U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology (CMG) Modeling Workshop was held to discuss the general topic of coastal modeling, defined broadly to include circulation, waves, sediment transport, water quality, ecology, sediment diagenesis, morphology change, and coastal evolution, on scales ranging from seconds and a few centimeters (individual ripples) to centuries (coastal evolution) and thousands of kilometers (tsunami propagation). The workshop was convened at the suggestion of CMG Program Management to improve communication among modelers and model users, assess modeling-related activities being conducted at the three centers (Florida Integrated Science Center, FISC; Pacific Marine Science Center; PMSC; and Woods Hole Science Center; WHSC), and develop goals, strategies, and plans for future modeling activities. The workshop represents a step toward developing a five-year strategic plan, and was timed to provide input for the FY06 prospectus. The workshop was held at the USGS Pacific Marine Science Center in Santa Cruz on March 22-23, 2005.

  4. Swath Bathymetry Surveys of the Monterey Bay Area from Point Ano Nuevo to Moss Landing, San Mateo, Santa Cruz, and Monterey Counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ritchie, Andrew C.; Finlayson, David P.; Logan, Joshua B.

    2010-01-01

    This report describes swath bathymetry and backscatter data acquired by the U.S. Geological Survey on the continental shelf within the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary between Point A?o Nuevo and Moss Landing, in San Mateo, Santa Cruz, and Monterey Counties, Calif. The survey was done for the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), in field activities S-7-09-MB and S-10-09-MB, by the Western Coastal and Marine Geology (WCMG) Team of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The data were aquired in two seperate surveys: (1) between August 13, 2009 and September 3, 2009, personnel from WCMG completed field activity S-7-09-MB, from Point A?o Nuevo south to Table Rock, as well as a block west of Soquel Canyon; (2) between October 12 and December 16, 2009, WCMG conducted field activity S-10-09-MB, surveying between Table Rock and Moss Landing.

  5. EM International. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    It is the intent of EM International to describe the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management`s (EM`s) various roles and responsibilities within the international community. Cooperative agreements and programs, descriptions of projects and technologies, and synopses of visits to international sites are all highlighted in this semiannual journal. Focus on EM programs in this issue is on international collaboration in vitrification projects. Technology highlights covers: in situ sealing for contaminated sites; and remote sensors for toxic pollutants. Section on profiles of countries includes: Arctic contamination by the former Soviet Union, and EM activities with Germany--cooperative arrangements.

  6. Active shortening along the northern edge of the western Transverse Ranges recorded by deformed fluvial terraces along Santa Cruz Creek in the eastern Santa Ynez Valley, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyler, E.

    2011-12-01

    Vertical-axis rotation of the western Transverse Ranges in southern California was accompanied by folding and reverse faulting at the northern edge of the rotated domain during late Miocene to Pliocene time. Deformed Pleistocene strata in the Santa Ynez Valley suggest that this rotational folding and faulting is still occurring. Fluvial terraces are present along several major drainages that cross the faults and folds and provide an opportunity to evaluate the timing and magnitude of Late Quaternary deformation at the northern edge of the rotated western Transverse Ranges. Three flights of well-preserved fluvial strath terraces are exposed along a 9.3 km stretch of the Santa Cruz Creek drainage in the eastern Santa Ynez Valley. Fluvial deposits that make up the terrace treads have been lifted 18.5 m (T-1) to 110m (T-3) above the active channel and are unpaired across the drainage. The terrace surfaces are underlain by a thin 0.6m-6m veneer of fluvial deposits resting on an erosional surface cut into the underlying Pleistocene Paso Robles Formation. GPS profiles (accurate to .1m) of the terrace surfaces and the Santa Cruz Creek stream profile show evidence of Late Quaternary deformation. The T1 surface (lowest terrace surface) is offset vertically 3.5m across the Los Alamos/Baseline fault, the T2 surface is offset 7m vertically across this feature, and the T2 and T3 terraces terminate abruptly at the Little Pine Fault indicating Quaternary displacement across these structures. Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) dating is being used to date the terraces in order to calculate rates of uplift and deformation.

  7. Determination of the fault plane and rupture size of the 2013 Santa Cruz earthquake, Bolivia, 5.2 Mw, by relative location of the aftershocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivadeneyra-Vera, C.; Assumpção, M.; Minaya, E.; Aliaga, P.; Avila, G.

    2016-11-01

    The Central Andes of southern Bolivia is a highly seismic region with many active faults, that could generate earthquakes up to 8.9 Mw. In 2013, an earthquake of 5.2 Mw occurred in Santa Cruz de la Sierra, in the sub-Andean belt, close to the Mandeyapecua fault, one of the most important reverse faults in Bolivia. Five larger aftershocks were reported by the International Seismological Centre (ISC) and 33 smaller aftershocks were recorded by the San Calixto Observatory (OSC) in the two months after the mainshock. Distances between epicenters of the events were up to 36 km, which is larger than expected for an earthquake of this magnitude. Using data from South American regional stations and the relative location technique with Rayleigh waves, the epicenters of the five larger aftershocks of the Santa Cruz series were determined in relation to the mainshock. This method enabled to achieve epicentral locations with uncertainties smaller than 1 km. Additionally, using data of three Bolivian stations (MOC, SIV and LPAZ) eight smaller aftershocks, recorded by the OSC, were relocated through correlation of P and S waves. The results show a NNW-SSE trend of epicenters and suggest an E dipping plane. The maximum distance between the aftershocks is 14 km, which is not consistent with the expected subsurface rupture length, in accordance with the magnitude of the mainshock. The events are located away from the Mandeyapecua fault and show an opposite dip, demonstrating that these events were generated by another fault in the area, that had not been well studied yet.

  8. Leveraging EMS and VPP

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-01

    Elements of EMS  International Standards Organization ( ISO ) 14001 , Environmental Management Systems  The Key Elements of EMS: - Policy - Planning...wingman-- ON and OFF duty Fully Conforming vs. Fully Implemented  “Fully Conforming”  Meets standards established in ISO 14001  ESOH council...e n c e Every airman looking out for his wingman-- ON and OFF duty EMS & VPP Commonalities Environmental Management System ISO 14001 : 2004 Voluntary

  9. Processes of Terrace Formation on the Piedmont of the Santa Cruz River Valley During Quaternary Time, Green Valley-Tubac Area, Southeastern Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindsey, David A.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.

    2010-01-01

    In this report we describe a series of stepped Quaternary terraces on some piedmont tributaries of the Santa Cruz River valley in southeastern Arizona. These terraces began to form in early Pleistocene time, after major basin-and-range faulting ceased, with lateral planation of basin fill and deposition of thin fans of alluvium. At the end of this cycle of erosion and deposition, tributaries of the Santa Cruz River began the process of dissection and terrace formation that continues to the present. Vertical cutting alternated with periods of equilibrium, during which streams cut laterally and left thin deposits of channel fill. The distribution of terraces was mapped and compiled with adjacent mapping to produce a regional picture of piedmont stream history in the middle part of the Santa Cruz River valley. For selected tributaries, the thickness of terrace fill was measured, particle size and lithology of gravel were determined, and sedimentary features were photographed and described. Mapping of terrace stratigraphy revealed that on two tributaries, Madera Canyon Wash and Montosa Canyon Wash, stream piracy has played an important role in piedmont landscape development. On two other tributaries, Cottonwood Canyon Wash and Josephine Canyon Wash, rapid downcutting preempted piracy. Two types of terraces are recognized: erosional and depositional. Gravel in thin erosional terraces has Trask sorting coefficients and sedimentary structures typical of streamflood deposits, replete with bar-and-swale surface topography on young terraces. Erosional-terrace fill represents the channel fill of the stream that cuts the terrace; the thickness of the fill indicates the depth of channel scour. In contrast to erosional terraces, depositional terraces show evidence of repeated deposition and net aggradation, as indicated by their thickness (as much as 20+ m) and weakly bedded structure. Depositional terraces are common below mountain-front canyon mouths where streams drop their

  10. Insights from analyzing and modelling cascading multi-lake outburst flood events in the Santa Cruz Valley (Cordillera Blanca, Perú)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emmer, Adam; Mergili, Martin; Juřicová, Anna; Cochachin, Alejo; Huggel, Christian

    2016-04-01

    Since the end of Little Ice Age, the Cordillera Blanca of Perú has experienced tens of lake outburst floods (LOFs), resulting in the loss of thousands of lives and significant material damages. Most commonly involving glacial lakes, such events are often directly or indirectly related to glacier retreat. Here we analyze an event on 8th February 2012 involving four lakes and affecting two valleys (Santa Cruz and Artizón) in the northern part of the Cordillera Blanca. Using the combination of field data, satellite images, digital elevation model (DEM) and GIS-based modelling approaches, the main objectives are: (i) to better understand complex multi-lake outburst flood and related foregoing and induced geomorphological processes; and (ii) to evaluate and discuss the suitability, potentials and limitations of the r.avaflow model for modelling such complex process chains. Analyzing field geomorphological evidence and remotely-sensed images, we reconstruct the event as follows: a landslide from the recently deglaciated left lateral moraine of Lake Artizón Alto (4 639 m a.s.l.), characterized by steep slopes and a height of more than 200 m produced a displacement wave which overtopped the bedrock dam of the lake. The resulting flood wave breached the dam of the downstream moraine-/landslide-dammed Lake Artizón Bajo (4 477 m a.s.l.), decreasing the lake level by 10 m and releasing 3 x 105 m3 of water. Significant amounts of material were eroded from the steeper parts of the Artizón Valley (mean slope >15°) and deposited further downstream in the flatter part of the Santa Cruz Valley (mean slope <2°; confluence of the two valleys at 3 985 m a.s.l.). The flood affected two debris cone-dammed lakes (Jatuncocha and Ichiccocha) in the Santa Cruz Valley. Some minor damages to the dam of Lake Jatuncocha were documented. Geomprohological evidence of the event was observed more than 20 km downstream from Lake Artizón Alto. The described multi-LOF event was employed as a

  11. Near-Surface Structure and Velocities of the Northeastern Santa Cruz Mountains and the Western Santa Clara Valley, California, From Seismic Imaging

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Catchings, R.D.; Gandhok, G.; Goldman, M.R.; Steedman, Clare

    2007-01-01

    Introduction The Santa Clara Valley (SCV) is located in the southern San Francisco Bay area of California and is bounded by the Santa Cruz Mountains to the southwest, the Diablo Ranges to the northeast, and the San Francisco Bay to the north (Fig. 1). The SCV, which includes the City of San Jose, numerous smaller cities, and much of the high-technology manufacturing and research area commonly referred to as the Silicon Valley, has a population in excess of 1.7 million people (2000 U. S. Census;http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/06/06085.html The SCV is situated between major active faults of the San Andreas Fault system, including the San Andreas Fault to the southwest and the Hayward and Calaveras faults to the northeast, and other faults inferred to lie beneath the alluvium of the SCV (CWDR, 1967; Bortugno et al., 1991). The importance of the SCV as a major industrial center, its large population, and its proximity to major earthquake faults are important considerations with respect to earthquake hazards and water-resource management. The fault-bounded alluvial aquifer system beneath the valley is the source of about one-third of the water supply for the metropolitan area (Hanson et al., 2004). To better address the earthquake hazards of the SCV, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has undertaken a program to evaluate potential seismic sources, the effects of strong ground shaking, and stratigraphy associated with the regional aquifer system. As part of that program and to better understand water resources of the valley, the USGS and the Santa Clara Valley Water District (SCVWD) began joint studies to characterize the faults, stratigraphy, and structures beneath the SCV in the year 2000. Such features are important to both agencies because they directly influence the availability and management of groundwater resources in the valley, and they affect the severity and distribution of strong shaking from local and regional earthquakes sources that may affect

  12. The impact of a prominent rain shadow on flooding in California's Santa Cruz Mountains: A CALJET case study and sensitivity to the ENSO cycle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ralph, F.M.; Neiman, P.J.; Kingsmill, D.E.; Persson, P.O.G.; White, A.B.; Strem, E.T.; Andrews, E.D.; Antweiler, R.C.

    2003-01-01

    Data from the California Land-Falling Jets Experiment (CALJET) are used to explore the causes of variations in flood severity in adjacent coastal watersheds within the Santa Cruz Mountains on 2-3 February 1998. While Pescadero Creek (rural) experienced its flood of record, the adjacent San Lorenzo Creek (heavily populated), attained only its fourth-highest flow. This difference resulted from conditions present while the warm sector of the storm, with its associated low-level jet, high moisture content, and weak static stability, was overhead. Rainfall in the warm sector was dominated by orographic forcing. While the wind speed strongly modulated rain rates on windward slopes, the wind direction positioned the edge of a rain shadow cast by the Santa Lucia Mountains partially over the San Lorenzo basin, thus protecting the city of Santa Cruz from a more severe flood. Roughly 26% ?? 9% of the streamflow at flood peak on Pescadero Creek resulted from the warm-sector rainfall. Without this rainfall, the peak flow on Pescadero Creek would likely not have attained record status. These results are complemented by a climatological analysis based on ???50-yr-duration streamflow records for these and two other nearby windward watersheds situated ???20 to 40 km farther to the east, and a comparison of this climatological analysis with composites of NCEP-NCAR reanalysis fields. The westernmost watersheds were found to have their greatest floods during El Nin??o winters, while the easternmost watersheds peaked during non-El Nin??o episodes. These results are consistent with the case study, that showed that the composite 925-mb, meridionally oriented wind direction during El Nin??os favors a rain shadow over the eastern watersheds. During non-El Nin??o periods, the composite, zonally oriented wind direction indicates that the sheltering effect of the rain shadow on the eastern watersheds is reduced, while weaker winds, less water vapor, and stronger stratification reduce the peak

  13. An interpretation of the 1996 aeromagnetic data for the Santa Cruz basin, Tumacacori Mountains, Santa Rita Mountains, and Patagonia Mountains, south-central Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gettings, Mark E.

    2002-01-01

    High resolution aeromagnetic survey data flown at 250 m above the terrain and 250 m line spacing over the Santa Cruz Valley and the surrounding Tumacacori, Patagonia, and Santa Rita Mountains has been interpreted by correlation of the magnetic anomaly field and various derivative maps with geologic maps. Measurements of in-situ magnetic properties of several of the map units determined whether or not mapped lithologies were responsible for observed anomalies. Correlation of the magnetic anomaly field with mapped geology shows that numerous map units of volcanic and intrusive rocks from Jurassic Middle Tertiary in age are reversely polarized, some of which have not been previously reported. Trends derived from the magnetic anomaly data correlate closely with structures from major tectonic events in the geologic history of the area including Triassic-Jurassic crustal accretion and magmatism, Laramide magmatism and tectonism, northeast-southwest Mid-Tertiary extension, and east-west Basin and Range extension. Application of two textural measures to the magnetic anomaly data, number of peaks and troughs per km (a measure of roughness) and Euclidean length per km (a measure of amplitude), delineated areas of consistent magnetic anomaly texture. These measures were successful at the delineation of areas of consistent magnetic lithology both on the surface and in the subsurface beneath basin fill. Several areas of basement prospective for mineral resources beneath basin fill were identified.

  14. Assessment of the Santa Margarita Sandstone as a source of drinking water for the Scotts Valley area, Santa Cruz County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muir, K.S.

    1981-01-01

    Scotts Valley, Calif., is a rural residential area with a rapidly expanding population. Its mediterranean-type climate yields an average annual rainfall of 40 inches. The Santa Margarita Sandstone is the principal aquifer in the area, supplying about 90 percent of all water for domestic purposes. Sources of recharge for the Santa Margarita Sandstone are natural recharge, subsurface inflow from adjacent areas, artificial recharge, and deep penetration of excess irrigation water. Total domestic water use in 1979 was about 2,600 acre-feet. The quantity of ground water pumped for domestic use is expected to increase at a rate of 7 percent per year. Evapotranspiration, estimated to be about 29 inches per year, is the largest form of ground-water discharge. Ground water from the Santa Margarita Sandstone is generally suitable for domestic use. Potential for water-quality degradation exists from urban runoff, leachates from a solid-waste disposal site, and liquid wastes. Several agencies and individuals monitor surface-water and ground-water quality in the Scotts Valley area. Water from streams and the city of Santa Cruz are potential alternate sources of drinking water for the Scotts Valley area. (USGS)

  15. Distribution and extent of heavy metal accumulation in Song Sparrows (Melospiza melodia), upper Santa Cruz River watershed, southern Arizona, 2011-12

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lester, Michael B.; van Riper, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Riparian ecosystems in arid environments provide critical habitat for breeding, migratory, and wintering birds, yet are often at risk of contamination by heavy metals. Birds and other animals living in contaminated areas are susceptible to adverse health effects as a result of long-term exposure and bioaccumulation of heavy metals. We investigated the distribution and cascading extent of heavy metal accumulation in Song Sparrows (Melospiza melodia) in Arizona’s upper Santa Cruz River watershed. This study had three goals: (1) quantify the degree of heavy metal accumulation in sparrows and determine the distributional patterns among study sites, (2) compare concentrations of metals found in this study to those found in studies performed prior to the 2009 international wastewater treatment plant upgrade, and (3) assess sparrow condition among sites with differing potential sources of contamination exposure. We examined six study sites that reflected different potential sources of contamination. Hematocrit values, body mass residuals, and leukocyte counts were used to assess sparrow condition. Cadmium, copper, mercury, nickel, and selenium exceeded background concentrations at some sites, but generally were lower than or similar to concentrations found in earlier studies performed prior to the 2009 international wastewater treatment plant upgrade. Concentrations were higher in recaptured birds in 2012 than in 2011 for 7 metals in feathers and 14 metals in blood, suggesting possible bioaccumulation. We found no cascading effects as a result of heavy metal exposure, but did find that heavy metal concentrations were reduced following the 2009 international wastewater treatment plant upgrade.

  16. Surveillance for West Nile Virus and Vaccination of Free-Ranging Island Scrub-Jays (Aphelocoma insularis) on Santa Cruz Island, California

    PubMed Central

    Vickers, Winston; Morrison, Scott A.; Sillett, T. Scott; Caldwell, Luke; Wheeler, Sarah S.; Barker, Christopher M.; Cummings, Robert; Reisen, William K.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Transmission of West Nile virus (WNV) on mainland California poses an ongoing threat to the island scrub-jay (ISSJ, Aphelocoma insularis), a species that occurs only on Santa Cruz Island, California, and whose total population numbers <5000. Our report describes the surveillance and management efforts conducted since 2006 that are designed to understand and mitigate for the consequences of WNV introduction into the ISSJ population. We suspect that WNV would most likely be introduced to the island via the movement of infected birds from the mainland. However, antibody testing of >750 migrating and resident birds on the island from 2006 to 2009 indicated that WNV had not become established by the end of 2009. Several species of competent mosquito vectors were collected at very low abundance on the island, including the important mainland vectors Culex tarsalis and Culex quinquefasciatus. However, the island was generally cooler than areas of mainland California that experienced intense WNV transmission, and these lower temperatures may have reduced the likelihood of WNV becoming established because they do not support efficient virus replication in mosquitoes. A vaccination program was initiated in 2008 to create a rescue population of ISSJ that would be more likely to survive a catastrophic outbreak. To further that goal, we recommend managers vaccinate >100 ISSJ each year as part of ongoing research and monitoring efforts. PMID:21438695

  17. Paleoparasitological finding of eggs of nematodes in rodent coprolites dated at the early Holocene from the archaeological site Cerro Casa de Piedra 7, Santa Cruz, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Sardella, N H; Fugassa, M H

    2011-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the parasite remains present in rodent coprolites collected from the archaeological site Cerro Casa de Piedra 7 (CCP7), located in the Perito Moreno National Park (47°57'S, 72°05'W), Santa Cruz Province, Argentina. Eight coprolites obtained from the layer 17, dated at 10,620 ± 40 to 9,390 ± 40 yr B.P., were examined for parasites. Feces were processed whole, rehydrated, homogenized, subjected to spontaneous sedimentation, and examined via light microscopy. Eggs of parasites were measured and photographed. Seven of 8 coprolites possessed 199 eggs of 2, probably new, species of nematodes, including 43 eggs of Heteroxynema sp. Hall, 1916 (Cavioxyura sp. Quentin, 1975) (Oxyurida, Heteroxynematidae), and 156 eggs of Trichuris sp. Roederer, 1761 (Trichinellida, Trichuridae). Heteroxynema sp. is cited for the first time from ancient material worldwide. The finding of Trichuris spp. in both rodents and other host samples from the area under study is indicative of the stability of the biological and environmental conditions for this nematode genus to establish in the Patagonian Early Holocene. The rodent host was assigned to an unknown species of Caviomorpha (Hystricognathi) that lived during the Pleistocenic transition in Patagonia.

  18. EMS in the pueblos.

    PubMed

    Vigil, M A

    1994-02-01

    Imagine creating a movie by excerpting scenes from "Dances With Wolves," splicing it with footage from "Code 3" or "Emergency Response" and then flavoring the script with the mystery of a Tony Hillerman novel. A film producer would probably find it quite difficult to choreograph a finished product from such a compilation of material. To hundreds of Native American EMS providers, however, such a movie is played out every day in Indian country. And with this movie come some real-life problems, including trauma, which is the number-one cause of premature death among Native Americans. But a high trauma rate is just one of the challenges facing tribal EMS responders. There's also prolonged response and transport, the problems involved in maintaining the unique culture and standard of care, the challenges of tribal EMS administration and EMS education of Native American students, and the unsure future of Native American EMS. Beyond that, there's the fact that EMS is a s unique to each Indian reservation as are the cultures of the native peoples who reside on these lands. Yet while no two systems are alike, most tribal EMS providers face similar challenges.

  19. Steroid levels and reproductive cycle of the Galápagos tortoise, Geochelone nigra, living under seminatural conditions on Santa Cruz Island (Galápagos).

    PubMed

    Schramm, B G; Casares, M; Lance, V A

    1999-04-01

    The Galápagos Islands are home to 11 subspecies of large terrestrial tortoises (Geochelone nigra). All Galápagos tortoises are considered endangered and approximately 12,000 animals still exist. Until now, the reproductive cycle of the Galápagos tortoise has been studied only in captive animals, and no data from free-ranging tortoises have been available. During a one-year period, blood samples were collected from male and female G. nigra living under seminatural conditions on Santa Cruz Island, Galápagos. Plasma steroid hormones were measured by radioimmunoassays (RIAs). In males, plasma testosterone and corticosterone increased a few months before the onset of the mating season. Peak levels were observed while most copulations occurred and environmental temperatures were highest. Both testosterone and corticosterone showed low levels during the cold and dry nesting season and high levels during the hot and rainy mating season. In females, testosterone and corticosterone also rose during the hot and rainy mating season. Both hormones peaked during the second half of the mating season and decreased during the cooler dry season. Female estradiol levels increased at the onset of the mating season, reaching the highest level at the peak of the mating season, which coincided with the highest annual temperatures measured. Estradiol slowly decreased within the next months and rapidly dropped at the onset of the nesting season when temperatures decreased. Progesterone levels were high close to the time of ovulation and showed clearly elevated levels at the beginning of the nesting season after some females had laid their first clutch. Progesterone decreased during the nesting season, when ambient temperatures began to decrease, and reached minimal levels in the postbreeding period shortly before the onset of the next mating season. There were significant annual variations in plasma testosterone in both males and females. Plasma corticosterone was generally higher in

  20. Toxicological, Enzymatic, and Molecular Assessment of the Insecticide Susceptibility Profile of Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae, Triatominae) Populations From Rural Communities of Santa Cruz, Bolivia

    PubMed Central

    Santo-Orihuela, Pablo L.; Vassena, Claudia V.; Carvajal, Guillermo; Clark, Eva; Menacho, Silvio; Bozo, Ricardo; Gilman, Robert H.; Bern, Caryn; Marcet, Paula L.

    2017-01-01

    A wide range of insecticide resistance profiles has been reported across Bolivian domestic and sylvatic populations of Triatoma infestans (Klug, 1834) (Hemiptera, Reduviidae), including some with levels proven to be a threat for vector control. In this work, the insecticide profile of domestic T. infestans was studied with standardized toxicological bioassays, in an area that has not undergone consistent vector control. F1 first-instarnymphs hatched in laboratory from bugs captured in three communities from the Santa Cruz Department were evaluated with different insecticides. Moreover, the enzymatic activity of esterases and cytochrome P450 monooxygenases was measured in individual insects to evaluate the possible mechanism of metabolic resistance to pyrethroids. In addition, the DNA sequence of sodium channel gene (kdr) was screened for two point mutations associated with pyrethroid resistance previously reported in T. infestans. All populations showed reduced susceptibility to deltamethrin and α-cypermethrin, albeit the RR50 values varied significantly among them. Increased P450 monooxygenases and permethrate esterases suggest the contribution, as detoxifying mechanisms, to the observed resistance to deltamethrin in all studied populations. No individuals presented either mutation associated to resistance in the kdr gene. The level of susceptibility to α-cypermethrin, the insecticide used by the local vector control program, falls within an acceptable range to continue its use in these populations. However, the observed RR50 values evidence the possibility of selection for resistance to pyrethroids, especially to deltamethrin. Consequently, the use of pyrethroid insecticides should be closely monitored in these communities, which should be kept under entomological surveillance and sustained interventions. PMID:28011736

  1. High-resolution mapping of two large-scale transpressional fault zones in the California Continental Borderland: Santa Cruz-Catalina Ridge and Ferrelo faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legg, Mark R.; Kohler, Monica D.; Shintaku, Natsumi; Weeraratne, Dayanthie S.

    2015-05-01

    New mapping of two active transpressional fault zones in the California Continental Borderland, the Santa Cruz-Catalina Ridge fault and the Ferrelo fault, was carried out to characterize their geometries, using over 4500 line-km of new multibeam bathymetry data collected in 2010 combined with existing data. Faults identified from seafloor morphology were verified in the subsurface using existing seismic reflection data including single-channel and multichannel seismic profiles compiled over the past three decades. The two fault systems are parallel and are capable of large lateral offsets and reverse slip during earthquakes. The geometry of the fault systems shows evidence of multiple segments that could experience throughgoing rupture over distances exceeding 100 km. Published earthquake hypocenters from regional seismicity studies further define the lateral and depth extent of the historic fault ruptures. Historical and recent focal mechanisms obtained from first-motion and moment tensor studies confirm regional strain partitioning dominated by right slip on major throughgoing faults with reverse-oblique mechanisms on adjacent structures. Transpression on west and northwest trending structures persists as far as 270 km south of the Transverse Ranges; extension persists in the southern Borderland. A logjam model describes the tectonic evolution of crustal blocks bounded by strike-slip and reverse faults which are restrained from northwest displacement by the Transverse Ranges and the southern San Andreas fault big bend. Because of their potential for dip-slip rupture, the faults may also be capable of generating local tsunamis that would impact Southern California coastlines, including populated regions in the Channel Islands.

  2. Assessing the influence of topography and canopy structure on Douglas fir throughfall with LiDAR and empirical data in the Santa Cruz mountains, USA.

    PubMed

    Griffith, K T; Ponette-González, A G; Curran, L M; Weathers, K C

    2015-05-01

    Atmospheric inputs to forest ecosystems vary considerably over small spatial scales due to subtle changes in relief and vegetation structure. Relationships between throughfall fluxes (ions that pass through the canopy in water), topographic and canopy characteristics derived from sub-meter resolution light detection and ranging (LiDAR), and field measurements were compared to test the potential utility of LiDAR in empirical models of atmospheric deposition. From October 2012 to May 2013, we measured bulk (primarily wet) deposition and sulfate-S, chloride (Cl(-)), and nitrate-N fluxes beneath eight clusters of Douglas fir trees differing in size and canopy exposure in the Santa Cruz Mountains, California. For all trees sampled, LiDAR data were used to derive canopy surface height, tree height, slope, and canopy curvature, while tree height, diameter (DBH), and leaf area index were measured in the field. Wet season throughfall fluxes to Douglas fir clusters ranged from 1.4 to 3.8 kg S ha(-1), 17-54 kg Cl(-) ha(-1), and 0.2-4 kg N ha(-1). Throughfall S and Cl(-) fluxes were highest under clusters with large trees at topographically exposed sites; net fluxes were 2-18-fold greater underneath exposed/large clusters than all other clusters. LiDAR indices of canopy curvature and height were positively correlated with net sulfate-S fluxes, indicating that small-scale canopy surface features captured by LiDAR influence fog and dry deposition. Although tree diameter was more strongly correlated with net sulfate-S throughfall flux, our data suggest that LiDAR data can be related to empirical measurements of throughfall fluxes to generate robust high-resolution models of atmospheric deposition.

  3. Timing of large earthquakes during the past 500 years along the Santa Cruz Mountains segment of the San Andreas fault at Mill Canyon, near Watsonville, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fumal, Thomas E.

    2012-01-01

    A paleoseismic investigation across the Santa Cruz Mountains section of the San Andreas fault at Mill Canyon indicates that four surface‐rupturing earthquakes have occurred there during the past ~500  years. At this site, right‐lateral fault slip has moved a low shutter ridge across the mouth of the canyon, ponding latest Holocene sediments. These alluvial deposits are deformed along a narrow zone of faulting. There is excellent evidence for a 1906 (M 7.8) and three earlier earthquakes consisting of well‐developed fissures, scarps, and colluvial wedges. Deformation resulting from the earlier earthquakes is comparable to that from 1906, suggesting they also were large‐magnitude events. The earthquake prior to 1906 occurred either about A.D. 1750 (1711–1770) or A.D. 1855 (1789–1904), depending on assumptions incorporated into two alternative OxCal models. If the later age range is correct, then the earthquake may have been a historical early‐to‐mid‐nineteenth‐century earthquake, possibly the A.D. 1838 earthquake. Both models are viable, and there is no way to select one over the other with the available data. Two earlier earthquakes occurred about A.D. 1690 (1660–1720) and A.D. 1522 (1454–1605). Using OxCal, recalculation of the age of the reported penultimate earthquake reported from the Grizzly Flat site, located about 10 km northwest of Mill Canyon, indicates it occurred about A.D. 1105–1545, earlier than any of the past three earthquakes, and possibly correlates to the fourth earthquake at Mill Canyon.

  4. Regional Analysis of Stormwater Runoff for the Placement of Managed Aquifer Recharge Sites in Santa Cruz and Northern Monterey Counties, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, K. S.; Beganskas, S.; Fisher, A. T.

    2015-12-01

    We apply a USGS surface hydrology model, Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS), to analyze stormwater runoff in Santa Cruz and Northern Monterey Counties, CA with the goal of supplying managed aquifer recharge (MAR) sites. Under the combined threats of multiyear drought and excess drawdown, this region's aquifers face numerous sustainability challenges, including seawater intrusion, chronic overdraft, increased contamination, and subsidence. This study addresses the supply side of this resource issue by increasing our knowledge of the spatial and temporal dynamics of runoff that could provide water for MAR. Ensuring the effectiveness of MAR using stormwater requires a thorough understanding of runoff distribution and site-specific surface and subsurface aquifer conditions. In this study we use a geographic information system (GIS) and a 3-m digital elevation model (DEM) to divide the region's four primary watersheds into Hydrologic Response Units (HRUs), or topographic sub-basins, that serve as discretized input cells for PRMS. We then assign vegetation, soil, land use, slope, aspect, and other characteristics to these HRUs, from a variety of data sources, and analyze runoff spatially using PRMS under varying precipitation conditions. We are exploring methods of linking spatially continuous and high-temporal-resolution precipitation datasets to generate input precipitation catalogs, facilitating analyses of a variety of regimes. To gain an understanding of how surface hydrology has responded to land development, we will also modify our input data to represent pre-development conditions. Coupled with a concurrent MAR suitability analysis, our model results will help screen for locations of future MAR projects and will improve our understanding of how changes in land use and climate impact hydrologic runoff and aquifer recharge.

  5. Toxicological, Enzymatic, and Molecular Assessment of the Insecticide Susceptibility Profile of Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae, Triatominae) Populations From Rural Communities of Santa Cruz, Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Santo-Orihuela, Pablo L; Vassena, Claudia V; Carvajal, Guillermo; Clark, Eva; Menacho, Silvio; Bozo, Ricardo; Gilman, Robert H; Bern, Caryn; Marcet, Paula L

    2017-01-01

    A wide range of insecticide resistance profiles has been reported across Bolivian domestic and sylvatic populations of Triatoma infestans (Klug, 1834) (Hemiptera, Reduviidae), including some with levels proven to be a threat for vector control. In this work, the insecticide profile of domestic T. infestans was studied with standardized toxicological bioassays, in an area that has not undergone consistent vector control. F1 first-instar nymphs hatched in laboratory from bugs captured in three communities from the Santa Cruz Department were evaluated with different insecticides. Moreover, the enzymatic activity of esterases and cytochrome P450 monooxygenases was measured in individual insects to evaluate the possible mechanism of metabolic resistance to pyrethroids. In addition, the DNA sequence of sodium channel gene (kdr) was screened for two point mutations associated with pyrethroid resistance previously reported in T. infestans.All populations showed reduced susceptibility to deltamethrin and α-cypermethrin, albeit the RR50 values varied significantly among them. Increased P450 monooxygenases and permethrate esterases suggest the contribution, as detoxifying mechanisms, to the observed resistance to deltamethrin in all studied populations. No individuals presented either mutation associated to resistance in the kdr gene. The level of susceptibility to α-cypermethrin, the insecticide used by the local vector control program, falls within an acceptable range to continue its use in these populations. However, the observed RR50 values evidence the possibility of selection for resistance to pyrethroids, especially to deltamethrin. Consequently, the use of pyrethroid insecticides should be closely monitored in these communities, which should be kept under entomological surveillance and sustained interventions. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email

  6. Cross-sectional analysis of self-efficacy and social capital in a community-based healthy village project in Santa Cruz, Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Yuasa, Motoyuki; Shirayama, Yoshihisa; Osato, Keiichi; Miranda, Cesar; Condore, Julia; Siles, Roxana

    2015-06-20

    An assessment of self-efficacy and social capital may have the potential to detect an effect of dynamic, complex and comprehensive collective actions in community-based health promotion. In 2003, a healthy village project was launched in Santa Cruz, Bolivia with technical assistance from the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA). The originally developed FORSA (Fortalecimiento de Redes de Salud) model accounted for participatory processes in which people could improve their health and well-being through individual behavioral changes and family/community-driven activities. This study aimed to examine the extent of self-efficacy and social capital obtained via project activities by a cross-sectional analysis. We randomly selected 340 subjects from the healthy village project site and 113 subjects from a control area. Both groups were interviewed using the same structured questionnaire. Self-efficacy was assessed with a General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES), while social capital was measured as the frequency of formal group participation in community meetings during the past three months, perceived social solidarity, and general trust. The study results showed that the participants in the project site had higher self-efficacy and social capital compared to those in the control site. The number of times a subject participated in the health committee activities was positively associated with the self-efficacy scale. Regarding social capital, females and lower-educated people were more likely to have had more frequent participation in formal groups; males and higher-educated participants showed less formal group participation, but more generosity to contribute money for the community. The main perceived benefit of participation in formal group activities varied among individuals. The findings suggest that people in the healthy village project site have higher self-efficacy, especially those with active participation in the health committee activities. To recruit

  7. Católicos, fidelidade conjugal e AIDS: entre a cruz da doutrina moral e as espadas do cotidiano sexual dos adeptos1

    PubMed Central

    Rios, Luis Felipe; de Aquino, Francisca Luciana; Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel; Oliveira, Cinthia; Parker, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Neste artigo discutimos a visão da Igreja Católica sobre sexualidade na interface com a epidemia do HIV/AIDS. Nossa reflexão está embasada em pesquisa etnográfica que envolveu dois meses de observação participante do cotidiano de católicos de um bairro popular da Região Metropolitana do Recife, além de contar com entrevistas a onze dos leigos engajados nos serviços religiosos da igreja do bairro e a oito sacerdotes que realizam seus trabalhos religiosos em outras localidades. Nelas abordamos diferentes temáticas relacionadas ao enfrentamento da epidemia da AIDS. Nesse contexto, conjugalidade e fidelidade se afiguram como importantes analisadores de como aqueles lidam com a epidemia, em uma variedade de re-descrições práticas e de re-interpretações conceptuais das assertivas do discurso moral religioso – ainda que, muitos impasses permaneçam em aberto em termos das prerrogativas da Igreja e seus possíveis rebatimentos na saúde sexual dos adeptos. PMID:21765650

  8. The spider genus Cyrioctea Simon on Chañaral Island (Pingüino de Humboldt National Reserve, Atacama, Chile): description of a new species, and the male of Cyrioctea cruz Platnick (Araneae, Zodariidae).

