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Sample records for laboratory llnl radiation

  1. Corporate Functional Management Evaluation of the LLNL Radiation Safety Organization

    SciTech Connect

    Sygitowicz, L S

    2008-03-20

    A Corporate Assess, Improve, and Modernize review was conducted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to evaluate the LLNL Radiation Safety Program and recommend actions to address the conditions identified in the Internal Assessment conducted July 23-25, 2007. This review confirms the findings of the Internal Assessment of the Institutional Radiation Safety Program (RSP) including the noted deficiencies and vulnerabilities to be valid. The actions recommended are a result of interviews with about 35 individuals representing senior management through the technician level. The deficiencies identified in the LLNL Internal Assessment of the Institutional Radiation Safety Program were discussed with Radiation Safety personnel team leads, customers of Radiation Safety Program, DOE Livermore site office, and senior ES&H management. There are significant issues with the RSP. LLNL RSP is not an integrated, cohesive, consistently implemented program with a single authority that has the clear roll and responsibility and authority to assure radiological operations at LLNL are conducted in a safe and compliant manner. There is no institutional commitment to address the deficiencies that are identified in the internal assessment. Some of these deficiencies have been previously identified and corrective actions have not been taken or are ineffective in addressing the issues. Serious funding and staffing issues have prevented addressing previously identified issues in the Radiation Calibration Laboratory, Internal Dosimetry, Bioassay Laboratory, and the Whole Body Counter. There is a lack of technical basis documentation for the Radiation Calibration Laboratory and an inadequate QA plan that does not specify standards of work. The Radiation Safety Program lack rigor and consistency across all supported programs. The implementation of DOE Standard 1098-99 Radiological Control can be used as a tool to establish this consistency across LLNL. The establishment of a site

  2. Laboratory astrophysics and atomic physics using the NASA/GSFC microcalorimeter spectrometers at the LLNL Electron Beam Ion Trap and Radiation Properties Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, G; Beiersdorfer, P; Boyce, K; Chen, H; Gu, M F; Kahn, S; Kelley, R; Kilbourne, C; May, M; Porter, F S; Szymkowiak, A; Thorn, D; Widmann, K

    2005-08-18

    The 32 pixel laboratory microcalorimeter spectrometer built by the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center is now an integral part of the spectroscopy suite used routinely by the electron beam ion trap and radiative properties group at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The second generation laboratory instrument, dubbed the XRS/EBIT, is nearly identical to the XRS instrument on the Suzaku X-ray Observatory, formerly Astro-E2. The detector array is from the same processed wafer and uses the same HgTe absorbers. it is being used to measure the photon emission from a variety of radiation sources. These include x-ray emission from laboratory simulated celestial sources, x-ray emission from highly charged ions of Au, and x-ray emission following charge exchange and radiative electron capture. The wide range of applications demonstrates the versatility of a high-resolution, high-efficiency low temperature detector that is able to collect data continually with minimal operator servicing.

  3. Transparent Laser Ceramics at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL)

    SciTech Connect

    Soules, T

    2007-06-28

    LLNL has been using the largest transparent laser ceramics for the last two years in the solid-state heat capacity laser (SSHCL). The lab is very interested in extending the use of transparent ceramics to other laser applications. In this talk we will discuss work at the laboratory aimed at better understanding the sintering and the criteria needed for good ceramic transparency, the application of transparent ceramics in the SSHCL laser and possible new applications of tailored ceramics.

  4. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) research on cold fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomassen, K. I.; Holzrichter, J. F.; Aldridge, F. T.; Balke, B.; Bowers, J.; Bullen, D. B.; Cable, M. D.; Caffee, M.; Campbell, R. B.; Colmenares, C.

    1989-09-01

    With the appearance of reports on Cold Fusion, scientists at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) began a series of increasingly sophisticated experiments and calculations to explain these phenomena. These experiments can be categorized as follows: (1) simple experiments to replicate the Utah results, (2) more sophisticated experiments to place lower bounds on the generation of heat and production of nuclear products, (3) a collaboration with Texas A and M University to analyze electrodes and electrolytes for fusion by-products in a cell producing 10 pct excess heat (we found no by-products), and (4) attempts to replicate the Frascati experiment that first found neutron bursts when high-pressure deuterium gas in a cylinder with Ti chips was temperature-cycled. We failed in categories (1) and (2) to replicate either the Pons/Fleischmann or the Jones phenomena. We have seen phenomena similar to the Frascati results, (4) but these low-level burst signals may not be coming from neutrons generated in the Ti chips. Summaries of our experiments are described in Section 2, as is a theoretical effort based on cosmic ray muons to describe low-level neutron production. Details of the experimental groups' work are contained in the six appendices. At LLNL, independent teams were spontaneously formed in response to the early announcements on cold fusion. This report's format follows this organization.

  5. LLNL (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory) research on cold fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Thomassen, K I; Holzrichter, J F

    1989-09-14

    With the appearance of reports on Cold Fusion,'' scientists at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) began a series of increasingly sophisticated experiments and calculations to explain these phenomena. These experiments can be categorized as follows: (a) simple experiments to replicate the Utah results, (b) more sophisticated experiments to place lower bounds on the generation of heat and production of nuclear products, (c) a collaboration with Texas A M University to analyze electrodes and electrolytes for fusion by-products in a cell producing 10% excess heat (we found no by-products), and (d) attempts to replicate the Frascati experiment that first found neutron bursts when high-pressure deuterium gas in a cylinder with Ti chips was temperature-cycled. We failed in categories (a) and (b) to replicate either the Pons/Fleischmann or the Jones phenomena. We have seen phenomena similar to the Frascati results, (d) but these low-level burst signals may not be coming from neutrons generated in the Ti chips. Summaries of our experiments are described in Section II, as is a theoretical effort based on cosmic ray muons to describe low-level neutron production. Details of the experimental groups' work are contained in the six appendices. At LLNL, independent teams were spontaneously formed in response to the early announcements on cold fusion. This report's format follows this organization.

