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Sample records for laboratories ontario canada

  1. Competency assessment of microbiology medical laboratory technologists in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Desjardins, Marc; Fleming, Christine Ann

    2014-08-01

    Accreditation in Ontario, Canada, requires that licensed clinical laboratories participate in external quality assessment (also known as proficiency testing) and perform competency evaluation of their staff. To assess the extent of ongoing competency assessment practices, the Quality Management Program--Laboratory Services (QMP-LS) Microbiology Committee surveyed all 112 licensed Ontario microbiology laboratories. The questionnaire consisted of a total of 21 questions that included yes/no, multiple-choice, and short-answer formats. Participants were asked to provide information about existing programs, the frequency of testing, what areas are evaluated, and how results are communicated to the staff. Of the 111 responding laboratories, 6 indicated they did not have a formal evaluation program since they perform only limited bacteriology testing. Of the remaining 105 respondents, 87% perform evaluations at least annually or every 2 years, and 61% include any test or task performed, whereas 16% and 10% focus only on problem areas and high-volume complex tasks, respectively. The most common methods of evaluation were review of external quality assessment (EQA) challenges, direct observation, and worksheet review. With the exception of one participant, all communicate results to staff, and most take remedial action to correct the deficiencies. Although most accredited laboratories have a program to assess the ongoing competency of their staff, the methods used are not standardized or consistently applied, indicating that there is room for improvement. The survey successfully highlighted potential areas for improvement and allowed the QMP-LS Microbiology Committee to provide guidance to Ontario laboratories for establishing or improving existing microbiology-specific competency assessment programs.

  2. Isotope hydrology of the Chalk River Laboratories site, Ontario, Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterman, Zell; Neymark, Leonid; King-Sharp, K.J.; Gascoyne, Mel

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents results of hydrochemical and isotopic analyses of groundwater (fracture water) and porewater, and physical property and water content measurements of bedrock core at the Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) site in Ontario. Density and water contents were determined and water-loss porosity values were calculated for core samples. Average and standard deviations of density and water-loss porosity of 50 core samples from four boreholes are 2.73 ± 12 g/cc and 1.32 ± 1.24 percent. Respective median values are 2.68 and 0.83 indicating a positive skewness in the distributions. Groundwater samples from four deep boreholes were analyzed for strontium (87Sr/86Sr) and uranium (234U/238U) isotope ratios. Oxygen and hydrogen isotope analyses and selected solute concentrations determined by CRL are included for comparison. Groundwater from borehole CRG-1 in a zone between approximately +60 and −240 m elevation is relatively depleted in δ18O and δ2H perhaps reflecting a slug of water recharged during colder climatic conditions. Porewater was extracted from core samples by centrifugation and analyzed for major dissolved ions and for strontium and uranium isotopes. On average, the extracted water contains 15 times larger concentration of solutes than the groundwater. 234U/238U and correlation of 87Sr/86Sr with Rb/Sr values indicate that the porewater may be substantially older than the groundwater. Results of this study show that the Precambrian gneisses at Chalk River are similar in physical properties and hydrochemical aspects to crystalline rocks being considered for the construction of nuclear waste repositories in other regions.

  3. Contaminated groundwater characterization at the Chalk River Laboratories, Ontario, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Schilk, A.J.; Robertson, D.E.; Thomas, C.W.; Lepel, E.A.; Champ, D.R.; Killey, R.W.D.; Young, J.L.; Cooper, E.L.

    1993-03-01

    The licensing requirements for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste (10 CFR 61) specify the performance objectives and technical requisites for federal and commercial land disposal facilities, the ultimate goal of which is to contain the buried wastes so that the general population is adequately protected from harmful exposure to any released radioactive materials. A major concern in the operation of existing and projected waste disposal sites is subterranean radionuclide transport by saturated or unsaturated flow, which could lead to the contamination of groundwater systems as well as uptake by the surrounding biosphere, thereby directly exposing the general public to such materials. Radionuclide transport in groundwater has been observed at numerous commercial and federal waste disposal sites [including several locations within the waste management area of Chalk River Laboratories (CRL)], yet the physico-chemical processes that lead to such migration are still not completely understood. In an attempt to assist in the characterization of these processes, an intensive study was initiated at CRL to identify and quantify the mobile radionuclide species originating from three separate disposal sites: (a) the Chemical Pit, which has received aqueous wastes containing various radioisotopes, acids, alkalis, complexing agents and salts since 1956, (b) the Reactor Pit, which has received low-level aqueous wastes from a reactor rod storage bay since 1956, and (c) the Waste Management Area C, a thirty-year-old series of trenches that contains contaminated solid wastes from CRL and various regional medical facilities. Water samples were drawn downgradient from each of the above sites and passed through a series of filters and ion-exchange resins to retain any particulate and dissolved or colloidal radionuclide species, which were subsequently identified and quantified via radiochemical separations and gamma spectroscopy. These groundwaters were also analyzed for anions

  4. Protectionist Measures in Postsecondary Ontario (Canada) TESL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jambor, Paul Z.

    2012-01-01

    TESL in Ontario, Canada, seems to be on an inauspicious path by having set up non-tariff protectionist measures in an apparent attempt to keep out a multinational TESL workforce, effectively going against the spirit of globalization. This paper highlights some of the differences between South Korean TEFL and TESL in Ontario; for the most part…

  5. [Overview of acupuncture development in Ontario Canada].

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang; Wu, Bin-jiang

    2012-04-01

    The history of acupuncture in Ontario, Canada was traced, and the current status as welI as the prospection were introduced in this paper. Statistics showed that the history of acupuncture in Ontario started in the 1880s, and it was only popular in China Town and Chinese community. In the 1970s, it gradually merged into the mainstream of the society, and entered into a growing period. With the tide of Chinese immigration in the 1980s and 1990s, acupuncture matured rapidly. In 2006, the "Traditional Chinese Medicine Act" was passed in Ontario, it was considered as a milestone in the history of acupuncture. At present, just like the other 23 health care professions, acupuncture has already be included into the legislation system, and become a component of Ontario's health care system. At the same time, the law and regulation may also promote the establishment of "pure Chinese Medicine" in Ontario.

  6. Epidemiology of myasthenia gravis in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Breiner, Ari; Widdifield, Jessica; Katzberg, Hans D; Barnett, Carolina; Bril, Vera; Tu, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Incidence and prevalence estimates in myasthenia gravis have varied widely. Recent studies based on administrative health data have large sample sizes but lack rigorous validation of MG cases, and have not examined the North American population. Our aim was to explore trends in MG incidence and prevalence for the years 1996-2013 in the province of Ontario, Canada (population 13.5 million). We employed a previously validated algorithm to identify MG cases. Linking with census data allowed for the calculation of crude- and age/sex-standardized incidence and prevalence rates for the years 1996-2013. The regional distribution of MG cases throughout the province was examined. Mean age at the first myasthenia gravis encounter was 60.2 ± 17.1 years. In 2013, there were 3611 prevalent cases in Ontario, and the crude prevalence rate was 32.0/100,000 population. Age- and sex-standardized prevalence rates rose consistently over time from 16.3/100,000 (15.4-17.1) in 1996 to 26.3/100,000 (25.4-27.3) in 2013. Standardized incidence rates remained stable between 1996 (2.7/100,000; 95% CL 2.3-3.0) and 2013 (2.3/100,000; 2.1-2.6). Incidence was highest in younger women and older men, and geographic variation was evident throughout the province. In conclusion, this large epidemiological study shows rising myasthenia gravis prevalence with stable incidence over time, which is likely reflective of patients living longer, possibly due to improved disease treatment. Our findings provide accurate information on the Canadian epidemiology of myasthenia gravis and burden for health care resources planning for the province, respectively.

  7. An Investigation into the Transportation of Irradiated Uranium/Aluminum Targets from a Foreign Nuclear Reactor to the Chalk River Laboratories Site in Ontario, Canada - 12249

    SciTech Connect

    Clough, Malcolm; Jackson, Austin

    2012-07-01

    This investigation required the selection of a suitable cask and development of a device to hold and transport irradiated targets from a foreign nuclear reactor to the Chalk River Laboratories in Ontario, Canada. The main challenge was to design and validate a target holder to protect the irradiated HEU-Al target pencils during transit. Each of the targets was estimated to have an initial decay heat of 118 W prior to transit. As the targets have little thermal mass the potential for high temperature damage and possibly melting was high. Thus, the primary design objective was to conceive a target holder to dissipate heat from the targets. Other design requirements included securing the targets during transportation and providing a simple means to load and unload the targets while submerged five metres under water. A unique target holder (patent pending) was designed and manufactured together with special purpose experimental apparatus including a representative cask. Aluminum dummy targets were fabricated to accept cartridge heaters, to simulate decay heat. Thermocouples were used to measure the temperature of the test targets and selected areas within the target holder and test cask. After obtaining test results, calculations were performed to compensate for differences between experimental and real life conditions. Taking compensation into consideration the maximum target temperature reached was 231 deg. C which was below the designated maximum of 250 deg. C. The design of the aluminum target holder also allowed generous clearance to insert and unload the targets. This clearance was designed to close up as the target holder is placed into the cavity of the transport cask. Springs served to retain and restrain the targets from movement during transportation as well as to facilitate conductive heat transfer. The target holder met the design requirements and as such provided data supporting the feasibility of transporting targets over a relatively long period of time

  8. Organizing Mathematics Courses for the Gifted in Ontario, Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velazquez, Robert

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses methods used to differentiate the presentation of mathematics to gifted students in Ontario, Canada. Activities are described that help students to develop structured inquiry, reinforce categorization skills, develop efficient study habits, and encourage probing and divergent questions. (JDD)

  9. From Zero Tolerance to Student Success in Ontario, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winton, Sue

    2013-01-01

    Since 2003, Ontario, Canada's high school graduation rates have increased 13% while suspensions and expulsion rates have simultaneously decreased. This article examines relationships between the province's safe school policy and Student Success/Learning to 18 (SS/L18), a policy designed to increase graduation rates. Analyses of teachers'…

  10. Constructing Bullying in Ontario, Canada: A Critical Policy Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winton, Sue; Tuters, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    As the prevalence and negative effects of bullying become widely known, people around the world seem desperate to solve the bullying "problem". A sizeable body of research about many aspects of bullying and a plethora of anti-bullying programmes and policies now exist. This critical policy analysis asks: how does Ontario, Canada's…

  11. Character Development and Critical Democratic Education in Ontario, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winton, Sue

    2010-01-01

    Ontario, Canada's new character education policy is analyzed to determine how it supports and undermines critical democratic commitments to diversity, dialogue, equity, critical mindedness, and social justice. While policies are always open to interpretation, recent reform policies requiring evidence of continual improvement in students' academic…

  12. Ontario Power Generation's Proposed Deep Geologic Repository, Tiverton, Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, M.

    2009-05-01

    Ontario Power Generation is proposing to develop a Deep Geologic Repository (DGR) for the long-term management of its Low and Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste (L&ILW) at the Bruce site located near Tiverton, Ontario, 225 km northwest of Toronto. The shaft accessed repository, as envisioned, would accommodate 200,000 m3 (as packaged) of L&ILW in emplacement rooms excavated at a depth of 680 m within the Ordovician age argillaceous limestone Cobourg Formation. The Bruce site is underlain by an approximate 860 m thick Paleozoic sedimentary sequence comprised of near horizontally bedded carbonates, shales, evaporates and sandstones, Devonian to Cambrian in age, overlying crystalline basement rocks. Regional and site-specific geoscientific studies to verify the suitability of the Bruce site to host the DGR were initiated in 2006. The focus for the geoscientific investigations has been on gathering data to develop and test an understanding of the evolution and stability of the geologic, hydrogeologic, hydrogeochemical and geomechanical environ as it relates to demonstrating repository safety. Scheduled for completion in 2010, the interim results, which have included the drilling, coring and testing of 4 deep boreholes, are providing evidence of a predictable geosphere with a deep seated (>400 m), low permeability (K < 10-13 m sec-1), low porosity (0.01-0.08), saline (TDS > 250 gm l-1) groundwater regime that is ancient and resilient to external perturbations (e.g. glaciation). Work program activities in this regard have included, among others, detailed studies of rock core lithology, mineralogy and petrophysics, rock matrix pore fluid and groundwater characterisation, in-situ rock mass hydraulic testing, geomechanical rock core testing, 2-D seismic reflection surveys and long-term hydraulic borehole instrumentation. These data, in addition to regional and site-scale hydrogeologic modelling of the sedimentary sequence that among other aspects is examining groundwater

  13. Job Satisfaction Among Gerontological Social Workers in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Simons, Kelsey; An, Sofiya

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about job satisfaction among Canada's social work workforce in aging, although social workers remain a key component of interdisciplinary care in health and social service settings. This study begins to address this gap in knowledge by examining individual, interpersonal, and job-design factors influencing the job satisfaction of gerontological social workers in Ontario. Data were collected via two online surveys with a sample drawn from the Ontario Association of Social Workers' membership list (N = 104). A multiple regression model explained 37% of the variance in job satisfaction, F = 5.47[10, 93], p < .001). Three independent variables were significant (positive affect, β = .21; promotional chances, β = .21; and client acuity, β = -.18). The results suggest the importance of promoting strategies for enhancing job satisfaction, advancing promotional opportunities for social work clinicians, and providing educational and clinical supports to clinicians.

  14. Human exposure to soil contaminants in subarctic Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, Ellen Stephanie; Liberda, Eric Nicholas; Tsuji, Leonard James S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Chemical contaminants in the Canadian subarctic present a health risk with exposures primarily occurring via the food consumption. Objective Characterization of soil contaminants is needed in northern Canada due to increased gardening and agricultural food security initiatives and the presence of known point sources of pollution. Design A field study was conducted in the western James Bay Region of Ontario, Canada, to examine the concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (ΣDDT), other organochlorines, and metals/metalloids in potentially contaminated agriculture sites. Methods Exposure pathways were assessed by comparing the estimated daily intake to acceptable daily intake values. Ninety soil samples were collected at random (grid sampling) from 3 plots (A, B, and C) in Fort Albany (on the mainland), subarctic Ontario, Canada. The contaminated-soil samples were analysed by gas chromatography with an electron capture detector or inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. Results The range of ΣDDT in 90 soil samples was below the limit of detection to 4.19 mg/kg. From the 3 soil plots analysed, Plot A had the highest ΣDDT mean concentration of 1.12 mg/kg, followed by Plot B and Plot C which had 0.09 and 0.01 mg/kg, respectively. Concentrations of other organic contaminants and metals in the soil samples were below the limit of detection or found in low concentrations in all plots and did not present a human health risk. Conclusion Exposure analyses showed that the human risk was below regulatory thresholds. However, the ΣDDT concentration in Plot A exceeded soil guidelines set out by the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment of 0.7 mg/kg, and thus the land should not be used for agricultural or recreational purposes. Both Plots B and C were below threshold limits, and this land can be used for agricultural purposes. PMID:26025557

  15. Potential impacts of a scenario of CO/sub 2/-induced climatic change on Ontario, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, S.J.; Allsopp, T.R.

    1988-07-01

    In 1984, Environment Canada, Ontario Region, with financial and expert support from the Canadian Climate Program, initiated an interdisciplinary pilot study to investigate the potential impact, on Ontario, of a climate scenario which might be anticipated under doubling of atmospheric CO/sub 2/ conditions.

  16. Meanings of Success and Successful Leadership in Ontario, Canada, in Neo-Liberal Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winton, Sue; Pollock, Katina

    2016-01-01

    The provincial government of Ontario, Canada, has committed itself to raising student achievement, closing achievement gaps, and increasing the public's confidence in public education. It has introduced many policies, including the Ontario Leadership Strategy (OLS), to support these goals. Our study examined how teachers, administrators, support…

  17. Rates of Anomalous Bupropion Prescriptions in Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Steele, Leah S.; Macdonald, Erin M.; Gomes, Tara; Hollands, Simon; Paterson, J. Michael; Mamdani, Muhammad M.; Juurlink, David N.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE Reports of bupropion misuse have increased since it was first reported in 2002. The purpose of this study was to explore trends in bupropion prescribing suggestive of misuse or diversion in Ontario, Canada. METHODS A serial cross-sectional study was conducted of Ontarians aged younger than 65 years who received prescriptions under Ontario’s public drug program from April 1, 2000, to March 31, 2013. We determined the number of potentially inappropriate prescriptions in each quarter, defined as early refills dispensed within 50% of the duration of the preceding prescription, as well as potentially duplicitous prescriptions, defined as similarly early refills originating from a different prescriber and different pharmacy. We replicated these analyses for citalopram and sertraline, antidepressants not known to be prone to abuse. RESULTS We identified 1,780,802 prescriptions for bupropion, 3,402,462 for citalopram, and 1,775,285 for sertraline. Rates of early refills for bupropion declined during the study from 4.8% to 3.1%. In the final quarter, rates of early refills for bupropion were more common than for citalopram (3.1% vs 2.2%) (P <.001) but not for sertraline (3.1% vs 2.9%) (P =.16). Potentially duplicitous prescriptions for bupropion increased dramatically, from <0.05% of all prescriptions in early 2000 to 0.47% in early 2013 and by the final quarter were more common than both citalopram (0.11%) and sertraline (0.12%) (P <.001). CONCLUSIONS Although no marked differences were seen for early refills of bupropion relative to its comparators, potentially duplicitous prescriptions have increased dramatically in Ontario, suggesting growing misuse of the drug. PMID:26195679

  18. Sexual behaviors among women living with HIV in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Samantha; Gardner, Sandra; Loutfy, Mona; Light, Lucia; Tharao, Wangari; Rourke, Sean B; Burchell, Ann N

    2017-05-01

    Understanding the sexual activities and partnerships of women living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) remains important to promote healthy sexuality and to reduce the transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. We described sexual behaviors of women living with HIV enrolled in an ongoing study in Ontario, Canada. Data were available from 582 women who self-completed a sexual behavior questionnaire between 2010 and 2012. Nearly half (46.1%) of women reported a sexual partner in the preceding three months; women less likely to be sexually active were older, Black/African, separated, divorced, widowed, single, and unemployed. Most sexually active women had one partner (76.4%), a regular partner (75.9%), male (96.2%) partner(s), and partners who were HIV-negative or unknown HIV status (75.2%). Women were more likely to use a condom with HIV-negative/status unknown partners (81.3%) than with HIV-positive partners (58.6%; p   =   .008). Only 8.0% of sexually active women reported condomless sex with a discordant HIV-negative/status unknown partner when their viral load was detectable. Overall, most women living with HIV were sexually inactive or engaged in sexual activities that were low risk for HIV transmission.

  19. Environmental and economic evaluation of bioenergy in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yimin; Habibi, Shiva; MacLean, Heather L

    2007-08-01

    We examined life cycle environmental and economic implications of two near-term scenarios for converting cellulosic biomass to energy, generating electricity from cofiring biomass in existing coal power plants, and producing ethanol from biomass in stand-alone facilities in Ontario, Canada. The study inventories near-term biomass supply in the province, quantifies environmental metrics associated with the use of agricultural residues for producing electricity and ethanol, determines the incremental costs of switching from fossil fuels to biomass, and compares the cost-effectiveness of greenhouse gas (GHG) and air pollutant emissions abatement achieved through the use of the bioenergy. Implementing a biomass cofiring rate of 10% in existing coal-fired power plants would reduce annual GHG emissions by 2.3 million metric tons (t) of CO2 equivalent (7% of the province's coal power plant emissions). The substitution of gasoline with ethanol/gasoline blends would reduce annual provincial lightduty vehicle fleet emissions between 1.3 and 2.5 million t of CO2 equivalent (3.5-7% of fleet emissions). If biomass sources other than agricultural residues were used, additional emissions reductions could be realized. At current crude oil prices ($70/barrel) and levels of technology development of the bioenergy alternatives, the biomass electricity cofiring scenario analyzed is more cost-effective for mitigating GHG emissions ($22/t of CO2 equivalent for a 10% cofiring rate) than the stand-alone ethanol production scenario ($92/t of CO2 equivalent). The economics of biomass cofiring benefits from existing capital, whereas the cellulosic ethanol scenario does not. Notwithstanding this result, there are several factors that increase the attractiveness of ethanol. These include uncertainty in crude oil prices, potential for marked improvements in cellulosic ethanol technology and economics, the province's commitment to 5% ethanol content in gasoline, the possibility of ethanol

  20. Shocked lithologies at the Wanapitei impact structure, Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grieve, R. A. F.; Ber, T. J.

    1994-09-01

    The approx. 7.5 diameter Wanapitei impact structure (46 deg 45 min N; 80 deg 45 min W) lies entirely within Lake Wanapitei in central Ontario, Canada. Impact lithologies are known only from glacial float at the southern end of the lake. Over 50% of the impact lithologies recovered from this float can be classified as suevite, less than 20% as highly shocked and partially melted arkosic metasediments of the target rock Mississagi Formation or, possibly, the Serpent Formation and less than 20% as glassy impact melt rocks. An additional less than 5% of the samples have similarities to the suevite but have up to 50% glass clasts and are tentatively interpreted as fall-back material. The glassy impact melt rocks fall into two textural and mineralogical types: a perlitically fractured, colorless glass matrix variant, with microlites of hypersthene with up to 11.5% Al2O3 and a 'felted' matrix variant, with evidence of flow prior to the crystallization of tabular orthopyroxene. These melt glasses show chemical inhomogeneities on a microscopic scale, with areas of essentially SiO2, even when appearing optically homogeneous. They are similar in bulk composition for major elements, but the felted matrix variant is approx. 5x more enriched in Ni, Co and Cr, the interelement ratios of which are indicative of an admixture of a chondritic projectile. Mixing models suggest that the glassy impact melt rocks can be made from the target rocks in the proportions: approx. 55% Gowganda wacke, approx. 42% Serpent arkose and approx. 3% Nipissing intrusives. Geologic reconstructions suggest that this is a reasonable mixture of potential target rocks at the time of impact.

  1. Role of comparative effectiveness research in cancer funding decisions in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Hoch, Jeffrey S; Hodgson, David C; Earle, Craig C

    2012-12-01

    Recently, the evidence-based drug funding process in Ontario, Canada, was challenged by a young mother with a breast tumor too small, based on the evidence that existed at the time, to qualify for an expensive drug. In reality, this is only the latest in a number of challenges the publicly funded health care system has had to deal with in the face of an evolving drug policy landscape. This article defines comparative effectiveness research (CER), considering how it is viewed differently in the United States and Canada. It also reviews the role CER now plays in the Ontario drug funding process and concludes with a review of the challenges and opportunities of using observational data to conduct CER and incorporate it into policy making within a universal health care system. Many of the issues faced by Ontario are relevant beyond Canada, including in the United States during this period of health care reform.

  2. Tested Studies for Laboratory Teaching. Proceedings of the Workshop/Conference of the Association for Biology Laboratory Education (ABLE) (15th, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, June 8-12, 1993). Volume 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Corey A., Ed.

    The focus of the Association for Biology Laboratory Education (ABLE) is to improve the undergraduate biology laboratory experience by promoting the development and dissemination of interesting, innovative, and reliable laboratory exercises. This proceedings volume contains 18 papers: "Human DNA Fingerprinting by Polymerase Chain Reaction" (M. V.…

  3. Social determinants of health and retention in HIV care in a clinical cohort in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Rachlis, Beth; Burchell, Ann N; Gardner, Sandra; Light, Lucia; Raboud, Janet; Antoniou, Tony; Bacon, Jean; Benoit, Anita; Cooper, Curtis; Kendall, Claire; Loutfy, Mona; Wobeser, Wendy; McGee, Frank; Rachlis, Anita; Rourke, Sean B

    2016-12-27

    Continuous HIV care supports antiretroviral therapy initiation and adherence, and prolongs survival. We investigated the association of social determinants of health (SDH) and subsequent retention in HIV care in a clinical cohort in Ontario, Canada. The Ontario HIV Treatment Network Cohort Study is a multi-site cohort of patients at 10 HIV clinics. Data were collected from medical charts, interviews, and via record linkage with the provincial public health laboratory for viral load tests. For participants interviewed in 2009, we used three-category multinomial logistic regression to identify predictors of retention in 2010-2012, defined as (1) continuous care (≥2 viral loads ≥90 days in all years; reference category); (2) discontinuous care (only 1 viral load/year in ≥1 year); and (3) a gap in care (≥1 year in 2010-2012 with no viral load). In total, 1838 participants were included. In 2010-2012, 71.7% had continuous care, 20.9% had discontinuous care, and 7.5% had a gap in care. Discontinuous care in 2009 was predictive (p < .0001) of future retention. SDH associated with discontinuous care were Indigenous ethnicity, being born in Canada, being employed, reporting hazardous drinking, and non-injection drug use. Being a heterosexual male was associated with having a gap in care, and being single and younger were associated with discontinuous care and a gap in care. Various SDH were associated with retention. Care discontinuity was highly predictive of future gaps. Targeted strategic interventions that better engage those at risk of suboptimal retention merit exploration.

  4. Rapid identification of herd effects with the introduction of serogroup C meningococcal conjugate vaccine in Ontario, Canada, 2000-2006.

    PubMed

    Kinlin, Laura M; Jamieson, Frances; Brown, Elizabeth M; Brown, Shirley; Rawte, Prasad; Dolman, Sharon; Drews, Steven J; Fisman, David N

    2009-03-10

    In 2001, Canada's National Advisory Committee on Immunization endorsed a meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccine, which appears to provide durable serogroup-specific immunity while reducing nasopharyngeal carriage. With reference to direct and indirect effects on case occurrence, we sought to evaluate recent trends in the incidence of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) in Ontario. Analyses included all IMD cases reported between 2000 and 2006 to the Ontario Central Public Health Laboratory. Poisson models incorporating terms for age, sex and seasonal oscillation identified a significant downward trend in disease occurrence, which was strongest in serogroup C cases and not evident when serogroup C strains were excluded from the analysis. Among age groups not targeted by the vaccine program serogroup C, IMD displayed a pattern of decreasing incidence that was not present in non-serogroup C disease. These apparent dramatic effects of conjugate C vaccine (both direct and indirect) may be important in the implementation and evaluation of vaccine policy in other jurisdictions.

  5. Juggling Multiple Accountability Systems: How Three Principals Manage These Tensions in Ontario, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollock, Katina; Winton, Sue

    2016-01-01

    Accountability in education is not new. Schools have always been accountable in one way or another to the communities they serve, regardless of the policy environment of the time (Elmore, "The Educational Forum," 69:134-142, 2005). This article explores how three principals from Ontario, Canada manage the tensions of multiple…

  6. Views from the Blackboard: Neoliberal Education Reforms and the Practice of Teaching in Ontario, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Sara; Weber, Nadya; Schugurensky, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses findings from two case studies examining the impact of neoliberal education reform on the classroom practice of teachers and adult educators in Ontario, Canada. We asked educators to comment on the impacts of 20 years of policy shifts in their classrooms. Teachers in public schools and adult literacy programmes echoed each…

  7. Children's Perceptions of the Northern Fruit and Vegetable Program in Ontario, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Meizi; Beynon, Charlene E.; Gritke, Jennifer L.; Henderson, Michelle L.; Kurtz, Joanne M.; Sangster Bouck, Michelle; St. Onge, Renee L.; van Zandvoort, Melissa M.; Chevrier-Lamoureux, Renee D.; Warren, Claire Y.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study examined students' perceptions of and suggestions for the Northern Fruit and Vegetable Program, a free, school-based fruit and vegetable snack program implemented in elementary schools in 2 regions of northern Ontario, Canada. Methods: This was a qualitative study involving 18 focus groups with students in 11 elementary…

  8. Accountability through regulation in Ontario's Medical Laboratory Sector.

    PubMed

    Gamble, Brenda; Bourne, Lavern; Deber, Raisa B

    2014-09-01

    Although the use of performance indicators for the analytical (and highly measurable) phase of the medical laboratory process has had a long and successful history, it is now recognized that the value of a laboratory test is embedded in a system of care. This case study, using both documents and interview data, examines the approaches to accountability in the Ontario Medical Laboratory Sector, noting both the challenges and benefits. This sector relies heavily on the regulation instrument, including a requirement that all medical laboratories licensed by the provincial government must follow the guidelines set out by the Quality Management Program - Laboratory Services. We found the greatest challenges exist in the pre-analytical phase (where a large portion of total laboratory errors occur), particularly the interface between the laboratory and other providers.

  9. Accountability through Regulation in Ontario's Medical Laboratory Sector

    PubMed Central

    Gamble, Brenda; Bourne, Lavern; Deber, Raisa B.

    2014-01-01

    Although the use of performance indicators for the analytical (and highly measurable) phase of the medical laboratory process has had a long and successful history, it is now recognized that the value of a laboratory test is embedded in a system of care. This case study, using both documents and interview data, examines the approaches to accountability in the Ontario Medical Laboratory Sector, noting both the challenges and benefits. This sector relies heavily on the regulation instrument, including a requirement that all medical laboratories licensed by the provincial government must follow the guidelines set out by the Quality Management Program – Laboratory Services. We found the greatest challenges exist in the pre-analytical phase (where a large portion of total laboratory errors occur), particularly the interface between the laboratory and other providers. PMID:25305390

  10. Salmonella in raccoons (Procyon lotor) in southern Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Jardine, Claire; Reid-Smith, Richard J; Janecko, Nicol; Allan, Mike; McEwen, Scott A

    2011-04-01

    Numerous serotypes of Salmonella have been detected in a variety of wild animals, including raccoons (Procyon lotor). Raccoons are common, mid-size omnivores that live in close association with people in urban and rural areas in Ontario. Although raccoons are known to shed Salmonella, little is known about their potential long-term role in maintaining Salmonella infections. We sampled feces from raccoons in three areas of Ontario: one primarily urban site around Niagara, one primarily rural site north of Guelph, and the grounds of the Toronto Zoo, in 2007 to identify which serotypes of Salmonella were commonly shed by raccoons in southern Ontario. In addition, we conducted a longitudinal study at the Toronto Zoo site to determine if raccoons remain persistently infected with Salmonella. Salmonella was found in 45% of samples. The prevalence of Salmonella in raccoon feces ranged from 27% at the rural site to 65% at the urban site. We detected 16 serotypes of Salmonella in 83 positive samples. The most common serotype detected in raccoons from the rural and zoo sites was Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium, whereas Salmonella Newport was detected most commonly in the urban site. Only one raccoon of 11 that were captured in four or more consecutive trapping sessions shed the same Salmonella serotype for two consecutive months, suggesting that raccoons regularly acquire new Salmonella serotypes from the environment.

  11. Molecular Characterization of Klebsiella pneumoniae Carbapenemase (KPC)-Producing Enterobacteriaceae in Ontario, Canada, 2008-2011

    PubMed Central

    Tijet, Nathalie; Sheth, Prameet M.; Lastovetska, Olga; Chung, Catherine; Patel, Samir N.; Melano, Roberto G.

    2014-01-01

    Due to the lack of detailed reports of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing enterobacteria in Ontario, Canada, we perform a molecular characterization of KPC-producing Enterobacteriaceae submitted to the provincial reference laboratory from 2008 to 2011. Susceptibility profiles were accessed by E-test. Molecular types of isolates were determined by pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing. Screening of ß-lactamase genes was performed by multiplex PCR and alleles were identified by DNA sequencing. The genetic platform of blaKPC gene was analyzed by PCR. Plasmid replicons were typed using PCR-based typing approach. KPC-plasmids were also evaluated by S1 nuclease-PFGE and Southern blot. Thirty unique clinical isolates (26 Klebsiella pneumoniae, 2 Enterobacter cloacae, 1 Citrobacter freundii and 1 Raoultella ornithinolytica) were identified as blaKPC positive: 4 in 2008, 3 in 2009, 10 in 2010 and 13 in 2011. The majority exhibited resistance to carbapenems, cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones and two isolates were also resistant to colistin. The isolates harbored blaKPC-2 (n = 23) or blaKPC-3 (n = 7). blaTEM-1 (n = 27) was commonly detected and occasionally blaOXA-1 (n = 3) and blaCTX-M-15 (n = 1). As expected, all K. pneumoniae isolates carried blaSHV-11. blaKPC genes were identified on Tn4401a (n = 20) or b (n = 10) isoforms, on plasmids of different sizes belonging to the incompatibility groups IncFIIA (n = 19), IncN (n = 3), IncI2 (n = 3), IncFrep (n = 2) and IncA/C (n = 1). The occurrence of KPC ß-lactamase in Ontario was mainly associated with the spread of the K. pneumoniae clone ST258. PMID:25549365

  12. Transport of three herbicides in ground water at Twin Lake test site, Chalk River, Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Maloszewski, P; Zuber, A; Bedbur, E; Matthess, G

    2003-01-01

    A field tracer test performed under natural flow conditions at the Twin Lake test site, Chalk River Laboratories of the Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. in Chalk River, Ontario, Canada, using tritium and three herbicides (Chlortoluron, Terbuthylazine, and Pendimethalin) was interpreted using the dispersion equation with a combined reaction model. The reaction model couples an instantaneous equilibrium reaction governed by a linear adsorption isotherm with a reversible or irreversible kinetic reaction of the first order, and decay. An improved interpretation method consists of a simultaneous fitting of theoretical concentration and mass-recovery curves to the experimental data, which leads to a more reliable determining of reaction models and improves the accuracy of fitting. Tritium served as the reference tracer to determine the flow velocity, dispersivity, and the recovery of the herbicides. Chlortoluron was slightly delayed by equilibrium exchange with strongly reduced concentration due to an irreversible kinetic reaction and/or decay. Terbuthilazine was slightly delayed by equilibrium exchange, with strongly reduced concentration due to a reversible kinetic reaction with some influence of decay. A strong equilibrium reaction and a strong reversible kinetic reaction without degradation governed the transport of Pendimethalin, reducing considerably its concentration. The results obtained show that simulations based only on Kd and decay constant, especially if these parameters are found in the laboratory, may considerably differ from those performed with reaction parameters determined in properly performed field tests. The dominant reaction types, and the values of parameters found in the study, supply useful information on the transport of the investigated herbicides in sandy aquifers under natural flow conditions.

  13. ESEM Studies of Colloidal Sulfur Deposition in a Natural Microbial Community from a Cold Sulfide Spring Near Ancaster, Ontario, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglas, S.; Douglas, D.

    2000-01-01

    We have used a relatively new microscopial technique, environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM), together with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and light microscopy to investigate a unique microbial community from a temperate climate, cold sulfide spring near Ancaster, Ontario, Canada.

  14. Molecular analysis of antimicrobial resistance mechanisms in Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates from Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Allen, Vanessa G; Farrell, David J; Rebbapragada, Anuradha; Tan, Jingyuan; Tijet, Nathalie; Perusini, Stephen J; Towns, Lynn; Lo, Stephen; Low, Donald E; Melano, Roberto G

    2011-02-01

    Surveillance of gonococcal antimicrobial resistance and the molecular characterization of the mechanisms underlying these resistance phenotypes are essential in order to establish correct empirical therapies, as well as to describe the emergence of new mechanisms in local bacterial populations. To address these goals, 149 isolates were collected over a 1-month period (October-November 2008) at the Ontario Public Health Laboratory, Toronto, Canada, and susceptibility profiles (8 antibiotics) were examined. Mutations in previously identified targets or the presence of some enzymes related to resistance (r), nonsusceptibility (ns) (resistant plus intermediate categories), or reduced susceptibility (rs) to the antibiotics tested were also studied. A significant proportion of nonsusceptibility to penicillin (PEN) (89.2%), tetracycline (TET) (72.3%), ciprofloxacin (CIP) (29%), and macrolides (erythromycin [ERY] and azithromycin; 22.3%) was found in these strains. Multidrug resistance was observed in 18.8% of the collection. Although all the strains were susceptible to spectinomycin and extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESC) (ceftriaxone and cefixime), 9.4% of them displayed reduced susceptibility to extended-spectrum cephalosporins. PBP 2 mosaic structures were found in all of these ESC(rs) isolates. Alterations in the mtrR promoter, MtrR repressor (TET(r), PEN(ns), ESC(rs), and ERY(ns)), porin PIB (TET(r) and PEN(ns)), and ribosomal protein S10 (TET(r)) and double mutations in gyrA and parC quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs) (CIP(r)) were associated with and presumably responsible for the resistance phenotypes observed. This is the first description of ESC(rs) in Canada. The detection of this phenotype indicates a change in the epidemiology of this resistance and highlights the importance of continued surveillance to preserve the last antimicrobial options available.

  15. Task shifting policy in Ontario, Canada: does it help personal support workers' intention to stay?

    PubMed

    Zeytinoglu, Isik U; Denton, Margaret; Brookman, Catherine; Plenderleith, Jennifer

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this paper is to analyze the impact of task shifting policy on personal support workers' (PSWs) intention to stay in home care. Data were collected through interviews with 46 home care staff of a large home care organization in Ontario, Canada. Interviews were transcribed, coded, and a thematic analysis was conducted using a qualitative software package. Half of the study participants mentioned that task shifting increases PSWs' intention to stay in home care, while less than a quarter commented that task shifting increases PSWs intention to leave. Results show that the implementation of task shifting policy in Ontario, Canada may contribute to personal support workers' intention to stay; however, inadequate compensation may negatively affect intention to stay and should be addressed. We recommend policy-makers consider appropriate compensation to assist PSWs in effectively executing shifted tasks.

  16. The control of raccoon rabies in Ontario Canada: proactive and reactive tactics, 1994-2007.

    PubMed

    Rosatte, R C; Donovan, D; Allan, M; Bruce, L; Buchanan, T; Sobey, K; Stevenson, B; Gibson, M; MacDonald, T; Whalen, M; Davies, J C; Muldoon, F; Wandeler, A

    2009-07-01

    Proactive and reactive tactics have been utilized in Ontario, Canada, to prevent raccoon rabies from becoming established. A total of 96,621 raccoons (Procyon lotor) and 7,967 striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) were live captured using 1,221,044 trap nights, vaccinated against rabies by injection, and released, during proactive Trap-Vaccinate-Release (TVR) programs in southern Ontario during 1994-2007. During those years, on average, 43% to 83% of the raccoon populations were vaccinated against rabies. In addition, 20,129 raccoons and 2,735 skunks were vaccinated against rabies, and 8,311 raccoons and 1,449 skunks were euthanized, using 576,359 trap nights, during reactive Point Infection Control (PIC) operations in eastern Ontario during 1999-2005. A significant correlation was detected between trapping effort and the percentage of the raccoon population that was vaccinated. Between 1999 and 2007, 132 cases of raccoon variant rabies (130 raccoons, two striped skunks) were reported in eastern Ontario. The last case occurred on 23 September 2005 with Ontario being free of reported raccoon rabies to 10 November 2008, proving that TVR and PIC are effective tactics for the control of this disease.

  17. Focal mechanisms and variations in tectonic stress fields in eastern Canada (western Quebec and southern Ontario)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asgharzadeh Sadegh, Parisa

    Earthquakes in western Quebec and southern Ontario present a major contribution to the natural hazards in south eastern Canada due to their proximity to major population centres. However, the seismic characteristics of the events in these regions have not been well documented. Improved knowledge of earthquake distribution and seismic controlling mechanisms provides a great benefit for earthquake hazard analysis in eastern Canada. The available information about the tectonic stress indicators, including focal mechanisms, was compiled for Canada prior to 1994. The present research is concentrated mainly on determination of the focal mechanisms and hypocentre locations of the earthquakes after 1993 with M > 3.5 to characterize the present-day regional and local stress fields in southern Ontario and western Quebec. An attempt was also made to differentiate local zones with comparatively homogeneous tectonic stresses orientation and seismic regimes, thus providing information for future re-assessment of the seismic hazard in each region. Considering seismic parameters such as the trend of the epicentres, focal depths and the state of stress of the events along with their tectonic settings, ten distinct clusters have been proposed for western Quebec and two clusters of events were determined for southern Ontario with comparatively consistent focal mechanisms. The locations and characteristics of seismicity clusters appear to be consistent with the hypothesis that they are near the locations of large historic and prehistoric events, and represent exceptionally persistent aftershocks of past large earthquakes.

  18. Parental perceptions of school-based influenza immunisation in Ontario, Canada: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    MacDougall, Donna; Crowe, Lois; Pereira, Jennifer A; Kwong, Jeffrey C; Quach, Susan; Wormsbecker, Anne E; Ramsay, Hilary; Salvadori, Marina I; Russell, Margaret L

    2014-01-01

    Objective To understand the perspectives of Ontario parents regarding the advantages and disadvantages of adding influenza immunisation to the currently existing Ontario school-based immunisation programmes. Design Descriptive qualitative study. Participants Parents of school-age children in Ontario, Canada, who were recruited using a variety of electronic strategies (social media, emails and media releases), and identified as eligible (Ontario resident, parent of one or more school-age children, able to read/write English) on the basis of a screening questionnaire. We used stratified purposeful sampling to obtain maximum variation in two groups: parents who had ever immunised at least one child against influenza or who had never done so. We conducted focus groups (teleconference or internet forum) and individual interviews to collect data. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. Setting Ontario, Canada. Results Of the 55 participants, 16 took part in four teleconference focus groups, 35 in 6 internet forum focus groups and four in individual interviews conducted between October 2012 and February 2013. Participants who stated that a school-based influenza immunisation programme would be worthwhile for their child valued its convenience and its potential to reduce influenza transmission without interfering with the family routine. However, most thought that for a programme to be acceptable, it would need to be well designed and voluntary, with adequate parental control and transparent communication between the key stakeholder groups of public health, schools and parents. Conclusions These results will benefit decision-makers in the public health and education sectors as they consider the advantages and disadvantages of immunising children in schools as part of a system-wide influenza prevention approach. Further research is needed to assess the perceptions of school board and public health stakeholders. PMID:24902736

  19. Era vaccine-derived cases of rabies in wildlife and domestic animals in Ontario, Canada, 1989-2004.

    PubMed

    Fehlner-Gardiner, Christine; Nadin-Davis, Susan; Armstrong, Janet; Muldoon, Frances; Bachmann, Peter; Wandeler, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    A vaccination program for the control of terrestrial rabies in the province of Ontario, Canada, began in 1989. During the period between 1989 and 2004, over 13 million baits containing the live, attenuated rabies virus ERA-BHK21 were distributed across the province, with the aim of immunizing foxes by the oral route. Animals recovered from bait distribution areas were assayed by fluorescent antibody test for rabies virus infection. Immunoreactivity with a panel of monoclonal antibodies that discriminate between ERA and rabies virus variants known to circulate in Ontario, and molecular genetic analyses were used to identify animals infected with ERA. Nine cases of ERA variant rabies were identified over the 16-yr period of study; these did not appear to be stratified by species, year of discovery, or location of capture. The ERA-positive animals were found across the province in eight counties, all of which had been baited in the year of case discovery. The nine ERA-positive cases included four red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), two raccoons (Procyon lotor), two striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis), and one bovine calf (Bos taurus). Molecular phylogenetic analyses of the partial N gene sequences generated from these isolates indicated that these nine cases were due to infection with the ERA variant. The glycoprotein sequences were predicted from G gene sequencing of all nine field isolates and two laboratory stock ERA viruses. This revealed some heterogeneity at residue 120 (either arginine or histidine) in both field and laboratory stocks as well as a few other mutations in field isolates. The significance of this heterogeneity remains unclear. Our data demonstrate that the ERA vaccine distributed in Ontario carried residual pathogenicity; however, there does not appear to be any evidence of ERA establishment in wildlife populations over the 16-yr period. These results are consistent with previous reports of the rare detection of ERA vaccine-induced rabies and with

  20. Non-Growing Season Dynamics of Nitrous Oxide Emissions From Cropped Land in Southern Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zurbrigg, M. E.; Petrone, R. M.; English, M. C.; Spoelstra, J.; Macrae, M. L.

    2009-05-01

    As atmospheric nitrous oxide (N2O) is increasing at a rate of 0.3% per annum and has a global warming potential 300 times greater than that of carbon dioxide (CO2), it is crucial to understand the dynamics of anthropogenic emissions of this greenhouse gas. Although agriculture represents a small proportion of Canadian land use, it is the most significant source of both human-derived and natural N2O emissions in this country. More than 50% of annual N2O emissions from agricultural soils in northern latitudes may take place in the non-growing season (NGS). Southern Ontario is one of the most intensively farmed regions of Canada. Greater understanding of NGS dynamics of N2O flux will help to develop more accurate N2O modeling methodologies for this region and may help in the refinement of agricultural practices which reduce N2O emissions. This study investigated field and lab NGS dynamics of agricultural N2O flux in southern Ontario, where anaerobic conditions, such as those caused by snowmelt, icemelt and rain, promote the reduction of soil nitrate (NO3-) to N2O. Gas samples were collected from permanent soil gas collars in nine field sites following winter and spring thaw events over the NGS of 2007-2008; otherwise samples were collected at biweekly intervals from these collars, or by means of snow gas chambers when the sites were snow-covered. The field sites were situated in three working farm fields where soils were subjected to typical tillage, amendment and cropping practices. Field data were supplemented by experimental results from soil cores taken from one of two fields previously seeded to corn, and subjected to simulated freeze-thaw cycles of average frequency, duration, and amplitude found in this region. The experimental data show a highly significant positive correlation between N2O flux and soil temperature at 5 cm depth (p < 0.0005). Overall, the field data show a positive correlation between N2O flux and soil temperature (p < 0.025). The less

  1. Lottery promotions at the point-of-sale in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Planinac, Lynn C; Cohen, Joanna E; Reynolds, Jennifer; Robinson, Daniel J; Lavack, Anne; Korn, David

    2011-06-01

    We documented the extent of point-of-sale (POS) lottery promotions in Ontario, Canada and the relationship between lottery promotions and store and city characteristics. This is the first quantitative study of POS lottery promotions. A total of 366 stores-independent and chain convenience stores, gas stations and grocery stores-were visited across 20 cities in Ontario. Data collectors unobtrusively observed the type of lottery promotions in each store and completed a data collection checklist. A lottery promotion index was created and hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) was conducted to examine the relationship between extent of lottery promotions and independent variables such as neighbourhood socioeconomic status and city prevalence of lottery ticket purchasing. POS lottery promotions were widespread across Ontario, with the highest level of promotion found in independent convenience stores. In the multivariable HLM model, none of the remaining independent variables remained statistically significant, except for store type. Lottery promotions are extensive at the POS in Ontario. These findings can help initiate discussions around the appropriateness and possible future regulation of this form of advertising.

  2. GPS coordinate time series measurements in Ontario and Quebec, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samadi Alinia, Hadis; Tiampo, Kristy F.; James, Thomas S.

    2017-01-01

    New precise network solutions for continuous GPS (cGPS) stations distributed in eastern Ontario and western Québec provide constraints on the regional three-dimensional crustal velocity field. Five years of continuous observations at fourteen cGPS sites were analyzed using Bernese GPS processing software. Several different sub-networks were chosen from these stations, and the data were processed and compared to in order to select the optimal configuration to accurately estimate the vertical and horizontal station velocities and minimize the associated errors. The coordinate time series were then compared to the crustal motions from global solutions and the optimized solution is presented here. A noise analysis model with power-law and white noise, which best describes the noise characteristics of all three components, was employed for the GPS time series analysis. The linear trend, associated uncertainties, and the spectral index of the power-law noise were calculated using a maximum likelihood estimation approach. The residual horizontal velocities, after removal of rigid plate motion, have a magnitude consistent with expected glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA). The vertical velocities increase from subsidence of almost 1.9 mm/year south of the Great Lakes to uplift near Hudson Bay, where the highest rate is approximately 10.9 mm/year. The residual horizontal velocities range from approximately 0.5 mm/year, oriented south-southeastward, at the Great Lakes to nearly 1.5 mm/year directed toward the interior of Hudson Bay at stations adjacent to its shoreline. Here, the velocity uncertainties are estimated at less than 0.6 mm/year for the horizontal component and 1.1 mm/year for the vertical component. A comparison between the observed velocities and GIA model predictions, for a limited range of Earth models, shows a better fit to the observations for the Earth model with the smallest upper mantle viscosity and the largest lower mantle viscosity. However, the

  3. Transformation and Mobilization of Arsenic in the Historic Cobalt Mining Camp, Ontario, Canada.

    SciTech Connect

    Kwong,J.; Beauchemin, S.; Hossain, F.; Gould, D.

    2007-01-01

    More than eight decades of silver mining in the Cobalt mining camp of northern Ontario, Canada, have left large volumes of As-bearing mine wastes widely distributed in and along watercourses in the Cobalt area. Metal leaching from these mine wastes has led to the contamination of the area drainage with dissolved As concentrations at least an order of magnitude higher than the Canadian drinking water criterion of 0.025 mg l{sup -1}. To clarify the transformation and mobilization of arsenic in the historic mining camp, a portion of an extensive wetland located in northeast Cobalt and partially filled with historic tailings has been sampled for detailed characterization, chemical analysis and extraction tests. Field deployment of anionic exchange membranes, As sorption isotherm and desorption analyses in conjunction with chemical and mineralogical analyses indicate that: (1) the submerged tailings are likely a source instead of a sink of arsenic to the local streams; and (2) Al-minerals are the main sorbents for As with significant P competing for the available sorbing sites. Subjecting selected samples to a laboratory redox experiment complemented with X-ray absorption spectroscopic analyses confirms that changes in arsenic speciation readily occur with changes in redox conditions in the surface sediments, resulting in rapid mobilization of arsenic. Preliminary enumeration of iron- and sulfur-reducing bacteria at selected sites coupled with scanning electron microscopic analyses show that microbial sulfate reduction occurs locally in the wetland, possibly leading to co-precipitation of arsenic as a sulfide in associated with framboidal pyrite. Further detailed study of the bacteria responsible for the arsenic transformation in conjunction with arsenic speciation analysis is recommended.

  4. Feline onychectomy: Current practices and perceptions of veterinarians in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Kogan, Lori R; Little, Susan E; Hellyer, Peter W; Schoenfeld-Tacher, Regina; Ruch-Gallie, Rebecca

    2016-09-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the proportion of practitioners from Ontario, Canada who perform onychectomy, identify the techniques utilized, and obtain practitioners views on the procedure. An anonymous survey was distributed to Ontario Veterinary Medical Association members. Mann-Whitney U-tests were used to compare responses of opinion questions related to declawing between respondents who indicated they perform declawing procedures and those who do not. Of 500 respondents, 75.8% reported performing onychectomy, with 60.1% of those reporting performing the procedure less than monthly and 73.3% only performing the procedure after recommending alternatives. Statistically significant differences were found between those who do and those who do not perform onychectomy for perception of procedural pain, concept of mutilation, perception of procedural necessity for behavior modification or prevention of euthanasia, and support of province-wide procedural bans.

  5. Feline onychectomy: Current practices and perceptions of veterinarians in Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Kogan, Lori R.; Little, Susan E.; Hellyer, Peter W.; Schoenfeld-Tacher, Regina; Ruch-Gallie, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the proportion of practitioners from Ontario, Canada who perform onychectomy, identify the techniques utilized, and obtain practitioners views on the procedure. An anonymous survey was distributed to Ontario Veterinary Medical Association members. Mann-Whitney U-tests were used to compare responses of opinion questions related to declawing between respondents who indicated they perform declawing procedures and those who do not. Of 500 respondents, 75.8% reported performing onychectomy, with 60.1% of those reporting performing the procedure less than monthly and 73.3% only performing the procedure after recommending alternatives. Statistically significant differences were found between those who do and those who do not perform onychectomy for perception of procedural pain, concept of mutilation, perception of procedural necessity for behavior modification or prevention of euthanasia, and support of province-wide procedural bans. PMID:27587890

  6. Behavior, movements, and demographics of rabid raccoons in Ontario, Canada: management implications.

    PubMed

    Rosatte, Rick; Sobey, Kirk; Donovan, Dennis; Bruce, Laura; Allan, Mike; Silver, Andrew; Bennett, Kim; Gibson, Mark; Simpson, Holly; Davies, Chris; Wandeler, Alex; Muldoon, Frances

    2006-07-01

    During 1999-2003, 127 cases of raccoon variant rabies were reported in raccoons (Procyon lotor) and striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) in Ontario, Canada. Raccoons accounted for 98% (125/127) of the reported cases with behaviors/conditions including aggression, fighting with dogs, ataxia, vocalizations, appearance of being sick, and the presence of porcupine (Erethizon dorsatum) quills. Seventy-eight percent of the rabid raccoons were adults. Juveniles were underrepresented (22%) compared with the adult/juvenile ratios found in nonrabid Ontario raccoon populations. Of the known aged raccoons, 83% were < or = 3 yr of age, and 22% of the rabid adult female raccoons had evidence of having had a litter during the year in which they were found to be rabid. The majority of rabid raccoons were reported during the fall, winter, and spring, suggesting a relationship between raccoon behavioral activities such as denning and breeding and the timing of rabies outbreaks. Multiple cases of raccoon rabies occurred at several barns, suggesting that those structures serve as focal points of rabies transmission as a result of denning activities. Movements of five rabid raccoons (range 1,564-4,143 m) were not different from movements of nonrabid raccoons in Ontario. Sixty-six percent of the rabid animals were submitted by government staff, stressing the importance of those agencies in rabies control and surveillance operations. Increased knowledge of the behaviors of rabid raccoons should assist in the development of management strategies for rabies.

  7. Patterns of and reasons for tooth extractions in general dental practice in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Murray, H; Locker, D; Kay, E J

    1996-06-01

    While substantial proportions of the population of Ontario, Canada continue to have teeth extracted, little is known about the reasons for this loss. In this survey of Ontario general dental practitioners, 128 dentists provided information on 6143 patients they saw during a reference week. Approximately one-in-seven of these patients had or were going to have one or more extractions as part of their current course of treatment. The mean number of extractions for patients having at least one tooth taken out was 2.3 (SD = 2.5). Emergency patients were more likely than regular patients to have at least one extraction but, on average, had fewer teeth taken out. Orthodontic considerations were the main reason for tooth loss in childhood, caries continued to be an important cause of tooth loss at all ages and periodontal disease accounted for more teeth lost after 40 years of age than caries. This study differs from almost all others in finding that, overall, more permanent teeth were extracted because of periodontal disease than because of caries. The former accounted for 35.9% of teeth lost and the latter for 28.9%. While this may be due to methodological differences between this and other studies, it is consistent with epidemiological data on periodontal disease in the Ontario population and data showing that Ontarians receive little in the way of periodontal care.

  8. Planning for long, wide conservation corridors on private lands in the Oak Ridges Moraine, Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Whitelaw, Graham S; Eagles, Paul F J

    2007-06-01

    We explored the role of conservation biology in the planning of a natural-heritage system that includes long, wide conservation corridors situated primarily on private lands, and established to connect natural core areas in the Oak Ridges Moraine of Ontario, Canada. We based our review on government documents, semi-structured interviews with participants involved in this land-use planning process, and our involvement with the issue from 1990 through 2002. Conservation biology had a major influence on the outcome of the land-use planning process for this moraine. The landform was identified as an area of value by the environmental movement within the context of a number of ongoing government studies that began in the late 1980s and early 1990s. Conservation biologists and planners in government, the environmental movement, and the private sector carried out work related to conservation biology, including inventories and the development and application of criteria for the delineation of core areas and conservation corridors. Once the political timing was favorable (2001-2002), decision makers linked the science of conservation biology to planning policies and law in Ontario. The Oak Ridges Moraine land-use planning process was precedent setting in Canada, and possibly internationally. To our knowledge this is the first time long, wide conservation corridors on private lands were regulated through land-use-planning legislation and led to restrictions on urban development and aggregate resource extraction.

  9. Tourism climatology for camping: a case study of two Ontario parks (Canada)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewer, Micah J.; Scott, Daniel; Gough, William A.

    2015-08-01

    Climate and weather act as central motivators for the travel decisions of tourists. Due to their seasonality, these factors determine the availability and quality of certain outdoor recreational activities. Park visitation in Ontario, Canada, has been identified as a weather sensitive tourism and recreation activity. This study used a survey-based approach to identify and compare stated weather preferences and thresholds, as well as weather-related decision-making for campers at two provincial parks in Ontario, Canada. The two parks were selected for differing physical and environmental characteristics (forested lake versus coastal beach). Statistically significant differences were detected between the two parks in relation to the importance of weather and weather-based decision-making. Specific temperatures that were considered ideal and thresholds that were too cool and too warm were identified for both parks, both during the day and the night. Heavy rain and strong winds were the most influential factors in weather-related decision-making and on-site behavioural adaptations. Beach campers placed greater importance on the absence of rain and the presence of comfortable temperatures compared to forest campers. In addition, beach campers were more likely to leave the park early due to incremental weather changes. The results of this study suggest that beach campers are more sensitive to weather than forest campers.

  10. Workplace System Factors of Obstetric Nurses in Northeastern Ontario, Canada: Using a Work Disability Prevention Approach

    PubMed Central

    Nowrouzi, Behdin; Lightfoot, Nancy; Carter, Lorraine; Larivère, Michel; Rukholm, Ellen; Belanger-Gardner, Diane

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship nursing personal and workplace system factors (work disability) and work ability index scores in Ontario, Canada. Methods A total of 111 registered nurses were randomly selected from the total number of registered nurses on staff in the labor, delivery, recovery, and postpartum areas of four northeastern Ontario hospitals. Using a stratified random design approach, 51 participants were randomly selected in four northeastern Ontario cities. Results A total of 51 (45.9% response rate) online questionnaires were returned and another 60 (54.1% response rate) were completed using the paper format. The obstetric workforce in northeastern Ontario was predominately female (94.6%) with a mean age of 41.9 (standard deviation = 10.2). In the personal systems model, three variables: marital status (p = 0.025), respondent ethnicity (p = 0.026), and mean number of patients per shift (p = 0.049) were significantly contributed to the variance in work ability scores. In the workplace system model, job and career satisfaction (p = 0.026) had a positive influence on work ability scores, while work absenteeism (p = 0.023) demonstrated an inverse relationship with work ability scores. In the combined model, all the predictors were significantly related to work ability scores. Conclusion Work ability is closely related to job and career satisfaction, and perceived control at work among obstetric nursing. In order to improve work ability, nurses need to work in environments that support them and allow them to be engaged in the decision-making processes. PMID:26929842

  11. A Bioecological Framework to Evaluate Communicative Participation Outcomes for Preschoolers Receiving Speech-Language Therapy Interventions in Ontario, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Barbara J.; Rosenbaum, Peter L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The Preschool Speech and Language Program (PSLP) in Ontario, Canada, is a publicly funded intervention service for children from birth to 5 years with communication disorders. It has begun a population-level programme evaluation of children's communicative participation outcomes following therapy. Data are currently being collected for…

  12. Microsatellite analysis of the Genetic Diversity of Asian Longhorned Beetles from an Invasive Population in Ontario, Canada

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Asian Longhorned Beetles (Anoplophora glabripennis Motschulsky) were discovered in Ontario, Canada in 2003 at a commercial warehouse site, where they likely arrived on solid wood packing materials from China. Trees in the area were heavily scarred with oviposition sites, and larvae and adult beetle...

  13. Prevalence and risk factors for Coxiella burnetii seropositivity in small ruminant veterinarians and veterinary students in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Meadows, Shannon L; Jones-Bitton, Andria; McEwen, Scott A; Jansen, Jocelyn; Patel, Samir N; Filejski, Catherine; Menzies, Paula

    2017-04-01

    Coxiella burnetii is a zoonotic pathogen that causes Q fever in humans. Serological and questionnaire data on C. burnetii were obtained from 32 small ruminant veterinarians and veterinary students in Ontario, Canada, in February 2012. Overall, 59% of participants were seropositive; advanced stage of career and increased age were associated with seropositivity.

  14. Educators' Beliefs about Raising Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Issues in the Schools: The Experience in Ontario, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Margaret; Dimito, Anne

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the experiences of 132 LGBT and heterosexual teachers and school administrators in Ontario, Canada. Participants completed a survey that asked about their comfort addressing LGBT issues in the school setting, how safe they felt, how active they were, and their perceptions of barriers. There were few differences between the…

  15. Paratuberculosis on small ruminant dairy farms in Ontario, Canada: A survey of management practices

    PubMed Central

    Bauman, Cathy A.; Jones-Bitton, Andria; Menzies, Paula; Jansen, Jocelyn; Kelton, David

    2016-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was undertaken (October 2010 to August 2011) to determine the risk factors for dairy goat herds and dairy sheep flocks testing positive for paratuberculosis (PTB) in Ontario, Canada. A questionnaire was administered to 50 producers during a farm visit in which concurrently, 20 randomly selected, lactating animals over the age of 2 years underwent sampling for paratuberculosis testing. Only 1 of 50 farms (2.0%) was closed to animal movement, whereas 96.6% of dairy goat farms and 94.1% of sheep farms purchased livestock from other producers. Only 10.3% of dairy goat, and no dairy sheep farms used artificial insemination. Manure was spread on grazing pastures by 65.5% and 70.6% of dairy goat and dairy sheep farms, respectively. Because of the high true-prevalence of paratuberculosis infection detected, no risk factor analysis could be performed. This study demonstrates that biosecurity practices conducive to transmission of PTB are highly prevalent in Ontario small ruminant dairy farms. PMID:27152042

  16. Examining non-suicidal self-injury among adolescents with mental health needs, in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Shannon L; Baiden, Philip; Theall-Honey, Laura

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the prevalence of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) among adolescents with mental health needs and specific factors associated with NSSI among adolescents aged 14 to 18 years who received mental health services in adult mental health facilities in Ontario, Canada. Data on 2,013 adolescents were obtained from the Ontario Mental Health Reporting System using the Resident Assessment Instrument-Mental Health (RAI-MH) and were analyzed using logistic regression. Approximately, 20.2% (407 adolescents) of the sample engaged in NSSI within the last 12 months. Results from multivariate logistic regression indicate that females were 2.19 times more likely to engage in NSSI than males. Intentional misuse of prescription medication emerged as the most important factor associated with NSSI. Other factors found to be associated with NSSI included multiple psychiatric admissions, sexual abuse, use of alcohol, mood disorders (e.g., depression), adjustment disorders, personality disorders and symptoms of depression. The article discusses the implications of the findings, with suggestions for future research.

  17. Restructuring home care in the 1990s: geographical differentiation in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Williams, Allison M

    2006-06-01

    Through exploring the geographically differentiated effects of restructuring on the work of home care practitioners, labor process change is found to be spatially specific. It is through examining the spatiallity of labor process change that the differential impacts of health care restructuring on human health care resources can be determined. This has implications for human health care resource availability and service provision, which is particularly an issue for medically under-serviced regions. The restructuring approach, together with regulation theory, is used in this paper as tools for exploring the effects of health care reform on the local labor process. Both quantitative and qualitative data collected from home care practitioners in Ontario (Canada) show that the general trends in labor process change (work transfer down the home care hierarchy, increased time constraints, and enhanced job stress) are being similarly experienced, while shedding light on specific local differences. Findings show two working life factors to be differently experienced across the size of the place in which practitioners live and work. Two representative localities provide a closer examination of local differences in labor process change via the examination of local service cultures, local institutional practices, and local practitioner advocacy. The two sites are Sault Ste. Marie, located in northern Ontario's medically under-serviced northern health region, and Guelph, found in the province's well-serviced southern region.

  18. Context and cardiovascular risk modification in two regions of Ontario, Canada: a photo elicitation study.

    PubMed

    Angus, Jan E; Rukholm, Ellen; Michel, Isabelle; Larocque, Sylvie; Seto, Lisa; Lapum, Jennifer; Timmermans, Katherine; Chevrier-Lamoureux, Renée; Nolan, Robert P

    2009-09-01

    Cardiovascular diseases, which include coronary heart diseases (CHD), remain the leading cause of death in Canada and other industrialized countries. This qualitative study used photo-elicitation, focus groups and in-depth interviews to understand health behaviour change from the perspectives of 38 people who were aware of their high risk for CHD and had received information about cardiovascular risk modification while participating in a larger intervention study. Participants were drawn from two selected regions: Sudbury and District (northern Ontario) and the Greater Toronto Area (southern Ontario). Analysis drew on concepts of place and space to capture the complex interplay between geographic location, sociodemographic position, and people's efforts to understand and modify their risk for CHD. Three major sites of difference and ambiguity emerged: 1) place and access to health resources; 2) time and food culture; and 3) itineraries or travels through multiple locations. All participants reported difficulties in learning and adhering to new lifestyle patterns, but access to supportive health resources was different in the two regions. Even within regions, subgroups experienced different patterns of constraint and advantage. In each region, "fast" food and traditional foods were entrenched within different temporal and social meanings. Finally, different and shifting strategies for risk modification were required at various points during daily and seasonal travels through neighbourhoods, to workplaces, or on vacation. Thus health education for CHD risk modification should be place-specific and tailored to the needs and resources of specific communities.

  19. Polychlorinated biphenyls and chlorinated pesticides in southern Ontario, Canada, green frogs

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, R.W.; Gillan, K.A.; Haffner, G.D.

    1997-11-01

    Green frogs were collected from seven southern Ontario, Canada, locations and analyzed for chlorinated organic chemicals to establish the relative distribution of these chemicals at specific sites. At Hillman Marsh, a wildlife reserve in an agricultural area, green frogs accumulated significantly greater amount of highly chlorinated polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) than green frogs from all other collection sites. The source of PCBs is unknown. At Ancaster, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (DDE) accumulated in green frogs to a significantly greater extent than at all other sites. This was attributed to the presence of agriculture at Ancaster and the historic use of 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT) in agriculture. Chemical concentrations measured in green frogs from all locations were considerably lower than reported levels in other species resulting in observable effects. Specific data relating chronic effects in amphibians to environmental exposure to DDE and PCBs is lacking. Contaminant accumulation in southern Ontario amphibians may be an important factor contributing to amphibian declines only at specific sites.

  20. Context and Cardiovascular Risk Modification in Two Regions of Ontario, Canada: A Photo Elicitation Study

    PubMed Central

    Angus, Jan E.; Rukholm, Ellen; Michel, Isabelle; Larocque, Sylvie; Seto, Lisa; Lapum, Jennifer; Timmermans, Katherine; Chevrier-Lamoureux, Renée; Nolan, Robert P.

    2009-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases, which include coronary heart diseases (CHD), remain the leading cause of death in Canada and other industrialized countries. This qualitative study used photo-elicitation, focus groups and in-depth interviews to understand health behaviour change from the perspectives of 38 people who were aware of their high risk for CHD and had received information about cardiovascular risk modification while participating in a larger intervention study. Participants were drawn from two selected regions: Sudbury and District (northern Ontario) and the Greater Toronto Area (southern Ontario). Analysis drew on concepts of place and space to capture the complex interplay between geographic location, sociodemographic position, and people’s efforts to understand and modify their risk for CHD. Three major sites of difference and ambiguity emerged: 1) place and access to health resources; 2) time and food culture; and 3) itineraries or travels through multiple locations. All participants reported difficulties in learning and adhering to new lifestyle patterns, but access to supportive health resources was different in the two regions. Even within regions, subgroups experienced different patterns of constraint and advantage. In each region, “fast” food and traditional foods were entrenched within different temporal and social meanings. Finally, different and shifting strategies for risk modification were required at various points during daily and seasonal travels through neighbourhoods, to workplaces, or on vacation. Thus health education for CHD risk modification should be place-specific and tailored to the needs and resources of specific communities. PMID:19826558

  1. Paediatric meningococcaemia in northwestern Ontario, Canada: a case for publicly funded meningococcal B vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Tsang, Raymond S. W.; Ulanova, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B is an important infectious agent in developed countries, including Canada. Infants are particularly susceptible to infection with serogroup B because of immature immune systems, pathogen virulence factors and changing serogroup dynamics in the post-vaccination era. Currently, the Ontario provincial government does not include serogroup B in its routine publicly funded meningococcal vaccination program. Case Presentation: A formerly well 14-month-old male presented to a tertiary hospital emergency department with fever, minor respiratory problems, diffuse purpuric rash, distended abdomen, tachycardia, and history of one episode of vomiting and melena each. Meningococcaemia was immediately suspected, and he was treated with ceftriaxone, cefotaxime and vancomycin before transfer to a different acute care facility within 12 h. N. meningitidis serogroup B, sensitive to ceftriaxone and penicillin, was identified in his blood. The patient developed gangrene of the lower legs and underwent bilateral below-knee amputation 8 days post-admission. Conclusion: This instance of meningococcaemia with extensive sequelae is an example of the various serious outcomes of meningococcal infection. It provides persuasive reason for routine publicly funded vaccination against N. meningitidis serogroup B in Ontario. PMID:28348748

  2. Prevalence of paratuberculosis in the dairy goat and dairy sheep industries in Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Bauman, Cathy A.; Jones-Bitton, Andria; Menzies, Paula; Toft, Nils; Jansen, Jocelyn; Kelton, David

    2016-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was undertaken (October 2010 to August 2011) to estimate the prevalence of paratuberculosis in the small ruminant dairy industries in Ontario, Canada. Blood and feces were sampled from 580 goats and 397 sheep (lactating and 2 y of age or older) that were randomly selected from 29 randomly selected dairy goat herds and 21 convenience-selected dairy sheep flocks. Fecal samples were analyzed using bacterial culture (BD BACTEC MGIT 960) and polymerase chain reaction (Tetracore); serum samples were tested with the Prionics Parachek enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Using 3-test latent class Bayesian models, true farm-level prevalence was estimated to be 83.0% [95% probability interval (PI): 62.6% to 98.1%] for dairy goats and 66.8% (95% PI: 41.6% to 91.4%) for dairy sheep. The within-farm true prevalence for dairy goats was 35.2% (95% PI: 23.0% to 49.8%) and for dairy sheep was 48.3% (95% PI: 27.6% to 74.3%). These data indicate that a paratuberculosis control program for small ruminants is needed in Ontario. PMID:26834269

  3. Paratuberculosis on small ruminant dairy farms in Ontario, Canada: A survey of management practices.

    PubMed

    Bauman, Cathy A; Jones-Bitton, Andria; Menzies, Paula; Jansen, Jocelyn; Kelton, David

    2016-05-01

    A cross-sectional study was undertaken (October 2010 to August 2011) to determine the risk factors for dairy goat herds and dairy sheep flocks testing positive for paratuberculosis (PTB) in Ontario, Canada. A questionnaire was administered to 50 producers during a farm visit in which concurrently, 20 randomly selected, lactating animals over the age of 2 years underwent sampling for paratuberculosis testing. Only 1 of 50 farms (2.0%) was closed to animal movement, whereas 96.6% of dairy goat farms and 94.1% of sheep farms purchased livestock from other producers. Only 10.3% of dairy goat, and no dairy sheep farms used artificial insemination. Manure was spread on grazing pastures by 65.5% and 70.6% of dairy goat and dairy sheep farms, respectively. Because of the high true-prevalence of paratuberculosis infection detected, no risk factor analysis could be performed. This study demonstrates that biosecurity practices conducive to transmission of PTB are highly prevalent in Ontario small ruminant dairy farms.

  4. The burden of acute gastrointestinal illness in Ontario, Canada, 2005–2006

    PubMed Central

    SARGEANT, J. M.; MAJOWICZ, S. E.; SNELGROVE, J.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY A retrospective, cross-sectional telephone survey (n=2090) was conducted in Ontario, Canada, between May 2005 and April 2006, to determine the burden of acute gastrointestinal illness in the population. The 4-week prevalence was 8·56% (95% CI 7·36–9·76); in households with more than one resident, 35% of cases reported someone else in their household had similar symptoms at the same time. The annual adjusted incidence rate was 1·17 (95% CI 0·99–1·35) episodes per person-year, with higher rates in females, rural residents, and in the winter and spring. Health care was sought by 22% of cases, of which 33% were asked to provide a stool sample. Interestingly, 2·2% of cases who did not visit a health-care provider reported self-administering antibiotics. Overall, acute gastrointestinal illness appears to pose a significant burden in the Ontario population. Further research into the specific aetiologies and risk factors is now needed to better target intervention strategies. PMID:17565767

  5. Analysis of Anthraxolite and Precambrian Carbonates of Kakabeka Falls, Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutter, A. M.