    PubMed

    Grismado, Cristian J; Pizarro-Araya, Jaime

    2016-05-02

    A faunistic survey on Chañaral Island, Atacama, near the northern Pacific coast of Chile, allowed the discovery and description of a new species of the spider genus Cyrioctea: C. islachanaral sp. nov., based on females collected by pitfall traps. Strikingly, this new species shares morphological characters with some Southern African representatives of this genus rather than with the species of continental South America. The male of the species C. cruz Platnick, previously known from continental Chile (northern Coquimbo), is described for the first time based on specimens collected in the same locality.

  9. EMS in Mauritius.

    PubMed

    Ramalanjaona, Georges; Brogan, Gerald X

    2009-02-01

    Mauritius lies in the southwest Indian Ocean about 1250 miles from the African coast and 500 miles from Madagascar. Mauritius (estimated population 1,230,602) became independent from the United Kingdom in 1968 and has one of the highest GDP per capita in Africa. Within Mauritius there is a well established EMS system with a single 999 national dispatch system. Ambulances are either publicly or privately owned. Public ambulances are run by the Government (SAMU). Megacare is a private subscriber only ambulance service. The Government has recently invested in new technology such as telemedicine to further enhance the role of EMS on the island. This article describes the current state of EMS in Mauritius and depicts its development in the context of Government effort to decentralise and modernise the healthcare system.

  10. EMS -- Error Message Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rees, P. C. T.; Chipperfield, A. J.; Draper, P. W.

    This document describes the Error Message Service, EMS, and its use in system software. The purpose of EMS is to provide facilities for constructing and storing error messages for future delivery to the user -- usually via the Starlink Error Reporting System, ERR (see SUN/104). EMS can be regarded as a simplified version of ERR without the binding to any software environment (e.g., for message output or access to the parameter and data systems). The routines in this library conform to the error reporting conventions described in SUN/104. A knowledge of these conventions, and of the ADAM system (see SG/4), is assumed in what follows. This document is intended for Starlink systems programmers and can safely be ignored by applications programmers and users.

  11. National EMS Research Agenda.

    PubMed

    Sayre, M R; White, L J; Brown, L H; McHenry, S D

    2002-01-01

    Now, more than ever before, the spirit of the emergency services professional is recognized by people everywhere. Individuals from every walk of life comprehend the reality of the job these professionals do each day. Placing the safety of others above their own is their acknowledged responsibility. Rescue and treatment of ill and injured patients are their purpose as well as their gratification. The men and women who provide prehospital care are well aware of the unpredictable nature of emergency medical services (EMS). Prehospital care is given when and where it is needed: in urban settings with vertical challenges and gridlock; in rural settings with limited access; in confined spaces; within entrapments; or simply in the street, exposed to the elements. Despite the challenges, EMS professionals rise to the occasion to do their best with the resources available. Despite more than 30 years of dedicated service by thousands of EMS professionals, academic researchers, and public policy makers, the nation's EMS system is treating victims of illness and injury with little or no evidence that the care they provide is optimal. A national investment in the EMS research infrastructure is necessary to overcome obstacles currently impeding the accumulation of essential evidence of the effectiveness of EMS practice. Funding is required to train new researchers and to help them establish their careers. Financial backing is needed to support the development of effective prehospital treatments for the diseases that drive the design of the EMS system, including injury and sudden cardiac arrest. Innovative strategies to make EMS research easier to accomplish in emergency situations must be implemented. Researchers must have access to patient outcome information in order to evaluate and improve prehospital care. New biomedical and technical advances must be evaluated using scientific methodology. Research is the key to maintaining focus on improving the overall health of the

  12. High Performance Computing-based Assessment of the Impacts of Climate Change on the Santa Cruz and San Pedro River Basin at Very High Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robles-Morua, A.; Vivoni, E. R.; Rivera-Fernandez, E. R.; Dominguez, F.; Meixner, T.

    2012-12-01

    Assessing the impact of climate change on large river basins in the southwestern United States is important given the natural water scarcity in the region. The bimodal distribution of annual precipitation also presents a challenge as differential climate impacts during the winter and summer seasons are not currently well understood. In this work, we focus on the hydrological consequences of climate change in the Santa Cruz and San Pedro river basins along the Arizona-Sonora border at high spatiotemporal resolutions (~100 m and ~1 hour). These river systems support rich ecological communities along riparian corridors that provide habitat to migratory birds and support recreational and economic activities. Determining the climate impacts on riparian communities involves assessing how river flows and groundwater recharge will change with altered temperature and precipitation regimes. In this study, we use a distributed hydrologic model, known as the TIN-based Real-time Integrated Basin Simulator (tRIBS), to generate simulated hydrological fields under historical (1991-2000) and climate change (2031-2040) scenarios obtained from an application of the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model. Using the distributed model, we transform the meteorological scenarios from WRF at 10-km, hourly resolution into predictions of the annual water budget, seasonal land surface fluxes and individual hydrographs of flood and recharge events. For this contribution, we selected two full years in the historical period and in the future scenario that represent wet and dry conditions for each decade. Given the size of the two basins, we rely on a high performance computing platform and a parallel domain discretization using sub-basin partitioning with higher resolutions maintained at experimental catchments in each river basin. Model simulations utilize best-available data across the Arizona-Sonora border on topography, land cover and soils obtained from analysis of remotely

  13. The impact of biotic/abiotic interfaces in mineral nutrient cycling: A study of soils of the Santa Cruz chronosequence, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, A.F.; Schulz, M.S.; Vivit, D.V.; Bullen, T.D.; Fitzpatrick, J.

    2012-01-01

    Biotic/abiotic interactions between soil mineral nutrients and annual grassland vegetation are characterized for five soils in a marine terrace chronosequence near Santa Cruz, California. A Mediterranean climate, with wet winters and dry summers, controls the annual cycle of plant growth and litter decomposition, resulting in net above-ground productivities of 280-600gm -2yr -1. The biotic/abiotic (A/B) interface separates seasonally reversible nutrient gradients, reflecting biological cycling in the shallower soils, from downward chemical weathering gradients in the deeper soils. The A/B interface is pedologically defined by argillic clay horizons centered at soil depths of about one meter which intensify with soil age. Below these horizons, elevated solute Na/Ca, Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca ratios reflect plagioclase and smectite weathering along pore water flow paths. Above the A/B interface, lower cation ratios denote temporal variability due to seasonal plant nutrient uptake and litter leaching. Potassium and Ca exhibit no seasonal variability beneath the A/B interface, indicating closed nutrient cycling within the root zone, whereas Mg variability below the A/B interface denotes downward leakage resulting from higher inputs of marine aerosols and lower plant nutrient requirements.The fraction of a mineral nutrient annually cycled through the plants, compared to that lost from pore water discharge, is defined their respective fluxes F j,plants=q j,plants/(q j,plants+q j,discharge) with average values for K and Ca (F K,plants=0.99; F Ca,plants=0.93) much higher than for Mg and Na (F Mg,plants 0.64; F Na,plants=0.28). The discrimination against Rb and Sr by plants is described by fractionation factors (K Sr/Ca=0.86; K Rb/K=0.83) which are used in Rayleigh fractionation-mixing calculations to fit seasonal patterns in solute K and Ca cycling. K Rb/K and K24Mg/22Mg values (derived from isotope data in the literature) fall within fractionation envelopes bounded by inputs from

  14. Using High Resolution Satellite Precipitation fields to Assess the Impacts of Climate Change on the Santa Cruz and San Pedro River Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robles-Morua, A.; Vivoni, E.; Rivera-Fernandez, E. R.; Dominguez, F.; Meixner, T.

    2013-05-01

    Hydrologic modeling using high spatiotemporal resolution satellite precipitation products in the southwestern United States and northwest Mexico is important given the sparse nature of available rain gauges. In addition, the bimodal distribution of annual precipitation also presents a challenge as differential climate impacts during the winter and summer seasons are not currently well understood. In this work, we focus on hydrological comparisons using rainfall forcing from a satellite-based product, downscaled GCM precipitation estimates and available ground observations. The simulations are being conducted in the Santa Cruz and San Pedro river basins along the Arizona-Sonora border at high spatiotemporal resolutions (~100 m and ~1 hour). We use a distributed hydrologic model, known as the TIN-based Real-time Integrated Basin Simulator (tRIBS), to generate simulated hydrological fields under historical (1991-2000) and climate change (2031-2040) scenarios obtained from an application of the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model. Using the distributed model, we transform the meteorological scenarios at 10-km, hourly resolution into predictions of the annual water budget, seasonal land surface fluxes and individual hydrographs of flood and recharge events. We compare the model outputs and rainfall fields of the WRF products against the forcing from the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) and available ground observations from the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) and Arizona Meteorological Network (AZMET). For this contribution, we selected two full years in the historical period and in the future scenario that represent wet and dry conditions for each decade. Given the size of the two basins, we rely on a high performance computing platform and a parallel domain discretization with higher resolutions maintained at experimental catchments in each river basin. Model simulations utilize best-available data across the Arizona-Sonora border on

  15. Chemical weathering of a marine terrace chronosequence, Santa Cruz, California I: Interpreting rates and controls based on soil concentration-depth profiles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, A.F.; Schulz, M.S.; Vivit, D.V.; Blum, A.E.; Stonestrom, D.A.; Anderson, S.P.

    2008-01-01

    The spatial and temporal changes in element and mineral concentrations in regolith profiles in a chronosequence developed on marine terraces along coastal California are interpreted in terms of chemical weathering rates and processes. In regoliths up to 15 m deep and 226 kyrs old, quartz-normalized mass transfer coefficients indicate non-stoichiometric preferential release of Sr > Ca > Na from plagioclase along with lesser amounts of K, Rb and Ba derived from K-feldspar. Smectite weathering results in the loss of Mg and concurrent incorporation of Al and Fe into secondary kaolinite and Fe-oxides in shallow argillic horizons. Elemental losses from weathering of the Santa Cruz terraces fall within the range of those for other marine terraces along the Pacific Coast of North America. Residual amounts of plagioclase and K-feldspar decrease with terrace depth and increasing age. The gradient of the weathering profile bs is defined by the ratio of the weathering rate, R to the velocity at which the profile penetrates into the protolith. A spreadsheet calculator further refines profile geometries, demonstrating that the non-linear regions at low residual feldspar concentrations at shallow depth are dominated by exponential changes in mineral surface-to-volume ratios and at high residual feldspar concentrations, at greater depth, by the approach to thermodynamic saturation. These parameters are of secondary importance to the fluid flux qh, which in thermodynamically saturated pore water, controls the weathering velocity and mineral losses from the profiles. Long-term fluid fluxes required to reproduce the feldspar weathering profiles are in agreement with contemporary values based on solute Cl balances (qh = 0.025-0.17 m yr-1). During saturation-controlled and solute-limited weathering, the greater loss of plagioclase relative to K-feldspar is dependent on the large difference in their respective solubilities instead of the small difference between their respective

  16. The impact of biotic/abiotic interfaces in mineral nutrient cycling: A study of soils of the Santa Cruz chronosequence, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Art F.; Schulz, Marjorie S.; Vivit, Davison V.; Bullen, Tomas D.; Fitzpatrick, John

    2012-01-01

    Biotic/abiotic interactions between soil mineral nutrients and annual grassland vegetation are characterized for five soils in a marine terrace chronosequence near Santa Cruz, California. A Mediterranean climate, with wet winters and dry summers, controls the annual cycle of plant growth and litter decomposition, resulting in net above-ground productivities of 280-600 g m-2 yr-1. The biotic/abiotic (A/B) interface separates seasonally reversible nutrient gradients, reflecting biological cycling in the shallower soils, from downward chemical weathering gradients in the deeper soils. The A/B interface is pedologically defined by argillic clay horizons centered at soil depths of about one meter which intensify with soil age. Below these horizons, elevated solute Na/Ca, Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca ratios reflect plagioclase and smectite weathering along pore water flow paths. Above the A/B interface, lower cation ratios denote temporal variability due to seasonal plant nutrient uptake and litter leaching. Potassium and Ca exhibit no seasonal variability beneath the A/B interface, indicating closed nutrient cycling within the root zone, whereas Mg variability below the A/B interface denotes downward leakage resulting from higher inputs of marine aerosols and lower plant nutrient requirements. The fraction of a mineral nutrient annually cycled through the plants, compared to that lost from pore water discharge, is defined their respective fluxes Fj,plants = qj,plants/(qj,plants + qj,discharge) with average values for K and Ca (FK,plants = 0.99; FCa,plants = 0.93) much higher than for Mg and Na (FMg,plants 0.64; FNa,plants = 0.28). The discrimination against Rb and Sr by plants is described by fractionation factors (KSr/Ca = 0.86; KRb/K = 0.83) which are used in Rayleigh fractionation-mixing calculations to fit seasonal patterns in solute K and Ca cycling. KRb/K and K24Mg/22Mg values (derived from isotope data in the literature) fall within fractionation envelopes bounded by inputs

  17. The EM Earthquake Precursor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, K. B., II; Saxton, P. T.

    2013-12-01

    Many attempts have been made to determine a sound forecasting method regarding earthquakes and warn the public in turn. Presently, the animal kingdom leads the precursor list alluding to a transmission related source. By applying the animal-based model to an electromagnetic (EM) wave model, various hypotheses were formed, but the most interesting one required the use of a magnetometer with a differing design and geometry. To date, numerous, high-end magnetometers have been in use in close proximity to fault zones for potential earthquake forecasting; however, something is still amiss. The problem still resides with what exactly is forecastable and the investigating direction of EM. After the 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake, American earthquake investigators predetermined magnetometer use and a minimum earthquake magnitude necessary for EM detection. This action was set in motion, due to the extensive damage incurred and public outrage concerning earthquake forecasting; however, the magnetometers employed, grounded or buried, are completely subject to static and electric fields and have yet to correlate to an identifiable precursor. Secondly, there is neither a networked array for finding any epicentral locations, nor have there been any attempts to find even one. This methodology needs dismissal, because it is overly complicated, subject to continuous change, and provides no response time. As for the minimum magnitude threshold, which was set at M5, this is simply higher than what modern technological advances have gained. Detection can now be achieved at approximately M1, which greatly improves forecasting chances. A propagating precursor has now been detected in both the field and laboratory. Field antenna testing conducted outside the NE Texas town of Timpson in February, 2013, detected three strong EM sources along with numerous weaker signals. The antenna had mobility, and observations were noted for recurrence, duration, and frequency response. Next, two

  18. EMS & the DEA.

    PubMed

    Beeson, Jeff; Ayres, Chris

    2010-01-01

    It's clear that EMS medical directors and management staff must be vigilant in their oversight of implementation, administration and monitoring of controlled substances within their agencies to best serve the public and avoid running afoul of investigation and incurring significant penalties. Those potentially affected by the need for individual registrations of both emergency vehicles and central inventory systems should carefully monitor upcoming developments in the interpretation od DEA regulations.

  19. Earthquake Recurrence and Slip Over the Past 4 - 5 events on the Southern Santa Cruz Mountains Section of the San Andreas Fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Streig, A. R.; Dawson, T. E.; Weldon, R. J.

    2011-12-01

    The Santa Cruz Mountains section (SAS) of the San Andreas fault last ruptured during the 1906 earthquake, an event that ruptured about 470 km, from Point Arena to San Juan Bautista, California. Paleoseismic studies on the SAS at the Grizzly Flat (GF) and Arano Flat - Mill Creek (AF) paleoseismic sites provide evidence of 1906 surface deformation, but have yielded differing records of prehistoric surface-fault ruptures. GF is located 14 km northwest of the AF site and records one 17th Century earthquake dated between 1632-1659 (Schwartz et al., 1996). The record at AF site records a younger penultimate earthquake between AD 1711 - 1770, with a third event between AD 1660-1670 (Fumal, in review). The AF sites suggest nine earthquakes in the past ~1000 years, and an average recurrence interval of 105 years over the past 1,000 years (Fumal et al., 2003). The Hazel Dell site is located approximately 9.5 km north of AF, between the AF and GF sites. This site has yielded good evidence of the most recent earthquake the 1906 surface rupture (E1), and 3 to 4 earlier events, including new evidence for two mid 1800's earthquakes. Evidence for the penultimate event, E2, is expressed as upward fault terminations within a massive sand infilling a topographic low. This sand infilled a depression formed by the pre-penultimate earthquake, E3. We identified milled wood stratigraphically below the pre-penultimate earthquake horizon, which suggests that surface rupturing earthquakes E2 and E3 occurred after deposition of the milled wood stratigraphic unit. Lumber harvesting began in the area around 1832, which suggests that earthquakes E2 and E3 are historical. Based on the presence of milled wood, the stratigraphic record at Hazel Dell appears more complete during the early historical period than at the AF and GF sites. These new event data for the SAS suggest more frequent surface rupturing earthquakes within historical time than previously recognized. We present a preliminary short

  20. Tectonics and Unroofing of the Santa Cruz Mountains, California, from Low-Temperature Thermochronology and Catchment-Averaged 10Be-Derived Denudation Rates (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilley, G. E.; Burgmann, R.; Dumitru, T. A.; Ebert, Y.; Fosdick, J. C.; Le, K.; Levine, N. M.; Wilson, A.; Gudmundsdottir, M. H.

    2010-12-01

    We present eleven Apatite Fission Track (AFT) and Apatite (U-Th)/He (A-He) analyses and eighteen catchment-averaged cosmogenic 10Be denudation rates from the Santa Cruz Mountains (SCM) that resolve the unroofing history of this range over the past several Myr. This range lies within a restraining bend in the San Andreas Fault (SAF), which appears to be fixed to the crust on the northeast side of the fault based on previous work. In this view, the topographic asymmetry of the SCM reflects the advection of material southwest of the right-lateral SAF through a zone of uplift centered on the restraining bend, while material northwest of the fault remains trapped this zone. Northeast of the fault bend in the Sierra Azul block of the SCM, AFT ages adjacent to the SAF appear completely reset during the Pliocene, and show partial resetting at the periphery of the block. This suggests that total exhumation exceeded 3-4 km within the heart of the block and was < 4 km at its margins. However, A-He ages, which record a shallower exhumation history than the AFT system, show limited spatial variation in the timing of exhumation across the range. Additionally, some samples showed that rocks cooled through both the A-He and AFT systems at similar times. These samples were located in the core of the range, suggesting that this area underwent rapid exhumation at 5-7 Ma, after which time exhumation slowed as deformation apparently stepped to the periphery of the range. In contrast, AFT ages from samples southwest of the SAF indicate that recent burial and unroofing has been limited. These long-timescale observations are broadly consistent with a model in which crust within the Sierra Azul has experienced more total unroofing within the restraining bend, while crust southwest of the SAF has experienced far less as it is uplifted and advected laterally through the restraining bend. 10Be-derived denudation rates from basins southwest of the fault decrease systematically from 0.60 to 0

  1. Simulation of climate change in San Francisco Bay Basins, California: Case studies in the Russian River Valley and Santa Cruz Mountains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flint, Lorraine E.; Flint, Alan L.

    2012-01-01

    As a result of ongoing changes in climate, hydrologic and ecologic effects are being seen across the western United States. A regional study of how climate change affects water resources and habitats in the San Francisco Bay area relied on historical climate data and future projections of climate, which were downscaled to fine spatial scales for application to a regional water-balance model. Changes in climate, potential evapotranspiration, recharge, runoff, and climatic water deficit were modeled for the Bay Area. In addition, detailed studies in the Russian River Valley and Santa Cruz Mountains, which are on the northern and southern extremes of the Bay Area, respectively, were carried out in collaboration with local water agencies. Resource managers depend on science-based projections to inform planning exercises that result in competent adaptation to ongoing and future changes in water supply and environmental conditions. Results indicated large spatial variability in climate change and the hydrologic response across the region; although there is warming under all projections, potential change in precipitation by the end of the 21st century differed according to model. Hydrologic models predicted reduced early and late wet season runoff for the end of the century for both wetter and drier future climate projections, which could result in an extended dry season. In fact, summers are projected to be longer and drier in the future than in the past regardless of precipitation trends. While water supply could be subject to increased variability (that is, reduced reliability) due to greater variability in precipitation, water demand is likely to steadily increase because of increased evapotranspiration rates and climatic water deficit during the extended summers. Extended dry season conditions and the potential for drought, combined with unprecedented increases in precipitation, could serve as additional stressors on water quality and habitat. By focusing on the

  2. Why do Emergency Medical Services (EMS) Professionals Leave EMS?

    PubMed

    Blau, Gary; Chapman, Susan A

    2016-12-01

    The objective was to determine why Emergency Medical Technician (EMT)-Basics and Paramedics leave the Emergency Medical Services (EMS) workforce. Data were collected through annual surveys of nationally registered EMT-Basics and Paramedics from 1999 to 2008. Survey items dealing with satisfaction with the EMS profession, likelihood of leaving the profession, and likelihood of leaving their EMS job were assessed for both EMT-Basics and Paramedics, along with reasons for leaving the profession. Individuals whose responses indicated that they were not working in EMS were mailed a special exit survey to determine the reasons for leaving EMS. The likelihood of leaving the profession in the next year was low for both EMT-Basics and Paramedics. Although overall satisfaction levels with the profession were high, EMT-Basics were significantly more satisfied than Paramedics. The most important reasons for leaving the profession were choosing to pursue further education and moving to a new location. A desire for better pay and benefits was a significantly more important reason for EMT-Paramedics' exit decisions than for EMT-Basics. Given the anticipated increased demand for EMS professionals in the next decade, continued study of issues associated with retention is strongly recommended. Some specific recommendations and suggestions for promoting retention are provided. Blau G , Chapman SA . Why do Emergency Medical Services (EMS) professionals leave EMS? Prehosp Disaster Med. 2016;31(Suppl. 1):s105-s111.

  3. Developing an Ecosystem Services Online Decision Support Tool to Assess the Impacts of Climate Change and Urban Growth in the Santa Cruz Watershed: Where We Live, Work, and Play

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Norman, Laura; Tallent-Halsell, Nita; Labiosa, William; Weber, Matt; McCoy, Amy; Hirschboeck, Katie; Callegary, James; van Riper, Charles; Gray, Floyd

    2010-01-01

    Using respective strengths of the biological, physical, and social sciences, we are developing an online decision support tool, the Santa Cruz Watershed Ecosystem Portfolio Model (SCWEPM), to help promote the use of information relevant to water allocation and land management in a binational watershed along the U.S.-Mexico border. The SCWEPM will include an ES valuation system within a suite of linked regional driver-response models and will use a multicriteria scenario-evaluation framework that builds on GIS analysis and spatially-explicit models that characterize important ecological, economic, and societal endpoints and consequences that are sensitive to climate patterns, regional water budgets, and regional LULC change in the SCW.

  4. Identified EM Earthquake Precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Kenneth, II; Saxton, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    Many attempts have been made to determine a sound forecasting method regarding earthquakes and warn the public in turn. Presently, the animal kingdom leads the precursor list alluding to a transmission related source. By applying the animal-based model to an electromagnetic (EM) wave model, various hypotheses were formed, but the most interesting one required the use of a magnetometer with a differing design and geometry. To date, numerous, high-end magnetometers have been in use in close proximity to fault zones for potential earthquake forecasting; however, something is still amiss. The problem still resides with what exactly is forecastable and the investigating direction of EM. After a number of custom rock experiments, two hypotheses were formed which could answer the EM wave model. The first hypothesis concerned a sufficient and continuous electron movement either by surface or penetrative flow, and the second regarded a novel approach to radio transmission. Electron flow along fracture surfaces was determined to be inadequate in creating strong EM fields, because rock has a very high electrical resistance making it a high quality insulator. Penetrative flow could not be corroborated as well, because it was discovered that rock was absorbing and confining electrons to a very thin skin depth. Radio wave transmission and detection worked with every single test administered. This hypothesis was reviewed for propagating, long-wave generation with sufficient amplitude, and the capability of penetrating solid rock. Additionally, fracture spaces, either air or ion-filled, can facilitate this concept from great depths and allow for surficial detection. A few propagating precursor signals have been detected in the field occurring with associated phases using custom-built loop antennae. Field testing was conducted in Southern California from 2006-2011, and outside the NE Texas town of Timpson in February, 2013. The antennae have mobility and observations were noted for

  5. EPA LABORATORIES IMPLEMENT EMS PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper highlights the breadth and magnitude of carrying out an effective Environmental Management System (EMS) program at the U.S. EPA's research and development laboratories. Federal research laboratories have unique operating challenges compared to more centralized industr...

  6. Refining age estimates for three historic ground rupturing earthquakes in the Santa Cruz Mountains: 14C Wiggle-matching and Non-Native Pollen as age indicators (or not!)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Streig, A. R.; Weldon, R. J.; Dawson, T. E.; Guilderson, T.; Gavin, D. G.; Reidy, L.

    2013-12-01

    The Hazel Dell site provides the first definitive paleoseismic evidence of two pre-1906 19th century events on the Santa Cruz Mountains section based on the presence of anthropogenic artifacts. Hundreds of pieces of cut redwood chips were found in a stratigraphic horizon just below the ante-penultimate (E3) earthquake surface, suggesting that redwood trees at the site were cut down right before earthquake E3. We correlate our paleoseismic findings with the historic record and the onset of redwood logging in the area by determining the felling date of a buried redwood tree stump at the site and the age of the woodchips. We wiggle match 14 radiocarbon dates sampled from annual growth rings taken from the stump and the known interval between growth rings, with the intercepts of the INTCAL04 terrestrial 14C calibration curve. Pending 13C measurements, we find that the youngest ring we have identified in the tree is A.D. 1800. We also wiggle match 2 radiocarbon dates from inner and outer growth rings from two wood chips (with bark); their ages are consistent with the tree and the youngest woodchip ring is dated to 1813 A.D. There are no known ethnographic or historical accounts of pre-contact native people felling large trees in the way that European colonists did. The first record of European land use was for pasture in 1803. The property became a Spanish land grant in 1827, soon after which a whip-saw lumber mill is documented to have begun operation in the upper Corralitos area. We combine these paleoseismic results with historical earthquake accounts for the area and conclude that the San Andreas fault ruptured in 1838, 1890 and 1906. The Hazel Dell results are in contrast with findings from earlier paleoseismic studies in the Santa Cruz Mountains. The Grizzly Flat site, 6 km to the north, found evidence of 1906 and one 17th century earthquake. Two historic earthquakes were observed at the Mill Canyon site 8 km to the south and at the Arano Flat site 9.5 km south of

  7. Busca de estruturas em grandes escalas em altos redshifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boris, N. V.; Sodrã©, L., Jr.; Cypriano, E.

    2003-08-01

    A busca por estruturas em grandes escalas (aglomerados de galáxias, por exemplo) é um ativo tópico de pesquisas hoje em dia, pois a detecção de um único aglomerado em altos redshifts pode por vínculos fortes sobre os modelos cosmológicos. Neste projeto estamos fazendo uma busca de estruturas distantes em campos contendo pares de quasares próximos entre si em z Â3 0.9. Os pares de quasares foram extraídos do catálogo de Véron-Cetty & Véron (2001) e estão sendo observados com os telescópios: 2,2m da University of Hawaii (UH), 2,5m do Observatório de Las Campanas e com o GEMINI. Apresentamos aqui a análise preliminar de um par de quasares observado nos filtros i'(7800 Å) e z'(9500 Å) com o GEMINI. A cor (i'-z') mostrou-se útil para detectar objetos "early-type" em redshifts menores que 1.1. No estudo do par 131046+0006/J131055+0008, com redshift ~ 0.9, o uso deste método possibilitou a detecção de sete objetos candidatos a galáxias "early-type". Num mapa da distribuição projetada dos objetos para 22 < i' < 25 observou-se que estas galáxias estão localizadas próximas a um dos quasares e há indícios de que estejam aglomeradas dentro de um área de ~ 6 arcmin2. Se esse for o caso, estes objetos seriam membros de uma estrutura em grande escala. Um outro argumento em favor dessa hipótese é que eles obedecem uma relação do tipo Kormendy (raio equivalente X brilho superficial dentro desse raio), como a apresentada pelas galáxias elípticas em z = 0.

  8. The European Mobile System (EMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jongejans, A.; Rogard, R.; Mistretta, I.; Ananasso, F.

    1993-01-01

    The European Space Agency is presently procuring an L band payload in order to promote a regional European L band system coping with the specific needs of the European market. The payload, and the two communications systems to be supported, are described below. The potential market for EMS in Europe is discussed.

  9. Cosmic muon induced EM showers in NO$\

    SciTech Connect

    Yadav, Nitin; Duyang, Hongyue; Shanahan, Peter; Mishra, Sanjib; Bhuyan, Bipul

    2016-11-15

    Here, the NuMI Off-Axis ve Appearance (NOvA) experiment is a ne appearance neutrino oscillation experiment at Fermilab. It identifies the ne signal from the electromagnetic (EM) showers induced by the electrons in the final state of neutrino interactions. Cosmic muon induced EM showers, dominated by bremsstrahlung, are abundant in NOvA far detector. We use the Cosmic Muon- Removal technique to get pure EM shower sample from bremsstrahlung muons in data. We also use Cosmic muon decay in flight EM showers which are highly pure EM showers.The large Cosmic-EM sample can be used, as data driven method, to characterize the EM shower signature and provides valuable checks of the simulation, reconstruction, particle identification algorithm, and calibration across the NOvA detector.

  10. Tectonic and Kinematic Regime along the Northern Caribbean Plate Boundary: New Insights from Broad-band Modeling of the May 25, 1992, Ms = 6.9 Cabo Cruz, Cuba, Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrot, J.; Calais, E.; Mercier de Lépinay, B.

    On May 25th, 1992, an Ms = 6.9 earthquake occurred off the southwestern tip of Cuba, along the boundary between the Caribbean and North American plates. This earthquake was the largest to strike southern Cuba since 1917 and the largest ever recorded in that region by global seismic networks. It is therefore a key element for our understanding of the tectonic and kinematic regime along the northern Caribbean plate boundary. In order to test the previously proposed source parameters of the Cabo Cruz earthquake and to better constrain its focal mechanism, we derived a new set of source parameters from unfiltered broad-band teleseismic records. We used a hybrid ray tracing method that allows us to take into account propagation effects of seismic waves in a realistic crustal model around the source. Our solution is consistent with the long-period focal mechanism solution of Virieux et al. (1992). Our solution also models the higher frequency crustal and water layer phases. The primarily strike-slip focal mechanism has a small thrust component. Its shows an east-west trending nodal plane dipping 55° to the north that we interpret as the rupture plane since it corresponds to the geometry of the major active fault in that area. The displacement on this plane is a left-lateral strike-slip combined with a small amount of southward thrust. The result is in good agreement with the active tectonic structures observed along the Oriente fault south of Cuba. The small thrust component demonstrates that, contrary to prior belief, the transpressive regime extends along this whole segment of the Caribbean/North American plate boundary. Together with historical seismicity, it suggests that most of the stress accumulated by the Caribbean/North American plate motion is released seismically along the southern Cuban margin during relatively few but large earthquakes.

  11. Coseismic deformation of the Wrights tunnel during the 1906 San Francisco earthquake: A key to understanding 1906 fault slip and 1989 surface ruptures in the southern Santa Cruz Mountains, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prentice, C.S.; Ponti, D.J.

    1997-01-01

    The Wrights tunnel is an abandoned railroad tunnel that crosses the San Andreas fault in the southern Santa Cruz Mountains in the vicinity of the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake. The tunnel was damaged and deformed during the 1906 San Francisco earthquake and a plot showing postearthquake measurements made in the tunnel is given by Lawson [1908]. The amount of offset shown on this plot (1.5 m) has been used in several studies as being representative of the amount of fault offset along this segment of the San Andreas fault in 1906. Our historical research shows that different observers reported different amounts of fault offset in the tunnel and that the 1.5 m given on the plot is not a surveyed measurement. In addition, the plot of the tunnel has been interpreted in several previous studies as evidence of a broad (1.5 km) zone of faulting beneath Summit Ridge. Our analysis shows that this plot need not indicate a broad zone of deformation. Our historical research and modeling of the tunnel measurements indicate that faulting was confined to a zone less than 400 m wide and that 60-85% of the coseismic slip occurred across a single fault plane. There is no evidence for offset across a second shear zone beneath Summit Ridge in 1906. This implies that surface fractures reported on Summit Ridge in 1906 were not associated with significant deformation of the tunnel, implying that they were shallow, surficial features. By analogy, the very similar fractures that occurred on Summit Ridge in 1989 were also probably the result of shallow gravitational, rather than deep-seated tectonic, processes. Our modeling also indicates that total coseismic, near-surface slip across the San Andreas fault zone in the Wrights tunnel in 1906 was at least 1.7-1.8 m.

  12. Correlation of the NBME advanced clinical examination in EM and the national EM M4 exams.

    PubMed

    Hiller, Katherine; Miller, Emily S; Lawson, Luan; Wald, David; Beeson, Michael; Heitz, Corey; Morrissey, Thomas; House, Joseph; Poznanski, Stacey

    2015-01-01

    Since 2011 two online, validated exams for fourth-year emergency medicine (EM) students have been available (National EM M4 Exams). In 2013 the National Board of Medical Examiners offered the Advanced Clinical Examination in Emergency Medicine (EM-ACE). All of these exams are now in widespread use; however, there are no data on how they correlate. This study evaluated the correlation between the EM-ACE exam and the National EM M4 Exams. From May 2013 to April 2014 the EM-ACE and one version of the EM M4 exam were administered sequentially to fourth-year EM students at five U.S. medical schools. Data collected included institution, gross and scaled scores and version of the EM M4 exam. We performed Pearson's correlation and random effects linear regression. 305 students took the EM-ACE and versions 1 (V1) or 2 (V2) of the EM M4 exams (281 and 24, respectively) [corrected].The mean percent correct for the exams were as follows: EM-ACE 74.9 (SD-9.82), V1 83.0 (SD-6.39), V2 78.5 (SD-7.70) [corrected]. Pearson's correlation coefficient for the V1/EM-ACE was 0.53 (0.43 scaled) and for the V2/EM-ACE was 0.58 (0.41 scaled) [corrected]. The coefficient of determination for V1/ EM-ACE was 0.73 and for V2/EM-ACE 0.71 (0.65 and .49 for scaled scores) [ERRATUM]. The R-squared values were 0.28 and 0.30 (0.18 and 0.13 scaled), respectively [corrected]. There was significant cluster effect by institution. There was moderate positive correlation of student scores on the EM-ACE exam and the National EM M4 Exams.

  13. Complaints against an EMS system.

    PubMed

    Colwell, Christopher B; Pons, Peter T; Pi, Randy

    2003-11-01

    Complaints against Emergency Medical Services (EMS) agencies represent a concerning and potentially time-consuming problem for all involved in the delivery of prehospital emergency medical care. The objective of this study was to identify the source of complaints against an EMS system to help focus quality and performance improvement and customer service efforts. We conducted a retrospective review of complaints filed against a busy urban EMS agency over a 6-year period. All complaints were included, totaled by season and by year, and categorized by originator and nature of the complaint. A total of 286 complaints were registered during the 6-year period, with an average of 48 per year and 9.3 per 10,000 responses. The most common originators of complaints were patients (53%) followed by medical personnel (19%) and family members or friends (12%). Rude behavior accounted for 23% of the complaints registered, followed by technical skills (20%), transport problems (18%), and loss of belongings (13%). The identification of areas of dissatisfaction will allow focused quality and performance improvement programs directed at customer service and risk management.

  14. Cosmic muon induced EM showers in NO$$\

    DOE PAGES

    Yadav, Nitin; Duyang, Hongyue; Shanahan, Peter; ...