  6. LLNL/UC (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory)/(University of California) AMS (accelerator mass spectrometry) facility and research program

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, J.C.; Proctor, I.D.; Southon, J.R.; Caffee, M.W.; Heikkinen, D.W.; Roberts, M.L.; Moore, T.L.; Turteltaub, K.W.; Nelson, D.E.; Loyd, D.H.; Vogel, J.S.

    1990-04-18

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and the University of California (UC) now have in operation a large AMS spectrometer built as part of a new multiuser laboratory centered on an FN tandem. AMS measurements are expected to use half of the beam time of the accelerator. LLNL use of AMS is in research on consequences of energy usage. Examples include global warming, geophysical site characterization, radiation biology and dosimetry, and study of mutagenic and carcinogenic processes. UC research activities are in clinical applications, archaeology and anthropology, oceanography, and geophysical and geochemical research. Access is also possible for researchers outside the UC system. The technological focus of the laboratory is on achieving high rates of sample through-put, unattended operation, and advances in sample preparation methods. Because of the expected growth in the research programs and the other obligations of the present accelerator, we are designing a follow-on dedicated facility for only AMS and microprobe analysis that will contain at least two accelerators with multiple spectrometers. 10 refs., 1 fig.

  7. Historical Doses from Tritiated Water and Tritiated Hydrogen Gas Released to the Atmosphere from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Part 1. Description of Tritium Dose Model (DCART) for Routine Releases from LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, S R

    2006-09-27

    DCART (Doses from Chronic Atmospheric Releases of Tritium) is a spreadsheet model developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) that calculates doses from inhalation of tritiated hydrogen gas (HT), inhalation and skin absorption of tritiated water (HTO), and ingestion of HTO and organically bound tritium (OBT) to adult, child (age 10), and infant (age 6 months to 1 year) from routine atmospheric releases of HT and HTO. DCART is a deterministic model that, when coupled to the risk assessment software Crystal Ball{reg_sign}, predicts doses with a 95% confidence interval. The equations used by DCART are described and all distributions on parameter values are presented. DCART has been tested against the results of other models and several sets of observations in the Tritium Working Groups of the International Atomic Energy Agency's programs, Biosphere Modeling and Assessment and Environmental Modeling for Radiation Safety. The version of DCART described here has been modified to include parameter values and distributions specific to conditions at LLNL. In future work, DCART will be used to reconstruct dose to the hypothetical maximally exposed individual from annual routine releases of HTO and HT from all LLNL facilities and from the Sandia National Laboratory's Tritium Research Laboratory over the last fifty years.

  8. Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics (IGPP), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL): Quinquennial report, November 14-15, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Tweed, J.

    1996-10-01

    This Quinquennial Review Report of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) branch of the Institute for Geophysics and Planetary Physics (IGPP) provides an overview of IGPP-LLNL, its mission, and research highlights of current scientific activities. This report also presents an overview of the University Collaborative Research Program (UCRP), a summary of the UCRP Fiscal Year 1997 proposal process and the project selection list, a funding summary for 1993-1996, seminars presented, and scientific publications. 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Laboratory Astrophysics at the LLNL Electron Beam Ion Traps: EBIT-I and EBIT-II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, G. V.; Boyce, K. R.; Kelley, R. L.; Porter, F. S.; Stahle, C. K.; Szymkowiak, A. E.; Tillotson, W.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Chen, H.; May, M. J.

    2002-01-01

    In order to provide a complete, accurate set of atomic data for interpreting spectra provided by missions such as XMM-Newton, the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, and Astro-E2, we have harnessed the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's electron beam ion traps EBIT-I. EBIT-II, and Super-EBIT for laboratory astrophysics. In support of this work we have developed a number of unique techniques, including the ability to experimentally simulate a Maxwellian distribution of electron energies and measuring low-energy charge exchange cross sections using the magnetic trapping mode. We have also built and operated a full suite of spectrometers spanning the 1-7000 Angstrom wavelength band, the most recent being a spectrometer based on a spare Astro-E (6 x 6) microcalorimeter array. Results of our efforts include a complete list of wavelengths of the Fe L-shell transitions, measurements of absolute and relative cross sections for direct impact, dielectronic, and resonance excitation, and measurements of low energy charge transfer reactions. A brief overview of the LLNL ebit facility, its capabilities, and some results will be discussed.

  10. Laboratory Astrophysics at the LLNL Electron Beam Ion Traps EBIT I& EBIT II

    SciTech Connect

    Beeriersdorder, P; Chen, H; May, M J; Thorn, D; Brown, G V; Boyce, K R; Kelly, R L; Porter, F S; Stahle, C K; Szymkowiak, A E; Tillotson, W; Behar, E; Gu, M F; Kahn, S M

    2002-06-18

    In order to provide a complete, accurate set of atomic data for interpreting spectra provided by missions such as XMM-Newton, the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, and Astro-E2, we have harnessed the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's electron beam ion traps EBIT-I, EBIT-II, and Super-EBIT for laboratory astrophysics. In support of this work we have developed a number of unique techniques, including the ability to experimentally simulate a Maxwellian distribution of electron energies and measuring low-energy charge exchange cross sections using the ''magnetic trapping mode''. We have also built, and operated a full suite of spectrometers spanning the 1-7000 {angstrom} wavelength band, the most recent, being the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center's Astro-E 6 x 6 engineering spare microcalorimeter array. Results of our efforts include a complete list of wavelengths of the Fe L-shell transitions, measurements of absolute and relative cross sections for direct, impact, dielectronic, and resonance excitation, and measurements of low energy charge transfer reactions. A brief overview of the LLNL, ebit facility, its capabilities, and some results will be discussed.

  11. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) multi-user Tandem Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, J.C.