    2014-12-01

    Anthraxolite is a solid mass of black organic material, often composed of bitumen, that is used as a biomarker formed by oxidation processes. Anthraxolite occurs in veins and fractures that contain cross cutting properties in the carbonate bedding located at Kakabeka Falls, Ontario, Canada. While the hydrocarbons are primarly distributed in the stromatolite bearing units of the Gunflint Formation in the Animikie Group, little information is currently available concerning the highly altered Precambrian metamorphosed oil. This research summarizes the hydrocarbon and microfossiliferous cherty stromatolite horizon in the Gunflint Formation that has been dated at 1.9 Ga. By utilizing a scanning electron microscope (SEM) to retrieve a chemical analysis of the organic molecule samples found at outcrops and in cores, the preserved anthraxolite and carbonate facies were discovered to contain similar compositions. These new results will help provide i) a further understanding Precambrian paleontology by identifying microfossils; ii) the ecology of the region, and iii) the origin of the hydrocarbons.

  6. Wait times for publicly funded addiction and problem gambling treatment agencies in Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study describes the definitions of wait times and intake processes used by drug and problem gambling treatment agencies in Ontario, Canada, as well as the various strategies employed to ameliorate client backlog. Methods An online survey was developed and distributed to 203 publicly-funded, provincial substance use and problem gambling treatment agencies from June to August, 2011. All aspects of the intake process were covered in the survey. Results Based on 139 responses, six different wait time periods were identified. Additional analyses were completed by type of service offered. Suggestions for effective interventions to shorten wait times and recommendations for future research are provided. Conclusion The results of this study highlight a need for standardized definitions of wait times across substance use and problem gambling treatment services. PMID:24252217

  7. Barriers to Walking: An Investigation of Adults in Hamilton (Ontario, Canada).

    PubMed

    Clark, Andrew F; Scott, Darren M

    2016-01-30

    This study investigates perceived barriers to walking using data collected from 179 randomly-selected adults between the ages of 18 and 92 in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. A survey (Hamilton Active Living Study) asked questions about socio-demographics, walking, and barriers to walking. A series of binary logit models are estimated for twenty potential barriers to walking. The results demonstrate that different barriers are associated with different sub-groups of the population. Females, senior citizens, and those with a higher body mass index identify the most barriers to walking, while young adults, parents, driver's license owners, and bus pass owners identify the fewest barriers. Understanding who is affected by perceived barriers can help policy makers and health promotion agencies target sub-groups of the population in an effort to increase walking.

  8. Peatlands as Dynamic Biogeochemical Ecotones: Elemental Concentrations, Stoichiometries and Accumulation in Peatland Soils of Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, T. R.; Wang, M.; Talbot, J.; Riley, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    Peatlands act as biogeochemical interfaces between terrestrial and aquatic systems and are 'hotspots', particularly for carbon cycling and the accumulation of nutrients and other elements within the peat profile. This results in storage of substantial amounts of carbon, nutrients and metals, particularly in northern peatlands. Using a data base of over 400 peat profiles and 1700 individual peat samples from bog, fen and swamp sites in Ontario, Canada, we examine the profile concentrations of C, N, P, Ca, Mg, K, Hg, Pb, As, Cu, Mn, Zn, Fe and Al, and estimate the storage and accumulation of these elements. We show how these profiles, spatial patterns, stoichiometries and accumulation rates are controlled by biogeochemical processes and influenced by geochemical setting, hydrology, atmospheric input and pollution, and ecological and microbial transformations.

  9. Clinical and tree hollow populations of human pathogenic yeast in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada are different.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Chris; Yang, Jiaqi; Vogan, Aaron; Maganti, Harinad; Yamamura, Deborah; Xu, Jianping

    2014-05-01

    Yeast are among the most frequent pathogens in humans. The dominant yeast causing human infections belong to the genus Candida and Candida albicans is the most frequently isolated species. However, several non-C. albicans species are becoming increasingly common in patients worldwide. The relationships between yeast in humans and the natural environments remain poorly understood. Furthermore, it is often difficult to identify or exclude the origins of disease-causing yeast from specific environmental reservoirs. In this study, we compared the yeast isolates from tree hollows and from clinics in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. Our surveys and analyses showed significant differences in yeast species composition, in their temporal dynamics, and in yeast genotypes between isolates from tree hollows and hospitals. Our results are inconsistent with the hypothesis that yeast from trees constitute a significant source of pathogenic yeast in humans in this region. Similarly, the yeast in humans and clinics do not appear to contribute to yeast in tree hollows.

  10. Distribution of Iron-Oxidizing Bacteria in the Nordic Uranium Tailings Deposit, Elliot Lake, Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Silver, M.

    1987-01-01

    Iron-oxidizing bacteria are present within the top 2 m (but not always at the surface) and near the water table-capillary fringe of the vegetated Nordic uranium deposit, Elliot Lake, Ontario, Canada. They are distributed uniformly in the top 0.5 m of unvegetated tailings. The locations of these bacteria correlate with zones of pyrite oxidation as delineated in previous studies by the formation of soluble iron and sulfate. Heterotrophic bacteria are also present in the tailings, with greatest concentrations at the surface and near the water table-capillary fringe. Sulfate-reducing bacteria were detected in the soil and peat at the base of the tailings. The results of this study suggest that the establishment of vegetation directly upon the tailings surface does not arrest bacterial pyrite oxidation. PMID:16347328

  11. Trichonosema algonquinensis n. sp. (Phylum microsporidia) in Pectinatella magnifica (Bryozoa: phylactolaemata) from Algonquin Park, Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Desser, Sherwin S; Koehler, Anne; Barta, John R; Kamyab, Jubin; Ringuette, Maurice J

    2004-01-01

    A new species of microsporidian, Trichonosema algonquinensis, is described from a freshwater bryozoan, Pectinatella magnifica from Ontario, Canada. The parasite develops in epithelial cells and appears as white, spherical masses throughout the tissues. Trichonosema algonquinensis is diplokaryotic, diploblastic and undergoes development in direct contact with the cytoplasm of the host cell. Mature spores are ovoid, tapered at one end, and measure 8.5 +/- 0.3 x 4.4 +/- 0.1 microm. The polar filament is wound in 20 to 23 helical coils. Although the parasite resembles T. pectinatellae described from the same host in Michigan and Ohio, it differs in the length of the spore and number of coils of the polar filament. Analysis of 16S rDNA by maximum likelihood, parsimony and Baysian inference, complements the morphological data in supporting the placement of T. algonquinensis as a sister species of T. pectinatellae.

  12. Standards of education, regulation, and market control: perspectives on complementary and alternative medicine in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Shahjahan, Riyad

    2004-04-01

    This paper provides a contemporary analysis of the issues and questions surrounding the regulation and standardization of education with respect to two complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) professions, namely Chinese traditional medicine and homeopath in Ontario, Canada. Rather than taking a standard of education for granted, the assumption that standardizing professional education is a positive move is critiqued because it is claimed to ensure public safety and uniformity within the profession. It is argued that such an assumption fails to deconstruct the power relations involved with setting a standard of education and continues to ignore the fact that setting a standard of education in CAM is part and parcel of biomedical dominance, competition, turf wars and survival. At the end of this paper, some critical questions regarding setting standards of education by the health professions in general are raised.

  13. Factors influencing workers to follow food safety management systems in meat plants in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Ball, Brita; Wilcock, Anne; Aung, May

    2009-06-01

    Small and medium sized food businesses have been slow to adopt food safety management systems (FSMSs) such as good manufacturing practices and Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP). This study identifies factors influencing workers in their implementation of food safety practices in small and medium meat processing establishments in Ontario, Canada. A qualitative approach was used to explore in-plant factors that influence the implementation of FSMSs. Thirteen in-depth interviews in five meat plants and two focus group interviews were conducted. These generated 219 pages of verbatim transcripts which were analysed using NVivo 7 software. Main themes identified in the data related to production systems, organisational characteristics and employee characteristics. A socio-psychological model based on the theory of planned behaviour is proposed to describe how these themes and underlying sub-themes relate to FSMS implementation. Addressing the various factors that influence production workers is expected to enhance FSMS implementation and increase food safety.

  14. Intestinal toxemia botulism in 3 adults, Ontario, Canada, 2006-2008.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, Yolanda D; Middleton, Dean; Whitfield, Yvonne; Tyndel, Felix; Haider, Shariq; Spiegelman, Jamie; Swartz, Richard H; Nelder, Mark P; Baker, Stacey L; Landry, Lisa; Maceachern, Ross; Deamond, Sherri; Ross, Lorrie; Peters, Garth; Baird, Michelle; Rose, David; Sanders, Greg; Austin, John W

    2012-01-01

    Five cases of intestinal toxemia botulism in adults were identified within an 18-month period in or near Toronto, Ontario, Canada. We describe findings for 3 of the 5 case-patients. Clinical samples contained Clostridium botulinum spores and botulinum neurotoxins (types A and B) for extended periods (range 41-61 days), indicative of intestinal toxemia botulism. Patients' clinical signs improved with supportive care and administration of botulinum antitoxin. Peanut butter from the residence of 1 case-patient yielded C. botulinum type A, which corresponded with type A spores found in the patient's feces. The food and clinical isolates from this case-patient could not be distinguished by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Two of the case-patients had Crohn disease and had undergone previous bowel surgery, which may have contributed to infection with C. botulinum. These cases reinforce the view that an underlying gastrointestinal condition is a risk factor for adult intestinal toxemia botulism.

  15. Barriers to Walking: An Investigation of Adults in Hamilton (Ontario, Canada)

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Andrew F.; Scott, Darren M.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates perceived barriers to walking using data collected from 179 randomly-selected adults between the ages of 18 and 92 in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. A survey (Hamilton Active Living Study) asked questions about socio-demographics, walking, and barriers to walking. A series of binary logit models are estimated for twenty potential barriers to walking. The results demonstrate that different barriers are associated with different sub-groups of the population. Females, senior citizens, and those with a higher body mass index identify the most barriers to walking, while young adults, parents, driver’s license owners, and bus pass owners identify the fewest barriers. Understanding who is affected by perceived barriers can help policy makers and health promotion agencies target sub-groups of the population in an effort to increase walking. PMID:26840328

  16. Integrating Hydrology and Historical Geography in an Interdisciplinary Environmental Masters Program in Northern Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greer, Kirsten; James, April

    2016-04-01

    Research in hydrology and other sciences are increasingly calling for new collaborations that "…simultaneously explore the biogeophysical, social and economic forces that shape an increasingly human-dominated global hydrologic system…" (Vorosmarty et al. 2015, p.104). With many environmental programs designed to help students tackle environmental problems, these initiatives are not without fundamental challenges (for example, they are often developed around a single epistemology of positivism). Many environmental graduate programs provide narrow interdisciplinary training (within the sciences, or bridging to the social sciences) but do not necessarily engage with the humanities. Geography however, has a long tradition and history of bridging the geophysical, social sciences, and humanities. In this paper, we reflect on new programming in an Interdisciplinary Master's program in Northern Ontario, Canada, inspired by the rich tradition of geography. As Canada Research Chairs trained in different geographical traditions (historical geography and hydrology), we aim to bring together approaches in the humanities and geophysical sciences to understand hydrological and environmental change over time. We are teaching in a small, predominantly undergraduate University located in Northern Ontario, Canada, a region shaped significantly by colonial histories and resource development. The Masters of Environmental Studies/Masters of Environmental Sciences (MES/MESc) program was conceived from a decade of interdisciplinary dialogue across three undergraduate departments (Geography, Biology and Chemistry, History) to promote an understanding of both humanistic and scientific approaches to environmental issues. In the fall of 2015, as part of our 2015-2020 Canada Research Chair mandates, we introduced new initiatives to further address the integration of humanities and sciences to our graduate program. We believe the new generation of environmental scientists and practioners

  17. Projecting Fish Mercury Levels in the Province of Ontario, Canada and the Implications for Fish and Human Health.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Nilima; Bhavsar, Satyendra P; Tang, Rex W K; Arhonditsis, George B

    2015-12-15

    Fish mercury levels appear to be increasing in Ontario, Canada, which covers a wide geographical area and contains about 250 000 lakes including a share of the North American Great Lakes. Here we project 2050 mercury levels in Ontario fish, using the recently measured levels and rates of changes observed during the last 15 years, and present potential implications for fish and human health. Percentage of northern Ontario waterbodies where sublethal effects of mercury on fish can occur may increase by 2050 from 60% to >98% for Walleye (WE), 44% to 59-70% for Northern Pike (NP), and 70% to 76-92% for Lake Trout (LT). Ontario waterbodies with unrestricted fish consumption advisories for the general population may deteriorate from 24-76% to <1-33% for WE, 40-95% to 1-93% for NP, and 39-89% to 18-86% for LT. Similarly, Ontario waterbodies with do not eat advisories for the sensitive population may increase from 32-84% to 73-100% for WE, 9-72% to 12-100% for NP, and 19-71% to 24-89% for LT. Risk to health of Ontario fish and humans consuming these fish may increase substantially over the next few decades if the increasing mercury trend continues and updated advisories based on continued monitoring are not issued/followed.

  18. Human metapneumovirus prevalence and molecular epidemiology in respiratory outbreaks in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Neemuchwala, Alefiya; Duvvuri, Venkata R; Marchand-Austin, Alex; Li, Aimin; Gubbay, Jonathan B

    2015-02-01

    Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) has been identified previously as a cause of respiratory outbreaks in adults, including the elderly. The objective of this study was to document respiratory outbreaks that were caused by hMPV in Ontario, Canada and to identify the various circulating genotypes during April 2009-February 2012. The majority of the outbreaks that were part of this study were in adults (>65 years). Total nucleic acid extraction was done on 123 residual anonymized clinical specimens from 51 different respiratory outbreaks. Specimens were subjected to PCR amplification and Sanger sequencing targeting the F and G genes of hMPV. Phylogenetic analysis was performed to identify genotypes. HMPV accounted for 195 (8.5%) of 2,292 respiratory outbreaks. Genotype A2b was most prevalent, detected in 28 (54.9%) of 51 typed hMPV-positive outbreaks. The genotype A2b2 that was described recently was also identified. In earlier reports, subtype A1 was reported in Canada which was absent in the specimens typed in this study. This shift in genotype may be significant in terms of disease severity, and for any future vaccine considerations. Regular testing for hMPV should be done as part of outbreak investigation.

  19. Mercury in lake sediments of the Precambrian Shield near Huntsville, Ontario, Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rasmussen, P.E.; Villard, D.J.; Fortescue, J.A.C.; Gardner, H.D.; Schiff, S.L.; Shilts, W.W.

    1998-01-01

    Long sediment cores (> 1 m) were collected from eight Precambrian Shield lakes in southern Ontario, Canada and analyzed for mercury (Hg), loss-on-ignition (LOI), and a suite of 36 other elements. Results indicated at least 100-fold variation in sediment Hg concentrations between lakes in close proximity (from 450 ppb), comparable to the variation reported for lakes across the whole of Canada. Strong areal correlations between Hg concentrations and LOI (r2=0.77), between Hg and other trace element concentrations (Pb, Zn, Cd, Sb, As, Br), and similarities in the vertical concentration profiles of Hg and LOI, all point to the importance of organic matter in the release, transport and redistribution of metals in watershed systems. The spatial pattern of Hg concentrations in deep, precolonial sediments (>20 cm) was found to mirror the pattern of Hg concentrations in modern surface sediments, an observation that was confirmed in a follow-up survey (r2= 0.85; n = 25 lakes), indicating that natural processes govern the unequal distribution of Hg among these lakes. Between-lake differences in surface sediment Hg concentrations normalized to organic carbon (Hg/C) were also reflected by Hg concentrations in small-mouth bass normalized to 35 cm length (R2=0.63; n= 15 lakes). The latter relationship suggests that small-mouth bass and lake sediment indicators provide mutually supportive information regarding Hg loading to the lacustrine environment from geological sources in the watershed system.

  20. Public opinion towards supervised injection facilities and heroin-assisted treatment in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Michelle Firestone; Patra, Jayadeep; Fischer, Benedikt; Rehm, Jürgen; Kalousek, Kate

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, controversial interventions such as 'heroin-assisted treatment' (HAT) and 'supervised injection facilities' (SIFs) have been established in attempts to minimise the high morbidity and mortality consequences of illicit drug use. This paper examines public opinion towards HAT and SIF using data from the 2003 Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH) Monitor, a representative population survey conducted among adults residing in Ontario, Canada. Data relating specifically to SIFs and HAT were isolated from the main database (n=885); agreement scores were collapsed to create a scale and analysed using independent sample t-tests and ANOVAs. Results revealed that 60 percent (n=530) of the sample agreed that SIFs should be made available to injection drug users, while 40 percent (n=355) disagreed. When asked about the provision of HAT, a similar pattern emerged. Variables significantly associated with positive opinions toward SIFs and HAT were: income; higher education; the use of cocaine or cannabis within the last 12 months; being in favour of cannabis decriminalisation; support of needle exchange in prison; view of illicit drug users as ill people; and agreement that drug users are in need of public support. Given the current political climate and the tentative position of SIFs and HAT in Canada, understanding the public's opinion is crucial for the feasibility and long-term sustainability of these interventions.

  1. Incidence, distribution, seasonality, and demographic risk factors of Salmonella Enteritidis human infections in Ontario, Canada, 2007–2009

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In Canada, surveillance systems have highlighted the increasing trend of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) human infections. Our study objectives were to evaluate the epidemiology of S. Enteritidis infections in Ontario using surveillance data from January 1, 2007 through December 31, 2009. Methods Annual age-and-sex-adjusted incidence rates (IRs), annual and mean age-adjusted sex-specific IRs, and mean age-and-sex-adjusted IRs by public health unit (PHU), were calculated for laboratory-confirmed S. Enteritidis cases across Ontario using direct standardization. Multivariable Poisson regression with PHU as a random effect was used to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRRs) of S. Enteritidis infections among years, seasons, age groups, and sexes. Results The annual age-and-sex-adjusted IR per 100,000 person-years was 4.4 [95% CI 4.0-4.7] in 2007, and 5.2 [95% CI 4.8-5.6] in both 2008 and 2009. The annual age-adjusted sex-specific IRs per 100,000 person-years ranged from 4.5 to 5.5 for females and 4.2 to 5.2 for males. The mean age-adjusted sex-specific IR was 5.1 [95% CI 4.8-5.4] for females and 4.8 [95% CI 4.5-5.1] for males. High mean age-and-sex-adjusted IRs (6.001-8.10) were identified in three western PHUs, one northern PHU, and in the City of Toronto. Regression results showed a higher IRR of S. Enteritidis infections in 2009 [IRR = 1.18, 95% CI 1.06-1.32; P = 0.003] and 2008 [IRR = 1.17, 95% CI 1.05-1.31; P = 0.005] compared to 2007. Compared to the fall season, a higher IRR of S. Enteritidis infections was observed in the spring [IRR = 1.14, 95% CI 1.01-1.29; P = 0.040]. Children 0–4 years of age (reference category), followed by children 5–9 years of age [IRR = 0.64, 95% CI 0.52-0.78; P < 0.001] had the highest IRRs. Adults ≥ 60 years of age and 40–49 years of age [IRR = 0.31, 95% CI 0.26-0.37; P < 0.001] had the lowest IRRs. Conclusions The study findings suggest that there was an increase in the incidence of S

  2. Women's Experiences of Publicly Funded Non-Invasive Prenatal Testing in Ontario, Canada: Considerations for Health Technology Policy-Making.

    PubMed

    Vanstone, Meredith; Yacoub, Karima; Giacomini, Mita; Hulan, Danielle; McDonald, Sarah

    2015-08-01

    Non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) via fetal DNA in maternal blood has been publicly funded in Ontario, Canada, for high-risk women since 2014. We solicited women's experiences and values related to this new health technology to describe how this test is currently being used in Ontario and to provide information about patient priorities to inform future policy decisions about the use of NIPT. Guided by constructivist grounded theory methodology, we interviewed 38 women who had diverse personal experiences with NIPT. Participants' accounts of their values for decision making about NIPT heavily relied on three mutually modulating factors: timing, accuracy, and risk. The values expressed by women conflict with the way that publicly funded NIPT has typically been implemented in Ontario. We offer recommendations for how NIPT might be integrated into prenatal care pathways in a way more consistent with women's values.

  3. Contraband tobacco on post-secondary campuses in Ontario, Canada: analysis of discarded cigarette butts

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background No studies to date have assessed young adults’ use of First Nations/Native tobacco, a common form of contraband tobacco in Canada. This study examined the proportion of First Nations/Native cigarette butts discarded on post-secondary campuses in the province of Ontario, and potential differences between colleges and universities and across geographical regions. Methods In 2009, discarded cigarette butts were collected from high-traffic smoking locations at 12 universities and 13 colleges purposively selected to represent a variety of institutions from all 7 health service regions across Ontario. Cigarette butts were identified as First Nations/Native tobacco if they were: known First Nations/Native brands; had names not matching domestic and international legally-manufactured cigarettes; had no visible branding or logos. Results Of 36,355 butts collected, 14% (95% CI = 9.75–19.04) were First Nations/Native. Use of this tobacco was apparent on all campuses, accounting for as little as 2% to as much as 39% of cigarette consumption at a particular school. Proportions of First Nations/Native butts were not significantly higher on colleges (M = 17%) than universities (M = 12%), but were significantly higher in the North region. Conclusions The presence of cheap First Nations/Native (contraband) tobacco on post-secondary campuses suggests the need for regulation and public education strategies aimed to reduce its use. Strategies should account for regional variations, and convey messages that resonate with young adults. Care must be taken to present fair messages about First Nations/Native tobacco, and avoid positioning regulated tobacco as a healthier option than contraband. PMID:23577796

  4. Mental Health and Substance Use among Bisexual Youth and Non-Youth in Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Lori E.; Bauer, Greta R.; MacLeod, Melissa A.; Robinson, Margaret; MacKay, Jenna; Dobinson, Cheryl

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown that bisexuals have poorer health outcomes than heterosexuals, gays, or lesbians, particularly with regard to mental health and substance use. However, research on bisexuals is often hampered by issues in defining bisexuality, small sample sizes, and by the failure to address age differences between bisexuals and other groups or age gradients in mental health. The Risk & Resilience Survey of Bisexual Mental Health collected data on 405 bisexuals from Ontario, Canada, using respondent-driven sampling, a network-based sampling method for hidden populations. The weighted prevalence of severe depression (PHQ-9≥20) was 4.7%, possible anxiety disorder (OASIS≥8) was 30.9%, possible post-traumatic stress disorder (PCL-C≥50) was 10.8%, and past year suicide attempt was 1.9%. With respect to substance use, the weighted prevalence of problem drinking (AUDIT≥5) was 31.2%, and the weighted prevalence of illicit polydrug use was 30.5%. Daily smoking was low in this sample, with a weighted prevalence of 7.9%. Youth (aged 16–24) reported significantly higher weighted mean scores on depression and post-traumatic stress disorder, and higher rates of past year suicidal ideation (29.7% vs. 15.2%) compared with those aged 25 and older. The burden of mental health and substance use among bisexuals in Ontario is high relative to population-based studies of other sexual orientation groups. Bisexual youth appear to be at risk for poor mental health. Additional research is needed to understand if and how minority stress explains this burden. PMID:25111292

  5. Mental health and substance use among bisexual youth and non-youth in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Ross, Lori E; Bauer, Greta R; MacLeod, Melissa A; Robinson, Margaret; MacKay, Jenna; Dobinson, Cheryl

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown that bisexuals have poorer health outcomes than heterosexuals, gays, or lesbians, particularly with regard to mental health and substance use. However, research on bisexuals is often hampered by issues in defining bisexuality, small sample sizes, and by the failure to address age differences between bisexuals and other groups or age gradients in mental health. The Risk & Resilience Survey of Bisexual Mental Health collected data on 405 bisexuals from Ontario, Canada, using respondent-driven sampling, a network-based sampling method for hidden populations. The weighted prevalence of severe depression (PHQ-9 ≥ 20) was 4.7%, possible anxiety disorder (OASIS ≥ 8) was 30.9%, possible post-traumatic stress disorder (PCL-C ≥ 50) was 10.8%, and past year suicide attempt was 1.9%. With respect to substance use, the weighted prevalence of problem drinking (AUDIT ≥ 5) was 31.2%, and the weighted prevalence of illicit polydrug use was 30.5%. Daily smoking was low in this sample, with a weighted prevalence of 7.9%. Youth (aged 16-24) reported significantly higher weighted mean scores on depression and post-traumatic stress disorder, and higher rates of past year suicidal ideation (29.7% vs. 15.2%) compared with those aged 25 and older. The burden of mental health and substance use among bisexuals in Ontario is high relative to population-based studies of other sexual orientation groups. Bisexual youth appear to be at risk for poor mental health. Additional research is needed to understand if and how minority stress explains this burden.

  6. Spatial analysis of drumlins within the Arran, Guelph, and Galt drumlin fields of southern Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maclachlan, John

    2016-04-01

    Reconstruction of former ice conditions and glacier dynamics in previously glaciated terrains requires understanding of the processes and controls on the development of subglacial landforms such as drumlins. This paper presents a quantitative analysis of the spatial distribution of drumlins identified from digital elevation model (DEM) data within three drumlin fields in southern Ontario, Canada (the Arran, Galt and Guelph drumlin fields) formed in the Late Wisconsin by the Ontario and Georgian Bay ice lobes of the Laurentide Ice Sheet. Detailed field description of a partially excavated drumlin within the Guelph drumlin field provides firther insight to compliment the geomorphometric analysis. Drumlins are identified and their morphological parameters documented using a computer-based process that allows direct comparison of forms within and between individual fields. Statistical analysis of the morphological characteristics and spatial distribution of drumlins within each of the three drumlin fields, using kernel density and nearest neighbour analysis, indicates that drumlins of particular types show distinct patterns of clustering that appear to be are related to several different factors including length of time under ice, bedrock topography, and ice velocity. Sediments exposed in an excavated drumlin within the Guelph drumlin field show a relatively undisturbed older fluvial or glaciofluvial crudely stratified sands draped by a thin veneer of coarse grained deformation till. This stratigraphy is similar to that described from modern drumlins in Iceland and is consistent with models of drumlin formation by subglacial deformation processes. The methodology of drumlin analysis can be applied to the study of any drumlin field with an adequate coverage of digital spatial data. The ability to consistently identify and characterize drumlin morphology and distribution will allow more objective and systematic comparison of these landforms both within and between

  7. Signs and symptoms of methylmercury contamination in a First Nations community in Northwestern Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Takaoka, Shigeru; Fujino, Tadashi; Hotta, Nobuyuki; Ueda, Keishi; Hanada, Masanobu; Tajiri, Masami; Inoue, Yukari

    2014-01-15

    In 1970, fish caught in the English-Wabigoon River system in northwestern Ontario, Canada, were found to be contaminated with mercury coming from a chlor-alkali plant in the province. In the 1970s, patients exhibiting some of the symptoms of the Hunter-Russell syndrome (e.g. paresthesias, visual field constriction, ataxia, impaired hearing, and speech impairment) were reported by some researchers. However attempts to diagnose the patients as suffering from methylmercury poisoning proved to be controversial. In order to research the presence of methylmercury contamination, and show that the patients, through eating contaminated fish, were suffering from methylmercury poisoning, we studied the results of subjective complaints, neurological findings, and quantitative somatosensory measurements gathered in Grassy Narrows Indian Reservation, Ontario, in March, 2010. At that time, the population of the Grassy Narrows settlement was around 900. Ninety-one residents volunteered to be examined. From them, we selected 80 people who were older than 15 years old, and divided them into two groups. Canadian Younger (CY): 36 residents who were from 16 to 45 years old. Canadian Older (CO): 44 residents who were from 46 to 76 years old. We compared them to Japanese Exposed (JE): 88 methylmercury exposed residents from the Minamata district in Japan, and Japanese Control (JC): 164 control residents from non-polluted areas in Japan. Complaints and abnormal neurological findings were more prevalent and quantitative sensory measurements were worse in the two Canadian groups and the Japanese Exposed group than in the Japanese Control group. Complaints, neurological findings and quantitative sensory measurements were similar in Canadian Older and Japanese Exposed. The results for Canadian Younger fell between those of Canadian Older and Japanese Control. These findings indicate that the clinical signs and symptoms of the residents of Grassy Narrows are almost the same as those recorded

  8. Hospitalizations for ambulatory care sensitive conditions across primary care models in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Laberge, Maude; Wodchis, Walter P; Barnsley, Jan; Laporte, Audrey

    2017-03-22

    The study analyzes the relationship between the risk of a hospitalization for an ambulatory care sensitive condition (ACSC), and the primary care payment and the organizational model used by the patient (fee-for-service, enhanced fee-for-service, blended capitation, blended capitation with interdisciplinary teams). The study used linked patient-level health administrative databases and census data housed at the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences in Ontario. Since the province provides universal health care, the data capture all patients in Ontario, Canada's most populous province, with about 13 million inhabitants. All Ontario patients diagnosed with an ACSC prior to April 1, 2012, who had at least one visit with a physician between April 1, 2012, and March 31, 2013, were included in the study (n = 1,710,310). Each patient was assigned to the primary care model of his/her physician. The different models were categorized as Fee-for-Service (FFS), enhanced-FFS, blended capitation, and interdisciplinary team. A logistic regression was used to model the risk of having an ACSC hospitalization during the one-year observation period. Adjustments were made for patient characteristics (age, sex, health status, and socio-economic status) and for the geographic location of the practice. Using patients belonging to FFS models as the reference group, the risk of an ACSC hospitalization was higher for patients belonging to the blended-capitation model using interdisciplinary teams (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR] = 1.06, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.00-1.12) and lower for enhanced-FFS (AOR = 0.78, CI = 0.74-0.82) and blended capitation patients (AOR = 0.91, CI = 0.86-0.96). Using patients with hypertension as the reference group, the odds of an ACSC hospitalization were much higher for patients with any other ACSC and increased with patients' morbidity. The risk was lower for patients of higher socio-economic status (AOR = 0.63, CI = 0.60-0.67) in the

  9. Lagged cumulative spruce budworm defoliation affects the risk of fire ignition in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    James, Patrick M A; Robert, Louis-Etienne; Wotton, B Mike; Martell, David L; Fleming, Richard A

    2017-03-01

    Detailed understanding of forest disturbance interactions is needed for effective forecasting, modelling, and management. Insect outbreaks are a significant forest disturbance that alters forest structure as well as the distribution and connectivity of combustible fuels at broad spatial scales. The effect of insect outbreaks on fire activity is an important but contentious issue with significant policy consequences. The eastern spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana) is a native defoliating insect in eastern North America whose periodic outbreaks create large patches of dead fir and spruce trees. Of particular concern to fire and forest managers is whether these patches represent an increased fire risk, if so, for how long, and how the relationship between defoliation and fire risk varies through space and time. Previous work suggests a temporary increase in flammability in budworm-killed forests, but regional and seasonal variability in these relationships has not been examined. Using an extensive database on historical lightning-caused fire ignitions and spruce budworm defoliation between 1963 and 2000, we assess the relative importance of cumulative defoliation and fire weather on the probability of ignition in Ontario, Canada. We modeled fire ignition using a generalized additive logistic regression model that accounts for temporal autocorrelation in fire weather. We compared two ecoregions in eastern Ontario (Abitibi Plains) and western Ontario (Lake of the Woods) that differ in terms of climate, geomorphology, and forest composition. We found that defoliation has the potential to both increase and decrease the probability of ignition depending on the time scale, ecoregion, and season examined. Most importantly, we found that lagged spruce budworm defoliation (8-10 yr) increases the risk of fire ignition whereas recent defoliation (1 yr) can decrease this risk. We also found that historical defoliation has a greater influence on ignition risk during the

  10. Detection and characterization of Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. on swine farms in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Farzan, Abdolvahab; Parrington, Lorna; Coklin, Tatjana; Cook, Angela; Pintar, Katarina; Pollari, Frank; Friendship, Robert; Farber, Jeffrey; Dixon, Brent

    2011-11-01

    As part of the C-EnterNet surveillance program of the Public Health Agency of Canada, 122 pooled swine manure samples from 10 farms in Ontario, Canada were collected and tested for Giardia and Cryptosporidium. Giardia duodenalis cysts and Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were detected using immunofluorescence microscopy. Nested-polymerase chain reaction protocols were performed to amplify the small subunit rRNA gene and the β-giardin gene for G. duodenalis, and the small subunit rRNA gene and the heat shock protein-70 gene for Cryptosporidium spp. The DNA amplicons were sequenced to determine genotypes and species. A mixed multivariable method was used to compare the presence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in different stages of production. Both Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts were present on all tested farms, with 50.8% of the samples positive for G. duodenalis and 44.3% positive for Cryptosporidium spp. by microscopy, and 66.4% and 55.7%, respectively, positive by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). No significant agreement was observed between microscopy and PCR method to detect Giardia and Cryptosporidium (p<0.05). The prevalence of Giardia in manure pits and finisher pigs did not differ (p>0.05), however, it was less frequent (odds ratio, OR=0.21 [0.07, 0.63]) among sows. Cryptosporidium was more likely (OR=3.6 [1.3, 9.9]) to be detected in manure pits and weaners (OR=3.3 [1.1, 10.0]) compared to finisher pigs, and it was less frequent (OR=0.06 [0.007, 0.55]) in sows than in finishers (p<0.05). DNA sequencing demonstrated that 92.1% of the Giardia isolates were Assemblage B and 7.9% were Assemblage E. The most prevalent Cryptosporidium were Cryptosporidium parvum (55.4%), and Cryptosporidium sp. pig genotype II (37.5%). These findings indicate that the occurrence of zoonotic isolates of G. duodenalis and Cryptosporidium is very high on swine farms in southern Ontario, and that there is a potential for transmission between swine and humans by means of cyst

  11. A Coupled Snow Operations-Skier Demand Model for the Ontario (Canada) Ski Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pons, Marc; Scott, Daniel; Steiger, Robert; Rutty, Michelle; Johnson, Peter; Vilella, Marc

    2016-04-01

    The multi-billion dollar global ski industry is one of the tourism subsectors most directly impacted by climate variability and change. In the decades ahead, the scholarly literature consistently projects decreased reliability of natural snow cover, shortened and more variable ski seasons, as well as increased reliance on snowmaking with associated increases in operational costs. In order to develop the coupled snow, ski operations and demand model for the Ontario ski region (which represents approximately 18% of Canada's ski market), the research utilized multiple methods, including: a in situ survey of over 2400 skiers, daily operations data from ski resorts over the last 10 years, climate station data (1981-2013), climate change scenario ensemble (AR5 - RCP 8.5), an updated SkiSim model (building on Scott et al. 2003; Steiger 2010), and an agent-based model (building on Pons et al. 2014). Daily snow and ski operations for all ski areas in southern Ontario were modeled with the updated SkiSim model, which utilized current differential snowmaking capacity of individual resorts, as determined from daily ski area operations data. Snowmaking capacities and decision rules were informed by interviews with ski area managers and daily operations data. Model outputs were validated with local climate station and ski operations data. The coupled SkiSim-ABM model was run with historical weather data for seasons representative of an average winter for the 1981-2010 period, as well as an anomalously cold winter (2012-13) and the record warm winter in the region (2011-12). The impact on total skier visits and revenues, and the geographic and temporal distribution of skier visits were compared. The implications of further climate adaptation (i.e., improving the snowmaking capacity of all ski areas to the level of leading resorts in the region) were also explored. This research advances system modelling, especially improving the integration of snow and ski operations models with

  12. Efficacy of closantel against ivermectin- and fenbendazole-resistant Haemonchus sp. in sheep in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Westers, T; Jones-Bitton, A; Menzies, P; Van Leeuwen, J; Poljak, Z; Peregrine, A S

    2016-09-15

    In Ontario, Canada, widespread resistance to ivermectin and fenbendazole, the only readily available ovine anthelmintics, has been documented, primarily in Haemonchus sp. In other parts of the world, closantel has been used to control such infections; however, the drug was not currently licensed for use in Canada and the USA. A randomized controlled trial was conducted on six client-owned farms in Ontario in 2013 and 2014 to determine the efficacy of closantel (Flukiver(®) 5% Oral Suspension, Elanco Animal Health, 10mg/kg bodyweight) against ivermectin- and fenbendazole-resistant Haemonchus sp. infections in periparturient ewes and grazing lambs. Three farms were randomly assigned to treat all ewes, and three farms were randomly assigned to selectively treat individual ewes at lambing, using predetermined criteria. Fecal samples were collected from a minimum of 15 randomly selected ewes and 13 lambs per group on each farm at the time of treatment and approximately 14days later. Trichostrongyle-type fecal egg counts (FEC) were performed using a modified McMaster technique with a lower detection limit of 8.3 eggs per gram of feces (epg). Haemonchus-specific FECs were determined by multiplying FECs by the proportion of Haemonchus sp. identified from coproculture for each farm; Haemonchus-specific FEC reductions were calculated for each farm. Twenty grazing lambs had FECs conducted monthly, and when mean monthly FECs surpassed 200 epg, all lambs were randomly allocated to either closantel, positive control (ivermectin, fenbendazole, or levamisole) or negative control groups. Pre-treatment Haemonchus-specific mean FECs ranged from 27 to 3359 epg in ewes and 0-5698 epg in lambs. Efficacy of closantel against Haemonchus sp. ranged from 99% (95% CI: 97%-99%) to 100% in recently lambed ewes on all farms in both years (total n=274 ewes), and from 99% (95% CI: 98%-99%) to 100% in grazing lambs in both years on all but one farm (total n=171 lambs). On the latter farm, a whole

  13. Estimation of the Underlying Burden of Pertussis in Adolescents and Adults in Southern Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Fisman, David N.

    2013-01-01

    Despite highly successful vaccination programs and high vaccine uptake, both endemic pertussis and periodic pertussis outbreaks continue to occur. The under-recognized role of adolescents and adults in disease transmission, due to waning immunity following natural infection and vaccination, and reduced likelihood of correct diagnosis, may contribute to pertussis persistence. We constructed a mathematical model to describe the transmission of pertussis in Southern Ontario in both pre-vaccine and vaccine eras, to estimate the underlying burden of pertussis in the population. The model was well calibrated using the best available data on pertussis in the pre-vaccination (1880–1929) and vaccination (1993–2004) eras in Ontario. Pertussis under-reporting by age group was estimated by comparing model-projected incidence to reported laboratory-confirmed cases for Greater Toronto. Best-fit model estimates gave a basic reproductive number of approximately 10.6, (seasonal range 9.9 to 11.5). Under-reporting increased with age, and approximately >95% of infections in children were caused by infections in persons with waning immunity to pertussis following prior infection or vaccination. A well-calibrated model suggests that under-recognized cases of pertussis in older individuals are likely to be an important driver of ongoing pertussis outbreaks in children. Model projections strongly support enhancement of booster vaccination efforts in adults. PMID:24376767

  14. Characteristics of urban natural areas influencing winter bird use in southern Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Smith, Paul G R

    2007-03-01

    Characteristics of urban natural areas and surrounding landscapes were identified that best explain winter bird use for 28 urban natural areas in southern Ontario, Canada. The research confirms for winter birds the importance of area (size) and natural vegetation, rather than managed, horticultural parkland, within urban natural areas as well as percent urban land use and natural habitat in surrounding landscapes. Alien bird density and percent ground feeding species increased with percent surrounding urban land use. Higher percent forest cover was associated with higher percentages of forest, bark feeding, small (<20 g) and insectivorous species. Natural area size (ha) was related to higher species richness, lower evenness and higher percentages of insectivorous, forest interior, area-sensitive, upper canopy, bark feeding, and non-resident species. Higher number of habitat types within natural areas and percent natural habitat in surrounding landscapes were also associated with higher species richness. Common, resident bird species dominated small areas (<6.5 ha), while less common non-residents increased with area, indicative of a nested distribution. Areas at least 6.5 ha and more generally >20 ha start to support some area-sensitive species. Areas similar to rural forests had >25% insectivores, >25% forest interior species, >25% small species, and <5% alien species. Indicator species separated urban natural areas from rural habitats and ordination placed urban natural areas along a gradient between urban development and undisturbed, rural forests. More attention is needed on issues of winter bird conservation in urban landscapes.

  15. Promoting a smokers' quitline in Ontario, Canada: an evaluation of an academic detailing approach.

    PubMed

    Kirst, Maritt; Schwartz, Robert

    2015-06-01

    This study assesses the impact of an academic detailing quitline promotional outreach program on integration of patient referrals to the quitline by fax in healthcare settings and quitline utilization in Ontario, Canada. The study employed a mixed methods approach for evaluation, with trend analysis of quitline administrative data from the year before program inception (2005) to 2011 and qualitative interviews with quitline stakeholders. Participants in the qualitative interviews included academic detailing program staff, regional tobacco control stakeholders and quitline promotion experts. Quantitative outcomes included the number of fax referral partners and fax referrals received, and quitline reach. Trends in proximal and distal outreach program outcomes were assessed. The qualitative data were analysed through a process of data coding involving the constant comparative technique derived from grounded theory methods. The study identified that the outreach program has had some success in integrating the fax referral program in healthcare settings through evidence of increased fax referrals since program inception. However, organizational barriers to program partner engagement have been encountered. While referral from health professionals through the fax referral programs has increased since the inception of the outreach program, the overall reach of the quitline has not increased. The study findings highlight that an academic detailing approach to quitline promotion can have some success in achieving increased fax referral program integration in healthcare settings. However, findings suggest that investment in a comprehensive promotional strategy, incorporating academic detailing, media and the provision of free cessation medications may be a more effective approach to quitline promotion.

  16. Medical physics staffing for radiation oncology: a decade of experience in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Battista, Jerry J; Clark, Brenda G; Patterson, Michael S; Beaulieu, Luc; Sharpe, Michael B; Schreiner, L John; MacPherson, Miller S; Van Dyk, Jacob

    2012-01-05

    The January 2010 articles in The New York Times generated intense focus on patient safety in radiation treatment, with physics staffing identified frequently as a critical factor for consistent quality assurance. The purpose of this work is to review our experience with medical physics staffing, and to propose a transparent and flexible staffing algorithm for general use. Guided by documented times required per routine procedure, we have developed a robust algorithm to estimate physics staffing needs according to center-specific workload for medical physicists and associated support staff, in a manner we believe is adaptable to an evolving radiotherapy practice. We calculate requirements for each staffing type based on caseload, equipment inventory, quality assurance, educational programs, and administration. Average per-case staffing ratios were also determined for larger-scale human resource planning and used to model staffing needs for Ontario, Canada over the next 10 years. The workload specific algorithm was tested through a survey of Canadian cancer centers. For center-specific human resource planning, we propose a grid of coefficients addressing specific workload factors for each staff group. For larger scale forecasting of human resource requirements, values of 260, 700, 300, 600, 1200, and 2000 treated cases per full-time equivalent (FTE) were determined for medical physicists, physics assistants, dosimetrists, electronics technologists, mechanical technologists, and information technology specialists, respectively.

  17. Perceptions and experiences of environmental health risks among new mothers: a qualitative study in Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Crighton, E. J.; Brown, C.; Baxter, J.; Lemyre, L.; Masuda, J.R.; Ursitti, F.

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing awareness and concern in contemporary societies about potential health impacts of environmental contaminants on children. Mothers are traditionally more involved than other family members in managing family health and household decisions and thus targeted by public health campaigns to minimise risks. However little is known about how new mothers perceive and experience environmental health risks to their children. In 2010, we undertook a parallel case study using qualitative, in-depth interviews with new mothers and focus groups with public health key informants in two Public Health Units in Ontario Province, Canada. We found that the concern about environmental hazards among participants ranged from having no concerns to actively incorporating prevention into daily life. Overall, there was a common perception among participants that many risks, particularly in the indoor environment, were controllable and therefore of little concern. But environmental risks that originate outside the home were viewed as less controllable and more threatening. In response to such threats, mothers invoked coping strategies such as relying on the capacity of children's bodies to adapt. Regardless of the strategies adopted, actions (or inactions) were contingent upon active information seeking. We also found an optimistic bias in which new mothers reported that other children were at greater risk despite similar environmental circumstances. The findings suggest that risk communication experts must attend to the social and environmental contexts of risk and coping when designing strategies around risk reducing behaviours. PMID:23805055

  18. Boiling over: A Descriptive Analysis of Drinking Water Advisories in First Nations Communities in Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Galway, Lindsay P.

    2016-01-01

    Access to safe and reliable drinking water is commonplace for most Canadians. However, the right to safe and reliable drinking water is denied to many First Nations peoples across the country, highlighting a priority public health and environmental justice issue in Canada. This paper describes trends and characteristics of drinking water advisories, used as a proxy for reliable access to safe drinking water, among First Nations communities in the province of Ontario. Visual and statistical tools were used to summarize the advisory data in general, temporal trends, and characteristics of the drinking water systems in which advisories were issued. Overall, 402 advisories were issued during the study period. The number of advisories increased from 25 in 2004 to 75 in 2013. The average advisory duration was 294 days. Most advisories were reported in summer months and equipment malfunction was the most commonly reported reason for issuing an advisory. Nearly half of all advisories occurred in drinking water systems where additional operator training was needed. These findings underscore that the prevalence of drinking water advisories in First Nations communities is a problem that must be addressed. Concerted and multi-faceted efforts are called for to improve the provision of safe and reliable drinking water First Nations communities. PMID:27196919

  19. Rehabilitation services after total joint replacement in Ontario, Canada: can 'prehabilitation' programs mediate an increasing demand?

    PubMed

    Landry, Michel D; Jaglal, Susan B; Wodchis, Walter P; Cooper, Nicole S; Cott, Cheryl A

    2007-12-01

    Total joint replacements (TJR) have emerged as a critical health policy issue. In particular, Canadian demand for these surgeries is forecast to grow annually by 8.7% in the next decade. Although the medical and surgical aspects of TJR have received considerable attention, very little research has explored the impact of increased TJR on the demand for rehabilitation services. In this study, we conducted seven focus group discussions across the province of Ontario (Canada) with multiple stakeholders (n=50) ranging from clinicians and administrators, to policy makers and researchers. Our results indicate that demand for rehabilitation following TJR is rising sharply and that there are three primary factors affecting such demand: (i) increase in the absolute number of TJR surgeries is increasing demand across the continuum of care; (ii) changing profile of clients whereby 'younger and active' groups are more willing to undergo surgery, and 'older and complex' groups are presenting with increased rates of medical complications and comorbidities; and (iii) widespread use of clinical pathways has increased requirements within the rehabilitation sector, but often without corresponding adjustments in levels of human resources. To align increasing demand with supply in the long term, participants offered strong support for health promotion and prevention programs, but they also highlighted the short-term benefits of implementing 'prehabilitation' programs for clients waiting for surgery. Overall, our results indicate that the demand for rehabilitation services after TJR is increasing and that innovative approaches to care delivery are required to align increasing demand with supply.

  20. Does Predation Influence the Seasonal and Diel Timing of Moose Calving in Central Ontario, Canada?

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Brent R.; Mills, Kenneth J.; Middel, Kevin R.; Benson, John F.; Obbard, Martyn E.

    2016-01-01

    Birth synchrony is well documented among ungulates and is hypothesised to maximize neonate survival, either by minimizing the risk of predation through predator swamping or by synchronising birthing with increased seasonal food availability. We used encapsulated vaginal implant transmitters to locate and capture neonatal moose calves and document the seasonal and diel timing of parturition in two adjacent study areas with different predation pressure in central Ontario, Canada. We tested the hypothesis that predation promotes earlier and more synchronous birth of moose calves. Across both areas, proportionately more births occurred during the afternoon and fewer than expected occurred overnight. Mean date of calving averaged 1.5 days earlier and calving was also more synchronous in the study area with heavier predation pressure, despite average green-up date and peak Normalized Difference Vegetation Index date occurring 2 days later in this study area than in the area receiving lighter predation pressure. We encourage analysis of data on timing of parturition from additional study areas experiencing varying degrees of predation pressure to better clarify the influence of predation in driving seasonal and diel timing of parturition in temperate ungulates. PMID:27082234

  1. Does Predation Influence the Seasonal and Diel Timing of Moose Calving in Central Ontario, Canada?

    PubMed

    Patterson, Brent R; Mills, Kenneth J; Middel, Kevin R; Benson, John F; Obbard, Martyn E

    2016-01-01

    Birth synchrony is well documented among ungulates and is hypothesised to maximize neonate survival, either by minimizing the risk of predation through predator swamping or by synchronising birthing with increased seasonal food availability. We used encapsulated vaginal implant transmitters to locate and capture neonatal moose calves and document the seasonal and diel timing of parturition in two adjacent study areas with different predation pressure in central Ontario, Canada. We tested the hypothesis that predation promotes earlier and more synchronous birth of moose calves. Across both areas, proportionately more births occurred during the afternoon and fewer than expected occurred overnight. Mean date of calving averaged 1.5 days earlier and calving was also more synchronous in the study area with heavier predation pressure, despite average green-up date and peak Normalized Difference Vegetation Index date occurring 2 days later in this study area than in the area receiving lighter predation pressure. We encourage analysis of data on timing of parturition from additional study areas experiencing varying degrees of predation pressure to better clarify the influence of predation in driving seasonal and diel timing of parturition in temperate ungulates.

  2. Characteristics of Urban Natural Areas Influencing Winter Bird Use in Southern Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Paul G. R.

    2007-03-01

    Characteristics of urban natural areas and surrounding landscapes were identified that best explain winter bird use for 28 urban natural areas in southern Ontario, Canada. The research confirms for winter birds the importance of area (size) and natural vegetation, rather than managed, horticultural parkland, within urban natural areas as well as percent urban land use and natural habitat in surrounding landscapes. Alien bird density and percent ground feeding species increased with percent surrounding urban land use. Higher percent forest cover was associated with higher percentages of forest, bark feeding, small (<20 g) and insectivorous species. Natural area size (ha) was related to higher species richness, lower evenness and higher percentages of insectivorous, forest interior, area-sensitive, upper canopy, bark feeding, and non-resident species. Higher number of habitat types within natural areas and percent natural habitat in surrounding landscapes were also associated with higher species richness. Common, resident bird species dominated small areas (<6.5 ha), while less common non-residents increased with area, indicative of a nested distribution. Areas at least 6.5 ha and more generally >20 ha start to support some area-sensitive species. Areas similar to rural forests had >25% insectivores, >25% forest interior species, >25% small species, and <5% alien species. Indicator species separated urban natural areas from rural habitats and ordination placed urban natural areas along a gradient between urban development and undisturbed, rural forests. More attention is needed on issues of winter bird conservation in urban landscapes.

  3. Social support factors and health among a senior center population in southern Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, Tanya R; Gitelson, Richard J; Andereck, Kathleen L; Mesbur, Ellen Sue

    2005-01-01

    Past research on senior centers has mainly focused on utilization, frequency, duration of attendance, participation or various activities and services. This study strives to go beyond previous research by examining social support factors and their relationship to mental and physical health across a senior center population in southern Ontario, Canada. Data were collected at two large senior centers in the Kitchener, Waterloo area. We used a self-administered survey among a sample of older participants (n=186). One-way ANOVA with post-hoc Duncan's multiple range tests, t-tests, and linear regression analyses were used to examine the influence of social support (friendship, caregiving and advice) on mental and physical health. The results indicated that caregiving is significantly related to physical health, how respondents feel in general, and happiness with personal life. Advice from others is significantly related to perceptions of having a life full of interesting things. Additionally, respondents who are volunteers perceive better health and social support than non-volunteers, those who eat at the center perceive better health and caregiving support, and those that started a new activity perceived better health and social support from friendships. Implications for social work practice, policy and future research are discussed.

  4. The cost of medical management of pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Leber, A; Marras, T K

    2011-05-01

    Treatment of pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) infection is complex, requiring multiple antibiotics and a prolonged treatment course. We determined the monthly cost of treating patients with pulmonary NTM infections in our clinic, a tertiary care centre in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. We reviewed records of a single clinic at the University Health Network (Toronto) for all patients with pulmonary NTM isolates. Pharmacological and nonpharmacological treatment costs were calculated using a number of Canadian references. 172 patients were reviewed, 91 of whom were treated pharmacologically. The median total duration and cost per treated patient were 14 months (interquartile range (IQR) 9-23 months) and CAD 4,916 (IQR CAD 2,934-9,063), respectively. Median monthly drug treatment cost was CAD 321 (IQR CAD 254-458) for all patients, CAD 289 (IQR CAD 237-341) for patients receiving exclusively oral antibiotics and CAD 1,161 (IQR CAD 795-1,646) for patients whose treatment included i.v. antibiotics. The most costly oral regiment consisted of a fluroquinolone, macrolide and rifampin. In multivariable analysis, Mycobacterium abscessus infection, i.v. therapy and Mycobacterium xenopi infection were all associated with increased monthly treatment costs. The direct medical costs of NTM infections are substantial. Less expensive alternative therapies might be most helpful for M. abscessus infection and when i.v. antibiotics are deemed necessary.

  5. Pulmonary Nontuberculous Mycobacteria–Associated Deaths, Ontario, Canada, 2001–2013

    PubMed Central

    Campitelli, Michael A.; Lu, Hong; Chung, Hannah; Brode, Sarah K.; Marchand-Austin, Alex; Winthrop, Kevin L.; Gershon, Andrea S.; Kwong, Jeffrey C.; Jamieson, Frances B.

    2017-01-01

    Survival implications of nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease (NTM-PD) and NTM pulmonary isolation without disease (NTM-PI) are unclear. To study deaths associated with NTM-PD and NTM-PI and differences in survival between them, we conducted a population-based cohort study of persons with microbiologically defined NTM-PD or NTM-PI diagnosed during 2001–2013 in Ontario, Canada. We used propensity score matching and Cox proportional hazards models to compare survival. Among 9,681 NTM-PD patients and 10,936 NTM-PI patients, 87% and 91%, respectively, were successfully matched with unexposed controls. Both NTM-PD and NTM-PI were associated with higher rates of death for all species combined and for most individual species. Compared with NTM-PI, NTM-PD was associated with higher death rates for all species combined, Mycobacterium avium complex, and M. xenopi. NTM-PD and NTM-PI were significantly associated with death, NTM-PD more so than NTM-PI. PMID:28221106

  6. Equid herpesvirus 9 (EHV-9) isolates from zebras in Ontario, Canada, 1989 to 2007.

    PubMed

    Rebelo, Ana Rita; Carman, Susy; Shapiro, Jan; van Dreumel, Tony; Hazlett, Murray; Nagy, Éva

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to identify and partially characterize 3 equid herpesviruses that were isolated postmortem from zebras in Ontario, Canada in 1989, 2002, and 2007. These 3 virus isolates were characterized by plaque morphology, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of their genomic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay, and sequence analyses of the full length of the glycoprotein G (gG) gene (ORF70) and a portion of the DNA polymerase gene (ORF30). The isolates were also compared to 3 reference strains of equid herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1). Using rabbit kidney cells, the plaques for the isolates from the zebras were found to be much larger in size than the EHV-1 reference strains. The RFLP patterns of the zebra viruses differed among each other and from those of the EHV-1 reference strains. Real-time PCR and sequence analysis of a portion of the DNA polymerase gene determined that the herpesvirus isolates from the zebras contained a G at nucleotide 2254 and a corresponding N at amino acid position 752, which suggested that they could be neuropathogenic EHV-1 strains. However, subsequent phylogenetic analysis of the gG gene suggested that they were EHV-9 and not EHV-1.

  7. Sensitivity of Landsat MSS and TM to land cover change in the Golden Horseshoe, Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    FitzGibbon, Jamie; Chen, Dongmei

    2008-10-01

    An ideal situation for conducting change detection is to use multi-temporal images acquired from the same sensor. However, many conditions (such as the discontinuity of sensors, weather conditions) would bring an end to the ideal temporal change detection. Imagery availability issues will force change detection studies in the future to increasingly incorporate multiple sensors. This study conducted change detection between Landsat TM (TM) and Landsat MSS (MSS) images from July 30, 1995 to June 2, 2003. The study area was centered on the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) in south-central Ontario, Canada. Post-classification change detection was used to determine the type of change between the images. Results demonstrated that despite the different spatial resolution of the MSS and TM data, the change detection using both MSS and TM was similar in results to that of TM alone. A change detection where MSS is resampled to 30 meters was most effective in capturing the amount and type of change in the TM change study.

  8. Measurement and Correlation of Ambient VOCs in Windsor, Ontario, Canada and Detroit, Michigan, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, L. J.; You, H.; Xu, X.; Molaroni, S.; Lemke, L.; Weglicki, L.; Krouse, H.; Krajenta, R.

    2009-05-01

    An air quality study has been carried out in Windsor, Ontario, Canada and Detroit, Michigan, USA as part of a pilot research study undertaken by the Geospatial Determinants of Health Outcomes Consortium (GeoDHOC), a multidisciplinary, international effort aimed at understanding the health effects of air pollution in urban environments. Exposure to volatile organic compounds has long been associated with adverse health conditions such as atrophy of skeletal muscles, loss of coordination, neurological damage, dizziness, throat, nose, and eye irritation, nervous system depression, liver damage, and respiratory symptoms. Twenty-six species of ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were monitored during a 2-week period in September, 2008 at 100 sites across Windsor and Detroit, using 3M # 3500 Organic Vapour Monitors. Ten species with highest concentrations were selected for further investigation; Toluene (mean concentration =4.14 μm/m3), (m+p)-Xylene (2.30 μm/m3), Hexane (1.87 μm/m3), Benzene (1.37 μm/m3), 1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene (0.87 μm/m3), Dichloromethane (0.77 μm/m3), Ethylbenzene (0.68 μm/m3), o-Xylene (0.63 μm/m3), n-Decane (0.42 μm/m3), and 1,3,5-Trimethylbenzene (0.39 μm/m3). Comparison to a similar investigation in Sarnia, Ontario in October 2005 revealed that the mean concentrations of VOCs were higher in Windsor-Detroit for all species by a significant margin (31-958%), indicating substantial impact of local industrial and vehicular emissions in the WindsorVDetroit area. For most VOCs, the concentrations were higher in Detroit than in Windsor. The mean concentration of total VOC was 9.7 μm/m3 in Windsor, which is slightly higher than that in Sarnia in 2005 (7.9 um/m3), whilst total VOC concentration in Detroit was much higher (16.5 μm/m3). There were strong correlations among several of the 10 species, with the highest Pearson correlation coefficients (r=0.78 - 0.99, p<0.05) amongst the BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes) group

  9. Global Distribution and Evolutionary History of Enterovirus D68, with Emphasis on the 2014 Outbreak in Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Eshaghi, Alireza; Duvvuri, Venkata R.; Isabel, Sandra; Banh, Philip; Li, Aimin; Peci, Adriana; Patel, Samir N.; Gubbay, Jonathan B.

    2017-01-01

    Despite its first appearance in 1962, human enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) has been recognized as an emerging respiratory pathogen in the last decade when it caused outbreaks and clusters in several countries including Japan, the Philippines, and the Netherlands. The most recent and largest outbreak of EV-D68 associated with severe respiratory illness took place in North America between August 2014 and January 2015. Between September 1 and October 31 2014, EV-D68 infection was laboratory confirmed among 153/907 (16.9%) persons tested for the virus in Ontario, Canada, using real time RT-PCR and subsequent genotyping by sequencing of partial VP1 gene. In order to understand the evolutionary history of the 2014 North American EV-D68 outbreak, we conducted phylogenetic and phylodynamic analyses using available partial VP1 genes (n = 469) and NCBI available whole genome sequences (WGS) (n = 38). The global EV-D68 phylogenetic tree (n = 469) reconfirms the divergence of three distinct clades A, B, and C from the prototype EV-D68 Fermon strain as previously documented. Two sub-clades (B1 and B2) were identified, with most 2014 EV-D68 outbreak strains belonging to sub-cluster B2b2 (one of the two emerging clusters within sub-clade B2), with two signature substitutions T650A and M700V in BC and DE loops of VP1 gene, respectively. The close homology between WGS of strains from Ontario (n = 2) and USA (n = 21) in the recent EV-D68 outbreak suggests genetic relatedness and also a common source for the outbreak. The time of most recent common ancestor of EV-D68 and the 2014 EV-D68 outbreak strain suggest that the viruses possibly emerged during 1960–1961 and 2012–2013, respectively. We observed lower mean evolutionary rates of global EV-D68 using WGS data than estimated with partial VP1 gene sequences. Based on WGS data, the estimated mean rate of evolution of the EV-D68 B2b cluster was 9.75 × 10-3 substitutions/site/year (95% BCI 4.11 × 10-3 to 16 × 10-3). PMID:28298902

  10. An analysis of the relationship between bulk tank milk quality and wash water quality on dairy farms in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Perkins, N R; Kelton, D F; Hand, K J; MacNaughton, G; Berke, O; Leslie, K E

    2009-08-01

    The objective of this study was to identify regions at high risk for bacterial water or milk contamination, as well as risk factors associated with high bacteria counts in raw milk in Ontario, Canada. Between 2003 and 2004, the Dairy Farmers of Ontario (DFO) tested water samples from 5,421 farms in Ontario for the presence of Escherichia coli and coliforms. The water samples were collected as "point-of-use" samples, meaning that each sample was taken from a tap or water hose in the milk house as soon as the water was turned on. Routine, monthly raw milk bacterial counts were determined by DFO using BactoScan (Foss, Hillerød, Denmark). BactoScan data were retrieved from DFO for all of the farms with water test results. The prevalence of samples with E. coli and coliforms in water and elevated bacteria counts in raw milk was 13.6, 53.8, and 2.8%, respectively. The spatial analysis, using a scan statistic, revealed 1 coliform and 3 E. coli clusters of contaminated water, but no clusters of elevated milk bacteria counts in raw milk in southern Ontario. The coliform water contamination cluster was the largest, with a radius of approximately 200 km. Regression analysis indicated that risk factors associated with the occurrence of high levels of bacteria in raw milk were elevated average monthly somatic cell count, increased total milk production, cooler seasons of the year, and the presence of E. coli in wash water.

  11. New species and distributional records of Aleocharinae (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae) from Ontario, Canada, with a checklist of recorded species

    PubMed Central

    Brunke, Adam J.; Klimaszewski, Jan; Dorval, Julie-Anne; Bourdon, Caroline; Paiero, Steven M.; Marshall, Stephen A.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The Aleocharinae (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) of Ontario were reviewed in the context of recently studied material, primarily from insect surveys conducted by the University of Guelph Insect Collection (Ontario, Canada). Aleochara daviesi Klimaszewski & Brunke sp. n., Agaricomorpha websteri Klimaszewski & Brunke sp. n., Atheta (Microdota) alesi Klimaszewski & Brunke sp. n., Dinaraea backusensis Klimaszewski & Brunke sp. n., and Strigota obscurata Klimaszewski & Brunke sp. n. are described as new to science. We also report 47 new Ontario records and 24 new Canadian records. Callicerus rigidicornis (Erichson) and Alevonota gracilenta (Erichson) are newly reported from North America as adventive species. A checklist, with Canadian distributions by province, of the 224 species of Aleocharinae known from Ontario is given. The following species are placed in subjective synonymy with Dexiogyia angustiventris (Casey): (Dexiogyia asperata (Casey) syn. n., Dexiogyia abscissa (Casey) syn. n., Dexiogyia tenuicauda (Casey) syn. n., Dexiogyia intenta (Casey) syn. n., Dexiogyia alticola (Casey) syn. n.). The following species are placed in subjective synonymy with Acrotona subpygmaea (Bernhauer): (Acrotona avia (Casey) syn. n., Acrotona puritana (Casey) syn. n.). Lectotypes are designated for Thiasophila angustiventris Casey, Thiasophila asperata Casey, Ischnoglossa intenta Casey, Oxypoda rubescans Casey, Chilopora americana Casey, Chilopora fuliginosa Casey, Coprothassa smithi Casey, Atheta subpygmaea Bernhauer, Colpodota puritana Casey, Strigota seducens Casey, Trichiusa compacta Casey, Trichiusa hirsuta Casey and Trichiusa robustula Casey. PMID:22577320

  12. Modest rise in chlamydia and gonorrhoea testing did not increase case detection in a clinical HIV cohort in Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Burchell, Ann N; Grewal, Ramandip; Allen, Vanessa G; Gardner, Sandra L; Moravan, Veronika; Bayoumi, Ahmed M; Kaul, Rupert; McGee, Frank; Millson, Margaret (Peggy) E; Remis, Robert S; Raboud, Janet; Mazzulli, Tony; Rourke, Sean B

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We described patterns of testing for chlamydia and gonorrhoea infection among persons in specialty HIV care in Ontario, Canada, from 2008 to 2011. Methods We analysed data from 3165 participants in the OHTN Cohort Study attending one of seven specialty HIV care clinics. We obtained chlamydia and gonorrhoea test results via record linkage with the provincial public health laboratory. We estimated the proportion of participants who underwent testing annually, the positivity rate among those tested and the proportion diagnosed with chlamydia or gonorrhoea among all under observation. We explored risk factors for testing and diagnosis using multiple logistic regression analysis. Results The proportion tested annually rose from 15.2% (95% CI 13.6% to 16.7%) in 2008 to 27.0% (95% CI 25.3% to 28.6%) in 2011 (p<0.0001). Virtually all were urine-based nucleic acid amplification tests. Testing was more common among men who have sex with men (MSM), younger adults, Toronto residents, persons attending primary care clinics and persons who had tested in the previous year or who had more clinic visits in the current year. We observed a decrease in test positivity rates over time. However, the annual proportion diagnosed remained stable and in 2011 this was 0.97% (95% CI 0.61% to 1.3%) and 0.79% (95% CI 0.46% to 1.1%) for chlamydia and gonorrhoea, respectively. Virtually all cases were among MSM. Conclusions Chlamydia and gonorrhoea testing increased over time while test positivity rates declined and the overall proportion diagnosed remained stable, suggesting that the modest increase in testing did not improve case detection. PMID:25178285

  13. Sources of aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) in urban and rural catchments in Ontario, Canada: Glyphosate or phosphonates in wastewater?

    PubMed

    Struger, J; Van Stempvoort, D R; Brown, S J

    2015-09-01

    Correlation analysis suggests that occurrences of AMPA in streams of southern Ontario are linked mainly to glyphosate in both urban and rural settings, rather than to wastewater sources, as some previous studies have suggested. For this analysis the artificial sweetener acesulfame was analyzed as a wastewater indicator in surface water samples collected from urban and rural settings in southern Ontario, Canada. This interpretation is supported by the concurrence of seasonal fluctuations of glyphosate and AMPA concentrations. Herbicide applications in larger urban centres and along major transportation corridors appear to be important sources of glyphosate and AMPA in surface water, in addition to uses of this herbicide in rural and mixed use areas. Fluctuations in concentrations of acesulfame and glyphosate residues were found to be related to hydrologic events.

  14. Emerging pollutants in the North Sea in comparison to Lake Ontario, Canada, data.

    PubMed

    Andresen, Jens Arne; Muir, Derek; Ueno, Daisuke; Darling, Colin; Theobald, Norbert; Bester, Kai

    2007-06-01

    In the present study, the concentrations and fate of contaminants such as organophosphate flame retardants and plasticizers, musk compounds such as galaxolide (HHCB), tonalide (AHTN), musk ketone and musk xylene, the bactericide triclosan, as well as the metabolites HHCB-lactone and triclosan-methyl were compared in the aqueous phase of the German Bight (North Sea). The concentrations of these compounds were around 1 to 10 ng/L in nearshore areas, and the concentrations were lower in the more pristine areas. The highest concentrations were determined for tris-(2-chloro-isopropyl) phosphate in the North Sea with concentration exceeding 10 ng/L even for the offshore samples. The samples contained 1 to 20 ng/L chlorinated organophosphates, approximately 1 ng/L nonchlorinated organophosphates, and 0.3 to 3 ng/L fragrance compounds. Some samples from Lake Ontario (Canada) were analyzed in comparison. Per capita emissions were calculated for both regions. These emissions were compared and turned out to be very similar for the Canadian and German locations. For the North Sea, some observations concerning stability, dilution, and degradation, as well as sources of the respective substances, were performed. These data indicate that the chlorinated organophosphates and some musk fragrances exhibit half lives exceeding the residence times and thus can be considered to be persistent in this ecosystem. In the German Bight, the river Elbe is the dominating source for the more hydrophilic compounds, such as chlorinated organophosphate flame retardants, which are diluted only into the North Sea. However, for the more lipophilic compounds such as the musk fragrances, different input patterns as well as distribution patterns are relevant, though the river Elbe is still a major source of pollution to the German Bight of the North Sea. The data seem to indicate either relevant inputs further west of the sampling area or mobilization from the sediments.

  15. Predictors of caregiver burden across the home-based palliative care trajectory in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Guerriere, Denise; Husain, Amna; Zagorski, Brandon; Marshall, Denise; Seow, Hsien; Brazil, Kevin; Kennedy, Julia; Burns, Sheri; Brooks, Heather; Coyte, Peter C

    2016-07-01

    Family caregivers of patients enrolled in home-based palliative care programmes provide unpaid care and assistance with daily activities to terminally ill family members. Caregivers often experience caregiver burden, which is an important predictor of anxiety and depression that can extend into bereavement. We conducted a longitudinal, prospective cohort study to comprehensively assess modifiable and non-modifiable patient and caregiver factors that account for caregiver burden over the palliative care trajectory. Caregivers (n = 327) of patients with malignant neoplasm were recruited from two dedicated home-based palliative care programmes in Southern Ontario, Canada from 1 July 2010 to 31 August 2012. Data were obtained from bi-weekly telephone interviews with caregivers from study admission until death, and from palliative care programme and home-care agency databases. Information collected comprised patient and caregiver demographics, utilisation of privately and publicly financed resources, patient clinical status and caregiver burden. The average age of the caregivers was 59.0 years (SD: 13.2), and almost 70% were female. Caregiver burden increased over time in a non-linear fashion from study admission to patient death. Increased monthly unpaid care-giving time costs, monthly public personal support worker costs, emergency department visits and low patient functional status were associated with higher caregiver burden. Greater use of hospice care was associated with lower burden. Female caregivers tended to report more burden compared to men as death approached, and burden was higher when patients were male. Low patient functional status was the strongest predictor of burden. Understanding the influence of modifiable and non-modifiable factors on the experience of burden over the palliative trajectory is essential for the development and targeting of programmes and policies to support family caregivers and reduce burden. Supporting caregivers can have

  16. Quaternary Geologic Framework of the St. Clair River between Michigan and Ontario, Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foster, David S.; Denny, Jane F.

    2009-01-01

    Concern about the effect of geomorphic changes in the St. Clair River on water levels in the Upper Great Lakes resulted in the need for information on the geologic framework of the river. A geophysical survey of the Upper St. Clair River between Port Huron, MI, and Sarnia, Ontario, Canada, was conducted to determine the Quaternary geologic framework of the region. Previously available and new sediment samples and photographic and video data support the interpretation of the seismic stratigraphy and surficial geology. Three seismic stratigraphic units and two unconformities were identified. Glacial drift, consisting of interbedded till and glaciolacustrine deposits, overlies shale. Glaciofluvial and modern fluvial processes have eroded the glacial drift. Glaciofluvial, glaciolacustrine, fluvial, and lacustrine deposits overlie this unconformity. Seismic facies were interpreted to identify areas where these geologic facies exist; however, in the absence of distinct boundaries between facies, these deposits were mapped as one undifferentiated unit. This unit is thickest in the northernmost 3 kilometers of the river, where it consists of relatively coarse-grained fluvial, reworked glaciofluvial, and possibly glaciofluvial deposits. To the south, this coarse-grained unit thins or is absent. The undifferentiated unit comprises most of the surficial deposits in the northernmost river area. Some areas of glacial drift, predominantly till, are exposed at the lake and riverbed. The shale is not exposed anywhere in the region. Geophysical surveys at sites downriver, together with the results of previous studies, indicate that the geologic framework is similar to that in the northernmost river area except for the absence or reduced thickness of the coarse-grained fluvial deposits. Instead, glacial drift is exposed at the riverbed or is covered by a veneer of sediment. This information on the substrate is important for ongoing sediment transport studies.

