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Sample records for laboratory llnl experimental

  1. FY16 LLNL Omega Experimental Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Heeter, R. F.; Ali, S. J.; Benstead, J.; Celliers, P. M.; Coppari, F.; Eggert, J.; Erskine, D.; Panella, A. F.; Fratanduono, D. E.; Hua, R.; Huntington, C. M.; Jarrott, L. C.; Jiang, S.; Kraus, R. G.; Lazicki, A. E.; LePape, S.; Martinez, D. A.; McNaney, J. M.; Millot, M. A.; Moody, J.; Pak, A. E.; Park, H. S.; Ping, Y.; Pollock, B. B.; Rinderknecht, H.; Ross, J. S.; Rubery, M.; Sio, H.; Smith, R. F.; Swadling, G. F.; Wehrenberg, C. E.; Collins, G. W.; Landen, O. L.; Wan, A.; Hsing, W.

    2016-12-01

    In FY16, LLNL’s High-Energy-Density Physics (HED) and Indirect Drive Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF-ID) programs conducted several campaigns on the OMEGA laser system and on the EP laser system, as well as campaigns that used the OMEGA and EP beams jointly. Overall these LLNL programs led 430 target shots in FY16, with 304 shots using just the OMEGA laser system, and 126 shots using just the EP laser system. Approximately 21% of the total number of shots (77 OMEGA shots and 14 EP shots) supported the Indirect Drive Inertial Confinement Fusion Campaign (ICF-ID). The remaining 79% (227 OMEGA shots and 112 EP shots) were dedicated to experiments for High-Energy- Density Physics (HED). Highlights of the various HED and ICF campaigns are summarized in the following reports. In addition to these experiments, LLNL Principal Investigators led a variety of Laboratory Basic Science campaigns using OMEGA and EP, including 81 target shots using just OMEGA and 42 shots using just EP. The highlights of these are also summarized, following the ICF and HED campaigns. Overall, LLNL PIs led a total of 553 shots at LLE in FY 2016. In addition, LLNL PIs also supported 57 NLUF shots on Omega and 31 NLUF shots on EP, in collaboration with the academic community.

  2. The LLNL multi-user tandem laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, J. C.

    1989-04-01

    An FN tandem laboratory, cofunded by several Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Divisions, Sandia Livermore, and the University of California Regents, is now operational at Livermore. The accelerator, formerly the University of Washington injector, has been upgraded with SF 6, Dowlish tubes, and a NEC pelletron charging system. A conventional duoplasmatron, a tritium source, and two Cs sputtering sources will be fielded on the accelerator. Pulsed beams will be available from two source positions. The laboratory has been designed to accommodate up to 19 experimental positions with excellent optics and working vacuum. The facility is unshielded with both accelerator and radiological systems under the control of a distributed microprocessor system. Research activities at the tandem include nuclear physics and astrophysics, materials science and characterization programs, and accelerator mass spectrometry for archaeology, biomedical, environmental and geoscience investigators.

  3. LLNL (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory) research on cold fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Thomassen, K I; Holzrichter, J F

    1989-09-14

    With the appearance of reports on Cold Fusion,'' scientists at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) began a series of increasingly sophisticated experiments and calculations to explain these phenomena. These experiments can be categorized as follows: (a) simple experiments to replicate the Utah results, (b) more sophisticated experiments to place lower bounds on the generation of heat and production of nuclear products, (c) a collaboration with Texas A M University to analyze electrodes and electrolytes for fusion by-products in a cell producing 10% excess heat (we found no by-products), and (d) attempts to replicate the Frascati experiment that first found neutron bursts when high-pressure deuterium gas in a cylinder with Ti chips was temperature-cycled. We failed in categories (a) and (b) to replicate either the Pons/Fleischmann or the Jones phenomena. We have seen phenomena similar to the Frascati results, (d) but these low-level burst signals may not be coming from neutrons generated in the Ti chips. Summaries of our experiments are described in Section II, as is a theoretical effort based on cosmic ray muons to describe low-level neutron production. Details of the experimental groups' work are contained in the six appendices. At LLNL, independent teams were spontaneously formed in response to the early announcements on cold fusion. This report's format follows this organization.

  4. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Experimental Test Site (Site 300) Salinity Evaluation and Minimization Plan for Cooling Towers and Mechanical Equipment Discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Daily III, W D

    2010-02-24

    This document was created to comply with the Central Valley Regional Water Quality Control Board (CVRWQCB) Waste Discharge Requirement (Order No. 98-148). This order established new requirements to assess the effect of and effort required to reduce salts in process water discharged to the subsurface. This includes the review of technical, operational, and management options available to reduce total dissolved solids (TDS) concentrations in cooling tower and mechanical equipment water discharges at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL's) Experimental Test Site (Site 300) facility. It was observed that for the six cooling towers currently in operation, the total volume of groundwater used as make up water is about 27 gallons per minute and the discharge to the subsurface via percolation pits is 13 gallons per minute. The extracted groundwater has a TDS concentration of 700 mg/L. The cooling tower discharge concentrations range from 700 to 1,400 mg/L. There is also a small volume of mechanical equipment effluent being discharged to percolation pits, with a TDS range from 400 to 3,300 mg/L. The cooling towers and mechanical equipment are maintained and operated in a satisfactory manner. No major leaks were identified. Currently, there are no re-use options being employed. Several approaches known to reduce the blow down flow rate and/or TDS concentration being discharged to the percolation pits and septic systems were reviewed for technical feasibility and cost efficiency. These options range from efforts as simple as eliminating leaks to implementing advanced and innovative treatment methods. The various options considered, and their anticipated effect on water consumption, discharge volumes, and reduced concentrations are listed and compared in this report. Based on the assessment, it was recommended that there is enough variability in equipment usage, chemistry, flow rate, and discharge configurations that each discharge location at Site 300 should be

  5. Transparent Laser Ceramics at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL)

    SciTech Connect

    Soules, T

    2007-06-28

    LLNL has been using the largest transparent laser ceramics for the last two years in the solid-state heat capacity laser (SSHCL). The lab is very interested in extending the use of transparent ceramics to other laser applications. In this talk we will discuss work at the laboratory aimed at better understanding the sintering and the criteria needed for good ceramic transparency, the application of transparent ceramics in the SSHCL laser and possible new applications of tailored ceramics.

  6. FY15 LLNL OMEGA Experimental Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Heeter, R. F.; Baker, K. L.; Barrios, M. A.; Beckwith, M. A.; Casey, D. T.; Celliers, P. M.; Chen, H.; Coppari, F.; Fournier, K. B.; Fratanduono, D. E.; Frenje, J.; Huntington, C. M.; Kraus, R. G.; Lazicki, A. E.; Martinez, D. A.; McNaney, J. M.; Millot, M. A.; Pak, A. E.; Park, H. S.; Ping, Y.; Pollock, B. B.; Smith, R. F.; Wehrenberg, C. E.; Widmann, K.; Collins, G. W.; Landen, O. L.; Wan, A.; Hsing, W.

    2015-12-04

    In FY15, LLNL’s High-Energy-Density Physics (HED) and Indirect Drive Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF-ID) programs conducted several campaigns on the OMEGA laser system and on the EP laser system, as well as campaigns that used the OMEGA and EP beams jointly. Overall these LLNL programs led 468 target shots in FY15, with 315 shots using just the OMEGA laser system, 145 shots using just the EP laser system, and 8 Joint shots using Omega and EP together. Approximately 25% of the total number of shots (56 OMEGA shots and 67 EP shots, including the 8 Joint shots) supported the Indirect Drive Inertial Confinement Fusion Campaign (ICF-ID). The remaining 75% (267 OMEGA shots and 86 EP shots) were dedicated to experiments for High-Energy-Density Physics (HED). Highlights of the various HED and ICF campaigns are summarized in the following reports.

  7. FY14 LLNL OMEGA Experimental Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Heeter, R. F.; Fournier, K. B.; Baker, K.; Barrios, M.; Bernstein, L.; Brown, G.; Celliers, P.; Chen, H.; Coppari, F.; Fratanduono, D.; Johnson, M. G.; Huntington, C.; Jenei, A.; Kraus, R.; Ma, T.; Martinez, D.; McNabb, D.; Millot, M.; Moore, A.; Nagel, S.; Park, H. S.; Patel, P.; Perez, F.; Ping, Y.; Pollock, B.; Ross, J. S.; Rygg, J. R.; Smith, R.; Zylstra, A.; Collins, G.; Landen, O.; Wan, A.; Hsing, W.

    2014-10-13

    In FY14, LLNL’s High-Energy-Density Physics (HED) and Indirect Drive Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF-ID) programs conducted several campaigns on the OMEGA laser system and on the EP laser system, as well as campaigns that used the OMEGA and EP beams jointly. Overall these LLNL programs led 324 target shots in FY14, with 246 shots using just the OMEGA laser system, 62 shots using just the EP laser system, and 16 Joint shots using Omega and EP together. Approximately 31% of the total number of shots (62 OMEGA shots, 42 EP shots) shots supported the Indirect Drive Inertial Confinement Fusion Campaign (ICF-ID). The remaining 69% (200 OMEGA shots and 36 EP shots, including the 16 Joint shots) were dedicated to experiments for High- Energy-Density Physics (HED). Highlights of the various HED and ICF campaigns are summarized in the following reports.

  8. Proposals for ORNL (Oak Ridge National Laboratory) support to Tiber LLNL (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory). [Engineering Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, L.A.; Rosenthal, M.W.; Saltmarsh, M.J.; Shannon, T.E.; Sheffield, J.

    1987-01-27

    This document describes the interests and capabilities of Oak Ridge National Laboratory in their proposals to support the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Engineering Test Reactor (ETR) project. Five individual proposals are cataloged separately. (FI)

  9. Laboratory Astrophysics at the LLNL Electron Beam Ion Traps: EBIT-I and EBIT-II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, G. V.; Boyce, K. R.; Kelley, R. L.; Porter, F. S.; Stahle, C. K.; Szymkowiak, A. E.; Tillotson, W.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Chen, H.; May, M. J.

    2002-01-01

    In order to provide a complete, accurate set of atomic data for interpreting spectra provided by missions such as XMM-Newton, the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, and Astro-E2, we have harnessed the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's electron beam ion traps EBIT-I. EBIT-II, and Super-EBIT for laboratory astrophysics. In support of this work we have developed a number of unique techniques, including the ability to experimentally simulate a Maxwellian distribution of electron energies and measuring low-energy charge exchange cross sections using the magnetic trapping mode. We have also built and operated a full suite of spectrometers spanning the 1-7000 Angstrom wavelength band, the most recent being a spectrometer based on a spare Astro-E (6 x 6) microcalorimeter array. Results of our efforts include a complete list of wavelengths of the Fe L-shell transitions, measurements of absolute and relative cross sections for direct impact, dielectronic, and resonance excitation, and measurements of low energy charge transfer reactions. A brief overview of the LLNL ebit facility, its capabilities, and some results will be discussed.

  10. Preliminary results of the LLNL airborne experimental test-bed SAR system

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, M.G.; Mullenhoff, C.J.; Kiefer, R.D.; Brase, J.M.; Wieting, M.G.; Berry, G.L.; Jones, H.E.

    1996-01-16

    The Imaging and Detection Program (IDP) within Laser Programs at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in cooperation with the Hughes Aircraft Company has developed a versatile, high performance, airborne experimental test-bed (AETB) capability. The test-bed has been developed for a wide range of research and development experimental applications including radar and radiometry plus, with additional aircraft modifications, optical systems. The airborne test-bed capability has been developed within a Douglas EA-3B Skywarrior jet aircraft provided and flown by Hughes Aircraft Company. The current test-bed payload consists of an X-band radar system, a high-speed data acquisition, and a real-time processing capability. The medium power radar system is configured to operate in a high resolution, synthetic aperture radar (SAR) mode and is highly configurable in terms of waveforrns, PRF, bandwidth, etc. Antennas are mounted on a 2-axis gimbal in the belly radome of the aircraft which provides pointing and stabilization. Aircraft position and antenna attitude are derived from a dedicated navigational system and provided to the real-time SAR image processor for instant image reconstruction and analysis. This paper presents a further description of the test-bed and payload subsystems plus preliminary results of SAR imagery.

  11. Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics (IGPP), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL): Quinquennial report, November 14-15, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Tweed, J.

    1996-10-01

    This Quinquennial Review Report of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) branch of the Institute for Geophysics and Planetary Physics (IGPP) provides an overview of IGPP-LLNL, its mission, and research highlights of current scientific activities. This report also presents an overview of the University Collaborative Research Program (UCRP), a summary of the UCRP Fiscal Year 1997 proposal process and the project selection list, a funding summary for 1993-1996, seminars presented, and scientific publications. 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) multi-user Tandem Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, J.C.

    1988-09-01

    An FN tandem laboratory, cofounded by several Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Divisions, Sandia Livermore, and the University of California Regents, is now operational at Livermore. The accelerator, formerly the University of Washington injector, has been upgraded with SF/sub 6/, Dowlish tubes, and a NEC pelletron charging system. A conventional duoplasmatron, a tritium source, and two Cs sputtering sources will be fielded on the accelerator. Pulsed beams will be available from two source positions. The laboratory has been designed to accommodate up to 19 experimental positions with excellent optics and working vacuum. The facility is unshielded with both accelerator and radiological systems under the control of a distributed microprocessor system. Research activities at the tandem include nuclear physics and astrophysics, materials science and characterization programs, and accelerator mass spectrometry for archaeology, biomedical, environmental and geoscience investigators. 3 refs., 1 fig.

  13. Strengthening LLNL Missions through Laboratory Directed Research and Development in High Performance Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Willis, D. K.

    2016-12-01

    High performance computing (HPC) has been a defining strength of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) since its founding. Livermore scientists have designed and used some of the world’s most powerful computers to drive breakthroughs in nearly every mission area. Today, the Laboratory is recognized as a world leader in the application of HPC to complex science, technology, and engineering challenges. Most importantly, HPC has been integral to the National Nuclear Security Administration’s (NNSA’s) Stockpile Stewardship Program—designed to ensure the safety, security, and reliability of our nuclear deterrent without nuclear testing. A critical factor behind Lawrence Livermore’s preeminence in HPC is the ongoing investments made by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program in cutting-edge concepts to enable efficient utilization of these powerful machines. Congress established the LDRD Program in 1991 to maintain the technical vitality of the Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratories. Since then, LDRD has been, and continues to be, an essential tool for exploring anticipated needs that lie beyond the planning horizon of our programs and for attracting the next generation of talented visionaries. Through LDRD, Livermore researchers can examine future challenges, propose and explore innovative solutions, and deliver creative approaches to support our missions. The present scientific and technical strengths of the Laboratory are, in large part, a product of past LDRD investments in HPC. Here, we provide seven examples of LDRD projects from the past decade that have played a critical role in building LLNL’s HPC, computer science, mathematics, and data science research capabilities, and describe how they have impacted LLNL’s mission.

  14. Estimating The Reliability of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Flash X-ray (FXR) Machine

    SciTech Connect

    Ong, M M; Kihara, R; Zentler, J M; Kreitzer, B R; DeHope, W J

    2007-06-27

    At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), our flash X-ray accelerator (FXR) is used on multi-million dollar hydrodynamic experiments. Because of the importance of the radiographs, FXR must be ultra-reliable. Flash linear accelerators that can generate a 3 kA beam at 18 MeV are very complex. They have thousands, if not millions, of critical components that could prevent the machine from performing correctly. For the last five years, we have quantified and are tracking component failures. From this data, we have determined that the reliability of the high-voltage gas-switches that initiate the pulses, which drive the accelerator cells, dominates the statistics. The failure mode is a single-switch pre-fire that reduces the energy of the beam and degrades the X-ray spot-size. The unfortunate result is a lower resolution radiograph. FXR is a production machine that allows only a modest number of pulses for testing. Therefore, reliability switch testing that requires thousands of shots is performed on our test stand. Study of representative switches has produced pre-fire statistical information and probability distribution curves. This information is applied to FXR to develop test procedures and determine individual switch reliability using a minimal number of accelerator pulses.

  15. Computer Security Awareness Guide for Department of Energy Laboratories, Government Agencies, and others for use with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL): Computer security short subjects videos

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    Lonnie Moore, the Computer Security Manager, CSSM/CPPM at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Gale Warshawsky, the Coordinator for Computer Security Education & Awareness at LLNL, wanted to share topics such as computer ethics, software piracy, privacy issues, and protecting information in a format that would capture and hold an audience`s attention. Four Computer Security Short Subject videos were produced which ranged from 1-3 minutes each. These videos are very effective education and awareness tools that can be used to generate discussions about computer security concerns and good computing practices. Leaders may incorporate the Short Subjects into presentations. After talking about a subject area, one of the Short Subjects may be shown to highlight that subject matter. Another method for sharing them could be to show a Short Subject first and then lead a discussion about its topic. The cast of characters and a bit of information about their personalities in the LLNL Computer Security Short Subjects is included in this report.

  16. Historical Doses from Tritiated Water and Tritiated Hydrogen Gas Released to the Atmosphere from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Part 2. LLNL Annual Site-specific Data, 1953 - 2003

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, S R

    2005-03-07

    It is planned to use the tritium dose model, DCART (Doses from Chronic Atmospheric Releases of Tritium), to reconstruct dose to the hypothetical maximally exposed individual from annual routine releases of tritiated water (HTO) and tritiated hydrogen gas (HT) from all Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) facilities and from the Sandia National (SNL) Laboratory's Tritium Research Laboratory over the last fifty years. DCART has been described in Part 1 of ''Historical Doses From Tritiated Water And Tritiated Hydrogen Gas Released To The Atmosphere from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL)'' (UCRL-TR-205083). This report (Part 2) summarizes information about annual routine releases of tritium from LLNL (and SNL) since 1953. Historical records were used to derive facility-specific annual data (e.g., source terms, dilution factors, ambient air concentrations, meteorological data, including absolute humidity and rainfall, etc.) and their associated uncertainty distributions. These data will be used as input to DCART to calculate annual dose for each year of LLNL operations. Sources of information are carefully referenced, and assumptions are documented. Confidence on all data post-1974 is quite high. Prior to that, further adjustment to the estimated uncertainty may have to be made if more information comes to light.

  17. LLNL/UC (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory)/(University of California) AMS (accelerator mass spectrometry) facility and research program

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, J.C.; Proctor, I.D.; Southon, J.R.; Caffee, M.W.; Heikkinen, D.W.; Roberts, M.L.; Moore, T.L.; Turteltaub, K.W.; Nelson, D.E.; Loyd, D.H.; Vogel, J.S.

    1990-04-18

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and the University of California (UC) now have in operation a large AMS spectrometer built as part of a new multiuser laboratory centered on an FN tandem. AMS measurements are expected to use half of the beam time of the accelerator. LLNL use of AMS is in research on consequences of energy usage. Examples include global warming, geophysical site characterization, radiation biology and dosimetry, and study of mutagenic and carcinogenic processes. UC research activities are in clinical applications, archaeology and anthropology, oceanography, and geophysical and geochemical research. Access is also possible for researchers outside the UC system. The technological focus of the laboratory is on achieving high rates of sample through-put, unattended operation, and advances in sample preparation methods. Because of the expected growth in the research programs and the other obligations of the present accelerator, we are designing a follow-on dedicated facility for only AMS and microprobe analysis that will contain at least two accelerators with multiple spectrometers. 10 refs., 1 fig.

  18. Historical Doses from Tritiated Water and Tritiated Hydrogen Gas Relesed to the Atmosphere from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Part 1. Description of Tritium Dose Model (DCART) for Chronic Releases from LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, S

    2004-06-30

    DCART (Doses from Chronic Atmospheric Releases of Tritium) is a spreadsheet model developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) that calculates doses from inhalation of tritiated hydrogen gas (HT), inhalation and skin absorption of tritiated water (HTO), and ingestion of HTO and organically bound tritium (OBT) to adult, child (age 10), and infant (age 6 months to 1 year) from routine atmospheric releases of HT and HTO. DCART is a deterministic model that, when coupled to the risk assessment software Crystal Ball{reg_sign}, predicts doses with a 95th percentile confidence interval. The equations used by DCART are described and all distributions on parameter values are presented. DCART has been tested against the results of other models and several sets of observations in the Tritium Working Group of the International Atomic Energy Agency's Biosphere Modeling and Assessment Programme. The version of DCART described here has been modified to include parameter values and distributions specific to conditions at LLNL. In future work, DCART will be used to reconstruct dose to the hypothetical maximally exposed individual from annual routine releases of HTO and HT from all LLNL facilities and from the Sandia National Laboratory's Tritium Research Laboratory over the last fifty years.

  19. Historical Doses from Tritiated Water and Tritiated Hydrogen Gas Released to the Atmosphere from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Part 1. Description of Tritium Dose Model (DCART) for Routine Releases from LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, S R

    2006-09-27

    DCART (Doses from Chronic Atmospheric Releases of Tritium) is a spreadsheet model developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) that calculates doses from inhalation of tritiated hydrogen gas (HT), inhalation and skin absorption of tritiated water (HTO), and ingestion of HTO and organically bound tritium (OBT) to adult, child (age 10), and infant (age 6 months to 1 year) from routine atmospheric releases of HT and HTO. DCART is a deterministic model that, when coupled to the risk assessment software Crystal Ball{reg_sign}, predicts doses with a 95% confidence interval. The equations used by DCART are described and all distributions on parameter values are presented. DCART has been tested against the results of other models and several sets of observations in the Tritium Working Groups of the International Atomic Energy Agency's programs, Biosphere Modeling and Assessment and Environmental Modeling for Radiation Safety. The version of DCART described here has been modified to include parameter values and distributions specific to conditions at LLNL. In future work, DCART will be used to reconstruct dose to the hypothetical maximally exposed individual from annual routine releases of HTO and HT from all LLNL facilities and from the Sandia National Laboratory's Tritium Research Laboratory over the last fifty years.

  20. Nuclear physics and heavy element research at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Stoyer, M A; Ahle, L E; Becker, J A; Bernstein, L A; Bleuel, D L; Burke, J T; Dashdorj, D; Henderson, R A; Hurst, A M; Kenneally, J M; Lesher, S R; Moody, K J; Nelson, S L; Norman, E B; Pedretti, M; Scielzo, N D; Shaughnessy, D A; Sheets, S A; Stoeffl, W; Stoyer, N J; Wiedeking, M; Wilk, P A; Wu, C Y

    2009-05-11

    This paper highlights some of the current basic nuclear physics research at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The work at LLNL concentrates on investigating nuclei at the extremes. The Experimental Nuclear Physics Group performs research to improve our understanding of nuclei, nuclear reactions, nuclear decay processes and nuclear astrophysics; an expertise utilized for important laboratory national security programs and for world-class peer-reviewed basic research.

  1. LLNL 1981: technical horizons

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-07-01

    Research programs at LLNL for 1981 are described in broad terms. In his annual State of the Laboratory address, Director Roger Batzel projected a $481 million operating budget for fiscal year 1982, up nearly 13% from last year. In projects for the Department of Energy and the Department of Defense, the Laboratory applies its technical facilities and capabilities to nuclear weapons design and development and other areas of defense research that include inertial confinement fusion, nonnuclear ordnances, and particle-beam technology. LLNL is also applying its unique experience and capabilities to a variety of projects that will help the nation meet its energy needs in an environmentally acceptable manner. A sampling of recent achievements by LLNL support organizations indicates their diversity. (GHT)

  2. IGPP-LLNL 1998 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Ryerson, F J; Cook, K H; Tweed, J

    1999-11-19

    Cook, provides a home for theoretical and observational astrophysics and serves as an interface with the Physics Directorate's astrophysics efforts. The IGPP branch at LLNL (as well as the branch at Los Alamos) also facilitates scientific collaborations between researchers at the UC campuses and those at the national laboratories in areas related to earth science, planetary science, and astrophysics. It does this by sponsoring the University Collaborative Research Program (UCRP), which provides funds to UC campus scientists for joint research projects with LLNL. Additional information regarding IGPP-LLNL projects and people may be found at http://wwwigpp.llnl.gov/. The goals of the UCRP are to enrich research opportunities for UC campus scientists by making available to them some of LLNL's unique facilities and expertise, and to broaden the scientific program at LLNL through collaborative or interdisciplinary work with UC campus researchers. UCRP funds (provided jointly by the Regents of the University of California and by the Director of LLNL) are awarded annually on the basis of brief proposals, which are reviewed by a committee of scientists from UC campuses, LLNL programs, and external universities and research organizations. Typical annual funding for a collaborative research project ranges from $5,000 to $30,000. Funds are used for a variety of purposes, such as salary support for UC graduate students, postdoctoral fellows, and faculty; and costs for experimental facilities. A statistical overview of IGPP-LLNL's UCRP (colloquially known as the mini-grant program) is presented in Figures 1 and 2. Figure 1 shows the distribution of UCRP awards among the UC campuses, by total amount awarded and by number of proposals funded. Figure 2 shows the distribution of awards by center.

  3. Annual summary engineering at LLNL 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Dimolitsas, S

    1998-07-01

    Established in 1952, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is one of the world's premier applied-science national security laboratories. The primary mission of the Laboratory is to assure through the design, development, and stewardship of nuclear weapons, that the nation's stockpile remains safe, secure, and reliable and to prevent the spread and use of nuclear weapons worldwide. National security is a principal integrating theme at LLNL--with stockpile stewardship, nonproliferation and arms control, and Department of Defense projects its major elements. The Stockpile Stewardship Program, the primary Laboratory program, is a science-based versus testing-based approach to maintaining stockpile safety and reliability. The idea is to replace weapons development and nuclear testing with weapons life extension and intensive computational and experimental research to provide the fundamental understanding necessary to ensure nuclear weapons safety, performance, and maintenance. Stockpile stewardship is enhanced and complimented by a second pillar of national security at the Laboratory: countering the spread of weapons of mass destruction. In the broad areas comprising nonproliferation, arms control, and international assessments, the growth of new technologies has been exponential at LLNL. Our ability to produce advanced microsensors--from scientific concept to working field model--is just one of the many contributions LLNL has made to the nation in counter proliferation against nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons. In addition, LLNL's unique competencies developed in support of its national security mission have become an important resource for U.S. industry and government. Programs include advanced defense technologies, energy, environment, biosciences, and the basic sciences. Central to the Laboratory's success is its diverse, highly talented, and skilled workforce and its $4 billion capital invested in plant and research facilities. The University of

  4. Laboratory Astrophysics, QED, and other Measurements using the EBIT Calorimeter Spectrometer at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, G V; Adams, J S; Beiersdorfer, P; Clementson, J; Frankel, M; Kahn, S M; Kelley, R L; Kilbourne, C A; Koutroumpa, D; Leutenegger, M; Porter, F S; Thorn, D B; Trabert, E

    2009-08-25

    We have used the EBIT Calorimeter Spectrometer (ECS), a microcalorimeter instrument built by the calorimeter group at the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, to make a variety of measurements since its installation at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's EBIT facility. These include measurements of charge exchange between neutral gas and K- and L-shell ions, measurements of the X-ray transmission efficiency of optical blocking filters, high resolution measurements of transition energies for high-Z, highly charged ions, and measurements of M and L-shell emission from highly charged tungsten following on earlier measurements of L-shell gold. Our results will see application in the interpretation of the spectra from the Jovian atmosphere and of the diffuse soft X-ray background, in tests of QED, and in diagnosing inertial and magnetic confinement fusion plasmas. These measurements augment previous laboratory astrophysics, atomic physics, and calibration measurements made using earlier versions of NASA's microcalorimeter spectrometer.

  5. LLNL casting technology

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, A.B.; Comfort, W.J. III

    1994-01-01

    Competition to produce cast parts of higher quality, lower rejection rate, and lower cost is a fundamental factor in the global economy. To gain an edge on foreign competitors, the US casting industry must cut manufacturing costs and reduce the time from design to market. Casting research and development (R&D) are the key to increasing US compentiveness in the casting arena. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is the home of a wide range of R&D projects that push the boundaries of state-of-the art casting. LLNL casting expertise and technology include: casting modeling research and development, including numerical simulation of fluid flow, heat transfer, reaction/solidification kinetics, and part distortion with residual stresses; special facilities to cast toxic material; extensive experience casting metals and nonmetals; advanced measurement and instrumentation systems. Department of Energy (DOE) funding provides the leverage for LLNL to collaborate with industrial partners to share this advanced casting expertise and technology. At the same time, collaboration with industrial partners provides LLNL technologists with broader insights into casting industry issues, casting process data, and the collective, experience of industry experts. Casting R&D is also an excellent example of dual-use technology; it is the cornerstone for increasing US industrial competitiveness and minimizing waste nuclear material in weapon component production. Annual funding for casting projects at LLNL is $10M, which represents 1% of the total LLNL budget. Metal casting accounts for about 80% of the funding. Funding is nearly equally divided between development directed toward US industrial competitiveness and weapon component casting.

  6. Methodology of recent solid waste stream assessments and summary of current recycling endeavors at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL)

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, K.

    1996-04-01

    Solid Waste Stream Assessments determine the components of given waste streams. An evaluation of findings allows components to be targeted for effective source reduction, reuse, or recycling. LLNL assessed 10% of its onsite dumpster locations (25 of 250). Dumpsters were selected based on location and surrounding facility use. Dumpster contents were sorted according to type into containers. The filled containers were weighed and photographed. The information was noted on field tabulation sheets. Dumpster locations, date of sort, sort categories, weight, and cubic yardage were entered into a database for review and tabulation. LLNL sorted approximately 7000 pounds of waste in each of the two assessments. A high incidence of cardboard (uncompacted) was present in most dumpsters. A high incidence of polystyrene was also present at dumpsters serving the LLNL cafeterias. Very little glass or aluminium was found. Enough waste paper was present to indicate that the paper recycling program needed increased employee awareness and a possible expansion. As a result of our assessments, LLNL has expanded its cardboard and paper recycling programs and implemented moving box and pallet reuse programs. LLNL is also studying a possible recycling program for cafeteria polystyrene and possible program expansions for magazine, newsprint, and glass recycling.

  7. Historical Doses from Tritiated Water and Tritiated Hydrogen Gas Released to the Atmosphere from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Part 2. LLNL Annual Site-specific Data, 1953 - 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, S

    2007-08-15

    Historical information about tritium released routinely and accidentally from all Livermore Site Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) facilities and from the Tritium Research Laboratory of Sandia National Laboratories/California (SNL/CA) between 1953 through 2005 has been compiled and summarized in this report. Facility-specific data (annual release rates and dilution factors) have been derived from the historical information. These facility-specific data are needed to calculate annual doses to a hypothetical site-wide maximally exposed individual from routine releases of tritiated water (HTO) and tritiated hydrogen gas (HT) to the atmosphere. Doses can also be calculated from observed air tritium concentrations, and mean annual values for one air tritium sampling location are presented. Other historical data relevant to a dose reconstruction (e.g., meteorological data, including absolute humidity and rainfall) are also presented. Sources of information are carefully referenced, and assumptions are documented. Uncertainty distributions have been estimated for all parameter values. Confidence in data post-1974 is high.

  8. Serving the Nation for Fifty Years: 1952 - 2002 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory [LLNL], Fifty Years of Accomplishments

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    2002-01-01

    For 50 years, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has been making history and making a difference. The outstanding efforts by a dedicated work force have led to many remarkable accomplishments. Creative individuals and interdisciplinary teams at the Laboratory have sought breakthrough advances to strengthen national security and to help meet other enduring national needs. The Laboratory's rich history includes many interwoven stories -- from the first nuclear test failure to accomplishments meeting today's challenges. Many stories are tied to Livermore's national security mission, which has evolved to include ensuring the safety, security, and reliability of the nation's nuclear weapons without conducting nuclear tests and preventing the proliferation and use of weapons of mass destruction. Throughout its history and in its wide range of research activities, Livermore has achieved breakthroughs in applied and basic science, remarkable feats of engineering, and extraordinary advances in experimental and computational capabilities. From the many stories to tell, one has been selected for each year of the Laboratory's history. Together, these stories give a sense of the Laboratory -- its lasting focus on important missions, dedication to scientific and technical excellence, and drive to made the world more secure and a better place to live.

  9. High intensity positron program at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Asoka-Kumar, P.; Howell, R.H.; Stoeffl, W.

    1998-09-23

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is the home of the world's highest current beam of keV positrons. The potential for establishing a national center for materials analysis using positron annihilation techniques around this capability is being actively pursued. The high LLNL beam current will enable investigations in several new areas. We are developing a positron microprobe that will produce a pulsed, focused positron beam for 3-dimensional scans of defect size and concentration with submicron resolution. Below we summarize the important design features of this microprobe. Several experimental end stations will be available that can utilize the high current beam with a time distribution determined by the electron linac pulse structure, quasi-continuous, or bunched at 20 MHz, and can operate in an electrostatic or (and) magnetostatic environment. Some of the planned early experiments are: two-dimensional angular correlation of annihilation radiation of thin films and buried interfaces, positron diffraction holography, positron induced desorption, and positron induced Auger spectra.

  10. Evaluation of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) torso phantom by bone densitometry and x-ray.

    PubMed

    Kramer, G H; Webber, C E

    1992-06-01

    The recent Workshop on Standard Phantoms recommended that the LLNL torso phantom be adopted as a calibration standard for the quantitation of in vivo radioactivity. This phantom was designed for the calibration of systems for the detection of x-rays of less than 20 keV. The anthropomorphic characteristics and tissue substitute composition of the phantom were assessed with techniques using photons of higher energy. Dual photon absorptometry at 42 and 100 keV showed that the phantom was representative of in vivo tissue composition. Chest radiography showed that the phantom was representative of a human even though the stomach, GI tract and the scapulae were not present and air gaps were observed at organ boundaries.

  11. 2016 LLNL Nuclear Forensics Summer Program

    SciTech Connect

    Zavarin, Mavrik

    2016-11-15

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Nuclear Forensics Summer Program is designed to give graduate students an opportunity to come to LLNL for 8–10 weeks for a hands-on research experience. Students conduct research under the supervision of a staff scientist, attend a weekly lecture series, interact with other students, and present their work in poster format at the end of the program. Students also have the opportunity to meet staff scientists one-on-one, participate in LLNL facility tours (e.g., the National Ignition Facility and Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry), and gain a better understanding of the various science programs at LLNL.

  12. Historical Doses from Tritiated Water and Tritiated Hydrogen Gas Released to the Atmosphere from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Part 6. Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, S

    2007-09-05

    Throughout fifty-three years of operations, an estimated 792,000 Ci (29,300 TBq) of tritium have been released to the atmosphere at the Livermore site of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); about 75% was tritium gas (HT) primarily from the accidental releases of 1965 and 1970. Routine emissions contributed slightly more than 100,000 Ci (3,700 TBq) HT and about 75,000 Ci (2,800 TBq) tritiated water vapor (HTO) to the total. A Tritium Dose Reconstruction was undertaken to estimate both the annual doses to the public for each year of LLNL operations and the doses from the few accidental releases. Some of the dose calculations were new, and the others could be compared with those calculated by LLNL. Annual doses (means and 95% confidence intervals) to the potentially most exposed member of the public were calculated for all years using the same model and the same assumptions. Predicted tritium concentrations in air were compared with observed mean annual concentrations at one location from 1973 onwards. Doses predicted from annual emissions were compared with those reported in the past by LLNL. The highest annual mean dose predicted from routine emissions was 34 {micro}Sv (3.4 mrem) in 1957; its upper confidence limit, based on very conservative assumptions about the speciation of the release, was 370 {micro}Sv (37 mrem). The upper confidence limits for most annual doses were well below the current regulatory limit of 100 {micro}Sv (10 mrem) for dose to the public from release to the atmosphere; the few doses that exceeded this were well below the regulatory limits of the time. Lacking the hourly meteorological data needed to calculate doses from historical accidental releases, ingestion/inhalation dose ratios were derived from a time-dependent accident consequence model that accounts for the complex behavior of tritium in the environment. Ratios were modified to account for only those foods growing at the time of the releases. The highest dose from an

  13. Positron microprobe at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Asoka, P; Howell, R; Stoeffl, W

    1998-11-01

    The electron linac based positron source at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) provides the world's highest current beam of keV positrons. We are building a positron microprobe that will produce a pulsed, focused positron beam for 3-dimensional scans of defect size and concentration with sub-micron resolution. The widely spaced and intense positron packets from the tungsten moderator at the end of the 100 MeV LLNL linac are captured and trapped in a magnetic bottle. The positrons are then released in 1 ns bunches at a 20 MHz repetition rate. With a three-stage re-moderation we will compress the cm-sized original beam to a 1 micro-meter diameter final spot on the target. The buncher will compress the arrival time of positrons on the target to less than 100 ps. A detector array with up to 60 BaF2 crystals in paired coincidence will measure the annihilation radiation with high efficiency and low background. The energy of the positrons can be varied from less than 1 keV up to 50 keV.

  14. Historical Doses from Tritiated Water and Tritiated Hydrogen Gas Released to the Atmosphere from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Part 5. Accidental Releases

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, S

    2007-08-15

    Over the course of fifty-three years, LLNL had six acute releases of tritiated hydrogen gas (HT) and one acute release of tritiated water vapor (HTO) that were too large relative to the annual releases to be included as part of the annual releases from normal operations detailed in Parts 3 and 4 of the Tritium Dose Reconstruction (TDR). Sandia National Laboratories/California (SNL/CA) had one such release of HT and one of HTO. Doses to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) for these accidents have been modeled using an equation derived from the time-dependent tritium model, UFOTRI, and parameter values based on expert judgment. All of these acute releases are described in this report. Doses that could not have been exceeded from the large HT releases of 1965 and 1970 were calculated to be 43 {micro}Sv (4.3 mrem) and 120 {micro}Sv (12 mrem) to an adult, respectively. Two published sets of dose predictions for the accidental HT release in 1970 are compared with the dose predictions of this TDR. The highest predicted dose was for an acute release of HTO in 1954. For this release, the dose that could not have been exceeded was estimated to have been 2 mSv (200 mrem), although, because of the high uncertainty about the predictions, the likely dose may have been as low as 360 {micro}Sv (36 mrem) or less. The estimated maximum exposures from the accidental releases were such that no adverse health effects would be expected. Appendix A lists all accidents and large routine puff releases that have occurred at LLNL and SNL/CA between 1953 and 2005. Appendix B describes the processes unique to tritium that must be modeled after an acute release, some of the time-dependent tritium models being used today, and the results of tests of these models.

  15. Experimental cryptosporidiosis in laboratory mice.

    PubMed Central

    Sherwood, D; Angus, K W; Snodgrass, D R; Tzipori, S

    1982-01-01

    Eight strains of laboratory mice were susceptible to subclinical infections with Cryptosporidium sp. at 1 to 4 days of age, but only a transient infection could be established at 21 days of age or older. Immunosuppression of 21-day-old mice failed to render them more susceptible to infection. Laboratory storage conditions for Cryptosporidium sp. were investigated by titration in 1- to 4-day-old mice. Storage by freezing with a variety of cryoprotectants was unsuccessful, but storage at 4 degrees C in phosphate-buffered saline or 2.5% potassium dichromate was possible for 4 to 6 months. PMID:7141705

  16. LLNL NESHAPs 2014 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, K.; Bertoldo, N.; Gallegos, G.; MacQueen, D.; Wegrecki, A.

    2015-07-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC operates facilities at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) where radionuclides are handled and stored. These facilities are subject to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) in Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Title 40, Part 61, Subpart H, which regulates radionuclide emissions to air from Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Specifically, NESHAPs limits the emission of radionuclides to the ambient air to levels resulting in an annual effective dose equivalent of 10 mrem (100 μSv) to any member of the public. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building-specific and common parameters, LLNL personnel applied the EPA-approved computer code, CAP88-PC, Version 4.0.1.17, to calculate the dose to the maximally exposed individual member of the public for the Livermore Site and Site 300.

  17. Demonstration before Experimentation: A Laboratory Philosophy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Ding-Yu; Bedworth, David D.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the need for laboratory demonstrations prior to experimentation. Describes an introductory computer-assisted manufacturing (CAM) course and includes suggestions for teachers. Provides a model exercise on train control. (YP)

  18. LLNL NESHAPs 2008 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Bertoldo, N; Gallegos, G; MacQueen, D; Wegrecki, A; Wilson, K

    2009-06-25

    Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC operates facilities at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) where radionuclides are handled and stored. These facilities are subject to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) in Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Title 40, Part 61, Subpart H, which regulates radionuclide emissions to air from Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Specifically, NESHAPs limits the emission of radionuclides to the ambient air to levels resulting in an annual effective dose equivalent of 10 mrem (100 {mu}Sv) to any member of the public. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building-specific and common parameters, LLNL personnel applied the EPA-approved computer code, CAP88-PC, Version 1.0, to calculate the dose to the maximally exposed individual for the Livermore site and Site 300. The dose for the LLNL site-wide maximally exposed members of the public from operations in 2008 are summarized here: {sm_bullet} Livermore site: 0.0013 mrem (0.013 {mu}Sv) (26% from point source emissions, 74% from diffuse source emissions). The point source emissions include gaseous tritium modeled as tritiated water vapor as directed by EPA Region IX; the resulting dose is used for compliance purposes. {sm_bullet} Site 300: 0.000000044 mrem (0.00000044 {mu}Sv) (100% from point source emissions).

  19. LLNL NESHAPs 1995 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Gallegos, G.M.; Harrach, R.J.; Biermann, A.H.; Tate, P.J.

    1996-06-01

    This annual report is prepared pursuant to the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) 40 CFR Part 61, Subpart H; Subpart H governs radionuclide emissions to air from Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. NESHAPs limits the emission of radionuclides to the ambient air from DOE facilities to levels resulting in an effective dose equivalent (EDE) of 10 mrem to any member of the public. This document contains the EDEs for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) site-wide maximally exposed members of the public from 1995 operations.

  20. Status of LLNL granite projects

    SciTech Connect

    Ramspott, L.D.

    1980-12-31

    The status of LLNL Projects dealing with nuclear waste disposal in granitic rocks is reviewed. This review covers work done subsequent to the June 1979 Workshop on Thermomechanical Modeling for a Hardrock Waste Repository and is prepared for the July 1980 Workshop on Thermomechanical-Hydrochemical Modeling for a Hardrock Waste Repository. Topics reviewed include laboratory determination of thermal, mechanical, and transport properties of rocks at conditions simulating a deep geologic repository, and field testing at the Climax granitic stock at the USDOE Nevada Test Site.

  1. LLNL NESHAP's 1999 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Gallegos, G.; Biermann, A.H.; Harrach, R.J.; Bertoldo, N.A.; Berger, R.L.; Surano,K.A.

    2000-06-01

    This annual report is prepared pursuant to the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) 40 CFR Part 61, Subpart H; Subpart H governs radionuclide emissions to air from Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. NESHAPs limits the emission of radionuclides to the ambient air from DOE facilities to levels resulting in an annual effective dose equivalent (EDE) of 10 mrem (100 {micro}Sv) to any member of the public. The EDEs for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) site-wide maximally exposed members of the public from 1999 operations are summarized.

  2. Melanoma at LLNL: An update

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, D.H. II; Schneider, J.S.; Bennett, D.E.; Patterson, H.W.

    1994-03-01

    From 1972 to 1977, the Laboratory experienced a diagnosis rate of malignant melanoma among its employees that was three to four times higher than expected based on rates for the surrounding Alameda and Contra Costa counties in the Bay Area. In 1984, Austin and Reynolds from the California Department of Health Services reported the results of their study comparing individuals diagnosed with melanoma and otherwise healthy controls from the Laboratory. These researchers concluded that five occupational factors were [open quotes]casually associated[close quotes] with melanoma risk at LLNL. The factors were exposure to radioactive materials, exposure to volatile photographic chemicals, work at Site 300, visits to the Pacific Test Site, and duties as a chemist. In recent years, the rate of diagnosis of the more lethal form of melanoma among LLNL workers, which was previously elevated, has returned to that of the surrounding geographical area where most employees live. If our program of employee awareness about melanoma, enhanced surveillance, and early diagnosis continues to lead to decreased mortality from this disease, then such an approach may have important public health implications for the broader community.

  3. Physical Science Laboratory Manual, Experimental Version.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooperative General Science Project, Atlanta, GA.

    Provided are physical science laboratory experiments which have been developed and used as a part of an experimental one year undergraduate course in general science for non-science majors. The experiments cover a limited number of topics representative of the scientific enterprise. Some of the topics are pressure and buoyancy, heat, motion,…

  4. Evaluation of LLNL's Nuclear Accident Dosimeters at the CALIBAN Reactor September 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Hickman, D P; Wysong, A R; Heinrichs, D P; Wong, C T; Merritt, M J; Topper, J D; Gressmann, F A; Madden, D J

    2011-06-21

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory uses neutron activation elements in a Panasonic TLD holder as a personnel nuclear accident dosimeter (PNAD). The LLNL PNAD has periodically been tested using a Cf-252 neutron source, however until 2009, it was more than 25 years since the PNAD has been tested against a source of neutrons that arise from a reactor generated neutron spectrum that simulates a criticality. In October 2009, LLNL participated in an intercomparison of nuclear accident dosimeters at the CEA Valduc Silene reactor (Hickman, et.al. 2010). In September 2010, LLNL participated in a second intercomparison of nuclear accident dosimeters at CEA Valduc. The reactor generated neutron irradiations for the 2010 exercise were performed at the Caliban reactor. The Caliban results are described in this report. The procedure for measuring the nuclear accident dosimeters in the event of an accident has a solid foundation based on many experimental results and comparisons. The entire process, from receiving the activated NADs to collecting and storing them after counting was executed successfully in a field based operation. Under normal conditions at LLNL, detectors are ready and available 24/7 to perform the necessary measurement of nuclear accident components. Likewise LLNL maintains processing laboratories that are separated from the areas where measurements occur, but contained within the same facility for easy movement from processing area to measurement area. In the event of a loss of LLNL permanent facilities, the Caliban and previous Silene exercises have demonstrated that LLNL can establish field operations that will very good nuclear accident dosimetry results. There are still several aspects of LLNL's nuclear accident dosimetry program that have not been tested or confirmed. For instance, LLNL's method for using of biological samples (blood and hair) has not been verified since the method was first developed in the 1980's. Because LLNL and the other DOE

  5. LLNL NESHAPs project. 1992 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Surano, K.A.; Failor, R.A.; Biermann, A.H.; Berger, R.L.; Harrach, R.J.

    1993-05-01

    This report summarizes work conducted during FY 1992 for the Environmental Monitoring and Analysis Division of the Environmental Protection Department at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). This document contains information regarding environmental monitoring of a wide variety of radioisotopes which are emitted to the atmosphere. These radioisotopes include transuranics, biomedical tracers, tritium, mixed fission products, and other radioisotopes used for general research and nuclear weapons research. Information regarding radionuclide air emissions for each of the 56 buildings at LLNL where radionuclides are used or activation products occur is given. Detailed information is included for all point source emissions from 43 LLNL site buildings. In addition, dose equivalents and dose assessment are evaluated. Reported annual releases are based on inventory data and unabated EPA potential release fractions for unmonitored sources, and on actual emission measurements for continuously monitored facilities.

  6. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Experimental Test Site (Site 300) Potable Water System Operations Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Ocampo, Ruben P.; Bellah, Wendy

    2016-03-04

    The existing Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Site 300 drinking water system operation schematic is shown in Figures 1 and 2 below. The sources of water are from two Site 300 wells (Well #18 and Well #20) and San Francisco Public Utilities Commission (SFPUC) Hetch-Hetchy water through the Thomas shaft pumping station. Currently, Well #20 with 300 gallons per minute (gpm) pump capacity is the primary source of well water used during the months of September through July, while Well #18 with 225 gpm pump capacity is the source of well water for the month of August. The well water is chlorinated using sodium hypochlorite to provide required residual chlorine throughout Site 300. Well water chlorination is covered in the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Experimental Test Site (Site 300) Chlorination Plan (“the Chlorination Plan”; LLNL-TR-642903; current version dated August 2013). The third source of water is the SFPUC Hetch-Hetchy Water System through the Thomas shaft facility with a 150 gpm pump capacity. At the Thomas shaft station the pumped water is treated through SFPUC-owned and operated ultraviolet (UV) reactor disinfection units on its way to Site 300. The Thomas Shaft Hetch- Hetchy water line is connected to the Site 300 water system through the line common to Well pumps #18 and #20 at valve box #1.

  7. LLNL electro-optical mine detection program

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, C.; Aimonetti, W.; Barth, M.; Buhl, M.; Bull, N.; Carter, M.; Clark, G.; Fields, D.; Fulkerson, S.; Kane, R.

    1994-09-30

    Under funding from the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) and the US Marine Corps (USMC), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has directed a program aimed at improving detection capabilities against buried mines and munitions. The program has provided a national test facility for buried mines in arid environments, compiled and distributed an extensive data base of infrared (IR), ground penetrating radar (GPR), and other measurements made at that site, served as a host for other organizations wishing to make measurements, made considerable progress in the use of ground penetrating radar for mine detection, and worked on the difficult problem of sensor fusion as applied to buried mine detection. While the majority of our effort has been concentrated on the buried mine problem, LLNL has worked with the U.S.M.C. on surface mine problems as well, providing data and analysis to support the COBRA (Coastal Battlefield Reconnaissance and Analysis) program. The original aim of the experimental aspect of the program was the utilization of multiband infrared approaches for the detection of buried mines. Later the work was extended to a multisensor investigation, including sensors other than infrared imagers. After an early series of measurements, it was determined that further progress would require a larger test facility in a natural environment, so the Buried Object Test Facility (BOTF) was constructed at the Nevada Test Site. After extensive testing, with sensors spanning the electromagnetic spectrum from the near ultraviolet to radio frequencies, possible paths for improvement were: improved spatial resolution providing better ground texture discrimination; analysis which involves more complicated spatial queueing and filtering; additional IR bands using imaging spectroscopy; the use of additional sensors other than IR and the use of data fusion techniques with multi-sensor data; and utilizing time dependent observables like temperature.

  8. Historical Doses from Tritiated Water and Tritiated Hydrogen Gas Released to the Atmosphere from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Part 3. Routine Releases, 1973 - 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, S

    2007-08-15

    Annual mean concentrations of tritium in air moisture, calculated from data obtained from an air tritium sampler near the LLNL Discovery Center, were compared with annual mean air moisture concentrations predicted from atmospheric releases of tritium for the years 1973 through 2005. The 95% confidence intervals on the predictions and observations usually overlapped. When the distributions of predictions and observations were different, predictions were higher. Using both the observed and predicted air concentrations as input to the tritium dose model, DCART, annual doses to a hypothetical adult, child (age 10) and infant (age 6 months to 1 year) assumed to be living at LLNL's Discovery Center were calculated. Although the doses based on predicted air concentrations tended to be higher, they were nevertheless indistinguishable from doses based on observed air concentrations when uncertainties were taken into account. Annual doses, calculated by DCART and based on observed and predicted air concentrations, were compared with historical tritium doses reported annually by LLNL. Although the historical doses were calculated using various assumptions over the years, their agreement with the DCART predictions is remarkable. The Discovery Center was not the location of the site-wide maximally exposed individual (SWMEI) from 1974 through 1978. However, doses at the location of the SW-MEI for those years were indistinguishable from those at the Discovery Center when uncertainties were taken into account. The upper confidence limits for all doses were always well below the current regulatory limit for dose to a member of the public (100 {micro}Sv or 10 mrem per year) from atmospheric releases (40 CFR Part 61, Subpart H). Based on observed air concentrations, the 97.5% confidence limit on the cumulative dose to the hypothetical person born in 1973 and living through 2005 at the Discovery Center was 150 {micro}Sv (15 mrem), while that of the hypothetical adult who spent his

  9. Simulating Afterburn with LLNL Hydrocodes

    SciTech Connect

    Daily, L D

    2004-06-11

    Presented here is a working methodology for adapting a Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) developed hydrocode, ALE3D, to simulate weapon damage effects when afterburn is a consideration in the blast propagation. Experiments have shown that afterburn is of great consequence in enclosed environments (i.e. bomb in tunnel scenario, penetrating conventional munition in a bunker, or satchel charge placed in a deep underground facility). This empirical energy deposition methodology simulates the anticipated addition of kinetic energy that has been demonstrated by experiment (Kuhl, et. al. 1998), without explicitly solving the chemistry, or resolving the mesh to capture small-scale vorticity. This effort is intended to complement the existing capability of either coupling ALE3D blast simulations with DYNA3D or performing fully coupled ALE3D simulations to predict building or component failure, for applications in National Security offensive strike planning as well as Homeland Defense infrastructure protection.

  10. Experimenter's Laboratory for Visualized Interactive Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Elaine R.; Rodier, Daniel R.; Klemp, Marjorie K.

    1994-01-01

    ELVIS (Experimenter's Laboratory for Visualized Interactive Science) is an interactive visualization environment that enables scientists, students, and educators to visualize and analyze large, complex, and diverse sets of scientific data. It accomplishes this by presenting the data sets as 2-D, 3-D, color, stereo, and graphic images with movable and multiple light sources combined with displays of solid-surface, contours, wire-frame, and transparency. By simultaneously rendering diverse data sets acquired from multiple sources, formats, and resolutions and by interacting with the data through an intuitive, direct-manipulation interface, ELVIS provides an interactive and responsive environment for exploratory data analysis.

  11. LLNL NESHAPs 1998 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, R L; Bertoldo, N A; Biermann, A H; Gallegos, G; Hall, L C; Harrach, R J; Surano, K A

    1999-06-14

    This annual report is prepared pursuant to the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) 40 CFR Part 61, Subpart H; Subpart H governs radionuclide emissions to air from Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. NESHAPs limits the emission of radionuclides to the ambient air from DOE facilities to levels resulting in an annual effective dose equivalent (EDE) of 10 mrem (100 {micro}Sv) to any member of the public. The EDEs for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) site-wide maximally exposed members of the public from 1998 operations are summarized here. (1) Livermore site: 0.055 mrem (0.55 {micro}Sv) (57% from point-source emissions, 43% from diffuse-source emissions). The point-source emissions include gaseous tritium modeled as tritiated water vapor as directed by EPA Region IX and is used for compliance purposes. LLNL believes a more realistic dose for the Livermore site is 0.049 mrem (0.49 {micro}Sv) (52% from point-source emissions, 48% from diffuse-source emissions). This dose is based on an assessment that represents a more realistic behavior of tritium gas in the environment. (2) Site 300: 0.024 mrem (0.24 {micro}Sv) (78% from point-source emissions, 22% from diffuse-source emissions). The EDEs were generally calculated using the EPA-approved CAP88-PC air-dispersion/dose-assessment model. Site-specific meteorological data, stack flow data, and emissions estimates based on radionuclide inventory data or continuous-monitoring systems data were the specific input to CAP88-PC for each modeled source.

  12. Historical summary and recommendations on Melanoma in the LLNL workforce

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, D.H. II; Hatch, F.

    1994-12-01

    This document provides a historical summary and recommendations on melanoma in the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) workforce. Melanoma of the skin comprises about 3.5% of the incidence (38,000 new cases in 1991) and 1.7% of the mortality (8500 deaths in 1991) of all cancer in the U.S. However, for several decades it has shown the fastest rate of increase of any cancer site. The following areas are discussed: background and recognition of increased melanoma at LLNL, history of melanoma studies at LLNL, results from occupational factors study, overall conclusion on increased melanoma incidence, and recommendations for future management.

  13. Gap Analysis Comparing LLNL ISMS and ISO 14001

    SciTech Connect

    Doerr, T B

    2004-08-09

    A gap analysis was conducted comparing the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) with the international standard ISO 14001 Environmental Management System and with Department of Energy (DOE) Order 450.1. This analysis was accomplished as part of LLNL's assessment of the impacts of adopting DOE Order 450.1 and comprises a portion of its continuous improvement efforts under ISMS.

  14. LLNL NESHAPs 2015 Annual Report - June 2016

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, K. R.; Gallegos, G. M.; MacQueen, D. H.; Wegrecki, A. M.

    2016-06-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC operates facilities at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in which radionuclides are handled and stored. These facilities are subject to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) in Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Title 40, Part 61, Subpart H, which regulates radionuclide emissions to air from Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Specifically, NESHAPs limits the emission of radionuclides to the ambient air to levels resulting in an annual effective dose equivalent of 10 mrem (100 μSv) to any member of the public. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building-specific and common parameters, LLNL personnel applied the EPA-approved computer code, CAP88-PC, Version 4.0.1.17, to calculate the dose to the maximally exposed individual member of the public for the Livermore Site and Site 300.

  15. LLNL NESHAPs 2003 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Harrach, R J; Gallegos, G M; Peterson, S; Wilson, K R; Althouse, P E; Larson, J M; Bertoldo, N A; Tate, P J; Bowen, B

    2004-06-23

    This annual report is prepared pursuant to the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs; Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61, Subpart H). Subpart H governs radionuclide emissions to air from Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. NESHAPs limits the emission of radionuclides to the ambient air from DOE facilities to levels resulting in an annual effective dose equivalent (EDE) of 10 mrem (100 {micro}Sv) to any member of the public. The EDEs for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) site-wide maximally exposed members of the public from operations in 2003 are summarized here. Livermore site: 0.044 mrem (0.44 {micro}Sv) (55% from point-source emissions, 45% from diffuse-source emissions). The point-source emissions include gaseous tritium modeled as tritiated water vapor as directed by EPA Region IX; the resulting dose is used for compliance purposes. Site 300: 0.017 mrem (0.17 {micro}Sv) (98% from point-source emissions, 2% from diffuse-source emissions). The EDEs were calculated using the EPA-approved CAP88-PC air dispersion/dose-assessment model, except for doses for two diffuse sources that were estimated using measured concentrations and dose coefficients. Site specific meteorological data, stack flow data, and emissions estimates based on radionuclide usage inventory data or continuous stack monitoring data were the specific inputs to CAP88-PC for each modeled source.

  16. LLNL NESHAPs 2001 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Harrach, R.J.; Peterson, S.-R.; Gallegos, G.M.; Tate, P.J.; Bertoldo, N.A.; Althouse, P.E.

    2002-06-18

    NESHAPs limits the emission of radionuclides to the ambient air from DOE facilities to levels resulting in an annual effective dose equivalent (EDE) of 10 mrem (100 {micro}Sv) to any member of the public. The EDEs for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) site-wide maximally exposed members of the public from operations in 2001 are summarized here: (1) Livermore site: 0.017 mrem (0.17 {micro}Sv) (34% from point-source emissions, 66% from diffuse-source emissions), The point-source emissions include gaseous tritium modeled as tritiated water vapor as directed by EPA Region IX; the resulting dose is used for compliance purposes; and (2) Site 300: 0.054 mrem (0.54 {micro}Sv) (93% from point-source emissions, 7% from diffuse-source emissions); The EDEs were calculated using the EPA-approved CAP88-PC air dispersion/dose assessment model, except for doses for three diffuse sources, which were calculated from measured concentrations and dose coefficients. Site specific meteorological data, stack flow data, and emissions estimates based on radionuclide usage inventory data or continuous stack monitoring data were the specific inputs to CAP88-PC for each modeled source.

  17. LLNL NESHAPs 2000 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Gallegos, G M; Harrach, R J; Berger, R L; Bertoldo, N A; Tate, P J; Peterson, S R

    2001-06-01

    NESHAPs limits the emission of radionuclides to the ambient air from DOE facilities to levels resulting in an annual effective dose equivalent (EDE) of 10 mrem (100 {micro}Sv) to any member of the public. The EDEs for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) site-wide maximally exposed members of the public from 2000 operations are summarized here. {sm_bullet} Livermore site: 0.038 mrem (0.38 {micro}Sv) (45% from point-source emissions, 55% from diffuse-source emissions). The point-source emissions include gaseous tritium modeled as tritiated water vapor as directed by EPA Region IX, and the resulting dose is used for compliance purposes. {sm_bullet} Site 300: 0.019 mrem (0.19 {micro}Sv) (79% from point-source emissions, 21% from diffuse-source emissions). The EDEs were calculated using the EPA-approved CAP88-PC air dispersion/dose-assessment model, except for doses for four diffuse sources, which were calculated from measured concentrations and dose coefficients. Site specific meteorological data, stack flow data, and emissions estimates based on radionuclide usage inventory data or continuous stack monitoring data were the specific input to CAP88-PC for each modeled source.

  18. LLNL NESHAPs 1996 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Gallegos, G.M.

    1997-01-06

    This annual report is prepared pursuant to the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) 40 CFR Part 61, Subpart H; Subpart H governs radionuclide emissions to air from Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. NESHAPs limits the emission of radionuclides to the ambient air from DOE facilities to levels resulting in an annual effective dose equivalent (EDE) of 10 mrem (10 microsieverts) to any member of the public. The EDEs for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) site-wide maximally exposed members of the public from 1996 operations were (1) Livermore site: 0. 093 mrem (0.93 microsievert) (52% from point-source emissions, 48% from diffuse-source emissions); (2) Site 300: 0.033 mrem (0.33 microsievert) (99% from point-source, 1% from diffuse-source emissions). The EDEs were generally calculated using the EPA-approved CAP88-PC air-dispersion/dose-assessment model. Site-specific meteorological data, stack flow data, and emissions estimates based on radionuclide inventory data or continuous-monitoring systems data were the specific input to CAP88-PC for each modeled source. 5 figs., 8 tabs.

  19. LLNL NESHAPs 2002 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Harrach, R J; Gallegos, G M; Peterson, S-R; Tate, P J; Bertoldo, N A; Wilson, K R; Althouse, P E; Larson, J M

    2003-06-01

    This annual report is prepared pursuant to the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs; Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61, Subpart H). Subpart H governs radionuclide emissions to air from Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. NESHAPs limits the emission of radionuclides to the ambient air from DOE facilities to levels resulting in an annual effective dose equivalent (EDE) of 10 mrem (100 {micro}Sv) to any member of the public. The EDEs for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) site-wide maximally exposed members of the public from operations in 2002 are summarized here: (1) Livermore site: 0.023 mrem (0.23 {micro}Sv) (43% from point-source emissions, 57% from diffuse-source emissions). The point-source emissions include gaseous tritium modeled as tritiated water vapor as directed by EPA Region IX; the resulting dose is used for compliance purposes; and (2) Site 300: 0.021 mrem (0.21 {micro}Sv) (85% from point-source emissions, 15% from diffuse-source emissions). The EDEs were calculated using the EPA-approved CAP88-PC air dispersion/dose-assessment model, except for doses for three diffuse sources, which were calculated from measured concentrations and dose coefficients. Site specific meteorological data, stack flow data, and emissions estimates based on radionuclide usage inventory data or continuous stack monitoring data were the specific inputs to CAP88-PC for each modeled source.

  20. LLNL Ocean General Circulation Model

    SciTech Connect

    Wickett, M. E.; Caldeira, K.; Duffy, P.

    2005-12-29

    The LLNL OGCM is a numerical ocean modeling tool for use in studying ocean circulation over a wide range of space and time scales, with primary applications to climate change and carbon cycle science.

  1. Laboratory astrophysics and atomic physics using the NASA/GSFC microcalorimeter spectrometers at the LLNL Electron Beam Ion Trap and Radiation Properties Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, G; Beiersdorfer, P; Boyce, K; Chen, H; Gu, M F; Kahn, S; Kelley, R; Kilbourne, C; May, M; Porter, F S; Szymkowiak, A; Thorn, D; Widmann, K

    2005-08-18

    The 32 pixel laboratory microcalorimeter spectrometer built by the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center is now an integral part of the spectroscopy suite used routinely by the electron beam ion trap and radiative properties group at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The second generation laboratory instrument, dubbed the XRS/EBIT, is nearly identical to the XRS instrument on the Suzaku X-ray Observatory, formerly Astro-E2. The detector array is from the same processed wafer and uses the same HgTe absorbers. it is being used to measure the photon emission from a variety of radiation sources. These include x-ray emission from laboratory simulated celestial sources, x-ray emission from highly charged ions of Au, and x-ray emission following charge exchange and radiative electron capture. The wide range of applications demonstrates the versatility of a high-resolution, high-efficiency low temperature detector that is able to collect data continually with minimal operator servicing.

  2. Probabilistic Seismic Hazards Update for LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Menchawi, O.; Fernandez, A.

    2016-03-30

    Fugro Consultants, Inc. (FCL) completed the Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA) performed for Building 332 at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), near Livermore, CA. The study performed for the LLNL site includes a comprehensive review of recent information relevant to the LLNL regional tectonic setting and regional seismic sources in the vicinity of the site and development of seismic wave transmission characteristics. The Seismic Source Characterization (SSC), documented in Project Report No. 2259-PR-02 (FCL, 2015b), and Ground Motion Characterization (GMC), documented in Project Report No. 2259-PR-06 (FCL, 2015a) were developed in accordance with ANS/ANSI 2.29- 2008 Level 2 PSHA guidelines. The ANS/ANSI 2.29-2008 Level 2 PSHA framework is documented in Project Report No. 2259-PR-05 (FCL, 2016a). The Hazard Input Document (HID) for input into the PSHA developed from the SSC and GMC is presented in Project Report No. 2259-PR-04 (FCL, 2016b). The site characterization used as input for development of the idealized site profiles including epistemic uncertainty and aleatory variability is presented in Project Report No. 2259-PR-03 (FCL, 2015c). The PSHA results are documented in Project Report No. 2259-PR-07 (FCL, 2016c).