    1988-09-01

    An FN tandem laboratory, cofounded by several Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Divisions, Sandia Livermore, and the University of California Regents, is now operational at Livermore. The accelerator, formerly the University of Washington injector, has been upgraded with SF/sub 6/, Dowlish tubes, and a NEC pelletron charging system. A conventional duoplasmatron, a tritium source, and two Cs sputtering sources will be fielded on the accelerator. Pulsed beams will be available from two source positions. The laboratory has been designed to accommodate up to 19 experimental positions with excellent optics and working vacuum. The facility is unshielded with both accelerator and radiological systems under the control of a distributed microprocessor system. Research activities at the tandem include nuclear physics and astrophysics, materials science and characterization programs, and accelerator mass spectrometry for archaeology, biomedical, environmental and geoscience investigators. 3 refs., 1 fig.

  12. Estimating The Reliability of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Flash X-ray (FXR) Machine

    SciTech Connect

    Ong, M M; Kihara, R; Zentler, J M; Kreitzer, B R; DeHope, W J

    2007-06-27

    At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), our flash X-ray accelerator (FXR) is used on multi-million dollar hydrodynamic experiments. Because of the importance of the radiographs, FXR must be ultra-reliable. Flash linear accelerators that can generate a 3 kA beam at 18 MeV are very complex. They have thousands, if not millions, of critical components that could prevent the machine from performing correctly. For the last five years, we have quantified and are tracking component failures. From this data, we have determined that the reliability of the high-voltage gas-switches that initiate the pulses, which drive the accelerator cells, dominates the statistics. The failure mode is a single-switch pre-fire that reduces the energy of the beam and degrades the X-ray spot-size. The unfortunate result is a lower resolution radiograph. FXR is a production machine that allows only a modest number of pulses for testing. Therefore, reliability switch testing that requires thousands of shots is performed on our test stand. Study of representative switches has produced pre-fire statistical information and probability distribution curves. This information is applied to FXR to develop test procedures and determine individual switch reliability using a minimal number of accelerator pulses.

  13. Some LLNL (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory) experience on the CRAY X-MP/24

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, H.

    1984-03-01

    The historical situation leading to LLNL's use of an X-P/2 is briefly covered. The configuration of the LLNL machine and its place in the Octopus network is shown. The basic equation of multi-processing performance is introduced and some typical cases are mentioned. The performance of three codes: (1) Tim Axelrods' version of SIMPLE; (2) the Class-7 test; and (3) the Cray-Blitz chess program are discussed.

  14. Computer Security Awareness Guide for Department of Energy Laboratories, Government Agencies, and others for use with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL): Computer security short subjects videos

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    Lonnie Moore, the Computer Security Manager, CSSM/CPPM at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Gale Warshawsky, the Coordinator for Computer Security Education & Awareness at LLNL, wanted to share topics such as computer ethics, software piracy, privacy issues, and protecting information in a format that would capture and hold an audience`s attention. Four Computer Security Short Subject videos were produced which ranged from 1-3 minutes each. These videos are very effective education and awareness tools that can be used to generate discussions about computer security concerns and good computing practices. Leaders may incorporate the Short Subjects into presentations. After talking about a subject area, one of the Short Subjects may be shown to highlight that subject matter. Another method for sharing them could be to show a Short Subject first and then lead a discussion about its topic. The cast of characters and a bit of information about their personalities in the LLNL Computer Security Short Subjects is included in this report.

  15. Historical Doses from Tritiated Water and Tritiated Hydrogen Gas Released to the Atmosphere from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Part 2. LLNL Annual Site-specific Data, 1953 - 2003

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, S R

    2005-03-07

    It is planned to use the tritium dose model, DCART (Doses from Chronic Atmospheric Releases of Tritium), to reconstruct dose to the hypothetical maximally exposed individual from annual routine releases of tritiated water (HTO) and tritiated hydrogen gas (HT) from all Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) facilities and from the Sandia National (SNL) Laboratory's Tritium Research Laboratory over the last fifty years. DCART has been described in Part 1 of ''Historical Doses From Tritiated Water And Tritiated Hydrogen Gas Released To The Atmosphere from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL)'' (UCRL-TR-205083). This report (Part 2) summarizes information about annual routine releases of tritium from LLNL (and SNL) since 1953. Historical records were used to derive facility-specific annual data (e.g., source terms, dilution factors, ambient air concentrations, meteorological data, including absolute humidity and rainfall, etc.) and their associated uncertainty distributions. These data will be used as input to DCART to calculate annual dose for each year of LLNL operations. Sources of information are carefully referenced, and assumptions are documented. Confidence on all data post-1974 is quite high. Prior to that, further adjustment to the estimated uncertainty may have to be made if more information comes to light.

  16. Positron microprobe at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Asoka, P; Howell, R; Stoeffl, W

    1998-11-01

    The electron linac based positron source at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) provides the world's highest current beam of keV positrons. We are building a positron microprobe that will produce a pulsed, focused positron beam for 3-dimensional scans of defect size and concentration with sub-micron resolution. The widely spaced and intense positron packets from the tungsten moderator at the end of the 100 MeV LLNL linac are captured and trapped in a magnetic bottle. The positrons are then released in 1 ns bunches at a 20 MHz repetition rate. With a three-stage re-moderation we will compress the cm-sized original beam to a 1 micro-meter diameter final spot on the target. The buncher will compress the arrival time of positrons on the target to less than 100 ps. A detector array with up to 60 BaF2 crystals in paired coincidence will measure the annihilation radiation with high efficiency and low background. The energy of the positrons can be varied from less than 1 keV up to 50 keV.

  17. Historical Doses from Tritiated Water and Tritiated Hydrogen Gas Relesed to the Atmosphere from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Part 1. Description of Tritium Dose Model (DCART) for Chronic Releases from LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, S

    2004-06-30

    DCART (Doses from Chronic Atmospheric Releases of Tritium) is a spreadsheet model developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) that calculates doses from inhalation of tritiated hydrogen gas (HT), inhalation and skin absorption of tritiated water (HTO), and ingestion of HTO and organically bound tritium (OBT) to adult, child (age 10), and infant (age 6 months to 1 year) from routine atmospheric releases of HT and HTO. DCART is a deterministic model that, when coupled to the risk assessment software Crystal Ball{reg_sign}, predicts doses with a 95th percentile confidence interval. The equations used by DCART are described and all distributions on parameter values are presented. DCART has been tested against the results of other models and several sets of observations in the Tritium Working Group of the International Atomic Energy Agency's Biosphere Modeling and Assessment Programme. The version of DCART described here has been modified to include parameter values and distributions specific to conditions at LLNL. In future work, DCART will be used to reconstruct dose to the hypothetical maximally exposed individual from annual routine releases of HTO and HT from all LLNL facilities and from the Sandia National Laboratory's Tritium Research Laboratory over the last fifty years.