  17. Human Rabies Post-Exposure Prophylaxis and Animal Rabies in Ontario, Canada, 2001-2012.

    PubMed

    Middleton, D; Johnson, K O; Rosatte, R C; Hobbs, J L; Moore, S R; Rosella, L; Crowcroft, N S

    2015-08-01

    In Ontario, Canada, the implementation of an annual rabies control programme in wildlife that began in 1989 resulted in a marked, steady decrease in the number of animal rabies cases. The number of animal rabies cases decreased from 1870 in 1989 to 183 in 2000 (Nunan et al., 2002 Emerg Infect Dis 8, 214). In our study period, the number of animal rabies cases continued to decrease from 210 in 2001 to 28 in 2012. The marked decrease in animal rabies cases since 1989 has resulted in a decrease in the risk of human infection. A concomitant decrease in the number of rabies post-exposure prophylaxis (RPEP) administered was anticipated but failed to occur. The mean rate of RPEP, 13.9 RPEP administered per 100,000 persons, from 2001-2012 was approximately the same as the rate in the 1990 s. Two possible reasons that the rate of RPEP administration has not decreased include strict adherence to RPEP recommendations and administration of RPEP when it is not recommended. A reduction in the number of RPEP administered, consistent with the decrease in the animal rabies cases, would provide some financial savings for the government. Ideally, an increased use of the risk assessment approach in keeping with recent guidelines, rather than adhering to previous prescriptive recommendations for RPEP administration, coupled with a continuing low incidence of animal rabies cases will result in decreased, and yet appropriate, use of RPEP. Consideration should be given to identify how guidelines could be revised to more effectively target high-risk exposures and reduce the administration of RPEP for instances in which the risk of rabies virus exposure is exceedingly low.

  18. Clinical assessment of reactive postural control among physiotherapists in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Sibley, K M; Inness, E L; Straus, S E; Salbach, N M; Jaglal, S B

    2013-09-01

    Reactive postural control, the ability to recover from an external perturbation to stability, ultimately determines whether an individual will fall following a loss of balance and should be routinely incorporated in balance assessment. The purpose of this study was to identify (1) methods used to assess reactive postural control in clinical practice and (2) factors associated with regular assessment of reactive postural control. A cross-sectional survey was conducted. Three hundred and fifty-seven physiotherapists in Ontario, Canada who treated adults with balance impairments answered questions about the components of balance they assess and how they assess reactive control in their practice. Of the 273 respondents who assessed reactive postural control at least some of the time, 15.4% used a standardized measure, 79.1% used a non-standardized approach, and 5.5% used both. Forty-five methods of assessing reactive control were reported. The most common methods used were non-standardized perturbations (43.5%; 104/239 respondents) and movement observation (18.8%; 45/239). The remaining 43 methods were each used by less than 8% of respondents. Practice area had the strongest association with regular assessment of reactive postural control (>60% of the time), and respondents working with neurological disorders were more likely to regularly evaluate reactive control than those working with people with orthopedic conditions. Despite the availability of valid standardized measures to evaluate reactive postural control, respondents relied primarily on non-standardized approaches and observational assessment. Future work should examine the factors influencing choice of reactive control assessment tools and awareness of standardized measures for reactive postural control.

  19. Integrative analysis of the Lake Simcoe watershed (Ontario, Canada) as a socio-ecological system.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Alex; Kim, Dong-Kyun; Perhar, Gurbir; Arhonditsis, George B

    2017-03-01

    Striving for long-term sustainability in catchments dominated by human activities requires development of interdisciplinary research methods to account for the interplay between environmental concerns and socio-economic pressures. In this study, we present an integrative analysis of the Lake Simcoe watershed, Ontario, Canada, as viewed from the perspective of a socio-ecological system. Key features of our analysis are (i) the equally weighted consideration of environmental attributes with socioeconomic priorities and (ii) the identification of the minimal number of key socio-hydrological variables that should be included in a parsimonious watershed management framework, aiming to establish linkages between urbanization trends and nutrient export. Drawing parallels with the concept of Hydrological Response Units, we used Self-Organizing Mapping to delineate spatial organizations with similar socio-economic and environmental attributes, also referred to as Socio-Environmental Management Units (SEMUs). Our analysis provides evidence of two SEMUs with contrasting features, the "undisturbed" and "anthropogenically-influenced", within the Lake Simcoe watershed. The "undisturbed" cluster occupies approximately half of the Lake Simcoe catchment (45%) and is characterized by low landscape diversity and low average population density <0.4 humans ha(-1). By contrast, the socio-environmental functional properties of the "anthropogenically-influenced" cluster highlight the likelihood of a stability loss in the long-run, as inferred from the distinct signature of urbanization activities on the tributary nutrient export, and the loss of subwatershed sensitivity to natural mechanisms that may ameliorate the degradation patterns. Our study also examines how the SEMU concept can augment the contemporary integrated watershed management practices and provides directions in order to promote environmental programs for lake conservation and to increase public awareness and engagement in

  20. Publicly funded medical savings accounts: expenditure and distributional impacts in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Hurley, Jeremiah; Guindon, G Emmanuel; Rynard, Vicki; Morgan, Steve

    2008-10-01

    This paper presents the findings from simulations of the introduction of publicly funded medical savings accounts (MSAs) in the province of Ontario, Canada. The analysis exploits a unique data set linking population-based health survey information with individual-level information on all physician services and hospital services utilization over a four-year period. The analysis provides greater detail along three dimensions than have previous analyses: (1) the distributional impacts of publicly funded MSAs across individuals of differing health statuses, incomes, ages, and current expenditures; (2) the impact of differing degrees of risk adjustment for MSA contributions; and (3) the impact of MSA funding over multiple years, incorporating year-to-year variation in spending at the individual level. In addition, it analyses more plausible designs for publicly funded MSAs than the existing studies. Government uses information available from year t - 1 to allocate its budget for year t in a manner that is ex ante fiscally neutral for the public sector: the government first withholds funds equal to expected catastrophic insurance payments under the MSA plan, and then allocates only the balance to individual MSA accounts. The government captures the savings associated with reduced health-care utilization under MSAs and we examine deductibles that vary by income rather than by current health-care expenditures. The impacts on public expenditures under these designs are more modest than in the previous studies and under plausible assumptions MSAs are predicted to decrease public expenditures. MSAs, however, are also predicted to have unavoidable negative distributional consequences with respect to both public expenditures and out-of-pocket spending.

  1. Sources of personal exposure to fine particles in Toronto, Ontario, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    David Kim; Andrea Sass-Kortsak; James T. Purdham; Robert E. Dales; Jeffrey R. Brook

    2005-08-01

    Individuals are exposed to particulate matter from both indoor and outdoor sources. The aim of this study was to compare the relative contributions of three sources of personal exposure to fine particles (PM2.5) by using chemical tracers. The study design incorporated repeated 24-hr personal exposure measurements of air pollution from 28 cardiac-compromised residents of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Each study participant wore the Rupprecht & Patashnick ChemPass Personal Sampling System 1 day a week for a maximum of 10 weeks. During their individual exposure measurement days the subjects reported to have spent an average of 89% of their time indoors. Particle phase elemental carbon, sulfate, and calcium personal exposure data were used in a mixed-effects model as tracers for outdoor PM2.5 from traffic-related combustion, regional, and local crustal materials, respectively. These three sources were found to contribute 13% {+-} 10%, 17% {+-}16%, and 7% {+-} 6% of PM2.5 exposures. The remaining fraction of the personal PM2.5 is hypothesized to be predominantly related to indoor sources. For comparison, central site outdoor PM2.5 measurements for the same dates as personal measurements were used to construct a receptor model using the same three tracers. In this case, traffic-related combustion, regional, and local crustal materials were found to contribute 19% {+-} 17%, 52% {+-} 22%, and 10% {+-} 7%, respectively. The results indicate that the three outdoor PM2.5 sources considered are statistically significant contributors to personal exposure to PM2.5. The results also suggest that among the Toronto subjects, who spent a considerable amount of time indoors, exposure to outdoor PM2.5 includes a greater relative contribution from combustion sources compared with outdoor PM2.5 measurements where regional sources are the dominant contributor. 56 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  2. Antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli isolates from raccoons (Procyon lotor) in Southern Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Jardine, Claire M; Janecko, Nicol; Allan, Mike; Boerlin, Patrick; Chalmers, Gabhan; Kozak, Gosia; McEwen, Scott A; Reid-Smith, Richard J

    2012-06-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in fecal Escherichia coli isolates from raccoons (Procyon lotor) living in Ontario, Canada. From June to October 2007, we trapped raccoons in three areas: one primarily urban site around Niagara, one primarily rural site north of Guelph, and one at the Toronto Zoo. In addition, we conducted a longitudinal study at the Toronto Zoo site to investigate the temporal dynamics of fecal E. coli and AMR in raccoons. Reduced susceptibility to ≥1 antimicrobial agent was detected in E. coli isolates from 19% of 16 raccoons at the urban site, 17% of 29 raccoons from the rural site, and 42% of 130 samples collected from 59 raccoons at the zoo site. Raccoons from the zoo site were significantly more likely to shed E. coli with reduced susceptibility to ≥1 antimicrobial agent than animals from the rural site (odds ratio [OR], 3.41; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.17 to 12.09; P = 0.02). Resistance to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins (and the associated bla(CMY-2) gene) was detected in two animals from the zoo site and one animal from the rural site. Serotyping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis show that raccoons on the zoo grounds harbor a diverse assemblage of E. coli, with rapid bacterial turnover within individuals over time. Our study indicates that raccoons may shed resistant bacteria of public health significance and that raccoons have the potential to disseminate these bacteria throughout their environment.

  3. Provenance of buried esker groundwater: the case of Vars-Winchester esker aquifer, Eastern Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauriol, Jacques

    2016-02-01

    An innovative mode of groundwater recharge to a buried esker aquifer is considered. The current conceptual model affords a natural safeguard to underlying aquifers from the overlying muds. A hypothesis of groundwater recharge to a buried esker aquifer via preferential pathways across its overlying muds is tested here by heuristic numerical one-dimensional and two-dimensional modeling simulations. The hypothesis has been tested against two other conventionally accepted scenarios involving: (1) distal esker outcrop areas and (2) remote shallow-bedrock recharge areas. The main evidence comes from documented recharge pressure pulses in the overlying mud aquitard and in the underlying esker hydraulic-head time series for the Vars-Winchester esker aquifer in Eastern Ontario, Canada. These perturbations to the potentiometric surface are believed to be the aquifer response to recharge events. The migration rate of these pressure pulses is directly related to the hydraulic diffusivity of the formation. The measured response time and response amplitude between singular radar precipitation events and well hydrographs constituted the heuristic model calibration targets. The main evidence also includes mud-layering deformation (water escape features) which was observed in seismic surveys of the over-esker muds. These disturbed stratigraphic elements provide a realistic mechanism for migrating water to transit through the muds. The effective hydraulic conductivities of these preferential pathways in the muds were estimated to be between 2 × 10-6 and 7 × 10-6 m/s. The implications of these findings relate to the alleged natural safeguard of these overlying muds.

  4. Transient bacterial contamination of the dual-porosity aquifer at Walkerton, Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worthington, Stephen R. H.; Smart, C. Christopher

    2017-01-01

    Contamination of the Paleozoic carbonate aquifer at Walkerton (Ontario, Canada) by pathogenic bacteria following heavy rain in May 2000 resulted in 2,300 illnesses and seven deaths. Subsequent tracer testing showed that there was rapid groundwater flow in the aquifer, and also rapid exchange between the aquifer and the ground surface. Electrical conductivity (EC) profiling during a 3-day pumping test showed that most flow was through bedding-plane fractures spaced about 10 m apart, that there were substantial contrasts in EC in the major fracture flows, and that there were rapid changes over time. Total coliform sampling revealed transient groundwater contamination, particularly after heavy rain and lasting up to a few days. These characteristics can be understood in terms of the dual-porosity nature of the aquifer. Most of the storage is in the matrix, but this can be considered to be static in the short term. Almost all transport is through the fracture network, which has rapid groundwater flow (˜100 m/day) and rapid transmission of pressure pulses due to the high hydraulic diffusivity. Rapid recharge can occur through thin and/or fractured overburden and at spring sites where flow is reversed by pumping during episodes of surface flooding. These characteristics facilitated the ingress of surface-derived bacteria into the aquifer, and their rapid transport within the aquifer to pumping wells. Bacterial presence is common in carbonate aquifers, and this can be explained by the well-connected, large-aperture fracture networks in these dual-porosity aquifers, even though many, such as at Walkerton, lack karst landforms.

  5. Community health profile of Windsor, Ontario, Canada: anatomy of a Great Lakes area of concern.

    PubMed Central

    Gilbertson, M; Brophy, J

    2001-01-01

    The rates of mortality, morbidity as hospitalizations, and congenital anomalies in the Windsor Area of Concern ranked among the highest of the 17 Areas of Concern on the Canadian side of the Great Lakes for selected end points that might be related to pollution in this relatively highly industrialized city. Mortality and morbidity rates from all causes were higher than in the rest of the province. Anomalously high rates of diseases included various cancers; endocrine, nutritional, metabolic, and immunity disorders; diseases of the blood and blood-forming organs, nervous system and sense organs, circulatory and respiratory systems, digestive system, genitourinary system, skin and subcutaneous tissue, musculoskeletal system and connective tissues; congenital anomalies, and infant mortality. Of particular concern was the early onset of the elevated rates of many of these diseases and conditions. Comparison of these incident rates with those in Hamilton, another industrial municipality in southern Ontario, suggested that in addition to a variety of local sources of industrial pollution from automobile manufacturing and use, transboundary air and water pollution from Detroit, Michigan, should be investigated as potentially important causes of these health outcomes in the Windsor Area of Concern. Some of the institutional and political trends of the past decade may need to be reversed before effective remedial programs are implemented for cleaning up contaminated sediments and for containment of leaking hazardous waste sites. This pilot project would seem to be a useful preliminary method of integrating human health concerns and of priority setting for the administration of the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement and the Canada-United States Air Quality Agreement. PMID:11744501

  6. Geophysical well log analysis of fractured granitic rocks at Atikokan, Ontario, Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paillet, Frederick L.; Hess, A.E.

    1987-01-01

    Two boreholes, drilled to approximate depths of 750 and 1,260 m in a granitic intrusion located near Atikokan, Ontario, were studied by obtaining a full suite of conventional borehole geophysical logs. In addition, selected intervals in these boreholes were logged with a borehole acoustic televiewer that produces a high-resolution image of the borehole wall, an acoustic waveform-logging system using 34-kiloHertz magnetostrictive and 5-kiloHertz sparker sources, and a highly sensitive heat-pulse flowmeter. Emphasis was on identifying and characterizing fracture zones that represent groundwater conduits in deeper portions of the granite, and on characterizing the properties of the largest intervals of unfractured granite. Major fracture zones were indicated by correlating geophysical log anomalies detected on the suite of conventional logs (unpublished data from Atomic Energy of Canada). However, several other anomalies, were identified as mafic intrusions of approximately the same thickness as major fracture zones. Geophysical log anomalies were compared for all major fracture zones that could serve as significant groundwater conduits, and fracture zone permeability is estimated on the basis of acoustic tube-wave attenuation in these intervals. Acoustic televiewer logs obtained at depths below 1,000 m in the deeper well indicate that most of the few fractures identified on core at these depths do not remain open enough under in situ conditions to produce detectable anomalies in acoustic refraction. Flowmeter data indicate that some groundwater circulation occurs in the upper portion of both boreholes. Water in the shallower of the two holes was observed to flow at 2.0 L/min; most of this flow entered the borehole at a depth < 25 m, and no flow occurred below a depth of 100 m. Downflow at rates < 0.5 L/min was determined to enter the deeper borehole within 20 m of the surface, and to exist at various fractures down to a depth of 250 m. (Author 's abstract)

  7. Methane emissions from wetlands in the Midboreal region of northern Ontario, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Bubier, J.L.; Moore, T.R. ); Roulet, N.T. )

    1993-12-01

    Methane (CH[sub 4]) fluxes were measured by a static chamber technique from May to October 1991 at 19 wetland sites near Cochrane, northern Ontario, representative of the Clay Belt Midboreal region of central Canada. Seasonal average fluxes of CH[sub 4] from the peatlands ranged from 0.4 to 67.5 mg[center dot]m[sup [minus]2][center dot]d[sup [minus]1] (0.06-10.1 g[center dot]m[sup [minus]2][center dot]yr[sup [minus]1]). Beaver ponds showed the highest fluxes of CH[sub 4], from both the open water section (seasonal average 290 mg[center dot]m[sup [minus]2][center dot]d[sup [minus]1], 44 g[center dot]m[sup [minus]2][center dot]yr[sup [minus]1]) and the adjacent marsh areas where the water table rose close to or above the soil surface (91-350 mg[center dot]m[sup [minus]2][center dot]d[sup [minus]1], 13-53 g[center dot]m[sup [minus]2][center dot]yr[sup [minus]1]). Seasonal mean water table position, particularly at the microtopographic scale of hummock and hollow, explained most of the variability in CH[sub 4] emission among wetlands (r[sup 2] = 0.74). Trophic status, such as pore-water Ca, Mg, and pH had little correlation with CH[sub 4] emissions. Broad-scale peatland classifications that do not account for hydrological differences at the microtopographic level are inadequate for predicting CH[sub 4] flux in boreal wetlands, particularly in forested ecosystems where conifer swamps are diverse and comprise the major peatland class. Based on areal estimates of the different wetland types in the Clay Belt, the authors estimate an annual CH[sub 4] flux of 3.4 g[center dot]m[sup [minus]2][center dot]yr[sup [minus]1], generally lower than that used in extrapolations to continental- or global-scale methane budgets. 68 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  8. Breccia Formation at a Complex Impact Crater: Slate Islands, Lake Superior, Ontario, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dressler, B. O.; Sharpton, V. L.

    1997-01-01

    The Slate Islands impact structure is the eroded remnant of a approximately 30-32 km-diameter complex impact structure located in northern Lake Superior, Ontario, Canada. Target rocks are Archean supracrustal and igneous rocks and Proterozoic metavolcanics, metasediments, and diabase. A wide variety of breccias occurs on the islands, many of which contain fragments exhibiting shock metamorphic features. Aphanitic, narrow and inclusion-poor pseudotachylite veins, commonly with more or less parallel boundaries and apophyses branching off them, represent the earliest breccias formed during the compression stage of the impact process. Coarse-grained, polymictic elastic matrix breccias form small to very large, inclusion-rich dikes and irregularly shaped bodies that may contain altered glass fragments. These breccias have sharp contacts with their host rocks and include a wide range of fragment types some of which were transported over minimum distances of approximately 2 km away from the center of the structure. They cut across pseudotachylite veins and contain inclusions of them. Field and petrographic evidence indicate that these polymictic breccias formed predominantly during the excavation and central uplift stages of the impact process. Monomictic breccias, characterized by angular fragments and transitional contacts with their host rocks, occur in parautochthonous target rocks, mainly on the outlying islands of the Slate Islands archipelago. A few contain fragmented and disrupted, coarse-grained, polymictic clastic matrix breccia dikes. This is an indication that at least some of these monomictic breccias formed late in the impact process and that they are probably related to a late crater modification stage. A small number of relatively large occurrences of glass-poor, suevitic breccias occur at the flanks of the central uplift and along the inner flank of the outer ring of the Slate Islands complex crater. A coarse, glass-free, allogenic breccia, containing

  9. A cohort study relating urban green space with mortality in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Villeneuve, Paul J; Jerrett, Michael; Su, Jason G; Burnett, Richard T; Chen, Hong; Wheeler, Amanda J; Goldberg, Mark S

    2012-05-01

    Parks and green space areas are important to human health for psychological and physiological reasons. There have been few evaluations of access to green space on mortality. This paper describes a cohort study of approximately 575,000 adults, 35 years of age and older, who resided in 10 urban areas in Ontario, Canada, between 1982 and 1986. Individuals were identified from income tax filings, and vital status was determined up to December 31, 2004 through record linkage to the Canadian Mortality Data Base. Place of residence was defined by postal code data that were extracted from income tax filings. Urban green space was defined by Landsat satellite retrievals with the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index and this was assigned to individuals' place of residence at inception into the cohort using both a 30 m grid cell and a 500 m buffer. The proportional hazards model was used to estimate rate ratios (RRs) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) for selected underlying causes of death. The rate ratios were adjusted for income, marital status, ambient air pollution, and contextual neighborhood characteristics. About 187,000 subjects died during follow-up. An increase in the interquartile range of green space, using a 500 m buffer, was associated with reduced non-accidental mortality (RR=0.95, 95% CI=0.94-0.96). Reductions in mortality with increased residential green space were observed for each underlying cause of death; the strongest association was found for respiratory disease mortality (RR=0.91, 95% CI=0.89-0.93). Risk estimates were essentially unchanged after adjusting for ambient air pollution. Our study suggests that green space in urban environments was associated with long-term reduction in mortality although this finding should be interpreted cautiously as this association may be influenced by residual confounding of sociodemographic and lifestyle factors. Further research is needed to: confirm these findings, better understand the

  10. Assessment of the effect of cold and hot temperatures on mortality in Ontario, Canada: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hong; Wang, Jun; Li, Qiongsi; Yagouti, Abderrahmane; Lavigne, Eric; Foty, Richard; Burnett, Richard T.; Villeneuve, Paul J.; Cakmak, Sabit; Copes, Ray

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ambient high temperature is associated with death; however, heat-related risk of death has not been quantified systematically in Ontario, the most populous province in Canada. Less is known about cold-related risk in this population. Our objective was to quantify the health impact from cold and hot temperatures in Ontario. Methods: The study population consisted of all residents of Ontario who died between Jan. 1, 1996, and Dec. 31, 2010, from any nonaccidental cause. A case-crossover analysis was applied to assess the relation between daily temperature fluctuation and deaths from nonaccidental and selected causes in cold (December-February) and warm (June-August) seasons, respectively, adjusting for various potential confounders. Risk estimates were obtained for each census division, then pooled across Ontario. We examined potential effect modification for selected comorbidities and sociodemographic characteristics. Results: In warm seasons, each 5°C increase in daily mean temperature was associated with a 2.5% increase in nonaccidental deaths (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.3% to 3.8%) on the day of exposure (lag 0). In cold seasons, each 5°C decrease in daily temperature was associated with a 3.0% (95% CI 1.8% to 4.2%) increase in nonaccidental deaths, which persisted over 7 days (lag 0-6). The cold-related effects (lag 0-6) were stronger for cardiovascular-related deaths (any cardiovascular death: 4.1%, 95% CI 2.3% to 5.9%; ischemic heart disease: 5.8%, 95% CI 3.6% to 8.1%), especially among people less than 65 years of age (8.0%, 95% CI 3.0% to 13.0%). Conversely, heat most strongly increased respiratory-related deaths during admission to hospital (26.0%, 95% CI 0% to 61.4%). Across Ontario, each 5°C change in daily temperature was estimated to induce 7 excess deaths per day in cold seasons and 4 excess deaths in warm seasons. Interpretation: Heat contributed to excess deaths in Ontario, although the effect of cold weather appeared to be

  11. Cancer prevalence, incidence and mortality in people who experience incarceration in Ontario, Canada: A population-based retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Kouyoumdjian, Fiona G.; Pivnick, Lucie; McIsaac, Kathryn E.; Wilton, Andrew S.; Lofters, Aisha; Hwang, Stephen W.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Evidence suggests that many risk factors for cancer are overrepresented in people who experience incarceration, and data on cancer epidemiology are limited for this population. We aimed to describe cancer prevalence, incidence and mortality in adults admitted to provincial custody in Ontario, Canada in 2000. Methods We linked data on 48,166 adults admitted to provincial custody in Ontario in 2000 with Ontario Cancer Registry data to 2012. We calculated cancer prevalence in the 10 years prior to admission to custody in 2000, incidence between 2000 and 2012 and mortality between 2000 and 2011. Standardized for age, we calculated incidence and mortality ratios by sex compared to the general population of Ontario. Results The 10-year cancer prevalence was 0.4% in men and 0.6% in women at admission to provincial custody in 2000. Between 2000 and 2012, 2.6% of men and 2.8% of women were diagnosed with new cancer. The standardized incidence ratio for cancer was 1.0 (95% CI 0.9–1.0) for men and 0.9 (95% CI 0.7–1.0) for women compared to the general population, and was significantly increased for cervical, head and neck, liver and lung cancers. The standardized mortality ratio was 1.6 (95% CI 1.4–1.7) in men and 1.4 (95% CI 1.0–1.9) in women, and was significantly increased for head and neck, liver, and lung cancers. Conclusions There is an excess burden of cancer in people who experience incarceration. Cancer prevention should include people who experience incarceration, and the period of incarceration may offer an opportunity for intervention. PMID:28225780

  12. Elk restoration in Ontario, Canada: infectious disease management strategy, 1998-2001.

    PubMed

    Rosatte, R; Hamr, J; Ranta, B; Young, J; Cool, N

    2002-10-01

    Ontario has embarked upon a program to restore elk (Cervus elaphus) that were once native to that province. A comprehensive disease-management strategy has ensured that elk are free of infectious diseases such as brucellosis and tuberculosis prior to shipment to Ontario. Postmortem analysis occurs on elk mortalities in Ontario to ensure that elk are not infected with diseases such as chronic wasting disease and tuberculosis. Between 1998 and 2001, a total of 443 elk were transported from Elk Island National Park, Alberta, and released in four different areas of Ontario. Cumulative mortality for elk in all areas was 26% from 1998 to January 2001. The primary causes of mortality were post-release stress-induced emaciation (21%), wolf predation (20%), transport/handling injuries (10%), bacterial infections (10%), and drowning (7%). Female calves had the highest mortality rates (37%) compared to the other sex and age cohorts (23-24%). Preliminary findings suggest an inverse correlation between the length of time elk are held in enclosures prior to release and the distance they disperse from the release site. The 2001 estimated population of elk in Ontario is about 400 individuals.

  13. Decentralized molecular diagnostic testing plan for pandemic influenza in the Ontario Public Health Laboratory system.

    PubMed

    Drews, Steven J; Majury, Anna; Jamieson, Frances; Riley, Garth; Mazzulli, Tony; Low, Donald E

    2008-01-01

    The Ontario Public Health Laboratories system (OPHL) is in the midst of a six-year plan to implement molecular tools for pandemic influenza diagnostics in one central and three regional public health laboratories. This plan has been formulated as a consequence of: (1) experiences gained through severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), and comments of the members of the Expert Panel on SARS and Infectious Disease Control (i.e., the Walker report); (2) a review of pandemic preparedness literature; (3) historical and epidemiologic discussions about previous pandemics; and (4) suggestions made by various pandemic working committees. The OPHL plan includes: (1) an aggressive restructuring of the overall molecular microbiology testing capacity of the OPHL; (2) the ability to shift influenza testing of samples between designated OPHL laboratories; and (3) the development of screening tools for pandemic influenza diagnostic tests. The authors believe that investing in increased molecular testing capacity for regional laboratories outside the greater Toronto area will be beneficial to the OPHL system whether or not an influenza pandemic occurs. Well-trained technologists and microbiologists, and the introduction of new technologies, will facilitate the development of a wide variety of molecular tests for other infectious diseases at public health laboratories geographically distant from Toronto, thus enhancing overall laboratory testing capacity in the province of Ontario.

  14. A Social Pedagogy Approach to Residential Care: Balancing Education and Placement in the Development of an Innovative Child Welfare Residential Program in Ontario, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gharabaghi, Kiaras; Groskleg, Ron

    2010-01-01

    This paper chronicles the exploration and development of a residential program of the child welfare authority of Renfrew County in Ontario, Canada. Recognizing that virtually its entire population of youth in care was failing to achieve positive outcomes in education, Renfrew County Family and Children Services embarked on a program development…

  15. Contribution to the freshwater gastrotrich fauna of wetland areas of southwestern Ontario (Canada) with redescriptions of seven species and a check-list for North America.

    PubMed

    Schwank, Peter; Kånneby, Tobias

    2014-06-05

    This study gives additional, detailed information on the freshwater gastrotrich species described and reported from the southwestern regions of Ontario and New Brunswick, Canada by Schwank (1990). Aspidiophorus ontarioniensis, Chaetonotus (Chaetonotus) furculatus, Chaetonotus (Chaetonotus) ontariensis, Chaetonotus (Primochaetus) annae, Ichthydium malleum, Lepidodermella forficulata and Setopus lemnicola are all redescribed. In addition, a complete list of freshwater species currently known from North America is given.

  16. Assessing the Impact of Pilot School Snack Programs on Milk and Alternatives Intake in 2 Remote First Nation Communities in Northern Ontario, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gates, Michelle; Hanning, Rhona M.; Gates, Allison; McCarthy, Daniel D.; Tsuji, Leonard J. S.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Canadian Aboriginal youth have poorer diet quality and higher rates of overweight and obesity than the general population. This research aimed to assess the impact of simple food provision programs on the intakes of milk and alternatives among youth in Kashechewan and Attawapiskat First Nations (FNs), Ontario, Canada. Methods: A pilot…

  17. Religious Education in Government--Run Primary and Secondary Schools in Poland and Canada (Ontario and Quebec)--An International Focus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Teresa Ann; Butler, Norman L.; Kritsonis, Mary Alice; Kritsonis, William Allan; Herrington, David

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to compare the teaching of religion in government-run primary and secondary educational institutions in Poland and Canada (Ontario and Quebec). The theoretical framework for this work is supplied by the general idea that the school is an organization and social institution. It is concluded that religious instruction…

  18. Religious Education in Government-Run Primary and Secondary Schools in Poland and Canada (Ontario and Quebec)--An International Focus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Teresa Anne; Butler, Norman L.; Kritsonis, Mary Alice; Kritsonis, William Allan; Herrington, David

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this article is to compare the teaching of religion in government-run primary and secondary educational institutions in Poland and Canada (Ontario and Quebec). The theoretical framework for this work is supplied by the general idea that the school is an organization and social institution. It is concluded that religious instruction in…

  19. Impact of long term wetting on pore water chemistry in a peat bog in Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaper, Jonas; Blodau, Christian; Holger Knorr, Klaus

    2013-04-01

    Peatlands of the northern hemisphere store a remarkable amount of carbon but also contribute to global methane emissions. As large areas in the boreal and subarctic zone are considered to undergo significant climate change it is necessary to understand how these ecosystems react to altered environmental conditions. Since not only temperatures but also precipitation is likely to increase in these regions, it is of particular interest to understand the impact of raised water tables and changing local hydrological flow patterns on peatlands' carbon cycle. We chose a pristine bog that was partly flooded by a reservoir lake created 60 years ago in Ontario, Canada. Water management in the reservoir resulted in seasonal flooding, shifting hydrological flow patterns and vegetation gradients. The impact of partial flooding on pore water chemistry and DIC and CH4 concentrations were studied within surface peat layers. Samples were taken with pore water peepers along the vegetation- and flooding gradient. Turnover rates of DIC and methane were calculated from obtained concentration profiles and peat porosity under the assumption that transport is dominated by diffusion. Values of pH changed remarkably from 4 within the undisturbed bog part to almost 8 at the lake shore. Ca2+ and Mg2+ were the only ions that showed significant distribution patterns with readily increasing concentrations towards the lake water body. CH4 and DIC concentrations also increased towards the lake and peaked in around 100 cm depth right at the shore with maximum concentrations being 2766 μmol L-1 for CH4 and 7543 μmol L-1 for DIC, respectively. Turnover rates also increased towards the shore albeit some uncertainty lies in this finding as steady state condition required for calculations were probably not established and transport was not only dominated by diffusion. Maximum CH4 production rates were modeled to be 36 nmol cm-3 d-1 and maximum DIC production was calculated to 64 nmol cm-3 d-1. Ca2

  20. A melt inclusion study of the Sudbury Igneous Complex (Ontario, Canada): preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watts, Kathleen; Hanley, Jacob; Kontak, Daniel; Ames, Doreen

    2013-04-01

    The 1.85 Ga Sudbury Igneous Complex (SIC), Ontario, Canada, is an intrusive complex representing the crystallized melt sheet that formed within a large impact crater. The SIC has been extensively studied due to its rich endowment in magmatic sulfide ores (Ni-Cu-PGEs). The nature and origin of the SIC melt sheet and its subsequent evolution still remain controversial. In this study, analyses of primary melt inclusions hosted in cumulus apatite within three mafic units of the SIC (gabbro, norite and sublayer quartz diorite) are used to decipher the thermometric and chemical characteristics of the evolving melt sheet as it crystallized. Apatite-hosted melt inclusions commonly display a negative crystal shape, occur parallel to the c-axis, and often occur within a central growth zone, which suggest a primary origin. The compositions of coeval (co-entrapped) melt inclusions are distinct and may represent either the products of immiscibility (low or high temperature field; c.f. the Skaergaard Intrusion: Jakobsen et al., Geology, 2005), or a product of early, high-temperature, impact-generated emulsification (prior to and independent of crystallization of the melt sheet). The compositions of homogenized (1100-1200oC for 3 hrs) melt inclusions, determined by SEM-EDS and EMP analyses of opened, homogenized melt inclusions, equate to two distinct compositions: (1) Type-I are SiO2-rich, ranging from tonalitic to granodioritic in composition (60-70 wt% SiO2, up to 11 wt% FeO); and (2) Type-II are Fe-rich with syenogabbroic to essexitic to alkali gabbroic compositions (27-49 wt% SiO2, 16-44 wt% FeO). Trace element data, obtained by LA-ICPMS analyses of single inclusions and surrounding host apatite, are used to infer D values between apatite and the two melt types, and between the coexisting melt types. Apparent Dap-melt values for both Type-I and Type-II inclusions show that the REE, Sr, and Y are compatible in apatite, and As is weakly compatible or incompatible in apatite

  1. Assessments of the Value of Eighty Years of Formal and Practical Pharmacy Education in Ontario, Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muzzin, Linda J.; Hornosty, Roy W.

    1993-01-01

    A survey of 302 pharmacy school graduates from the University of Toronto College of Pharmacists (Ontario) investigated perceptions of the adequacy of formal and clinical training for the practice of pharmacy. Assessments varied depending on time of training. All ratings suggest room for improvement and the need for special attention to the quality…

  2. Chlorine-bearing amphiboles from the Fraser mine, Sudbury, Ontario, Canada: Description and crystal chemistry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCormick, K.A.; McDonald, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    Three chemically distinct populations of Cl-bearing amphibole have been recognized in association with contact Ni-Cu ore deposits in Footwall Breccia at the Fraser mine, Sudbury, Ontario. The first population, defined as halogen-poor (700 ppm) and F (2500 ppm). These rocks thus may have been a significant contributor to the fluids.

  3. Show & Tell. Proceedings of the Ontario Universities' Conference (1st, Guelph, Canada, May 1987).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrmann, Thom, Ed.

    Twenty-three conference papers focus on the use of information technology in Ontario's technical colleges and universities: "The Analytic Criticism Module--Authorial Structures & Design" (P. Beam); "Computing by Design" (R. D. Brown & J. D. Milliken); "Engineers and Computers" (P. S. Chisholm, M. Iwaniw, and…

  4. Youth Environmental Science Outreach in the Mushkegowuk Territory of Subarctic Ontario, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karagatzides, Jim D.; Kozlovic, Daniel R.; De Iuliis, Gerry; Liberda, Eric N.; General, Zachariah; Liedtke, Jeff; McCarthy, Daniel D.; Gomez, Natalya; Metatawabin, Daniel; Tsuji, Leonard J. S.

    2011-01-01

    We connected youth of the Mushkegowuk Territory (specifically Fort Albany First Nation) with environmental science and technology mentors in an outreach program contextualized to subarctic Ontario that addressed some of the environmental concerns identified by members of Fort Albany First Nation. Most activities were community-based centering on…

  5. Hospital Utilization among Persons with an Intellectual Disability, Ontario, Canada, 1995-2001

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balogh, Robert S.; Hunter, Duncan; Ouellette-Kuntz, Helene

    2005-01-01

    Background: It has been suggested that persons with an intellectual disability consume a disproportionate amount of hospital services. Policy changes in Ontario in the 1970s and 1980s made it necessary for community health services to accommodate this population that formerly received most of its medical care in the institutions where they lived.…

  6. Outbreak of type E foodborne botulism linked to traditionally prepared salted fish in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Walton, Ryan N; Clemens, Alexander; Chung, Jackson; Moore, Stephen; Wharton, Deborah; Haydu, Liz; de Villa, Eileen; Sanders, Greg; Bussey, Jeff; Richardson, David; Austin, John W

    2014-10-01

    On April 17, 2012, two adult females presented to the hospital with symptoms of botulism. Patient A displayed shortness of breath, increasing lethargy, ptosis, and fixed and dilated pupils, and was intubated after admission. Patient B presented with shortness of breath, vomiting, and stridor. Both patients consumed a meal consisting of a traditionally prepared salted fish, fesikh, on the evening of April 16 during a gathering to celebrate Sham el-Nessim, an Egyptian holiday marking the beginning of spring. Foodborne botulism was suspected based on symptoms and consumption of potentially hazardous food. Antitoxin was administered to both patients on April 18. Another attendee of the Sham el-Nessim gathering (patient C), who also consumed the implicated food, developed symptoms consistent with botulism on April 18. Clinical specimens from all three symptomatic attendees tested positive for either Clostridium botulinum or type E botulinum neurotoxin. Fesikh remaining from the shared meal contained both type E botulinum neurotoxin and C. botulinum type E organisms. Unsold fesikh shad and fesikh sardines tested positive for C. botulinum type E, while unsold fesikh mullet pieces in oil tested positive for both C. botulinum type E and type E botulinum neurotoxin. After consultation with public health investigators, all fesikh products were voluntarily withheld from sale by the manufacturer prior to laboratory confirmation of contamination. Additional illnesses were likely prevented by these precautionary holds, which underscores the importance of timely public health action based on epidemiological evidence available in advance of laboratory results. This is the first documented outbreak of foodborne botulism associated with fesikh to occur in Canada.

  7. Assessment of benzimidazole resistance in Haemonchus contortus in sheep flocks in Ontario, Canada: comparison of detection methods for drug resistance.

    PubMed

    Barrere, V; Falzon, L C; Shakya, K P; Menzies, P I; Peregrine, A S; Prichard, R K

    2013-11-15

    In 2011, a field study was conducted to assess drug resistance of gastro-intestinal nematodes in sheep flocks in Ontario, Canada. Benzimidazole resistance in Haemonchus contortus was assessed by genetic analysis of eggs; measurement of resistant allele percentages at codons 167, 198 and 200 in the β-tubulin gene was determined on pools of H. contortus eggs using pyrosequencing. Susceptibility to benzimidazoles in gastro-intestinal nematodes was also determined using a Faecal Egg Count Reduction Test (FECRT) and a Larval Development Assay (LDA). In total, 16 farms were assessed with the genetic test. Based on resistant allele frequencies, all of the farms (16/16) tested had benzimidazole resistance in H. contortus; the overall percentage of benzimidazole-resistant H. contortus (estimated prior to treatment using the Hardy-Weinberg formula) was 68.5%. The FECRT and LDA were performed on 11 and 13 farms, respectively. Resistance to fenbendazole was detected on 100% (11/11) of the farms where the FECRT was performed. The LDA revealed the presence of thiabendazole resistance in H. contortus in 92% (12/13) of the farms. Estimated percentages of resistant parasites in H. contortus populations obtained with the two biological tests and the genetic test were compared. The results of the genetic test were in agreement with the biological tests and confirmed that benzimidazole resistance in H. contortus is present in Ontario sheep flocks. Differences between the different methods of drug resistance detection are discussed in terms of cost, time and sampling.

  8. Substance Use, Health, and Functioning Characteristics of Medical Marijuana Program Participants Compared to the General Adult Population in Ontario (Canada).

    PubMed

    Fischer, Benedikt; Ialomiteanu, Anca R; Aeby, Samantha; Rudzinski, Katherine; Kurdyak, Paul; Rehm, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    Existent profiles of Medical Marijuana Program (MMP) participants indicate common and co-morbid chronic diseases, yet evidence on disability or functioning as well as comparisons with general populations are largely lacking. This study compared health, substance use, and functioning status among formally approved MMP participants with the general adult population in Ontario (Canada). A community-recruited sample (n = 53) of MMP participants was compared to a sub-sample (n = 510) of the representative Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH) Monitor (2015 cycle) survey of Ontario general population adults (ages 18+) based on identical telephone-based interviews regarding substance use, health, and functioning measures. Means and standard deviations for all indicators were computed by sex, controlled for age and education, and compared by regression techniques. MMP participants were more likely to be male, younger, and less socio-economically integrated; they indicated more common psychoactive substance (e.g., tobacco, daily cannabis) and psychotropic medication use, as well as overall worse physical and mental health and functioning status. Marked differences between MMP participants and general population adults were observed. MMPs appear to attract individuals with complex chronic health problems; however, little is known about the impact of MMP participation on these.

  9. Modelling phosphorus dynamics in multi-branch river systems: a study of the Black River, Lake Simcoe, Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, P G; Jin, L; Baulch, H M; Butterfield, D A; Oni, S K; Dillon, P J; Futter, M; Wade, A J; North, R; O'Connor, E M; Jarvie, H P

    2011-12-15

    High rates of nutrient loading from agricultural and urban development have resulted in surface water eutrophication and groundwater contamination in regions of Ontario. In Lake Simcoe (Ontario, Canada), anthropogenic nutrient contributions have contributed to increased algal growth, low hypolimnetic oxygen concentrations, and impaired fish reproduction. An ambitious programme has been initiated to reduce phosphorus loads to the lake, aiming to achieve at least a 40% reduction in phosphorus loads by 2045. Achievement of this target necessitates effective remediation strategies, which will rely upon an improved understanding of controls on nutrient export from tributaries of Lake Simcoe as well as improved understanding of the importance of phosphorus cycling within the lake. In this paper, we describe a new model structure for the integrated dynamic and process-based model INCA-P, which allows fully-distributed applications, suited to branched river networks. We demonstrate application of this model to the Black River, a tributary of Lake Simcoe, and use INCA-P to simulate the fluxes of P entering the lake system, apportion phosphorus among different sources in the catchment, and explore future scenarios of land-use change and nutrient management to identify high priority sites for implementation of watershed best management practises.

  10. State risk discourse and the regulatory preservation of traditional medicine knowledge: The case of acupuncture in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Ijaz, Nadine; Boon, Heather; Muzzin, Linda; Welsh, Sandy

    2016-12-01

    Several United Nations bodies have advised countries to actively preserve Traditional Medicine (TM) knowledge and prevent its misappropriation in regulatory structures. To help advance decision-making around this complex regulatory issue, we examine the relationship between risk discourse, epistemology and policy. This study presents a critical, postcolonial analysis of divergent risk discourses elaborated in two contrasting Ontario (Canada) government reports preceding that jurisdiction's regulation of acupuncture, the world's most widely practised TM therapy. The earlier (1996) report, produced when Ontario's regulatory lobby was largely comprised of Chinese medicine practitioners, presents a risk discourse inclusive of biomedical and TM knowledge claims, emphasizing the principle of regulatory 'equity' as well as historical and sociocultural considerations. Reflecting the interests of an increasingly biomedical practitioner lobby, the later (2001) report uses implicit discursive means to exclusively privilege Western scientific perspectives on risk. This report's policy recommendations, we argue, suggest misappropriation of TM knowledge. We advise regulators to consider equitable adaptations to existing policy structures, and to explicitly include TM evidentiary perspectives in their pre-regulatory assessments.

  11. Determinants of variation in food cost and availability in two socioeconomically contrasting neighbourhoods of Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Latham, Jim; Moffat, Tina

    2007-03-01

    This study addresses links between economic and nutritional variation in an urban North American setting. We employed a mixed-methods approach including mapping, semi-structured interviews, and food outlet surveys to investigate the public health impact of variation in the cost and availability of food between two socioeconomically distinct neighbourhoods of the City of Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. Food cost in supermarkets was not found to be higher in the low-income neighbourhood, though it was much higher in the variety stores that predominate in the low-income neighbourhood. Moreover, there was a very low availability of produce in the variety stores. Reduced fresh produce availability and lower incomes have the potential to negatively influence public health in the less-affluent study area by increasing the difficulty of acquiring healthy foods.

  12. Negotiating public and professional interests: a rhetorical analysis of the debate concerning the regulation of midwifery in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Spoel, Philippa; James, Susan

    2006-01-01

    This article investigates the uneasy process of integrating midwifery's alternative, women-centered model of childbirth care within the medically-dominated healthcare system in Canada. It analyses the impure processes of rhetorical identification and differentiation that characterized the debate about how to regulate midwifery in Ontario by examining a selection of submissions from diverse health care groups with vested interest in the debate's outcome. In divergent ways, these groups strategically appeal to the value of the "public interest" in order to advance professional concerns. The study considers the implications of this rhetorical process for re-defining midwifery's distinctive professional identity in relation to other health professions, to the state, and to the women for whom midwives care. Likewise, it suggests the relevance of rhetorical analysis for understanding the discursive formation and re-formation of health models, values, and professions in Western culture.

  13. Temporal and spatial trends of mercury in fish collected in the English-Wabigoon river system in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Kinghorn, April; Solomon, Patricia; Chan, Hing Man

    2007-01-01

    The First Nations communities of Grassy Narrows and Wabaseemong (Ontario, Canada) have been impacted by mercury pollution since the 1960s. This study was implemented with the objective of providing these communities with information on current mercury concentrations in their catch, in order to make appropriate fish consumption choices. A total of 851 fish samples, including Walleye, Northern Pike, Large-mouth Bass, and Whitefish, were collected from thirteen lakes and rivers. Total mercury was measured and the relationship between fish length, mercury concentration, and lake of origin were assessed. It was found that fish from most of the lakes exhibit a positive relationship between length and mercury accumulation. Mercury concentrations in fish collected from Clay Lake, closest to the original source of contamination, are higher than those from other lakes. Mercury concentrations have declined over the last 25 years but the gradient of contamination was still observed. Results were communicated to the communities for public health purposes.

  14. Road-impacted sediment and water in a Lake Ontario watershed and lagoon, City of Pickering, Ontario, Canada: An example of urban basin analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eyles, Nick; Meriano, Mandana

    2010-03-01

    The world is increasingly urban but there are few studies of how contaminated water and sediment move through urban basins with their built landscapes and complexly disturbed geology. The central Canadian city of Pickering, Ontario sprawls across a small (27 km 2) densely urbanized (pop: 53,000) watershed and is underlain by Pleistocene glacial sediments and thick artificial fill deposits. Almost 80% of the area is hardened by impervious cover; road and rail lines cover 40% and include Canada's busiest highway (12-lane Highway 401: 177,000 vehicles per day in 2003). The basin discharges to Lake Ontario through a small (85 ha) shallow (< 3.5 m) lagoon (Frenchman's Bay). A 3-D steady state finite element groundwater numerical model (FEFLOW) was applied to 200 cored and geophysically-logged (gamma and resistivity) boreholes and 3400 digital water wells. It identifies the subsurface stratigraphy and hydrostratigraphic function of deposits and the rates of groundwater flow. Year-round monitoring of groundwater, creek and lagoon water quality shows that transportation infrastructure is the primary source of contaminated water and sediment. Some 7600 tonnes of de-icing salt are applied to watershed roads each year; 52% accumulates in groundwater where it continues to be released as brackish baseflow to creeks in summer. The remainder is rapidly delivered by surface runoff to Frenchman's Bay where chloride contents are more than double the average values in waters across the Great Lakes. Highway 401 is the largest single source of salt contamination to the lagoon; it receives 26% of all road salt applied to the watershed but covers just 1.3% of its area. Prominent spikes in chloride content (> 2000 mg L - 1 ) occur during winter thaws in creeks downstream of the highway. Enhanced stream bank erosion as a consequence of flashy storm runoff from road surfaces moves ˜ 100 tonnes of contaminated sediment to Frenchman's Bay each year. Instantaneous suspended sediment

  15. Network analysis of swine shipments in Ontario, Canada, to support disease spread modelling and risk-based disease management.

    PubMed

    Dorjee, S; Revie, C W; Poljak, Z; McNab, W B; Sanchez, J

    2013-10-01

    Understanding contact networks are important for modelling and managing the spread and control of communicable diseases in populations. This study characterizes the swine shipment network of a multi-site production system in southwestern Ontario, Canada. Data were extracted from a company's database listing swine shipments among 251 swine farms, including 20 sow, 69 nursery and 162 finishing farms, for the 2-year period of 2006 to 2007. Several network metrics were generated. The number of shipments per week between pairs of farms ranged from 1 to 6. The medians (and ranges) of out-degree were: sow 6 (1-21), nursery 8 (0-25), and finishing 0 (0-4), over the entire 2-year study period. Corresponding estimates for in-degree of nursery and finishing farms were 3 (0-9) and 3 (0-12) respectively. Outgoing and incoming infection chains (OIC and IIC), were also measured. The medians (ranges) of the monthly OIC and IIC were 0 (0-8) and 0 (0-6), respectively, with very similar measures observed for 2-week intervals. Nursery farms exhibited high measures of centrality. This indicates that they pose greater risks of disease spread in the network. Therefore, they should be given a high priority for disease prevention and control measures affecting all age groups alike. The network demonstrated scale-free and small-world topologies as observed in other livestock shipment studies. This heterogeneity in contacts among farm types and network topologies should be incorporated in simulation models to improve their validity. In conclusion, this study provided useful epidemiological information and parameters for the control and modelling of disease spread among swine farms, for the first time from Ontario, Canada.

  16. Practices for the disbudding and dehorning of dairy calves by veterinarians and dairy producers in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Winder, Charlotte B; LeBlanc, Stephen J; Haley, Derek B; Lissemore, Kerry D; Godkin, M Ann; Duffield, Todd F

    2016-12-01

    Disbudding and dehorning dairy calves is very common, despite the introduction of polled genetics to most dairy breeds. Appropriate pain-control practices for these procedures affect both calf welfare and public perception of the dairy industry. Previously published work has shown that North American dairy producers have not widely adopted use of these medications for disbudding or dehorning. However, since the last published work examining these practices in Canada, changes regarding awareness, availability, and future requirements for pain control have occurred in the industry. With this in mind, online and telephone surveys of both veterinarians (n=238) and dairy producers (n=603) in Ontario, Canada, were conducted in the fall of 2014 with a goal of describing current disbudding and dehorning practices and examining factors associated with the adoption of pain control use. Approximately three-quarters of dairy producers reported performing disbudding or dehorning themselves, whereas the remainder used a veterinarian or technician. Almost all (97%) of the veterinarians surveyed reported using local anesthetic, 62% used sedation, and 48% used a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. Producer use of local anesthetic was 62%, 38% used sedation and 24% used a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. Seventy-eight percent of veterinarian disbudding or dehorning was done before 8wk of age, whereas 64% of dairy producers performed this procedure before 8wk of age. Seventy-two percent of veterinarians and 63% of producers reported changing their disbudding or dehorning practices over the past 10 yr; of producers that changed their practices, 73% cited their herd veterinarian as influential. The use of pain control described in these surveys is higher than previously reported in Ontario. Identification of factors associated with best practices, or the lack of adoption of these practices, may help veterinarians target appropriate educational opportunities for their dairy clients.

  17. Implementation and Operational Research: Engagement in HIV Care Among Persons Enrolled in a Clinical HIV Cohort in Ontario, Canada, 2001–2011

    PubMed Central

    Burchell, Ann N.; Gardner, Sandra; Light, Lucia; Ellis, Brooke M.; Antoniou, Tony; Bacon, Jean; Benoit, Anita; Cooper, Curtis; Kendall, Claire; Loutfy, Mona; McGee, Frank; Raboud, Janet; Rachlis, Anita; Wobeser, Wendy; Rourke, Sean B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Ensuring that people living with HIV are accessing and staying in care is vital to achieving optimal health outcomes including antiretroviral therapy (ART) success. We sought to characterize engagement in HIV care among participants of a large clinical cohort in Ontario, Canada, from 2001 to 2011. Methods: The Ontario HIV Treatment Network Cohort Study (OCS) is a multisite HIV clinical cohort, which conducts record linkage with the provincial public health laboratory for viral load tests. We estimated the annual proportion meeting criteria for being in care (≥1 viral load per year), in continuous care (≥2 viral load per year ≥90 days apart), on ART, and with suppressed viral load <200 copies per milliliter. Ratios of proportions according to socio-demographic and clinical characteristics were examined using multivariable generalized estimating equations with a log-link. Results: A total of 5380 participants were followed over 44,680 person-years. From 2001 to 2011, we observed high and constant proportions of patients in HIV care (86.3%–88.8%) and in continuous care (76.4%–79.5%). There were statistically significant rises over time in the proportions on ART and with suppressed viral load; by 2011, a majority of patients were on ART (77.3%) and had viral suppression (76.2%). There was minimal variation in HIV engagement indicators by socio-demographic and HIV risk characteristics. Conclusions: In a setting with universal health care, we observed high proportions of HIV care engagement over time and an increased proportion of patients attaining successful virologic suppression, likely due to improvements in ART regimens and changing guidelines. PMID:26322672

  18. Microstructural analysis of calcite-filled fractures inherited from basement structures, southern Ontario, Canada: long term instability of the craton?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spalding, Jennifer; Schneider, David

    2016-04-01

    Intra-cratonic regions are generally characterized by tectonic stability and low seismicity. In southern Ontario, Canada, moderate levels of seismicity have been recorded over the last few decades reaching magnitudes of 5 MN, indicating that the geosphere is not as stable as predicted. The stratigraphy of the region consists of Ordovician limestone with a thickness of ~200 m that unconformably overlays the Mesoproterozoic crystalline Grenville Province. Subsequent tectonism including repeated Paleozoic orogenies and rifting along the east coast of North America has reactivated Proterozoic structures that have propagated into the overlying carbonate platform forming mesoscopic-scale brittle structures. Exposed along the shores of Lake Ontario are decameter-scale fracture zones, with a fracture spacing of 0.5 to 10 meters. The dominant fracture set trends E-W, and often forms conjugate sets with less prominent NNE-oriented fractures. More locally, an older NW-oriented fracture set is cross cut by the E-W and NNE oriented fractures. Regionally, there have been six directions of maximum horizontal stress in southern Ontario since the Precambrian, with the current orientation of maximum stress oriented ENE as a consequence of far field Atlantic ridge-push forces generated at distant plate boundaries. Calcite mineralization along fractured surfaces locally form sub-horizontal slickenside fabrics which are covered by a layer of euhedral calcite crystals, suggesting that fracture dilation (and fluid flow) occurred after fracture slip to allow the growth of calcite crystals. Due to the proximity of the carbonate units to the crystalline basement, we expect the calcitic veins to be enriched in rare earth elements and are presently conducting geochemical analyses. The calcite veins and surfaces vary from 2.5 cm to 1 mm thicknesses, often with larger calcite crystals in the center of the vein and smaller crystals at the vein boundaries, likely representing nucleation on small

  19. Reported municipal costs from outdoor smoke-free by-laws-experience from Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In 2006, enclosed public and workplaces in Ontario were made smoke-free by the Smoke-free Ontario Act (SFOA). Numerous area municipalities across the province have since developed local by-laws that are more restrictive than the SFOA and ban smoking in outdoor environments including parks, beaches, and patios. The current study measured reported costs associated with the implementation and enforcement of smoke-free outdoor municipal by-laws including materials and staffing costs. The study also assessed the number of warnings or tickets issued to smokers. Ontario communities with a by-law in force for at least 2 years were included in the sample (n = 42). The study was completed by 88% of area municipalities (n = 37). Municipal staff and managers completed a survey by telephone between June-September 2012. Findings No area municipality surveyed reported that they hired additional enforcement staff as a result of their community’s smoke-free by-law. Most municipalities (95%) posted signage to support awareness of their by-law; signs costs ranged from $40-$150/sign with most municipalities reporting signs were made in-house. Most communities reported actively enforcing the by-law; six communities reported they had issued tickets to people not in compliance with outdoor smoking restrictions. Conclusions The implementation, promotion, and enforcement of outdoor smoke-free by-laws have required municipal staff time and in most cases have promotional costs, but these have come from existing budgets and using existing staff. Outdoor smoke-free by-laws have not created significant burdens on municipal enforcement staff or on municipal budgets. PMID:24581326

  20. Carbon isotopic composition of deep carbon gases in an ombrogenous peatland, northwestern Ontario, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Aravena, R. . Center for Groundwater Research and Wetlands Research Center); Warner, B.G. . Wetlands Research Center and Dept. of Geography); Charman, D.J. . Dept. of Geographical Sciences); Belyea, L.R. . School of Biological Sciences); Mathur, S.P. ); Dinel, H. )

    1993-01-01

    Radiocarbon dating and carbon isotope analyses of deep peat and gases in a small ombrogenous peatland in northwestern Ontario reveals the presence of old gases at depth that are 1000-2000 yr younger than the enclosing peat. The authors suggest that the most likely explanation to account for this age discrepancy is the downward movement by advection of younger dissolved organic carbon for use by fermentation and methanogens bacteria. This study identifies a potentially large supply of old carbon gases in peatlands that should be considered in global carbon models of the terrestrial biosphere.

  1. A study on the levels of radioactivity in fish samples from the experimental lakes area in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Rennie, Michael D; Sadi, Baki; Zhang, Weihua; St-Amant, Nadereh

    2016-03-01

    To better understand background radiation levels in country foods, a total of 125 fish samples were collected from three lakes (Lake 226, Lake 302 and Lake 305) in the Experimental Lakes Area (ELA) in Ontario of Canada during the summer of 2014. Concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides ((226)Ra, (210)Pb and (210)Po) as well as anthropogenic radionuclides ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) were measured. This study confirmed that (210)Po is the dominant contributor to radiation doses resulting from fish consumption. While concentrations of (210)Pb and (226)Ra were below conventional detection limits, (210)Po was measured in almost all fish samples collected from the ELA. The average concentration was about 1.5 Bq/kg fresh weight (fw). None of the fish samples analysed in this study contained any detectable levels of (134)Cs. An average (137)Cs level of 6.1 Bq/kg fw was observed in freshwater fishes harvested in the ELA, almost twice that of samples measured in the National Capital Region of Canada in 2014 and more than 20 times higher than the levels observed in marine fish harvested from the Canadian west coast in 2013 and 2014. However, it is important to note that the concentrations of (137)Cs in fish samples from these inland lakes are considered very low from a radiological protection perspective. The resulting radiation dose for people from fish consumption would be a very small fraction of the annual dose from exposure to natural background radiation in Canada. The results indicate that fishes from inland lakes do not pose a radiological health concern.

  2. BIOLOGY OF THE LEECH ACTINOBDELLA INEQUIANNULATA MOORE, 1901 (ANNELIDA: HIRUDINEA: RHYNCHOBDELLIDA: GLOSSIPHONIIDAE), PARASITIC ON THE WHITE SUCKER, CATOSTOMUS COMMERSONI LACEPEDE, 1803 AND THE LONGNOSE SUCKER, CATOSTOMUS CATOSTOMUS FORSTER, 1773, IN ALGONQUIN PROVINCIAL PARK, ONTARIO, CANADA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Actinobdella inequiannulata was found on the white sucker, Catostomus commersoni, and less frequently on the longnose sucker, Catostomus catostomus, in Algonquin Provincial Park, Ontario, Canada. Catostomus commersoni parasitized with Act. inequiannulata was collected from July ...

  3. Lead in the tissues of terrestrial raptors in southern Ontario, Canada, 1995-2001.

    PubMed

    Martin, Pamela A; Campbell, Douglas; Hughes, Kimberley; McDaniel, Tana

    2008-02-25

    Terrestrial raptors which feed on upland hunted game species may increase their risk to lead exposure and lead poisoning by ingesting lead shot found in the tissues of prey. Lead exposure in 225 individuals of nineteen species of terrestrial raptors, collected as carcasses in southern Ontario from 1995-2001, was examined through the analysis of bone, liver and kidney tissues. In this study, one red-tailed hawk contained liver lead concentrations and exhibited signs consistent with lead poisoning. Liver and kidney concentrations of one turkey vulture were also significantly higher than that associated with subclinical effects. This same bird, plus another turkey vulture and a northern harrier, had elevated bone lead concentrations (>10 microg/g dw) associated with possible toxicity. Turkey vultures had the highest mean concentrations of lead in bone and kidney compared to other raptor species. While it appeared only a single bird suffered acute lead poisoning, lead levels exceeded threshold concentrations associated with subclinical or acute toxicity in 4 of 225, almost 2%, of terrestrial raptors assessed. Given the association between lead exposure in raptors and hunting of game species reported in other studies, the continued use of lead shot for upland hunting in Ontario likely remains as one of the primary sources of lead and a continued risk to these birds of prey.

  4. Experience, training and confidence among small, non-community drinking water system operators in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Pons, Wendy; McEwen, Scott A; Pintar, Katarina; Jones-Bitton, Andria; Young, Ian; Papadopoulos, Andrew

    2014-12-01

    The water operator plays an important role in water safety; however, little published research exists that has examined this role. The purpose of this study was to develop a greater understanding of the experience, existing knowledge, confidence and future training needs of the small, non-community drinking water operator in Ontario in order to help guide future outreach and training opportunities. A cross-sectional telephone survey of 332 small, non-community drinking water operators in Ontario was conducted in July and August 2011. Survey questions pertained to respondents' experience as operators, formal training, perceived importance of water safety issues, confidence in handling water safety issues, and future training needs. Approximately 16% (54/330) of respondents had one year or less experience as a water operator, and 60% (199/332) reported that being a water operator was not a chosen profession. Only 37% (124/332) of operators reported completing operator training. Respondents reported a preference for online training courses or on-site training (compared with a classroom setting). Low training rates, inexperience, and in certain situations, low confidence, among many small water system operators highlight a need to provide continued support to the development of ongoing training opportunities in this population.

  5. Monitoring wood shaving litter and animal products for polychlorophenols residues, Ontario, Canada 1978-1986

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, R.; Stonefield, K.I.; Luyken, H.

    1988-03-01

    Timber is extensively treated with the wood preservative pesticides collectively called the polychlorophenols (PxCP) which include tri-(T3CP), tetra-(T4CP), and pentachlorophenol (P5CP). These treatments are intended to protect lumber against the attacks of wood eating or boring insects and the wood decaying and staining fungi. Wood shavings are a by-product of the lumber industry that have been utilized widely in agriculture for many years as a major bedding litter for poultry, swine, and cattle and a minor litter for other domestic animals. Complaints were lodged within the Province of Ontario of off-flavors in locally produced poultry meat. Many local poultry producers reported having difficulties with (1) the fertility of their breeding flocks and (2) the ineffectiveness of vaccines among poultry raised on wood shavings but which disappeared when raised on cereal straw. An Ontario Ministry of Agriculture and Food service was offered whereby producers could have their wood shavings analyzed and receive guidance on the advisability of use. This paper reports on this service started in 1978 for wood shavings, and on a follow-up monitoring program to determine residues of PxCP in domestic animal products.

  6. Hidden plastics of Lake Ontario, Canada and their potential preservation in the sediment record.

    PubMed

    Corcoran, Patricia L; Norris, Todd; Ceccanese, Trevor; Walzak, Mary Jane; Helm, Paul A; Marvin, Chris H

    2015-09-01

    Microplastics are a source of environmental pollution resulting from degradation of plastic products and spillage of resin pellets. We report the amounts of microplastics from various sites of Lake Ontario and evaluate their potential for preservation in the sediment record. A total of 4635 pellets were sampled from the Humber Bay shoreline on three sampling dates. Pellet colours were similar to those from the Humber River bank, suggesting that the river is a pathway for plastics transport into Lake Ontario. Once in the lake, high density microplastics, including mineral-polyethylene and mineral-polypropylene mixtures, sink to the bottom. The minerals may be fillers that were combined with plastics during production, or may have adsorbed to the surfaces of the polymers in the water column or on the lake bottom. Based on sediment depths and accumulation rates, microplastics have accumulated in the offshore region for less than 38 years. Their burial increases the chance of microplastics preservation. Shoreline pellets may not be preserved because they are mingled with organic debris that is reworked during storm events.

  7. Mercury exposure in breeding common loons (Gavia immer) in central Ontario, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Scheuhammer, A.M.; Evers, D.C.; Atchison, C.M.; Wong, A.H.K.

    1998-02-01

    Total Hg concentrations were determined in blood and feather samples of breeding common loons (Gavia immer) and their chicks from 24 lakes in Ontario with a range of water chemistry and fish Hg concentrations. In paired comparisons, males had significantly higher blood and feather concentrations than their female mates. Sex differences in Hg concentrations were attributable to size differences between the two sexes and to the possible transfer of Hg to eggs by females during egg-laying. Significantly higher blood and feather Hg concentrations were found in adult loons compared to their chicks. Adult blood Hg concentrations were significantly correlated with those of their chicks. Adult blood concentrations averaged about 13 times those of corresponding chicks. Both adult and chick blood Hg concentrations were positively correlated with fish Hg concentrations, indicating that adult loons in central Ontario, like their chicks, probably feed mainly on their breeding lakes and reflect the fish Hg concentrations of those lakes. Three of 24 lakes had 20- to 50-g fish with Hg concentrations at or exceeding the critical concentration reported to cause reproductive impairment in loons. Monitoring Hg in blood (adult and chick) and feathers (chicks only) is useful for assessing the local bioavailability of methylmercury and the degree of current dietary Hg exposure in loons and other piscivorous birds.

  8. Factors influencing the occurrence and distribution of neonicotinoid insecticides in surface waters of southern Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Struger, John; Grabuski, Josey; Cagampan, Steve; Sverko, Ed; McGoldrick, Daryl; Marvin, Christopher H

    2017-02-01

    The widespread use of neonicotinoid insecticides and recent increased regulatory scrutiny requires the generation of monitoring data with sufficient scope and resolution to provide decision makers with a better understanding of occurrence and distribution in the environment. This study presents a wide-scale investigation of neonicotinoid insecticides used across the range of agricultural activities from fifteen surface water sites in southern Ontario. Using statistical analysis, the correlation of individual compounds with land use was investigated, and the relationship between neonicotinoid occurrence and hydrologic parameters in calibrated water courses was also assessed. Of the five neonicotinoids studied, imidacloprid, clothianidin and thiamethoxam exhibited detection rates above 90% at over half the sites sampled over a three year period (2012-2014). At two sites in southwestern Ontario, the Canadian Federal freshwater guideline value for imidacloprid (230 ng/L) was exceeded in roughly 75% of the samples collected. For some watersheds, there were correlations between the occurrence of neonicotinoids and precipitation and/or stream discharge. Some watersheds exhibited seasonal maxima in concentrations of neonicotinoids in spring and fall, particularly for those areas where row crop agriculture is predominant; these seasonal patterns were absent in some areas characterized by a broad range of agricultural activities.

  9. Reduced metals concentrations of water, sediment and hyalella azteca from lakes in the vicinity of the sudbury metal smelters, Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Shuhaimi-Othman, M; Pascoe, D; Borgmann, U; Norwood, W P

    2006-06-01

    Hyalella azteca (Crustacea: Amphipoda), water and sediments from 12 circum-neutral lakes between Sudbury and North Bay in Ontario, Canada were sampled in August 1998 and analyzed for 10 metals including Cu, Zn, Cd, Ni, Pb, Co, Mo, V, Ba and Ti. Statistical analyses showed that concentrations of the metals in H. azteca, water and sediment differed significantly (ANOVA, P<0.05) among lakes (except for Zn and Pb in H. azteca and Mo in water). There was a trend of declining metal concentration, especially for Cu, Ni and Co (in water, Hyalella and sediment), with distance from the smelters indicating the reduced impact of atmospheric pollution. Metal concentrations of lakes (water) in the Sudbury area were found to be lower compared to data from the 1970s and 1980s indicating an improvement in water quality. Metal concentrations in field-collected amphipods compared favorably with those measured in the laboratory in animals exposed to deep-water sediments, provided metal concentrations were not extremely low (e.g., Pb) and that water chemistry differences (e.g., pH) were taken into account for some metals (especially Cd). In general bioaccumulation of metals in H. azteca was predicted better from surface water than from sediment total metal.

  10. Modeling Phosphorus Dynamics in Multi-branched River and Lake Systems in the Lake Simcoe Catchment, Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, L.; Whitehead, P. G.; Baulch, H. M.; Butterfield, D.; Crossman, J.; Dillon, P.; Oni, S. K.; Futter, M.; O'Connor, E.

    2011-12-01

    Nutrient enrichment has long been recognized as a major cause of impaired water quality. In southern Ontario, Canada, high rates of agricultural and urban nutrient loading, particularly phosphorus (P), have contributed to serious problems of surface water eutrophication and groundwater contamination. In Lake Simcoe, the second largest lake in southern Ontario, anthropogenic nutrients have contributed to increased algal growth, low hypolimnetic oxygen concentrations and impaired fish reproduction. Even though efforts in recent years have reduced P loads to the lake and led to improved water quality, the improvement is not yet sufficient and continuing efforts are required. An ambitious water quality management program has been initiated to reduce phosphorus loads by 40% to the lake by 2045. Increasing population growth within the catchment, superimposed on increased climate variability and future climate change may make this P load reduction even more challenging to achieve. The main P sources to Lake Simcoe are tributaries and atmospheric deposition. Because atmospheric inputs are difficult to control, a significant focus must be on reducing loading from the tributaries of Lake Simcoe. To improve the understanding of the phosphorus delivery, storage and transport within the Lake Simcoe catchment, a new version of integrated catchment phosphorus model (INCA-P) with the full-branched river network has been applied to the Black River, a tributary of Lake Simcoe. The model simulates the fluxes of P entering the lake and apportions P among different sources in the catchment. The model can be used independently to explore impacts of increased sewage loads due to population growth, land use change, climate change as well as to assess different management practices and remediation strategies. The multi-branched nature of the new version of the model enables concurrent modelling of all tributaries (>20), which will facilitate large-scale assessment of growth and climate

  11. Detecting the transport of toxic pesticides from golf courses into watersheds in the Precambrian Shield region of Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Metcalfe, Tracy L; Dillon, Peter J; Metcalfe, Chris D

    2008-04-01

    Golf courses impact the environment through alterations to habitat and through the release of nutrients and pesticides. The Precambrian Shield region of central Ontario, Canada, which is a major recreational area, is especially susceptible to the impacts of golf courses as a result of the geology and hydrology of the region. In a monitoring program at two golf courses in the Muskoka region conducted during the spring, summer, and fall of 2002, semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were deployed into streams that drain the golf courses. The extracts from the SPMDs were tested for toxicity using bioassays with early life stages of an aquarium fish, the Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes). Toxicity was assessed using a scoring system developed for the present study. The bioassays with medaka indicated that toxicity was highest in extracts from SPMDs deployed during the spring and the fall. The peaks in toxicity for the SPMDs deployed at the two golf courses corresponded with the presence in the SPMD extracts of pentachloronitrobenzene (PCNB) at concentrations up to 334 ng/SPMD. Quintozene is the turfgrass fungicide in which PCNB is the active ingredient. Pentachlorothioanisole, an anaerobic degradation product of PCNB, also was detected in the SPMDs deployed during the spring. Extracts prepared from SPMDs with high toxicity contained residues of a surfactant used in pesticide formulations, nonylphenol, at concentrations up to approximately 20 microg/SPMD. Overall, these data indicate that some pesticides applied to golf courses in the Precambrian Shield of central Ontario may have the potential to cause toxic impacts to aquatic organisms in adjacent watersheds.

  12. Laboratory medicine in Ontario: its downsizing and the consequences on quality.

    PubMed

    Richardson, H

    1999-12-01

    Health care in Ontario consumes 35% of provincial government annual revenues. Fiscal constraint mandates restructuring of health services to maintain a fully, publicly-funded universally-accessible health system that is patient-focussed and health-outcome driven. Acute-care hospital restructuring under the authority of the Health Services Restructuring Commission and primary health-care reform characterise present government initiatives. Laboratory medicine services at about Can $1 billion annually account for about 5% of health expenditure. A Laboratory Services Restructuring Secretariat created by the Ministry of Health in 1995 has planned regionally-based integrated laboratory services systems bringing together public and private providers, designed a province-wide laboratory information system, developed a quality management program, reviewed the human resource needs for laboratory physicians, scientists and technologists, and recommended that the legislation be rewritten so as to be enabling - not controlling. Meanwhile both hospital and private laboratories have closed, leaving 296 in 1998 compared to 394 in 1991. Laboratory physician numbers at 39 per million population falls far short of the recommended target of 52 and many are within 10 years of retirement. Renewal of laboratory physicians and scientists to meet the shortfall is not occurring. The numbers of registered laboratory technologists has fallen by 6. 8% over 2 years. Consolidation and downsizing of laboratories with the formation of core laboratories has resulted in multi-discipline and cross discipline tasking of specialist technologists. Senior and middle level management technologists have been declared redundant. As a consequence, quality control practices have been hard hit. Plans to address these deficiencies through regional integration and sharing of resources remain to be implemented.