    2016-11-15

    Here, the NuMI Off-Axis ve Appearance (NOvA) experiment is a ne appearance neutrino oscillation experiment at Fermilab. It identifies the ne signal from the electromagnetic (EM) showers induced by the electrons in the final state of neutrino interactions. Cosmic muon induced EM showers, dominated by bremsstrahlung, are abundant in NOvA far detector. We use the Cosmic Muon- Removal technique to get pure EM shower sample from bremsstrahlung muons in data. We also use Cosmic muon decay in flight EM showers which are highly pure EM showers.The large Cosmic-EM sample can be used, as data driven method, to characterize the EMmore » shower signature and provides valuable checks of the simulation, reconstruction, particle identification algorithm, and calibration across the NOvA detector.« less

  15. The Empathic Operating System (emOS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-15

    The Empathic Operating System ( emOS ) Physiological measurements have typically been limited to expensive and cumbersome clinical research equipment...Report: The Empathic Operating System ( emOS ) Report Title Physiological measurements have typically been limited to expensive and cumbersome clinical...C-0043 Proposal number: 62850-LS-DRP Project title: “The Empathic Operating System ( emOS )” Contract performance period: January 1, 2016 – April 7

  16. DOE/EM Criticality Safety Needs Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Westfall, Robert Michael; Hopper, Calvin Mitchell

    2011-02-01

    The issue of nuclear criticality safety (NCS) in Department of Energy Environmental Management (DOE/EM) fissionable material operations presents challenges because of the large quantities of material present in the facilities and equipment that are committed to storage and/or material conditioning and dispositioning processes. Given the uncertainty associated with the material and conditions for many DOE/EM fissionable material operations, ensuring safety while maintaining operational efficiency requires the application of the most-effective criticality safety practices. In turn, more-efficient implementation of these practices can be achieved if the best NCS technologies are utilized. In 2002, DOE/EM-1 commissioned a survey of criticality safety technical needs at the major EM sites. These needs were documented in the report Analysis of Nuclear Criticality Safety Technology Supporting the Environmental Management Program, issued May 2002. Subsequent to this study, EM safety management personnel made a commitment to applying the best and latest criticality safety technology, as described by the DOE Nuclear Criticality Safety Program (NCSP). Over the past 7 years, this commitment has enabled the transfer of several new technologies to EM operations. In 2008, it was decided to broaden the basis of the EM NCS needs assessment to include not only current needs for technologies but also NCS operational areas with potential for improvements in controls, analysis, and regulations. A series of NCS workshops has been conducted over the past years, and needs have been identified and addressed by EM staff and contractor personnel. These workshops were organized and conducted by the EM Criticality Safety Program Manager with administrative and technical support by staff at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This report records the progress made in identifying the needs, determining the approaches for addressing these needs, and assimilating new NCS technologies into EM

  17. EMS provider determinations of necessity for transport and reimbursement for EMS response, medical care, and transport: combined resource document for the National Association of EMS Physicians position statements.

    PubMed

    Millin, Michael G; Brown, Lawrence H; Schwartz, Brian

    2011-01-01

    With increasing demands for emergency medical services (EMS), many EMS jurisdictions are utilizing EMS provider-initiated nontransport policies as a method to offload potentially nonemergent patients from the EMS system. EMS provider determination of medical necessity, resulting in nontransport of patients, has the potential to avert unnecessary emergency department visits. However, EMS systems that utilize these policies must have additional education for the providers, a quality improvement process, and active physician oversight. In addition, EMS provider determination of nontransport for a specific situation should be supported by evidence in the peer-reviewed literature that the practice is safe. Further, EMS systems that do not utilize these programs should not be financially penalized. Payment for EMS services should be based on the prudent layperson standard. EMS systems that do utilize nontransport policies should be appropriately reimbursed, as this represents potential cost savings to the health care system.

  18. School Budget Hold'em Facilitator's Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Resource Strategies, 2012

    2012-01-01

    "School Budget Hold'em" is a game designed to help school districts rethink their budgeting process. It evolved out of Education Resource Strategies' (ERS) experience working with large urban districts around the country. "School Budget Hold'em" offers a completely new approach--one that can turn the budgeting process into a long-term visioning…

  19. EM Cep: The Be Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochiashvili, N.; Kochiashvili, I.; Natsvlishvili, R.; Vardosanidze, M.; Beradze, S.

    2017-07-01

    On the basis of UBVR photometric data, obtained in the Abastumani Observatory during 1991-1999, very interesting and unusual flare of EM Cep has been revealed. Duration of the flare was over two hours. We estimated the percentage of brightness increase during the flare and brightness decrease of the corresponding anti- flare and the minimum amount of the lost mass during this event. We have solved the light curves of the star using the Wilson-Devinney code. But the resulting fraction of calculated brightness of the companion star was not in accordance with spectral data. Then we decided to check the idea of a pulsating single star using new spectral data. Together with our Buyrakan colleagues we obtained and analyzed spectra of the star. We could not find spectral lines of a companion star or any traces of the radial velocities using this data. Hence, we concluded that we need the higher resolution spectra for final resolution of the matter. On the basis of the latest spectral data of Bulgarian astronomers they concluded that EM Cep is a single star. This makes it possible to suggest, that the question of stellar pulsation could be solved using additional photometric observations.

  20. The EM algorithm in medical imaging.

    PubMed

    Kay, J

    1997-03-01

    This article outlines the statistical developments that have taken place in the use of the EM algorithm in emission and transmission tomography during the past decade or so. We discuss the statistical aspects of the modelling of the projection data for both the emission and transmission cases and define the relevant probability models. This leads to the use of the method of maximum likelihood as a means of estimating the relevant unknown parameters within a given region of a patient's body and to the use of the EM algorithm to compute the reconstruction. Various different types of EM algorithm are discussed, including the SAGE algorithms of Fessler and Hero. The limitations of the EM algorithm, per se, are covered and the need for regularization is stressed. A number of different methods for penalizing the likelihood are described and a number of algorithms for the computation of the penalized EM reconstruction are discussed.

  1. Side mounted EMS for aluminium scrap melters

    SciTech Connect

    Eidem, M.; Tallbaeck, G.; Hanley, P.J.

    1996-10-01

    Normally the electromagnetic stirrer (EMS) is placed below the furnace. However it has recently been found that the EMS can also be placed at the side of the furnace, still giving good stirring. This makes it possible to install EMS on most existing furnaces. The side-mounted EMS is compared with the standard bottom-mounted stirrer with respect to installation, melting time and flow pattern in the melt. The major conclusion is that a side-mounted EMS is practical and will give about as good a performance as the bottom-mounted. Melting time estimates are based upon 3-D fluid flow and heat transfer predictions in combination with a simplified scrap melting theory. Predicted melting times are in fair agreement with operational data for mechanically stirred and electromagnetically bottom stirred furnaces.

  2. Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics (SCIPP)

    SciTech Connect

    Burchat, P.; Dorfan, D.; Litke, A.; Heusch, C.; Sadrozinski, H.; Schalk, T.; Seiden, A.

    1992-11-01

    Work for the coming year is a logical continuation of the efforts of the past year. Some special highlights of this past year which are discusses in more detail in this report are: (1) The move onto beamline and start of ZEUS data taking. (2) The completion of the SDC technical proposal including a detailed long-term plan for construction. (3) Continuing publication of very detailed physics results from ALEPH concerning {tau} and b physics, and a precision measurement of electroweak and QCD parameters. (4) Completion of very successful data taking for E-791 at Fermilab, with nearly twice as many events recorded as initially proposed. (5) First measurement of beam polarization at the SLC. These efforts have led to about 15 physics publications this past year centered mainly on topics related to QCD, couplings of flavors to the Z{degrees}, and heavy flavor decays. Taken as a whole, the results in jets from LEP, the ratio of hadronic to leptonic decays of the {tau} the leptonic branching fraction of the J/{psi}, and the charmonium mass spectrum provide a very consistent set of values of {alpha}{sub s} at a variety of scales. In particular, they show the running of {alpha}{sub s} by a factor of about three from m{sub r} to m{sub z}. Results from LEP also provide evidence of the triple gluon vertex. Similarly, the measurement of the b{bar b} fraction of Z{degrees} decays, from the MARK II as well as LEP, provide increasingly better measurements of the Z{degree} coupling to b quarks. Combined with earlier precision measurements of the Z{degrees} mass, width, and leptonic branching fractions, the Z{degrees} decays continue to provide a very precise verification of the Standard Model.

  3. Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics (SCIPP)

    SciTech Connect

    Burchat, P.; Dorfan, D.; Litke, A.; Heusch, C.; Sadrozinski, H.; Schalk, T.; Seiden, A.

    1992-01-01

    Work for the coming year is a logical continuation of the efforts of the past year. Some special highlights of this past year which are discusses in more detail in this report are: (1) The move onto beamline and start of ZEUS data taking. (2) The completion of the SDC technical proposal including a detailed long-term plan for construction. (3) Continuing publication of very detailed physics results from ALEPH concerning [tau] and b physics, and a precision measurement of electroweak and QCD parameters. (4) Completion of very successful data taking for E-791 at Fermilab, with nearly twice as many events recorded as initially proposed. (5) First measurement of beam polarization at the SLC. These efforts have led to about 15 physics publications this past year centered mainly on topics related to QCD, couplings of flavors to the Z[degrees], and heavy flavor decays. Taken as a whole, the results in jets from LEP, the ratio of hadronic to leptonic decays of the [tau] the leptonic branching fraction of the J/[psi], and the charmonium mass spectrum provide a very consistent set of values of [alpha][sub s] at a variety of scales. In particular, they show the running of [alpha][sub s] by a factor of about three from m[sub r] to m[sub z]. Results from LEP also provide evidence of the triple gluon vertex. Similarly, the measurement of the b[bar b] fraction of Z[degrees] decays, from the MARK II as well as LEP, provide increasingly better measurements of the Z[degree] coupling to b quarks. Combined with earlier precision measurements of the Z[degrees] mass, width, and leptonic branching fractions, the Z[degrees] decays continue to provide a very precise verification of the Standard Model.

  4. The ENCODE Project at UC Santa Cruz.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Daryl J; Rosenbloom, Kate R; Clawson, Hiram; Hinrichs, Angie S; Trumbower, Heather; Raney, Brian J; Karolchik, Donna; Barber, Galt P; Harte, Rachel A; Hillman-Jackson, Jennifer; Kuhn, Robert M; Rhead, Brooke L; Smith, Kayla E; Thakkapallayil, Archana; Zweig, Ann S; Haussler, David; Kent, W James

    2007-01-01

    The goal of the Encyclopedia Of DNA Elements (ENCODE) Project is to identify all functional elements in the human genome. The pilot phase is for comparison of existing methods and for the development of new methods to rigorously analyze a defined 1% of the human genome sequence. Experimental datasets are focused on the origin of replication, DNase I hypersensitivity, chromatin immunoprecipitation, promoter function, gene structure, pseudogenes, non-protein-coding RNAs, transcribed RNAs, multiple sequence alignment and evolutionarily constrained elements. The ENCODE project at UCSC website (http://genome.ucsc.edu/ENCODE) is the primary portal for the sequence-based data produced as part of the ENCODE project. In the pilot phase of the project, over 30 labs provided experimental results for a total of 56 browser tracks supported by 385 database tables. The site provides researchers with a number of tools that allow them to visualize and analyze the data as well as download data for local analyses. This paper describes the portal to the data, highlights the data that has been made available, and presents the tools that have been developed within the ENCODE project. Access to the data and types of interactive analysis that are possible are illustrated through supplemental examples.

  5. EM International, July 1994, Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    The Office of Environmental Management (EM) at the Department of Energy (DOE) is seeking out and leveraging foreign technology, data, and resources in keeping with EM`s mandate to protect public health and the environment through the safe and cost-effective remediation of the Department`s nuclear weapons sites. EM works closely with foreign governments, industry, and universities to obtain innovative environmental technologies, scientific and engineering expertise, and operations experience that will support EM`s objectives. Where appropriate, these international resources are used to manage the more urgent risks at our sites, secure a safe workplace, help build consensus on critical issues, and strengthen our technology development program. Through international agreements EM engages in cooperative exchange of information, technology, and individuals. Currently, we are managing agreements with a dozen countries in Europe, Latin America, and Asia. These agreements focus on environmental restoration, waste management, transportation of radioactive wastes, and decontamination and decommissioning. This publication contains the following articles: in situ remediation integrated program; in-situ characterization and inspection of tanks; multimedia environmental pollutant assessment system (MEPAS); LLNL wet oxidation -- AEA technology. Besides these articles, this publication covers: EU activities with Russia; technology transfer activities; and international organization activities.

  6. Project X RFQ EM Design

    SciTech Connect

    Romanov, Gennady; Hoff, Matthew; Li, Derun; Staples, John; Virostek, Steve; /LBNL

    2012-05-09

    Project X is a proposed multi-MW proton facility at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL). The Project X front-end would consist of an H- ion source, a low-energy beam transport (LEBT), a CW 162.5 MHz radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator, and a medium-energy beam transport (MEBT). Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and FNAL collaboration is currently developing the designs for various components in the Project X front end. This paper reports the detailed EM design of the CW 162.5 MHz RFQ that provides bunching of the 1-10 mA H- beam with acceleration from 30 keV to 2.1 MeV.

  7. NEIC Environmental Management System (EMS) Policy

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    National Enforcement Investigations Center (NEIC) Environmental Management System (EMS) Policy. Identification and management of actual and potential environmental impacts of operations and decisions for the purpose of continual improvement of performance

  8. EMS offshore. A new horizon for paramedics.

    PubMed

    Mallard, A S

    1991-10-01

    The difficulty in getting medical aid to offshore drilling platforms can be a source of life-threatening delays. Recently, some companies have charted new waters by actually stationing EMS crews on their rigs.

  9. How good can cryo-EM become?

    SciTech Connect

    Glaeser, Robert M.

    2015-12-30

    The suddenness with which single-particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) has emerged as a method for determining high-resolution structures of biological macromolecules invites the questions, how much better can this technology get, and how fast is that likely to happen? While we can rightly celebrate the maturation of cryo-EM as a high-resolution structure-determination tool, I believe there still are many developments to look forward to.

  10. Reassessing training levels for prehospital EMS personnel.

    PubMed

    Briese, G L

    1983-01-01

    One of the major questions confronting prehospital care services today concerns determining the appropriate level of training for EMS personnel that will provide the most cost effective systems. Unfortunately there are no studies which assess this problem. Various communities have modified or expanded the roles of prehospital personnel beyond the traditional training of EMTs and paramedics. Continuing education and skills maintenance are ongoing problems faced by all EMS systems, which have been addressed in various ways by individual locales.

  11. SOFIS FTS EM test results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soucy, Marc-Andre A.; Levesque, Luc E.; Tanii, Jun; Kawashima, Takahiro; Nakajima, Hideaki

    2003-04-01

    The Solar Occultation FTS for Inclined-orbit Satellite (SOFIS) is a solar occultation Fourier transform spectrometer developed by the Ministry of the Environment (MOE) in Japan for the Global Change Observation Mission-A1 (GCOM-A1) satellite. GCOM-A1 will be placed in a 650 km non-sun-synchronous orbit, with an inclination angle of 69 degrees. ABB-Bomem is a sub-contractor of NTSpace (NEC-Toshiba Space) for the design and manufacturing of the FTS Engineering Model of SOFIS. SOFIS measures the vertical profile of the atmospheric constituents with 0.2 cm-1 spectral resolution for the spectral range covering 3-13 μm. The atmospheric vertical resolution of SOFIS is 1 km. The target of SOFIS measurements is a global distribution of O3, HNO3, NO2, N2O, CH4, H2O, CO2, CFC-11, CFC-12, ClONO2, aerosol extinction, atmospheric pressure and temperature. NTSpace in Japan is the prime contractor of SOFIS. The spectrometer is an adapted version of the classical Michelson interferometer using an optimized optical layout and moving retro-reflectors. A solid-state laser diode operating at 1550 nm is used as metrology source of the interferometer. Its highly folded optical design results in a high performance instrument with a compact size. SOFIS FTS implements high performance control techniques to achieve outstanding speed stability of the moving mechanism. This paper describes the test activities of the SOFIS-FTS Engineering Model (EM) and preliminary results. The performances of the FTS are presented in terms of key parameters like signal-to-noise ratio, modulation efficiency and stability. Spectra acquired are shown and test methodology and analyses are presented. Lessons learned during assembly, integration and testing are described as well as improvements planned to be implemented in the Flight Model.

  12. EMS adaptation for climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, C.; Chang, Y.; Wen, J.; Tsai, M.

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to find an appropriate scenario of pre-hospital transportation of an emergency medical service (EMS) system for burdensome casualties resulting from extreme climate events. A case of natural catastrophic events in Taiwan, 88 wind-caused disasters, was reviewed and analyzed. A sequential-conveyance method was designed to shorten the casualty transportation time and to promote the efficiency of ambulance services. A proposed mobile emergency medical center was first constructed in a safe area, but nearby the disaster area. The Center consists of professional medical personnel who process the triage of incoming patients and take care of casualties with minor injuries. Ambulances in the Center were ready to sequentially convey the casualties with severer conditions to an assigned hospital that is distant from the disaster area for further treatment. The study suggests that if we could construct a spacious and well-equipped mobile emergency medical center, only a small portion of casualties would need to be transferred to distant hospitals. This would reduce the over-crowding problem in hospital ERs. First-line ambulances only reciprocated between the mobile emergency medical center and the disaster area, saving time and shortening the working distances. Second-line ambulances were highly regulated between the mobile emergency medical center and requested hospitals. The ambulance service of the sequential-conveyance method was found to be more efficient than the conventional method and was concluded to be more profitable and reasonable on paper in adapting to climate change. Therefore, additional practical work should be launched to collect more precise quantitative data.

  13. Filter banks and the EM algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Mair, B.A.; Carroll, R.B.; Anderson, J.M.M.

    1996-12-31

    In this paper, we present a wavelet based modification of the ML-EM algorithm for reconstructing positron emission tomography images. By using the filter bank implementation of the wavelet transform, this algorithm has the flexibility to incorporate a priori information, while maintaining the same computational complexity as the standard ML-EM algorithm. Thus, it has a significant computational advantage over usual Bayesian methods. It differs from recent wavelet-based Bayesian methods as it achieves {open_quotes}regularization{close_quotes} by an adaptive, wavelet-based method of thresholding which minimizes Stein`s Unbiased Estimate of Risk. The basic method consists of applying Donoho and Johnstone`s SureShrink wavelet denoising of the Poisson data, and then applying the standard ML-EM algorithm to the denoised data. A more elaborate method is discussed in which a wavelet denoising step is inserted after each EM iteration. This technique differs from previous smoothing techniques applied to the ML-EM algorithm since it is able to recover edges in discontinuous images.

  14. Processing of Cryo-EM Movie Data.

    PubMed

    Ripstein, Z A; Rubinstein, J L

    2016-01-01

    Direct detector device (DDD) cameras dramatically enhance the capabilities of electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) due to their improved detective quantum efficiency (DQE) relative to other detectors. DDDs use semiconductor technology that allows micrographs to be recorded as movies rather than integrated individual exposures. Movies from DDDs improve cryo-EM in another, more surprising, way. DDD movies revealed beam-induced specimen movement as a major source of image degradation and provide a way to partially correct the problem by aligning frames or regions of frames to account for this specimen movement. In this chapter, we use a self-consistent mathematical notation to explain, compare, and contrast several of the most popular existing algorithms for computationally correcting specimen movement in DDD movies. We conclude by discussing future developments in algorithms for processing DDD movies that would extend the capabilities of cryo-EM even further. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. 7 CFR 1945.35 - Special EM loan training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... workshop and a test. (c) Objective. The basic objective of this training program is to keep State and... kit, will be used for the EM loan training meetings, and any subsequent EM loan training...

  16. 7 CFR 1945.35 - Special EM loan training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... workshop and a test. (c) Objective. The basic objective of this training program is to keep State and... kit, will be used for the EM loan training meetings, and any subsequent EM loan training...

  17. Integrating Green Purchasing Into Your Environmental Management System (EMS)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The goal of this report is to help Federal facilities integrate green purchasing into their EMS. The intended audience includes those tasked with implementing an EMS, reducing environmental impacts, meeting green purchasing requirements.

  18. 10 CFR Appendixes E-M to Part 52 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false E Appendixes E-M to Part 52 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Appendixes E-M to Part 52...

  19. 10 CFR Appendixes E-M to Part 52 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false E Appendixes E-M to Part 52 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Appendixes E-M to Part 52 ...

  20. 10 CFR Appendixes E-M to Part 52 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false E Appendixes E-M to Part 52 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Appendixes E-M to Part 52 ...

  1. 10 CFR Appendixes E-M to Part 52 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false E Appendixes E-M to Part 52 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Appendixes E-M to Part 52 ...

  2. 10 CFR Appendixes E-M to Part 52 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false E Appendixes E-M to Part 52 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Appendixes E-M to Part 52 ...

  3. Risk Communication Within the EM Program

    SciTech Connect

    Edelson, M.

    2003-02-26

    The U.S. Department of Energy Environmental Management program (EM) conducts the most extensive environmental remediation effort in the world. The annual EM budgets have exceeded $6,000,000,000 for approximately ten years and EM has assumed responsibility for the cleanup of the largest DOE reservations (i.e., at Hanford, Washington, Aiken, South Carolina, and Idaho Falls, Idaho) as well as the facilities at Rocky Flats, Colorado and in Ohio. Each of these sites has areas of extensive radioactive and chemical contamination, numerous surplus facilities that require decontamination and removal, while some have special nuclear material that requires secure storage. The EM program has been criticized for being ineffective (1) and has been repeatedly reorganized to address perceived shortcomings. The most recent reorganization was announced in 2001 to become effective at the beginning of the 2003 Federal Fiscal Year (i.e., October 2002). It was preceded by a ''top to bottom'' review (TTBR) of the program (2) that identified several deficiencies that were to be corrected as a result of the reorganization. One prominent outcome of the TTBR was the identification of ''risk reduction'' as an organizing principle to prioritize the activities of the new EM program. The new program also sought to accelerate progress by identifying a set of critical activities at each site that could be accelerated and result in more rapid site closure, with attendant risk, cost, and schedule benefits. This paper investigates how the new emphasis on risk reduction in the EM program has been communicated to EM stakeholders and regulators. It focuses on the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) as a case study and finds that there is little evidence for a new emphasis on risk reduction in EM communications with RFETS stakeholders. Discussions between DOE and RFETS stakeholders often refer to ''risk,'' but the word serves as a placeholder for other concepts. Thus ''risk'' communication

  4. Structural Composites With Tuned EM Chirality

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-23

    AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2015-0018 STRUCTURAL COMPOSITES WITH TUNED EM CHIRALITY Siavouche Nemat Nasser UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA SAN DIEGO Final Report 12/23...REPORT Grant/Contract  Title:        STRUCTURAL  COMPOSITES  WITH  TUNED  EM   CHIRALITY     Grant  No.:  FA9550-­‐09-­‐1...structural   composites  with   tunable   chiral   elements   has   produced   some   impressive   results   in   the

  5. Lessons Learned: Integrating EMS and Environmental Compliance Auditing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-06

    audit an EMS against the – ISO 14001 :2004 Standard – Installation’s own commitments and procedures established under their EMS (i.e. are they doing...what they said they would do?) – Army Policy • Findings are documented in a Word report (external audits) • ISO 14001 conformance is determined by...regulatory requirements • EMS Findings – Conformance: management system conforms to ISO 14001 standard – Major Nonconformance: EMS is missing element

  6. Do earthquakes generate EM signals?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, Christina; Onacha, Stephen; Malin, Peter; Shalev, Eylon; Lucas, Alan

    2010-05-01

    study areas, large swarms of earthquakes were located very close to the electromagnetic coils. This abstract focuses on the data from the Wairakei area. Preliminary data analysis has been carried out by band pass filtering and removing of the harmonics of the 50 Hz power line frequency. The initial results clearly show that electromagnetic signals accompany the seismic P and S waves (coseismic signal). Further data analysis involves the extraction of the seismoelectric signal generated at the onset of the earthquake and at interfaces from the coseismic signal and other ‘noise' sources. This processing step exhibits a major challenge in seismoelectric data processing. Unlike in other studies we measured the EM field and the seismic field at one location. Therefore the seismoelectric wave travelling at the speed of light cannot be determined as easily in the arrival times as when an array of coils is used. This makes the determination of the origin time much more difficult. Hence other processing techniques need to be explored.

  7. EMS response to an airliner crash.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Shuvra; French, Simone; Williams-Johnson, Jean; Hutson, Rhonda; Hart, Nicole; Wong, Mark; Williams, Eric; Espinosa, Kurdell; Maycock, Celeste; Edwards, Romayne; McCartney, Trevor; Cawich, Shamir; Crandon, Ivor

    2012-06-01

    This report of an aircraft crash at a major airport in Kingston, Jamaica examines the response of the local Emergency Medical Services (EMS). Factors that impacted the response are discussed, and the need for more disaster simulation exercises is highlighted. The objective of this case report was to document the response of EMS personnel to the crash of American Airlines Flight 331, and to utilize the information to examine and improve the present protocol. While multiple errors can occur during a mass-casualty event, these can be reduced by frequent simulation exercises during which various personnel practice and learn designated roles. Efficient triage, proper communication, and knowledge of the roles are important in ensuring the best possible outcome. While the triage system and response of the EMS personnel were effective for this magnitude of catastrophe, more work is needed in order to meet predetermined standards. Ways in which this can be overcome include: (1) hosting more disaster simulation exercises; (2) encouraging more involvement with first responders; and (3) strengthening the links in the local EMS system. Vigorous public education must be instituted and maintained.

  8. Navigating 3D electron microscopy maps with EM-SURFER.

    PubMed

    Esquivel-Rodríguez, Juan; Xiong, Yi; Han, Xusi; Guang, Shuomeng; Christoffer, Charles; Kihara, Daisuke

    2015-05-30

    The Electron Microscopy DataBank (EMDB) is growing rapidly, accumulating biological structural data obtained mainly by electron microscopy and tomography, which are emerging techniques for determining large biomolecular complex and subcellular structures. Together with the Protein Data Bank (PDB), EMDB is becoming a fundamental resource of the tertiary structures of biological macromolecules. To take full advantage of this indispensable resource, the ability to search the database by structural similarity is essential. However, unlike high-resolution structures stored in PDB, methods for comparing low-resolution electron microscopy (EM) density maps in EMDB are not well established. We developed a computational method for efficiently searching low-resolution EM maps. The method uses a compact fingerprint representation of EM maps based on the 3D Zernike descriptor, which is derived from a mathematical series expansion for EM maps that are considered as 3D functions. The method is implemented in a web server named EM-SURFER, which allows users to search against the entire EMDB in real-time. EM-SURFER compares the global shapes of EM maps. Examples of search results from different types of query structures are discussed. We developed EM-SURFER, which retrieves structurally relevant matches for query EM maps from EMDB within seconds. The unique capability of EM-SURFER to detect 3D shape similarity of low-resolution EM maps should prove invaluable in structural biology.

  9. The association between EMS workplace safety culture and safety outcomes.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Matthew D; Wang, Henry E; Fairbanks, Rollin J; Patterson, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Prior studies have highlighted wide variation in emergency medical services (EMS) workplace safety culture across agencies. To determine the association between EMS workplace safety culture scores and patient or provider safety outcomes. We administered a cross-sectional survey to EMS workers affiliated with a convenience sample of agencies. We recruited these agencies from a national EMS management organization. We used the EMS Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (EMS-SAQ) to measure workplace safety culture and the EMS Safety Inventory (EMS-SI), a tool developed to capture self-reported safety outcomes from EMS workers. The EMS-SAQ provides reliable and valid measures of six domains: safety climate, teamwork climate, perceptions of management, working conditions, stress recognition, and job satisfaction. A panel of medical directors, emergency medical technicians and paramedics, and occupational epidemiologists developed the EMS-SI to measure self-reported injury, medical errors and adverse events, and safety-compromising behaviors. We used hierarchical linear models to evaluate the association between EMS-SAQ scores and EMS-SI safety outcome measures. Sixteen percent of all respondents reported experiencing an injury in the past three months, four of every 10 respondents reported an error or adverse event (AE), and 89% reported safety-compromising behaviors. Respondents reporting injury scored lower on five of the six domains of safety culture. Respondents reporting an error or AE scored lower for four of the six domains, while respondents reporting safety-compromising behavior had lower safety culture scores for five of the six domains. Individual EMS worker perceptions of workplace safety culture are associated with composite measures of patient and provider safety outcomes. This study is preliminary evidence of the association between safety culture and patient or provider safety outcomes.

  10. The association between EMS workplace safety culture and safety outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Matthew D.; Wang, Henry E.; Fairbanks, Rollin J.; Patterson, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Objective Prior studies have highlighted wide variation in EMS workplace safety culture across agencies. We sought to determine the association between EMS workplace safety culture scores and patient or provider safety outcomes. Methods We administered a cross-sectional survey to EMS workers affiliated with a convenience sample of agencies. We recruited these agencies from a national EMS management organization. We used the EMS Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (EMS-SAQ) to measure workplace safety culture and the EMS Safety Inventory (EMS-SI), a tool developed to capture self-reported safety outcomes from EMS workers. The EMS-SAQ provides reliable and valid measures of six domains: safety climate, teamwork climate, perceptions of management, perceptions of working conditions, stress recognition, and job satisfaction. A panel of medical directors, paramedics, and occupational epidemiologists developed the EMS-SI to measure self-reported injury, medical errors and adverse events, and safety-compromising behaviors. We used hierarchical linear models to evaluate the association between EMS-SAQ scores and EMS-SI safety outcome measures. Results Sixteen percent of all respondents reported experiencing an injury in the past 3 months, four of every 10 respondents reported an error or adverse event (AE), and 90% reported safety-compromising behaviors. Respondents reporting injury scored lower on 5 of the 6 domains of safety culture. Respondents reporting an error or AE scored lower for 4 of the 6 domains, while respondents reporting safety-compromising behavior had lower safety culture scores for 5 of 6 domains. Conclusions Individual EMS worker perceptions of workplace safety culture are associated with composite measures of patient and provider safety outcomes. This study is preliminary evidence of the association between safety culture and patient or provider safety outcomes. PMID:21950463

  11. Accuracy of EMS Trauma Transport Destination Plans in North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Moss, Chailee; Cowden, Christopher S; Atterton, Laurie Meyer; Arasaratnam, Meredith H; Fernandez, Antonio R; Evarts, Jeff S; Barrier, Brian; Lerner, E Brooke; Mann, N Clay; Lohmeier, Chad; Shofer, Frances S; Brice, Jane H

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective. Planning for time-sensitive injury may allow emergency medical services (EMS) systems to more accurately triage patients meeting accepted criteria to facilities most capable of providing life-saving treatment. In 2010, North Carolina (NC) implemented statewide Trauma Triage and Destination Plans (TTDPs) in all 100 of North Carolina's county-defined EMS systems. Each system was responsible for identifying the specific destination hospitals with appropriate resources to treat trauma patients. We sought to characterize the accuracy of their hospital designations. Methods. In this cross-sectional study, we collected TTDPs for each county-defined EMS system, including their assigned hospital capabilities (i.e., trauma center or community hospital). We conducted a survey with each EMS system to determine how their TTDP was constructed and maintained, as well as with each TTDP-designated hospital to verify their capabilities. We determined the accuracy of the EMS assigned hospital designations by comparing them to the hospital's reported capabilities. Results. The 100 NC EMS systems provided 380 designations for 112 hospitals. TTDPs were created by EMS administrators and medical directors, with only 55% of EMS systems engaging a hospital representative in the plan creation. Compared to the actual hospital capabilities, 97% of the EMS TTDP designations were correct. Twelve hospital designations were incorrect and the majority (10) overestimated hospital capabilities. Of the 100 EMS systems, 7 misclassified hospitals in their TTDP. EMS systems that did not verify their local hospitals' capabilities during TTDP development were more likely to incorrectly categorize a hospital's capabilities (p = 0.001). Conclusions. A small number of EMS systems misclassified hospitals in their TTDP, but most plans accurately reflected hospital capabilities. Misclassification occurred more often in systems that did not consult local hospitals prior to developing their

  12. What Do They Want from Us? A Survey of EM Program Directors on EM Application Criteria

    PubMed Central

    King, Kevin; Kass, Dara

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Although a relatively young specialty, emergency medicine (EM) is popular among medical students and is one of the most competitive large specialties. Consequently, students increasingly seek more opportunity to differentiate themselves from their colleagues by pursuing more clerkships at the cost of taking out additional loans: this despite the fact that those who match in EM typically do so in their top three choices. We sought to ascertain what factors EM program directors seek in their typical candidate. Methods We recruited EM program directors via the Council of Emergency Medicine Residency Directors email listserv to participate in an anonymous survey regarding the United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE), the number of standardized letters of evaluation (SLOE), and the number of EM rotations during the fourth year. Results 135 respondents completed the anonymous survey: 59% of respondents stated their program did not have a minimum USMLE Step 1 score, but 39% reported a minimum score of 210 or higher; 95% of programs do not require Step 2 to grant an interview, but 46% require it to place the student on the rank list; 80% require only one EM rotation to grant an interview and none require more than two; 95% of programs will accept two SLOEs for both application and rank list placement. Conclusion For the typical EM applicant, there is likely little benefit to performing more than two rotations and obtaining more than two SLOEs. Students can defer USMLE Step 2 but must complete it by the time rank lists are due. Our study was limited by the anonymity of the survey, and comments by the respondents revealed the questions did not account for some nuances programs apply to their application review process. PMID:28116023

  13. The E-MS Algorithm: Model Selection with Incomplete Data.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jiming; Nguyen, Thuan; Rao, J Sunil

    2015-04-04

    We propose a procedure associated with the idea of the E-M algorithm for model selection in the presence of missing data. The idea extends the concept of parameters to include both the model and the parameters under the model, and thus allows the model to be part of the E-M iterations. We develop the procedure, known as the E-MS algorithm, under the assumption that the class of candidate models is finite. Some special cases of the procedure are considered, including E-MS with the generalized information criteria (GIC), and E-MS with the adaptive fence (AF; Jiang et al. 2008). We prove numerical convergence of the E-MS algorithm as well as consistency in model selection of the limiting model of the E-MS convergence, for E-MS with GIC and E-MS with AF. We study the impact on model selection of different missing data mechanisms. Furthermore, we carry out extensive simulation studies on the finite-sample performance of the E-MS with comparisons to other procedures. The methodology is also illustrated on a real data analysis involving QTL mapping for an agricultural study on barley grains.

  14. The E-MS Algorithm: Model Selection with Incomplete Data

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Jiming; Nguyen, Thuan; Rao, J. Sunil

    2014-01-01

    We propose a procedure associated with the idea of the E-M algorithm for model selection in the presence of missing data. The idea extends the concept of parameters to include both the model and the parameters under the model, and thus allows the model to be part of the E-M iterations. We develop the procedure, known as the E-MS algorithm, under the assumption that the class of candidate models is finite. Some special cases of the procedure are considered, including E-MS with the generalized information criteria (GIC), and E-MS with the adaptive fence (AF; Jiang et al. 2008). We prove numerical convergence of the E-MS algorithm as well as consistency in model selection of the limiting model of the E-MS convergence, for E-MS with GIC and E-MS with AF. We study the impact on model selection of different missing data mechanisms. Furthermore, we carry out extensive simulation studies on the finite-sample performance of the E-MS with comparisons to other procedures. The methodology is also illustrated on a real data analysis involving QTL mapping for an agricultural study on barley grains. PMID:26783375

  15. Applying Recursive EM to Scene Segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachmann, Alexander

    In this paper a novel approach for the interdependent task of multiple object tracking and scene segmentation is presented. The method partitions a stereo image sequence of a dynamic 3-dimensional (3D) scene into its most prominent moving groups with similar 3D motion. The unknown set of motion parameters is recursively estimated using an iterated extended Kalman filter (IEKF) which will be derived from the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm. The EM formulation is used to incorporate a probabilistic data association measure into the tracking process. In a subsequent segregation step, each image point is assigned to the object hypothesis with maximum a posteriori (MAP) probability. Within the association process, which is implemented as labeling problem, a Markov Random Field (MRF) is used to express our expectations on spatial continuity of objects.

  16. Intense EM filamentation in relativistic hot plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Qiang-Lin; Chen, Zhong-Ping; Mahajan, Swadesh M.

    2017-03-01

    Through 2D particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations, we demonstrate that the nature of filamentation of a high intensity electromagnetic (EM) pulse propagating in an underdense plasma, is profoundly affected at relativistically high temperatures. The "relativistic" filaments are sharper, are dramatically extended (along the direction of propagation), and live much longer than their lower temperature counterparts. The thermally boosted electron inertia is invoked to understand this very interesting and powerful phenomenon.