  3. A laboratory exercise in experimental bioimmuration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mankiewicz, C.

    1998-01-01

    A paleobiologic laboratory exercise using lunch meat, cheeses, and condiments provides a means for studying a method of fossil preservation called "bioimmuration." The exercise also has students deal with problems associated with other aspects of taphonomy, taxonomy, and paleoecology.

  4. Optics & Materials Science & Technology (OMST) Organization at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Suratwala; Tayyab; Nguyen, Hoang; Bude, Jeff; Dylla-Spears, Rebecca

    2016-11-30

    The Optics and Materials Science & Technology (OMST) organization at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) supplies optics, recycles optics, and performs the materials science and technology to advance optics and optical materials for high-power and high-energy lasers for a variety of missions. The organization is a core capability at LLNL. We have a strong partnership with many optical fabricators, universities and national laboratories to accomplish our goals. The organization has a long history of performing fundamental optical materials science, developing them into useful technologies, and transferring them into production both on-site and off-site. We are successfully continuing this same strategy today.

  5. Optics & Materials Science & Technology (OMST) Organization at LLNL

    ScienceCinema

    Suratwala; Tayyab; Nguyen, Hoang; Bude, Jeff; Dylla-Spears, Rebecca

    2016-12-09

    The Optics and Materials Science & Technology (OMST) organization at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) supplies optics, recycles optics, and performs the materials science and technology to advance optics and optical materials for high-power and high-energy lasers for a variety of missions. The organization is a core capability at LLNL. We have a strong partnership with many optical fabricators, universities and national laboratories to accomplish our goals. The organization has a long history of performing fundamental optical materials science, developing them into useful technologies, and transferring them into production both on-site and off-site. We are successfully continuing this same strategy today.

  6. Modular High Current Test Facility at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Tully, L K; Goerz, D A; Speer, R D; Ferriera, T J

    2008-05-20

    This paper describes the 1 MA, 225 kJ test facility in operation at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The capacitor bank is constructed from three parallel 1.5 mF modules. The modules are capable of switching simultaneously or sequentially via solid dielectric puncture switches. The bank nominally operates up to 10 kV and reaches peak current with all three cabled modules in approximately 30 {micro}s. Parallel output plates from the bank allow for cable or busbar interfacing to the load. This versatile bank is currently in use for code validation experiments, railgun related activities, switch testing, and diagnostic development.

  7. Historical Doses from Tritiated Water and Tritiated Hydrogen Gas Released to the Atmosphere from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Part 4. Routine Releases, 1953 - 1972

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, S

    2007-08-15

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory was founded in September 1952. By 1953, operations involving tritium were underway. Annual doses to an adult, a child (age 10), and an infant (age six months to one year) from tritium released routinely from the Livermore site between 1953 and 1972 were calculated using the tritium dose model, DCART. Uncertainties about sources and release rates are high, particularly for the 1950's, and it was difficult, and sometimes impossible (e.g., when a source was only assumed to have existed) to quantify them accurately. Because of this, every effort was made to assure that the uncertainties applied to the input parameters used in DCART would result in doses that could not have been exceeded. Doses were calculated at the potential locations of the hypothetical site-wide maximally exposed individual (SWMEI), which were at a residence on Vasco Road inside the present west perimeter of the Laboratory (1953 - 1958), at an automotive garage on East Avenue (1961), and at the Discovery Center (1959, 1960, 1962 - 1972, years which predate the facility). Even with the most conservative, screening model assumptions, the highest dose to the SW-MEI (in 1957) was predicted with 95% probability to have been between 27 and 370 {micro}Sv (2.7 and 37 mrem), with the most likely dose being 130 {micro}Sv (13 mrem). Using more realistic, but still conservative assumptions about what fraction of the diet could have been contaminated, these predictions were reduced by more than a factor of two. All other annual doses (at the 97.5% confidence limits) to the SW-MEI, calculated with the most conservative and health protective assumptions, were less than 200 {micro}Sv (20 mrem), and no dose after 1958 could have exceeded 100 {micro}Sv (10 mren). The cumulative dose to the hypothetical individual at the west perimeter location for 1953 through 1972 would have been no greater than 860 {micro}Sv (83 mrem), while the dose to the individual born and raised there

  8. Career development for engineers at the LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Decker, W.D.

    1982-01-01

    The career development program for engineers at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) results from a conductive atmosphere rather than a structured program approach. Although the concern for careers first emerged about twenty years ago, in the past decade the Laboratory management has set out to create a favorable climate for its employees to retain their vitality and enhance their creativity. The goal was twofold: to strengthen the Laboratory and to provide more satisfying careers for its employees. How that climate has evolved is the subject of this discussion. What has been done at Livermore may not work at another place. Each organization's make-up, mission, and needs are different, with a unique staff of employees and managers who influence the creation of the organizational climate.

  9. Dispersion of Radionuclides and Exposure Assessment in Urban Environments: A Joint CEA and LLNL Report

    SciTech Connect

    Glascoe, Lee; Gowardhan, Akshay; Lennox, Kristin; Simpson, Matthew; Yu, Kristen; Armand, Patrick; Duchenne, Christophe; Mariotte, Frederic; Pectorin, Xavier

    2014-12-19

    In the interest of promoting the international exchange of technical expertise, the US Department of Energy’s Office of Emergency Operations (NA-40) and the French Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique et aux énergies alternatives (CEA) requested that the National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC) of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Livermore, California host a joint table top exercise with experts in emergency management and atmospheric transport modeling. In this table top exercise, LLNL and CEA compared each other’s flow and dispersion models. The goal of the comparison is to facilitate the exchange of knowledge, capabilities, and practices, and to demonstrate the utility of modeling dispersal at different levels of computational fidelity. Two modeling approaches were examined, a regional scale modeling approach, appropriate for simple terrain and/or very large releases, and an urban scale modeling approach, appropriate for small releases in a city environment. This report is a summary of LLNL and CEA modeling efforts from this exercise. Two different types of LLNL and CEA models were employed in the analysis: urban-scale models (Aeolus CFD at LLNL/NARAC and Parallel- Micro-SWIFT-SPRAY, PMSS, at CEA) for analysis of a 5,000 Ci radiological release and Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Models (LODI at LLNL/NARAC and PSPRAY at CEA) for analysis of a much larger (500,000 Ci) regional radiological release. Two densely-populated urban locations were chosen: Chicago with its high-rise skyline and gridded street network and Paris with its more consistent, lower building height and complex unaligned street network. Each location was considered under early summer daytime and nighttime conditions. Different levels of fidelity were chosen for each scale: (1) lower fidelity mass-consistent diagnostic, intermediate fidelity Navier-Stokes RANS models, and higher fidelity Navier-Stokes LES for urban-scale analysis, and (2) lower-fidelity single

  10. Experimental investigation of laboratory fire whirls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartl, Katherine; Smits, Alexander

    2013-11-01

    A fire whirl is a swirling diffusion flame that may occur to great destructive effect in urban fires or wildfires. To study fire whirls in the laboratory, we use a burner flame, using DME as fuel, and induce the swirl by entraining air through a split cylinder surrounding the central flame. Stereo Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) is used to obtain distributions of the three components of velocity outside the fire whirl core. The effects of fuel flow rate, gap width, and height along the flame are examined, and the scaling behavior is investigated.

  11. Experimental Results in DIS from Jefferson Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Sebastian Kuhn

    2009-10-01

    We are summarizing the experimental program of Jefferson Lab (Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility in Newport News, VA) in deep inelastic electron scattering. We show recent results and discuss future plans for both the present 6 GeV era and the 12 GeV energy-upgraded facility.

  12. LLNL-Earth3D

    SciTech Connect

    2013-10-01

    Earth3D is a computer code designed to allow fast calculation of seismic rays and travel times through a 3D model of the Earth. LLNL is using this for earthquake location and global tomography efforts and such codes are of great interest to the Earth Science community.

  13. LLNL E-Mail Utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Dellamaggiore, N. J.; Hamel, B. B.

    2005-10-31

    The LLNL E-mail Utilities software library is a Java API that simplifies the creation and delivery of email in Java business applications. It consists of a database-driven template engine, various strategies for composing, queuing, dispatching email and a Java Swing GUI for creating and editing email templates.

  14. LLNL Site 200 Risk Management PlanAgust 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Pinkston, D; Johnson, M

    2008-07-30

    It is the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) policy to perform work in a manner that protects the health and safety of employees and the public, preserves the quality of the environment, and prevents property damage using the Integrated Safety Management System. The environment, safety, and health are to take priority in the planning and execution of work activities at the Laboratory. Furthermore, it is the policy of LLNL to comply with applicable ES&H laws, regulations, and requirements (LLNL Environment, Safety and Health Manual, Document 1.2, ES&H Policies of LLNL). The program and policies that improve LLNL's ability to prevent or mitigate accidental releases are described in the LLNL Environment, Health, and Safety Manual that is available to the public. The laboratory uses an emergency management system known as the Incident Command System, in accordance with the California Standardized Emergency Management System (SEMS) to respond to Operational Emergencies and to mitigate consequences resulting from them. Operational Emergencies are defined as unplanned, significant events or conditions that require time-urgent response from outside the immediate area of the incident that could seriously impact the safety or security of the public, LLNL's employees, its facilities, or the environment. The Emergency Plan contains LLNL's Operational Emergency response policies, commitments, and institutional responsibilities for managing and recovering from emergencies. It is not possible to list in the Emergency Plan all events that could occur during any given emergency situation. However, a combination of hazard assessments, an effective Emergency Plan, and Emergency Plan Implementing Procedures (EPIPs) can provide the framework for responses to postulated emergency situations. Revision 7, 2004 of the above mentioned LLNL Emergency Plan is available to the public. The most recent revision of the LLNL Emergency Plan LLNL-AM-402556, Revision 11, March 2008, has

  15. An Interdisciplinary Laboratory to Teach Experimentation. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schenck, Hilbert, Jr.

    The author views the primary purpose of the modern engineering laboratory as teaching the student how to experiment. An attempt is made to update the engineering laboratory and make it generally meaningful for all students, whether headed for graduate school or an industrial job. The intent is to broaden the experimental picture so that students…

  16. LLNL Capabilities in Underground Coal Gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Friedmann, S J; Burton, E; Upadhye, R

    2006-06-07

    Underground coal gasification (UCG) has received renewed interest as a potential technology for producing hydrogen at a competitive price particularly in Europe and China. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) played a leading role in this field and continues to do so. It conducted UCG field tests in the nineteen-seventies and -eighties resulting in a number of publications culminating in a UCG model published in 1989. LLNL successfully employed the ''Controlled Retraction Injection Point'' (CRIP) method in some of the Rocky Mountain field tests near Hanna, Wyoming. This method, shown schematically in Fig.1, uses a horizontally-drilled lined injection well where the lining can be penetrated at different locations for injection of the O{sub 2}/steam mixture. The cavity in the coal seam therefore gets longer as the injection point is retracted as well as wider due to reaction of the coal wall with the hot gases. Rubble generated from the collapsing wall is an important mechanism studied by Britten and Thorsness.

  17. Epistemological Dizziness in the Psychology Laboratory: Lively Subjects, Anxious Experimenters, and Experimental Relations, 1950-1970.

    PubMed

    Morawski, Jill

    2015-09-01

    Since the demise of introspective techniques in the early twentieth century, experimental psychology has largely assumed an administrative arrangement between experimenters and subjects wherein subjects respond to experimenters' instructions and experimenters meticulously constrain that relationship through experimental controls. During the postwar era this standard arrangement came to be questioned, initiating reflections that resonated with Cold War anxieties about the nature of the subjects and the experimenters alike. Albeit relatively short lived, these interrogations of laboratory relationships gave rise to unconventional testimonies and critiques of experimental method and epistemology. Researchers voiced serious concerns about the honesty and normality of subjects, the politics of the laboratory, and their own experimental conduct. Their reflective commentaries record the intimacy of subject and experimenter relations and the plentiful cultural materials that constituted the experimental situation, revealing the permeable boundaries between laboratory and everyday life.

  18. A Laboratory That Reveals Indirect Experimental Methods of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Chris; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Describes a physics laboratory experiment for nonscience majors intended to illustrate indirect experimental methods of sciences treating objects too small for sensory observation. The student explores and attempts to identify an object in a closed container, using provided experimental tools and small openings in the opaque lid. (MLH)

  19. LLNL Chemical Kinetics Modeling Group

    SciTech Connect

    Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K; Mehl, M; Herbinet, O; Curran, H J; Silke, E J

    2008-09-24

    The LLNL chemical kinetics modeling group has been responsible for much progress in the development of chemical kinetic models for practical fuels. The group began its work in the early 1970s, developing chemical kinetic models for methane, ethane, ethanol and halogenated inhibitors. Most recently, it has been developing chemical kinetic models for large n-alkanes, cycloalkanes, hexenes, and large methyl esters. These component models are needed to represent gasoline, diesel, jet, and oil-sand-derived fuels.

  20. LLNL Waste Minimization Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-02-14

    This document is the February 14, 1990 version of the LLNL Waste Minimization Program Plan (WMPP). The Waste Minimization Policy field has undergone continuous changes since its formal inception in the 1984 HSWA legislation. The first LLNL WMPP, Revision A, is dated March 1985. A series of informal revision were made on approximately a semi-annual basis. This Revision 2 is the third formal issuance of the WMPP document. EPA has issued a proposed new policy statement on source reduction and recycling. This policy reflects a preventative strategy to reduce or eliminate the generation of environmentally-harmful pollutants which may be released to the air, land surface, water, or ground water. In accordance with this new policy new guidance to hazardous waste generators on the elements of a Waste Minimization Program was issued. In response to these policies, DOE has revised and issued implementation guidance for DOE Order 5400.1, Waste Minimization Plan and Waste Reduction reporting of DOE Hazardous, Radioactive, and Radioactive Mixed Wastes, final draft January 1990. This WMPP is formatted to meet the current DOE guidance outlines. The current WMPP will be revised to reflect all of these proposed changes when guidelines are established. Updates, changes and revisions to the overall LLNL WMPP will be made as appropriate to reflect ever-changing regulatory requirements. 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Corporate Functional Management Evaluation of the LLNL Radiation Safety Organization

    SciTech Connect

    Sygitowicz, L S

    2008-03-20

    A Corporate Assess, Improve, and Modernize review was conducted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to evaluate the LLNL Radiation Safety Program and recommend actions to address the conditions identified in the Internal Assessment conducted July 23-25, 2007. This review confirms the findings of the Internal Assessment of the Institutional Radiation Safety Program (RSP) including the noted deficiencies and vulnerabilities to be valid. The actions recommended are a result of interviews with about 35 individuals representing senior management through the technician level. The deficiencies identified in the LLNL Internal Assessment of the Institutional Radiation Safety Program were discussed with Radiation Safety personnel team leads, customers of Radiation Safety Program, DOE Livermore site office, and senior ES&H management. There are significant issues with the RSP. LLNL RSP is not an integrated, cohesive, consistently implemented program with a single authority that has the clear roll and responsibility and authority to assure radiological operations at LLNL are conducted in a safe and compliant manner. There is no institutional commitment to address the deficiencies that are identified in the internal assessment. Some of these deficiencies have been previously identified and corrective actions have not been taken or are ineffective in addressing the issues. Serious funding and staffing issues have prevented addressing previously identified issues in the Radiation Calibration Laboratory, Internal Dosimetry, Bioassay Laboratory, and the Whole Body Counter. There is a lack of technical basis documentation for the Radiation Calibration Laboratory and an inadequate QA plan that does not specify standards of work. The Radiation Safety Program lack rigor and consistency across all supported programs. The implementation of DOE Standard 1098-99 Radiological Control can be used as a tool to establish this consistency across LLNL. The establishment of a site

  2. LLNL NESHAPs project 1997 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Gallegos, G.M.

    1998-06-01

    NESHAP`s limits the emission of radionuclides to the ambient air from DOE facilities to levels resulting in an annual effective dose equivalent (EDE) of 10 mrem (100 ({mu}Sv) to any member of the public The EDEs for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) site- wide maximally exposed members of the public from 1997 operations were Livermore site. 0 097 mrem (0 97 {mu}Sv) (80% from point-source emissions), 20% from diffuse-source emissions), Site 300 0 014 mrem (O 14 {mu}Sv) (38% from point-source emissions, 62% from diffuse-source emissions) The EDEs were generally calculated using the EPA-approved CAP88-PC air- dispersion/dose-assessment model Site-specific meteorological data, stack flow data, and emissions estimates based on radionuclide inventory data or continuous-monitoring systems data were the specific input to CAP88-PC for each modeled source.

  3. Compilation of LLNL CUP-2 Data

    SciTech Connect

    Eppich, G.; Kips, R.; Lindvall, R.

    2016-07-31

    The CUP-2 uranium ore concentrate (UOC) standard reference material, a powder, was produced at the Blind River uranium refinery of Eldorado Resources Ltd. in Canada in 1986. This material was produced as part of a joint effort by the Canadian Certified Reference Materials Project and the Canadian Uranium Producers Metallurgical Committee to develop a certified reference material for uranium concentration and the concentration of several impurity constituents. This standard was developed to satisfy the requirements of the UOC mining and milling industry, and was characterized with this purpose in mind. To produce CUP-2, approximately 25 kg of UOC derived from the Blind River uranium refinery was blended, homogenized, and assessed for homogeneity by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis. The homogenized material was then packaged into bottles, containing 50 g of material each, and distributed for analysis to laboratories in 1986. The CUP-2 UOC standard was characterized by an interlaboratory analysis program involving eight member laboratories, six commercial laboratories, and three additional volunteer laboratories. Each laboratory provided five replicate results on up to 17 analytes, including total uranium concentration, and moisture content. The selection of analytical technique was left to each participating laboratory. Uranium was reported on an “as-received” basis; all other analytes (besides moisture content) were reported on a “dry-weight” basis. A bottle of 25g of CUP-2 UOC standard as described above was purchased by LLNL and characterized by the LLNL Nuclear Forensics Group. Non-destructive and destructive analytical techniques were applied to the UOC sample. Information obtained from short-term techniques such as photography, gamma spectrometry, and scanning electron microscopy were used to guide the performance of longer-term techniques such as ICP-MS. Some techniques, such as XRF and ICP-MS, provided complementary types of data. The results

  4. Criticality Safety Evaluation of the LLNL Inherently Safe Subcritical Assembly (ISSA)

    SciTech Connect

    Percher, Catherine

    2012-06-19

    The LLNL Nuclear Criticality Safety Division has developed a training center to illustrate criticality safety and reactor physics concepts through hands-on experimental training. The experimental assembly, the Inherently Safe Subcritical Assembly (ISSA), uses surplus highly enriched research reactor fuel configured in a water tank. The training activities will be conducted by LLNL following the requirements of an Integration Work Sheet (IWS) and associated Safety Plan. Students will be allowed to handle the fissile material under the supervision of LLNL instructors. This report provides the technical criticality safety basis for instructional operations with the ISSA experimental assembly.

  5. Description of the Experimental Avionics Systems Integration Laboratory (EASILY)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Outlaw, Bruce K. E.

    1994-01-01

    The Experimental Avionics Systems Integration Laboratory (EASILY) is a comprehensive facility used for development, integration, and preflight validation of hardware and software systems for the Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) Program's Transport Systems Research Vehicle (TSRV) experimental transport aircraft. This report describes the history, capabilities, and subsystems of EASILY. A functional description of the many subsystems is provided to give potential users the necessary knowledge of the capabilities of this facility.

  6. Author Contribution to the Pu Handbook II: Chapter 37 LLNL Integrated Sample Preparation Glovebox (TEM) Section

    SciTech Connect

    Wall, Mark A.

    2016-10-25

    The development of our Integrated Actinide Sample Preparation Laboratory (IASPL) commenced in 1998 driven by the need to perform transmission electron microscopy studies on naturally aged plutonium and it’s alloys looking for the microstructural effects of the radiological decay process (1). Remodeling and construction of a laboratory within the Chemistry and Materials Science Directorate facilities at LLNL was required to turn a standard radiological laboratory into a Radiological Materials Area (RMA) and Radiological Buffer Area (RBA) containing type I, II and III workplaces. Two inert atmosphere dry-train glove boxes with antechambers and entry/exit fumehoods (Figure 1), having a baseline atmosphere of 1 ppm oxygen and 1 ppm water vapor, a utility fumehood and a portable, and a third double-walled enclosure have been installed and commissioned. These capabilities, along with highly trained technical staff, facilitate the safe operation of sample preparation processes and instrumentation, and sample handling while minimizing oxidation or corrosion of the plutonium. In addition, we are currently developing the capability to safely transfer small metallographically prepared samples to a mini-SEM for microstructural imaging and chemical analysis. The gloveboxes continue to be the most crucial element of the laboratory allowing nearly oxide-free sample preparation for a wide variety of LLNL-based characterization experiments, which includes transmission electron microscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, optical microscopy, electrical resistivity, ion implantation, X-ray diffraction and absorption, magnetometry, metrological surface measurements, highpressure diamond anvil cell equation-of-state, phonon dispersion measurements, X-ray absorption and emission spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry. The sample preparation and materials processing capabilities in the IASPL have also facilitated experimentation at world-class facilities such as the

  7. LLNL Middle East and North Africa research database

    SciTech Connect

    Ruppert, S.D.; Hauk, T.F.; Leach, R.

    1997-07-15

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) CTBT R{ampersand}D program has made significant progress assembling a comprehensive seismic database (DB) for events and derived parameters in the Middle East and North Africa (ME/NA). The LLNL research DB provides not only a coherent framework in which store and organize large volumes of collected seismic waveforms and associated event parameter information but also provides an efficient data processing/research environment. The DB is designed to be flexible and extensible in order to accommodate the large volumes of data in diverse formats from many sources in addition to maintaining detailed quality control and metadata. Researchers can make use of the relational nature of the DB and interactive analysis tools to quickly and efficiently process large volumes of data. Seismic waveforms have been systematically collected form a wide range of local and regional networks using numerous earthquake bulletins and converted a common format based on CSS3.O while undergoing quality control and corrections of errors. By combining traveltime observations, event characterization studies, and regional wave-propagation studies of the LLNL CTBT team, we are assembling a library of ground truth information and event location correction surfaces required to support the ME/NA regionalization program. Corrections and parameters distilled from the LLNL research DB will provide needed contributions to the DOE knowledge base for the ME/NA region and enable the USNDC and IDC to effectively verify CTBT compliance.

  8. Alfred Binet and experimental psychology at the Sorbonne laboratory.

    PubMed

    Nicolas, Serge; Sanitioso, Rasyid Bo

    2012-11-01

    Between 1892 and 1904, Alfred Binet (1857-1911) produced, in the psychology laboratory of the Sorbonne, a whole set of original works that still remains little known today. He integrated the laboratory, directed by the psychophysiologist Henry Beaunis (1830-1921), in 1891. We describe the circumstances that led Binet to take the direction of this laboratory in 1895 and present scientific investigations that were conducted there by Binet and his collaborators. For Binet, the laboratory was not narrowly limited to a set of rooms where experiments were conducted by means of sophisticated devices (experimental psychology), it was also a working area, regularly organized, where all the psychological documents were classified, whatever their origin (descriptive psychology). We show that Binet was a pioneer who is still little recognized in various areas of experimental psychology. Binet suffered, at the time, from the indifference of his contemporaries, but he especially regretted not being able to attract students to his laboratory due to the absence of diploma-offering programs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. [The 1, 2, 3 of laboratory animal experimentation].

    PubMed

    Romero-Fernandez, Wilber; Batista-Castro, Zenia; De Lucca, Marisel; Ruano, Ana; García-Barceló, María; Rivera-Cervantes, Marta; García-Rodríguez, Julio; Sánchez-Mateos, Soledad

    2016-06-01

    The slow scientific development in Latin America in recent decades has delayed the incorporation of laboratory animal experimentation; however, this situation has started to change. Today, extraordinary scientific progress is evident, which has promoted the introduction and increased use of laboratory animals as an important tool for the advancement of biomedical sciences. In the aftermath of this boom, the need to provide the scientific community with training and guidance in all aspects related to animal experimentation has arisen. It is the responsibility of each country to regulate this practice, for both bioethical and legal reasons, to ensure consideration of the animals' rights and welfare. The following manuscript is the result of papers presented at the International Workshop on Laboratory Animal Testing held at the Technical University of Ambato, Ecuador; it contains information regarding the current state of affairs in laboratory animal testing and emphasizes critical aspects such as main species used, ethical and legal principles, and experimental and alternative designs for animal use. These works aim to ensure good practices that should define scientific work. This document will be relevant to both researchers who aim to newly incorporate animal testing into their research and those who seek to update their knowledge.

  10. A numerical cloud model for the support of laboratory experimentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagen, D. E.

    1979-01-01

    A numerical cloud model is presented which can describe the evolution of a cloud starting from moist aerosol-laden air through the diffusional growth regime. The model is designed for the direct support of cloud chamber laboratory experimentation, i.e., experiment preparation, real-time control and data analysis. In the model the thermodynamics is uncoupled from the droplet growth processes. Analytic solutions for the cloud droplet growth equations are developed which can be applied in most laboratory situations. The model is applied to a variety of representative experiments.

  11. LLNL medical and industrial laser isotope separation: large volume, low cost production through advanced laser technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Comaskey, B.; Scheibner, K. F.; Shaw, M.; Wilder, J.

    1998-09-02

    The goal of this LDRD project was to demonstrate the technical and economical feasibility of applying laser isotope separation technology to the commercial enrichment (>lkg/y) of stable isotopes. A successful demonstration would well position the laboratory to make a credible case for the creation of an ongoing medical and industrial isotope production and development program at LLNL. Such a program would establish LLNL as a center for advanced medical isotope production, successfully leveraging previous LLNL Research and Development hardware, facilities, and knowledge.

  12. Regional seismic discrimination research at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, W.R.; Mayeda, K.M.; Goldstein, P.; Patton, H.J.; Jarpe, S.; Glenn, L.

    1995-10-01

    The ability to verify a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) depends in part on the ability to seismically detect and discriminate between potential clandestine underground nuclear tests and other seismic sources, including earthquakes and mining activities. Regional techniques are necessary to push detection and discrimination levels down to small magnitudes, but existing methods of event discrimination are mainly empirical and show much variability from region to region. The goals of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL`s) regional discriminant research are to evaluate the most promising discriminants, improve the understanding of their physical basis and use this information to develop new and more effective discriminants that can be transported to new regions of high monitoring interest. In this report the authors discuss preliminary efforts to geophysically characterize the Middle East and North Africa. They show that the remarkable stability of coda allows one to develop physically based, stable single station magnitude scales in new regions. They then discuss progress to date on evaluating and improving physical understanding and ability to model regional discriminants, focusing on the comprehensive NTS dataset. The authors apply this modeling ability to develop improved discriminants including slopes of P to S ratios. They find combining disparate discriminant techniques is particularly effective in identifying consistent outliers such as shallow earthquakes and mine seismicity. Finally they discuss development and use of new coda and waveform modeling tools to investigate special events.

  13. LLNL`s regional seismic discrimination research

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, W.R.; Mayeda, K.M.; Goldstein, P.

    1995-07-01

    The ability to negotiate and verify a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) depends in part on the ability to seismically detect and discriminate between potential clandestine underground nuclear tests and other seismic sources, including earthquakes and mining activities. Regional techniques are necessary to push detection and discrimination levels down to small magnitudes, but existing methods of event discrimination are mainly empirical and show much variability from region to region. The goals of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL`s) regional discriminant research are to evaluate the most promising discriminants, improve our understanding of their physical basis and use this information to develop new and more effective discriminants that can be transported to new regions of high monitoring interest. In this report we discuss our preliminary efforts to geophysically characterize two regions, the Korean Peninsula and the Middle East-North Africa. We show that the remarkable stability of coda allows us to develop physically based, stable single station magnitude scales in new regions. We then discuss our progress to date on evaluating and improving our physical understanding and ability to model regional discriminants, focusing on the comprehensive NTS dataset. We apply this modeling ability to develop improved discriminants including slopes of P to S ratios. We find combining disparate discriminant techniques is particularly effective in identifying consistent outliers such as shallow earthquakes and mine seismicity. Finally we discuss our development and use of new coda and waveform modeling tools to investigate special events.

  14. Radar Cross-Section Measurements of V22 Blade Tip with and without LLNL Tipcap Reflector

    SciTech Connect

    Poland, D; Simpson, R

    2000-07-01

    It is desired to quantify the effect, in terms of radar cross-section (RCS), of the addition of a small aluminum reflector to the end of the V22 blades. This reflector was designed and manufactured in order to facilitate blade lag measurements by the 95 GHz Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Radar Blade Tracker (RBT) system. The reflector used in these measurements was designed and fabricated at LLNL and is pictured in Figure 1.

  15. Summary Statistics for Homemade ?Play Dough? -- Data Acquired at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Kallman, J S; Morales, K E; Whipple, R E; Huber, R D; Martz, A; Brown, W D; Smith, J A; Schneberk, D J; Martz, Jr., H E; White, III, W T

    2010-03-11

    Using x-ray computerized tomography (CT), we have characterized the x-ray linear attenuation coefficients (LAC) of a homemade Play Dough{trademark}-like material, designated as PDA. Table 1 gives the first-order statistics for each of four CT measurements, estimated with a Gaussian kernel density estimator (KDE) analysis. The mean values of the LAC range from a high of about 2700 LMHU{sub D} 100kVp to a low of about 1200 LMHUD at 300kVp. The standard deviation of each measurement is around 10% to 15% of the mean. The entropy covers the range from 6.0 to 7.4. Ordinarily, we would model the LAC of the material and compare the modeled values to the measured values. In this case, however, we did not have the detailed chemical composition of the material and therefore did not model the LAC. Using a method recently proposed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), we estimate the value of the effective atomic number, Z{sub eff}, to be near 10. LLNL prepared about 50mL of the homemade 'Play Dough' in a polypropylene vial and firmly compressed it immediately prior to the x-ray measurements. We used the computer program IMGREC to reconstruct the CT images. The values of the key parameters used in the data capture and image reconstruction are given in this report. Additional details may be found in the experimental SOP and a separate document. To characterize the statistical distribution of LAC values in each CT image, we first isolated an 80% central-core segment of volume elements ('voxels') lying completely within the specimen, away from the walls of the polypropylene vial. All of the voxels within this central core, including those comprised of voids and inclusions, are included in the statistics. We then calculated the mean value, standard deviation and entropy for (a) the four image segments and for (b) their digital gradient images. (A digital gradient image of a given image was obtained by taking the absolute value of the difference between the initial image

  16. Summary Statistics for Fun Dough Data Acquired at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Kallman, J S; Morales, K E; Whipple, R E; Huber, R D; Brown, W D; Smith, J A; Schneberk, D J; Martz, Jr., H E; White, III, W T

    2010-03-11

    Using x-ray computerized tomography (CT), we have characterized the x-ray linear attenuation coefficients (LAC) of a Play Dough{trademark}-like product, Fun Dough{trademark}, designated as PD. Table 1 gives the first-order statistics for each of four CT measurements, estimated with a Gaussian kernel density estimator (KDE) analysis. The mean values of the LAC range from a high of about 2100 LMHU{sub D} at 100kVp to a low of about 1100 LMHU{sub D} at 300kVp. The standard deviation of each measurement is around 1% of the mean. The entropy covers the range from 3.9 to 4.6. Ordinarily, we would model the LAC of the material and compare the modeled values to the measured values. In this case, however, we did not have the composition of the material and therefore did not model the LAC. Using a method recently proposed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), we estimate the value of the effective atomic number, Z{sub eff}, to be near 8.5. LLNL prepared about 50mL of the Fun Dough{trademark} in a polypropylene vial and firmly compressed it immediately prior to the x-ray measurements. Still, layers can plainly be seen in the reconstructed images, indicating that the bulk density of the material in the container is affected by voids and bubbles. We used the computer program IMGREC to reconstruct the CT images. The values of the key parameters used in the data capture and image reconstruction are given in this report. Additional details may be found in the experimental SOP and a separate document. To characterize the statistical distribution of LAC values in each CT image, we first isolated an 80% central-core segment of volume elements ('voxels') lying completely within the specimen, away from the walls of the polypropylene vial. All of the voxels within this central core, including those comprised of voids and inclusions, are included in the statistics. We then calculated the mean value, standard deviation and entropy for (a) the four image segments and for (b

  17. Hazardous-waste analysis plan for LLNL operations

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, R.S.

    1982-02-12

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is involved in many facets of research ranging from nuclear weapons research to advanced Biomedical studies. Approximately 80% of all programs at LLNL generate hazardous waste in one form or another. Aside from producing waste from industrial type operations (oils, solvents, bottom sludges, etc.) many unique and toxic wastes are generated such as phosgene, dioxin (TCDD), radioactive wastes and high explosives. One key to any successful waste management program must address the following: proper identification of the waste, safe handling procedures and proper storage containers and areas. This section of the Waste Management Plan will address methodologies used for the Analysis of Hazardous Waste. In addition to the wastes defined in 40 CFR 261, LLNL and Site 300 also generate radioactive waste not specifically covered by RCRA. However, for completeness, the Waste Analysis Plan will address all hazardous waste.

  18. LLNL Mercury Project Trinity Open Science Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Brantley, Patrick; Dawson, Shawn; McKinley, Scott; O'Brien, Matt; Peters, Doug; Pozulp, Mike; Becker, Greg; Mohror, Kathryn; Moody, Adam

    2016-04-20

    The Mercury Monte Carlo particle transport code developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is used to simulate the transport of radiation through urban environments. These challenging calculations include complicated geometries and require significant computational resources to complete. As a result, a question arises as to the level of convergence of the calculations with Monte Carlo simulation particle count. In the Trinity Open Science calculations, one main focus was to investigate convergence of the relevant simulation quantities with Monte Carlo particle count to assess the current simulation methodology. Both for this application space but also of more general applicability, we also investigated the impact of code algorithms on parallel scaling on the Trinity machine as well as the utilization of the Trinity DataWarp burst buffer technology in Mercury via the LLNL Scalable Checkpoint/Restart (SCR) library.

  19. Status of Fast Ignition Program at LLNL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, P. K.; Bellei, C.; Chawla, S.; Chen, C.; Cohen, B.; Divol, L.; Higginson, D.; Kemp, A.; Kemp, G.; Key, M.; Larson, D.; Link, A.; Ma, T.; McLean, H.; Ping, Y.; Sawada, H.; Shay, H.; Strozzi, D.; Tabak, M.; Westover, B.; Wilks, S.

    2011-10-01

    The fast ignition (FI) approach to inertial confinement fusion offers the potential for achieving the high target gains required for Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE). This paper reports progress at LLNL on the development of a point design for an indirect-drive re-entrant-cone FI target. Integrated hohlraum and capsule designs are described that optimize the peak density, ρR and spatial uniformity of the fuel assembly around the cone tip. The interaction of the short-pulse ignitor beam in the cone is simulated with the PSC explicit particle-in-cell (PIC) code, and the subsequent transport of the electrons and core heating calculated with the Zuma hybrid transport code coupled to the Hydra radiation-hydrodynamics code. Progress will be described in the integrated modeling approach to fast ignition target design through the self-consistent treatment of the hohlraum radiation drive, capsule implosion, fast electron generation and transport, and core heating. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  20. Photoelectron Spectroscopy of U Oxide at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, J G; Yu, S; Chung, B W; Waddill, G D

    2010-03-02

    In our laboratory at LLNL, an effort is underway to investigate the underlying complexity of 5f electronic structure with spin-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy using chiral photonic excitation, i.e. Fano Spectroscopy. Our previous Fano measurements with Ce indicate the efficacy of this approach and theoretical calculations and spectral simulations suggest that Fano Spectroscopy may resolve the controversy concerning Pu electronic structure and electron correlation. To this end, we have constructed and commissioned a new Fano Spectrometer, testing it with the relativistic 5d system Pt. Here, our preliminary photoelectron spectra of the UO{sub 2} system are presented. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy has been used to characterize a sample of UO{sub 2} grown on an underlying substrate of Uranium. Both AlK{alpha} (1487 eV) and MgK{alpha} (1254 eV) emission were utilized as the excitation. Using XPS and comparing to reference spectra, it has been shown that our sample is clearly UO{sub 2}.

  1. Report on the B-Fields at NIF Workshop Held at LLNL October 12-13, 2015

    SciTech Connect

    Fournier, K. B.; Moody, J. D.

    2015-12-13

    A national ICF laboratory workshop on requirements for a magnetized target capability on NIF was held by NIF at LLNL on October 12 and 13, attended by experts from LLNL, SNL, LLE, LANL, GA, and NRL. Advocates for indirect drive (LLNL), magnetic (Z) drive (SNL), polar direct drive (LLE), and basic science needing applied B (many institutions) presented and discussed requirements for the magnetized target capabilities they would like to see. 30T capability was most frequently requested. A phased operation increasing the field in steps experimentally can be envisioned. The NIF management will take the inputs from the scientific community represented at the workshop and recommend pulse-powered magnet parameters for NIF that best meet the collective user requests. In parallel, LLNL will continue investigating magnets for future generations that might be powered by compact laser-B-field generators (Moody, Fujioka, Santos, Woolsey, Pollock). The NIF facility engineers will start to analyze compatibility of the recommended pulsed magnet parameters (size, field, rise time, materials) with NIF chamber constraints, diagnostic access, and final optics protection against debris in FY16. The objective of this assessment will be to develop a schedule for achieving an initial Bfield capability. Based on an initial assessment, room temperature magnetized gas capsules will be fielded on NIF first. Magnetized cryo-ice-layered targets will take longer (more compatibility issues). Magnetized wetted foam DT targets (Olson) may have somewhat fewer compatibility issues making them a more likely choice for the first cryo-ice-layered target fielded with applied Bz.

  2. NOAA/National Hurricane and Experimental Meteorological Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    National Hurricane and Experimental Meteorological Laboratory (NHEML) research programs concentrate on two atmospheric phenomena of the tropical troposphere: hurricanes and cumulus convection, together with the atmospheric environments in which they occur and with which they interact. These programs include basic research in the description of these phenomena and applied research in their prediction and potential beneficial modification. NHEML is partitioned into four working groups. Two important and logical parts of the research programs are the experimental program in hurricane modification (STORMFURY) and the program in cumulus modification (FACE). The ultimate goal of STORMFURY is the reduction of the maximum winds associated with the eyewall of hurricanes; the goal of FACE is to acquire a thorough understanding of cumulus cloud behavior that will enable NHEML to increase precipitation from cumulus clouds. The operational structure of NHEML and related agencies are presented.

  3. LLNL Torso Phantom Assembly and Disassembly

    SciTech Connect

    Hickman, D P

    2005-10-05

    This document from the LLNL In Vivo measurement Facility archives provides important historical as well as current methods for the proper handling of the LLNL Torso Phantom. This document was written circa 1980 and is intended for use by in vivo measurement facilities that perform calibrations using the LLNL Torso Phantom. Proper care and use of the LLNL Torso Phantom will greatly extend the useful lifetime of the phantom. The assembly, and disassembly of the Realistic Phantom are simple tasks and are, for the most part, self evident. However, there are some considerations that will make these tasks easier and assure long life of the parts. The assembly process is presented in Figures 1 through 9 while disassembly suggestions are illustrated in Figures 10 and 11.

  4. Fire science at LLNL: A review

    SciTech Connect

    Hasegawa, H.K.

    1990-03-01

    This fire sciences report from LLNL includes topics on: fire spread in trailer complexes, properties of welding blankets, validation of sprinkler systems, fire and smoke detectors, fire modeling, and other fire engineering and safety issues. (JEF)

  5. CFD analysis of LLNL downdraft table

    SciTech Connect

    Finlayson, Elizabeth U.; Jayaraman, Buvana; Kristoffersen, Astrid R.; Gadgil, Ashok J.

    2003-10-01

    This study examines the airflow and contaminant transport in an existing room (89 inch x 77 inch x 98 inch) that houses a downdraft table at LLNL. The facility was designed and built in the 1960's and is currently being considered for redesign. One objective of the redesign is to reduce airflow while maintaining or improving user safety. Because this facility has been used for many years to handle radioactive material it is impractical to conduct extensive experimental tests in it. Therefore, we have performed a Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) analysis of the facility. The study examines the current operational condition and some other cases with reduced airflow. Reducing airflow will lead to savings in operating costs (lower fan power consumption), and possible improvements in containment from reduced turbulence. In addition, we examine three design (geometry) changes. These are: (1) increasing the area of the HVAC inlet on the ceiling, (2) adding a 15{sup o} angled ceiling inlet and (3) increasing the area of the slot in the doorway. Of these three geometry modifications, only the larger doorway slot leads to improved predicted containment.

  6. Criticality Safety Evaluation of a LLNL Training Assembly for Criticality Safety (TACS)

    SciTech Connect

    Heinrichs, D P

    2006-06-26

    Hands-on experimental training in the physical behavior of multiplying systems is one of ten key areas of training required for practitioners to become qualified in the discipline of criticality safety as identified in DOE-STD-1135-99, ''Guidance for Nuclear Criticality Safety Engineer Training and Qualification''. This document is a criticality safety evaluation of the training activities (or operations) associated with HS-3200, ''Laboratory Class for Criticality Safety''. These activities utilize the Training Assembly for Criticality Safety (TACS). The original intent of HS-3200 was to provide LLNL fissile material handlers with a practical hands-on experience as a supplement to the academic training they receive biennially in HS-3100, ''Fundamentals of Criticality Safety'', as required by ANSI/ANS-8.20-1991, ''Nuclear Criticality Safety Training''. HS-3200 is to be enhanced to also address the training needs of nuclear criticality safety professionals under the auspices of the NNSA Nuclear Criticality Safety Program.

  7. LLNL 10(a)(1)(A) Annual Report (TE-053672-2)--2005

    SciTech Connect

    Woollett, J

    2006-01-26

    This report summarizes research related to Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Experimental Test Site, Site 300 (S300), located within Alameda and San Joaquin Counties (Figure 1) and conducted under the 10(a)(1)(A) (Recovery) permit TE-053672-2. This property is held in ownership by the U.S. Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). The 2005 Recovery research at S300 involved fieldwork associated with only two species: Alameda whipsnake (Masticophis lateralis euryxanthus) and the California red-legged frog (Rana aurora draytonii) (RLF). Note: the whipsnake subspecies existing at S300 shows taxonomic variation (generally 50% chaparral whipsnake [Masticophis lateralis] traits) when compared to the Alameda whipsnake (Riemer 1954) and therefore it will be referred to as ''California whipsnake (Masticophis lateralis)'' (CWS) for classification purposes in this report (Swaim 2004).

  8. Review of LLNL Mixed Waste Streams for the Application of Potential Waste Reduction Controls

    SciTech Connect

    Belue, A; Fischer, R P

    2007-01-08

    In July 2004, LLNL adopted the International Standard ISO 14001 as a Work Smart Standard in lieu of DOE Order 450.1. In support of this new requirement the Director issued a new environmental policy that was documented in Section 3.0 of Document 1.2, ''ES&H Policies of LLNL'', in the ES&H Manual. In recent years the Environmental Management System (EMS) process has become formalized as LLNL adopted ISO 14001 as part of the contract under which the laboratory is operated for the Department of Energy (DOE). On May 9, 2005, LLNL revised its Integrated Safety Management System Description to enhance existing environmental requirements to meet ISO 14001. Effective October 1, 2005, each new project or activity is required to be evaluated from an environmental aspect, particularly if a potential exists for significant environmental impacts. Authorizing organizations are required to consider the management of all environmental aspects, the applicable regulatory requirements, and reasonable actions that can be taken to reduce negative environmental impacts. During 2006, LLNL has worked to implement the corrective actions addressing the deficiencies identified in the DOE/LSO audit. LLNL has begun to update the present EMS to meet the requirements of ISO 14001:2004. The EMS commits LLNL--and each employee--to responsible stewardship of all the environmental resources in our care. The generation of mixed radioactive waste was identified as a significant environmental aspect. Mixed waste for the purposes of this report is defined as waste materials containing both hazardous chemical and radioactive constituents. Significant environmental aspects require that an Environmental Management Plan (EMP) be developed. The objective of the EMP developed for mixed waste (EMP-005) is to evaluate options for reducing the amount of mixed waste generated. This document presents the findings of the evaluation of mixed waste generated at LLNL and a proposed plan for reduction.

  9. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Environmental Report 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, H. E.; Bertoldo, N. A.; Blake, R. G.; Cerruti, S. J.; Dibley, V. R.; Doman, J. L.; Fish, C. B.; Grayson, A. R.; Heidecker, K. R.; Kumamoto, G.; MacQueen, D. H.; Montemayor, W. E.; Ottaway, H. L.; Paterson, L. E.; Revelli, M. A.; Rosene, C. A.; Terrill, A. A.; Wegrecki, A. M.; Wilson, K. R.; Woollett, J. S.; Veseliza, R.

    2014-10-01

    community by soliciting citizens’ input on matters of significant public interest and through various communications. The Laboratory also provides public access to information on its ES&H activities. LLNL consists of two sites—an urban site in Livermore, California, referred to as the “Livermore Site,” which occupies 1.3 square miles; and a rural Experimental Test Site, referred to as “Site 300,” near Tracy, California, which occupies 10.9 square miles. In 2013 the Laboratory had a staff of approximately 6,300.

  10. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Environmental Report 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Henry E.; Armstrong, Dave; Blake, Rick G.; Bertoldo, Nicholas A.; Cerruti, Steven J.; Fish, Craig; Dibley, Valerie R.; Doman, Jennifer L.; Grayson, Allen R.; Heidecker, Kelly R.; Hollister, Rod K.; Kumamoto, Gene; MacQueen, Donald H.; Nelson, Jennifer C.; Ottaway, Heather L.; Paterson, Lisa E.; Revelli, Michael A.; Rosene, Crystal A.; Terrill, Alison A.; Wegrecki, Anthony M.; Wilson, Kent R.; Woollett, Jim S.

    2013-09-19

    community by soliciting citizens’ input on matters of significant public interest and through various communications. The Laboratory also provides public access to information on its ES&H activities. LLNL consists of two sites—an urban site in Livermore, California, referred to as the “Livermore Site,” which occupies 1.3 square miles; and a rural Experimental Test Site, referred to as “Site 300,” near Tracy, California, which occupies 10.9 square miles. In 2012 the Laboratory had a staff of approximately 7000.

  11. Solid-State Modulator R&D at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, E G; Allen, F V; Anaya, E M; Gower, E J; Hawkins, S A; Hickman, B C; Lee, B S; Sullivan, J S; Watson, J A; Brooksby, C A; Yuhas, J; Cassel, R; Nguyen, M; Pappas, C; deLamare, J

    2002-12-04

    The Beam Research Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has been developing solid-state modulators for accelerator applications for several years. These modulators are based on inductive adder circuit topology and have demonstrated great versatility with regard to pulse width and pulse repetition rate while maintaining fast pulse rise and fall times. These modulators are also capable of being scaled to higher output voltage and power levels. An explanation of the circuit operation will be presented along with test data of several different hardware systems.

  12. LLNL Partners with IBM on Brain-Like Computing Chip

    ScienceCinema

    Van Essen, Brian

    2016-07-12

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) will receive a first-of-a-kind brain-inspired supercomputing platform for deep learning developed by IBM Research. Based on a breakthrough neurosynaptic computer chip called IBM TrueNorth, the scalable platform will process the equivalent of 16 million neurons and 4 billion synapses and consume the energy equivalent of a hearing aid battery – a mere 2.5 watts of power. The brain-like, neural network design of the IBM Neuromorphic System is able to infer complex cognitive tasks such as pattern recognition and integrated sensory processing far more efficiently than conventional chips.

  13. Evaluation of OGC Standards for Use in LLNL GIS

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, H; Chou, R M; Chubb, K K; Schek, J L

    2006-06-23

    Over the summer of 2005, the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Computer Applications and Research Department conducted a small project that examined whether Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standards might be useful in meeting program mission requirements more effectively. OGC standards are intended to facilitate interoperability between geospatial processing systems to lower development costs and to avoid duplication of effort and vendor lock-in. Some OGC standards appear to be gaining traction in the geospatial data community, the Federal government, Department of Energy (DOE) and Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and so an evaluation was deemed appropriate.

  14. LLNL Partners with IBM on Brain-Like Computing Chip

    SciTech Connect

    Van Essen, Brian

    2016-03-29

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) will receive a first-of-a-kind brain-inspired supercomputing platform for deep learning developed by IBM Research. Based on a breakthrough neurosynaptic computer chip called IBM TrueNorth, the scalable platform will process the equivalent of 16 million neurons and 4 billion synapses and consume the energy equivalent of a hearing aid battery – a mere 2.5 watts of power. The brain-like, neural network design of the IBM Neuromorphic System is able to infer complex cognitive tasks such as pattern recognition and integrated sensory processing far more efficiently than conventional chips.

  15. The European Network of Analytical and Experimental Laboratories for Geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freda, Carmela; Funiciello, Francesca; Meredith, Phil; Sagnotti, Leonardo; Scarlato, Piergiorgio; Troll, Valentin R.; Willingshofer, Ernst

    2013-04-01

    Integrating Earth Sciences infrastructures in Europe is the mission of the European Plate Observing System (EPOS).The integration of European analytical, experimental, and analogue laboratories plays a key role in this context and is the task of the EPOS Working Group 6 (WG6). Despite the presence in Europe of high performance infrastructures dedicated to geosciences, there is still limited collaboration in sharing facilities and best practices. The EPOS WG6 aims to overcome this limitation by pushing towards national and trans-national coordination, efficient use of current laboratory infrastructures, and future aggregation of facilities not yet included. This will be attained through the creation of common access and interoperability policies to foster and simplify personnel mobility. The EPOS ambition is to orchestrate European laboratory infrastructures with diverse, complementary tasks and competences into a single, but geographically distributed, infrastructure for rock physics, palaeomagnetism, analytical and experimental petrology and volcanology, and tectonic modeling. The WG6 is presently organizing its thematic core services within the EPOS distributed research infrastructure with the goal of joining the other EPOS communities (geologists, seismologists, volcanologists, etc...) and stakeholders (engineers, risk managers and other geosciences investigators) to: 1) develop tools and services to enhance visitor programs that will mutually benefit visitors and hosts (transnational access); 2) improve support and training activities to make facilities equally accessible to students, young researchers, and experienced users (training and dissemination); 3) collaborate in sharing technological and scientific know-how (transfer of knowledge); 4) optimize interoperability of distributed instrumentation by standardizing data collection, archive, and quality control standards (data preservation and interoperability); 5) implement a unified e-Infrastructure for data

  16. CDAC Student Report: Summary of LLNL Internship

    SciTech Connect

    Herriman, Jane E.

    2016-10-10

    Multiple objectives motivated me to apply for an internship at LLNL: I wanted to experience the work environment at a national lab, to learn about research and job opportunities at LLNL in particular, and to gain greater experience with code development, particularly within the realm of high performance computing (HPC). This summer I was selected to participate in LLNL's Computational Chemistry and Material Science Summer Institute (CCMS). CCMS is a 10 week program hosted by the Quantum Simulations group leader, Dr. Eric Schwegler. CCMS connects graduate students to mentors at LLNL involved in similar re- search and provides weekly seminars on a broad array of topics from within chemistry and materials science. Dr. Xavier Andrade and Dr. Erik Draeger served as my co-mentors over the summer, and Dr. Andrade continues to mentor me now that CCMS has concluded. Dr. Andrade is a member of the Quantum Simulations group within the Physical and Life Sciences at LLNL, and Dr. Draeger leads the HPC group within the Center for Applied Scientific Computing (CASC). The two have worked together to develop Qb@ll, an open-source first principles molecular dynamics code that was the platform for my summer research project.

  17. Experimental Stage Separation Tool Development in NASA Langley's Aerothermodynamics Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Kelly J.; Scallion, William I.

    2005-01-01

    As part of the research effort at NASA in support of the stage separation and ascent aerothermodynamics research program, proximity testing of a generic bimese wing-body configuration was conducted in NASA Langley's Aerothermodynamics Laboratory in the 20-Inch Mach 6 Air Tunnel. The objective of this work is the development of experimental tools and testing methodologies to apply to hypersonic stage separation problems for future multi-stage launch vehicle systems. Aerodynamic force and moment proximity data were generated at a nominal Mach number of 6 over a small range of angles of attack. The generic bimese configuration was tested in a belly-to-belly and back-to-belly orientation at 86 relative proximity locations. Over 800 aerodynamic proximity data points were taken to serve as a database for code validation. Longitudinal aerodynamic data generated in this test program show very good agreement with viscous computational predictions. Thus a framework has been established to study separation problems in the hypersonic regime using coordinated experimental and computational tools.

  18. LLNL's program on multiscale modeling of polycrystal plasticity

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz De La Rubia, T.; Holmes, N. H.; King, W. E.; Lassila, D. H.; Moriarty, J. A.; Nikkel, D. J.

    1998-04-27

    At LLNL a multiscale modeling program based on information-passing has been established for modeling the strength properties of a body-centered-cubic metal (tantalum) ,. under conditions of extreme plastic deformation. The plastic deformation experienced by an explosively-formed shaped-charge jet is an example of "extreme deformation". The shaped charge liner material undergoes high strain rate deformation at high hydrostatic pressure. The constitutive model for flow stress, which describes the deformation, is highly dependent on pressure, temperature, and strain-rate. Current material models can not be extrapolated to these extreme conditions because the underlying mechanisms of plastic deformation are poorly reflected in the models and laboratory experiments are limited to pressures orders of magnitude less than actual pressures. This disparity between actual deformation conditions and those that can be attained in laboratory experiments is the principle motivation behind the multiscale modeling program. The fundamental elements of LLNL's multiscale modeling program are distinct models at the atomistic, microscale and mesoscale/continuum length scales. The information that needs to be passed from the lower to higher length scales has been carefully defined to bound the levels of effort required to ''bridge'' length scales. Information that needs to be generated by the different simulations has been specified by a multidisciplinary steering group comprised of physicists, materials scientists and engineers. The ultimate goal of the program is to provide critical information on strength properties to be used in continuum computer code simulations. The technical work-plan involves three principle areas which are highly coupled: 1) simulation development, 2) deformation experiments and 3) characterizations of deformed crystals. The three work areas are presented which provide examples of the progress of LLNL's program.

  19. A Novel Experimental Technique to Simulate Pillar Burst in Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, M. C.; Zhao, F.; Cai, M.; Du, S.

    2015-09-01

    Pillar burst is one type of rockburst that occurs in underground mines. Simulating the stress change and obtaining insight into the pillar burst phenomenon under laboratory conditions are essential for studying the rock behavior during pillar burst in situ. To study the failure mechanism, a novel experimental technique was proposed and a series of tests were conducted on some granite specimens using a true-triaxial strainburst test system. Acoustic emission (AE) sensors were used to monitor the rock fracturing process. The damage evolution process was investigated using techniques such as macro and micro fracture characteristics observation, AE energy evolution, and b value analysis and fractal dimension analysis of cracks on fragments. The obtained results indicate that stepped loading and unloading simulated the pillar burst phenomenon well. Four deformation stages are divided as initial stress state, unloading step I, unloading step II, and final burst. It is observed that AE energy has a sharp increase at the initial stress state, accumulates slowly at unloading steps I and II, and increases dramatically at peak stress. Meanwhile, the mean b values fluctuate around 3.50 for the first three deformation stages and then decrease to 2.86 at the final stage, indicating the generation of a large amount of macro fractures. Before the test, the fractal dimension values are discrete and mainly vary between 1.10 and 1.25, whereas after failure the values concentrate around 1.25-1.35.

  20. Experimental laboratory system to generate high frequency test environments

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory, D.L.; Paez, T.L.

    1991-01-01

    This is an extension of two previous analytical studies to investigate a technique for generating high frequency, high amplitude vibration environments. These environments are created using a device attached to a common vibration exciter that permits multiple metal on metal impacts driving a test surface. These analytical studies predicted that test environments with an energy content exceeding 10 kHz could be achieved using sinusoidal and random shaker excitations. The analysis predicted that chaotic vibrations yielding random like test environments could be generated from sinusoidal inputs. In this study, a much simplified version of the proposed system was fabricated and tested in the laboratory. Experimental measurements demonstrate that even this simplified system, utilizing a single impacting object, can generate environments on the test surface with significant frequency content in excess of 40 kHz. Results for sinusoidal shaker inputs tuned to create chaotic impact response are shown along with the responses due to random vibration shaker inputs. The experiments and results are discussed. 4 refs., 5 figs.

  1. Introduction to the Phase Transition Kinetics Program at LLNL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belof, Jonathan; Benedict, Lorin; Chernov, Alexander; Dubois, Jonathan; Hall, Burl; Hamel, Sebastien; Haxhimali, Tomorr; Levesque, George; Minich, Roger; Olson, Britton; Oppelstrup, Tomas; Sadigh, Babak; Scullard, Christian; Zepeda-Ruiz, Luis

    2015-06-01

    At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) a new theoretical program has been launched with the objective of developing predictive theories and simulation codes for the description of non-equilibrium phase transitions that occur under shock and/or ramp compresion. The approach taken by our program is to formulate the precise nature of the problem at the atomistic, meso and continuum scales and to pursue a number of lines of inquiry that enable us to overcome several key theoretical barriers - this has taken the form of five cross-cutting research strands. In this talk, we will provide an overview of our program, present recent advances that our program has made on several fronts, and highlight the series of talks that members of the kinetics team will present at this conference. We will then focus on our hydrodynamically coupled multi-phase field and inline equation of state methodology that is embodied in the new LLNL code ``Samsa.'' Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is operated by Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC, for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC52-07NA2. Phase Transition Kinetics Program.

  2. LLNL Experiments at OMEGA in FY05

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, R E

    2005-10-06

    During FY05, LLNL was scheduled for 372 shots on Omega. These were distributed into 191 planned shots for the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) program, and 181 planned shots for the High Energy Density Sciences (HEDS) program. The actual Omega performance averaged 6% more shots than scheduled. A brief summary of the various campaigns follows, starting with HEDS experiments.

  3. Comparison of Laboratory Experimental Data to XBeach Numerical Model Output

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demirci, Ebru; Baykal, Cuneyt; Guler, Isikhan; Sogut, Erdinc

    2016-04-01

    generating data sets for testing and validation of sediment transport relationships for sand transport in the presence of waves and currents. In these series, there is no structure in the basin. The second and third series of experiments were designed to generate data sets for development of tombolos in the lee of detached 4m-long rubble mound breakwater that is 4 m from the initial shoreline. The fourth series of experiments are conducted to investigate tombolo development in the lee of a 4m-long T-head groin with the head section in the same location of the second and the third tests. The fifth series of experiments are used to investigate tombolo development in the lee of a 3-m-long rubble-mound breakwater positioned 1.5 m offshore of the initial shoreline. In this study, the data collected from the above mentioned five experiments are used to compare the results of the experimental data with XBeach numerical model results, both for the "no-structure" and "with-structure" cases regarding to sediment transport relationships in the presence of only waves and currents as well as the shoreline changes together with the detached breakwater and the T-groin. The main purpose is to investigate the similarities and differences between the laboratory experimental data behavior with XBeach numerical model outputs for these five cases. References: Baykal, C., Sogut, E., Ergin, A., Guler, I., Ozyurt, G.T., Guler, G., and Dogan, G.G. (2015). Modelling Long Term Morphological Changes with XBeach: Case Study of Kızılırmak River Mouth, Turkey, European Geosciences Union, General Assembly 2015, Vienna, Austria, 12-17 April 2015. Gravens, M.B. and Wang, P. (2007). "Data report: Laboratory testing of longshore sand transport by waves and currents; morphology change behind headland structures." Technical Report, ERDC/CHL TR-07-8, Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory, US Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Vicksburg, MS. Roelvink, D., Reniers, A., van Dongeren, A., van Thiel de

  4. LLNL XDIR. Network File Manager; Graphical FTP Client

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Neale

    1995-10-01

    LLNL XDIR is an OSF/Motif-based FTP client that provides a graphical user interface for drag-and-drop file transfer. LLNL XDIR simultaneously displays any number of directories for any number of hosts, with each directory being displayed in its own window. LLNL XDIR supports powerful directory browsing capability, including iconic and hierarchical views. LLNL XDIR is able to search directory structures (even across multiple hosts) for entry names that match a specified pattern.

  5. LLNL Middle East and North Africa research database

    SciTech Connect

    Dodge, D; Hauk, T; Moore, R M; O'Boyle, J; Ruppert, S

    1999-07-23

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Research and Development (CTBT R and D) program has made significant progress populating a comprehensive seismic research database (RDB) for seismic events and derived research products in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). Our original ME/NA study region has enlarged and is now defined as an area including the Middle East, Africa, Europe, Southwest Asia, the Former Soviet Union and the Scandinavian/Arctic region. The LLNL RDB will facilitate calibration of all International Monitoring System (IMS) stations (primary and auxiliary) or their surrogates (if not yet installed) as well as a variety of gamma stations. The RDB provides not only a coherent framework in which to store and organize large volumes of collected seismic waveforms and associated event parameter information, but also provides an efficient data processing/research environment for deriving location and discrimination correction sur faces and capabilities. In order to accommodate large volumes of data from many sources with diverse formats the RDB is designed to be flexible and extensible in addition to maintaining detailed quality control information and associated metadata. Station parameters, instrument responses, phase pick information, and event bulletins were compiled and made available through the RDB. For seismic events in the MENA region occurring between 1976 and 1999, we have systematically assembled, quality checked and organized event waveforms; continuous seismic data from 1990 to present are archived for many stations. Currently, over 11,400 seismic events and 1.2 million waveforms are maintained in the RDB and made readily available to researchers. In addition to open sources of seismic data, we have established collaborative relationships with several ME/NA countries that have yielded additional ground truth and broadband waveform data essential for regional calibration and capability

  6. LLNL 10(a)(1)(A) Annual Report (TE-053672-2)--2006

    SciTech Connect

    Woollett, J

    2007-01-31

    This report summarizes research related to Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Experimental Test Site, Site 300 (S300), located within Alameda and San Joaquin Counties (Figure 1) and conducted under the 10(a)(1)(A) (Recovery) permit TE-053672-2. The U.S. Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) holds this property in ownership. The 2006 recovery research at S300 involved fieldwork associated with two species: the California whipsnake (Masticophis lateralis) (MALA) and the California red-legged frog (Rana aurora draytonii) (CRLF). A research project (Biological Opinion 1-1-02-F-0064) investigating the direct effects (fatality/harm) and indirect impacts (habitat alteration) of prescribed burning of coastal sage scrub on MALA was permitted by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), Sacramento Office, in the Spring of 2002. Several different public resource management agencies were approved by the Service to implement recovery-oriented (fuels treatment) studies associated with this research plan. LLNL's proposed seven-year study was initiated in 2002 and is anticipated to conclude in 2008. Results reflected in this report apply to information gathered during the first five years of the project; because of the low MALA sample size collected onsite and the unforeseen wildland fire that burned both of the study sites in 2005, long term conservation-related measures for MALA are not yet evident from study analyses. The CRLF research (Biological Opinion 1-1-02-F-0062) involved translocating individuals from two wetland locations that had received artificial (potable) water discharges for the last 15-20 years. CRLF's that occupied the wetland sites were moved to an enhanced wetland area further downstream (engineered pools in a pre-existing perennial drainage) in an area called ''Mid-Elk Ravine''. The aboveground, potable water flows were terminated once all CRLF translocations had been completed (Summer of 2006).

  7. A Novel Approach to Semantic and Coreference Annotation at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Firpo, M

    2005-02-04

    A case is made for the importance of high quality semantic and coreference annotation. The challenges of providing such annotation are described. Asperger's Syndrome is introduced, and the connections are drawn between the needs of text annotation and the abilities of persons with Asperger's Syndrome to meet those needs. Finally, a pilot program is recommended wherein semantic annotation is performed by people with Asperger's Syndrome. The primary points embodied in this paper are as follows: (1) Document annotation is essential to the Natural Language Processing (NLP) projects at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); (2) LLNL does not currently have a system in place to meet its need for text annotation; (3) Text annotation is challenging for a variety of reasons, many related to its very rote nature; (4) Persons with Asperger's Syndrome are particularly skilled at rote verbal tasks, and behavioral experts agree that they would excel at text annotation; and (6) A pilot study is recommend in which two to three people with Asperger's Syndrome annotate documents and then the quality and throughput of their work is evaluated relative to that of their neuro-typical peers.