  13. Changing epidemiology of invasive Haemophilus influenzae in Ontario, Canada: evidence for herd effects and strain replacement due to Hib vaccination.

    PubMed

    Adam, H J; Richardson, S E; Jamieson, F B; Rawte, P; Low, D E; Fisman, D N

    2010-05-28

    The epidemiology of invasive Haemophilus influenzae infections was evaluated in Ontario between 1989 and 2007 to assess the impact of the introduction of the conjugate H. influenzae serotype b (Hib) vaccine in the early 1990 s on Hib and non-Hib serotypes in both vaccinated and unvaccinated cohorts as well as the possibility of "strain replacement" with non-vaccine H. influenzae strains. Data were collected by the provincial Public Health Laboratories-Toronto, Ontario Agency for Health Protection and Promotion, which performed almost all serotyping on invasive (blood, CSF, other sterile sites) H. influenzae strains isolated in the province during the study period. Temporal trends for Hib, other typeable strains, and non-typeable H. influenzae were evaluated by Poisson regression, controlling for the specimen submissions. Prior to infant Hib vaccination, the most commonly observed serotype was serotype b (64.9%). Subsequently, 70.3%, 13.6%, and 9.4% of isolates were non-typeable, serotype f, and serotype b, respectively. Infant Hib vaccination resulted in a decrease in Hib incidence in all age groups (pooled IRR 0.432) and marked increases of non-typeable and serotype f H. influenzae in children aged <5 years (IRR 2.4 and 3.0, respectively). Vaccination against Hib has altered the epidemiology of invasive H. influenzae infections in Ontario. Prevention of invasive Hib disease was observed in both vaccinated and unvaccinated age groups. Invasive H. influenzae infection now commonly presents as sepsis due to non-typeable H. influenzae in older individuals. However, strain replacement of Hib with serotype f and non-typeable strains in children under 5 years was documented.

  14. Demographic and clinical factors correlating with high levels of psychological distress in HIV-positive women living in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Benoit, Anita C; Light, Lucia; Burchell, Ann N; Gardner, Sandra; Rourke, Sean B; Wobeser, Wendy; Loutfy, Mona R

    2014-01-01

    The concept of psychological distress includes a range of emotional states with symptoms of depression and anxiety and has yet to be reported in HIV-positive women living in Ontario, Canada, who are known to live with contributing factors. This study aimed to determine the prevalence, severity, and correlates of psychological distress among women accessing HIV care participating in the Ontario HIV Treatment Network Cohort Study using the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10). The K10 is a 10-item, five-level response scale. K10 values range from 10 to 50 with values less than or equal to 19 categorized as not clinically significant, scores between 20 and 24 as moderate levels, 25-29 as high, and 30-50 as very high psychological distress. Correlates of psychological distress were assessed using the Pearson's chi-square test and univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. Moderate, high, and very high levels of psychological distress were experienced by 16.9, 10.4, and 15.1% of the 337 women in our cohort, respectively, with 57.6% reporting none. Psychological distress levels greater than 19, correlated with being unemployed (vs. employed/student/retired; AOR = 0.33, 95% CI: 0.13-0.83), living in a household without their child/children (AOR = 2.45, 95% CI: 1.33-4.52), CD4 counts < 200 cells/mm(3) (AOR = 2.07, 95% CI: 0.89-4.80), and to a lesser degree an education of some college or less (vs. completed college or higher; AOR=1.71, 95% CI: 0.99-2.95). Age and ethnicity, a priori variables of interest, did not correlate with psychological distress. Findings suggest that socioeconomic factors which shape the demography of women living with HIV in Ontario, low CD4 counts, and losing the opportunity to care for their child/children has a significant relationship with psychological distress. Approaches to manage psychological distress should address and make considerations for the lived experiences of women since they can act as potential barriers to

  15. First report of QoI insensitive Cercospora beticola on sugarbeet in Ontario, Canada

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cercospora beticola causes Cercospora leaf spot (CLS) of sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris) and is the most destructive foliar disease of sugarbeet worldwide. The QoI fungicide pyraclostrobin has been an important management tool for CLS in Canada since 2003. Beginning in 2010 some growers reported unsatisf...

  16. Report on the Directory of Library Collections in Ethnocultural Organizations in Canada: Ontario.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aliferis, Isabella; Wierucki, Karen

    This report discusses the methodology, problems, follow-up procedures, recommendations, and benefits involved in the compilation of a directory which will identify library collections held by ethnocultural clubs, federations, organizations, community centers, and language schools in Canada. Appendices contain samples of a form letter,…

  17. Canadian Distance Educators Meeting (Sudbury, Ontario, Canada, July 8-9, 1991).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commonwealth of Learning, Vancouver (British Columbia).

    The Commonwealth of Learning (COL), in cooperation with Laurentian University, convened a 2-day meeting of some 30 Canadian educators to ascertain through discussion and dialogue how best and to what purposes COL might cooperate with institutions and associations involved in distance education in Canada. This report summarizes six presentations…

  18. Reading the Urban Landscape: The Case of a Campus Tour at York University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bardekjian, Adrina; Classens, Michael; Sandberg, L. Anders

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a campus tour assignment in a first-year undergraduate environmental studies course at York University, Toronto, Canada. As a pedagogical tool, the assignment enables students to interrogate the dominant narratives of a university's immediate physical spaces and to apply broader theoretical and practical concepts to their…

  19. Lake sediment records of industrialization in the Sudbury area of Ontario, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Huhn, F.J.

    1985-01-01

    The smelting of nickel and copper sulfide ores has drastically modified the original landscape around Sudbury, Ontario. A record of this impact exists in the sediments of local lakes. Changes in the annual fallout of heavy metals, identifiable smoke particulates, and pollen grains reflect the changes that occurred in the sedimentation rate and the vegetation. A year by year chronology for the last 300 years was provided by meromictic lake sediments containing countable seasonal laminations, obtained by a freezing technique that kept the sediments and sediment/water interface undisturbed. Results indicate that: correspondences of vegetation changes, and sedimentation rates with metal residues and smoke particulates in the sediments, and with published smelter records are good; annual laminations in meromictic lakes provided an excellent chronology, as checked against known dates for settlement and the onset of smelting; identifiable smoke particulates provided a good record of smelter activity, and were also a check on metal residue mobility in the sediments.

  20. SO2 damage to forests recorded by ERTS-1. [Ontario, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murtha, P. A.

    1974-01-01

    Sulfur dioxide fumes have been affecting the forests around Wawa, Ontario, which have been under surveillance for a number of years and were recently covered by ultra-small-scale (1:160,000) air photography for damage-assessment purposes. Image interpretation supported by electronic color enhancement was used to delineate on ERTS imagery three damage zones (total-kill, heavy-kill and medium-damage zones). The zones delineated on ERTS imagery are similar to the results of aerial sketch-mapping and air photo interpretation. Band 5 provided the greatest detail for assessing the damage to the forests, followed in successive order by bands 4, 6 and 7. Comparison with ERTS images obtained in the winter showed that even though the total-kill could be separated from heavy-kill damage zones, total-kill could not be consistently separated from clear-cut logging, burned areas, frozen lakes and bogs.

  1. Floodplain management: Land acquisition versus preservation of historic buildings in Cambridge, Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Wendy J.; Mitchell, Bruce

    1983-07-01

    Non-structural adjustments in floodplain management are often avoided because they are seen to infringe on personal rights, adversely affect property values and restrict local tax bases. Land acquisition programs in urban areas encounter a further problem when they lead to demolition of buildings and other structures considered to have historical or architectural value. An experience in Cambridge, Ontario demonstrates that the potential conflict between flood damage reduction and historical preservation objectives can be exacerbated as a result of uncoordinated planning efforts, inflexibility in interpreting mandates, unclear roles for participating agencies, and lack of cooperation Many of these dilemmas can be resolved through consultation and discussion early in the planning process as well as through a willingness to be flexible and to search for a compromise

  2. Metal burdens in two species of fiddleheads growing near the ore smelters at Sudbury, Ontario, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, L.V.; Parker, G.H. )

    1988-06-01

    The usefulness of selected plant species as potential bioindicators of environmental metal pollution has been clearly demonstrated. High levels of contamination within soils of the Sudbury, Ontario region are characteristically reflected in elevated plant burdens reported for the area. Previous studies investigating plant uptake of metals from Sudbury-area soils have been complicated, however, by the contribution of direct atmospheric deposition onto the foliage. The present study examines metal burdens in two fern species, Interrupted fern and Ostrich fern, resulting solely via root uptake from the soil, thus seeking to assess the indirect influences of the Sudbury-area smelters. The above condition was ensured by collecting the ferns immediately after appearance in the spring while they were still tightly curled and protected from aerial contamination of by the external wooly pubescence.

  3. Field evaluation of an inactivated vaccine to control raccoon rabies in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Sobey, K G; Rosatte, R; Bachmann, P; Buchanan, T; Bruce, L; Donovan, D; Brown, L; Davies, J C; Fehlner-Gardiner, C; Wandeler, A

    2010-07-01

    Since raccoon rabies first appeared in Ontario in 1999, >90,000 raccoons (Procyon lotor) have received IMRAB3 inactivated rabies vaccine via intramuscular (IM) injection and were released at the point of capture as part of a multiyear rabies control program, trap-vaccinate-release (TVR). Of the 132 confirmed cases infected with raccoon-variant rabies virus in Ontario between 1999 and 2005, two were from that vaccinated group, as indicated by the presence of identifying ear tags. During ongoing rabies control programs in 2003, sera were collected from 172 wild raccoons that had received IMRAB3 and tested for rabies-virus antibodies. Raccoons had one of three histories: 1) vaccinated in the current year only (to examine the response to primary vaccination), 2) vaccinated in the previous year only (to determine the duration of the primary antibody response), and 3) vaccinated in the previous year and current year (to examine antibody response to booster vaccination). Seroconversion in primary vaccinates could be detected as early as 1 wk postvaccination when sera were measured with the use of a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (C-ELISA) with a cutoff value established to correspond to a neutralizing titer of 0.5 IU/ml. During weeks three and four postvaccination, 94% of sampled raccoons had detectable antibodies to rabies virus and 31% were still antibody positive the following year. Differences in the kinetics of the immune response were found in raccoons sampled from the two different TVR areas of the province. A strong anamnestic response was detected after booster vaccinations. IMRAB3 by IM injection was found to be an efficacious vaccine for rabies control in raccoons.

  4. Chronic disease management and the home-care alternative in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Tsasis, Peter

    2009-08-01

    The pressure on our health-care system to deliver efficient, quality and cost-effective care is increasing. The debate on its sustainability is also expanding. These challenges can be managed with revisions to our health-care policy frameworks governing how and what public health-care services are delivered. Chronic disease management and home care can together ease many of the present and future pressures facing the health-care system. However, the current level of investment and the present policy are not effectively supporting movement in this direction. Updating the Canada Health Act to reflect the realities of our health-care system, and developing policies to support the areas of interdisciplinary teamwork and system integration are needed to facilitate chronic disease management and home care in Canada. This article lays out the challenges, highlights the impending issues and suggests a framework for moving forward.

  5. Coxiella burnetii seropositivity and associated risk factors in goats in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Meadows, S; Jones-Bitton, A; McEwen, S; Jansen, J; Menzies, P

    2015-10-01

    Coxiella burnetii is a zoonotic bacterium, and infection in goats with this bacterium can result in abortion, stillbirth or birth of non-viable kids. A cross-sectional study was conducted to identify the seroprevalence and risk factors for C. burnetii exposure in Ontario goats. Sera were collected between August 2010 and February 2012, and tested for C. burnetii specific antibodies using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (IDEXX). Overall, 63.2% (48/76, 95% CI=51.9-73.4) of farms had one or more seropositive goats. A higher farm-level seroprevalence of 78.6% (33/42) was found on dairy goat farms, compared to 44.1% (15/34) on meat goat farms (p<0.01). At the overall individual-animal level, 32.5% (714/2195, 95% CI=30.6-34.5) of goats were seropositive. Similarly, a higher individual-level seroprevalence was identified for dairy goats (43.7%, 633/1447) compared to meat goats (10.8%, 81/748) (p<0.001). A mixed multivariable logistic model that controlled for farm-level clustering identified risk factors associated with seropositivity (p<0.05). Increases in the female herd size (logarithmic scale) were associated with increased odds of seropositivity, while increases in male herd size had a negative association with seropositivity. If other sheep or goat farms were located in a 5-km radius, goats had 5.6 times (95% CI=1.01-30.8) times the odds of seropositivity compared to those that were not. Relative to goats from farms where all kidding pen hygiene was practiced (adding bedding, removing birth materials and disinfection after kidding), goats from farms which only added bedding and removed birth materials had a higher odds of seropositivity (OR=19.3, 95% CI=1.1-330.4), as did goats from farms which practiced none of these measures (OR=161.0, 95% CI=2.4-10822.2). An interaction term revealed kidding outdoors when there were no swine on farm had a protective effect on seropositivity compared to kidding indoors, or kidding outdoors with swine on the farm. These

  6. Nonprescribed Hormone Use and Self-Performed Surgeries: “Do-It-Yourself” Transitions in Transgender Communities in Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Greta R.; Scanlon, Kyle; Kaay, Matthias; Travers, Robb; Travers, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the extent of nonprescribed hormone use and self-performed surgeries among transgender or transsexual (trans) people in Ontario, Canada. Methods. We present original survey research from the Trans PULSE Project. A total of 433 participants were recruited from 2009 to 2010 through respondent-driven sampling. We used a case series design to characterize those currently taking nonprescribed hormones and participants who had ever self-performed sex-reassignment surgeries. Results. An estimated 43.0% (95% confidence interval = 34.9, 51.5) of trans Ontarians were currently using hormones; of these, a quarter had ever obtained hormones from nonmedical sources (e.g., friend or relative, street or strangers, Internet pharmacy, herbals or supplements). Fourteen participants (6.4%; 95% confidence interval = 0.8, 9.0) reported currently taking nonprescribed hormones. Five indicated having performed or attempted surgical procedures on themselves (orchiectomy or mastectomy). Conclusions. Past negative experiences with providers, along with limited financial resources and a lack of access to transition-related services, may contribute to nonprescribed hormone use and self-performed surgeries. Promoting training initiatives for health care providers and jurisdictional support for more accessible services may help to address trans people’s specific needs. PMID:23948009

  7. Spring flood analysis using the flood-duration-frequency approach: application to the provinces of Quebec and Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javelle, Pierre; Ouarda, Taha B. M. J.; Bobée, Bernard

    2003-12-01

    Most often, flood frequency analysis describes a flood event only by its peak. However, the true flood severity is also defined by its volume and duration. This paper presents an approach allowing flood events to be considered in a more complete way: the flood-duration-frequency (QdF) approach. In a similar manner to the rainfall intensity-duration-frequency analysis, averaged discharges are computed over different fixed durations d. For each duration a frequency distribution of maximum averaged discharges is studied. Finally, a continuous formulation is fitted, as a function of the return period T and the duration d over which discharges have been averaged. The proposed model has been tested for 169 catchments in the provinces of Quebec and Ontario, Canada. The shapes of the QdF curves enabled us to define different types of flood behaviour and to identify the corresponding geographic regions. This mapping of flood behaviour was the basis for the delineation of seven homogeneous geographical regions, containing catchments having the same hydrological behaviour as is required for regional flood frequency analysis. Copyright

  8. Polychlorinated dioxins and furans in sediments at a site colonized by Dreissena in western Lake Ontario, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Marvin, C.H.; Howell, E.T.; Reiner, E.J.

    2000-02-01

    Potential impacts of Dreissena on polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) levels in sediment were investigated by comparing PCDD/PCDF levels in colonized sediment with levels in sediment in the same area that was not colonized but that was exposed to similar environmental conditions. Levels of PCDDs/PCDFs were also determined in Dreissena tissues. The particle size distribution of colonized sediment was characterized by silt-size material with peak abundance in the range of 7.5 to 20 {micro}m, whereas noncolonized sediment was coarser in nature (30--60 {micro}m). Total organic carbon (TOC) and concentrations of the PCDD/PCDF congener groups and individual 2,3,7,8-substituted isomers were greater in colonized sediment. A trend was observed toward decreasing concentrations of PCDF congener groups with increased chlorine substitution in mussel tissues in contrast to increasing concentrations of PCDF congener groups with increased chlorination in sediments. The trend in the PCDD congener group profile in mussel tissues appeared more similar to the profile in sediments. Areal estimates of toxicity equivalents (TEQ) in Dreissena biomass at Port Dalhousie, Ontario, Canada (approx. 1,300 pg/m{sup 2}) were about 0.9% of the TEQ in the top 3 cm of sediment (approx. 135,000 pg/m{sup 2}). Differences in particle size distribution and PCDD/PCDF levels between colonized and noncolonized sediment suggest that Dreissena may influence chemical and physical properties of sediment they colonize.

  9. THE OCCURRENCE OF PATHOGENS IN AN ENDANGERED POPULATION OF AMERICAN BADGERS (TAXIDEA TAXUS JACKSONI) IN ONTARIO, CANADA.

    PubMed

    Ethier, Danielle M; Sayers, Joshua B; Kyle, Christopher J; Nocera, Joseph J; Ojkic, Davor; Campbell, Douglas

    2017-01-01

    American badgers ( Taxidea taxus jacksoni) at the periphery of the species' range in Ontario, Canada, are listed as endangered because of an estimated population size of <200 mature individuals. The main threats faced by this population include habitat loss and road mortality. However, on 18 November 2013, a radio-implanted badger was found nonresponsive in an agricultural field with signs consistent with canine distemper virus infection, which was subsequently confirmed. This prompted our investigation into the occurrence of pathogens in this endangered carnivore to better quantify the level of risk infectious disease poses to population persistence. We examined serum samples from nine live-trapped individuals and 27 whole badger specimens submitted for postmortem examination. We found evidence of exposure to canine distemper virus, canine parvovirus, and leptospires. However, infection associated with disease was not the leading cause of mortality. Future research into the effects of disease on kit survival and a comprehensive understanding of disease severity and spread from reservoir populations (e.g., raccoons [ Procyon lotor ] and striped skunks [ Mephitis mephitis ]) to badgers will be of particular importance to the conservation of this endangered population.

  10. Smoke-free spaces over time: a policy diffusion study of bylaw development in Alberta and Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Nykiforuk, Candace I J; Eyles, John; Campbell, H Sharon

    2008-01-01

    Policy diffusion is a process whereby political bodies 'learn' policy solutions to public health problems by imitating policy from similar jurisdictions. This suggests that diffusion is a critical element in the policy development process, and that its role must be recognised in any examination of policy development. Yet, to date, no systematic work on the diffusion of smoke-free spaces bylaws has been reported. We examined the diffusion of municipal smoke-free bylaws over a 30-year period in the provinces of Alberta and Ontario, Canada, to begin to address this gap and to determine whether spatial patterns could be identified to help explain the nature of policy development. Bylaw adoption and change were analysed within local, regional, and provincial contexts. Geographical models of hierarchical and expansion diffusion in conjunction with the diffusion of innovations framework conceptually guided the analyses. Study findings contribute to a broader understanding of how and why health policies diffuse across time and place. Policy development can be a powerful mechanism for creating environments that support healthy decisions; hence, an understanding of policy diffusion is critical for those interested in policy interventions aimed at improving population health in any jurisdiction.

  11. Airborne Pollen Concentrations and Emergency Room Visits for Myocardial Infarction: A Multicity Case-Crossover Study in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Weichenthal, Scott; Lavigne, Eric; Villeneuve, Paul J; Reeves, François

    2016-04-01

    Few studies have examined the acute cardiovascular effects of airborne allergens. We conducted a case-crossover study to evaluate the relationship between airborne allergen concentrations and emergency room visits for myocardial infarction (MI) in Ontario, Canada. In total, 17,960 cases of MI were identified between the months of April and October during the years 2004-2011. Daily mean aeroallergen concentrations (pollen and mold spores) were assigned to case and control periods using central-site monitors in each city along with daily measurements of meteorological data and air pollution (nitrogen dioxide and ozone). Odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals were estimated using conditional logistic regression models adjusting for time-varying covariates. Risk of MI was 5.5% higher (95% confidence interval (CI): 3.4, 7.6) on days in the highest tertile of total pollen concentrations compared with days in the lowest tertile, and a significant concentration-response trend was observed (P < 0.001). Higher MI risk was limited to same-day pollen concentrations, with the largest risks being observed during May (odds ratio = 1.16, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.35) and June (odds ratio = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.22), when tree and grass pollen are most common. Mold spore concentrations were not associated with MI. Our findings suggest that airborne pollen might represent a previously unidentified environmental risk factor for myocardial infarction.

  12. Temporal changes in mercury concentrations of large-bodied fishes in the boreal shield ecoregion of northern Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Tang, Rex W K; Johnston, Thomas A; Gunn, John M; Bhavsar, Satyendra P

    2013-02-01

    Much of the mercury (Hg) in freshwater fish of the boreal shield ecoregion is believed to originate from atmospheric deposition. As such, declines in fish Hg concentrations would be expected in response to recent declines in atmospheric Hg deposition in this ecoregion. We compared recent (2005-2010) and historic (1974-1981) muscle total mercury concentrations ([THg], standardized to a fish body mass of 1 kg) in seven fish species (five piscivores, two benthivores) from 73 lakes in northern Ontario (Canada) using a paired-comparisons approach. The rate of bioaccumulation (i.e., slopes of log(e)[THg] vs log(e) total length relationship) increased for walleye (Sander vitreus) but did not change significantly for any other species. There was no significant decline in mean [THg] between recent and historic time periods for any species. In fact, recent mean [THg] were slightly higher (<0.08 ppm) than historic mean [THg] for all species, and this difference was significant for northern pike (Esox lucius). The magnitude of the temporal change in northern pike declined significantly from south to north over the study area but there were no discernible geographic patterns in the temporal change in [THg] for any other species. This study shows that [THg] of most large-bodied fish species in boreal shield lakes are not declining in response to the decline in atmospheric Hg deposition.

  13. Tracking Crop Leaf Area Index and Chlorophyll Content Using RapidEye Data in Northern Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, J.; Liu, J.; Ma, B.; Zhao, T.; Kovacs, J. M.; Jiao, X.; Dong, T.; Huffman, T.; Geng, X.; Walters, D.

    2014-12-01

    Information on crop phenological state such as flowering, maturing, drying, senescence, and harvesting is essential for crop production surveillance and yield prediction. Earth Observation data provide an important information source for monitoring crop development at various temporal and spatial scales. In particular, the availability of many high-spatial-resolution space sensors offers a powerful tool for precision farming. This study reports the results of a two-year (2012, 2013) study over spring wheat and canola fields using six different vegetation indices derived from the high-resolution (6.5m) RapidEye optical satellite data in northern Ontario, Canada. The study revealed that for both wheat and canola, significant relationships were observed between the ground-derived leaf area index (LAI) and all 6 vegetation indices tested. For spring wheat, the strongest relationship was found between LAI and the Modified Triangular Vegetation Index 2 (MTVI2), with a coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.95. For canola, a R2 of 0.92 was achieved. Strong relationships were also found between all six vegetation indices and the chlorophyll concentration index (CCI) measured in the fields using a CCM-200 device. The strongest correlation exists between CCI and the ratio of Modified the Chlorophyll Absorption Reflected Index (MCARI) and the Optimized Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (OSAVI), with an R2 of 0.86. It suggests that RapidEye data can be used to track field-scale crop LAI and monitor crop chlorophyll content.

  14. Challenges of Diabetes Self-Management in Adults Affected by Food Insecurity in a Large Urban Centre of Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Chan, Justine; DeMelo, Margaret; Gingras, Jacqui; Gucciardi, Enza

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To explore how food insecurity affects individuals' ability to manage their diabetes, as narrated by participants living in a large, culturally diverse urban centre. Design. Qualitative study comprising of in-depth interviews, using a semistructured interview guide. Setting. Participants were recruited from the local community, three community health centres, and a community-based diabetes education centre servicing a low-income population in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Participants. Twenty-one English-speaking adults with a diagnosis of diabetes and having experienced food insecurity in the past year (based on three screening questions). Method. Using six phases of analysis, we used qualitative, deductive thematic analysis to transcribe, code, and analyze participant interviews. Main Findings. Three themes emerged from our analysis of participants' experiences of living with food insecurity and diabetes: (1) barriers to accessing and preparing food, (2) social isolation, and (3) enhancing agency and resilience. Conclusion. Food insecurity appears to negatively impact diabetes self-management. Healthcare professionals need to be cognizant of resources, skills, and supports appropriate for people with diabetes affected by food insecurity. Study findings suggest foci for enhancing diabetes self-management support.

  15. A Content Analysis of Newspaper Coverage of the Seasonal Flu Vaccine in Ontario, Canada, October 2001 to March 2011.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Samantha B; Lu, Stephanie K; Hoffman-Goetz, Laurie; Smale, Bryan; MacDougall, Heather; Pearce, Alex R

    2016-10-01

    Seasonal flu vaccine uptake has fallen dramatically over the past decade in Ontario, Canada, despite promotional efforts by public health officials. Media can be particularly influential in shaping the public response to seasonal flu vaccine campaigns. We therefore sought to identify the nature of the relationship between risk messages about getting the seasonal flu vaccine in newspaper coverage and the uptake of the vaccine by Ontarians between 2001 and 2010. A content analysis was conducted to quantify risk messages in newspaper content for each year of analysis. The quantification allowed us to test the correlation between the frequency of risk messages and vaccination rates. During the time period 2001-2010, vaccination rates were positively and significantly related to the frequency of risk messages in newspaper coverage (r = .691, p < .05). The most commonly identified risk messages related to the flu vaccine being ineffective, the flu vaccine being poorly understood by science, and the flu vaccine causing harm. Newspaper coverage plays an important role in shaping public response to seasonal flu vaccine campaigns. Public health officials should work alongside media to ensure that the public are exposed to information necessary for making informed decisions regarding vaccination.

  16. Challenges of Diabetes Self-Management in Adults Affected by Food Insecurity in a Large Urban Centre of Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Justine; DeMelo, Margaret; Gingras, Jacqui; Gucciardi, Enza

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To explore how food insecurity affects individuals' ability to manage their diabetes, as narrated by participants living in a large, culturally diverse urban centre. Design. Qualitative study comprising of in-depth interviews, using a semistructured interview guide. Setting. Participants were recruited from the local community, three community health centres, and a community-based diabetes education centre servicing a low-income population in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Participants. Twenty-one English-speaking adults with a diagnosis of diabetes and having experienced food insecurity in the past year (based on three screening questions). Method. Using six phases of analysis, we used qualitative, deductive thematic analysis to transcribe, code, and analyze participant interviews. Main Findings. Three themes emerged from our analysis of participants' experiences of living with food insecurity and diabetes: (1) barriers to accessing and preparing food, (2) social isolation, and (3) enhancing agency and resilience. Conclusion. Food insecurity appears to negatively impact diabetes self-management. Healthcare professionals need to be cognizant of resources, skills, and supports appropriate for people with diabetes affected by food insecurity. Study findings suggest foci for enhancing diabetes self-management support. PMID:26576154

  17. Morphological and Molecular Characterization of Gracilacus wuae n. sp. (Nematoda: Criconematoidea) Associated with Cow Parsnip (Heracleum maximum) in Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Qing; Ye, Weimin; Powers, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Gracilacus wuae n. sp. from soil associated with cow parsnip in Ontario, Canada is described and illustrated. Morphologically, females have a long stylet ranging from 80 to 93 µm long, the lip region not offset from the body contour, without lateral lips but with large and flat submedian lobes, the mouth opening slit-like elongated laterally and surrounded by lateral flaps, the excretory pore is anterior to the knobs of the stylet; males without stylet and the pharynx degenerated. The fourth-stage juveniles lack a stylet, the pharynx degenerated, and can be differentiated into preadult females and males based on the position of the genital primordia. The third-stage juveniles are similar to females but smaller. Phylogenetic studies using the rDNA small subunit 18S, large subunit 28S D2/D3, and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences collectively provide evidence of a grouping with other Gracilacus and some species of Paratylenchus with stylet length of females longer than 41 µm deposited in GenBank. PMID:27765994

  18. Gender and Ethnicity Differences in HIV-related Stigma Experienced by People Living with HIV in Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Loutfy, Mona R.; Logie, Carmen H.; Zhang, Yimeng; Blitz, Sandra L.; Margolese, Shari L.; Tharao, Wangari E.; Rourke, Sean B.; Rueda, Sergio; Raboud, Janet M.

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to understand gender and ethnicity differences in HIV-related stigma experienced by 1026 HIV-positive individuals living in Ontario, Canada that were enrolled in the OHTN Cohort Study. Total and subscale HIV-related stigma scores were measured using the revised HIV-related Stigma Scale. Correlates of total stigma scores were assessed in univariate and multivariate linear regression. Women had significantly higher total and subscale stigma scores than men (total, median = 56.0 vs. 48.0, p<0.0001). Among men and women, Black individuals had the highest, Aboriginal and Asian/Latin-American/Unspecified people intermediate, and White individuals the lowest total stigma scores. The gender-ethnicity interaction term was significant in multivariate analysis: Black women and Asian/Latin-American/Unspecified men reported the highest HIV-related stigma scores. Gender and ethnicity differences in HIV-related stigma were identified in our cohort. Findings suggest differing approaches may be required to address HIV-related stigma based on gender and ethnicity; and such strategies should challenge racist and sexist stereotypes. PMID:23300514

  19. Clay mineralogical evidence of a bioclimatically-affected soil, Rouge River basin, South-Central Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahaney, W. C.

    2015-01-01

    Holocene soils in drainage basins of South-Central Ontario, Canada, are generally Fluvisols (Entisols) in floodplains transitioning to Brunisols (Inceptisols), Luvisols (Alfisols) and Podzols (Spodosols) in older terraces and in the glaciated tableland. A single landslide sourced from the highest fluvial terrace in the Rouge basin, with a rubble drop of ~ 12 m emplaced a lobe-shaped mass of reworked stream gravel, glaciolacustrine sediment and till, emplaced approximately 6 m above mean water level at a height roughly equivalent to previously dated mid-Holocene terraces and soils. Clay mineralogy of the soil formed in this transported regolith produced the usual semi-detrital/pedogenic distribution of 1:1 (Si:Al = 1:1), 2:1 and 2:1:1 clay minerals as well as primary minerals consisting of plagioclase feldspar, quartz, mica and calcite. Unexpectedly, the presence of moderate amounts of Ca-smectite in the Bk and Ck horizons, relative to a clay-mineral depleted parent material (Cuk), argues for a soil hydrological change affecting the wetting depth in the deposit. The presence of the uncommon 'maidenhair fern' (Adiantum pedantum) in the mass wasted deposit, a plant capable of high evapotranspiration, is interpreted as producing a bioclimatic disruption limiting soil water penetration to near root depth (wetting depth), thus producing a clay mineral anomaly.

  20. Saturation of ecosystems with toxic metals in Sudbury basin, Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Nriagu, J O; Wong, H K; Lawson, G; Daniel, P

    1998-11-10

    Mining and resource recovery activities have not been kind to ecosystems in the Sudbury basin, Ontario. The combination of logging, smelting, fires and erosion resulted in an unusual anthropogenic ecosystem of denuded barren land with lifeless lakes, or a micro-desert. Since the 1970s, however, the concerted efforts made to reduce the emissions and rehabilitate parts of the degraded ecosystem have resulted in improvements in water quality, and recoveries in phytoplankton, zooplankton, zoobenthos and fish communities but have had little impact on toxic metal concentrations in many lakes. We show that most of the catchments in the Sudbury basin have become saturated with Cu and Ni, and some with Zn and Pb. It is estimated that mobilization of metals stored in soils and glacial overburden by surface runoff, groundwater drainage and wind re-working of tailings can sustain the high concentrations of Cu and Ni in many lakes for well over 1000 years. Strategies to immobilize the pollutant metals in the watershed rather than further emission controls may be required for dealing with high levels of toxic metals in surface waters of the saturated ecosystems.

  1. A Preliminary Assessment of LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper Data. [Windsor, Ontario and Medicine Hat areas, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodenough, D. G.; Fleming, E. A.; Dickinson, K.

    1985-01-01

    The geometric errors for image to map rectification of one Thematic Mapper (TM) scene of an area near Windsor, Ontario were studied. The scene had been produced on computer compatible tape by NASA and contained radiometric and system corrections for geometric distortions. The geometric properties of TM photographic imagery permitted very good fitting to map detail using simple scaling techniques to localized areas and, using simple scaling, the overall geometry remained with 500 meters or 0.4 mm at the image scale of 1:1,141,600. An affine transformation, permitting differential scaling, slightly improves the fit to about 400 meters or 0.35 mm at image scale. The imagery shows promise of having the needed additional resolution and spectral discrimination to provide map revision information in urban-rural areas where the MSS sensor is considered inadequate. The late-season prairie image, however, did not hold such promise, and judgement must be reserved until images are acquired at other seasons in this particular geographic area.

  2. The effect of temperature on arson incidence in Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Yiannakoulias, Niko; Kielasinska, Ewa

    2016-05-01

    Studies of crime and weather have largely excluded arson from empirical and theoretical consideration, yet weather could influence arson frequency over short time frames, influencing the motivation and activity of potential arsonists, as well as the physical possibility of fire ignition. This study aims to understand the role of weather on urban arson in order to determine its role in explaining short-term variations in arson frequency. We use data reported to the Ontario Fire Marshall's office of arson events in the City of Toronto between 1996 and 2007 to estimate the effect of temperature, precipitation, wind conditions and air pressure on arson events while controlling for the effects of holidays, weekends and other calendar-related events. We find that temperature has an independent association with daily arson frequency, as do precipitation and air pressure. In this study area, cold weather has a larger influence on arson frequency than hot weather. There is also some evidence that extremely hot and cold temperatures may be associated with lower day-time arson frequency, while night-time arson seems to have a simpler positive linear association with temperature.

  3. Naturopaths in Ontario, Canada: geographic patterns in intermediately-sized metropolitan areas and integration implications.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Stephen P

    2017-02-14

    Evaluating conventional medicine (CM) and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) with respect to integration opportunities (such as patient referrals and professional knowledge sharing) and possible geographic implications is novel. This research utilizes nearest neighbour and local spatial autocorrelation statistical analyses and surveys directed towards Doctors of Naturopathic Medicine (NDs) and their patients to better understand the geographic patterns of NDs and potential integration qualities. While the statistical tests reveal that the offices of NDs and Doctors of Medicine (MDs) display clustered patterns in intermediately-sized census metropolitan areas in Ontario and that the majority of NDs are near MDs, proximity is not manifesting in discernible integration tendencies between NDs and MDs. The NDs polled were strongly in favour of greater integration with the CM sector (as were their patients) to: achieve better patient health outcomes and to gain efficiencies within the health care system. Yet, both surveys also indicate that the barriers to integration are substantial and, generally speaking, centre on the perception that many MDs lack respect for, and/or knowledge about, naturopathic approaches. It is speculated that as students in conventional medical schools are increasingly exposed to CAM approaches, perhaps more MDs in the future will be receptive to greater integration with CAM. Should this occur, then it is also possible that geographic proximity may be a catalyst for deeper CAM-CM integration; as it has been for CAM-CAM relationships.

  4. The effect of temperature on arson incidence in Toronto, Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yiannakoulias, Niko; Kielasinska, Ewa

    2016-05-01

    Studies of crime and weather have largely excluded arson from empirical and theoretical consideration, yet weather could influence arson frequency over short time frames, influencing the motivation and activity of potential arsonists, as well as the physical possibility of fire ignition. This study aims to understand the role of weather on urban arson in order to determine its role in explaining short-term variations in arson frequency. We use data reported to the Ontario Fire Marshall's office of arson events in the City of Toronto between 1996 and 2007 to estimate the effect of temperature, precipitation, wind conditions and air pressure on arson events while controlling for the effects of holidays, weekends and other calendar-related events. We find that temperature has an independent association with daily arson frequency, as do precipitation and air pressure. In this study area, cold weather has a larger influence on arson frequency than hot weather. There is also some evidence that extremely hot and cold temperatures may be associated with lower day-time arson frequency, while night-time arson seems to have a simpler positive linear association with temperature.

  5. Search for chronic beryllium disease among sarcoidosis patients in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Marcos; Fritscher, Leandro G; Al-Musaed, Ahmed M; Balter, Meyer S; Hoffstein, Victor; Mazer, Bruce D; Maier, Lisa A; Liss, Gary M; Tarlo, Susan M

    2011-06-01

    Chronic beryllium disease (CBD) is clinically similar to other granulomatous diseases such as sarcoidosis. It is often misdiagnosed if a thorough occupational history is not taken. When appropriate, a beryllium lymphocyte proliferation tests (BeLPT) need to be performed. We aimed to search for CBD among currently diagnosed pulmonary sarcoidosis patients and to identify the occupations and exposures in Ontario leading to CBD. Questionnaire items included work history and details of possible exposure to beryllium. Participants who provided a history of previous work with metals underwent BeLPTs and an ELISPOT on the basis of having a higher pretest probability of CBD. Among 121 sarcoid patients enrolled, 87 (72%) reported no known previous metal dust or fume exposure, while 34 (28%) had metal exposure, including 17 (14%) with beryllium exposure at work or home. However, none of these 34 who underwent testing had positive test results. Self-reported exposure to beryllium or metals was relatively common in these patients with clinical sarcoidosis, but CBD was not confirmed using blood assays in this population.

  6. Variation in Emergency Department Transfer Rates from Nursing Homes in Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Bronskill, Susan E.; Newman, Alice; Bell, Chaim M.; Gozdyra, Peter; Anderson, Geoffrey M.; Rochon, Paula A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Nursing home (NH) residents are frequently transferred to the emergency department (ED) but there is little data on inter-facility variation, which has implications for intervention planning and implementation. Objectives: To describe variation in ED transfer rates (TRs) across NHs and the association with NH characteristics. Design/setting: Retrospective cohort study using linked administrative data from Ontario. Participants: 71,780 residents of 604 NHs in 2010 and followed for one year. Measurements: Funnel plots were used to identify high transfer NHs and logistic regression to test the association with NH location, size, ownership and historical ED transfer rate. Results: One-year ED transfer rates ranged from 4.3% to 58.6% (mean 28.4%); 115 (19%) NHs were considered high. Being within five minutes of an ED, larger size and high historical ED transfer rate were associated with being a high ED transfer home. Conclusion: There was substantial variation across NHs. Consideration of characteristics such as proximity to an ED may be important in the development and targeting of different interventions for NHs. PMID:28032826

  7. Cystotomy practices and complications among general small animal practitioners in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Appel, Sherry; Otto, Simon J; Weese, J Scott

    2012-03-01

    Cystotomy is a common surgical procedure in small animal veterinary medicine, yet common pre-, intra-, and post-operative practices have not been described. This survey evaluated cystotomy practices of 106 veterinarians in Ontario. The majority of respondents reported practices consistent with standard recommendations, but some deficiencies in antimicrobial and analgesic use, as well as intra- and post-operative practices, were identified. Some factors associated with the likelihood that practitioners reported recurrent urolithiasis or urinary tract infection are contrary to typical recommendations, such as the association of the use of absorbable, multifilament suture or a dorsal (versus ventral) incision and a lesser likelihood of reporting post-operative urinary tract infections. While care must be taken interpreting these statistical associations, the results suggest that objective assessment of common cystotomy recommendations (use of monofilament, absorbable suture) is required. Re-assessment of certain peri-operative practices, such as analgesic and antimicrobial administration, and post-operative testing, is required for a minority of practitioners.

  8. A retrospective study on the etiological diagnoses of diarrhea in neonatal piglets in Ontario, Canada, between 2001 and 2010

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Gloria; Farzan, Abdolvahab; DeLay, Josepha; McEwen, Beverly; Prescott, John F.; Friendship, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    Laboratory surveillance data from the Animal Health Laboratory, University of Guelph, on the etiological diagnoses of neonatal diarrhea in piglets were analyzed to determine the relative importance and trends of different enteric pathogens in Ontario. A total of 237 cases, including live and dead 1- to 7-day-old piglets, were submitted for diagnosis of gastrointestinal illness between 2001 and 2010. The combined frequencies for cases of gastrointestinal illness involving Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens type A, rotavirus, and Clostridium difficile, either as single pathogens or a complex of pathogens, accounted for 56% of the total cases. In a total of 33% of cases of gastrointestinal illness, an etiological agent was not identified. The frequency of cases diagnosed with enterotoxigenic E. coli was decreased from 2007. Cases submitted in 2010 were more likely to be diagnosed with C. perfringens type A compared to cases submitted in 2002 to 2007 (P < 0.05). There was a significant trend for cases submitted in the winter to be diagnosed with C. perfringens type A, enterotoxigenic E. coli, rotavirus, and Cystoisospora suis (formerly Isospora suis) (P < 0.05). Enterotoxigenic E. coli was less likely diagnosed if C. difficile, C. perfringens, or rotavirus were detected (P < 0.05). Younger piglets were more likely to be diagnosed with C. perfringens type A (P < 0.05) and C. difficile (P < 0.05) than older piglets. This study shows that E. coli, C. perfringens type A, rotavirus, and C. difficile are enteric pathogens of concern for Ontario swine farrowing operations and further research is required to understand the reasons for the cases that are not diagnosed. PMID:24124267

  9. A retrospective study on the etiological diagnoses of diarrhea in neonatal piglets in Ontario, Canada, between 2001 and 2010.

    PubMed

    Chan, Gloria; Farzan, Abdolvahab; DeLay, Josepha; McEwen, Beverly; Prescott, John F; Friendship, Robert M

    2013-10-01

    Laboratory surveillance data from the Animal Health Laboratory, University of Guelph, on the etiological diagnoses of neonatal diarrhea in piglets were analyzed to determine the relative importance and trends of different enteric pathogens in Ontario. A total of 237 cases, including live and dead 1- to 7-day-old piglets, were submitted for diagnosis of gastrointestinal illness between 2001 and 2010. The combined frequencies for cases of gastrointestinal illness involving Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens type A, rotavirus, and Clostridium difficile, either as single pathogens or a complex of pathogens, accounted for 56% of the total cases. In a total of 33% of cases of gastrointestinal illness, an etiological agent was not identified. The frequency of cases diagnosed with enterotoxigenic E. coli was decreased from 2007. Cases submitted in 2010 were more likely to be diagnosed with C. perfringens type A compared to cases submitted in 2002 to 2007 (P < 0.05). There was a significant trend for cases submitted in the winter to be diagnosed with C. perfringens type A, enterotoxigenic E. coli, rotavirus, and Cystoisospora suis (formerly Isospora suis) (P < 0.05). Enterotoxigenic E. coli was less likely diagnosed if C. difficile, C. perfringens, or rotavirus were detected (P < 0.05). Younger piglets were more likely to be diagnosed with C. perfringens type A (P < 0.05) and C. difficile (P < 0.05) than older piglets. This study shows that E. coli, C. perfringens type A, rotavirus, and C. difficile are enteric pathogens of concern for Ontario swine farrowing operations and further research is required to understand the reasons for the cases that are not diagnosed.

  10. Population-based passive tick surveillance and detection of expanding foci of blacklegged ticks Ixodes scapularis and the Lyme disease agent Borrelia burgdorferi in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Nelder, Mark P; Russell, Curtis; Lindsay, L Robbin; Dhar, Badal; Patel, Samir N; Johnson, Steven; Moore, Stephen; Kristjanson, Erik; Li, Ye; Ralevski, Filip

    2014-01-01

    We identified ticks submitted by the public from 2008 through 2012 in Ontario, Canada, and tested blacklegged ticks Ixodes scapularis for Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Among the 18 species of ticks identified, I. scapularis, Dermacentor variabilis, Ixodes cookei and Amblyomma americanum represented 98.1% of the 14,369 ticks submitted. Rates of blacklegged tick submission per 100,000 population were highest in Ontario's Eastern region; D. variabilis in Central West and Eastern regions; I. cookei in Eastern and South West regions; and A. americanum had a scattered distribution. Rates of blacklegged tick submission per 100,000 population were highest from children (0-9 years old) and older adults (55-74 years old). In two health units in the Eastern region (i.e., Leeds, Grenville & Lanark District and Kingston-Frontenac and Lennox & Addington), the rate of submission for engorged and B. burgdorferi-positive blacklegged ticks was 47× higher than the rest of Ontario. Rate of spread for blacklegged ticks was relatively faster and across a larger geographic area along the northern shore of Lake Ontario/St. Lawrence River, compared with slower spread from isolated populations along the northern shore of Lake Erie. The infection prevalence of B. burgdorferi in blacklegged ticks increased in Ontario over the study period from 8.4% in 2008 to 19.1% in 2012. The prevalence of B. burgdorferi-positive blacklegged ticks increased yearly during the surveillance period and, while increases were not uniform across all regions, increases were greatest in the Central West region, followed by Eastern and South West regions. The overall infection prevalence of A. phagocytophilum in blacklegged ticks was 0.3%. This study provides essential information on ticks of medical importance in Ontario, and identifies demographic and geographic areas for focused public education on the prevention of tick bites and tick-borne diseases.

  11. Late Wisconsinan sub-glacial clastic intrusive sheets along Lake Erie bluffs, at Bradtville, Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreimanis, Aleksis; Rappol, Martin

    1997-07-01

    Numerous clastic intrusive sheets, a few decimetres to more than 16 m long, 1-120 cm thick, and extending one to more than 25 m laterally, occur along a 350 m long section of the late Wisconsinan Catfish Creek Drift in the Lake Erie bluffs at Bradtville, southwestern Ontario. Most of them are downglacier-dipping dikes, the largest one terminating in the underlying middle Wisconsinan Tyrconnell Formation. Most dikes strike NNE-SSW, at right angles to the local direction of glacier movement during the deposition of Catfish Creek Drift. The tops of some of them are truncated or displaced downglacier by shearing. The main concentration of clastic intrusive sheets is on the upglacier side of a glaciotectonically folded anticline of Tyrconnell Formation clays and silts underlying the Catfish Creek Drift. The host sediments are Catfish Creek till, gravel, sand and silt, and Tyrconnell Formation silt and clay. Most intrusive sheets, particularly the small to medium ones, consist of massive to crudely laminated sand and silt, intruded from below by a dewatering process. The largest dike reflects in its composition mainly the adjoining or higher-lying host-sediment materials, and its main part was formed by downward infilling, or by gravity flows into an open fracture. The large dike is flanked by small laminated silty sand sheets and several small apophyses, some of them injected downward and sideways, others upward by dewatering. The clastic intrusive sheets were formed under a moving glacier, the Erie lobe, probably both at the beginning and towards the end of the deposition of Catfish Creek till. Their location and position was predetermined by glaciotectonically induced listric planar structures and zones of weakness, mainly tension fractures, that strike transverse to glacier movement and dip downglacier and also by confinement of pore-water in a permeable sediment wedge between the less pervious Tyrconnell Formation and massive Catfish Creek basal till.

  12. Attitudes toward waste to energy facilities and impacts on diversion in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Baxter, Jamie; Ho, Yvonne; Rollins, Yvonne; Maclaren, Virginia

    2016-04-01

    Despite progress in residential waste diversion, residual waste - that fraction which cannot be recycled or composted - must continue to be managed by municipalities. Zero waste and environmental groups worry that waste-to-energy (WtE) incinerators discourage diversion, while both incineration and landfill have been stigmatized in the popular consciousness such that WtE incinerators in particular are being cancelled more often than they are approved. We conducted a mail-back survey of 217 residents in Toronto, Durham and Peel, Ontario, to understand attitudes toward diversion, levels of support for WtE incineration and WtE landfill (landfill gas recovery) facilities, and predictors of facility support. Contrary to experiences elsewhere, diversion seems threatened by WtE when measured as attitudes with 18%, and 14% agreeing that they would be less inclined to divert recyclable/compostable materials if they knew materials went to a WtE landfill or incinerator. When forced to choose between four options landfill or incineration with and without energy recovery, WtE incineration is most preferred (65%) and landfill without WtE is the least preferred option (61%). However, measurement has a large influence on public opinion results in the sense that support for WtE incineration drops to 43% when asked as a "vote in favor" question and to only 36% when measured as a 4-item index of support. When the indexes of support for landfill and WtE incineration are modeled, the prominence of odor in the landfill model distinguishes it from the WtE incinerator model which is dominated more by community and concern about health effects. Implications for policy are discussed, particularly mandatory diversion targets to accompany WtE.

  13. Modeling seasonal to annual carbon balance of Mer Bleue Bog, Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frolking, Steve; Roulet, Nigel T.; Moore, Tim R.; Lafleur, Peter M.; Bubier, Jill L.; Crill, Patrick M.

    2002-07-01

    Northern peatlands contain enormous quantities of organic carbon within a few meters of the atmosphere and play a significant role in the planetary carbon balance. We have developed a new, process-oriented model of the contemporary carbon balance of northern peatlands, the Peatland Carbon Simulator (PCARS). Components of PCARS are (1) vascular and nonvascular plant photosynthesis and respiration, net aboveground and belowground production, and litterfall; (2) aerobic and anaerobic decomposition of peat; (3) production, oxidation, and emission of methane; and (4) dissolved organic carbon loss with drainage water. PCARS has an hourly time step and requires air and soil temperatures, incoming radiation, water table depth, and horizontal drainage as drivers. Simulations predict a complete peatland C balance for one season to several years. A 3-year simulation was conducted for Mer Bleue Bog, near Ottawa, Ontario, and results were compared with multiyear eddy covariance tower CO2 flux and ancillary measurements from the site. Seasonal patterns and the general magnitude of net ecosystem exchange of CO2 were similar for PCARS and the tower data, though PCARS was generally biased toward net ecosystem respiration (i.e., carbon loss). Gross photosynthesis rates (calculated directly in PCARS, empirically inferred from tower data) were in good accord, so the discrepancy between model and measurement was likely related to autotrophic and/or heterotrophic respiration. Modeled and measured methane emission rates were quite low. PCARS has been designed to link with the Canadian Land Surface Scheme (CLASS) land surface model and a global climate model (GCM) to examine climate-peatland carbon feedbacks at regional scales in future analyses.

  14. Climate-diameter growth relationships of black spruce and jack pine trees in boreal Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Subedi, Nirmal; Sharma, Mahadev

    2013-02-01

    To predict the long-term effects of climate change - global warming and changes in precipitation - on the diameter (radial) growth of jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) and black spruce (Picea mariana [Mill.] B.S.P.) trees in boreal Ontario, we modified an existing diameter growth model to include climate variables. Diameter chronologies of 927 jack pine and 1173 black spruce trees, growing in the area from 47°N to 50°N and 80°W to 92°W, were used to develop diameter growth models in a nonlinear mixed-effects approach. Our results showed that the variables long-term average of mean growing season temperature, precipitation during wettest quarter, and total precipitation during growing season were significant (alpha = 0.05) in explaining variation in diameter growth of the sample trees. Model results indicated that higher temperatures during the growing season would increase the diameter growth of jack pine trees, but decrease that of black spruce trees. More precipitation during the wettest quarter would favor the diameter growth of both species. On the other hand, a wetter growing season, which may decrease radiation inputs, increase nutrient leaching, and reduce the decomposition rate, would reduce the diameter growth of both species. Moreover, our results indicated that future (2041-2070) diameter growth rate may differ from current (1971-2000) growth rates for both species, with conditions being more favorable for jack pine than black spruce trees. Expected future changes in the growth rate of boreal trees need to be considered in forest management decisions. We recommend that knowledge of climate-growth relationships, as represented by models, be combined with learning from adaptive management to reduce the risks and uncertainties associated with forest management decisions.

  15. The effectiveness and resilience of phosphorus management practices in the Lake Simcoe watershed, Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crossman, J.; Futter, M. N.; Palmer, M.; Whitehead, P. G.; Baulch, H. M.; Woods, D.; Jin, L.; Oni, S. K.; Dillon, P. J.

    2016-09-01

    Uncertainty surrounding future climate makes it difficult to have confidence that current nutrient management strategies will remain effective. This study used monitoring and modeling to assess current effectiveness (% phosphorus reduction) and resilience (defined as continued effectiveness under a changing climate) of best management practices (BMPs) within five catchments of the Lake Simcoe watershed, Ontario. The Integrated Catchment Phosphorus model (INCA-P) was used, and monitoring data were used to calibrate and validate a series of management scenarios. To assess current BMP effectiveness, models were run over a baseline period 1985-2014 with and without management scenarios. Climate simulations were run (2070-2099), and BMP resilience was calculated as the percent change in effectiveness between the baseline and future period. Results demonstrated that livestock removal from water courses was the most effective BMP, while manure storage adjustments were the least. Effectiveness varied between catchments, influenced by the dominant hydrological and nutrient transport pathways. Resilience of individual BMPs was associated with catchment sensitivity to climate change. BMPs were most resilient in catchments with high soil water storage capacity and small projected changes in frozen-water availability and in soil moisture deficits. Conversely, BMPs were less resilient in catchments with larger changes in spring melt magnitude and in overland flow proportions. Results indicated that BMPs implemented are not always those most suited to catchment flow pathways, and a more site-specific approach would enhance prospects for maintaining P reduction targets. Furthermore, BMP resilience to climate change can be predicted from catchment physical properties and present-day hydrochemical sensitivity to climate forcing.

  16. Radiochemistry Lab Decommissioning and Dismantlement. AECL, Chalk River Labs, Ontario, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Kenny, Stephen

    2008-01-15

    Atomic Energy of Canada (AECL) was originally founded in the mid 1940's to perform research in radiation and nuclear areas under the Canadian Defense Department. In the mid 50's The Canadian government embarked on several research and development programs for the development of the Candu Reactor. AECL was initially built as a temporary site and is now faced with many redundant buildings. Prior to 2004 small amounts of Decommissioning work was in progress. Many reasons for deferring decommissioning activities were used with the predominant ones being: 1. Reduction in radiation doses to workers during the final dismantlement, 2. Development of a long-term solution for the management of radioactive wastes in Canada, 3. Financial constraints presented by the number of facilities shutdown that would require decommissioning funds and the absence of an approved funding strategy. This has led to the development of a comprehensive decommissioning plan that is all inclusive of AECL's current and legacy liabilities. Canada does not have a long-term disposal site; therefore waste minimization becomes the driving factor behind decontamination for decommissioning before and during dismantlement. This decommissioning job was a great learning experience for decommissioning and the associated contractors who worked on this project. Throughout the life of the project there was a constant focus on waste minimization. This focus was constantly in conflict with regulatory compliance primarily with respect to fire regulations and protecting the facility along with adjacent facilities during the decommissioning activities. Discrepancies in historical documents forced the project to treat every space as a contaminated space until proven differently. Decommissioning and dismantlement within an operating site adds to the complexity of the tasks especially when it is being conducted in the heart of the plant. This project was very successful with no lost time accidents in over one hundred

  17. Identification of potential regional sources of atmospheric total gaseous mercury in Windsor, Ontario, Canada using hybrid receptor modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, X.; Akhtar, U. S.

    2009-11-01

    Windsor (Ontario) - the automotive capital of Canada does not have any significant mercury (Hg) sources. However, Windsor experiences trans-boundary air pollution as it is located immediately downwind of industrialized regions of the United States of America. A study was conducted in 2007 aimed to identify the potential regional sources of total gaseous mercury (TGM) and investigate the effects of regional sources and other factors on seasonal variability of TGM concentrations in Windsor. TGM concentration was measured at the University of Windsor campus using a Tekran® 2537A Hg vapour analyzer. An annual mean of 2.02±1.63 ng/m3 was observed in 2007. The average TGM concentration was high in the summer (2.48 ng/m3) and winter (2.17 ng/m3), compared to spring (1.88 ng/m3) and fall (1.76 ng/m3). Hybrid receptor modeling potential source contribution function (PSCF) was used by incorporating 72-h backward trajectories and measurements of TGM in Windsor. The results of PSCF were analyzed in conjunction with the Hg emissions inventory of North America (by state/province) to identify regions affecting Windsor. In addition to annual modeling, seasonal PSCF modeling was also conducted. The potential source region was identified between 24-61° N and 51-143° W. Annual PSCF modeling identified major sources southwest of Windsor, stretching from Ohio to Texas. The emissions inventory also supported the findings, as Hg emissions were high in those regions. Results of seasonal PSCF modeling were analyzed to find the combined effects of regional sources, meteorological conditions, and surface reemissions, on intra-annual variability of Hg concentrations. It was found that the summer and winter highs of atmospheric Hg can be attributed to areas where large numbers of coal fired power plants are located in the USA. Weak atmospheric dispersion due to low winds and high reemission from surfaces due to higher temperatures contributed to high concentrations in the summer. In the

  18. Effects of geodemographic profiles on healthcare service utilization: a case study on cardiac care in Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although literature has associated geodemographic factors with healthcare service utilization, little is known about how these factors — such as population size, age profile, service accessibility, and educational profile — interact to influence service utilization. This study fills this gap in the literature by examining both the direct and the moderating effects of geodemographic profiles on the utilization of cardiac surgery services. Methods We aggregated secondary data obtained from Statistics Canada and Cardiac Care Network of Ontario to derive the geodemographic profiles of Ontario and the corresponding cardiac surgery service utilization in the years between 2004 and 2007. We conducted a two-step test using Partial Least Squares-based structural equation modeling to investigate the relationships between geodemographic profiles and healthcare service utilization. Results Population size and age profile have direct positive effects on service utilization (β=0.737, p<0.01; β=0.284, p<0.01, respectively), whereas service accessibility is negatively associated with service utilization (β=−0.210, p<0.01). Service accessibility decreases the effect of population size on service utilization (β=−0.606, p<0.01), and educational profile weakens the effects of population size and age profile on service utilization (β=−0.595, p<0.01; β=−0.286, p<0.01, respectively). Conclusions In this study, we found that (1) service accessibility has a moderating effect on the relationship between population size and service utilization, and (2) educational profile has moderating effects on both the relationship between population size and service utilization, and the relationship between age profile and service utilization. Our findings suggest that reducing regional disparities in healthcare service utilization should take into account the interaction of geodemographic factors such as service accessibility and education. In addition, the allocation of

  19. Uncovering the hidden part of a large ice stream of the Laurentide Ice Sheet, northern Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veillette, J. J.; Roy, M.; Paulen, R. C.; Ménard, M.; St-Jacques, G.

    2017-01-01

    This investigation was prompted by an enigmatic ice-flow anomaly (Area A) on the Glacial Map of Canada which covers about 10 000 km2 in the Hearst/Kapuskasing area of northeastern Ontario. It consists of streamlined landforms and striations indicative of a major ice flow toward 130° oriented at right angle to another toward 220°. Both are late glacial flows but long-lasting disagreement exists regarding their relative age. The analysis of aerial photographs and satellite images in conjunction with a detailed survey of bedrock cross-striated surfaces over an area of about 30 000 km2 within and around Area A clearly indicate that the 130° flow preceded the 220° flow. The earlier conflicting interpretations within Area A are attributed mainly to the sporadic occurrence of relict striated surfaces formed by older southwestward (220°-240°) Wisconsinan ice flows that have locally escaped destruction by late glacial flows, with the result that the southwestward flows are older (Wisconsinan) at some sites and younger (late glacial 220°) at others relative to the 130° flow. When considered with other factors such as the maximum elevation reached by the youngest late glacial flow, these ice-flow relationships indicate that Area A is the outcropping southern part of a much larger ESE ice-flow system, which is probably related to a large fluted belt located to the north and that was identified as the Winisk Ice Stream. The distal part of the ice stream, except for Area A, escaped detection by remote sensing mapping methods because depositional and erosional features associated with it are masked by deposits laid down by the younger (220°, Cochrane) ice flow and/or by postglacial marine and organic deposits (or were destroyed by the younger ice flow). The only reliable indicators of the passage of the ice stream in this "buried" section are ESE relict striations crossed by SW striations. The advancing ice stream toward the ESE not only preceded the late Cochrane 220

  20. Analyzing remote sensing geobotanical trends in Quetico Provincial Park, Ontario, Canada, using digital elevation data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warner, Timothy A.; Campagna, David J.; Levandowski, Don W.; Cetin, Haluk; Evans, Carla S.

    1991-01-01

    A 10 x 13-km area in Quetico Provincial Park, Canada has been studied using a digital elevation model to separate different drainage classes and to examine the influence of site factors and lithology on vegetation. Landsat Thematic Mapper data have been classified into six forest classes of varying deciduous-coniferous cover through nPDF, a procedure based on probability density functions. It is shown that forests growing on mafic lithologies are enriched in deciduous species, compared to those growing on granites. Of the forest classes found on mafics, the highest coniferous component was on north facing slopes, and the highest deciduous component on south facing slopes. Granites showed no substantial variation between site classes. The digital elevation derived site data is considered to be an important tool in geobotanical investigations.

  1. Carbon dynamics on agricultural land reverting to woody land in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Voicu, Mihai F; Shaw, Cindy; Kurz, Werner A; Huffman, Ted; Liu, Jiangui; Fellows, Max

    2017-02-21

    The 2015 Paris Agreement reinforces the importance of the land sector and its contribution to greenhouse gas (GHG) reductions. Thus, there is growing interest in improving estimates of the GHG balance in response to land-use changes (LUCs) involving agriculture and forestry, for national-scale reporting, and for carbon (C) offsets. Large agricultural areas in Europe, Russia and North America are reverting to forest, either naturally or through planting, after abandonment of agricultural land, and this trend may have a substantial impact on carbon budgets. We report results of a pilot project in the Mixedwood Plains ecozone of eastern Canada to analyze the change in the C budget on a landscape over 15 years on abandoned cropland where woody vegetation is regenerating. Thirty-six plots (2 km × 2 km) with paired aerial photographs taken circa 1994 and circa 2008 at a scale of 1:10,000 or larger were randomly selected from the 20 km × 20 km National Forest Inventory (NFI) grid. A spatially-explicit version of the Carbon Budget Model of the Canadian Forest Sector (CBM-CFS3) was used to estimate impacts of LUC on C stocks and fluxes. Polygons identifying areas of LUC within each photo plot were delineated, classified, and evaluated to provide input data for the model. The rate of C accumulation in our study area was found to be relatively constant over the entire simulation period, at 1.07 Mg C/ha/yr. Abandoned agricultural land reverting to woody lands could play an important role in regional and national C sequestration in Canada, but more research is required to quantify the areal extent of this LUC.

  2. Modeling regional groundwater flow in a peat bog complex in Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durejka, Stefan; Knorr, KLaus-Holger; Blodau, Christian; Frei, Sven

    2013-04-01

    Peatlands are important ecohydrological systems and contribute significantly to the global carbon cycle. They function as carbon sinks through CO2-sequestration but also emit methane depending i.a. on the prevailing hydrological structures. Knowledge of their hydrology including exchange between the groundwater and surface water domain is thus necessary to understand wetland environments and to determine their vulnerability to climate changes. The impact of proposed wetter conditions on wetland hydrological homeostastis in northern bogs is uncertain to this date. Elevated water tables due to changing hydrological flow patterns may affect the characteristics of wetlands as a carbon reservoir. Modeling approaches allow quantifying and qualifying of these flow patterns on a longer time scale. Luther Bog is located in Southern Ontario. The ombotrophic bog to poor fen is partially bordered by Luther Lake which inundates the area since its creation in 1952. In this study the interaction between the wetland and the adjacent lake is modeled using the fully-integrated HydroGeoSphere model. A transient three-dimensional groundwater mode is set up for a small catchment with the lake level implemented as a constant-head boundary condition. Hydraulic properties of the peat were estimated executing bail tests on multilevel piezometers at different sites within the wetland. The first hypothesis is that the wet conditions in the runoff network keep the water table in the wetland high over a specific transition zone. The Second is that there may be a reversal of flow directions over the hydrological year, due to varying boundary conditions, e.g. evapotranspiration and precipitation. First results indicate that exchange rates may be very slow. This is supported by manual measurements of little hydraulic gradients and little topographic gradients. The results also show a seasonal effect in flow directions in both, the groundwater and the surface water domain. The model will be tested

  3. Element mobility and partitioning along a soil acidity gradient in central Ontario forests, Canada.

    PubMed

    Watmough, Shaun A

    2008-10-01

    The potential environmental risk posed by metals in forest soils is typically evaluated by modeling metal mobility using soil-solution partitioning coefficients (K(d)), although such information is generally restricted to a few well-studied metals. Soil-solution partitioning coefficients were determined for 17 mineral elements (Al, As, Be, Ba, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ga, K, Li, Mg, Rb, Sr, Tl, U and V) in A-horizon (0-5 cm) soil at 46 forested sites that border the Precambrian Shield in central Ontario, where soil pH(aq) varied from 3.9 to 8.1. Sites were dominated by mature sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.), white birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.), balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.) or white pine (Pinus strobus L.). Log K(d) values for all elements could be predicted by empirical linear regression with soil pH (r(2) = 0.17-0.77) independent of forest type, although this relationship was greatly affected by positive relationships between acid-extractable metal concentration and pH(aq) for 13 of the 17 elements. Elements that exhibited strong or moderate (r(2) > 0.29; p < 0.001) relationships with soil pH(aq) in soil water extracts include Al, Ba, Fe, Ga, K, Li, Rb, Tl, V (negative) and Ca (positive). Elemental partitioning in mineral soil was independent of forest type; tree species differed in their response to chemical differences in mineral soil. For example, Rb, Ba, and Sr concentrations in foliage of sugar maple and white birch significantly increased with increasing soil acidity, whereas Rb, Ba, and Sr concentrations in balsam fir and white pine foliage exhibited no response to soil pH(aq). While K(d) values can provide useful information on the potential mobility and bioavailability of mineral elements in forest soils, care must be used when interpreting the relative contribution of solid and aqueous phases to this relationship and the differing responses of vegetation in elemental cycling in forests must also be considered.

  4. Enigmatic diamonds in Archean calc-alkaline lamprophyres of Wawa, southern Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Stefano, Andrea; Lefebvre, Nathalie; Kopylova, Maya

    2006-02-01

    A suite of 80 macrodiamonds recovered from volcaniclastic breccia of Wawa (southern Ontario) was characterized on the basis of morphology, nitrogen content and aggregation, cathodoluminescence (CL), and mineral inclusions. The host calc-alkaline lamprophyric breccias were emplaced at 2.68-2.74 Ga, contemporaneously with voluminous bimodal volcanism of the Michipicoten greenstone belt. The studied suite of diamonds differs from the vast majority of diamond suites found worldwide. First, the suite is hosted by calc-alkaline lamprophyric volcanics rather than by kimberlite or lamproite. Second, the host volcanic rock is amongst the oldest known diamondiferous rocks on Earth, and has experienced regional metamorphism and deformation. Finally, most diamonds show yellow-orange-red CL and contain mineral inclusions not in equilibrium with each other or their host diamond. The majority of the diamonds in the Wawa suite are colorless, weakly resorbed, octahedral single crystals and aggregates. The diamonds contain 0-740 ppm N and show two modes of N aggregation at 0-30 and 60-95% B-centers suggesting mantle storage at 1,100-1,170°C. Cathodoluminescence and FTIR spectroscopy shows that emission peaks present in orange CL stones do not likely result from irradiation or single substitutional N, in contrast to other diamonds with red CL. The diamonds contain primary inclusions of olivine (Fo92 and Fo89), omphacite, orthopyroxene (En93), pentlandite, albite, and An-rich plagioclase. These peridotitic and eclogitic minerals are commonly found within single diamonds in a mixed paragenesis which also combines shallow and deep phases. This apparent disequilibrium can be explained by effective small-scale mixing of subducted oceanic crust and mantle rocks in fast “cold” plumes ascending from the top of the slabs in convergent margins. Alternatively, the diamonds could have formed in the pre-2.7-2.9 Ga cratonic mantle and experienced subsequent alteration of syngenetic inclusions

  5. The Ontario Secondary Education Review Project: An Analysis of a Provincial Strategy for Educational Change in the 1980's in the Province of Ontario, Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nediger, W. G.

    A study was developed in an effort to generate a series of reports dealing with assessment, evaluation, reaction, and design of secondary education programs in the Canadian province of Ontario. The study objectives included: (1) defining educational goals commensurate with student ability; (2) preparing students for the future; (3) reassessing…

  6. Leprosy-like illness in a patient with Mycobacterium lepromatosis from Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Jessamine, Peter G; Desjardins, Marc; Gillis, Tom; Scollard, David; Jamieson, Frances; Broukhanski, George; Chedore, Pam; McCarthy, Anne

    2012-02-01

    Here we present the first case of a patient from Ottawa Canada, presenting with leprosy-like illness associated with Mycobacterium lepromatosis. The patient had no history of travel to leprosy-endemic areas or any obvious risk factors. Clinically, the patient presented with an anesthetic maculopapular rash on the trunk, back, and extremities. A skin biopsy of a lesion revealed a dermal lymphohistiocytic infiltration involving the vessels with an inflammatory process extending to the nerves. A neurological exam also identified a severe sensorimotor polyneuropathy. Concurrently, the patient was diagnosed with non-resectable, non small cell carcinoma of the lung, further complicating his clinical presentation. A Kinyoun stain of nasal blows and a Fite stain of the skin biopsy revealed few to moderate acid fast bacilli respectively. Cultures of the skin biopsy and multiple nasal blows were negative. Molecular studies of a skin biopsy sample including sequence analysis of a 765 bp region of the 16s rRNA gene eventually identified the organism with 100% homology to M. lepromatosis. The patient was treated for leprosy and appeared to improve slightly on therapy but died as a result of his malignancy approximately five months after the initiation of therapy. This represents the first case of a patient with M. lepromatosis like illness outside of Mexico and Singapore.

  7. Active tuberculosis among homeless persons, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 1998-2007.

    PubMed

    Khan, Kamran; Rea, Elizabeth; McDermaid, Cameron; Stuart, Rebecca; Chambers, Catharine; Wang, Jun; Chan, Angie; Gardam, Michael; Jamieson, Frances; Yang, Jae; Hwang, Stephen W

    2011-03-01

    While tuberculosis (TB) in Canadian cities is increasingly affecting foreign-born persons, homeless persons remain at high risk. To assess trends in TB, we studied all homeless persons in Toronto who had a diagnosis of active TB during 1998-2007. We compared Canada-born and foreign-born homeless persons and assessed changes over time. We identified 91 homeless persons with active TB; they typically had highly contagious, advanced disease, and 19% died within 12 months of diagnosis. The proportion of homeless persons who were foreign-born increased from 24% in 1998-2002 to 39% in 2003-2007. Among foreign-born homeless persons with TB, 56% of infections were caused by strains not known to circulate among homeless persons in Toronto. Only 2% of infections were resistant to first-line TB medications. The rise in foreign-born homeless persons with TB strains likely acquired overseas suggests that the risk for drug-resistant strains entering the homeless shelter system may be escalating.

  8. Natural abundance of Sb and Sc in pristine groundwaters, Springwater Township, Ontario, Canada, and implications for tracing contamination from landfill leachates.

    PubMed

    Shotyk, William; Krachler, Michael; Chen, Bin; Zheng, James

    2005-12-01

    Using ICP-SMS and the clean lab methods and procedures developed for determining trace element concentrations in polar snow and ice, a lower limit of detection (LOD) of 30 pg l(-1) for Sb and 5 pg l(-1) for Sc was achieved, allowing the natural abundances of Sb and Sc to be measured in pristine groundwaters. Water samples were collected from natural flows and wells between Elmvale and Wyevale in Springwater Township, Ontario, Canada. The water in this region is derived from chemical reactions between meteoric fluids and the Quaternary sediments which cover the bedrock (dolomitic limestone) to depths of more than 100 m. The chemical composition of these waters (pH 8) is primarily a reflection of reactions between the percolating fluids with calcite and dolomite. The maximum concentration of Sb was 5.0 ng l(-1), and the average of all samples collected was 2.2 +/- 1.2 ng l(-1) (n = 34). The average concentration of Sc was 8.6 +/- 4.7 ng l(-1) (n = 28). The paucity of published Sb concentration data available for comparison is probably because most of the analytical methods commonly used to date, including GFAAS, HG-AAS, HG-AFS, INAA, and ICP-QMS, have lower limits of detection which are inadequate for reliably determining the natural abundance of Sb in many uncontaminated groundwaters. Also, the measurement of extremely low concentrations of Sb requires extra care to avoid possible contamination. Given the extensive use of Sb in plastics, we show that some of the containers used to collect and store samples, and for handling and preparing samples for chemical analyses, may be important sources of contamination in the laboratory. The Sb and Sc concentrations reported here should serve as reference values for this region, against which contamination by various human impacts in future could be compared.