  18. Spill exercise 1980: an LLNL emergency training exercise

    SciTech Connect

    Morse, J.L.; Gibson, T.A.; Vance, W.F.

    1981-04-01

    An emergency training exercise at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) demonstrated that off-hours emergency personnel can respond promptly and effecively to an emergency situation involving radiation, hazardous chemicals, and injured persons. The exercise simulated an explosion in a chemistry laboratory and a subsequent toxic-gas release.

  19. LLNL 1981: technical horizons

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-07-01

    Research programs at LLNL for 1981 are described in broad terms. In his annual State of the Laboratory address, Director Roger Batzel projected a $481 million operating budget for fiscal year 1982, up nearly 13% from last year. In projects for the Department of Energy and the Department of Defense, the Laboratory applies its technical facilities and capabilities to nuclear weapons design and development and other areas of defense research that include inertial confinement fusion, nonnuclear ordnances, and particle-beam technology. LLNL is also applying its unique experience and capabilities to a variety of projects that will help the nation meet its energy needs in an environmentally acceptable manner. A sampling of recent achievements by LLNL support organizations indicates their diversity. (GHT)

  20. Space Radiation Effects Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The SREL User's Handbook is designed to provide information needed by those who plan experiments involving the accelerators at this laboratory. Thus the Handbook will contain information on the properties of the machines, the beam parameters, the facilities and services provided for experimenters, etc. This information will be brought up to date as new equipment is added and modifications accomplished. This Handbook is influenced by the many excellent models prepared at other accelerator laboratories. In particular, the CERN Synchrocyclotron User's Handbook (November 1967) is closely followed in some sections, since the SREL Synchrocyclotron is a duplicate of the CERN machine. We wish to thank Dr. E. G. Michaelis for permission to draw so heavily on his work, particularly in Section II of this Handbook. We hope that the Handbook will prove useful, and will welcome suggestions and criticism.

  1. Laboratory Astrophysics, QED, and other Measurements using the EBIT Calorimeter Spectrometer at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, G V; Adams, J S; Beiersdorfer, P; Clementson, J; Frankel, M; Kahn, S M; Kelley, R L; Kilbourne, C A; Koutroumpa, D; Leutenegger, M; Porter, F S; Thorn, D B; Trabert, E

    2009-08-25

    We have used the EBIT Calorimeter Spectrometer (ECS), a microcalorimeter instrument built by the calorimeter group at the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, to make a variety of measurements since its installation at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's EBIT facility. These include measurements of charge exchange between neutral gas and K- and L-shell ions, measurements of the X-ray transmission efficiency of optical blocking filters, high resolution measurements of transition energies for high-Z, highly charged ions, and measurements of M and L-shell emission from highly charged tungsten following on earlier measurements of L-shell gold. Our results will see application in the interpretation of the spectra from the Jovian atmosphere and of the diffuse soft X-ray background, in tests of QED, and in diagnosing inertial and magnetic confinement fusion plasmas. These measurements augment previous laboratory astrophysics, atomic physics, and calibration measurements made using earlier versions of NASA's microcalorimeter spectrometer.

  2. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Oxide Material Representation in the Material Identification and Surveillance (MIS) Program, Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, D C; Dodson, K

    2004-06-30

    The Materials Identification and Surveillance (MIS) program was established within the 94-1 R&D Program to confirm the suitability of plutonium-bearing materials for stabilization, packaging, and long-term storage under DOE-STD-3013-2000. Oxide materials from different sites were chemically and physically characterized. The adequacy of the stabilization process parameters of temperature and duration at temperature (950 C and 2 hours) for eliminating chemical reactivity and reducing the moisture content to less than 0.5 weight percent were validated. Studies also include surveillance monitoring to determine the behavior of the oxides and packaging materials under storage conditions. Materials selected for this program were assumed to be representative of the overall inventory for DOE sites. The Quality Assurance section of the DOE-STD-3013-2000 required that each site be responsible for assuring that oxides packaged according to this standard are represented by items in the MIS characterization program. The purpose of this document is to define the path for determining if an individual item is ''represented'' in the MIS Program and to show that oxides being packaged at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) are considered represented in the MIS program. The methodology outlined in the MIS Representation Document (LA-14016-MS) for demonstrating representation requires concurrence of the MIS working Group (MIS-WG). The signature page on this document provides for the MIS-WG concurrence.

  3. LLNL casting technology

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, A.B.; Comfort, W.J. III

    1994-01-01

    Competition to produce cast parts of higher quality, lower rejection rate, and lower cost is a fundamental factor in the global economy. To gain an edge on foreign competitors, the US casting industry must cut manufacturing costs and reduce the time from design to market. Casting research and development (R&D) are the key to increasing US compentiveness in the casting arena. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is the home of a wide range of R&D projects that push the boundaries of state-of-the art casting. LLNL casting expertise and technology include: casting modeling research and development, including numerical simulation of fluid flow, heat transfer, reaction/solidification kinetics, and part distortion with residual stresses; special facilities to cast toxic material; extensive experience casting metals and nonmetals; advanced measurement and instrumentation systems. Department of Energy (DOE) funding provides the leverage for LLNL to collaborate with industrial partners to share this advanced casting expertise and technology. At the same time, collaboration with industrial partners provides LLNL technologists with broader insights into casting industry issues, casting process data, and the collective, experience of industry experts. Casting R&D is also an excellent example of dual-use technology; it is the cornerstone for increasing US industrial competitiveness and minimizing waste nuclear material in weapon component production. Annual funding for casting projects at LLNL is $10M, which represents 1% of the total LLNL budget. Metal casting accounts for about 80% of the funding. Funding is nearly equally divided between development directed toward US industrial competitiveness and weapon component casting.