  17. Cryo-EM: Spinning the Micelles Away.

    PubMed

    Singh, Satinder K; Sigworth, Fred J

    2015-09-01

    Structural characterization of integral membrane proteins (MPs) demands that the samples be pure, monodisperse, and stable. Detergents are required to extract MPs from the lipid bilayer in which they reside and to stabilize them for downstream biophysical analyses. Some of the best MP-stabilizing detergents pose problems for cryo-EM studies, but in this issue of Structure, Hauer et al. (2015) now offer a solution called GraDeR.

  18. Leukocyte Recognition Using EM-Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colunga, Mario Chirinos; Siordia, Oscar Sánchez; Maybank, Stephen J.

    This document describes a method for classifying images of blood cells. Three different classes of cells are used: Band Neutrophils, Eosinophils and Lymphocytes. The image pattern is projected down to a lower dimensional sub space using PCA; the probability density function for each class is modeled with a Gaussian mixture using the EM-Algorithm. A new cell image is classified using the maximum a posteriori decision rule.

  19. TandEM: Titan and Enceladus mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coustenis, A.; Atreya, S. K.; Balint, T.; Brown, R. H.; Dougherty, M. K.; Ferri, F.; Fulchignoni, M.; Gautier, D.; Gowen, R. A.; Griffith, C. A.; Gurvits, L. I.; Jaumann, R.; Langevin, Y.; Leese, M. R.; Lunine, J. I.; McKay, C. P.; Moussas, X.; Müller-Wodarg, I.; Neubauer, F.; Owen, T. C.; Raulin, F.; Sittler, E. C.; Sohl, F.; Sotin, C.; Tobie, G.; Tokano, T.; Turtle, E. P.; Wahlund, J.-E.; Waite, J. H.; Baines, K. H.; Blamont, J.; Coates, A. J.; Dandouras, I.; Krimigis, T.; Lellouch, E.; Lorenz, R. D.; Morse, A.; Porco, C. C.; Hirtzig, M.; Saur, J.; Spilker, T.; Zarnecki, J. C.; Choi, E.; Achilleos, N.; Amils, R.; Annan, P.; Atkinson, D. H.; Bénilan, Y.; Bertucci, C.; Bézard, B.; Bjoraker, G. L.; Blanc, M.; Boireau, L.; Bouman, J.; Cabane, M.; Capria, M. T.; Chassefière, E.; Coll, P.; Combes, M.; Cooper, J. F.; Coradini, A.; Crary, F.; Cravens, T.; Daglis, I. A.; de Angelis, E.; de Bergh, C.; de Pater, I.; Dunford, C.; Durry, G.; Dutuit, O.; Fairbrother, D.; Flasar, F. M.; Fortes, A. D.; Frampton, R.; Fujimoto, M.; Galand, M.; Grasset, O.; Grott, M.; Haltigin, T.; Herique, A.; Hersant, F.; Hussmann, H.; Ip, W.; Johnson, R.; Kallio, E.; Kempf, S.; Knapmeyer, M.; Kofman, W.; Koop, R.; Kostiuk, T.; Krupp, N.; Küppers, M.; Lammer, H.; Lara, L.-M.; Lavvas, P.; Le Mouélic, S.; Lebonnois, S.; Ledvina, S.; Li, J.; Livengood, T. A.; Lopes, R. M.; Lopez-Moreno, J.-J.; Luz, D.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Mall, U.; Martinez-Frias, J.; Marty, B.; McCord, T.; Menor Salvan, C.; Milillo, A.; Mitchell, D. G.; Modolo, R.; Mousis, O.; Nakamura, M.; Neish, C. D.; Nixon, C. A.; Nna Mvondo, D.; Orton, G.; Paetzold, M.; Pitman, J.; Pogrebenko, S.; Pollard, W.; Prieto-Ballesteros, O.; Rannou, P.; Reh, K.; Richter, L.; Robb, F. T.; Rodrigo, R.; Rodriguez, S.; Romani, P.; Ruiz Bermejo, M.; Sarris, E. T.; Schenk, P.; Schmitt, B.; Schmitz, N.; Schulze-Makuch, D.; Schwingenschuh, K.; Selig, A.; Sicardy, B.; Soderblom, L.; Spilker, L. J.; Stam, D.; Steele, A.; Stephan, K.; Strobel, D. F.; Szego, K.; Szopa, C.; Thissen, R.; Tomasko, M. G.; Toublanc, D.; Vali, H.; Vardavas, I.; Vuitton, V.; West, R. A.; Yelle, R.; Young, E. F.

    2009-03-01

    TandEM was proposed as an L-class (large) mission in response to ESA’s Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 Call, and accepted for further studies, with the goal of exploring Titan and Enceladus. The mission concept is to perform in situ investigations of two worlds tied together by location and properties, whose remarkable natures have been partly revealed by the ongoing Cassini-Huygens mission. These bodies still hold mysteries requiring a complete exploration using a variety of vehicles and instruments. TandEM is an ambitious mission because its targets are two of the most exciting and challenging bodies in the Solar System. It is designed to build on but exceed the scientific and technological accomplishments of the Cassini-Huygens mission, exploring Titan and Enceladus in ways that are not currently possible (full close-up and in situ coverage over long periods of time). In the current mission architecture, TandEM proposes to deliver two medium-sized spacecraft to the Saturnian system. One spacecraft would be an orbiter with a large host of instruments which would perform several Enceladus flybys and deliver penetrators to its surface before going into a dedicated orbit around Titan alone, while the other spacecraft would carry the Titan in situ investigation components, i.e. a hot-air balloon (Montgolfière) and possibly several landing probes to be delivered through the atmosphere.

  20. TandEM: Titan and Enceladus mission

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coustenis, A.; Atreya, S.K.; Balint, T.; Brown, R.H.; Dougherty, M.K.; Ferri, F.; Fulchignoni, M.; Gautier, D.; Gowen, R.A.; Griffith, C.A.; Gurvits, L.I.; Jaumann, R.; Langevin, Y.; Leese, M.R.; Lunine, J.I.; McKay, C.P.; Moussas, X.; Muller-Wodarg, I.; Neubauer, F.; Owen, T.C.; Raulin, F.; Sittler, E.C.; Sohl, F.; Sotin, Christophe; Tobie, G.; Tokano, T.; Turtle, E.P.; Wahlund, J.-E.; Waite, J.H.; Baines, K.H.; Blamont, J.; Coates, A.J.; Dandouras, I.; Krimigis, T.; Lellouch, E.; Lorenz, R.D.; Morse, A.; Porco, C.C.; Hirtzig, M.; Saur, J.; Spilker, T.; Zarnecki, J.C.; Choi, E.; Achilleos, N.; Amils, R.; Annan, P.; Atkinson, D.H.; Benilan, Y.; Bertucci, C.; Bezard, B.; Bjoraker, G.L.; Blanc, M.; Boireau, L.; Bouman, J.; Cabane, M.; Capria, M.T.; Chassefiere, E.; Coll, P.; Combes, M.; Cooper, J.F.; Coradini, A.; Crary, F.; Cravens, T.; Daglis, I.A.; de Angelis, E.; De Bergh, C.; de Pater, I.; Dunford, C.; Durry, G.; Dutuit, O.; Fairbrother, D.; Flasar, F.M.; Fortes, A.D.; Frampton, R.; Fujimoto, M.; Galand, M.; Grasset, O.; Grott, M.; Haltigin, T.; Herique, A.; Hersant, F.; Hussmann, H.; Ip, W.; Johnson, R.; Kallio, E.; Kempf, S.; Knapmeyer, M.; Kofman, W.; Koop, R.; Kostiuk, T.; Krupp, N.; Kuppers, M.; Lammer, H.; Lara, L.-M.; Lavvas, P.; Le, Mouelic S.; Lebonnois, S.; Ledvina, S.; Li, Ji; Livengood, T.A.; Lopes, R.M.; Lopez-Moreno, J. -J.; Luz, D.; Mahaffy, P.R.; Mall, U.; Martinez-Frias, J.; Marty, B.; McCord, T.; Salvan, C.M.; Milillo, A.; Mitchell, D.G.; Modolo, R.; Mousis, O.; Nakamura, M.; Neish, Catherine D.; Nixon, C.A.; Mvondo, D.N.; Orton, G.; Paetzold, M.; Pitman, J.; Pogrebenko, S.; Pollard, W.; Prieto-Ballesteros, O.; Rannou, P.; Reh, K.; Richter, L.; Robb, F.T.; Rodrigo, R.; Rodriguez, S.; Romani, P.; Bermejo, M.R.; Sarris, E.T.; Schenk, P.; Schmitt, B.; Schmitz, N.; Schulze-Makuch, D.; Schwingenschuh, K.; Selig, A.; Sicardy, B.; Soderblom, L.; Spilker, L.J.; Stam, D.; Steele, A.; Stephan, K.; Strobel, D.F.; Szego, K.; Szopa,

    2009-01-01

    TandEM was proposed as an L-class (large) mission in response to ESA's Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 Call, and accepted for further studies, with the goal of exploring Titan and Enceladus. The mission concept is to perform in situ investigations of two worlds tied together by location and properties, whose remarkable natures have been partly revealed by the ongoing Cassini-Huygens mission. These bodies still hold mysteries requiring a complete exploration using a variety of vehicles and instruments. TandEM is an ambitious mission because its targets are two of the most exciting and challenging bodies in the Solar System. It is designed to build on but exceed the scientific and technological accomplishments of the Cassini-Huygens mission, exploring Titan and Enceladus in ways that are not currently possible (full close-up and in situ coverage over long periods of time). In the current mission architecture, TandEM proposes to deliver two medium-sized spacecraft to the Saturnian system. One spacecraft would be an orbiter with a large host of instruments which would perform several Enceladus flybys and deliver penetrators to its surface before going into a dedicated orbit around Titan alone, while the other spacecraft would carry the Titan in situ investigation components, i.e. a hot-air balloon (Montgolfi??re) and possibly several landing probes to be delivered through the atmosphere. ?? Springer Science + Business Media B.V. 2008.

  1. The US DOE EM international program

    SciTech Connect

    Elmetti, Rosa R.; Han, Ana M.; Roach, Jay A.

    2013-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) conducts international collaboration activities in support of U.S. policies and objectives regarding the accelerated risk reduction and remediation of environmental legacy of the nations' nuclear weapons program and government sponsored nuclear energy research. The EM International Program supported out of the EM Office of the Associate Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary pursues collaborations with foreign government organizations, educational institutions and private industry to assist in identifying technologies and promote international collaborations that leverage resources and link international experience and expertise. In fiscal year (FY) 2012, the International Program awarded eight international collaborative projects for work scope spanning waste processing, groundwater and soil remediation, deactivation and decommissioning (D and D) and nuclear materials disposition initiatives to seven foreign organizations. Additionally, the International Program's scope and collaboration opportunities were expanded to include technical as well as non-technical areas. This paper will present an overview of the on-going tasks awarded in FY 2012 and an update of upcoming international activities and opportunities for expansion into the remainder of FY 2013 and beyond. (authors)

  2. 2. HI PAR (ACQUISITION RADAR) TOWER AND ENLISTED MEN (EM) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. HI PAR (ACQUISITION RADAR) TOWER AND ENLISTED MEN (EM) BARRACKS WITH RADAR ATTACHED. - Nike Hercules Missile Battery Summit Site, Battery Control Administration & Barracks Building, Anchorage, Anchorage, AK

  3. The State of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) Systems in Africa.

    PubMed

    Mould-Millman, Nee-Kofi; Dixon, Julia M; Sefa, Nana; Yancey, Arthur; Hollong, Bonaventure G; Hagahmed, Mohamed; Ginde, Adit A; Wallis, Lee A

    2017-02-23

    Introduction Little is known about the existence, distribution, and characteristics of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) systems in Africa, or the corresponding epidemiology of prehospital illness and injury.

  4. Recruitment and retention in rural and urban EMS: results from a national survey of local EMS directors.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Victoria A; Slifkin, Rebecca T; Patterson, P Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Maintaining an adequate staff is a challenge for rural emergency medical services (EMS) providers. This national survey of local EMS directors finds that rural EMS are more likely to be freestanding, that is, not affiliated with other public services, to employ only emergency medical technician-basics (EMT-Bs), and to be all volunteer. Rural EMS directors are more likely than urban ones to report that they are not currently fully staffed. The most common barriers to recruitment of EMTs in both urban and rural areas include unwillingness of community members to volunteer and lack of certified EMTs in the area. In rural areas, barriers to EMT training were noted more often than in urban areas as was the lack of employer support for employee volunteers. Similar rural training barriers affected retention of staff. Rural respondents reported that they lose staff to burnout and to difficulty in meeting continuing education requirements. Among rural respondents, those who direct all-volunteer EMS were the most likely to report recruitment and retention problems. The results suggest areas for further study including how volunteer EMS agencies can transition to paid agencies, how to bring EMS education to rural areas, and how EMS can work with other agencies to ensure EMS viability.

  5. Communication - An Effective Tool for Implementing ISO 14001/EMS

    SciTech Connect

    Rachel Damewood; Bowen Huntsman

    2004-04-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) received ISO 14001/EMS certification in June 2002. Communication played an effective role in implementing ISO 14001/EMS at the INEEL. This paper describes communication strategies used during the implementation and certification processes. The INEEL achieved Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) and Voluntary Protection Program (VPP) Star status in 2001. ISMS implemented a formal process to plan and execute work. VPP facilitated worker involvement by establishing geographic units at various facilities with employee points of contact and management champions. The INEEL Environmental Management System (EMS) was developed to integrate the environmental functional area into its ISMS and VPP. Since the core functions of ISMS, VPP, and EMS are interchangeable, they were easy to integrate. Communication is essential to successfully implement an EMS. (According to ISO 14001 requirements, communication interacts with 12 other elements of the requirements.) We developed communication strategies that integrated ISMS, VPP, and EMS. For example, the ISMS, VPP, and EMS Web sites communicated messages to the work force, such as “VPP emphasizes the people side of doing business, ISMS emphasizes the system side of doing business, and EMS emphasizes the systems to protect the environment; but they all define work, identify and analyze hazards, and mitigate the hazards.” As a result of this integration, the work force supported and implemented the EMS. In addition, the INEEL established a cross-functional communication team to assist with implementing the EMS. The team included members from the Training and Communication organizations, VPP office, Pollution Prevention, Employee and Media Relations, a union representative, facility environmental support, and EMS staff. This crossfunctional team used various communication strategies to promote our EMS to all organization levels and successfully implemented EMS

  6. Improving Emergency Medical Services (EMS) in the United States Through Improved and Centralized Federal Coordination

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    other emergencies. 4 • Public Awareness of the EMS Discipline. The public at large is not aware of the EMS structure in its community or at a higher...regard for its imperative role in community service. For this reason, placing EMS under the USFA at the federal level would cause EMS to still be...service to include EMS is appropriate, and in some cases, it is not. Not all communities have a dedicated fire service, which can make EMS provision

  7. EM threat analysis for wireless systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Burkholder, R. J. (Ohio State University Electroscience Laboratory); Mariano, Robert J.; Schniter, P. (Ohio State University Electroscience Laboratory); Gupta, I. J. (Ohio State University Electroscience Laboratory)

    2006-06-01

    Modern digital radio systems are complex and must be carefully designed, especially when expected to operate in harsh propagation environments. The ability to accurately predict the effects of propagation on wireless radio performance could lead to more efficient radio designs as well as the ability to perform vulnerability analyses before and after system deployment. In this report, the authors--experts in electromagnetic (EM) modeling and wireless communication theory--describe the construction of a simulation environment that is capable of quantifying the effects of wireless propagation on the performance of digital communication.

  8. Association between EMS Question Bank Completion and Passing Rates on the EMS Certification Examination.

    PubMed

    Clemency, Brian; Martin-Gill, Christian; Rall, Nicole; May, Paul; Lubin, Jeffrey; Cooley, Craig; Van Dillen, Christine; Silvestri, Salvatore; Portela, Roberto; Cooney, Derek; Knutsen, Christian; March, Juan

    2017-01-01

    A board review question bank was created to assist candidates in their preparation for the 2015 EMS certification examination. We aimed to describe the development of this question bank and evaluate its successes in preparing candidates to obtain EMS subspecialty board certification. An online question bank was developed by 13 subject matter experts who participated as item writers, representing eight different EMS fellowship programs. The online question bank consisted of four practice tests, with each of the tests comprised of 100 questions. The number of candidates who participated in and completed the question bank was calculated. The passing rate among candidates who completed the question bank was calculated and compared to the publicly reported statistics for all candidates. The relationship between candidates' performance on the question bank and subspecialty exam pass rates was determined. A total of 252 candidates took at least one practice test and, of those, 225 candidates completed all four 100-question practice tests. The pass rate on the 2015 EMS certification exam was 79% (95%CI 74-85%) among candidates who completed the question bank, which is 12% higher than the overall pass rate (p = 0.003). Candidates' performance on the question bank was positively associated with overall success on the exam (X(2) = 75.8, p < 0.0001). Achieving a score of ≥ 70% on the question bank was associated with a higher likelihood of passing the exam (OR = 17.8; 95% CI: 8.0-39.6). Completing the question bank program was associated with improved pass rates on the EMS certification exam. Strong performance on the question bank correlated with success on the exam.

  9. Light curve analysis of southern eclipsing binary EM Car

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ćiçek, C.; Bulut, I.; Bulut, A.

    2017-02-01

    In this study, ASAS light curve of the eclipsing binary EM Car (Sp = O8V, P = 3.4 days) has been analyzed using the Wilson-Devinney method. The light curve analyses have found that EM Car is a detached eclipsing binary system with small eccentric orbit

  10. Genetic-based EM algorithm for learning Gaussian mixture models.

    PubMed

    Pernkopf, Franz; Bouchaffra, Djamel

    2005-08-01

    We propose a genetic-based expectation-maximization (GA-EM) algorithm for learning Gaussian mixture models from multivariate data. This algorithm is capable of selecting the number of components of the model using the minimum description length (MDL) criterion. Our approach benefits from the properties of Genetic algorithms (GA) and the EM algorithm by combination of both into a single procedure. The population-based stochastic search of the GA explores the search space more thoroughly than the EM method. Therefore, our algorithm enables escaping from local optimal solutions since the algorithm becomes less sensitive to its initialization. The GA-EM algorithm is elitist which maintains the monotonic convergence property of the EM algorithm. The experiments on simulated and real data show that the GA-EM outperforms the EM method since: 1) We have obtained a better MDL score while using exactly the same termination condition for both algorithms. 2) Our approach identifies the number of components which were used to generate the underlying data more often than the EM algorithm.

  11. CryoEM at IUCrJ: a new era

    PubMed Central

    Subramaniam, Sriram; Kühlbrandt, Werner; Henderson, Richard

    2016-01-01

    In this overview, we briefly outline recent advances in electron cryomicroscopy (cryoEM) and explain why the journal IUCrJ, published by the International Union of Crystallography, could provide a natural home for publications covering many present and future developments in the cryoEM field. PMID:26870375

  12. 7 CFR 759.6 - EM to be made available.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... natural disaster has occurred in a county, resulting in severe physical losses. If the FSA Administrator determines that such a natural disaster has occurred, then EM can be made available to eligible farmers for... AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS DISASTER DESIGNATIONS AND NOTIFICATIONS § 759.6 EM to be made available. (a)...

  13. 7 CFR 759.6 - EM to be made available.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... natural disaster has occurred in a county, resulting in severe physical losses. If the FSA Administrator determines that such a natural disaster has occurred, then EM can be made available to eligible farmers for... AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS DISASTER DESIGNATIONS AND NOTIFICATIONS § 759.6 EM to be made available. (a)...

  14. The Post-LBV Supernova 2001em

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Dyk, Schuyler D.; Chornock, R.; Filippenko, A. V.; Foley, R. J.; Lewin, W. H. G.; Li, W.; Panagia, N.; Pooley, D.; Stockdale, C. J.; Weiler, K. W.

    2009-12-01

    The supernova (SN) 2001em in UGC 11794 was classified early as Type Ib/c, i.e., as one arising from a hydrogen-stripped star. As part of a radio survey with the Very Large Array of SNe Ib/c at late times (Stockdale et al. 2003, BAAS, 35, 1346), SN 2001em was detected as a highly luminous radio source ˜2 years after explosion. The SN was also subsequently discovered with Chandra to be a very luminous X-ray source. The properties of both the radio and X-ray emission are more characteristic of the Type II-narrow (IIn) SNe, where the SN shock is interacting with dense, massive circumstellar matter, resulting in bright radio synchrotron emission and thermal bremsstrahlung from the interaction region. In fact, SN 2001em has shown to have spectroscopically transformed to a SN IIn. The premise that this might indicate an off-axis gamma-ray burst has been presented (Granot & Ramirez-Ruiz 2004, ApJ, 609, L9) and later, rather convincingly, refuted (e.g., Schinzel et al. 2009, ApJ, 691, 1380). Chugai & Chevalier (2006, ApJ, 641, 1051) have interpreted the spectral transformation and radio/X-ray emission as the SN shock overtaking the detached hydrogen envelope of the progenitor star, which was shed in a superwind episode many years prior to explosion. Chevalier (2007, RMxAC, 30, 41) has further pointed to the required mass-loss rate in the event being equivalent to what would occur in the eruption of a luminous blue variable (LBV). The optical (ground-based and HST) and radio/X-ray data, together with mid-infrared Spitzer observations, tend to support this scenario of a very massive star that experienced a powerful LBV outburst prior to explosion. Such an event may not be unique, with possible parallels in the cases of SNe 2005bf and 2006jc, and may provide valuable new information about massive stellar evolution.

  15. Refinement of atomic models in high resolution EM reconstructions using Flex-EM and local assessment.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Agnel Praveen; Malhotra, Sony; Burnley, Tom; Wood, Chris; Clare, Daniel K; Winn, Martyn; Topf, Maya

    2016-05-01

    As the resolutions of Three Dimensional Electron Microscopic reconstructions of biological macromolecules are being improved, there is a need for better fitting and refinement methods at high resolutions and robust approaches for model assessment. Flex-EM/MODELLER has been used for flexible fitting of atomic models in intermediate-to-low resolution density maps of different biological systems. Here, we demonstrate the suitability of the method to successfully refine structures at higher resolutions (2.5-4.5Å) using both simulated and experimental data, including a newly processed map of Apo-GroEL. A hierarchical refinement protocol was adopted where the rigid body definitions are relaxed and atom displacement steps are reduced progressively at successive stages of refinement. For the assessment of local fit, we used the SMOC (segment-based Manders' overlap coefficient) score, while the model quality was checked using the Qmean score. Comparison of SMOC profiles at different stages of refinement helped in detecting regions that are poorly fitted. We also show how initial model errors can have significant impact on the goodness-of-fit. Finally, we discuss the implementation of Flex-EM in the CCP-EM software suite. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Refinement of atomic models in high resolution EM reconstructions using Flex-EM and local assessment

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Agnel Praveen; Malhotra, Sony; Burnley, Tom; Wood, Chris; Clare, Daniel K.; Winn, Martyn; Topf, Maya

    2016-01-01

    As the resolutions of Three Dimensional Electron Microscopic reconstructions of biological macromolecules are being improved, there is a need for better fitting and refinement methods at high resolutions and robust approaches for model assessment. Flex-EM/MODELLER has been used for flexible fitting of atomic models in intermediate-to-low resolution density maps of different biological systems. Here, we demonstrate the suitability of the method to successfully refine structures at higher resolutions (2.5–4.5 Å) using both simulated and experimental data, including a newly processed map of Apo-GroEL. A hierarchical refinement protocol was adopted where the rigid body definitions are relaxed and atom displacement steps are reduced progressively at successive stages of refinement. For the assessment of local fit, we used the SMOC (segment-based Manders’ overlap coefficient) score, while the model quality was checked using the Qmean score. Comparison of SMOC profiles at different stages of refinement helped in detecting regions that are poorly fitted. We also show how initial model errors can have significant impact on the goodness-of-fit. Finally, we discuss the implementation of Flex-EM in the CCP-EM software suite. PMID:26988127

  17. EMS incident management: emergency medical logistics.

    PubMed

    Maniscalco, P M; Christen, H T

    1999-01-01

    If you had to get x amount of supplies to point A or point B, or both, in 10 minutes, how would you do it? The answer lies in the following steps: 1. Develop a logistics plan. 2. Use emergency management as a partner agency for developing your logistics plan. 3. Implement a push logistics system by determining what supplies/medications and equipment are important. 4. Place mass casualty/disaster caches at key locations for rapid deployment. Have medication/fluid caches available at local hospitals. 5. Develop and implement command caches for key supervisors and managers. 6. Anticipate the logistics requirements of a terrorism/tactical violence event based on a community threat assessment. 7. Educate the public about preparing a BLS family disaster kit. 8. Test logistics capabilities at disaster exercises. 9. Budget for logistics needs. 10. Never underestimate the importance of logistics. When logistics support fails, the EMS system fails.

  18. A new preparedness policy for EMS logistics.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seokcheon

    2017-03-01

    Response time in emergency medical services (EMS) is defined as the interval for an ambulance to arrive the scene after receipt of a 911 call. When several ambulances are available upon the receipt of a new call, a decision of selecting an ambulance has to be made in an effort to reduce response time. Dispatching the closest unit available is commonly used in practice; however, recently the Preparedness policy was designed that is in a simplistic form yet being capable of securing a long-term efficiency. This research aims to improve the Preparedness policy, resolving several critical issues inherent in the current form of the policy. The new Preparedness policy incorporates a new metric of preparedness based on the notion of centrality and involves a tuning parameter, weight on preparedness, which has to be appropriately chosen according to operational scenario. Computational experiment shows that the new policy significantly improves the former policy robustly in various scenarios.

  19. Online EM with weight-based forgetting.

    PubMed

    Celaya, Enric; Agostini, Alejandro

    2015-05-01

    In the online version of the EM algorithm introduced by Sato and Ishii ( 2000 ), a time-dependent discount factor is introduced for forgetting the effect of the old estimated values obtained with an earlier, inaccurate estimator. In their approach, forgetting is uniformly applied to the estimators of each mixture component depending exclusively on time, irrespective of the weight attributed to each unit for the observed sample. This causes an excessive forgetting in the less frequently sampled regions. To address this problem, we propose a modification of the algorithm that involves a weight-dependent forgetting, different for each mixture component, in which old observations are forgotten according to the actual weight of the new samples used to replace older values. A comparison of the time-dependent versus the weight-dependent approach shows that the latter improves the accuracy of the approximation and exhibits much greater stability.

  20. DOE EM industry programs robotics development

    SciTech Connect

    Staubly, R.; Kothari, V.

    1997-12-01

    The Office of Science and Technology (OST) manages an aggressive program for RD&D, as well as testing and evaluation for the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) organization. The goal is to develop new and improved environmental restoration and waste management technologies to clean up the inventory of the DOE weapons complex faster, safer, and cheaper than is possible with currently available technologies. OST has organized technology management activities along focus teams for each major problem area. There are currently five focus areas: decontamination and decommissioning, tanks, subsurface contaminants, mixed waste, and plutonium. In addition, OST is pursuing research and development (R&D) that cuts across these focus areas by having applications in two or more focus areas. Currently, there are three cross-cutting programs: the robotics technology development; characterization, monitoring, and sensor technologies; and efficient separations and processing.

  1. Epidemiology of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) Utilization in Four Indian Emergency Departments.

    PubMed

    Wijesekera, Olindi; Reed, Amanda; Chastain, Parker S; Biggs, Shauna; Clark, Elizabeth G; Kole, Tamorish; Chakrapani, Anoop T; Ashish, Nandy; Rajhans, Prasad; Breaud, Alan H; Jacquet, Gabrielle A

    2016-12-01

    Introduction Without a universal Emergency Medical Services (EMS) system in India, data on the epidemiology of patients who utilize EMS are limited. This retrospective chart review aimed to quantify and describe the burden of disease and patient demographics of patients who arrived by EMS to four Indian emergency departments (EDs) in order to inform a national EMS curriculum.

  2. Best Practices for Managing Large CryoEM Facilities

    PubMed Central

    Alewijnse, Bart; Ashton, Alun W.; Chambers, Melissa G.; Chen, Songye; Cheng, Anchi; Ebrahim, Mark; Eng, Edward; Hagen, Wim J. H.; Koster, Abraham J.; López, Claudia S.; Lukoyanova, Natalya; Ortega, Joaquin; Renault, Ludovic; Reyntjens, Steve; Rice, William J.; Scapin, Giovanna; Schrijver, Raymond; Siebert, Alistair; Stagg, Scott M.; Grum-Tokars, Valerie; Wright, Elizabeth R.; Wu, Shenping; Yu, Zhiheng; Zhou, Z. Hong; Carragher, Bridget; Potter, Clinton S.

    2017-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the discussion and presentations from the Workshop on the Management of Large CryoEM Facilities held at the New York Structural Biology Center, New York, NY on February 6–7, 2017. A major objective of the workshop was to discuss best practices for managing cryoEM facilities. The discussions were largely focused on supporting single-particle methods for cryoEM and topics included: user access, assessing projects, workflow, sample handling, microscopy, data management and processing, and user training. PMID:28827185

  3. Environmental Education and Development Division (EM-522). Annual report, Fiscal year 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    The Environmental Education and Development Division (EM-522) is one of three divisions within the Office of Technology Integration and Environmental Education and Development (EM-52) in Environmental Restoration and Waste Management`s (EM`s) Office of Technology Development (EM-50). The primary design criterion for EM-522 education activities is directly related to meeting EM`s goal of environmental compliance on an accelerated basis and cleanup of the 1989 inventory of inactive sites and facilities by the year 2019. Therefore, EM-522`s efforts are directed specifically toward stimulating knowledge and capabilities to achieve the goals of EM while contributing to DOE`s overall goal of increasing scientific, mathematical, and technical literacy and competency. This report discusses fiscal year 1993 activities.

  4. Transforming EMS Compliance at the Utah National Guard with an Automated Tool

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-01

    14001 & EMS 16 ISO 14001 EMS Requirements ISO14001 Requirement Condition WebEMIS™ 4.1 General Requirements None Uploads and stores EO 13423, EO...top level management with metrics and performance measures based on media WebEMIS vs. ISO 14001 & EMS 17 ISO 14001 EMS Requirements ISO14001 ...14001 EMS Requirements ISO14001 Requirement Condition WebEMIS 4.4 Implementation and Operation 4.4.1 Resources, Roles, Responsibility and Authority

  5. Recent developments in the CCP-EM software suite

    PubMed Central

    Burnley, Tom

    2017-01-01

    As part of its remit to provide computational support to the cryo-EM community, the Collaborative Computational Project for Electron cryo-Microscopy (CCP-EM) has produced a software framework which enables easy access to a range of programs and utilities. The resulting software suite incorporates contributions from different collaborators by encapsulating them in Python task wrappers, which are then made accessible via a user-friendly graphical user interface as well as a command-line interface suitable for scripting. The framework includes tools for project and data management. An overview of the design of the framework is given, together with a survey of the functionality at different levels. The current CCP-EM suite has particular strength in the building and refinement of atomic models into cryo-EM reconstructions, which is described in detail. PMID:28580908

  6. E.M. and Hadronic Shower Simulation with FLUKA

    SciTech Connect

    Battistoni, G.; Fasso, A.; Ferrari, A.; Ranft, J.; Rubbia, A.; Sala, P.R.; /INFN, Milan /SLAC /CERN /Siegen U. /Zurich, ETH

    2005-10-03

    A description of the main features of e.m. and hadronic shower simulation models used in the FLUKA code is summarized and some recent applications are discussed. The general status of the FLUKA project is also reported.

  7. Recent developments in the CCP-EM software suite.

    PubMed

    Burnley, Tom; Palmer, Colin M; Winn, Martyn

    2017-06-01

    As part of its remit to provide computational support to the cryo-EM community, the Collaborative Computational Project for Electron cryo-Microscopy (CCP-EM) has produced a software framework which enables easy access to a range of programs and utilities. The resulting software suite incorporates contributions from different collaborators by encapsulating them in Python task wrappers, which are then made accessible via a user-friendly graphical user interface as well as a command-line interface suitable for scripting. The framework includes tools for project and data management. An overview of the design of the framework is given, together with a survey of the functionality at different levels. The current CCP-EM suite has particular strength in the building and refinement of atomic models into cryo-EM reconstructions, which is described in detail.

  8. DOE-EM Science of Safety Robotics Challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Rimando, Rodrigo; Watts, Alex; Bobbitt, John; McLaughlin, Doug; Quigley, Morgan; Gladwell, Scott; McLoughlin, Mike; Kinnamon, Tony; Garcia, Joe; Ansari, Alex; Voyles, Richard; Chambers, David; Pryor, Mitch; Workman, Theresa; Mehling, Joshua; Browning, Kimberly; Deuel, Jake; Profitt, Bryan; Reibold, Marty

    2016-09-20

    During the week of August 22nd, 2016, over 150 technologists, stakeholders, and Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management workers, met at DOE’s Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant in Ohio, for the EM Science of Safety Robotics Challenge.

  9. Near-atomic-resolution cryo-EM for molecular virology.

    PubMed

    Hryc, Corey F; Chen, Dong-Hua; Chiu, Wah

    2011-08-01

    Electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) is a technique in structural biology that is widely used to solve the three-dimensional structures of macromolecular assemblies, close to their biological and solution conditions. Recent improvements in cryo-EM and single-particle reconstruction methodologies have led to the determination of several virus structures at near-atomic resolution (3.3 - 4.6 Å). These cryo-EM structures not only resolve the Cα backbones and side-chain densities of viral capsid proteins, but also suggest functional roles that the protein domains and some key amino acid residues play. This paper reviews the recent advances in near-atomic-resolution cryo-EM for probing the mechanisms of virus assembly and morphogenesis.

  10. EMS: A framework for data acquisition and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nogiec, J. M.; Sim, J.; Trombly-Freytag, K.; Walbridge, D.

    2001-08-01

    The Extensible Measurement System (EMS) is a universal Java framework for building data analysis and test systems. The objective of the EMS project is to replace a multitude of different existing systems with a single expandable system, capable of accommodating various test and analysis scenarios and varying algorithms. The EMS framework is based on component technology, graphical assembly of systems, introspection and flexibility to accommodate various data processing and data acquisition components. Core system components, common to many application domains, have been identified and designed together with the domain-specific components for the measurement of accelerator magnets. The EMS employs several modern technologies and the result is a highly portable, configurable, and potentially distributed system, with the capability of parallel signal data processing, parameterized test scripting, and run-time reconfiguration.

  11. EmPOWER Maryland - Leveraging relationships and experience

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    DHCD has gained a deep understanding of the needs of Maryland’s low-income residents and therefore was well-positioned to implement the low-income components of the broader EmPOWER Maryland energy efficiency initiative.

  12. Classification of ASASSN-17em/AT2017cts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bersier, David

    2017-04-01

    We obtained a spectrum of the candidate supernova ASASSN-17em/AT2017cts (ATEL #10241), using the SPRAT spectrograph mounted on the robotic 2m Liverpool Telescope at the Roque de los Muchachos observatory (La Palma).

  13. Classification of ASASSN-17em/AT2017cts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bersier, David

    2017-04-01

    We obtained a spectrum of the candidate supernova ASASSN-17em/AT2017cts (ATEL #10241), using the SPRAT spectrograph mounted on the robotic 2m Liverpool Telescope at the Roque de los Muchachos observatory (La Palma).

  14. Analysis of NSWC Ocean EM Observatory Test Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    Analysis of NSWC Ocean EM Observatory test data: final report J. Bradley Nelson Date: September 2016 Contract #: NICOP - N62909-15...From - To) 09/01/2016 Technical Report #2 July 2015 - September 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Sa. CONTRACT NUMBER Analysis of NSWC Ocean EM Observatory...distribution is unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT NSWC-Carderock is leading a defense/academia group to instrument the South Florida Ocean

  15. NASA EM Followup of LIGO-Virgo Candidate Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackburn, Lindy L.

    2011-01-01

    We present a strategy for a follow-up of LIGO-Virgo candidate events using offline survey data from several NASA high-energy photon instruments aboard RXTE, Swift, and Fermi. Time and sky-location information provided by the GW trigger allows for a targeted search for prompt and afterglow EM signals. In doing so, we expect to be sensitive to signals which are too weak to be publicly reported as astrophysical EM events.