  9. Dietary N-nitroso compounds and risk of colorectal cancer: a case-control study in Newfoundland and Labrador and Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yun; Wang, Peizhon Peter; Zhao, Jing; Green, Roger; Sun, Zhuoyu; Roebothan, Barbara; Squires, Josh; Buehler, Sharon; Dicks, Elizabeth; Zhao, Jinhui; Cotterchio, Michelle; Campbell, Peter T; Jain, Meera; Parfrey, Patrick S; Mclaughlin, John R

    2014-03-28

    Several N-nitroso compounds (NOC) have been shown to be carcinogenic in a variety of laboratory animals, but evidence of their carcinogenicity in humans is lacking. We aimed to examine the association between NOC intake and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk and possible effect modification by vitamins C and E and protein in a large case-control study carried out in Newfoundland and Labrador and Ontario, Canada. A total of 1760 case patients with pathologically confirmed adenocarcinoma and 2481 population controls were asked to complete a self-administered FFQ to evaluate their dietary intakes 1 year before diagnosis (for cases) or interview (for controls). Adjusted OR and 95 % CI were calculated across the quintiles of NOC (measured by N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA)) intake and relevant food items using unconditional logistic regression. NDMA intake was found to be associated with a higher risk of CRC (highest v. lowest quintiles: OR 1·42, 95 % CI 1·03, 1·96; P for trend = 0·005), specifically for rectal carcinoma (OR 1·61, 95 % CI 1·11, 2·35; P for trend = 0·01). CRC risk also increased with the consumption of NDMA-containing meats when the highest tertile was compared with the lowest tertile (OR 1·47, 95 % CI 1·03, 2·10; P for trend = 0·20). There was evidence of effect modification between dietary vitamin E and NDMA. Individuals with high NDMA and low vitamin E intakes had a significantly increased risk than those with both low NDMA and low vitamin E intakes (OR 3·01, 95 % CI 1·43, 6·51; P for interaction = 0·017). The present results support the hypothesis that NOC intake may be positively associated with CRC risk in humans. Vitamin E, which inhibits nitrosation, could modify the effect of NDMA on CRC risk.

  10. Dietary N-nitroso compounds and risk of colorectal cancer: a case-control study in Newfoundland and Labrador and Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yun; Wang, Peizhong Peter; Zhao, Jing; Green, Roger; Sun, Zhuoyu; Roebothan, Barbara; Squires, Josh; Buehler, Sharon; Dicks, Elizabeth; Zhao, Jinhui; Cotterchio, Michelle; Campbell, Peter T.; Jain, Meera; Parfrey, Patrick S.; Mclaughlin, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Several N-nitroso compounds (NOC) have been shown to be carcinogenic in a variety of laboratory animals, but evidence of their carcinogenicity in humans is lacking. We aimed to examine the association between NOC intake and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk and possible effect modification by vitamins C and E and protein in a large case-control study carried out in Newfoundland and Labrador, and Ontario, Canada. A total of 1760 case patients with pathologically confirmed adenocarcinoma and 2481 population controls were asked to complete a self-administered FFQ to evaluate their dietary intakes 1 year before diagnosis (for cases) or interview (for controls). Adjusted OR and 95% CI were calculated across the quintiles of NOC (measured by N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA)) intake and relevant food items using unconditional logistic regression. NDMA intake was found to be associated with a higher risk of CRC (highest vs lowest quintiles, OR: 1.42; 95% CI: 1.03,1.96; p-trend=0.005), specifically for rectal carcinoma (OR: 1.61; 95% CI: 1.11,2.35; p-trend=0.01). CRC risk also increased with the consumption of NDMA-containing meats when the highest tertile was compared with the lowest tertile (OR: 1.47; 95% CI: 1.03,2.10; p-trend=0.20). There was evidence of effect modification between dietary vitamin E and NDMA. Individuals with high NDMA and low vitamin E intakes had a significantly increased risk than those with both low NDMA and vitamin E intakes (OR:3.01; 95% CI: 1.43,6.51; p-interaction=0.017). The present results support the hypothesis that NOC intake may be positively associated with CRC risk in humans. Vitamin E, which inhibits nitrosation, could modify the effect of NDMA on CRC risk. PMID:24160559

  11. High-density baiting with ONRAB® rabies vaccine baits to control Arctic-variant rabies in striped skunks in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Rosatte, R C; Donovan, D; Davies, J C; Brown, L; Allan, M; von Zuben, V; Bachmann, P; Sobey, K; Silver, A; Bennett, K; Buchanan, T; Bruce, L; Gibson, M; Purvis, M; Beresford, A; Beath, A; Fehlner-Gardiner, C

    2011-04-01

    The Arctic variant of rabies virus has been maintained in striped skunks in small foci in southwestern Ontario, Canada, despite the control of the disease in red foxes. To control the disease in skunks, high-density baiting with ONRAB(®) oral rabies vaccine baits was conducted by air and by hand distribution of baits in the vicinity of skunk cases. During 2009, antibody prevalences in skunks were higher in areas baited at a density of 300 baits/km(2) and flight-line spacing of 0.25 km than at 0.5-km spacing. Once an area containing Arctic-variant cases was treated with high densities of ONRAB baits, the disease did not reoccur in skunks in those areas. During 2009, only eight skunks were diagnosed with the Arctic variant of rabies virus in Ontario.

  12. Retrograde fluids in the Archean Shawmere anorthosite, Kapuskasing Structural Zone, Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamb, William M.; Morrison, Jean

    The Archean Shawmere anorthosite lies within the granulite facies portion of the Kapuskasing Structural Zone (KSZ), Ontario, and is crosscut by numerous linear alteration veins containing calcite+quartz+/- dolomite+/-zoisite+/-clinozoisite+/-margarite+/-paragonite+/-chlorite. These veins roughly parallel the trend of the Ivanhoe Lake Cataclastic Zone. Equilibria involving clinozoisite+margarite+quartz+/-calcite +/-plagioclase show that the vein minerals were stable at T<600°C, XCO2<0.4 at P 6kbar. The stabilities of margarite and paragonite in equilibrium with quartz are also consistent with T<600°C and XCO2<0.4 at 6kbar. Additional assemblages consisting of calcite+ clinochlore+quartz+talc+margarite indicate T<500°C with XCO2>0.9. Thus, vein formation, while clearly retrograde, spanned a range of temperatures, and fluid compositions evolved from H2O-rich to CO2-rich. The calcite in the retrograde veins has δ18O values that range from 8.4 to 11.2‰ (average=+9.7+/-0.9‰) and δ13C values that range from -3.9 to -1.6‰ (average=-3.1+/-0.6‰). These values indicate that the fluids from which calcite precipitated underwent extensive exchange with the anorthosite and other crustal lithologies. The fluids may have been initially derived either from devolatilization of metamorphic rocks or crystallization of igneous rocks in the adjacent Abitibi subprovince. Vein quartz contains CO2-rich fluid inclusions (final melting T=-57.0 to -58.7°C) that range in size from 5 to 17 μm. Measured homogenization temperatures (T h) range from -44.0 to 14.5°C, however for most inclusions (46 of S1), T h=-44.0 to -21.1°C (ρCO2 1.13 to 1.05g/cm3). At 400 to 600°C, these densities correspond to pressures of 3.5 to 7 kbar, which is the best estimate of pressures of vein formation. It has been argued that some high density CO2-rich fluid inclusions found in the KSZ were formed during peak metamorphism and thus document the presence of a CO2-rich fluid during peak granulite

  13. Impact of long-term flooding on the hydrology and carbon biogeochemistry of a northern bog in Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blodau, Christian; Welchering, Lieselotte; Kasparbauer, Klaus; Durejka, Stefan; Knorr, Klaus-Holger

    2014-05-01

    Climate change and impoundment construction may lead to rising water tables in many northern peatlands. In this study the hydrological and biogeochemical effects of flooding were analyzed at a peatland in southern Ontario, Canada, that was partly flooded 60 years ago. By a comparison of sites of increasing distance to the lake, the effects of inundation on the peatland biogeochemistry were identified. The approximate range of lake water intrusion into the peatland was determined using 18O in water. Furthermore the local hydrology was analyzed by quantifying distributions of hydraulic conductivity and small-scale groundwater flow patterns. By measuring nitrate, phosphate, ammonium, sulfate and DIC, CH4 and DOC in the lake and groundwater the chemical and biogeochemical influence of the inundation was determined. Gas fluxes of CO2 and CH4 at the site were quantified using a static chamber approach. The findings indicate that the infiltration of water from the lake at these sites occurred in time periods of higher lake levels. During summer these locations were only fed by precipitation and the previously infiltrated surface water was diluted or replaced. Nutrient concentrations in the lake water were generally lower compared to the peat pore water. The main solute entering the peatland with the intrusion was sulfate, which also influenced methane concentration patterns. Vertical flow seemed to be an important hydraulic process and control on solute transport at the study site, which has not been described to this extent previously. Additionally, indications for a discharge of groundwater into the peat during a flow reversal were found, though the assumed low permeability of underlying layers should not allow for this process. While the impact of reservoir creation on hydrologic processes appeared to be limited, the changes in water table, soil moisture and vegetation patterns had large impacts on trance gas fluxes to the atmosphere, especially on methane, whose

  14. Primary Care Physician Panel Size and Quality of Care: A Population-Based Study in Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Dahrouge, Simone; Hogg, William; Younger, Jaime; Muggah, Elizabeth; Russell, Grant; Glazier, Richard H.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between the number of patients under a primary care physician’s care (panel size) and primary care quality indicators. METHODS We conducted a cross-sectional, population-based study of fee-for-service and capitated interprofessional and non-interprofessional primary health care practices in Ontario, Canada between April 2008 and March 2010, encompassing 4,195 physicians with panel sizes ≥1,200 serving 8.3 million patients. Data was extracted from multiple linked, health-related administrative databases and covered 16 quality indicators spanning 5 dimensions of care: access, continuity, comprehensiveness, and evidence-based indicators of cancer screening and chronic disease management. RESULTS The likelihood of being up-to-date on cervical, colorectal, and breast cancer screening showed relative decreases of 7.9% (P <.001), 5.9% (P = .01), and 4.6% (P <.001), respectively, with increasing panel size (from 1,200 to 3,900). Eight chronic care indicators (4 medication-based and 4 screening-based) showed no significant association with panel size. The likelihood of individuals with a new diagnosis of congestive heart failure having an echocardiogram, however, increased by a relative 8.1% (P <.001) with higher panel size. Increasing panel size was also associated with a 10.8% relative increase in hospitalization rates for ambulatory-care–sensitive conditions (P = .04) and a 10.8% decrease in non-urgent emergency department visits (P = .004). Continuity was highest with medium panel sizes (P <.001), and comprehensiveness had a small decrease (P = .03) with increasing panel size. CONCLUSIONS Increasing panel size was associated with small decreases in cancer screening, continuity, and comprehensiveness, but showed no consistent relationships with chronic disease management or access indicators. We found no panel size threshold above which quality of care suffered. PMID:26755780

  15. Drivers of Change in a 7300-Year Holocene Diatom Record from the Hemi-Boreal Region of Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Beck, Kristen K; Medeiros, Andrew S; Finkelstein, Sarah A

    2016-01-01

    A Holocene lake sediment record spanning the past 7300 years from Wishart Lake in the Turkey Lakes Watershed in the Hemi-Boreal of central Ontario, Canada, was used to evaluate the potential drivers of long-term change in diatom assemblages at this site. An analysis of diatom assemblages found that benthic and epiphytic taxa dominated the mid-Holocene (7300-4000 cal yr BP), indicating shallow, oligotrophic, circum-neutral conditions, with macrophytes present. A significant shift in diatom assemblages towards more planktonic species (mainly Cyclotella sensu lato, but also several species of Aulacoseira, and Tabellaria flocculosa) occurred ~4000 cal yr BP. This change likely reflects an increase in lake level, coincident with the onset of a more strongly positive moisture balance following the drier climates of the middle Holocene, established by numerous regional paleoclimate records. Pollen-inferred regional changes in vegetation around 4000 yrs BP, including an increase in Betula and other mesic taxa, may have also promoted changes in diatom assemblages through watershed processes mediated by the chemistry of runoff. A more recent significant change in limnological conditions is marked by further increases in Cyclotella sensu lato beginning in the late 19th century, synchronous with the Ambrosia pollen rise and increases in sediment bulk density, signaling regional and local land clearance at the time of Euro-Canadian settlement (1880 AD). In contrast to the mid-Holocene increase in planktonic diatoms, the modern increase in Cyclotella sensu lato likely indicates a response to land use and vegetation change, and erosion from the watershed, rather than a further increase in water level. The results from Wishart Lake illustrate the close connection between paleoclimate change, regional vegetation, watershed processes, and diatom assemblages and also provides insight into the controls on abundance of Cyclotella sensu lato, a diatom taxonomic group which has shown

  16. Geography, deer, and host biodiversity shape the pattern of Lyme disease emergence in the Thousand Islands Archipelago of Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Werden, Lisa; Barker, Ian K; Bowman, Jeff; Gonzales, Emily K; Leighton, Patrick A; Lindsay, L Robbin; Jardine, Claire M

    2014-01-01

    In the Thousand Islands region of eastern Ontario, Canada, Lyme disease is emerging as a serious health risk. The factors that influence Lyme disease risk, as measured by the number of blacklegged tick (Ixodes scapularis) vectors infected with Borrelia burgdorferi, are complex and vary across eastern North America. Despite study sites in the Thousand Islands being in close geographic proximity, host communities differed and both the abundance of ticks and the prevalence of B. burgdorferi infection in them varied among sites. Using this archipelago in a natural experiment, we examined the relative importance of various biotic and abiotic factors, including air temperature, vegetation, and host communities on Lyme disease risk in this zone of recent invasion. Deer abundance and temperature at ground level were positively associated with tick abundance, whereas the number of ticks in the environment, the prevalence of B. burgdorferi infection, and the number of infected nymphs all decreased with increasing distance from the United States, the presumed source of this new endemic population of ticks. Higher species richness was associated with a lower number of infected nymphs. However, the relative abundance of Peromyscus leucopus was an important factor in modulating the effects of species richness such that high biodiversity did not always reduce the number of nymphs or the prevalence of B. burgdorferi infection. Our study is one of the first to consider the interaction between the relative abundance of small mammal hosts and species richness in the analysis of the effects of biodiversity on disease risk, providing validation for theoretical models showing both dilution and amplification effects. Insights into the B. burgdorferi transmission cycle in this zone of recent invasion will also help in devising management strategies as this important vector-borne disease expands its range in North America.

  17. Distribution and Diversity of Escherichia coli Populations in the South Nation River Drainage Basin, Eastern Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Lyautey, Emilie; Lu, Zexun; Lapen, David R.; Wilkes, Graham; Scott, Andrew; Berkers, Tanya; Edge, Thomas A.; Topp, Edward

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the prevalence and diversity of Escherichia coli strains isolated from surface waters from multiple watersheds within the South Nation River basin in eastern Ontario, Canada. The basin is composed of mixed but primarily agricultural land uses. From March 2004 to November 2007, a total of 2,004 surface water samples were collected from 24 sampling sites. E. coli densities ranged from undetectable to 1.64 × 105 CFU 100 ml−1 and were correlated with stream order and proximity to livestock production systems. The diversity of 21,307 E. coli isolates was characterized using repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR (rep-PCR), allowing for the identification of as many as 7,325 distinct genotypes, without capturing all of the diversity. The community was temporally and spatially dominated by a few dominant genotypes (clusters of more than 500 isolates) and several genotypes of intermediary abundance (clustering between 10 and 499 isolates). Simpson diversity indices, assessed on a normalized number of isolates per sample, ranged from 0.050 to 0.668. Simpson indices could be statistically discriminated on the basis of year and stream order, but land use, discharge, weather, and water physical-chemical properties were not statistically important discriminators. The detection of Campylobacter species was associated with statistically lower Simpson indices (greater diversity; P < 0.05). Waterborne E. coli isolates from genotypes of dominant and intermediary abundance were clustered with isolates obtained from fecal samples collected in the study area over the same period, and 90% of the isolates tested proved to share genotypes with fecal isolates. Overall, our data indicated that the densities and distribution of E. coli in these mixed-use watersheds were linked to stream order and livestock-based land uses. Waterborne E. coli populations that were distinct from fecal isolates were detected and, on this basis, were possibly naturalized E. coli strains. PMID

  18. Antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter, Salmonella, and Escherichia coli isolated from retail grain-fed veal meat from Southern Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Cook, Angela; Reid-Smith, Richard J; Irwin, Rebecca J; McEwen, Scott A; Young, Virginia; Ribble, Carl

    2011-08-01

    This study estimated the prevalence of Salmonella, Campylobacter, and Escherichia coli isolates in fresh retail grain-fed veal obtained in Ontario, Canada. The prevalence and antimicrobial resistance patterns were examined for points of public health significance. Veal samples (n = 528) were collected from February 2003 through May 2004. Twenty-one Salmonella isolates were recovered from 18 (4%) of 438 samples and underwent antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Resistance to one or more antimicrobials was found in 6 (29%) of 21 Salmonella isolates; 5 (24%) of 21 isolates were resistant to five or more antimicrobials. No resistance to antimicrobials of very high human health importance was observed. Ampicillin-chloramphenicolstreptomycin-sulfamethoxazole-tetracycline resistance was found in 5 (3%) of 21 Salmonella isolates. Campylobacter isolates were recovered from 5 (1%) of 438 samples; 6 isolates underwent antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Resistance to one or more antimicrobials was documented in 3 (50%) of 6 Campylobacter isolates. No Campylobacter isolates were resistant to five or more antimicrobials or category I antimicrobials. E. coli isolates were recovered from 387 (88%) of 438 samples; 1,258 isolates underwent antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Resistance to one or more antimicrobials was found in 678 (54%) of 1,258 E. coli isolates; 128 (10%) of 1,258 were resistant to five or more antimicrobials. Five (0.4%) and 7 (0.6%) of 1,258 E. coli isolates were resistant to ceftiofur and ceftriaxone, respectively, while 34 (3%) of 1,258 were resistant to nalidixic acid. Ciprofloxacin resistance was not detected. There were 101 different resistance patterns observed among E. coli isolates; resistance to tetracycline alone (12.7%, 161 of 1,258) was most frequently observed. This study provides baseline prevalence and antimicrobial resistance data and highlights potential public health concerns.

  19. Life cycle emissions and cost of producing electricity from coal, natural gas, and wood pellets in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yimin; McKechnie, Jon; Cormier, Denis; Lyng, Robert; Mabee, Warren; Ogino, Akifumi; Maclean, Heather L

    2010-01-01

    The use of coal is responsible for (1)/(5) of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Substitution of coal with biomass fuels is one of a limited set of near-term options to significantly reduce these emissions. We investigate, on a life cycle basis, 100% wood pellet firing and cofiring with coal in two coal generating stations (GS) in Ontario, Canada. GHG and criteria air pollutant emissions are compared with current coal and hypothetical natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) facilities. 100% pellet utilization provides the greatest GHG benefit on a kilowatt-hour basis, reducing emissions by 91% and 78% relative to coal and NGCC systems, respectively. Compared to coal, using 100% pellets reduces NO(x) emissions by 40-47% and SO(x) emissions by 76-81%. At $160/metric ton of pellets and $7/GJ natural gas, either cofiring or NGCC provides the most cost-effective GHG mitigation ($70 and $47/metric ton of CO2 equivalent, respectively). The differences in coal price, electricity generation cost, and emissions at the two GS are responsible for the different options being preferred. A sensitivity analysis on fuel costs reveals considerable overlap in results for all options. A lower pellet price ($100/metric ton) results in a mitigation cost of $34/metric ton of CO2 equivalent for 10% cofiring at one of the GS. The study results suggest that biomass utilization in coal GS should be considered for its potential to cost-effectively mitigate GHGs from coal-based electricity in the near term.

  20. Geography, Deer, and Host Biodiversity Shape the Pattern of Lyme Disease Emergence in the Thousand Islands Archipelago of Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Werden, Lisa; Barker, Ian K.; Bowman, Jeff; Gonzales, Emily K.; Leighton, Patrick A.; Lindsay, L. Robbin; Jardine, Claire M.

    2014-01-01

    In the Thousand Islands region of eastern Ontario, Canada, Lyme disease is emerging as a serious health risk. The factors that influence Lyme disease risk, as measured by the number of blacklegged tick (Ixodes scapularis) vectors infected with Borrelia burgdorferi, are complex and vary across eastern North America. Despite study sites in the Thousand Islands being in close geographic proximity, host communities differed and both the abundance of ticks and the prevalence of B. burgdorferi infection in them varied among sites. Using this archipelago in a natural experiment, we examined the relative importance of various biotic and abiotic factors, including air temperature, vegetation, and host communities on Lyme disease risk in this zone of recent invasion. Deer abundance and temperature at ground level were positively associated with tick abundance, whereas the number of ticks in the environment, the prevalence of B. burgdorferi infection, and the number of infected nymphs all decreased with increasing distance from the United States, the presumed source of this new endemic population of ticks. Higher species richness was associated with a lower number of infected nymphs. However, the relative abundance of Peromyscus leucopus was an important factor in modulating the effects of species richness such that high biodiversity did not always reduce the number of nymphs or the prevalence of B. burgdorferi infection. Our study is one of the first to consider the interaction between the relative abundance of small mammal hosts and species richness in the analysis of the effects of biodiversity on disease risk, providing validation for theoretical models showing both dilution and amplification effects. Insights into the B. burgdorferi transmission cycle in this zone of recent invasion will also help in devising management strategies as this important vector-borne disease expands its range in North America. PMID:24416435

  1. Paleomagnetism of the ~1.1 Ga Coldwell Complex (Ontario, Canada): Implications for Proterozoic geomagnetic field morphology and plate velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulakov, Evgeniy V.; Smirnov, Aleksey V.; Diehl, Jimmy F.

    2014-12-01

    We report new paleomagnetic data from the ~1108 Ma intrusive Coldwell Complex (Ontario, Canada) to investigate the apparent reversal asymmetry observed in some Midcontinent Rift (MCR) rocks. The rocks of eastern and central part of the complex are reversely magnetized with a group mean direction of D = 114.8°, I = -63.7° (α95 = 3.6°, N = 30). The corresponding paleomagnetic pole at Plat = 47.2°N, Plong = 206.5°E (A95 = 4.8°) is located close to the paleomagnetic poles from nearly coeval reversely magnetized rocks of the MCR system, including the lower lava flows at Mamainse Point. The rocks of western part of the complex are normally magnetized with a group mean direction (D = 298.0°, I = 56.9°, α95 = 5.8°, N = 10) that passes the reversal test with respect to the reversed group mean direction. Our results do not support the previous model in which the complex was emplaced during two periods of reversed geomagnetic field polarity separated by a period of normal polarity and hence encompasses two geomagnetic reversals. Instead, our new data indicate that the Coldwell Complex records only two polarity intervals separated by a symmetrical reversal at ~1102-1105 Ma. This reversal is likely equivalent to the lowermost reversal recorded at Mamainse Point and provides further evidence that the apparent reversal asymmetry reflects a plate motion rather than a persistent nondipole field geometry. Together with a high-quality data from the ~1098 Ma North Shore Volcanics, our data indicate a rapid velocity of Laurentia at ~25 ± 4 cm/yr. The fast plate motion may reflect a decreased mantle drag due to vigorous mantle indicated by widespread intraplate magmatism at ~1.1 Ga.

  2. Task shifting in the provision of home and social care in Ontario, Canada: implications for quality of care.

    PubMed

    Denton, Margaret; Brookman, Catherine; Zeytinoglu, Isik; Plenderleith, Jennifer; Barken, Rachel

    2015-09-01

    Growing healthcare costs have caused home-care providers to look for more efficient use of healthcare resources. Task shifting is suggested as a strategy to reduce the costs of delivering home-care services. Task shifting refers to the delegation or transfer of tasks from regulated healthcare professionals to home-care workers (HCWs). The purpose of this paper is to explore the impacts of task shifting on the quality of care provided to older adults from the perspectives of home healthcare workers. This qualitative study was completed in collaboration with a large home and community care organisation in Ontario, Canada, in 2010-2011. Using a purposive sampling strategy, semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with 46 home healthcare workers including HCWs, home-care worker supervisors, nurses and therapists. Study participants reported that the most common skills transferred or delegated to HCWs were transfers, simple wound care, exercises, catheterisation, colostomies, compression stockings, G-tube feeding and continence care. A thematic analysis of the data revealed mixed opinions on the impacts of task shifting on the quality of care. HCWs and their supervisors, more often than nurses and therapists, felt that task shifting improved the quality of care through the provision of more consistent care; the development of trust-based relationships with clients; and because task shifting reduced the number of care providers entering the client's home. Nurses followed by therapists, as well as some supervisors and HCWs, expressed concerns that task shifting might compromise the quality of care because HCWs lacked the knowledge, training and education necessary for more complex tasks, and that scheduling problems might leave clients with inconsistent care once tasks are delegated or transferred. Policy implications for regulating bodies, employers, unions and educators are discussed.

  3. Biogeochemical factors influencing net mercury methylation in contaminated freshwater sediments from the St. Lawrence River in Cornwall, Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Avramescu, Mary-Luyza; Yumvihoze, Emmanuel; Hintelmann, Holger; Ridal, Jeff; Fortin, Danielle; Lean, David R S

    2011-02-01

    The activity of various anaerobic microbes, including sulfate reducers (SRB), iron reducers (FeRP) and methanogens (MPA) has been linked to mercury methylation in aquatic systems, although the relative importance of each microbial group in the overall process is poorly understood in natural sediments. The present study focused on the biogeochemical factors (i.e. the relative importance of various groups of anaerobic microbes (FeRP, SRB, and MPA) that affect net monomethylmercury (MMHg) formation in contaminated sediments of the St. Lawrence River (SRL) near Cornwall (Zone 1), Ontario, Canada. Methylation and demethylation potentials were measured separately by using isotope-enriched mercury species ((200)Hg(2+) and MM(199)Hg(+)) in sediment microcosms treated with specific microbial inhibitors. Sediments were sampled and incubated in the dark at room temperature in an anaerobic chamber for 96h. The potential methylation rate constants (K(m)) and demethylation rates (K(d)) were found to differ significantly between microcosms. The MPA-inhibited microcosm had the highest potential methylation rate constant (0.016d(-1)), whereas the two SRB-inhibited microcosms had comparable potential methylation rate constants (0.003d(-1) and 0.002d(-1), respectively). The inhibition of methanogens stimulated net methylation by inhibiting demethylationand by stimulating methylation along with SRB activity. The inhibition of both methanogens and SRB was found to enhance the iron reduction rates but did not completely stop MMHg production. The strong positive correlation between K(m) and Sulfate Reduction Rates (SRR) and between K(d) and Methane Production Rates (MPR) supports the involvement of SRB in Hg methylation and MPA in MMHg demethylation in the sediments. In contrast, the strong negative correlation between K(d) and Iron Reduction Rates (FeRR) shows that the increase in FeRR corresponds to a decrease in demethylation, indicating that iron reduction may influence net

  4. Drivers of Change in a 7300-Year Holocene Diatom Record from the Hemi-Boreal Region of Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Kristen K.; Medeiros, Andrew S.

    2016-01-01

    A Holocene lake sediment record spanning the past 7300 years from Wishart Lake in the Turkey Lakes Watershed in the Hemi-Boreal of central Ontario, Canada, was used to evaluate the potential drivers of long-term change in diatom assemblages at this site. An analysis of diatom assemblages found that benthic and epiphytic taxa dominated the mid-Holocene (7300–4000 cal yr BP), indicating shallow, oligotrophic, circum-neutral conditions, with macrophytes present. A significant shift in diatom assemblages towards more planktonic species (mainly Cyclotella sensu lato, but also several species of Aulacoseira, and Tabellaria flocculosa) occurred ~4000 cal yr BP. This change likely reflects an increase in lake level, coincident with the onset of a more strongly positive moisture balance following the drier climates of the middle Holocene, established by numerous regional paleoclimate records. Pollen-inferred regional changes in vegetation around 4000 yrs BP, including an increase in Betula and other mesic taxa, may have also promoted changes in diatom assemblages through watershed processes mediated by the chemistry of runoff. A more recent significant change in limnological conditions is marked by further increases in Cyclotella sensu lato beginning in the late 19th century, synchronous with the Ambrosia pollen rise and increases in sediment bulk density, signaling regional and local land clearance at the time of Euro-Canadian settlement (1880 AD). In contrast to the mid-Holocene increase in planktonic diatoms, the modern increase in Cyclotella sensu lato likely indicates a response to land use and vegetation change, and erosion from the watershed, rather than a further increase in water level. The results from Wishart Lake illustrate the close connection between paleoclimate change, regional vegetation, watershed processes, and diatom assemblages and also provides insight into the controls on abundance of Cyclotella sensu lato, a diatom taxonomic group which has shown

  5. Geophysical data collected from the St. Clair River between Michigan and Ontario, Canada (2008-016-FA)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Denny, Jane F.; Foster, D.S.; Worley, C.R.; Irwin, Barry J.

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center (WHCMSC), in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers conducted a geophysical and sampling survey of the riverbed of the Upper St. Clair River between Port Huron, Mich., and Sarnia, Ontario, Canada. The objectives were to define the Quaternary geologic framework of the riverbed of the St. Clair River to evaluate the relationship between morphologic change of the riverbed and underlying stratigraphy. This report presents the geophysical and sample data collected from the St. Clair River, May 29-June 6, 2008, as part of the International Upper Great Lakes Study, a 5-year project funded by the International Joint Commission of the United States and Canada to examine whether physical changes in the St. Clair River are affecting water levels within upper Great Lakes, to assess regulation plans for outflows from Lake Superior, and to examine the potential effect of climate change on the Great Lakes water levels (http://www.iugls.org). This document makes available the data that were used in a separate report, U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2009-1137, which detailed the interpretations of the Quaternary geologic framework of the region. This report includes a description of the high-resolution acoustic and sediment-sampling systems that were used to map the morphology, surficial sediment distribution, and underlying geology of the Upper St. Clair River during USGS field activity 2008-016-FA (http://quashnet.er.usgs.gov/cgi-bin/datasource/public_ds_info.pl?fa=2008-016-FA). Video and photographs of the riverbed were also collected and are included in this data release. Future analyses will be focused on substrate erosion and its effects on river-channel morphology and geometry. Ultimately, the International Upper Great Lakes Study will attempt to determine where physical changes in the St. Clair River affect water flow and, subsequently, water levels in the Upper Great

  6. Health service utilisation for anogenital warts in Ontario, Canada prior to the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine programme introduction: a retrospective longitudinal population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Guerra, Fiona M; Rosella, Laura C; Dunn, Sheila; Wilson, Sarah E; Chen, Cynthia; Deeks, Shelley L

    2016-01-01

    Objective Trends in occurrence of anogenital warts (AGWs) can provide early evidence of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programme impact on preventing HPV infection and HPV-induced lesions. The objective of this study was to provide a baseline of AGW epidemiology in Ontario prior to the introduction of the publicly-funded school-based HPV vaccination programme in September 2007. Setting and participants As a retrospective longitudinal population-based study, we used health administrative data as a proxy to estimate incident AGWs and total health service utilisation (HSU) for AGWs for all Ontario residents 15 years and older with valid health cards between 1 April 2003 and 31 March 2007. Outcome measures The outcome of interest was AGW healthcare utilisation identified using the International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision (ICD-10) diagnostic code for AGWs, as well as an algorithm for identifying AGW physician office visits in a database with a unique system of diagnostic and procedural codes. An AGW case was considered incident if preceded by 12 months without HSU for AGWs. Time trends by age group and sex were analysed. Results Between fiscal years 2003 and 2006, we identified 123 247 health service visits for AGWs by 51 436 Ontario residents 15 years and older. Incident AGWs peaked in females and males in the 21–23 year age group, at 3.74 per 1000 and 2.81 per 1000, respectively. HSU for AGWs peaked in females and males within the 21–23 year age group, at 9.34 per 1000 and 7.22 per 1000, respectively. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this is the first population-based study of AGW incidence and HSU in Ontario. The sex and age distribution of individuals with incident and prevalent AGWs in Ontario was similar to that of other provinces before HPV vaccine programme implementation in Canada. PMID:26966057

  7. Sulfur Isotopic Compositions of Sulfides From the Lower Huronian Supergroup, Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tachibana, S.; Hirai, T.; Goto, K.; Yamamoto, S.; Isozaki, Y.; Tada, R.; Tajika, E.; Shimoda, G.; Morishita, Y.; Kita, N. T.

    2004-12-01

    Mass-independent isotopic fractionation (MIF) of sulfur found in sedimentary rocks older than 2470 Ma implies that the atmospheric oxygen level was lower than 10-5 PAL (present atmospheric level) in the Archean atmosphere [e.g., 1, 2]. Sulfides from the Rooihoogte and Timeball Hill Formations, Transvaal Supergroup, South Africa, (2316 Ma [3]) show only a small degree of MIF [4], which suggests that the atmospheric oxygen level reached 10-5 PAL by 2316 Ma [4]. The Huronian Supergroup in E. Canada recording three Paleoproterozoic glaciatial events between 2450 and 2220 Ma is correlated with the Rooihootge and Timeball Hill Formations, and may record the evidence of the great oxygenation event. The sulfur isotopic compositions of sulfides in the Matinenda to Gordon Lake Formations of the Huronian Supergroup exhibit D33S, deviation from a mass-dependent fractionation line, of less than 0.5 permil [e.g., 1]. This suggests that the atmospheric oxygen reached a level high enough to vanish the MIF signature before the Matinenda deposition. Here we report sulfur isotopic compositions of sulfides from the Livingstone Creek, Thessalon, and Matinenda Formations of the Lower Huronian Supergroup in the Elliot lake area. The Livingstone Creek and Thessalon Formations underlie the uraniferous Matinenda Formation. In-situ ion microprobe measurements showed that most of sulfides have a small degree of sulfur MIF, as seen in other formations, except for clastic sulfide blocks in the polymictic conglomerates of the Livingstone Creek Formation, the lowermost Huronian Supergroup. The sulfides in the Livingstone sulfide blocks show a clear evidence of MIF (D33S = -1.7 to +3.6 permil) with d34S of _|4 to +2 permil. The range of MIF from the sulfide blocks is an order of magnitude larger than that for other sulfides from the Huronian Supergroup. This indicates that the atmospheric oxygen may have started to increase after the formation of the sulfide blocks and before the deposition of the

  8. Geostatistical mapping of leakance in a regional aquitard, Oak Ridges Moraine area, Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desbarats, A. J.; Hinton, M. J.; Logan, C. E.; Sharpe, D. R.

    2001-01-01

    The Newmarket Till forms a regionally extensive aquitard separating two major aquifer systems in the Greater Toronto area, Canada. The till is incised, and sometimes eroded entirely, by a network of sand- and gravel-filled channels forming productive aquifers and, locally, high-conductivity windows between aquifer systems. Leakage through the till may also be substantial in places. This study investigates the spatial variability of aquitard leakance in order to assess the relative importance of recharge processes to the lower aquifers. With a large database derived from water-well records and containing both hard and soft information, the Sequential Indicator Simulation method is used to generate maps of aquitard thickness and window probability. These can be used for targeting channel aquifers and for identifying potential areas of recharge to the lower aquifers. Conductivities are modeled from sparse data assuming that their correlation range is much smaller than the grid spacing. Block-scale leakances are obtained by upscaling nodal values based on simulated conductivity and thickness fields. Under the "aquifer-flow'' assumption, upscaling is performed by arithmetic spatial averaging. Histograms and maps of upscaled leakances show that heterogeneities associated with aquitard windows have the largest effect on regional groundwater flow patterns. Résumé. La moraine glaciaire de Newmarket constitue un imperméable d'extension régionale séparant deux systèmes aquifères dans la région du Grand Toronto (Canada). La moraine est entaillée, et parfois entièrement érodée, par un réseau de chenaux comblés de sables et de graviers formant des aquifères productifs et, localement, des «fenêtres», zones à forte conductivité hydraulique reliant les systèmes aquifères. Une drainance au travers de la moraine peut également être significative par endroits. Cette étude s'intéresse à la variabilité spatiale de la drainance au travers de l

  9. Permineralized Callixylon woods from the Late Devonian Cleveland Shale of Ohio, U.S.A. and that of Kettle Point, Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Chitaley, S; Cai, C

    2001-03-01

    Two permineralized woods are described in this paper, one from the Late Devonian Cleveland Shale of Ohio, USA and the other from the Late Devonian Huron Shale of Kettle Point, Ontario, Canada. Both samples of wood are satisfactorily preserved with primary and secondary xylem but without cortex and bark. Both are identified as Callixylon. They differ in specific characters from each other and from other described species. Hence two new species are designated, Callixylon beckii and Callixylon huronensis, respectively, to accommodate them in the class Progymnospermopsida (Progymnospermophyta) under the group Archaeopteridales.

  10. Diamonds in an Archean greenstone belt: Diamond suites in unconventional rocks of Wawa, Northern Ontario (Canada)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopylova, Maya; Bruce, Loryn; Ryder, John

    2010-05-01

    Diamonds typically are found on Archean cratons entrained by younger Phanerozoic kimberlites. In contrast, Wawa diamonds are hosted in "unconventional", non-kimberlitic rocks that formed contemporaneously with the mafic and sedimentary rocks of the Archean Michipicoten Greenstone Belt (MGB). We studied two diamond suites that occur within the 2.9-2.7 Ga greenschist facies rocks of MGB located in the southwest portion of the Superior Craton (E. Canada). The first diamond suite henceforth referred to as the Wawa breccia diamonds (384 stones), are hosted in the 2618-2744 Ma calc-alkaline lamprophyres and volcaniclastic breccias, contemporaneous with pillow basalts and felsic volcanics of MGB. The second suite, the Wawa conglomerate diamonds (80 crystals), are hosted in the 2697-2700 Ma poorly sorted sedimentary polymictic conglomerate which is interpreted as a proximal alluvial fan debris flow in a fan-delta environment. The majority of the diamonds was found within the matrix of the conglomerate. The diamondiferous breccia occurs 20 km north of the town of Wawa, whereas the conglomerate is found 12 km northeast of Wawa. Diamonds from the 2 occurrences were characterized and described for provenance studies. Both the breccia and conglomerate diamonds show similar crystal habits, with the predominance of octahedral single crystals and ~ 10% of cubes. The conglomerate diamonds are significantly less resorbed (no resorbtion in 43% of the stones) than the breccia diamonds (8% non-resorbed stones). In both suites, only 21-24% show high degrees of resorption. The majority of crystals in both suites are colourless, with some yellow, brown and grey stones. Conglomerate diamonds had a wider variety of colours that were not seen in the breccia diamonds, including green and pink. The breccia diamonds contain 0-740 ppm N and show two modes of N aggregation at 0-30 and 60-95%. Among the breccia diamonds, Type IaA stones comprise 17%, whereas IaAB stones make up 49% of the

  11. The pedological properties of tailings derived from three mining operations in the Sudbury area, Ontario, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Rutherford, G.K.; Dimma, D.; van Loon, G.W.; Breck, W.G.

    1982-07-01

    The pedological properties of tailings derived from Ni-Cu, Pb-Zn, and Au mining have been examined by conventional field and laboratory techniques. The Ni-Cu tailings have been vegetated by seeding, whereas the Pb-Zn and Au tailings have remained devoid of vegetation for >40 years. Tailing catenas have been developed and, depending on disposition of local water tables, regosolic-like profiles have formed with strongly reduced deep horizons overlain by variably oxidized subsurface horizons. Although unvegetated tailings are strongly acidic, dressings of agricultural lime hold surface vegetated horizons at about pH6; however these profiles also become strongly acidic with depth. Organic content is low and in some unvegetated tailings is higher than in those supporting vegetation. Sulfates are higher than in most soils in humid temperate regions. Exchangeable trace cations can be detected usually only with extractant at pH 4.2. Clay mineralogy reflects country rock, but high amounts of vermiculite and significant quantities of smectite and kaolin appear to have been formed as well as sand-sized jarosite. Micromorphologically, the tailings are characteristic of very weakly developed soils.

  12. An application of the edge effect in measuring accessibility to multiple food retailer types in Southwestern Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Trends in food retailing associated with the consolidation of smaller-format retailers into fewer, larger-format supercentres have left some rural areas with fewer sources of nutritious, affordable food. Access to nutritious, affordable food is essential for good dietary habits and combating health issues such as type-2 diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease. Many studies on food environments use inaccurate or incomplete methods for locating food retailers, which may be responsible for mischaracterising food deserts. This study uses databases of every residence in and every food retailer in and around Middlesex County, Ontario, Canada. Residences were geocoded to their precise address, and network analysis techniques were performed in a geographic information system (GIS) to determine distances between every residence and different types of food retailers (grocery stores, fast food, fruit and vegetable sources, grocery stores plus fruit and vegetable sources, variety stores), both when considering and neglecting facilities outside the area of study, to account for a deficiency in analysis termed the 'edge effect'. Results Analysis of household accessibility to food outlets by neighbourhood socioeconomic distress level indicated that residents in the most distressed neighbourhoods tended to have better accessibility to all types of food retailers. In the most distressed neighbourhoods, 79 percent of residences were within walking distance of a grocery store, compared to only 10 percent in the least distressed neighbourhoods. When the edge effect was neglected, 37 percent of distance estimates proved inaccurate. Average accessibility to all food retailer types improved dramatically when food outlets adjacent to the study area were considered, thereby controlling for the edge effect. Conclusion By neglecting to consider food retailers just outside study area boundaries, previous studies may significantly over-report the actual distance necessary to

  13. Influence of Antecedent Hydrologic Conditions on Nitrate and Phosphorus Export from a Small Agricultural Catchment in Southern Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macrae, M. L.; English, M. C.; Schiff, S. L.; Stone, M.

    2009-04-01

    The ability of the scientific community to quantify and predict discharge and nutrient transport in a range of settings is confounded by the effects of antecedent hydrologic conditions in upland areas. Previous work has empirically linked spatial variables such as land use, soil type, topography, and drainage characteristics to hydrochemical export from various landscapes (e.g. MCDOWELL et al., 2001; ARHEIMER and LIDEN, 2000; STAMM et al., 1998; JORDAN et al., 1997; WELSCH et al., 2001). However, the specific reasons why similar types of events produce different nutrient export patterns are poorly understood. Nutrient (nitrate, soluble and total phosphorus) transport from agricultural catchments is difficult to quantify and predict because of the influence of variable hydrologic flowpaths and their interaction with varying nutrient pools. This research examines the role of antecedent hydrologic conditions on stream discharge and nitrate (NO3-), soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) and total phosphorus (TP) export from a small (2.7 km2) first-order agricultural catchment in Southern Ontario, Canada. During 59 events occurring over a two-year sampling period (year-round), runoff ratios ranged from 0-0.99). Runoff ratios increased throughout successive events as conditions became wetter although key indices of antecedent wetness such as water table position, pre-event streamflow and soil moisture did not yield predictive relationships. Nitrate, SRP and TP transport from the catchment increased with antecedent wetness during some periods but decreased with antecedent wetness during other periods. This variability appears to be linked to a combination of the position of water table before and during the event, as well as timing of fertilizer application. It is hypothesized that in general, wetter antecedent hydrologic conditions increase nutrient transport from the catchment by increasing macropore connectivity between surface soil horizons and tile drains, although this

  14. Using stable isotopes of dissolved oxygen for the determination of gas exchange in the Grand River, Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Jamieson, Terra S; Schiff, Sherry L; Taylor, William D

    2013-02-01

    Gas exchange can be a key component of the dissolved oxygen (DO) mass balance in aquatic ecosystems. Quantification of gas transfer rates is essential for the estimation of DO production and consumption rates, and determination of assimilation capacities of systems receiving organic inputs. Currently, the accurate determination of gas transfer rate is a topic of debate in DO modeling, and there are a wide variety of approaches that have been proposed in the literature. The current study investigates the use of repeated measures of stable isotopes of O₂ and DO and a dynamic dual mass-balance model to quantify gas transfer coefficients (k) in the Grand River, Ontario, Canada. Measurements were conducted over a longitudinal gradient that reflected watershed changes from agricultural to urban. Values of k in the Grand River ranged from 3.6 to 8.6 day⁻¹, over discharges ranging from 5.6 to 22.4 m³ s⁻¹, with one high-flow event of 73.1 m³ s⁻¹. The k values were relatively constant over the range of discharge conditions studied. The range in discharge observed in this study is generally representative of non-storm and summer low-flow events; a greater range in k might be observed under a wider range of hydrologic conditions. Overall, k values obtained with the dual model for the Grand River were found to be lower than predicted by the traditional approaches evaluated, highlighting the importance of determining site-specific values of k. The dual mass balance approach provides a more constrained estimate of k than using DO only, and is applicable to large rivers where other approaches would be difficult to use. The addition of an isotopic mass balance provides for a corroboration of the input parameter estimates between the two balances. Constraining the range of potential input values allows for a direct estimate of k in large, productive systems where other k-estimation approaches may be uncertain or logistically infeasible.

  15. Formation and evolution of soils from an acidified watershed: Plastic Lake, Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkwood, D. E.; Nesbitt, H. W.

    1991-05-01

    The Plastic Lake watershed contains podzols developed on glacial tills deposited 12,000 years ago. Present-day, cationic fluxes from the soils are greater by a factor of 2 than long-term fluxes averaged over the age of the tills. The high rates of present-day chemical weathering may be a result of increased input of anthropogenic acids into the Plastic Lake watershed. Time-averaged proportions of cations leached from the soils are strikingly different from the proportions of cations now being leached, indicating that the character of chemical weathering has changed over time. Weathering was and is dominated by mineral dissolution, but cation exchange has become increasingly important as the soils have matured. The large amount of Ca now released to the soil solutions probably is derived from exchange substrates, promoted by preferential uptake of Al onto the substrates. Aluminum is derived primarily through dissolution of feldspars. Bulk compositional analyses of soil profiles demonstrate that feldspars of the AE horizon release base cations (Na, K, Ca) and Al to solution in near-stoichiometric proportions, just as is observed experimentally for feldspar dissolution in acidic solutions. Furthermore, surface area normalized dissolution rates of plagioclase, K-feldspar, quartz, and micas of Plastic Lake soils are similar to rates obtained experimentally. The favourable comparison between natural and experimental dissolution rates, and near-stoichiometric release of base cations and Al from feldspars to acidic solutions in both natural and experimental settings, suggests that recent laboratory release rates can be applied to dissolution of feldspars within the AE horizon of the Plastic Lake Podzols. Surface area-normalized, time-averaged, dissolution rates of primary minerals of Plastic Lake soils are significantly greater than present-day rates measured for mature soil profiles. Rapid release from Plastic Lake soils probably results from reaction of acidic soil

  16. Risk factors for carriage of antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella spp and Escherichia coli in pet dogs from volunteer households in Ontario, Canada, in 2005 and 2006.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Erin K; Pearl, David L; Janecko, Nicol; Finley, Rita L; Reid-Smith, Richard J; Weese, J Scott; Peregrine, Andrew S

    2015-11-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine pet-related management factors associated with the carriage of antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella spp and Escherichia coli in a population of pet dogs. SAMPLE 138 dogs from 84 households in Ontario, Canada. PROCEDURES From October 2005 through May 2006, dogs and households in Ontario, Canada, were recruited to participate in a cross-sectional study. Fecal samples were submitted for culture of Salmonella spp and E coli, which provided 515 bacterial isolates for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Multilevel logistic regression models with random effects for household and dog were created to identify pet-related management factors associated with antimicrobial resistance. RESULTS Bacterial species, feeding a homemade diet or adding homemade food to the diet, feeding a raw diet or adding anything raw to the diet, feeding a homemade raw food diet, and feeding raw chicken in the past week were significant risk factors for antimicrobial resistance in this population of dogs. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE In this study, several potentially important pet-related risk factors for the carriage of antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella spp and E coli in pet dogs were identified. Further evaluation of risk factors for antimicrobial resistance in dogs may lead to development of evidence-based guidelines for safe and responsible dog ownership and management to protect the public, especially pet owners who are immunocompromised.

  17. Impact of the removal of light and mild descriptors from cigarette packages in Ontario, Canada: Switching to “light replacement” brand variants☆,☆☆

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Joanna E.; Yang, Jingyan; Donaldson, Elisabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study assessed cessation and brand switching among smokers in Ontario, Canada after tobacco companies’ voluntary removal of ‘light’ and ‘mild’ descriptors from cigarette packages. Method We analyzed longitudinal data on brand preference and cessation from a cohort of smokers (n = 632) in the Ontario Tobacco Survey in Canada from 2006 to 2008 with a longitudinal regression model. Results While cessation differed by brand variant prior to the ban (7% light vs. 3% regular; P < 0.05), it did not differ by brand variant after the ban was implemented. In 2008, when light cigarette brand variants were no longer available, 33% of the sample still reported smoking lights and 31% smoked light replacement brand variants. During each subsequent follow-up, light brand smokers had 2 times the odds of smoking regular brand variants (Adjusted OR: 2.03, 95% CI 1.80,2.29), and almost 5 times the odds of using light replacement brand variants (Adjusted OR: 4.87, 95% CI 4.07,5.84), respectively, compared to continuing to smoke lights. Conclusions Even after removing misleading descriptors from cigarette packs, smokers continued to report using light brand variants, and many switched to newly introduced light replacement brand variants. After full implementation of the ban, cessation did not vary by brand variant. PMID:25224153

  18. The case for a cause-effect linkage between environmental contamination and development in eggs of the common snapping turtle (Chelydra S. serpentina) from Ontario, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, C.A.; Brooks, R.J.; Carey, J.H.; Ng, P.; Norstrom, R.J.; Lean, D.R. )

    1991-08-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dibenzo-p-dioxins, and dibenzofurans, organochlorine pesticides, and their metabolites were measured in eggs of the common snapping turtle (Chelydra s.serpentina) collected from four wetlands on the shorelines of Lakes Ontario, and Erie, and one control location in central Ontario, Canada. Snapping turtle eggs from these sites were also artificially incubated to determine hatching success, and incidence of deformities in embryo and hatchling turtles. The hypothesis that elevated incidences of egg death and/or deformities of hatchling turtles would occur in populations with high concentrations of organochlorine contaminants in eggs was tested. The results were elevated using epidemiological criteria. Unhatched eggs and deformities occurred at significantly higher rates in eggs from Lake Ontario wetlands. Two of three sites from Lake Ontario had substantially higher levels of PCBs, dioxins, and furans compared to eggs from Lake Erie and the control site. It could not be shown that contamination of eggs preceded the occurrence of poor development of eggs, although excellent hatching success and low numbers of deformities in eggs from the control site were considered representative of development in healthy eggs. The statistical association between contaminant levels in eggs and poor development of these eggs supported the hypothesis that eggs from sites with the greatest contamination had the highest rates of abnormalities. PCBs were the most strongly associated chemicals, although possible effects due to the presence of other chemicals in eggs was a confounding factor. The deformities and rates of unhatched eggs were similar to those occurring in other vertebrates collected from highly contaminated areas of the Great Lakes. 54 references.

  19. Simulation of between-farm transmission of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in Ontario, Canada using the North American Animal Disease Spread Model.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Krishna K; Revie, Crawford W; Hurnik, Daniel; Poljak, Zvonimir; Sanchez, Javier

    2015-03-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), a viral disease of swine, has major economic impacts on the swine industry. The North American Animal Disease Spread Model (NAADSM) is a spatial, stochastic, farm level state-transition modeling framework originally developed to simulate highly contagious and foreign livestock diseases. The objectives of this study were to develop a model to simulate between-farm spread of a homologous strain of PRRS virus in Ontario swine farms via direct (animal movement) and indirect (sharing of trucks between farms) contacts using the NAADSM and to compare the patterns and extent of outbreak under different simulated conditions. A total of 2552 swine farms in Ontario province were allocated to each census division of Ontario and geo-locations of the farms were randomly generated within the agriculture land of each Census Division. Contact rates among different production types were obtained using pig movement information from four regions in Canada. A total of 24 scenarios were developed involving various direct (movement of infected animals) and indirect (pig transportation trucks) contact parameters in combination with alternating the production type of the farm in which the infection was seeded. Outbreaks were simulated for one year with 1000 replications. The median number of farms infected, proportion of farms with multiple outbreaks and time to reach the peak epidemic were used to compare the size, progression and extent of outbreaks. Scenarios involving spread only by direct contact between farms resulted in outbreaks where the median percentage of infected farms ranged from 31.5 to 37% of all farms. In scenarios with both direct and indirect contact, the median percentage of infected farms increased to a range from 41.6 to 48.6%. Furthermore, scenarios with both direct and indirect contact resulted in a 44% increase in median epidemic size when compared to the direct contact scenarios. Incorporation of both animal

  20. HIV, Gender, Race, Sexual Orientation, and Sex Work: A Qualitative Study of Intersectional Stigma Experienced by HIV-Positive Women in Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Logie, Carmen H.; James, LLana; Tharao, Wangari; Loutfy, Mona R.

    2011-01-01

    Background HIV infection rates are increasing among marginalized women in Ontario, Canada. HIV-related stigma, a principal factor contributing to the global HIV epidemic, interacts with structural inequities such as racism, sexism, and homophobia. The study objective was to explore experiences of stigma and coping strategies among HIV-positive women in Ontario, Canada. Methods and Findings We conducted a community-based qualitative investigation using focus groups to understand experiences of stigma and discrimination and coping methods among HIV-positive women from marginalized communities. We conducted 15 focus groups with HIV-positive women in five cities across Ontario, Canada. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis to enhance understanding of the lived experiences of diverse HIV-positive women. Focus group participants (n = 104; mean age = 38 years; 69% ethnic minority; 23% lesbian/bisexual; 22% transgender) described stigma/discrimination and coping across micro (intra/interpersonal), meso (social/community), and macro (organizational/political) realms. Participants across focus groups attributed experiences of stigma and discrimination to: HIV-related stigma, sexism and gender discrimination, racism, homophobia and transphobia, and involvement in sex work. Coping strategies included resilience (micro), social networks and support groups (meso), and challenging stigma (macro). Conclusions HIV-positive women described interdependent and mutually constitutive relationships between marginalized social identities and inequities such as HIV-related stigma, sexism, racism, and homo/transphobia. These overlapping, multilevel forms of stigma and discrimination are representative of an intersectional model of stigma and discrimination. The present findings also suggest that micro, meso, and macro level factors simultaneously present barriers to health and well being—as well as opportunities for coping—in HIV-positive women's lives. Understanding the

  1. A Bayesian assessment of the mercury and PCB temporal trends in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and walleye (Sander vitreus) from lake Ontario, Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Visha, Ariola; Gandhi, Nilima; Bhavsar, Satyendra P; Arhonditsis, George B

    2015-07-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and total mercury (THg) are two of the most prevalent contaminants, resulting in restrictive advisories on consuming fish from the Laurentian Great Lakes. The goal of this study is to examine the temporal trends of the two contaminants in walleye (Sander vitreus) and lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) for Lake Ontario. We employed Bayesian inference techniques to parameterize three different strategies of time series analysis: dynamic linear, exponential decay, and mixed-order modeling. Our analysis sheds light on the role of different covariates (length, lipid content) that can potentially hamper the detection of the actual temporal patterns of fish contaminants. Both PCBs and mercury demonstrate decreasing temporal trends in lake trout males and females. Decreasing PCB trends are evident in walleye, but the mean annual mercury levels are characterized by a "wax and wane" pattern, suggesting that specific fish species may not act as bio-indicators for all contaminants. This finding may be attributed to the shifts in energy trophodynamics along with the food web alterations induced from the introduction of non-native species, the intricate nature of the prey-predator interactions, the periodicities of climate factors, and the year-to-year variability of the potentially significant fluxes from atmosphere or sediments. Finally, a meaningful risk assessment exercise will be to elucidate the role of within-lake fish contaminant variability and evaluate the potential bias introduced when drawing inference from pooled datasets.

  2. Distribution and potential significance of a gull fecal marker in urban coastal and riverine areas of southern Ontario, Canada

    EPA Science Inventory

    To better understand the distribution of gull fecal contamination in urban areas of southern Ontario, we used a gull-targeted PCR assay against 1309 water samples collected from 15 urban coastal and riverine locations during 2007. Approximately, 58 % of the water samples tested w...

  3. Retrospective study of toxic metal analyses requested at a veterinary diagnostic toxicology laboratory in Ontario (1990-1995).

    PubMed Central

    Hoff, B; Boermans, H J; Baird, J D

    1998-01-01

    During the 5-year period from January 1, 1990, to December 31, 1995, 887 diagnoses of metal toxicosis in domestic animals and wild birds were documented at the Veterinary Laboratory Services Branch of the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs. Most of these cases involved cattle, sheep, and birds. Lead toxicosis was diagnosed in 399 cases, copper toxicosis in 387, zinc toxicosis in 49, mercury toxicosis in 44, iron toxicosis in 4, and selenium in 4 cases. Trends in species affected and sources of metals are discussed. PMID:9442951

  4. Retrospective study of toxic metal analyses requested at a veterinary diagnostic toxicology laboratory in Ontario (1990-1995).

    PubMed

    Hoff, B; Boermans, H J; Baird, J D

    1998-01-01

    During the 5-year period from January 1, 1990, to December 31, 1995, 887 diagnoses of metal toxicosis in domestic animals and wild birds were documented at the Veterinary Laboratory Services Branch of the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs. Most of these cases involved cattle, sheep, and birds. Lead toxicosis was diagnosed in 399 cases, copper toxicosis in 387, zinc toxicosis in 49, mercury toxicosis in 44, iron toxicosis in 4, and selenium in 4 cases. Trends in species affected and sources of metals are discussed.

  5. Characteristics of Opioid-Users Whose Death Was Related to Opioid-Toxicity: A Population-Based Study in Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Madadi, Parvaz; Hildebrandt, Doris; Lauwers, Albert E.; Koren, Gideon

    2013-01-01

    Background The impact of the prescription opioid public health crisis has been illustrated by the dramatic increase in opioid-related deaths in North America. We aimed to identify patterns and characteristics amongst opioid-users whose cause of death was related to opioid toxicity. Methods This was a population-based study of Ontarians between the years 2006 and 2008. All drug-related deaths which occurred during this time frame were reviewed at the Office of the Chief Coroner of Ontario, and opioid-related deaths were identified. Medical, toxicology, pathology, and police reports were comprehensively reviewed. Narratives, semi-quantitative, and quantitative variables were extracted, tabulated, and analyzed. Results Out of 2330 drug-related deaths in Ontario, 58% were attributed either in whole or in part, to opioids (n = 1359). Oxycodone was involved in approximately one-third of all opioid-related deaths. At least 7% of the entire cohort used opioids that were prescribed for friends and/or family, 19% inappropriately self-administered opioids (injection, inhalation, chewed patch), 3% were recently released from jail, and 5% had been switched from one opioid to another near the time of death. Accidental deaths were significantly associated with personal history of substance abuse, enrollment in methadone maintenance programs, cirrhosis, hepatitis, and cocaine use. Suicides were significantly associated with mental illness, previous suicide attempts, chronic pain, and a history of cancer. Significance/Conclusion These results identify novel, susceptible groups of opioid-users whose cause of death was related to opioids in Ontario and provide the first evidence to assist in quantifying the contribution of opioid misuse and diversion amongst opioid-related mortality in Canada. Multifaceted prevention strategies need to be developed based on subpopulations of opioid users. PMID:23577131

  6. Prevalence of tetracycline and rabies virus antibody in raccoons, skunks, and foxes following aerial distribution of V-RG baits to control raccoon rabies in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Rosatte, R; Allan, M; Bachmann, P; Sobey, K; Donovan, D; Davies, J C; Silver, A; Bennett, K; Brown, L; Stevenson, B; Buchanan, T; Bruce, L; Wandeler, A; Fehlner-Gardiner, C; Beresford, A; Beath, A; Escobar, M; Maki, J; Schumacher, C

    2008-10-01

    More than 3.6 million baits containing a recombinant vaccinia virus-rabies glycoprotein (V-RG) oral rabies vaccine were aerially or hand-distributed during 1999-2006 in an approximate 4,000-9,000 km(2) area of eastern Ontario, Canada, as part of a multitactic approach to control the raccoon variant of rabies. The efficacy of the program was assessed through the collection and testing of > 6,900 animals for bait acceptance and rabies virus-specific antibodies. Raccoon acceptance of rabies vaccine baits was significantly greater (71-83% ) in areas baited at a density of 150 baits/km(2) compared to areas baited at 75 baits/km(2) (26-58% ), and more raccoons consumed vaccine baits in areas baited with a flight line spacing of 0.75 km (45.3% [321/708]) than with a spacing of 1.5 km (33.8% [108/320]). In addition, greater numbers of raccoons consumed vaccine baits during a drop in September (52.7% [213/404]) as opposed to a June bait drop (34.6% [216/624]). Seropositivity rates for raccoons ranged between 7% and 28% in areas baited at 75/km(2) and 10% to 27% in areas baited at 150/km(2) with statistical differences varying among years and treatments. The last case of raccoon-variant rabies reported in Ontario was in September 2005. The control of raccoon rabies in Ontario has resulted in an estimated $6M to $10 M Cdn annual savings in rabies-associated costs.

  7. Herring gulls and great black-backed gulls as indicators of contaminants in bald eagles in Lake Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Weseloh, D Vaughn; Hughes, Kimberly D; Ewins, Peter J; Best, Dave; Kubiak, Timothy; Shieldcastle, Mark C

    2002-05-01

    In 2000, a pair of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) nested successfully along the shorelines of Lake Ontario in North America for the first time since 1957. However, it is a continuing question whether bald eagles will be able to reproduce successfully as they return to nest on Lake Ontario. Great black-backed gulls (Larus marinus) and herring gulls (L. argentatus) were selected as surrogate species to predict contaminant levels in eggs of bald eagles nesting on Lake Ontario. Because of the suspected overlap in the diets of great black-backed gulls and bald eagles (i.e., fish, gull chicks, and waterfowl), the two species probably occupy a similar trophic level in the Lake Ontario food web and, thus, may have similar contaminant levels. Fresh great black-backed gull and herring gull eggs were collected from three study sites in eastern Lake Ontario in 1993 and 1994 and analyzed for contaminants. Average contaminant levels of dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (p,p'-DDE), total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and dieldrin in great black-backed gull eggs were 12.85, 26.27, and 0.27 microg/g, respectively. The mean ratio of contaminant levels in great black-backed gull eggs to contaminant levels in herring gull eggs for these three contaminants was 2.09 (range of means, 1.73-2.38). Predicted levels of contaminants in bald eagle eggs in Lake Ontario would be expected to be similar to the mean levels reported for great black-backed gull eggs. As a comparison, contaminant levels in bald eagle eggs collected from other Great Lakes nesting sites were compared to mean levels reported for herring gull eggs collected from nearby sites in 1986 to 1995. The mean ratio of contaminant levels in bald eagle eggs to contaminant levels in herring gull eggs from these sites for DDE, total PCBs, and dieldrin was 2.40 (range of means, 1.73-3.28). These ratios are very similar to those reported using great black-backed gull eggs, illustrating the apparent similarity in trophic status

  8. Chlorinated hydrocarbons in early life stages of the common snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina serpentina) from a coastal wetland on Lake Ontario, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, C.A.; Lean, D.R.S.; Carey, J.H.; Brooks, R.J.; Ng, P.

    1995-03-01

    To assess intra-clutch variation in contaminant concentrations in eggs, and to investigate the dynamics of chlorinated hydrocarbon accumulation in embryos of the common snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina), concentrations of p,p{prime}-DDE, hexachlorobenzene, trans-nonachlor, cis-chlordane, and six PCB congeners were measured in eggs, embryos, and hatchlings. Samples were collected from Cootes Paradise, a wetland at the western end of Lake Ontario, Ontario, Canada. The intra-clutch variation in chlorinated hydrocarbon concentrations within four snapping turtle clutches was determined by analyzing the first, last, and middle five eggs oviposited in the nest. The first five eggs had the highest mean concentrations of all chlorinated hydrocarbons, wet weight, and egg diameter. On a lipid weight basis, the first five eggs contained the highest concentration of all compounds except total PCBs and cis-chlordane. The concentration of cis-chlordane was the only parameter measured that was significantly different among the three sets of eggs. At hatching, snapping turtles without yolk sacs contained from 55.2 to 90.5% of the absolute amount of organochlorine compounds measured in the egg at oviposition. Eighteen days after hatching, the body burden of PCBs and pesticides decreased to 45.3 to 62.2% of that in the fresh egg. The accumulation of organochlorine chemicals in embryonic turtles peaked at or just before hatching and then declined thereafter, which is consistent with trends reported in developing sea turtles, fish, and birds.

  9. Investigation of the Occurrence of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Virus in Swine Herds Participating in an Area Regional Control and Elimination Project in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Arruda, A G; Friendship, R; Carpenter, J; Hand, K; Ojkic, D; Poljak, Z

    2017-02-01

    The main goal of this study was to investigate the occurrence of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV)-specific genotypes in swine sites in Ontario (Canada) using molecular, spatial and network data from a porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) regional control project. For each site, location, animal movement service provider (truck companies), PRRSV status and sequencing data of the open reading frame 5 (ORF5) were obtained. Three-kilometre buffers were created to evaluate neighbourhood characteristics for each site. Social network analysis was conducted on swine sites and trucking companies to assemble the network and define network components. Three different PRRSV genotypes were used as outcomes for statistical analysis based on the region's phylogenetic tree of the ORF5. Multivariable exact logistic regression was conducted to investigate the association between being positive for a specific genotype and two main exposures of interest: (i) having at least one neighbour within three km also positive for the same genotype outside the production system and (ii) having at least one positive site for the same genotype in the same truck network component outside the production system. Results showed that the importance of area spread and truck network on PRRSV occurrence differed according to genotype. Additionally, the Ontario PRRS database appears suitable for conducting regional disease investigations. Finally, the use of relatively new tools available for network, spatial and molecular analysis could be useful in investigation, control and prevention of endemic infectious diseases in animal populations.

  10. Whole-genome Sequencing for Surveillance of Invasive Pneumococcal Diseases in Ontario, Canada: Rapid Prediction of Genotype, Antibiotic Resistance and Characterization of Emerging Serotype 22F

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Xianding; Memari, Nader; Teatero, Sarah; Athey, Taryn; Isabel, Marc; Mazzulli, Tony; Fittipaldi, Nahuel; Gubbay, Jonathan B.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Molecular typing is essential for inferring genetic relatedness between bacterial pathogens. In this study, we applied whole genome sequencing (WGS) for rapid prediction of sequence type and antibiotic resistance for invasive pneumococcal isolates. Methods: 240 isolates from adults (≥50 years old) in Ontario, Canada during 2009 to 2013 were subjected to WGS. Sequence type, antibiotic susceptibility and resistance were predicted directly from short reads. Emerging non-vaccine serotype 22F was further characterized by WGS. Results: Sequence type was successfully determined for 98.3% of isolates. The overall sensitivity and specificity for antibiotic resistance prediction were 95 and 100% respectively, compared to standard susceptibility testing methods. WGS-based phylogeny divided emerging 22F (ST433) strains into two distinct clades: clade A harboring a 23 kb-prophage and anti-phage PhD/Doc system and clade B with virulence-related proteases. Five isolates in clade A developed macrolide resistance via 5.1 kb mega element recombination (encoding mefE and msrD), while one isolate in clade B displayed quinolone resistance via a gyrA mutation. Conclusions: WGS is valuable for routine surveillance of pneumococcal clinical isolates and facilitates prediction of genotype and antibiotic resistance. The emergence of 22F in Ontario in the post-vaccine era and evidence of evolution and divergence of the 22F population warrants heightened pneumococcal molecular surveillance. PMID:28082965

  11. Whole-genome Sequencing for Surveillance of Invasive Pneumococcal Diseases in Ontario, Canada: Rapid Prediction of Genotype, Antibiotic Resistance and Characterization of Emerging Serotype 22F.

    PubMed

    Deng, Xianding; Memari, Nader; Teatero, Sarah; Athey, Taryn; Isabel, Marc; Mazzulli, Tony; Fittipaldi, Nahuel; Gubbay, Jonathan B

    2016-01-01

    Background: Molecular typing is essential for inferring genetic relatedness between bacterial pathogens. In this study, we applied whole genome sequencing (WGS) for rapid prediction of sequence type and antibiotic resistance for invasive pneumococcal isolates. Methods: 240 isolates from adults (≥50 years old) in Ontario, Canada during 2009 to 2013 were subjected to WGS. Sequence type, antibiotic susceptibility and resistance were predicted directly from short reads. Emerging non-vaccine serotype 22F was further characterized by WGS. Results: Sequence type was successfully determined for 98.3% of isolates. The overall sensitivity and specificity for antibiotic resistance prediction were 95 and 100% respectively, compared to standard susceptibility testing methods. WGS-based phylogeny divided emerging 22F (ST433) strains into two distinct clades: clade A harboring a 23 kb-prophage and anti-phage PhD/Doc system and clade B with virulence-related proteases. Five isolates in clade A developed macrolide resistance via 5.1 kb mega element recombination (encoding mefE and msrD), while one isolate in clade B displayed quinolone resistance via a gyrA mutation. Conclusions: WGS is valuable for routine surveillance of pneumococcal clinical isolates and facilitates prediction of genotype and antibiotic resistance. The emergence of 22F in Ontario in the post-vaccine era and evidence of evolution and divergence of the 22F population warrants heightened pneumococcal molecular surveillance.

  12. Opportunities, ethical challenges, and lessons learned from working with peer research assistants in a multi-method HIV community-based research study in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Logie, Carmen; James, Llana; Tharao, Wangari; Loutfy, Mona R

    2012-10-01

    We discuss ethical challenges and opportunities experienced by peer research assistants (PRAs) in a multi-method HIV community-based research study in Ontario, Canada. We review lessons learned and best practices based on our experience conducting a qualitative investigation of research priorities with diverse women living with HIV (WLWH) and implementation of a cross-sectional survey with African, Caribbean, and Black WLWH. While some opportunities were similar across research phases for PRAs (e.g., skill building), distinct challenges emerged in qualitative and quantitative phases. For example, our training did not adequately prepare PRAs with focus group facilitation skills; at times, survey implementation became counseling sessions. Researchers should assess how best to support PRAs as part of multi-method research processes.

  13. Housing characteristics and their influence on health-related quality of life in persons living with HIV in Ontario, Canada: results from the positive spaces, healthy places study.

    PubMed

    Rourke, Sean B; Bekele, Tsegaye; Tucker, Ruthann; Greene, Saara; Sobota, Michael; Koornstra, Jay; Monette, LaVerne; Bacon, Jean; Bhuiyan, Shafi; Rueda, Sergio; Watson, James; Hwang, Stephen W; Dunn, James; Hambly, Keith

    2012-11-01

    Although lack of housing is linked with adverse health outcomes, little is known about the impacts of the qualitative aspects of housing on health. This study examined the association between structural elements of housing, housing affordability, housing satisfaction and health-related quality of life over a 1-year period. Participants were 509 individuals living with HIV in Ontario, Canada. Regression analyses were conducted to examine relationships between housing variables and physical and mental health-related quality of life. We found significant cross-sectional associations between housing and neighborhood variables-including place of residence, housing affordability, housing stability, and satisfaction with material, meaningful and spatial dimensions of housing-and both physical and mental health-related quality of life. Our analyses also revealed longitudinal associations between housing and neighborhood variables and health-related quality of life. Interventions that enhance housing affordability and housing satisfaction may help improve health-related quality of life of people living with HIV.

  14. Eramosa Lagerstätte—Exceptionally preserved soft-bodied biotas with shallow-marine shelly and bioturbating organisms (Silurian, Ontario, Canada)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Bitter, Peter H.; Purnell, Mark A.; Tetreault, Denis K.; Stott, Christopher A.