  8. Developments in ground-penetrating radar at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Sargis, P.D.

    1994-05-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is developing a side-looking, ground-penetrating impulse radar system that will eventually be mounted on an airborne platform to locate buried minefields. Presently, the radar system is mounted on top of a 60-foot adjustable boom. Several unique as well as commercial antennas having bandwidths in the 200 to 2000 MHz range are being experimented with. Also, LLNL-developed monocycle pulse generators are tailored to be most efficient over this frequency range. A technical description of the system will be presented with details about the video pulser, the wideband antennas, the receiver hardware, and the data acquisition system. The receiver and data acquisition hardware consist of off-the-shelf components. Testing of this system is conducted on a minefield located at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The minefield contains real and surrogate mines of various sizes placed in natural vegetation. Some areas of the minefield have been cleared for non-cluttered studies. In addition, both metal and plastic mines are buried in the minefield. There is room in the NTS minefield for burying additional objects, such as unexploded ordnance, and this is expected to be done in the future. Recent results indicate success in imaging the NTS minefield using the GPR system. The data has been processed using in-house image reconstruction software, and has been registered with the ground truth data. Images showing clearly visible mines, surface reference markers, and ground clutter will be presented.

  9. Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 1996 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ryerson, F. J., Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics

    1998-03-23

    Center, headed by Charles Alcock, provides a home for theoretical and observational astrophysics and serves as an interface with the Physics and Space Technology Department's Laboratory for Experimental Astrophysics and with other astrophysics efforts at LLNL. The IGPP branch at LLNL (as well as the branch at Los Alamos) also facilitates scientific collaborations between researchers at the UC campuses and those at the national laboratories in areas related to earth science, planetary science, and astrophysics. It does this by sponsoring the University Collaborative Research Program (UCRP), which provides funds to UC campus scientists for joint research projects with LLNL. The goals of the UCRP are to enrich research opportunities for UC campus scientists by making available to them some of LLNL's unique facilities and expertise, and to broaden the scientific program at LLNL through collaborative or interdisciplinary work with UC campus researchers. UCRP funds (provided jointly by the Regents of the University of California and by the Director of LLNL) are awarded annually on the basis of brief proposals, which are reviewed by a committee of scientists from UC campuses, LLNL programs, and external universities and research organizations. Typical annual funding for a collaborative research project ranges from $5,000 to $25,000. Funds are used for a variety of purposes, including salary support for visiting graduate students, postdoctoral fellows, and faculty; released-time salaries for LLNL scientists; and costs for experimental facilities. Although the permanent LLNL staff assigned to IGPP is relatively small (presently about five full-time equivalents), IGPP's research centers have become vital research organizations. This growth has been possible because of IGPP support for a substantial group of resident postdoctoral fellows; because of the 20 or more UCRP projects funded each year; and because IGPP hosts a variety of visitors, guests, and faculty members (from both UC

  10. LLNL Workshop on TEM of Pu

    SciTech Connect

    King, W.E.

    1996-09-10

    On Sept. 10, 1996, LLNL hosted a workshop aimed at answering the question: Is it possible to carry out transmission electron microscopy (TEM) on plutonium metal in an electron microscope located outside the LLNL plutonium facility. The workshop focused on evaluation of a proposed plan for Pu microscopy both from a technical and environment, health, and safety point of view. After review and modification of the plan, workshop participants unanimously concluded that: (1) the technical plan is sound, (2) this technical plan, including a proposal for a new TEM, provides significant improvements and unique capabilities compared with the effort at LANL and is therefore complementary, (3) there is no significant environment, health, and safety obstacle to this plan.

  11. LIFTERS-hyperspectral imaging at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Fields, D.; Bennett, C.; Carter, M.

    1994-11-15

    LIFTIRS, the Livermore Imaging Fourier Transform InfraRed Spectrometer, recently developed at LLNL, is an instrument which enables extremely efficient collection and analysis of hyperspectral imaging data. LIFTIRS produces a spatial format of 128x128 pixels, with spectral resolution arbitrarily variable up to a maximum of 0.25 inverse centimeters. Time resolution and spectral resolution can be traded off for each other with great flexibility. We will discuss recent measurements made with this instrument, and present typical images and spectra.

  12. Collaborative Model for Remote Experimentation Laboratories Used by Non-Hierarchical Distributed Groups of Engineering Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrera, Oriel A.; Fuller, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Remote experimentation laboratories (REL) are systems based on real equipment that allow students to carry out a laboratory practice through the Internet on the computer. In engineering, there have been numerous initiatives to implement REL over recent years, given the fundamental role of laboratory activities. However, in the past efforts have…

  13. Laboratory Experimentation of Autonomous Spacecraft Docking Using Cooperative Vision Navigation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-01

    EXPERIMENTATION OF AUTONOMOUS SPACECRAFT DOCKING USING COOPERATIVE VISION NAVIGATION by David A. Friedman December 2005 Thesis Advisor...Experimentation of Autonomous Spacecraft Docking Using Cooperative Vision Navigation 6. AUTHOR(S) David A. Friedman 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 7...distribution is unlimited 12b. DISTRIBUTION CODE 13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words) On-orbit, autonomous docking and spacecraft servicing are key areas

  14. Historical Background of Ultrahigh Pressure Shock Compression Experiments at LLNL: 1973 to 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Nellis, W.J.

    2000-10-09

    My purpose is to recount the historical development of ultrahigh pressure shock compression experiments at LLNL, which I experienced in the period 1973 to 2000. I used several experimental techniques: shock-impedance-match experiments using planar shock waves driven by nuclear explosives (NIMs), the Janus Laser, a railgun, and a two-stage light-gas gun.

  15. An Inquiry-Based Density Laboratory for Teaching Experimental Error

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prilliman, Stephen G.

    2012-01-01

    An inquiry-based laboratory exercise is described in which introductory chemistry students measure the density of water five times using either a beaker, a graduated cylinder, or a volumetric pipet. Students are also assigned to use one of two analytical balances, one of which is purposefully miscalibrated by 5%. Each group collects data using…

  16. ATTEMPTS TO ESTABLISH EXPERIMENTAL CYCLOSPORA CAYETANENSIS INFECTION IN LABORATORY ANIMALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Attempts were made to develop an animal model for Cyclospora cayetanensis to identify a practical laboratory host for studying human cyclosporiasis. Oocysts collected from stool of infected humans in the United States, Haiti, Guatemala, Peru and Nepal were held in potassium dich...

  17. ATTEMPS TO ESTABLISH EXPERIMENTAL CYCLOSPORA CAYETANENSIS INFECTION IN LABORATORY ANIMALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Attemps were made to develop an animal model for Cyclospora cayetanensis to identify a practical laboratory host for studing human cyclosporiasis. Oocysts collected from stool of infected humans in the United States, Haiti, Guatemala, Peru, and Nepal were held in potassium dichro...

  18. On the Use of Chicks as Experimental Laboratory Subjects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, David L.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Chickens, instead of rats, were used in an upper-level laboratory course on animal learning. To help other instructors interested in using chickens for a lab course, a discussion of the physical and behavioral characteristics of chickens is provided. Student reaction to the course is also discussed. (RM)

  19. Report on the Threatened Valley Elderberry Longhorn Beetle and its Elderberry Food Plant at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory--Site 300

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, Ph.D., R A; Woollett, J

    2004-11-16

    This report describes the results of an entomological survey in 2002 to determine the presence of the federally-listed, threatened Valley Elderberry Longhorn Beetle or ''VELB'' (Desmocerus culifornicus dimorphus: Coleoptera, Cerambycidae) and its elderberry food plant (Sumbucus mexicana: Caprifoliaceae) on the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Experimental Test Site, known as Site 300. In addition, an area located immediately southeast of Site 300, which is owned and managed by the California Department of Fish and Game (CDFG), but secured by LLNL, was also included in this survey. This report will refer to the survey areas as the LLNL-Site 300 and the CDFG site. The 2002 survey included mapping the locations of elderberry plants that were observed using a global positioning system (GPS) to obtain positional coordinates for every elderberry plant at Site 300. In addition, observations of VELB adults and signs of their infestation on elderberry plants were also mapped using GPS technology. LLNL requested information on the VELB and its elderberry food plants to update earlier information that had been collected in 1991 (Arnold 1991) as part of the 1992 EIS/EIR for continued operation of LLNL. No VELB adults were observed as part of this prior survey. The findings of the 2002 survey reported herein will be used by LLNL as it updates the expected 2004 Environmental Impact Statement for ongoing operations at LLNL, including Site 300.

  20. X- and {gamma}-ray computed tomography applications at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Roberson, G.P.; Martz, H.E.; Schneberk, D.J.; Azevedo, S.G.

    1993-04-01

    Members of the Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) Section at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) have implemented the advanced three-dimensional imaging technique of x and {gamma}-ray computed tomography (CAT or CT) for industrial and scientific nondestructive evaluation. This technique provides internal and external views of materials, components, and assemblies nonintrusively. Our research and development includes building CT scanners as well as data preprocessing, image reconstruction, display and analysis algorithms. These capabilities have been applied for a variety of industrial and scientific NDE applications where objects can range in size from 1 mm{sup 3} to 1 m{sup 3}. Here we discuss the usefulness of Cr to evaluate: Ballistic target materials, high-explosives shape charges, missile nosetips, and reactor-fuel tubes.

  1. DOE/LLNL verification symposium on technologies for monitoring nuclear tests related to weapons proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Nakanishi, K.K.

    1993-02-12

    The rapidly changing world situation has raised concerns regarding the proliferation of nuclear weapons and the ability to monitor a possible clandestine nuclear testing program. To address these issues, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL) Treaty Verification Program sponsored a symposium funded by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Arms Control, Division of Systems and Technology. The DOE/LLNL Symposium on Technologies for Monitoring Nuclear Tests Related to Weapons Proliferation was held at the DOE`s Nevada Operations Office in Las Vegas, May 6--7,1992. This volume is a collection of several papers presented at the symposium. Several experts in monitoring technology presented invited talks assessing the status of monitoring technology with emphasis on the deficient areas requiring more attention in the future. In addition, several speakers discussed proliferation monitoring technologies being developed by the DOE`s weapons laboratories.

  2. PLACE: an open-source python package for laboratory automation, control, and experimentation.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jami L; Tom Wörden, Henrik; van Wijk, Kasper

    2015-02-01

    In modern laboratories, software can drive the full experimental process from data acquisition to storage, processing, and analysis. The automation of laboratory data acquisition is an important consideration for every laboratory. When implementing a laboratory automation scheme, important parameters include its reliability, time to implement, adaptability, and compatibility with software used at other stages of experimentation. In this article, we present an open-source, flexible, and extensible Python package for Laboratory Automation, Control, and Experimentation (PLACE). The package uses modular organization and clear design principles; therefore, it can be easily customized or expanded to meet the needs of diverse laboratories. We discuss the organization of PLACE, data-handling considerations, and then present an example using PLACE for laser-ultrasound experiments. Finally, we demonstrate the seamless transition to post-processing and analysis with Python through the development of an analysis module for data produced by PLACE automation.

  3. No-thermal plasma processing of VOCs and NO{sub x} at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Merritt, B.T.; Hsiao, M.C.; Penetrante, B.M.; Vogtlin, G.E.; Wallman, P.H.

    1995-02-15

    For the past few years, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has been conducting a comprehensive research program on the application of non-thermal plasmas for air pollution control and abatement. This program combines an extensive modeling effort with an experimental facility and test program. We believe that there are two major issues to be addressed in order to apply non-thermal plasma processing to air pollution control; these are electrical energy consumption and byproduct identification. The thrust of our work has been to understand the scalability of the non-thermal process by focusing on the energy efficiency of the non-thermal process and to identify the byproducts to ensure that effluent gases from a non-thermal processor are benign. We have compared different types of electrical discharge reactors both theoretically and experimentally. Our interests in the application of non-thermal plasmas vary from the destruction of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to NO{sub x} reduction for mobile applications. This paper will discuss the processing of both NO{sub x} and VOCs by non-thermal plasmas at LLNL.

  4. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Reduction of Experimental Scale in High School and College General Chemistry Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Carole A.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Notes the careful observation of chemical reactivity phenomena has been and should be an important part of the general chemistry laboratory curriculum. Stresses reduction of experimental scale will help to ensure, in times of rampant chemophobia, that it remains so. Provides several examples of the methodology. (MVL)

  5. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Research Reactor Experimenters' Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Cagle, C.D.

    1982-10-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory has three multipurpose research reactors which accommodate testing loops, target irradiations, and beam-type experiments. Since the experiments must share common or similar facilities and utilities, be designed and fabricated by the same groups, and meet the same safety criteria, certain standards for these have been developed. These standards deal only with those properties from which safety and economy of time and money can be maximized and do not relate to the intent of the experiment or quality of the data obtained. The necessity for, and the limitations of, the standards are discussed; and a compilation of general standards is included.

  6. Status of gadolinium enrichment technology at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Haynam, C.; Comaskey, B.; Conway, J.; Eggert, J.; Glaser, J.; Ng, E.; Paisner, J.; Solarz, R.; Worden, E.

    1993-01-01

    A method based on,polarization selectivity and three step laser photoionization is presented for separation of the odd isotopes of gadolinium. Measurements of the spectroscopic parameters needed to quantify the excitation pathway are discussed. Model results are presented for the efficiency of photoionization. The vapor properties of electron beam vaporized gadolinium are presented which show dramatic cooling during the expansion of the hot dense vapor into a vacuum. This results in a significant increase in the efficiency of conversion of natural feed into enriched product in the AVLIS process. Production of enriched gadolinium for use in commercial power reactors appears to be economically viable using technology in use at LLNL.

  7. Requirements for Real-Time Laboratory Experimentation over the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salzmann, C.; Latchman, H. A.; Gillet, D.; Crisalle, O. D.

    A prototype system based on an inverted pendulum is used to study the Quality of Service and discuss requirements of remote-experimentation systems utilized for carrying out control engineering experiments over the Internet. This class of applications involves the transmission over the network of a variety of data types with their own peculiar…

  8. An open microcomputer-based laboratory system for perceptional experimentality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamalainen, Ari

    A computer, equipped with hardware for acquiring data about the properties of a physical system and programs for processing that data, is a powerful tool for physics research and instruction. There is strong evidence that utilizing microcomputer-based laboratories (MBLs) in instruction can lead to significantly improved learning. The perceptional approach is a method for physics instruction, developed at the Department of Physics, University of Helsinki. Its main arguments are that the meanings of the concepts must be learnt before their formal definitions and adoption, and that learning and research are fundamentally similar concept formation processes. Applying the perceptional approach requires the ability to perform quantitative experiments, either as students' laboratory exercises or as lecture demonstrations, and to process their results. MBL tools are essential for this. In student's laboratory exercises, they reduce the routine work and leave more time for the actual learning. In lecture demonstrations, they make it possible to perform the experiments in the tight time limits. At a previous stage of the research, a set of requirements was found that the perceptional approach places on MBL systems. The primary goal of this thesis is to build a prototype of a MBL system that would fulfil these requirements. A secondary goal is to describe technical aspects of a computerized measurement system from the standpoint of educational use. The prototype was built using mostly commercial sensors and data acquisition units. The software was written with a visual programming language, designed for instrumentation applications. The prototype system was developed and tested with a set of demonstrations of various topics in the Finnish high school physics curriculum, which were implemented according to the perceptional approach. Limited usability tests were also performed. The prototype was improved, until it could perform the test demonstrations. It was found to meet the

  9. Building a LLNL Capability in Radioactive Ion Beam Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Bernstein, L A; Becker, J A; Garrett, P E; Younes, W; Schiller, A

    2002-01-31

    The purpose of this LDRD was to establish a program at LLNL in radioactive ion beam (RIB) experiments that would use these experiments to address a wide range physics issues in both stellar nucleosynthesis and stockpile stewardship radiochemistry. The LDRD was funded for a total of two years (fiscal years 2000 and 2001) and transferred to the Physical Data Research Program in fiscal year 2002. Reactions on unstable nuclei and isomeric states play a central role in the formation of elements in both stars and nuclear devices. However, the abilities of reaction models to predict cross sections on radioactive nuclei are uncertain at best. This can be attributed to the lack of experimental data to guide reaction-modeling efforts. Only the 10% of all bound nuclei that can be formed with stable targets and beams have been accessed and studied. The proposed Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA) and existing RIB facilities offer an unprecedented opportunity to address many of the outstanding questions in nuclear structure, reactions and astrophysics by enabling the observation of nuclear reactions with radioactive targets and/or beams. The primary goal of this LDRD is to develop three experimental capabilities for use with RIB experiments: (1) Level density and {gamma}-ray strength function measurements using statistical {gamma}-rays. (2) Charged particle-induced cross sections measurements on radioactive nuclei. (3) Neutron-induced cross section measurements on a radioactive target. RIA and RIB based experiments are the new frontier for nuclear physics. The joint DOE/NSF nuclear science advisory committee has named development of a RIA facility in the United States as the highest new construction priority. In addition to addressing the questions presented above, this LDRD has helped to establish a position for LLNL at the forefront of the international nuclear science community.

  10. LLNL Results from CALIBAN-PROSPERO Nuclear Accident Dosimetry Experiments in September 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Lobaugh, M. L.; Hickman, D. P.; Wong, C. W.; Wysong, A. R.; Merritt, M. J.; Heinrichs, D. P.; Topper, J. D.

    2015-05-21

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) uses thin neutron activation foils, sulfur, and threshold energy shielding to determine neutron component doses and the total dose from neutrons in the event of a nuclear criticality accident. The dosimeter also uses a DOELAP accredited Panasonic UD-810 (Panasonic Industrial Devices Sales Company of America, 2 Riverfront Plaza, Newark, NJ 07102, U.S.A.) thermoluminescent dosimetery system (TLD) for determining the gamma component of the total dose. LLNL has participated in three international intercomparisons of nuclear accident dosimeters. In October 2009, LLNL participated in an exercise at the French Commissariat à l’énergie atomique et aux énergies alternatives (Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission- CEA) Research Center at Valduc utilizing the SILENE reactor (Hickman, et.al. 2010). In September 2010, LLNL participated in a second intercomparison at CEA Valduc, this time with exposures at the CALIBAN reactor (Hickman et al. 2011). This paper discusses LLNL’s results of a third intercomparison hosted by the French Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (Institute for Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety- IRSN) with exposures at two CEA Valduc reactors (CALIBAN and PROSPERO) in September 2014. Comparison results between the three participating facilities is presented elsewhere (Chevallier 2015; Duluc 2015).

  11. Guided Inquiry in a Biochemistry Laboratory Course Improves Experimental Design Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodey, Nina M.; Talgar, Cigdem P.

    2016-01-01

    Many biochemistry laboratory courses expose students to laboratory techniques through pre-determined experiments in which students follow stepwise protocols provided by the instructor. This approach fails to provide students with sufficient opportunities to practice experimental design and critical thinking. Ten inquiry modules were created for a…

  12. General Science, Ninth Grade: Theme III and Theme IV. Student Laboratory Manual. Experimental.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Curriculum and Instruction.

    This document is the student laboratory manual that was designed to accompany some of the experimental activities found in the teacher's guide to this general science course for ninth graders. It contains laboratory worksheets for lessons on such topics as: (1) soil; (2) hazardous waste; (3) wildlife refuges; (4) the water cycle; (5) water…

  13. [Laboratory animal anaesthesia: influence of anaesthetic protocols on experimental models].

    PubMed

    Bazin, J-E; Constantin, J-M; Gindre, G

    2004-08-01

    The use of experimental animals requires anaesthesia to provide immobility and analgesia. Animals require anaesthesia not only for ethical reasons but also because pain and stress can alter the quality of research results. Recognition of pain, and its treatment is important throughout the procedure. Before anaesthesia, animals are acclimated and rehydrated. Except in small rodents and in ruminants, in order to avoid vomiting, a fast of 8 to 12 hours before anaesthesia is recommended. In order to protect animals against suffering and distress during transfer, restraint and management, a premedication is administered. Most human anaesthetic products can be used in animals. There are some specific veterinary anaesthetics. Moreover, the anaesthetic effects could be different from specie to an other. In most big animals, induction is realized by intravenous administration. In small rodents, venous puncture and contention could be difficult, and anaesthetic agents may be injected via intraperitoneal or intramuscular way. The principal inconvenient of these administration routes is the impossibility to adjust dose to animal response. In large animals, human anaesthesia material can be used. Some technical adaptations could be necessary in smaller animals. In rodents or in neonatology, specific devices are recommended. ECG, arterial pressure, tidal volume, expired CO(2) and oxygen saturation monitoring assess quality of, and tolerance to anaesthesia. If animals are awaked after anaesthesia, postoperative management is closed to human clinical problems. During animal experimentations, anaesthesia may interact with results. All anaesthetic drugs alter normal physiology in some way and may confound physiologic results. In the literature, most publications do not mention this possible interaction. Investigators need to understand how animals are affected by anaesthetic drugs in order to formulate anaesthetic protocols with minimal effects on data. Extrapolation between

  14. DOE/LLNL verification symposium on technologies for monitoring nuclear tests related to weapons proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Nakanishi, K.K.

    1993-02-12

    The rapidly changing world situation has raised concerns regarding the proliferation of nuclear weapons and the ability to monitor a possible clandestine nuclear testing program. To address these issues, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Treaty Verification Program sponsored a symposium funded by the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Arms Control, Division of Systems and Technology. The DOE/LLNL Symposium on Technologies for Monitoring Nuclear Tests Related to Weapons Proliferation was held at the DOE's Nevada Operations Office in Las Vegas, May 6--7,1992. This volume is a collection of several papers presented at the symposium. Several experts in monitoring technology presented invited talks assessing the status of monitoring technology with emphasis on the deficient areas requiring more attention in the future. In addition, several speakers discussed proliferation monitoring technologies being developed by the DOE's weapons laboratories.

  15. Laboratory experimental investigation of heat transport in fractured media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherubini, Claudia; Pastore, Nicola; Giasi, Concetta I.; Allegretti, Nicoletta Maria

    2017-01-01

    Low enthalpy geothermal energy is a renewable resource that is still underexploited nowadays in relation to its potential for development in society worldwide. Most of its applications have already been investigated, such as heating and cooling of private and public buildings, road defrosting, cooling of industrial processes, food drying systems or desalination. Geothermal power development is a long, risky and expensive process. It basically consists of successive development stages aimed at locating the resources (exploration), confirming the power generating capacity of the reservoir (confirmation) and building the power plant and associated structures (site development). Different factors intervene in influencing the length, difficulty and materials required for these phases, thereby affecting their cost. One of the major limitations related to the installation of low enthalpy geothermal power plants regards the initial development steps that are risky and the upfront capital costs that are huge. Most of the total cost of geothermal power is related to the reimbursement of invested capital and associated returns. In order to increase the optimal efficiency of installations which use groundwater as a geothermal resource, flow and heat transport dynamics in aquifers need to be well characterized. Especially in fractured rock aquifers these processes represent critical elements that are not well known. Therefore there is a tendency to oversize geothermal plants. In the literature there are very few studies on heat transport, especially on fractured media. This study is aimed at deepening the understanding of this topic through heat transport experiments in fractured networks and their interpretation. Heat transfer tests have been carried out on the experimental apparatus previously employed to perform flow and tracer transport experiments, which has been modified in order to analyze heat transport dynamics in a network of fractures. In order to model the obtained

  16. A probabilistic risk assessment of the LLNL Plutonium facility`s evaluation basis fire operational accident

    SciTech Connect

    Brumburgh, G.

    1994-08-31

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Plutonium Facility conducts numerous involving plutonium to include device fabrication, development of fabrication techniques, metallurgy research, and laser isotope separation. A Safety Analysis Report (SAR) for the building 332 Plutonium Facility was completed rational safety and acceptable risk to employees, the public, government property, and the environment. This paper outlines the PRA analysis of the Evaluation Basis Fire (EDF) operational accident. The EBF postulates the worst-case programmatic impact event for the Plutonium Facility.

  17. Leaching study of PNL 76-68 glass beads using the LLNL continuous-flow method and the PNL-modified IAEA method. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Buddemeier, R.W.; Coles, D.G.; Mensing, R.W.; Rego, J.; Weed, H.C.

    1982-08-20

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has conducted a long-term single-pass continuous-flow (SPCF) leaching test of the glass waste form PNL 76-68. Leaching rates of Np, Pu, and various stable elements were measured at 25/sup 0/ and 75/sup 0/C with three different solutions and three different flow rates. The purposes of the study were: (1) to compare SPCF leaching results with the results of a modified IAEA leach test performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL); (2) to establish elemental leach rates and their variation with temperature, flow rate and solution composition; and (3) to gain insight into the leaching mechanisms. The LLNL and PNL leach tests yielded results which appear to agree within experimental uncertainties. The magnitude of the leach rates determined for Np and the glass matrix elements is 10/sup -5/ grams of glass/cm/sup 2/ geometric solid surface area/day. The rates increase with temperature and with solution flow rate, and are similar in brine and distilled water but higher in a bicarbonate solution. Other cations exhibit somewhat different behavior, and Pu in particular yields a much lower apparent leach rate, probably because of sorption or precipitation effects after release from the glass matrix. After the initial few days, most elements are leached at a constant rate. Matrix dissolution appears to be the most probable rate controlling step for the leaching of most elements.

  18. GAMMA-RAY COMPTON LIGHT SOURCE DEVELOPMENT AT LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Hartemann, F V; Anderson, S G; Gibson, D J; Hagmann, C A; Johnson, M S; Jovanovic, I; Messerly, M J; Pruet, J A; Shverdin, M Y; Tremaine, A M; McNabb, D P; Siders, C W; Barty, C J

    2007-08-15

    A new class of tunable, monochromatic {gamma}-ray sources capable of operating at high peak and average brightness is currently being developed at LLNL for nuclear photoscience and applications. These novel systems are based on Compton scattering of laser photons by a high brightness relativistic electron beam produced by an rf photoinjector. A prototype, capable of producing > 10{sup 8} 0.7 MeV photons in a single shot, with a fractional bandwidth of 1%, and a repetition rate of 10 Hz, is currently under construction at LLNL; this system will be used to perform nuclear resonance fluorescence experiments. A new symmetrized S-band rf gun, using a Mg photocathode, will produce up to 1 nC of charge in an 8 ps bunch, with a normalized emittance modeled at 0.8 mm.mrad; electrons are subsequently accelerated up to 120 MeV to interact with a 500 mJ, 10 ps, 355 nm laser pulse and generate {gamma}-rays. The laser front end is a fiber-based system, using corrugated-fiber Bragg gratings for stretching, and drives both the frequency-quadrupled photocathode illumination laser and the Nd:YAG interaction laser. Two new technologies are used in the laser: a hyper-Michelson temporal pulse stacker capable of producing 8 ps square UV pulses, and a hyper-dispersion compressor for the interaction laser. Other key technologies, basic scaling laws, and recent experimental results will also be presented, along with an overview of future research and development directions.

  19. Phase II Audit Report - Energy & Water Audits of LLNL Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Horst, B I; Jacobs, P C; Pierce, S M

    2005-08-03

    This report describes Phase II of a project conducted for the Mechanical Utilities Division (UTel), Energy Management Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) by Architectural Energy Corporation (AEC). The overall project covers energy efficiency and water conservation auditing services for 215 modular and prefabricated buildings at LLNL. The primary goal of this project is to demonstrate compliance with DOE Order 430.2A, Contractor Requirements Document section 2.d (2) Document, to demonstrate annual progress of at least 10 percent toward completing energy and water audits of all facilities. Although this project covers numerous buildings, they are all similar in design and use. The approach employed for completing audits for these facilities involves a ''model-similar building'' approach. In the model-similar building approach, similarities between groups of buildings are established and quantified. A model (or test case) building is selected and analyzed for each model-similar group using a detailed DOE-2 simulation. The results are extended to the group of similar buildings based on careful application of quantified similarities, or ''extension measures''. This approach leverages the relatively minor effort required to evaluate one building in some detail to a much larger population of similar buildings. The facility wide energy savings potential was calculated for a select set of measures that have reasonable payback based on the detailed building analysis and are otherwise desirable to the LLNL facilities staff. The selected measures are: (1) HVAC Tune-up. This is considered to be a ''core measure'', based on the energy savings opportunity and the impact on thermal comfort. All HVAC units in the study are assumed to be tuned up under this measure. See the Appendix for a detailed calculation by building and HVAC unit. (2) HVAC system scheduling. This is also considered to be a ''core measure'', based on the energy savings opportunity and

  20. The Plymouth Laboratory and the institutionalization of experimental zoology in Britain in the 1920s.

    PubMed

    Erlingsson, Steindór J

    2009-01-01

    The Plymouth Laboratory of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom (1884) was founded in 1888. In addition to conducting morphological and other biological research, the founders of the laboratory aimed at promoting research in experimental zoology which will be used in this paper as a synonym for e.g. experimental embryology, comparative physiology or general physiology. This dream was not fully realized until 1920. The Great War and its immediate aftermath had a positive impact on the development of the Plymouth Laboratory. The war greatly upset the operation of the Zoological Station in Naples and the ensuing crisis in its operations was closely related to the establishment of the physiological department in Plymouth in 1920. Two other key factors in the Plymouth story were the establishment of the Development Fund in 1909, which began contributing funds to the Plymouth Laboratory in 1912, and the patronage of the Cambridge zoologist George P. Bidder (1863-1954). This paper will focus on the combined influence of the Development Fund and Bidder on the development of the Plymouth Laboratory from around 1902 through the early 1920s, and the important role the laboratory played in promoting experimental zoology in Britain in the 1920s.

  1. [LABORATORY AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THE COMPLEX PROBIOTIC PREPARATION "BIFILACT-BILS" IN CAPSULATED FORM].

    PubMed

    Neschislyaev, V A; Stolbova, M G; Mokin, P A; Orlova, E V; Ershov, A E

    2016-01-01

    The composition and technology of complex probiotic in hard gelatin capsules was developed in Perm Branch "Biomed" of "Microgen" State Company. The preparation contains three production strains: Lactobacillus plantarum 8P-A3, L. acidophilus K3W24 and Bifidobacterium bifidum 1. Laboratory and experimental (preclinical) study of the probiotic included investigation of the antagonistic activity, "acute" and "chronic" toxicity, the effect of the preparation on histology and hematology of laboratory animals. The result of these studies suggested of the probiotic had high inhibitory activity against pathogenic microflora when compared with probiotic monopreparations and had no toxic effects on laboratory animals.

  2. LLNL demonstration of base hydrolysate decomposition in a 0.035 gallon per minute scale reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Cena, R.J.; Thorsness, C.B.; Coburn, T.; Watkins, B.E.

    1994-06-01

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has built and operated a pilot plant for processing oil shale using recirculating hot solids. This pilot plant, was adapted in 1993 to demonstrate the feasibility of decomposing base hydrolysate, a mixture of sodium nitrite, sodium formate and other constituents. This material is the waste stream from the base hydrolysis process for destruction of energetic materials, being studied by researchers at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). In the Livermore process, the waste feed is thermally treated in a moving packed bed of ceramic spheres, where constituents in the waste decompose, in the presence of carbon dioxide, to form solid sodium carbonate and a suite of gases including: methane, carbon monoxide, oxygen, nitrogen oxides, ammonia and possibly molecular nitrogen. The authors performed an extended one day (8 hour) test of the solids recirculation system, with continuous injection of approximately 0.035 gal/min of waste for period of seven hours. Continuous on-line gas analysis was invaluable in tracking the progress of the experiment and quantifying the decomposition products. Analyses showed the primary solid product, collected in the lift exit cyclone, was indeed sodium carbonate, as expected. For the reactor condition studied in this test, N{sub 2}O was found to be the primary nitrogen bearing gas species. However, other experimental results indicate that in a more oxidizing environment, with longer residence times, the production of N{sub 2}O can be limited. In the test, approximately equal quantities of ammonia and nitrogen bearing oxide gases were produced (NO, NO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O).

  3. Natural Language Processing as a Discipline at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Firpo, M A

    2005-02-04

    The field of Natural Language Processing (NLP) is described as it applies to the needs of LLNL in handling free-text. The state of the practice is outlined with the emphasis placed on two specific aspects of NLP: Information Extraction and Discourse Integration. A brief description is included of the NLP applications currently being used at LLNL. A gap analysis provides a look at where the technology needs work in order to meet the needs of LLNL. Finally, recommendations are made to meet these needs.

  4. Java Performance for Scientific Applications on LLNL Computer Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kapfer, C; Wissink, A

    2002-05-10

    Languages in use for high performance computing at the laboratory--Fortran (f77 and f90), C, and C++--have many years of development behind them and are generally considered the fastest available. However, Fortran and C do not readily extend to object-oriented programming models, limiting their capability for very complex simulation software. C++ facilitates object-oriented programming but is a very complex and error-prone language. Java offers a number of capabilities that these other languages do not. For instance it implements cleaner (i.e., easier to use and less prone to errors) object-oriented models than C++. It also offers networking and security as part of the language standard, and cross-platform executables that make it architecture neutral, to name a few. These features have made Java very popular for industrial computing applications. The aim of this paper is to explain the trade-offs in using Java for large-scale scientific applications at LLNL. Despite its advantages, the computational science community has been reluctant to write large-scale computationally intensive applications in Java due to concerns over its poor performance. However, considerable progress has been made over the last several years. The Java Grande Forum [1] has been promoting the use of Java for large-scale computing. Members have introduced efficient array libraries, developed fast just-in-time (JIT) compilers, and built links to existing packages used in high performance parallel computing.

  5. Compact Laser-Compton X-ray Source at LLNL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Yoonwoo; Marsh, Roark; Gibson, David; Anderson, Gerald; Barty, Christopher; Tajima, Toshiki

    2016-10-01

    The scaling of laser-Compton X-ray and gamma-ray sources is dependent upon high-current, low-emittance accelerator operation and implementation of efficient laser-electron interaction architectures. Laser-Compton X-rays have been produced using the unique compact X-band linear accelerator at LLNL operated in a novel multibunch mode, and results agree extremely well with modeling predictions. An Andor X-ray CCD camera and image plates have been calibrated and used to characterize the 30 keV laser-Compton X-ray beam. The X-ray source size and the effect of scintillator blur have been measured. K-edge absorption measurements using thin metallic foils confirm the production of narrow energy spread X-rays and results validate X-ray image simulations. Future plans for medically relevant imaging will be discussed with facility upgrades to enable 250 keV X-ray production. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  6. Laboratory Directed Research and Development FY2011 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Craig, W; Sketchley, J; Kotta, P

    2012-03-22

    A premier applied-science laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has earned the reputation as a leader in providing science and technology solutions to the most pressing national and global security problems. The LDRD Program, established by Congress at all DOE national laboratories in 1991, is LLNL's most important single resource for fostering excellent science and technology for today's needs and tomorrow's challenges. The LDRD internally directed research and development funding at LLNL enables high-risk, potentially high-payoff projects at the forefront of science and technology. The LDRD Program at Livermore serves to: (1) Support the Laboratory's missions, strategic plan, and foundational science; (2) Maintain the Laboratory's science and technology vitality; (3) Promote recruiting and retention; (4) Pursue collaborations; (5) Generate intellectual property; and (6) Strengthen the U.S. economy. Myriad LDRD projects over the years have made important contributions to every facet of the Laboratory's mission and strategic plan, including its commitment to nuclear, global, and energy and environmental security, as well as cutting-edge science and technology and engineering in high-energy-density matter, high-performance computing and simulation, materials and chemistry at the extremes, information systems, measurements and experimental science, and energy manipulation. A summary of each project was submitted by the principal investigator. Project summaries include the scope, motivation, goals, relevance to DOE/NNSA and LLNL mission areas, the technical progress achieved in FY11, and a list of publications that resulted from the research. The projects are: (1) Nuclear Threat Reduction; (2) Biosecurity; (3) High-Performance Computing and Simulation; (4) Intelligence; (5) Cybersecurity; (6) Energy Security; (7) Carbon Capture; (8) Material Properties, Theory, and Design; (9) Radiochemistry; (10) High-Energy-Density Science; (11) Laser Inertial

  7. Lightning Protection System for HE Facilities at LLNL - Certification Template

    SciTech Connect

    Clancy, T J; Ong, M M; Brown, C G

    2005-12-08

    This document is meant as a template to assist in the development of your own lighting certification process. Aside from this introduction and the mock representative name of the building (Building A), this document is nearly identical to a lightning certification report issued by the Engineering Directorate at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. At the date of this release, we have certified over 70 HE processing and storage cells at our Site 300 facilities. In Chapters 1 and 2 respectively, we address the need and methods of lightning certification for HE processing and storage facilities at LLNL. We present the preferred method of lightning protection in Chapter 3, as well as the likely building modifications that are needed to comply with this method. In Chapter 4, we present the threat assessment and resulting safe work areas within a cell. After certification, there may be changes to operations during a lightning alert, and this is discussed in Chapter 5. Chapter 6 lists the maintenance requirements for the continuation of lighting certification status. Appendices of this document are meant as an aid in developing your own certification process, and they include a bonding list, an inventory of measurement equipment, surge suppressors in use at LLNL, an Integrated Work and Safety form (IWS), and a template certification sign-off sheet. The lightning certification process involves more that what is spelled out in this document. The first steps involve considerable planning, the securing of funds, and management and explosives safety buy-in. Permits must be obtained, measurement equipment must be assembled and tested, and engineers and technicians must be trained in their use. Cursory building inspections are also recommended, and surge suppression for power systems must be addressed. Upon completion of a certification report and its sign-off by management, additional work is required. Training will be needed in order to educate workers and facility managers

  8. LLNL/JNC repository collaboration interim progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Bourcier, W.L.; Couch, R.G.; Gansemer, J.; Halsey, W.G.; Palmer, C.E.; Sinz, K.H.; Stout, R.B.; Wijesinghe, A.; Wolery, T.J.

    1999-07-01

    Under this Annex, a research program on the near-field performance assessment related to the geological disposal of radioactive waste will be carried out at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in close collaboration with the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation of Japan (PNC). This program will focus on activities that provide direct support for PNC's near-term and long-term needs that will, in turn, utilize and further strengthen US capabilities for radioactive waste management. The work scope for two years will be designed based on the PNC's priorities for its second progress report (the H12 report) of research and development for high-level radioactive waste disposal and on the interest and capabilities of the LLNL. The work will focus on the chemical modeling for the near-field environment and long-term mechanical modeling of engineered barrier system as it evolves. Certain activities in this program will provide for a final iteration of analyses to provide additional technical basis prior to the year 2000 as determined in discussions with the PNC's technical coordinator. The work for two years will include the following activities: Activity 1: Chemical Modeling of EBS Materials Interactions--Task 1.1 Chemical Modeling of Iron Effects on Borosilicate Glass Durability; and Task 1.2 Changes in Overpack and Bentonite Properties Due to Metal, Bentonite and Water Interactions. Activity 2: Thermodynamic Database Validation and Comparison--Task 2.1 Set up EQ3/6 to Run with the Pitzer-based PNC Thermodynamic Data Base; Task 2.2 Provide Expert Consultation on the Thermodynamic Data Base; and Task 2.3 Provide Analysis of Likely Solubility Controls on Selenium. Activity 3: Engineered Barrier Performance Assessment of the Unsaturated, Oxidizing Transient--Task 3.1 Apply YMIM to PNC Transient EBS Performance; Task 3.2 Demonstrate Methods for Modeling the Return to Reducing Conditions; and Task 3.3 Evaluate the Potential for Stress Corrosion

  9. Experimental Modal Test of the Laboratory Model of Steel Truss Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kortiš, Ján; Daniel, Ľuboš; Škarupa, Milan; Ďuratný, Maroš

    2016-12-01

    The experimental modal analysis is often used to validate the accuracy of dynamic numerical models. It is also a good tool to obtain valuable information about current condition of the structures that could help to determine residual lifetime. The quality of modal testing results is highly dependent on the proper estimation of the natural frequencies from the frequency response function. This article presents the experimental modal test of the laboratory steel structure in which the natural frequencies and mode shapes are determined.

  10. "They Sweat for Science": The Harvard Fatigue Laboratory and Self-Experimentation in American Exercise Physiology.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Andi

    2015-08-01

    In many scientific fields, the practice of self-experimentation waned over the course of the twentieth century. For exercise physiologists working today, however, the practice of self-experimentation is alive and well. This paper considers the role of the Harvard Fatigue Laboratory and its scientific director, D. Bruce Dill, in legitimizing the practice of self-experimentation in exercise physiology. Descriptions of self-experimentation are drawn from papers published by members of the Harvard Fatigue Lab. Attention is paid to the ethical and practical justifications for self-experimentation in both the lab and the field. Born out of the practical, immediate demands of fatigue protocols, self-experimentation performed the long-term, epistemological function of uniting physiological data across time and space, enabling researchers to contribute to a general human biology program.

  11. General Science, Ninth Grade: Theme I and Theme II. Student Laboratory Manual. Experimental.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Curriculum and Instruction.

    This ninth grade student manual was developed to be used in conjunction with some of the experimental science activities described in the teacher's guide. It contains laboratory worksheets for: (1) measurement; (2) basic energy concepts; (3) heat energy; (4) light; (5) sound; (6) electricity; and (7) present and future energy resources. Additional…

  12. The Experimental Manpower Laboratory as an R & D Capability. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Div. of Behavioral Sciences.

    The report provides an assessment of the six Experimental Manpower Laboratories set up by the Manpower Administration to engage in long-term research concerned with developing improved manpower service-delivery systems. An advisory committee under the auspices of the National Research Council was established to conduct the assessment. The six…

  13. Open-Ended versus Guided Laboratory Activities: Impact on Students' Beliefs about Experimental Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Bethany R.; Lewandowski, H. J.

    2016-01-01

    Improving students' understanding of the nature of experimental physics is often an explicit or implicit goal of undergraduate laboratory physics courses. However, lab activities in traditional lab courses are typically characterized by highly structured, guided labs that often do not require or encourage students to engage authentically in the…

  14. Pre-Service Teachers' Use of Improvised and Virtual Laboratory Experimentation in Science Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhukuvhani, Crispen; Kusure, Lovemore; Munodawafa, Violet; Sana, Abel; Gwizangwe, Isaac

    2010-01-01

    This research surveyed 11 purposely sampled Bindura University of Science Education (Zimbabwe) Bachelor of Science Education Honours Part III pre-service science teachers' use of improvised and virtual laboratory experimentation in science teaching. A self-designed four-point Likert scale twenty-item questionnaire was used. SPSS Version 10 was…

  15. Fossil Fuel Emission Verification Modeling at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Cameron-Smith, P; Kosovic, B; Guilderson, T; Monache, L D; Bergmann, D

    2009-08-06

    We have an established project at LLNL to develop the tools needed to constrain fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions using measurements of the carbon-14 isotope in atmospheric samples. In Figure 1 we show the fossil fuel plumes from Los Angeles and San Francisco for two different weather patterns. Obviously, a measurement made at any given location is going to depend on the weather leading up to the measurement. Thus, in order to determine the GHG emissions from some region using in situ measurements of those GHGs, we use state-of-the-art global and regional atmospheric chemistry-transport codes to simulate the plumes: the LLNL-IMPACT model (Rotman et al., 2004) and the WRFCHEM community code (http://www.wrf-model.org/index.php). Both codes can use observed (aka assimilated) meteorology in order to recreate the actual transport that occurred. The measured concentration of each tracer at a particular spatio-temporal location is a linear combination of the plumes from each region at that location (for non-reactive species). The challenge is to calculate the emission strengths for each region that fit the observed concentrations. In general this is difficult because there are errors in the measurements and modeling of the plumes. We solve this inversion problem using the strategy illustrated in Figure 2. The Bayesian Inference step combines the a priori estimates of the emissions, and their uncertainty, for each region with the results of the observations, and their uncertainty, and an ensemble of model predicted plumes for each region, and their uncertainty. The result is the mathematical best estimate of the emissions and their errors. In the case of non-linearities, or if we are using a statistical sampling technique such as a Markov Chain Monte Carlo technique, then the process is iterated until it converges (ie reaches stationarity). For the Bayesian inference we can use both a direct inversion capability, which is fast but requires assumptions of linearity and

  16. Physics of laser fusion. Volume II. Diagnostics of experiments on laser fusion targets at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Ahlstrom, H.G.

    1982-01-01

    These notes present the experimental basis and status for laser fusion as developed at LLNL. There are two other volumes in this series: Vol. I, by C.E. Max, presents the theoretical laser-plasma interaction physics; Vol. III, by J.F. Holzrichter et al., presents the theory and design of high-power pulsed lasers. A fourth volume will present the theoretical implosion physics. The notes consist of six sections. The first, an introductory section, provides some of the history of inertial fusion and a simple explanation of the concepts involved. The second section presents an extensive discussion of diagnostic instrumentation used in the LLNL Laser Fusion Program. The third section is a presentation of laser facilities and capabilities at LLNL. The purpose here is to define capability, not to derive how it was obtained. The fourth and fifth sections present the experimental data on laser-plasma interaction and implosion physics. The last chapter is a short projection of the future.

  17. A European Network of Analytical and Experimental Laboratories for Geosciences: Challenges and Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freda, C.; Funiciello, F.; Meredith, P.; Sagnotti, L.; Scarlato, P.; Troll, V. R.; Willingshofer, E.; EPOS-WG6

    2012-04-01

    The EU policy for scientific research in the third millennium is that of a coordinated approach to support and develop continent-scale research infrastructures. The vision is to integrate the existing research infrastructures in order to increase the accessibility and usability of multidisciplinary data, enhancing worldwide interoperability by establishing a leading integrated European infrastructure and services. Integrating Earth Sciences infrastructures in Europe is the mission of the European Plate Observing System (EPOS), a research infrastructure and e-science for data and observatories on earthquakes, volcanoes, surface dynamics and tectonics. Within the existing core elements to be integrated in the EPOS cyber-infrastructure are: geographical distributed observational infrastructures (seismic and geodetic networks), observatories for multidisciplinary local data acquisition (e.g., volcanoes, active fault-zone, geothermal and deep drilling experiments), and analytical facilities for data repositories and integration. The integration of European analytical, experimental, and analogue laboratories plays a key role in this context and is the task of EPOS Working Group 6 (WG6). The Analytical and Experimental LaboratoriesGroup thus aims to link experimental, analytical, and analogue laboratories into a single, but geographically distributed, infrastructure for rock physics, including palaeomagnetism, analytical and experimental petrology and volcanology, and tectonic modeling.The WG6 has set a short term goal that has now been achieved, being a review of operational laboratory facilities in the community and the creation of a database from that information. Currently 12 countries (Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Portugal, Romania, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, The Netherlands, United Kingdom) are included in the database. As long-term goals, the WG6 aims to create mechanisms and procedures for easy access to laboratory facilities, turning small

  18. Linear collider research and development at SLAC, LBL and LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Mattison, T.S.

    1988-10-01

    The study of electron-positron (e/sup +/e/sup /minus//) annihilation in storage ring colliders has been very fruitful. It is by now well understood that the optimized cost and size of e/sup +/e/sup /minus// storage rings scales as E(sub cm//sup 2/ due to the need to replace energy lost to synchrotron radiation in the ring bending magnets. Linear colliders, using the beams from linear accelerators, evade this scaling law. The study of e/sup +/e/sup /minus// collisions at TeV energy will require linear colliders. The luminosity requirements for a TeV linear collider are set by the physics. Advanced accelerator research and development at SLAC is focused toward a TeV Linear Collider (TLC) of 0.5--1 TeV in the center of mass, with a luminosity of 10/sup 33/--10/sup 34/. The goal is a design for two linacs of less than 3 km each, and requiring less than 100 MW of power each. With a 1 km final focus, the TLC could be fit on Stanford University land (although not entirely within the present SLAC site). The emphasis is on technologies feasible for a proposal to be framed in 1992. Linear collider development work is progressing on three fronts: delivering electrical energy to a beam, delivering a focused high quality beam, and system optimization. Sources of high peak microwave radio frequency (RF) power to drive the high gradient linacs are being developed in collaboration with Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Beam generation, beam dynamics and final focus work has been done at SLAC and in collaboration with KEK. Both the accelerator physics and the utilization of TeV linear colliders were topics at the 1988 Snowmass Summer Study. 14 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Challenges in biotechnology at LLNL: from genes to proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Albala, J S

    1999-03-11

    This effort has undertaken the task of developing a link between the genomics, DNA repair and structural biology efforts within the Biology and Biotechnology Research Program at LLNL. Through the advent of the I.M.A.G.E. (Integrated Molecular Analysis of Genomes and their Expression) Consortium, a world-wide effort to catalog the largest public collection of genes, accepted and maintained within BBRP, it is now possible to systematically express the protein complement of these to further elucidate novel gene function and structure. The work has ensued in four phases, outlined as follows: (1) Gene and System selection; (2) Protein expression and purification; (3) Structural analysis; and (4) biological integration. Proteins to be expressed have been those of high programmatic interest. This includes, in particular, proteins involved in the maintenance of genome integrity, particularly those involved in the repair of DNA damage, including ERCC1, ERCC4, XRCC2, XRCC3, XRCC9, HEX1, APN1, p53, RAD51B, RAD51C, and RAD51. Full-length cDNA cognates of selected genes were isolated, and cloned into baculovirus-based expression vectors. The baculoviral expression system for protein over-expression is now well-established in the Albala laboratory. Procedures have been successfully optimized for full-length cDNA clining into expression vectors for protein expression from recombinant constructs. This includes the reagents, cell lines, techniques necessary for expression of recombinant baculoviral constructs in Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells. The laboratory has also generated a high-throughput baculoviral expression paradigm for large scale expression and purification of human recombinant proteins amenable to automation.

  20. Performance of HEPA filters at LLNL following the 1980 and 1989 earthquakes

    SciTech Connect

    Bergman, W.; Elliott, J.; Wilson, K.

    1994-11-01

    The Lawrence Livermore National laboratory has experienced two significant earthquakes for which data is available to assess the ability of HEPA filters to withstand seismic conditions. A 5.9 magnitude earthquake with an epicenter 10 miles from LLNL struck on January 24, 1980. Estimates of the peak ground accelerations ranged from 0.2 to 0.3 g. A 7.0 magnitude earthquake with an epicenter about 50 miles from LLNL struck on October 17, 1989. Measurements of the ground accelerations at LLNL averaged 0.1 g. The results from the in-place filter tests obtained after each of the earthquakes were compiled and studied to determine if the earthquakes had caused filter leakage. Our study showed that only the 1980 earthquake resulted in a small increase in the number of HEPA filters developing leaks. In the 12 months following the 1980 and 1989 earthquakes, the in-place filter tests showed 8.0% and 4.1% of all filters respectively developed leaks . The average percentage of filters developing leaks from 1980 to 1993 was 3.3% {plus_minus} 1.79%. The increase in the filter leaks is significant for the 1980 earthquake, but not for the 1989 earthquake. No contamination was detected following the earthquakes that would suggest transient releases from the filtration system.

  1. Final report for the 1996 DOE grant supporting research at the SLAC/LBNL/LLNL B factory

    SciTech Connect

    Judd, D.; Wright, D.

    1997-08-08

    This final report discusses Department of Energy-supported research funded through Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) which was performed as part of a collaboration between LLNL and Prairie View A and M University to develop part of the BaBar detector at the SLAC B Factory. This work focuses on the Instrumented Flux Return (IFR) subsystem of BaBar and involves a full range of detector development activities: computer simulations of detector performance, creation of reconstruction algorithms, and detector hardware R and D. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has a leading role in the IFR subsystem and has established on-site computing and detector facilities to conduct this research. By establishing ties with the existing LLNL Research Collaboration Program and leveraging LLNL resources, the experienced Prairie View group was able to quickly achieve a more prominent role within the BaBar collaboration and make significant contributions to the detector design. In addition, this work provided the first entry point for Historically Black Colleges and Universities into the B Factory collaboration, and created an opportunity to train a new generation of minority students at the premier electron-positron high energy physics facility in the US.

  2. Evaluation of a laboratory-generated NOEC for linear alkylbenzene sulfonate in outdoor experimental streams

    SciTech Connect

    Fairchild, J.F.; Dwyer, F.J.; Point, T.W. la; Burch, S.A.; Ingersoll, C.G. . National Fisheries Contaminant Research Center)

    1993-10-01

    Laboratory and field studies were conducted with linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) to evaluate the use of the laboratory-generated NOECs for protecting aquatic organisms in outdoor experimental streams. Fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and freshwater amphipods (Hyalella azteca) were exposed in the laboratory to an environmentally realistic mixture of LAS for 7 d; fathead minnows were also exposed in a 28-d study. Calculated NOEC values based on survival and growth ranged from 0.3 to 0.9 mg/L for fathead minnows and from 0.6 to 1.4 mg/L for amphipods. Toxicity of LAS in 4-, 7-, and 28-d exposured of fathead minnows was similar because mortality occurred within the initial 24 h of exposure; mortality was more sensitive than growth as a chronic end point. The addition of 5% sewage effluent to well and stream water had little effect on the bioavailability of LAS; however, total organic carbon levels were low in all treatments. A 45-d exposure of three outdoor experimental streams to 0.36 mg/L LAS had no effects on survival of fathead minnows or amphipods, dynamics of benthic invertebrates, growth of periphyton, or processing of detrital leaves. Results indicated that the laboratory-generated NOEC for LAS was protective of experimental stream communities under the studied conditions.

  3. Sodium laser guide star system at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory: System description and experimental results

    SciTech Connect

    Avicola, K.; Brase, J.; Morris, J.

    1994-03-02

    The architecture and major system components of the sodium-layer kw guide star system at LLNL will be described, and experimental results reported. The subsystems include the laser system, the beam delivery system including a pulse stretcher and beam pointing control, the beam director, and the telescope with its adaptive-optics package. The laser system is one developed for the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) Program. This laser system can be configured in various ways in support of the AVLIS program objectives, and was made available to the guide star program at intermittent times on a non-interference basis. The first light transmitted into the sky was in July of 1992, at a power level of 1. 1 kW. The laser pulse width is about 32 ns, and the pulse repetition rate was 26 kHz for the 1. 1 kW configuration and 13 kHz for a 400 W configuration. The laser linewidth is tailored to match the sodium D{sub 2} absorption line, and the laser system has active control of beam pointing and wavefront quality. Because of the short pulse length the sodium transition is saturated and the laser power is not efficiently utilized. For this reason a pulse stretcher was developed, and the results of this effort will be reported. The beam is delivered via an evacuated pipe from the laser building to the guide star site, a distance of about 100 meters, and then launched vertically. A beam director provides the means to track the sky in the full AO system, but was not used in the experiments reported here. The return signal is collected by a 1/2 meter telescope with the AO package. This telescope is located 5 meters from the km launch tube. Smaller packages for photometry, wavefront measurement, and spot image and motion analysis have been used. Although the unavailability of the AVLIS laser precluded a full AO system demonstration, data supporting feasibility and providing input to the system design for a Lick Observatory AO system was obtained.

  4. LLNL Contribution to LLE FY09 Annual Report: NIC and HED Results

    SciTech Connect

    Heeter, R F; Landen, O L; Hsing, W W; Fournier, K B

    2009-10-01

    In FY09, LLNL led 238 target shots on the OMEGA Laser System. Approximately half of these LLNL-led shots supported the National Ignition Campaign (NIC). The remainder was dedicated to experiments for the high-energy-density stewardship experiments (HEDSE). Objectives of the LLNL led NIC campaigns at OMEGA included: (1) Laser-plasma interaction studies in physical conditions relevant for the NIF ignition targets; (2) Demonstration of Tr = 100 eV foot symmetry tuning using a reemission sphere; (3) X-ray scattering in support of conductivity measurements of solid density Be plasmas; (4) Experiments to study the physical properties (thermal conductivity) of shocked fusion fuels; (5) High-resolution measurements of velocity nonuniformities created by microscopic perturbations in NIF ablator materials; (6) Development of a novel Compton Radiography diagnostic platform for ICF experiments; and (7) Precision validation of the equation of state for quartz. The LLNL HEDSE campaigns included the following experiments: (1) Quasi-isentropic (ICE) drive used to study material properties such as strength, equation of state, phase, and phase-transition kinetics under high pressure; (2) Development of a high-energy backlighter for radiography in support of material strength experiments using Omega EP and the joint OMEGA-OMEGA-EP configuration; (3) Debris characterization from long-duration, point-apertured, point-projection x-ray backlighters for NIF radiation transport experiments; (4) Demonstration of ultrafast temperature and density measurements with x-ray Thomson scattering from short-pulse laser-heated matter; (5) The development of an experimental platform to study nonlocal thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) physics using direct-drive implosions; (6) Opacity studies of high-temperature plasmas under LTE conditions; and (7) Characterization of copper (Cu) foams for HEDSE experiments.

  5. Cold Climate Foundation Retrofit Experimental Hygrothermal Performance. Cloquet Residential Research Facility Laboratory Results

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, Louise F.; Harmon, Anna C.

    2015-04-09

    This project was funded jointly by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). ORNL focused on developing a full basement wall system experimental database to enable others to validate hygrothermal simulation codes. NREL focused on testing the moisture durability of practical basement wall interior insulation retrofit solutions for cold climates. The project has produced a physically credible and reliable long-term hygrothermal performance database for retrofit foundation wall insulation systems in zone 6 and 7 climates that are fully compliant with the performance criteria in the 2009 Minnesota Energy Code. These data currently span the period from November 10, 2012 through May 31, 2014 and are anticipated to be extended through November 2014. The experimental data were configured into a standard format that can be published online and that is compatible with standard commercially available spreadsheet and database software.

  6. Open-ended versus guided laboratory activities:Impact on students' beliefs about experimental physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilcox, Bethany R.; Lewandowski, H. J.

    2016-12-01

    Improving students' understanding of the nature of experimental physics is often an explicit or implicit goal of undergraduate laboratory physics courses. However, lab activities in traditional lab courses are typically characterized by highly structured, guided labs that often do not require or encourage students to engage authentically in the process of experimental physics. Alternatively, open-ended laboratory activities can provide a more authentic learning environment by, for example, allowing students to exercise greater autonomy in what and how physical phenomena are investigated. Engaging in authentic practices may be a critical part of improving students' beliefs around the nature of experimental physics. Here, we investigate the impact of open-ended activities in undergraduate lab courses on students' epistemologies and expectations about the nature of experimental physics, as well as their confidence and affect, as measured by the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey for Experimental Physics (E-CLASS). Using a national data set of student responses to the E-CLASS, we find that the inclusion of some open-ended lab activities in a lab course correlates with more expertlike postinstruction responses relative to courses that include only traditional guided lab activities. This finding holds when examining postinstruction E-CLASS scores while controlling for the variance associated with preinstruction scores, course level, student major, and student gender.

  7. M4FT-15LL0806062-LLNL Thermodynamic and Sorption Data FY15 Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    Zavarin, M.; Wolery, T. J.

    2015-08-31

    This progress report (Milestone Number M4FT-15LL0806062) summarizes research conducted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) within Work Package Number FT-15LL080606. The focus of this research is the thermodynamic modeling of Engineered Barrier System (EBS) materials and properties and development of thermodynamic databases and models to evaluate the stability of EBS materials and their interactions with fluids at various physicochemical conditions relevant to subsurface repository environments. The development and implementation of equilibrium thermodynamic models are intended to describe chemical and physical processes such as solubility, sorption, and diffusion.

  8. Plausibility of freshwater lenses adjacent to gaining rivers: Validation by laboratory experimentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, A. D.; Kawachi, A.; Laattoe, T.

    2016-11-01

    The occurrence of freshwater lenses in saline aquifers adjoining gaining rivers has recently been demonstrated as being theoretically possible by way of analytical solution. However, physical evidence for freshwater lenses near gaining rivers is limited largely to airborne geophysical surveys. This paper presents the first direct observations of freshwater lenses adjacent to gaining rivers, albeit at the laboratory-scale, as validation of their plausibility. The experimental conditions are consistent with the available analytical solution, which is compared with laboratory observations of lens extent and the saltwater flow rate, for various hydraulic gradients. Numerical simulation shows that dispersion can account for the small amount of mismatch between the sharp-interface analytical solution and laboratory measurements. Calibration and uncertainty analysis demonstrate that accurate mathematical predictions require calibration to laboratory measurements of the lens. The results provide unequivocal proof that freshwater lenses can persist despite gaining river conditions concordant with theoretical lenses predicted by the analytical solution, at least within the constraints of the experimental setup.

  9. Laboratory simulations of lidar returns from clouds - Experimental and numerical results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaccanti, Giovanni; Bruscaglioni, Piero; Gurioli, Massimo; Sansoni, Paola

    1993-03-01

    The experimental results of laboratory simulations of lidar returns from clouds are presented. Measurements were carried out on laboratory-scaled cloud models by using a picosecond laser and a streak-camera system. The turbid structures simulating clouds were suspensions of polystyrene spheres in water. The geometrical situation was similar to that of an actual lidar sounding a cloud 1000 m distant and with a thickness of 300 m. Measurements were repeated for different concentrations and different sizes of spheres. The results show how the effect of multiple scattering depends on the scattering coefficient and on the phase function of the diffusers. The depolarization introduced by multiple scattering was also investigated. The results were also compared with numerical results obtained by Monte Carlo simulations. Substantially good agreement between numerical and experimental results was found. The measurements showed the adequacy of modern electro-optical systems to study the features of multiple-scattering effects on lidar echoes from atmosphere or ocean by means of experiments on well-controlled laboratory-scaled models. This adequacy provides the possibility of studying the influence of different effects in the laboratory in well-controlled situations.

  10. Laboratory simulations of lidar returns from clouds: experimental and numerical results.

    PubMed

    Zaccanti, G; Bruscaglioni, P; Gurioli, M; Sansoni, P

    1993-03-20

    The experimental results of laboratory simulations of lidar returns from clouds are presented. Measurements were carried out on laboratory-scaled cloud models by using a picosecond laser and a streak-camera system. The turbid structures simulating clouds were suspensions of polystyrene spheres in water. The geometrical situation was similar to that of an actual lidar sounding a cloud 1000 m distant and with a thickness of 300 m. Measurements were repeated for different concentrations and different sizes of spheres. The results show how the effect of multiple scattering depends on the scattering coefficient and on the phase function of the diffusers. The depolarization introduced by multiple scattering was also investigated. The results were also compared with numerical results obtained by Monte Carlo simulations. Substantially good agreement between numerical and experimental results was found. The measurements showed the adequacy of modern electro-optical systems to study the features of multiple-scattering effects on lidar echoes from atmosphere or ocean by means of experiments on well-controlled laboratory-scaled models. This adequacy provides the possibility of studying the influence of different effects in the laboratory in well-controlled situations.

  11. US Army Research Laboratory Joint Interagency Field Experimentation 15-2 Final Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    US Army Research Laboratory Joint Interagency Field Experimentation 15-2 Final Report by Elizabeth K Bowman Computational and Information ...distribution is unlimited. ii REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for this collection of information is...the data needed, and completing and reviewing the collection information . Send comments regarding this burden estimate or any other aspect of this

  12. Developing an Experimental Platform to Create White Dwarf Photospheres in the Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falcon, Ross; Rochau, G. A.; Bailey, J. E.; Ellis, J. L.; Carlson, A. L.; Gomez, T.; Montgomery, M. H.; Winget, D. E.; Gomez, M. R.

    2012-01-01

    We continue to improve upon the laboratory astrophysics experiments to create macroscopic ( 9-38 cm3) hydrogen plasmas with white dwarf (WD) photospheric conditions (electron temperature and density). Falcon et al. (2010) demonstrate the ability to create the plasma and to observe time-resolved spectra throughout its 400 ns lifetime. We extend the observations from emission to absorption spectra, improve the design of the experimental platform, and discuss the astrophysical motivations, spearheaded by recent work in WD spectroscopy and atmosphere modeling.

  13. “Golden oldies” in a laboratory course in the experimental analysis of behavior

    PubMed Central

    Zuriff, G. E.

    2005-01-01

    A common problem in teaching undergraduate courses in the experimental analysis of behavior (EAB) is that the contemporary research literature is largely not comprehensible to most undergraduates. A suggested solution is the use of research articles from the early days of EAB. These are not only easy to understand but provide additional educational benefits. A reading list and an organizational structure for an undergraduate laboratory course in EAB are suggested. PMID:22478440

  14. Environmental Protection Department LLNL NESHAPs 2007 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Bertoldo, N A; Larson, J M; Wilson, K R

    2008-06-25

    This annual report is prepared pursuant to the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs; Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61, Subpart H). Subpart H governs radionuclide emissions to air from U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. NESHAPs limits the emission of radionuclides to the ambient air from DOE facilities to levels resulting in an annual effective dose equivalent (EDE) of 10 mrem (100 {micro}Sv) to any member of the public. The EDEs for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) site-wide maximally exposed members of the public from operations in 2007 are summarized here. Livermore site: 0.0031 mrem (0.031 {micro}Sv) (42% from point source emissions, 58% from diffuse source emissions). The point source emissions include gaseous tritium modeled as tritiated water vapor as directed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region IX; the resulting dose is used for compliance purposes. Site 300: 0.0035 mrem (0.035 {micro}Sv) (90% from point source emissions, 10% from diffuse source emissions). The EDEs were calculated using the U.S. EPA-approved CAP88-PC air dispersion/dose-assessment model, except for doses for two diffuse sources that were estimated using measured radionuclide concentrations and dose calculations. Specific inputs to CAP88-PC for the modeled sources included site-specific meteorological data and source emissions data, the latter variously based on continuous stack effluent monitoring data, stack flow or other release-rate information, ambient air monitoring data, and facility knowledge.