  4. LLNL casting technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapiro, A. B.; Comfort, W. J., III

    1994-01-01

    Competition to produce cast parts of higher quality, lower rejection rate, and lower cost is a fundamental factor in the global economy. To gain an edge on foreign competitors, the US casting industry must cut manufacturing costs and reduce the time from design to market. Casting research and development (R&D) are the key to increasing US competiveness in the casting arena. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is the home of a wide range of R&D projects that push the boundaries of state-of-the art casting. LLNL casting expertise and technology include: casting modeling research and development, including numerical simulation of fluid flow, heat transfer, reaction/solidification kinetics, and part distortion with residual stresses; special facilities to cast toxic material; extensive experience casting metals and nonmetals; advanced measurement and instrumentation systems. Department of Energy (DOE) funding provides the leverage for LLNL to collaborate with industrial partners to share this advanced casting expertise and technology. At the same time, collaboration with industrial partners provides LLNL technologists with broader insights into casting industry issues, casting process data, and the collective experience of industry experts. Casting R&D is also an excellent example of dual-use technology; it is the cornerstone for increasing US industrial competitiveness and minimizing waste nuclear material in weapon component production. Annual funding for casting projects at LLNL is $10M, which represents 1% of the total LLNL budget. Metal casting accounts for about 80% of the funding. Funding is nearly equally divided between development directed toward US industrial competitiveness and weapon component casting.

  5. Methodology of recent solid waste stream assessments and summary of current recycling endeavors at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL)

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, K.

    1996-04-01

    Solid Waste Stream Assessments determine the components of given waste streams. An evaluation of findings allows components to be targeted for effective source reduction, reuse, or recycling. LLNL assessed 10% of its onsite dumpster locations (25 of 250). Dumpsters were selected based on location and surrounding facility use. Dumpster contents were sorted according to type into containers. The filled containers were weighed and photographed. The information was noted on field tabulation sheets. Dumpster locations, date of sort, sort categories, weight, and cubic yardage were entered into a database for review and tabulation. LLNL sorted approximately 7000 pounds of waste in each of the two assessments. A high incidence of cardboard (uncompacted) was present in most dumpsters. A high incidence of polystyrene was also present at dumpsters serving the LLNL cafeterias. Very little glass or aluminium was found. Enough waste paper was present to indicate that the paper recycling program needed increased employee awareness and a possible expansion. As a result of our assessments, LLNL has expanded its cardboard and paper recycling programs and implemented moving box and pallet reuse programs. LLNL is also studying a possible recycling program for cafeteria polystyrene and possible program expansions for magazine, newsprint, and glass recycling.

  6. Historical Doses from Tritiated Water and Tritiated Hydrogen Gas Released to the Atmosphere from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Part 2. LLNL Annual Site-specific Data, 1953 - 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, S

    2007-08-15

    Historical information about tritium released routinely and accidentally from all Livermore Site Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) facilities and from the Tritium Research Laboratory of Sandia National Laboratories/California (SNL/CA) between 1953 through 2005 has been compiled and summarized in this report. Facility-specific data (annual release rates and dilution factors) have been derived from the historical information. These facility-specific data are needed to calculate annual doses to a hypothetical site-wide maximally exposed individual from routine releases of tritiated water (HTO) and tritiated hydrogen gas (HT) to the atmosphere. Doses can also be calculated from observed air tritium concentrations, and mean annual values for one air tritium sampling location are presented. Other historical data relevant to a dose reconstruction (e.g., meteorological data, including absolute humidity and rainfall) are also presented. Sources of information are carefully referenced, and assumptions are documented. Uncertainty distributions have been estimated for all parameter values. Confidence in data post-1974 is high.

  7. Instructor qualification for radiation safety training at a national laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Trinoskey, P.A.

    1994-10-01

    Prior to 1993, Health Physics Training (HPT) was conducted by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) health physics group. The job requirements specified a Masters Degree and experience. In fact, the majority of Health Physicists in the group were certified by the American Board of Health Physics. Under those circumstances, it was assumed that individuals in the group were technically qualified and the HPT instructor qualification stated that. In late 1993, the Health Physics Group at the LLNL was restructured and the training function was assigned to the training group. Additional requirements for training were mandated by the Department of Energy (DOE), which would necessitate increasing the existing training staff. With the need to hire, and the policy of reassignment of employees during downsizing, it was imperative that formal qualification standards be developed for technical knowledge. Qualification standards were in place for instructional capability. In drafting the new training qualifications for instructors, the requirements of a Certified Health Physicists had to be modified due to supply and demand. Additionally, for many of the performance-based training courses, registration by the National Registry of Radiation Protection Technologists is more desirable. Flexibility in qualification requirements has been incorporated to meet the reality of ongoing training and the compensation for desirable skills of individuals who may not meet all the criteria. The qualification requirements for an instructor rely on entry-level requirements and emphasis on goals (preferred) and continuing development of technical and instructional capabilities.

  8. Historical Doses from Tritiated Water and Tritiated Hydrogen Gas Released to the Atmosphere from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Part 6. Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, S

    2007-09-05

    Throughout fifty-three years of operations, an estimated 792,000 Ci (29,300 TBq) of tritium have been released to the atmosphere at the Livermore site of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); about 75% was tritium gas (HT) primarily from the accidental releases of 1965 and 1970. Routine emissions contributed slightly more than 100,000 Ci (3,700 TBq) HT and about 75,000 Ci (2,800 TBq) tritiated water vapor (HTO) to the total. A Tritium Dose Reconstruction was undertaken to estimate both the annual doses to the public for each year of LLNL operations and the doses from the few accidental releases. Some of the dose calculations were new, and the others could be compared with those calculated by LLNL. Annual doses (means and 95% confidence intervals) to the potentially most exposed member of the public were calculated for all years using the same model and the same assumptions. Predicted tritium concentrations in air were compared with observed mean annual concentrations at one location from 1973 onwards. Doses predicted from annual emissions were compared with those reported in the past by LLNL. The highest annual mean dose predicted from routine emissions was 34 {micro}Sv (3.4 mrem) in 1957; its upper confidence limit, based on very conservative assumptions about the speciation of the release, was 370 {micro}Sv (37 mrem). The upper confidence limits for most annual doses were well below the current regulatory limit of 100 {micro}Sv (10 mrem) for dose to the public from release to the atmosphere; the few doses that exceeded this were well below the regulatory limits of the time. Lacking the hourly meteorological data needed to calculate doses from historical accidental releases, ingestion/inhalation dose ratios were derived from a time-dependent accident consequence model that accounts for the complex behavior of tritium in the environment. Ratios were modified to account for only those foods growing at the time of the releases. The highest dose from an