  16. Orion EM-1 Booster Preps - Aft Skirt Preps/Painting

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-10-31

    The right hand aft skirt for NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) rocket has been refurbished and painted and is in a drying cell in a support building at the Hangar AF facility at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. The space shuttle-era aft skirt will be used on the right hand booster of the SLS for Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1). NASA is preparing for EM-1, deep space missions, and the Journey to Mars.

  17. Orion EM-1 Booster Preps - Aft Skirt Preps/Painting

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-10-28

    A technician with Orbital ATK, prime contractor for the Space Launch System (SLS) Booster, preps a section of the right hand aft skirt for primer and paint in a support building at the Hangar AF facility at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. The space shuttle-era aft skirt will be used on the right hand booster of NASA's SLS rocket for Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1). NASA is preparing for EM-1, deep space missions, and the Journey to Mars.

  18. Orion EM-1 Booster Preps - Aft Skirt Preps/Painting

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-10-29

    The right hand aft skirt for NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) rocket has been painted and is in a drying cell in a support building at the Hangar AF facility at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. The space shuttle-era aft skirt will be used on the right hand booster of NASA's Space Launch System rocket for Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1). NASA is preparing for EM-1, deep space missions, and the Journey to Mars.

  19. EM Telemetry Tool for Deep Well Drilling Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey M. Gabelmann

    2005-11-15

    This final report discusses the successful development and testing of a deep operational electromagnetic (EM) telemetry system, produced under a cooperative agreement with the United States Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory. This new electromagnetic telemetry system provides a wireless communication link between sensors deployed deep within oil and gas wells and data acquisition equipment located on the earth's surface. EM based wireless telemetry is a highly appropriate technology for oil and gas exploration in that it avoids the need for thousands of feet of wired connections. In order to achieve the project performance objectives, significant improvements over existing EM telemetry systems were made. These improvements included the development of new technologies that have improved the reliability of the communications link while extending operational depth. A key element of the new design is the incorporation of a data-fusion methodology which enhances the communication receiver's ability to extract very weak signals from large amounts of ambient environmental noise. This innovative data-fusion receiver based system adapts advanced technologies, not normally associated with low-frequency communications, and makes them work within the harsh drilling environments associated with the energy exploration market. Every element of a traditional EM telemetry system design, from power efficiency to reliability, has been addressed. The data fusion based EM telemetry system developed during this project is anticipated to provide an EM tool capability that will impact both onshore and offshore oil and gas exploration operations, for conventional and underbalanced drilling applications.

  20. STEME: efficient EM to find motifs in large data sets.

    PubMed

    Reid, John E; Wernisch, Lorenz

    2011-10-01

    MEME and many other popular motif finders use the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm to optimize their parameters. Unfortunately, the running time of EM is linear in the length of the input sequences. This can prohibit its application to data sets of the size commonly generated by high-throughput biological techniques. A suffix tree is a data structure that can efficiently index a set of sequences. We describe an algorithm, Suffix Tree EM for Motif Elicitation (STEME), that approximates EM using suffix trees. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first application of suffix trees to EM. We provide an analysis of the expected running time of the algorithm and demonstrate that STEME runs an order of magnitude more quickly than the implementation of EM used by MEME. We give theoretical bounds for the quality of the approximation and show that, in practice, the approximation has a negligible effect on the outcome. We provide an open source implementation of the algorithm that we hope will be used to speed up existing and future motif search algorithms.

  1. STEME: efficient EM to find motifs in large data sets

    PubMed Central

    Reid, John E.; Wernisch, Lorenz

    2011-01-01

    MEME and many other popular motif finders use the expectation–maximization (EM) algorithm to optimize their parameters. Unfortunately, the running time of EM is linear in the length of the input sequences. This can prohibit its application to data sets of the size commonly generated by high-throughput biological techniques. A suffix tree is a data structure that can efficiently index a set of sequences. We describe an algorithm, Suffix Tree EM for Motif Elicitation (STEME), that approximates EM using suffix trees. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first application of suffix trees to EM. We provide an analysis of the expected running time of the algorithm and demonstrate that STEME runs an order of magnitude more quickly than the implementation of EM used by MEME. We give theoretical bounds for the quality of the approximation and show that, in practice, the approximation has a negligible effect on the outcome. We provide an open source implementation of the algorithm that we hope will be used to speed up existing and future motif search algorithms. PMID:21785132

  2. A History and Informal Assessment of the <em>Slacker Astronomyem> Podcast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Aaron; Gay, Pamela; Searle, Travis; Brissenden, Gina

    Slacker Astronomyem> is a weekly podcast that covers a recent astronomical news event or discovery. The show has a unique style consisting of irreverent, over-the-top humor combined with a healthy dose of hard science. According to our demographic analysis, the combination of this style and the unique podcasting distribution mechanism allows the show to reach audiences younger and busier than those reached via traditional channels. We report on the successes and challenges of the first year of the show, and provide an informal assessment of its role as a source for astronomical news and concepts for its approximately 15,500 weekly listeners.

  3. A HF EM installation allowing simultaneous whole body and deep local EM hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Mazokhin, V N; Kolmakov, D N; Lucheyov, N A; Gelvich, E A; Troshin, I I

    1999-01-01

    The structure and main features of a HF EM installation based upon a new approach for creating electromagnetic fields destined for whole body (WBH) and deep local (DLH) hyperthermia are discussed. The HF EM field, at a frequency of 13.56 MHz, is created by a coplanar capacity type applicator positioned under a distilled water filled bolus that the patient is lying on. The EM energy being released directly in the deep tissues ensures effective whole body heating to required therapeutic temperatures of up to 43.5 degrees C, whereas the skin temperature can be maintained as low as 39-40.5 degrees C. For DLH, the installation is equipped with additional applicators and a generator operating at a frequency of 40.68 MHz. High efficiency of the WBH applicator makes it possible to carry out the WBH procedure without any air-conditioning cabin. Due to this, a free access to the patient's body during the WBH treatment is provided and a simultaneous WBH/DLH or WBH/LH procedure by means of additional applicators is possible. Controllable power output in the range of 100-800 W at a frequency of 13.56 MHz and 50-350 W at a frequency of 40.68 MHz allows accurate temperature control during WBH, DLH and WBH/DLH procedures. SAR patterns created by the WBH and DLH applicators in a liquid muscle phantom and measured by means of a non-perturbing E-dipole are investigated. The scattered EM field strength measured in the vicinity of the operating installation during the WBH, DLH and WBH/DLH procedures does not exceed security standards. Examples of temperature versus time graphs in the course of WBH, DLH and WBH/DLH procedures in clinics are presented. The installation is successfully used in leading oncological institutions of Russia and Belarus, though combined WBH/DLH procedures are evidently more complicated and demand thorough planning and temperature measurements to avoid overheating.

  4. Airborne EM for mine infrastructure planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijns, Chris

    2016-08-01

    Airborne electromagnetic (AEM) surveys with near-surface vertical resolution provide rapid and comprehensive coverage of a mine site ahead of infrastructure planning. In environments of sufficient electrical conductivity contrast, the data will map variations in the depth to bedrock, providing guidance for expected excavation depths for solid building foundations, or mine pre-strip volumes. Continuous coverage overcomes the severe areal limitation of relying only on drilling and test pits. An AEM survey in northern Finland illustrates the success of this approach for guiding the placement of a mine crusher and related infrastructure. The cost of the EM data collection and interpretation is insignificant in comparison to the US$300 million capital cost of the mine infrastructure. This environment of shallow glacial cover challenges the limits of AEM resolution, yet analysis of subsequently collected three-dimensional (3D) surface seismic data and actual pre-strip excavation depths reinforces the predictive, but qualitative, mapping capability of the AEM. It also highlights the need to tune the modelling via petrophysics for the specific goal of the investigation, and exposes the limitations of visual drill core logging.

  5. Databases and archiving for cryoEM

    PubMed Central

    Patwardhan, Ardan; Lawson, Catherine L.

    2017-01-01

    Cryo-EM in structural biology is currently served by three public archives – EMDB for 3DEM reconstructions, PDB for models built from 3DEM reconstructions and EMPIAR for the raw 2D image data used to obtain the 3DEM reconstructions. These archives play a vital role for both the structural community and the wider biological community in making the data accessible so that results may be reused, reassessed and integrated with other structural and bioinformatics resources. The important role of the archives is underpinned by the fact that many journals mandate the deposition of data to PDB and EMDB on publication. The field is currently undergoing transformative changes where on the one hand high-resolution structures are becoming a routine occurrence while on the other hand electron tomography is enabling the study of macromolecules in the cellular context. Concomitantly the archives are evolving to best serve their stakeholder communities. In this chapter we describe the current state of the archives, resources available for depositing, accessing, searching, visualising and validating data, on-going community-wide initiatives and opportunities and challenges for the future. PMID:27572735

  6. DOE EM industry programs robotics development

    SciTech Connect

    Staubly, R.; Kothari, V.

    1998-12-31

    The Office of Science and Technology (OST) manages an aggressive program for RD and D, as well as testing and evaluation for the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Environmental Management (EM) organization. The goal is to develop new and improved environmental restoration and waste management technologies to clean up the inventory of the DOE weapons complex faster, safer, and cheaper than is possible with currently available technologies. Robotic systems reduce worker exposure to the absolute minimum, while providing proven, cost-effective, and, for some applications, the only acceptable technique for addressing challenging problems. Development of robotic systems for remote operations occurs in three main categories: tank waste characterization and retrieval; decontamination and dismantlement; and characterization, mapping, and inspection systems. In addition, the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) has some other projects which fall under the heading of supporting R and D. The central objective of all FETC robotic projects is to make robotic systems more attractive by reducing costs and health risks associated with the deployment of robotic technologies in the cleanup of the nuclear weapons complex. This will be accomplished through development of robots that are cheaper, faster, safer, and more reliable, as well as more straightforward to modify/adapt and more intuitive to operate with autonomous capabilities and intelligent controls that prevent accidents and optimize task execution.

  7. Analysis of EM dataset with several sensor configurations obtained by the loop-loop EM survey on magnetic anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    CHOI, J.; Yi, M. J.; Sasaki, Y.; Son, J.; Nam, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    Most of mineral mines in Korea are located in rugged mountain area embedding small-scale anomalies. Loop-loop EM survey system can be a better choice for exploring those mines because no ground contact is required and portable loops are freely positioned. Survey design is very important for detecting small amount of mineral deposits efficiently and spatial limits of survey lines should be considered. Along a same survey line, surveys with different separations between a transmitter and a receiver are applicable. EM responses are calculated in a layered-earth model embedding magnetic anomalies and analyses considering electric conductivity and magnetic permeability are made for the loop-loop EM survey data. Combining EM dataset with multi-frequency and multi-separation slightly enhanced a reconstructed image. Loop-loop EM survey using PROMOIS system was conducted on a small magnetite mine. Inversion with and without considering magnetic permeability was conducted for EM data with multi-frequency and multi-separation between a transmitter and a receiver.

  8. Image segmentation by EM-based adaptive pulse coupled neural networks in brain magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Fu, J C; Chen, C C; Chai, J W; Wong, S T C; Li, I C

    2010-06-01

    We propose an automatic hybrid image segmentation model that integrates the statistical expectation maximization (EM) model and the spatial pulse coupled neural network (PCNN) for brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) segmentation. In addition, an adaptive mechanism is developed to fine tune the PCNN parameters. The EM model serves two functions: evaluation of the PCNN image segmentation and adaptive adjustment of the PCNN parameters for optimal segmentation. To evaluate the performance of the adaptive EM-PCNN, we use it to segment MR brain image into gray matter (GM), white matter (WM) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The performance of the adaptive EM-PCNN is compared with that of the non-adaptive EM-PCNN, EM, and Bias Corrected Fuzzy C-Means (BCFCM) algorithms. The result is four sets of boundaries for the GM and the brain parenchyma (GM+WM), the two regions of most interest in medical research and clinical applications. Each set of boundaries is compared with the golden standard to evaluate the segmentation performance. The adaptive EM-PCNN significantly outperforms the non-adaptive EM-PCNN, EM, and BCFCM algorithms in gray mater segmentation. In brain parenchyma segmentation, the adaptive EM-PCNN significantly outperforms the BCFCM only. However, the adaptive EM-PCNN is better than the non-adaptive EM-PCNN and EM on average. We conclude that of the three approaches, the adaptive EM-PCNN yields the best results for gray matter and brain parenchyma segmentation.

  9. FitEM2EM--tools for low resolution study of macromolecular assembly and dynamics.

    PubMed

    Frankenstein, Ziv; Sperling, Joseph; Sperling, Ruth; Eisenstein, Miriam

    2008-01-01

    Studies of the structure and dynamics of macromolecular assemblies often involve comparison of low resolution models obtained using different techniques such as electron microscopy or atomic force microscopy. We present new computational tools for comparing (matching) and docking of low resolution structures, based on shape complementarity. The matched or docked objects are represented by three dimensional grids where the value of each grid point depends on its position with regard to the interior, surface or exterior of the object. The grids are correlated using fast Fourier transformations producing either matches of related objects or docking models depending on the details of the grid representations. The procedures incorporate thickening and smoothing of the surfaces of the objects which effectively compensates for differences in the resolution of the matched/docked objects, circumventing the need for resolution modification. The presented matching tool FitEM2EMin successfully fitted electron microscopy structures obtained at different resolutions, different conformers of the same structure and partial structures, ranking correct matches at the top in every case. The differences between the grid representations of the matched objects can be used to study conformation differences or to characterize the size and shape of substructures. The presented low-to-low docking tool FitEM2EMout ranked the expected models at the top.

  10. Colloidal Oatmeal <em>(Avena Sativa)em> Improves Skin Barrier Through Multi-Therapy Activity.

    PubMed

    Ilnytska, Olha; Kaur, Simarna; Chon, Suhyoun; Reynertson, Kurt A; Nebus, Judith; Garay, Michelle; Mahmood, Khalid; Southall, Michael D

    2016-06-01

    Oats (Avena sativa) are a centuries-old topical treatment for a variety of skin barrier conditions, including dry skin, skin rashes, and eczema; however, few studies have investigated the actual mechanism of action for the skin barrier strengthening activity of colloidal oatmeal. Four extracts of colloidal oatmeal were prepared with various solvents and tested in vitro for skin barrier related gene expression and activity. Extracts of colloidal oatmeal were found to induce the expression of genes related to epidermal differentiation, tight junctions and lipid regulation in skin, and provide pH-buffering capacity. Colloidal oatmeal boosted the expression of multiple target genes related to skin barrier, and resulted in recovery of barrier damage in an in vitro model of atopic dermatitis. In addition, an investigator-blinded study was performed with 50 healthy female subjects who exhibited bilateral moderate to severe dry skin on their lower legs. Subjects were treated with a colloidal oatmeal skin protectant lotion. Clinically, the colloidal oatmeal lotion showed significant clinical improvements in skin dryness, moisturization, and barrier. Taken together, these results demonstrate that colloidal oatmeal can provide clinically effective benefits for dry and compromised skin by strengthening skin barrier.

    <em>J Drugs Dermatolem>. 2016;15(6):684-690.

  11. Emergency medical service (EMS): A unique flight environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shively, R. Jay

    1993-01-01

    The EMS flight environment is unique in today's aviation. The pilots must respond quickly to emergency events and often fly to landing zones where they have never been before . The time from initially receiving a call to being airborne can be as little as two to three minutes. Often the EMS pilot is the only aviation professional on site, they have no operations people or other pilots to aid them in making decisons. Further, since they are often flying to accident scenes, not airports, there is often complete weather and condition information. Therefore, the initial decision that the pilot must make, accepting or declining a flight, can become very difficult. The accident rate of EMS helicopters has been relatively high over the past years. NASA-Ames research center has taken several steps in an attempt to aid EMS pilots in their decision making and situational awareness. A preflight risk assessment system (SAFE) was developed to aid pilots in their decision making, and was tested at an EMS service. The resutls of the study were promising and a second version incorporating the lessons learned is under development. A second line of research was the development of a low cost electronic chart display (ECD). This is a digital map display to help pilots maintain geographical orientation. Another thrust was undertaken in conjunction with the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS). This involved publicizing the ASRS to EMS pilots and personnel, and calling each of the reporters back to gather additional information. This paper will discuss these efforts and how they may positively impact the safety of EMS operations.

  12. Emergency medical service (EMS): A unique flight environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shively, R. Jay

    1993-01-01

    The EMS flight environment is unique in today's aviation. The pilots must respond quickly to emergency events and often fly to landing zones where they have never been before . The time from initially receiving a call to being airborne can be as little as two to three minutes. Often the EMS pilot is the only aviation professional on site, they have no operations people or other pilots to aid them in making decisons. Further, since they are often flying to accident scenes, not airports, there is often complete weather and condition information. Therefore, the initial decision that the pilot must make, accepting or declining a flight, can become very difficult. The accident rate of EMS helicopters has been relatively high over the past years. NASA-Ames research center has taken several steps in an attempt to aid EMS pilots in their decision making and situational awareness. A preflight risk assessment system (SAFE) was developed to aid pilots in their decision making, and was tested at an EMS service. The resutls of the study were promising and a second version incorporating the lessons learned is under development. A second line of research was the development of a low cost electronic chart display (ECD). This is a digital map display to help pilots maintain geographical orientation. Another thrust was undertaken in conjunction with the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS). This involved publicizing the ASRS to EMS pilots and personnel, and calling each of the reporters back to gather additional information. This paper will discuss these efforts and how they may positively impact the safety of EMS operations.

  13. Degradation of Benzodiazepines after 120 Days of EMS Deployment

    PubMed Central

    McMullan, Jason T.; Jones, Elizabeth; Barnhart, Bruce; Denninghoff, Kurt; Spaite, Daniel; Zaleski, Erin; Silbergleit, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Introduction EMS treatment of status epilepticus improves outcomes, but the benzodiazepine best suited for EMS use is unclear, given potential high environmental temperature exposures. Objective To describe the degradation of diazepam, lorazepam, and midazolam as a function of temperature exposure and time over 120 days of storage on active EMS units. Methods Study boxes containing vials of diazepam, lorazepam, and midazolam were distributed to 4 active EMS units in each of 2 EMS systems in the southwestern United States during May–August 2011. The boxes logged temperature every minute and were stored in EMS units per local agency policy. Two vials of each drug were removed from each box at 30-day intervals and underwent high-performance liquid chromatography to determine drug concentration. Concentration was analyzed as mean (and 95%CI) percent of initial labeled concentration as a function of time and mean kinetic temperature (MKT). Results 192 samples were collected (2 samples of each drug from each of 4 units per city at 4 time-points). After 120 days, the mean relative concentration (95%CI) of diazepam was 97.0% (95.7–98.2%) and of midazolam was 99.0% (97.7–100.2%). Lorazepam experienced modest degradation by 60 days (95.6% [91.6–99.5%]) and substantial degradation at 90 days (90.3% [85.2-95.4%]) and 120 days (86.5% [80.7–92.3%]). Mean MKT was 31.6°C (95%CI 27.1–36.1). Increasing MKT was associated with greater degradation of lorazepam, but not midazolam or diazepam. Conclusions Midazolam and diazepam experienced minimal degradation throughout 120 days of EMS deployment in high-heat environments. Lorazepam experienced significant degradation over 120 days and appeared especially sensitive to higher MKT exposure. PMID:24548058

  14. Resource Document: Coordination of Pediatric Emergency Care in EMS Systems.

    PubMed

    Remick, Katherine; Gross, Toni; Adelgais, Kathleen; Shah, Manish I; Leonard, Julie C; Gausche-Hill, Marianne

    2017-01-01

    Citing numerous pediatric-specific deficiencies within Emergency Medical Services (EMS) systems, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommended that EMS systems appoint a pediatric emergency care coordinator (PECC) to provide oversight of EMS activities related to care of children, to promote the integration of pediatric elements into day-to-day services as well as local and/or regional disaster planning, and to promote pediatric education across all levels of EMS providers. A systematic review of the literature was undertaken to describe the evidence for pediatric coordination across the emergency care continuum. The search strategy was developed by the investigators in consultation with a medical librarian and conducted in OVID, Medline, PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and CINAHL databases from January 1, 1983 to January 1, 2016. All research articles that measured a patient-related or system-related outcome associated with pediatric coordination in the setting of emergency care, trauma, or disaster were included. Opinion articles, commentaries, and letters to the editors were excluded. Three investigators independently screened citations in a hierarchical manner and abstracted data. Of 149 identified titles, nine were included in the systematic review. The nine articles included one interventional study, five surveys, and three consensus documents. All articles favored the presence of pediatric coordination. The interventional study demonstrated improved documentation, clinical management, and staff awareness of high priority pediatric areas. The current literature supports the identification of pediatric coordination to facilitate the optimal care of children within EMS systems. In order for EMS systems to provide high quality care to children, pediatric components must be integrated into all aspects of care including day-to-day operations, policies, protocols, available equipment and medications, quality improvement efforts, and disaster planning. This systematic

  15. The EM-POGO: A simple, absolute velocity profiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terker, S. R.; Sanford, T. B.; Dunlap, J. H.; Girton, J. B.

    2013-01-01

    Electromagnetic current instrumentation has been added to the Bathy Systems, Inc. POGO transport sondes to produce a free-falling absolute velocity profiler called EM-POGO. The POGO is a free-fall profiler that measures a depth-averaged velocity using GPS fixes at the beginning and end of a round trip to the ocean floor (or a preset depth). The EM-POGO adds a velocity profile determined from measurements of motionally induced electric fields generated by the ocean current moving through the vertical component of the Earth's magnetic field. In addition to providing information about the vertical structure of the velocity, the depth-dependent measurements improve transport measurements by correcting for the non-constant fall-rate. Neglecting the variable fall rate results in errors O (1 cm s-1). The transition from POGO to EM-POGO included electrically isolating the POGO and electric-field-measuring circuits, installing a functional GPS receiver, finding a pressure case that provided an optimal balance among crush-depth, price and size, and incorporating the electrodes, electrode collar, and the circuitry required for the electric field measurement. The first EM-POGO sea-trial was in July 1999. In August 2006 a refurbished EM-POGO collected 15 absolute velocity profiles; relative and absolute velocity uncertainty was ˜1cms-1 and 0.5-5 cm s-1, respectively, at a vertical resolution of 25 m. Absolute velocity from the EM-POGO compared to shipboard ADCP measurements differed by ˜ 1-2 cm s-1, comparable to the uncertainty in absolute velocity from the ADCP. The EM-POGO is thus a low-cost, easy to deploy and recover, and accurate velocity profiler.

  16. 27 CFR 9.31 - Santa Cruz Mountains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...”; (7) “Franklin Point Quadrangle, California”; (8) “Half Moon Bay Quadrangle, California—San Mateo... line intersect (Half Moon Bay Quadrangle), the boundary line follows Highway 92, beginning in a...

  17. Geologic map of the Patagonia Mountains, Santa Cruz County, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graybeal, Frederick T.; Moyer, Lorre A.; Vikre, Peter; Dunlap, Pamela; Wallis, John C.

    2015-01-01

    Several spatial databases provide data for the geologic map of the Patagonia Mountains in Arizona. The data can be viewed and queried in ArcGIS 10, a geographic information system; a geologic map is also available in PDF format. All products are available online only.

  18. Lithospheric Mantle heterogeneities beneath northern Santa Cruz province, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mundl, Andrea; Ntaflos, Theodoros; Bjerg, Ernesto

    2013-04-01

    Mantle xenoliths from Don Camilo, an area located on the North margin of the Deseado Masiff in Patagonia, comprise spinel bearing lherzolites, harburgites and dunites, wehrlites, clinopyroxenites and gabbros. The most common rock type in our collection is spinel-lherzolite followed by dunites. Harzurgites, wehrlites and gabbros are less widespread. Spinel-lherzolites and harzburgites have protogranular textures whereas dunites have equigranular to equigranular tabular textures. There are two kinds of dunites: mantle dunites and cumulate dunites. The olivine mg# in the mantle dunites vary within a narrow range, from 90.5 to 91.5 and the NiO content from 0.39 to 0.42 wt%, whereas in the cumulate dunites the mg# ranges from 87 to 90.5 and the NiO content from 0.22 to 0.40 wt%. Both types of dunites contain fine grained interstitial diopside. Hydrous phases, besides one sample that contains amphibole, were so far not found. The spinel peridotites have whole rock REE abundances depleted in LREE [(La/Yb)N=0.34-0.85)] and the dunitesare LREE enriched [(La/Yb)N=3.49]. LA-ICP-MS analyses of cpx show that a number of the studied spinel peridotite xenoliths experienced cryptic metasomatism. Three groups of xenoliths have been recognized according to REE and other incompatible trace element patterns in cpx: group I has depleted LREE abundances, group II is highly enriched in LREE (La=20-30 x C1) and group 3 has moderate LREE enrichments. The core of some clinopyroxenes in group II has depleted LREE similar to those in group I, apparently representing relictic cores not affected by metasomatism. In addition the metasomatized clinopyroxenes are significantly enriched in Sr, Th and U. Evidently, the metasomatic agent was a H2O-rich fluid (high LREE, Sr, Th and U). Clinopyroxene Sr and Nd isotopic ratios vary largely from 0.702671 to 0.705788 and from 0.51229 to 0.513251 respectively. Mantle and cumulate dunites have experienced modal metasomatism. In both types of dunites the interstitial clinopyroxene appears to be of metasomatic origin. The clinopyroxene from cumulate dunites has depleted LREE abundances and low HREE indicating that they have been formed from residual melts. In contrast, clinopyroxene from mantle dunites has enriched LREE (10 x PM) and LILE suggesting that the metasomatic agent was fluid-rich silicate melt. Calculated equilibrium conditions cover a wide range, from 800 to 1100 °C. Considering the crustal thickness in the area being around 35 km, a pressure between 12 and 17 kbar can be assumed as reasonable, indicating that xenoliths were extracted from shallow depths, in the order of 40 to 60 km. Model calculations have shown that the Lithospheric Mantle beneath Don Camilo is fertile and that spinel peridotites experienced low degrees of partial melting (2-8% batch melting in the spinel peridotite field). The metasomatic agent was a fluid rich silicate melt presumably similar to that which affected the xenoliths from Cerro Clark locality, north of Don Camilo. The clinopyroxenes with the highest Sr and lowest Nd isotopic signatures suggest that the metasomatism was an old event apparently not associated to the interaction of the Lithospheric Mantle in southern Patagonia with downgoing Nazca and Antarctic plates.

  19. Bermuda 2.0: reflections from Santa Cruz.

    PubMed

    Reardon, Jenny; Ankeny, Rachel A; Bangham, Jenny; W Darling, Katherine; Hilgartner, Stephen; Jones, Kathryn Maxson; Shapiro, Beth; Stevens, Hallam

    2016-12-01

    In February 1996, the genome community met in Bermuda to formulate principles for circulating genomic data. Although it is now 20 years since the Bermuda Principles were formulated, they continue to play a central role in shaping genomic and data-sharing practices. However, since 1996, "openness" has become an increasingly complex issue. This commentary seeks to articulate three core challenges data-sharing faces today.

  20. Towards a sediment budget for the Santa Cruz shelf

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eittreim, S.L.; Xu, J. P.; Noble, M.; Edwards, B.D.

    2002-01-01

    A conceptual model is presented for the northern Monterey Bay continental shelf in which coarse sediment moves southward along the coast in the littoral zone while fine sediment moves to the north by advection and diffusion along the midshelf. Data from measurements and estimates of various sediment sources and sinks show that the midshelf mudbelt is the dominant sink for fine-grained sediment introduced into Monterey Bay. The principal sources of the fine sediment are the three rivers that enter Monterey Bay: the San Lorenzo, Pajaro and Salinas rivers. Accumulation rates in the midshelf mudbelt are high relative to documented yields of rivers and cliff erosion, and also are high relative to other documented mud accumulations of the west coast continental shelves. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Assessing Surface Water Availability in the Santa Cruz Watershed

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Southwest Ecosystem Service Project (SwESP) is one of five place-based studies in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Ecosystem Services Research Program (ESRP). The goal of the SwESP is to identify, locate, and inventory ecosystem services. Initial research efforts ar...

  2. Assessing Surface Water Availability in the Santa Cruz Watershed

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Southwest Ecosystem Service Project (SwESP) is one of five place-based studies in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Ecosystem Services Research Program (ESRP). The goal of the SwESP is to identify, locate, and inventory ecosystem services. Initial research efforts ar...

  3. International Space Station (ISS) Emergency Mask (EM) Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toon, Katherine P.; Hahn, Jeffrey; Fowler, Michael; Young, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    The Emergency Mask (EM) is considered a secondary response emergency Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) designed to provide respiratory protection to the International Space Station (ISS) crewmembers in response to a post-fire event or ammonia leak. The EM is planned to be delivered to ISS in 2012 to replace the current air purifying respirator (APR) onboard ISS called the Ammonia Respirator (AR). The EM is a one ]size ]fits ]all model designed to fit any size crewmember, unlike the APR on ISS, and uses either two Fire Cartridges (FCs) or two Commercial Off-the-Shelf (COTS) 3M(Trademark). Ammonia Cartridges (ACs) to provide the crew with a minimum of 8 hours of respiratory protection with appropriate cartridge swap ]out. The EM is designed for a single exposure event, for either post ]fire or ammonia, and is a passive device that cannot help crewmembers who cannot breathe on their own. The EM fs primary and only seal is around the wearer fs neck to prevent a crewmember from inhaling contaminants. During the development of the ISS Emergency Mask, several design challenges were faced that focused around manufacturing a leak free mask. The description of those challenges are broadly discussed but focuses on one key design challenge area: bonding EPDM gasket material to Gore(Registered Trademark) fabric hood.

  4. Breaking Cryo-EM Resolution Barriers to Facilitate Drug Discovery.

    PubMed

    Merk, Alan; Bartesaghi, Alberto; Banerjee, Soojay; Falconieri, Veronica; Rao, Prashant; Davis, Mindy I; Pragani, Rajan; Boxer, Matthew B; Earl, Lesley A; Milne, Jacqueline L S; Subramaniam, Sriram

    2016-06-16

    Recent advances in single-particle cryoelecton microscopy (cryo-EM) are enabling generation of numerous near-atomic resolution structures for well-ordered protein complexes with sizes ≥ ∼200 kDa. Whether cryo-EM methods are equally useful for high-resolution structural analysis of smaller, dynamic protein complexes such as those involved in cellular metabolism remains an important question. Here, we present 3.8 Å resolution cryo-EM structures of the cancer target isocitrate dehydrogenase (93 kDa) and identify the nature of conformational changes induced by binding of the allosteric small-molecule inhibitor ML309. We also report 2.8-Å- and 1.8-Å-resolution structures of lactate dehydrogenase (145 kDa) and glutamate dehydrogenase (334 kDa), respectively. With these results, two perceived barriers in single-particle cryo-EM are overcome: (1) crossing 2 Å resolution and (2) obtaining structures of proteins with sizes < 100 kDa, demonstrating that cryo-EM can be used to investigate a broad spectrum of drug-target interactions and dynamic conformational states.

  5. Refinement of Atomic Structures Against cryo-EM Maps.

    PubMed

    Murshudov, G N

    2016-01-01

    This review describes some of the methods for atomic structure refinement (fitting) against medium/high-resolution single-particle cryo-EM reconstructed maps. Some of the tools developed for macromolecular X-ray crystal structure analysis, especially those encapsulating prior chemical and structural information can be transferred directly for fitting into cryo-EM maps. However, despite the similarities, there are significant differences between data produced by these two techniques; therefore, different likelihood functions linking the data and model must be used in cryo-EM and crystallographic refinement. Although tools described in this review are mostly designed for medium/high-resolution maps, if maps have sufficiently good quality, then these tools can also be used at moderately low resolution, as shown in one example. In addition, the use of several popular crystallographic methods is strongly discouraged in cryo-EM refinement, such as 2Fo-Fc maps, solvent flattening, and feature-enhanced maps (FEMs) for visualization and model (re)building. Two problems in the cryo-EM field are overclaiming resolution and severe map oversharpening. Both of these should be avoided; if data of higher resolution than the signal are used, then overfitting of model parameters into the noise is unavoidable, and if maps are oversharpened, then at least parts of the maps might become very noisy and ultimately uninterpretable. Both of these may result in suboptimal and even misleading atomic models.

  6. Application of the EM algorithm to radiographic images.

    PubMed

    Brailean, J C; Little, D; Giger, M L; Chen, C T; Sullivan, B J

    1992-01-01

    The expectation maximization (EM) algorithm has received considerable attention in the area of positron emitted tomography (PET) as a restoration and reconstruction technique. In this paper, the restoration capabilities of the EM algorithm when applied to radiographic images is investigated. This application does not involve reconstruction. The performance of the EM algorithm is quantitatively evaluated using a "perceived" signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) as the image quality metric. This perceived SNR is based on statistical decision theory and includes both the observer's visual response function and a noise component internal to the eye-brain system. For a variety of processing parameters, the relative SNR (ratio of the processed SNR to the original SNR) is calculated and used as a metric to compare quantitatively the effects of the EM algorithm with two other image enhancement techniques: global contrast enhancement (windowing) and unsharp mask filtering. The results suggest that the EM algorithm's performance is superior when compared to unsharp mask filtering and global contrast enhancement for radiographic images which contain objects smaller than 4 mm.

  7. Topical Treatment With an Agent Disruptive to <em>P. acnesem> Biofilm Provides Positive Therapeutic Response: Results of a Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Bernhardt, Michael J; Myntti, Matthew F

    2016-06-01

    The traditional disease model of acne has been one of follicular plugging due to 'sticky epithelial cells' associated with increased sebum production with deep follicular anaerobic conditions favoring <em>P. acnesem>- generated inflammation. <em>P. acnesem> biofilms have been found more frequently in patients with acne than controls. Biofilms are genetically coded to create adhesion to the pilosebaceous unit followed by production of a mucopolysaccharide coating capable of binding to lipid surfaces. Traditional therapies for acne have involved mixtures of oral and topical antibiotics admixed with topical keratolytics and retinoids, which are aimed at traditional bacterial reduction as well as downregulating the inflammatory cascade. These approaches are limited by side effect and compliance/tolerability issues. As the <em>P. acnesem> biofilm may, in fact, be the instigator of this process, we studied the use of a topical agent designed to reduce the <em>P. acnesem> biofilm to see if reducing the biofilm would be therapeutically efficacious. We present data of a proprietary topical non-prescription agent with a novel pharmaco mechanism designed to attack the biofilm produced by <em>P. acnesem>. Our data shows a decrease of inflammatory lesions by 44% and non-inflammatory lesions by 32% after 12 weeks and also provided for a meaningful improvement in the quality of life of the patients in the study. These improvements were achieved with a product that was not associated with burning, chafing, irritation, or erythema, which can be seen with topical treatments. It is apparent from this study that by addressing the biofilm which protects the <em>P. acnesem> bacteria through the use of the Acne Gel, the incidence of acne symptoms can be greatly reduced, while having no negative impacts on the patients' skin (ClinicalTrials.gov registry number NCT02404285).

    <em>J Drugs Dermatol. em>2016;15(6):677-683.

  8. Where There is No EMS: Lay Providers in Emergency Medical Services Care - EMS as a Public Health Priority.

    PubMed

    Debenham, Sierra; Fuller, Matthew; Stewart, Matthew; Price, Raymond R

    2017-08-11

    By 2030, road traffic accidents are projected to be the fifth leading cause of death worldwide, with 90% of these deaths occurring in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). While high-quality, prehospital trauma care is crucial to reduce the number of trauma-related deaths, effective Emergency Medical Systems (EMS) are limited or absent in many LMICs. Although lay providers have long been recognized as the front lines of informal trauma care in countries without formal EMS, few efforts have been made to capitalize on these networks. We suggest that lay providers can become a strong foundation for nascent EMS through a four-fold approach: strengthening and expanding existing lay provider training programs; incentivizing lay providers; strengthening locally available first aid supply chains; and using technology to link lay provider networks. Debenham S , Fuller M , Stewart M , Price RR . Where there is no EMS: lay providers in Emergency Medical Services care - EMS as a public health priority. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(6):1-3.