  15. 33 CFR 334.150 - Severn River at Annapolis, Md.; experimental test area, U.S. Navy Marine Engineering Laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....; experimental test area, U.S. Navy Marine Engineering Laboratory. 334.150 Section 334.150 Navigation and... Marine Engineering Laboratory. (a) The restricted area. The waters of Severn River shoreward of a line beginning at the southeasternmost corner of the U.S. Navy Marine Engineering Laboratory sea wall and...

  16. 33 CFR 334.150 - Severn River at Annapolis, Md.; experimental test area, U.S. Navy Marine Engineering Laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....; experimental test area, U.S. Navy Marine Engineering Laboratory. 334.150 Section 334.150 Navigation and... Marine Engineering Laboratory. (a) The restricted area. The waters of Severn River shoreward of a line beginning at the southeasternmost corner of the U.S. Navy Marine Engineering Laboratory sea wall and...

  17. 33 CFR 334.150 - Severn River at Annapolis, Md.; experimental test area, U.S. Navy Marine Engineering Laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....; experimental test area, U.S. Navy Marine Engineering Laboratory. 334.150 Section 334.150 Navigation and... Marine Engineering Laboratory. (a) The restricted area. The waters of Severn River shoreward of a line beginning at the southeasternmost corner of the U.S. Navy Marine Engineering Laboratory sea wall and...

  18. 33 CFR 334.150 - Severn River at Annapolis, Md.; experimental test area, U.S. Navy Marine Engineering Laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....; experimental test area, U.S. Navy Marine Engineering Laboratory. 334.150 Section 334.150 Navigation and... Marine Engineering Laboratory. (a) The restricted area. The waters of Severn River shoreward of a line beginning at the southeasternmost corner of the U.S. Navy Marine Engineering Laboratory sea wall and...

  19. 33 CFR 334.150 - Severn River at Annapolis, Md.; experimental test area, U.S. Navy Marine Engineering Laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Marine Engineering Laboratory. (a) The restricted area. The waters of Severn River shoreward of a line beginning at the southeasternmost corner of the U.S. Navy Marine Engineering Laboratory sea wall and running....; experimental test area, U.S. Navy Marine Engineering Laboratory. 334.150 Section 334.150 Navigation...

  20. [Law, guidelines and standards relevant to laboratory animals and animal experimentation].

    PubMed

    Takagaki, Y

    1982-04-01

    Presently available laws guidelines and standards relevant to laboratory animals and animal experimentation are reviewed. In Japan there exist Animal Protection and Management Act, and the Guideline for Animal Care and Management which was later prepared in accordance with the former act. These are comparable in quality to those seen in foreign countries such as the Cruelty to Animals Act of Great Britain or the Animal Welfare Act of U.S.A. As for laboratory animals, however, only basic matters appear there, and that is why the Japanese National Academy of Science in 1980 proposed legislation of a guideline for animal experimentation to the government. It is awaited to legislate sooner the one comparable to the Guidelines for the Regulation of Animal Experimentation prepared by ICLA in 1974. Other laws and regulations referred and discussed here are: *standards and guidelines for breeding, care and management of laboratory animals *veterinary laws and regulations which should be referred when domestic or wild animals are to be used for experiments *laws and regulations for general housing construction and environmental protection *regulations for particular experiments where radioisotopes, microbial infections or recombinant DNA are in use

  1. LLNL: Science in the National Interest

    SciTech Connect

    George Miller

    2010-01-05

    This is Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. located in the Livermore Valley about 50 miles east of San Francisco, the Lab is where the nations topmost science, engineering and technology come together. National security, counter-terrorism, medical technologies, energy, climate change our researchers are working to develop solutions to these challenges. For more than 50 years, we have been keeping America strong.

  2. LLNL: Science in the National Interest

    ScienceCinema

    George Miller

    2016-07-12

    This is Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. located in the Livermore Valley about 50 miles east of San Francisco, the Lab is where the nations topmost science, engineering and technology come together. National security, counter-terrorism, medical technologies, energy, climate change our researchers are working to develop solutions to these challenges. For more than 50 years, we have been keeping America strong.

  3. Control System for the LLNL Kicker Pulse Generator

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, J A; Anaya, R M; Cook, E G; Lee, B S; Hawkins, S A

    2002-06-18

    A solid-state high voltage pulse generator with multi-pulse burst capability, very fast rise and fall times, pulse width agility, and amplitude modulation capability for use with high speed electron beam kickers has been designed and tested at LLNL. A control system calculates a desired waveform to be applied to the kicker based on measured electron beam displacement then adjusts the pulse generators to provide the desired waveform. This paper presents the design of the control system and measure performance data from operation on the ETA-11 accelerator at LLNL.

  4. Environmental impact report addendum for the continued operation of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Weston, R. F.

    1996-10-01

    An environmental impact statement/environmental impact report (ES/EIR) for the continued operation and management of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) was prepared jointly by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the University of California (UC). The scope of the document included near-term (within 5-10 years) proposed projects. The UC Board of Regents, as state lead agency under the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA), certified and adopted the EIR by issuing a Notice of Determination on November 20, 1992. The DOE, as the lead federal agency under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), adopted a Record of Decision for the ES on January 27, 1993 (58 Federal Register [FR] 6268). The DOE proposed action was to continue operation of the facility, including near-term proposed projects. The specific project evaluated by UC was extension of the contract between UC and DOE for UC`s continued operation and management of LLNL (both sites) from October 1, 1992, through September 30, 1997. The 1992 ES/EIR analyzed impacts through the year 2002. The 1992 ES/EIR comprehensively evaluated the potential environmental impacts of operation and management of LLNL within the near-term future. Activities evaluated included programmatic enhancements and modifications of facilities and programs at the LLNL Livermore site and at LLNL`s Experimental Test Site (Site 300) in support of research and development missions 2048 established for LLNL by Congress and the President. The evaluation also considered the impacts of infrastructure and building maintenance, minor modifications to buildings, general landscaping, road maintenance, and similar routine support activities.

  5. Subjected to parliament: the laboratory of experimental medicine and the animal body.

    PubMed

    Asdal, Kristin

    2008-12-01

    In 'Sacrifice and the Transformation of the Animal Body into a Scientific Object' Michael Lynch (1988) explores how the animal body is transformed into a scientific object in the laboratory. How did the laboratory become a (relatively) closed space in which scientists, the experts, were delegated the task of negotiating and transforming the interpretative sense of the animal--from sentient beings to analytic objects--as tools in a scientific machinery? By exploring a parliamentary controversy on experimental medicine at the turn of the 20th century I argue that this depended on a reworking of the status of the animal body, as well as the status of the laboratory. Crucial to this was social theory; specifically, utilitarian reasoning. Thus, what we need to study--this paper argues--is not simply the ways in which the practices of annual experimentation were met with opposition and critiques, but also how these practices came to be culturally and politically accepted, and what this implied for science - society relations. In analysing this controversy, the author attends to recent turn to politics in STS and argue for the significance of studying conventional political sites such as 'Parliament' and the role that social theory plays in renegotiating and remaking sites and objects.

  6. Using experimental design modules for process characterization in manufacturing/materials processes laboratories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ankenman, Bruce; Ermer, Donald; Clum, James A.

    1994-01-01

    Modules dealing with statistical experimental design (SED), process modeling and improvement, and response surface methods have been developed and tested in two laboratory courses. One course was a manufacturing processes course in Mechanical Engineering and the other course was a materials processing course in Materials Science and Engineering. Each module is used as an 'experiment' in the course with the intent that subsequent course experiments will use SED methods for analysis and interpretation of data. Evaluation of the modules' effectiveness has been done by both survey questionnaires and inclusion of the module methodology in course examination questions. Results of the evaluation have been very positive. Those evaluation results and details of the modules' content and implementation are presented. The modules represent an important component for updating laboratory instruction and to provide training in quality for improved engineering practice.

  7. Randomized block experimental designs can increase the power and reproducibility of laboratory animal experiments.

    PubMed

    Festing, Michael F W

    2014-01-01

    Randomized block experimental designs have been widely used in agricultural and industrial research for many decades. Usually they are more powerful, have higher external validity, are less subject to bias, and produce more reproducible results than the completely randomized designs typically used in research involving laboratory animals. Reproducibility can be further increased by using time as a blocking factor. These benefits can be achieved at no extra cost. A small experiment investigating the effect of an antioxidant on the activity of a liver enzyme in four inbred mouse strains, which had two replications (blocks) separated by a period of two months, illustrates this approach. The widespread failure to use these designs more widely in research involving laboratory animals has probably led to a substantial waste of animals, money, and scientific resources and slowed down the development of new treatments for human and animal diseases.

  8. Translational experimental therapeutics: The translation of laboratory-based discovery into disease-related therapy.

    PubMed

    Kieburtz, Karl; Olanow, C Warren

    2007-04-01

    In the past decade, there has been an increasing emphasis on laboratory-based translational research. This has led to significant scientific advances in our understanding of disease mechanisms and in the development of novel approaches to therapy such as gene therapy, RNA interference, and stem cells. However, the translation of these remarkable scientific achievements into new and effective disease-modifying therapies has lagged behind these scientific accomplishments. We use the term "translational experimental therapeutics" to describe the pathway between the discovery of a basic disease mechanism or novel therapeutic approach and its translation into an effective treatment for patients with a specific disease. In this article, we review the components of this pathway, and discuss issues that might impede this process. Only by optimizing this pathway can we realize the full therapeutic potential of current scientific discoveries and translate the astounding advances that have been accomplished in the laboratory into effective treatments for our patients.

  9. LLNL heart valve condition classification project anechoic testing results at the TRANSDEC evaluation facility

    SciTech Connect

    Candy, J V

    1999-10-31

    This report first briefly outlines the procedures and support/activation fixture developed at LLNL to perform the heart valve tests in an anechoic-like tank at the US Navy Transducer Evaluation Facility (TransDec) located in San Diego, CA. Next they discuss the basic experiments performed and the corresponding experimental plan employed to gather meaningful data systematically. The signal processing required to extract the desired information is briefly developed along with some of the data. Finally, they show the results of the individual runs for each valve, point out any of the meaningful features and summaries.

  10. The role of a laboratory of experimental psychology in the Brazilian education renewal of the 1930s.

    PubMed

    Cirino, Sérgio Dias; Miranda, Rodrigo Lopes

    2015-02-01

    In this article, we present the Laboratory of Experimental Psychology at the Belo Horizonte Teachers College (Escola de Aperfeiçoamento de Professores de Belo Horizonte) during its early years (1929-1932). The Laboratory is examined in the context of the prevailing public discourse on primary education and its renewal in Brazil. To achieve our goal, we describe the Belo Horizonte Teachers College and its Laboratory's director, tools, and functions. In presenting these aspects, we highlight the Laboratory of Experimental Psychology as an important place that promoted contact with psychological instruments, techniques, and theories. It contributed to the training of teachers and produced psychological knowledge for elementary education in Brazil.

  11. Waveform prediction with travel time model LLNL-G3D assessed by Spectral-Element simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morency, C.; Simmons, N. A.; Myers, S. C.; Johannesson, G.; Matzel, E.

    2013-12-01

    Seismic monitoring requires accurate prediction of travel times, amplitudes, and whole waveforms. As a first step towards developing a model that is suited to seismic monitoring, LLNL developed the LLNL-G3D P-wave travel time model (Simmons et al., 2012, JGR) to improve seismic event location accuracy. LLNL-G3D fulfills the need to predict travel times from events occurring anywhere in the globe to stations ranging from local to teleseismic distances. Prediction over this distance range requires explicit inclusion of detailed 3-dimensional structure from Earths surface to the core. An open question is how well a model optimized to fit P-wave travel time data can predict waveforms? We begin to address this question by using the P-wave velocities in LLNL-G3D as a proxy for S-wave velocity and density, then performing waveform simulations via the SPECFEM3D_GLOBE spectral-element code. We assess the ability of LLNL-G3D to predict waveforms and draw comparisons to other 3D models available in SPECFEM3D_GLOBE package and widely used in the scientific community. Although we do not expect the P-wave model to perform as well as waveform based models, we view our effort as a first step towards accurate prediction of time times, amplitudes and full waveforms based on a single model. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  12. The design and implementation of the LLNL gigabit testbed

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, D.

    1994-12-01

    This paper will look at the design and implementation of the LLNL Gigabit testbed (LGTB), where various high speed networking products, can be tested in one environment. The paper will discuss the philosophy behind the design of and the need for the testbed, the tests that are performed in the testbed, and the tools used to implement those tests.

  13. Proceedings of the LLNL Technical Women`s Symposium

    SciTech Connect

    von Holtz, E.

    1993-12-31

    This report documents events of the LLNL Technical Women`s Symposium. Topics include; future of computer systems, environmental technology, defense and space, Nova Inertial Confinement Fusion Target Physics, technical communication, tools and techniques for biology in the 1990s, automation and robotics, software applications, materials science, atomic vapor laser isotope separation, technical communication, technology transfer, and professional development workshops.

  14. Proceedings of the LLNL technical women`s symposium

    SciTech Connect

    von Holtz, E.

    1994-12-31

    Women from institutions such as LLNL, LBL, Sandia, and SLAC presented papers at this conference. The papers deal with many aspects of global security, global ecology, and bioscience; they also reflect the challenges faced in improving business practices, communicating effectively, and expanding collaborations in the industrial world. Approximately 87 ``abstracts`` are included in six sessions; more are included in the addendum.

  15. Electric air filtration: theory, laboratory studies, hardware development, and field evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    Bergman, W.; Biermann, A.; Kuhl, W.; Lum, B.; Bogdanoff, A.; Hebard, H.; Hall, M.; Banks, D.; Mazumder, M.; Johnson, J.

    1983-09-01

    We summarize the results of a seven-year research project for the US Department of Energy (DOE) to develop electric air filters that extend the service life of high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters used in the nuclear industry. This project was unique to Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and it entailed comprehensive theory, laboratory studies, and hardware development. We present our work in three major areas: (1) theory of and instrumentation for filter test methods, (2) theoretical and laboratory studies of electric air filters, and (3) development and evaluation of eight experimental electric air filters.

  16. A Laboratory Course for Teaching Laboratory Techniques, Experimental Design, Statistical Analysis, and Peer Review Process to Undergraduate Science Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gliddon, C. M.; Rosengren, R. J.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a 13-week laboratory course called Human Toxicology taught at the University of Otago, New Zealand. This course used a guided inquiry based laboratory coupled with formative assessment and collaborative learning to develop in undergraduate students the skills of problem solving/critical thinking, data interpretation and…

  17. Laboratory Directed Research and Development FY 2000 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Ayat, R

    2001-05-24

    This Annual Report provides an overview of the FY2000 Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and presents a summary of the results achieved by each project during the year.

  18. The IAA cosmic dust laboratory: Experimental scattering matrices of clay particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz, O.; Moreno, F.; Guirado, D.; Ramos, J. L.; Volten, H.; Hovenier, J. W.

    2011-01-01

    We present the first results of measurements on solid particles performed at the Instituto de Astrofı´sica de Andalucı´a (IAA) cosmic dust laboratory located in Granada, Spain. The laboratory apparatus measures the complete scattering matrix as a function of the scattering angle of aerosol particles. The measurements can be performed at a wavelength ( λ) of 483, 488, 520, 568, or 647 nm in the scattering angle range from 3° to 177°. Results of special test experiments are presented which show that our experimental results for scattering matrices are not significantly contaminated by multiple scattering and that the sizes/shapes of the particles do not change during the measurements. Moreover, the measured scattering matrix for a sample of green clay particles is compared with measurements previously performed in the Amsterdam light scattering setup for the same sample. New measurements on a white clay sample at 488 and 647 nm are also presented. The apparatus is devoted to experimentally studying the angle dependence of scattering matrices of dust samples of astrophysical interest. Moreover, there is a great interest in similar studies of aerosols that can affect the radiative balance of the atmosphere of the Earth and other planets such as silicates, desert dust, volcanic ashes, and carbon soot particles.

  19. Cold Climate Foundation Retrofit Experimental Hygrothermal Performance: Cloquet Residential Research Facility Laboratory Results

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, Louise F.; Harmon, Anna C.

    2015-04-01

    Thermal and moisture problems in existing basements create a unique challenge because the exterior face of the wall is not easily or inexpensively accessible. This approach addresses thermal and moisture management from the interior face of the wall without disturbing the exterior soil and landscaping. the interior and exterior environments. This approach has the potential for improving durability, comfort, and indoor air quality. This project was funded jointly by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). ORNL focused on developing a full basement wall system experimental database to enable others to validate hygrothermal simulation codes. NREL focused on testing the moisture durability of practical basement wall interior insulation retrofit solutions for cold climates. The project has produced a physically credible and reliable long-term hygrothermal performance database for retrofit foundation wall insulation systems in zone 6 and 7 climates that are fully compliant with the performance criteria in the 2009 Minnesota Energy Code. The experimental data were configured into a standard format that can be published online and that is compatible with standard commercially available spreadsheet and database software.

  20. The application of neutron multiplicity counting to the assay of bulk plutonium bearing materials at RFETS and LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Langner, D.G.; Krick, M.S.; Kroncke, K.E.

    1995-10-01

    In the past several years, several facilities have identified a need for a large multiplicity counter to support safeguards of excess weapons materials and the measurement control and accountability of large, unusual samples. The authors have designed and fabricated two large thermal neutron multiplicity counters to meet this need at two DOE facilities. The first of these counters was built for Rocky Flats Environmental Test Site for use in the initial inventory inspection of excess weapons plutonium offered to International Atomic Energy Agency safeguards. The second counter was built for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to support their material control and accountability program. For the LLNL version of the counter, a removable, fast-neutron interrogation assembly was added for the measurement of large uranium samples. In the passive mode these counters can accommodate samples in containers as large as a 30-gal. drum. This paper reports on the measured performance of these two counters and the data obtained with them.

  1. Analysis of EUV Oxygen Spectra from LLNL SSPX and UNR Laser Plasma Source of ``Sparky''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilcox, P. G.; Safronova, A. S.; Kantsyrev, V. L.; Safronova, U. I.; Williamson, K. M.; Weller, M. E.; Clementson, J.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Struve, K. W.

    2008-11-01

    In our recent work [Wilcox et al, RSI (2008, in press)] we applied a non- LTE kinetic model of oxygen to analyze an oxygen spectrum between 140 and 240 å, produced on LLNL SSPX. Here we study the whole collection of recent experimental SSPX EUV oxygen spectra produced under different plasma conditions, specifically in the broad range of temperatures from as low as 15 eV up to 280 eV, and at an electron density of around 10 ^14 cm-3. In addition, we analyze new experimental data from EUV oxygen and carbon spectra, recorded at much higher density at the compact laser plasma source of ``Sparky'' at UNR . The comprehensive comparison of EUV oxygen spectra from both experiments with theoretical calculations was accomplished, and temperature and density sensitive lines were identified.This work is relevant to diagnostics of plasma with low -- Z ions and Tokamak plasma in particular. Work is supported by DOE under grant DE-FG02-08ER54951 and in part under NNSA Coop. Agr. DE-FC52-06NA27588 and DE-FC52-06NA27586. Work at LLNL was performed under auspices of the DOE under contract DE-AC52-07NA2344.

  2. Broad-band soft x-ray diagnostic instruments at the LLNL Novette laser facility

    SciTech Connect

    Tirsell, K.G.; Lee, P.H.Y.; Nilson, D.G.; Medecki, H.

    1983-09-15

    Complementary broad-band instruments have been developed to measure time dependent, absolute soft x-ray spectra at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Nd glass laser irradiation facilities. Absolute flux measurements of x rays emitted from laser-produced plasmas are important for understanding laser absorption and energy transport. We will describe two new 10-channel XRD systems that have been installed at the LLNL Novette facility for use in the 0.15- to 1.5-keV range. Since XRD channel time response is limited by available oscilloscope performance to 120 ps, a soft x-ray streak camera has been developed for better time resolution (20 ps) and greater dynamic range (approx.10/sup 3/) in the same x-ray energy region. Using suitable filters, grazing incidence mirrors, and a gold or cesium-iodide transmission cathode, this streak camera instrument has been installed at Novette to provide one broad and four relatively narrow channels. It can also be used in a single channel, spatially discriminating mode by means of pinhole imaging. The complementary nature of these instruments has been enhanced by locating them in close proximity and matching their channel energy responses. As an example of the use of these instruments, we present results from Novette 2..omega..(0.53 ..mu..m) gold disk irradiations at 1 ns and 10/sup 14/ to 10/sup 15/ W/cm/sup 2/.

  3. Methods for high precision 14C AMS measurement of atmospheric CO2 at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Graven, H D; Guilderson, T P; Keeling, R F

    2006-10-18

    Development of {sup 14}C analysis with precision better than 2{per_thousand} has the potential to expand the utility of {sup 14}CO{sub 2} measurements for carbon cycle investigations as atmospheric gradients currently approach traditional measurement precision of 2-5{per_thousand}. The AMS facility at the Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, produces high and stable beam currents that enable efficient acquisition times for large numbers of {sup 14}C counts. One million {sup 14}C atoms can be detected in approximately 25 minutes, suggesting that near 1{per_thousand} counting precision is economically feasible at LLNL. The overall uncertainty in measured values is ultimately determined by the variation between measured ratios in several sputtering periods of the same sample and by the reproducibility of replicate samples. Experiments on the collection of one million counts on replicate samples of CO{sub 2} extracted from a whole air cylinder show a standard deviation of 1.7{per_thousand} in 36 samples measured over several wheels. This precision may be limited by the reproducibility of Oxalic Acid I standard samples, which is considerably poorer. We outline the procedures for high-precision sample handling and analysis that have enabled reproducibility in the cylinder extraction samples at the <2{per_thousand} level and describe future directions to continue increasing measurement precision at LLNL.

  4. High speed optical links between LLNL and Berkeley

    SciTech Connect

    Lennon, W.J.; Thombley, R.L.

    1994-08-08

    The Advanced Telecommunications Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, in collaboration with Pacific Bell, is developing an experimental high speed, four wavelength, protocol independent optical link for evaluating wide area networking interconnection schemes and the use of fiber amplifiers. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, as a super-user, supercomputer, and super-application site, is anticipating the future bandwidth and protocol requirements to connect to other such sites as well as to connect to remote sited control centers and experiments. In this paper we discuss our vision of the future of Wide Area Networking and describe the plans for the wavelength division multiplexed link between Livermore and the University of California at Berkeley.

  5. The UC-LLNL Regional Climate System Model

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, N.L.; Kim, Jinwon

    1996-09-01

    The UC-LLNL Regional Climate System Model has been under development since 1991. The unique system simulates climate from the global scale down to the watershed catchment scale, and consists of data pre- and post- processors, and four model components. The four model components are (1) a mesoscale atmospheric simulation model, (2) a soil-plant-snow model, (3) a watershed hydrology-riverflow model, and (4) a suite of crop response models. The first three model components have been coupled, and the system includes two-way feedbacks between the soil-plant-snow model and the mesoscale atmospheric simulation model. This three-component version of RCSM has been tested, validated, and successfully used for operational quantitative precipitation forecasts and seasonal water resource studies over the southwestern US. We are currently implementation and validating the fourth component, the Decision Support system for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT). A description of the UC-LLNL RCSM and some recent results are presented.

  6. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Environmental Report 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, H E; Bertoldo, N A; Campbell, C G; Cerruti, S J; Coty, J D; Dibley, V R; Doman, J L; Grayson, A R; MacQueen, D H; Wegrecki, A M; Armstrong, D H; Brigdon, S L; Heidecker, K R; Hollister, R K; Khan, H N; Lee, G S; Nelson, J C; Paterson, L E; Salvo, V J; Schwartz, W W; Terusaki, S H; Wilson, K R; Woods, J M; Yimbo, P O; Gallegos, G M; Terrill, A A; Revelli, M A; Rosene, C A; Blake, R G; Woollett, J S; Kumamoto, G

    2011-09-14

    The purposes of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Environmental Report 2010 are to record Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL's) compliance with environmental standards and requirements, describe LLNL's environmental protection and remediation programs, and present the results of environmental monitoring at the two LLNL sites - the Livermore site and Site 300. The report is prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) by LLNL's Environmental Protection Department. Submittal of the report satisfies requirements under DOE Order 231.1A, Environmental Safety and Health Reporting, and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and Environment. The report is distributed electronically and is available at https://saer.llnl.gov/, the website for the LLNL annual environmental report. Previous LLNL annual environmental reports beginning in 1994 are also on the website. Some references in the electronic report text are underlined, which indicates that they are clickable links. Clicking on one of these links will open the related document, data workbook, or website that it refers to. The report begins with an executive summary, which provides the purpose of the report and an overview of LLNL's compliance and monitoring results. The first three chapters provide background information: Chapter 1 is an overview of the location, meteorology, and hydrogeology of the two LLNL sites; Chapter 2 is a summary of LLNL's compliance with environmental regulations; and Chapter 3 is a description of LLNL's environmental programs with an emphasis on the Environmental Management System including pollution prevention. The majority of the report covers LLNL's environmental monitoring programs and monitoring data for 2010: effluent and ambient air (Chapter 4); waters, including wastewater, storm water runoff, surface water, rain, and groundwater (Chapter 5); and terrestrial, including soil, sediment, vegetation, foodstuff, ambient radiation, and special status

  7. Experimental astrochemistry: from ground-based to space-borne laboratories (Foreword)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Becker, M.; Cottin, H.; Fleury-Frenette, K.; Habraken, S.

    2015-01-01

    The investigation of the origin and evolution of molecules in space environments, either in interstellar or interplanetary conditions, constitutes a topic of high importance in modern space sciences. The presence of diversified and complex molecules motivates astrochemists to explore their formation mechanisms along with the physical conditions ruling these physico-chemical processes. Beside theoretical approaches aiming at simulating these processes, experimental techniques are nowadays frequently applied. Both laboratory and space experiment projects allow to reproduce to some extent the adequate conditions to understand some of these processes. The most recent results based on these techniques, and the prospects for future investigations, including the use of space platforms, were the scientific motivation of this workshop. These proceedings summarize a part of the content of this workshop, including abundant references to the relevant bibliography.

  8. Management of hazardous wastes Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, C.S.

    1993-11-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), during the course of numerous research activities, generates hazardous, radioactive, and mixed (radioactive and hazardous) wastes. The management of these waste materials is highly regulated in the United States (US). This paper focuses on the hazardous waste regulations that limit and prescribe waste management at LLNL.

  9. Experimental study of hard-X ray emission from laboratory sparks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marisaldi, Martino; Rizzi, Rolando; Levi, Giuseppe; Malgesini, Roberto; Villa, Andrea; Mazza, Paolo; Labanti, Claudio; Fuschino, Fabio; Campana, Riccardo; Bianchini, David; Brancaccio, Rossella; Montanari, Alessandro; Patrizii, Laura

    2014-05-01

    We present the characterization of hard-X rays produced by meter-long laboratory sparks carried out at the high-voltage laboratory of RSE, Milano, Italy. Sparks are known to emit X-rays when positive and negative streamers connect, before breakdown. Numerical simulations suggest that X-rays are produced by Bremsstrahlung in air by electrons accelerated to the runaway regime in the high electric field at the streamers tip. Positive meter-long discharges are produced by a Marx generator loaded by a meter-long air gap formed by a spherical anode and a conical-shaped cathode. Maximum voltage at breakdown is about 1 MV. We investigate the production of X-rays by means of an array of scintillation detectors deployed around the cathode. Each detector is a 2'' NaI(Tl) scintillating crystal coupled to a photomultiplier tube (PMT). Each detector is battery-powered and enclosed in a metallic housing for EM shielding. Analog signal output is trasmitted to a shielded control room by means of optical fibre tranceivers, and then collected by a fast digitizer. We present the experimental setup and first results concerning detection efficiency, energy spectra, and geometrical distribution of the emission.

  10. Laboratory prototype for experimental validation of MR-guided radiofrequency head and neck hyperthermia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulides, M. M.; Bakker, J. F.; Hofstetter, L. W.; Numan, W. C. M.; Pellicer, R.; Fiveland, E. W.; Tarasek, M.; Houston, G. C.; van Rhoon, G. C.; Yeo, D. T. B.; Kotek, G.

    2014-05-01

    Clinical studies have established a strong benefit from adjuvant mild hyperthermia (HT) to radio- and chemotherapy for many tumor sites, including the head and neck (H&N). The recently developed HYPERcollar allows the application of local radiofrequency HT to tumors in the entire H&N. Treatment quality is optimized using electromagnetic and thermal simulators and, whenever placement risk is tolerable, assessed using invasively placed thermometers. To replace the current invasive procedure, we are investigating whether magnetic resonance (MR) thermometry can be exploited for continuous and 3D thermal dose assessment. In this work, we used our simulation tools to design an MR compatible laboratory prototype applicator. By simulations and measurements, we showed that the redesigned patch antennas are well matched to 50 Ω (S11<-10 dB). Simulations also show that, using 300 W input power, a maximum specific absorption rate (SAR) of 100 W kg-1 and a temperature increase of 4.5 °C in 6 min is feasible at the center of a cylindrical fat/muscle phantom. Temperature measurements using the MR scanner confirmed the focused heating capabilities and MR compatibility of the setup. We conclude that the laboratory applicator provides the possibility for experimental assessment of the feasibility of hybrid MR-HT in the H&N region. This versatile design allows rigorous analysis of MR thermometry accuracy in increasingly complex phantoms that mimic patients' anatomies and thermodynamic characteristics.

  11. Laboratory model of the cardiovascular system for experimental demonstration of pulse wave propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stojadinović, Bojana; Nestorović, Zorica; Djurić, Biljana; Tenne, Tamar; Zikich, Dragoslav; Žikić, Dejan

    2017-03-01

    The velocity by which a disturbance moves through the medium is the wave velocity. Pulse wave velocity is among the key parameters in hemodynamics. Investigation of wave propagation through the fluid-filled elastic tube has a great importance for the proper biophysical understanding of the nature of blood flow through the cardiovascular system. Here, we present a laboratory model of the cardiovascular system. We have designed an experimental setup which can help medical and nursing students to properly learn and understand basic fluid hemodynamic principles, pulse wave and the phenomenon of wave propagation in blood vessels. Demonstration of wave propagation allowed a real time observation of the formation of compression and expansion waves by students, thus enabling them to better understand the difference between the two waves, and also to measure the pulse wave velocity for different fluid viscosities. The laboratory model of the cardiovascular system could be useful as an active learning methodology and a complementary tool for understanding basic principles of hemodynamics.

  12. A State-of-the-Art Experimental Laboratory for Cloud and Cloud-Aerosol Interaction Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fremaux, Charles M.; Bushnell, Dennis M.

    2011-01-01

    The state of the art for predicting climate changes due to increasing greenhouse gasses in the atmosphere with high accuracy is problematic. Confidence intervals on current long-term predictions (on the order of 100 years) are so large that the ability to make informed decisions with regard to optimum strategies for mitigating both the causes of climate change and its effects is in doubt. There is ample evidence in the literature that large sources of uncertainty in current climate models are various aerosol effects. One approach to furthering discovery as well as modeling, and verification and validation (V&V) for cloud-aerosol interactions is use of a large "cloud chamber" in a complimentary role to in-situ and remote sensing measurement approaches. Reproducing all of the complex interactions is not feasible, but it is suggested that the physics of certain key processes can be established in a laboratory setting so that relevant fluid-dynamic and cloud-aerosol phenomena can be experimentally simulated and studied in a controlled environment. This report presents a high-level argument for significantly improved laboratory capability, and is meant to serve as a starting point for stimulating discussion within the climate science and other interested communities.

  13. GAMA-LLNL Alpine Basin Special Study: Scope of Work

    SciTech Connect

    Singleton, M J; Visser, A; Esser, B K; Moran, J E

    2011-12-12

    For this task LLNL will examine the vulnerability of drinking water supplies in foothills and higher elevation areas to climate change impacts on recharge. Recharge locations and vulnerability will be determined through examination of groundwater ages and noble gas recharge temperatures in high elevation basins. LLNL will determine whether short residence times are common in one or more subalpine basin. LLNL will measure groundwater ages, recharge temperatures, hydrogen and oxygen isotopes, major anions and carbon isotope compositions on up to 60 samples from monitoring wells and production wells in these basins. In addition, a small number of carbon isotope analyses will be performed on surface water samples. The deliverable for this task will be a technical report that provides the measured data and an interpretation of the data from one or more subalpine basins. Data interpretation will: (1) Consider climate change impacts to recharge and its impact on water quality; (2) Determine primary recharge locations and their vulnerability to climate change; and (3) Delineate the most vulnerable areas and describe the likely impacts to recharge.

  14. Space Weathering in Houston: A Role for the Experimental Impact Laboratory at JSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cintala, M. J.; Keller, L. P.; Christoffersen, R.; Hoerz, F.

    2015-01-01

    The effective investigation of space weathering demands an interdisciplinary approach that is at least as diversified as any other in planetary science. Because it is a macroscopic process affecting all bodies in the solar system, impact and its resulting shock effects must be given detailed attention in this regard. Direct observation of the effects of impact is most readily done for the Moon, but it still remains difficult for other bodies in the solar system. Analyses of meteorites and precious returned samples provide clues for space weathering on asteroids, but many deductions arising from those studies must still be considered circumstantial. Theoretical work is also indispensable, but it can only go as far as the sometimes meager data allow. Experimentation, however, can permit near real-time study of myriad processes that could contribute to space weathering. This contribution describes some of the capabilities of the Johnson Space Center's Experimental Impact Laboratory (EIL) and how they might help in understanding the space weathering process.

  15. Experimental and operational modal analysis of a laboratory scale model of a tripod support structure.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luczak, M. M.; Mucchi, E.; Telega, J.

    2016-09-01

    The goal of the research is to develop a vibration-based procedure for the identification of structural failures in a laboratory scale model of a tripod supporting structure of an offshore wind turbine. In particular, this paper presents an experimental campaign on the scale model tested in two stages. Stage one encompassed the model tripod structure tested in air. The second stage was done in water. The tripod model structure allows to investigate the propagation of a circumferential representative crack of a cylindrical upper brace. The in-water test configuration included the tower with three bladed rotor. The response of the structure to the different waves loads were measured with accelerometers. Experimental and operational modal analysis was applied to identify the dynamic properties of the investigated scale model for intact and damaged state with different excitations and wave patterns. A comprehensive test matrix allows to assess the differences in estimated modal parameters due to damage or as potentially introduced by nonlinear structural response. The presented technique proves to be effective for detecting and assessing the presence of representative cracks.

  16. Development of Laboratory Experimental System to Clarify Solar Wind Charge Exchange Mechanism with TES Microcalorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enoki, T.; Ishisaki, Y.; Akamatsu, H.; Ezoe, Y.; Ohashi, T.; Kanda, T.; Ishida, T.; Tanuma, H.; Ohashi, H.; Shinozaki, K.; Mitsuda, K.

    2012-06-01

    Significant fraction of the cosmic diffuse soft X-ray emission (0.1-1 keV) is caused by the Solar Wind Charge eXchange (SWCX) process between the solar wind ion (C q+, N q+, O q+ etc.) and the interplanetary neutral matter. It is difficult to identify spectral features of SWCX with the spectral resolution of existing X-ray astronomy satellites. We are developing a laboratory experimental system with transition edge sensor (TES) X-ray microcalorimeters, in order to clarify the SWCX mechanism. This experiment is designed to measure Charge eXchange (CX) X-rays using Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source (ECRIS) that generates multi-charged ions. Emission lines (OVIII: 2p→1s; 654 eV) by CX between O8+ and neutral He atom is aimed to be measured with energy resolution better than 10 eV. The TES microcalorimeter is cooled by a double-stage adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (DADR), however, our TES microcalorimeter are not working potentially due to magnetic field contamination. This paper reports our experimental system, present results, and future prospects.

  17. [Some notes on the history of the experimental surgery laboratory. Reflections on its relevance in education and surgical research].

    PubMed

    de la Garza-Rodea, Anabel Sofía; Padilla-Sánchez, Luis; de la Garza-Aguilar, Javier; Neri-Vela, Rolando

    2007-01-01

    The progress of medicine has largely been due to research, and for surgery, in particular, the experimental surgical laboratory has been considered fundamental to the surgeon's education. In this study, a general view of experimental surgery is given in animal models based on bioethical norms as well as to design, create and apply different surgical procedures before performing in humans. Experimental surgery also facilitates surgical teaching and promotes the surgeon's scientific reasoning. Methods. This is a retrospective and descriptive study. Data were collected from direct and indirect sources of available publications on the historical, bioethical and educational aspects of medicine, focusing on surgery. The important facts corresponding to the field of experimental surgery and applicable in Mexico were selected. Concepts of experimental surgical models and of the experimental surgery laboratory were described. Bioethical considerations are emphasized for care of experimental animals. Finally, this work focuses on the importance of surgical experimentation in current and future development of the surgical researcher. Conclusions. Experimentation with animal models in a surgical laboratory is essential for surgical teaching and promotes development of the scientific thought in the surgeon. It is necessary for surgical research and is fundamental for making progress in surgery, treatment and medicine as science.

  18. A laboratory course for teaching laboratory techniques, experimental design, statistical analysis, and peer review process to undergraduate science students.

    PubMed

    Gliddon, C M; J Rosengren, R

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a 13-week laboratory course called Human Toxicology taught at the University of Otago, New Zealand. This course used a guided inquiry based laboratory coupled with formative assessment and collaborative learning to develop in undergraduate students the skills of problem solving/critical thinking, data interpretation and written discussion of results. The laboratory practices were a guided inquiry based around retinol's ability to potentiate acetaminophen-mediated hepatotoxicity. To induce critical thinking, students were given a choice as to which assay they could use to determine how retinol affected acetaminophen hepatotoxicity. Short summaries were handed in following each assay and formed the bases of the formative assessment. To complete the feedback loop, a summative assessment that consisted of all the graphs and concepts from the short summaries were combined into a manuscript. To give the students exposure to science communication, the manuscript had to be written in accordance to the submission guidelines for Toxicological Sciences. Evaluation of this course was determined by a student questionnaire using a Likert scale and students' responses were very favorable. While the subject matter was toxicological centric, the content could be easily modified to suit another subject matter in biochemistry and molecular biology.

  19. A new laboratory-scale experimental facility for detailed aerothermal characterizations of volumetric absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez-Garcia, Fabrisio; Santiago, Sergio; Luque, Salvador; Romero, Manuel; Gonzalez-Aguilar, Jose

    2016-05-01

    This paper describes a new modular laboratory-scale experimental facility that was designed to conduct detailed aerothermal characterizations of volumetric absorbers for use in concentrating solar power plants. Absorbers are generally considered to be the element with the highest potential for efficiency gains in solar thermal energy systems. The configu-ration of volumetric absorbers enables concentrated solar radiation to penetrate deep into their solid structure, where it is progressively absorbed, prior to being transferred by convection to a working fluid flowing through the structure. Current design trends towards higher absorber outlet temperatures have led to the use of complex intricate geometries in novel ceramic and metallic elements to maximize the temperature deep inside the structure (thus reducing thermal emission losses at the front surface and increasing efficiency). Although numerical models simulate the conjugate heat transfer mechanisms along volumetric absorbers, they lack, in many cases, the accuracy that is required for precise aerothermal validations. The present work aims to aid this objective by the design, development, commissioning and operation of a new experimental facility which consists of a 7 kWe (1.2 kWth) high flux solar simulator, a radiation homogenizer, inlet and outlet collector modules and a working section that can accommodate volumetric absorbers up to 80 mm × 80 mm in cross-sectional area. Experimental measurements conducted in the facility include absorber solid temperature distributions along its depth, inlet and outlet air temperatures, air mass flow rate and pressure drop, incident radiative heat flux, and overall thermal efficiency. In addition, two windows allow for the direct visualization of the front and rear absorber surfaces, thus enabling full-coverage surface temperature measurements by thermal imaging cameras. This paper presents the results from the aerothermal characterization of a siliconized silicon

  20. Numerical Modeling of LLNL's Au-Sphere experiments on the OMEGA Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, K. H.; Raicher, E.; Frank, Y.; Fraenkel, M.; Johnsen, E.; Drake, R. P.; Shvarts, D.

    2016-10-01

    Experiments performed by LLNL on OMEGA studying X-ray conversion efficiencies for high-Z materials, aimed to confirm hohlraum modeling, resulted in a''liberal'' flux limiter value of 0.15 to match simulations with these measurements. This conclusion was re-examined and another model accounting for the effect of Ion Acoustic Turbulence on the thermal electron flux limitation was proposed. Our work continues to explore relevant physical parameters in modeling these experiments using the HYADES and FLORENCE codes. The sensitivity of laser absorption, X-ray emission and corona electron temperature to the electron flux limiter, inverse bremsstrahlung coefficient, resonant absorption in the critical layer, LTE and NLTE atomic physics and a numerical convergence study due to steep density and electron temperature profiles at the critical layer will be discussed. Additionally, alternative experimental designs, such as an ``onion'' configuration of plastic and gold as well as different laser illumination patterns, were studied. Supported by the LLNL under subcontract B614207 to DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  1. LLNL small-scale static spark machine: static spark sensitivity test

    SciTech Connect

    Foltz, M F; Simpson, L R

    1999-08-23

    Small-scale safety testing of explosives and other energetic materials is done in order to determine their sensitivity to various stimuli, such as friction, static spark, and impact. Typically this testing is done to discover potential handling problems that may exist for either newly synthesized materials of unknown behavior, or materials that have been stored for long periods of time. This report describes the existing ''Static Spark Test Apparatus'' at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), as well as the method used to evaluate the relative static spark sensitivity of energetic materials. The basic design, originally developed by the Picatinny Arsenal in New Jersey, is discussed. The accumulated data for the materials tested to date is not included here, with the exception of specific examples that have yielded interesting or unusual results during the tests.

  2. A historical perspective on fifteen years of laser damage thresholds at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Rainer, F.; De Marco, F.P.; Staggs, M.C.; Kozlowski, M.R.; Atherton, L.J.; Sheehan, L.M.

    1993-12-21

    We have completed a fifteen year, referenced and documented compilation of more than 15,000 measurements of laser-induced damage thresholds (LIDT) conducted at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). These measurements cover the spectrum from 248 to 1064 nm with pulse durations ranging from < 1 ns to 65 ns and at pulse-repetition frequencies (PRF) from single shots to 6.3 kHz. We emphasize the changes in LIDTs during the past two years since we last summarized our database. We relate these results to earlier data concentrating on improvements in processing methods, materials, and conditioning techniques. In particular, we highlight the current status of anti-reflective (AR) coatings, high reflectors (HR), polarizers, and frequency-conversion crystals used primarily at 355 nm and 1064 nm.

  3. Teaching Fraunhofer diffraction via experimental and simulated images in the laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peinado, Alba; Vidal, Josep; Escalera, Juan Carlos; Lizana, Angel; Campos, Juan; Yzuel, Maria

    2012-10-01

    Diffraction is an important phenomenon introduced to Physics university students in a subject of Fundamentals of Optics. In addition, in the Physics Degree syllabus of the Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, there is an elective subject in Applied Optics. In this subject, diverse diffraction concepts are discussed in-depth from different points of view: theory, experiments in the laboratory and computing exercises. In this work, we have focused on the process of teaching Fraunhofer diffraction through laboratory training. Our approach involves students working in small groups. They visualize and acquire some important diffraction patterns with a CCD camera, such as those produced by a slit, a circular aperture or a grating. First, each group calibrates the CCD camera, that is to say, they obtain the relation between the distances in the diffraction plane in millimeters and in the computer screen in pixels. Afterwards, they measure the significant distances in the diffraction patterns and using the appropriate diffraction formalism, they calculate the size of the analyzed apertures. Concomitantly, students grasp the convolution theorem in the Fourier domain by analyzing the diffraction of 2-D gratings of elemental apertures. Finally, the learners use a specific software to simulate diffraction patterns of different apertures. They can control several parameters: shape, size and number of apertures, 1-D or 2-D gratings, wavelength, focal lens or pixel size.Therefore, the program allows them to reproduce the images obtained experimentally, and generate others by changingcertain parameters. This software has been created in our research group, and it is freely distributed to the students in order to help their learning of diffraction. We have observed that these hands on experiments help students to consolidate their theoretical knowledge of diffraction in a pedagogical and stimulating learning process.

  4. Choice of experimental venue matters in ecotoxicology studies: Comparison of a laboratory-based and an outdoor mesocosm experiment.

    PubMed

    Mikó, Zsanett; Ujszegi, János; Gál, Zoltán; Imrei, Zoltán; Hettyey, Attila

    2015-10-01

    The heavy application of pesticides and its potential effects on natural communities has attracted increasing attention to inadvertent impacts of these chemicals. Toxicologists conventionally use laboratory-based tests to assess lethal concentrations of pesticides. However, these tests often do not take into account indirect, interactive and long-term effects, and tend to ignore different rates of disintegration in the laboratory and under natural conditions. Our aim was to investigate the importance of the experimental venue for ecotoxicology tests. We reared tadpoles of the agile frog (Rana dalmatina) in the laboratory and in outdoor mesocosms and exposed them to three initial concentrations of a glyphosate-based herbicide (0, 2 and 6.5 mg a.e./L glyphosate), and to the presence or absence of caged predators (dragonfly larvae). The type of experimental venue had a large effect on the outcome: The herbicide was less lethal to tadpoles reared in outdoor mesocosms than in the laboratory. Further, while the herbicide had a negative effect on development time and on body mass in the laboratory, tadpoles exposed to the herbicide in mesocosms were larger at metamorphosis and developed faster in comparison to those reared in the absence of the herbicide. The effect of the herbicide on morphological traits of tadpoles also differed between the two venues. Finally, in the presence of the herbicide, tadpoles tended to be more active and to stay closer to the bottom of laboratory containers, while tadpole behaviour shifted in the opposite direction in outdoor mesocosms. Our results demonstrate major discrepancies between results of a classic laboratory-based ecotoxicity test and outcomes of an experiment performed in outdoor mesocosms. Consequently, the use of standard laboratory tests may have to be reconsidered and their benefits carefully weighed against the difficulties of performing experiments under more natural conditions. Tests validating experimentally estimated

  5. LLNL Measurements of Graded-Index Multi-Mode Fiber (ITF 47)

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, T.T.

    2000-05-01

    The Russian Federal Nuclear Center-All Russian Research Institute of Technical Physics, located in the Nuclear City of Snezhinsk, east of the Ural mountains and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories have been investigating the possibility of establishing a commercial optical fiber manufacturing facility. These discussions began in the summer of 1998. At that time three samples (single mode and multi-mode) of optical fiber were left at the Sandia National Laboratory. Sandia measured two of the segments and sent them to LLNL. The optical loss at 1550 nm and 1300 nm were higher than commercially available fiber. The measurements were complicated because the geometry of the fibers also did not meet specification. Since the core was not adequately centered coupling of optical energy into the fiber being tested varied widely depending on which end of the fiber was used for insertion. The results of these measurements were summarized in the informal report dated June 11, 1999, which was hand carried by Dr. Paul Herman during his July 1999 visit. During the July visit a 1.2-km long section of graded-index multimode fiber, ITF 47, was given to Herman. We had requested samples longer than the earlier ones (which were {approx}0.1 km long) in order that a cutback method could be used for the transmission measurements. The optical loss using the cutback technique and the transmission spectral measurements in the 600-1700 mn region are reported. Also physical measurements are reported of the fiber's diameter, concentricity, ellipticity and tensile strength (proof test). The test results are summarized in Table 1, ''Comparative Data for Multi-mode Optical Fiber.'' The table includes the values from the Industrial specification TIA/EIA 402AAAB, the commercial specification for Corning's 50/125 CPC6, the values measured on ITF-47 and provided by C-70, and LLNL's values for ITF-47 as well as the multimode values from the June 1999 samples.

  6. The EBIT Calorimeter Spectrometer: a new, permanent user facility at the LLNL EBIT

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, F S; Beiersdorfer, P; Brown, G V; Doriese, W; Gygax, J; Kelley, R L; Kilbourne, C A; King, J; Irwin, K; Reintsema, C; Ullom, J

    2007-09-07

    The EBIT Calorimeter Spectrometer (ECS) is currently being completed and will be installed at the EBIT facility at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in October 2007. The ECS will replace the smaller XRS/EBIT microcalorimeter spectrometer that has been in almost continuous operation since 2000. The XRS/EBIT was based on a spare laboratory cryostat and an engineering model detector system from the Suzaku/XRS observatory program. The new ECS spectrometer was built to be a low maintenance, high performance implanted silicon microcalorimeter spectrometer with 4 eV resolution at 6 keV, 32 detector channels, 10 {micro}s event timing, and capable of uninterrupted acquisition sessions of over 60 hours at 50 mK. The XRS/EBIT program has been very successful, producing many results on topics such as laboratory astrophysics, atomic physics, nuclear physics, and calibration of the spectrometers for the National Ignition Facility. The ECS spectrometer will continue this work into the future with improved spectral resolution, integration times, and ease-of-use. We designed the ECS instrument with TES detectors in mind by using the same highly successful magnetic shielding as our laboratory TES cryostats. This design will lead to a future TES instrument at the LLNL EBIT. Here we discuss the legacy of the XRS/EBIT program, the performance of the new ECS spectrometer, and plans for a future TES instrument.

  7. Numerical Investigation and Experimental Reproduction of Fermi Acceleration in Laboratory Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, M.; Zhai, C.

    2015-12-01

    Fermi acceleration is widely accepted as the mechanism to explain power law of cosmic ray spectrum. Now this mechanism has been developed to first order Fermi acceleration and second order Fermi acceleration. In first order Fermi acceleration, also known as diffusive shock acceleration, particles are confined around the shock through scattering and accelerated by repeatedly crossing shock front. In second order Fermi acceleration, particles gain energy through statistical collisions with interstellar clouds. In this proposed work, we plan to carefully study these two kinds of acceleration numerically and experimentally. We first consider a single relativistic particle and investigate how it gains energy in Fermi-Ulam model and shock wave acceleration model respectively. We investigate collective behavior of particles with different kinds of wall-oscillation functions and try to find an optimal one in terms of efficiency of acceleration. Then, we plan to go further and consider a group of particles statistically, during which we borrow the correct generalization of Maxwell's velocity distribution in special relativity and compare the results with those in cases where we simply use Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution. To this end, we try to provide a scheme to build an accelerator applying both laser technology and mirror effect in Laboratory to reproduce Fermi acceleration, which might be a promising source to obtain high energy particles and further study the mechanism of cosmic rays acceleration.

  8. Experimental infection with Paragonimus heterotremus metacercariae in laboratory animals in Manipur, India.

    PubMed

    Singh, T Shantikumar; Sugiyama, Hiromu; Devi, K Ranjana; Singh, L Deben; Binchai, Sutheewan; Rangsiruji, Achariya

    2011-01-01

    This study was aimed to find out the host-parasite relationship between Paragonimus heterotremus isolated as metacercariae from mountain crabs, Indochinamon manipurensis, in Manipur, India and laboratory animals such as puppies, albino rats, Swiss mice, guinea pigs, and rabbits, as experimental animals. The animals were fed with the metacercariae. Infected animals were sacrificed 35 to 430 days after feeding to recover worms, which were used to determine the developmental stages. Adult worms (n = 14) were recovered from 3 puppies > or = 70 days after feeding and immature worms (n = 25) were recovered from 2 other puppies 35 or 43 days after infection. The infection rate in puppies was 100%. Juvenile worms were recovered from 3 of 13 rats: 1 of 11 rats whose viscera and cavities were examined and both of two rats whose muscles were examined. Rats were not a suitable animal model for pulmonary infection with P. heterotremus. Mice, guinea pigs, and rabbits were also found to be insusceptible to pulmonary infection with P. heterotremus.

  9. Experimental and theoretical study of microalgal competition in laboratory and natural ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisman, T. I.; Somova, L. A.

    An important aspect of studying mixed cultures of microalgae is the artificial ecosystems containing algal culture as a regeneration link and a source of vegetable substances. The peculiarities of studying the stability of microalgae mixed cultures in the laboratory and natural environment have been considered in the work. The role of factors most essentially affecting the species structure of phytoplankton community (temperature factor, light intensity, pH environments, elements of mineral nutrition, algal metabolites, predation and fluctuation of environmental conditions) has been displayed. As a result of experimental and theoretical modelling of the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris and Scenedesmus quadricauda competition under limitation on nitrogen, the impossibility of their co-existence has been revealed. Under these conditions Chl. vulgaris turned out to be less competitive than Sc. quadricauda. The influence of the ratio of biogenic elements concentration in the environment, which should be recognized as an independent regulatory factor limiting growth of populations in the community and, thus affecting its structure, has been analyzed.

  10. Laboratory-based Interpretation of Seismological Models: Dealing with Incomplete or Incompatible Experimental Data (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, I.; Kennett, B. L.; Faul, U. H.

    2009-12-01

    In parallel with cooperative developments in seismology during the past 25 years, there have been phenomenal advances in mineral/rock physics making laboratory-based interpretation of seismological models increasingly useful. However, the assimilation of diverse experimental data into a physically sound framework for seismological application is not without its challenges as demonstrated by two examples. In the first example, that of equation-of-state and elasticity data, an appropriate, thermodynamically consistent framework involves finite-strain expansion of the Helmholz free energy incorporating the Debye approximation to the lattice vibrational energy, as advocated by Stixrude and Lithgow-Bertelloni. Within this context, pressure, specific heat and entropy, thermal expansion, elastic constants and their adiabatic and isothermal pressure derivatives are all calculable without further approximation in an internally consistent manner. The opportunities and challenges of assimilating a wide range of sometimes marginally incompatible experimental data into a single model of this type will be demonstrated with reference to MgO, unquestionably the most thoroughly studied mantle mineral. A neighbourhood-algorithm inversion has identified a broadly satisfactory model, but uncertainties in key parameters associated particularly with pressure calibration remain sufficiently large as to preclude definitive conclusions concerning lower-mantle chemical composition and departures from adiabaticity. The second example is the much less complete dataset concerning seismic-wave dispersion and attenuation emerging from low-frequency forced-oscillation experiments. Significant progress has been made during the past decade towards an understanding of high-temperature, micro-strain viscoelastic relaxation in upper-mantle materials, especially as regards the roles of oscillation period, temperature, grain size and melt fraction. However, the influence of other potentially important

  11. Feasibility Study: Potential Enhancements for the LLNL Renewables Website

    SciTech Connect

    Kearns, F; Krawchuk, M; Moritz, M; Stephens, S; Goldstein, N

    2008-01-25

    This feasibility study investigates additional improvements/extensions to the LLNL Renewables Website. Currently, the Renewables Website focuses on wind energy in California. Future enhancements will include other renewable energy sources. The extensions described below are focused along two separate yet related avenues: (1) Forecasting wildfire risk in the regions of California where new development may occur, as a part of the 'Million Solar Roofs' program. (2) Gaining a better understanding of the ecological components and potential of biofuels from forests in California. These two avenues are further described in the report. Following is a technical description of the Center for Fire Research and Outreach computing and web service capabilities.

  12. Electromagnetic (EM) earthquake precursor transmission and detection regarding experimental field and laboratory results.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Kenneth B., II; Saxton, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    Aside from understanding the animal kingdom reacting to a per-earthquake signal, a transmission source is apparent. The focus of this investigation is an electromagnetic emission approach and detection capable of becoming both practical and reliable to other plausible earthquake precursors. To better determine this method, several prototype magnetometers were devised and built with each successive version improving upon the next. Two twin (prototype #2) antennae were deployed to field settings outside the NE Texas town of Timpson, TX back in February, 2013 and very recent laboratory tests using the most refined (prototype #4) experimental antenna for detecting unconfined, granitic block fracturing. Field testing encompassed the small NE Texas town of Timpson, TX, which endured an earthquake phenomenon (May, 2012 - September, 2013). A rare sequence of events was strictly attributed to hydraulic fracturing activity in the immediate area all for hydrocarbon capture; thus, a chance to detect and record man-made earthquake activity. By swiveling two directional antennae at three locations, one mobile, the antennae could 'zero' in on a signal source until its pattern was well established and mapped, accordingly. Three signals were detected, two strong and one moderately strong, each with epicenter implications several kilometers from known seismological sites. Six months later, two M4s and a M2.4 earthquake hit over the 2013 Labor Day weekend. Hydraulic pump pressure increased deep Earth pore pressure, reduced friction, and displaced opposing tectonic stresses causing rock to fracture. This was the last earthquake sequence in the Timpson area, due to personal involvement and area citizens in contact with their state representatives. Well and drilling operations have since moved 40-50 miles SE of Timpson, TX and rare earthquake activity has now occurred there. Laboratory testing was next performed using cored granitic blocks and the latest, improved antenna with an

  13. Transition-ready technologies and expertise from the Chemical and Biological National Security Program at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Folta, P A; McBride, M T

    2006-02-22

    HSARPA has initiated a new Bioinformatics and Assay Development solicitation, BIAD2 (BAA 06-01), to address a number of technology gaps and requirements for biodetection (www.hsarpabaa.com). This solicitation will leverage the vast research and development capabilities of the private sector and academia in order to meet the needs of HSARPA and Homeland Security. In order to meet these requirements, this solicitation will: (1) Develop and validate actionable assays for the public and private sector; (2) Develop and validate new assays and novel assay methodologies to enhance existing detection systems and enable future detection platforms; (3) Develop next generation assays which are robust against novel, emerging and engineered threats; (4) Develop novel assays that detect low levels of ribonucleic acid (RNA)-based viral threats in complex backgrounds; (5) Develop novel assays to characterize the viability, degree of virulence or toxicity, and countermeasure resistance of a biological agent; and (6) Develop new bioinformatics tools to support assay development and assay validation The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Bioassays and Signature Program (BSP) develops nationally-validated detection and identification assays to cover the full range of biological threat agents, starting from human, animal, and plant pathogens on the Select Agent list. The assays that have been co-developed by the CDC and the BSP are used internationally and represent the gold standard for molecular detection of select agent pathogens for the public health community. They are also used in the DHS environmental monitoring operations such as BioWatch and DHS National Security Special Events support. These reagents have been used to process and analyze more than 5 million samples and have delivered exceptional performance for the end users, with zero false positives since their deployment. Currently, highly-multiplexed nucleic acid assays that represent the ''next-generation'' in

  14. Integrating Statistical Mechanics with Experimental Data from the Rotational-Vibrational Spectrum of HCl into the Physical Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Findley, Bret R.; Mylon, Steven E.

    2008-01-01

    We introduce a computer exercise that bridges spectroscopy and thermodynamics using statistical mechanics and the experimental data taken from the commonly used laboratory exercise involving the rotational-vibrational spectrum of HCl. Based on the results from the analysis of their HCl spectrum, students calculate bulk thermodynamic properties…

  15. Procedure for Surveying a Station in the U.S. Army Research Laboratory Transonic Experimental Facility Spark Shadowgraph Range

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    indoor instrumented spark range at the U.S. Army Research Laboratory Transonic Experimental Facility was designed for firing various- caliber ...Tables iv Acknowledgments v 1. Introduction 1 2. Survey Procedure 4 3. Summary 16 Appendix. Fiducial Wire Dimensions 17 Distribution List 20...List of Tables Table 1. Reference elevations for spark stations. ............................................................................5 v

  16. Development of an Interdisciplinary Experimental Series for the Laboratory Courses of Cell and Molecular Biology and Advance Inorganic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Montserrat Rabago; McAllister, Robert; Newkirk, Kiera; Basing, Alexander; Wang, Lihua

    2012-01-01

    An interdisciplinary approach to education has become more important in the development of science and technology, which requires universities to have graduates with broad knowledge and skills and to apply these skills in solving real-world problems. An interdisciplinary experimental series has been developed for the laboratories in cell and…

  17. Joint FAM/Line Management Assessment Report on LLNL Machine Guarding Safety Program

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, J. J.

    2016-07-19

    The LLNL Safety Program for Machine Guarding is implemented to comply with requirements in the ES&H Manual Document 11.2, "Hazards-General and Miscellaneous," Section 13 Machine Guarding (Rev 18, issued Dec. 15, 2015). The primary goal of this LLNL Safety Program is to ensure that LLNL operations involving machine guarding are managed so that workers, equipment and government property are adequately protected. This means that all such operations are planned and approved using the Integrated Safety Management System to provide the most cost effective and safest means available to support the LLNL mission.

  18. LLNL state-of-the-art codes for source calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Glenn, L.A.

    1995-02-01

    The explosion-source region is defined as the region surrounding an underground explosion that cannot be described by elastic or anelastic theory. This region extends typically to ranges on the order of 1 km/kt. For the simulation or analysis of seismic signals, what is required is the time resolved motion and stress state at the inelastic boundary. Various analytic approximations have been made for these boundary conditions, but since they rely on near-field empirical data they cannot be expected to reliably extrapolate to different explosion sites. More important, without some knowledge of the initial energy density and the characteristics of the medium immediately surrounding the explosion, these simplified models are unable to distinguish chemical from nuclear explosions, identify cavity decoupling, or account for such phenomena as anomalous dissipation via pore collapse. The purpose here is to document the state-of-the-art codes at LLNL involved in simulating underground (chemical and nuclear) explosions and, in so doing, present an overview of the physics. In what follows, the authors first describe the fundamental equations involved, discuss solution methods, coordinate frames and dimensionality. Then they identify the codes used at LLNL and their limitations. A companion report will describe the factors that most influence the seismic response, i.e., the source properties important for discrimination. That report will emphasize the coupling between the rock properties and the characteristics of the explosion cavity.

  19. Testing geochemical models of bentonite pore water evolution against laboratory experimental data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savage, David; Arthur, Randy; Watson, Claire; Wilson, James; Strömberg, Bo

    The determination of a bentonite pore water composition and understanding its evolution with time underpins many radioactive waste disposal issues, such as buffer erosion, canister corrosion, and radionuclide solubility, sorption, and diffusion, inter alia. Previous modelling approaches have tended to ignore clay dissolution-precipitation reactions, a consequence of which is that montmorillonite is theoretically preserved indefinitely in the repository system. Here, we investigate the applicability of an alternative clay pore fluid evolution model, that incorporates clay dissolution-precipitation reactions as an integral component and test it against well-characterised laboratory experimental data, where key geochemical parameters, Eh and pH, have been measured directly in compacted bentonite. Simulations have been conducted using different computer codes (Geochemist’s Workbench, PHREEQC, and QPAC) to test the applicability of this model. Thermodynamic data for the Gibb’s free energy of formation of MX-80 smectite used in the calculations were estimated using two different methods (‘Polymer’ and ‘Vieillard’ Models). Simulations of ‘end-point’ pH measurements in batch bentonite-water slurry experiments showed different pH values according to the complexity of the system studied. The most complete system investigated revealed pH values were a strong function of partial pressure of carbon dioxide, with pH increasing with decreasing PCO 2 (with log PCO 2 values ranging from -3.5 to -7.5 bars produced pH values ranging from 7.9 to 9.6). A second set of calculations investigated disequilibrium between clay and pore fluid in laboratory squeezing cell tests involving pure water (pH = 9.0) or a 1 M NaOH solution (pH = 12.1). Simulations carried out for 100 days (the same timescale as the experiments) showed that smectite remained far from equilibrium throughout, and that the lowering of pH due to smectite hydrolysis was trivial. However, extending the

  20. Experimental setup for the laboratory investigation of micrometeoroid ablation using a dust accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Evan; Simolka, Jonas; DeLuca, Michael; Horányi, Mihály; Janches, Diego; Marshall, Robert A.; Munsat, Tobin; Plane, John M. C.; Sternovsky, Zoltan

    2017-03-01

    A facility has been developed to simulate the ablation of micrometeoroids in laboratory conditions. An electrostatic dust accelerator is used to generate iron particles with velocities of 10-70 km/s. The particles are then introduced into a chamber pressurized with a target gas, where the pressure is adjustable between 0.01 and 0.5 Torr, and the particle partially or completely ablates over a short distance. An array of biased electrodes above and below the ablation path is used to collect the generated ions/electrons with a spatial resolution of 2.6 cm along the ablating particles' path, thus allowing the study of the spatiotemporal evolution of the process. For completely ablated particles, the total collected charge directly yields the ionization coefficient of a given dust material-target gas combination. The first results of this facility measured the ionization coefficient of iron atoms with N2, air, CO2, and He target gases for impact velocities >20 km/s, and are reported by Thomas et al. [Geophys. Res. Lett. 43, 3645 (2016)]. The ablation chamber is also equipped with four optical ports that allow for the detection of the light emitted by the ablating particle. A multichannel photomultiplier tube system is used to observe the ablation process with a spatial and temporal resolution of 0.64 cm and 90 ns. The preliminary results indicate that it is possible to calculate the velocity of the ablating particle from the optical observations, and in conjunction with the spatially resolved charge measurements allow for experimental validation of ablation models in future studies.