  9. Thermal management for LLNL/UC/SSRL bending magnet beamline VIII at Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Berglin, E.J.; Younger, F.C.

    1986-05-01

    All the important heat loads on the elements of Beamline VIII are cataloged. The principal elements are identified and their heat loads tabulated for various loading scenarios. The expected heat loads are those from normal operations including the anticipated performance improvements planned for the SPEAR ring and from abnormal operations due to positional perturbations of the electron beam. (LEW)

  10. Historical Doses from Tritiated Water and Tritiated Hydrogen Gas Released to the Atmosphere from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Part 5. Accidental Releases

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, S

    2007-08-15

    Over the course of fifty-three years, LLNL had six acute releases of tritiated hydrogen gas (HT) and one acute release of tritiated water vapor (HTO) that were too large relative to the annual releases to be included as part of the annual releases from normal operations detailed in Parts 3 and 4 of the Tritium Dose Reconstruction (TDR). Sandia National Laboratories/California (SNL/CA) had one such release of HT and one of HTO. Doses to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) for these accidents have been modeled using an equation derived from the time-dependent tritium model, UFOTRI, and parameter values based on expert judgment. All of these acute releases are described in this report. Doses that could not have been exceeded from the large HT releases of 1965 and 1970 were calculated to be 43 {micro}Sv (4.3 mrem) and 120 {micro}Sv (12 mrem) to an adult, respectively. Two published sets of dose predictions for the accidental HT release in 1970 are compared with the dose predictions of this TDR. The highest predicted dose was for an acute release of HTO in 1954. For this release, the dose that could not have been exceeded was estimated to have been 2 mSv (200 mrem), although, because of the high uncertainty about the predictions, the likely dose may have been as low as 360 {micro}Sv (36 mrem) or less. The estimated maximum exposures from the accidental releases were such that no adverse health effects would be expected. Appendix A lists all accidents and large routine puff releases that have occurred at LLNL and SNL/CA between 1953 and 2005. Appendix B describes the processes unique to tritium that must be modeled after an acute release, some of the time-dependent tritium models being used today, and the results of tests of these models.

  11. Serving the Nation for Fifty Years: 1952 - 2002 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory [LLNL], Fifty Years of Accomplishments

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    2002-01-01

    For 50 years, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has been making history and making a difference. The outstanding efforts by a dedicated work force have led to many remarkable accomplishments. Creative individuals and interdisciplinary teams at the Laboratory have sought breakthrough advances to strengthen national security and to help meet other enduring national needs. The Laboratory's rich history includes many interwoven stories -- from the first nuclear test failure to accomplishments meeting today's challenges. Many stories are tied to Livermore's national security mission, which has evolved to include ensuring the safety, security, and reliability of the nation's nuclear weapons without conducting nuclear tests and preventing the proliferation and use of weapons of mass destruction. Throughout its history and in its wide range of research activities, Livermore has achieved breakthroughs in applied and basic science, remarkable feats of engineering, and extraordinary advances in experimental and computational capabilities. From the many stories to tell, one has been selected for each year of the Laboratory's history. Together, these stories give a sense of the Laboratory -- its lasting focus on important missions, dedication to scientific and technical excellence, and drive to made the world more secure and a better place to live.

  12. RADCAL Operations Manual Radiation Calibration Laboratory Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Bogard, J.S.

    1998-12-01

    The Life Sciences Division (LSD) of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has a long record of radiation dosimetry research, primarily using the Health Physics Research Reactor (HPRR) and the Radiation Calibration Laboratory (RADCAL) in its Dosimetry Applications Research (DOSAR) Program. These facilities have been used by a broad segment of the research community to perform a variety of experiments in areas including, but not limited to, radiobiology, radiation dosimeter and instrumentation development and calibration, and the testing of materials in a variety of radiation environments. Operations of the HPRR were terminated in 1987 and the reactor was moved to storage at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant; however, RADCAL will continue to be operated in accordance with the guidelines of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Secondary Calibration Laboratory program and will meet all requirements for testing dosimeters under the National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program (NVLAP). This manual is to serve as the primary instruction and operation manual for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's RADCAL facility. Its purpose is to (1) provide operating protocols for the RADCAL facility, (2) outline the organizational structure, (3) define the Quality Assurance Action Plan, and (4) describe all the procedures, operations, and responsibilities for the safe and proper operation of all routine aspects of the calibration facility.

  13. Radiation Safety System for Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, J

    2004-03-12

    Radiation Safety System (RSS) at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory is summarized and reviewed. The RSS, which is designed to protect people from prompt radiation hazards from accelerator operation, consists of the Access Control System (ACS) and the Beam Containment System (BCS). The ACS prevents people from being exposed to the lethal radiation level inside the shielding housing (called a PPS area at SLAC). The ACS for a PPS area consists of the shielding housing, beam inhibiting devices, and a standard entry module at each entrance. The BCS protects people from the prompt radiation hazards outside a PPS area under both normal and abnormal beam loss situations. The BCS consists of the active power (current/energy) limiting devices, beam stoppers, shielding, and an active radiation monitor system. The policies and practices in setting up the RSS at SLAC are illustrated.