    2007-10-01

    The middle Silurian Eramosa Lagerstätte of Ontario, Canada, preserves taxonomically and taphonomically diverse biotas including articulated conodont skeletons and heterostracan fish, annelids and arthropods with soft body parts, and a diverse marine flora. Soft tissues are preserved as calcium phosphate and carbon films, the latter possibly stabilized by early diagenetic sulfurization. It is significant that the biotas also include a decalcified, autochthonous shelly marine fauna, and trace fossils. This association of exceptionally preserved and more typical fossils distinguishes the Eramosa from other Silurian shallow-marine Lagerstätten, such as the Waukesha Lagerstätte, and suggests that the Eramosa is not the product of exceptional preservation in an atypical environment, a bias claimed for many post-Cambrian Lagerstätten. The Eramosa Lagerstätte may provide a more reliable, balanced measure of what has been lost from the Silurian fossil record.

  15. Official Languages and the Economy. New Canadian Perspectives. Papers Presented at a Colloquium (Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, May 5, 1995).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Heritage, Ottawa (Ontario).

    Papers from a colloquium on the relationship between Canada's official languages and its economy include: "Economic Dimensions of Minority and Foreign Language Use: An International Overview" (Karim H. Karim); "European Research on the economics of Language: Recent Results and Relevance to Canada" (Francois Grin);…

  16. An analysis of the movement of dairy cattle through 2 large livestock markets in the province of Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Dubé, Caroline; Ribble, Carl; Kelton, David

    2010-11-01

    Data pertaining to the movement of dairy cattle through 2 large livestock markets in the province of Ontario were collected for 1 week per month throughout 2004. Counts and postal codes of sellers and buyers of adult dairy cattle, veal calves, and dairy calves were obtained. Three assumptions were made to represent the level of mixing among animals that could take place at the markets. We estimated the number of livestock holdings that could be exposed to a highly contagious disease agent, should infected animals have been sold through the market in the same week. The estimates ranged from 8 to 20 holdings, when assuming no mixing at the market, to 51 to 171 holdings when assuming complete mixing. These markets are important hubs in the dairy cattle movement network in Ontario and pose the risk of infecting a large number of livestock holdings should animals infected with a highly contagious disease agent pass through them.

  17. Pilot project to investigate over-wintering of free-living gastrointestinal nematode larvae of sheep in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Falzon, Laura C; Menzies, Paula I; VanLeeuwen, John; Shakya, Krishna P; Jones-Bitton, Andria; Avula, Jacob; Jansen, Jocelyn T; Peregrine, Andrew S

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated the overwintering survival and infectivity of free-living gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) stages on pasture. The presence of GIN larvae was assessed on 3 sheep farms in Ontario with a reported history of clinical haemonchosis, by collecting monthly pasture samples over the winter months of 2009/2010. The infectivity of GIN larvae on spring pastures was evaluated using 16 tracer lambs. Air and soil temperature and moisture were recorded hourly. Free-living stages of Trichostrongylus spp. and Nematodirus spp. were isolated from herbage samples. Gastrointestinal nematodes were recovered from all tracer lambs on all farms; Teladorsagia sp. was the predominant species. Very low levels of Haemonchus contortus were recovered from 1 animal on 1 farm. The results suggest that Haemonchus larvae do not survive well on pasture, while Teladorsagia sp., Trichostrongylus spp. and Nematodirus spp. are able to overwinter on pasture in Ontario and are still infective for sheep in the spring.

  18. On-farm study of human contact networks to document potential pathways for avian influenza transmission between commercial poultry farms in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Burns, T E; Guerin, M T; Kelton, D; Ribble, C; Stephen, C

    2011-12-01

    Human movements associated with poultry farming create contact networks that might facilitate transmission of avian influenza (AI) between farms during outbreaks. In Canada, no information is available about how these networks connect poultry farms. The purpose of this study was to document human contacts between commercial poultry farms in Ontario, Canada, to learn how AI might be transmitted during outbreaks. We used face-to-face interviews with people entering the farm biosecurity perimeter on four layer, one turkey and three broiler breeder poultry farms in Ontario to collect information on between-farm contacts and biosecurity practices. Over a four-day study period on each farm, a median of 10.5 people entered the farm biosecurity perimeter (range 2-31). Ninety-six per cent (111/118) of people consented to be interviewed. Of these, fifty-three per cent (59/111) had contact with one or more (median 2, degree range 1-14) other poultry farms within 72 h. A median of 25 (range 7-65) human contacts linked study farms to other poultry farms. The mean distance of between-farm contacts was 53 km. Eighty-six per cent of people who answered the biosecurity questions (94/109) reported using one or more biosecurity practices. However, on 7/8 farms, at least one person reported that they did not use any biosecurity practices. Fifty per cent of social visitors used biosecurity, whereas 96% of all other people used biosecurity. Ninety-two per cent of people that entered the poultry barns (46/50) used one or more biosecurity practices, whereas 81% of people (48/59) that did not enter the poultry barns used one or more biosecurity practices. Because our study documented farm visitors who did not use any biosecurity practices and moved between commercial poultry farms, we suggest that rapid trace-out of human movements is as important as containment zoning to limiting disease spread during an outbreak of highly pathogenic AI in Ontario.

  19. 19 CFR 12.140 - Entry of softwood lumber products from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Interior. “British Columbia Interior” means the Northern Interior Forest Region and the Southern Interior..., Canada; Northwest Territories, Canada; Nunavut Territory, Canada; Ontario, Canada; Saskatchewan,...

  20. Contributions to the faunistics and bionomics of Staphylinidae (Coleoptera) in northeastern North America: discoveries made through study of the University of Guelph Insect Collection, Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Brunke, Adam J.; Marshall, Stephen A.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Staphylinidae (Rove Beetles) from northeastern North America deposited in the University of Guelph Insect Collection (Ontario, Canada) were curated from 2008–2010 by the first author. The identification of this material has resulted in the recognition of thirty-five new provincial or state records, six new Canadian records, one new record for the United States and two new records for eastern Canada. All records are for subfamilies other than Aleocharinae and Pselaphinae, which will be treated in future publications as collaborative projects. Range expansions of ten exotic species to additional provinces and states are reported. The known distributions of each species in northeastern North America are summarized and presented as maps, and those species with a distinctive habitus are illustrated with color photographs. Genitalia and/or secondary sexual characters are illustrated for those species currently only identifiable on the basis of dissected males. The majority of the new records are in groups that have been recently revised, demonstrating the importance of curation and local insect surveys to the understanding of biodiversity, even for taxa and areas considered ‘relatively well-known’. PMID:21594139

  1. Contributions to the faunistics and bionomics of Staphylinidae (Coleoptera) in northeastern North America: discoveries made through study of the University of Guelph Insect Collection, Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Brunke, Adam J; Marshall, Stephen A

    2011-01-12

    Staphylinidae (Rove Beetles) from northeastern North America deposited in the University of Guelph Insect Collection (Ontario, Canada) were curated from 2008-2010 by the first author. The identification of this material has resulted in the recognition of thirty-five new provincial or state records, six new Canadian records, one new record for the United States and two new records for eastern Canada. All records are for subfamilies other than Aleocharinae and Pselaphinae, which will be treated in future publications as collaborative projects. Range expansions of ten exotic species to additional provinces and states are reported. The known distributions of each species in northeastern North America are summarized and presented as maps, and those species with a distinctive habitus are illustrated with color photographs. Genitalia and/or secondary sexual characters are illustrated for those species currently only identifiable on the basis of dissected males. The majority of the new records are in groups that have been recently revised, demonstrating the importance of curation and local insect surveys to the understanding of biodiversity, even for taxa and areas considered 'relatively well-known'.

  2. Pharmaceuticals, hormones and bisphenol A in untreated source and finished drinking water in Ontario, Canada--occurrence and treatment efficiency.

    PubMed

    Kleywegt, Sonya; Pileggi, Vince; Yang, Paul; Hao, Chunyan; Zhao, Xiaoming; Rocks, Carline; Thach, Serei; Cheung, Patrick; Whitehead, Brian

    2011-03-15

    The Ontario Ministry of the Environment (MOE) conducted a survey in 2006 on emerging organic contaminants (EOCs) which included pharmaceuticals, hormones and bisphenol A (BPA). The survey collected 258 samples over a 16 month period from selected source waters and 17 drinking water systems (DWSs), and analyzed them for 48 EOCs using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) for the highest precision and accuracy of analytical data possible. 27 of the 48 target EOCs were detected in source water, finished drinking water, or both. DWSs using river and lake source water accounted for>90% detections. Of the 27 EOCs found, we also reported the first detection of two antibiotics roxithromycin and enrofloxacin in environmental samples. The most frequently detected compounds (≥ 10%) in finished drinking water were carbamazepine (CBZ), gemfibrozil (GFB), ibuprofen (IBU), and BPA; with their concentrations accurately determined by using IDMS and calculated to be 4 to 10 times lower than those measured in the source water. Comparison of plant specific data allowed us to determine removal efficiency (RE) of these four most frequently detected compounds in Ontario DWSs. The RE of CBZ was determined to be from 71 to 93% for DWSs using granulated activated carbon (GAC); and was 75% for DWSs using GAC followed by ultraviolet irradiation (UV). The observed RE of GFB was between 44 and 55% in DWSs using GAC and increased to 82% when GAC was followed by UV. The use of GAC or GAC followed by UV provided an RE improvement of BPA from 80 to 99%. These detected concentration levels are well below the predicted no effect concentration or total allowable concentration reported in the literature. Additional targeted, site specific comparative research is required to fully assess the effectiveness of Ontario DWSs to remove particular compounds of concern.

  3. Twenty-first century probabilistic projections of precipitation over Ontario, Canada through a regional climate model ensemble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiuquan; Huang, Guohe; Liu, Jinliang

    2016-06-01

    In this study, probabilistic projections of precipitation for the Province of Ontario are developed through a regional climate model ensemble to help investigate how global warming would affect its local climate. The PRECIS regional climate modeling system is employed to perform ensemble simulations, driven by a set of boundary conditions from a HadCM3-based perturbed-physics ensemble. The PRECIS ensemble simulations are fed into a Bayesian hierarchical model to quantify uncertain factors affecting the resulting projections of precipitation and thus generate probabilistic precipitation changes at grid point scales. Following that, reliable precipitation projections throughout the twenty-first century are developed for the entire province by applying the probabilistic changes to the observed precipitation. The results show that the vast majority of cities in Ontario are likely to suffer positive changes in annual precipitation in 2030, 2050, and 2080 s in comparison to the baseline observations. This may suggest that the whole province is likely to gain more precipitation throughout the twenty-first century in response to global warming. The analyses on the projections of seasonal precipitation further demonstrate that the entire province is likely to receive more precipitation in winter, spring, and autumn throughout this century while summer precipitation is only likely to increase slightly in 2030 s and would decrease gradually afterwards. However, because the magnitude of projected decrease in summer precipitation is relatively small in comparison with the anticipated increases in other three seasons, the annual precipitation over Ontario is likely to suffer a progressive increase throughout the twenty-first century (by 7.0 % in 2030 s, 9.5 % in 2050 s, and 12.6 % in 2080 s). Besides, the degree of uncertainty for precipitation projections is analyzed. The results suggest that future changes in spring precipitation show higher degree of uncertainty than other

  4. Consultation on Workplace Literacy (Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, June 11-12, 1997). A Report = Consultation sur l'Alphabetisation en Milieu de Travail (Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, 11-12 juin 1997). Rapport.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Literacy Secretariat, Ottawa (Ontario).

    This report describes a meeting of Canadian partners who had experience in workplace literacy and represented different sectors that was convened to develop two lists of priorities for possible projects--those of interest to all sectors and of interest to each sector. Participants identified six clusters of priorities across Canada:…

  5. Abstracts presented at the 7th World Alliance for Risk Factor Surveillance (WARFS) Global Conference. October 16-19, 2011. Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    The 7th World Alliance for Risk Factor Surveillance (WARFS) Global Conference, hosted by the Public Health Agency of Canada, was held in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, from October 16 to 19, 2011. Previous WARFS conferences were held in USA (1999), Finland (2001), Australia (2003), Uruguay (2005) and Italy (2007, 2009). WARFS is a global working group on surveillance under the International Union for Health Promotion and Education (IUHPE) It supports the development of risk factor surveillance as a tool for evidence-based public health, acknowledging the importance of this source of information to inform, monitor and evaluate disease prevention and health promotion policies and programs. The theme of the 2011 Global Conference was the role of surveillance in the promotion of health. The Global Conference had 146 registered participants, making it the second most attended WARFS conference in its history. Over the three days, participants attended oral and poster presentations from 30 countries. The conference would not have been possible without the hard work of the International Scientific Committee and the Local Organizing Committee. To highlight the importance and the significance of this conference at an international level, Chronic Diseases and Injuries in Canada (CDIC) is pleased to publish this supplementary issue, which contains 70 abstracts presented at the 7th WARFS Global Conference. In the spirit the Global Conference, this collection of abstracts brings together surveillance material on risk factors, chronic diseases, infectious diseases and injuries from around the world. By making these abstracts widely available, CDIC hopes to further the conference objectives through a continued dialogue between those interested in linking risk factor surveillance to health promotion.

  6. Serosorting and recreational drug use are risk factors for diagnosis of genital infection with chlamydia and gonorrhoea among HIV-positive men who have sex with men: results from a clinical cohort in Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Grewal, Ramandip; Allen, Vanessa G; Gardner, Sandra; Moravan, Veronika; Raboud, Janet; Bayoumi, Ahmed M; Kaul, Rupert; Mazzulli, Tony; McGee, Frank; Rourke, Sean B; Burchell, Ann N

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Rates of chlamydia and gonorrhoea have been rising in urban centres in Canada, particularly among HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM). Our objective was to identify behavioural risk factors for diagnosis with chlamydia and gonorrhoea in this population, with a focus on the HIV status of sexual partners. Methods The OHTN Cohort Study follows people in HIV care across Ontario. We restricted the analysis to 1997 MSM who completed questionnaires in 2010–2013 at one of seven clinics that submit all chlamydia and gonorrhoea tests to the provincial public health laboratory; we obtained test results via record linkage. We estimated cumulative incidences using Kaplan–Meier methods and identified risk factors for diagnosis of a composite outcome (chlamydia or gonorrhoea infection) using Cox regression. Results At follow-up, there were 74 new chlamydia/gonorrhoea diagnoses with a 12-month cumulative incidence of 1.7% (95% CI 1.1% to 2.2%). Risk factors for chlamydia/gonorrhoea diagnosis were: 5+ HIV-positive partners (HR=3.3, 95% CI 1.4 to 7.8; reference=none) and recreational drug use (HR=2.2, 95% CI 1.2 to 3.9). Conclusions Heightened risks with recreational drug use and multiple HIV-positive partners suggest that chlamydia/gonorrhoea may have achieved high prevalence in certain sexual networks among HIV-positive MSM. Interventions to promote safer sex and timely testing among MSM are needed. PMID:27154185

  7. Fish mercury levels appear to be increasing lately: a report from 40 years of monitoring in the province of Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Nilima; Tang, Rex W K; Bhavsar, Satyendra P; Arhonditsis, George B

    2014-05-20

    Recent mercury levels and trends reported for North America suggest a mixed (positive/negative) outlook for the environmental mercury problem. Using one of the largest consistent monitoring data sets in the world, here we present long-term and recent mercury trends in Walleye, Northern Pike, and Lake Trout from the Province of Ontario, Canada, which contains about one-third of the world's fresh water and covers a wide geographical area (1.5 and 3 times larger than France and Germany, respectively). Overall, the results indicate that the fish mercury levels either declined (0.01-0.07 μg/g decade) or remained stable between the 1970s and 2012. The rates of mercury decline were substantially greater (mostly 0.05-0.31 μg/g decade) during the 1970s/80s possibly in response to reductions in mercury emissions. However, Walleye and Pike levels have generally increased (0.01-0.27 μg/g decade) in recent years (1995-2012), especially for northern Ontario (effect sizes for differences between the two periods ranged from 0.39 to 1.04). Proportions of Walleye and Pike locations showing a flat or increasing trend increased from 26-44% to 59-73% between the 1970s/80s and 1995-2012. Mercury emissions in North America have declined over the last few decades, and as such it is logical to expect recovery in fish mercury levels; however, other factors such as global emissions, climate change, invasive species, and local geochemistry are likely affecting the response time and magnitude.

  8. Site specific risk assessment of an energy-from-waste/thermal treatment facility in Durham Region, Ontario, Canada. Part B: Ecological risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Ollson, Christopher A; Whitfield Aslund, Melissa L; Knopper, Loren D; Dan, Tereza

    2014-01-01

    The regions of Durham and York in Ontario, Canada have partnered to construct an energy-from-waste (EFW) thermal treatment facility as part of a long term strategy for the management of their municipal solid waste. In this paper we present the results of a comprehensive ecological risk assessment (ERA) for this planned facility, based on baseline sampling and site specific modeling to predict facility-related emissions, which was subsequently accepted by regulatory authorities. Emissions were estimated for both the approved initial operating design capacity of the facility (140,000 tonnes per year) and the maximum design capacity (400,000 tonnes per year). In general, calculated ecological hazard quotients (EHQs) and screening ratios (SRs) for receptors did not exceed the benchmark value (1.0). The only exceedances noted were generally due to existing baseline media concentrations, which did not differ from those expected for similar unimpacted sites in Ontario. This suggests that these exceedances reflect conservative assumptions applied in the risk assessment rather than actual potential risk. However, under predicted upset conditions at 400,000 tonnes per year (i.e., facility start-up, shutdown, and loss of air pollution control), a potential unacceptable risk was estimated for freshwater receptors with respect to benzo(g,h,i)perylene (SR=1.1), which could not be attributed to baseline conditions. Although this slight exceedance reflects a conservative worst-case scenario (upset conditions coinciding with worst-case meteorological conditions), further investigation of potential ecological risk should be performed if this facility is expanded to the maximum operating capacity in the future.

  9. Hydrogeological impacts of road salt from Canada's busiest highway on a Lake Ontario watershed (Frenchman's Bay) and lagoon, City of Pickering.

    PubMed

    Meriano, Mandana; Eyles, Nick; Howard, Ken W F

    2009-06-26

    The quantity of deicing salt applied to paved surfaces in urban watersheds in cold regions has had a significant and cumulative effect on groundwater quality. Whereas road deicing salt is known in general to impact groundwater and surface water quality, quantitative information on the impact of large transport routes is lacking. In this study, we provide a chloride mass balance for an urban stream crossed by a large transport route in south-central Ontario, Canada and quantify likely long-term impacts of salt loading on surface and groundwater resources. The chloride mass balance, supported by hydrochemical analysis, reveals that approximately 50% of the total road salt applied to Pine Creek (1700 tonnes per winter) is removed annually via overland flow with the remainder accumulating in the shallow subsurface resulting in severe degradation of groundwater quality. Moreover, results show that road salt migration is the primary reason for enhanced mineral weathering in the shallow aquifer. During the 2004-05 salting season, runoff and baseflow transport of road salts were responsible for chloride concentrations in the stream of up to 2000 mg L(-1), and delivered approximately 850 tonnes of chloride (about 1400 tonnes of salt) to a shallow (<3.5 m) semi-enclosed lagoon on the shore of Lake Ontario (Frenchman's Bay; 0.85 km(2)). The total chloride delivery to the lagoon from its entire watershed is estimated at 3700 tonnes each year with up to 48% of the total load delivered by baseflow, the remainder from surface water runoff. Present day groundwater chloride concentrations are estimated to be about 80% of long-term concentrations when the system reaches steady state.

  10. Examining the relationship between neighbourhood deprivation and mental health service use of immigrants in Ontario, Canada: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Durbin, Anna; Moineddin, Rahim; Lin, Elizabeth; Steele, Leah S; Glazier, Richard H

    2015-01-01

    Objective While newcomers are often disproportionately concentrated in disadvantaged areas, little attention is given to the effects of immigrants’ postimmigration context on their mental health and care use. Intersectionality theory suggests that understanding the full impact of disadvantage requires considering the effects of interacting factors. This study assessed the inter-relationship between recent immigration status, living in deprived areas and service use for non-psychotic mental health disorders. Study design Matched population-based cross-sectional study. Setting Ontario, Canada, where healthcare use data for 1999–2012 were linked to immigration data and area-based material deprivation scores. Participants Immigrants in urban Ontario, and their age-matched and sex-matched long-term residents (a group of Canadian-born or long-term immigrants, n=501 417 pairs). Primary and secondary outcome measures For immigrants and matched long-term residents, contact with primary care, psychiatric care and hospital care (emergency department visits or inpatient admissions) for non-psychotic mental health disorders was followed for 5 years and examined using conditional logistic regression models. Intersectionality was investigated by including a material deprivation quintile by immigrant status (immigrant vs long-term resident) interaction. Results Recent immigrants in urban Ontario were more likely than long-term residents to live in most deprived quintiles (immigrants—males: 22.8%, females: 22.3%; long-term residents—both sexes: 13.1%, p<0.001). Living in more deprived circumstances was associated with greater use of mental health services, but increases were smaller for immigrants than for long-term residents. Immigrants used less mental health services than long-term residents. Conclusions This study adds to existing research by suggesting that immigrant status and deprivation have a combined effect on recent immigrants’ care use for non

  11. Comparing ELISA test-positive prevalence, risk factors and management recommendations for Johne's disease prevention between organic and conventional dairy farms in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Pieper, Laura; Sorge, Ulrike S; DeVries, Trevor; Godkin, Ann; Lissemore, Kerry; Kelton, David

    2015-11-01

    Johne's disease (JD) is a chronic, infectious disease in cattle. Between 2010 and 2013, a voluntary JD control program was successfully launched in Ontario, Canada, including a Risk Assessment and Management Plan (RAMP) and JD ELISA testing of the entire milking herd. Over the last decade, the organic dairy sector has been growing. However, organic farming regulations and philosophies may influence the risk for JD transmission on Ontario organic dairy farms. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate differences in JD ELISA test positive prevalence, risk factors for JD and recommendations for JD prevention between organic and conventional dairy herds in Ontario. RAMP results (i.e. RAMP scores and recommendations) and ELISA results were available for 2103 dairy herds, including 42 organic herds. If available, additional data on milk production, milk quality, and herd characteristics were gathered. Organic and conventional herds had a similar herd-level JD ELISA test-positive prevalence (26.2% and 27.2%, respectively). Organic herds (4.2%) had a higher within-herd JD ELISA test-positive prevalence compared to conventional herds (2.3%) if they had at least one JD test-positive animal on the farm. Organic farms had lower risk scores for biosecurity (9 points lower), and higher scores in the calving (7 points higher) and the calf-rearing management areas (4 points higher). After accounting for RAMP score, organic farms received fewer recommendations for the calving management area (Odds Ratio=0.41) and more recommendations in the adult cow management area (Odds Ratio=2.70). A zero-inflated negative binomial model was built with purchase of animals and the herd size included in the logistic portion of the model. Herd type (organic or conventional), colostrum and milk feeding practices, average bulk tank somatic cell count, and presence of non-Holstein breeds were included in the negative binomial portion of the model. Organic farms had a higher number of

  12. Petrogenesis of the Elzevir batholith and related trondhjemitic intrusions in the grenville province of eastern Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pride, C.; Moore, J. M.

    1983-06-01

    The Elzevir batholith belongs to a suite of trondhjemitic intrusions emplaced at ca. 1,240 Ma in the Grenville Province of eastern Ontario. New major and trace element data, including REE, combined with isotopic and petrographic data indicate that: 1) the batholith has calc-alkalic affinities; 2) the Elzevir parental magma is very similar to that of dacites in the nearby, coeval metavolcanic rocks; the magma formed by partial melting of crustal material at granulite grade; 3) chemical differences between the plutonic and volcanic rocks can be best explained by accumulation of plagioclase in the plutonic environment; 4) fractionation was dominated by plagioclase and quartz, with lesser biotite and epidote, and minor zircon and apatite. It is suggested that melting of sialic crust took place during the ‘docking’ of a partly-evolved, originally ensimatic arc system against the main cratonic mass to the northwest.

  13. Detection of Lyme Disease Bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, in Blacklegged Ticks Collected in the Grand River Valley, Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Scott, John D.; Foley, Janet E.; Anderson, John F.; Clark, Kerry L.; Durden, Lance A.

    2017-01-01

    We document the presence of blacklegged ticks, Ixodes scapularis, in the Grand River valley, Centre Wellington, Ontario. Overall, 15 (36%) of 42 I. scapularis adults collected from 41 mammalian hosts (dogs, cats, humans) were positive for the Lyme disease bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.). Using real-time PCR testing and DNA sequencing of the flagellin (fla) gene, we determined that Borrelia amplicons extracted from I. scapularis adults belonged to B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.), which is pathogenic to humans and certain domestic animals. Based on the distribution of I. scapularis adults within the river basin, it appears likely that migratory birds provide an annual influx of I. scapularis immatures during northward spring migration. Health-care providers need to be aware that local residents can present with Lyme disease symptoms anytime during the year. PMID:28260991

  14. The association between income source and met need among community mental health service users in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Durbin, Anna; Bondy, Susan J; Durbin, Janet

    2012-10-01

    We examined income source and match between recommended and received care among users of community mental health services. We conducted a secondary analysis of needs-based planning data on adults in Ontario community mental health programs from 2000 to 2002. The outcome was whether clients were severely underserved (yes/no) based on the match between level of care recommended and received. A logistic regression model investigated if income source predicted this outcome. 13% of clients were severely underserved. Over 40% were on public assistance and they had a higher risk of being severely undeserved than the others. Men were at greater risk. One aim of mental health reform is to increase access to care for vulnerable individuals. The finding that among users of community mental health services, individuals with public assistance income support are most vulnerable to being severely underserved should be considered by service planners and providers.

  15. Recurrence of inguinal hernias repaired in a large hernia surgical specialty hospital and general hospitals in Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Atiqa; Bell, Chaim M.; Stukel, Thérèse A.; Urbach, David R.

    2016-01-01

    Background The effect of hospital specialization on the risk of hernia recurrence after inguinal hernia repair is not well described. Methods We studied Ontario residents who had primary elective inguinal hernia repair at an Ontario hospital between 1993 and 2007 using population-based, administrative health data. We compared patients from a large hernia specialty hospital (Shouldice Hospital) with those from general hospitals to determine the risk of recurrence. Results We studied 235 192 patients, 27.7% of whom had surgery at Shouldice hospital. The age-standardized proportion of patients who had a recurrence ranged from 5.21% (95% confidence interval [CI] 4.94%–5.49%) among patients who had surgery at the lowest volume general hospitals to 4.79% (95% CI 4.54%–5.04%) who had surgery at the highest volume general hospitals. In contrast, patients who had surgery at the Shouldice Hospital had an age-standardized recurrence risk of 1.15% (95% CI 1.05%–1.25%). Compared with patients who had surgery at the lowest volume hospitals, hernia recurrence among those treated at the Shouldice Hospital was significantly lower after adjustment for the effects of age, sex, comorbidity and income level (adjusted hazard ratio 0.21, 95% CI 0.19–0.23, p < 0.001). Conclusion Inguinal hernia repair at Shouldice Hospital was associated with a significantly lower risk of subsequent surgery for recurrence than repair at a general hospital. While specialty hospitals may have better outcomes for treatment of common surgical conditions than general hospitals, these benefits must be weighed against potential negative impacts on clinical care and the financial sustainability of general hospitals. PMID:26574701

  16. Surname lists to identify South Asian and Chinese ethnicity from secondary data in Ontario, Canada: a validation study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Surname lists are useful for identifying cohorts of ethnic minority patients from secondary data sources. This study sought to develop and validate lists to identify people of South Asian and Chinese origin. Methods Comprehensive lists of South Asian and Chinese surnames were reviewed to identify those that uniquely belonged to the ethnic minority group. Surnames that were common in other populations, communities or ethnic groups were specifically excluded. These surname lists were applied to the Registered Persons Database, a registry of the health card numbers assigned to all residents of the Canadian province of Ontario, so that all residents were assigned to South Asian ethnicity, Chinese ethnicity or the General Population. Ethnic assignment was validated against self-identified ethnicity through linkage with responses to the Canadian Community Health Survey. Results The final surname lists included 9,950 South Asian surnames and 1,133 Chinese surnames. All 16,688,384 current and former residents of Ontario were assigned to South Asian ethnicity, Chinese ethnicity or the General Population based on their surnames. Among 69,859 respondents to the Canadian Community Health Survey, both lists performed extremely well when compared against self-identified ethnicity: positive predictive value was 89.3% for the South Asian list, and 91.9% for the Chinese list. Because surnames shared with other ethnic groups were deliberately excluded from the lists, sensitivity was lower (50.4% and 80.2%, respectively). Conclusions These surname lists can be used to identify cohorts of people with South Asian and Chinese origins from secondary data sources with a high degree of accuracy. These cohorts could then be used in epidemiologic and health service research studies of populations with South Asian and Chinese origins. PMID:20470433

  17. Behavioural science at work for Canada: National Research Council laboratories.

    PubMed

    Veitch, Jennifer A

    2007-03-01

    The National Research Council is Canada's principal research and development agency. Its 20 institutes are structured to address interdisciplinary problems for industrial sectors, and to provide the necessary scientific infrastructure, such as the national science library. Behavioural scientists are active in five institutes: Biological Sciences, Biodiagnostics, Aerospace, Information Technology, and Construction. Research topics include basic cellular neuroscience, brain function, human factors in the cockpit, human-computer interaction, emergency evacuation, and indoor environment effects on occupants. Working in collaboration with NRC colleagues and with researchers from universities and industry, NRC behavioural scientists develop knowledge, designs, and applications that put technology to work for people, designed with people in mind.

  18. The association between submission counts to a veterinary diagnostic laboratory and the economic and disease challenges of the Ontario swine industry from 1998 to 2009.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, T; Friendship, R; Pearl, D L; McEwen, B; Ker, A; Dewey, C

    2012-10-01

    An intuitive assumption is to believe that the number of submissions made to a veterinary diagnostic laboratory is dictated by the financial state of the industries using the laboratory. However, no research is available to document how the economics of a food animal industry affects laboratory submissions and therefore disease monitoring and surveillance efforts. The objective of this study was to determine if economic indices associated with the Ontario swine industry can account for the variability seen in these submissions. Retrospective swine submissions made to the Animal Health Laboratory at the University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario from January 1998 to July 2009 were compiled. The following economic, demographic, and health variables impacting Ontario swine production were selected for analysis: auction price, lean-hog futures, currency exchange rate, price of corn, an outbreak of porcine circovirus type-2 associated diseases (PCVAD), government incentive program, number of farms in province, and average farm size. All independent variables identified by unconditional associations to have a significance of P≤0.2 with the outcome of monthly submission count were included in a multivariable negative binomial model. A final model was identified by a backwards elimination procedure. A total of 30,432 swine submissions were recorded. The mean frequency of monthly submissions over 139 months was 212.9 (SD=56.0). After controlling for farm size, the number of pigs in Ontario, higher submission counts were associated with a weaker CAD$ versus US$, higher auction prices, and a PCVAD outbreak (P<0.001). The results suggest that both economic volatility and disease outbreaks in the Ontario swine industry drive submissions to the laboratory. In conclusion, lab submissions are a useful source of animal health data for disease surveillance; however, surveillance activities should also monitor the economics of the industry.

  19. Special Education: A Right or Privilege in Ontario?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeton, Anne

    1979-01-01

    Government policies and procedures for identifying, assessing, placing, and programing children in special education in Ontario, Canada, are examined. Survey results provide a picture of the variability that exists across Ontario in interpretation and carrying out of the regulations. (JMF)

  20. Comparison of municipal solid waste management systems in Canada and Ghana: a case study of the cities of London, Ontario, and Kumasi, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Asase, Mizpah; Yanful, Ernest K; Mensah, Moses; Stanford, Jay; Amponsah, Samuel

    2009-10-01

    Integrated waste management has been accepted as a sustainable approach to solid waste management in any region. It can be applied in both developed and developing countries. The difference is the approach taken to develop the integrated waste management system. This review looks at the integrated waste management system operating in the city of London, Ontario-Canada and how lessons can be drawn from the system's development and operation that will help implement a sustainable waste management system in the city of Kumasi, Ghana. The waste management system in London is designed such that all waste generated in the city is handled and disposed of appropriately. The responsibility of each sector handling waste is clearly defined and monitored. All major services are provided and delivered by a combination of public and private sector forces. The sustainability of the waste management in the city of London is attributed to the continuous improvement strategy framework adopted by the city based on the principles of integrated waste management. It is perceived that adopting a strategic framework based on the principles of integrated waste management with a strong political and social will, can transform the current waste management in Kumasi and other cities in developing countries in the bid for finding lasting solutions to the problems that have plagued the waste management system in these cities.

  1. Comparison of municipal solid waste management systems in Canada and Ghana: A case study of the cities of London, Ontario, and Kumasi, Ghana

    SciTech Connect

    Asase, Mizpah; Yanful, Ernest K. Mensah, Moses; Stanford, Jay; Amponsah, Samuel

    2009-10-15

    Integrated waste management has been accepted as a sustainable approach to solid waste management in any region. It can be applied in both developed and developing countries. The difference is the approach taken to develop the integrated waste management system. This review looks at the integrated waste management system operating in the city of London, Ontario-Canada and how lessons can be drawn from the system's development and operation that will help implement a sustainable waste management system in the city of Kumasi, Ghana. The waste management system in London is designed such that all waste generated in the city is handled and disposed of appropriately. The responsibility of each sector handling waste is clearly defined and monitored. All major services are provided and delivered by a combination of public and private sector forces. The sustainability of the waste management in the city of London is attributed to the continuous improvement strategy framework adopted by the city based on the principles of integrated waste management. It is perceived that adopting a strategic framework based on the principles of integrated waste management with a strong political and social will, can transform the current waste management in Kumasi and other cities in developing countries in the bid for finding lasting solutions to the problems that have plagued the waste management system in these cities.

  2. The role of pediatricians as key stakeholders in influencing immunization policy decisions for the introduction of meningitis B vaccine in Canada: The Ontario perspective

    PubMed Central

    Yamashiro, Hirotaka; Cutcliffe, Nora; Dobson, Simon; Fisman, David; Gold, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    As key stakeholders in immunization policy decisions, the Pediatricians of Ontario held an accredited conference on January 18, 2014, to discuss prevention of invasive meningococcal disease. Five key recommendations were put forth regarding immunization strategies to protect children from meningococcal serogroup B disease. The recently approved four-component meningococcal B (4CMenB) vaccine should be recommended and funded as part of Ontario’s routine immunization schedule and should also be mandated for school attendance. Public funding for 4CMenB immunization is justified based on current MenB epidemiology, vaccine coverage, cost effectiveness and acceptability, as well as legal, political and ethical considerations related to 4CMenB immunization, particularly because routine recommendations and funding are currently in place for vaccination against meningococcal serogroups that cause significantly less disease in Canada than MenB. Broadly, the goals are to assist individual practitioners in advocating the benefits of 4CMenB vaccination to parents, and to counterbalance recommendations from the National Advisory Committee on Immunization and the Canadian Paediatric Society. PMID:26361485

  3. Prevalence of texting while driving and other risky driving behaviors among young people in Ontario, Canada: Evidence from 2012 and 2014.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Sean; Pek, Simon; Morrish, Jayne; Ruf, Megan

    2015-11-01

    This paper reports on the prevalence of texting while driving and other risky driving behaviors by age and gender in two large samples of youth aged 16-19 years in Ontario, Canada. In Study 1 (N=6133), we found that males reported more frequent texting while driving and speeding than females and, in terms of age, sixteen year olds reported frequent texting while driving than older participants. In Study 2 (N=4450), which was conducted two years later, males again reported more frequent texting while driving, however there was no difference in the rate of talking on the phone while driving among males and females. Participants also reported on experiences that led to a significant reduction in their texting while driving. The most common reasons were the perceived danger of texting while driving, laws and fines against texting while driving, and observing close-calls and accidents experienced by other people. The results of both studies suggest that driving-related risk-taking behaviors co-occur and that young passengers in vehicles, including 14 and 15 year olds, are bystanders to texting while driving. Finally, there was a substantial decline in the prevalence of texting while driving across the studies. In Study 1, 27% of participants reported "sometimes" to "almost always" texting while driving compared to 6% of participants in Study 2. Limitations and implications for public campaigns targeted youth distracted driving are discussed.

  4. Geochemical heterogeneity in a small, stratigraphically complex moraine aquifer system (Ontario, Canada): Interpretation of flow and recharge using multiple geochemical parameters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stotler, R.L.; Frape, S.K.; El Mugammar, H.T.; Johnston, C.; Judd-Henrey, I.; Harvey, F.E.; Drimmie, R.; Jones, J.P.

    2011-01-01

    The Waterloo Moraine is a stratigraphically complex system and is the major water supply to the cities of Kitchener and Waterloo in Ontario, Canada. Despite over 30 years of investigation, no attempt has been made to unify existing geochemical data into a single database. A composite view of the moraine geochemistry has been created using the available geochemical information, and a framework created for geochemical data synthesis of other similar flow systems. Regionally, fluid chemistry is highly heterogeneous, with large variations in both water type and total dissolved solids content. Locally, upper aquifer units are affected by nitrate and chloride from fertilizer and road salt. Typical upper-aquifer fluid chemistry is dominated by calcium, magnesium, and bicarbonate, a result of calcite and dolomite dissolution. Evidence also suggests that ion exchange and diffusion from tills and bedrock units accounts for some elevated sodium concentrations. Locally, hydraulic "windows" cross connect upper and lower aquifer units, which are typically separated by a clay till. Lower aquifer units are also affected by dedolomitization, mixing with bedrock water, and locally, upward diffusion of solutes from the bedrock aquifers. A map of areas where aquifer units are geochemically similar was constructed to highlight areas with potential hydraulic windows. ?? 2010 Springer-Verlag.

  5. The impact of 9/11 on the association of ambient air pollution with daily respiratory hospital admissions in a Canada-US border city, Windsor, Ontario

    PubMed Central

    LUGINAAH, ISAAC; FUNG, KAREN Y.; GOREY, KEVIN M.; KHAN, SHAHEDUL

    2010-01-01

    The 11 September 2001 (9/11) terrorist attacks in the United States resulted in long lines of trucks at the border crossing in Windsor, Ontario. Public concern about the potential impact of these trucks spewing toxic pollutants into the air drew attention to the need to investigate the impact of 9/11 on the daily levels of air pollutants and respiratory hospitalization. In this study, significant increases in respiratory admissions were found one month and 6 months post-9/11. Mean daily respiratory admission was also significantly higher than the same period one year earlier and one year later. SO2 and CO concentration levels were found to be generally higher after 9/11 than one year before and immediately before. Relative risk estimates of respiratory hospitalization after 9/11 showed that SO2 (RR̂ = 1.15 for two-day, RR̂ = 1.18 for three-day, and RR̂ = 1.21 for five-day averages), NO2 (RR̂ = 1.10 for current day), and COH (RR̂ = 1.09 for current day, RR̂ = 1.10 for two-day average) had the most significant effects after 9/11. These results suggest the need for more stringent regulatory efforts in air quality in the region in response to the changing transportation dynamics at this Canada-US border crossing. PMID:21234298

  6. Elevated contaminants contrasted with potential benefits of ω-3 fatty acids in wild food consumers of two remote first nations communities in northern Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Seabert, Timothy A; Pal, Shinjini; Pinet, Bernard M; Haman, Francois; Robidoux, Michael A; Imbeault, Pascal; Krümmel, Eva M; Kimpe, Linda E; Blais, Jules M

    2014-01-01

    Indigenous communities in Boreal environments rely on locally-harvested wild foods for sustenance. These foods provide many nutritional benefits including higher levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs; such as ω-3) than what is commonly found in store-bought foods. However, wild foods can be a route of exposure to dietary mercury and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Here, we show a strong association between the frequency of wild food consumption in adults (N=72) from two remote First Nations communities of Northern Ontario and environmental contaminants in blood (POPs) and hair (mercury). We observed that POPs and mercury were on average 3.5 times higher among those consuming wild foods more often, with many frequent wild food consumers exceeding Canadian and international health guidelines for PCB and mercury exposures. Contaminants in locally-harvested fish and game from these communities were sufficiently high that many participants exceeded the monthly consumption limits for methylmercury and PCBs. Those consuming more wild foods also had higher proportions of potentially beneficial ω-3 fatty acids including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). These results show that the benefits of traditional dietary choices in Boreal regions of Canada must be weighed against the inherent risks of contaminant exposure from these foods.

  7. Elevated Contaminants Contrasted with Potential Benefits of ω-3 Fatty Acids in Wild Food Consumers of Two Remote First Nations Communities in Northern Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Seabert, Timothy A.; Pal, Shinjini; Pinet, Bernard M.; Haman, Francois; Robidoux, Michael A.; Imbeault, Pascal; Krümmel, Eva M.; Kimpe, Linda E.; Blais, Jules M.

    2014-01-01

    Indigenous communities in Boreal environments rely on locally-harvested wild foods for sustenance. These foods provide many nutritional benefits including higher levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs; such as ω-3) than what is commonly found in store-bought foods. However, wild foods can be a route of exposure to dietary mercury and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Here, we show a strong association between the frequency of wild food consumption in adults (N = 72) from two remote First Nations communities of Northern Ontario and environmental contaminants in blood (POPs) and hair (mercury). We observed that POPs and mercury were on average 3.5 times higher among those consuming wild foods more often, with many frequent wild food consumers exceeding Canadian and international health guidelines for PCB and mercury exposures. Contaminants in locally-harvested fish and game from these communities were sufficiently high that many participants exceeded the monthly consumption limits for methylmercury and PCBs. Those consuming more wild foods also had higher proportions of potentially beneficial ω-3 fatty acids including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). These results show that the benefits of traditional dietary choices in Boreal regions of Canada must be weighed against the inherent risks of contaminant exposure from these foods. PMID:24598815

  8. The impact of 9/11 on the association of ambient air pollution with daily respiratory hospital admissions in a Canada-US border city, Windsor, Ontario.

    PubMed

    Luginaah, Isaac; Fung, Karen Y; Gorey, Kevin M; Khan, Shahedul

    2006-08-01

    The 11 September 2001 (9/11) terrorist attacks in the United States resulted in long lines of trucks at the border crossing in Windsor, Ontario. Public concern about the potential impact of these trucks spewing toxic pollutants into the air drew attention to the need to investigate the impact of 9/11 on the daily levels of air pollutants and respiratory hospitalization. In this study, significant increases in respiratory admissions were found one month and 6 months post-9/11. Mean daily respiratory admission was also significantly higher than the same period one year earlier and one year later. SO(2) and CO concentration levels were found to be generally higher after 9/11 than one year before and immediately before. Relative risk estimates of respiratory hospitalization after 9/11 showed that SO(2) (RR̂ = 1.15 for two-day, RR̂ = 1.18 for three-day, and RR̂ = 1.21 for five-day averages), NO(2) (RR̂ = 1.10 for current day), and COH (RR̂ = 1.09 for current day, RR̂ = 1.10 for two-day average) had the most significant effects after 9/11. These results suggest the need for more stringent regulatory efforts in air quality in the region in response to the changing transportation dynamics at this Canada-US border crossing.

  9. Sex and gender diversity among transgender persons in Ontario, Canada: results from a respondent-driven sampling survey.

    PubMed

    Scheim, Ayden I; Bauer, Greta R

    2015-01-01

    Recent estimates suggest that as many as 1 in 200 adults may be trans (transgender, transsexual, or transitioned). Knowledge about dimensions of sex and gender in trans populations is crucial to development of inclusive policy, practice, and research, but limited data have been available, particularly from probability samples. The Trans PULSE community-based research project surveyed trans Ontarians (n=433) in 2009-2010 using respondent-driven sampling. Frequencies were weighted by recruitment probability to produce estimates for the networked Ontario trans population. An estimated 30% of trans Ontarians were living their day-to-day lives in their birth gender, and 23% were living in their felt gender with no medical intervention. In all, 42% were using hormones, while 15% of male-to-female spectrum persons had undergone vaginoplasty and 0.4% of female-to-male spectrum persons had had phalloplasty. Of those living in their felt gender, 59% had begun to do so within the past four years. A minority of trans Ontarians reported a linear transition from one sex to another, yet such a trajectory is often assumed to be the norm. Accounting for this observed diversity, we recommend policy and practice changes to increase social inclusion and service access for trans persons, regardless of transition status.

  10. Sex and Gender Diversity Among Transgender Persons in Ontario, Canada: Results From a Respondent-Driven Sampling Survey

    PubMed Central

    Scheim, Ayden I.; Bauer, Greta R.

    2015-01-01

    Recent estimates suggest that as many as 1 in 200 adults may be trans (transgender, transsexual, or transitioned). Knowledge about dimensions of sex and gender in trans populations is crucial to development of inclusive policy, practice, and research, but limited data have been available, particularly from probability samples. The Trans PULSE community-based research project surveyed trans Ontarians (n = 433) in 2009–2010 using respondent-driven sampling. Frequencies were weighted by recruitment probability to produce estimates for the networked Ontario trans population. An estimated 30% of trans Ontarians were living their day-to-day lives in their birth gender, and 23% were living in their felt gender with no medical intervention. In all, 42% were using hormones, while 15% of male-to-female spectrum persons had undergone vaginoplasty and 0.4% of female-to-male spectrum persons had had phalloplasty. Of those living in their felt gender, 59% had begun to do so within the past four years. A minority of trans Ontarians reported a linear transition from one sex to another, yet such a trajectory is often assumed to be the norm. Accounting for this observed diversity, we recommend policy and practice changes to increase social inclusion and service access for trans persons, regardless of transition status. PMID:24750105

  11. Association of comorbid mood disorders and chronic illness with disability and quality of life in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Gadalla, T

    2008-01-01

    Mood disorders are more prevalent in individuals with chronic physical illness compared to individuals with no such illness. These disorders amplify the disability associated with the physical condition and adversely affect its course, thus contributing to occupational impairment, disruption in interpersonal and family relationships, poor health and suicide. This study used data collected in the Canadian Community Health Survey, cycle 3.1 (2005) to examine factors associated with comorbid mood disorders and to assess their association with the quality of life of individuals living in Ontario. Results indicate that individuals with chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia, bowel disorder or stomach or intestinal ulcers had the highest rates of mood disorders. The odds of having a comorbid mood disorder were higher among women, the single, those living in poverty, the Canadian born and those between 30 and 69 years of age. The presence of comorbid mood disorders was significantly associated with short-term disability, requiring help with instrumental daily activities and suicidal ideation. Health care providers are urged to proactively screen chronically ill patients for mood disorders, particularly among the subgroups found to have elevated risk for these disorders.

  12. Effects of regional reductions in sulphur deposition on the chemical and biological recovery of lakes within Killarney Park, Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Snucins, E; Gunn, J; Keller, B; Dixit, S; Hindar, A; Henriksen, A

    2001-01-01

    The lakes in Killarney Provincial Park, located 40-60 km southwest of Sudbury, Ontario, were some of the first lakes in North America to be acidified by atmospheric pollutants. Acidification affected thousands of fish and invertebrate populations in dozens of lakes. Since the 1970's, water quality has improved in response to atmospheric pollution reductions and some lakes have already recovered to approximately their pre-industrial pH levels, as inferred from diatom microfossils in lake sediments. Since the 1970's, fish species richness has not changed substantially, but zooplankton species richness has increased in acidified lakes. The critical sulphur load, the amount of SO2-derived acid deposition that can occur while still maintaining suitable water quality, was estimated to be exceeded in 38% of the park area in 1997. Depending on which of four possible North American emission control scenarios (CLR = currently legislated reduction; CLR + 25%; CLR + 50%; CLR + 75%) is achieved by 2010, the projected critical loads will be exceeded in about 0-30% of the park area in the future. There are many factors that can affect biological recovery rates of damaged lakes, but it is expected that biological recovery will lag considerably behind observed chemical recovery rates.

  13. Enhanced algal abundance in northwest Ontario (Canada) lakes during the warmer early-to mid-Holocene period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karmakar, Moumita; Leavitt, Peter R.; Cumming, Brian F.

    2015-09-01

    This study investigates regional changes in primary producers in boreal head-water lakes during the warmer early-to-mid-Holocene (EMH) period, across the present-day boreal forest in northwest Ontario, a region that is adjacent to the prairie-forest ecotone. We quantified changes in algal abundance and composition over the Holocene period using pigments, spectrally-inferred chlorophyll a and diatom assemblages in well-dated sediment cores from three lakes. All three indicators showed a coherent pattern of enhanced primary producers in two of the study lakes (Gall Lake and Lake 239) during the EMH, whereas only diatom assemblages suggested higher levels of nutrients in Meekin Lake. Overall, this study supports a regional pattern of enhanced primary producers during the EMH, likely as a function of lower water-levels and warmer temperatures. Elevated concentrations of cyanobacterial pigments also occurred in two of the three lakes during the EMH, whereas pigments from purple-sulphur bacteria provide evidence of enhanced deep-water anoxia in one lake. These findings suggest that future climatic warming in boreal regions could include regional eutrophication and associated increases in cyanobacteria.

  14. Availability and Structure of Ambulatory Rehabilitation Services: A Survey of Hospitals with Designated Rehabilitation Beds in Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Passalent, Laura A.; Cott, Cheryl A.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the degree to which ambulatory physical therapy (PT), occupational therapy (OT), and speech language pathology (SLP) services are available in hospitals with designated rehabilitation beds (DRBs) in Ontario, and to explore the structure of delivery and funding among services that exist. Methods: Questions regarding ambulatory services were included in the System Integration and Change (SIC) survey sent to all hospitals participating in the Hospital Report 2005: Rehabilitation initiative. Results: The response rate was 75.9% (41 of 54 hospitals). All hospitals surveyed provide some degree of ambulatory rehabilitation services, but the nature of these services varies according to rehabilitation client groups (RCGs). The majority of hospitals continue to deliver services through their employees rather than by contracting out or by creating for-profit subsidiary clinics, but an increasing proportion is accessing private sources to finance ambulatory services. Conclusions: Most hospitals with DRBs provide some degree of ambulatory rehabilitation services. Privatization of delivery is not widespread in these facilities. PMID:20145757

  15. Applications of Low Altitude Remote Sensing in Agriculture upon Farmers' Requests– A Case Study in Northeastern Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chunhua; Walters, Dan; Kovacs, John M.

    2014-01-01

    With the growth of the low altitude remote sensing (LARS) industry in recent years, their practical application in precision agriculture seems all the more possible. However, only a few scientists have reported using LARS to monitor crop conditions. Moreover, there have been concerns regarding the feasibility of such systems for producers given the issues related to the post-processing of images, technical expertise, and timely delivery of information. The purpose of this study is to showcase actual requests by farmers to monitor crop conditions in their fields using an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). Working in collaboration with farmers in northeastern Ontario, we use optical and near-infrared imagery to monitor fertilizer trials, conduct crop scouting and map field tile drainage. We demonstrate that LARS imagery has many practical applications. However, several obstacles remain, including the costs associated with both the LARS system and the image processing software, the extent of professional training required to operate the LARS and to process the imagery, and the influence from local weather conditions (e.g. clouds, wind) on image acquisition all need to be considered. Consequently, at present a feasible solution for producers might be the use of LARS service provided by private consultants or in collaboration with LARS scientific research teams. PMID:25386696

  16. Peat landforms along the Albany River, northern Ontario. An ecological study of peat landforms in Canada and Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaser, P. H.

    1985-01-01

    During the summer of 1985 a field investigation was started in the Hudson Bay lowland region of northern Ontario, which represents the largest expanse of peatland in North America and is an important sink in the global carbon cycle. A key area in the lowlands is situated along the Albany River near the confluence of the Chepay River. Here the striking vegetation-landforms are transitional between those found on the bed of Glacial Lake Agassiz in northern Minnesota and southern Manitoba and the more northern peatlands in the Hudson Bay lowland region. In peatland studies elsewhere the landform patterns have been used not only to classify different peatland types but also as an indicator of potential developmetnal trends. The study area is generally defined by that covered by the TM scene E-40062-15532 taken on Sept. 16, 1982. The purpose of the field work is to acquire sufficent information to interpret the TM imagery and test various hypotheses on peatland development on the gasis of the pattern transitions.

  17. Applications of low altitude remote sensing in agriculture upon farmers' requests--a case study in northeastern Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chunhua; Walters, Dan; Kovacs, John M

    2014-01-01

    With the growth of the low altitude remote sensing (LARS) industry in recent years, their practical application in precision agriculture seems all the more possible. However, only a few scientists have reported using LARS to monitor crop conditions. Moreover, there have been concerns regarding the feasibility of such systems for producers given the issues related to the post-processing of images, technical expertise, and timely delivery of information. The purpose of this study is to showcase actual requests by farmers to monitor crop conditions in their fields using an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). Working in collaboration with farmers in northeastern Ontario, we use optical and near-infrared imagery to monitor fertilizer trials, conduct crop scouting and map field tile drainage. We demonstrate that LARS imagery has many practical applications. However, several obstacles remain, including the costs associated with both the LARS system and the image processing software, the extent of professional training required to operate the LARS and to process the imagery, and the influence from local weather conditions (e.g. clouds, wind) on image acquisition all need to be considered. Consequently, at present a feasible solution for producers might be the use of LARS service provided by private consultants or in collaboration with LARS scientific research teams.

  18. Physician perspectives on care of individuals with severe mobility impairments in primary care in Southwestern Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    McMillan, Colleen; Lee, Joseph; Milligan, James; Hillier, Loretta M; Bauman, Craig

    2016-07-01

    Despite the high health risks associated with severe mobility impairments, individuals with physical disabilities are less likely to receive the same level of primary care as able-bodied persons. This study explores family physicians' perspectives on primary care for individuals with mobility impairments to identify and better understand the challenges that prevent equitable service delivery to this group of patients. Semi-structured interviews were conducted in the autumn of 2012 with a purposeful sample of 20 family physicians practising in Southwestern Ontario to gather their perspectives of the personal and professional barriers to healthcare delivery for individuals with mobility impairments, including perceptions of challenges, contributing reasons and possible improvements. A thematic analysis was conducted on the transcripts generated from the interviews to identify perceptions of existing barriers and gaps in care, needs and existing opportunities for improving primary care for this patient population. Eight themes emerged from the interviews that contributed to understanding the perceived challenges of providing care to patients with mobility impairments: transportation barriers, knowledge gaps and practice constraints resulting in episodic care rather than preventive care, incongruence between perceived and actual accessibility to care, emergency departments used as centres for primary care, inattention to mobility issues among specialist and community services, lack of easily accessible practice tools, low patient volumes impact decision-making regarding building decreased motivation to expand clinical capacity due to low patient volume, and lastly, remuneration issues. Despite this patient population presenting with high healthcare needs and significant barriers and care gaps in primary care, low prevalence rates negatively impact the acquisition of necessary equipment and knowledge required to optimally care for these patients in typical primary care

  19. Comparison of garnet-biotite, calcite-graphite, and calcite-dolomite thermometry in the Grenville Orogen; Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rathmell, Mark A.; Streepey, Margaret M.; Essene, Eric J.; van der Pluijm, Ben A.

    The Elzevir Terrane of the Grenville Orogen in southern Ontario contains metapelites and abundant graphitic marbles that were regionally metamorphosed from the upper greenschist to upper amphibolite facies. Comparative thermometry was undertaken with widely used calibrations for the systems garnet-biotite, calcite-dolomite, and calcite-graphite. Temperatures that are obtained from matrix biotites paired with prograde garnet near-rim analyses are usually consistent with those determined using calcite-graphite thermometry. However, calcite-graphite thermometry occasionally yields low temperatures due to lack of equilibration of anomalously light graphite. Application of calcite-graphite and garnet-biotite systems may yield temperatures up to 70°C higher than calcite-dolomite in amphibolite facies rocks. Calcite-dolomite temperatures most closely approach those from calcite-graphite and garnet-biotite when the samples contain a single generation of dolomite and calcite grains contain no visible dolomite exsolution lamellae. However, some of these samples yield temperatures considerably lower than temperatures calculated from calcite-graphite and garnet-biotite thermometry, indicating that the calcite-dolomite thermometer may have been partially reset during retrogression. Estimated peak metamorphic temperatures of regional metamorphism between Madoc (upper greenschist facies) and Bancroft (upper amphibolite facies) range from 500 to 650°C. These results place the chlorite-staurolite isograd at 540°C, the kyanite-sillimanite isograd at 590°C, and the sillimanite-K-feldspar isograd at 650°C. Although each thermometer may have an absolute uncertainty of as much as +/-50°C, the 50 to 60°C temperature differences between the isograds are probably accurate to 10 to 20°C. An incomplete picture of the thermal gradients can result from the application of only one thermometer in a given area. Simultaneous application of several systems allows one to recognize and

  20. Unintentional injuries in children and youth from immigrant families in Ontario, Canada: a population-based cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, Natasha Ruth; Macpherson, Alison; Guan, Jun; Sheng, Lisa; Guttmann, Astrid

    2017-01-01

    Background: Unintentional injury is the leading cause of childhood death. Injury is associated with a number of sociodemographic characteristics, but little is known about risk in immigrants. Our objective was to examine the association between family immigrant status and unintentional injury in children and youth. Methods: We performed a population-based, cross-sectional study involving children and youth (age 0-24 yr) residing in Ontario from 2008 to 2012. Multiple linked health and administrative databases were used to describe unintentional injuries by family immigrant status. Unintentional injury events (e.g., emergency department visits, admissions to hospital, deaths) were analyzed using Poisson regression models to estimate rate ratios (RRs) for injury by immigrant status. Results: Annualized injury rates were 11 749 emergency department visits per 100 000 population, 267 hospital admissions per 100 000 population and 12 deaths per 100 000 population. Injury rates were lower among immigrants across all causes of unintentional injury (adjusted RR 0.56, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.54-0.59). Among nonimmigrants, lowest neighbourhood income quintile was associated with the highest rates (RR 1.13, 95% CI 1.08-1.18, quintile 5 v. 1); among immigrants, lowest income quintile was associated with the lowest rates of injury (RR 0.88, 95% CI 0.82-0.94, quintile 5 v. 1). Highest rates of injury for nonimmigrants were among adolescents (age 10-14 yr, RR 1.23, 95% CI 1.18-1.28; v. 20-24 yr), but for immigrants, was highest among young children (0-4 yr RR 1.23, 95% CI 1.16-1.31; v. 20-24 yr). Interpretation: Rates of unintentional injury are lower among immigrant than among Canadian-born children, supporting a healthy immigrant effect. Socioeconomic status and age have different associations with injury risk, suggesting alternative causal pathways for injuries in immigrant children and youth.

  1. Active cigarette smoking, variants in carcinogen metabolism genes and breast cancer risk among pre- and postmenopausal women in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Cotterchio, Michelle; Mirea, Lucia; Ozcelik, Hilmi; Kreiger, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is strongly associated with various diseases including many cancers; however, evidence regarding breast cancer risk remains inconclusive with some studies reporting no association, and others an increased risk with long duration and early initiation of smoking. Genetic variation in carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes may modify these associations. Breast cancer cases were identified from the Ontario Cancer Registry (OCR) during 2003-2004 and population controls through random digit dialing methods. All subjects completed self-administered questionnaires. Subsequently, saliva samples were obtained from cases (N = 1,776) and controls (N = 1,839) for deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) extraction. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for active smoking variables, and interactions were assessed between smoking and 36 carcinogen-metabolizing candidate gene variants. No statistically significant association was found between active smoking and breast cancer risk among all women nor when stratified by menopausal status; however, nonsignificant increased premenopausal breast cancer risk was observed among current smokers and women smoking before first pregnancy. Several statistically significant interactions were observed between smoking and genetic variants (CYP1A2 1548C>T, CYP1A1 3801T>C, CYP1B1 4326G>C, NAT1 c.-85-1014T>A, UGT1A7 W208R 622T>C, SOD2 c.47T>C, GSTT1 deletion). However, in analyses stratified by these genotypes, smoking ORs had wide confidence intervals (and with few exceptions included 1.0) making interpretations difficult. Active smoking was not associated with breast cancer risk, although several significant interactions were observed between smoking, carcinogen-metabolizing genetic variants, and breast cancer risk.

  2. Methane fluxes measured by eddy covariance and static chamber techniques at a temperate forest in central ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J. M.; Murphy, J. G.; Geddes, J. A.; Winsborough, C. L.; Basiliko, N.; Thomas, S. C.

    2012-12-01

    Methane flux measurements were carried out at a temperate forest (Haliburton Forest and Wildlife Reserve) in central Ontario (45°17´11´´ N, 78°32´19´´ W) from June-October, 2011. Continuous measurements were made by an off-axis integrated cavity output spectrometer Fast Greenhouse Gas Analyzer (FGGA) from Los Gatos Research Inc. that measures methane (CH4) at 10 Hz sampling rates. Fluxes were calculated from the gas measurements in conjunction with wind data collected by a 3-D sonic anemometer using the eddy covariance (EC) method. Observed methane fluxes showed net uptake of CH4 over the measurement period with an average uptake flux (± standard deviation of the mean) of -2.7 ± 0.13 nmol m-2 s-1. Methane fluxes showed a seasonal progression with average rates of uptake increasing from June through September and remaining high in October. This pattern was consistent with a decreasing trend in soil moisture content at the monthly time scale. On the diurnal timescale, there was evidence of increased uptake during the day, when the mid-canopy wind speed was at a maximum. These patterns suggest that substrate supply of CH4 and oxygen to methanotrophs, and in certain cases hypoxic soil conditions supporting methanogenesis in low-slope areas, drive the observed variability in fluxes. A network of soil static chambers used at the tower site showed close agreement with the eddy covariance flux measurements. This suggests that soil-level microbial processes, and not abiological leaf-level CH4 production, drive overall CH4 dynamics in temperate forest ecosystems such as Haliburton Forest.

  3. Prevalence and distribution of gastrointestinal nematodes on 32 organic and conventional commercial sheep farms in Ontario and Quebec, Canada (2006-2008).

    PubMed

    Mederos, A; Fernández, S; VanLeeuwen, J; Peregrine, A S; Kelton, D; Menzies, P; LeBoeuf, A; Martin, R

    2010-06-24

    In order to characterize the epidemiology of sheep gastrointestinal nematodes in organic and conventional flocks in Canada, a longitudinal study was carried out from May 2006 to March 2008 on 32 purposively selected farms in Ontario (ON) and Quebec (QC): 8 certified organic (CO), 16 non-certified organic (NCO), and 8 conventional (C) farms. On each farm, 10 ewes and 10 female lambs were selected. Farm visits were undertaken monthly during the grazing season, and twice in the winter. At each visit, individual fecal samples were taken, and pasture samples were obtained during the grazing season. In addition, body condition score was recorded for all sheep. Fecal egg counts per gram of feces (EPGs) were determined for all fecal samples, and infective larvae (L(3)) were identified in fecal samples (lambs and ewes separately) and pasture samples from farms. Necropsies of 14 lambs from 7 of the 23 Ontario farms were performed at the end of the grazing season in 2006. The mean EPG for year 1 (May 2006 to March 2007) was 181 (range=0-9840) and 351 (range=0-18,940) for the ewes in ON and QC, respectively, and for the lambs was 509 (range=0-25,020) and 147 (range=0-3060) for ON and QC, respectively. During year 2 (April 2007 to March 2008), the mean EPG was 303 (range=0-21,160) and 512 (range=0-22,340) for the ewes in ON and QC, respectively, and for lambs was 460 (range=0-26,180) and 232 (range=0-8280) for ON and QC, respectively. Although the overall mean EPGs were not remarkably high, there were months of higher EPG such as May-June for ewes and July-August for lambs in both provinces. Pasture infectivity was highest in May-June and September. There was a general trend for the CO farms to have lower mean EPG than NCO and C farms. Fecal cultures demonstrated that the most predominant nematode genera were Teladorsagia sp., Haemonchus sp. and Trichostrongylus spp. Pasture infectivity was highest during June-July (984 L3/kg DM) in ON farms and September (mean=436 L3/kg DM) in

  4. Incidence of Hospitalization for Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection amongst Children in Ontario, Canada: A Population-Based Study Using Validated Health Administrative Data

    PubMed Central

    Pisesky, Andrea; Benchimol, Eric I.; Wong, Coralie A.; Hui, Charles; Crowe, Megan; Belair, Marc-Andre; Pojsupap, Supichaya; Karnauchow, Tim; O'Hearn, Katie; Yasseen, Abdool S.; McNally, James D.

    2016-01-01

    Importance RSV is a common illness among young children that causes significant morbidity and health care costs. Objective Routinely collected health administrative data can be used to track disease incidence, explore risk factors and conduct health services research. Due to potential for misclassification bias, the accuracy of data-elements should be validated prior to use. The objectives of this study were to validate an algorithm to accurately identify pediatric cases of hospitalized respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) from within Ontario’s health administrative data, estimate annual incidence of hospitalization due to RSV and report the prevalence of major risk factors within hospitalized patients. Study Design and Setting A retrospective chart review was performed to establish a reference-standard cohort of children from the Ottawa region admitted to the Children’s Hospital of Eastern Ontario (CHEO) for RSV-related disease in 2010 and 2011. Chart review data was linked to Ontario’s administrative data and used to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of algorithms of RSV-related ICD-10 codes within provincial hospitalization and emergency department databases. Age- and sex-standardized incidence was calculated over time, with trends in incidence assessed using Poisson regression. Results From a total of 1411 admissions, chart review identified 327 children hospitalized for laboratory confirmed RSV-related disease. Following linkage to administrative data and restriction to first admissions, there were 289 RSV patients in the reference-standard cohort. The best algorithm, based on hospitalization data, resulted in sensitivity 97.9% (95%CI: 95.5–99.2%), specificity 99.6% (95%CI: 98.2–99.8%), PPV 96.9% (95%CI: 94.2–98.6%), NPV 99.4% (95%CI: 99.4–99.9%). Incidence of hospitalized RSV in Ontario from 2005–2012 was 10.2 per 1000 children under 1 year and 4.8 per 1000 children aged 1 to 3 years. During the surveillance period, there was no identifiable

  5. Performance and Cost-Effectiveness of Computed Tomography Lung Cancer Screening Scenarios in a Population-Based Setting: A Microsimulation Modeling Analysis in Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    ten Haaf, Kevin; Tammemägi, Martin C.; Bondy, Susan J.; van der Aalst, Carlijn M.; Gu, Sumei; de Koning, Harry J.

    2017-01-01

    Background The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) results indicate that computed tomography (CT) lung cancer screening for current and former smokers with three annual screens can be cost-effective in a trial setting. However, the cost-effectiveness in a population-based setting with >3 screening rounds is uncertain. Therefore, the objective of this study was to estimate the cost-effectiveness of lung cancer screening in a population-based setting in Ontario, Canada, and evaluate the effects of screening eligibility criteria. Methods and Findings This study used microsimulation modeling informed by various data sources, including the Ontario Health Insurance Plan (OHIP), Ontario Cancer Registry, smoking behavior surveys, and the NLST. Persons, born between 1940 and 1969, were examined from a third-party health care payer perspective across a lifetime horizon. Starting in 2015, 576 CT screening scenarios were examined, varying by age to start and end screening, smoking eligibility criteria, and screening interval. Among the examined outcome measures were lung cancer deaths averted, life-years gained, percentage ever screened, costs (in 2015 Canadian dollars), and overdiagnosis. The results of the base-case analysis indicated that annual screening was more cost-effective than biennial screening. Scenarios with eligibility criteria that required as few as 20 pack-years were dominated by scenarios that required higher numbers of accumulated pack-years. In general, scenarios that applied stringent smoking eligibility criteria (i.e., requiring higher levels of accumulated smoking exposure) were more cost-effective than scenarios with less stringent smoking eligibility criteria, with modest differences in life-years gained. Annual screening between ages 55–75 for persons who smoked ≥40 pack-years and who currently smoke or quit ≤10 y ago yielded an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $41,136 Canadian dollars ($33,825 in May 1, 2015, United States dollars) per

  6. Societal costs of home and hospital end-of-life care for palliative care patients in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Yu, Mo; Guerriere, Denise N; Coyte, Peter C

    2015-11-01

    In Canada, health system restructuring has led to a greater focus on home-based palliative care as an alternative to institutionalised palliative care. However, little is known about the effect of this change on end-of-life care costs and the extent to which the financial burden of care has shifted from the acute care public sector to families. The purpose of this study was to assess the societal costs of end-of-life care associated with two places of death (hospital and home) using a prospective cohort design in a home-based palliative care programme. Societal cost includes all costs incurred during the course of palliative care irrespective of payer (e.g. health system, out-of-pocket, informal care-giving costs, etc.). Primary caregivers of terminal cancer patients were recruited from the Temmy Latner Centre for Palliative Care in Toronto, Canada. Demographic, service utilisation, care-giving time, health and functional status, and death data were collected by telephone interviews with primary caregivers over the course of patients' palliative trajectory. Logistic regression was conducted to model an individual's propensity for home death. Total societal costs of end-of-life care and component costs were compared between home and hospital death using propensity score stratification. Costs were presented in 2012 Canadian dollars ($1.00 CDN = $1.00 USD). The estimated total societal cost of end-of-life care was $34,197.73 per patient over the entire palliative trajectory (4 months on average). Results showed no significant difference (P > 0.05) in total societal costs between home and hospital death patients. Higher hospitalisation costs for hospital death patients were replaced by higher unpaid caregiver time and outpatient service costs for home death patients. Thus, from a societal cost perspective, alternative sites of death, while not associated with a significant change in total societal cost of end-of-life care, resulted in changes in the distribution of

  7. Radium-226 in water, sediments, and fish from lakes near the city of Elliot Lake, Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Clulow, F V; Davé, N K; Lim, T P; Avadhanula, R

    1998-01-01

    Ra-226 was measured by alpha-emission spectroscopy in water, sediments, and fish (tissues and gut contents), from five lakes in a watershed containing U mining and milling operations at Elliot Lake, Ontario, and from control lakes in an adjacent non-industrialized watershed. Ra-226 transfer parameters from lake water and sediments to fish tissues, and annual intakes by humans consuming fish, were estimated. Mean dissolved 226Ra levels ranged from approximately 76 mBq litre(-1) in water of the most affected lake, to < 10 mBq litre(-1) in control lakes. Levels in summer were consistently higher than in fall or winter; no consistent variation with depth was noted. Sediment levels ranged from approximately 3000 mBq g(-1) dry wt in one study lake to < 100 mBq g(-1) dry wt of sediment in control lakes. Bone 226Ra concentrations were higher than in muscle. The lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush), a predatory secondary consumer, had bone 226Ra levels (< 20 mBq g(-1) dry wt) that did not show significant site variation. In contrast, bottom feeding whitefish had significantly more 226Ra in bone tissue (to 38 mBq g(-1) dry wt in the lake whitefish, Coregonus clupeaformis, and 76 mBq g(-1) in round whitefish, Prosopium cylindraceum) in study lakes than in controls (< 20 mBq g(-1) dry wt). Ra-226 levels in lake trout muscle were low and showed erratic variation among lakes whereas levels in whitefish muscle did not vary significantly among study and control sites. Lake herring (= cisco, Coregonus artedii), a planktivorous fish taken only from Quirke Lake, had mean 226Ra levels of 18 and 1.4 mBq g(-1) dry wt in bone and muscle, respectively. Gut 226Ra levels, highest in lake trout from McCabe and Quirke Lakes (126 +/- 53, 64 +/- 44 mBq g(-1) dry wt, respectively), and just detectable in McCabe and Elliot Lake whitefish (24 +/- 2, 36 +/- 14 mBq g(-1) dry wt, respectively), were below detection in lake trout and whitefish from other lakes. Concentration ratios (CRs) of 226Ra from

  8. Impacts of future climate change on river discharge based on hydrological inference: A case study of the Grand River Watershed in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhong; Huang, Guohe; Wang, Xiuquan; Han, Jingcheng; Fan, Yurui

    2016-04-01

    Over the recent years, climate change impacts have been increasingly studied at the watershed scale. However, the impact assessment is strongly dependent upon the performance of the climatic and hydrological models. This study developed a two-step method to assess climate change impacts on water resources based on the Providing Regional Climates for Impacts Studies (PRECIS) modeling system and a Hydrological Inference Model (HIM). PRECIS runs provided future temperature and precipitation projections for the watershed under the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change SRES A2 and B2 emission scenarios. The HIM based on stepwise cluster analysis is developed to imitate the complex nonlinear relationships between climate input variables and targeted hydrological variables. Its robust mathematical structure and flexibility in predictor selection makes it a desirable tool for fully utilizing various climate modeling outputs. Although PRECIS and HIM cannot fully cover the uncertainties in hydro-climate modeling, they could provide efficient decision support for investigating the impacts of climate change on water resources. The proposed method is applied to the Grand River Watershed in Ontario, Canada. The model performance is demonstrated with comparison to observation data from the watershed during the period 1972-2006. Future river discharge intervals that accommodate uncertainties in hydro-climatic modeling are presented and future river discharge variations are analyzed. The results indicate that even though the total annual precipitation would not change significantly in the future, the inter-annual distribution is very likely to be altered. The water availability is expected to increase in Winter while it is very likely to decrease in Summer over the Grand River Watershed, and adaptation strategies would be necessary.