  1. Laboratory experimental simulations: Chemical evolution of the organic matter from interstellar and cometary ice analogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abou Mrad, N.; Vinogradoff, V.; Duverney, F.; Danger, G.; Theulé, P.; Borget, F.; Chiavassa, T.

    2015-01-01

    This contribution addresses the different approaches that are developed in our laboratory to study the chemical evolution of organic matter in stellar or interplanetary environments. In the first approach, starting from interstellar or cometary ice analogs subjected to different energy processes (thermal, photochemical), we aim to explain the mechanism of formation of key molecules (RING project: Reactivity in INterstellar ice Grains) such as HMT, POM or amino acid precursors that are or may be detected in future space missions. In a second approach, we are interested in the detection of volatile molecules sublimating from ice analogs when these latter are heated and/or irradiated (VAHIIA project: Volatile Analysis from the Heating of Interstellar Ice Analogs) through an online experimental device coupling the simulation chamber where ices are formed to a GC-MS instrument. The objective is thus to simulate the effects of the ice material warming when a young star forms or when a comet becomes active. This project provides an inventory of molecules that can be found in hot corinos or in the gaseous phase of comets. In a third approach, we analyze the organic matter contained in the refractory residues that can be considered as cometary analogs (RAHIIA Project: Residue Analysis from the Heating of Interstellar Ice Analogs) using very high resolution mass spectrometry (VHRMS). The results of these analyses show that residues present an important molecular diversity. This technique gives also the possibility to determine the elementary composition of these residues that can be compared to the meteorite composition. These residues can then be a basic material to develop, in a specific planetary environment, a prebiotic chemistry.

  2. Modeling study of carbonate decomposition in LLNL`s 4TU pilot oil shale retort

    SciTech Connect

    Thorsness, C.B.

    1994-10-14

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL) 4 tonne-per-day oil shale Pilot Retort (4TU-Pilot) has been modeled to study the degree of carbonate decomposition occurring in the process. The modeling uses a simplified version of the processes occurring in the retort to allow parametric studies to be performed. The primary focus of the work is on the sensitivity of computed carbonate decomposition to the assumed manner in which solid material leaves the retort. It was found that for a variety of assumptions about solid passage and evolution within the process the computed carbonate decomposition varied by only a few percent. It was also determined that using available kinetic expressions based on literature data led to a consistent underestimate of the carbonate decomposition, from 12--17% low on an absolute basis and on a relative basis as much as a factor of seven times too low. A simplified kinetic expression based on limited data from laboratory experiments on the same shale as used in the 4TU-Pilot run was also employed and found to match the pilot results fairly well.

  3. Sediment transport during flash flood events on an intermittent river: an experimental laboratory study.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moustabachir, H.; Chahinian, N.; Romieux, N.; Vittenet, J.; Gayrard, E.; Tournoud, M. G.

    2009-04-01

    Flash floods have a number of impacts on the water quality of river systems because the later is the resultant of pollutant input into the river and its transformation along its course. In the case of intermittent rivers this impact is increased by the long drought periods that usually precede such floods. Indeed, the pollutants are known to accumulate in the dry river sediments during the drought period and are flushed away by the first floods. The Vène, a small experimental catchment (67 km²) located in southern France is a perfect example of this type of behavior. The field data collected on the catchment since 1994 through routine and flood monitoring clearly show an increase in suspended solids and nutrient concentrations during flash floods. However, the hydraulic conditions which lead to the triggering of sediment movement and re-suspension are not known. The aim of this study is to investigate sediment re-suspension mechanisms by reproducing the dynamics of sediment movement during flash floods at the reach scale in controlled laboratory conditions. A rectangular flume (6m*0.29m*0.18m) is used as a scale model of a 1 km reach. Variable flow conditions can be set in the flume through a quarter turn valve. Discharge values are monitored using an electromagnetic flow meter and water velocity measurements are carried out in the flume using a Pitot probe coupled to a digital manometer. Dynamic similarity is imposed between the reach and the flume i.e. the reach's Froude number is set equal to that of the flume. The reach's rating curve is used to determine a set of experimental height and flow values for the flume. For each test, the slope of the flume is modified in order to respect the rating curve. The flume's bed is reconstructed by respecting the similarity ratios determined previously using glass micro beads to represent its sediments. Various tests are carried out in steady-state conditions for different discharge values. In transient conditions, the

  4. Students' Assessment of Interactive Distance Experimentation in Nuclear Reactor Physics Laboratory Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malkawi, Salaheddin; Al-Araidah, Omar

    2013-01-01

    Laboratory experiments develop students' skills in dealing with laboratory instruments and physical processes with the objective of reinforcing the understanding of the investigated subject. In nuclear engineering, where research reactors play a vital role in the practical education of students, the high cost and long construction time of research…

  5. Leaching study of PNL 76-68 glass beads using the LLNL continuous-flow method and the PNL modified IAEA method. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Coles, D.G.; Mensing, R.W.; Rego, J.; Weed, H.C.; Buddemeier, R.W.

    1982-10-04

    A long-term single-pass continuous-flow (SPCF) leaching test was conducted on the glass waste form PNL 76-68. Leaching rates of Np, Pu and various stable elements were measured at 25 and 75/sup 0/C with three different solutions and three different flow rates. The SPCF leaching results were compared with results of a modified IAEA leach test performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL). Elemental leach rates and their variation with temperature, flow rate and solution composition were established. The LLNL and PNL leach test results appear to agree within experimental uncertainties. The magnitude of the leach rates determined for Np and the glass matrix elements is 10/sup -5/ grams of glass/cm/sup 2/ geometric solid surface area/day. The rates increase with temperature and with solution flow rate, and are similar in brine and distilled water but higher in a bicarbonate solution. Other cations exhibit somewhat different behavior, and Pu in particular yields a much lower apparent leach rate, probably because of sorption or precipitation effects after release from the glass matrix. After the initial few days, most elements are leached at a constant rate. Matrix dissolution appears to be the most probable rate controlling step for the leaching of most elements. 23 figures, 12 tables.

  6. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory environmental report for 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Sims, J.M.; Surano, K.A.; Lamson, K.C.; Balke, B.K.; Steenhoven, J.C.; Schwoegler, D.R.

    1990-01-01

    This report documents the results of the Environmental Monitoring Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and presents summary information about environmental compliance for 1990. To evaluate the effect of LLNL operations on the local environment, measurements of direct radiation and a variety of radionuclides and chemical compounds in ambient air, soil, sewage effluent surface water, groundwater, vegetation, and foodstuff were made at both the Livermore site and at Site 300 nearly. LLNL's compliance with all applicable guides, standards, and limits for radiological and nonradiological emissions to the environment was evaluated. Aside from an August 13 observation of silver concentrations slightly above guidelines for discharges to the sanitary sewer, all the monitoring data demonstrated LLNL compliance with environmental laws and regulations governing emission and discharge of materials to the environment. In addition, the monitoring data demonstrated that the environmental impacts of LLNL are minimal and pose no threat to the public to or to the environment. 114 refs., 46 figs., 79 tabs.

  7. Analyses in Support of Z-IFE: LLNL Progress Report for FY-04

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, W; Abbott, R; Latkowski, J; Moir, R; Reyes, S; Schmitt, R

    2004-10-06

    During the last quarter of FY2004, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) conducted a brief study of power plant options for a z-pinch-based inertial fusion energy (Z-IFE) power plant. Areas that were covered include chamber design, thick-liquid response, neutronics and activation, and systems studies. This report summarizes the progress made in each of these areas, provides recommendations for improvements to the basic design concept, and identifies future work that is needed. As a starting point to the LLNL studies, we have taken information provided in several publications and presentations. In particular, many of the basic parameters were taken from the ZP-3 study, which is described in reference 4. The ZP-3 design called for 12 separate target chambers, with any 10 of them operating at a given time. Each chamber would be pulsed at a repetition rate of 0.1 Hz with a target yield of 3 GJ. Thus, each chamber would have a fusion power of 300 MW for a power plant total of 3000 MW. The ZP-3 study considered several options for the recyclable transmission lines (RTL). Early in the study, the LLNL group questioned the use of many chambers as well as the yield limitation of 3 GJ. The feeling was that a large number of chambers would invariably lead to a considerably higher system cost than for a system with fewer chambers. Naturally, this trend would be somewhat offset by the increased availability that might be possible with many chambers. Reference 4 points out that target yields as high as 20 GJ would be possible with currently available manufacturing technology. The LLNL team considered yields ranging from 3 to 20 GJ. Our findings indicate that higher yields, which lead one to fewer chambers, make the most sense from an economic point of view. Systems modeling, including relative economics, is covered in Section 2. Regardless of the number of chambers of the fusion yield per target, a Z-IFE power plant would make use of a thick-liquid wall protection scheme

  8. LLNL small-scale drop-hammer impact sensitivity test

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, L.R.; Foltz, M.F.

    1995-01-01

    Small-scale safety testing of explosives and other energetic materials is done to determine their sensitivity to various stimuli including friction, static spark, and impact. This testing is typically done to discover potential handling problems for either newly synthesized materials of unknown behavior or materials that have been stored for long periods of time. This report describes the existing ``ERL Type 12 Drop Weight Impact Sensitivity Apparatus``, or ``Drop Hammer Machine``, and the methods used to determine the impact sensitivity of energetic materials, Also discussed are changes made to both the machine and methods since the inception of impact sensitivity testing at LLNL in 1956. The accumulated data for the materials tested in not listed here, the exception being the discussion of those specific materials (primary calibrants: PETN, RDX, Comp-B3,and TNT; secondary calibrants: K-6, RX-26-AF, and TATB) used to calibrate the machine.

  9. Results of LLNL investigation of NYCT data sets

    SciTech Connect

    Sale, K; Harrison, M; Guo, M; Groza, M

    2007-08-01

    Upon examination we have concluded that none of the alarms indicate the presence of a real threat. A brief history and results from our examination of the NYCT ASP occupancy data sets dated from 2007-05-14 19:11:07 to 2007-06-20 15:46:15 are presented in this letter report. When the ASP data collection campaign at NYCT was completed, rather than being shut down, the Canberra ASP annunciator box was unplugged leaving the data acquisition system running. By the time it was discovered that the ASP was still acquiring data about 15,000 occupancies had been recorded. Among these were about 500 alarms (classified by the ASP analysis system as either Threat Alarms or Suspect Alarms). At your request, these alarms have been investigated. Our conclusion is that none of the alarm data sets indicate the presence of a real threat (within statistics). The data sets (ICD1 and ICD2 files with concurrent JPEG pictures) were delivered to LLNL on a removable hard drive labeled FOUO. The contents of the data disk amounted to 53.39 GB of data requiring over two days for the standard LLNL virus checking software to scan before work could really get started. Our first step was to walk through the directory structure of the disk and create a database of occupancies. For each occupancy, the database was populated with the occupancy date and time, occupancy number, file path to the ICD1 data and the alarm ('No Alarm', 'Suspect Alarm' or 'Threat Alarm') from the ICD2 file along with some other incidental data. In an attempt to get a global understanding of what was going on, we investigated the occupancy information. The occupancy date/time and alarm type were binned into one-hour counts. These data are shown in Figures 1 and 2.

  10. Laboratory And Lysimeter Experimentation And Transport Modeling Of Neptunium And Strontium In Savannah River Site Sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, Daniel I.; Powell, B. A.; Miller, Todd J.

    2012-09-24

    existing data sets. The first data set used laboratory generated Np sorption data as a function of concentration (three orders of magnitude) and as a function of pH (four orders of magnitude of proton concentration). In this modeling exercise, a very simple solution was identified by assuming that all sorption occurred only to the iron oxides in the sediment and that all the added NpO{sub 4}{sup -} remained in the oxidized state and was not reduced to the Np(IV) state (as occurs rapidly with Pu(V)). With rather limited input data, very good agreement between experimental and modeling results was observed. This modeling approach would be easy to add to the PA with little additional data requirements. This model would be useful in a system where pH is expected to change greatly, such as directly beneath a grout or concrete structure. The second model discussed in the report was to derive strontium K{sub d} values from data collected in an 11-year-old field transport study. In this controlled lysimeter study, a sensitivity analysis was conducted of hydrological and chemical processes that influence contaminant transport, including diffusion coefficients, seepage velocity, and K{sub d} value. The best overall K{sub d} derived from the model fit to the data was 32 L kg{sup -1}, which was the same value that was previously measured in traditional laboratory batch sorption studies. This was an unexpected result given the differences in experimental conditions between the batch test and the lysimeter flow through test, in particular the differences between strontium adsorption and desorption processes occurring in the latter test and not in the former. There were some trends in the lysimeter strontium data that were not predicted by the K{sub d} model, which suggest that other geochemical processes are likely also controlling strontium transport. Strontium release and cation exchange are being evaluated. These results suggest that future modeling efforts (e.g., PAs) could be

  11. Experimental investigation of the wake characteristics of flow-powered and motorized laboratory-scale wind turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araya, Daniel; Dabiri, John

    2013-11-01

    We present experimental data that compares the wake characteristics of a laboratory-scale vertical-axis turbine while it is either powered by the flow or by a DC motor. This distinction is relevant for laboratory experiments in which scale turbine models are used that require the use of a motor to spin the turbine blades. Particle image velocimetry is used to measure the velocity field in a two-dimensional plane normal to the axis of rotation. This velocity field is then used to compare time-averaged streamwise velocity, turbulence kinetic energy, and power of the two configurations. The results give insight into the kinematic effect of adding energy to the flow by way of the motor, and they suggest limits on the extrapolation of laboratory results to full-scale performance. This work was supported by an NSF Graduate Research Fellowship to D.B.A and funding to J.O.D. from ONR N000141211047.

  12. KULL: LLNL's ASCI Inertial Confinement Fusion Simulation Code

    SciTech Connect

    Rathkopf, J. A.; Miller, D. S.; Owen, J. M.; Zike, M. R.; Eltgroth, P. G.; Madsen, N. K.; McCandless, K. P.; Nowak, P. F.; Nemanic, M. K.; Gentile, N. A.; Stuart, L. M.; Keen, N. D.; Palmer, T. S.

    2000-01-10

    KULL is a three dimensional, time dependent radiation hydrodynamics simulation code under development at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. A part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI), KULL's purpose is to simulate the physical processes in Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) targets. The National Ignition Facility, where ICF experiments will be conducted, and ASCI are part of the experimental and computational components of DOE's Stockpile Stewardship Program. This paper provides an overview of ASCI and describes KULL, its hydrodynamic simulation capability and its three methods of simulating radiative transfer. Particular emphasis is given to the parallelization techniques essential to obtain the performance required of the Stockpile Stewardship Program and to exploit the massively parallel processor machines that ASCI is procuring.

  13. National Ignition Facility: Experimental plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-05-01

    As part of the Conceptual Design Report (CDR) for the National Ignition Facility (NIF), scientists from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Sandia National Laboratory (SNL), the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE), and EG&G formed an NIF Target Diagnostics Working Group. The purpose of the Target Diagnostics Working Group is to prepare conceptual designs of target diagnostics for inclusion in the facility CDR and to determine how these specifications impact the CDR. To accomplish this, a subgroup has directed its efforts at constructing an approximate experimental plan for the ignition campaign of the NIF CDR. The results of this effort are contained in this document, the Experimental Plan for achieving fusion ignition in the NIF. This group initially concentrated on the flow-down requirements of the experimental campaign leading to ignition, which will dominate the initial efforts of the NIF. It is envisaged, however, that before ignition, there will be parallel campaigns supporting weapons physics, weapons effects, and other research. This plan was developed by analyzing the sequence of activities required to finally fire the laser at the level of power and precision necessary to achieve the conditions of an ignition hohlraum target, and to then use our experience in activating and running Nova experiments to estimate the rate of completing these activities.

  14. Participation of Bell Telephone Laboratories in Project Echo and Experimental Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jakes, William C., Jr.

    1961-01-01

    On August 12, 1960, Echo I, a 100-foot-diameter spherical balloon, was placed in orbit around the earth by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The objective was to demonstrate the feasibility of long-distance communication by microwave reflection from a satellite. A two-way coast-to-coast voice circuit was to be established between the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) facility in California and a station provided by Bell Telephone Laboratories (STL) in New Jersey. Similar tests were also planned with the Naval Research Laboratory and other stations. This paper describes the general organization and operation of the Holmdel, New Jersey, station, and discusses the results of the experiments performed between the balloon launching and March 1, 1961. Successful voice communication was achieved through a variety of modulation methods including frequency modulation with feedback, amplitude modulation, single-sideband modulation, and narrow-band phase modulation. Careful measurements were also made of the loss in the transmission path.

  15. Experimental Bleaching of a Reef-Building Coral Using a Simplified Recirculating Laboratory Exposure System

    EPA Science Inventory

    Determining stressor-response relationships in reef building corals is a critical need for researchers because of global declines in coral reef ecosystems. A simplified recirculating coral exposure system for laboratory testing of a diversity of species and morphologies of reef b...

  16. Experimental Population Genetics in the Introductory Genetics Laboratory Using "Drosophila" as a Model Organism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Ronald; Kennon, Tillman

    2009-01-01

    Hypotheses of population genetics are derived and tested by students in the introductory genetics laboratory classroom as they explore the effects of biotic variables (physical traits of fruit flies) and abiotic variables (island size and distance) on fruit fly populations. In addition to this hypothesis-driven experiment, the development of…

  17. Potential effect of fiddler crabs on organic matter distribution: A combined laboratory and field experimental approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natálio, Luís F.; Pardo, Juan C. F.; Machado, Glauco B. O.; Fortuna, Monique D.; Gallo, Deborah G.; Costa, Tânia M.

    2017-01-01

    Bioturbators play a key role in estuarine environments by modifying the availability of soil elements, which in turn may affect other organisms. Despite the importance of bioturbators, few studies have combined both field and laboratory experiments to explore the effects of bioturbators on estuarine soils. Herein, we assessed the bioturbation potential of fiddler crabs Leptuca leptodactyla and Leptuca uruguayensis in laboratory and field experiments, respectively. We evaluated whether the presence of fiddler crabs resulted in vertical transport of sediment, thereby altering organic matter (OM) distribution. Under laboratory conditions, the burrowing activity by L. leptodactyla increased the OM content in sediment surface. In the long-term field experiment with areas of inclusion and exclusion of L. uruguayensis, we did not observe influence of this fiddler crab in the vertical distribution of OM. Based on our results, we suggest that small fiddler crabs, such as the species used in these experiments, are potentially capable of alter their environment by transporting sediment and OM but such effects may be masked by environmental drivers and spatial heterogeneity under natural conditions. This phenomenon may be related to the small size of these species, which affects how much sediment is transported, along with the way OM interacts with biogeochemical and physical processes. Therefore, the net effect of these burrowing organisms is likely to be the result of a complex interaction with other environmental factors. In this sense, we highlight the importance of performing simultaneous field and laboratory experiments in order to better understanding the role of burrowing animals as bioturbators.

  18. An Easy-to-Build Remote Laboratory with Data Transfer Using the Internet School Experimental System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schauer, Frantisek; Lustig, Frantisek; Dvorak, Jiri; Ozvoldova, Miroslava

    2008-01-01

    The present state of information communication technology makes it possible to devise and run computer-based e-laboratories accessible to any user with a connection to the Internet, equipped with very simple technical means and making full use of web services. Thus, the way is open for a new strategy of physics education with strongly global…

  19. Analyzing "Real-World" Anomalous Data after Experimentation with a Virtual Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toth, Eva Erdosne

    2016-01-01

    Developing effective pedagogies to help students examine anomalous data is critical for the education of the next generation of scientists and engineers. By definition anomalous data do not concur with prior knowledge, theories and expectations. Such data are the common outcome of empirical investigation in hands-on laboratories (HOLs). These…

  20. Comparisons of laboratory bioassays and a whole-lake experiment: Rotifer responses to experimental acidification

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez, M.J.; Frost, T.M. )

    1994-02-01

    The authors test whether data from laboratory bioassays can be used to predict zooplankton responses during a whole-lake experiment using two rotifers, Keratella cochlearis and Keratella taurocephala. The acidification experiment was conducted in Little Rock Lake, Wisconsin, USA, which was divided into a reference basin maintained at a natural pH near 6.1 and a treatment basin which was acidified in 2-yr stages to pH values of 5.6, 5.2, and 4.7. Laboratory assays examined the effect of pH on reproduction under varied food conditions and survivorship without food. In the lake, the two rotifers showed strong and opposite responses to acidification: K. cochlearis decreased in abundance while K. taurocephala increased. In the laboratory bioassays, neither species was sensitive to pH when food conditions yielded high reproductive rates. When food was limited, K. cochlearis exhibited lower survivorship and a trend towards lower reproductive rates at lower pH. With limited food, K. taurocephala survivorship was either unaffected by pH or higher at high pH and its reproduction was slightly higher at intermediate pH. In situ experiments revealed that food conditions in the treatment basin lowered reproduction by K. cochlearis, indicating that a combined effect of food and pH caused its population decline. Neither food nor pH could explain the increase in K. taurocephala, which appeared to be linked to a reduction in its predators at lower pH. Overall, the analyses revealed substantial discrepancies between laboratory bioassays and in-lake responses. This was particularly the case for K. taurocephala, for which assays predicted no changes or a decline in abundance rather than the marked increase that actually occurred. The results suggest that caution should be used in extending results from laboratory assays to natural ecosystems.

  1. The influence of experimental manipulations on chewing speed during in vivo laboratory research in tufted capuchins (Cebus apella).

    PubMed

    Thompson, C L; Donley, E M; Stimpson, C D; Horne, W I; Vinyard, C J

    2011-07-01

    Even though in vivo studies of mastication in living primates are often used to test functional and adaptive hypotheses explaining primate masticatory behavior, we currently have little data addressing how experimental procedures performed in the laboratory influence mastication. The obvious logistical issue in assessing how animal manipulation impacts feeding physiology reflects the difficulty in quantifying mechanical parameters without handling the animal. In this study, we measured chewing cycle duration as a mechanical variable that can be collected remotely to: 1) assess how experimental manipulations affect chewing speed in Cebus apella, 2) compare captive chewing cycle durations to that of wild conspecifics, and 3) document sources of variation (beyond experimental manipulation) impacting captive chewing cycle durations. We find that experimental manipulations do increase chewing cycle durations in C. apella by as much as 152 milliseconds (ms) on average. These slower chewing speeds are mainly an effect of anesthesia (and/or restraint), rather than electrode implantation or more invasive surgical procedures. Comparison of captive and wild C. apella suggest there is no novel effect of captivity on chewing speed, although this cannot unequivocally demonstrate that masticatory mechanics are similar in captive and wild individuals. Furthermore, we document significant differences in cycle durations due to inter-individual variation and food type, although duration did not always significantly correlate with mechanical properties of foods. We advocate that the significant reduction in chewing speed be considered as an appropriate qualification when applying the results of laboratory-based feeding studies to adaptive explanations of primate feeding behaviors.

  2. Laboratory analyses of micron-sized solid grains: Experimental techniques and recent results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colangeli, L.; Bussoletti, E.; Blanco, A.; Borghesi, A.; Fonti, S.; Orofino, V.; Schwehm, G.

    1989-01-01

    Morphological and spectrophotometric investigations have been extensively applied in the past years to various kinds of micron and/or submicron-sized grains formed by materials which are candidate to be present in space. The samples are produced in the laboratory and then characterized in their physio-chemical properties. Some of the most recent results obtained on various kinds of carbonaceous materials are reported. Main attention is devoted to spectroscopic results in the VUV and IR wavelength ranges, where many of the analyzed samples show typical fingerprints which can be identified also in astrophysical and cometary materials. The laboratory methodologies used so far are also critically discussed in order to point out capabilities and present limitations, in the view of possible application to returned comet samples. Suggestions are given to develop new techniques which should overcome some of the problems faced in the manipulation and analysis of micron solid samples.

  3. First experimental results at the gran sasso laboratory on cold nuclear fusion in titanium electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertin, A.; Bruschi, M.; Capponi, M.; De Castro, S.; Marconi, U.; Moroni, C.; Piccinini, M.; Semprini-Cesari, N.; Trombini, A.; Vitale, A.; Zoccoli, A.; Czirr, J. B.; Jensen, G. L.; Jones, S. E.; Palmer, E. P.

    1990-06-01

    We present here the first results obtained at the Gran Sasso Laboratory on the neutron emission following the electrolytic infusion of deuterons into titanium electrodes. The measurements were carried out under a 4000-m water equivalent rock thickness, i.e., in an extremely reduced cosmic-radiation background. The neutrons were detected by proton-recoil liquid scintillation detectors, allowing a huge reduction of the local gamma-ray background. The results obtained provide a neutron emission rate comparable in size to the one recently reported by Jones et al. in an electrolysis experiment performed with a different apparatus in ordinary laboratory conditions. They provide more evidence in favor of low-level cold nuclear fusions in metals.

  4. A Laboratory Critical Incident and Error Reporting System for Experimental Biomedicine

    PubMed Central

    Dirnagl, Ulrich; Przesdzing, Ingo; Kurreck, Claudia; Major, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    We here propose the implementation of a simple and effective method to enhance the quality of basic and preclinical academic research: critical incident reporting (CIR). CIR has become a standard in clinical medicine but to our knowledge has never been implemented in the context of academic basic research. We provide a simple, free, open-source software tool for implementing a CIR system in research groups, laboratories, or large institutions (LabCIRS). LabCIRS was developed, tested, and implemented in our multidisciplinary and multiprofessional neuroscience research department. It is accepted by all members of the department, has led to the emergence of a mature error culture, and has made the laboratory a safer and more communicative environment. Initial concerns that implementation of such a measure might lead to a “surveillance culture” that would stifle scientific creativity turned out to be unfounded. PMID:27906976

  5. A Laboratory Critical Incident and Error Reporting System for Experimental Biomedicine.

    PubMed

    Dirnagl, Ulrich; Przesdzing, Ingo; Kurreck, Claudia; Major, Sebastian

    2016-12-01

    We here propose the implementation of a simple and effective method to enhance the quality of basic and preclinical academic research: critical incident reporting (CIR). CIR has become a standard in clinical medicine but to our knowledge has never been implemented in the context of academic basic research. We provide a simple, free, open-source software tool for implementing a CIR system in research groups, laboratories, or large institutions (LabCIRS). LabCIRS was developed, tested, and implemented in our multidisciplinary and multiprofessional neuroscience research department. It is accepted by all members of the department, has led to the emergence of a mature error culture, and has made the laboratory a safer and more communicative environment. Initial concerns that implementation of such a measure might lead to a "surveillance culture" that would stifle scientific creativity turned out to be unfounded.

  6. LLNL data collection during NOAA/ETL COPE experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Mantrom, D.D.

    1995-09-06

    COPE is the acronym for the Coastal Ocean Probe Experiment, to be conducted by NOAA/ETL off the northern Oregon coast in September--October 1995. In general terms, ETL desires to collect data on how various types of microwave sensors including radar would respond to internal wave-induced modulations to the ocean surface, and what effects propagation through the atmosphere might have on the data collected. In COPE, ETL will field a broad suite of microwave sensors, and a variety of sea-truth and atmospheric-truth instruments. These will include a land-based, high power, X and Ka-band real aperture radar (RAR) located atop a 3,000 ft high coastal peak, various water column, surface wave, air-sea interface, and atmospheric sensors on the FLIP measurement platform to be moored approximately 15 miles offshore, various active and passive microwave devices onboard a blimp which will fly at 6,000--8,000 ft altitude, two ground-based CODARs that measure large-scale surface currents, various wind profilers, and others. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s Imaging and Detection Program will take advantage of this unique site and opportunity to collect imagery with the radar that will be well ground-truthed with subsurface, surface, and above-water environmental data and possibly be compared to radar image data collected simultaneously or nearly simultaneously with another radar. Specifically, the authors are planning to conduct a short data collection with their Airborne Experimental Test Bed (AETB) jet aircraft-based X-band, HH-polarization synthetic aperture radar (SAR) as a piggyback to the planned COPE operation.

  7. Multi-scale Laboratory Experimentation in Hydrologic Sciences- Challenges and Opportunities.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Illangasekare, T. H.

    2015-12-01

    Problems of water sustainability to meet the increasing needs of a growing world population, further exacerbated by climate change, will continually challenge hydrologists and other earth and environmental scientists. Significant theoretical, modeling, and computational advances, and technology developments for improved observations, monitoring, and characterization that have taken place during the last several decades have helped to meet some of these challenges. In parallel, field and laboratory studies for conceptualization, hypothesis testing, and model improvements have continued to advance hydrologic sciences. However, the data to study some of the problems in hydrology cannot always be obtained from field studies where many factors contribute to the uncertainty of measurements and parameter estimates. The primary thesis of this talk is that laboratory experiments conducted at multiple test scales will play an important role by providing new insights into complex processes and accurate data for model improvement, leading to increased accuracy and reliability of predictions. However, performing such controlled experiments poses many challenges such as acquiring data at different observational scales, capturing relevant features of geologic heterogeneity, mimicking field specific pressure and temperature dependent phase interactions in the laboratory, and simulating climate drivers, among others. Focusing on the subsurface and using examples from multiphase systems, coastal aquifer salinization, and land/atmospheric interactions, I will show how to design and implement theory-driven experiments to address some of these challenges. I will make the case that addressing problems in hydrology requires continuous interaction among laboratory and field studies and modeling. It is imperative that hydrologists work at the disciplinary interfaces related to earth, water, energy, and the environment to address current and emerging problems that are of global importance.

  8. Technical Safety Appraisal of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-01

    This report documents the results of the Technical Safety Appraisal (TSA) of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) (including the Site 300 area), Livermore, California, conducted from February 26 to April 5, 1990. The purpose of the assessment was to provide the Secretary of Energy with the status of Environment, Safety and Health (ES H) Programs at LLNL. LLNL is operated by the University of California for the Department of Energy (DOE), and is a multi-program, mission-oriented institution engaged in fundamental and applied research programs that require a multidisciplinary approach. 1 fig.

  9. Storm water modeling at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Veis, Christopher

    1996-05-01

    Storm water modeling is important to Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for compliance with regulations that govern water discharge at large industrial facilities. Modeling is also done to study trend in contaminants and storm sewer infrastructure. The Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) was used to simulate rainfall events at LLNL. SWMM is a comprehensive computer model for simulation of urban runoff quantity and quality in storm and combined sewer systems. Due to time constraints and ongoing research, no modeling was completed at LLNL. With proper information about the storm sewers, a SWMM simulation of a rainfall event on site would be beneficial to storm sewer analyst.

  10. Detailed characterization of the LLNL imaging proton spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmus, A. M.; Hazi, A. U.; Manuel, M. J.-E.; Kuranz, C. C.; Klein, S. R.; Belancourt, P. X.; Fein, J. R.; MacDonald, M. J.; Drake, R. P.; Pollock, B. B.; Park, J.; Williams, G. J.; Chen, H.

    2016-11-01

    Ultra-intense short pulse lasers incident on solid targets (e.g., thin Au foils) produce well collimated, broad-spectrum proton beams. These proton beams can be used to characterize magnetic fields, electric fields, and density gradients in high energy-density systems. The LLNL-Imaging Proton Spectrometer (L-IPS) was designed and built [H. Chen et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 10D314 (2010)] for use with such laser produced proton beams. The L-IPS has an energy range of 50 keV-40 MeV with a resolving power (E/dE) of about 275 at 1 MeV and 21 at 20 MeV, as well as a single spatial imaging axis. In order to better characterize the dispersion and imaging capability of this diagnostic, a 3D finite element analysis solver is used to calculate the magnetic field of the L-IPS. Particle trajectories are then obtained via numerical integration to determine the dispersion relation of the L-IPS in both energy and angular space.

  11. Status of LLNL Hot-Recycled-Solid oil shale retort

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, D.E.; Cena, R.J.

    1993-12-31

    We have investigated the technical and economic barriers facing the introduction of an oil shale industry and we have chosen Hot-Recycled-Solid (HRS) oil shale retorting as the primary advanced technology of interest. We are investigating this approach through fundamental research, operation of a 4 tonne-per-day, HRS pilot plant and development of an Oil Shale Process (OSP) mathematical model. Over the last three years, from June 1991 to June 1993, we completed a series of runs (H10--H27) using the 4-TPD pilot plant to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the HRS process and answer key scale-up questions. With our CRADA partners, we seek to further develop the HRS technology, maintain and enhance the knowledge base gained over the past two decades through research and development by Government and industry and determine the follow on steps needed to advance the technology towards commercialization. The LLNL Hot-Recycled-Solid process has the potential to improve existing oil shale technology. It processes oil shale in minutes instead of hours, reducing plant size. It processes all oil shale, including fines rejected by other processes. It provides controls to optimize product quality for different applications. It co-generates electricity to maximize useful energy output. And, it produces negligible SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions, a non-hazardous waste shale and uses minimal water.

  12. The LANL/LLNL Prompt Fission Neutron Spectrum Program at LANSCE and Approach to Uncertainties

    SciTech Connect

    Haight, R.C.; Wu, C.Y.; Lee, H.Y.; Taddeucci, T.N.; Perdue, B.A.; O'Donnell, J.M.; Fotiades, N.; Devlin, M.; Ullmann, J.L.; Bredeweg, T.A.; Jandel, M.; Nelson, R.O.; Wender, S.A.; Neudecker, D.; Rising, M.E.; Mosby, S.; Sjue, S.; White, M.C.; Bucher, B.; Henderson, R.

    2015-01-15

    New data on the prompt fission neutron spectra (PFNS) from neutron-induced fission with higher accuracies are needed to resolve discrepancies in the literature and to address gaps in the experimental data. The Chi-Nu project, conducted jointly by LANL and LLNL, aims to measure the shape of the PFNS for fission of {sup 239}Pu induced by neutrons from 0.5 to 20 MeV with accuracies of 3–5% in the outgoing energy from 0.1 to 9 MeV and 15% from 9 to 12 MeV and to provide detailed experimental uncertainties. Neutrons from the WNR/LANSCE neutron source are being used to induce fission in a Parallel-Plate Avalanche Counter (PPAC). Two arrays of neutron detectors are used to cover the energy range of neutrons emitted promptly in the fission process. Challenges for the present experiment include background reduction, use of {sup 239}Pu in a PPAC, and understanding neutron detector response. Achieving the target accuracies requires the understanding of many systematic uncertainties. The status and plans for the future will be presented.

  13. Level II Milestone Review of LLNL Program on Grain-Scale Dynamics in Explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Nicol, M F; Benson, D J; Yip, S

    2003-01-14

    This document describes an evaluation of the Level II Milestone achievements of the LLNL program on Grain-Scale Dynamics in Explosives on January 14, 2003. ''The Grain-Scale Dynamics in Explosives Program'' is a mixture of advanced computational methodology and physico-chemical theory applied to understanding deflagration and detonation of plastic-bonded explosives from the nano to the macro scales. At many points, the modeling is tied directly to experiments within the precisions of both. Advances are needed in the experimental, theoretical, and computational aspects of detonations. Work reported in this review represents significant, cross-pollinating advances in each area. The team successfully carried out ALE-3D simulations of deflagration in PBX with grain scale effects. (Milestone requirements 1 and 2), interpreted experimental data on flame speed vs. pressure and sensitivity to global kinetics in terms of ALE-3D simulations (Milestone requirement 3), and used the results of these simulations to develop a continuum reactive flow model that captures some of these effects (Milestone requirement 4). By comparing experiments and detonation velocities in small diameter, unconfined explosives, they found non-idealities that remain at intermediate diameters (ca. 1.5 mm) that require further analysis. In all of these areas, the project team has met, indeed exceeded, their Level II Milestone goals.

  14. Comparative Cognitive Task Analyses of Experimental Science and Instructional Laboratory Courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieman, Carl

    2015-09-01

    Undergraduate instructional labs in physics generate intense opinions. Their advocates are passionate as to their importance for teaching physics as an experimental activity and providing "hands-on" learning experiences, while their detractors (often but not entirely students) offer harsh criticisms that they are pointless, confusing and unsatisfying, and "cookbook." Here, both to help understand the reason for such discrepant views and to aid in the design of instructional lab courses, I compare the mental tasks or types of thinking ("cognitive task analysis") associated with a physicist doing tabletop experimental research with the cognitive tasks of students in an introductory physics instructional lab involving traditional verification/confirmation exercises.

  15. Initial experimental results from the Laboratory Biosphere closed ecological system facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alling, A.; Allen, J.; Dempster, W.; Nelson, M.; Silverstone, S.; van Thillo, M.

    Results from the closure and initial closed ecological system research in the "Laboratory Biosphere" facility in Santa Fe, New Mexico (USA) will be presented. The facility was initially sealed in April 2002; and the first crop experiments with soybeans commenced in May 2002. The Laboratory Biosphere was created by the team which invented, built and operated Biosphere 2 during its years of closed ecological system functioning (1991-94) and is a testbed to build upon the lessons learned. It is an opportunity to continue experiments with a sustainable soil based agriculture system unlike most bioregenerative systems which use hydroponic systems dependent on a supply of nutrient solution. Because of the small volume of the system (34-45 m3), developing mechanisms to keep parameters like carbon dioxide within acceptable limits will be critical. Recycle of nutrients within the system to maintain soil fertility; and the ability of the inherent complex ecology of soils and a soil bed reactor to handle trace gas buildups are primary research goals. Other research goals are determination of short and long-term exchanges between soil, plants and atmosphere, especially for carbon dioxide, oxygen, nitrogen, NOX, and methane, impact of cultivation (tillage) on soil/atmospheric exchanges., investigation and development of strategies to return nutrients to the soil to maintain fertility, e.g. shredding biomass vs. composting, impact on soil chemistry of returning leachate water to the soil as irrigation water. The microbiological status of soils prior to experiments and over time will allow measurement of changes in microbial diversity and the determination of the role of soil microbes in biogeochemical cycles. Integration of automated sensor and control in the system with real-time modeling has importance for operation, research and educational outreach programs. The Laboratory Biosphere is intended to test and develop a "cybersphere" (network of shared intelligence) that may be

  16. Experimental investigation of the velocity field of a laboratory fire whirl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartl, Katherine; Wang, Pengfei; Smits, Alexander

    2014-11-01

    A fire whirl is a swirling diffusion flame that may occur to great destructive effect in urban fires or wildfires. To study fire whirls in the laboratory, we use a burner flame supplied with DME, and induce swirl by entraining air through a split cylinder surrounding the central flame. Stereo Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) is used to obtain distributions of the three components of velocity inside and outside the fire whirl core. The effects of heat release rate and gap size on whirl height, circulation, and air entrainment are examined, and scaling behavior is discussed. This work was partially supported by the Princeton University Andlinger Center for Energy and the Environment.

  17. LLNL Underground-Coal-Gasification Project. Quarterly progress report, July-September 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, D.R.; Clements, W.

    1981-11-09

    We have continued our laboratory studies of forward gasification in small blocks of coal mounted in 55-gal drums. A steam/oxygen mixture is fed into a small hole drilled longitudinally through the center of the block, the coal is ignited near the inlet and burns toward the outlet, and the product gases come off at the outlet. Various diagnostic measurements are made during the course of the burn, and afterward the coal block is split open so that the cavity can be examined. Development work continues on our mathematical model for the small coal block experiments. Preparations for the large block experiments at a coal outcrop in the Tono Basin of Washington State have required steadily increasing effort with the approach of the scheduled starting time for the experiments (Fall 1981). Also in preparation is the deep gasification experiment, Tono 1, planned for another site in the Tono Basin after the large block experiments have been completed. Wrap-up work continues on our previous gasification experiments in Wyoming. Results of the postburn core-drilling program Hoe Creek 3 are presented here. Since 1976 the Soviets have been granted four US patents on various aspects of the underground coal gasification process. These patents are described here, and techniques of special interest are noted. Finally, we include ten abstracts of pertinent LLNL reports and papers completed during the quarter.

  18. Environmental Protection Department Operations and Regulatory Affairs Division LLNL NESHAPs 2005 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, J; Peterson, S R; Wilson, K; Bowen, B; MacQueen, D; Wegrecki, A

    2006-06-19

    This annual report is prepared pursuant to the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs; Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61, Subpart H). Subpart H governs radionuclide emissions to air from Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. NESHAPs limits the emission of radionuclides to the ambient air from DOE facilities to levels resulting in an annual effective dose equivalent (EDE) of 10 mrem (100 {micro}Sv) to any member of the public. The EDEs for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) site-wide maximally exposed members of the public from operations in 2005 are summarized here. Livermore site: 0.0065 mrem (0.065 {micro}Sv) (41% from point source emissions, 59% from diffuse source emissions). The point source emissions include gaseous tritium modeled as tritiated water vapor as directed by EPA Region IX; the resulting dose is used for compliance purposes. Site 300: 0.018 mrem (0.18 {micro}Sv) (48% from point source emissions, 52% from diffuse source emissions). The EDEs were calculated using the EPA-approved CAP88-PC air dispersion/dose-assessment model, except for doses for two diffuse sources that were estimated using measured radionuclide concentrations and dose coefficients. Specific inputs to CAP88-PC for the modeled sources included site-specific meteorological data and source emissions data, the latter variously based on continuous stack effluent monitoring data, stack flow or other release-rate information, ambient air monitoring data, and facility knowledge.

  19. Environmental Protection Department, Operations and Regulatory Affairs Division, LLNL NESHAPs 2006 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, J; Peterson, S; Wilson, K R

    2007-06-20

    NESHAPs limits the emission of radionuclides to the ambient air from DOE facilities to levels resulting in an annual effective dose equivalent (EDE) of 10 mrem (100 {micro}Sv) to any member of the public. The EDEs for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) site-wide maximally exposed members of the public from operations in 2006 are summarized here. Livermore site: 0.0045 mrem (0.045 {micro}Sv) (36% from point source emissions, 64% from diffuse source emissions). The point source emissions include gaseous tritium modeled as tritiated water vapor as directed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region IX; the resulting dose is used for compliance purposes. Site 300: 0.016 mrem (0.16 {micro}Sv) (87.5% from point source emissions, 12.5% from diffuse source emissions). The EDEs were calculated using the EPA-approved CAP88-PC air dispersion/dose-assessment model, except for doses for two diffuse sources that were estimated using measured radionuclide concentrations and dose coefficients. Specific inputs to CAP88-PC for the modeled sources included site-specific meteorological data and source emissions data, the latter variously based on continuous stack effluent monitoring data, stack flow or other release-rate information, ambient air monitoring data, and facility knowledge.

  20. Summary of LLNL`s accomplishments for the FY93 Waste Processing Operations Program

    SciTech Connect

    Grasz, E.; Domning, E.; Heggins, D.; Huber, L.; Hurd, R.; Martz, H.; Roberson, P.; Wilhelmsen, K.

    1994-04-01

    Under the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Office of Technology Development (OTD)-Robotic Technology Development Program (RTDP), the Waste Processing Operations (WPO) Program was initiated in FY92 to address the development of automated material handling and automated chemical and physical processing systems for mixed wastes. The Program`s mission was to develop a strategy for the treatment of all DOE mixed, low-level, and transuranic wastes. As part of this mission, DOE`s Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) was charged with the development of innovative waste treatment technologies to surmount shortcomings of existing baseline systems. Current technology advancements and applications results from cooperation of private industry, educational institutions, and several national laboratories operated for DOE. This summary document presents the LLNL Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ER and WM) Automation and Robotics Section`s contributions in support of DOE`s FY93 WPO Program. This document further describes the technological developments that were integrated in the 1993 Mixed Waste Operations (MWO) Demonstration held at SRTC in November 1993.

  1. Harnessing the killer micros: Applications from LLNL's massively parallel computing initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Belak, J.F.

    1991-07-01

    Recent developments in microprocessor technology have led to performance on scalar applications exceeding traditional supercomputers. This suggests that coupling hundreds or even thousands of these killer-micros'' (all working on a single physical problem) may lead to performance on vector applications in excess of vector supercomputers. Also, future generation killer-micros are expected to have vector floating point units as well. The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of the parallel computing environment at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. However, the perspective is necessarily quite narrow and most of the examples are taken from the author's implementation of a large scale molecular dynamics code on the BBN-TC2000 at LLNL. Parallelism is achieved through a geometric domain decomposition -- each processor is assigned a distinct region of space and all atoms contained therein. As the atomic positions evolve, the processors must exchange ownership of specific atoms. This geometric domain decomposition proves to be quite general and we highlight its application to image processing and hydrodynamics simulations as well. 10 refs., 6 figs.

  2. Empirical validation of the conceptual design of the LLNL 60-kg contained-firing facility

    SciTech Connect

    Pastrnak, J.W.; Baker, C.F.; Simmons, L.F.

    1995-02-24

    In anticipation of increasingly stringent environmental regulations, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is proposing to modify an existing facility to add a 60-kg firing chamber and related support areas. This modification will provide blast-effects containment for most of its open-air, high-explosive, firing operations. Even though these operations are within current environmental limits, containment of the blast effects and hazardous debris will further drastically reduce emissions to the environment and minimize the hazardous waste generated. The major design consideration of such a chamber is its overall structural dynamic response in terms of its long-term ability to contain all blast effects from repeated internal detonations of high explosives. Another concern is how much other portions of the facility outside the firing chamber must be hardened to ensure personnel protection in the event of an accidental detonation while the chamber door is open. To assess these concerns, a 1/4-scale replica model of the planned contained firing chamber was engineered, constructed, and tested with scaled explosive charges ranging from 25 to 125% of the operational explosives limit of 60 kg. From 16 detonations of high explosives, 880 resulting strains, blast pressures, and temperatures within the model were measured to provide information for the final design.

  3. Solving an Ethical Issue Involved in Experimentation with Animals in a Brazilian Teaching Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loureiro, Natalia I. V.; Viana, Henrique V.; Rodrigues, Carlos R.; Cabral, Lucio Mendes; Silva, Thais D. N.; Cardoso, Fernanda Serpa; Santos, Dilvani Oliveira; Castro, Helena C.

    2004-01-01

    Changes are occurring within Brazilian institutes of higher education; currently several universities are reviewing their course offerings and teaching approaches to determine if they meet the needs of today's undergraduate students. When changes are made to the curriculum of experimental courses, there should be an understood guarantee that all…

  4. Comparative Cognitive Task Analyses of Experimental Science and Instructional Laboratory Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wieman, Carl

    2015-01-01

    Undergraduate instructional labs in physics generate intense opinions. Their advocates are passionate as to their importance for teaching physics as an experimental activity and providing "hands-on" learning experiences, while their detractors (often but not entirely students) offer harsh criticisms that they are pointless, confusing and…

  5. The LLNL Flash X-Ray Induction Linear Accelerator (FXR)

    SciTech Connect

    Multhauf, L G

    2002-09-19

    The FXR is an induction linear accelerator used for high-speed radiography at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Experimental Test Site. It was designed specifically for the radiography of very thick explosive objects. Since its completion in 1982, it has been very actively used for a large variety of explosives tests, and has been periodically upgraded to achieve higher performance. Upgrades have addressed machine reliability, radiographic sensitivity and resolution, two-frame imaging by double pulsing improvements that are described in detail in the paper. At the same time, the facility in which it was installed has also been extensively upgraded, first by adding space for optical and interferometric diagnostics, and more recently by adding a containment chamber to prevent the environmental dispersal of hazardous and radioactive materials. The containment addition also further expands space for new non-radiographic diagnostics. The new Contained Firing Facility is still in the process of activation. At the same time, FXR is continuing to undergo modifications aimed primarily at further increasing radiographic resolution and sensitivity, and at improving double-pulsed performance.

  6. Impact of the Revised 10 CFR 835 on the Neutron Dose Rates at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Radev, R

    2009-01-13

    In June 2007, 10 CFR 835 [1] was revised to include new radiation weighting factors for neutrons, updated dosimetric models, and dose terms consistent with the newer ICRP recommendations. A significant aspect of the revised 10 CFR 835 is the adoption of the recommendations outlined in ICRP-60 [2]. The recommended new quantities demand a review of much of the basic data used in protection against exposure to sources of ionizing radiation. The International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements has defined a number of quantities for use in personnel and area monitoring [3,4,5] including the ambient dose equivalent H*(d) to be used for area monitoring and instrument calibrations. These quantities are used in ICRP-60 and ICRP-74. This report deals only with the changes in the ambient dose equivalent and ambient dose rate equivalent for neutrons as a result of the implementation of the revised 10 CFR 835. In the report, the terms neutron dose and neutron dose rate will be used for convenience for ambient neutron dose and ambient neutron dose rate unless otherwise stated. This report provides a qualitative and quantitative estimate of how much the neutron dose rates at LLNL will change with the implementation of the revised 10 CFR 835. Neutron spectra and dose rates from selected locations at the LLNL were measured with a high resolution spectroscopic neutron dose rate system (ROSPEC) as well as with a standard neutron rem meter (a.k.a., a remball). The spectra obtained at these locations compare well with the spectra from the Radiation Calibration Laboratory's (RCL) bare californium source that is currently used to calibrate neutron dose rate instruments. The measurements obtained from the high resolution neutron spectrometer and dose meter ROSPEC and the NRD dose meter compare within the range of {+-}25%. When the new radiation weighting factors are adopted with the implementation of the revised 10 CFR 835, the measured dose rates will increase by up to 22

  7. Idaho National Laboratory Experimental Research In High Temperature Electrolysis For Hydrogen And Syngas Production

    SciTech Connect

    Carl M. Stoots; James E. O'Brien; J. Stephen Herring; Joseph J. Hartvigsen

    2008-09-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (Idaho Falls, Idaho, USA), in collaboration with Ceramatec, Inc. (Salt Lake City, Utah, USA), is actively researching the application of solid oxide fuel cell technology as electrolyzers for large scale hydrogen and syngas production. This technology relies upon electricity and high temperature heat to chemically reduce a steam or steam / CO2 feedstock. Single button cell tests, multi-cell stack, as well as multi-stack testing has been conducted. Stack testing used 10 x 10 cm cells (8 x 8 cm active area) supplied by Ceramatec and ranged from 10 cell short stacks to 240 cell modules. Tests were conducted either in a bench-scale test apparatus or in a newly developed 5 kW Integrated Laboratory Scale (ILS) test facility. Gas composition, operating voltage, and operating temperature were varied during testing. The tests were heavily instrumented, and outlet gas compositions were monitored with a gas chromatograph. The ILS facility is currently being expanded to ~15 kW testing capacity (H2 production rate based upon lower heating value).

  8. An evaluation of alternative reactor vessel cutting technologies for the experimental boiling water reactor at Argonne National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Boing, L.E.; Henley, D.R. ); Manion, W.J.; Gordon, J.W. )

    1989-12-01

    Metal cutting techniques that can be used to segment the reactor pressure vessel of the Experimental Boiling Water Reactor (EBWR) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) have been evaluated by Nuclear Energy Services. Twelve cutting technologies are described in terms of their ability to perform the required task, their performance characteristics, environmental and radiological impacts, and cost and schedule considerations. Specific recommendations regarding which technology should ultimately be used by ANL are included. The selection of a cutting method was the responsibility of the decommissioning staff at ANL, who included a relative weighting of the parameters described in this document in their evaluation process. 73 refs., 26 figs., 69 tabs.

  9. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory post-Loma Prieta earthquake initiative: Seismic analysis of an elevated portion of the Bay Bridge distribution system structure

    SciTech Connect

    McCallen, D.; Goudreau, G.

    1990-06-01

    Because of the importance of earthquake safety for the citizens of California, and the potential devastating effects of future large earthquakes on the California economy, upper management at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) made a decision that LLNL should make available any unique laboratory resources to aid in post-earthquake studies. One area in which LLNL has attempted to help is in computer simulation of the performance of large scale transportation structures. The computer horsepower available at LLNL, coupled together with the in-house finite element software capabilities, results in a unique numerical simulation capability for large structures. The effort summarized in this report is one of a number of post-earthquake efforts at LLNL. The financial support for this project was provided by the LLNL Engineering Department. 9 refs., 26 figs.

  10. 2020 Foresight Forging the Future of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Chrzanowski, P.

    2000-01-01

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) of 2020 will look much different from the LLNL of today and vastly different from how it looked twenty years ago. We, the members of the Long-Range Strategy Project, envision a Laboratory not defined by one program--nuclear weapons research--but by several core programs related to or synergistic with LLNL's national security mission. We expect the Laboratory to be fully engaged with sponsors and the local community and closely partnering with other research and development (R&D) organizations and academia. Unclassified work will be a vital part of the Laboratory of 2020 and will visibly demonstrate LLNL's international science and technology strengths. We firmly believe that there will be a critical and continuing role for the Laboratory. As a dynamic and versatile multipurpose laboratory with a national security focus, LLNL will be applying its capabilities in science and technology to meet the needs of the nation in the 21st century. With strategic investments in science, outstanding technical capabilities, and effective relationships, the Laboratory will, we believe, continue to play a key role in securing the nation's future.

  11. LLNL Compliance Plan for TRUPACT-2 Authorized Methods for Payload Control

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    This document describes payload control at LLNL to ensure that all shipments of CH-TRU waste in the TRUPACT-II (Transuranic Package Transporter-II) meet the requirements of the TRUPACT-II SARP (safety report for packaging). This document also provides specific instructions for the selection of authorized payloads once individual payload containers are qualified for transport. The physical assembly of the qualified payload and operating procedures for the use of the TRUPACT-II, including loading and unloading operations, are described in HWM Procedure No. 204, based on the information in the TRUPACT-II SARP. The LLNL TRAMPAC, along with the TRUPACT-II operating procedures contained in HWM Procedure No. 204, meet the documentation needs for the use of the TRUPACT-II at LLNL. Table 14-1 provides a summary of the LLNL waste generation and certification procedures as they relate to TRUPACT-II payload compliance.

  12. Training the Masses ? Web-based Laser Safety Training at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Sprague, D D

    2004-12-17

    The LLNL work smart standard requires us to provide ongoing laser safety training for a large number of persons on a three-year cycle. In order to meet the standard, it was necessary to find a cost and performance effective method to perform this training. This paper discusses the scope of the training problem, specific LLNL training needs, various training methods used at LLNL, the advantages and disadvantages of these methods and the rationale for selecting web-based laser safety training. The tools and costs involved in developing web-based training courses are also discussed, in addition to conclusions drawn from our training operating experience. The ILSC lecture presentation contains a short demonstration of the LLNL web-based laser safety-training course.

  13. LLNL Center of Excellence Work Items for Q9-Q10 period

    SciTech Connect

    Neely, J. R.

    2016-09-02

    This work plan encompasses a slice of effort going on within the ASC program, and for projects utilizing COE vendor resources, describes work that will be performed by both LLNL staff and COE vendor staff collaboratively.

  14. The impact of supercomputers on experimentation: A view from a national laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, V. L.; Arnold, J. O.

    1985-01-01

    The relative roles of large scale scientific computers and physical experiments in several science and engineering disciplines are discussed. Increasing dependence on computers is shown to be motivated both by the rapid growth in computer speed and memory, which permits accurate numerical simulation of complex physical phenomena, and by the rapid reduction in the cost of performing a calculation, which makes computation an increasingly attractive complement to experimentation. Computer speed and memory requirements are presented for selected areas of such disciplines as fluid dynamics, aerodynamics, aerothermodynamics, chemistry, atmospheric sciences, astronomy, and astrophysics, together with some examples of the complementary nature of computation and experiment. Finally, the impact of the emerging role of computers in the technical disciplines is discussed in terms of both the requirements for experimentation and the attainment of previously inaccessible information on physical processes.

  15. Experimental studies in high temperature aqueous chemistry at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Mesmer, R.E.; Palmer, D.A.; Simonson, J.M.; Holmes, H.F.; Ho, P.C.; Wesolowski, D.J.; Gruszkiewicz, M.S.

    1996-01-01

    Experimental research is conducted and models developed in a long- standing program at Oak Ridge on aqueous chemistry at high temperatures of broad classes of electrolytes emphasizing thermodynamics of reaction equilibria and excess thermodynamic properties of electrolytes. Experimental methods, their capabilities, data analysis, and results are summarized. Relevance of the work to problems in power plants, natural and industrial processes as well as basic solution chemistry and geochemistry are given. Progress in potentiometry, electrical conductivity, flow calorimetry, and isopiestic research is described. Future in this field demands greater precision in measurements and significant gains in our understanding of the solvation phenomena especially in the vicinity and beyond the critical point for water. The communities who do research on scattering, spectroscopy, and computer simulations can help guide these efforts through studies at extreme conditions.

  16. Astronomy Applications of Adaptive Optics at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Bauman, B J; Gavel, D T

    2003-04-23

    Astronomical applications of adaptive optics at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has a history that extends from 1984. The program started with the Lick Observatory Adaptive Optics system and has progressed through the years to lever-larger telescopes: Keck, and now the proposed CELT (California Extremely Large Telescope) 30m telescope. LLNL AO continues to be at the forefront of AO development and science.

  17. Initial experimental results from a laboratory size beam plasma discharge device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Konradi, A.; Bernstein, W.; Bulgher, D. L.; Garrity, J. O.; Winkler, J. L.

    1983-01-01

    A laboratory beam plasma discharge (BPD) device produced BPD in N2, A, and He. All features of the BPD observed in the device agree with those observed in a large vacuum chamber. The empirical ignition criteria determined in the large chamber apply in the small device but do not fit when used for extrapolation between the large and the small geometry. At some energies and magnetic fields beam currents exist for which the total light output in the BPD state varies by a factor of 2 with a factor of 6 pressure variation. Above 0.0001 torr the BPD width is pressure independent but for lower pressures it expands by as much as a factor of 4 at 0.00002 torr.

  18. Experimental observation of electron-temperature-gradient turbulence in a laboratory plasma.

    PubMed

    Mattoo, S K; Singh, S K; Awasthi, L M; Singh, R; Kaw, P K

    2012-06-22

    We report the observation of electron-temperature-gradient (ETG) driven turbulence in the laboratory plasma of a large volume plasma device. The removal of unutilized primary ionizing and nonthermal electrons from uniform density plasma and the imposition and control of the gradient in the electron temperature (T[Symbol: see text] T(e)) are all achieved by placing a large (2 m diameter) magnetic electron energy filter in the middle of the device. In the dressed plasma, the observed ETG turbulence in the lower hybrid range of frequencies ν = (1-80 kHz) is characterized by a broadband with a power law. The mean wave number k perpendicular ρ(e) = (0.1-0.2) satisfies the condition k perpendicular ρ(e) ≤ 1, where ρ(e) is the electron Larmor radius.

  19. Attending to experimental physics practices and lifelong learning skills in an introductory laboratory course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gandhi, Punit R.; Livezey, Jesse A.; Zaniewski, Anna M.; Reinholz, Daniel L.; Dounas-Frazer, Dimitri R.

    2016-09-01

    We have designed an introductory laboratory course that engaged first-year undergraduate students in two complementary types of iteration: (1) iterative improvement of experiments through cycles of modeling systems, designing experiments, analyzing data, and refining models and designs; and (2) iterative improvement of self through cycles of reflecting on progress, soliciting feedback, and implementing changes to study habits and habits of mind. The course consisted of three major activities: a thermal expansion activity, which spanned the first half of the semester; final research projects, which spanned the second half of the semester; and guided student reflections, which took place throughout the duration of the course. We describe our curricular designs and report examples of student work that demonstrate students' iterative improvements in multiple contexts.

  20. Controlled release of manganese into water from coated experimental fertilizers: laboratory characterization.

    PubMed

    Novillo, J; Rico, M I; Alvarez, J M

    2001-03-01

    The release of manganese into water from controlled-release formulations containing manganese EDTA or manganese lignosulfonate was studied. These fertilizers were obtained in the laboratory by adhering the source of manganese over urea pellets and by adding a coating. The materials used as adhesives and coatings were mixtures of rosins plus tricalcium phosphate. With regard to the chemical composition, these formulations conformed to national and international standards for commercial fertilizers. The rate of release of manganese was a function of both the source of manganese used and the coating thickness. Under the same conditions the release of manganese was greater for formulations with manganese EDTA than with manganese lignosulfonate. To predict the kinetic behaviors of the two series of formulations, mathematical equations were established. The manganese source plus rosin coatings improved the handling and storage characteristics of the commercial urea pellets. The study of the rosin coatings using scanning electron microscopy showed that they were compact and homogeneous.

  1. Experimental observation of 3-D, impulsive reconnection events in a laboratory plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Dorfman, S.; Ji, H.; Yamada, M.; Yoo, J.; Lawrence, E.; Myers, C.; Tharp, T. D.

    2014-01-15

    Fast, impulsive reconnection is commonly observed in laboratory, space, and astrophysical plasmas. In this work, impulsive, local, 3-D reconnection is identified for the first time in a laboratory current sheet. The two-fluid, impulsive reconnection events observed on the Magnetic Reconnection Experiment (MRX) [Yamada et al., Phys Plasmas 4, 1936 (1997)] cannot be explained by 2-D models and are therefore fundamentally three-dimensional. Several signatures of flux ropes are identified with these events; 3-D high current density regions with O-point structure form during a slow buildup period that precedes a fast disruption of the reconnecting current layer. The observed drop in the reconnection current and spike in the reconnection rate during the disruption are due to ejection of these flux ropes from the layer. Underscoring the 3-D nature of the events, strong out-of-plane gradients in both the density and reconnecting magnetic field are found to play a key role in this process. Electromagnetic fluctuations in the lower hybrid frequency range are observed to peak at the disruption time; however, they are not the key physics responsible for the impulsive phenomena observed. Important features of the disruption dynamics cannot be explained by an anomalous resistivity model. An important discrepancy in the layer width and force balance between the collisionless regime of MRX and kinetic simulations is also revisited. The wider layers observed in MRX may be due to the formation of flux ropes with a wide range of sizes; consistent with this hypothesis, flux rope signatures are observed down to the smallest scales resolved by the diagnostics. Finally, a 3-D two-fluid model is proposed to explain how the observed out-of-plane variation may lead to a localized region of enhanced reconnection that spreads in the direction of the out-of-plane electron flow, ejecting flux ropes from the layer in a 3-D manner.

  2. Laboratory testing of waste glass aqueous corrosion; effects of experimental parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Ebert, W.L.; Mazer, J.J.

    1993-12-31

    A literature survey has been performed to assess the effects of the temperature, glass surface area/leachate volume ratio, leachant composition, leachant flow rate, and glass composition (actual radioactive vs. simulated glass) used in laboratory tests on the measured glass reaction rate. The effects of these parameters must be accounted for in mechanistic models used to project glass durability over long times. Test parameters can also be utilized to highlight particular processes in laboratory tests. Waste glass corrosion results as water diffusion, ion-exchange, and hydrolysis reactions occur simultaneously to devitrify the glass and release soluble glass components into solution. The rates of these processes are interrelated by the affects of the solution chemistry and glass alteration phases on each process, and the dominant (fastest) process may change as the reaction progresses. Transport of components from the release sites into solution may also affect the observed corrosion rate. The reaction temperature will affect the rate of each process, while other parameters will affect the solution chemistry and which processes are observed during the test. The early stages of corrosion will be observed under test conditions which maintain dilute leachates and the later stages will be observed under conditions that generate more concentrated leachate solutions. Typically, water diffusion and ion-exchange reactions dominate the observed glass corrosion in dilute solutions while hydrolysis reactions dominant in more concentrated solutions. Which process(es) controls the long-term glass corrosion is not fully understood, and the long-term corrosion rate may be either transport- or reaction-limited.

  3. The National Ignition Facility (NIF) and High Energy Density Science Research at LLNL (Briefing Charts)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-21

    The National Ignition Facility ( NIF ) and High Energy Density Science Research at LLNL Presentation to: IEEE Pulsed Power and Plasma Science...Conference C. J. Keane Director, NIF User Office June 21, 2013 1491978-1-4673-5168-3/13/$31.00 ©2013 IEEE Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The National Ignition Facility ( NIF ) and High Energy Density Science Research at LLNL 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT

  4. Detailed characterization of the LLNL imaging proton spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Rasmus, A. M.; Hazi, A. U.; Manuel, M. J. -E.; Kuranz, C. C.; Klein, S. R.; Belancourt, P. X.; Fein, J. R.; MacDonald, M. J.; Drake, R. P.; Pollock, B. B.; Park, J.; Williams, G. J.; Chen, H.