  14. Status of the solar and infrared radiation submodels in the LLNL 1-D and 2-D chemical-transport models

    SciTech Connect

    Grant, K.E.; Taylor, K.E.; Ellis, J.S.; Wuebbles, D.J.

    1987-07-01

    The authors have implemented a series of state of the art radiation transport submodels in previously developed one dimensional and two dimensional chemical transport models of the troposphere and stratosphere. These submodels provide the capability of calculating accurate solar and infrared heating rates. They are a firm basis for further radiation submodel development as well as for studying interactions between radiation and model dynamics under varying conditions of clear sky, clouds, and aerosols. 37 refs., 3 figs.

  15. LLNL NESHAPs 2014 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, K.; Bertoldo, N.; Gallegos, G.; MacQueen, D.; Wegrecki, A.

    2015-07-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC operates facilities at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) where radionuclides are handled and stored. These facilities are subject to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) in Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Title 40, Part 61, Subpart H, which regulates radionuclide emissions to air from Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Specifically, NESHAPs limits the emission of radionuclides to the ambient air to levels resulting in an annual effective dose equivalent of 10 mrem (100 μSv) to any member of the public. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building-specific and common parameters, LLNL personnel applied the EPA-approved computer code, CAP88-PC, Version 4.0.1.17, to calculate the dose to the maximally exposed individual member of the public for the Livermore Site and Site 300.

  16. LLNL NESHAPs 2008 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Bertoldo, N; Gallegos, G; MacQueen, D; Wegrecki, A; Wilson, K

    2009-06-25

    Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC operates facilities at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) where radionuclides are handled and stored. These facilities are subject to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) in Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Title 40, Part 61, Subpart H, which regulates radionuclide emissions to air from Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Specifically, NESHAPs limits the emission of radionuclides to the ambient air to levels resulting in an annual effective dose equivalent of 10 mrem (100 {mu}Sv) to any member of the public. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building-specific and common parameters, LLNL personnel applied the EPA-approved computer code, CAP88-PC, Version 1.0, to calculate the dose to the maximally exposed individual for the Livermore site and Site 300. The dose for the LLNL site-wide maximally exposed members of the public from operations in 2008 are summarized here: {sm_bullet} Livermore site: 0.0013 mrem (0.013 {mu}Sv) (26% from point source emissions, 74% from diffuse source emissions). The point source emissions include gaseous tritium modeled as tritiated water vapor as directed by EPA Region IX; the resulting dose is used for compliance purposes. {sm_bullet} Site 300: 0.000000044 mrem (0.00000044 {mu}Sv) (100% from point source emissions).

  17. Status of LLNL granite projects

    SciTech Connect

    Ramspott, L.D.

    1980-12-31

    The status of LLNL Projects dealing with nuclear waste disposal in granitic rocks is reviewed. This review covers work done subsequent to the June 1979 Workshop on Thermomechanical Modeling for a Hardrock Waste Repository and is prepared for the July 1980 Workshop on Thermomechanical-Hydrochemical Modeling for a Hardrock Waste Repository. Topics reviewed include laboratory determination of thermal, mechanical, and transport properties of rocks at conditions simulating a deep geologic repository, and field testing at the Climax granitic stock at the USDOE Nevada Test Site.

  18. LLNL NESHAP's 1999 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Gallegos, G.; Biermann, A.H.; Harrach, R.J.; Bertoldo, N.A.; Berger, R.L.; Surano,K.A.

    2000-06-01

    This annual report is prepared pursuant to the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) 40 CFR Part 61, Subpart H; Subpart H governs radionuclide emissions to air from Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. NESHAPs limits the emission of radionuclides to the ambient air from DOE facilities to levels resulting in an annual effective dose equivalent (EDE) of 10 mrem (100 {micro}Sv) to any member of the public. The EDEs for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) site-wide maximally exposed members of the public from 1999 operations are summarized.

  19. LLNL NESHAPs 1995 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Gallegos, G.M.; Harrach, R.J.; Biermann, A.H.; Tate, P.J.

    1996-06-01

    This annual report is prepared pursuant to the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) 40 CFR Part 61, Subpart H; Subpart H governs radionuclide emissions to air from Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. NESHAPs limits the emission of radionuclides to the ambient air from DOE facilities to levels resulting in an effective dose equivalent (EDE) of 10 mrem to any member of the public. This document contains the EDEs for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) site-wide maximally exposed members of the public from 1995 operations.

  20. IGPP-LLNL 1998 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Ryerson, F J; Cook, K H; Tweed, J

    1999-11-19

    The Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics (IGPP) is a Multicampus Research Unit of the University of California (UC). IGPP was founded in 1946 at UC Los Angeles with a charter to further research in the earth and planetary sciences and related fields. The Institute now has branches at UC campuses in Los Angeles, San Diego, and Riverside, and at Los Alamos and Lawrence Livermore national laboratories. The University-wide IGPP has played an important role in establishing interdisciplinary research in the earth and planetary sciences. For example, IGPP was instrumental in founding the fields of physical oceanography and space physics, which at the time fell between the cracks of established university departments. Because of its multicampus orientation, IGPP has sponsored important interinstitutional consortia in the earth and planetary sciences. Each of the five branches has a somewhat different intellectual emphasis as a result of the interplay between strengths of campus departments and Laboratory programs. The IGPP branch at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) was approved by the Regents of the University of California in 1982. IGPP-LLNL emphasizes research in tectonics, geochemistry, and astrophysics. It provides a venue for studying the fundamental aspects of these fields, thereby complementing LLNL programs that pursue applications of these disciplines in national security and energy research. IGPP-LLNL is directed by Charles Alcock and was originally organized into three centers: Geosciences, stressing seismology; High-Pressure Physics, stressing experiments using the two-stage light-gas gun at LLNL; and Astrophysics, stressing theoretical and computational astrophysics. In 1994, the activities of the Center for High-Pressure Physics were merged with those of the Center for Geosciences. The Center for Geosciences, headed by Frederick Ryerson, focuses on research in geophysics and geochemistry. The Astrophysics Research Center, headed by Kem