  9. EMS Stretcher “Misadventures” in a Large, Urban EMS System: A Descriptive Analysis of Contributing Factors and Resultant Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Goodloe, Jeffrey M.; Crowder, Christopher J.; Arthur, Annette O.; Thomas, Stephen H.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. There is a paucity of data regarding EMS stretcher-operation-related injuries. This study describes and analyzes characteristics associated with undesirable stretcher operations, with or without resultant injury in a large, urban EMS agency. Methods. In the study agency, all stretcher-related “misadventures” are required to be documented, regardless of whether injury results. All stretcher-related reports between July 1, 2009 and June 30, 2010 were queried in retrospective analysis, avoiding Hawthorne effect in stretcher operations. Results. During the year studied, 129,110 patients were transported. 23 stretcher incidents were reported (0.16 per 1,000 transports). No patient injury occurred. Four EMS providers sustained minor injuries. Among contributing aspects, the most common involved operations surrounding the stretcher-ambulance safety latch, 14/23 (60.9%). From a personnel injury prevention perspective, there exists a significant relationship between combative patients and crew injury related to stretcher operation, Fisher's exact test 0.048. Conclusions. In this large, urban EMS system, the incidence of injury related to stretcher operations in the one-year study period is markedly low, with few personnel injuries and no patient injuries incurred. Safety for EMS personnel and patients could be advanced by educational initiatives that highlight specific events and conditions contributing to stretcher-related adverse events. PMID:22606379

  10. EMS-induced cytomictic variability in safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.).

    PubMed

    Srivastava, P; Kumar, G

    2011-01-01

    Seeds of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) were subjected to three treatment durations (3h, 5h and 7h) of 0.5 % Ethyl Methane Sulphonate (EMS). Microsporogenesis was carried out in the control as well as in the treated materials. EMS treated plants showed interesting feature of partial inter-meiocyte chromatin migration through channel formation, beak formation or direct cell fusion. Another interesting feature noticed during the study was the fusion among tetrads due to wall dissolution. The phenomenon of cytomixis was recorded at nearly all the stages of microsporogenesis connecting from a few to several meiocytes. Other abnormalities such as laggards, precocious movement, bridge and non-disjunction of chromosomes were also recorded but in very low frequencies. The phenomenon of cytomixis increased along with the increase in treatment duration of EMS. Cells with these types of cytomictic disturbances may probably result in uneven formation of gametes or zygote, heterogenous sized pollen grains or even loss of fertility in future.

  11. Pirmasis lietuvi\\vskas Suvalkijos žemėlapis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girkus, Romualdas; Lukoševičius, Viktoras

    2009-01-01

    Po ilgo paie\\vskos laikotarpio, dr. N. Lietuvninkaitei padedant, KTU bibliotekos Retų knygų skyriaus kartografiniame archyve aptiktas 1915 m. JAV išleistas B. K. Balučio M 1:252 000 Suvalkijos žemėlapis. Lietuvių išeivijos instituto B. K. Balučio fonde žemėlapio sudarymo medžiagos nerasta. Paie\\vska atrodė bevilti\\vska dėl tarpukario Lietuvi\\vskosios enciklopedijos klaidinančios informacijos, kad prasidėjus Pirmajam pasauliniam karui žemėlapis nebuvo išleistas, tad aprašomas ir publikuojamas pirmą kartą.

  12. Recent technical advancements enabled atomic resolution CryoEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xueming, Li

    2016-01-01

    With recent breakthroughs in camera and image processing technologies single-particle electron cryo-microscopy (CryoEM) has suddenly gained the attention of structural biologists as a powerful tool able to solve the atomic structures of biological complexes and assemblies. Compared with x-ray crystallography, CryoEM can be applied to partially flexible structures in solution and without the necessity of crystallization, which is especially important for large complexes and assemblies. This review briefly explains several key bottlenecks for atomic resolution CryoEM, and describes the corresponding solutions for these bottlenecks based on the recent technical advancements. The review also aims to provide an overview about the technical differences between its applications in biology and those in material science. Project supported by Tsinghua-Peking Joint Center for Life Sciences, China.

  13. Analyses of Subnanometer Resolution Cryo-EM Density Maps

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Matthew L.; Baker, Mariah R.; Hryc, Corey F.; DiMaio, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Today, electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) can routinely achieve subnanometer resolutions of complex macromolecular assemblies. From a density map, one can extract key structural and functional information using a variety of computational analysis tools. At subnanometer resolution, these tools make it possible to isolate individual subunits, identify secondary structures, and accurately fit atomic models. With several cryo-EM studies achieving resolutions beyond 5 Å, computational modeling and feature recognition tools have been employed to construct backbone and atomic models of the protein components directly from a density map. In this chapter, we describe several common classes of computational tools that can be used to analyze and model subnanometer resolution reconstructions from cryo-EM. A general protocol for analyzing subnanometer resolution density maps is presented along with a full description of steps used in analyzing the 4.3 Å resolution structure of Mm-cpn. PMID:20888467

  14. Lietuvos Teritorijos Gravimetrinio Žemėlapio Tikslumo Vertinimas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birvydienė, Rosita; Krikštaponis, Boleslovas; Obuchovski, Romuald; Paršeliūnas, Eimuntas; Petroškevičius, Petras; Šlikas, Dominykas

    2010-01-01

    Remiantis matavimų, atliktų Lietuvos gravimetrinio tinklo punktuose, duomenimis, įvertintas Lietuvos teritorijos 1:200 000 mastelio Bouguer anomalijų gravimetrinio žemėlapio tikslumas. Vertinimui naudota 686 gravimetrinių punktų sunkio pagreičio reikšmės, kurių vidutinė kvadratinė paklaida neviršija 9 μGal. Nustatytos teritorijos, kuriose sunkio pagreitis, apskaičiuotas pagal žemėlapį, turi sistemingąsias paklaidas. Gautas vidutinis skirtumas tarp žemėlapyje taikomos Potsdamo sunkio sistemos ir IGSN 71 sistemos, apibrėžtos Lietuvos gravimetriniame tinkle atliktais absoliučiaisiais gravimetriniais matavimais.

  15. Longitudinal information and radiation damage in EM calorimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Green, D.

    1993-02-05

    The SCC radiation field is higher than that encountered by previous hadron collider detectors. In particular, the electromagnetic (EM) calorimeter compartment sees the highest radiation dose. Since an EM calorimeter also makes the most precise energy measurement, special care must be lavished on this part of a calorimeter. Previous studies have concentrated on Monte Carlo examinations of 2 longitudinal compartments within the EM which can alleviate radiation damage. Recently, it was realized that a ``shower maximum`` detector, such as exists in CDF, also contains information of the conversion point of an electromagnetic shower. As such, it can potentially be used in a fashion analogous to the longitudinal compartments, although it is not designed to be optimized for this role.

  16. Geospatial Analysis of Pediatric EMS Run Density and Endotracheal Intubation

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Matthew; Loker, William; Warden, Craig

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The association between geographic factors, including transport distance, and pediatric emergency medical services (EMS) run clustering on out-of-hospital pediatric endotracheal intubation is unclear. The objective of this study was to determine if endotracheal intubation procedures are more likely to occur at greater distances from the hospital and near clusters of pediatric calls. Methods This was a retrospective observational study including all EMS runs for patients less than 18 years of age from 2008 to 2014 in a geographically large and diverse Oregon county that includes densely populated urban areas near Portland and remote rural areas. We geocoded scene addresses using the automated address locator created in the cloud-based mapping platform ArcGIS, supplemented with manual address geocoding for remaining cases. We then use the Getis-Ord Gi spatial statistic feature in ArcGIS to map statistically significant spatial clusters (hot spots) of pediatric EMS runs throughout the county. We then superimposed all intubation procedures performed during the study period on maps of pediatric EMS-run hot spots, pediatric population density, fire stations, and hospitals. We also performed multivariable logistic regression to determine if distance traveled to the hospital was associated with intubation after controlling for several confounding variables. Results We identified a total of 7,797 pediatric EMS runs during the study period and 38 endotracheal intubations. In univariate analysis we found that patients who were intubated were similar to those who were not in gender and whether or not they were transported to a children’s hospital. Intubated patients tended to be transported shorter distances and were older than non-intubated patients. Increased distance from the hospital was associated with reduced odds of intubation after controlling for age, sex, scene location, and trauma system entry status in a multivariate logistic regression. The

  17. The photon: EM fields, electrical potentials, and AC charge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meulenberg, A.; Hudgins, W. R.; Penland, R. F.

    2015-09-01

    Photons are here considered to be resonant oscillations (solitons) in four dimensions (space/time) of an undefined `field' otherwise generally existing at a local energy minimum. The photons' constituent EM fields result in elevated energy, and therefore potentials, within that field. It is in the context of the standing waves of and between photons that the EM fields and potentials lead to a description of alternating (AC) `currents' (of some form) of unquantized alternating `charge' (of some sort). The main topic of this paper is the alternating charge.

  18. Geospatial Analysis of Pediatric EMS Run Density and Endotracheal Intubation.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Matthew; Loker, William; Warden, Craig

    2016-09-01

    The association between geographic factors, including transport distance, and pediatric emergency medical services (EMS) run clustering on out-of-hospital pediatric endotracheal intubation is unclear. The objective of this study was to determine if endotracheal intubation procedures are more likely to occur at greater distances from the hospital and near clusters of pediatric calls. This was a retrospective observational study including all EMS runs for patients less than 18 years of age from 2008 to 2014 in a geographically large and diverse Oregon county that includes densely populated urban areas near Portland and remote rural areas. We geocoded scene addresses using the automated address locator created in the cloud-based mapping platform ArcGIS, supplemented with manual address geocoding for remaining cases. We then use the Getis-Ord Gi spatial statistic feature in ArcGIS to map statistically significant spatial clusters (hot spots) of pediatric EMS runs throughout the county. We then superimposed all intubation procedures performed during the study period on maps of pediatric EMS-run hot spots, pediatric population density, fire stations, and hospitals. We also performed multivariable logistic regression to determine if distance traveled to the hospital was associated with intubation after controlling for several confounding variables. We identified a total of 7,797 pediatric EMS runs during the study period and 38 endotracheal intubations. In univariate analysis we found that patients who were intubated were similar to those who were not in gender and whether or not they were transported to a children's hospital. Intubated patients tended to be transported shorter distances and were older than non-intubated patients. Increased distance from the hospital was associated with reduced odds of intubation after controlling for age, sex, scene location, and trauma system entry status in a multivariate logistic regression. The locations of intubations were

  19. A constrained EM algorithm for independent component analysis.

    PubMed

    Welling, M; Weber, M

    2001-03-01

    We introduce a novel way of performing independent component analysis using a constrained version of the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm. The source distributions are modeled as D one-dimensional mixtures of gaussians. The observed data are modeled as linear mixtures of the sources with additive, isotropic noise. This generative model is fit to the data using constrained EM. The simpler "soft-switching" approach is introduced, which uses only one parameter to decide on the sub- or supergaussian nature of the sources. We explain how our approach relates to independent factor analysis.

  20. Low Bandwidth Vocoding using EM Sensor and Acoustic Signal Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, L C; Holzrichter, J F; Larson, P E

    2001-10-25

    Low-power EM radar-like sensors have made it possible to measure properties of the human speech production system in real-time, without acoustic interference [1]. By combining these data with the corresponding acoustic signal, we've demonstrated an almost 10-fold bandwidth reduction in speech compression, compared to a standard 2.4 kbps LPC10 protocol used in the STU-III (Secure Terminal Unit, third generation) telephone. This paper describes a potential EM sensor/acoustic based vocoder implementation.

  1. Speaker verification using combined acoustic and EM sensor signal processing

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, L C; Gable, T J; Holzrichter, J F

    2000-11-10

    Low Power EM radar-like sensors have made it possible to measure properties of the human speech production system in real-time, without acoustic interference. This greatly enhances the quality and quantity of information for many speech related applications. See Holzrichter, Burnett, Ng, and Lea, J. Acoustic. SOC. Am . 103 ( 1) 622 (1998). By combining the Glottal-EM-Sensor (GEMS) with the Acoustic-signals, we've demonstrated an almost 10 fold reduction in error rates from a speaker verification system experiment under a moderate noisy environment (-10dB).

  2. Orion EM-1 Booster Preps - Aft Skirt Preps/Painting

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-10-28

    A paint technician with Orbital ATK, prime contractor for the Space Launch System (SLS) Booster, uses an air gun to apply paint to the right hand aft skirt for NASA’s SLS rocket inside a support building at the Hangar AF facility at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. The space shuttle-era aft skirt, was inspected and resurfaced to prepare it for primer and paint. The aft skirt will be used on the right hand booster of the SLS rocket for Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1). NASA is preparing for EM-1, deep-space missions, and the journey to Mars.

  3. Orion EM-1 Booster Preps - Aft Skirt Preps/Painting

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-10-28

    Technicians with Orbital ATK, prime contractor for the Space Launch System (SLS) Booster, prepare the right hand aft skirt for NASA’s SLS rocket for primer and painting inside a support building at the Hangar AF facility at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. The space shuttle-era aft skirt, was inspected and resurfaced and will be primed and painted for use on the right hand booster of the SLS rocket for Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1). NASA is preparing for EM-1, deep-space missions, and the journey to Mars.

  4. Orion EM-1 Booster Preps - Aft Skirt Preps/Painting

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-10-28

    Technicians with Orbital ATK, prime contractor for the Space Launch System (SLS) Booster, prepare a paint mixture for the right hand aft skirt for NASA’s SLS in a support building at the Hangar AF facility at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. The space shuttle-era aft skirt, was inspected and resurfaced, and will be primed and painted for use on the right hand booster of the SLS rocket for Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1). NASA is preparing for EM-1, deep-space missions, and the Journey to Mars.

  5. Orion EM-1 Crew Module Adapter Move to Clean Room

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-29

    Inside the Neil Armstrong Operations and Checkout Building high bay at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, Lockheed Martin technicians secure a protective cover around the Orion crew module adapter (CMA) for Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1) for its move to a clean room. The CMA will undergo propellant and environmental control and life support system tube installation and welding. The adapter will connect the Orion crew module to the European Space Agency-provided service module. The Orion spacecraft will launch atop NASA’s Space Launch System rocket on EM-1, its first deep space mission, in late 2018.

  6. Orion EM-1 Crew Module Adapter Move to Clean Room

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-29

    Inside the Neil Armstrong Operations and Checkout Building high bay at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida, Lockheed Martin technicians move the Orion crew module adapter (CMA) for Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1) into a clean room. The CMA will undergo propellant and environmental control and life support system tube installation and welding. The adapter will connect the Orion crew module to the European Space Agency-provided service module. The Orion spacecraft will launch atop NASA’s Space Launch System rocket on EM-1, its first deep space mission, in late 2018.

  7. Orion EM-1 Crew Module Adapter Move to Clean Room

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-29

    Inside the Neil Armstrong Operations and Checkout Building high bay at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida, the Orion crew module adapter (CMA) for Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1) is in a clean room with protective walls secured around it. The adapter will undergo propellant and environmental control and life support system tube installation and welding. The adapter will connect the Orion crew module to the European Space Agency-provided service module. The Orion spacecraft will launch atop NASA’s Space Launch System rocket on EM-1, its first deep space mission, in late 2018.

  8. Orion EM-1 Crew Module Adapter Move to Clean Room

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-29

    Inside the Neil Armstrong Operations and Checkout Building high bay at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida, Lockheed Martin technicians move the Orion crew module adapter (CMA) for Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1) toward a clean room. The CMA will undergo propellant and environmental control and life support system tube installation and welding. The adapter will connect the Orion crew module to the European Space Agency-provided service module. The Orion spacecraft will launch atop NASA’s Space Launch System rocket on EM-1, its first deep space mission, in late 2018.

  9. Orion EM-1 Crew Module Adapter Move to Clean Room

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-29

    Inside the Neil Armstrong Operations and Checkout Building high bay at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida, a Lockheed Martin technician secures a protective cover around the Orion crew module adapter (CMA) for Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1) for its move to a clean room The CMA will undergo propellant and environmental control and life support system tube installation and welding. The adapter will connect the Orion crew module to the European Space Agency-provided service module. The Orion spacecraft will launch atop NASA’s Space Launch System rocket on EM-1, its first deep space mission, in late 2018.

  10. Orion EM-1 Crew Module Adapter Move to Clean Room

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-29

    Inside the Neil Armstrong Operations and Checkout Building high bay at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida, the Orion crew module adapter (CMA) for Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1) is being moved to a clean room. The CMA will undergo propellant and environmental control and life support system tube installation and welding. The adapter will connect the Orion crew module to the European Space Agency-provided service module. The Orion spacecraft will launch atop NASA’s Space Launch System rocket on EM-1, its first deep space mission, in late 2018.

  11. Orion EM-1 Crew Module Adapter Move to Clean Room

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-29

    Inside the Neil Armstrong Operations and Checkout Building high bay at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida, a protective cover is installed around the Orion crew module adapter (CMA) for Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1) for its move to a clean room. The CMA will undergo propellant and environmental control and life support system tube installation and welding. The adapter will connect the Orion crew module to the European Space Agency-provided service module. The Orion spacecraft will launch atop NASA’s Space Launch System rocket on EM-1, its first deep space mission, in late 2018.

  12. Orion EM-1 Crew Module Adapter Move to Clean Room

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-29

    Inside the Neil Armstrong Operations and Checkout Building high bay at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida, Lockheed Martin technicians secure a protective cover around the Orion crew module adapter (CMA) for Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1) for its move to a clean room. The CMA will undergo propellant and environmental control and life support system tube installation and welding. The adapter will connect the Orion crew module to the European Space Agency-provided service module. The Orion spacecraft will launch atop NASA’s Space Launch System rocket on EM-1, its first deep space mission, in late 2018.

  13. Orion EM-1 Crew Module Adapter Move to Clean Room

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-29

    Inside the Neil Armstrong Operations and Checkout Building high bay at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida, Lockheed Martin technicians are preparing the Orion crew module adapter (CMA) for Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1) for the move into a clean room. The CMA will undergo propellant and environmental control and life support system tube installation and welding. The adapter will connect the Orion crew module to the European Space Agency-provided service module. The Orion spacecraft will launch atop NASA’s Space Launch System rocket on EM-1, its first deep space mission, in late 2018.

  14. Orion EM-1 Crew Module Adapter Move to Clean Room

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-29

    Inside the Neil Armstrong Operations and Checkout Building high bay at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, Lockheed Martin technicians secure a protective cover around the Orion crew module adapter (CMA) for Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1) for its move to a clean. The CMA will undergo propellant and environmental control and life support system tube installation and welding. The adapter will connect the Orion crew module to the European Space Agency-provided service module. The Orion spacecraft will launch atop NASA’s Space Launch System rocket on EM-1, its first deep space mission, in late 2018.

  15. Orion EM-1 Crew Module Adapter Move to Clean Room

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-29

    Inside the Neil Armstrong Operations and Checkout Building high bay at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida, Lockheed Martin technicians begin to move the Orion crew module adapter (CMA) for Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1) to a clean room. The CMA will undergo propellant and environmental control and life support system tube installation and welding. The adapter will connect the Orion crew module to the European Space Agency-provided service module. The Orion spacecraft will launch atop NASA’s Space Launch System rocket on EM-1, its first deep space mission, in late 2018.

  16. A emissão em 8mm e as bandas de Merrill-Sanford em estrelas carbonadas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Mello, A. B.; Lorenz-Martins, S.

    2003-08-01

    Estrelas carbonadas possuem bandas moleculares em absorção no visível e, no infravermelho (IR) as principais características espectrais se devem a emissão de grãos. Recentemente foi detectada a presença de bandas de SiC2 (Merrill-Sanford, MS) em emissão sendo atribuída à presença de um disco rico em poeira. Neste trabalho analisamos uma amostra de 14 estrelas carbonadas, observadas no telescópio de 1.52 m do ESO em 4 regiões espectrais diferentes, a fim de detectar as bandas de MS em emissão. Nossa amostra é composta de estrelas que apresentam além da emissão em 11.3 mm, outra em 8 mm. Esta última emissão, não usual nestes objetos, tem sido atribuída ou a moléculas de C2H2, ou a um composto sólido ainda indefinido. A detecção de emissões de MS e aquelas no IR, simultaneamente, revelaria um cenário mais complexo que o habitualmente esperado para os ventos destes objetos. No entanto como primeiro resultado, verificamos que as bandas de Merrill-Sanford encontram-se em absorção, não revelando nenhuma conexão com a emissão a 8 mm. Assim, temos duas hipóteses: (a) a emissão a 8 mm se deve à molécula C2H2 ou (b) essa emissão é resultado da emissão térmica de grãos. Testamos a segunda hipótese modelando a amostra com grãos não-homogêneos de SiC e quartzo, o qual emite em aproximadamente 8mm. Este grão seria produzido em uma fase evolutiva anterior a das carbonadas (estrelas S) e por terem uma estrutura cristalina são destruídos apenas na presença de campos de radiação ultravioleta muito intensos. Os modelos para os envoltórios utilizam o método de Monte Carlo para descrever o problema do transporte da radiação. As conclusões deste trabalho são: (1) as bandas de Merrill-Sanford se encontram em absorção, sugerindo um cenário usual para os ventos das estrelas da amostra; (2) neste cenário, a emissão em 8 mm seria resultado de grãos de quartzo com mantos de SiC, indicando que o quartzo poderia sobreviver a fase

  17. Item Parameter Estimation via Marginal Maximum Likelihood and an EM Algorithm: A Didactic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harwell, Michael R.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    The Bock and Aitkin Marginal Maximum Likelihood/EM (MML/EM) approach to item parameter estimation is an alternative to the classical joint maximum likelihood procedure of item response theory. This paper provides the essential mathematical details of a MML/EM solution and shows its use in obtaining consistent item parameter estimates. (TJH)

  18. An EM System with Dynamic Multi-Axis Transmitter and Tensor Gradiometer Receiver

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    FINAL REPORT An EM System With Dynamic Multi-Axis Transmitter and Tensor Gradiometer Receiver SERDP Project MR-1534 JUNE 2011 David C...2006- 2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER An EM System with Dynamic Multi-Axis transmitter and Tensor Gradiometer W91 2HQ-06-C-0050...239.18 EM Tensor Gradiometer SERDP MM-1532 i Contents Contents

  19. Texas Hold 'em Online Poker: A Further Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopley, Anthony A. B.; Dempsey, Kevin; Nicki, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Playing Texas Hold 'em Online Poker (THOP) is on the rise. However, there is relatively little research examining factors that contribute to problem gambling in poker players. The aim of this study was to extend the research findings of Hopley and Nicki (2010). The negative mood states of depression, anxiety and stress were found to be linked to…

  20. Texas Hold 'em Online Poker: A Further Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopley, Anthony A. B.; Dempsey, Kevin; Nicki, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Playing Texas Hold 'em Online Poker (THOP) is on the rise. However, there is relatively little research examining factors that contribute to problem gambling in poker players. The aim of this study was to extend the research findings of Hopley and Nicki (2010). The negative mood states of depression, anxiety and stress were found to be linked to…

  1. Noise properties of the EM algorithm: II. Monte Carlo simulations.

    PubMed

    Wilson, D W; Tsui, B M; Barrett, H H

    1994-05-01

    In an earlier paper we derived a theoretical formulation for estimating the statistical properties of images reconstructed using the iterative ML-EM algorithm. To gain insight into this complex problem, two levels of approximation were considered in the theory. These techniques revealed the dependence of the variance and covariance of the reconstructed image noise on the source distribution, imaging system transfer function, and iteration number. In this paper a Monte Carlo approach was taken to study the noise properties of the ML-EM algorithm and to test the predictions of the theory. The study also served to evaluate the approximations used in the theory. Simulated data from phantoms were used in the Monte Carlo experiments. The ML-EM statistical properties were calculated from sample averages of a large number of images with different noise realizations. The agreement between the more exact form of the theoretical formulation and the Monte Carlo formulation was better than 10% in most cases examined, and for many situations the agreement was within the expected error of the Monte Carlo experiments. Results from the studies provide valuable information about the noise characteristics of ML-EM reconstructed images. Furthermore, the studies demonstrate the power of the theoretical and Monte Carlo approaches for investigating noise properties of statistical reconstruction algorithms.

  2. EMS-generated Rhizoctonia resistance in an adapted wheat

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We report the first genetic resistance in wheat to Rhizoctonia solani AG-8 and R. oryzae, the causal agents of Rhizoctonia root rot and pre-emergence damping-off. Rhizoctonia resistance was generated in the spring wheat cultivar Scarlet using EMS mutagenesis. Resistant plants, named Scarlet-Rz1, d...

  3. Functionalized Anatomical Models for EM-Neuron Interaction Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Neufeld, Esra; Cassará, Antonino Mario; Montanaro, Hazael; Kuster, Niels; Kainz, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    The understanding of interactions between electromagnetic (EM) fields and nerves are crucial in contexts ranging from therapeutic neurostimulation to low frequency EM exposure safety. To properly consider the impact of in-vivo induced field inhomogeneity on non-linear neuronal dynamics, coupled EM-neuronal dynamics modeling is required. For that purpose, novel functionalized computable human phantoms have been developed. Their implementation and the systematic verification of the integrated anisotropic quasi-static EM solver and neuronal dynamics modeling functionality, based on the method of manufactured solutions and numerical reference data, is described. Electric and magnetic stimulation of the ulnar and sciatic nerve were modeled to help understanding a range of controversial issues related to the magnitude and optimal determination of strength-duration (SD) time constants. The results indicate the importance of considering the stimulation-specific inhomogeneous field distributions (especially at tissue interfaces), realistic models of non-linear neuronal dynamics, very short pulses, and suitable SD extrapolation models. These results and the functionalized computable phantom will influence and support the development of safe and effective neuroprosthetic devices and novel electroceuticals. Furthermore they will assist the evaluation of existing low frequency exposure standards for the entire population under all exposure conditions. PMID:27224508

  4. Symmetry-restrained flexible fitting for symmetric EM maps

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Kwok-Yan; Gumbart, James; McGreevy, Ryan; Watermeyer, Jean M.; Sewell, B. Trevor; Schulten, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    Summary Many large biological macromolecules have inherent structural symmetry, being composed of a few distinct subunits, repeated in a symmetric array. These complexes are often not amenable to traditional high-resolution structural determination methods, but can be imaged in functionally relevant states using cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM). A number of methods for fitting atomic-scale structures into cryo-EM maps have been developed, including the molecular dynamics flexible fitting (MDFF) method. However, quality and resolution of the cryo-EM map are the major determinants of a method’s success. In order to incorporate knowledge of structural symmetry into the fitting procedure, we developed the symmetry-restrained MDFF method. The new method adds to the cryo-EM map-derived potential further restraints on the allowed conformations of a complex during fitting, thereby improving the quality of the resultant structure. The benefit of using symmetry-based restraints during fitting, particularly for medium to low-resolution data, is demonstrated for three different systems. PMID:21893283

  5. Reservoir characterization and steam flood monitoring with crosshole EM

    SciTech Connect

    Wilt, M.; Torres-Verdin, C.

    1995-06-01

    Crosshole electromagnetic (EM) imaging is applied to reservoir characterization and steam flood monitoring in a central California oil field. Steam was injected into three stacked eastward-dipping, unconsolidated oil sands within the upper 200 m. The steam plume is expected to develop as an ellipse aligned with the regional northwest-southeast strike. EM measurements were made from two fiberglass-cased observation wells straddling the steam injector on a northeast-southwest profile using the LLNL frequency domain crosshole EM system. Field data were collected before the initiation of a steam drive to map the distribution of the oil sands and then 6 and 12 months later to monitor the progress of the steam chest. Resistivity images derived from the EM data before steam injection clearly delineate the distribution and dipping structure on the target oil sands. Difference images, from data collected before and after steam flooding, show resistivity changes that indicate that the steam chest has developed only in the deeper oil sands although steam injection occurred in all three sand layers.

  6. Signs and Guides: Wayfinding Alternatives for the EMS Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Johanna H.

    Concerned with increasing the accessibility of the collection of the Engineering/Math Sciences (EMS) Library at the University of California at Los Angeles through the use of self guidance systems, this practical study focused on the problem context, general library guides, and library signage in reviewing the literature, and conducted a survey of…

  7. Functionalized anatomical models for EM-neuron Interaction modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neufeld, Esra; Cassará, Antonino Mario; Montanaro, Hazael; Kuster, Niels; Kainz, Wolfgang

    2016-06-01

    The understanding of interactions between electromagnetic (EM) fields and nerves are crucial in contexts ranging from therapeutic neurostimulation to low frequency EM exposure safety. To properly consider the impact of in vivo induced field inhomogeneity on non-linear neuronal dynamics, coupled EM-neuronal dynamics modeling is required. For that purpose, novel functionalized computable human phantoms have been developed. Their implementation and the systematic verification of the integrated anisotropic quasi-static EM solver and neuronal dynamics modeling functionality, based on the method of manufactured solutions and numerical reference data, is described. Electric and magnetic stimulation of the ulnar and sciatic nerve were modeled to help understanding a range of controversial issues related to the magnitude and optimal determination of strength-duration (SD) time constants. The results indicate the importance of considering the stimulation-specific inhomogeneous field distributions (especially at tissue interfaces), realistic models of non-linear neuronal dynamics, very short pulses, and suitable SD extrapolation models. These results and the functionalized computable phantom will influence and support the development of safe and effective neuroprosthetic devices and novel electroceuticals. Furthermore they will assist the evaluation of existing low frequency exposure standards for the entire population under all exposure conditions.

  8. DOE-EM Science of Safety Robotics Challenge

    ScienceCinema

    Rimando, Rodrigo; Watts, Alex; Bobbitt, John; McLaughlin, Doug; Quigley, Morgan; Gladwell, Scott; McLoughlin, Mike; Kinnamon, Tony; Garcia, Joe; Ansari, Alex; Voyles, Richard; Chambers, David; Pryor, Mitch; Workman, Theresa; Mehling, Joshua; Browning, Kimberly; Deuel, Jake; Profitt, Bryan; Reibold, Marty

    2016-10-19

    During the week of August 22nd, 2016, over 150 technologists, stakeholders, and Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management workers, met at DOE’s Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant in Ohio, for the EM Science of Safety Robotics Challenge.

  9. <em>An Amphibious Magnetotelluric Investigation of the Cascadian Seismogenic and ETS zones.em>

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parris, B. A.; Livelybrooks, D.; Bedrosian, P.; Egbert, G. D.; Key, K.; Schultz, A.; Cook, A.; Kant, M.; Wogan, N.; Zeryck, A.

    2015-12-01

    The amphibious Magnetotelluric Observations of Cascadia using a Huge Array (MOCHA) experiment seeks to address unresolved questions about the seismogenic locked zone and down-dip transition zone where episodic tremor and slip (ETS) originates. The presence of free fluids is thought to be one of the primary controls on ETS behavior within the Cascadia margin. Since the bulk electrical conductivity in the crust and mantle can be greatly increased by fluids, magnetotelluric(MT) observations can offer unique insights on the fluid distribution and its relation to observed ETS behavior. Here we present preliminary results from the 146 MT stations collected for the MOCHA project. MOCHA is unique in that it is the first amphibious array of MT stations occupied to provide for 3-D interpretation of conductivity structure of a subduction zone. The MOCHA data set comprises 75 onshore stations and 71 offshore stations, accumulated over a two-year period, and located on an approximate 25km grid, spanning from the trench to the Eastern Willamette Valley, and from central Oregon into middle Washington. We present the results of a series of east-west (cross-strike) oriented, two-dimensional inversions created using the MARE2DEM software that provide an initial picture of the conductivity structure of the locked and ETS zones and its along strike variations. Our models can be used to identify correlations between ETS occurrence rates and inferred fluid concentrations. Our modeling explores the impact of various parameterizations on 2-D inversion results, including inclusion of a smoothness penalty reduction along the inferred slab interface. This series of 2-D inversions can then be used collectively to help make and guide an a priori 3-D inversion. In addition we will present a preliminary 3-D inversion of the onshore stations created using the ModEM software. We are currently working on modifying ModEM to support inversion of offshore data. The more computationally intensive 3-D

  10. High school allied health students and their exposure to the profession of EMS.

    PubMed

    Holloman, Joshua B; Hubble, Michael W

    2012-06-01

    Ensuring a stable Emergency Medical Services (EMS) workforce is a growing concern, and effective recruiting strategies are needed to expose young adults to the EMS profession. The objective of this study was to assess the exposure of high school allied health students to EMS as a career option, as well as measure their attitudes and beliefs about the EMS profession. Hypothesis Few high school allied health students are exposed to EMS educational and career opportunities. A convenience sample of allied health students in a rural high school system was surveyed about exposure to EMS, career intentions, factors impacting career decisions, and attitudes and beliefs about EMS. Descriptive statistics were calculated, and intention to pursue an EMS career was modeled using logistic regression. Of 171 students enrolled in allied health courses across six high schools, 135 (78.9%) agreed to participate; 85.2% were female. Almost all (92.6%) respondents intended to pursue a health career, but only 43.0% reported that their allied health course exposed them to EMS as a profession. Few participants (37.7%) were knowledgeable about EMS associate degree or baccalaureate degree (27.4%) programs. Only 20.7% of the respondents intended to pursue EMS as a career, although 46.0% wanted to learn more about the profession. Most (68.2%) students expressed interest in an emergency medical technician (EMT) course if one were offered, and 80.0% were interested in a ride-along program. Independent predictors of pursuing an EMS career included exposure to EMS outside of high school (OR = 7.4, 95% CI = 1.7-30.4); media influence on career choice (OR = 9.6, 95% CI = 1.8-50.1); and the belief that EMS was mentally challenging (OR = 15.9, 95% CI = 1.1-216.6). Negative predictors included the beliefs that an EMS career was stimulating (OR = 0.05, 95% CI = 0.00-0.53) and physically challenging (OR = 0.06, 95% CI = 0.00-0.63); as well as prior exposure to an EMS job advertisement (OR = 0.14, 0

  11. GPS computer navigators to shorten EMS response and transport times.

    PubMed

    Ota, F S; Muramatsu, R S; Yoshida, B H; Yamamoto, L G

    2001-05-01

    GPS (global positioning satellite system to determine one's position on earth) units have become inexpensive and compact. The purpose of this study is to assess the effectiveness of a GPS enhanced computer street map navigator to improve the ability of EMS drivers in an urban setting to locate their destination and shorten response times. For part I, residential addresses in the city were randomly selected from a telephone directory. Two driver/navigator teams were assigned to drive to the address adhering to speed limits. One team used a standard street map, whereas the other team used a GPS computer navigator. The travel time and distance of the runs were compared. For part II, the computer GPS navigator was placed on an ambulance to supplement their normal methods of navigation to find the address requesting EMS. After the run was completed, EMS providers were interviewed to determine their opinion of whether the GPS navigator was helpful. For part I the results showed that in the 29 initial test runs, comparing the GPS team versus the standard map team, the mean distances traveled were 8.7 versus 9.0 kilometers (not significant) and the mean travel times were 13.5 versus 14.6 minutes (P=.02), respectively. The GPS team arrived faster in 72% runs. For part II the results showed that most EMS providers surveyed noted that the GPS computer navigator enhanced their ability to find the destination and all EMS providers acknowledged that it would enhance their ability to find a destination in an area in which they were unfamiliar. These results suggest that a portable GPS computer navigator system is helpful and can enhance the ability of prehospital care providers to locate their destination. Because these units are accurate and inexpensive, GPS computer navigators may be a valuable tool in reducing pre-hospital transport times.

  12. The B and Be States of the Star EM Cepheus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjurkchieva, Diana; Marchev, Dragomir; Sigut, T. A. A.; Dimitrov, Dinko

    2016-09-01

    We present 11 yr of high-resolution, spectroscopic observations for the star EM Cep. EM Cep switches between B and Be star states, as revealed by the level of Hα emission, but spends most of its time in the B star state. EM Cep has been considered to be an eclipsing, near-contact binary of nearly equal-mass B stars in order to reproduce regular photometric variations; however, this model is problematic due to the lack of any observed Doppler shift in the spectrum. Our observations confirm that there are no apparent Doppler shifts in the wide spectral lines Hα and He i λ6678 in either the B or Be star states. The profiles of He i λ6678 typically exhibited a filled-in absorption core, but we detected weak emission in this line during the highest Be state. Given the lack of observed Doppler shifts, we model EM Cep as an isolated Be star with a variable circumstellar disk. We can reproduce the observed Hα emission profiles over the 11 yr period reasonably well with disk masses on the order of 3{--}10× {10}-11 {M}* in the Be state with the circumstellar disk seen at an inclination of 78° to the line of sight. From a disk ejection episode in 2014, we estimate a mass-loss rate of ≈ 3× {10}-9 {M}⊙ {{yr}}-1. The derived disk density parameters are typical of those found for the classical Be stars. We therefore suggest that the EM Cep is a classical Be star and that its photometric variations are the result of β Cep or nonradial pulsations.