    2016-09-01

    Here, ultra-intense short pulse lasers incident on solid targets (e.g., several um thick Au foils) produce well collimated, broad-energy-spectrum proton beams. These proton beams can be used to characterize magnetic fields, electric fields (through particle deflection), and density gradients (through collisions) in high energy-density systems. The LLNL-Imaging Proton Spectrometer (L-IPS) was designed and built for use with such laser produced proton beams. The L-IPS has an energy range of 50 keV-40 MeV with a resolving power (E/dE) of about 275 at 1 MeV and 21 at 20 MeV, as well as a single spatial imaging axis. The protons enter the diagnostic through a vertical slit, aligned with a magnetic field imposed by permanent magnets. The protons are deflected perpendicular to the magnetic field (and therefor slit), so that spatial information in the direction of the slit is preserved. The extent to which the protons are bent by the magnetic field depends on the energy, so that the energy of the protons can be resolved as well. The protons are then measured by image plates, in which a meta-stable state is excited by collisions with the protons, which can later be imaged by a scanner. In order to better characterize the dispersion and imaging capability of this diagnostic, a 3D finite element analysis solver is used to calculate the magnetic field of the L-IPS. Particle trajectories are then obtained via numerical integration to determine the dispersion relation of the L-IPS in both energy and angular space.

  5. Detailed characterization of the LLNL imaging proton spectrometer

    DOE PAGES

    Rasmus, A. M.; Hazi, A. U.; Manuel, M. J. -E.; ...

    2016-09-01

    Here, ultra-intense short pulse lasers incident on solid targets (e.g., several um thick Au foils) produce well collimated, broad-energy-spectrum proton beams. These proton beams can be used to characterize magnetic fields, electric fields (through particle deflection), and density gradients (through collisions) in high energy-density systems. The LLNL-Imaging Proton Spectrometer (L-IPS) was designed and built for use with such laser produced proton beams. The L-IPS has an energy range of 50 keV-40 MeV with a resolving power (E/dE) of about 275 at 1 MeV and 21 at 20 MeV, as well as a single spatial imaging axis. The protons enter themore » diagnostic through a vertical slit, aligned with a magnetic field imposed by permanent magnets. The protons are deflected perpendicular to the magnetic field (and therefor slit), so that spatial information in the direction of the slit is preserved. The extent to which the protons are bent by the magnetic field depends on the energy, so that the energy of the protons can be resolved as well. The protons are then measured by image plates, in which a meta-stable state is excited by collisions with the protons, which can later be imaged by a scanner. In order to better characterize the dispersion and imaging capability of this diagnostic, a 3D finite element analysis solver is used to calculate the magnetic field of the L-IPS. Particle trajectories are then obtained via numerical integration to determine the dispersion relation of the L-IPS in both energy and angular space.« less

  6. Architectural Analysis of a LLNL LWIR Sensor System

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, Essex J.; Curry, Jim R.; LaFortune, Kai N.; Williams, Alicia M.

    2013-11-26

    The architecture of an LLNL airborne imaging and detection system is considered in this report. The purpose of the system is to find the location of substances of interest by detecting their chemical signatures using a long-wave infrared (LWIR) imager with geo-registration capability. The detection system consists of an LWIR imaging spectrometer as well as a network of computer hardware and analysis software for analyzing the images for the features of interest. The system has been in the operations phase now for well over a year, and as such, there is enough use data and feedback from the primary beneficiary to assess the current successes and shortcomings of the LWIR system architecture. LWIR system has been successful in providing reliable data collection and the delivery of a report with results. The weakness of the architecture has been identified in two areas: with the network of computer hardware and software and with the feedback of the state of the system health. Regarding the former, the system computers and software that carry out the data acquisition are too complicated for routine operations and maintenance. With respect to the latter, the primary beneficiary of the instrument’s data does not have enough metrics to use to filter the large quantity of data to determine its utility. In addition to the needs in these two areas, a latent need of one of the stakeholders is identified. This report documents the strengths and weaknesses, as well as proposes a solution for enhancing the architecture that simultaneously addresses the two areas of weakness and leverages them to meet the newly identified latent need.

  7. An experimental assessment of in silico haplotype association mapping in laboratory mice

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background To assess the utility of haplotype association mapping (HAM) as a quantitative trait locus (QTL) discovery tool, we conducted HAM analyses for red blood cell count (RBC) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) in mice. We then experimentally tested each HAM QTL using published crosses or new F2 intercrosses guided by the haplotype at the HAM peaks. Results The HAM for RBC, using 33 classic inbred lines, revealed 8 QTLs; 2 of these were true positives as shown by published crosses. A HAM-guided (C57BL/6J × CBA/J)F2 intercross we carried out verified 2 more as true positives and 4 as false positives. The HAM for HDL, using 81 strains including recombinant inbred lines and chromosome substitution strains, detected 46 QTLs. Of these, 36 were true positives as shown by published crosses. A HAM-guided (C57BL/6J × A/J)F2 intercross that we carried out verified 2 more as true positives and 8 as false positives. By testing each HAM QTL for RBC and HDL, we demonstrated that 78% of the 54 HAM peaks were true positives and 22% were false positives. Interestingly, all false positives were in significant allelic association with one or more real QTL. Conclusion Because type I errors (false positives) can be detected experimentally, we conclude that HAM is useful for QTL detection and narrowing. We advocate the powerful and economical combined approach demonstrated here: the use of HAM for QTL discovery, followed by mitigation of the false positive problem by testing the HAM-predicted QTLs with small HAM-guided experimental crosses. PMID:20003225

  8. First experimental demonstration of temporal hypertelescope operation with a laboratory prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouyeron, L.; Olivier, S.; Delage, L.; Reynaud, F.; Armand, P.; Bousquet, E.; Benoist, J.

    2010-11-01

    In this paper, we report the first experimental demonstration of a temporal hypertelescope (THT). Our breadboard including eight telescopes is first tested in a manual cophasing configuration on a one-dimensional object. The point-spread function (PSF) is measured and exhibits dynamics in the range of 300. A quantitative analysis of the potential biases demonstrates that this limitation is related to the residual-phase fluctuation on each interferometric arm. Secondly, an unbalanced binary star is imaged, demonstrating the imaging capability of THTs. In addition, a two-dimensional PSF is recorded, even if the telescope array is not optimized for this purpose.

  9. LLNL Measurements of Graded-Index Multi-Mode Optical Fiber (ITF 47)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, T. T.

    2000-05-01

    The Russian Federal Nuclear Center-All Russian Research Institute of Technical Physics, located in the Nuclear City of Snezhinsk, east of the Ural mountains and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories have been investigating the possibility of establishing a commercial optical fiber manufacturing facility. These discussions began in the summer of 1998. At that time three samples (single mode and multi-mode) of optical fiber were left at the Sandia National Laboratory. Sandia measured two of the segments and sent them to LLNL. The optical loss at 1550 nm and 1300 nm were higher than commercially available fiber. The measurements were complicated because the geometry of the fibers also did not meet specification. Since the core was not adequately centered coupling of optical energy into the fiber being tested varied widely depending on which end of the fiber was used for insertion. The results of these measurements were summarized in the informal report dated June 11, 1999, which was hand carried by Dr. Paul Herman during his July 1999 visit. During the July visit a 1.2-km long section of graded-index multimode fiber, ITF 47, was given to Herman. We had requested samples longer than the earlier ones (which were (approx) 0.1 km long) in order that a cutback method could be used for the transmission measurements. The optical loss using the cutback technique and the transmission spectral measurements in the 600-1700 mn region are reported. Also physical measurements are reported of the fiber's diameter, concentricity, ellipticity and tensile strength (proof test).

  10. An Experimental Framework for Generating Evolvable Chemical Systems in the Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baum, David A.; Vetsigian, Kalin

    2016-11-01

    Most experimental work on the origin of life has focused on either characterizing the chemical synthesis of particular biochemicals and their precursors or on designing simple chemical systems that manifest life-like properties such as self-propagation or adaptive evolution. Here we propose a new class of experiments, analogous to artificial ecosystem selection, where we select for spontaneously forming self-propagating chemical assemblages in the lab and then seek evidence of a response to that selection as a key indicator that life-like chemical systems have arisen. Since surfaces and surface metabolism likely played an important role in the origin of life, a key experimental challenge is to find conditions that foster nucleation and spread of chemical consortia on surfaces. We propose high-throughput screening of a diverse set of conditions in order to identify combinations of "food," energy sources, and mineral surfaces that foster the emergence of surface-associated chemical consortia that are capable of adaptive evolution. Identification of such systems would greatly advance our understanding of the emergence of self-propagating entities and the onset of adaptive evolution during the origin of life.

  11. Effects of an acceptance/defusion intervention on experimentally induced generalized avoidance: a laboratory demonstration.

    PubMed

    Luciano, Carmen; Valdivia-Salas, Sonsoles; Ruiz, Francisco J; Rodríguez-Valverde, Miguel; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot; Dougher, Michael J; López-López, Juan C; Barnes-Holmes, Yvonne; Gutierrez-Martínez, Olga

    2014-01-01

    This study tests the effectiveness of an acceptance/defusion intervention in reducing experimentally induced generalized avoidance. After the formation of two 6-member equivalence classes, 23 participants underwent differential conditioning with two elements from each class: A1 and B1 were paired with mild electric shock, whereas A2 and B2 were paired with earning points. Participants learned to produce avoidance and approach responses to these respective stimuli and subsequently showed transfer of functions to non-directly conditioned equivalent stimuli from Class 1 (i.e., D1 and F1 evoked avoidance responses) and Class 2 (i.e., D2 and F2 evoked approach responses). Participants were then randomly assigned to either a motivational protocol (MOT) in which approaching previously avoided stimuli was given a general value, or to a defusion protocol (DEF) in which defusion (a component of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy) was trained while approaching previously avoided stimuli was connected to personally meaningful examples. A post-hoc control group (CMOT) was conducted with 16 participants to control for differences in protocol length between the former two groups. All participants in the DEF group showed a complete suppression of avoidance responding in the presence of Class 1 stimuli (A1-F1 and additional novel stimuli in relation to them), as compared to 40% of participants in the MOT condition and 20% in the CMOT condition. The acceptance/defusion protocol eliminated experimentally induced avoidance responding even for stimuli that elicited autonomic fear responses.

  12. Making of the underground scientific experimental programme at the Meuse/Haute-Marne underground research laboratory, North Eastern France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delay, Jacques; Vinsot, Agnès; Krieguer, Jean-Marie; Rebours, Hervé; Armand, Gilles

    In November 1999 Andra began building an Underground Research Laboratory (URL) on the border of the Meuse and Haute-Marne departments in eastern France. The research activities of the URL are dedicated to study the feasibility of reversible, deep geological disposal of high-activity, long-lived radioactive wastes in an argillaceous host rock. The Laboratory consists of two shafts, an experimental drift at 445 m depth and a set of technical and experimental drifts at the main level at 490 m depth. The main objective of the research is to characterize the confining properties of the argillaceous rock through in situ hydrogeological tests, chemical measurements and diffusion experiments. In order to achieve this goal, a fundamental understanding of the geoscientific properties and processes that govern geological isolation in clay-rich rocks has been acquired. This understanding includes both the host rocks at the laboratory site and the regional geological context. After establishing the geological conditions, the underground research programme had to demonstrate that the construction and operation of a geological disposal will not introduce pathways for waste migration. Thus, the construction of the laboratory itself serves a research purpose through the monitoring of excavation effects and the optimization of construction technology. These studies are primarily geomechanical in nature, though chemical and hydrogeological coupling also have important roles. In order to achieve the scientific objectives of this project in the underground drifts, a specific methodology has been applied for carrying out the experimental programme conducted concurrently with the construction of the shafts and drifts. This methodology includes technological as well as organizational aspects and a systematic use of feedback from other laboratories abroad and every scientific zone of the URL already installed. This methodology was first applied to set up a multi-purpose experimental area

  13. A laboratory based experimental study of mercury emission from contaminated soils in the River Idrijca catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocman, D.; Horvat, M.

    2010-02-01

    Results obtained by a laboratory flux measurement system (LFMS) focused on investigating the kinetics of the mercury emission flux (MEF) from contaminated soils of the Idrija Hg-mine region, Slovenia are presented. Representative soil samples with respect to total Hg concentrations (4-417 μg g-1) and land cover (forest, meadow and alluvial soil) alongside the River Idrijca were analysed to determine the variation in MEF versus distance from the source, regulating three major environmental parameters comprising soil temperature, soil moisture and solar radiation. MEFs ranged from less than 2 to 530 ng m-2 h-1, with the highest emissions from contaminated alluvial soils and soils near the mining district in the town of Idrija. A significant decrease of MEF was then observed with increasing distance from these sites. The results revealed a strong positive effect of all three parameters investigated on momentum MEF. The light-induced flux was shown to be independent of the soil temperature, while the soil aqueous phase seems to be responsible for recharging the pool of mercury in the soil available for both the light- and thermally-induced flux. The overall flux response to simulated environmental conditions depends greatly on the form of Hg in the soil. Higher activation energies are required for the overall process to occur in soils where insoluble cinnabar prevails compared to soils where more mobile Hg forms and forms available for transformation processes are dominant.

  14. Experimental infection of laboratory-bred bank voles (Myodes glareolus) with murid herpesvirus 4.

    PubMed

    Hughes, David J; Kipar, Anja; Leeming, Gail; Sample, Jeffery T; Stewart, James P

    2012-11-01

    MuHV-4 is a natural pathogen of rodents of the genus Apodemus (e.g., wood mice, yellow-necked mice) and Myodes glareolus (bank voles). We report experimental MuHV-4 infection of bank voles in comparison with infection of A. sylvaticus (wood mice) and BALB/c mice. Like in wood mice, the level of productive replication in the lungs of bank voles was significantly lower than in BALB/c mice. In contrast to other hosts, however, the level of latent infection in the lung and spleen of bank voles was extremely low. These findings, together with those of previous studies, suggest that bank voles are an occasional and inefficient host for MuHV-4.

  15. Web-Based Visualization of Student Cooperation during Distributed Laboratory Experimentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polaków, Grzegorz; Metzger, Mieczyslaw

    This work addresses the problem of visualizing hardly formalized relations i.e. connections between distributed collaborating experimenters. These dependencies are not measurable and hard to determine. It is proposed to determine the relations using the measurable and determinable connections between software agents acting on behalf of the users. A connection between the agents is treated as the proof for relation between their owners. A method of system structure data acquisition is proposed, which consists of capturing and interpreting the communication traffic between the agents. The content of the traffic is analyzed and presented in formalized form, according to the developed XML Schema. An example of graphical visualization is provided, presenting the mesh of inter-user relations as an interactive graph. An automated spatial clusterization of the graph components is performed, resulting in optical information on the current state of collaboration.

  16. Individually Ventilated Cages Impose Cold Stress on Laboratory Mice: A Source of Systemic Experimental Variability

    PubMed Central

    David, John M; Knowles, Scott; Lamkin, Donald M; Stout, David B

    2013-01-01

    Individual ventilated cages (IVC) are increasing in popularity. Although mice avoid IVC in preference testing, they show no aversion when provided additional nesting material or the cage is not ventilated. Given the high ventilation rate in IVC, we developed 3 hypotheses: that mice housed in IVC experience more cold stress than do mice housed in static cages; that IVC-induced cold stress affects the results of experiments using mice; and that, when provided shelters, mice behaviorally thermoregulate and thereby rescue the cold-stress effects of IVC. To test these hypotheses, we housed mice in IVC, IVC with shelters, and static cages maintained at 20 to 21 °C. We quantified the cold stress of each housing system on mice by assessing nonshivering thermogenesis and brown adipose vacuolation. To test housing effects in a common, murine model of human disease, we implanted mice with subcutaneous epidermoid carcinoma cells and quantified tumor growth, tumor metabolism, and adrenal weight. Mice housed in IVC had histologic signs of cold stress and significantly higher nonshivering thermogenesis, smaller subcutaneous tumors, lower tumor metabolism, and larger adrenal weights than did mice in static cages. Shelters rescued IVC-induced nonshivering thermogenesis, adrenal enlargement, and phenotype-dependent cold-mediated histologic changes in brown adipose tissue and tumor size. IVC impose chronic cold stress on mice, alter experimental results, and are a source of systemic confounders throughout rodent-dependent research. Allowing mice to exhibit behavioral thermoregulation through seeking shelter markedly rescues the experiment-altering effects of housing-imposed cold stress, improves physiologic uniformity, and increases experimental reproducibility across housing systems. PMID:24351762

  17. Clinical, laboratory and pathological findings in dogs experimentally infected with Angiostrongylus vasorum.

    PubMed

    Schnyder, Manuela; Fahrion, Anna; Riond, Barbara; Ossent, Pete; Webster, Pia; Kranjc, Asja; Glaus, Tony; Deplazes, Peter

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this comparative study was to investigate the development of clinical signs and accompanying haematological, coproscopic and pathological findings as a basis for the monitoring of health condition of Angiostrongylus vasorum infected dogs. Six beagles were orally inoculated with 50 (n=3) or 500 (n=3) A. vasorum third stage larvae (L3) obtained from experimentally infected Biomphalaria glabrata snails. Two dogs were treated with moxidectin/imidacloprid spot-on solution and two further dogs with an oral experimental compound 92 days post infection (dpi), and were necropsied 166 dpi. Two untreated control dogs were necropsied 97 dpi. Prepatency was 47-49 days. Dogs inoculated with 500 L3 exhibited earlier (from 42 dpi) and more severe respiratory signs. Clinical signs resolved 12 days after treatment and larval excretion stopped within 20 days in all four treated dogs. Upon necropsy, 10 and 170 adult worms were recovered from the untreated dogs inoculated with 50 and 500 L3, respectively. Adult worms were also found in two treated dogs, in the absence of L1 or eggs. Despite heavy A. vasorum infection load and severe pulmonary changes including vascular thrombosis, only mild haematological changes were observed. Eosinophilia was absent but the presence of plasma cells was observed. Neutrophilic leucocytes showed a transient increase but only after treatment. Signs for coagulopathies were slight; nevertheless coagulation parameters were inoculation dose dependent. Ten weeks after treatment pulmonary fibrosis was still present. Infections starting from 50 L3 of A. vasorum had a massive impact on lung tissues and therefore on the health of affected dogs, particularly after prepatency, although only mild haematological abnormalities were evident.

  18. Hydroclast and Peperite generation: Experimental Results produced using the Silicate Melt Injection Laboratory Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downey, W. S.; Mastin, L. G.; Spieler, O.; Kunzmann, T.; Shaw, C. S.; Dingwell, D. B.

    2008-12-01

    The Silicate Melt Injection Laboratory Experiment (SMILE) allows for the effusive and explosive injection of molten glass into a variety of media - air, water, water spray, and wet sediments. Experiments have been preformed using the SMILE apparatus to evaluate the mechanisms of "turbulent shedding" during shallow submarine volcanic eruptions and magma/wet-sediment interactions. In these experiments, approximately 0.5 kg of basaltic melt with 5 wt.% Spectromelt (dilithium tetraborate) is produced in an internally heated autoclave at 1150° C and ambient pressure. The molten charge is ejected via the bursting of a rupture disc at 3.5 MPa into the reaction media, situated within the low pressure tank (atmospheric conditions). Preliminary experiments ejecting melt into a standing water column have yielded hydroclasts of basalt. SEM images of the clasts show ubiquitous discontinuous skins ("rinds") that are flaked, peeled, or smeared away in strips. Adhering to the clast surfaces are flakes, blocks, and blobs of detached material, up to 10 μm in size. The presence of partially detached rinds and rind debris likely reflects repeated bending, scraping, impact, and other disruption through turbulent velocity fluctuations. These textures are comparable to littoral explosive deposits at Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, where lava tubes are torn apart by wave action, the lava is quenched, and thrown back on the beach as loose fragments (hyaloclastite). Preliminary experiments injecting melt into wet sediments show evidence of sediment ingestion and fluidal textures. These results support the interpretation that peperite generation can be driven by hydrodynamic mixing of a fuel and a coolant.

  19. Conceptual study of moderately coupled plasmas and experimental comparison of laboratory x-ray sources

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Chikang

    1993-12-01

    In this thesis the fundamental concepts of moderately coupled plasmas, for which 2≲lnΛb≲10, are, for the first time, presented. This investigation is motivated because neither the conventional Fokker-Planck approximation [for weakly coupled plasmas (lnΛb≲10)] nor the theory of dielectric response with correlations for strongly coupled plasmas (lnΛb≲1) has satisfactorily addressed this regime. Specifically, herein the standard Fokker-Planck operator for Coulomb collisions has been modified to include hitherto neglected terms that are directly associated with large-angle scattering. In addition a reduced electron-ion collision operator has been calculated that, for the first time, manifests 1/lnΛb corrections. Precise calculations of some relaxation rates and crude calculations of electron transport coefficients have been made. As one of major applications of the modified Fokker-Planck equation, the stopping powers and ρR have been calculated for charged fusion products (α`s, 3H, 3He) and hot electrons interacting with plasmas relevant to inertial confinement fusion. In the second major topic of this thesis, advances made in the area of laboratory x-ray sources are presented. First, and most importantly, through the use a Cockcroft-Walton linear accelerator, a charged particle induced x-ray emission (PIXE) source has been developed. Intense line x radiation (including K-, L-, M-, and N-lines) with wavelengths from 0.5 Å to 111 Å have been successfully produced. Second, a new high intensity electron-beam x-ray generator has also been developed, and it has been used with advantage in the soft x-ray region ( < 3 keV). Finally, a direct comparisons of both sources (PIXE and electron-beam x-ray sources) to a commercially available radioactive α fluorescent x-ray source has been made.

  20. Experimental study of 3-D, impulsive reconnection events in a laboratory plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorfman, Seth Elliot

    Fast, impulsive reconnection is commonly observed in laboratory, space and astrophysical plasmas. Many existing models of reconnection attempt to explain this behavior without including variation in the third direction. However, the impulsive reconnection events observed on the Magnetic Reconnection Experiment (MRX) which are described in this dissertation cannot be explained by 2-D models and are therefore fundamentally three-dimensional. These events include both a slow buildup phase and a fast current layer disruption phase. The buildup phase is characterized by a slow transition from collisional to collisionless reconnection and the formation of "flux rope" structures; these "flux ropes" are defined as 3-D high current density regions associated with an O point at the measurement location. In the disruption phase, the "flux ropes" are ejected from the reconnection layer as the total current drops and the reconnection rate spikes. Strong out-of-plane gradients in both the density and reconnecting magnetic field are another key feature of disruptive discharges; after finite upstream density is depleted by reconnection during the buildup phase, the out of plane magnetic field gradient flattens and this disruption spreads in the electron flow direction. Electromagnetic fluctuations in the lower hybrid frequency range are observed to peak at the disruption time; however, they are not the key physics responsible for the impulsive phenomena observed. Important features of the disruption dynamics cannot be explained by an anomalous resistivity model. Furthermore, an important discrepancy in the layer width and force balance between the collisionless regime of MRX and kinetic simulations persists when the fluctuations are small or absent, implying that they are not the cause of the wider electron layers observed in the experiment. These wider layers may instead be due to the formation of flux ropes with a wide range of sizes; consistent with this hypothesis, flux rope

  1. An experimental investigation of reacting and nonreacting coaxial jet mixing in a laboratory rocket engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumaker, Stephen Alexander

    Coaxial jets are commonly used as injectors in propulsion and combustion devices due to both the simplicity of their geometry and the rapid mixing they provide. In liquid rocket engines it is common to use coaxial jets in the context of airblast atomization. However, interest exists in developing rocket engines using a full flow staged combustion cycle. In such a configuration both propellants are injected in the gaseous phase. In addition, gaseous coaxial jets have been identified as an ideal test case for the validation of the next generation of injector modeling tools. For these reasons an understanding of the fundamental phenomena which govern mixing in gaseous coaxial jets and the effect of combustion on these phenomena in coaxial jet diffusion flames is needed. A study was performed to better understand the scaling of the stoichiometric mixing length in reacting and nonreacting coaxial jets with velocity ratios greater than one and density ratios less than one. A facility was developed that incorporates a single shear coaxial injector in a laboratory rocket engine capable of ten atmospheres. Optical access allows the use of flame luminosity and laser diagnostic techniques such as Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF). Stoichiometric mixing lengths (LS), which are defined as the distance along the centerline where the stoichiometric condition occurs, were measured using PLIF. Acetone was seeded into the center jet to provide direct PLIF measurement of the average and instantaneous mixture fraction fields for a range of momentum flux ratios for the nonreacting cases. For the coaxial jet diffusion flames, LS was measured from OH radical contours. For nonreacting cases the use of a nondimensional momentum flux ratio was found to collapse the mixing length data. The flame lengths of coaxial jet diffusion flames were also found to scale with the momentum flux ratio but different scaling constants are required which depended on the chemistry of the reaction. The

  2. Experimental study and steady-state simulation of biogeochemical processes in laboratory columns with aquifer material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amirbahman, Aria; Schönenberger, René; Furrer, Gerhard; Zobrist, Jürg

    2003-07-01

    Packed bed laboratory column experiments were performed to simulate the biogeochemical processes resulting from microbially catalyzed oxidation of organic matter. These included aerobic respiration, denitrification, and Mn(IV), Fe(III) and SO 4 reduction processes. The effects of these reactions on the aqueous- and solid-phase geochemistry of the aquifer material were closely examined. The data were used to model the development of alkalinity and pH along the column. To study the independent development of Fe(III)- and SO 4-reducing environments, two columns were used. One of the columns (column 1) contained small enough concentrations of SO 4 in the influent to render the reduction of this species unimportant to the geochemical processes in the column. The rate of microbially catalyzed reduction of Mn(IV) changed with time as evidenced by the variations in the initial rate of Mn(II) production at the head of the column. The concentration of Mn in both columns was controlled by the solubility of rhodochrosite (MnCO 3(S)). In the column where significant SO 4 reduction took place (column 2), the concentration of dissolved Fe(II) was controlled by the solubility of FeS. In column 1, where SO 4 reduction was not important, maximum dissolved Fe(II) concentrations were controlled by the solubility of siderite (FeCO 3(S)). Comparison of solid-phase and aqueous-phase data suggests that nearly 20% of the produced Fe(II) precipitates as siderite in column 1. The solid-phase analysis also indicates that during the course of experiment, approximately 20% of the total Fe(III) hydroxides and more than 70% of the amorphous Fe(III) hydroxides were reduced by dissimilatory iron reduction. The most important sink for dissolved S(-II) produced by the enzymatic reduction of SO 4 was its direct reaction with solid-phase Fe(III) hydroxides leading initially to the formation of FeS. Compared to this pathway, precipitation as FeS did not constitute an important sink for S(-II) in column

  3. [Experimental infection of 2 species of laboratory rodents with invasive larvae of Elaphostrongylus cervi (Nematoda, Metastrongyloidea)].

    PubMed

    Demiaszkiewicz, A W

    1989-01-01

    Single doses (from 300 to 1000 larvi per an animal) of invasive larvae E. cervi Cameron, 1931, obtained from experimentally infected snails Helix pomatia L. were given to 17 guinea pigs and 17 golden hamsters. Clinical nervous symptoms in the form of paresis and paralysis of limbs occurred only in the guinea pigs which were given a dose of 1000 larvi. These animals died in the period from the 75th to 117th day of infection. From their central nervous system single adult males and females of E. cervi were isolated. In the lungs and mesenteries of 2 dead pigs live larvae of E. cervi were found. This fact proves that the guinea pig can fulfil the role of a final and a paratenic host of E. cervi. No clinical symptoms were noticed in any hamster. In hamsters dissected on the 7th day of infection live larvae of E. cervi were found in the mesentery and in the fleshy part of the diaphgram. After 14 days the larvae found both in the mesentery and in the diaphragm were dead and surrounded by cellular infiltration. A strong tissue reaction of the hamster after the administration of E. cervi larvae is responsible for the larvae destruction and resorption.

  4. Cumulative cultural evolution in the laboratory: An experimental approach to the origins of structure in human language

    PubMed Central

    Kirby, Simon; Cornish, Hannah; Smith, Kenny

    2008-01-01

    We introduce an experimental paradigm for studying the cumulative cultural evolution of language. In doing so we provide the first experimental validation for the idea that cultural transmission can lead to the appearance of design without a designer. Our experiments involve the iterated learning of artificial languages by human participants. We show that languages transmitted culturally evolve in such a way as to maximize their own transmissibility: over time, the languages in our experiments become easier to learn and increasingly structured. Furthermore, this structure emerges purely as a consequence of the transmission of language over generations, without any intentional design on the part of individual language learners. Previous computational and mathematical models suggest that iterated learning provides an explanation for the structure of human language and link particular aspects of linguistic structure with particular constraints acting on language during its transmission. The experimental work presented here shows that the predictions of these models, and models of cultural evolution more generally, can be tested in the laboratory. PMID:18667697

  5. Ergonomics problems and solutions in biotechnology laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Coward, T.W.; Stengel, J.W.; Fellingham-Gilbert, P.

    1995-03-01

    The multi-functional successful ergonomics program currently implemented at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) will be presented with special emphasis on recent findings in the Biotechnology laboratory environment. In addition to a discussion of more traditional computer-related repetitive stress injuries and associated statistics, the presentation will cover identification of ergonomic problems in laboratory functions such as pipetting, radiation shielding, and microscope work. Techniques to alleviate symptoms and prevent future injuries will be presented.

  6. Thermal management for LLNL/UC/SSRL bending magnet beamline VIII at Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Berglin, E.J.; Younger, F.C.

    1986-05-01

    All the important heat loads on the elements of Beamline VIII are cataloged. The principal elements are identified and their heat loads tabulated for various loading scenarios. The expected heat loads are those from normal operations including the anticipated performance improvements planned for the SPEAR ring and from abnormal operations due to positional perturbations of the electron beam. (LEW)

  7. Silver aids healing in the sterile skin wound: experimental studies in the laboratory rat.

    PubMed

    Lansdown, A B; Sampson, B; Laupattarakasem, P; Vuttivirojana, A

    1997-11-01

    Incisional wounds 15 mm long were induced surgically in the back skin of young adult Wistar rats. They were sutured and used as an experimental model in the therapeutic evaluation of daily applications of 0.5 mL of silver nitrate (SN) at 0.01, 0.1 or 1.0% w/v aqueous solution, or 0.5 g silver sulphadiazine (SSD) over a 10-day period. Control wounds received deionized water only. The silver preparations were not toxic but SN did stain the hair and superficial layers of the stratum corneum. The wounds remained microbiologically clean. Wounds exposed to SN (0.1 or 1.0%) or SSD healed more rapidly than controls. From about the fourth day of treatment, we noted a more rapid exteriorization of sutures, improved wound closure and an earlier loss of scabs and wound debris. Silver treatment appeared to reduce the inflammatory and granulation tissue phases of healing and enhance epidermal repair. Silver from SN was deposited as silver sulphide in extrafollicular hair shafts and superficial aspects of the skin and wound debris but not at deeper levels. Silver uptake was four-fold higher in damaged skin than in intact tissue. SSD was absorbed by intact and wounded skin but the silver did not precipitate as silver sulphide and its localization in the tissue is not known. Uptake of silver from SN or SSD was associated with changes in the concentrations of zinc and calcium in the skin. Zinc levels were depressed during the inflammatory and proliferative phases of healing and then increased. Zinc concentrations had normalized by 10 days when wound healing was achieved. Calcium levels remained higher than normal throughout the observation period. The mechanism of action of silver in advancing wound healing in the rat is unclear. Its ability to reduce the inflammatory and granulation phases of healing, and to invoke metallothionein production and influence metal ion binding are possibly important.

  8. Combination treatment of lycopene and hesperidin protect experimentally induced ulcer in laboratory rats

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Dilpesh; Katti, Neha

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Lycopene, a carotenoid and hesperidin, a flavonoid are naturally occurring in vegetables and fruits. Synergistic effect of a combination of carotenoid and flavonoid has been reported due to its antioxidant activity. Therefore, the present study was aimed to evaluate the protective effect of this combination on pylorus ligation induced ulcers in rats. Materials and Methods: Thirty Wistar albino rats were divided into five groups (n = 6). Rats were fasted for 24 h before pylorus ligation. After 24 h of fasting the rats were treated with hesperidin (100 mg/kg) and lycopene (2 mg/kg) and their combination 1h prior to surgery. After an hour under ether anesthesia pylorus ligation was performed, after 5 h the animals were sacrificed, stomach was dissected, and gastric contents were collected and measured. Total acidity and pH of gastric content was estimated. Ulcer index was calculated, and macroscopic examination of the stomach was carried out. Results: The sham operated rats showed a significant increase in pH, volume of gastric content and total acidity and ulcer index. The rats pretreated with lycopene and hesperidin showed significant improvement in the ulcer conditions. However, rats treated with a combination of lycopene and hesperidin showed more significant restoration of gastric function as compared to sham operated rats. Moreover, a significant difference was also noted in rats treated with a combination as compared to lycopene and hesperidin treatment alone. Conclusion: Thus experimentally the combination was seen to treat ulcers by anti-secretory, neutralizing, cytoprotective and mainly due to its antioxidant property. PMID:26401402

  9. Experimental Studies of Engineered Barrier Systems Conducted at Los Alamos National Laboratory (FY16)

    SciTech Connect

    Caporuscio, Florie Andre; Norskog, Katherine Elizabeth; Maner, James; Palaich, Sarah; Cheshire, Michael C.

    2016-08-04

    Over the past five years the Used Fuel Campaign has investigated Engineered Barrier Systems (EBS) at higher heat loads (up to 300°C) and pressure (150 bar). This past year experimental work was hindered due to a revamping of the hydrothermal lab. Regardless, two experiments were run this past year, EBS-18 and EBS-19. EBS-18 was run using Low Carbon Steel (LCS) and opalinus clay in addition to the bentonite and opalinus brine. Many of the past results were confirmed in EBS-18, such as the restriction of illite formation due to the bulk chemistry, pyrite degradation, and zeolite formation dependent on the bentonite and opalinus clay. The LCS show vast amounts of pit corrosion (over 100μm of corrosion in six weeks), leading a corrosion rate of 1083 μm/year. In addition, a mineral goethite, an iron-bearing hydroxide, formed in the pits of the LCS. Preliminary results from EBS-19 water chemistry are included but SEM imaging, micro probe and XRD are still needed for further results. Copper corrosion was investigated further and over 850 measurements were taken. It was concluded that pitting and pyrite degradation drastically increase the corrosion rate from 0.12 to 0.39 μm/day. However, the growth of a layer of the mineral chalcocite is thought to subdue the corrosion rate to 0.024 μm/day as observed in the EBS-13, a sixth month experiment. This document presents the findings of this past year.

  10. Recent advances in indirect drive ICF target physics at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Bernat, T P; Collins, G W; Haan, S; Hammel, B A; Landen, O L; MacGowan, B J; Sutter, L J

    1998-01-13

    In preparation for ignition on the National Ignition Facility, the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Inertial Confinement Fusion Program, working in collaboration with Los Alamos National Laboratory, Commissariat a 1'Energie Atomique (CEA), and Laboratory for Laser Energetics at the University of Rochester, has performed a broad range of experiments on the Nova and Omega lasers to test the fundamentals of the NIF target designs. These studies have refined our understanding of the important target physics, and have led to many of the specifications for the NIF laser and the cryogenic ignition targets. Our recent work has been focused in the areas of hohlraum energetics, symmetry, shock physics, and target design optimization & fabrication.

  11. Recent experimental results of effects of perfluoroalkyl substances in laboratory animals - Relation to current regulations and guidance values.

    PubMed

    Lilienthal, Hellmuth; Dieter, Hermann H; Hölzer, Jürgen; Wilhelm, Michael

    2017-03-02

    The detection of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in surface and drinking water from various countries raised the attention to the presence of these chemicals in environmental probes and led to several regulatory actions to limit exposure in human beings. There was particular concern about perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), due to their former wide-spread use. Recently, several institutions published revisions of former regulatory or recommended maximum concentrations in drinking water and food, which are markedly lower than the former values. The present short overview describes the current regulations for PFAS and compares them with the outcome of several experimental studies in laboratory animals at low-level exposure to PFOA and PFOS. In addition, regulations for short-chain PFAS are presented which, due to lack of toxicological information, are evaluated according to the concepts of Threshold of Toxicological Concern (TTC) or the Health-related Indication Values (HRIV).

  12. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory site seismic safety program: summary of findings

    SciTech Connect

    Scheimer, J.F.

    1985-07-01

    This report summarizes the final assessments of geologic hazards at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Detailed discussions of investigations are documented in a series of reports produced by LLNL's Site Seismic Safety Program and their consultants. The Program conducted a probabilistic assessment of hazards at the site as a result of liquefaction, landslide, and strong ground shaking, using existing models to explicitly treat uncertainties. The results indicate that the Greenville and Las Positas-Verona Fault systems present the greatest hazard to the LLNL site as a result of ground shaking, with a lesser contribution from the Calaveras Fault. Other, more distant fault systems do not materially contribute to the hazard. No evidence has been found that the LLNL site will undergo soil failures such as landslides or liquefaction. In addition, because of the locations and ages of the faults in the LLNL area, surface ground rupture during an earthquake is extremely unlikely.

  13. The role of experimental science in ICF -- examples from X-ray diagnostics and targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilkenny, J. D.

    2016-10-01

    The USA Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Program evolved from the Nuclear Test Program which had restricted shot opportunities for experimentalists to develop sophisticated experimental techniques. In contrast the ICF program in the US was able to increase the shot availability on its large facilities, and develop sophisticated targets and diagnostics to measure and understand the properties of the high energy density plasmas (HEDP) formed. Illustrative aspects of this evolution at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), with examples of the development of diagnostics and target fabrication are described.

  14. Progress in AMS measurements at the LLNL spectrometer. [Accelerator Mass Spectroscopy (AMS)

    SciTech Connect

    Southon, J.R.; Vogel, J.S.; Trumbore, S.E.; Davis, J.C.; Roberts, M.L.; Caffee, M.; Finkel, R.; Proctor, I.D.; Heikkinen, D.W.; Berno, A.J.; Hornady, R.S.

    1991-06-01

    The AMS measurement program at LLNL began in earnest in late 1989, and has initially concentrated on {sup 14}C measurements for biomedical and geoscience applications. We have now begun measurements on {sup 10}Be and {sup 36}Cl, are presently testing the spectrometer performance for {sup 26}Al and {sup 3}H, and will begin tests on {sup 7}Be, {sup 41}Ca and {sup 129}I within the next few months. Our laboratory has a strong biomedical AMS program of {sup 14}C tracer measurements involving large numbers of samples (sometimes hundreds in a single experiment) at {sup 14}C concentrations which are typically .5--5 times Modern, but are occasionally highly enriched. The sample preparation techniques required for high throughput and low cross-contamination for this work are discussed elsewhere. Similar demands are placed on the AMS measurement system, and in particular on the ion source. Modifications to our GIC 846 ion source, described below, allow us to run biomedical and geoscience or archaeological samples in the same source wheel with no adverse effects. The source has a capacity for 60 samples (about 45 unknown) in a single wheel and provides currents of 30--60{mu}A of C{sup {minus}} from hydrogen-reduced graphite. These currents and sample capacity provide high throughput for both biomedical and other measurements: the AMS system can be started up, tuned, and a wheel of carbon samples measured to 1--1.5% in under a day; and 2 biomedical wheels can be measured per day without difficulty. We report on the present status of the Lawrence Livermore AMS spectrometer, including sample throughput and progress towards routine 1% measurement capability for {sup 14}C, first results on other isotopes, and experience with a multi-sample high intensity ion source. 5 refs.

  15. Attenuation Drift in the Micro-Computed Tomography System at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Dooraghi, Alex A.; Brown, William; Seetho, Isaac; Kallman, Jeff; Lennox, Kristin; Glascoe, Lee

    2016-01-12

    The maximum allowable level of drift in the linear attenuation coefficients (μ) for a Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) micro-computed tomography (MCT) system was determined to be 0.1%. After ~100 scans were acquired during the period of November 2014 to March 2015, the drift in μ for a set of six reference materials reached or exceeded 0.1%. Two strategies have been identified to account for or correct the drift. First, normalizing the 160 kV and 100 kV μ data by the μ of water at the corresponding energy, in contrast to conducting normalization at the 160 kV energy only, significantly compensates for measurement drift. Even after the modified normalization, μ of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) increases linearly with scan number at an average rate of 0.00147% per scan. This is consistent with PTFE radiation damage documented in the literature. The second strategy suggested is the replacement of the PTFE reference with fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP), which has the same effective atomic number (Ze) and electron density (ρe) as PTFE, but is 10 times more radiation resistant. This is important as effective atomic number and electron density are key parameters in analysis. The presence of a material with properties such as PTFE, when taken together with the remaining references, allows for a broad range of the (Ze, ρe) feature space to be used in analysis. While FEP is documented as 10 times more radiation resistant, testing will be necessary to assess how often, if necessary, FEP will need to be replaced. As radiation damage to references has been observed, it will be necessary to monitor all reference materials for radiation damage to ensure consistent x-ray characteristics of the references.

  16. Target detection and localization in shallow water: an experimental demonstration of the acoustic barrier problem at the laboratory scale.

    PubMed

    Marandet, Christian; Roux, Philippe; Nicolas, Barbara; Mars, Jérôme

    2011-01-01

    This study demonstrates experimentally at the laboratory scale the detection and localization of a wavelength-sized target in a shallow ultrasonic waveguide between two source-receiver arrays at 3 MHz. In the framework of the acoustic barrier problem, at the 1/1000 scale, the waveguide represents a 1.1-km-long, 52-m-deep ocean acoustic channel in the kilohertz frequency range. The two coplanar arrays record in the time-domain the transfer matrix of the waveguide between each pair of source-receiver transducers. Invoking the reciprocity principle, a time-domain double-beamforming algorithm is simultaneously performed on the source and receiver arrays. This array processing projects the multireverberated acoustic echoes into an equivalent set of eigenrays, which are defined by their launch and arrival angles. Comparison is made between the intensity of each eigenray without and with a target for detection in the waveguide. Localization is performed through tomography inversion of the acoustic impedance of the target, using all of the eigenrays extracted from double beamforming. The use of the diffraction-based sensitivity kernel for each eigenray provides both the localization and the signature of the target. Experimental results are shown in the presence of surface waves, and methodological issues are discussed for detection and localization.

  17. Scientific biography, cognitive deficits, and laboratory practice. James McKeen Cattell and early American experimental psychology, 1880-1904.

    PubMed

    Sokal, Michael M

    2010-09-01

    Despite widespread interest in individual life histories, few biographies of scientists make use of insights derived from psychology, another discipline that studies people, their thoughts, and their actions. This essay argues that recent theoretical work in psychology and tools developed for clinical psychological practice can help biographical historians of science create and present fuller portraits of their subjects' characters and temperaments and more nuanced analyses of how these traits helped shape their subjects' scientific work. To illustrate this thesis, the essay examines the early career of James McKeen Cattell--an influential late nineteenth- and early twentieth-century experimental psychologist--through a lens offered by psychology and argues that Cattell's actual laboratory practices derived from an "accommodation" to a long-standing "cognitive deficit." These practices in turn enabled Cattell to achieve more precise experimental results than could any of his contemporaries; and their students readily adopted them, along with their behavioral implications. The essay concludes that, in some ways, American psychology's early twentieth-century move toward a behavioral understanding of psychological phenomena can be traced to Cattell's personal cognitive deficit. It closes by reviewing several "remaining general questions" that this thesis suggests.

  18. How to Read an LLNL Energy Flow Chart (Sankey Diagram)

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, A. J.

    2016-04-19

    Each year, the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory releases energy flow charts that illustrate the nation's consumption and use of energy. A.J. Simon, group leader for LLNL’s energy program, breaks the 2015 chart down in this video, describing how to read the chart and what year-to-year trends he sees.

  19. How to Read an LLNL Energy Flow Chart (Sankey Diagram)

    ScienceCinema

    Simon, A. J.

    2016-07-12

    Each year, the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory releases energy flow charts that illustrate the nation's consumption and use of energy. A.J. Simon, group leader for LLNL’s energy program, breaks the 2015 chart down in this video, describing how to read the chart and what year-to-year trends he sees.

  20. 360 Video Tour of 3D Printing Labs at LLNL

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-08-24

    Additive manufacturing is changing the way the world thinks about manufacturing and design. And here at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, it’s changing the way our scientists approach research and development. Today we’ll look around three of the additive manufacturing research labs on the Lawrence Livermore campus.

  1. 360 Video Tour of 3D Printing Labs at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    2016-08-15

    Additive manufacturing is changing the way the world thinks about manufacturing and design. And here at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, it’s changing the way our scientists approach research and development. Today we’ll look around three of the additive manufacturing research labs on the Lawrence Livermore campus.

  2. LLNL ICF highlights for the period of July 14, 2016 to July 20, 2016

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmann, M. C.

    2016-07-25

    LLNL executed two HED Fused Silica Dome experiments as part of the complex hydrodynamics campaign on NIF. These shots assessed breakout times and velocities of shocks at five different angles separated by 45°. Each target looked at three different locations on the capsule measuring the shock breakout time and speed. The experiments used a significantly larger hohlraum and energy in the laser pulse than in previous complex hydrodynamics hohlraums. LLNL conducted a shot on NIF to continue developing a high pressure drive platform for Rayleigh-Taylor strength experiments. VISAR was the primary diagnostic and returned good quality data.

  3. Diversification and strategic management of LLNL`s R&D portfolio

    SciTech Connect

    Glinsky, M.E.

    1994-12-01

    Strategic management of LLNL`s research effort is addressed. A general framework is established by presenting the McKinsey/BCG Matrix Analysis as it applies to the research portfolio. The framework is used to establish the need for the diversification into new attractive areas of research and for the improvement of the market position of existing research in those attractive areas. With the need for such diversification established, attention is turned to optimizing it. There are limited resources available. It is concluded that LLNL should diversify into only a few areas and try to obtain full market share as soon as possible.

  4. THE IMPORTANCE OF INSTRUMENT MAKERS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY: THE CASE OF ALFRED BINET AT THE SORBONNE LABORATORY.

    PubMed

    Nicolas, Serge

    2016-07-01

    The importance of instrument firms in the development of psychology, and science in general, should not be underestimated since it would not have been possible for various leading psychologists at the turn of the twentieth century to conduct certain experiments without the assistance of instrument makers, as is often the case today. To illustrate the historical perspective introduced here, the example of Alfred Binet is taken, as he is an interesting case of a psychologist working in close collaboration with various French instrument designers of the time. The objective of this article is twofold: (1) to show the considerable activity carried out by early psychologists to finalize new laboratory instruments in order to develop their research projects; (2) to reassess the work of a major figure in French psychology through his activity as a designer of precision instruments. The development of these new instruments would certainly have been difficult without the presence in Paris of numerous precision instrument manufacturers such as Charles Verdin, Otto Lund, Henri Collin, and Lucien Korsten, on whom Binet successively called in order to develop his projects in the field of experimental psychology.

  5. Summary of the LLNL one-dimensional transport-kinetics model of the troposphere and stratosphere: 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Wuebbles, D.J.

    1981-09-01

    Since the LLNL one-dimensional coupled transport and chemical kinetics model of the troposphere and stratosphere was originally developed in 1972 (Chang et al., 1974), there have been many changes to the model's representation of atmospheric physical and chemical processes. A brief description is given of the current LLNL one-dimensional coupled transport and chemical kinetics model of the troposphere and stratosphere.

  6. Optical & Environmental Performance of Durable Silver Mirror Coatings Fabricated at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, J; Sanders, D

    2004-03-05

    A Family of Durable Silver Mirror Designs has been fabricated at LLNL. We report here on the optical and environmental performance of the basic design, which can be cleaned with standard glass cleaner and cloth after months of exposure to outside atmosphere.

  7. LLNL Site plan for a MOX fuel lead assembly mission in support of surplus plutonium disposition

    SciTech Connect

    Bronson, M.C.

    1997-10-01

    The principal facilities that LLNL would use to support a MOX Fuel Lead Assembly Mission are Building 332 and Building 334. Both of these buildings are within the security boundary known as the LLNL Superblock. Building 332 is the LLNL Plutonium Facility. As an operational plutonium facility, it has all the infrastructure and support services required for plutonium operations. The LLNL Plutonium Facility routinely handles kilogram quantities of plutonium and uranium. Currently, the building is limited to a plutonium inventory of 700 kilograms and a uranium inventory of 300 kilograms. Process rooms (excluding the vaults) are limited to an inventory of 20 kilograms per room. Ongoing operations include: receiving SSTS, material receipt, storage, metal machining and casting, welding, metal-to-oxide conversion, purification, molten salt operations, chlorination, oxide calcination, cold pressing and sintering, vitrification, encapsulation, chemical analysis, metallography and microprobe analysis, waste material processing, material accountability measurements, packaging, and material shipping. Building 334 is the Hardened Engineering Test Building. This building supports environmental and radiation measurements on encapsulated plutonium and uranium components. Other existing facilities that would be used to support a MOX Fuel Lead Assembly Mission include Building 335 for hardware receiving and storage and TRU and LLW waste storage and shipping facilities, and Building 331 or Building 241 for storage of depleted uranium.

  8. LLNL radioactive waste management plan as per DOE Order 5820. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-12-10

    The following aspects of LLNL's radioactive waste management plan are discussed: program administration; description of waste generating processes; radioactive waste collection, treatment, and disposal; sanitary waste management; site 300 operations; schedules and major milestones for waste management activities; and environmental monitoring programs (sampling and analysis).

  9. Beam-beam studies for the proposed SLAC/LBL/LLNL B Factory

    SciTech Connect

    Furman, M.A.

    1991-05-01

    We present a summary of beam-beam dynamics studies that have been carried out to date for the proposed SLAC/LBL/LLNL B Factory. Most of the material presented here is contained in the proposal's Conceptual Design Report, although post-CDR studies are also presented. 15 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. LLNL Electrical Safety Committee Summary report for 1993 and 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Niven, W.A.; Trost, S.R.

    1995-03-01

    The ESC is presently organized with three subcommittees: Guidelines and Regulations, Programs and Training, and Performance Measurement and Analysis. Current membership is attached for information, as well as the charters of the three subcommittees. The committee at large meets once a quarter, the Executive Committee, comprised of the Committee Chair, the Executive Secretary and the Subcommittee Chairs meets twice quarterly, and the subcommittees meet once or twice per month. Minutes of meetings are distributed to the ES&H Working Group and senior Laboratory management.

  11. ARGUS/LLNL IR camera calibration and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witte, David J.

    1989-11-01

    The results and description are presented of a laboratory characterization and calibration performed on the ARGUS Infrared Imaging System (IRI). ARGUS is a USAF aircraft (modified NC-135) that serves as a platform for a variety of optical imaging sensors. These sensors collect data on a variety of targets, including reentry vehicles, objects in low earth orbit, missile plumes, and other aircraft. The IRI is a mid-wave infrared (MWIR) sensor used to collect radiometrically calibratable image data on targets. Recently, some questions have arisen regarding the instrument's performance characteristics and calibration. Consequently, the characterization effort described was undertaken. The specific objectives of this effort were the following: (1) Define calibration curves/equations that relate sensor output signal level to received irradiance; (2) Determine the system radiometric sensitivity, specifically, the Noise Equivalent Spectral Radiance (NESR) in each of the sensor's four spectral bands; (3) Determine the sensor's spatial resolution and assess whether or not the fixed-focus telescope is focussed at infinity. During the course of the laboratory tests, an additional objective was defined; and (4) Assess the change in sensor performance due to cooling the entire camera assembly.

  12. An Investigation on X-ray Reflectivity technique at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Saw, C. K.; Grant, W. K.; Stanford, J.; Dinh, L. N.

    2016-01-12

    This report documents the work carried out to determine the feasibility of using this technique for Pu oxide grown on bulk Pu system. It also provides the experimental and theoretical considerations in carrying out XRR technique to determine film thicknesses. The intention of this work is to develop the methodology and understand the limits for carrying out such experiments using the in-house technique.

  13. High-Energy Neutron Imaging Development at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, J M; Rusnak, B; Shen, S

    2005-02-16

    We are proceeding with the development of a high-energy (10 MeV) neutron imaging system for use as an inspection tool in nuclear stockpile stewardship applications. Our goal is to develop and deploy an imaging system capable of detecting cubic-mm-scale voids, cracks or other significant structural defects in heavily-shielded low-Z materials within nuclear device components. The final production-line system will be relatively compact (suitable for use in existing facilities within the DOE complex) and capable of acquiring both radiographic and tomographic (CT) images. In this report, we will review our recent programmatic accomplishments, focusing primarily on progress made in FY04. The design status of the high-intensity, accelerator-driven neutron source and large-format imaging detector associated with the system will be discussed and results from a recent high-energy neutron imaging experiment conducted at the Ohio University Accelerator Laboratory (OUAL) will also be presented.

  14. Achieving Order through CHAOS: the LLNL HPC Linux Cluster Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Braby, R L; Garlick, J E; Goldstone, R J

    2003-05-02

    Since fall 2001, Livermore Computing at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has deployed 11 Intel IA-32-based Linux clusters ranging in size up to 1154 nodes. All provide a common programming model and implement a similar cluster architecture. Hardware components are carefully selected for performance, usability, manageability, and reliability and are then integrated and supported using a strategy that evolved from practical experience. Livermore Computing Linux clusters run a common software environment that is developed and maintained in-house while drawing components and additional support from the open source community and industrial partnerships. The environment is based on Red Hat Linux and adds kernel modifications, cluster system management, monitoring and failure detection, resource management, authentication and access control, development environment, and parallel file system. The overall strategy has been successful and demonstrates that world-class high-performance computing resources can be built and maintained using commodity off-the-shelf hardware and open source software.

  15. Experimental Validation of LLNL Finite Element Codes for Nonlinear Seismic Simulations (Progress, Year 1 of 2)

    SciTech Connect

    Alves, S W; Noble, C R

    2006-12-06

    Shake table tests were performed on a full-scale 7-story slice of a reinforced concrete building at UC San Diego between October 2005 and January 2006. The tests were performed on the NEES Large High-Performance Outdoor Shake Table (LHPOST) at the Engelkirk Structural Engineering Center of UCSD. The structure was subjected to four uniaxial earthquake ground motions of increasing amplitude. The accelerations measured at the base of the structure and the measured roof displacements have been provided by UCSD. Details of the building construction have also been provided by UCSD. The measured response of this structure was used to assess the capability of the homogenized rebar model in DYNA3D/ParaDyn [1,2] to simulate the seismic response of reinforced concrete structures. The homogenized rebar model is a composite version of the Karagozian & Case concrete model [3]. Work has been done to validate this material model for use in blast simulations, but seismic simulations require longer durations. The UCSD experiment provides full-scale data that can be used to validate seismic modeling capabilities.

  16. Progress Toward Measuring CO2 Isotopologue Fluxes in situ with the LLNL Miniature, Laser-based CO2 Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osuna, J. L.; Bora, M.; Bond, T.

    2015-12-01

    One method to constrain photosynthesis and respiration independently at the ecosystem scale is to measure the fluxes of CO2­ isotopologues. Instrumentation is currently available to makes these measurements but they are generally costly, large, bench-top instruments. Here, we present progress toward developing a laser-based sensor that can be deployed directly to a canopy to passively measure CO2 isotopologue fluxes. In this study, we perform initial proof-of-concept and sensor characterization tests in the laboratory and in the field to demonstrate performance of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) tunable diode laser flux sensor. The results shown herein demonstrate measurement of bulk CO2 as a first step toward achieving flux measurements of CO2 isotopologues. The sensor uses a Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser (VCSEL) in the 2012 nm range. The laser is mounted in a multi-pass White Cell. In order to amplify the absorption signal of CO2 in this range we employ wave modulation spectroscopy, introducing an alternating current (AC) bias component where f is the frequency of modulation on the laser drive current in addition to the direct current (DC) emission scanning component. We observed a strong linear relationship (r2 = 0.998 and r2 = 0.978 at all and low CO2 concentrations, respectively) between the 2f signal and the CO2 concentration in the cell across the range of CO2 concentrations relevant for flux measurements. We use this calibration to interpret CO2 concentration of a gas flowing through the White cell in the laboratory and deployed over a grassy field. We will discuss sensor performance in the lab and in situ as well as address steps toward achieving canopy-deployed, passive measurements of CO2 isotopologue fluxes. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL-ABS-675788

  17. CBM.DIAGB.03.10.LLNL.007 Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Slezak, T; Torres, M

    2011-03-30

    The purpose of this project was to construct a system for characterizing the threat potential of genomic sequences, specifically assembled draft genomes. New genomes are characterized by initially comparing them against already-sequenced genomes. If the new genome is determined to be from a high-threat species, detailed (forensic-level) characterization is done based on gene and SNP (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism) data comparisons with all other previously sequenced members of that high-threat species. New genomes are compared against a large set of known virulence and antibiotic-resistance genes and also compared against a large set of vectors that could be used for bacterial genetic engineering. Together, these analyses provide a comprehensive initial assessment of the most likely phylogenetic placement of a new genome, plus an assessment of the known-gene content and an indication of any possible bacterial genetic engineering utilizing vector-mediated techniques. This provides an initial threat potential summary based on high information content comparisons (e.g., thousands of genes, SNPs, and potential genetic engineering vectors) that can be used to guide subsequent operational response or more detailed laboratory characterization.

  18. Cross-Laboratory Comparative Study of the Impact of Experimental and Regression Methodologies on Salmonella Thermal Inactivation Parameters in Ground Beef.

    PubMed

    Hildebrandt, Ian M; Marks, Bradley P; Juneja, Vijay K; Osoria, Marangeli; Hall, Nicole O; Ryser, Elliot T

    2016-07-01

    Isothermal inactivation studies are commonly used to quantify thermal inactivation kinetics of bacteria. Meta-analyses and comparisons utilizing results from multiple sources have revealed large variations in reported thermal resistance parameters for Salmonella, even when in similar food materials. Different laboratory or regression methodologies likely are the source of methodology-specific artifacts influencing the estimated parameters; however, such effects have not been quantified. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of laboratory and regression methodologies on thermal inactivation data generation, interpretation, modeling, and inherent error, based on data generated in two independent laboratories. The overall experimental design consisted of a cross-laboratory comparison using two independent laboratories (Michigan State University and U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Eastern Regional Research Center [ERRC] laboratories), both conducting isothermal Salmonella inactivation studies (55, 60, 62°C) in ground beef, and each using two methodologies reported in prior studies. Two primary models (log-linear and Weibull) with one secondary model (Bigelow) were fitted to the resultant data using three regression methodologies (two two-step regressions and a one-step regression). Results indicated that laboratory methodology impacted the estimated D60°C- and z-values (α = 0.05), with the ERRC methodology yielding parameter estimates ∼25% larger than the Michigan State University methodology, regardless of the laboratory. Regression methodology also impacted the model and parameter error estimates. Two-step regressions yielded root mean square error values on average 40% larger than the one-step regressions. The Akaike Information Criterion indicated the Weibull as the more correct model in most cases; however, caution should be used to confirm model robustness in application to real-world data. Overall, the

  19. Summary Report of Summer 2009 NGSI Human Capital Development Efforts at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Dougan, A; Dreicer, M; Essner, J; Gaffney, A; Reed, J; Williams, R

    2009-11-16

    In 2009, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) engaged in several activities to support NA-24's Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI). This report outlines LLNL's efforts to support Human Capital Development (HCD), one of five key components of NGSI managed by Dunbar Lockwood in the Office of International Regimes and Agreements (NA-243). There were five main LLNL summer safeguards HCD efforts sponsored by NGSI: (1) A joint Monterey Institute of International Studies/Center for Nonproliferation Studies-LLNL International Safeguards Policy and Information Analysis Course; (2) A Summer Safeguards Policy Internship Program at LLNL; (3) A Training in Environmental Sample Analysis for IAEA Safeguards Internship; (4) Safeguards Technology Internships; and (5) A joint LLNL-INL Summer Safeguards Lecture Series. In this report, we provide an overview of these five initiatives, an analysis of lessons learned, an update on the NGSI FY09 post-doc, and an update on students who participated in previous NGSI-sponsored LLNL safeguards HCD efforts.

  20. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-12-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the Department of Energy (DOE) Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), conducted December 1 through 19, 1986. The Survey is being conducted by an interdisciplinary team of environmental specialists, led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. Individual team components are being supplied by a private contractor. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with LLNL. The Survey covers all environmental media all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations performed at LLNL, and interviews with site personnel. A Sampling and Analysis Plan was developed to assist in further assessing certain of the environmental problems identified during performance of on-site activities. The Sampling and Analysis Plan will be executed by a DOE National Laboratory. When completed, the results will be incorporated into the LLNL Environmental Survey Interim Report. The Interim Report will reflect the final determinations of the LLNL Survey. 70 refs., 58 figs., 52 tabs.,

  1. Laboratory directed research and development FY98 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Ayat, R; Holzrichter, J

    1999-05-01

    In 1984, Congress and the Department of Energy (DOE) established the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program to enable the director of a national laboratory to foster and expedite innovative research and development (R and D) in mission areas. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) continually examines these mission areas through strategic planning and shapes the LDRD Program to meet its long-term vision. The goal of the LDRD Program is to spur development of new scientific and technical capabilities that enable LLNL to respond to the challenges within its evolving mission areas. In addition, the LDRD Program provides LLNL with the flexibility to nurture and enrich essential scientific and technical competencies and enables the Laboratory to attract the most qualified scientists and engineers. The FY98 LDRD portfolio described in this annual report has been carefully structured to continue the tradition of vigorously supporting DOE and LLNL strategic vision and evolving mission areas. The projects selected for LDRD funding undergo stringent review and selection processes, which emphasize strategic relevance and require technical peer reviews of proposals by external and internal experts. These FY98 projects emphasize the Laboratory's national security needs: stewardship of the U.S. nuclear weapons stockpile, responsibility for the counter- and nonproliferation of weapons of mass destruction, development of high-performance computing, and support of DOE environmental research and waste management programs.

  2. Joint research and development and exchange of technology on toxic material emergency response between LLNL and ENEA. 1985 progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Dickerson, M.H.; Caracciolo, R.

    1986-01-31

    For the past six years, the US Department of Energy, LLNL, and the ENEA, Rome, Italy, have participated in cooperative studies for improving a systems approach to an emergency response following nuclear accidents. Technology exchange between LLNL and the ENEA was initially confined to the development, application, and evaluation of atmospheric transport and diffusion models. With the emergence of compatible hardware configurations between LLNL and ENEA, exchanges of technology and ideas for improving the development and implementation of systems are beginning to emerge. This report describes cooperative work that has occurred during the past three years, the present state of each system, and recommendations for future exchanges of technology.

  3. The LLNL Heavy Element Facility -- Facility Management, Authorization Basis, and Readiness Assessment Lessons Learned in the Heavy Element Facility (B251) Transition from Category II Nuclear Facility to Radiological Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, M; Anderson, B; Brown, E; Gray, L

    2006-04-10

    This paper presents Facility Management, Readiness Assessment, and Authorization Basis experience gained and lessons learned during the Heavy Element Facility Risk Reduction Program (RRP). The RRP was tasked with removing contaminated glove boxes, radioactive inventory, and contaminated ventilation systems from the Heavy Element Facility (B251) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The RRP was successful in its goal in April 2005 with the successful downgrade of B251 from a Category II Nuclear Facility to a Radiological Facility. The expertise gained and the lessons learned during the planning and conduct of the RRP included development of unique approaches in work planning/work control (''Expect the unexpected and confirm the expected'') and facility management. These approaches minimized worker dose and resulted in significant safety improvements and operational efficiencies. These lessons learned can help similar operational and management activities at other sites, including facilities restarting operations or new facility startup. B251 was constructed at LLNL to provide research areas for conducting experiments in radiochemistry using transuranic elements. Activities at B251 once included the preparation of tracer sets associated with the underground testing of nuclear devices and basic research devoted to a better understanding of the chemical and nuclear behavior of the transuranic elements. Due to the age of the facility, even with preventative maintenance, facility safety and experimental systems were deteriorating. A variety of seismic standards were used in the facility design and construction, which encompassed eight building increments constructed over a period of 26 years. The cost to bring the facility into compliance with the current seismic and other requirements was prohibitive, and simply maintaining B251 as a Category II nuclear facility posed serious cost considerations under a changing regulatory environment. Considering the high

  4. Plutonium Decontamination Using CBI Decon Gel 1101 in Highly Contaminated and Unique Areas at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Sutton, M; Fischer, R P; Thoet, M M; O'Neill, M; Edgington, G

    2008-06-09

    A highly contaminated glove-box at LLNL containing plutonium was decontaminated using a strippable decontamination gel. 6 x 12 inch quadrants were mapped out on each of the surfaces. The gel was applied to various surfaces inside the glove-box and was allowed to cure. The radioactivity in each quadrant was measured using a LLNL Blue Alpha meter with a 1.5 inch standoff distance. The results showed decontamination factors of 130 and 210 on cast steel and Lexan{reg_sign} surfaces respectively after several applications. The gel also absorbed more than 91% of the radiation emitted from the surfaces during gel curing. The removed strippable film was analyzed by neutron multiplicity counting and gamma spectroscopy, yielding relative mass information and radioisotopic composition respectively.