  9. Associations between HIV-related stigma, racial discrimination, gender discrimination, and depression among HIV-positive African, Caribbean, and Black women in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Logie, Carmen; James, Llana; Tharao, Wangari; Loutfy, Mona

    2013-02-01

    Abstract African, Caribbean, and Black (ACB) women are greatly overrepresented in new HIV infections in comparison with Canada's general population. Social and structural factors such as HIV-related stigma, gender discrimination, and racial discrimination converge to increase vulnerability to HIV infection among ACB women by reducing access to HIV prevention services. Stigma and discrimination also present barriers to treatment, care, and support and may contribute to mental health problems. We administered a cross-sectional survey to HIV-positive ACB women (n=173) across Ontario in order to examine the relationships between HIV-related stigma, gender discrimination, racial discrimination, and depression. One-third of participants reported moderate/severe depression scores using the Beck Depression Inventory Fast-Screen guidelines. Hierarchical block regression, moderation, and mediation analyses were conducted to measure associations between independent (HIV-related stigma, gender discrimination, racial discrimination), moderator/mediator (social support, resilient coping), and dependent (depression) variables. Findings included: (1) HIV-related stigma was associated with increased depression; (2) resilient coping was associated with reduced depression but did not moderate the influence of HIV-related stigma on depression; and (3) the effects of HIV-related stigma on depression were partially mediated through resilient coping. HIV-related stigma, gender discrimination, and racial discrimination were significantly correlated with one another and with depression, highlighting the salience of examining multiple intersecting forms of stigma. Generalizability of findings may be limited due to nonrandom sampling. Findings emphasize the importance of multi-component interventions, including building resilient coping skills, mental health promotion and assessment, and stigma reduction programs.

  10. Concentrations of metals in tissues of lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium) near a copper-nickel smelter at Sudbury, Ontario, Canada: A factor analytic approach

    SciTech Connect

    Bagatto, G.; Shorthouse, J.D. ); Crowder, A.A. )

    1993-10-01

    Ecosystems damaged by emissions from the copper-nickel smelters of Inco and Falconbridge Ltd. near Sudbury, Ontario, Canada have provided a unique opportunity to study the effects of metal particulates and sulphur dioxide fumigations on plant and animal communities. The most infamous terrain in the Sudbury region is nearest the smelters (two active and one closed), where nearly all vegetation has been destroyed and soils eroded and contaminated. However, over all the past twenty years, some species of plants have developed a tolerance to polluted soils and some denuded lands have been naturally and artificially revegetated. Furthermore, a series of unique anthropogenic forests have developed away from the smelters. Several studies on the accumulation of metals in plant tissues indicate the levels of metals are usually highest closest to the smelters. Consequently, several studies have reported high correlations between plant concentrations of certain metals with distance from the source of pollution. However, tissue metal burdens are not always correlated with distance from the emission source, suggesting that other biological and physico-chemical factors may influence tissue metal burdens in the Sudbury habitat. The present study provides information on the metal burdens in another plant, lowbush blueberry, growing both near and away from the smelters. This study assesses the apparent influence of the Sudbury smelting operations on plant tissue burdens of five additional elements, along with copper and nickel, by using a factor analytic approach. This approach will allow determination of underlying factors which govern tissue metal burdens in a polluted environment and helps to refine the future direction of research in the Sudbury ecosystem. 12 refs., 2 tabs.

  11. Ozone treatment and the depletion of detectable pharmaceuticals and atrazine herbicide in drinking water sourced from the upper Detroit River, Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Hua, Wenyi; Bennett, Erin R; Letcher, Robert J

    2006-07-01

    The depletion and degradation of pharmacologically active compounds (PhACs) and pesticides as a function of ozonation in drinking water treatment processes is not well studied. The A.H. Weeks drinking water treatment plant (DWTP) serves the City of Windsor, Ontario Canada, and incorporates ozone treatment into the production of drinking water. This DWTP also operates a real-time, scaled down pilot plant, which has two parallel streams, conventional and ozone plus conventional treatments. In this study water samples were collected from key points in the two streams of the pilot plant system to determine the depletion and influence of seasonal changes in water processing parameters on eighteen major PhACs (and metabolites) and seven s-triazines herbicides. However, only carbamazepine (antiepileptic), caffeine (stimulant), cotinine (metabolite of nicotine) and atrazine were consistently detectable in the raw water intake (low to sub-ng/L level). Regardless of the seasonality, the flocculation-coagulation and dual media filtration steps without ozone treatment resulted in no decrease in analyte concentrations, while decreases of 66-100% (undetectable, method detection limits 0.05-1 ng/L) of the analyte concentrations were observed when ozone treatment was part of the water processing. These findings demonstrate that ozone treatment is highly effective in depleting carbamazepine, caffeine, cotinine, and atrazine, and thus is highly influential in the fate of these compounds in drinking water treatment regardless of the seasonal time frame. Currently very few Canadian DWTPs incorporate ozonation into conventional treatment, which suggests that human exposure to these compounds via drinking water consumption may be an issue in affected communities.

  12. Giving voice to food insecurity in a remote indigenous community in subarctic Ontario, Canada: traditional ways, ways to cope, ways forward

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Food insecurity is a serious public health issue for Aboriginal people (First Nations [FN], Métis, and Inuit) living in Canada. Food security challenges faced by FN people are unique, especially for those living in remote and isolated communities. Conceptualizations of food insecurity by FN people are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions of food insecurity by FN adults living in a remote, on-reserve community in northern Ontario known to have a high prevalence of moderate to severe food insecurity. Methods A trained community research assistant conducted semi-directed interviews, and one adult from each household in the community was invited to participate. Questions addressed traditional food, coping strategies, and suggestions to improve community food security and were informed by the literature and a community advisory committee. Thematic data analyses were carried out and followed an inductive, data-driven approach. Results Fifty-one individuals participated, representing 67% of eligible households. The thematic analysis revealed that food sharing, especially with family, was regarded as one of the most significant ways to adapt to food shortages. The majority of participants reported consuming traditional food (wild meats) and suggested that hunting, preserving and storing traditional food has remained very important. However, numerous barriers to traditional food acquisition were mentioned. Other coping strategies included dietary change, rationing and changing food purchasing patterns. In order to improve access to healthy foods, improving income and food affordability, building community capacity and engagement, and community-level initiatives were suggested. Conclusions Findings point to the continued importance of traditional food acquisition and food sharing, as well as community solutions for food systems change. These data highlight that traditional and store-bought food are both part of the

  13. It 'makes you feel more like a person than a patient': patients' experiences receiving home-based primary care (HBPC) in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Smith-Carrier, Tracy; Sinha, Samir K; Nowaczynski, Mark; Akhtar, Sabrina; Seddon, Gayle; Pham, Thuy-Nga Tia

    2017-03-01

    The lack of effective systems to appropriately manage the health and social care of frail older adults - especially among those who become homebound - is becoming all the more apparent. Home-based primary care (HBPC) is increasingly being promoted as a promising model that takes into account the accessibility needs of frail older adults, ensuring that they receive more appropriate primary and community care. There remains a paucity of literature exploring patients' experiences with HBPC programmes. The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences of patients accessing HBPC delivered by interprofessional teams, and their perspectives on the facilitators and barriers to this model of care in Ontario, Canada. Using certain grounded theory principles, we conducted an inductive qualitative content analysis of in-depth patient interviews (n = 26) undertaken in the winter of 2013 across seven programme sites exploring the lived experiences and perspectives of participants receiving HBPC. Themes emerged in relation to patients' perceptions regarding the preference for and necessity of HBPC, the promotion of better patient care afforded by the model in comparison to office-based care, and the benefits of and barriers to HBPC service provision. Underlying patterns also surfaced related to patients' feelings and emotions about their quality of life and satisfaction with HBPC services. We argue that HBPC is well positioned to serve frail homebound older adults, ensuring that patients receive appropriate primary and community care - which the office-based alternative provides little guarantee - and that they will be cared for, pointing to a model that may not only lead to greater patient satisfaction but also likely contributes to bettering the quality of life of a highly vulnerable population.

  14. Rock drumlins and megaflutes of the Niagara Escarpment, Ontario, Canada: a hard bed landform assemblage cut by the Saginaw-Huron Ice Stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eyles, Nick

    2012-11-01

    The late Wisconsin (c. 18,000 ybp) Saginaw-Huron Ice Stream (SHIS) of the Laurentide Ice Sheet was as much as 800 km long and 250 km wide in the Great Lakes basin of mid-continent North America. In its onset zone in the upper Lake Huron basin of Ontario, Canada it flowed south from the high standing Canadian Shield to move over gently dipping Ordovician and Silurian dolostones devoid of glacial sediment cover. The onset zone is recorded by a distinct 'hard bed landform assemblage' across ˜3000 km2 of north-facing escarpments (Niagara, Fossil Hill, and Kagawong) and dip slope pavements on the Bruce Peninsula and Manitoulin Island, and the adjacent floor of Lake Huron. A wide range of glacially-streamlined rock landforms were carved into dolostones below fast flowing ice. The largest are 30 km-wide bullet-shaped escarpment 'promontories' that face upglacier. Superposed on these are swarms of rock drumlins up to 5 km wide with downglacier lengths of as much as 10 km. Promontories and drumlins record streaming of dirty basal ice around escarpment highs and create a distinct 'zig-zag' planform to the escarpments. In turn, down-dip, trailing-edge dolostone pavements are corrugated by kilometre-long megagrooves and megaflutes cut by basal ice flowing around resistant high-standing bioherm mounds on dolostone bedding planes. The geomorphology of the Niagara Escarpment does not primarily reflect a lengthy history of preglacial Cenozoic fluvial erosion as classically argued, but geologically-brief episodes of accelerated abrasion and quarrying below ice streams within successive Pleistocene ice sheets.

  15. The impact of land use, season, age, and sex on the prevalence and intensity of Baylisascaris procyonis infections in raccoons (Procyon lotor) from Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Jardine, Claire M; Pearl, David L; Puskas, Kirstie; Campbell, Doug G; Shirose, Lenny; Peregrine, Andrew S

    2014-10-01

    We assessed the impact of land use, demographic factors, and season on the prevalence and intensity of Baylisascaris procyonis infections in raccoons (Procyon lotor) in Ontario, Canada. From March to October 2012, we recorded the number of B. procyonis in the intestinal tracts of raccoons submitted to the Canadian Cooperative Wildlife Health Centre for necropsy. Logistic regression models were used to examine associations between the presence of B. procyonis and age (adult, juvenile), sex, land use (suburban/urban, rural), and season (March-June and July-October); negative binomial regression models were used to examine associations between the number of worms and the same variables. We detected B. procyonis in 38% (95% confidence interval 30-47%) of raccoons examined (n=128). In univariable models, the presence of B. procyonis was significantly associated with age, land use, and season (P<0.05). Age was not retained in the multivariable model, and the impact of sex on the presence of B. procyonis varied with land use and season. For example, from March to June, suburban/urban male raccoons were significantly more likely to be infected with B. procyonis than suburban/urban female raccoons. However, later in the summer (July-October), the opposite was true. The median number of worms in the intestinal tracts of infected raccoons was 3 (range 1-116). Worm number was significantly associated with age and season in univariable models; in the multivariable model, juvenile raccoons had significantly more worms than adults, and the impact of season on the number of worms varied with land use and sex. A better understanding of the epidemiology of B. procyonis in raccoons is important for developing appropriate strategies to reduce the risk of human exposure to B. procyonis from the environment.

  16. Variations in Sense of Place Across Immigrant Status and Gender in Hamilton, Ontario; Saskatoon, Saskatchewan; and, Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, Canada.

    PubMed

    Gallina, Melissa; Williams, Allison

    Past research in Hamilton, Ontario has found that age and longevity of residence are positively associated with evaluations of sense of place (SoP); further, evaluations of SoP between immigrants and Canadian-born individuals have shown no clear pattern (Williams et al. 2010; Williams and Kitchen 2012). This paper builds on this work by further examining evaluations of SoP among both immigrants and Canadian-born residents and across gender in Hamilton, while expanding the study to two other small-to-medium sized cities: Saskatoon, Saskatchewan and, Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island. This paper has two objectives: (1) to establish measures of SoP across immigrant status and gender in Hamilton, Saskatoon, and Charlottetown; and, (2) to determine how SoP varies according to immigrant status, length of residence in Canada, age, income, and neighbourhood length of residence across the three city sites. Telephone survey data (n = 1,132) was used to compare evaluations of SoP across various groups and to construct an ordered logistic regression model for SoP. Results suggest that immigrants tended to rate their SoP lower than their Canadian-born counterparts. Hamilton residents were found to rate their SoP lowest, followed by Saskatoon residents and, finally, Charlottetown residents. Younger individuals, those with lower income levels, and those with shorter neighbourhood residency in the cities concerned were more likely to have lower evaluations of SoP. This research suggests that greater attention is needed to nurture immigrants' connection with their new home.

  17. Comparison of Microbial and Chemical Source Tracking Markers To Identify Fecal Contamination Sources in the Humber River (Toronto, Ontario, Canada) and Associated Storm Water Outfalls.

    PubMed

    Staley, Zachery R; Grabuski, Josey; Sverko, Ed; Edge, Thomas A

    2016-11-01

    Storm water runoff is a major source of pollution, and understanding the components of storm water discharge is essential to remediation efforts and proper assessment of risks to human and ecosystem health. In this study, culturable Escherichia coli and ampicillin-resistant E. coli levels were quantified and microbial source tracking (MST) markers (including markers for general Bacteroidales spp., human, ruminant/cow, gull, and dog) were detected in storm water outfalls and sites along the Humber River in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, and enumerated via endpoint PCR and quantitative PCR (qPCR). Additionally, chemical source tracking (CST) markers specific for human wastewater (caffeine, carbamazepine, codeine, cotinine, acetaminophen, and acesulfame) were quantified. Human and gull fecal sources were detected at all sites, although concentrations of the human fecal marker were higher, particularly in outfalls (mean outfall concentrations of 4.22 log10 copies, expressed as copy numbers [CN]/100 milliliters for human and 0.46 log10 CN/100 milliliters for gull). Higher concentrations of caffeine, acetaminophen, acesulfame, E. coli, and the human fecal marker were indicative of greater raw sewage contamination at several sites (maximum concentrations of 34,800 ng/liter, 5,120 ng/liter, 9,720 ng/liter, 5.26 log10 CFU/100 ml, and 7.65 log10 CN/100 ml, respectively). These results indicate pervasive sewage contamination at storm water outfalls and throughout the Humber River, with multiple lines of evidence identifying Black Creek and two storm water outfalls with prominent sewage cross-connection problems requiring remediation. Limited data are available on specific sources of pollution in storm water, though our results indicate the value of using both MST and CST methodologies to more reliably assess sewage contamination in impacted watersheds.

  18. Atmospheric exchange of carbon dioxide and methane of a small water body and a floating mat in the Luther Marsh peatland, Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burger, Magdalena; Berger, Sina; Blodau, Christian

    2015-04-01

    Recent investigations have suggested that small water bodies cover larger areas in northern peatlands than previously assumed. Their role in the carbon cycle and gas exchange rates are poorly constrained so far. To address this issue we measured CO2 and CH4 fluxes on a small water body (ca. 700 m2) and the surrounding floating mat in the Luther Marsh peatland in Ontario, Canada from July to September 2014. To this end we used closed chambers combined with a portable Los Gatos high-resolution trace gas analyzer at different water depths and distances from the shore on the pond and with different dominating plant types on the floating mat surrounding the pond. In addition, CO2 concentrations were recorded in high temporal resolution using an infrared sensor system during selected periods. Air and water temperature, humidity and temperature of the floating mat, wind speed and direction, photosynthetically active radiation, air pressure and relative humidity were also recorded as auxiliary data at the study site. The results show that pond and floating mat were sources of methane throughout the whole measuring period. Methane emissions via the ebullition pathway occurred predominantly near the shore and on the floating mat. During the daytime measurements the floating mat acted as a net sink and the pond as a net source of CO2. The dynamics of CO2 exchange was also strongly time dependent, as CO2 emissions from the pond strongly increased after mid-August. This suggests that photosynthesis was more affected by seasonal decline than respiration process in the pond and that the allochthonous component of the CO2 flux increased in relative importance towards fall.

  19. A Structural Equation Model of HIV-Related Stigma, Racial Discrimination, Housing Insecurity and Wellbeing among African and Caribbean Black Women Living with HIV in Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Logie, Carmen H.; Jenkinson, Jesse I. R.; Earnshaw, Valerie; Tharao, Wangari; Loutfy, Mona R.

    2016-01-01

    African and Caribbean Black women in Canada have new HIV infection rates 7 times higher than their white counterparts. This overrepresentation is situated in structural contexts of inequities that result in social, economic and health disparities among African and Caribbean Black populations. Economic insecurity is a distal driver of HIV vulnerability, reducing access to HIV testing, prevention and care. Less is known about how economic insecurity indicators, such as housing security, continue to influence the lives of women living with HIV following HIV-positive diagnoses. The aim of this study was to test a conceptual model of the pathways linking HIV-related stigma, racial discrimination, housing insecurity, and wellbeing (depression, social support, self-rated health). We implemented a cross-sectional survey with African and Caribbean Black women living with HIV in 5 Ontario cities, and included 157 participants with complete data in the analyses. We conducted structural equation modeling using maximum likelihood estimation to evaluate the hypothesized conceptual model. One-fifth (22.5%; n = 39) of participants reported housing insecurity. As hypothesized, racial discrimination had significant direct effects on: HIV-related stigma, depression and social support, and an indirect effect on self-rated health via HIV-related stigma. HIV-related stigma and housing insecurity had direct effects on depression and social support, and HIV-related stigma had a direct effect on self-rated health. The model fit the data well: χ2 (45, n = 154) = 54.28, p = 0.387; CFI = 0.997; TLI = 0.996; RMSEA = 0.016. Findings highlight the need to address housing insecurity and intersecting forms of stigma and discrimination among African and Caribbean Black women living with HIV. Understanding the complex relationships between housing insecurity, HIV-related stigma, racial discrimination, and wellbeing can inform multi-level interventions to reduce stigma and enhance health. PMID

  20. Laboratory restructuring in metropolitan Edmonton: a model for laboratory reorganization in Canada.

    PubMed

    Fagg, K L; Gordon, P; Reib, B; McGann, J T; Higa, T E; Kinniburgh, D W; Cembrowski, G S

    1999-12-01

    In 1994 the Alberta government acted to reduce to a decade-long deficit in the provincial budget with draconian reductions in the health, education and welfare expenditures. As a result, funding to Alberta clinical laboratories was to be reduced by approximately 40%. In response, the private and public laboratories in metropolitan Edmonton formed a unique alliance to provide laboratory testing in a more coordinated and efficient manner. Of the five metropolitan hospitals, only University of Alberta Hospital preserved its full service laboratory and its specialty reference testing. The other hospital laboratories were converted to rapid response laboratories with a merged private reference laboratory providing routine testing and support to the four hospitals, and far fewer outpatient collection facilities. This paper describes the steps in the laboratory restructuring from inception to execution.

  1. Market power and the sale of Ontario residential natural gas: An institutional analysis and a laboratory experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloemhof, Barbara Lynn

    2005-11-01

    The Ontario residential natural gas market underwent a significant institutional change in 1986, after the federal government decontrolled natural gas prices. Currently, consumers may sign up for fixed-cost natural gas from a broker, or they may continue to be served by the regulated distribution company. This thesis examines the economic effects on consumers of the institutional change, and particularly whether or not market power was enhanced by the change. In the thesis, I first present the industrial organization of the residential natural gas sector, and explain the institutional evolution using an institutional economic approach. I then construct a model of the market environment, with sellers acting as middlemen in a well-defined Bertrand oligopoly setting with no production constraints and single-unit consumer demands. In this model, the only Nash equilibrium in the one-period game is the joint profit maximizing price, and its likelihood of obtaining depends on the nature of the cost of signing up new customers. I then take a version of this model into the laboratory with human subject sellers and simulated buyers and run six replications each of a balanced treatment design under a unique information mechanism that parallels individual customer canvassing used by sellers in the naturally-occurring market. Treatment variables are: number of sellers, number of simulated at-cost sellers present, and presence of input cost uncertainty for sellers. I find that adding any seller to the market has about the same impact on market price, irrespective of whether it is a human subject or a simulated at-cost seller. Although increasing the number of sellers does decrease the market price somewhat, it does not bring about the competitive outcome predicted by the benchmark microeconomic model. This research contributes to the literature on policy making and energy market design, as well as to experimental methodology aimed at policy evaluation.

  2. Online Outreach Services Among Men Who Use the Internet to Seek Sex With Other Men (MISM) in Ontario, Canada: An Online Survey

    PubMed Central

    Lachowsky, Nathan J; Georgievski, Georgi; Rosser, Brian R Simon; MacLachlan, Duncan; Murray, James

    2015-01-01

    Background Men who use the Internet to seek sex with other men (MISM) are increasingly using the Internet to find sexual health information and to seek sexual partners, with some research suggesting HIV transmission is associated with sexual partnering online. Aiming to “meet men where they are at,” some AIDS service organizations (ASOs) deliver online outreach services via sociosexual Internet sites and mobile apps. Objective To investigate MISM's experiences and self-perceived impacts of online outreach. Methods From December 2013 to January 2014, MISM aged 16 years or older were recruited from Internet sites, mobile apps, and ASOs across Ontario to complete a 15-minute anonymous online questionnaire regarding their experience of online outreach. Demographic factors associated with encountering online outreach were assessed using backward-stepwise multivariable logistic regression (P<.05 was considered significant). Results Of 1830 MISM who completed the survey, 8.25% (151/1830) reported direct experience with online outreach services. Encountering online outreach was more likely for Aboriginal versus white MISM, MISM from Toronto compared with MISM from either Eastern or Southwestern Ontario, and MISM receiving any social assistance. MISM who experienced online outreach felt the service provider was friendly (130/141, 92.2%), easy to understand (122/140, 87.1%), helpful (115/139, 82.7%), prompt (107/143, 74.8%), and knowledgeable (92/134, 68.7%); half reported they received a useful referral (49/98, 50%). Few MISM felt the interaction was annoying (13/141, 9.2%) or confusing (18/142, 12.7%). As a result of their last online outreach encounter, MISM reported the following: better understanding of (88/147, 59.9%) and comfort with (75/147, 51.0%) their level of sexual risk; increased knowledge (71/147, 48.3%); and feeling less anxious (51/147, 34.7%), better connected (46/147, 31.3%), and more empowered (40/147, 27.2%). Behaviorally, they reported using condoms

  3. Libraries in Ontario: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/ontario.html Libraries in Ontario To use the sharing features on ... JavaScript. Barrie Royal Victoria Regional Health Centre Health Library 201 Georgian Drive Barrie, ON L4M 6M2 CANADA ...

  4. Multimorbidity and healthcare utilization among home care clients with dementia in Ontario, Canada: A retrospective analysis of a population-based cohort

    PubMed Central

    Mondor, Luke; Maxwell, Colleen J.; Hogan, David B.; Gruneir, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Background For community-dwelling older persons with dementia, the presence of multimorbidity can create complex clinical challenges for both individuals and their physicians, and can contribute to poor outcomes. We quantified the associations between level of multimorbidity (chronic disease burden) and risk of hospitalization and risk of emergency department (ED) visit in a home care cohort with dementia and explored the role of continuity of physician care (COC) in modifying these relationships. Methods and findings A retrospective cohort study using linked administrative and clinical data from Ontario, Canada, was conducted among 30,112 long-stay home care clients (mean age 83.0 ± 7.7 y) with dementia in 2012. Multivariable Fine–Gray regression models were used to determine associations between level of multimorbidity and 1-y risk of hospitalization and 1-y risk of ED visit, accounting for multiple competing risks (death and long-term care placement). Interaction terms were used to assess potential effect modification by COC. Multimorbidity was highly prevalent, with 35% (n = 10,568) of the cohort having five or more chronic conditions. In multivariable analyses, risk of hospitalization and risk of ED visit increased monotonically with level of multimorbidity: sub-hazards were 88% greater (sub-hazard ratio [sHR] = 1.88, 95% CI: 1.72–2.05, p < 0.001) and 63% greater (sHR = 1.63; 95% CI: 1.51–1.77, p < 0.001), respectively, among those with five or more conditions, relative to those with dementia alone or with dementia and one other condition. Low (versus high) COC was associated with an increased risk of both hospitalization and ED visit in age- and sex-adjusted analyses only (sHR = 1.11, 95% CI: 1.07–1.16, p < 0.001, for hospitalization; sHR = 1.07, 95% CI: 1.03–1.11, p = 0.001, for ED visit) but did not modify associations between multimorbidity and outcomes (Wald test for interaction, p = 0.566 for hospitalization and p = 0.637 for ED visit). The

  5. Tracing sources of crustal contamination using multiple S and Fe isotopes in the Hart komatiite-associated Ni-Cu-PGE sulfide deposit, Abitibi greenstone belt, Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiebert, R. S.; Bekker, A.; Houlé, M. G.; Wing, B. A.; Rouxel, O. J.

    2016-10-01

    Assimilation by mafic to ultramafic magmas of sulfur-bearing country rocks is considered an important contributing factor to reach sulfide saturation and form magmatic Ni-Cu-platinum group element (PGE) sulfide deposits. Sulfur-bearing sedimentary rocks in the Archean are generally characterized by mass-independent fractionation of sulfur isotopes that is a result of atmospheric photochemical reactions, which produces isotopically distinct pools of sulfur. Likewise, low-temperature processing of iron, through biological and abiotic redox cycling, produces a range of Fe isotope values in Archean sedimentary rocks that is distinct from the range of the mantle and magmatic Fe isotope values. Both of these signals can be used to identify potential country rock assimilants and their contribution to magmatic sulfide deposits. We use multiple S and Fe isotopes to characterize the composition of the potential iron and sulfur sources for the sulfide liquids that formed the Hart deposit in the Shaw Dome area within the Abitibi greenstone belt in Ontario (Canada). The Hart deposit is composed of two zones with komatiite-associated Ni-Cu-PGE mineralization; the main zone consists of a massive sulfide deposit at the base of the basal flow in the komatiite sequence, whereas the eastern extension consists of a semi-massive sulfide zone located 12 to 25 m above the base of the second flow in the komatiite sequence. Low δ56Fe values and non-zero δ34S and Δ33S values of the komatiitic rocks and associated mineralization at the Hart deposit is best explained by mixing and isotope exchange with crustal materials, such as exhalite and graphitic argillite, rather than intrinsic fractionation within the komatiite. This approach allows tracing the extent of crustal contamination away from the deposit and the degree of mixing between the sulfide and komatiite melts. The exhalite and graphitic argillite were the dominant contaminants for the main zone of mineralization and the eastern

  6. Religious Observance Accommodation in Ontario Universities. Discussion Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Carole Ann

    This paper highlights the religious accommodations that Ontario (Canada) universities have undertaken to create an inclusive, supportive learning community for all students, faculty, and staff. It outlines the demographic changes and public policy surrounding religious accommodation issues in Canada and in Ontario in particular, focusing on the…

  7. Risk factors for herds to test positive for Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis-antibodies with a commercial milk enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in Ontario and western Canada.

    PubMed

    Sorge, Ulrike S; Lissemore, Kerry; Godkin, Ann; Jansen, Jocelyn; Hendrick, Steven; Wells, Scott; Kelton, David F

    2012-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to identify risk factors associated with i) a Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP)-antibody milk enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MAP milk ELISA)-positive herd status, and ii) the within-herd MAP milk ELISA-positive prevalence in Canadian dairy herds. This prospective cohort study was conducted between 2005 and 2009 on 226 herds in Ontario and western Canada, which participated in a voluntary risk assessment (RA)-based Johne's disease control program. Two MAP milk ELISA and risk assessments and a previsit survey were available per herd. The overall farm RA scores alone could not be used to predict whether a herd would test positive for MAP antibodies. However, the results of this study indicated that increasing the likelihood of exposing calves to MAP through certain management practices, as assessed with the RA, increased the likelihood of a herd being test-positive for MAP antibodies.

  8. Molecular analysis of red maple (Acer rubrum) populations from a reclaimed mining region in Northern Ontario (Canada): soil metal accumulation and translocation in plants.

    PubMed

    Kalubi, K N; Mehes-Smith, M; Narendrula, R; Michael, P; Omri, A

    2015-04-01

    Red maple (Acer rubrum) species is one of the most widespread deciduous (hardwood) trees of eastern North America. It is among the dominant tree species in the Northern Ontario after land reclamation. To date, the effects of heavy metal contamination from the mining activities on terrestrial ecosystems are not well understood. The main objectives of the present study are (1) to determine the level of phytoavailable metal in soil and accumulation in A. rubrum, and (2) to compare the levels of genetic variation among and within A. rubrum populations from areas with different metal contents in a Northern Ontario region. The total heavy metal levels were found to be high but the availability of these metals were much lower. We found that red maple does not accumulate heavy metals in their leaves as other hardwood species. The translocation factors were 0.05, 0.21, 0.38, 0.90, and 2.8 for Cu, Ni, Fe, Zn, and Mg, respectively. The levels of genetic variation in red maple populations from reclaimed lands in Northern Ontario were moderate to high since the percentage of polymorphic loci varied between 51 and 67%. The mean values for observed number of alleles (Na), effective number of alleles (Ne), Nei's gene diversity (h), and Shannon's information index (I) were 1.60, 1.24, 0.15 and 0.24, respectively. The population differentiation (GST) among the fragmented populations was high (0.28) despite a high level of gene flow (Nm = 1.28). Nevertheless, all the populations within the targeted region were genetically closely related. A specific ISSR marker that was identified in all the samples from the reference sites was absent in most samples from metal contaminated. This specific band was cloned and sequenced. Overall, the present study confirms that red maple populations in Northern Ontario are genetically sustainable despite the high level of total metal content in soil.

  9. The Widespread use of Methoprene for the Prevention and Control of West Nile Virus in Ontario, Canada: Is it Impairing our Streams?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, R.; Baker, S. L.; Hayton, A.

    2005-05-01

    Catch basins have been identified as a major breeding location for the mosquito Culex pipiens, a primary vector for the spread of West Nile Virus in Ontario. Methoprene, an insect growth regulator, has been applied extensively in catch basins to combat the spread of mosquito populations. Since 2003, an estimated 1 million catch basins located around the Canadian shores of Lake Ontario were treated with 0.7g of 30-day, slow release methoprene pellets (4.25% active ingredient). Although studies have shown that methoprene breaks down quickly in the environment and is relatively non-toxic to mammals and fish, the large quantities being applied across Ontario raise concerns over the effects methoprene and its metabolites may have on non-target aquatic insects. The receiving streams of selected catch basins where methoprene was applied regularly were studied to assess the effects of methoprene application on stream macroinvertebrates. Although methoprene was not detected in the receiving waters, some changes in the community assemblages were observed. Many of the observed changes could be attributed to seasonality, however, percent Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera (EPT) tended to be lower downstream of the storm sewer discharge compared to upstream and pre-application.

  10. North American deep underground laboratories: Soudan Underground Laboratory, SNOLab, and the Sanford Underground Research Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesko, Kevin T.

    2015-08-01

    Over the past several decades, fundamental physics experiments have required access to deep underground laboratories to satisfy the increasingly strict requirements for ultra-low background environments and shielding from cosmic rays. In this presentation, I summarize the existing and anticipated physics programs and laboratory facilities of North America's deep facilities: The Soudan Underground Laboratory in Minnesota, SNOLab in Ontario, Canada, and the Sanford Underground Research Facility in Lead, South Dakota.

  11. Seasonal trends in stable water isotopes and estimation of mean transit times for mesoscale catchments with mixed landuse in northeastern Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chutko, Krys; James, April; McConnell, Chris; Yao, Huaxia

    2015-04-01

    Northern Ontario Precambrian shield basins include considerable surface water (large lakes, wetlands), moderate relief (e.g. 400 m), variation in surficial geology (clay belt soils, glacial tills), and increasingly, the influence of human landuse impact (e.g. urban, agriculture) that are characteristic of northern Ontario, Quebec and parts of Scandinavia. In northeastern Ontario, Lake Nipissing and the French River are part of an important headwater tributary that flows into Georgian Bay, Lake Huron. Lake Nipissing and its 13,000 km2 watershed is the source of water to local municipalities and First Nation communities, home to a First Nations fishery and 5{%} of Ontario's recreational angling, and contributes an estimated 100 million/year to Ontario's economy. In 2012, in response to increasing concerns over water quality and its implications for ecological and economic systems, and limited study of water quality and quantity in the Sturgeon River-Lake Nipissing-French River (SNF) basin, we initiated a stable water isotope (SWI) study to examine how landscape characteristics influence streamflow generation at scales where both natural landscape variation (e.g. surface reservoirs, clay belt soils, forested headwaters) and anthropogenic stressors (urbanization, agriculture) are anticipated to influence water quantity and quality. Bi-weekly to monthly monitoring of SWI in precipitation and streamflow began in January 2013. Catchments range in size from 35 to 6,875 km^2, with a median size of 197 km2 and median gradients from 1 to 8{%}. Landcover includes considerable agricultural (0-18{%}) and/or urban (0-47{%}) area. Lakes and wetlands together cover 10-25{%} of catchment area, with large individual lakes (e.g. Lake Temagami) acting as important reservoir storage for hydropower generation. The existing SWI dataset includes 2 years of streamflow data for 5 of the larger catchments, > 1 year for an additional 2 catchments, and 2 years of seasonal ice-off data for the

  12. Cross-sectional examination of the association of co-occurring alcohol misuse and traumatic brain injury on mental health and conduct problems in adolescents in Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Ilie, Gabriela; Mann, Robert E; Boak, Angela; Adlaf, Edward M; Hamilton, Hayley; Asbridge, Mark; Rehm, Jürgen; Cusimano, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study describes the impact of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and hazardous drinking on mental health and behavioural issues among Ontario adolescents. In particular, we assessed the incremental co-occurrence of hazardous drinking with a history of TBI, in comparison to experiencing just one of these conditions. Methods A cross-sectional subsample of 3130 Ontario adolescents attending grades 9–12, and aged 10–21 were surveyed in 2013 as a part of the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health's Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey. Recent (past year) and former (lifetime and excluding the last year) TBI were defined as trauma to the head that resulted in loss of consciousness for at least 5 min or overnight hospitalisation. Current hazardous drinking was derived using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Results An estimated 11.8% of Ontario adolescents (95% CI 10.1% to 13.8%) reported a history of former TBI and were not hazardous drinkers; 4.0% (95% CI 2.9% to 5.5%) reported recent TBI and were not hazardous drinkers; 13.7% (95% CI 12.3% to 15.3%) were hazardous drinkers who never had a TBI; 4.1% (95% CI 2.9% to 5.8%) had former TBI with co-occurring hazardous drinking; and 2.2% (95% CI 1.6% to 3.0%) had recent TBI with co-occurring hazardous drinking. Most odds increased significantly and were two to three times higher for reporting compromised mental health, violent and non-violent conduct behaviours, and reported victimisation for classifying as a hazardous drinker at the time of testing with co-occurring either former or recent TBI compared to classifying as not having either of these conditions. Adolescents classified as hazardous drinkers with former TBI had numerous and higher ORs for conduct behaviours than those with recent TBI. Conclusions Results emphasise the strong interplay between TBI and hazardous drinking and point to the need for integrating prevention efforts to reduce these conditions and their co

  13. The Historical Background to Separate Schools in Ontario.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamp, Robert M.

    Separate schools were introduced into Ontario between 1841 and 1867 when Upper Canada was joined with Lower Canada to form the United Province of Canada. The school acts of 1841 and 1843 outlined the basic arrangements by which either a Roman Catholic or a Protestant minority might establish a dissenting separate school board. Since the School Act…

  14. Iron and aluminum soil/paleosol extractions as age/environment indicators: Some examples from a catchment in southern Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahaney, William C.; Hancock, Ronald G. V.; Somelar, Peeter; Milan, Alison

    2016-10-01

    Various chemical extractions of Fe and Al from bulk soil samples, including Na-pyrophosphate (Fep, Alp), acid ammonium oxalate (Feo, Alo), and Na-dithionite (Fed, Ald), have been used over the last half century to distinguish soil ages over varying time frames from 102 to 106 years and even as far into antiquity as the Oligocene (30 × 106) years. Problems with mineral/chemical uniformity of sediments, free drainage of open system profiles, and variable climate over long time frames have produced problems and uncertainties as to just what each extraction removes from the bulk material analyzed. Some problems have been resolved by the work of Parfitt and Childs (1988); but some persist, especially with respect to the solubility of some extractant forms and the actual composition of others, particularly Alp, Alo, and Ald. A recent test of soils and paleosols in a fluvial chronosequence in southern Ontario illustrates the soil-paleosol evolutionary time trend over a period of ~ 11 ky, essentially post-Iroquois time in the Ontario basin (Jackson et al., 2000). This work highlights the importance of isolated, free draining weathering systems, mineral uniformity, and new relationships between secondary forms of Fed and Ald, the latter previously considered of little importance in age relationship quests.

  15. Sources and temporal variations of constrained PMF factors obtained from multiple-year receptor modeling of ambient PM2.5 data from five speciation sites in Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofowote, Uwayemi M.; Su, Yushan; Dabek-Zlotorzynska, Ewa; Rastogi, Ankit K.; Brook, Jeff; Hopke, Philip K.

    2015-05-01

    The Canadian National Air Pollution Surveillance (NAPS) network operates five fine particulate matter (PM2.5) speciation sites in Ontario. Data from 2005 to 2010 from these sites were subjected to constrained positive matrix factorization (PMF) to obtain factors of particulate matter pollution. Eight factors were found to be common across the sites. These constrained factors were particulate sulfate and nitrate, aged combustion aerosols, biomass/wood combustion, non-ferrous metal smelting, crustal matter, steel works, and road salt. Other factors found at these sites were largely related to local sources in their respective neighbourhoods. Diagnostic results from constraining the PMF factors could be used to select the appropriate post-PMF analyses as they reveal the factors that were expected to have regional or local sources. Interpretation of the spatial trends of factors was guided by the extent of similarity of target ratios across the five sites as determined by their coefficient of variation (C.V.). On average, particulate sulfate had PM2.5 mass contributions that ranged from 7% (Wallaceburg) to 36% (Simcoe) and nitrate species ranged from 7% (Simcoe) to 23% (Windsor). A clear low rural - high urban divide for particulate nitrate was also observed. These non-uniform impacts across the sites indicate that a single representative location is not suitable for studying PM2.5 in Ontario. Temporal variations showed greater abundance of particulate sulfate in the summer and particulate nitrate in the winter respectively. Yearly median values of the sulfate factor that is largely energy-related have been declining for most sites since peaking in 2007. A trajectory ensemble model, simplified quantitative transport bias analysis (sQTBA) was used to identify potential source regions of the constrained sulfate and nitrate factors while radial plots of the conditional probability function (CPF) were used to explore the more locally-sourced factors. The US Midwest, east

  16. Windsor, Ontario Exposure Assessment Study: Design and Methods Validation of Personal, Indoor and Outdoor Air Pollution Monitoring

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Windsor, Ontario Exposure Assessment Study evaluated the contribution of ambient air pollutants to personal and indoor exposures of adults and asthmatic children living in Windsor, Ontario, Canada. In addition, the role of personal, indoor, and outdoor air pollution exposures...

  17. Creating High-Quality Health Care Workplaces. A Background Paper for Canadian Policy Research Networks' National Roundtable (Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, October 29, 2001). CPRN Work Network Discussion Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koehoorn, Mieke; Lowe, Graham S.; Rondeau, Kent V.; Schellenberg, Grant; Wagar, Terry H.

    Insights from a variety of research streams were synthesized to identify the key ingredients of a high-quality work environment in Canada's health care sector and ways of achieving high-quality workplaces in the sector. The following sets of interacting factors were considered: (1) the work environment and the human resource practices that shape…

  18. Test Review: Wechsler, D. (2014),"Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Fifth Edition: Canadian 322 (WISC-V[superscript CDN])." Toronto, Ontario: Pearson Canada Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cormier, Damien C.; Kennedy, Kathleen E.; Aquilina, Alexandra M.

    2016-01-01

    The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Fifth Edition: Canadian (WISC-V[superscript CDN]; Wechsler, 2014) is published by Pearson Canada Assessment. The WISC-V[superscript CDN] is a norm-referenced, individually administered intelligence battery that provides a comprehensive diagnostic profile of the cognitive strengths and weaknesses of…

  19. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Association of College Unions-International (54th, March 24-27, 1974, Toronto, Ontario, Canada).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Coll. Unions-International, Ithaca, NY.

    Contained in this document are the proceedings of the 54th annual conference of the Association of College Unions-International held in Toronto Canada. The document contains reports on the four primary themes of the conference: The Relationship Between the Union, the Educational Institution and Society; Multi-culturalism; Student…

  20. Canadian Association for the Study of Adult Education. Proceedings of the Annual Conferences (6th, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, May 29-31, 1987).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillen, Marie A., Ed.; Burkholder, Avon, Ed.

    These proceedings contain 14 papers and notes from 2 symposia in English and 2 papers in French. Abstracts appear at the beginning of the volume. The following papers are included: "Symposium Notes: What Is the Future of Adult Education in Canada?" (Bernard, MacNeil, Selman); "John Dewey Dialogues with an Adult Educator in…

  1. A Plan to Appreciate Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, R. Yorke

    1971-01-01

    A plan is suggested for establishing a chain of ecology-wildlife interpretation centers throughout Canada emphasizing regional interpretation of the landscape. Wye Marsh Wildlife Center, Midland, Ontario, is described in detail. (BL)

  2. The Financial Position of Universities in Ontario: 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Ontario Universities, Toronto.

    This report reviews economic factors affecting the universities of Ontario, Canada. In 34 tables and 25 figures it provides comparative data with other Canadian and American institutions over the past 15 years. An executive summary reveals that operating grants from the Ontario government have been declining, and that many universities have been…

  3. The Financial Position of Universities in Ontario: 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Ontario Universities, Toronto. Research Div.

    This paper examines the financial status of public universities in Ontario, Canada, and makes the argument that they are under-funded by the Ontario government. An opening section notes the recent announcement by the government of funding levels for 1992-93, 1993-94, and 1994-95 which are below the projected rate of inflation and suggests that…

  4. Inventory of Physical Facilities of Ontario Universities, 2001-02.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Ontario Universities, Toronto.

    This report presents the results of the latest in a series of triennial surveys conducted by the Council of Ontario Universities (COU) (Ontario, Canada) in order to monitor the existing university space inventory and changes in space requirements as determined by the COU Building Blocks space formula. Section 1, "Introduction," discusses…

  5. Building the New Northern Ontario Rural Medical School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rourke, James T. B.

    2002-01-01

    Opening in 2004, the new Northern Ontario Rural Medical School will address the rural doctor shortage in Canada. Supported by Laurentian University and Lakehead University, learning sites will be in hospitals, community clinics, and physicians' offices throughout northern Ontario. The curriculum will be patient-centered and clinical problem-based…

  6. Mantle heterogeneity and crustal recycling in Archean granite-greenstone belts - Evidence from Nd isotopes and trace elements in the Rainy Lake area, Superior Province, Ontario, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shirey, Steven B.; Hanson, Gilbert N.

    1986-01-01

    Crustal evolution in the Rainy Lake area, Ontario is studied in terms of geochemical characteristics. The Nd isotope data are examined for heterogeneity of the Archean mantle, and the Sm/Nd depletion of the mantle is analyzed. The Nd isotope systematics of individual rock suites is investigated in order to understand the difference between crust and mantle sources; the precursors and petrogenetic processes are discussed. The correlation between SiO2 content and Nd values is considered. Rapid recycling of crustal components, which were previously derived from depleted mantle sources, is suggested based on the similarity of the initial Nd isotopic composition for both mantle-derived and crustally-derived rocks.

  7. Incremental health care costs for chronic pain in Ontario, Canada: a population-based matched cohort study of adolescents and adults using administrative data.

    PubMed

    Hogan, Mary-Ellen; Taddio, Anna; Katz, Joel; Shah, Vibhuti; Krahn, Murray

    2016-08-01

    Little is known about the economic burden of chronic pain and how chronic pain affects health care utilization. We aimed to estimate the annual per-person incremental medical cost and health care utilization for chronic pain in the Ontario population from the perspective of the public payer. We performed a retrospective cohort study using Ontario health care databases and the electronically linked Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) from 2000 to 2011. We identified subjects aged ≥12 years from the CCHS with chronic pain and closely matched them to individuals without pain using propensity score matching methods. We used linked data to determine mean 1-year per-person health care costs and utilization for each group and mean incremental cost for chronic pain. All costs are reported in 2014 Canadian dollars. After matching, we had 19,138 pairs of CCHS respondents with and without chronic pain. The average age was 55 years (SD = 18) and 61% were female. The incremental cost to manage chronic pain was $1742 per person (95% confidence interval [CI], $1488-$2020), 51% more than the control group. The largest contributor to the incremental cost was hospitalization ($514; 95% CI, $364-$683). Incremental costs were the highest in those with severe pain ($3960; 95% CI, $3186-$4680) and in those with most activity limitation ($4365; 95% CI, $3631-$5147). The per-person cost to manage chronic pain is substantial and more than 50% higher than a comparable patient without chronic pain. Costs are higher in people with more severe pain and activity limitations.

  8. Knowledge, Perceptions and Attitudes toward Chronic Pain and Its Management: A Cross-Sectional Survey of Frontline Pharmacists in Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Tejal; Chang, Feng; Mohammed, Heba Tallah; Raman-Wilms, Lalitha; Jurcic, Jane; Khan, Ayesha; Sproule, Beth

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of chronic pain consumes a significant share of primary care. Community and family health team pharmacists frequently see patients with chronic pain, thus have the opportunity to improve their care. To assess the knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes of Ontario pharmacists, we invited 5,324 Ontario pharmacists, to participate in an online survey we developed using Qualtrics. The 31-question survey gathered demographic information, assessed pharmacists’ knowledge of three chronic pain conditions; chronic lower back pain (CLBP, eight true/false statements); chronic headache disorder (CHD, eight true/false statements) and painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN, seven true/false statements), and their attitudes toward and perceptions of patients with these conditions, and knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions of opioids in pain management. We received 688 responses (12.9%) and 392 pharmacists completed the survey. The mean age of respondents was 48.5 years and 48.5% were male. More than 50% of respondents were in practice for more than 20 years and 58.7% worked 25–40 hours per week. The mean knowledge scores were 4.5/8, 5.5/8, and 5.3/8 for CBLP, CHD, and PDN respectively. While 95% of respondents were aware of the increasing death rates due to opioid use, only half were familiar with the Canadian guideline for safe opioid prescribing for non-cancer use. Responses were compared based on gender, time in practice and location of practice. Pharmacists with more than ten years of experience scored significantly higher than those with less experience. Fewer differences were found in comparisons of gender and location of practice. Safe and effective care of chronic pain patients, particularly with opioids, will require additional pharmacist education. PMID:27270723

  9. Utilization of a molecular serotyping method for Salmonella enterica in a routine laboratory in Alberta Canada.

    PubMed

    Ferrato, Christina; Chui, Linda; King, Robin; Louie, Marie

    2017-04-01

    Salmonella is one of the most common enteric pathogens related to foodborne illness. Alberta's Provincial Laboratory for Public Health (ProvLab) provides Outbreak and Surveillance support by performing serotyping. The Check&Trace Salmonella™ (CTS) assay (Check-Points, Netherlands), a commercial DNA microarray system, can determine the serotype designation of a Salmonella isolate with automated interpretation. Here we evaluate 1028 Salmonella isolates of human clinical or environmental sources in Alberta, Canada with the CTS assay. CTS was able to assign a serovar to 98.7% of the most frequently occurring human clinical strains in Alberta (82.5% overall), and 71.7% of isolates which were inconclusive by conventional methods. There was 99.7% concordance in environmental isolates. The CTS database has potential to expand to identify rare serovars. With the anticipated shift to molecular methods for identification, CTS provides an easy transition and demonstrates ease-of-use and reduces the turn-around-time of a reported result significantly compared to classical serotyping.

  10. "Good, Steady Progress": Success Stories from Ontario Elementary Schools in Challenging Circumstances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flessa, Joseph; Gallagher-Mackay, Kelly; Parker, Darlene Ciuffetelli

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents findings from a funded case study research project conducted in Ontario, Canada during the 2007-2008 school year. Together with the Elementary Teachers' Federation of Ontario (ETFO), the researchers undertook a qualitative investigation to identify and describe success stories from a diverse sample of 11 Ontario elementary…

  11. Analysis of 44 Cases before the Landlord and Tenant Board Involving Bed Bug Infestations in Ontario, Canada: Focus on Adjudicator Decisions Based on Entomological/Pest Management Evidence and Accountability under the Residential Tenancy Act and Other Applicable Legislation

    PubMed Central

    Bryks, Sam

    2011-01-01

    The resurgence of bed bugs in major urban centres in North America has resulted in conflict between landlords and tenants. This is commonly focused on attribution of blame for source of infestation, on responsibility, on costs for preparation, treatment and losses, and for compensation as rent abatement and/or alternative temporary housing. In Ontario, Canada, these issues are often decided by adjudicators at the Landlord and Tenant Board hearing claims, counter-claims and defense by legal representation (lawyers and paralegals) as well as through mediation. Evidence in these hearings may include photographs, invoices for costs as well as testimony by tenants, landlords and “expert witnesses” who are most often pest control firms representing their landlord clients. A total of 44 Landlord and Tenant Board adjudicated cases available online were analyzed. The analysis included elements of the decisions such as adjudicator, claimant (landlord or tenant), basis of claim, review of evidence, amount of claim, amount awarded, and evaluation of the quality of the evidence. The results of the analysis of these findings are discussed. Recommendations for improvement of adjudicator decisions on the basis of knowledge of bed bug biology and Integrated Pest Management best practices are presented as well as the importance of education of tenants and landlords to a process of mutual trust, support and accountability. PMID:26467732

  12. Prevalence of neutralizing antibody to Jamestown Canyon virus (California group) in populations of elk and moose in northern Michigan and Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Grimstad, P R; Schmitt, S M; Williams, D G

    1986-10-01

    Blood samples were collected from free-ranging elk (Cervus elaphus) harvested in Michigan's northern Lower Peninsula, from moose (Alces alces) relocated from Ontario's Algonquin Provincial Park to Michigan's Upper Peninsula, and from moose from Michigan's Isle Royale National Park. Sera were tested by serum dilution neutralization tests in Vero cell culture for neutralizing antibody to California serogroup viruses, in particular Jamestown Canyon (JC), La Crosse/snowshoe hare (LAC/SSH), and trivittatus (TVT) viruses. Specific neutralizing antibody to JC virus was detected in 71% of 31 and 65% of 20 moose from Algonquin and Isle Royale, respectively. An additional six moose from Algonquin and five from Isle Royale showed evidence of multiple infection. One juvenile moose from Isle Royale had specific neutralizing antibody to TVT virus. Specific neutralizing antibody to JC virus was detected also in 54% of 50 elk from Michigan; 20 of the 50 elk showed evidence of multiple infection. While no single serum sample showed specific neutralizing antibody only to LAC/SSH virus, its presence in sera from some animals may have been masked by the high prevalence of antibody to JC virus.

  13. Lifestyle modifications to prevent and control hypertension. 3. Recommendations on alcohol consumption. Canadian Hypertension Society, Canadian Coalition for High Blood Pressure Prevention and Control, Laboratory Centre for Disease Control at Health Canada, Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, NR; Ashley, MJ; Carruthers, SG; Lacourciere, Y; McKay, DW

    1999-01-01

    population at large, it is recommended that alcohol consumption be in accordance with Canadian low-risk drinking guidelines (i.e., healthy adults who choose to drink should limit alcohol consumption to 2 or fewer standard drinks per day, with consumption not exceeding 14 standard drinks per week for men and 9 standard drinks per week for women). (3) Hypertensive patients should also be advised to limit alcohol consumption to the levels set out in the Canadian low-risk drinking guidelines. VALIDATION: These recommendations are similar to those of the World Hypertension League, the National High Blood Pressure Education Program Working Group on Primary Prevention of Hypertension and the previous recommendations of the Canadian Coalition for High Blood Pressure Prevention and Control and the Canadian Hypertension Society. They have not been clinically tested. The low-risk drinking guidelines are those of the Addiction Research Foundation of Ontario and the Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse. SPONSORS: The Canadian Hypertension Society, the Canadian Coalition for High Blood Pressure Prevention and Control, the Laboratory Centre for Disease Control at Health Canada, and the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada. The low-risk drinking guidelines have been endorsed by the College of Family Physicians of Canada and several provincial organizations. PMID:10333849

  14. Spatial analysis of Carbon-14 dynamics in a wetland ecosystem (Duke Swamp, Chalk River Laboratories, Canada).

    PubMed

    Yankovich, T L; King-Sharp, K J; Carr, J; Robertson, E; Killey, R W D; Beresford, N A; Wood, M D

    2014-11-01

    A detailed survey was conducted to quantify the spatial distribution of (14)C in Sphagnum moss and underlying soil collected in Duke Swamp. This wetland environment receives (14)C via groundwater pathways from a historic radioactive Waste Management Area (WMA) on Atomic Energy Canada Limited (AECL)'s Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) site. Trends in (14)C specific activities were evaluated with distance from the sampling location with the maximum (14)C specific activity (DSS-35), which was situated adjacent to the WMA and close to an area of groundwater discharge. Based on a spatial evaluation of the data, an east-to-west (14)C gradient was found, due to the influence of the WMA on (14)C specific activities in the swamp. In addition, it was possible to identify two groups of sites, each showing significant exponential declines with distance from the groundwater source area. One of the groups showed relatively more elevated (14)C specific activities at a given distance from source, likely due to their proximity to the WMA, the location of the sub-surface plume originating from the WMA, the presence of marsh and swamp habitat types, which facilitated (14)C transport to the atmosphere, and possibly, (14)C air dispersion patterns along the eastern edge of the swamp. The other group, which had lower (14)C specific activities at a given distance from the groundwater source area, included locations that were more distant from the WMA and the sub-surface plume, and contained fen habitat, which is known to act as barrier to groundwater flow. The findings suggest that proximity to source, groundwater flow patterns and habitat physical characteristics can play an important role in the dynamics of (14)C being carried by discharging groundwater into terrestrial and wetland environments.

  15. The significance of matrix effects on the measurement of lactate dehydrogenase (LD) activity using Kodak dry slide technology in the Ontario Laboratory Proficiency Testing Program.

    PubMed

    Hill, S A; Heathcote, J C; McQueen, M J

    1990-04-01

    A recent lactate dehydrogenase (LD) survey of the Laboratory Proficiency Testing Program (LPTP) of Ontario showed interlaboratory coefficients of variation ranging from 6.5% to 40% for five lyophilized vials on the 12 Kodak analyzers. All the LPTP survey samples had similar protein and LD isoenzyme electrophoretic patterns which remained unchanged after reconstitution and storage for 5 days at 4 degrees C, although the total LD activities fell. Four Ektachem 700 analyzers were subsequently tested using LPTP material and no difference in LD activity between instruments or between two LD slide lot numbers was shown. Generation 9 slides gave higher LD activities than generation 10 on all the reconstituted lyophilized proficiency testing samples. There was no significant difference between slide generations when 19 liquid human sera were analyzed, indicating that the variability on LPTP samples was due to a matrix effect. Definition of the matrix effect of lyophilized proficiency testing material is essential before any proficiency testing program can use such material to reflect analytical performance on patient specimens.

  16. The Whiteness of Literacy Practice in Ontario

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van de Kleut, Geraldine

    2011-01-01

    In the spring of 2008, the Literacy and Numeracy Secretariat of the Ontario Ministry of Education in Canada released a DVD that was one in a series designed to train literacy teachers in what the Ministry referred to as "high-yield" comprehension strategies. Using the lens of Critical Race Theory, this article analyses the picture book…

  17. The epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease in older adults from 2007 to 2014 in Ontario, Canada: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Shalini; Policarpio, Michelle E.; Wong, Kenney; Gubbay, Jonathan; Fediurek, Jill; Deeks, Shelley

    2016-01-01

    Background: In Ontario, pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) have been sequentially introduced into the publicly funded childhood vaccination program since 2005. A 23-valent polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine (PPV23) has been routinely recommended for adults aged 65 years and older since 1996. To determine the effect of herd immunity, we examined the epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease in adults aged 65 years and older. Methods: Invasive pneumococcal disease is a provincially reportable disease. We were therefore able to conduct a descriptive epidemiologic analysis that included assessing time trends for patients aged 65 years and older using surveillance data from 2007 to 2014. Using serotype information within the surveillance data, cases were grouped into categories according to vaccine type and periods and then compared using Poisson regression. Results: A total of 3825 cases of invasive pneumococcal disease were reported among adults aged 65 years and older, for an overall annualized incidence of 25.4 cases per 100 000 population. There was a decrease in incidence due to serotypes included in 7-valent PCV (3.0 to 0.7 cases per 100 000 population) (p < 0.001). For 13-valent PCV serotypes, there was a decrease in incidence between 2011 and 2014 (9.8 to 5.3 cases per 100 000 population (p < 0.001)). Serotypes unique to PPV23 and those not included in a vaccine increased from 2.3 to 5.8 and from 2.4 to 7.2 cases per 100 000 population, respectively (p < 0.001). Interpretation: In older adults, among serotypes contained in PCVs, we have shown a decrease in incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease. This is likely due to herd immunity from the childhood program. A burden of illness due to unique PPV23 serotypes and those that are not covered by a vaccine exists and has increased over time. PMID:27730119

  18. Constraining the factor analytical solutions obtained from multiple-year receptor modeling of ambient PM2.5 data from five speciation sites in Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofowote, Uwayemi M.; Su, Yushan; Dabek-Zlotorzynska, Ewa; Rastogi, Ankit K.; Brook, Jeff; Hopke, Philip K.

    2015-05-01

    Rotational ambiguity in factor analyses leads to solutions that are not always consistent with reality. The inherent non-negativity constraints in positive matrix factorization (PMF) help to prevent factor solutions from becoming overly unrealistic, but they are not sufficient to prevent unwanted rotations that could manifest in factors that should have similar compositions varying across multiple sites. The Canadian National Air Pollution Surveillance (NAPS) network operates five fine particulate matter (PM2.5) speciation sites in Ontario. Data from these sites from 2005 to 2010 were subjected to PMF to obtain factors representing sources of particulate matter. Eight factors were found to be common across these sites. These factors had profiles that varied greatly from one site to the other, suggesting that the PMF solutions were impacted by some rotational ambiguity. New features in the EPA PMF V5 program allow the use of a priori information to impose mathematical constraints that guide the evolution of the factor solutions. These constraints reduce the rotational space. In situations where major emissions sources are known and located in the neighborhood of receptors, or emissions inventories and literature source profiles exist, it is easy to use these profiles to force the factor solutions to conform to the expected signatures. In our case, reported source profiles were neither available nor applicable due to the large spatial span of potential sources and receptor sites. This work describes how such constraints can be generated and used in these complex situations. The fundamental principle explored in this work is the concept of 'stiffness' of PMF solutions to identify the desirable non-rotating factors.

  19. Comparing the characteristics of people living with and without HIV in long-term care and home care in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Foebel, Andrea D; Hirdes, John P; Lemick, Rita; Tai, Justin Wei-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Population aging and successful drug therapy in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) management mean that more people are living longer with HIV. As these individuals age, they become more at risk of developing other chronic health conditions which will have many implications for disease management and choice of care setting. As people living with HIV turn to home care and long-term care (LTC) settings for care, understanding the particular needs of this population is becoming increasingly important. This study sought to describe the sociodemographic, clinical, and social attributes of people living with HIV in the home care and institutional environments. This work involved secondary analysis of data collected from both the international Resident Assessment Instruments (interRAI) home care and minimum data set instruments in the Canadian province of Ontario. Descriptive analysis was used to describe key attributes of people living with and without HIV in LTC, complex continuing care, and home care settings. A comparison of differences between people living with HIV across the three environments was also done using Chi-square analysis. People living with HIV were often younger, male and unmarried than other populations in the care settings studied. Together with specific health needs associated with issues like mental health and social isolation, people living with HIV represent a population with complex and distinctive health needs. Finding ways to better understand the needs of this vulnerable population will help to develop strategies to provide better formal and informal care and improve the quality of life of this group. interRAI standardized assessment instruments may be important tools for meeting this challenge.

  20. Epidemiology of Salmonella on the Paws and in the Faeces of Free-Ranging Raccoons (Procyon Lotor) in Southern Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Bondo, K J; Pearl, D L; Janecko, N; Boerlin, P; Reid-Smith, R J; Parmley, J; Jardine, C M

    2016-06-01

    Raccoons are common in urban and rural environments and can carry a wide range of bacteria, including Salmonella, that can negatively affect human and livestock health. Although previous studies have reported that raccoons shed a variety of Salmonella serovars in their faeces, it is unknown whether Salmonella is carried on raccoon paws. Our objective was to compare the prevalence of Salmonella on the paws and in the faeces of raccoons in south-western Ontario. Raccoons were sampled in a repeat cross-sectional study on five swine farms and five conservation areas from May to October 2012. A total of 416 paired faecal and paw samples were collected from 285 individual raccoons. Salmonella was detected in 18% (75/416; 95% CI, 14-22%) and 27% (111/416; 95% CI, 22-31%) of paw and faecal samples, respectively. Salmonella was detected only on paws in 8% (35/416; 95% CI, 5.9-11.5%), only in faeces in 17% (71/416; 95% CI, 13.6-21.0%) and on both paws and in faeces in 10% (40/416; 95% CI, 7.0-12.9%) of raccoon captures. Multilevel logistic regression models were used to examine associations between the presence of Salmonella and age (adult, juvenile), sex (male, female), location type (swine farm, conservation area), sample type (faeces, paw) and season (May-July and August-October). Random intercepts were included to account for clustering by individual animal and location. Significant differences, that varied by sample type and season, were noted in the prevalence of Salmonella carriage between sexes. Raccoons can carry Salmonella serovars known to infect humans and livestock on their paws and/or in their faeces and therefore have the potential to mechanically and biologically disseminate Salmonella among livestock facilities and human recreational areas.

  1. Anthropogenic mercury deposition in Flin Flon Manitoba and the Experimental Lakes Area Ontario (Canada): A multi-lake sediment core reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Wiklund, Johan A; Kirk, Jane L; Muir, Derek C G; Evans, Marlene; Yang, Fan; Keating, Jonathan; Parsons, Matthew T

    2017-05-15

    High-resolution records of anthropogenic mercury (Hg) deposition were constructed from 9 lakes located 5-75km from the Flin Flon, Manitoba smelter (formerly one of North America's largest atmospheric Hg point sources) and 5 lakes in Experimental Lakes Area (ELA), Ontario; a region remote from major Hg point sources. Anthropogenic Hg deposition, as both a flux and inventory, was determined after accounting for lake-specific natural Hg background concentrations, changes in sedimentation and sediment focusing. Results show that records of anthropogenic flux and inventory of Hg were remarkably consistent among the ELA lakes, but varied by 2 orders of magnitude among Flin Flon lakes. The relation between Hg inventories (normalized for prevailing wind direction) and distance from the smelter was used to estimate the total Hg fallout within a 50km radius in 5year time-steps, thus providing a quantitative spatial-temporal Hg depositional history for the Flin Flon region. The same relation solved for 8 cardinal directions weighted by the inverse of the previously applied wind direction normalization generates a map of Hg inventory and deposition on the landscape (Supplementary video). This novel application of sediment core data constructs a landscape model and allows for a visualization of contaminant deposition with respect to a point major source in both space and time. The propensity for Hg to undergo long-range, even global transport explains why Hg deposition within 50km of Flin Flon was ~11% of estimated releases. That is until smelter releases were reduced >10-fold (post-2000), after which observed deposition exceeded smelter releases, suggesting landscape re-emission/remobilization of legacy Hg is a major ongoing regional source of Hg.

  2. Timing of Deformation in the Central Metasedimentary Belt Boundary Thrust Zone (CMBbtz), southern Ontario, Canada, from Electron Microprobe Dating of Monazite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markley, M. J.; Dunn, S. R.; Peck, W. H.; Jercinovic, M. J.; Williams, M. L.

    2015-12-01

    In the Grenville Province of Southern Ontario, the Central Metasedimentary Belt boundary thrust zone (CMBbtz) is a crustal-scale tectonic boundary between the older, granulite-facies Central Gneiss Belt to the NW and the younger, amphibolite-facies Central Metasedimentary Belt to the SE. Although there are a range of tectonic models for the CMBbtz, most workers agree it is a major tectonic boundary that accommodated ductile thrusting and crustal shortening during the Ottawan phase of the Grenville Orogeny (~1080-1020 Ma). Some studies suggest that ductile thrusting in the CMBbtz was roughly synchronous with synorogenic extensional collapse below an orogenic lid. Previous geochronological studies also provide evidence of earlier deformation and/or metamorphic events in the CMBbtz, although the relation between deformation in the CMBbtz to the Elzeviran (~1230 Ma) and Shawinigan (~1180 Ma) orogenies is unclear. Our study is the first to report in situ electron microprobe monazite (mnz) dates from amphibolite-grade ortho- and para-gneisses of the CMBbtz. Our results are broadly consistent with other chronometers. We present dates from 132 age-domains within 83 mnz grains in 14 samples. Although our data provide strong evidence for deformation and metamorphism along the length of the CMBbtz during the Ottawan (1080-1020 Ma), we also report two other clusters of ages: 1140-1110 Ma and 1230-1170 Ma. The latter cluster falls between the widely accepted ranges for the Elzeviran and Shawinigan orogenies. In addition, some individual outcrops, particularly those in Killaloe and Minden, show mnz ages spanning over 200 m.y., and the setting and compositions of individual monazite domains allow us to link mnz growth to episodes of garnet growth during multiple events. Together these data indicate an unexpectedly continuous and long-lived period of deformation and metamorphism in the CMBbtz.

  3. A cross-sectional study examining the prevalence and risk factors for anti-microbial-resistant generic Escherichia coli in domestic dogs that frequent dog parks in three cities in south-western Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Procter, T D; Pearl, D L; Finley, R L; Leonard, E K; Janecko, N; Reid-Smith, R J; Weese, J S; Peregrine, A S; Sargeant, J M

    2014-06-01

    Anti-microbial resistance can threaten health by limiting treatment options and increasing the risk of hospitalization and severity of infection. Companion animals can shed anti-microbial-resistant bacteria that may result in the exposure of other dogs and humans to anti-microbial-resistant genes. The prevalence of anti-microbial-resistant generic Escherichia coli in the faeces of dogs that visited dog parks in south-western Ontario was examined and risk factors for shedding anti-microbial-resistant generic E. coli identified. From May to August 2009, canine faecal samples were collected at ten dog parks in three cities in south-western Ontario, Canada. Owners completed a questionnaire related to pet characteristics and management factors including recent treatment with antibiotics. Faecal samples were collected from 251 dogs, and 189 surveys were completed. Generic E. coli was isolated from 237 of the faecal samples, and up to three isolates per sample were tested for anti-microbial susceptibility. Eighty-nine percent of isolates were pan-susceptible; 82.3% of dogs shed isolates that were pan-susceptible. Multiclass resistance was detected in 7.2% of the isolates from 10.1% of the dogs. Based on multilevel multivariable logistic regression, a risk factor for the shedding of generic E. coli resistant to ampicillin was attending dog day care. Risk factors for the shedding of E. coli resistant to at least one anti-microbial included attending dog day care and being a large mixed breed dog, whereas consumption of commercial dry and home cooked diets was protective factor. In a multilevel multivariable model for the shedding of multiclass-resistant E. coli, exposure to compost and being a large mixed breed dog were risk factors, while consumption of a commercial dry diet was a sparing factor. Pet dogs are a potential reservoir of anti-microbial-resistant generic E. coli; some dog characteristics and management factors are associated with the prevalence of anti

  4. Utilisation of home-based physician, nurse and personal support worker services within a palliative care programme in Ontario, Canada: trends over 2005-2015.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhuolu; Laporte, Audrey; Guerriere, Denise N; Coyte, Peter C

    2016-12-26

    With health system restructuring in Canada and a general preference by care recipients and their families to receive palliative care at home, attention to home-based palliative care continues to increase. A multidisciplinary team of health professionals is the most common delivery model for home-based palliative care in Canada. However, little is known about the changing temporal trends in the propensity and intensity of home-based palliative care. The purpose of this study was to assess the propensity to use home-based palliative care services, and once used, the intensity of that use for three main service categories: physician visits, nurse visits and care by personal support workers (PSWs) over the last decade. Three prospective cohort data sets were used to track changes in service use over the period 2005 to 2015. Service use for each category was assessed using a two-part model, and a Heckit regression was performed to assess the presence of selectivity bias. Service propensity was modelled using multivariate logistic regression analysis and service intensity was modelled using log-transformed ordinary least squares regression analysis. Both the propensity and intensity to use home-based physician visits and PSWs increased over the last decade, while service propensity and the intensity of nurse visits decreased. Meanwhile, there was a general tendency for service propensity and intensity to increase as the end of life approached. These findings demonstrate temporal changes towards increased use of home-based palliative care, and a shift to substitute care away from nursing to less expensive forms of care, specifically PSWs. These findings may provide a general idea of the types of services that are used more intensely and require more resources from multidisciplinary teams, as increased use of home-based palliative care has placed dramatic pressures on the budgets of local home and community care organisations.