  13. Correlates of suicidality in firefighter/EMS personnel.

    PubMed

    Martin, Colleen E; Tran, Jana K; Buser, Sam J

    2017-01-15

    Firefighter and Emergency Medical Services (EMS) personnel experience higher rates of lifetime suicidal ideation and attempts than the general population and other protective service professions. Several correlates of suicidality (alcohol use, depression, posttraumatic stress) have been identified in the literature as applicable to firefighter/EMS populations; however, few studies to date have examined the specific correlates of suicidality (lifetime suicidal ideation and/or attempts) in a firefighter/EMS sample. Participants (N=3036) from a large, urban fire department completed demographic and self-report measures of alcohol dependence, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity, and lifetime suicidal ideation and attempts. Participants in this sample performed both firefighter and EMS duties, were predominately male (97%), White (61.6%), and 25-34 years old (32.1%). Through hierarchical linear regressions, depression (β=.22, p<.05) and PTSD symptom severity (β=.21, p<.05) were significantly associated with lifetime suicidal ideation (R(2) =17.5). Depression (β=.15, p<.001), and PTSD symptom severity (β=.07, p<.01) were significantly associated with lifetime suicide attempts (R(2)=5.1). Several limitations are addressed in the current study. The survey was a self-report pre-existing dataset and lifetime suicidal ideation and attempts were measured using sum scores. Additionally, the disproportionately large sample of males and large, urban setting, may not generalize to female firefighters and members of rural community fire departments. The current study highlights the importance of targeting depression and PTSD symptom severity in efforts to reduce suicidality in firefighter/EMS personnel. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. ATTRACT-EM: A New Method for the Computational Assembly of Large Molecular Machines Using Cryo-EM Maps

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, Sjoerd J.; Zacharias, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Many of the most important functions in the cell are carried out by proteins organized in large molecular machines. Cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) is increasingly being used to obtain low resolution density maps of these large assemblies. A new method, ATTRACT-EM, for the computational assembly of molecular assemblies from their components has been developed. Based on concepts from the protein-protein docking field, it utilizes cryo-EM density maps to assemble molecular subunits at near atomic detail, starting from millions of initial subunit configurations. The search efficiency was further enhanced by recombining partial solutions, the inclusion of symmetry information, and refinement using a molecular force field. The approach was tested on the GroES-GroEL system, using an experimental cryo-EM map at 23.5 Å resolution, and on several smaller complexes. Inclusion of experimental information on the symmetry of the systems and the application of a new gradient vector matching algorithm allowed the efficient identification of docked assemblies in close agreement with experiment. Application to the GroES-GroEL complex resulted in a top ranked model with a deviation of 4.6 Å (and a 2.8 Å model within the top 10) from the GroES-GroEL crystal structure, a significant improvement over existing methods. PMID:23251350

  15. DeepEM3D: approaching human-level performance on 3D anisotropic EM image segmentation.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Tao; Wu, Bian; Ji, Shuiwang

    2017-08-15

    Progress in 3D electron microscopy (EM) imaging has greatly facilitated neuroscience research in high-throughput data acquisition. Correspondingly, high-throughput automated image analysis methods are necessary to work on par with the speed of data being produced. One such example is the need for automated EM image segmentation for neurite reconstruction. However, the efficiency and reliability of current methods are still lagging far behind human performance. Here, we propose DeepEM3D, a deep learning method for segmenting 3D anisotropic brain electron microscopy images. In this method, the deep learning model can efficiently build feature representation and incorporate sufficient multi-scale contextual information. We propose employing a combination of novel boundary map generation methods with optimized model ensembles to address the inherent challenges of segmenting anisotropic images. We evaluated our method by participating in the 3D segmentation of neurites in EM images (SNEMI3D) challenge. Our submission is ranked #1 on the current leaderboard as of Oct 15, 2016. More importantly, our result was very close to human-level performance in terms of the challenge evaluation metric: namely, a Rand error of 0.06015 versus the human value of 0.05998. The code is available at https://github.com/divelab/deepem3d/. sji@eecs.wsu.edu. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  16. Effects of caffeine or EDTA post-treatment on EMS mutagenesis in soybean.

    PubMed

    Zhu, B; Gu, A; Deng, X; Geng, Y; Lu, Z

    1995-04-01

    Seeds of soybean cultivar LD4 were mutagenically treated with EMS (0.3, 0.5, 0.6, 0.9, 1.5 and 1.8%) for 3 h only or plus caffeine (50 mM) or EDTA (1 mM) post-treatment for 5 h. The experimental results indicated that: (1) of the different concentrations of EMS treatment, the M2 mutation frequency induced with 0.6% EMS was the highest (9.7%). When the EMS concentration was over 0.9%, the mutation frequency decreased rapidly. (2) Of the EMS treatments plus caffeine or EDTA post-treatment, the mutagenic effect of 0.6% EMS was the best for inducing morphological variations. Caffeine post-treatment decreased notably the mutation frequency of EMS treatment; when concentrations of EMS were very high (1.5% and 1.8%), mutation frequencies of EDTA post-treatment were still 5.0% and 4.88%, but no mutants were found in EMS treatment or plus caffeine post-treatment. (3) In the M2 mutation spectrum, 11 kinds of mutant types were observed in EMS treatment or plus caffeine or EDTA post-treatment. Relative frequencies of some mutant types (growth period, plant height, grain size, leaf shape and sterility, etc.) were similar among the three treatments, but EDTA post-treatment could change the relative frequencies of yield characteristics (number of pods and grains, grain weight/plant) induced by EMS treatment only.

  17. Composting of rice straw with effective microorganisms (EM) and its influence on compost quality

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to assess the effect of EM application on the composting process of rice straw with goat manure and green waste and to evaluate the quality of both compost treatments. There are two treatment piles in this study, in which one pile was applied with EM and another pile without EM. Each treatment was replicated three times with 90 days of composting duration. The parameters for the temperature, pH, TOC and C/N ratio, show that decomposition of organic matter occurs during the 90-day period. The t-test conducted shows that there is a significant difference between compost with EM and compost without EM. The application of EM in compost increases the macro and micronutrient content. The following parameters support this conclusion: compost applied with EM has more N, P and K content (P < 0.05) compared to compost without EM. Although the Fe in compost with EM is much higher (P < 0.05) than in the compost without EM, for Zn and Cu, there is no significant difference between treatments. This study suggests that the application of EM is suitable to increase the mineralization in the composting process. The final resultant compost indicated that it was in the range of the matured level and can be used without any restriction. PMID:23390930

  18. Application of Electromagnetic (EM) Separation Technology to Metal Refining Processes: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lifeng; Wang, Shengqian; Dong, Anping; Gao, Jianwei; Damoah, Lucas Nana Wiredu

    2014-12-01

    Application of electromagnetic (EM) force to metal processing has been considered as an emerging technology for the production of clean metals and other advanced materials. In the current paper, the principle of EM separation was introduced and several schemes of imposing EM field, such as DC electric field with a crossed steady magnetic field, AC electric field, AC magnetic field, and traveling magnetic field were reviewed. The force around a single particle or multi-particles and their trajectories in the conductive liquid under EM field were discussed. Applications of EM technique to the purification of different liquid metals such as aluminum, zinc, magnesium, silicon, copper, and steel were summarized. Effects of EM processing parameters, such as the frequency of imposed field, imposed magnetic flux density, processing time, particle size, and the EM unit size on the EM purification efficiency were discussed. Experimental and theoretical investigations have showed that the separation efficiency of inclusions from the molten aluminum using EM purification could as high as over 90 pct. Meanwhile, the EM purification was also applied to separate intermetallic compounds from metal melt, such as α-AlFeMnSi-phase from the molten aluminum. And then the potential industrial application of EM technique was proposed.

  19. Development of the Emergency Medical Services Role Identity Scale (EMS-RIS).

    PubMed

    Donnelly, Elizabeth A; Siebert, Darcy; Siebert, Carl

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the development and validation of the theoretically grounded Emergency Medical Services Role Identity Scale (EMS-RIS), which measures four domains of EMS role identity. The EMS-RIS was developed using a mixed methods approach. Key informants informed item development and the scale was validated using a representative probability sample of EMS personnel. Factor analyses revealed a conceptually consistent, four-factor solution with sound psychometric properties as well as evidence of convergent and discriminant validities. Social workers work with EMS professionals in crisis settings and as their counselors when they are distressed. The EMS-RIS provides useful information for the assessment of and intervention with distressed EMS professionals, as well as how role identity may influence occupational stress.

  20. Nonlinear Smoothing and the EM Algorithm for Positive Integral Equations of the First Kind

    SciTech Connect

    Eggermont, P. P. B.

    1999-01-15

    We study a modification of the EMS algorithm in which each step of the EMS algorithm is preceded by a nonlinear smoothing step of the form Nf-exp(S*log f) , where S is the smoothing operator of the EMS algorithm. In the context of positive integral equations (a la positron emission tomography) the resulting algorithm is related to a convex minimization problem which always admits a unique smooth solution, in contrast to the unmodified maximum likelihood setup. The new algorithm has slightly stronger monotonicity properties than the original EM algorithm. This suggests that the modified EMS algorithm is actually an EM algorithm for the modified problem. The existence of a smooth solution to the modified maximum likelihood problem and the monotonicity together imply the strong convergence of the new algorithm. We also present some simulation results for the integral equation of stereology, which suggests that the new algorithm behaves roughly like the EMS algorithm.

  1. Similarity-regulation of OS-EM for accelerated SPECT reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaissier, P. E. B.; Beekman, F. J.; Goorden, M. C.

    2016-06-01

    Ordered subsets expectation maximization (OS-EM) is widely used to accelerate image reconstruction in single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Speedup of OS-EM over maximum likelihood expectation maximization (ML-EM) is close to the number of subsets used. Although a high number of subsets can shorten reconstruction times significantly, it can also cause severe image artifacts such as improper erasure of reconstructed activity if projections contain few counts. We recently showed that such artifacts can be prevented by using a count-regulated OS-EM (CR-OS-EM) algorithm which automatically adapts the number of subsets for each voxel based on the estimated number of counts that the voxel contributed to the projections. While CR-OS-EM reached high speed-up over ML-EM in high-activity regions of images, speed in low-activity regions could still be very slow. In this work we propose similarity-regulated OS-EM (SR-OS-EM) as a much faster alternative to CR-OS-EM. SR-OS-EM also automatically and locally adapts the number of subsets, but it uses a different criterion for subset regulation: the number of subsets that is used for updating an individual voxel depends on how similar the reconstruction algorithm would update the estimated activity in that voxel with different subsets. Reconstructions of an image quality phantom and in vivo scans show that SR-OS-EM retains all of the favorable properties of CR-OS-EM, while reconstruction speed can be up to an order of magnitude higher in low-activity regions. Moreover our results suggest that SR-OS-EM can be operated with identical reconstruction parameters (including the number of iterations) for a wide range of count levels, which can be an additional advantage from a user perspective since users would only have to post-filter an image to present it at an appropriate noise level.

  2. An economic toolkit for identifying the cost of emergency medical services (EMS) systems: detailed methodology of the EMS Cost Analysis Project (EMSCAP).

    PubMed

    Lerner, E Brooke; Garrison, Herbert G; Nichol, Graham; Maio, Ronald F; Lookman, Hunaid A; Sheahan, William D; Franz, Timothy R; Austad, James D; Ginster, Aaron M; Spaite, Daniel W

    2012-02-01

    Calculating the cost of an emergency medical services (EMS) system using a standardized method is important for determining the value of EMS. This article describes the development of a methodology for calculating the cost of an EMS system to its community. This includes a tool for calculating the cost of EMS (the "cost workbook") and detailed directions for determining cost (the "cost guide"). The 12-step process that was developed is consistent with current theories of health economics, applicable to prehospital care, flexible enough to be used in varying sizes and types of EMS systems, and comprehensive enough to provide meaningful conclusions. It was developed by an expert panel (the EMS Cost Analysis Project [EMSCAP] investigator team) in an iterative process that included pilot testing the process in three diverse communities. The iterative process allowed ongoing modification of the toolkit during the development phase, based upon direct, practical, ongoing interaction with the EMS systems that were using the toolkit. The resulting methodology estimates EMS system costs within a user-defined community, allowing either the number of patients treated or the estimated number of lives saved by EMS to be assessed in light of the cost of those efforts. Much controversy exists about the cost of EMS and whether the resources spent for this purpose are justified. However, the existence of a validated toolkit that provides a standardized process will allow meaningful assessments and comparisons to be made and will supply objective information to inform EMS and community officials who are tasked with determining the utilization of scarce societal resources.

  3. Compassionate Options for Pediatric EMS (COPE): Addressing Communication Skills.

    PubMed

    Calhoun, Aaron W; Sutton, Erica R H; Barbee, Anita P; McClure, Beth; Bohnert, Carrie; Forest, Richard; Taillac, Peter; Fallat, Mary E

    2017-01-01

    Each year, 16,000 children suffer cardiopulmonary arrest, and in one urban study, 2% of pediatric EMS calls were attributed to pediatric arrests. This indicates a need for enhanced educational options for prehospital providers that address how to communicate to families in these difficult situations. In response, our team developed a cellular phone digital application (app) designed to assist EMS providers in self-debriefing these events, thereby improving their communication skills. The goal of this study was to pilot the app using a simulation-based investigative methodology. Video and didactic app content was generated using themes developed from a series of EMS focus groups and evaluated using volunteer EMS providers assessed during two identical nonaccidental trauma simulations. Intervention groups interacted with the app as a team between assessments, and control groups debriefed during that period as they normally would. Communication performance and gap analyses were measured using the Gap-Kalamazoo Consensus Statement Assessment Form. A total of 148 subjects divided into 38 subject groups (18 intervention groups and 20 control groups) were assessed. Comparison of initial intervention group and control group scores showed no statistically significant difference in performance (2.9/5 vs. 3.0/5; p = 0.33). Comparisons made during the second assessment revealed a statistically significant improvement in the intervention group scores, with a moderate to large effect size (3.1/5 control vs. 4.0/5 intervention; p < 0.001, r = 0.69, absolute value). Gap analysis data showed a similar pattern, with gaps of -0.6 and -0.5 (values suggesting team self-over-appraisal of communication abilities) present in both control and intervention groups (p = 0.515) at the initial assessment. This gap persisted in the control group at the time of the second assessment (-0.8), but was significantly reduced (0.04) in the intervention group (p = 0.013, r = 0.41, absolute value

  4. Portable suction unit failure in a rural EMS system.

    PubMed

    Risavi, Brian L; Sabotchick, K J; Heile, Christopher J

    2013-08-01

    Portable suction units used by EMS personnel are utilized infrequently and often are powered by batteries. Lack of use and inspection often results in failure of the device when it is needed. The purpose of this study was to examine the incidence of portable suction unit failure in a rural EMS system and to identify the reasons for failures. A convenience sample was obtained through both random inspections by the staff of a regional EMS council and data from twice monthly checks reported by respective EMS agencies following a standard protocol for each unit. A standard protocol was used, including checking the vacuum level on each suction unit and inspecting the tubing, canister, and battery. Each inspector assessed whether the unit was capable of achieving 300 mmHg of suction within four seconds. Also, the unit was inspected for any signs of misalignment or dry rot of the gasket, kinking of suction hose, damage to the suction canister, weak/dead battery, or defective pump. Findings were recorded. Over a two-year period, 9,631 suction unit inspections were completed. There were 233 failures (2.4%) noted. The majority (126, 54.1%) were due to battery failure. Seventy-three units failed due to other reasons (not recorded, switch failure, battery not seated). Ten inspections failed due to incorrect assembly. Nineteen inspections failed due to defects with the suction canister. Five inspections failed due to kinked/disconnected suction tubing. Only a relatively small percentage of inspections of suction units revealed failures (4.6% Advanced Life Support, 8.6% Basic Life Support) using the above-stated criteria. However, given the importance of airway management and potential complications associated with airway compromise, including aspiration pneumonia, hypoxia, and hemodynamic instability, this is of concern relative to the morbidity and mortality that could be related to airway failure. Due to the relative infrequency of use and the nature of portable suction units

  5. Translation of EMS: clinical practice and system oversight from core content study guide to best practices implementation in an Urban EMS system.

    PubMed

    Tataris, Katie; Mercer, Mary; Brown, John

    2015-01-01

    Since 2009, the seminal text in emergency medical services (EMS) medicine has been used to guide the academic development of the new subspecialty but direct application of the material into EMS oversight has not been previously described. The EMS/Disaster Medicine fellowship program at our institution scheduled a monthly meeting to systematically review the text and develop a study guide to assist the fellow and affiliated faculty in preparation for the board examination. In addition to the summary of chapter content, the review included an assessment of areas from each chapter subject where our EMS system did not exhibit recommended characteristics. A matrix was developed in the form of a gap analysis to include specific recommendations based on each perceived gap. Initial review and completion dates for each identified gap enable tracking and a responsible party. This matrix assisted the fellow with development of projects for EMS system improvement in addition to focusing and prioritizing the work of other interested physicians working in the system. By discussing expert recommendations in the setting of an actual EMS system, the faculty can teach the fellow how to approach system improvements based on prior experiences and current stakeholders. This collaborative environment facilitates system-based practice and practice-based learning, aligning with ACGME core competencies. Our educational model has demonstrated the success of translating the text into action items for EMS systems. This model may be useful in other systems and could contribute to the development of EMS system standards nationwide.

  6. Orion EM-1 Heat Shield Offload, Transport, and Lift

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-08-26

    Technicians with Jacobs on the Test and Operations Support Contract have positioned a platform close to NASA’s Super Guppy aircraft at the Shuttle Landing Facility, managed and operated by Space Florida, at the agency’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida, for offloading of the shipping container carrying the Orion heat shield for Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1). The heat shield will be offloaded and transported to the Neil Armstrong Operations and Checkout Building high bay for processing. The heat shield arrived from Lockheed Martin’s manufacturing facility near Denver. The Orion spacecraft will launch atop NASA’s Space Launch System rocket on EM-1, an uncrewed test flight, in 2018.

  7. Event reconstruction in NEXT using the ML-EM algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simón, A.; Ferrario, P.; Izmaylov, A.; NEXT Collaboration

    2016-04-01

    The NEXT collaboration aims to find the neutrinoless double beta decay in 136Xe. The rareness of this decay demands an exceptional background rejection. This can be obtained with an excellent energy resolution, which has been already demonstrated in the NEXT prototypes. In addition to this, the ββ 0 ν decay in gas produces a characteristic topological signal which could be an extremely useful extra handle to avoid background events. The need for a satisfactory topology reconstruction has led the NEXT Collaboration to implement the Maximum Likelihood Expectation Maximization method (ML-EM) in the data processing scheme. ML-EM is a generic iterative algorithm for many kinds of inverse problems. Although this method is well known in medical imaging and has been used widely in Positron Emission Tomography, it has never been applied to a time projection chamber. First results and studies of the performance of the method will be presented in this poster.

  8. EM susceptibility studies and measurements on electro explosive devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deb, G. K.; Mukherjee, M.

    Electroexplosive devices (EEDs) are susceptible to stray electromagnetic (EM) fields near high-power communications and radar transmitters. Experiments have been carried out to measure the exact susceptibility of EED resistive squibs in pulsed and continuous EM environments, respectively. The susceptibility test procedure consisted of individual measurements of direct current sensitivity (mA); impulse sensitivity; RF impedance measurements; and safety margin calculations. A stray energy monitor was used to evaluate the safe performance of a hybrid weapons system. It is found that the RF sensitivity of the squib was influenced by the transmission characteristics of the transmission line connected to it. RF absorption peaks were observed above the EED sensitivity threshold of 120 MHz. Methods of EMI control are discussed, including: low-pass pin filters; lossy line filters for all dc power line interconnections; and twisting and shielding of the wires.

  9. Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) program: An introduction

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-01

    This booklet introduces the reader to the mission and functions of a major new unit within the US Department of Energy (DOE): the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM). The Secretary of Energy established EM in November 1989, implementing a central purpose of DOE's first annual Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Five-Year Plan, which had appeared three months earlier. The contents of this booklet, and their arrangement, reflect the annual update of the Five-Year Plan. The Five-Year Plan supports DOE's strategy for meeting its 30-year compliance and cleanup goal. This strategy involves: focusing DOE's activities on eliminating or reducing known or recognized potential risks to worker and public health and the environment, containing or isolating, removing, or detoxifying onsite and offsite contamination, and developing technology to achieve DOE's environmental goals.

  10. Superconducting Electromagnetic Suspension (EMS) system for Grumman Maglev concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalsi, Swarn S.

    1994-01-01

    The Grumman developed Electromagnetic Suspension (EMS) Maglev system has the following key characteristics: a large operating airgap--40 mm; levitation at all speeds; both high speed and low speed applications; no deleterious effects on SC coils at low vehicle speeds; low magnetic field at the SC coil--less than 0.35 T; no need to use non-magnetic/non-metallic rebar in the guideway structure; low magnetic field in passenger cabin--approximately 1 G; low forces on the SC coil; employs state-of-the-art NbTi wire; no need for an active magnet quench protection system; and lower weight than a magnet system with copper coils. The EMS Maglev described in this paper does not require development of any new technologies. The system could be built with the existing SC magnet technology.

  11. A constrained EM algorithm for principal component analysis.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Jong-Hoon; Oh, Jong-Hoon

    2003-01-01

    We propose a constrained EM algorithm for principal component analysis (PCA) using a coupled probability model derived from single-standard factor analysis models with isotropic noise structure. The single probabilistic PCA, especially for the case where there is no noise, can find only a vector set that is a linear superposition of principal components and requires postprocessing, such as diagonalization of symmetric matrices. By contrast, the proposed algorithm finds the actual principal components, which are sorted in descending order of eigenvalue size and require no additional calculation or postprocessing. The method is easily applied to kernel PCA. It is also shown that the new EM algorithm is derived from a generalized least-squares formulation.

  12. Hybrid polymer composite membrane for an electromagnetic (EM) valveless micropump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Said, Muzalifah Mohd; Yunas, Jumril; Bais, Badariah; Azlan Hamzah, Azrul; Yeop Majlis, Burhanuddin

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we report on a hybrid membrane used as an actuator in an electromagnetically driven valveless micropump developed using MEMS processes. The membrane structure consists of the combination of a magnetic polymer composite membrane and an attached bulk permanent magnet which is expected to have a compact structure and a strong magnetic force with maintained membrane flexibility. A soft polymeric material made of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is initially mixed with neodymium magnetic particles (NdFeB) to form a magnetic polymer composite membrane. The membrane is then bonded with the PDMS based microfluidic part, developed using soft lithography process. The developed micropump was tested in terms of the actuator membrane deflection capability and the fluidic flow of the injected fluid sample through the microfluidic channel. The experimental results show that the magnetic composite actuator membrane with an attached bulk permanent magnet is capable of producing a maximum membrane deflection of up to 106 µm. The functionality test of the electromagnetic (EM) actuator for fluid pumping purposes was done by supplying an AC voltage with various amplitudes, signal waves and frequencies. A wide range of sample injection rates from a few µl min-1 to tens of nl min-1 was achieved with a maximum flow rate of 6.6 µl min-1. The injection flow rate of the EM micropump can be controlled by adjusting the voltage amplitude and frequency supplied to the EM coil, to control the membrane deflection in the pump chamber. The designed valveless EM micropump has a very high potential to enhance the drug delivery system capability in biomedical applications.

  13. Love 'em or they'll leave: motivating volunteers.

    PubMed

    McDowell, D

    1999-11-01

    Running a successful volunteer-based service does not begin and end with the recruitment of volunteers. You need to first consider what is in it for the prospective volunteer, define why you want volunteers and then decide exactly what you want those volunteers to do. Then you recruit them, face-to-face, ensuring that every prospect is offered something specific to do and is welcomed into your EMS family.

  14. EMS mutagenesis in the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum.

    PubMed

    Tagu, Denis; Le Trionnaire, Gaël; Tanguy, Sylvie; Gauthier, Jean-Pierre; Huynh, Jean-René

    2014-04-16

    In aphids, clonal individuals can show distinct morphologic traits in response to environmental cues. Such phenotypic plasticity cannot be studied with classical genetic model organisms such as Caenorhabditis elegans or Drosophila melanogaster. The genetic basis of this biological process remain unknown, as mutations affecting this process are not available in aphids. Here, we describe a protocol to treat third-stage larvae with an alkylating mutagen, ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS), to generate random mutations within the Acyrthosiphon pisum genome. We found that even low concentrations of EMS were toxic for two genotypes of A. pisum. Mutagenesis efficiency was nevertheless assessed by estimating the occurrence of mutational events on the X chromosome. Indeed, any lethal mutation on the X-chromosome would kill males that are haploid on the X so that we used the proportion of males as an estimation of mutagenesis efficacy. We could assess a putative mutation rate of 0.4 per X-chromosome at 10 mM of EMS. We then applied this protocol to perform a small-scale mutagenesis on parthenogenetic individuals, which were screened for defects in their ability to produce sexual individuals in response to photoperiod shortening. We found one mutant line showing a reproducible altered photoperiodic response with a reduced production of males and the appearance of aberrant winged males (wing atrophy, alteration of legs morphology). This mutation appeared to be stable because it could be transmitted over several generations of parthenogenetic individuals. To our knowledge, this study represents the first example of an EMS-generated aphid mutant.

  15. EMS Mutagenesis in the Pea Aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum

    PubMed Central

    Tagu, Denis; Le Trionnaire, Gaël; Tanguy, Sylvie; Gauthier, Jean-Pierre; Huynh, Jean-René

    2014-01-01

    In aphids, clonal individuals can show distinct morphologic traits in response to environmental cues. Such phenotypic plasticity cannot be studied with classical genetic model organisms such as Caenorhabditis elegans or Drosophila melanogaster. The genetic basis of this biological process remain unknown, as mutations affecting this process are not available in aphids. Here, we describe a protocol to treat third-stage larvae with an alkylating mutagen, ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS), to generate random mutations within the Acyrthosiphon pisum genome. We found that even low concentrations of EMS were toxic for two genotypes of A. pisum. Mutagenesis efficiency was nevertheless assessed by estimating the occurrence of mutational events on the X chromosome. Indeed, any lethal mutation on the X-chromosome would kill males that are haploid on the X so that we used the proportion of males as an estimation of mutagenesis efficacy. We could assess a putative mutation rate of 0.4 per X-chromosome at 10 mM of EMS. We then applied this protocol to perform a small-scale mutagenesis on parthenogenetic individuals, which were screened for defects in their ability to produce sexual individuals in response to photoperiod shortening. We found one mutant line showing a reproducible altered photoperiodic response with a reduced production of males and the appearance of aberrant winged males (wing atrophy, alteration of legs morphology). This mutation appeared to be stable because it could be transmitted over several generations of parthenogenetic individuals. To our knowledge, this study represents the first example of an EMS-generated aphid mutant. PMID:24531730

  16. Range Condition and ML-EM Checkerboard Artifacts

    PubMed Central

    You, Jiangsheng; Wang, Jing; Liang, Zhengrong

    2007-01-01

    The expectation maximization (EM) algorithm for the maximum likelihood (ML) image reconstruction criterion generates severe checkerboard artifacts in the presence of noise. A classical remedy is to impose an a priori constraint for a penalized ML or maximum a posteriori probability solution. The penalty reduces the checkerboard artifacts and also introduces uncertainty because a priori information is usually unknown in clinic. Recent theoretical investigation reveals that the noise can be divided into two components: one is called null-space noise and the other is range-space noise. The null-space noise can be numerically estimated using filtered backprojection (FBP) algorithm. By the FBP algorithm, the null-space noise annihilates in the reconstruction while the range-space noise propagates into the reconstructed image. The aim of this work is to investigate the relation between the null-space noise and the checkerboard artifacts in the ML-EM reconstruction from noisy projection data. Our study suggests that removing the null-space noise from the projection data could improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the projection data and, therefore, reduce the checkerboard artifacts in the ML-EM reconstructed images. This study reveals an in-depth understanding of the different noise propagations in analytical and iterative image reconstructions, which may be useful to single photon emission computed tomography, where the noise has been a major factor for image degradation. The reduction of the ML-EM checkerboard artifacts by removing the null-space noise avoids the uncertainty of using a priori penalty. PMID:18449363

  17. Generalized single-particle cryo-EM--a historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Frank, Joachim

    2016-02-01

    This is a brief account of the earlier history of single-particle cryo-EM of biological molecules lacking internal symmetry, which goes back to the mid-seventies. The emphasis of this review is on the mathematical concepts and computational approaches. It is written as the field experiences a turning point in the wake of the introduction of digital cameras capable of single electron counting, and near-atomic resolution can be reached even for smaller molecules.

  18. Principles of cryo-EM single-particle image processing

    PubMed Central

    Sigworth, Fred J.

    2016-01-01

    Single-particle reconstruction is the process by which 3D density maps are obtained from a set of low-dose cryo-EM images of individual macromolecules. This review considers the fundamental principles of this process and the steps in the overall workflow for single-particle image processing. Also considered are the limits that image signal-to-noise ratio places on resolution and the distinguishing of heterogeneous particle populations. PMID:26705325

  19. Night Vision Goggles in Emergency Medical Service (EMS) Helicopters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-07-01

    participated in a flight test program to assess the use of NVG’s in EMS operations. Information produced by other government agencies with extensive NVG...recommendations of this document. information produced by other government agencies, with extensive experience with NVGs, was reviewed for use in this...as possible without touching eyelashes or spectacles (see figure 35). 5. Evaluate the picture. The NVG should be correctly aligned. There should be no

  20. Color a bright energy picture with EMS controls

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-09-01

    After 80 years in the crayon-manufacturing business, Binney and Smith found that more than 50% of their staggering annual utility costs were being generated by non-production loads. To curtail waste, they installed an expandable EMS which controls energy in the company's two separate, multi-building facilities from one central location. The system selected was an AI2100/MAX System manufactured by American Auto-Matrix, Export, PA.

  1. Integrated GW-EM Follow-up Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackley, Kendall; Eikenberry, Stephen; Klimenko, Sergey; LSC Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    Advanced Gravitational-Wave (GW) detectors such as Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo are expected to become operational for observation runs in 2015, with an expected ultimate improvement in sensitivity over previous configurations by a factor of 10 by 2019. There are many potential electromagnetic (EM) counterparts to GWs including short and long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and kilonovae. While SGRBs and LGRBs predominantly emit in the X-ray, and the recently-observed kilonova primarily in the infrared, all three sources are expected to have detectable traces in the optical band, albeit requiring very sensitive optical telescopes. In order to aid in the optimization of GW trigger follow-up procedures, we perform an end-to-end analysis feasibility study using synthesized Advanced detector data simulating a GW detection with a theoretical EM counterpart injected into archival optical images. We use images from Robotic Optical Transient Search Experiment (ROTSE) and Palomar Transient Factory (PTF), and inject candidate events following observed lightcurves of SGRBs, LGRBs, and kilonovae. The use of Zernike PSF decomposition on candidate objects offers a fast way to identify point sources, speeding up the automated identification of transient sources in the images. We present our method of transient recovery and the latest results of our feasibility study of a joint GW-EM observation.

  2. Modeling to Optimize Hospital Evacuation Planning in EMS Systems.

    PubMed

    Bish, Douglas R; Tarhini, Hussein; Amara, Roel; Zoraster, Richard; Bosson, Nichole; Gausche-Hill, Marianne

    2017-01-01

    To develop optimal hospital evacuation plans within a large urban EMS system using a novel evacuation planning model and a realistic hospital evacuation scenario, and to illustrate the ways in which a decision support model may be useful in evacuation planning. An optimization model was used to produce detailed evacuation plans given the number and type of patients in the evacuating hospital, resource levels (teams to move patients, vehicles, and beds at other hospitals), and evacuation rules. Optimal evacuation plans under various resource levels and rules were developed and high-level metrics were calculated, including evacuation duration and the utilization of resources. Using this model we were able to determine the limiting resources and demonstrate how strategically augmenting the resource levels can improve the performance of the evacuation plan. The model allowed the planner to test various evacuation conditions and resource levels to demonstrate the effect on performance of the evacuation plan. We present a hospital evacuation planning analysis for a hospital in a large urban EMS system using an optimization model. This model can be used by EMS administrators and medical directors to guide planning decisions and provide a better understanding of various resource allocation decisions and rules that govern a hospital evacuation.

  3. Essential ethics for EMS: cardinal virtues and core principles.

    PubMed

    Larkin, Gregory Luke; Fowler, Raymond Logan

    2002-11-01

    Dutiful attention to virtue, teamwork, beneficence, justice, and respect for patient autonomy provides a coherent approach to addressing many ethical dilemmas in the out-of-hospital setting. Most of the great risks of EMS--abandonment, competence, and safe-driving skills--lie at the ethike or character of those who ply the prehospital art. Proactively fostering the personal and professional virtue of team members may be a kind of moral vaccination against the ethical pitfalls inherent in emergency medical service provision. Future training, education, disaster preparedness drills, and related exercises must include opportunities for character and team building before optimal performance and accountability can be assured. In the steady, almost glacial, maturation of the specialty of EMS medicine, truly the character of those who serve in the "line of fire" of evaluation, management, and transport in the out-of-hospital arena must be girded with more than the armor and shields of technology. Since September 11, 2001, it has become increasingly clear that EMS workers must strengthen their ability to bear the "slings and arrows of outrageous fortune," armed with swords of discipline, virtue, and character to provide the breadth of care that only a well orchestrated team can deliver. Ultimately, humans perform best when they share themselves unselfconsciously, surrendering to an enterprise and cause far greater than themselves. Our citizens, patients, and heroic colleagues deserve no less.

  4. Marine EM: The Past, The Present, and The Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constable, S.

    2016-12-01

    The high cost of deepwater exploration motivated the development of commercial marine magnetotelluric (MT) exploration in 1995, but it wasn't until marine controlled-source electromagnetic (CSEM) methods burst upon the industry scene with the formation of three new contractors in 2002 that things got really exciting. Now the bubble has burst and the excitement has diminished, but marine EM remains an important tool for offshore exploration. Early mistakes were made as a result of poor instrumentation and a lack of good interpretation tools - unlike seismics, EM relies heavily on inversion to produce useful results - but both equipment and inversion codes have improved significantly. Still, there are mistakes that can be made. Rock anisotropy and seawater conductivity have to be handled appropriately. A strong galvanic response means that there is a resistivity/thickness ambiguity when imaging reservoirs, but the inductive nature of the data means that multi-frequency inversions are very much better than using single frequencies. Resolution will never be as good as for seismic methods, but is much better than for potential field methods and conductivity may often be a more diagnostic property than acoustic impedance. EM images resistivity, not hydrocarbon content, and false positives occasionally occur, but false negatives are rare. That is, without a CSEM signature there is little chance of discovering economical hydrocarbons. This should bode well for the future of the method.

  5. Forward Genetics by Sequencing EMS Variation-Induced Inbred Lines

    PubMed Central

    Addo-Quaye, Charles; Buescher, Elizabeth; Best, Norman; Chaikam, Vijay; Baxter, Ivan; Dilkes, Brian P.