  5. LLNL Fire Protection Engineering Standard 5.8 Facility Survey Program

    SciTech Connect

    Sharry, J A

    2012-01-04

    This standard describes the LLNL Fire Protection Facility Survey Program. The purpose of this standard is to describe the type of facility surveys required to fulfill the requirements of DOE Order 420.1B, Facility Safety. Nothing in this standard is intended to prevent the development of a FHA using alternative approaches. Alternate approaches, including formatting, will be by exception only, and approved by the Fire Marshal/Fire Protection Engineering Subject Matter Expert in advance of their use.

  6. Plan for Developing and Implementing the LLNL Plutonium Facility and Packaging Program

    SciTech Connect

    Dodson, K E; Burch, J G; Krikorian, O H; Riley, D C

    2005-03-29

    The LLNL Plutonium Facility uses glove boxes for performing operations involving special nuclear materials (SNM) that for the most part are not connected to each other. Having standalone glove boxes mandates bag-in and bag-out operations to provide personnel safety in material transfers. The use of inexpensive disposable primary and secondary containers (i.e., food pack and paint cans) decreases operational risks by reducing glove box transfers. Typically, containers consist of produce cans, paint cans, lard cans, and egg cans; however, some cans with bolted flanges have been used for protection from oxidation or to reduce dose to the handler. The lard cans and egg cans are slip lid cans and have predominantly been used for the outermost containment, or secondary can, in the packaging configuration. For non-weapon parts the packaging has generally been, from the inner most container to the outside container as (1) the primary can, (2) a bag-out bag, (3) a poultry bag, and (4) a secondary can. This system has evolved over many years and has proven to be effective. During FY2002 through FY2004, the ''Legacy'' material projects at LLNL inspected, repackaged and processed (if necessary), approximately 1500 items, which translates to at least 3000 containers (primary and secondary). There were no failed containers identified during this repacking campaign; however, a documented technical basis does not exist for LLNL's current packaging system. In addition, this system may not meet drop test criteria. To assure that material is packaged and stored safely and consistently, LLNL is developing criteria for packaging and storage of special nuclear materials, as well as the associated technical basis. This document describes the plan for developing these criteria, technical basis, and implementation of the approved packaging and storage plan.

  7. Selected results from LLNL-Hughes RAR for West Coast Scotland Experiment 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Lehman, S K; Johnston, B; Twogood, R; Wieting, M; Yorkey, T; Robey, H; Whelan, D; Nagele, R

    1993-01-05

    The joint US -- UK 1991 West Coast Scotland Experiment (WCSEX) was held in two locations. From July 5 to 12, 1991, in Upper Loch Linnhe, and from July 18 to July 26, 1991, in the Sound of Sleat. The LLNL-Hughes team fielded a fully polarimetric X-band hill-side real aperture radar to collect internal wave wake data. We present here a sample data set of the best radar runs.

  8. Comparison of CAISO-run Plexos output with LLNL-run Plexos output

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, A; Meyers, C; Smith, S

    2011-12-20

    In this report we compare the output of the California Independent System Operator (CAISO) 33% RPS Plexos model when run on various computing systems. Specifically, we compare the output resulting from running the model on CAISO's computers (Windows) and LLNL's computers (both Windows and Linux). We conclude that the differences between the three results are negligible in the context of the entire system and likely attributed to minor differences in Plexos version numbers as well as the MIP solver used in each case.

  9. LLNL and TRW extend benchmark environmental stress testing for two alternative printed board cleaners

    SciTech Connect

    Hersey, R.J. Jr.; Meltzer, M.; Hofstad, H.W.; Lawrence, M.; Sanborn, R.; Arauco, H.

    1995-03-01

    TRW Corporation and LLNL jointly conducted a testing program to evaluate the effectiveness of non-CFC defluxing chemistries on printed boards designed for high reliability military and aerospace applications. TRW assessed existing data for alternative chemistries, selected candidates for further testing, implemented the cleaning processes, and performed ionic conductivity testing on the spent solvents. LLNL designed and fabricated special circuit boards with interdigitated comb patterns to allow insulation resistance (IR) measurements under selected soldered components. LLNL designed the test and measurement setup and conducted accelerated environmental stress testing of flux residues for 28 days following cleaning. Statistical analyses of the IR measurements were correlated with visual observations and spectroscopic (FTIR) measurements. Performance of the alternative chemistries was compared with that of a standard CFC cleaning agent also included in the test program. The program was designed to follow the same environmental stress and electrical measurement requirements as the IPC/DOD/EPA Ad Hoc Solvent Working Group`s benchmark 7-day test plan, but with certain minor modifications and extension to 28 days.

  10. Experimental Realisation of High-sensitivity Laboratory X-ray Grating-based Phase-contrast Computed Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birnbacher, Lorenz; Willner, Marian; Velroyen, Astrid; Marschner, Mathias; Hipp, Alexander; Meiser, Jan; Koch, Frieder; Schröter, Tobias; Kunka, Danays; Mohr, Jürgen; Pfeiffer, Franz; Herzen, Julia

    2016-04-01

    The possibility to perform high-sensitivity X-ray phase-contrast imaging with laboratory grating-based phase-contrast computed tomography (gbPC-CT) setups is of great interest for a broad range of high-resolution biomedical applications. However, achieving high sensitivity with laboratory gbPC-CT setups still poses a challenge because several factors such as the reduced flux, the polychromaticity of the spectrum, and the limited coherence of the X-ray source reduce the performance of laboratory gbPC-CT in comparison to gbPC-CT at synchrotron facilities. In this work, we present our laboratory X-ray Talbot-Lau interferometry setup operating at 40 kVp and describe how we achieve the high sensitivity yet unrivalled by any other laboratory X-ray phase-contrast technique. We provide the angular sensitivity expressed via the minimum resolvable refraction angle both in theory and experiment, and compare our data with other differential phase-contrast setups. Furthermore, we show that the good stability of our high-sensitivity setup allows for tomographic scans, by which even the electron density can be retrieved quantitatively as has been demonstrated in several preclinical studies.

  11. Experimental Realisation of High-sensitivity Laboratory X-ray Grating-based Phase-contrast Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Birnbacher, Lorenz; Willner, Marian; Velroyen, Astrid; Marschner, Mathias; Hipp, Alexander; Meiser, Jan; Koch, Frieder; Schröter, Tobias; Kunka, Danays; Mohr, Jürgen; Pfeiffer, Franz; Herzen, Julia

    2016-01-01

    The possibility to perform high-sensitivity X-ray phase-contrast imaging with laboratory grating-based phase-contrast computed tomography (gbPC-CT) setups is of great interest for a broad range of high-resolution biomedical applications. However, achieving high sensitivity with laboratory gbPC-CT setups still poses a challenge because several factors such as the reduced flux, the polychromaticity of the spectrum, and the limited coherence of the X-ray source reduce the performance of laboratory gbPC-CT in comparison to gbPC-CT at synchrotron facilities. In this work, we present our laboratory X-ray Talbot-Lau interferometry setup operating at 40 kVp and describe how we achieve the high sensitivity yet unrivalled by any other laboratory X-ray phase-contrast technique. We provide the angular sensitivity expressed via the minimum resolvable refraction angle both in theory and experiment, and compare our data with other differential phase-contrast setups. Furthermore, we show that the good stability of our high-sensitivity setup allows for tomographic scans, by which even the electron density can be retrieved quantitatively as has been demonstrated in several preclinical studies. PMID:27040492

  12. Experimental and numerical correlation of a scaled containment vessel subjected to an internal blast load

    SciTech Connect

    Romero, C.; Benner, J.C.; Berkbigler, L.W.

    1997-02-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory is currently in the design phase of a large Containment System that will be used to contain hydrodynamic experiments. The system in question is being designed to elastically withstand a 50 kg internal high explosive (PBX-9501) detonation. A one-tenth scaled model of the containment system was fabricated and used to obtain experimental results of both pressure loading and strain response. The experimental data are compared with numerical predictions of pressure loading and strain response obtained from an Eulerian hydrodynamic code (MESA-2D) and an explicit, non-linear finite element code (LLNL DYNA3D). The two-dimensional pressure predictions from multiple hydrodynamic simulations are used as loading in the structural simulation. The predicted pressure histories and strain response compare well with experimental results at several locations.

  13. The Updated LLNL-G3D Global P-Wave Velocity Model and Its Performance in Seismic Event Location

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    in our previous reports) and sharp details of subducted slabs around the world. Based on preliminary relocation tests, using LLNL-G3Dv2 travel-time...details of subducted slabs around the world. Based on preliminary relocation tests, using LLNL-G3Dv2 travel-time predictions typically reduces...simultaneously. In addition, sensitivity is spread across broad depth zones and/or multiple model units to mitigate the issue of path-velocity

  14. Reducing the solid waste stream: reuse and recycling at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, K. L.

    1997-08-01

    In Fiscal Year (FY) 1996 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) increased its solid waste diversion by 365 percent over FY 1992 in five solid waste categories - paper, cardboard, wood, metals, and miscellaneous. (LLNL`s fiscal year is from October 1 to September 30.) LLNL reused/ recycled 6,387 tons of waste, including 340 tons of paper, 455 tons of scrap wood, 1,509 tons of metals, and 3,830 tons of asphalt and concrete (Table1). An additional 63 tons was diverted from landfills by donating excess food, selling toner cartridges for reconditioning, using rechargeable batteries, redirecting surplus equipment to other government agencies and schools, and comporting plant clippings. LLNL also successfully expanded its demonstration program to recycle and reuse construction and demolition debris as part of its facility-wide, comprehensive solid waste reduction programs.

  15. Environmental monitoring at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory: 1986 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, R.C.; Buddemeier, R.W.; Brekke, D.D.

    1987-04-01

    This report documents the results of the environmental monitoring program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for 1986. To evaluate the effect of LLNL operations on the local environment, measurements of direct radiation and a variety of radionuclides and chemical pollutants in ambient air, soil, surface water, groundwater, vegetation, milk, foodstuff, and sewage effluents were made at both the Livermore site and nearby Site 300. This report was prepared to meet the requirements of DOE Order 5484.1. Evaluations are made of LLNL's compliance with all applicable guides, standards, and limits for radiological and nonradiological releases to the environment. The data indicate that no releases in excess of the applicable standards were made during 1986, and that LLNL operations had no adverse environmental impact.

  16. Environmental monitoring at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory: Annual report, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, R.C.; Brekke, D.D.

    1988-04-01

    This report documents the results of the Environmental Monitoring Program at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLNL) for 1987. To evaluate the effect of LLNL operations on the local environment, measurements were made of direct radiation and a variety of radionuclides and chemical pollutants in ambient air, soil, sewage effluents, surface water, groundwater, vegetation, foodstuff, and milk at both the Livermore site and nearby Site 300. Evaluations were made of LLNL's compliance with the applicable guides, standards, and limits for radiological and nonradiological releases to the environment. The data indicates that the only releases in excess of applicable standards were four releases to the sanitary sewer. LLNL operations had no adverse impact on the environment during 1987. 65 refs., 24 figs.

  17. Update of Earthquake Strong-Motion Instrumentation at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, Robert C.

    2013-09-01

    Following the January 1980 earthquake that was felt at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), a network of strong-motion accelerographs was installed at LLNL. Prior to the 1980 earthquake, there were no accelerographs installed. The ground motion from the 1980 earthquake was estimated from USGS instruments around the Laboratory to be between 0.2 – 0.3 g horizontal peak ground acceleration. These instruments were located at the Veterans Hospital, 5 miles southwest of LLNL, and in San Ramon, about 12 miles west of LLNL. In 2011, the Department of Energy (DOE) requested to know the status of our seismic instruments. We conducted a survey of our instrumentation systems and responded to DOE in a letter. During this survey, it was found that the recorders in Buildings 111 and 332 were not operational. The instruments on Nova had been removed, and only three of the 10 NIF instruments installed in 2005 were operational (two were damaged and five had been removed from operation at the request of the program). After the survey, it was clear that the site seismic instrumentation had degraded substantially and would benefit from an overhaul and more attention to ongoing maintenance. LLNL management decided to update the LLNL seismic instrumentation system. The updated system is documented in this report.

  18. An Experimental Investigation of the Role of Radiation in Laboratory Bench-Top Experiments in Thermal Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twomey, Patrick; O'Sullivan, Colm; O'Riordan, John

    2009-01-01

    A simple undergraduate experiment designed to study cooling purely by radiation and cooling by a combination of convection and radiation is described. Results indicate that the contribution from radiative cooling in normal laboratory experiments is more significant than students often realize, even in the case of forced cooling. (Contains 1…

  19. A DNA Fingerprinting Simulation Laboratory for Biology Students: Hands-on Experimentation To Solve a Mock Forensic Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palladino, Michael A.; Cosentino, Emily

    2001-01-01

    Presents an alternative approach to DNA fingerprinting. Demonstrates how undergraduate students can be involved in many aspects of this type of experiment and how DNA fingerprinting experiments can be incorporated into the laboratory curriculum of courses for majors and nonmajors. (NB)

  20. Terrestrial Slugs as a Model Organism for Inquiry-Based Experimentation in a Majors General Biology Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Brenda J.; Blair, Amy C.

    2013-01-01

    Many biology educators at the undergraduate level are revamping their laboratory curricula to incorporate inquiry-based research experiences so that students can directly participate in the process of science and improve their scientific reasoning skills. Slugs are an ideal organism for use in such a student-directed, hypothesis-driven experience.…

  1. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Summer Employment Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, A J

    2002-08-06

    This document will serve as a summary of my work activities as a summer employee for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The intent of this document is to provide an overview of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) project, to explain the role of the department that I am working for, and to discuss my specific assigned tasks and their impact on the NIF project as a whole.

  2. A Monte Carlo Simulation of the In-Vivo Measurement of Lung Activity in the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Torso Phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acha, Robert

    A series of torso phantoms have been developed by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to serve as standards for in-vivo counting, and to allow for intercomparison and intercalibration of detector systems used to measure low-energy photons from radionuclides such as plutonium deposited in the lungs. High accuracy quantification of low energy photons sources distributed within the lungs is difficult because of the variable attenuation of these photons in the tissues and bones of the thoracic cavity. Digital Image and Communication in Medicine (DICOM) images of the 2 nd generation Human Monitoring Laboratory - Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (HML-LLNL) torso phantom were segmented and converted into 3D voxel phantoms. The voxel phantoms were modelled for the precision response of HPGe detector systems, as found in the HML new lung counter using a Monte Carlo technique; and for evaluating the use of reference tissue material in specifying LLNL phantom geometries in Monte Carlo simulations. The photon energies of interest in this study were 17.5, 26.4, 45.4, 59.5, 122, 244, and 344 keV, representing possible photon energies emitted by radionuclides that can be inhaled in the lungs, and a few other energies to fill the calibration curve. The external detection efficiencies at these photon energies were modelled for different chest wall thicknesses (1.49 cm to 6.35cm) and compared with experimental values. It was observed that there was no statistical difference at the 0.05 significant level between the simulated detection efficiencies using either the Lawrence Livermore Laboratories (LLL) Tissue or the Reference Tissue, and the measured detection efficiencies at the energies of interest for a phantom with a chest wall thicknesses (CWT) of 3.99 cm. Comparisons between the simulated and measured detection efficiencies for the 3.99-cm CWT reveal a maximum variation of 20% at 17.5 keV, and a minimum variation of 1% at 59.5 keV. Detection efficiencies

  3. Numerical study of the hydroclimate of the Southwestern United States using the UC-LLNL regional climate system model

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, N.L.; Kim, J.

    1996-09-01

    The UC-LLNL Regional Climate System Model (RCSM) has been under development since 1991. This modeling system includes interactions among atmospheric, land surface, and subsurface processes. Important physical processes included in this RCSM are effects of vegetation, surface energy and water budgets, lateral hydrologic transport, and agro-ecosystem response. Our RCSM is composed of a preprocessor fro importing, interpreting, and analyzing multi-scale data, a Mesoscale Atmospheric Simulation (MAS) model, a multi-layer soil-plant-snow (SPS) model that is interactively coupled with the atmospheric model, a physically based, fully distributed watershed hydrology-riverflow model (TOPMODEL) and a post-processor for output data analysis. We are currently implementing and validating the Decision Support System for Agro-Economic Transfer (DSSAT). An important feature of our RCSM us the ability to simulate the atmospheric, land surface, and hydrologic variables from the global scale down to the watershed catchment scale. the full coupled MAS and SPS models have been used for experimental operational NWP over the southwestern United States since October 1993. Our watershed hydrology-riverflow model has been set up for the Russian River watershed and the Headwaters to the North Fork of the American River in Northern California.

  4. A Hypervelocity Experimental Research Database (HERD): Support for the Wright Laboratory Armament Directorate Code Validation Program (COVAL)

    SciTech Connect

    Mullin, S.A.; Anderson, C.E. Jr.; Hertel, E.S. Jr.; Hunt, R.D.

    1994-10-01

    The Hypervelocity Experimental Research Database (HERD) described in this paper was developed to aid researchers with code validation for impacts that occur at velocities faster than the testable regime. Codes of concern include both hydrocodes and fast-running analytical or semi-empirical models used to predict the impact phenomenology and damage that results to projectiles and targets. There are several well documented experimental programs that can serve as benchmarks for code validation; these are identified and described. Recommendations for further experimentation (a canonical problem) to provide validation data are also discussed.

  5. A Hypervelocity Experimental Research Database (HERD): Support for the Wright Laboratory Armament Directorate Code Validation Program (COVAL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mullin, Scott A.; Anderson, Charles E., Jr.; Hertel, Eugene S., Jr.; Hunt, Ronald D.

    The Hypervelocity Experimental Research Database (HERD) described in this paper was developed to aid researchers with code validation for impacts that occur at velocities faster than the testable regime. Codes of concern include both hydrocodes and fast-running analytical or semi-empirical models used to predict the impact phenomenology and damage that results to projectiles and targets. There are several well documented experimental programs that can serve as benchmarks for code validation; these are identified and described. Recommendations for further experimentation (a canonical problem) to provide validation data are also discussed.

  6. Laboratory Directed Research and Development FY2001 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Ayat, R

    2002-06-20

    Established by Congress in 1991, the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program provides the Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) laboratories, like Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL or the Laboratory), with the flexibility to invest up to 6% of their budget in long-term, high-risk, and potentially high payoff research and development (R&D) activities to support the DOE/NNSA's national security missions. By funding innovative R&D, the LDRD Program at LLNL develops and extends the Laboratory's intellectual foundations and maintains its vitality as a premier research institution. As proof of the Program's success, many of the research thrusts that started many years ago under LDRD sponsorship are at the core of today's programs. The LDRD Program, which serves as a proving ground for innovative ideas, is the Laboratory's most important single resource for fostering excellent science and technology for today's needs and tomorrow's challenges. Basic and applied research activities funded by LDRD enhance the Laboratory's core strengths, driving its technical vitality to create new capabilities that enable LLNL to meet DOE/NNSA's national security missions. The Program also plays a key role in building a world-class multidisciplinary workforce by engaging the Laboratory's best researchers, recruiting its future scientists and engineers, and promoting collaborations with all sectors of the larger scientific community.

  7. Geology of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory site and adjacent areas

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, D W; Sweeney, J J; Kasameyer, P W; Burkhard, N R; Knauss, K G; Shlemon, R J

    1984-08-01

    LLNL is underlain by a thick sequence of late Tertiary and Quaternary alluvial deposits overlying a complex basement of Mesozoic metamorphic rocks of the Franciscan Assemblage and late Mesozoic and Tertiary marine sedimentary rocks. The ancestral Greenville Fault separates the Franciscan basement terrain from the late Mesozoic and Tertiary basement. The late Tertiary and Quaternary alluvial deposits include lacustrine, alluvial fan, and stream channel deposits. Soil profiles and relative and absolute age data demonstrate that most of the near-surface materials beneath LLNL range in age from latest Pleistocene to 100,000 y or greater. A low net sedimentation rate is indicated by the data. Depths to groundwater beneath LLNL vary from about 13 m beneath the northeast corner of the laboratory to about 49 m beneath the southeast corner. Depths to water beneath portions of the laboratory where major buildings are located range from 18 to 30 m. LLNL is located in a seismically active region. Deformation of Quaternary materials and periodic seismicity support this conclusion. Historic seismicity has been experienced along the Calaveras and Greenville Faults that bound the Livermore Valley on the west and east, respectively, and also appears associated with the Las Positas Fault Zone. The Calaveras Fault is located approximately 17 km west of LLNL, and recently active strands of the Greenville Fault Zone are located approximately 1.1 km northeast of the laboratory. Geologic evidence demonstrates Holocene activity along strands of the Las Positas Fault Zone that lie about 90 m southeast of LLNL at their point of closest approach. Pavement fracturing at the intersection of Greenville Road and East Avenue suggests that a strand of the Las Positas Fault may be located about 15 m southeast of the southeast corner of the laboratory. Other potential sources of seismicity could affect LLNL. 126 references, 71 figures, 18 tables.

  8. Laboratory Directed Research and Development FY 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Struble, G.L.; Middleton, C.; Anderson, S.E.; Baldwin, G.; Cherniak, J.C.; Corey, C.W.; Kirvel, R.D.; McElroy, L.A.

    1992-12-31

    The Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) funds projects that nurture and enrich the core competencies of the Laboratory. The scientific and technical output from the FY 1992 RD Program has been significant. Highlights include (1) Creating the first laser guide star to be coupled with adaptive optics, thus permitting ground-based telescopes to obtain the same resolution as smaller space-based instruments but with more light-gathering power. (2) Significantly improving the limit on the mass of the electron antineutrino so that neutrinos now become a useful tool in diagnosing supernovas and we disproved the existence of a 17-keV neutrino. (3) Developing a new class of organic aerogels that have robust mechanical properties and that have significantly lower thermal conductivity than inorganic aerogels. (4) Developing a new heavy-ion accelerator concept, which may enable us to design heavy-ion experimental systems and use a heavy-ion driver for inertial fusion. (5) Designing and demonstrating a high-power, diode-pumped, solid-state laser concept that will allow us to pursue a variety of research projects, including laser material processing. (6) Demonstrating that high-performance semiconductor arrays can be fabricated more efficiently, which will make this technology available to a broad range of applications such as inertial confinement fusion for civilian power. (7) Developing a new type of fiber channel switch and new fiber channel standards for use in local- and wide-area networks, which will allow scientists and engineers to transfer data at gigabit rates. (8) Developing the nation`s only numerical model for high-technology air filtration systems. Filter designs that use this model will provide safer and cleaner environments in work areas where contamination with particulate hazardous materials is possible.

  9. Anatomical features for an adequate choice of experimental animal model in biomedicine: II. Small laboratory rodents, rabbit, and pig.

    PubMed

    Lossi, Laura; D'Angelo, Livia; De Girolamo, Paolo; Merighi, Adalberto

    2016-03-01

    The anatomical features distinctive to each of the very large array of species used in today's biomedical research must be born in mind when considering the correct choice of animal model(s), particularly when translational research is concerned. In this paper we take into consideration and discuss the most important anatomical and histological features of the commonest species of laboratory rodents (rat, mouse, guinea pig, hamster, and gerbil), rabbit, and pig related to their importance for applied research.

  10. Underground coal gasification: Development of theory, laboratory experimentation, interpretation, and correlation with the Hanna field tests: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gunn, R.D.; Krantz, W.B.

    1987-03-01

    The following report is a description of a 7 year effort to develop a theoretical understanding of the underground coal gasification process. The approach used is one of the mathematical model development from known chemical and principles, simplification of the models to isolate important effects, and through validation of models to isolate important effects, and through validation of models with laboratory experiments and field test data. Chapter I contains only introductory material. Chapter II describes the development of two models for reverse combustion: a combustion model and a linearized model for combustion front instability. Both models are required for realistic field predictions. Chapter III contains a discussion of a successful forward gasification model. Chapter IV discusses the spalling-enhanced-drying model is applicable to prediction of cavity growth and subsidence. Chapter VI decribes the correct use of energy and material balances for the analysis of UCG field test data. Chapter VII shows how laboratory experiments were used to validate the models for reverse combustion and forward gasification. It is also shown that laboratory combustion tube experiments can be used to simulate gas compositions expected from field tests. Finally, Chapter VII presents results from a comprehensive economic analysis of UCG involving 1296 separate cases. 37 refs., 49 figs., 12 tabs.

  11. Head in the clouds: Re-imagining the experimental laboratory record for the web-based networked world

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The means we use to record the process of carrying out research remains tied to the concept of a paginated paper notebook despite the advances over the past decade in web based communication and publication tools. The development of these tools offers an opportunity to re-imagine what the laboratory record would look like if it were re-built in a web-native form. In this paper I describe a distributed approach to the laboratory record based which uses the most appropriate tool available to house and publish each specific object created during the research process, whether they be a physical sample, a digital data object, or the record of how one was created from another. I propose that the web-native laboratory record would act as a feed of relationships between these items. This approach can be seen as complementary to, rather than competitive with, integrative approaches that aim to aggregate relevant objects together to describe knowledge. The potential for the recent announcement of the Google Wave protocol to have a significant impact on realizing this vision is discussed along with the issues of security and provenance that are raised by such an approach. PMID:20098590

  12. Preliminary report of the past and present uses, storage, and disposal of hazardous materials at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Dreicer, M.

    1985-12-01

    This report contains the findings of a records search performed to survey the past and present use, storage, and disposal of hazardous materials and wastes at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) site. This report provides a point of departure for further planning of environmental protection activities at the site. This report was conducted using the LLNL archives and library, documents from the US Navy, old LLNL Plant Engineering blueprint files, published articles and reports, Environmental Protection Program records, employee interviews, and available aerial photographs. Sections I and II of this report provide an introduction to the LLNL site and its environmental characteristics. Several tenants have occupied the site prior to the establishment of LLNL, currently operated by the University of California for the US Department of Energy. Section III of this report contains information on environmentally related operations of early site users, the US Navy and California Research and Development. Section IV of this report contains information on the handling of hazardous materials and wastes by LLNL programs. The information is presented in 12 sub-sections, one for each currently operating LLNL program. General site areas, i.e., garbage trenches, the traffic circle landfill, the taxi strip, and old ammunition bunkers are discussed in Section V. 12 refs., 23 figs., 27 tabs.

  13. Evaluation of Open Geospatial Consortium Standards fur Use In LLNL Geographic Information Systems (GIS)

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, H; Chou, R; Chubb, K; Schek, J

    2005-09-28

    The objective of this project is to evaluate existing and emerging Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standards for use in LLNL programs that rely heavily on geographic data. OGC standards are intended to facilitate interoperability between geospatial processing systems to avoid duplication of effort, lower development costs, and encourage competition based on improved capability and performance rather than vendor lock-in. Some of these standards appear to be gaining traction in the geospatial data community, the Federal government, DOE and DHS. A serious evaluation of this technology is appropriate at this time due to increasing interest and mandated compliance in the Federal government in some situations. A subset of OGC standards is identified and reviewed with a focus on applications to LLNL programs. Each standard or recommendation reviewed was evaluated in general terms. In addition, for specific programs such as Gen&SIS and NARAC, a specific evaluation was made of several of the standards and how they could be used most effectively. It is also important to evaluate the acceptance of these standards in the commercial arena. The implementation of OGC standards by the largest GIS vendor (ESRI) was reviewed. At present, OGC standards are primary useful in specific situations. More generally, many of the standards are immature and their impact on the government and commercial sectors is unclear. Consequently, OGC and related developments need to be observed. As specific standards or groups of standards mature and establish their relevance, these can also be incorporated in LLNL programs as requirements dictate, especially if open implementations and commercial products are available.

  14. Design and assembly of an experimental laboratory for the study of atmosphere-plant interactions in the system of fumigation chambers.

    PubMed

    Souza, S R; Pagliuso, J D

    2009-11-01

    An experimental laboratory was designed and assembled at the Botanical Institute of São Paulo, Brazil, in order to research atmosphere-plant interactions through the use of a system of fumigation chambers. A system of three "closed" fumigation chambers was designed to be used inside or outside the laboratory. The system was built to be used with a single pollutant or a mix of them. The innovation in this system is to allow chemical reactions inside the chambers that simulate atmospheric chemistry, especially photochemical processes involving high levels of ozone. Assessment of the performance and applicability of the system was based on the response of Nicotiana tabacum Bel W3 exposed to ozone produced alternatively by a generator and inside the chamber by reactions of its precursors. The results showed that the system can be well applied to the study of atmospheric chemistry interactions and the effects on plants.

  15. Laboratory and field experimental evaluation of host plant specificity of Aceria solstitialis, a prospective biological control agent of yellow starthistle.

    PubMed

    Stoeva, Atanaska; Harizanova, Vili; de Lillo, Enrico; Cristofaro, Massimo; Smith, Lincoln

    2012-01-01

    Centaurea solstitialis (yellow starthistle, Asteraceae) is an invasive annual weed in the western USA that is native to the Mediterranean Region and is a target for classical biological control. Aceria solstitialis is an eriophyid mite that has been found exclusively in association with Ce. solstitialis in Italy, Greece, Turkey and Bulgaria. The mite feeds on leaf tissue and damages bolting plants, causing stunting, witch's broom and incomplete flower development. Field experiments and laboratory no-choice and two-way choice experiments were conducted to assess host plant specificity of the mite in Bulgaria. Mites showed the highest degree of host specificity in the field and lowest in the no-choice experiments. In the field, highest densities of mites occurred on Ce. solstitialis and Ce. cyanus (bachelor's button), and either no mites or trace numbers occurred on the other test plants: Ce. diffusa (diffuse knapweed), Carthamus tinctorius (safflower) and Cynara scolymus (artichoke). In no-choice experiments, mites persisted for 60 days on Ce. diffusa, Ce. cyanus, Ce. solstitialis, Ca. tinctorius and Cy. scolymus, whereas in two-way choice experiments mites persisted on 25% of Cy. scolymus plants for 60 days and did not persist on Ca. tinctorius beyond 40 days. The eight other species of plants that were tested in the laboratory were less suitable for the mite. These results suggest that although A. solstitialis can persist on some nontarget plants for as long as 60 days in the laboratory, it appears to be much more specific under natural conditions, and warrants further evaluation as a prospective biological control agent.

  16. Analyses in Support of Z-IFE LLNL Progress Report for FY-05

    SciTech Connect

    Moir, R W; Abbott, R P; Callahan, D A; Latkowski, J F; Meier, W R; Reyes, S

    2005-10-17

    The FY04 LLNL study of Z-IFE [1] proposed and evaluated a design that deviated from SNL's previous baseline design. The FY04 study included analyses of shock mitigation, stress in the first wall, neutronics and systems studies. In FY05, the subject of this report, we build on our work and the theme of last year. Our emphasis continues to be on alternatives that hold promise of considerable improvements in design and economics compared to the base-line design. Our key results are summarized here.

  17. Clinical laboratory, virologic, and pathologic changes in hamsters experimentally infected with Pirital virus (Arenaviridae): a rodent model of Lassa fever.

    PubMed

    Sbrana, Elena; Mateo, Rosa I; Xiao, Shu-Yuan; Popov, Vsevolod L; Newman, Patrick C; Tesh, Robert B

    2006-06-01

    The clinical laboratory, virologic, and pathologic changes occurring in hamsters after infection with Pirital virus (Arenaviridae) are described. Pirital virus infection in the hamsters was characterized by high titered viremia, leukocytosis, coagulopathy, pulmonary hemorrhage and edema, hepatocellular and splenic necrosis, and marked elevation of serum transaminase levels. All of the animals died within 9 days. The clinical and histopathological findings in the Pirital virus-infected hamsters were very similar to those reported in severe human cases of Lassa fever, suggesting that this new animal model could serve as a low-cost and relatively safe alternative for studying the pathogenesis and therapy of Lassa fever.

  18. A Hardware-and-Software System for Experimental Studies of the Acoustic Startle Response in Laboratory Rodents.

    PubMed

    Pevtsov, E F; Storozheva, Z I; Proshin, A T; Pevtsova, E I

    2016-02-01

    We developed and tested a novel hardware-and-software system for recording the amplitude of the acoustic startle response in rodents. In our experiments, the baseline indexes of acoustic startle response in laboratory rats and pre-stimulation inhibition under the standard delivery of acoustic stimulation were similar to those evaluated by other investigators on foreign devices. The proposed system is relatively cheap and provides the possibility of performing experiments on freely moving specimens. It should be emphasized that the results of studies can be processed with free-access software.

  19. Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum) lainsoni n. sp. from Mesomys hispidus (Rodentia: Echimyidae) in Brazil: trypomastigotes described from experimentally infected laboratory mice.

    PubMed

    Naiff, Roberto Daibes; Barrett, Toby Vincent

    2013-01-01

    We report the detection, isolation and description of Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum) lainsoni n. sp. from a caviomorph rodent, Mesomys hispidus (Rodentia: Echimyidae), obtained in the Rio Negro region of the state of Amazonas, in northern Brazil. Laboratory-bred white mice (Mus musculus) and rats (Rattus rattus) were inoculated with large numbers of culture forms by intraperitoneal route, and trypomastigotes appeared in their blood 3-8 days post-inoculation. One single epimastigote was also found in Mus musculus. Similar attempts to infect Rattus norvegicus, hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus), the opossum Didelphis marsupialis, the anteater Tamandua tetradactyla and triatomine bugs were unsuccessful, following six months of observations and microscopic examinations of blood films and blood cultures. As we have found no previous record of a Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum) species naturally infecting a member of the family Echimyidae, or any other caviomorph rodent, we conclude that this is the first time such an infection has been reported. The new species is unusual in the subgenus for its infectivity to laboratory mice.

  20. Microbial risk in wastewater irrigated lettuce: comparing Escherichia coli contamination from an experimental site with a laboratory approach.

    PubMed

    Makkaew, P; Miller, M; Fallowfield, H J; Cromar, N J

    This study assessed the contamination of Escherichia coli, in lettuce grown with treated domestic wastewater in four different irrigation configurations: open spray, spray under plastic sheet cover, open drip and drip under plastic sheet cover. Samples of lettuce from each irrigation configuration and irrigating wastewater were collected during the growing season. No E. coli was detected in lettuce from drip irrigated beds. All lettuce samples from spray beds were positive for E. coli, however, no statistical difference (p > 0.05) was detected between lettuces grown in open spray or covered spray beds. The results from the field experiment were also compared to a laboratory experiment which used submersion of lettuce in wastewater of known E. coli concentration as a surrogate method to assess contamination following irrigation. The microbial quality of spray bed lettuces was not significantly different from submersed lettuce when irrigated with wastewater containing 1,299.7 E. coli MPN/100 mL (p > 0.05). This study is significant since it is the first to validate that the microbial contamination of lettuce irrigated with wastewater in the field is comparable with a laboratory technique frequently applied in the quantitative microbial risk assessment of the consumption of wastewater irrigated salad crops.

  1. Normalized Tritium Quantification Approach (NoTQA) a Method for Quantifying Tritium Contaminated Trash and Debris at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Dominick, J L; Rasmussen, C L

    2008-07-23

    Several facilities and many projects at LLNL work exclusively with tritium. These operations have the potential to generate large quantities of Low-Level Radioactive Waste (LLW) with the same or similar radiological characteristics. A standardized documented approach to characterizing these waste materials for disposal as radioactive waste will enhance the ability of the Laboratory to manage them in an efficient and timely manner while ensuring compliance with all applicable regulatory requirements. This standardized characterization approach couples documented process knowledge with analytical verification and is very conservative, overestimating the radioactivity concentration of the waste. The characterization approach documented here is the Normalized Tritium Quantification Approach (NoTQA). This document will serve as a Technical Basis Document which can be referenced in radioactive waste characterization documentation packages such as the Information Gathering Document. In general, radiological characterization of waste consists of both developing an isotopic breakdown (distribution) of radionuclides contaminating the waste and using an appropriate method to quantify the radionuclides in the waste. Characterization approaches require varying degrees of rigor depending upon the radionuclides contaminating the waste and the concentration of the radionuclide contaminants as related to regulatory thresholds. Generally, as activity levels in the waste approach a regulatory or disposal facility threshold the degree of required precision and accuracy, and therefore the level of rigor, increases. In the case of tritium, thresholds of concern for control, contamination, transportation, and waste acceptance are relatively high. Due to the benign nature of tritium and the resulting higher regulatory thresholds, this less rigorous yet conservative characterization approach is appropriate. The scope of this document is to define an appropriate and acceptable

  2. Energy and Technology Review, July 1984: state of the Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    Each year, Director Roger Batzel addresses the LLNL staff on the state of the Laboratory and the achievements of the past year. On May 17, 1984, Dr. Batzel reported on the estimated budget for fiscal year 1985, which includes an 8.5% increase in operating funds, and on recent progress in our major programs. In this issue, we summarize Dr. Batzel's address and present a sampling of Laboratory achievements.

  3. The role of emissivity during the cooling of a body: an experimental design for a laboratory classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez-Muñoz, J. C.; Sobrino, J. A.; Sòria, G.; Delegido, J.; Bañauls, S.

    2017-01-01

    Mechanisms of heat transfer and Newton’s law of cooling are introduced in the first physics and biophysics courses for a number of university science majors. Several papers have commented on the derivation of the exponential decay and validity of this law. However, the description of the phenomena is traditionally described without consideration of basic factors that contribute to the cooling rate of a body. One of these key factors is the emissivity of the body, which requires specific instrumentation to be measured. In particular, we present in this paper an experiment to record the cooling temperatures of an avian egg by means of a thermal camera. The objective is to comment on the dependence of the cooling process on emissivity, and then propose a methodology for estimating the emissivity of the cooling object. The method can be applied a priori to other bodies and is suitable for a biophysics laboratory classroom in higher education.

  4. An Experimental Path to Constraining the Origins of the Jupiter Trojans Using Observations, Theoretical Predictions, and Laboratory Simulants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blacksberg, Jordana; Eiler, John; Brown, Mike; Ehlmann, Bethany; Hand, Kevin; Hodyss, Robert; Mahjoub, Ahmed; Poston, Michael; Liu, Yang; Choukroun, Mathieu; Carey, Elizabeth; Wong, Ian

    2014-11-01

    Hypotheses based on recent dynamical models (e.g. the Nice Model) shape our current understanding of solar system evolution, suggesting radical rearrangement in the first hundreds of millions of years of its history, changing the orbital distances of Jupiter, Saturn, and a large number of small bodies. The goal of this work is to build a methodology to concretely tie individual solar system bodies to dynamical models using observables, providing evidence for their origins and evolutionary pathways. Ultimately, one could imagine identifying a set of chemical or mineralogical signatures that could quantitatively and predictably measure the radial distance at which icy and rocky bodies first accreted. The target of the work presented here is the Jupiter Trojan asteroids, predicted by the Nice Model to have initially formed in the Kuiper belt and later been scattered inward to co-orbit with Jupiter. Here we present our strategy which is fourfold: (1) Generate predictions about the mineralogical, chemical, and isotopic compositions of materials accreted in the early solar system as a function of distance from the Sun. (2) Use temperature and irradiation to simulate evolutionary processing of ices and silicates, and measure the alteration in spectral properties from the UV to mid-IR. (3) Characterize simulants to search for potential fingerprints of origin and processing pathways, and (4) Use telescopic observations to increase our knowledge of the Trojan asteroids, collecting data on populations and using spectroscopy to constrain their compositions. In addition to the overall strategy, we will present preliminary results on compositional modeling, observations, and the synthesis, processing, and characterization of laboratory simulants including ices and silicates. This work has been supported by the Keck Institute for Space Studies (KISS). The research described here was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Caltech, under a contract with the National

  5. Consequences of experimental cortisol manipulations on the thermal biology of the checkered puffer (Sphoeroides testudineus) in laboratory and field environments.

    PubMed

    Cull, F; Suski, C D; Shultz, A; Danylchuk, A J; O'Connor, C M; Murchie, K J; Cooke, S J

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic climate change is altering temperature regimes for coastal marine fishes. However, given that temperature changes will not occur in isolation of other stressors, it is necessary to explore the potential consequences of stress on the thermal tolerances and preferences of tropical marine fish in order to understand the thresholds for survival, and predict the associated coastal ecological consequences. In this study, we used exogenous cortisol injections to investigate the effects of a thermal challenge on checkered puffers (Sphoeroides testudineus) as a secondary stressor. There were no significant differences between control and cortisol-treated fish 48h following cortisol treatment for swimming ability (using a chase to exhaustion protocol), blood glucose concentrations or standard metabolic rate. In the lab, control and cortisol-treated puffers were exposed to ambient (29.1±1.5°C), ambient +5°C (heat shock) and ambient -5°C (cold shock) for 4h and to evaluate the consequences of abrupt temperature change on puff performance and blood physiology. Following cold shock, control fish exhibited increases in cortisol levels and weak 'puff' performance. Conversely, fish dosed with cortisol exhibited consistently high cortisol levels independent of thermal treatment, although there was a trend for an attenuated cortisol response in the cortisol-treated fish to the cold shock treatment. A 20-day complementary field study conducted in the puffer's natural habitat, a tidal creek in Eleuthera, The Bahamas, revealed that cortisol-injected fish selected significantly cooler temperatures, measured using accumulated thermal units, when compared to controls. These results, and particularly the discrepancies between consequences documented in the laboratory and the ecological trends observed in the field, highlight the need to establish the link between laboratory and field data to successfully develop management policies and conservation initiatives with regards

  6. LLNL review of the 1994 accelerator production of tritium (APT) concept

    SciTech Connect

    Alesso, H.P.; Barnard, J.J.; Booth, R.

    1995-03-08

    LLNL was asked in September 1994 to review the accelerator production of tritium (APT) concept as it had evolved up to the fall of 1994. The purpose was not to compare it to other sources of tritium, but to identify possible technical flaws in the concept and to assess feasibility. The APT concept reviewed was based on a 1.0 GeV normal conducting proton linac operating CW at currents up to 200 mA with a target of tungsten and blanket of {sup 3}He and lead. The LLNL review group concurs with the conclusions of four previous reviews (1989 to 1994) that this concept can meet the tritium requirements of a reduced stockpile of approximately 3,500 {+-} 1,500 warheads. The authors believe that the predicted tritium production rate is based on sound nuclear and transport models and that the schedules for technology demonstrations, design, and construction are realistic. They conclude that the technical risk of the concept is low and can be managed within the risk reduction program. The risk reduction program should focus on risk to the schedule and on cost reduction.

  7. Closure plan for the decommissioned high explosives rinse-water lagoons at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site 300

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, D.W.; Lamarre, A.L.; Crow, N.B.; Swearengen, P.M.

    1988-05-31

    The High Explosives (HE) Process Area is a major facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Site 300. Within the Process Area, rinse water from various buildings formerly was discharged to nine relatively small, unlined lagoons where it was disposed of by evaporation and infiltration. In 1985, LLNL decommissioned these lagoons and diverted the rinse waters to two doubly lined surface impoundments. LLNL conducted the hydrogeologic investigations required to support the permanent closure of the none decommissioned lagoons. These studies included drilling ground water monitoring wells and extensively collecting soil and rock samples, which were analyzed for EPA toxic metals, HE compounds, and purgeable and extractable priority organic pollutants. On October 26, 1987, the RWQCB requested that we prepare a comprehensive report to summarize and discuss the findings of the LLNL HE Process Area Investigation. This report is our response to the Board's request. 22 refs., 19 figs. , 45 tabs.

  8. PCR-based diagnosis of surra-targeting VSG gene: experimental studies in small laboratory rodents and buffalo.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, P P; Balumahendiran, M; Suryanaryana, V V S; Raghavendra, A G; Shome, B R; Gajendragad, M R; Prabhudas, K

    2010-07-15

    Trypanosoma evansi, the causative organism of 'surra' expresses its variable surface glycoprotein (VSG) at early, middle and late stages of infection in animals. The variable antigenic nature of VSG caused by switching its expression type favours evasion from the host immune response and leads to chronic and persistent infection. Developing a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based diagnostic tool targeting the VSG gene is expected to be highly specific and sensitive for diagnosis of surra. Hence, in the present study, we have designed EXP3F/4R primer pair and amplified the 1.4 kb of VSG gene of T. evansi and studied the phylogenetic relationship by in silico analysis. The PCR method was standardised using another set of primer, DITRYF/R, and 400 bp was amplified from blood and tissue samples of experimentally infected animals. Applying the PCR method, we were able to detect as low as 0.15 trypanosomeml(-1). Considering the number of parasite-to-DNA concentration, the PCR method has a sensitivity of 0.015 pg ml(-1). The PCR could detect the presence of the parasite as early as 24h post-infection (p.i.) and 72 h p.i., respectively, in experimentally infected rats and buffalo. No amplification was observed with DNA of Babesia bigemina and Theileria annulata, indicating the primers are specific for T. evansi. The PCR method could detect the dog, lion and leopard isolates of T. evansi. Similarly, amplifying the DNA from the experimentally infected tissues was also found to be sensitive. Thus, the findings of this study favour the application of PCR over the parasitological methods for the detection of the early and/or chronic stage of surra in domestic and wild animals.

  9. [Comparative evaluation of the neuroprotective activity of phenotropil and piracetam in laboratory animals with experimental cerebral ischemia].

    PubMed

    Tiurenkov, I N; Bagmetov, M N; Epishina, V V

    2007-01-01

    The neuroprotective properties of phenotropil and piracetam were studied in Wistar rats with low and high sensitivity with respect to cerebral ischemia caused by bilateral irreversible simultaneous occlusion of carotid arteries and gravitational overload in craniocaudal vector. In addition, the effects of both drugs on microcirculation in the brain cortex under ischemic injury conditions were studied. Phenotropil and (to a lower extent) piracetam reduced the extent of neuralgic deficiency manifestations, retained the locomotor, research, and memory functions in animals with gravitational cerebral ischemia, increased the survival of experimental animals, and favored the restoration of local cerebral flow upon the occlusion of carotid arteries.

  10. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory interests and capabilities for research on the ecological effects of global climatic and atmospheric change

    SciTech Connect

    Amthor, J.S.; Houpis, J.L.; Kercher, J.R.; Ledebuhr, A.; Miller, N.L.; Penner, J.E.; Robison, W.L.; Taylor, K.E.

    1994-09-01

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has interests and capabilities in all three types of research that must be conducted in order to understand and predict effects of global atmospheric and climatic (i.e., environmental) changes on ecological systems and their functions (ecosystem function is perhaps most conveniently defined as mass and energy exchange and storage). These three types of research are: (1) manipulative experiments with plants and ecosystems; (2) monitoring of present ecosystem, landscape, and global exchanges and pools of energy, elements, and compounds that play important roles in ecosystem function or the physical climate system, and (3) mechanistic (i.e., hierarchic and explanatory) modeling of plant and ecosystem responses to global environmental change. Specific experimental programs, monitoring plans, and modeling activities related to evaluation of ecological effects of global environmental change that are of interest to, and that can be carried out by LLNL scientists are outlined. Several projects have the distinction of integrating modeling with empirical studies resulting in an Integrated Product (a model or set of models) that DOE or any federal policy maker could use to assess ecological effects. The authors note that any scheme for evaluating ecological effects of atmospheric and climatic change should take into account exceptional or sensitive species, in particular, rare, threatened, or endangered species.

  11. Summary of International Waste Management Programs (LLNL Input to SNL L3 MS: System-Wide Integration and Site Selection Concepts for Future Disposition Options for HLW)

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, Harris R.; Blink, James A.; Halsey, William G.; Sutton, Mark

    2011-08-11

    The Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) within the Department of Energy’s Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) Fuel Cycle Technology (FCT) program has been tasked with investigating the disposal of the nation’s spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level nuclear waste (HLW) for a range of potential waste forms and geologic environments. This Lessons Learned task is part of a multi-laboratory effort, with this LLNL report providing input to a Level 3 SNL milestone (System-Wide Integration and Site Selection Concepts for Future Disposition Options for HLW). The work package number is: FTLL11UF0328; the work package title is: Technical Bases / Lessons Learned; the milestone number is: M41UF032802; and the milestone title is: “LLNL Input to SNL L3 MS: System-Wide Integration and Site Selection Concepts for Future Disposition Options for HLW”. The system-wide integration effort will integrate all aspects of waste management and disposal, integrating the waste generators, interim storage, transportation, and ultimate disposal at a repository site. The review of international experience in these areas is required to support future studies that address all of these components in an integrated manner. Note that this report is a snapshot of nuclear power infrastructure and international waste management programs that is current as of August 2011, with one notable exception. No attempt has been made to discuss the currently evolving world-wide response to the tragic consequences of the earthquake and tsunami that devastated Japan on March 11, 2011, leaving more than 15,000 people dead and more than 8,000 people missing, and severely damaging the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power complex. Continuing efforts in FY 2012 will update the data, and summarize it in an Excel spreadsheet for easy comparison and assist in the knowledge management of the study cases.

  12. Lunar-rhythmic molting in laboratory populations of the noble crayfish Astacus astacus (Crustacea, Astacidea): an experimental analysis.

    PubMed

    Franke, Robert; Hoerstgen-Schwark, Gabriele

    2013-01-01

    Juvenile noble crayfish, Astacusastacus (Crustacea, Astacidea) in the second year of age were kept in the laboratory for a twelve-month period under continuing "summer conditions" (LD 16:8, 19°C). Molting processes in this population could be synchronized by artificial moonlight cycles. Peaks of exuviations occurred at "new moons". Males showed a slightly higher degree of synchronization than females. A phase-shift of the artificial lunar cycle in relation to the natural cycle resulted in a corresponding shift of the molting cycle. This clearly demonstrates that changes in the nocturnal light regime provide the primary external information for the lunar-monthly molting rhythm. There is a first indication that lunar photic stimuli do not act directly but as a zeitgeber which entrains an endogenous molting rhythm to the lunar cycle. Moreover, the results of the long-term experiments suggest that the hibernal resting period of A. astacus in the field (no molts between October and April) may also involve some endogenous programming. Continuing artificial summer conditions can delay but not completely suppress this resting period. The adaptive significance of the phenomena and how the findings may be applied to improve the management of crowded crayfish stocks are discussed.

  13. Robot safety training at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    McMahon, T.T.; Sievers, R.H.

    1992-10-01

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is developing applications of commercially available and advanced robotics. These involve multiple installations of test and demonstration robots and extensive concurrent research and development projects. LLNL robotic applications use many researchers and technicians requiring access to the equipment on tight schedules, using sophisticated support and auxiliary equipment, with concurrent programming and hardware installation and modification. The early recognition of the special safety problems inherent with the equipment and development operations mandated a strict compliance with the best available safety guidance. This has resulted in safety input in the system design, equipment layout, means of safeguarding, and safety training as described in the current and proposed American National Standard for Industrial Robots and Robot Systems-Safety Requirements. LLNL has implemented a model robot safety training program that is required for all employees that interact with the fixed robotic systems. The LLNL experience and performance has led to the Laboratory being made responsible for preparation of the industrial robots safety chapter for the Department of Energy Technical Safety Reference Manual. This paper describes the robotic installations, the safety training courses, lessons learned from the training, and recommendations for future robot safety training.

  14. Code Verification Results of an LLNL ASC Code on Some Tri-Lab Verification Test Suite Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, S R; Bihari, B L; Salari, K; Woodward, C S

    2006-12-29

    As scientific codes become more complex and involve larger numbers of developers and algorithms, chances for algorithmic implementation mistakes increase. In this environment, code verification becomes essential to building confidence in the code implementation. This paper will present first results of a new code verification effort within LLNL's B Division. In particular, we will show results of code verification of the LLNL ASC ARES code on the test problems: Su Olson non-equilibrium radiation diffusion, Sod shock tube, Sedov point blast modeled with shock hydrodynamics, and Noh implosion.

  15. Initial results with the LLNL 2-D chemical-radiative-transport model of the troposphere and stratosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Wuebbles, D.J.; Connell, P.S.; Grant, K.E.; Tarp, R.; Taylor, K.E.

    1987-09-01

    Significant progress has been made at LLNL in the development of a zonally averaged (two-dimensional) chemical-radiative-transport model of the troposphere and stratosphere. Although further model development and refinement is being planned the LLNL 2-D model is currently ready to be applied to appropriately designed research studies of stratospheric chemical processes and interactions. Several such studies are now underway. This paper provides a description of the existing 2-D model and discusses some of the pertinent results for evaluating the capabilities of the model. Special attempts at improving the timing of the model are also discussed. 6 figs.

  16. Foreign Travel Trip Report for LLNL travel with DOE FES funding,May 19th-30th, 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph, I

    2012-07-05

    . The first studies of the implications for ITER (A. Kukushkin, ITER) have shown a great reduction in operational parameter space that, at present, can only be lifted by increasing target plate heat flux limits. During my visit to the CRPP at the EPFL, I delivered an invited talk in order to disseminate new results of the recent publication [1] on using non-axisymmetric perturbations of the SOL to control the edge plasma. I was given a tour of both the TCV tokamak and the TORPEX simple magnetized plasma device/divertor simulator. TORPEX is an excellent laboratory for exploring the physics of simple magnetized plasmas that are relevant to the scrape-off layer of a tokamak. Properly designed experiments on TORPEX can potentially be used to test the theory of controlling the edge plasma using non-axisymmetric potentials and currents in the SOL developed by LLNL described in [1].

  17. Effect of experimental technique on the determination of strontium distribution coefficients of a surficial sediment from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hemming, C.H.; Bunde, R.L.; Liszewski, M.J.; Rosentreter, J.J.; Welhan, J.

    1997-01-01

    The effect of experimental technique on strontium distribution coefficients (K(d)'s) was determined as part of an investigation of strontium geochemical transport properties of surficial sediment from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho. The investigation was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey and Idaho State University, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy. Batch experiments were conducted to quantify the effect of different experimental techniques on experimentally derived strontium K(d)'s at a fixed pH of 8.0. Combinations of three variables were investigated: method of sample agitation (rotating-mixer and shaker table), ratio of the mass-of-sediment to the volume-of-reaction-solution (1:2 and 1:20), and method of sediment preparation (crushed and non-crushed). Strontium K(d)'s ranged from 11 to 23 mlg-1 among all three experimental variables examined. Strontium K(d)'s were bimodally grouped around 12 and 21 mlg-1. Among the three experimental variables examined, the mass-to-volume ratio appeared to be the only one that could account for this bimodal distribution. The bimodal distribution of the derived strontium K(d)'s may occur because the two different mass-to-volume ratios represent different natural systems. The high mass-to-volume ratio of 1:2 models a natural system, such as an aquifer, in which there is an abundance of favorable sorption sites relative to the amount of strontium in solution. The low mass-to-volume ratio of 1:20 models a natural system, such as a stream, in which the relative amount of strontium in solution exceeds the favorable surface sorption site concentration. Except for low mass-to-volume ratios of non-crushed sediment using a rotating mixer, the method of agitation and sediment preparation appears to have little influence on derived strontium K(d)'s.The effect of experimental technique on strontium distribution coefficients (Kd's) was determined as part of an investigation of strontium geochemical

  18. Target Diagnostic Technology Research and Development for the LLNL ICF and HED Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, P; Bennett, C; Holder, J; Kimbrough, J; Landen, O; Lerche, D; Lowry, M; McDonald, J; Perry, T; Turner, B; Weber, F

    2003-08-22

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is under construction at LLNL for the Department of Energy Stockpile Stewardship Program. It will be used for experiments for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Ignition, High Energy Density (HED) science, and basic science. Many issues confront experimentalists who wish to design, fabricate, and install diagnostics on the NIF. To foster this process the ICF and HED programs at LLNL have formed a diagnostic research and development group to look at issues outside the charter of facility diagnostics (core diagnostics). We will present data from instrumentation and associated technology that is being developed by this group. A major portion of our instrumentation work is on improvements for readout systems. We have several efforts related to CCD device development. Work has been done in collaboration with the University of Arizona to backthin a large format CCD device (36mm{sup 2}). This work has shown good results. The device has very high quantum efficiency, low noise readout and high charge transfer efficiency. The device is being fielded in direct optical, direct x-ray and 13-15 RV electron readout applications. In addition to readout device development we have completed work on a CCD readout system. With a commercial vendor we have developed a large format, compact, Ethernet addressable CCD camera system. This system fits in shoebox size volume, is thermal electrically cooled, supports a variety of CCD devices and can be run from remote locations via TCP/IP protocol. We are also doing work to improve streak camera systems. We have coupled our large format CCD system to an MK2 Kentech streak tube. Improvements have been made to the resolution and dynamic range of the system. Similar improvements have been made to the LLNL optical streak camera systems. We will present data from the optical and x-ray streak camera work. In addition we will present data from single shot high-speed, high dynamic range data link work. In

  19. Experimental scale and dimensionality requirements for reproducing and studying coupled land-atmosphere-vegetative processes in the intermediate scale laboratory settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trautz, Andrew; Illangasekare, Tissa; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio; Helmig, Rainer; Heck, Katharina

    2016-04-01

    Past investigations of coupled land-atmosphere-vegetative processes have been constrained to two extremes, small laboratory bench-scale and field scale testing. In recognition of the limitations of studying the scale-dependency of these fundamental processes at either extreme, researchers have recently begun to promote the use of experimentation at intermediary scales between the bench and field scales. A requirement for employing intermediate scale testing to refine heat and mass transport theory regarding land-atmosphere-vegetative processes is high spatial-temporal resolution datasets generated under carefully controlled experimental conditions in which both small and field scale phenomena can be observed. Field experimentation often fails these criteria as a result of sensor network limitations as well as the natural complexities and uncertainties introduced by heterogeneity and constantly changing atmospheric conditions. Laboratory experimentation, which is used to study three-dimensional (3-D) processes, is often conducted in 2-D test systems as a result of space, instrumentation, and cost constraints. In most flow and transport problems, 2-D testing is not considered a serious limitation because the bypassing of flow and transport due to geo-biochemical heterogeneities can still be studied. Constraining the study of atmosphere-soil-vegetation interactions to 2-D systems introduces a new challenge given that the soil moisture dynamics associated with these interactions occurs in three dimensions. This is an important issue that needs to be addressed as evermore intricate and specialized experimental apparatuses like the climate-controlled wind tunnel-porous media test system at CESEP are being constructed and used for these types of studies. The purpose of this study is to therefore investigate the effects of laboratory experimental dimensionality on observed soil moisture dynamics in the context of bare-soil evaporation and evapotranspiration

  20. Anaesthesia and physiological monitoring during in vivo imaging of laboratory rodents: considerations on experimental outcomes and animal welfare

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The implementation of imaging technologies has dramatically increased the efficiency of preclinical studies, enabling a powerful, non-invasive and clinically translatable way for monitoring disease progression in real time and testing new therapies. The ability to image live animals is one of the most important advantages of these technologies. However, this also represents an important challenge as, in contrast to human studies, imaging of animals generally requires anaesthesia to restrain the animals and their gross motion. Anaesthetic agents have a profound effect on the physiology of the animal and may thereby confound the image data acquired. It is therefore necessary to select the appropriate anaesthetic regime and to implement suitable systems for monitoring anaesthetised animals during image acquisition. In addition, repeated anaesthesia required for longitudinal studies, the exposure of ionising radiations and the use of contrast agents and/or imaging biomarkers may also have consequences on the physiology of the animal and its response to anaesthesia, which need to be considered while monitoring the animals during imaging studies. We will review the anaesthesia protocols and monitoring systems commonly used during imaging of laboratory rodents. A variety of imaging modalities are used for imaging rodents, including magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, positron emission tomography, single photon emission computed tomography, high frequency ultrasound and optical imaging techniques such as bioluminescence and fluorescence imaging. While all these modalities are implemented for non-invasive in vivo imaging, there are certain differences in terms of animal handling and preparation, how the monitoring systems are implemented and, importantly, how the imaging procedures themselves can affect mammalian physiology. The most important and critical adverse effects of anaesthetic agents are depression of respiration, cardiovascular system disruption and

  1. In Situ Grouting of Liquid Waste Disposal Trenches and Experimental Reactor Fuel Disposal Wells at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Ch.; Cange, J.; Lambert, R.; Trujillo, E.; Julius, J.

    2008-07-01

    In the early to mid-1960's, liquid low-level wastes (LLLW) generated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory were disposed of in specially-constructed, gravel-filled trenches within the Melton Valley watershed at the lab. The initial selected remedy for Trenches 5 and 7 was in situ vitrification; however, an amendment to the record of decision changed the remedy to in situ grouting of the trenches. The work was accomplished by filling the void space within the crushed stone section of each trench with cementitious grout. The contaminated soil surrounding the trenches (1-m perimeter) was then grouted with acrylamide grout. At the HRE fuel wells, a 1-m ring of soil surrounding the fuel wells was grouted with acrylamide. The results of the hydraulic conductivity tests ranged from 4.74 x 10{sup -6} to 3.60 x 10{sup -7} cm/sec, values that were well below the 1 x 10{sup -5} cm/sec design criterion. In summary: The ISG Project was conducted to decrease hydraulic conductivity and thereby decrease water flow and contaminate migration from the area of the trenches. The initial remedy for Trenches 5 and 7 in the Melton Valley ROD was for in situ vitrification of the trench matrix. The remedy was changed to in situ grouting of the trenches and HRE fuel wells through an amendment to the ROD after moisture was found in the trenches. The grouting of the trenches was accomplished by filling the void space within the crushed stone section of each trench with cementitious grout. The contaminated soil surrounding the trenches (1-m perimeter) was then grouted with acrylamide grout to further reduce water infiltration. Soil backfill above each of the seven HRE fuel wells was removed to a depth of approximately 1 m by augering, and the soils were replaced with a cement plug to prevent water infiltration from migrating down the original borehole. Soil surrounding the fuel wells was then grouted with acrylamide to ensure water infiltration through the HRE fuel wells is prevented. A summary of

  2. Experimental investigation of supercritical CO2 trapping mechanisms at the Intermediate Laboratory Scale in well-defined heterogeneous porous media

    DOE PAGES

    Trevisan, Luca; Pini, Ronny; Cihan, Abdullah; ...

    2014-12-31

    The heterogeneous nature of typical sedimentary formations can play a major role in the propagation of the CO2 plume, eventually dampening the accumulation of mobile phase underneath the caprock. From core flooding experiments, it is also known that contrasts in capillary threshold pressure due to different pore size can affect the flow paths of the invading and displaced fluids and consequently influence the build- up of non-wetting phase (NWP) at interfaces between geological facies. The full characterization of the geologic variability at all relevant scales and the ability to make observations on the spatial and temporal distribution of the migrationmore » and trapping of supercritical CO2 is not feasible from a practical perspective. To provide insight into the impact of well-defined heterogeneous systems on the flow dynamics and trapping efficiency of supercritical CO2 under drainage and imbibition conditions, we present an experimental investigation at the meter scale conducted in synthetic sand reservoirs packed in a quasi-two-dimensional flow-cell. Two immiscible displacement experiments have been performed to observe the preferential entrapment of NWP in simple heterogeneous porous media. The experiments consisted of an injection, a fluid redistribution, and a forced imbibition stages conducted in an uncorrelated permeability field and a homogeneous base case scenario. We adopted x-ray attenuation analysis as a non-destructive technique that allows a precise measurement of phase saturations throughout the entire flow domain. By comparing a homogeneous and a heterogeneous scenario we have identified some important effects that can be attributed to capillary barriers, such as dampened plume advancement, higher non-wetting phase saturations, larger contact area between the injected and displaced phases, and a larger range of non-wetting phase saturations.« less

  3. Ability of laboratory methods to predict in-use efficacy of antimicrobial preservatives in an experimental cosmetic.

    PubMed Central

    Farrington, J K; Martz, E L; Wells, S J; Ennis, C C; Holder, J; Levchuk, J W; Avis, K E; Hoffman, P S; Hitchins, A D; Madden, J M

    1994-01-01

    The abilities of nine antimicrobial systems to preserve an experimental water-based cosmetic formulation were evaluated by six microbiological challenge tests: the U.S. Pharmacopeia test; the British Pharmacopeia test; the Cosmetic, Toiletry, and Fragrance Association test; the rapid screen test; the sequential challenge test; and the post-use test. The antimicrobial systems contained various combinations and amounts of two parabens and a quaternary compound in order to provide a broad range of preservation. The results obtained were compared with the abilities of the formulations to support maintenance and growth of microorganisms in microfloras obtained from human axilla areas and finger skin during an 8-week simulated in-use test. Without statistical analysis all of the tests predicted the results obtained with well-preserved or poorly preserved formulations. The rapid screen test was the best test for predicting differences at intermediate levels of preservation. Statistically, all of the tests were equivalent predictors of preservation efficacy in the in-use test (P = 0.05). At the P = 0.10 level, only the U.S. Pharmacopeia, British Pharmacopeia, rapid screen, Cosmetic, Toiletry, and Fragrance Association tests were significantly predictive. The results of prediction by a test, based on the preservative levels used, agreed well with the in-use test results (P = 0.01). A total of 20% of the formulations that contained excessive microbial levels contained human axilla microorganisms. The levels of preservation in failed products were similar to the levels of preservation in unused controls. PMID:7811091

  4. Sub-picosecond streak camera measurements at LLNL: From IR to x-rays

    SciTech Connect

    Kuba, J; Shepherd, R; Booth, R; Steward, R; Lee, E W; Cross, R R; Springer, P T

    2003-12-21

    An ultra fast, sub-picosecond resolution streak camera has been recently developed at the LLNL. The camera is a versatile instrument with a wide operating wavelength range. The temporal resolution of up to 300 fs can be achieved, with routine operation at 500 fs. The streak camera has been operated in a wide wavelength range from IR to x-rays up to 2 keV. In this paper we briefly review the main design features that result in the unique properties of the streak camera and present its several scientific applications: (1) Streak camera characterization using a Michelson interferometer in visible range, (2) temporally resolved study of a transient x-ray laser at 14.7 nm, which enabled us to vary the x-ray laser pulse duration from {approx}2-6 ps by changing the pump laser parameters, and (3) an example of a time-resolved spectroscopy experiment with the streak camera.