  5. Laboratory characterization of invasive Haemophilus influenzae isolates from Nunavut, Canada, 2000–2012

    PubMed Central

    Tsang, Raymond S. W.; Li, Y. Anita; Mullen, Angie; Baikie, Maureen; Whyte, Kathleen; Shuel, Michelle; Tyrrell, Gregory; Rotondo, Jenny A. L.; Desai, Shalini; Spika, John

    2016-01-01

    Background With invasive Haemophilus influenzae serotype b (Hib) disease controlled by vaccination with conjugate Hib vaccines, there is concern that invasive disease due to non-serotype b strains may emerge. Objective This study characterized invasive H. influenzae (Hi) isolates from Nunavut, Canada, in the post-Hib vaccine era. Methods Invasive H. influenzae isolates were identified by conventional methods at local hospitals; and further characterized at the provincial and federal public health laboratories, including detection of serotype antigens and genes, multi-locus sequence typing and antibiotic susceptibility. Results Of the 89 invasive H. influenzae cases identified from 2000 to 2012, 71 case isolates were available for study. There were 43 serotype a (Hia), 12 Hib, 2 Hic, 1 Hid, 1 Hie, 2 Hif and 10 were non-typeable (NT). All 43 Hia were biotype II, sequence type (ST)-23. Three related STs were found among the Hib isolates: ST-95 (n=9), ST-635 (n=2) and ST-44 (n=1). Both Hif belonged to ST-124 and the 2 Hic were typed as ST-9. The remaining Hid (ST-1288) and Hie (ST-18) belonged to 2 separate clones. Of the 10 NT strains, 3 were typed as ST-23 and the remaining 7 isolates each belonged to a unique ST. Eight Hib and 1 NT-Hi were found to be resistant to ampicillin due to β-lactamase production. No resistance to other antibiotics was detected. Conclusion During the period of 2000–2012, Hia was the predominant serotype causing invasive disease in Nunavut. This presents a public health concern due to an emerging clone of Hia as a cause of invasive H. influenzae disease and the lack of published guidelines for the prophylaxis of contacts. The clonal nature of Hia could be the result of spread within an isolated population, and/or unique characteristics of this strain to cause invasive disease. Further study of Hia in other populations may provide important information on this emerging pathogen. No antibiotic resistance was detected among Hia isolates; a

  6. Ontario District Embraces an Evolving Approach to Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belchetz, Denese; Witherow, Kathy

    2014-01-01

    The York Region District School Board is recognized as a high-performing district in Ontario, Canada, and has also garnered international attention. Visitors from across Canada, as well as Singapore, Finland, England, Scotland, Holland, the Bahamas, Korea, China, and Taiwan, have come to learn about its system and observe the teaching, learning,…

  7. Stress and immune responses of nestling tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) and eastern bluebirds (Sialia sialis) exposed to nonpersistent pesticides and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene in apple orchards of southern Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Mayne, Gregory J; Martin, Pamela A; Bishop, Christine A; Boermans, Herman J

    2004-12-01

    To determine the relative effects of pesticides in current use and persistent residues of p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE), we examined endocrine and immune responses in tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) and eastern bluebird (Sialia sialis) chicks from pesticide-sprayed apple orchards and reference sites in southern Ontario, Canada, during 2000 to 2001. Nests were exposed to as many as seven individual pesticide applications and up to five mixtures of pesticides during the egg-incubation and chick-rearing stage. Eggs collected from sprayed orchards contained higher p,p'-DDE concentrations than eggs from reference sites. In 16-d-old tree swallows, no significant differences were found in body mass, basal corticosterone concentration, or the corticosterone stress response following a 10-min restraint of chicks sampled from sprayed orchards and reference sites. Challenge with adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), however, produced a higher level of corticosterone secretion in tree swallow chicks from sprayed orchards relative to chicks from reference sites. Multiple regression analysis revealed no correlation between corticosterone concentrations and exposure to pesticide sprays or p,p'-DDE in tree swallow chicks. In contrast, bluebird chicks from sprayed orchards were less responsive to challenge with ACTH and a significant negative association was found between the response to ACTH challenge and p,p'-DDE concentration in eggs. The phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-induced cutaneous basophil hypersensitivity response was similar between exposure groups in both tree swallow and bluebird nestlings. Examination of immune organs revealed that tree swallow chicks from sprayed orchards had significantly greater thymic lymphocyte density and cortical/ medullary ratios and significant splenic B-cell hyperplasia relative to reference chicks. Our results indicate that modulation in the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis in songbird chicks tested are most associated

  8. A multilevel examination of gender differences in the association between features of the school environment and physical activity among a sample of grades 9 to 12 students in Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Creating school environments that support student physical activity (PA) is a key recommendation of policy-makers to increase youth PA. Given males are more active than females at all ages, it has been suggested that investigating gender differences in the features of the environment that associate with PA may help to inform gender-focused PA interventions and reduce the gender disparity in PA. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to explore gender differences in the association between factors of the school environment and students' time spent in PA. Methods Among a sample of 10781 female and 10973 male students in grades 9 to 12 from 76 secondary schools in Ontario, Canada, student- and school-level survey PA data were collected and supplemented with GIS-derived measures of the built environment within 1-km buffers of the 76 schools. Results Findings from the present study revealed significant differences in the time male and female students spent in PA as well as in some of the school- and student-level factors associated with PA. Results of the gender-specific multilevel analyses indicate schools should consider providing an alternate room for PA, especially for providing flexibility activities directed at female students. Schools should also consider offering daily physical education programming to male students in senior grades and providing PA promotion initiatives targeting obese male students. Conclusions Although most variation in male and female students' time spent in PA lies between students within schools, there is sufficient between-school variation to be of interest to practitioners and policy-makers. More research investigating gender differentials in environment factors associated with youth PA are warranted. PMID:22272717

  9. The interaction of large amplitude internal seiches with a shallow sloping lakebed: observations of benthic turbulence in Lake Simcoe, Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Cossu, Remo; Wells, Mathew G

    2013-01-01

    Observations of the interactions of large amplitude internal seiches with the sloping boundary of Lake Simcoe, Canada show a pronounced asymmetry between up- and downwelling. Data were obtained during a 42-day period in late summer with an ADCP and an array of four thermistor chains located in a 5 km line at the depths where the thermocline intersects the shallow slope of the lakebed. The thermocline is located at depths of 12-14 m during the strongly stratified period of late summer. During periods of strong westerly winds the thermocline is deflected as much as 8 m vertically and interacts directly with the lakebed at depth between 14-18 m. When the thermocline was rising at the boundary, the stratification resembles a turbulent bore that propagates up the sloping lakebed with a speed of 0.05-0.15 m s(-1) and a Froude number close to unity. There were strong temperature overturns associated with the abrupt changes in temperature across the bore. Based on the size of overturns in the near bed stratification, we show that the inferred turbulent diffusivity varies by up to two orders of magnitude between up- and downwellings. When the thermocline was rising, estimates of turbulent diffusivity were high with KZ ∼10(-4) m(2)s(-1), whereas during downwelling events the near-bed stratification was greatly increased and the turbulence was reduced. This asymmetry is consistent with previous field observations and underlines the importance of shear-induced convection in benthic bottom boundary layers of stratified lakes.

  10. Policy Conversation on Workplace/Workforce Literacy (Toronto, Ontario, Canada, January 22-24, 1995): A Report = Dialogue de Politique sur l'Alphabetisation en Milieu de Travail/de la Main-d'Oeuvre (Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 22-24 Janvier, 1995): Un Document de Synthese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Literacy Secretariat, Ottawa (Ontario).

    This document is a compilation of a variety of documents that were prepared to summarize and document the Policy Conversation on Workplace and Work Force Literacy that was held in Canada to give concerned individuals an opportunity to share their hopes, concerns, dreams, and visions about key issues in workplace literacy. The following documents…

  11. The Ontario CAI Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olivier, W. P.

    The evolution and current operation of the Ontario Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) Network are described. Sponsored by the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education and including 11 community colleges in Ontario, the network has computer installations and access devices throughout the province. Initial development work was done using a…

  12. Epidemiology of Enterovirus D68 in Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Peci, Adriana; Winter, Anne-Luise; Warshawsky, Bryna; Booth, Tim F.; Eshaghi, AliReza; Li, Aimin; Perusini, Stephen; Olsha, Romy; Marchand-Austin, Alex; Kristjanson, Erik; Gubbay, Jonathan B.

    2015-01-01

    In August 2014, children’s hospitals in Kansas City, Missouri and Chicago, Illinois notified the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) about increased numbers of pediatric patients hospitalized with severe respiratory illness (SRI). In response to CDC reports, Public Health Ontario Laboratories (PHOL) launched an investigation of patients being tested for enterovirus D-68 (EV-D68) in Ontario, Canada. The purpose of this investigation was to enhance our understanding of EV-D68 epidemiology and clinical features. Data for this study included specimens submitted for EV-D68 testing at PHOL from September 1, 2014 to October 31, 2014. Comparisons were made between patients who tested positive for the virus (cases) and those testing negative (controls). EV-D68 was identified in 153/907 (16.8%) of patients tested. In the logistic regression model adjusting for age, sex, setting and time to specimen collection, individuals younger than 20 years of age were more likely to be diagnosed with EV-D68 compared to those 20 and over, with peak positivity at ages 5–9 years. Cases were not more likely to be hospitalized than controls. Cases were more likely to be identified in September than October (OR 8.07; 95% CI 5.15 to 12.64). Routine viral culture and multiplex PCR were inadequate methods to identify EV-D68 due to poor sensitivity and inability to differentiate EV-D68 from other enterovirus serotypes or rhinovirus. Testing for EV-D68 in Ontario from July to December, 2014 detected the presence of EV-D68 virus among young children during September-October, 2014, with most cases detected in September. There was no difference in hospitalization status between cases and controls. In order to better understand the epidemiology of this virus, surveillance for EV-D68 should include testing of symptomatic individuals from all treatment settings and patient age groups, with collection and analysis of comprehensive clinical and epidemiological data. PMID:26599365

  13. Lessons learned from Ontario wind energy disputes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fast, Stewart; Mabee, Warren; Baxter, Jamie; Christidis, Tanya; Driver, Liz; Hill, Stephen; McMurtry, J. J.; Tomkow, Melody

    2016-02-01

    Issues concerning the social acceptance of wind energy are major challenges for policy-makers, communities and wind developers. They also impact the legitimacy of societal decisions to pursue wind energy. Here we set out to identify and assess the factors that lead to wind energy disputes in Ontario, Canada, a region of the world that has experienced a rapid increase in the development of wind energy. Based on our expertise as a group comprising social scientists, a community representative and a wind industry advocate engaged in the Ontario wind energy situation, we explore and suggest recommendations based on four key factors: socially mediated health concerns, the distribution of financial benefits, lack of meaningful engagement and failure to treat landscape concerns seriously. Ontario's recent change from a feed-in-tariff-based renewable electricity procurement process to a competitive bid process, albeit with more attention to community engagement, will only partially address these concerns.

  14. The Ontario Telemedicine Network: a case report.

    PubMed

    Brown, Edward M

    2013-05-01

    This article describes the evolution, current status, and future prospects of the Ontario Telemedicine Network (OTN). Started in the late 1990s (and formally established in 2006), OTN is a not-for-profit corporation primarily funded by the Government of Ontario, Canada, that aims to improve access to and quality of care throughout the Province. It covers a land mass larger than France and serves a population of just over 13 million, the vast majority of which live in a narrow strip close to the U.S. border. Telemedicine has been effective in reducing travel to usual sources of care, reducing hospital admissions, and improving efficiency and prompt access to care. The diffusion of telemedicine is accelerating in Ontario, and it is becoming an integral part of the health system.

  15. Canadian Public Health Laboratory Network laboratory guidelines for the use of direct tests to detect syphilis in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Tsang, Raymond SW; Morshed, Muhammad; Chernesky, Max A; Jayaraman, Gayatri C; Kadkhoda, Kamran

    2015-01-01

    Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum and/or its nucleic acid can be detected by various methods such as microscopy, rabbit infectivity test or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests. The rabbit infectivity test for T. pallidum, although very sensitive, has been discontinued from most laboratories due to ethical issues related to the need for animal inoculation with live T. pallidum, the technically demanding procedure and long turnaround time for results, thus making it impractical for routine diagnostic use. Dark-field and phase-contrast microscopy are still useful at clinic- or hospital-based laboratories for near-bedside detection of T. pallidum in genital, skin or mucous lesions although their availability is decreasing. The lack of reliable and specific anti-T. pallidum antibodies and its inferior sensitivity to PCR may explain why the direct fluorescent antibody test for T. pallidum is not widely available for clinical use. Immunohistochemical staining for T. pallidum also depends on the availability of specific antibodies, and the method is only applicable for histopathological examination of biopsy and autopsy specimens necessitating an invasive specimen collection approach. With recent advances in molecular diagnostics, PCR is considered to be the most reliable, versatile and practical for laboratories to implement. In addition to being an objective and sensitive test for direct detection of Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum DNA in skin and mucous membrane lesions, the resulting PCR amplicons from selected gene targets can be further characterized for antimicrobial (macrolide) susceptibility testing, strain typing and identification of T. pallidum subspecies. PMID:25798160

  16. Severe acute bovine viral diarrhea in Ontario, 1993-1995.

    PubMed

    Carman, S; van Dreumel, T; Ridpath, J; Hazlett, M; Alves, D; Dubovi, E; Tremblay, R; Bolin, S; Godkin, A; Anderson, N

    1998-01-01

    In 1993, noncytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) strains with enhanced virulence caused unprecedented outbreaks of severe acute bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) in dairy, beef, and veal herds in Ontario (Canada). Fever, pneumonia, diarrhea, and sudden death occurred in all age groups of cattle. Abortions often occurred in pregnant animals. Gross lesions in the alimentary tract were similar to those associated with mucosal disease, especially in animals >6 months of age. Cattle of all age groups had microscopic lesions in the alimentary tract similar to those seen with mucosal disease. The epidemic peaked in the summer of 1993, with 15% of all bovine accessions from diseased cattle presented to the diagnostic laboratory being associated with BVDV. The virus strains involved in the outbreak were analyzed using monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies and the polymerase chain reaction. The virus isolates from these outbreaks of severe disease were determined to be type 2 BVDV. Type 2 BVDV has been present in Ontario at least since 1981 without causing widespread outbreaks of severe acute BVD, which suggests that type 2 designation in itself does not imply enhanced virulence. Cattle properly vaccinated with type 1 BVDV vaccines appear to be protected from clinical disease.

  17. Overview of the Government of Canada Nuclear Legacy Liabilities Program - 13551

    SciTech Connect

    Metcalfe, D.; McCauley, D.; Miller, J.; Brooks, S.

    2013-07-01

    Nuclear legacy liabilities have resulted from more than 60 years of nuclear research and development carried out on behalf of Canada. The liabilities are located at Atomic Energy of Canada Limited's (AECL) Chalk River Laboratories in Ontario and Whiteshell Laboratories in Manitoba, as well as three shutdown prototype reactors in Ontario and Quebec that are being maintained in a safe storage state. Estimated at about $7.4 billion (current day dollars), these liabilities consist of disused nuclear facilities and associated infrastructure, a wide variety of buried and stored waste, and contaminated lands. In 2006, the Government of Canada adopted a long-term strategy to deal with the nuclear legacy liabilities and initiated a five-year, $520 million start-up phase, thereby creating the Nuclear Legacy Liabilities Program (NLLP). The Government of Canada renewed the NLLP in 2011 with a $439-million three-year second phase that ends March 31, 2014. The projects and activities carried out under the Program focus on infrastructure decommissioning, environmental restoration, improving the management of legacy radioactive waste, and advancing the long-term strategy. The NLLP is being implemented through a Memorandum of Understanding between Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) and AECL whereby NRCan is responsible for policy direction and oversight, including control of funding, and AECL is responsible for implementing the program of work and holding and administering all licences, facilities and lands. (authors)

  18. Assessing secondary attack rates among household contacts at the beginning of the influenza A (H1N1) pandemic in Ontario, Canada, April-June 2009: A prospective, observational study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Understanding transmission dynamics of the pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus in various exposure settings and determining whether transmissibility differed from seasonal influenza viruses was a priority for decision making on mitigation strategies at the beginning of the pandemic. The objective of this study was to estimate household secondary attack rates for pandemic influenza in a susceptible population where control measures had yet to be implemented. Methods All Ontario local health units were invited to participate; seven health units volunteered. For all laboratory-confirmed cases reported between April 24 and June 18, 2009, participating health units performed contact tracing to detect secondary cases among household contacts. In total, 87 cases and 266 household contacts were included in this study. Secondary cases were defined as any household member with new onset of acute respiratory illness (fever or two or more respiratory symptoms) or influenza-like illness (fever plus one additional respiratory symptom). Attack rates were estimated using both case definitions. Results Secondary attack rates were estimated at 10.3% (95% CI 6.8-14.7) for secondary cases with influenza-like illness and 20.2% (95% CI 15.4-25.6) for secondary cases with acute respiratory illness. For both case definitions, attack rates were significantly higher in children under 16 years than adults (25.4% and 42.4% compared to 7.6% and 17.2%). The median time between symptom onset in the primary case and the secondary case was estimated at 3.0 days. Conclusions Secondary attack rates for pandemic influenza A (H1N1) were comparable to seasonal influenza estimates suggesting similarities in transmission. High secondary attack rates in children provide additional support for increased susceptibility to infection. PMID:21492445

  19. A critical review of financial measures as reported in the Ontario hospital balanced scorecard.

    PubMed

    Parkinson, John; Tsasis, Peter; Porporato, Marcela

    2007-01-01

    For Ontario hospitals in Canada, the Financial Performance and Condition measures in the Ontario hospital balanced scorecard are especially of interest since in the foreseeable future, they may be linked to provincial government funding decisions. However, we find that these measures lack valuable information on key attributes that affect organizational performance. We suggest changes that focus on key drivers of performance and reflect the operational realities of Ontario hospitals.

  20. 76 FR 11436 - Application to Export Electric Energy; Ontario Power Generation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ... Application to Export Electric Energy; Ontario Power Generation AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of Application. SUMMARY: Ontario Power Generation Inc. (OPG) has... authorized OPG to transmit electric energy from the United States to Canada as a power marketer for a...

  1. Shifting Currents: Science Technology Society and Environment in Northern Ontario Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Astrid

    2013-01-01

    The focus is on the practices of secondary science teachers in rural, resource-extraction-based communities in the boreal region of northern Ontario, Canada. In 2008 the Ontario Ministry of Education mandated that science teaching and learning should bring to the forefront consideration of the impacts of science on society and environment, and…

  2. Ontario Universities Benefits Survey, 1987-88. Part I: Benefits Excluding Pensions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of Western Ontario, London.

    Results of the 1987-1988 survey of benefits, excluding pensions, for 17 Ontario, Canada, universities are presented. Information is provided on the following areas: administration and insurance plans, communication of benefits, proposed changes in benefits, provision of life and dismemberment insurance, maternity leave policy, Ontario health…

  3. Did Ontario's Zero Tolerance & Graduated Licensing Law Reduce Youth Drunk Driving?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    On April 1, 1994, Ontario, Canada, instituted a new graduated driver license (GDL) system that effectively set the legal blood alcohol content (BAC) threshold at zero for the first few years of a youth's driving eligibility. I use data from the 1983-2001 Ontario Student Drug Use Surveys (OSDUS) to examine whether the Zero Tolerance (ZT) policy…

  4. The Social Habitus of Drama: The Ontario Drama Curriculum in Theory and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the author considers the place of drama in the formal curriculum in Ontario, Canada by considering its position in relation to curriculum theory and the texts that formally articulate it as a discipline to be taught in schools. The drama curriculum in Ontario aims to engage young people in activities and experiences that invite…

  5. Higher Education Policy and Legitimacy Building: The Making of a New Academic Credential in Ontario

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurley, Peter; Sa, Creso M.

    2013-01-01

    Canada's province of Ontario introduced a new policy in 2000 allowing community colleges to offer a new type of undergraduate degree. This decision was a significant policy change for the government considering the nature of Ontario's binary system, where a rigid separation has historically prevailed between the university and college sectors.…

  6. The Relationship between Parental Substance Abuse and Child Maltreatment: Findings from the Ontario Health Supplement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Christine; MacMillan, Harriet L.; Jamieson, Ellen

    2003-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the relationship between reported exposure to child abuse and a history of parental substance abuse (alcohol and drugs) in a community sample in Ontario, Canada. Method: The sample consisted of 8,472 respondents to the Ontario Mental Health Supplement (OHSUP), a comprehensive population survey of mental health. The…

  7. Achieving Excellence: Bringing Effective Literacy Pedagogy to Scale in Ontario's Publicly-Funded Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Mary Jean; Malloy, John; Ryerson, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    This paper offers an insiders' perspective on the large-scale, system-wide educational change undertaken in Ontario, Canada from 2003 to the present. The authors, Ministry and school system leaders intimately involved in this change process, explore how Ontario has come to be internationally recognized as an equitable, high-achieving, and…

  8. Ontario appellate court denies HIV-positive man's constitutional claim to medical marijuana.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Richard

    2002-03-01

    In January 2002, the Ontario Court of Appeal denied a claim by a Toronto man living with HIV/AIDS that Canada's laws prohibiting marijuana possession and cultivation infringe his constitutional rights to liberty and security of the person.

  9. Canine immune-mediated polyarthritis: Clinical and laboratory findings in 83 cases in western Canada (1991–2001)

    PubMed Central

    Stull, Jason W.; Evason, Michelle; Carr, Anthony P.; Waldner, Cheryl

    2008-01-01

    A hospital-based, case-control study was used to describe clinical and laboratory findings in 83 dogs diagnosed with noninfectious, nonerosive, immune-mediated polyarthritis (IMPA) in western Canada. Case medical records were reviewed. Cases were analyzed as total IMPA cases and as subgroups [breed, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), reactive, and idiopathic] and compared with the general canine hospital population. Dogs with IMPA differed in age (P = 0.004) and weight (P = 0.01) from other hospital admissions. Idiopathic IMPA cases were older (4–10 y; P < 0.05), compared with the general canine hospital population, and their common laboratory abnormalities included the following: leukocytosis, nonregenerative anemia, increased alkaline phosphatase, and hypoalbuminemia. The SLE cases were seen more often in summer and fall (P = 0.04), raising concern of an undiagnosed etiologic agent. The hock joint appeared to be the most reliable for diagnosis of IMPA, and arthrocentesis of both hock joints may aid in case identification. PMID:19252711

  10. An outbreak of cyclosporiasis in 1996 associated with consumption of fresh berries- Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Manuel, DG; Neamatullah, S; Shahin, R; Reymond, D; Keystone, J; Carlson, J; Le Ber, C; Herwaldt, BL; Werker, DH

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A large foodborne outbreak of cyclosporiasis occurred in North America in 1996. An index cluster of cases associated with a catered event on May 11, 1996, in Ontario sparked the recognition of this outbreak in Canada. OBJECTIVES: To describe the Ontario experience with the North American outbreak of cyclosporiasis in 1996. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Public health units investigated the index and subsequent event-associated clusters. Investigations included retrospective cohort studies of clusters, traceback of suspect foods and a case-control study of sporadic cases. These activities, coordinated with those in the United States, were part of an international investigation. RESULTS: In Ontario, 232 cases of cyclosporiasis (20 laboratory-confirmed and 72 clinically defined cases associated with seven events plus 140 additional laboratory-confirmed sporadic cases) were identified between May 1 and July 30, 1996. For the index cluster, a strawberry flan with raspberries and blueberries was the only significant exposure (relative risk 2.16, P=0.02). Fresh berries were served at all seven events associated with clusters of cases. Raspberries were definitely served at three events, possibly served at three events, and not served at one event. Only imported berries were available in Ontario in May 1996, when initial clusters and sporadic cases were identified. The raspberries served at the two events with well documented traceback data came from Guatemala. Univariate analyses of the matched case-control study demonstrated that illness was associated with consumption of raspberries (matched odds ratio 21.0, 95% CI 3.48 to 448) and strawberries (matched odds ratio 28.5, 95% CI 4.02 to 478). Further evidence amassed by the international investigation compellingly implicated Guatemalan raspberries as the vehicle of the outbreak. CONCLUSION: Cyclosporiasis may be acquired domestically from the consumption of contaminated produce. The scope and vehicle of this

  11. Aboriginal Languages in Ontario.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnaby, Barbara J.

    This report outlines the basic characteristics of native languages in Ontario, the degree to which they are being maintained, and the aspirations of native people for their future development. The report covers only the Algonquian and Iroquoian families of languages spoken in Ontario for many generations and still spoken at present, including…

  12. Education: Ontario's Preoccupation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, W. G.

    Written as an abridged companion volume to the seven-volume series, Ontario's Educative Society, this book shares the objective of exploring the development of education in Ontario since World War II. The material is presented within an historical framework and uses a broad definition of education which includes organizations and activities beyond…

  13. Proceedings of the 2002 Annual Meeting of the Canadian Mathematics Education Study Group = Actes de la Rencontre Annuelle 2002 du Groupe Canadien d'Etude en Didactique des Mathematiques (26th, Kingston, Ontario, Canada, May 24-28, 2002)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmt, Elaine, Ed.; Davis, Brent, Ed.

    2003-01-01

    This submission contains the Proceedings of the 2002 Annual Meeting of the Canadian Mathematics Education Study Group (CMESG), held at Queen's University in Kingston, Ontario. The CMESG is a group of mathematicians and mathematics educators who meet annually to discuss mathematics education issues at all levels of learning. The aims of the Study…

  14. Proceedings of the 2009 Annual Meeting of the Canadian Mathematics Education Study Group = Actes de la Rencontre Annuelle 2009 du Groupe Canadien d'Etude en Didactique des Mathematiques (33rd, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, June 5-June 9, 2009)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liljedahl, Peter, Ed.; Oesterle, Susan, Ed.; Abu-Bakare, Veda, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This submission contains the Proceedings of the 2009 Annual Meeting of the Canadian Mathematics Education Study Group (CMESG), held at York University in Toronto, Ontario. The CMESG is a group of mathematicians and mathematics educators who meet annually to discuss mathematics education issues at all levels of learning. The aims of the Study Group…

  15. Proceedings of the 2005 Annual Meeting of the Canadian Mathematics Education Study Group = Actes de la Rencontre Annuelle 2005 du Groupe Canadien d'Etude en Didactique des Mathematiques (29th, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, May 27-31, 2005)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liljedahl, Peter, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    This submission contains the Proceedings of the 2005 Annual Meeting of the Canadian Mathematics Education Study Group (CMESG), held at the University of Ottawa in Ottawa, Ontario. The CMESG is a group of mathematicians and mathematics educators who meet annually to discuss mathematics education issues at all levels of learning. The aims of the…

  16. Temporal and geographic variation of organochlorine residues in eggs of the common snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina serpentina) (1981-1991) and comparisons to trends in the herring gull (Larus argentatus) in the Great Lakes basin in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Bishop, C A; Ng, P; Norstrom, R J; Brooks, R J; Pettit, K E

    1996-11-01

    Common snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina serpentina) eggs from five sites within the Great Lakes basin, and from a reference site in north-central Ontario were collected during 1981-1991 and analyzed for four organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) including six non-ortho PCBs, polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). The pattern of geographic variation was consistent over time in eggs with Cootes Paradise/ Hamilton Harbour and Lynde Creek eggs on Lake Ontario containing the highest concentrations and most PCDD and PCDF congeners among all sites. Eggs from Cranberry Marsh on Lake Ontario contained organochlorine concentrations similar to those from Big Creek Marsh and Rondeau Provincial Park on Lake Erie except PCDDs and PCDFs which occurred at higher concentrations and more congeners were detectable in Cranberry Marsh eggs. Concentrations of most contaminants in turtle eggs from Algonquin Park, the reference site, have significantly decreased in the past decade. Dieldrin concentrations, however, increased in Algonquin Park eggs from 1981 to 1989. Significant decreases in concentrations of hexachlorobenzene, mirex and PCBs occurred between turtle eggs collected in 1981/84 and 1989 at Big Creek Marsh and Rondeau Provincial Park, whereas there was no significant change in concentrations of p,p'-DDE and dieldrin. In Lake Ontario eggs, concentrations of PCBs, p,p'-DDE and dieldrin increased significantly between 1984 and 1991. Differences were also found in patterns of temporal variation in contamination between herring gulls (Larus argentatus) and snapping turtles which were attributed to differences in diet. Elevated and continued contamination in turtle eggs from Lake. Ontario is probably due to a combination of local sources of chemicals and consumption of large migratory fish that spawn in wetlands inhabited by these turtles.

  17. Young Patients Detained under the Lieutenant Governor Warrant in Ontario.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Michael S.; Spears, Christopher

    1987-01-01

    Studied 24 patients being held on lieutenant governor warrants in Ontario, Canada who had been placed on warrants as juveniles. Found subjects to be predominantly male with histories of psychiatric illnesses, diagnosed mainly as antisocial personality, and to have been found not guilty by reason of insanity on charges primarily of murder or…

  18. Financial Report of Ontario Universities, 1996-97. Ancillary Enterprises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Ontario Universities, Toronto.

    This report provides detailed information on ancillary enterprises at provincially assisted universities and at affiliated and federated colleges in Ontario (Canada) for the fiscal year that ended April 30, 1997. Such enterprises include school stores (including bookstores), food services, residences, conferences, parking, publishing, and other…

  19. Financial Report of Ontario Universities, 1997-98. Ancillary Enterprises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Ontario Universities, Toronto.

    This report provides detailed information on ancillary enterprises at provincially assisted universities and affiliated and federated colleges in Ontario (Canada) for the fiscal year ending 30 April 1998. Such enterprises include school stores (including bookstores), food services, residences, conferences, parking, publishing, and other…

  20. Financial Report of Ontario Universities 1995-96. Ancillary Enterprises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Ontario Universities, Toronto.

    This supplementary volume has been compiled from submissions prepared by each of the provincially assisted universities and federated and affiliated colleges of Ontario (Canada). The information in this volume provides further details concerning sources of revenue and types of expenses as reported for various ancillary operations. These include…

  1. Implications of Key Performance Indicator Issues in Ontario Universities Explored

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Vivian

    2015-01-01

    Since 1998, the Ministry of Training, Colleges and Universities in Ontario, Canada, has required that data on specific key performance indicators (KPIs) be made public by its publicly funded universities. The information is intended to be used by universities to demonstrate their achievements, to improve their programmes and services, and to…

  2. Working Together: Strategy for Race Relations in Ontario.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ontario Human Rights Commission, Toronto.

    The Ontario (Canada) Human Rights Commission seeks to promote a climate of human relations in the province which will allow all people to live together in harmony and enable individuals to fulfill their potential to the fullest degree. The Commission's Race Relations Division focuses on residual racist expressions and attitudes. This division's…

  3. Thrombolytic therapy for myocardial infarction. Treatment introduced in northern Ontario.

    PubMed Central

    Hutten-Czapski, P.

    1993-01-01

    In remote regions of Canada, most patients with acute myocardial infarctions (MI) are treated by general practitioners. In hospitals served by cardiologists, intravenous thrombolytic therapy for MI is now routinely available. In a survey of northern Ontario general hospitals, 32 of 45 offered IV thrombolytic therapy. The use of streptokinase in one family physician-run hospital was also reviewed. PMID:8257484

  4. "We Won't Back Down!" Political Action in Ontario.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coles, Rich

    2001-01-01

    Discusses educators' responses to the attempts to take over the educational system by the government of Ontario, Canada. Discusses the background to the crisis, the "Final Straw" (Bill 160), public relations and the largest work stoppage by educators in North America (October, 1997), and lessons learned from the political protests. (RS)

  5. Administrators' Views on Teacher Evaluation: Examining Ontario's Teacher Performance Appraisal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maharaj, Sachin

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the views of administrators (i.e., principals and vice-principals) in Ontario, Canada, with regard to the province's Teacher Performance Appraisal process. A total of 178 responses were collected from a survey that examined five areas: 1) preparation and training; 2) classroom observations; 3) preparing the formal evaluation;…

  6. Interdisciplinary Practices in Ontario: Past, Present, and Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clausen, Kurt W.; Drake, Susan M.

    2010-01-01

    In Canada, the province of Ontario has had a rather turbulent relationship with interdisciplinarity as it has tried to implement this practice into the public school system. Specifically, the provincial government has repeatedly attempted to introduce such reforms as integrated units, harmonized objectives, and open-concept, student-centered pods,…

  7. Militancy and Accommodativeness in Teachers' Negotiations: Two Ontario Surveys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fris, J.

    1976-01-01

    Reports findings of two surveys of Ontario elementary and secondary teachers that measured teachers' attitudes regarding collective bargaining tactics and classified teachers' responses according to their militancy or accomodativeness. Available from Department of Educational Administration, The University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G…

  8. Inventory of Physical Facilities of Ontario Universities, 1995-96.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Ontario Universities, Toronto.

    This document presents an inventory of current physical facilities, plus a review of trends over the past 10 years, at universities in Ontario (Canada) as of the 1995-96 academic year. In Section 1 the space formula and inventory classification system are defined. Section 2 provides an overview of space inventories and usage for the period 1983-84…

  9. The Psychologist Support Program of the Ontario Psychological Association.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Iris

    Members of the helping professions are not immune from physical or psychological impairments that interfere with competent and ethical practice. The types of problems faced by psychologists and the help offered by one support program are presented. The purpose of the Psychologist Support Program (PSP) of the Ontario (Canada) Psychological…

  10. The Canadian Experience in the Teaching of Official Languages. Proceedings of the Symposium on the Canadian Experience in the Teaching of Official Languages (Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, May 22-23, 1996).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Heritage, Ottawa (Ontario).

    Symposium panel presentations on teaching official languages (French and English) in Canada include: "Social Stakes of English and French Teaching in Canada Over the Last 25 Years" (Roger Collet, Jan Finlay, Alan Lombard, Paul Ruest); "Evolution of the School-Community-Family Linkages" (Fernand Langlais, Roger Arsenault,…

  11. Implementation of an agency to improve chronic kidney disease care in Ontario: lessons learned by the Ontario Renal Network.

    PubMed

    Woodward, Graham L; Iverson, Alex; Harvey, Rebecca; Blake, Peter G

    2015-01-01

    In 2009, Ontario's Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care initiated the transfer of oversight and coordination of chronic kidney disease (CKD) care to the Ontario Renal Network (ORN) under the auspices of Cancer Care Ontario (CCO). The aim was to replicate the quality improvement and change management practices used for cancer control within CKD. Much of the ORN's first three years were dedicated to building the infrastructure necessary to bridge the gap between provincial policy and clinical practice. This article explores the accomplishments, challenges and lessons learned over that period. The results, which are applicable to the management of chronic diseases in Ontario, Canada, and internationally, confirm that sustainable change takes time and requires strong leadership, transparency, accountability and communication, supported by a solid foundation of data and evidence.

  12. Distance Education in Ontario.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, David M.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the services of the Ontario Educational Communications Authority (OECA), which has a nine station TV network, a nonbroadcast videotape distribution system, many interactions with cable companies and domestic satellite transmission, and a databank indexing OECA resources. (JEG)

  13. Air Quality in the Central Ontario Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gbor, P. K.; Meng, F.; Singh, R.; Galvez, O.; Sloan, J. J.

    2004-12-01

    The Central Ontario Region (COR) is the most densely populated area in Canada. With a population of 7.3 million, it contains 23% of the total population of Canada. It extends from the extreme south west end of Ontario to the eastern end of the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) and includes the Niagara, Hamilton and Waterloo Regions,. The air quality of this region is frequently severely impaired in the summer months. In the larger metropolitan areas (Toronto and Hamilton) air pollution is a concern throughout the year. Local health authorities attribute about 1000 premature deaths per year in the GTA alone to air pollution. Average air pollution levels in Ontario have decreased significantly during the past 30 years, despite significant growth in both population and industry. The concentrations of SO2 and CO have decreased by over 80% and the concentration of NOX has decreased by about 50% over the past 26 years. Currently, the concentrations of NOX, CO, SO2 and VOCs in the COR are well below the Provincial and Federal air quality criteria. Ozone, PM2.5 and PM10, however, remain above the Provincial guidelines, so smog still remains a problem. The pollutants in the atmosphere of the COR are caused by both local emissions and long range transport. The COR contributes over 50% of the NOx, VOC and CO emissions in Ontario. Over 58% of NOX and CO emissions in the COR are due to mobile sources while about 50% of VOC and PM emissions are due to area sources. The proximity of the COR to the Canada-U.S. border makes it vulnerable to long range transport of pollutants stemming from the much larger population in the United States. The Canadian government, industries and non-governmental organizations are all taking steps to help reduce the level of pollution in Canada. The Canadian federal government also participates in extensive consultations and cooperative programs with the United States designed to reduce the mutually detrimental effects of cross-border pollution. These

  14. Trace element content of northern Ontario peat

    SciTech Connect

    Glooschenko, W.A.; Capoblanco, J.A.

    1982-03-01

    Peat samples were collected at 0-20- and 20-40-cm depths from several peatland ecosystems located in northern Ontario, Canada. Analysis was made for the trace metals Zn, Pb, Cu, Cr, Cd, and Hg. Concentration values in general were in the low ppm range and did not significantly differ in terms of peatland type or depth except for Pb. This element was signficantly higher in surface peats in bogs and fens. Concentration of metals in peats found in the study were equivalent to those in US coals, suggesting caution during combustion in terms of potential atmospheric input of metals.

  15. Chronic illness and functional limitation in Ontario children: findings of the Ontario Child Health Study.

    PubMed Central

    Cadman, D; Boyle, M H; Offord, D R; Szatmari, P; Rae-Grant, N I; Crawford, J; Byles, J

    1986-01-01

    The Ontario Child Health Study (OCHS) was based on interviews of 1869 Ontario families who were selected by means of a stratified, multistaged sampling method from the 1981 census of Canada. Its primary purpose was to determine the prevalence and distribution of mental health problems in Ontario children aged 4 to 16 years and their families, but it also allowed an estimate of other significant medical conditions and provided an overview of these children's use of health care, education and social services. Our results are based on questionnaire responses concerning 3294 children. Limitation of function without a chronic illness or medical condition was reported in 1.9%, the converse in 14.0%, and a chronic illness or medical condition with limitation of function in 3.7%. When the three groups are considered together, 19.6% of Ontario children had a chronic health problem. Children of lower socioeconomic status were much more likely to have chronic health problems. Overall, children with chronic health problems were more likely to use physician, special education, social and mental health services. These findings have implications for those who provide services for children, plan community programs or train professionals in caring for children. PMID:3756702

  16. Hydroids of the genus Sertularella (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa: Sertulariidae) from the Pacific coast of Canada in the collection of the Royal Ontario Museum, with descriptions of four new species.

    PubMed

    Choong, Henry H C

    2015-03-02

    Examination of the hydroid fauna of the Canadian Pacific coast in the collections of the Royal Ontario Museum collected between 1934 and 1985 indicates that the genus Sertularella Gray, 1848 from the infralittoral zone in the region remains poorly enumerated. The present study shows that several European or northeast Atlantic hydroid species, Sertularella conica Allman, 1877, Sertularella rugosa (Linnaeus, 1758), Sertularella tenella Alder, 1856, Sertularella polyzonias (Linnaeus, 1758), and Sertularella fusiformis (Hincks, 1861) have been incorrectly reported from the west coast of North America and suggests that assumptions of cosmopolitanism of some species require verification by continuing refinement of regional species-level taxonomy. Four new species, Sertularella cervicula, S. coronata, S. sacciformis, and S. pacifica are recognized and described in this paper. Sertularella gigantea Hincks, 1874 is recognized for the first time from the Pacific coast of North America.

  17. Ontario's Student Voice Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courtney, Jean

    2014-01-01

    This article describes in some detail aspects of the Student Voice initiative funded and championed by Ontario's Ministry of Education since 2008. The project enables thousands of students to make their voices heard in meaningful ways and to participate in student-led research. Some students from grades 7 to 12 become members of the Student…

  18. Lake Ontario: Nearshore Variability

    EPA Science Inventory

    We conducted a high-resolution survey with towed electronic instrumentation along the Lake Ontario nearshore (720 km) at a 20 meter contour. The survey was conducted September 6-10, 2008 with a shorter 300 km survey conducted August 14-15 for comparing of temporal variability. ...

  19. Living in Ontario French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nadasdi, Terry

    2005-01-01

    This article presents a variationist analysis of verbs meaning "reside" in Ontario French. Four lexical variants are examined: "demeurer," "habiter," "rester" and "vivre." Results reveal that "rester" is used most often by unrestricted speakers and least often by those whose use of French…

  20. The Caribbean migrant farm worker programme in Ontario: seasonal expansion of West Indian economic spaces.

    PubMed

    Cecil, R G; Ebanks, G E

    1992-03-01

    The authors describe a program sponsored by farmers in Canada to import seasonal agricultural workers to Ontario from the Caribbean and Mexico. "On the basis of survey data obtained in 1987, this paper focuses primarily on levels of earnings and characteristics of individual participants. Some comparisons are also made between the Ontario programme and one in Florida which also involved temporary West Indian labour." (SUMMARY IN FRE AND SPA)

  1. Congenital anomalies surveillance in Canada.

    PubMed

    Lowry, R Brian

    2008-01-01

    Congenital anomalies (CA) are present in approximately 3% of all newborn babies and account for about 12% of paediatric hospital admissions. They represent an important public health problem. Surveillance is especially important so that preventive measures such as folic acid fortification can be properly assessed without resorting to a series of ad hoc studies. Canada's surveillance of CAs is weak, with only Alberta and British Columbia having established sytems. Most provinces have perinatal systems but their CA data are incomplete and they do not capture terminations of pregnancy. The same is true of the Public Health Agency of Canada's system. A new system, the Fetal Alert Network, has been proposed for Ontario, which represents a start but will require additional sources of ascertainment if it is to be a truly population-based system for Ontario.

  2. The adoption of residential solar photovoltaic systems in the presence of a financial incentive: A case study of consumer experiences with the Renewable Energy Standard Offer Program in Ontario (Canada)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adachi, Christopher William Junji

    2009-12-01

    Traditionally, high initial capital costs and lengthy payback periods have been identified as the most significant barriers that limit the diffusion of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems. In response, the Ontario Government, through the Ontario Power Authority (OPA), introduced the Renewable Energy Standard Offer Program (RESOP) in November, 2006. The RESOP offers owners of solar PV systems with a generation capacity under 10MW a 20 year contract to sell electricity back to the grid at a guaranteed rate of $0.42/kWh. While it is the intent of incentive programs such as the RESOP to begin to lower financial barriers in order to increase the uptake of solar PV systems, there is no guarantee that the level of participation will in fact rise. The "on-the-ground" manner in which consumers interact with such an incentive program ultimately determines its effectiveness. The purpose of this thesis is to analyze the relationship between the RESOP and solar PV system consumers. To act on this purpose, the experiences of current RESOP participants are presented, wherein the factors that are either hindering or promoting utilization of the RESOP and the adoption of solar PV systems are identified. This thesis was conducted in three phases--a literature review, preliminary key informant interviews, and primary RESOP participant interviews--with each phase informing the scope and design of the subsequent stage. First, a literature survey was completed to identify and to understand the potential drivers and barriers to the adoption of a solar PV system from the perspective of a consumer. Second, nine key informant interviews were completed to gain further understanding regarding the specific intricacies of the drivers and barriers in the case of Ontario, as well as the overall adoption system in the province. These interviews were conducted between July and September, 2008. Third, interviews with 24 RESOP participants were conducted; they constitute the primary data set. These

  3. Ottawa, Canada and Glaciated Landscape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Ottawa, in the province of Ontario, (46.5N, 75.5W) is the capital of Canada and can be seen near the bottom of this scene on the Ottawa River. The region shown lies within the Canadian Shield. The glaciated surface of the land is underlain by lower Precambrian granite and sedimentary rock. Long fractures within these crystalline rocks have, in places, been carved out by glacial action. The resultant depressions are often water filled bogs and lakes.

  4. Closing Canada's ‘universal’ reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asghar, M.; Rogge, R.

    2015-08-01

    In reply to a post on the physicsworld.com blog about the forthcoming closure of the National Research Universal reactor at Chalk River, Ontario, Canada (“Lament for ‘the reactor that can do everything’”, 16 June, http://ow.ly/On9VN).

  5. Decommissioning of Active Ventilation Systems in a Nuclear R and D Facility to Prepare for Building Demolition (Whiteshell Laboratories Decommissioning Project, Canada) - 13073

    SciTech Connect

    Wilcox, Brian; May, Doug; Howlett, Don; Bilinsky, Dennis

    2013-07-01

    Whiteshell Laboratories (WL) is a nuclear research establishment owned by the Canadian government and operated by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) since the early 1960's. WL is currently under a decommissioning license and the mandate is to remediate the nuclear legacy liabilities in a safe and cost effective manner. The WL Project is the first major nuclear decommissioning project in Canada. A major initiative underway is to decommission and demolish the main R and D Laboratory complex. The Building 300 R and D complex was constructed to accommodate laboratories and offices which were mainly used for research and development associated with organic-cooled reactors, nuclear fuel waste management, reactor safety, advanced fuel cycles and other applications of nuclear energy. Building 300 is a three storey structure of approximately 16,000 m{sup 2}. In order to proceed with building demolition, the contaminated systems inside the building have to be characterized, removed, and the waste managed. There is a significant focus on volume reduction of radioactive waste for the WL project. The active ventilation system is one of the significant contaminated systems in Building 300 that requires decommissioning and removal. The active ventilation system was designed to manage hazardous fumes and radioactivity from ventilation devices (e.g., fume hoods, snorkels and glove boxes) and to prevent the escape of airborne hazardous material outside of the laboratory boundary in the event of an upset condition. The system includes over 200 ventilation devices and 32 active exhaust fan units and high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters. The strategy to remove the ventilation system was to work from the laboratory end back to the fan/filter system. Each ventilation duct was radiologically characterized. Fogging was used to minimize loose contamination. Sections of the duct were removed by various cutting methods and bagged for temporary storage prior to disposition

  6. Analyzing and Improving the Water-Table Fluctuation Method of Estimating Groundwater Recharge: Field Considerations Patros, T.B. and Parkin, G.W., School of Environmental Sciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patros, T.; Parkin, G. W.

    2012-12-01

    The focus of the project is on measuring and quantifying groundwater recharge (GWR) using the water-table fluctuation (WTF) method. This method requires measuring the change in water-table (WT) height (Δh) during recharge (R) events and volumetric soil specific yield water content (θsy), (&/or) perhaps more correctly volumetric soil fillable water content (θf). The rise in WT can also result from other non-precipitation-related WTF causes (e.g., Lisse effect, temperature variations, barometric, lateral flow, Reverse Wieringermeer effect, encapsulated air, pumping), which must be counted for. The measurement of the storativity (S) terms (θsy) and/or θf) is, indeed, not clear-cut and often they are taken as being constant with depth, time, WT movement (Drying-Wetting & Freezing-Thawing) history and heterogeneity. In fact, these two terms (θsy & θf) are controversial in their definition, thus in their use, in the literature and may either overestimate the R, when using θsy, or underestimate it, when using θf. To resolve some of these questions, a novel-automated method is under development, at the University of Guelph's Elora Research Station (ERS) and Arboretum, along with a novel multi-event time series model. The long-term expected outcomes and significance of this study are; 1. Establishing accuracy in defining and evaluating the θsy and θf and using them accordingly in estimating GWR with the WTF method in order to overcome some of the existing substantial gaps in our knowledge of groundwater (GW) storage variation. 2. Obtaining GWR measurements at the local scale on a year-round basis, which are currently scarce or even completely lacking for many regions of Ontario and thus would provide a valuable database for guiding development of any policy requiring GWR. 3. Using this database to calibrate and test estimates of the spatial and temporal variability in regional-scale (watershed scale) GWR from approximate statistical techniques or deterministic

  7. Report on Ontario's Northern Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2003

    Ontario's funding formula fails to recognize the unique needs of northern school boards, which cover immense geographic areas, have many small schools, and enroll a high proportion of Aboriginal students. This report examines school size, enrollment, and staffing in northern Ontario schools, drawing on 2002-03 tracking reports of provincial…

  8. William D. Stevenson: Atlantic Canada's first neurosurgeon.

    PubMed

    Mukhida, Karim; Mendez, Ivar

    2007-12-01

    The origins of neurosurgical services in Atlantic Canada are tied to the individual efforts of William D. Stevenson. Born in Hamilton, Ontario, Stevenson completed his senior matriculation in Dunnville, Ontario, before studying medicine at the University of Toronto. He completed the Gallie surgical course in Toronto and then spent 1 year training with Edward Archibald at McGill University. After working for 2 years with the Canadian Mobile Neurosurgical Unit in Europe during the Second World War, Stevenson undertook formal neurosurgical training with Kenneth G. McKenzie, Canada's first neurosurgeon. Stevenson was thereafter recruited to Halifax to start the neurosurgical service at the Victoria General Hospital in January 1948, and he remained head of the division for the next 26 years. His pioneering work laid the foundations for the establishment of a major academic neurosurgical service at Dalhousie University and was crucial for the establishment of neurosurgery in Atlantic Canada. After his retirement, Stevenson moved back to Ontario and began his second career, transferring his passion for neurosurgery to oil painting. His legacy to neurosurgery in Atlantic Canada will be remembered in perpetuity with the annual Neurosurgery Resident Research Award at Dalhousie University, established and named in his honour. This paper focuses on Stevenson's life and work in neurosurgery as Atlantic Canada's first neurosurgeon.

  9. Heartworm in Dogs in Canada in 1983

    PubMed Central

    Slocombe, J. O. D.; McMillan, I.

    1984-01-01

    In late December 1983, 2 800 veterinarians across Canada were sent a questionnaire in order to assess the status of heartworm disease in Canada in 1983 and 26% of them responded. Veterinarians reported that 59 504 dogs were blood-tested to check for microfilariae and 771 dogs (1.30% of those tested) were found with Dirofilaria immitis. Heartworm disease was diagnosed in all provinces except New Brunswick and Newfoundland but most (733) of the cases were in Ontario. Heartworm disease was found most frequently in companion dogs over three years of age maintained mainly outdoors in rural areas. About 31% of the cases were observed with clinical signs of heartworm disease and 64% had a history of not having left Canada. Southwestern Ontario continues to be the focus of the infection and most of the dogs there had not left the province previously. PMID:17422451

  10. Evaluating area-level spatial clustering of Salmonella Enteritidis infections and their socioeconomic determinants in the greater Toronto area, Ontario, Canada (2007 – 2009): a retrospective population-based ecological study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There have been only a few region-level ecological studies conducted in Canada investigating enteric infections in humans. Our study objectives were to 1) assess the spatial clustering of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) human infections in the Greater Toronto Area, and 2) identify underlying area-level associations between S. Enteritidis infection rates and socioeconomic status (SES) indicators that might explain the clustering of infections. Methods Retrospective data on S. Enteritidis infections from 2007 to 2009 were obtained from Ontario’s reportable disease surveillance database and were grouped at the forward sortation area (FSA) - level. A spatial scan statistic was employed to identify FSA-level spatial clusters of high infection rates. Negative binomial regression was used to identify FSA-level associations between S. Enteritidis infection rates and SES indicators obtained from the 2006 Census of Canada. Global Moran’s I statistic was used to evaluate the final model for residual spatial clustering. Results A spatial cluster that included nine neighbouring FSAs was identified in downtown Toronto. A significant positive curvilinear relationship was observed between S. Enteritidis infection rates and FSA-level average number of children at home per census family. Areas with high and areas with low average median family income had higher infection rates than FSAs with medium average median family income. Areas with a high proportion of visible minority population had lower infection rates than FSAs with a medium proportion of visible minority population. The Moran’s I statistic was not significant, indicating that no residual spatial autocorrelation was present after accounting for the SES variables in the final model. Conclusions Our study demonstrated that FSAs with high and low average median family income, medium proportion of visible minority population, and high average number of children at home per census

  11. Cord stem-cell transplantation in Ontario: do we need a public bank?

    PubMed

    Gassas, A

    2011-06-01

    It has been 21 years since the first successful use of umbilical cord blood as a source of donor cells for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Over those years, cord blood transplantation (CBT) has shown marked success as an effective modality in the treatment of children and adults with hematologic malignancies, marrow failure, immunodeficiency, hemoglobinopathy, and inherited metabolic diseases. Furthermore, transplantation without full human leukocyte antigen (HLA) matching is possible and, despite a lower incidence of graft-versus-host disease, graft-versus-leukemia effect is preserved. More than 20,000 cbts have been performed worldwide. Ontario is the most populated province in Canada, and its cbt numbers have increased dramatically in recent years, but most of the umbilical cord blood units are purchased from unrelated international registries. There is no public cord bank in Ontario, but there is a private cord banking option, and notably, Ontario has the largest number of live births in Canada [approximately 40% of all Canadian live births per year occur in Ontario (Statistics Canada, 2007)]. In this brief review, the pros and cons of private and public cord banking and the feasibility of starting an Ontario public cord bank are discussed.

  12. Ontario Postsecondary Enrolment Report, 1977-81: Universities, Colleges of Applied Arts and Technology, Other Postsecondary Institutions = Rapport sur l'effectif des etablissements postsecondaires de l'Ontario, 1977-1981: Universites, colleges d'arts appliques et de technologie, et autres etablissements postsecondaires.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ontario Ministry of Colleges and Universities, Toronto.

    Enrollment Data for 1977-1981 full- and part-time students in postsecondary institutions in Ontario, Canada, are presented in response to information needs of institutions and the Ontario Ministry of Colleges and Universities. The introduction, highlights of findings, and statistical tables are presented in both French and English. Analysis is…

  13. Geoscientific Characterization of the Bruce Site, Tiverton, Ontario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raven, K.; Jackson, R.; Avis, J.; Clark, I.; Jensen, M.

    2009-05-01

    Ontario Power Generation is proposing a Deep Geologic Repository (DGR) for the long-term management of its Low and Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste (L&ILW) within a Paleozoic-age sedimentary sequence beneath the Bruce site near Tiverton, Ontario, Canada. The concept envisions that the DGR would be excavated at a depth of approximately 680 m within the Ordovician Cobourg Formation, a massive, dense, low- permeability, argillaceous limestone. Characterization of the Bruce site for waste disposal is being conducted in accordance with a four year multi-phase Geoscientific Site Characterization Plan (GSCP). The GSCP, initially developed in 2006 and later revised in 2008 to account for acquired site knowledge based on successful completion of Phase I investigations, describes the tools and methods selected for geological, hydrogeological and geomechanical site characterization. The GSCP was developed, in part, on an assessment of geoscience data needs and collection methods, review of the results of detailed geoscientific studies completed in the same bedrock formations found off the Bruce site, and recent international experience in geoscientific characterization of similar sedimentary rocks for long-term radioactive waste management purposes. Field and laboratory work related to Phase 1 and Phase 2A are nearing completion and have focused on the drilling, testing and monitoring of four continuously cored vertical boreholes through Devonian, Silurian, Ordovician and Cambrian bedrock to depths of about 860 mBGS. Work in 2009 will focus on drilling and testing of inclined boreholes to assess presence of vertical structure. The available geological, hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical data indicate the presence of remarkably uniform and predictable geology, physical hydrogeologic and geochemical properties over well separation distances exceeding 1 km. The current data set including 2-D seismic reflection surveys, field and lab hydraulic testing, lab petrophysical and

  14. Antimicrobial susceptibility of clinical isolates of anaerobic bacteria in Ontario, 2010-2011.

    PubMed

    Marchand-Austin, Alex; Rawte, Prasad; Toye, Baldwin; Jamieson, Frances B; Farrell, David J; Patel, Samir N

    2014-08-01

    The local epidemiology of antimicrobial susceptibility patterns in anaerobic bacteria is important in guiding the empiric treatment of infections. However, susceptibility data are very limited on anaerobic organisms, particularly among non-Bacteroides organisms. To determine susceptibility profiles of clinically-significant anaerobic bacteria in Ontario Canada, anaerobic isolates from sterile sites submitted to Public Health Ontario Laboratory (PHOL) for identification and susceptibility testing were included in this study. Using the E-test method, isolates were tested for various antimicrobials including, penicillin, cefoxitin, clindamycin, meropenem, piperacillin-tazobactam and metronidazole. The MIC results were interpreted based on guidelines published by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Of 2527 anaerobic isolates submitted to PHOL, 1412 were either from sterile sites or bronchial lavage, and underwent susceptibility testing. Among Bacteroides fragilis, 98.2%, 24.7%, 1.6%, and 1.2% were resistant to penicillin, clindamycin, piperacillin-tazobactam, and metronidazole, respectively. Clostridium perfringens was universally susceptible to penicillin, piperacillin-tazobactam, and meropenem, whereas 14.2% of other Clostridium spp. were resistant to penicillin. Among Gram-positive anaerobes, Actinomyces spp., Parvimonas micra and Propionibacterium spp. were universally susceptible to β-lactams. Eggerthella spp., Collinsella spp., and Eubacterium spp. showed variable resistance to penicillin. Among Gram-negative anaerobes, Fusobacterium spp., Prevotella spp., and Veillonella spp. showed high resistance to penicillin but were universally susceptible to meropenem and piperacillin-tazobactam. The detection of metronidazole resistant B. fragilis is concerning as occurrence of these isolates is extremely rare. These data highlight the importance of ongoing surveillance to provide clinically relevant information to clinicians for empiric management of

  15. Muse, Ruse, Subterfuge: Transdisciplinary "Praxis" in Ontario's Post-Secondary Bricolage?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Richard C.; Moore, Shannon A.

    2015-01-01

    In late 2013, Canada's national newspaper reported that the implementation of Ontario's "differentiation policy framework" was the province's "boldest step yet to compel universities and colleges to make hard choices about how they spend their resources...a draft policy designed to stretch limited provincial dollars by narrowing…

  16. Association of Colleges of Applied Arts and Technology of Ontario Annual Report, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Colleges of Applied Arts and Technology of Ontario, North York.

    This document is a report on the state of applied arts and technology colleges in Ontario, Canada. It includes a message from the Chair of the Association as well as the Chair of the Committee of Presidents, and a report from the Executive Director of the Association. In the advocacy and communications arena, chief among the successes for the year…

  17. Ontario Universities Benefits Survey, 1993-94, Part I, Benefits Excluding Pensions [and] Part II: Pensions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Senior Administrative Officers--Universities of Ontario, Toronto.

    This report presents data from a survey of Ontario (Canada) universities concerning employment benefits offered in 1993-94. Part I covers benefits other than pensions. Tables display the information on particular benefits institution-by-institution including: administration and insurance plans, communication of benefits, proposed changes,…

  18. Ontario Universities Benefits Survey 1994-96. Part I: Benefits Excluding Pensions [and] Part II: Pensions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Ontario Universities, Toronto.

    This report presents data from a survey of Ontario (Canada) universities concerning employment benefits offered in 1994-96. Part 1 covers benefits other than pensions. Tables display the information on particular benefits institution-by-institution including: administration and insurance plans, communication of benefits, proposed changes, life and…

  19. Ontario Universities Benefits Survey, 1989-90. Part I: Benefits Excluding Pensions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Ontario Universities, Toronto.

    The report compares benefits offered to employees of 17 universities in Ontario, Canada. The report, which is entirely in tabular form, presentation of universities' responses to general benefits questions, such as the administration of insurance plans, communication of benefits to employees, proposed changes in benefits, provision of accidental…

  20. Horizons. A Guide to Postsecondary Education in Ontario, 1988/89.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ontario Ministry of Colleges and Universities, Toronto.

    A guide to postsecondary opportunities in Ontario (Canada) is presented to help students choose a course of study after completing secondary school. Information is presented on student costs and student financial aid and the Colleges of Applied Arts and Technology. Apprenticeship programs, diploma programs, and certificate programs are identified…

  1. "Re-Culturing" Students and Selling Futures: School-to-Work Policy in Ontario

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Alison

    2005-01-01

    This paper situates recent school-to-work transition policy in Ontario, Canada, within the historical context of secondary school reform in the past 50 years. This understanding informs our analysis of interviews with representatives from government, business, organised labour, education and partnership brokers. Data suggest tensions between the…

  2. Demand for Substance Abuse Treatment Related to Use of Crystal Methamphetamine in Ontario: An Observational Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brands, Bruna; Corea, Larry; Strike, Carol; Singh, Veeran-Anne S.; Behrooz, Renee C.; Rush, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Concerns about methamphetamine/crystal methamphetamine (MA) have featured prominently in the Canadian media and on addiction treatment agency agendas. We examined MA admissions at addiction treatment agencies to determine if a service gap existed. In 2006, all addiction treatment agencies (n = 124) in Ontario, Canada were invited to complete an…

  3. Representation of Muslim Characters Living in the West in Ontario's Language Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali, Mehrunnisa Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    This study examined how Muslims living in the West were represented in English language textbooks in Ontario, Canada. The review showed that Muslims were consistently placed in inferior and dependent positions in relation to "white folks" by focusing on their origins in violent and backward societies, their cultural deficits, social…

  4. Declining Enrolment in Ontario: What Can History Tell Us and Where Do We Go from Here?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Sean

    2014-01-01

    Declining student enrolment is a phenomenon being faced by many school authorities throughout Canada. This is particularly important for policymakers since governments provide the bulk of education funding on a per pupil basis. In jurisdictions across Ontario, where population demographics and economic factors negatively impact enrolment, the…

  5. Know How? Show How: Experienced Teachers Share Best Practices through Ontario Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amato, Lindy; Anthony, Paul; Strachan, Jim

    2014-01-01

    Launched in 2007, the Teacher Learning and Leadership Program, out of Ontario, Canada, operates on the belief that classroom teachers know their learning needs and the needs of their students best. Additionally, the program assumes teachers have the greatest knowledge of how to build and foster multiple learning networks in order to share their…

  6. Who Will Put Humpty Together Again? Professional Liability under Canadian and Ontario Special Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Anne Keeton; Usher, Leila

    1985-01-01

    The authors question whether mandatory special education in Ontario is likely to result in increased litigation against school boards. Two areas of educational litigation, negligence claims and appeal hearings, are examined taking into consideration cases from Canada and the United States. (Author)

  7. Gender Differences in the Practice Characteristics and Career Satisfaction of Psychiatrists in Ontario

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garfinkel, Paul E.; Bagby, R. Michael; Schuller, Deborah R.; Dickens, Susan E.; Schulte, Fiona S.; Fitzgerald, Leanne

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The authors explored practice characteristics, activities, and career satisfaction of male and female psychiatrists. Method: A questionnaire was mailed to all practicing psychiatrists in Ontario, Canada, to which 52% responded. Results: More women specialized in child, women's mental health and geriatrics than did men, while men…

  8. BACTERIOPHAGE AND MICROSPHERE TRANSPORT IN SATURATED POROUS MEDIA: FORCED-GRADIENT EXPERIMENT AT BORDEN, ONTARIO

    EPA Science Inventory

    A two-well forced-gradient experiment involving virus and microsphere transport was carried out in a sandy aquifer in Borden, Ontario, Canada. Virus traveled at least a few meters in the experiment, but virus concentrations at observation points 1 and 2.54 m away from the injecti...

  9. Positioning Ontario's Character Development Initiative in/through Its Policy Web of Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winton, Sue

    2012-01-01

    Constructing a policy web of relationships is proposed as a useful way to identify and understand complex relationships between policies and their contexts. In Canada, the province of Ontario's "Character Development Initiative" (CDI) and its relationships to student achievement, citizenship education, and safe schools policies provide…

  10. Financial Report of Ontario Universities, 2001-02. Volume II: Affiliated and Federated Colleges and Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Ontario Universities, Toronto.

    This report contains detailed financial information that provides financial accountability to the Province of Ontario, Canada, for funds received by the 42 provincially assisted universities and colleges during the 2001-2002 fiscal year. It is the latest in an annual series that dates back more than 25 years. This volume contains information on 21…

  11. Students' Experiences With/in Integrated Environmental Studies Programs in Ontario

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breunig, Mary; Murtell, Jocelyn; Russell, Constance

    2015-01-01

    In Canada there exists a noteworthy educational initiative referred to as Environmental Studies Programs (ESPs). These secondary school programs are interdisciplinary, helping to link subject matter and encouraging student responsibility. The results of three case studies of Ontario ESPs indicate that program participation has "real…

  12. Choosing a School in a "Double-Minority" Context: Language, Migration and Ideologies in French Ontario

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forlot, Gilles

    2009-01-01

    Based on ethnographic fieldwork carried out in Toronto, Ontario, this article examines the schooling behaviour of parents who have migrated from France to Canada. The population under study, engaged in a "northern" kind of migration, generally benefits from an education acquired in the pre-migration period and from the legitimacy of…

  13. Education, Attitudes, and Language of Higher Education: Francophone Students in Northern Ontario.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Derek

    1994-01-01

    A study of 1,586 francophone students in northern Ontario (Canada) found 3 attitudes (either believing French unimportant, believing English practically dominant, or believing their French inadequate) lead students to continue postsecondary education in English. Believing French pleasurable was found to be positively related to continuing…

  14. Domain Analysis and Second-Language Instruction in Northern Ontario Native Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toohey, Kelleen; Allen, Patrick

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the functions of English and native languages in northern Ontario native communities and argues that native children's greatest need for English is in an anglophone classroom environment. Discusses three types of curriculum design and suggests ways to develop content area reading and writing curricula for Canada native children. (SED)

  15. Inequality Remade: The Theory of Correspondence and the Context of French Immersion in Northern Ontario.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, C. Paul

    1983-01-01

    Examines the French Immersion program in Northern Ontario, Canada, against the correspondence theory of Bowles and Gintis. Suggests that schools both reproduce class stratified society and promote social inequality. Explores the English-speaking middle-class motivations and actions in controlling French Immersion programs to benefit their…

  16. Increasing Research Capacity in Ontario Child Welfare Organizations: A Unique University-Child Welfare Agency Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fallon, Barbara; Trocmé, Nico; Van Wert, Melissa; Budau, Krista; Ballantyne, Mary; Lwin, Kristen

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this article is to describe the successes and challenges of a unique knowledge mobilization initiative that was funded through the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada. This initiative focused on promoting knowledge mobilization by increasing the capacity of child welfare organizations in Ontario to conduct…

  17. Horizons: A Guide to Post-Secondary Education in Ontario, 1983-84. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ontario Ministry of Colleges and Universities, Toronto.

    Information is presented on offerings and student costs at colleges of applied arts and technology in Ontario, Canada. These colleges are comprehensive institutions offering primarily diploma programs (2-3 years), and certificate programs (less than 1 year). Credit courses leading toward a diploma may be offered through continuing education on a…

  18. Babysitter or Professional? Perceptions of Professionalism Narrated by Ontario Early Childhood Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harwood, Debra; Tukonic, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Self-constructed perceptions of early childhood educator professionalism were explored in a small-scale mixed-method survey using convenience sampling. Fifty-four educators in Ontario, Canada participated in the study and shared their views related to professionalism. A mixed-methodology was employed using an electronic questionnaire composed of…

  19. Development and Implementation of a Comprehensive Program to Deal with Canada's Nuclear Legacy Liabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Peter; Metcalfe, Douglas; Blanchette, Marcia; Dolinar, George; Halpenny, Steven; Purdy, Chris; Smith, David; Kupferschmidt, William

    2008-01-15

    The Government of Canada nuclear legacy liabilities have resulted from 60 years of nuclear research and development (R and D) carried out on behalf of Canada by the National Research Council (1944 to 1952) and Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL, 1952 to present). These liabilities are largely located at AECL research sites, and consist of shutdown research buildings (including several prototype and research reactors), a wide variety of buried and stored wastes, and contaminated lands. The shutdown buildings and contaminated lands need to be safely decommissioned to meet federal regulatory requirements, and long-term solutions need to be developed and implemented for management of the wastes. More than half of the liabilities are the result of Cold War activities during the 1940's, 50's and early 60's. The remaining liabilities stem from R and D for medical isotopes and nuclear reactor technology, as well as national science programs. About 70 percent of the liabilities are located at AECL's Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) in Ontario, and a further 20 percent are located at AECL's shutdown Whiteshell Laboratories in Manitoba. The remaining 10 percent relate largely to three shutdown prototype reactors in Ontario and Quebec, which were key to the developmental stage of Canada's CANDU reactor technology. The inventory of legacy waste includes spent fuel, high-level, intermediate-level and low-level solid and liquid radioactive waste, and wastes (largely contaminated soils) from site clean-up work across Canada. Most of the wastes are in raw, unconditioned form, and limited characterization information is available for the wastes generated in past decades. In many cases unique and potentially costly solutions will be required to recover, handle and process the wastes. In conclusion: the Government of Canada has initiated a program to deal with nuclear legacy liabilities dating back to the Cold War and the birth of nuclear technologies and medicine in Canada. The 5

  20. Establishing a Primary Care Performance Measurement Framework for Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Hutchison, Brian

    2017-01-01

    A systematic approach to Primary Care Performance Measurement is needed to provide useful information on a regular basis to inform planning, management and quality improvement at both the practice and system levels. Based on an environmental scan, a summit of primary care stakeholders and a stakeholder survey and supported by Measures and Technical Working Groups, the Ontario Primary Care Performance Measurement Steering Committee, representing 20 stakeholder organizations, identified system- and practice-level measurement priorities and related specific performance measures across nine domains of primary care performance. This initiative addressed measures' selection and technical specification. It did not include data collection. Lessons learned in Ontario can assist other jurisdictions developing frameworks for monitoring and reporting on primary care performance. Cross-country alignment could lead to a coordinated approach to measure and target areas for primary care performance improvement in Canada. PMID:28277205

  1. Heartworm in dogs in Canada in 1988

    PubMed Central

    Slocombe, J. Owen D.; McMillan, Ian

    1989-01-01

    In late November 1988, 1581 small and mixed animal clinics and institutional veterinarians across Canada were sent a questionnaire in order to assess the status of Dirofilaria immitis in Canada in 1988, and 46% of them responded. Veterinarians reported that 181,577 dogs were blood-tested for heartworm disease and 367 dogs were found with D. immitis microfilariae. Another 60 dogs were amicrofilaremic but diagnosed with heartworm disease to give the total number of cases diagnosed in 1988 as 441 (0.24%). Heartworm was reported from Alberta, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, but most (389) of the cases were from Ontario. South-western Ontario continued to be the primary focus of the infection in Canada. There were 22 cases reported from Quebec, mostly from and around Montreal, and 24 from Manitoba, mostly from Selkirk, Winnipeg and surrounding areas. Heartworm was found most frequently in companion dogs over three years of age maintained mainly outdoors in rural areas. About 76% of the cases had a history of not having left Canada, and 24% were observed with clinical signs of heartworm disease. PMID:17423348

  2. Heartworm in Dogs in Canada in 1987

    PubMed Central

    Slocombe, J. Owen D.; McMillan, Ian

    1988-01-01

    In late November 1987, 1246 institutional veterinarians and small and mixed animal clinics across Canada were sent a questionnaire in order to assess the status of Dirofilaria immitis in Canada in 1987, and 50% of them responded. Veterinarians reported that 165,428 dogs were blood tested for heartworm disease and 511 dogs were found with D. immitis microfilariae. Another 78 dogs were amicrofilaremic but diagnosed with heartworm disease to give the total number of cases diagnosed in 1987 as 589 (0.35%). Heartworm was reported from British Columbia, Manitoba, Newfoundland, Ontario and Quebec, but most (478) of the cases were from Ontario. South-western Ontario continued to be the primary focus of the infection in Canada. There were 82 cases reported from Quebec, mostly from and around Montreal, and 23 from Manitoba, mostly from Winnipeg, Selkirk, and surrounding areas. Heartworm was found most frequently in companion dogs over three years of age maintained mainly outdoors in rural areas. About 29% of the cases were observed with clinical signs of heartworm disease and 81% had a history of not having left Canada. Imagesp646-a PMID:17423099

  3. Neurotoxic behavioral effects of Lake Ontario salmon diets in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Hertzler, D.R. )

    1990-03-01

    Six experiments were conducted to examine possible neurotoxic effects of the exposure to contaminants in Lake Ontario salmon administered through the diets of rats. Rats were fed different concentrations of fish (8%, 15% or 30%) in one of three diet conditions: Lake Ontario salmon, Pacific Ocean salmon, or laboratory rat chow only. Following 20 days on the diets, rats were tested for five minutes per day in a modified open field for one or three days. Lake Ontario salmon diets consistently produced significantly lower activity, rearing, and nosepoke behaviors in comparison with ocean salmon or rat chow diet conditions. A dose-response effect for concentration of lake salmon was obtained, and the attenuation effect occurred in males, females, adult or young animals, and postweaning females, with fish sampled over a five-year period. While only two of several potential contaminants were tested, both fish and brain analyses of mirex and PCBs relate to the behavioral effects.

  4. Canada: public health genomics.

    PubMed

    Little, J; Potter, B; Allanson, J; Caulfield, T; Carroll, J C; Wilson, B

    2009-01-01

    Canada has a diverse population of 32 million people and a universal, publicly funded health care system provided through provincial and territorial health insurance plans. Public health activities are resourced at provincial/territorial level with strategic coordination from national bodies. Canada has one of the longest-standing genetics professional specialty organizations and is one of the few countries offering master's level training designed specifically for genetic counselors. Prenatal screening is offered as part of routine clinical prenatal services with variable uptake. Surveillance of the effect of prenatal screening and diagnosis on the birth prevalence of congenital anomalies is limited by gaps and variations in surveillance systems. Newborn screening programs vary between provinces and territories in terms of organization and conditions screened for. The last decade has witnessed a four-fold increase in requests for genetic testing, especially for late onset diseases. Tests are performed in provincial laboratories or outside Canada. There is wide variation in participation in laboratory quality assurance schemes, and there are few regulatory frameworks in Canada that are directly relevant to genetics testing services or population genetics. Health technology assessment in Canada is conducted by a diverse range of organizations, several of which have produced reports related to genetics. Several large-scale population cohort studies are underway or planned, with initiatives to harmonize their conduct and the management of ethical issues, both within Canada and with similar projects in oth