    2016-01-01

    In order to leverage novel sequencing techniques for cloning genes in eukaryotic organisms with complex genomes, the false positive rate of variant discovery must be controlled for by experimental design and informatics. We sequenced five lines from three pedigrees of ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS)-mutagenized Sorghum bicolor, including a pedigree segregating a recessive dwarf mutant. Comparing the sequences of the lines, we were able to identify and eliminate error-prone positions. One genomic region contained EMS mutant alleles in dwarfs that were homozygous reference sequences in wild-type siblings and heterozygous in segregating families. This region contained a single nonsynonymous change that cosegregated with dwarfism in a validation population and caused a premature stop codon in the Sorghum ortholog encoding the gibberellic acid (GA) biosynthetic enzyme ent-kaurene oxidase. Application of exogenous GA rescued the mutant phenotype. Our method for mapping did not require outcrossing and introduced no segregation variance. This enables work when line crossing is complicated by life history, permitting gene discovery outside of genetic models. This inverts the historical approach of first using recombination to define a locus and then sequencing genes. Our formally identical approach first sequences all the genes and then seeks cosegregation with the trait. Mutagenized lines lacking obvious phenotypic alterations are available for an extension of this approach: mapping with a known marker set in a line that is phenotypically identical to starting material for EMS mutant generation. PMID:28040779

  6. A study on characteristics of EM radiation from stripline structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kayano, Yoshiki; Inoue, Hiroshi

    2011-10-01

    In recent years, effective methods for predicting and suppressing electromagnetic interference over a broad band are required. In this paper, we focus on the prediction of electromagnetic (EM) radiation from a stripline structure with a ground thin wire by an equivalent circuit model. First, frequency responses of common-mode (CM) current on the printed circuit board and EM radiation are studied with finite difference time domain modeling. Secondly, an equivalent circuit model for predicting CM current is proposed. The equivalent circuit model for prediction is based on the concepts of CM antenna impedance, distributed constant circuit, and electric coupling between the power plane and the thin ground wire. Good agreement between the predicted and full-wave analysis results indicates the validity of the proposed equivalent circuit model. The frequency response of EM radiation from the stripline structure can be identified using our proposed model. In addition, the equivalent circuit model provides enough flexibility for different geometric parameters and can be used to develop physical insights and design guidelines.

  7. Improving EM&V for Energy Efficiency Programs (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-07-01

    This fact sheet describes the objectives of the U.S. Department of Energy Uniform Methods Project to bring consistency to energy savings calculations in U.S. energy efficiency programs. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is developing a framework and a set of protocols for determining gross energy savings from energy efficiency measures and programs. The protocols represent a refinement of the body of knowledge supporting energy efficiency evaluation, measurement, and verification (EM&V) activities. They have been written by technical experts within the field and reviewed by industry experts. Current EM&V practice allows for multiple methods for calculating energy savings. These methods were developed to meet the needs of energy efficiency program administrators and regulators. Although they served their original objectives well, they have resulted in inconsistent and incomparable savings results - even for identical measures. The goal of the Uniform Methods Project is to strengthen the credibility of energy savings determinations by improving EM&V, increasing the consistency and transparency of how energy savings are determined.

  8. Debris Avalanche Formation at Kick'em Jenny Submarine Volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigurdsson, H.; Carey, S. N.; Wilson, D.

    2005-12-01

    Kick'em Jenny submarine volcano near Grenada is the most active volcanic center in the Lesser Antilles arc. Multibeam surveys of the volcano by NOAA in 2002 revealed an arcuate fault scarp east of the active cone, suggesting flank collapse. More extensive NOAA surveys in 2003 demonstrated the presence of an associated debris avalanche deposit, judging from their surface morphologic expression on the sea floor, extending at least 15 km and possibly as much as 30 km from the volcano, into the Grenada Basin to the west. Seismic air-gun profiles of the region show that these are lobate deposits, that range in thickness from tens to hundreds of meters. The debris avalanche deposit is contained within two marginal levees, that extend symmetrically from the volcano to the west. A conservative estimate of the volume of the smaller debris avalanche deposit is about 10 km3. Age dating of the deposits and the flank failure events is in progress, by analysis of gravity cores collected during the 2003 survey. Reconstruction of the pre-collapse volcanic edifice suggests that the ancestral Kick'em Jenny volcano might have been at or above sea level. Kick'em Jenny is dominantly supplied by basalt to basaltic andesite magmas, that are extruded now as submarine pillow lavas and domes or ejected as tephra in relatively minor phreatomagmatic explosions. Geochemical evolution of this volcano has not, however, reached the stage of generation of volatile-rich silicic magmas that might form highly explosive eruptions.

  9. The US DOE-EM International Program - 13004

    SciTech Connect

    Elmetti, Rosa R.; Han, Ana M.; Williams, Alice C.

    2013-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) conducts international collaboration activities in support of U.S. policies and objectives regarding the accelerated risk reduction and remediation of environmental legacy of the nations' nuclear weapons program and government sponsored nuclear energy research. The EM International Program supported out of the EM Office of the Associate Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary pursues collaborations with foreign government organizations, educational institutions and private industry to assist in identifying technologies and promote international collaborations that leverage resources and link international experience and expertise. In fiscal year (FY) 2012, the International Program awarded eight international collaborative projects for work scope spanning waste processing, groundwater and soil remediation, deactivation and decommissioning (D and D) and nuclear materials disposition initiatives to seven foreign organizations. Additionally, the International Program's scope and collaboration opportunities were expanded to include technical as well as non-technical areas. This paper will present an overview of the on-going tasks awarded in FY 2012 and an update of upcoming international activities and opportunities for expansion into FY 2013 and beyond. (authors)

  10. Bayesian Modeling of Biomolecular Assemblies with Cryo-EM Maps

    PubMed Central

    Habeck, Michael

    2017-01-01

    A growing array of experimental techniques allows us to characterize the three-dimensional structure of large biological assemblies at increasingly higher resolution. In addition to X-ray crystallography and nuclear magnetic resonance in solution, new structure determination methods such cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM), crosslinking/mass spectrometry and solid-state NMR have emerged. Often it is not sufficient to use a single experimental method, but complementary data need to be collected by using multiple techniques. The integration of all datasets can only be achieved by computational means. This article describes Inferential structure determination, a Bayesian approach to integrative modeling of biomolecular complexes with hybrid structural data. I will introduce probabilistic models for cryo-EM maps and outline Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithms for sampling model structures from the posterior distribution. I will focus on rigid and flexible modeling with cryo-EM data and discuss some of the computational challenges of Bayesian inference in the context of biomolecular modeling. PMID:28382301

  11. Retrospectively exploring the importance of items in the decision to leave the emergency medical services (EMS) profession and their relationships to life satisfaction after leaving EMS and likelihood of returning to EMS.

    PubMed

    Blau, Gary; Chapman, Susan

    2011-01-01

    An exit survey was returned by a sample of 127 respondents in fully compensated positions who left the EMS profession, most within 12 months prior to filling out the exit survey. A very high percentage continued to work after leaving EMS. Respondents were asked to rate the importance of each of 17 items in affecting their decision to leave EMS. A higher than anticipated response to a "not applicable" response choice affected the usability of 8 of these items. Nine of the 17 items had at least 65 useable responses and were used for further analysis. Within these 9, stress/burnout and lack of job challenges had the highest importance in affecting the decision to leave EMS, while desire for better pay and benefits had the lowest importance. Desire for career change was positively related to life satisfaction after leaving EMS and negatively related to likelihood of returning to EMS. Stress/burnout was positively related to life satisfaction after leaving EMS. Study limitations and future research issues are briefly discussed.

  12. EMS-STARS: Emergency Medical Services "Superuser" Transport Associations: An Adult Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Hall, M Kennedy; Raven, Maria C; Hall, Jane; Yeh, Clement; Allen, Elaine; Rodriguez, Robert M; Tangherlini, Niels L; Sporer, Karl A; Brown, John F

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective. Emergency medical services (EMS) "superusers" -those who use EMS services at extremely high rates -have not been well characterized. Recent interest in the small group of individuals who account for a disproportionate share of health-care expenditures has led to research on frequent users of emergency departments and other health services, but little research has been done regarding those who use EMS services. To inform policy and intervention implementation, we undertook a descriptive analysis of EMS superusers in a large urban community. In this paper we compare EMS superusers to low, moderate, and high users to characterize factors contributing to EMS use. We also estimate the financial impact of EMS superusers. Methods. We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study based on 1 year of data from an urban EMS system. Data for all EMS encounters with patients age ≥18 years were extracted from electronic records generated on scene by paramedics. We identified demographic and clinical variables associated with levels of EMS use. EMS users were characterized by the annual number of EMS encounters: low (1), moderate (2-4), high (5-14), and superusers (≥15). In addition, we performed a financial analysis using San Francisco Fire Department (SFFD) 2009 charge and reimbursement data. Results. A total of 31,462 adults generated 43,559 EMS ambulance encounters, which resulted in 39,107 transports (a 90% transport rate). Encounters for general medical reasons were common among moderate and high users and less frequent among superusers and low users, while alcohol use was exponentially correlated with encounter frequency. Superusers were significantly younger than moderate EMS users, and more likely to be male. The superuser group created a significantly higher financial burden/person than any other group, comprising 0.3% of the study population, but over 6% of annual EMS charges and reimbursements. Conclusions. In this retrospective study, adult

  13. Investigation of Electromagnetic Signatures of a FPGA Using an APREL EM-ISIGHT System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    INVESTIGATION OF ELECTROMAGNETIC SIGNATURES OF A FPGA USING AN APREL EM-ISIGHT SYSTEM THESIS...States. AFIT-ENV-MS-15-D-035 INVESTIGATION OF ELECTROMAGNETIC SIGNATURES OF A FPGA USING AN APREL EM-ISIGHT SYSTEM THESIS Presented...ENV-MS-15-D-035 INVESTIGATION OF ELECTROMAGNETIC SIGNATURES OF A FPGA USING AN APREL EM-ISIGHT SYSTEM Karynn A. Sutherlin, Civilian, DAF

  14. An EM System With Dramatic Multi-Axis Transmitter and Tensor Gradiometer Receiver

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    FINAL REPORT An EM System With Dramatic Multi-Axis Transmitter and Tensor Gradiometer Receiver SERDP Project MR-1534 JUNE 2011 David C...Technical 2006-20 10 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER An EM System with Dynamic Multi-Axis transmitter and Tensor Gradiometer W912HQ-06-C-0050...ANSI Std. Z39. 18 EM Tensor Gradiometer SERDP MM-1532 i Contents Contents

  15. Measuring Turbulence Mixing in Indonesian Seas using Microstructure EM APEX Floats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    Research and Technology). Our engineers have updated the EM-APEX float software and prepared test floats . Monsoon wind forcing, and thereby upper ocean...Microstructure EM-APEX Floats Ren-Chieh Lien Applied Physics Laboratory University of Washington 1013 NE 40th Street Seattle, Washington 98105...modulation of sea surface temperature and air–sea fluxes. APPROACH Two microstructure EM-APEX floats will be deployed in Indonesian Seas. The

  16. EM absorption reduction in wireless mobile antenna using printed paper-based metamaterial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Touhidul; Islam, Mohammad Tariqul; Kibria, Salehin; Cho, Mengu; Faruque, Mohammad Rashed Iqbal

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a printed negative index metamaterial for electromagnetic (EM) absorption reduction in portable wireless antenna. The perceptible novelty exhibited in this paper is that EM absorption reduction toward the human head with paper-based metamaterial attachment. This research has been performed using human head phantom integrated in the commercially available CST Microwave Studio software package. The EM absorption has been reduced by 13.2 and 6% at 900 and 1800 MHz, respectively.

  17. An EM-IMM based abrupt change detector for landmine detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatasubramanian, Vijayaraghavan; Leung, Henry

    2006-05-01

    In this paper, we propose an expectation maximization (EM) trained interacting multiple model (IMM) abrupt change detector for land mine detection applications. The proposed EM algorithm learns the parameters of the different models in real time without requiring a priori information on either the number of models or the model parameters. Using the real ground penetrating radar (GPR) data, the learning performance of the EM-IMM technique is analyzed and commented upon. Numerical receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis and detected images indicate that the proposed EM-IMM based abrupt change detector has a better detection and imaging performance than the conventional Kalman filter for land mine detection applications.

  18. USMC’s Environmental Management Portal for EMS Implementation Service-wide Rollout and Future Plans

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-16

    at MCB Camp Lejeune in 2004 – EMS implementation efforts resulted in the need for a web -based system for: communicating with EMS stakeholders Up AND...Si:e m Edit Page EM flortal HOMC Fnwnnm1~nt. Welcome to the E~l : xecJtive Order (:O) 13148, m~lemented at all aplicable Le9dership h Ewironmnt91...sharing environmental information • managing EMS-related data and documentation – Additional linkage to other USMC web -based applications – Migration to

  19. Multi-frequency electromagnetic sounding tool EMS. Archaeological discoveries. Case stories.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu Zeid, N.; Balkov, E.; Chemyakina, M.; Manstein, A.; Manstein, Y.; Morelli, G.; Santarato, G.

    2003-04-01

    EMS is the new patented tool for shallow-depth (up to 7 m) induction frequency sounding. The tool is developed in Institute of Geophysics, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy, Novosibirsk, RUSSIA. Few years of application of EMS prototypes in archaeological prospection gave us the well described picture of possibilities and limitations of EM sounding for archaeological purpose. We would like to present several archaeological case stories including paleolitic, bronze and iron ages, antique and medieval targets discovery. The cases include complex geophysical works using GPR, Vertical DC sounding and magnetometry together with EM sounding. Archaeological proofs of geophysical prospection will be presented. The last September in Italy we have done the comparative work at few Italian archaeological sites. The second EMS prototype has been compared with commercially available tools for EM prospection such as EM mappers, georadars and DC electrical resistivity tomography. In the comparison EMS feature good noise immunity, high sensibility and resolution. In some cases only EMS data shows the buried targets and it was proved immediately by excavation. The researches were done with financial support of RFBR grant # 00-06-80421

  20. Modeling of MHD edge containment in strip casting with ELEKTRA and CaPS-EM codes

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, F. C.

    2000-01-12

    This paper presents modeling studies of magnetohydrodynamics analysis in twin-roll casting. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and ISPAT Inland Inc. (Inland), formerly Inland Steel Co., have worked together to develop a three-dimensional (3-D) computer model that can predict eddy currents, fluid flows, and liquid metal containment of an electromagnetic (EM) edge containment device. The model was verified by comparing predictions with experimental results of liquid metal containment and fluid flow in EM edge dams (EMDs) that were designed at Inland for twin-roll casting. This mathematical model can significantly shorten casting research on the use of EM fields for liquid metal containment and control. The model can optimize the EMD design so it is suitable for application, and minimize expensive time-consuming full-scale testing. Numerical simulation was performed by coupling a 3-D finite-element EM code (ELEKTRA) and a 3-D finite-difference fluids code (CaPS-EM) to solve heat transfer, fluid flow, and turbulence transport in a casting process that involves EM fields. ELEKTRA can predict the eddy-current distribution and the EM forces in complex geometries. CaPS-EM can model fluid flows with free surfaces. The computed 3-D magnetic fields and induced eddy currents in ELEKTRA are used as input to temperature- and flow-field computations in CaPS-EM. Results of the numerical simulation compared well with measurements obtained from both static and dynamic tests.

  1. Volta phase plate cryo-EM of the small protein complex Prx3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoshouei, Maryam; Radjainia, Mazdak; Phillips, Amy J.; Gerrard, Juliet A.; Mitra, Alok K.; Plitzko, Jürgen M.; Baumeister, Wolfgang; Danev, Radostin

    2016-01-01

    Cryo-EM of large, macromolecular assemblies has seen a significant increase in the numbers of high-resolution structures since the arrival of direct electron detectors. However, sub-nanometre resolution cryo-EM structures are rare compared with crystal structure depositions, particularly for relatively small particles (<400 kDa). Here we demonstrate the benefits of Volta phase plates for single-particle analysis by time-efficient cryo-EM structure determination of 257 kDa human peroxiredoxin-3 dodecamers at 4.4 Å resolution. The Volta phase plate improves the applicability of cryo-EM for small molecules and accelerates structure determination.

  2. Emergency medical services and "psych calls": Examining the work of urban EMS providers.

    PubMed

    Prener, Christopher; Lincoln, Alisa K

    2015-11-01

    Emergency medical technicians and paramedics form the backbone of the United States' Emergency Medical Service (EMS) system. Despite the frequent involvement of EMS with people with mental health and substance abuse problems, the nature and content of this work, as well as how EMS providers think about this work, have not been fully explored. Using data obtained through observations and interviews with providers at an urban American EMS agency, this paper provides an analysis of the ways in which EMS providers interact with people with mental illness and substance abuse problems, as well as providers' experiences with the mental health care system. Results demonstrate that EMS providers share common beliefs and frustrations about "psych calls" and the types of calls that involve people with behavioral health problems. In addition, providers described their understandings of the ways in which people with mental health and substance use problems "abuse the system" and the consequences of this abuse. Finally, EMS providers discuss the system-level factors that impact their work and specific barriers and challenges to care. These results suggest that additional work is needed to expand our understanding of the role of EMS providers in the care of people with behavioral health problems and that mental health practitioners and policy makers should include consideration of the important role of EMS and prehospital care in providing community-based supports for people with behavioral health needs. (PsycINFO Database Record

  3. The HOME Team: Evaluating the Effect of an EMS-based Outreach Team to Decrease the Frequency of 911 Use Among High Utilizers of EMS.

    PubMed

    Tangherlini, Niels; Villar, Julian; Brown, John; Rodriguez, Robert M; Yeh, Clement; Friedman, Benjamin T; Wada, Paul

    2016-12-01

    The San Francisco Fire Department's (SFFD; San Francisco, California USA) Homeless Outreach and Medical Emergency (HOME) Team is the United States' first Emergency Medical Services (EMS)-based outreach effort using a specially trained paramedic to redirect frequent users of EMS to other types of services. The effectiveness of this program at reducing repeat use of emergency services during the first seven months of the team's existence was examined. A retrospective analysis of EMS use frequency and demographic characteristics of frequent users was conducted. Clients that used emergency services at least four times per month from March 2004 through May 2005 were contacted for intervention. Patterns for each frequent user before and after intervention were analyzed. Changes in EMS use during the 15-month study interval was the primary outcome measurement. A total of 59 clients were included. The target population had a median age of 55.1 years and was 68% male. Additionally, 38.0% of the target population was homeless, 43.4% had no primary care, 88.9% had a substance abuse disorder at time of contact, and 83.0% had a history of psychiatric disorder. The HOME Team undertook 320 distinct contacts with 65 frequent users during the study period. The average EMS use prior to HOME Team contact was 18.72 responses per month (SD=19.40), and after the first contact with the HOME Team, use dropped to 8.61 (SD=10.84), P<.001. Frequent users of EMS suffer from disproportionate comorbidities, particularly substance abuse and psychiatric disorders. This population responds well to the intervention of a specially trained paramedic as measured by EMS usage. Tangherlini N , Villar J , Brown J , Rodriguez RM , Yeh C , Friedman BT , Wada P . The HOME Team: evaluating the effect of an EMS-based outreach team to decrease the frequency of 911 use among high utilizers of EMS. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2016;31(6):603-607.

  4. Emergency Medical Services Utilization in EMS Priority Conditions in Beirut, Lebanon.

    PubMed

    El Sayed, Mazen; Tamim, Hani; Chehadeh, Ahel Al-Hajj; Kazzi, Amin A

    2016-12-01

    Early activation and use of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) are associated with improved patient outcomes in EMS priority conditions in developed EMS systems. This study describes patterns of EMS use and identifies predictors of EMS utilization in EMS priority conditions in Lebanon METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of a random sample of adult patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) of a tertiary care center in Beirut with the following EMS priority conditions: chest pain, major trauma, respiratory distress, cardiac arrest, respiratory arrest, and airway obstruction. Patient/proxy survey (20 questions) and chart review were completed. The responses to survey questions were "disagree," "neutral," or "agree" and were scored as one, two, or three with three corresponding to higher likelihood of EMS use. A total scale score ranging from 20 to 60 was created and transformed from 0% to 100%. Data were analyzed based on mode of presentation (EMS vs other). Among the 481 patients enrolled, only 112 (23.3%) used EMS. Mean age for study population was 63.7 years (SD=18.8 years) with 56.5% males. Mean clinical severity score (Emergency Severity Index [ESI]) was 2.5 (SD=0.7) and mean pain score was 3.1 (SD=3.5) at ED presentation. Over one-half (58.8%) needed admission to hospital with 21.8% to an intensive care unit care level and with a mortality rate of 7.3%. Significant associations were found between EMS use and the following variables: severity of illness, degree of pain, familiarity with EMS activation, previous EMS use, perceived EMS benefit, availability of EMS services, trust in EMS response times and treatment, advice from family, and unavailability of immediate private mode of transport (P≤.05). Functional screening, or requiring full assistance (OR=4.77; 95% CI, 1.85-12.29); acute symptoms onset ≤ one hour (OR=2.14; 95% CI, 1.08-4.26); and higher scale scores (OR=2.99; 95% CI, 2.20-4.07) were significant predictors of EMS use. Patients

  5. EM-21 Retrieval Knowledge Center: Waste Retrieval Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Fellinger, Andrew P.; Rinker, Michael W.; Berglin, Eric J.; Minichan, Richard L.; Poirier, Micheal R.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Martin, Bruce A.; Hatchell, Brian K.; Saldivar, Eloy; Mullen, O Dennis; Chapman, Noel F.; Wells, Beric E.; Gibbons, Peter W.

    2009-04-10

    EM-21 is the Waste Processing Division of the Office of Engineering and Technology, within the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM). In August of 2008, EM-21 began an initiative to develop a Retrieval Knowledge Center (RKC) to provide the DOE, high level waste retrieval operators, and technology developers with centralized and focused location to share knowledge and expertise that will be used to address retrieval challenges across the DOE complex. The RKC is also designed to facilitate information sharing across the DOE Waste Site Complex through workshops, and a searchable database of waste retrieval technology information. The database may be used to research effective technology approaches for specific retrieval tasks and to take advantage of the lessons learned from previous operations. It is also expected to be effective for remaining current with state-of-the-art of retrieval technologies and ongoing development within the DOE Complex. To encourage collaboration of DOE sites with waste retrieval issues, the RKC team is co-led by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Two RKC workshops were held in the Fall of 2008. The purpose of these workshops was to define top level waste retrieval functional areas, exchange lessons learned, and develop a path forward to support a strategic business plan focused on technology needs for retrieval. The primary participants involved in these workshops included retrieval personnel and laboratory staff that are associated with Hanford and Savannah River Sites since the majority of remaining DOE waste tanks are located at these sites. This report summarizes and documents the results of the initial RKC workshops. Technology challenges identified from these workshops and presented here are expected to be a key component to defining future RKC-directed tasks designed to facilitate tank waste retrieval solutions.

  6. Perda de massa em ventos empoeirados de estrelas supergigantes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidotto, A. A.; Jatenco-Pereira, V.

    2003-08-01

    Em praticamente todas as regiões do diagrama HR, as estrelas apresentam evidências observacionais de perda de massa. Na literatura, pode-se encontrar trabalhos que tratam tanto do diagnóstico da perda de massa como da construção de modelos que visam explicá-la. O amortecimento de ondas Alfvén tem sido utilizado como mecanismo de aceleração de ventos homogêneos. Entretanto, sabe-se que os envelopes de estrelas frias contêm grãos sólidos e moléculas. Com o intuito de estudar a interação entre as ondas Alfvén e a poeira e a sua conseqüência na aceleração do vento estelar, Falceta-Gonçalves & Jatenco-Pereira (2002) desenvolveram um modelo de perda de massa para estrelas supergigantes. Neste trabalho, apresentamos um estudo do modelo acima proposto para avaliar a dependência da taxa de perda de massa com alguns parâmetros iniciais como, por exemplo, a densidade r0, o campo magnético B0, o comprimento de amortecimento da onda L0, seu fluxo f0, entre outros. Sendo assim, aumentando f0 de 10% a partir de valores de referência, vimos que aumenta consideravelmente, enquanto que um aumento de mesmo valor em r0, B0 e L0 acarreta uma diminuição em .

  7. Timely bystander CPR improves outcomes despite longer EMS times.

    PubMed

    Park, Gwan Jin; Song, Kyoung Jun; Shin, Sang Do; Lee, Kyung Won; Ahn, Ki Ok; Lee, Eui Jung; Hong, Ki Jeong; Ro, Young Sun

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to determine the impact of bystander CPR on clinical outcomes in patients with increasing response time from collapse to EMS response. A population-based observational study was conducted in patients with witnessed out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) of presumed cardiac etiology from 2012 to 2014. The time interval from collapse to CPR by EMS providers was categorized into quartile groups: fastest group (<4min), fast group (4 to <8min), late group (8 to <15min), and latest group (15 to <30min). The primary outcome was hospital discharge and the secondary outcome was survival with good neurological outcome. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the interaction between bystander CPR and the time interval from collapse to CPR by EMS providers. A total of 15,354 OHCAs were analyzed. Bystander CPR was performed in 8591 (56.0%). Survival to hospital discharge occurred in 1632 (10.6%) and favorable neurological outcome in 996 (6.5%). In an interaction model of bystander CPR, compared to the fastest group, adjusted odds ratios (AORs) (95% CIs) for survival to discharge were 0.89 (0.66-1.20) in the fast group, 0.76 (0.57-1.02) in the late group, and 0.52 (0.37-0.73) in the latest group. For favorable neurological outcome, AORs were 1.12 (0.77-1.62) in the fast group, 0.90 (0.62-1.30) in the late group, 0.59 (0.38-0.91) in the latest group. The survival from OHCA decreases as the ambulance response time increases. The increase in mortality and worsening neurologic outcomes appear to be mitigated in those patients who receive bystander CPR. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Covariance Matrix Estimation for the Cryo-EM Heterogeneity Problem*

    PubMed Central

    Katsevich, E.; Katsevich, A.; Singer, A.

    2015-01-01

    In cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM), a microscope generates a top view of a sample of randomly oriented copies of a molecule. The problem of single particle reconstruction (SPR) from cryo-EM is to use the resulting set of noisy two-dimensional projection images taken at unknown directions to reconstruct the three-dimensional (3D) structure of the molecule. In some situations, the molecule under examination exhibits structural variability, which poses a fundamental challenge in SPR. The heterogeneity problem is the task of mapping the space of conformational states of a molecule. It has been previously suggested that the leading eigenvectors of the covariance matrix of the 3D molecules can be used to solve the heterogeneity problem. Estimating the covariance matrix is challenging, since only projections of the molecules are observed, but not the molecules themselves. In this paper, we formulate a general problem of covariance estimation from noisy projections of samples. This problem has intimate connections with matrix completion problems and high-dimensional principal component analysis. We propose an estimator and prove its consistency. When there are finitely many heterogeneity classes, the spectrum of the estimated covariance matrix reveals the number of classes. The estimator can be found as the solution to a certain linear system. In the cryo-EM case, the linear operator to be inverted, which we term the projection covariance transform, is an important object in covariance estimation for tomographic problems involving structural variation. Inverting it involves applying a filter akin to the ramp filter in tomography. We design a basis in which this linear operator is sparse and thus can be tractably inverted despite its large size. We demonstrate via numerical experiments on synthetic datasets the robustness of our algorithm to high levels of noise. PMID:25699132

  9. Accuracy of EMS-Reported Last Known Normal Times in Suspected Acute Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Curfman, David; Connor, Lisa Tabor; Moy, Hawnwan Philip; Heitsch, Laura; Panagos, Peter; Lee, Jin-Moo; Tan, David K.; Ford, Andria L.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose The last known normal (LKN) time is a critical determinant of IV tPA eligibility; however, the accuracy of EMS-reported LKN times is unknown. We determined the congruence between EMS-reported and neurologist-determined LKN times and identified predictors of incongruent LKN times. Methods We prospectively collected EMS-reported LKN times for patients brought into the ED with suspected acute stroke and calculated the absolute difference between the EMS-reported and neurologist-determined LKN times (|ΔLKN|). We determined the rate of inappropriate IV tPA use if EMS-reported times had been used in place of neurologist-determined times. Univariate and multivariable linear regression assessed for any predictors of prolonged |ΔLKN|. Results Of 251 patients, mean and median |ΔLKN| were 28 and 0 minutes, respectively. |ΔLKN| was <15 min in 91% of the entire cohort and was <15 min in 80% of patients with a diagnosis of stroke (n=86). Of patients who received IV tPA, none would have been incorrectly excluded from IV tPA if the EMS LKN time had been used. Conversely, of patients who did not receive IV tPA, 6% would have been incorrectly included for IV tPA consideration had the EMS time been used. In patients with wake-up stroke symptoms, EMS underestimated LKN times: mean EMS LKN time - neurologist LKN time = −208 minutes. The presence of wake-up stroke symptoms (p<0.0001) and older age (p=0.019) were independent predictors of prolonged |ΔLKN|. Conclusions EMS-reported LKN times were largely congruent with neurologist-determined times. Focused EMS training regarding wake-up stroke symptoms may further improve accuracy. PMID:24643409

  10. Theme park EMS. It's no Mickey Mouse operation.

    PubMed

    Philips, J H

    1995-07-01

    In a single shift, they can rescue someone trapped in a time warp, perform CPR while menacing monsters look over their shoulders or calmly watch as a motorboat chase ends in a huge ball of fire. It's just another routine day for EMS providers in America's theme parks, where getting ready for unusual calls is the norm. JEMS went behind the scenes with theme park responders to explore the unique challenges of their service environment. What we found was a group of super-dedicated professionals who place genuine hospitality right alongside quality patient care.

  11. The White Dwarf in EM Cygni: Beyond the Veil

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-10

    reserved. Printed in the U.S.A. THE WHITE DWARF IN EM CYGNI: BEYOND THE VEIL∗ Patrick Godon1,4, Edward M. Sion1, Paul E. Barrett2, and Albert P. Linnell3 1...However, more recent full three-dimensional hydrodynami- cal simulations, e.g., (Blondin 1998; Kunze et al. 2001; Bisikalo et al. 2003), have followed...deflection is believed to cause X-ray absorption in CVs (and LMXBs) around orbital phase 0.7, if the inclination is at least 65◦ ( Kunze et al. 2001

  12. EMS Bill of Rights: what every patient deserves.

    PubMed

    Meador, Steven R; Slovis, Corey M; Wrenn, Keith D

    2003-03-01

    Every EMT, paramedic, supervisor and EMS medical director must stress that our job is to treat every patient the way we'd like to be treated or the way we'd want one of our family members treated. Those charged with supervision must ensure that EMTs and paramedics receive the support and training necessary to allow adherence to the 10 objectives outlined in this article. Quality-assurance reviews, quality-improvement programs, provider comments and complaints from the public must all be used to improve the care we deliver. Prehospital care should be constantly improving the delivery of excellent, life-saving care.

  13. A compulsator driven rapid-fire EM-gun

    SciTech Connect

    Pratap, S.B.; Bird, W.L.

    1984-03-01

    A compulsator-driven railgun is an attractive alternative to the homopolar generator-inductor-switch configuration, especially for repetitive duty. A conceptual design of a rapid-fire EM-gun system is presented. The generator is sized to accelerate a 0.08-kg projectile to 2 to 3 km/s at a 60 pulse-per-second repetition rate. Initial design parameters are discussed, and example current and velocity waveforms are given. The generator is discharged at the proper phase angle to provide a current zero just as the projectile exits the muzzle of the railgun.

  14. Unravelling the structures of biological macromolecules by cryo-EM

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Leiro, Rafael; Scheres, Sjors H.W.

    2016-01-01

    Preface Understanding how proteins and other biological macromolecules perform their complicated tasks in the living cell is often aided by knowledge of their three-dimensional structures. Because many tasks involve the cleavage or formation of chemical bonds, structural characterisation at the atomic level is most useful. Recent developments in electron microscopy of frozen hydrated samples (cryo-EM) have provided unprecedented opportunities for the structural characterization of biological macromolecules. This is resulting in a wave of new information about biological processes that were impossible to characterize with previously existing techniques in structural biology. PMID:27629640

  15. State of the Art in EM Field Computation

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, C.; Akcelik, V.; Candel, A.; Chen, S.; Folwell, N.; Ge, L.; Guetz, A.; Jiang, H.; Kabel, A.; Lee, L.-Q.; Li, Z.; Prudencio, E.; Schussman, G.; Uplenchwar, R.; Xiao, L.; Ko, K.; /SLAC

    2006-09-25

    This paper presents the advances in electromagnetic (EM) field computation that have been enabled by the US DOE SciDAC Accelerator Science and Technology project which supports the development and application of a suite of electromagnetic codes based on the higher-order finite element method. Implemented on distributed memory supercomputers, this state of the art simulation capability has produced results which are of great interest to accelerator designers and with realism previously not possible with standard codes. Examples from work on the International Linear Collider (ILC) project are described.

  16. EMS response at a hazardous material incident: some basic guidelines.

    PubMed

    Plante, D M; Walker, J S

    1989-01-01

    Emergency medical response to a scene where hazardous materials are potentially involved is becoming more commonplace. Following routine response procedures could result in the incapacitation of the rescue crew. Unique to this paper are some suggestions from the fire fighting literature on how to deal with these incidents. As with any type of potential disaster, it has been found that response is much more effective if potential problems are examined beforehand and protocols developed. Emergency physicians in their role as on-site emergency medical services (EMS) medical controllers should play a leading part in the development and implementation of these protocols.

  17. Single-particle cryo-EM at crystallographic resolution

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yifan

    2015-01-01

    Until only a few years ago, single-particle electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) was usually not the first choice for many structural biologists due to its limited resolution in the range of nanometer to subnanometer. Now, this method rivals X-ray crystallography in terms of resolution and can be used to determine atomic structures of macromolecules that are either refractory to crystallization or difficult to crystallize in specific functional states. In this review, I discuss the recent breakthroughs in both hardware and software that transformed cryo-microscopy, enabling understanding of complex biomolecules and their functions at atomic level. PMID:25910205

  18. Demonstrate a Leap-Ahead EM Gun Armament System that Proves the Maturity of the Technology for Future Combat Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-03-26

    This report, comprised of viewgraphs, discusses the Army EM program and the challenges it faces. Topics include pulsed power, hypervelocity lethality plans, systems and technology integration , and the army EM gun program.

  19. EMS Attitudes Towards Geriatric Prehospital Care And Continuing Medical Education in Geriatrics

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Lars-Kristofer N.; Fairbanks, Rollin J.; Hettinger, Aaron Z.; Shah, Manish N.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To understand the opinions of emergency medical service (EMS) providers regarding their ability to care for older adults, the domains of geriatric medicine in which they need more training, and the modality through which continuing education could be best delivered. Design Qualitative study using key informant interviews. Setting Prehospital EMS system in Rochester, New York. Participants EMS providers, EMS instructors and administrators, emergency physicians, and geriatricians. Outcome Measures Semi-structured interviews were conducted using an interview guide that addressed the following domains: 1)knowledge and skill deficiencies; 2)recommendations for improvement of geriatrics continuing education; 3)delivery methods of education. Results Participant responses were generally congruous despite the diverse backgrounds, and redundancy was achieved rapidly. All participants perceived a deficit in EMS education on the care of older adults, particularly related to communications with patients and skilled nursing facility staff. All desired more geriatric continuing education for EMS providers, especially in communications and psychosocial issues. Education was desired in various modalities. Conclusion Further geriatrics continuing education for EMS providers is needed. Some specific topics relate to medical issues, but a large proportion involve communications and psychosocial issues. Education should be delivered in a variety of modalities to meet the needs of the EMS community. Emerging online video technologies may bridge the gap between learners preferring classroom based modailities and those preferring self-study modules. PMID:19170777

  20. Developing State and National Evaluation Infrastructures- Guidance for the Challenges and Opportunities of EM&V

    SciTech Connect

    Schiller, Steven R.; Goldman, Charles A.

    2011-06-24

    Evaluating the impacts and effectiveness of energy efficiency programs is likely to become increasingly important for state policymakers and program administrators given legislative mandates and regulatory goals and increasing reliance on energy efficiency as a resource. In this paper, we summarize three activities that the authors have conducted that highlight the expanded role of evaluation, measurement and verification (EM&V): a study that identified and analyzed challenges in improving and scaling up EM&V activities; a scoping study that identified issues involved in developing a national efficiency EM&V standard; and lessons learned from providing technical assistance on EM&V issues to states that are ramping up energy efficiency programs. The lessons learned are summarized in 13 EM&V issues that policy makers should address in each jurisdiction and which are listed and briefly described. The paper also discusses how improving the effectiveness and reliability of EM&V will require additional capacity building, better access to existing EM&V resources, new methods to address emerging issues and technologies, and perhaps foundational documents and approaches to improving the credibility and cross jurisdictional comparability of efficiency investments. Two of the potential foundational documents discussed are a national EM&V standard or resource guide and regional deemed savings and algorithm databases.