  5. Screening Program Reduced Melanoma Mortality at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 1984-1996

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, MD, J S; II, PhD, D; MD, PhD, M

    2006-10-12

    Worldwide incidence of cutaneous malignant melanoma has increased substantially, and no screening program has yet demonstrated reduction in mortality. We evaluated the education, self examination and targeted screening campaign at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) from its beginning in July 1984 through 1996. The thickness and crude incidence of melanoma from the years before the campaign were compared to those obtained during the 13 years of screening. Melanoma mortality during the 13-year period was based on a National Death Index search. Expected yearly deaths from melanoma among LLNL employees were calculated by using California mortality data matched by age, sex, and race/ethnicity and adjusted to exclude deaths from melanoma diagnosed before the program began or before employment at LLNL. After the program began, crude incidence of melanoma thicker than 0.75 mm decreased from 18 to 4 cases per 100,000 person-years (p = 0.02), while melanoma less than 0.75mm remained stable and in situ melanoma increased substantially. No eligible melanoma deaths occurred among LLNL employees during the screening period compared with a calculated 3.39 expected deaths (p = 0.034). Education, self examination and selective screening for melanoma at LLNL significantly decreased incidence of melanoma thicker than 0.75 mm and reduced the melanoma-related mortality rate to zero. This significant decrease in mortality rate persisted for at least 3 yr after employees retired or otherwise left the laboratory.

  6. LLNL compiled first pages ordered by ascending B&R code

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, G; Kumar, M; Tobin, J; Noy, A; Browning, N

    2010-01-26

    We aim to develop a fundamental understanding of materials dynamics (from {micro}s to ns) in systems where the required combination of spatial and temporal resolution can only be reached by the dynamic transmission electron microscope (DTEM). In this regime, the DTEM is capable of studying complex transient phenomena with several orders of magnitude time resolution advantage over any existing in-situ TEM. Using the unique in situ capabilities and the nanosecond time resolution of the DTEM, we seek to study complex transient phenomena associated with rapid processes in materials, such as active sites on nanoscale catalysts and the atomic level mechanisms and microstructural features for nucleation and growth associated with phase transformations in materials, specifically in martensite formation and crystallization reactions from the amorphous phase. We also will study the transient phase evolution in rapid solid-state reactions, such as those occurring in reactive multilayer foils (RMLF). Program Impact: The LLNL DTEM possesses unique capabilities for capturing time resolved images and diffraction patterns of rapidly evolving materials microstructure under strongly driven conditions. No other instrument in the world can capture images with <10 nm spatial resolution of interesting irreversible materials processes such as phase transformations, plasticity, or morphology changes with 15 ns time resolution. The development of this innovative capability requires the continuing collaboration of laser scientists, electron microscopists, and materials scientists experienced in time resolved observations of materials that exist with particularly relevant backgrounds at LLNL. The research team has made observations of materials processes that are possible by no other method, such as the rapid crystallization of thin film NiTi that identified a change in mechanism at high heating rates as compared to isothermal anneals through changes in nucleation and growth rates of the

  7. Review of Excess Weapons Plutonium Disposition LLNL Contract Work in Russia-(English)

    SciTech Connect

    Jardine, L; Borisov, G B

    2002-07-11

    This third meeting of the recently completed and ongoing Russian plutonium immobilization contract work was held at the State Education Center (SEC) in St. Petersburg on January 14-18, 2002. The meeting agenda is reprinted here as Appendix A and the attendance list as Appendix B. The meeting had 58 Russian participants from 21 Russian organizations, including the industrial sites (Mayak, Krasonayarsk-26, Tomsk), scientific institutes (VNIINM, KRI, VNIPIPT, RIAR), design organizations (VNIPIET and GSPI), universities (Nyzhny Novgorod, Urals Technical), Russian Academy of Sciences (Institute of Physical Chemistry or IPhCh, Institute of Ore-Deposit Geology, Petrography, Mineralogy, and Geochemistry or IGEM), Radon-Moscow, S&TC Podol'osk, Kharkov-Ukraine, GAN-SEC-NRS and SNIIChM, the RF Ministry of Atomic Energy (Minatom) and Gosatomnadzor (GAN). This volume, published by LLNL, documents this third annual meeting. Forty-nine technical papers were presented by the Russian participants, and nearly all of these have been collected in this Proceedings. The two objectives for the meeting were to: (1) Bring together the Russian organizations, experts, and managers performing this contract work into one place for four days to review and discuss their work amongst each other. (2) Publish a meeting summary and proceedings of all the excellent Russian plutonium immobilization and other plutonium disposition contract work in one document so that the wide extent of the Russian immobilization activities are documented, referencable and available for others to use, as were the Proceedings of the two previous meetings. Attendees gave talks describing their LLNL contract work and submitted written papers documenting their contract work (in English and Russian), in both hard copy and on computer disks. Simultaneous translation into Russian and English was used for presentations made at the State Region Educational Center (SEC).

  8. Laboratory and experimental hut evaluation of a long-lasting insecticide treated blanket for protection against mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Long-lasting insecticide treated blankets (LLIBs) may provide additional protection against malaria where use of long lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN) is low or impractical such as in disaster or emergency situations. Methods Initial efficacy testing of a new candidate LLIB was carried out at LSHTM and KCMUCo, before and after washing, in cone and ball bioassays and arm-in-cage tests against pyrethroid susceptible Anopheles gambiae. A small scale field trial was conducted using veranda-trap experimental huts in northern Tanzania against wild An. arabiensis and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes. Treatments included unwashed and 5 times washed permethrin treated LLIB and blankets hand-treated with permethrin (ITB), untreated blankets, and a holed unwashed Olyset net. Results Cone test mortality was 75% for LLIB when unwashed, but decreased to 32% after 5 washes and <10% after 10 washes. In arm-in-cage tests protection against biting was 100% for LLIBs regardless of the number of washes while reduction in landings was 79% when unwashed, 75% after 5 washes, but declined to 41% after 10 and 33% after 20 washes. In ball bioassays using pyrethroid resistant An. arabiensis, mortality was low in all treatments (<35%) and there was no significant difference in mortality between Olyset net, LLIB or ITB (p > 0.05). Percentage mortality of An. arabiensis in huts with LLIB unwashed (26%) was not statistically different to Olyset net (31%, p = 0.5). The 5 times washed LLIB reduced blood-feeding by 49% which was equivalent to Olyset net (p > 0.086). There was no significant difference in percentage blood-feeding between LLIB and ITB unwashed or 5 times washed (p = 0.147 and p = 0.346 respectively). The 5 times washed LLIB reduced blood-feeding of Culex quinquefasciatus by 40%, although the Olyset provided the greatest protection with 85% inhibition. ELISA analysis of a sub-sample of blood fed mosquitoes showed that not all had fed on humans in the

  9. Improvements in the LLNL objective analysis scheme for deriving forcing fields for single-column models using ARM data

    SciTech Connect

    Leach, M.J.; Yio, J.J.; Cederwall, R.T.

    1997-03-01

    The objective analysis method use for deriving Single-Column Model (SCM) forcing fields with ARM data (Leach, et al., 1996) is undergoing continual improvement. Several improvements were identified at the SCM Workshop held at LLNL in April 1996. These include incorporating large-scale analyses in the objective analysis, and time-filtering input data streams.

  10. LLNL's Big Science Capabilities Help Spur Over $796 Billion in U.S. Economic Activity Sequencing the Human Genome

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, Jeffrey S.

    2015-07-28

    LLNL’s successful history of taking on big science projects spans beyond national security and has helped create billions of dollars per year in new economic activity. One example is LLNL’s role in helping sequence the human genome. Over $796 billion in new economic activity in over half a dozen fields has been documented since LLNL successfully completed this Grand Challenge.

  11. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s Computer Security Short Subjects Videos: Hidden Password, The Incident, Dangerous Games and The Mess; Computer Security Awareness Guide

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    A video on computer security is described. Lonnie Moore, the Computer Security Manager, CSSM/CPPM at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Gale Warshawsky, the Coordinator for Computer Security Education and Awareness at LLNL, wanted to share topics such as computer ethics, software piracy, privacy issues, and protecting information in a format that would capture and hold an audience`s attention. Four Computer Security Short Subject videos were produced which ranged from 1--3 minutes each. These videos are very effective education and awareness tools that can be used to generate discussions about computer security concerns and good computing practices.

  12. Experimental demonstration of x-ray betatron radiation spectrum from laser accelerated electron beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leurent, Valentine; Michel, Pierre; Clayton, Chris; Pollock, Bradley; Doeppner, Tilo; Ralph, Joseph; Pak, Art; Wang, Tyan-Lin; Joshi, Chan; Tynan, George; Divol, Laurent; Palastro, John; Glenzer, Siegried; Froula, Dustin

    2008-11-01

    New laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA) experiments have been carried out at the Callisto Laser Facility, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. We will present results of the first experimental campaign on LWFA. The electron beam energy spectrum was measured with a two-screen spectrometer to avoid ambiguities due to the possible angle of the electron beam at the plasma exit [1]. Electron beams up to 300 MeV were measured. X-ray betatron radiation from the accelerated electrons were also measured. By using a set of filters acting like a spectral step function, the x-ray spectrum was reconstructed from fitting theoretical estimates; the radiation peaks at a few keVs. [1] R. Ischebeck et al., Proceedings of PAC 2007, Albuquerque NM, p. 4168. LLNL-ABS-405251

  13. Laboratory directed research and development fy1999 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Ayat, R A

    2000-04-11

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) was founded in 1952 and has been managed since its inception by the University of California (UC) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Because of this long association with UC, the Laboratory has been able to recruit a world-class workforce, establish an atmosphere of intellectual freedom and innovation, and achieve recognition in relevant fields of knowledge as a scientific and technological leader. This environment and reputation are essential for sustained scientific and technical excellence. As a DOE national laboratory with about 7,000 employees, LLNL has an essential and compelling primary mission to ensure that the nation's nuclear weapons remain safe, secure, and reliable and to prevent the spread and use of nuclear weapons worldwide. The Laboratory receives funding from the DOE Assistant Secretary for Defense Programs, whose focus is stewardship of our nuclear weapons stockpile. Funding is also provided by the Deputy Administrator for Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation, many Department of Defense sponsors, other federal agencies, and the private sector. As a multidisciplinary laboratory, LLNL has applied its considerable skills in high-performance computing, advanced engineering, and the management of large research and development projects to become the science and technology leader in those areas of its mission responsibility. The Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program was authorized by the U.S. Congress in 1984. The Program allows the Director of each DOE laboratory to fund advanced, creative, and innovative research and development (R&D) activities that will ensure scientific and technical vitality in the continually evolving mission areas at DOE and the Laboratory. In addition, the LDRD Program provides LLNL with the flexibility to nurture and enrich essential scientific and technical competencies, which attract the most qualified scientists and engineers. The LDRD Program also

  14. Supplement analysis for continued operation of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore. Volume 2: Comment response document

    SciTech Connect

    1999-03-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), prepared a draft Supplement Analysis (SA) for Continued Operation of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore (SNL-L), in accordance with DOE`s requirements for implementation of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) (10 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 1021.314). It considers whether the Final Environmental Impact Statement and Environmental Impact Report for Continued Operation of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore (1992 EIS/EIR) should be supplement3ed, whether a new environmental impact statement (EIS) should be prepared, or no further NEPA documentation is required. The SA examines the current project and program plans and proposals for LLNL and SNL-L, operations to identify new or modified projects or operations or new information for the period from 1998 to 2002 that was not considered in the 1992 EIS/EIR. When such changes, modifications, and information are identified, they are examined to determine whether they could be considered substantial or significant in reference to the 1992 proposed action and the 1993 Record of Decision (ROD). DOE released the draft SA to the public to obtain stakeholder comments and to consider those comments in the preparation of the final SA. DOE distributed copies of the draft SA to those who were known to have an interest in LLNL or SNL-L activities in addition to those who requested a copy. In response to comments received, DOE prepared this Comment Response Document.

  15. Remedial investigation and feasibility study for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site 300 Pit 7 Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Taffet, M.J. ); Oberdorfer, J.A. ); McIlvride, W.A. )

    1989-10-01

    This report summarizes the results and conclusions of the investigation of tritium and other compounds in ground water in the vicinity of landfills at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Site 300 Pit 7 Complex. 91 refs., 110 figs., 43 tabs.

  16. Final Report Bald and Golden Eagle Territory Surveys for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Fratanduono, M. L.

    2014-11-25

    Garcia and Associates (GANDA) was contracted by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to conduct surveys for bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) at Site 300 and in the surrounding area out to 10-miles. The survey effort was intended to document the boundaries of eagle territories by careful observation of eagle behavior from selected viewing locations throughout the study area.

  17. Micro-electro-mechanical systems projects at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Folta, J.A.

    1995-08-04

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) MicroTechnology Center has developed a wide variety of special capabilities used to design, build, and test MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems). Our customers are both the LLNL Programs and a variety of external customers. Typical applications include: custom microstructures for scientific experiments; physical sensors; photonics; miniature tools for catheter-based surgery; and microinstruments for chemical analysis for biomedicine, environments and treaty verification. The majority of our prototype MEMS devices are fabricated with bulk silicon micromachining, but we also utilize surface micromachining capabilities.

  18. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Response to the Federal Communication Commission Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

    SciTech Connect

    Dowls, F

    2000-08-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has been conducting UWB research for the past few decades and submits a general comments section and a paragraph by paragraph response for consideration. In general, the proposed rules look very sound and encouraging for promoting use of the spectrum by both government and commercial users. General comments include recommending minimum frequency spreading specification, possibly clarifying the peak power limits and keeping the high frequency limit as high as possible. LLNL finds that minimum interference occurs by keeping wideband wide and narrowband narrow and keeping the middle ground clear.

  19. Federal Security Laboratory Governance Panels: Observations and Recommendations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    have been documented by laboratory managers in a recent report (NRC 2012). According to panelists, the lack of new scientists with the appropriate...nonprofit parent organization to an FFRDC run by a consortium including for-profit contractors at LANL and LLNL led to staff frustration, a...Independent Research program and Section 219. At LANL , these programs allow the director discretion to invest in long-term strategic research

  20. Final closure plan for the high-explosives open burn treatment facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Experimental Test Site 300

    SciTech Connect

    Mathews, S.

    1997-04-01

    This document addresses the interim status closure of the HE Open Bum Treatment Facility, as detailed by Title 22, Division 4.5, Chapter 15, Article 7 of the Califonia Code of Regulations (CCR) and by Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 265, Subpart G, ``Closure and Post Closure.`` The Closure Plan (Chapter 1) and the Post- Closure Plan (Chapter 2) address the concept of long-term hazard elimination. The Closure Plan provides for capping and grading the HE Open Bum Treatment Facility and revegetating the immediate area in accordance with applicable requirements. The Closure Plan also reflects careful consideration of site location and topography, geologic and hydrologic factors, climate, cover characteristics, type and amount of wastes, and the potential for contaminant migration. The Post-Closure Plan is designed to allow LLNL to monitor the movement, if any, of pollutants from the treatment area. In addition, quarterly inspections will ensure that all surfaces of the closed facility, including the cover and diversion ditches, remain in good repair, thus precluding the potential for contaminant migration.

  1. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site Seismic Safety Program: Summary of findings

    SciTech Connect

    Scheimer, J.F.; Burkhard, N.R.; Emerson, D.O.

    1991-05-01

    This report summarizes the final assessments of geologic hazards at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and includes a revision of the peak acceleration hazard curve. Detailed discussions of investigations are documented in a series of reports produced by LLNL's Site Seismic Safety Program and their consultants. The Program conducted a probabilistic assessment of hazards at the site as a result of liquefaction, landslide, and strong ground shaking, using existing models to explicitly treat uncertainties. The results indicate the Greenville and Las Positas-Verona Fault systems present the greatest hazard to the LLNL site as a result of ground shaking, with a lesser contribution from the Calaveras Fault. Other, more distant fault systems do not materially contribute to the hazard. No evidence has been found that the LLNL site will undergo soil failures such as landslides or liquefaction. In addition, because of the locations and ages of the faults in the LLNL area, surface ground rupture during an earthquake is extremely unlikely. 21 refs., 3 figs.

  2. LLNL-G3Dv3: Global P wave tomography model for improved regional and teleseismic travel time prediction: LLNL-G3DV3---GLOBAL P WAVE TOMOGRAPHY

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, N. A.; Myers, S. C.; Johannesson, G.; Matzel, E.

    2012-10-06

    [1] We develop a global-scale P wave velocity model (LLNL-G3Dv3) designed to accurately predict seismic travel times at regional and teleseismic distances simultaneously. The model provides a new image of Earth's interior, but the underlying practical purpose of the model is to provide enhanced seismic event location capabilities. The LLNL-G3Dv3 model is based on ∼2.8 millionP and Pnarrivals that are re-processed using our global multiple-event locator called Bayesloc. We construct LLNL-G3Dv3 within a spherical tessellation based framework, allowing for explicit representation of undulating and discontinuous layers including the crust and transition zone layers. Using a multiscale inversion technique, regional trends as well as fine details are captured where the data allow. LLNL-G3Dv3 exhibits large-scale structures including cratons and superplumes as well numerous complex details in the upper mantle including within the transition zone. Particularly, the model reveals new details of a vast network of subducted slabs trapped within the transition beneath much of Eurasia, including beneath the Tibetan Plateau. We demonstrate the impact of Bayesloc multiple-event location on the resulting tomographic images through comparison with images produced without the benefit of multiple-event constraints (single-event locations). We find that the multiple-event locations allow for better reconciliation of the large set of direct P phases recorded at 0–97° distance and yield a smoother and more continuous image relative to the single-event locations. Travel times predicted from a 3-D model are also found to be strongly influenced by the initial locations of the input data, even when an iterative inversion/relocation technique is employed.

  3. Overview of Tabletop X-ray Laser Development at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, J; Shlyaptsev, V; Nilsen, J; Smith, R; Keenan, R; Moon, S; Filevich, J; Rocca, J; Nelson, A; Hunter, J; Marconi, M; Li, Y; Osterheld, A; Shepherd, R; Fiedorowicz, H; Bartnik, A; Faenov, A Y; Pikuz, T; Zeitoun, P; Hubert, S; Jacquemot, S; Fajardo, M

    2006-11-03

    It is almost a decade since the first tabletop x-ray laser experiments were implemented at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The decision to pursue the picosecond-driven schemes at LLNL was largely based around the early demonstration of the tabletop Ne-like Ti x-ray laser at the Max Born Institute (MBI) as well as the established robustness of collisional excitation schemes. These picosecond x-ray lasers have been a strong growth area for x-ray laser research. Rapid progress in source development and characterization has achieved ultrahigh peak brightness rivaling the previous activities on the larger facilities. Various picosecond soft-x-ray based applications have benefited from the increased repetition rates. We will describe the activities at LLNL in this area.

  4. Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory: 1986 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Max, C.E.

    1987-07-01

    The purpose of the Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics (IGPP) at LLNL is to enrich the opportunities of University of California campus researchers by making available to them some of the Laboratory's unique facilities and expertise, and to broaden the scientific horizon of LLNL researchers by encouraging collaborative or interdisciplinary work with other UC scientists. The IGPP continues to emphasize three fields of research - geoscience, astrophysics, and high-pressure physics - each administered by a corresponding IGPP Research Center. Each Research Center coordinates the mini-grant work in its field, and also works with the appropriate LLNL programs and departments, which frequently can provide supplementary funding and facilities for IGPP projects. 62 refs., 18 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Precision and manufacturing at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, T.T.; Wasley, R.J.; Stowers, I.F.; Donaldson, R.R.; Thompson, D.C.

    1993-11-01

    Precision Engineering is one of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s core strengths. This paper discusses the past and present current technology transfer efforts of LLNL`s Precision Engineering program and the Livermore Center for Advanced Manufacturing and Productivity (LCAMP). More than a year ago the Precision Machining Commercialization project embodied several successful methods of transferring high technology from the National Laboratories to industry. Currently LCAMP has already demonstrated successful technology transfer and is involved in a broad spectrum of current programs. In addition this paper discusses other technologies ripe for future transition including the Large Optics Diamond Turning Machine.

  6. Milestone Report - Level-2 Milestone 5589: Modernization and Expansion of LLNL Archive Disk Cache

    SciTech Connect

    Shoopman, J. D.

    2016-02-04

    This report documents Livermore Computing (LC) activities in support of ASC L2 milestone 5589: Modernization and Expansion of LLNL Archive Disk Cache, due March 31, 2016. The full text of the milestone is included in Attachment 1. The description of the milestone is: Description: Configuration of archival disk cache systems will be modernized to reduce fragmentation, and new, higher capacity disk subsystems will be deployed. This will enhance archival disk cache capability for ASC archive users, enabling files written to the archives to remain resident on disk for many (6–12) months, regardless of file size. The milestone was completed in three phases. On August 26, 2015 subsystems with 6PB of disk cache were deployed for production use in LLNL’s unclassified HPSS environment. Following that, on September 23, 2015 subsystems with 9 PB of disk cache were deployed for production use in LLNL’s classified HPSS environment. On January 31, 2016, the milestone was fully satisfied when the legacy Data Direct Networks (DDN) archive disk cache subsystems were fully retired from production use in both LLNL’s unclassified and classified HPSS environments, and only the newly deployed systems were in use.

  7. Induction accelerators and free-electron lasers at LLNL: Beam Research Program

    SciTech Connect

    Briggs, R.J.

    1989-02-15

    Linear induction accelerators have been developed to produce pulses of charged particles at voltages exceeding the capabilities of single-stage, diode-type accelerators and at currents too high rf accelerators. In principle, one can accelerate charged particles to arbitrarily high voltages using a multistage induction machine. The advent of magnetic pulse power systems makes sustained operation at high repetition rates practical, and high-average-power capability is very likely to open up many new applications of induction machines. In Part A of this paper, we survey the US induction linac technology, emphasizing electron machines. We also give a simplified description of how induction machines couple energy to the electron beam to illustrate many general issues that designers of high-brightness and high-average-power induction linacs must consider. We give an example of the application of induction accelerator technology to the relativistic klystron, a power source for high-gradient accelerators. In Part B we address the application of LIAs to free-electron lasers. The multikiloampere peak currents available from linear induction accelerators make high-gain, free-electron laser amplifier configurations feasible. High extraction efficiencies in a single mass of the electron beam are possible if the wiggler parameters are appropriately ''tapered'', as recently demonstrated at millimeter wavelengths on the 4-MeV ELF facility. Key issues involved in extending the technology to shorter wavelengths and higher average powers are described. Current FEL experiments at LLNL are discussed. 5 refs., 16 figs.

  8. 50 MW X-BAND RF SYSTEM FOR A PHOTOINJECTOR TEST STATION AT LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, R A; Anderson, S G; Barty, C J; Beer, G K; Cross, R R; Ebbers, C A; Gibson, D J; Hartemann, F V; Houck, T L; Adolphsen, C; Candel, A; Chu, T S; Jongewaard, E N; Li, Z; Raubenheimer, T; Tantawi, S G; Vlieks, A; Wang, F; Wang, J W; Zhou, F; Deis, G A

    2011-03-11

    In support of X-band photoinjector development efforts at LLNL, a 50 MW test station is being constructed to investigate structure and photocathode optimization for future upgrades. A SLAC XL-4 klystron capable of generating 50 MW, 1.5 microsecond pulses will be the high power RF source for the system. Timing of the laser pulse on the photocathode with the applied RF field places very stringent requirements on phase jitter and drift. To achieve these requirements, the klystron will be powered by a state of the art, solid-state, high voltage modulator. The 50 MW will be divided between the photoinjector and a traveling wave accelerator section. A high power phase shifter is located between the photoinjector and accelerator section to adjust the phasing of the electron bunches with respect to the accelerating field. A variable attenuator is included on the input of the photoinjector. The distribution system including the various x-band components is being designed and constructed. In this paper, we will present the design, layout, and status of the RF system.

  9. Overview and applications of the Monte Carlo radiation transport kit at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Sale, K E

    1999-06-23

    Modern Monte Carlo radiation transport codes can be applied to model most applications of radiation, from optical to TeV photons, from thermal neutrons to heavy ions. Simulations can include any desired level of detail in three-dimensional geometries using the right level of detail in the reaction physics. The technology areas to which we have applied these codes include medical applications, defense, safety and security programs, nuclear safeguards and industrial and research system design and control. The main reason such applications are interesting is that by using these tools substantial savings of time and effort (i.e. money) can be realized. In addition it is possible to separate out and investigate computationally effects which can not be isolated and studied in experiments. In model calculations, just as in real life, one must take care in order to get the correct answer to the right question. Advancing computing technology allows extensions of Monte Carlo applications in two directions. First, as computers become more powerful more problems can be accurately modeled. Second, as computing power becomes cheaper Monte Carlo methods become accessible more widely. An overview of the set of Monte Carlo radiation transport tools in use a LLNL will be presented along with a few examples of applications and future directions.

  10. LASER TECHNOLOGY FOR PRECISION MONOENERGETIC GAMMA-RAY SOURCE R&D AT LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Shverdin, M Y; Bayramian, A; Albert, F; Anderson, S G; Betts, S M; Chu, T S; Cross, R R; Gibson, D J; Marsh, R; Messerly, M; Phan, H; Prantil, M; Wu, S; Ebbers, C; Scarpetti, R D; Hartemann, F V; Siders, C W; McNabb, D P; Bonanno, R E; Barty, C P

    2010-04-20

    Generation of mono-energetic, high brightness gamma-rays requires state of the art lasers to both produce a low emittance electron beam in the linac and high intensity, narrow linewidth laser photons for scattering with the relativistic electrons. Here, we overview the laser systems for the 3rd generation Monoenergetic Gamma-ray Source (MEGa-ray) currently under construction at Lawrence Livermore National Lab (LLNL). We also describe a method for increasing the efficiency of laser Compton scattering through laser pulse recirculation. The fiber-based photoinjector laser will produce 50 {micro}J temporally and spatially shaped UV pulses at 120 Hz to generate a low emittance electron beam in the X-band RF photoinjector. The interaction laser generates high intensity photons that focus into the interaction region and scatter off the accelerated electrons. This system utilizes chirped pulse amplification and commercial diode pumped solid state Nd:YAG amplifiers to produce 0.5 J, 10 ps, 120 Hz pulses at 1064 nm and up to 0.2 J after frequency doubling. A single passively mode-locked Ytterbium fiber oscillator seeds both laser systems and provides a timing synch with the linac.

  11. Effects of Combined Hands-on Laboratory and Computer Modeling on Student Learning of Gas Laws: A Quasi-Experimental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Xiufeng

    2006-01-01

    Based on current theories of chemistry learning, this study intends to test a hypothesis that computer modeling enhanced hands-on chemistry laboratories are more effective than hands-on laboratories or computer modeling laboratories alone in facilitating high school students' understanding of chemistry concepts. Thirty-three high school chemistry…

  12. Experimental study on bank erosion and protection using submerged vane placed at an optimum angle in a 180° laboratory channel bend

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, Litan; Barbhuiya, Abdul Karim; Biswas, Piya

    2017-04-01

    Unsteadiness of the vertical velocity profile and secondary flow in open channel bends poses serious problems in hydraulic engineering design. Insertion of vertical submerged vanes in the channel bend at an optimum angle with the tangential component of flow can minimize the unsteadiness and generation of secondary flow resulting in the reduction of scour depth at the outer bank. A series of experiments were conducted in a 180° bend laboratory channel to study flow erosion and effective ness of the submerged vane in reducing scour depth. The average approach to flow velocity at 0.20 m flow depth above the lowest initial bed level was 25 cm/s. An Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV) was used to measure the three-dimensional time-averaged velocity components at different azimuthal sections on stabilized nonscoured beds without vane. Scour bed profile without vanes shows that bank erosion in a 180° parabolic-shaped bed channel occurs mostly at the zone from bend angles 120° to 140°. Vanes were installed at angles of 10°, 15°, 20°, 30°, and 40° to the tangential flow component maintaining a spacingof 75 cm distance from one vane to another. Experimental results show that a 15° vane angle produces best result in reducing outer bank scour in a parabolic-shaped channel. The data presented in this paper can also be used for validating three-dimensional turbulence models for simulating flows in a curved channel.

  13. Idaho National Laboratory Experimental Program to Measure the Flow Phenomena in a Scaled Model of a Prismatic Gas-Cooled Reactor Lower Plenum for Validation of CFD Codes

    SciTech Connect

    Hugh M. McIlroy Jr.; Donald M. McEligot; Robert J. Pink

    2008-09-01

    The experimental program that is being conducted at the Matched Index-of-Refraction (MIR) Flow Facility at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to obtain benchmark data on measurements of flow phenomena in a scaled model of a prismatic gas-cooled reactor lower plenum using 3-D Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) is presented. A description of the scaling analysis, experimental facility, 3-D PIV system, measurement uncertainties and analysis, experimental procedures and samples of the data sets that have been obtained are included. Samples of the data set that will be presented include mean-velocity-field and turbulence data in an approximately 1:7 scale model of a region of the lower plenum of a typical prismatic gas-cooled reactor (GCR) similar to a General Atomics Gas-Turbine-Modular Helium Reactor (GTMHR) design. This experiment has been selected as the first Standard Problem endorsed by the Generation IV International Forum. The flow in the lower plenum consists of multiple jets injected into a confined cross flow - with obstructions. The model consists of a row of full circular posts along its centerline with half-posts on the two parallel walls to approximate flow scaled to that expected from the staggered parallel rows of posts in the reactor design. The model is fabricated from clear, fused quartz to match the refractive-index of the mineral oil working fluid. The benefit of the MIR technique is that it permits high-quality measurements to be obtained without locating intrusive transducers that disturb the flow field and without distortion of the optical paths. An advantage of the INL MIR system is its large size which allows improved spatial and temporal resolution compared to similar facilities at smaller scales. Results concentrate on the region of the lower plenum near its far reflector wall (away from the outlet duct). Inlet jet Reynolds numbers (based on the jet diameter and the time-mean average flow rate) are approximately 4,300 and 12,400. The measurements

  14. Environmental assessment for the Explosive Waste Treatment Facility at Site 300, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory proposes to build, permit, and operate the Explosive Waste Treatment Facility (EWTF) to treat explosive waste at LLNL`s Experimental Test Site, Site 300. It is also proposed to close the EWTF at the end of its useful life in accordance with the regulations. The facility would replace the existing Building 829 Open Burn Facility (B829) and would treat explosive waste generated at the LLNL Livermore Site and at Site 300 either by open burning or open detonation, depending on the type of waste. The alternatives addressed in the 1992 sitewide EIS/EIR are reexamined in this EA. These alternatives included: (1) the no-action alternative which would continue open burning operations at B829; (2) continuation of only open burning at a new facility (no open detonation); (3) termination of open burning operations with shipment of explosive waste offsite; and (4) the application of alternative treatment technologies. This EA examines the impact of construction, operation, and closure of the EWTF. Construction of the EWTF would result in the clearing of a small amount of previously disturbed ground. No adverse impact is expected to any state or federal special status plant or animal species (special status species are classified as threatened, endangered, or candidate species by either state or federal legislation). Operation of the EWTF is expected to result in a reduced threat to involved workers and the public because the proposed facility would relocate existing open burning operations to a more remote area and would incorporate design features to reduce the amount of potentially harmful emissions. No adverse impacts were identified for activities necessary to close the EWTF at the end of its useful life.

  15. Compton Scattering and Its Applications: The PLEIADES Femtosecond X-ray Source at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Hartemann, F V; Brown, W J; Anderson, S G; Barty, C P J; Betts, S M; Booth, R; Crane, J K; Cross, R R; Fittinghoff, D N; Gibson, D J; Kuba, J; Rupp, B; Tremaine, A M; Springer, P T

    2003-05-01

    Remarkable developments in critical technologies including terawatt-class lasers using chirped-pulse amplification, high brightness photoinjectors, high-gradient accelerators, and superconducting linacs make it possible to design and operate compact, tunable, subpicosecond Compton scattering x-ray sources with a wide variety of applications. In such novel radiation sources, the collision between a femtosecond laser pulse and a low emittance relativistic electron bunch in a small ({micro}m{sup 3}) interaction volume produces Doppler-upshifted scattered photons with unique characteristics: the energy is tunable in the 5-500 keV range, the angular divergence of the beam is small (mrad), and the pulses are ultrashort (10 fs - 10 ps). Two main paths are currently being followed in laboratories worldwide: high peak brightness, using ultrahigh intensity femtosecond lasers at modest repetition rates, and high average brightness, using superconducting linac and high average power laser technology at MHz repetition rates. Targeted applications range from x-ray protein crystallography and high contrast medical imaging to femtosecond pump-probe and diffraction experiments. More exotic uses of such sources include the {gamma}-{gamma} collider, NIF backlighting, nonlinear Compton scattering, and high-field QED. Theoretical considerations and experimental results will be discussed within this context.

  16. Joint research and development on toxic-material emergency response between ENEA and LLNL. 1982 progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Gudiksen, P.; Lange, R.; Dickerson, M.; Sullivan, T.; Rosen, L.; Walker, H.; Boeri, G.B.; Caracciolo, R.; Fiorenza, R.

    1982-11-01

    A summary is presented of current and future cooperative studies between ENEA and LLNL researchers designed to develop improved real-time emergency response capabilities for assessing the environmental consequences resulting from an accidental release of toxic materials into the atmosphere. These studies include development and evaluation of atmospheric transport and dispersion models, interfacing of data processing and communications systems, supporting meteorological field experiments, and integration of radiological measurements and model results into real-time assessments.

  17. Virtual Laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hut, P.

    At the frontier of most areas in science, computer simulations playa central role. The traditional division of natural science into experimental and theoretical investigations is now completely outdated. Instead, theory, simulation, and experimentation form three equally essential aspects, each with its own unique flavor and challenges. Yet, education in computational science is still lagging far behind, and the number of text books in this area is minuscule compared to the many text books on theoretical and experimental science. As a result, many researchers still carry out simulations in a haphazard way, without properly setting up the computational equivalent of a well equipped laboratory. The art of creating such a virtual laboratory, while providing proper extensibility and documentation, is still in its infancy. A new approach is described here, Open Knowledge, as an extension of the notion of Open Source software. Besides open source code, manuals, and primers, an open knowledge project provides simulated dialogues between code developers, thus sharing not only the code, but also the motivations behind the code.

  18. LLNL-Generated Content for the California Academy of Sciences, Morrison Planetarium Full-Dome Show: Earthquake

    SciTech Connect

    Rodgers, A J; Petersson, N A; Morency, C E; Simmons, N A; Sjogreen, B

    2012-01-23

    The California Academy of Sciences (CAS) Morrison Planetarium is producing a 'full-dome' planetarium show on earthquakes and asked LLNL to produce content for the show. Specifically the show features numerical ground motion simulations of the M 7.9 1906 San Francisco and a possible future M 7.05 Hayward fault scenario earthquake. The show also features concepts of plate tectonics and mantle convection using images from LLNL's G3D global seismic tomography. This document describes the data that was provided to the CAS in support of production of the 'Earthquake' show. The CAS is located in Golden Gate Park, San Francisco and hosts over 1.6 million visitors. The Morrison Planetarium, within the CAS, is the largest all digital planetarium in the world. It features a 75-foot diameter spherical section projection screen tilted at a 30-degree angle. Six projectors cover the entire field of view and give a three-dimensional immersive experience. CAS shows strive to use scientifically accurate digital data in their productions. The show, entitled simply 'Earthquake', will debut on 26 May 2012. They are working on graphics and animations based on the same data sets for display on LLNL powerwalls and flat-screens as well as for public release.

  19. Final Report for LDRD project 03-ERD-021: ''Analyzing the Long-Range Transport of Asian Aerosols Using an LLNL Atmospheric Model and CAMS/NOAA Measurements from Northern California''

    SciTech Connect

    Cameron-Smith, P

    2005-02-10

    The primary purposes of this project were to (1) improve and validate the LLNL/IMPACT atmospheric chemistry and aerosol transport model, (2) experimentally analyze size- and time-resolved aerosol measurements taken during spring 2001 in Northern California, and (3) understand the origin of dust impacting Northern California. Under this project, we (1) more than doubled the resolution of the LLNL-IMPACT global atmospheric chemistry and aerosol model (to 1 x 1 degree), (2) added an interactive dust emission algorithm to the IMPACT model in order to simulate observed events, (3) added detailed microphysics to the IMPACT model to calculate the size-distribution of aerosols in terms of mass, (4) analyzed the aerosol mass and elemental composition of the size- and time-resolved aerosol measurements made by our UC Davis collaborators, and (5) determined that the majority of the observed soil dust is from intercontinental transport across the Pacific. A detailed report on this project is in the attached document ''Impact of Long-Range Dust Transport on Northern California in Spring 2002'' (UCRL-TR-209597), except for the addition of aerosol microphysics, which is covered in the attached document ''Implementation of the Missing Aerosol Physics into LLNL IMPACT'' (UCRL-TR-209568). In addition to the technical results, this project has (1) produced a journal article presenting our results that will be submitted shortly, (2) enabled collaborations with UC Davis and the California Air Resources Board, (3) generated a direct DOE request and large computer allocation to simulate the radiative impact of sulfate aerosols at high-resolution over the last 50 years, and (4) contributed to successful LLNL responses to requests for proposals from (a) the DOE Atmospheric Science Program ($780k), (b) the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program ($720k), and (c) the NASA Global Modeling and Analysis Program ($525k). The journal article will be based on the report listed above

  20. Shrapnel impact probability and diagnostic port failure analysis for LLNL`s explosives testing contained firing facility (CFF)

    SciTech Connect

    Price, D. E., LLNL

    1998-05-22

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory` s (LLNL) Contained Firing Facility (CFF) is a facility to be constructed for explosives testing of up to 60 kg of explosives at LLNL` s Site 300 Explosives Test Site. The CFF will be a large, rectangular, reinforced concrete firing chamber, lined with steel for shrapnel protection. The CFF will contain several glass ports for cameras, lasers, and other diagnostic equipment to be used for data collection during planned explosives detonations. Glass is used due to the need for the greatest possible optical clarity. This study was performed during the CFF final design stage to determine probabilities and consequences (bounding and best estimate) of impact of shrapnel, due to concerns about the possible effects of rebounding shrapnel on these glass diagnostic ports. We developed a customized version of the Persistence of Vision{trademark} Ray-Tracer (POV-Ray{trademark}) version 3.02 code for the Macintosh TM Operating System (MacOS{trademark}). POV-Ray creates three- dimensional, very high quality (photo-realistic) images with realistic reflections, shading, textures, perspective, and other effects using a rendering technique called ray-tracing. It reads a text file that describes the objects and lighting in a scene and generates an image of that scene from the viewpoint of a camera, also described in the text file. The customized code (POV-Ray Shrapnel Tracker, V3.02 - Custom Build) generates fragment trajectory paths at user designated angle intervals in three dimensions, tracks these trajectory paths through any complex three-dimensional space, and outputs detailed data for each ray as requested by the user, including trajectory source location, initial direction of each trajectory, vector data for each surface/trajectory interaction, and any impacts with designated model target surfaces during any trajectory segment (direct path or reflected paths). This allows determination of the three-dimensional trajectory of each

  1. Experimental characteristics of a high-gain free-electron laser amplifier operating at 8-mm and 2-mm wavelengths

    SciTech Connect

    Throop, A.L.; Orzechowski, T.J.; Anderson, B.R.; Chambers, F.W.; Clark, J.C.; Fawley, W.M.; Jong, R.A.; Halbach, K.; Hopkins, D.B.; Sessler, A.M.

    1987-06-08

    The Electron Laser Facility (ELF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) uses a high-current induction linac (3.5 MeV, 1000 A), in conjunction with a pulsed electromagnetic wiggler (4.0 M, 4000 G), to operate a free electron laser (FEL) that produces intense radiation in the microwave regime (2 to 8 mm). ELF is a high-gain, single-pass amplifier, using a commercial microwave source as an oscillator input (200 W-50 kW). Previous experiments at 35 GHz produced exponential gains of 40 dB/m, peak powers exceeding 1 GW, and beam-to-rf conversion efficiencies of 34%. Recent experiments at 140 GHz have demonstrated exponential gains of 22 dB/m, peak powers exceeding 50 MW, and total gains of 65 dB. In this paper, we describe the experimental results at these two frequencies and compare then with the predictions of simulation codes.

  2. First and second harmonic ECRH experience at gyrotron frequencies at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Stallard, B.

    1987-11-01

    Plasma heating of electrons in both mirror machines and tokamaks, using mm wave gyrotron sources, have been carried out in many experiments in recent years. The technology for both sources and mode-preserving waveguide transmission systems is well developed at power levels of 200 kW. At LLNL electron heating at 28 GHz in the TMX-U tandem mirror has been used to create hot electrons required for a thermal barrier (potential well). TMX-U, and other devices operating at lower frequency and power (10 GHz, few kW), routinely generates electron populations with mean energies of 100 to 500 keV and densities in the low to mid 10/sup 11/ cm/sup -3/ range. Radial pressure profiles vary from peaked-on-axis to hollow and are dependent on the mod-B resonance surfaces. Experiments on the axisymmetric mirror SM-1 have shown improved heating efficiency using multiple frequencies with narrow frequency separation. The importance of rf diffusion in determining electron confinement has been shown in CONSTANCE B. Fokker-Planck and particle orbit models have been useful for understanding the importance of cavity heating for creating runaway electrons, the sensitivity of hot electron production to cold plasma, the reduction of electron lifetime by rf diffusion, and the effect of multiple frequencies on heating stochasticity. Potential wells generated in plasmas with large fractions of mirror-trapped electrons have been measured in TMX-U. These offer prospects for enhanced confinement of highly stripped ions. 11 refs., 18 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. LLNL MOX fuel lead assemblies data report for the surplus plutonium disposition environmental impact statement

    SciTech Connect

    O`Connor, D.G.; Fisher, S.E.; Holdaway, R.

    1998-08-01

    The purpose of this document is to support the US Department of Energy (DOE) Fissile Materials Disposition Program`s preparation of the draft surplus plutonium disposition environmental impact statement. This is one of several responses to data call requests for background information on activities associated with the operation of the lead assembly (LA) mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication facility. The DOE Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (DOE-MD) has developed a dual-path strategy for disposition of surplus weapons-grade plutonium. One of the paths is to disposition surplus plutonium through irradiation of MOX fuel in commercial nuclear reactors. MOX fuel consists of plutonium and uranium oxides (PuO{sub 2} and UO{sub 2}), typically containing 95% or more UO{sub 2}. DOE-MD requested that the DOE Site Operations Offices nominate DOE sites that meet established minimum requirements that could produce MOX LAs. LLNL has proposed an LA MOX fuel fabrication approach that would be done entirely inside an S and S Category 1 area. This includes receipt and storage of PuO{sub 2} powder, fabrication of MOX fuel pellets, assembly of fuel rods and bundles, and shipping of the packaged fuel to a commercial reactor site. Support activities will take place within a Category 1 area. Building 332 will be used to receive and store the bulk PuO{sub 2} powder, fabricate MOX fuel pellets, and assemble fuel rods. Building 334 will be used to assemble, store, and ship fuel bundles. Only minor modifications would be required of Building 332. Uncontaminated glove boxes would need to be removed, petition walls would need to be removed, and minor modifications to the ventilation system would be required.

  4. Physical properties in LLNL Yucca Flat areas: The ROCK PILE Concept

    SciTech Connect

    Burkhard, N.R.

    1989-09-01

    Measurements of grain density, bulk density, water content and seismic travel time have been made for over two decades in Yucca Flat. The basic data set consists of the zonal averages of the LLNL Yucca Flat stratigraphic units for bulk density, grain density, water content, porosity, gas-filled porosity, and saturation and of the average work point velocities and average overburden velocities. The errors associated with the zonal averages were calculated and used to determine whether future measurements are warranted. The velocity data were fitted with smooth functional forms to determine whether velocity is predictable from depth alone. Analysis of the measurements indicates that an adequate sampling of the units in Yucca Flat has been obtained for the average physical properties of the stratigraphic units. Further measurement of grain densities at specific depth horizons is not needed. Larger contributions to the calculated errors in porosity, gas-filled porosity, and saturation come from measurement errors in bulk density and water content. The error associated with assuming a bulk density and a water content for a stratigraphic unit is comparable to the measurement error for these properties. Therefore these properties and the properties calculated from them can usually be assumed with about the same accuracy as if measurements had been made. Consequently it appears that what is really needed is a measurement which would determine the presence of anomalous properties. The average overburden velocity and the average work point velocity are not as predictable as the physical properties of the stratigraphic units. 2 refs., 8 figs., 3 tab.

  5. Laboratory measurements of Vp and Vs in a porosity-developed crustal rock: Experimental investigation into the effects of porosity at deep crustal pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Satoshi; Ishikawa, Masahiro; Arima, Makoto; Tatsumi, Yoshiyuki

    2016-05-01

    In order to evaluate the influence of porosity on the elastic properties of crustal rocks at deep crustal pressures, we performed laboratory measurements of compressional-wave (Vp) and shear-wave (Vs) velocities in a porosity-developed gabbro sample up to 1.0 GPa at room temperature. Based on the measured Vp and Vs data, we evaluated the changes in velocities, Vp/Vs, Poisson's ratio (σ), and total porosity of the rock as a function of pressure. Compared with the 'porosity-free' intrinsic elastic values of the gabbro sample, our results suggest that the development of porosity in crustal rocks lowers their Vp, Vs, Vp/Vs, and Poisson's ratio. Deviations (ΔVp, ΔVs, ΔVp/Vs, and Δσ) of the measured values from the intrinsic values are enhanced with increasing porosity. We evaluated the ΔVp from previous experimental study on the rocks of Tanzawa plutonic complex providing constraints on interpretation of the seismic velocity profiles of the Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) arc and found a large negative ΔVp (up to - 22.7%) at lower pressures. The intrinsic velocity combined with the measured velocity data at in situ pressure conditions suggest that the ranges of Vp (6.0-6.5 km/s) in the middle crust of the IBM arc reflect the presence of considerable porosity and its closure in intermediate rocks and/or the change of composition from felsic to intermediate in mid-crustal rocks.

  6. Energy and technology review, January--February 1995. State of the laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Bookless, W.A.; Stull, S.; Cassady, C.; Kaiper, G.; Ledbetter, G.; McElroy, L.; Parker, A.

    1995-02-01

    This issue of Energy and Technology Review highlights the Laboratory`s 1994 accomplishments in their mission areas and core programs--economic competitiveness, national security, lasers, energy, the environment, biology and biotechnology, engineering, physics and space science, chemistry and materials science, computations, and science and math education. LLNL is a major national resource of science and technology expertise, and they are committed to applying this expertise to meet vital national needs.

  7. Laboratory Data for X-Ray Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beiersdorfer, P.; Brown, G. V.; Chen, H.; Gu, M.-F.; Kahn, S. M.; Lepson, J. K.; Savin, D. W.; Utter, S. B.

    2000-01-01

    Laboratory facilities have made great strides in producing large sets of reliable data for X-ray astronomy, which include ionization and recombination cross sections needed for charge balance calculations as well as the atomic data needed for interpreting X-ray line formation. We discuss data from the new generation sources and pay special attention to the LLNL electron beam ion trap experiment, which is unique in its ability to provide direct laboratory access to spectral data under precisely controlled conditions that simulate those found in many astrophysical plasmas. Examples of spectral data obtained in the 1-160 A wavelength range are given illustrating the type of laboratory X-ray data produced in support of such missions as Chandra, X-Ray Multi-Mirror telescope (XMM), Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA) and Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer Satellite (EUVE).

  8. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site Specific Standard for Nonnuclear Safety Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Failor, R; Beach, D R; Brereton, S; Hildum, J S; Ingram, C; Spagnolo, S; Van Warmerdam, C

    2003-05-06

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and the NNSA Livermore Site Office teamed up to prepare a site specific work smart standard setting requirements for preparation of safety basis documents for LLNL non-nuclear operations and facilities. This standard documents how all hazards (biological, chemical, explosive, industrial, and radiological) shall be evaluated, classified, analyzed, and controls developed. This standard was developed to evaluate hazards at the facility level to mesh with LLNL's ISM system for reviewing hazards at the activity level. This standard presents an approach to establishing safety basis for non-nuclear operations and activities, taking a graded approach based on the potential for impacts to the health of collocated workers and the public. Direct worker safety is covered by LLNL's work activity level reviews and requirements. This standard includes streamlined mechanisms for classifying hazards based upon the unmitigated potential for human health impacts. A review or practices at several private industries, government laboratories, and DOE complex sites provided a benchmark and comparison of safety analysis processes. These approaches were compared with LLNL's existing systems, leading to a determination that facility specific safety basis documents added value to a rapid authorization for new work activities in LLNL facilities. A process for hazard classification that would be viewed as more credible than the previous facility classification system was developed, including a method allowing correlation of chemical inventories with TEEL* concentrations. A graded approach for classification of explosive hazards, consistent with the DOE Explosive Safety Manual, was included. The standard was designed to be complementary with LLNL's existing work smart standards covering the hazards identified in a facility. A standard for LLNL's Work Smart Standard set was prepared that will assure all hazards are covered with appropriate levels of

  9. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Working Reference Material Production Pla

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Amy; Thronas, Denise; Marshall, Robert

    1998-11-04

    This Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Working Reference Material Production Plan was written for LLNL by the Los Alamos National Laboratory to address key elements of producing seven Pu-diatomaceous earth NDA Working Reference Materials (WRMS). These WRMS contain low burnup Pu ranging in mass from 0.1 grams to 68 grams. The composite Pu mass of the seven WRMS was designed to approximate the maximum TRU allowable loading of 200 grams Pu. This document serves two purposes: first, it defines all the operations required to meet the LLNL Statement of Work quality objectives, and second, it provides a record of the production and certification of the WRMS. Guidance provided in ASTM Standard Guide C1128-89 was used to ensure that this Plan addressed all the required elements for producing and certifying Working Reference Materials. The Production Plan was written to provide a general description of the processes, steps, files, quality control, and certification measures that were taken to produce the WRMS. The Plan identifies the files where detailed procedures, data, quality control, and certification documentation and forms are retained. The Production Plan is organized into three parts: a) an initial section describing the preparation and characterization of the Pu02 and diatomaceous earth materials, b) middle sections describing the loading, encapsulation, and measurement on the encapsulated WRMS, and c) final sections describing the calculations of the Pu, Am, and alpha activity for the WRMS and the uncertainties associated with these quantities.

  10. Special Analysis for the Disposal of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory EnergyX Macroencapsulated Waste Stream at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Shott, Gregory J.

    2015-06-01

    This special analysis (SA) evaluates whether the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) EnergyX Macroencapsulated waste stream (B LAMACRONCAP, Revision 1) is suitable for disposal by shallow land burial (SLB) at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The LLNL EnergyX Macroencapsulated waste stream is macroencapsulated mixed waste generated during research laboratory operations and maintenance (LLNL 2015). The LLNL EnergyX Macroencapsulated waste stream required a special analysis due to tritium (3H), cobalt-60 (60Co), cesium-137 (137Cs), and radium-226 (226Ra) exceeding the NNSS Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) Action Levels (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office [NNSA/NFO] 2015).The results indicate that all performance objectives can be met with disposal of the waste stream in a SLB trench. Addition of the LLNL EnergyX Macroencapsulated inventory slightly increases multiple performance assessment results, with the largest relative increase occurring for the all-pathways annual total effective dose (TED). The maximum mean and 95th percentile 222Rn flux density remain less than the performance objective throughout the compliance period. The LLNL EnergyX Macroencapsulated waste stream is suitable for disposal by SLB at the Area 5 RWMS. The waste stream is recommended for approval without conditions.

  11. Environmental compliance Modeling at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Brandstetter, E.R., LLNL

    1998-02-01

    This paper presents a post-rehabilitation monitoring and modeling study of the sanitary sewer system at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The study evaluated effectiveness of sewer system rehabilitation efforts and defined benchmarks for environmental success. A PCSWMM model for the sanitary sewer system was developed and applied to demonstrate the success of a $5 million rehabilitation effort. It determined that rainfall-dependent inflow and infiltration (RDI&I) had been reduced by 88%, and that system upgrades adequately manage predicted peak flows. An ongoing modeling and analysis program currently assists management in evaluating the system`s needs for continuing maintenance and further upgrades. This paper also summarizes a 1989 study that evaluated data collected from December 1, 1988, to January 6, 1989, to determine the adequacy of the LLNL sewer system to accommodate present and future peak flows, and the Sanitary Sewer Rehabilitation (SSR) project, which took place from 1991 through 1995.

  12. Experimental Progress Report--Modernizing the Fission Basis

    SciTech Connect

    Macri, R A

    2012-02-17

    In 2010 a proposal (Modernizing the Fission Basis) was prepared to 'resolve long standing differences between LANL and LLNL associated with the correct fission basis for analysis of nuclear test data'. Collaboration between LANL/LLNL/TUNL has been formed to implement this program by performing high precision measurements of neutron induced fission product yields as a function of incident neutron energy. This new program benefits from successful previous efforts utilizing mono-energetic neutrons undertaken by this collaboration. The first preliminary experiment in this new program was performed between July 24-31, 2011 at TUNL and had 2 main objectives: (1) demonstrating the capability to measure characteristic {gamma}-rays from specific fission products; (2) studying background effects from room scattered neutrons. In addition, a new dual fission ionization chamber has been designed and manufactured. The production design of the chamber is shown in the picture below. The first feasibility experiment to test this chamber is scheduled at the TUNL Tandem Laboratory from September 19-25, 2011. The dual fission chamber design will allow simultaneous exposure of absolute fission fragment emission rate detectors and the thick fission activation foils, positioned between the two chambers. This document formalizes the earlier experimental report demonstrating the experimental capability to make accurate (< 2 %) precision gamma-ray spectroscopic measurements of the excitation function of high fission product yields of the 239Pu(n,f) reaction (induced by quasimonoenergetic neutrons). A second experiment (9/2011) introduced an compact double-sided fission chamber into the experimental arrangement, and so the relative number of incident neutrons striking the sample foil at each bombarding energy is limited only by statistics. (The number of incident neutrons often limits the experimental accuracy.) Fission chamber operation was so exceptional that 2 more chambers have been

  13. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Emergency Response Capability 2009 Baseline Needs Assessment Performance Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Sharry, J A

    2009-12-30

    This document was prepared by John A. Sharry, LLNL Fire Marshal and Division Leader for Fire Protection and was reviewed by Sandia/CA Fire Marshal, Martin Gresho. This document is the second of a two-part analysis of Emergency Response Capabilities of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The first part, 2009 Baseline Needs Assessment Requirements Document established the minimum performance criteria necessary to meet mandatory requirements. This second part analyses the performance of Lawrence Livermore Laboratory Emergency Management Department to the contents of the Requirements Document. The document was prepared based on an extensive review of information contained in the 2004 BNA, a review of Emergency Planning Hazards Assessments, a review of building construction, occupancy, fire protection features, dispatch records, LLNL alarm system records, fire department training records, and fire department policies and procedures. On October 1, 2007, LLNL contracted with the Alameda County Fire Department to provide emergency response services. The level of service called for in that contract is the same level of service as was provided by the LLNL Fire Department prior to that date. This Compliance Assessment will evaluate fire department services beginning October 1, 2008 as provided by the Alameda County Fire Department.

  14. Mitigation Monitoring Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory FY00 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Mcguff, R R

    2003-12-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has completed eight years of implementing the mitigation measures from the Final Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report (EIS/EIR) for the Continued Operation of LLNL and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Livermore. This eighth annual report documents LLNL's implementation of the mitigation measures during the fiscal year ending September 30, 2000 (FY00). It provides background information on the mitigation measures, describes activities undertaken during FY00, and documents changes in the monitoring program. Table 1 on page 12, provides a numerical listing of each mitigation measure, the department responsible for implementing it, and the location within this report where the status is discussed. The discussion of the mitigation measures is organized by the University of California (UC)'s three categories of approaches to implementation: project-specific, service-level and administrative. Table 2 on page 19, Table 6 on page 55, and Table 7 on page 63 provide a detailed discussion of each mitigation measure, including LLNL's implementation strategy and the status as of the end of the fiscal year. Table 3 on page 37, Table 4 on page 46, and Table 5 on page 47 list each construction project undertaken in FY00 and the mitigation measures implemented.

  15. Environment, safety and health progress assessment of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-01

    This report documents the result of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environment, Safety and Health (ES H) Progress Assessment of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Livermore, California. The onsite assessment, which was conducted from November 9 through November 20, 1992, included a selective review of the ES H management systems and programs with principal focus on the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Defense Programs (DP); San Francisco Field Office (SF), including the Livermore Site Office (LSO); and the site contractor, the University of California. The purpose of the LLNL ES H Progress Assessment is to provide the Secretary with an independent assessment of the adequacy and effectiveness of the DOE and contractor management structures, resources, and systems to address ES H issues and requirements. The assessment was not a comprehensive compliance assessment of ES H activities. The point of reference for assessing programs at LLNL was, for the most part, the Tiger Team Assessment of LLNL, which was conducted from February 26 through April 5, 1990. The LLNL Progress Assessment was conducted by a team of 12 professionals from various DOE offices and their support contractors, with expertise in the areas of management, environment, safety, and health. The Progress Assessment Team concluded that LLNL management recognizes the importance that the Secretary of Energy places on ES H excellence and has responded with improvements in all ES H areas. Progress has been made in addressing the deficiencies identified in the 1990 Tiger Team Assessment. Although much remains to be done and concerns were noted in several areas, these concerns do not diminish the significance of the progress made since the 1990 Tiger Team Assessment.

  16. Environment, safety and health progress assessment of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-01

    This report documents the result of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environment, Safety and Health (ES&H) Progress Assessment of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Livermore, California. The onsite assessment, which was conducted from November 9 through November 20, 1992, included a selective review of the ES&H management systems and programs with principal focus on the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Defense Programs (DP); San Francisco Field Office (SF), including the Livermore Site Office (LSO); and the site contractor, the University of California. The purpose of the LLNL ES&H Progress Assessment is to provide the Secretary with an independent assessment of the adequacy and effectiveness of the DOE and contractor management structures, resources, and systems to address ES&H issues and requirements. The assessment was not a comprehensive compliance assessment of ES&H activities. The point of reference for assessing programs at LLNL was, for the most part, the Tiger Team Assessment of LLNL, which was conducted from February 26 through April 5, 1990. The LLNL Progress Assessment was conducted by a team of 12 professionals from various DOE offices and their support contractors, with expertise in the areas of management, environment, safety, and health. The Progress Assessment Team concluded that LLNL management recognizes the importance that the Secretary of Energy places on ES&H excellence and has responded with improvements in all ES&H areas. Progress has been made in addressing the deficiencies identified in the 1990 Tiger Team Assessment. Although much remains to be done and concerns were noted in several areas, these concerns do not diminish the significance of the progress made since the 1990 Tiger Team Assessment.

  17. The National Ignition Facility: an experimental platform for studying behavior of matter under extreme conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moses, Edward

    2011-11-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF), a 192-beam Nd-glass laser facility capable of producing 1.8 MJ and 500 TW of ultraviolet light, is now operational at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). As the world's largest and most energetic laser system, NIF serves as the national center for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and National Nuclear Security Administration to achieve thermonuclear burn in the laboratory and to explore the behavior of matter at extreme temperatures and energy densities. By concentrating the energy from all of its 192 extremely energetic laser beams into a mm3-sized target, NIF can reach the conditions required to initiate fusion reactions. NIF can also provide access to extreme scientific environments: temperatures about 100 million K, densities of 1,000 g/cm3, and pressures 100 billion times atmospheric pressure. These conditions have never been created before in a laboratory and exist naturally only in interiors of the planetary and stellar environments as well as in nuclear weapons. Since August 2009, the NIF team has been conducting experiments in support of the National Ignition Campaign (NIC)—a partnership among LLNL, Los Alamos National Laboratory, General Atomics, the University of Rochester, Sandia National Laboratories, as well as a number of universities and international collaborators. The results from these initial experiments show promise for the relatively near-term achievement of ignition. Capsule implosion experiments at energies up to 1.2 MJ have demonstrated laser energetics, radiation temperatures, and symmetry control that scale to ignition conditions. Of particular importance is the demonstration of peak hohlraum temperatures near 300 eV with overall backscatter less than 10%. Cryogenic target capability and additional diagnostics are being installed in preparation for layered target deuterium-tritium implosions to be conducted later in 2010. Important national security and basic science experiments have

  18. Precision and manufacturing at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saito, Theodore T.; Wasley, Richard J.; Stowers, Irving F.; Donaldson, Robert R.; Thompson, Daniel C.

    1994-01-01

    Precision Engineering is one of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's core strengths. This paper discusses the past and present current technology transfer efforts of LLNL's Precision Engineering program and the Livermore Center for Advanced Manufacturing and Productivity (LCAMP). More than a year ago the Precision Machine Commercialization project embodied several successful methods of transferring high technology from the National Laboratories to industry. Currently, LCAMP has already demonstrated successful technology transfer and is involved in a broad spectrum of current programs. In addition, this paper discusses other technologies ripe for future transition including the Large Optics Diamond Turning Machine.

  19. Laboratory-scale experimental burning of selected Palaeozoic limestones from the Barrandian area (Prague Basin, Bohemian Massif, Czech Republic): re-evaluation of properties of historical raw material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlovcev, Petr; Prikryl, Richard; Stastna, Aneta

    2013-04-01

    Palaeozoic limestones from the Barrandian area (Prague Basin, Bohemian Massif, Czech Republic) have been quarried and utilized, among others, for manufacturing of inorganic binders. Certain beds, e.g. Devonian dvorecko-prokopské limestones were historically burnt for high quality hydraulic lime which is not produced recently. Aiming to evaluate potential of this specific raw material for small-scale production of restoration hydraulic lime, we have conducted some laboratory experimental burning tests in an electrical furnace up to 1200°C. Prior to the burning, all studied lithotypes (4 in total) have been examined for their mineralogy (optical microscopy, cathodoluminescence study, X-ray diffraction of insoluble residue) and geochemistry (wet chemical analyses). Studied biomicritic limestones can be classified as wackstones to packstones. Carbonate content varies from 80 to 90 %, the rest is due to dominant illite and silica, and subordinate kaolinite, feldspars, and/or chlorite. Specific composition of non-carbonate component (specifically high content of illite and silica) positively influences formation of CS, Ca, and/or CAS phases when burnt at calcination temperatures from 850 to 1200°C (in steps of 50°C). In the products formed during firing, mineral phases typical for hydraulic lime, such as larnite, brownmillerite, and gehlenite, along with free lime, quartz and silica phases, and portlandite were identified by X-ray diffraction. The amount of the dominant hydraulic phase, larnite, increased with higher firing temperature. On the other hand, content of free lime, quartz and silica decreased. The amount of portlandite was almost independent of the firing temperature. Higher amounts of larnite and other hydraulic phase were detected during the peak firing temperature of 1200°C in specimens containing higher amount of insoluble residue. From the study performed, it is evident that studied dvorecko-prokopské limestone, which included favourable amount of

  20. Oak Ridge Flywheel Evaluation Laboratory. Annual report, October 1, 1979-September 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, Jr., R. S.; Babelay, Jr., E. F.; Sutton, B. J.

    1981-04-30

    The purpose of the Oak Ridge Flywheel Evaluation Laboratory Annual Report is to present work performed for and funded by the Mechanical Energy Storage Technology Project at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). In addition to the management sections (schedules, budgets, and facility accomplishments), summaries are given for the ultimate speed evaluations of one flywheel built by Union Carbide Corporation, Nuclear Division (UCC-ND); four flywheels constructed under subcontracts from Sandia National Laboratory, Albuquerque; one fabricated by LLNL; and one manufactured by General Electric Company. Also included are the test results from two momentum transfer tests of the UCC-ND-designed flywheel. Prototype crash rings were used in a number of these tests, and a discussion of their performance is included.