  1. Annual summary engineering at LLNL 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Dimolitsas, S

    1998-07-01

    Established in 1952, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is one of the world's premier applied-science national security laboratories. The primary mission of the Laboratory is to assure through the design, development, and stewardship of nuclear weapons, that the nation's stockpile remains safe, secure, and reliable and to prevent the spread and use of nuclear weapons worldwide. National security is a principal integrating theme at LLNL--with stockpile stewardship, nonproliferation and arms control, and Department of Defense projects its major elements. The Stockpile Stewardship Program, the primary Laboratory program, is a science-based versus testing-based approach to maintaining stockpile safety and reliability. The idea is to replace weapons development and nuclear testing with weapons life extension and intensive computational and experimental research to provide the fundamental understanding necessary to ensure nuclear weapons safety, performance, and maintenance. Stockpile stewardship is enhanced and complimented by a second pillar of national security at the Laboratory: countering the spread of weapons of mass destruction. In the broad areas comprising nonproliferation, arms control, and international assessments, the growth of new technologies has been exponential at LLNL. Our ability to produce advanced microsensors--from scientific concept to working field model--is just one of the many contributions LLNL has made to the nation in counter proliferation against nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons. In addition, LLNL's unique competencies developed in support of its national security mission have become an important resource for U.S. industry and government. Programs include advanced defense technologies, energy, environment, biosciences, and the basic sciences. Central to the Laboratory's success is its diverse, highly talented, and skilled workforce and its $4 billion capital invested in plant and research facilities. The University of

  2. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Experimental Test Site (Site 300) Salinity Evaluation and Minimization Plan for Cooling Towers and Mechanical Equipment Discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Daily III, W D

    2010-02-24

    This document was created to comply with the Central Valley Regional Water Quality Control Board (CVRWQCB) Waste Discharge Requirement (Order No. 98-148). This order established new requirements to assess the effect of and effort required to reduce salts in process water discharged to the subsurface. This includes the review of technical, operational, and management options available to reduce total dissolved solids (TDS) concentrations in cooling tower and mechanical equipment water discharges at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL's) Experimental Test Site (Site 300) facility. It was observed that for the six cooling towers currently in operation, the total volume of groundwater used as make up water is about 27 gallons per minute and the discharge to the subsurface via percolation pits is 13 gallons per minute. The extracted groundwater has a TDS concentration of 700 mg/L. The cooling tower discharge concentrations range from 700 to 1,400 mg/L. There is also a small volume of mechanical equipment effluent being discharged to percolation pits, with a TDS range from 400 to 3,300 mg/L. The cooling towers and mechanical equipment are maintained and operated in a satisfactory manner. No major leaks were identified. Currently, there are no re-use options being employed. Several approaches known to reduce the blow down flow rate and/or TDS concentration being discharged to the percolation pits and septic systems were reviewed for technical feasibility and cost efficiency. These options range from efforts as simple as eliminating leaks to implementing advanced and innovative treatment methods. The various options considered, and their anticipated effect on water consumption, discharge volumes, and reduced concentrations are listed and compared in this report. Based on the assessment, it was recommended that there is enough variability in equipment usage, chemistry, flow rate, and discharge configurations that each discharge location at Site 300 should be

  3. OASIS, LLNL version: Software maintenance manual

    SciTech Connect

    Auerbach, J.M.

    1990-03-01

    The OASIS laser beam propagation code has been used extensively to support design and analysis in the Free Electron Laser Master Oscillator Program, the Medium Power Solid State Laser Program, and the Active Optical Countermeasures Program. The version of OASIS currently used at LLNL is significantly enhanced compared to the initial version supplied by the Air Force Weapons Laboratory. This software maintenance manual presents the details of the LLNL version of OASIS so it can be modified as necessary by new personnel. The manual presents in great detail the content and organization of the OASIS software configured for the VMS operating system.

  4. LLNL NESHAPs project. 1992 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Surano, K.A.; Failor, R.A.; Biermann, A.H.; Berger, R.L.; Harrach, R.J.

    1993-05-01

    This report summarizes work conducted during FY 1992 for the Environmental Monitoring and Analysis Division of the Environmental Protection Department at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). This document contains information regarding environmental monitoring of a wide variety of radioisotopes which are emitted to the atmosphere. These radioisotopes include transuranics, biomedical tracers, tritium, mixed fission products, and other radioisotopes used for general research and nuclear weapons research. Information regarding radionuclide air emissions for each of the 56 buildings at LLNL where radionuclides are used or activation products occur is given. Detailed information is included for all point source emissions from 43 LLNL site buildings. In addition, dose equivalents and dose assessment are evaluated. Reported annual releases are based on inventory data and unabated EPA potential release fractions for unmonitored sources, and on actual emission measurements for continuously monitored facilities.

  5. Historical Doses from Tritiated Water and Tritiated Hydrogen Gas Released to the Atmosphere from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Part 3. Routine Releases, 1973 - 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, S

    2007-08-15

    Annual mean concentrations of tritium in air moisture, calculated from data obtained from an air tritium sampler near the LLNL Discovery Center, were compared with annual mean air moisture concentrations predicted from atmospheric releases of tritium for the years 1973 through 2005. The 95% confidence intervals on the predictions and observations usually overlapped. When the distributions of predictions and observations were different, predictions were higher. Using both the observed and predicted air concentrations as input to the tritium dose model, DCART, annual doses to a hypothetical adult, child (age 10) and infant (age 6 months to 1 year) assumed to be living at LLNL's Discovery Center were calculated. Although the doses based on predicted air concentrations tended to be higher, they were nevertheless indistinguishable from doses based on observed air concentrations when uncertainties were taken into account. Annual doses, calculated by DCART and based on observed and predicted air concentrations, were compared with historical tritium doses reported annually by LLNL. Although the historical doses were calculated using various assumptions over the years, their agreement with the DCART predictions is remarkable. The Discovery Center was not the location of the site-wide maximally exposed individual (SWMEI) from 1974 through 1978. However, doses at the location of the SW-MEI for those years were indistinguishable from those at the Discovery Center when uncertainties were taken into account. The upper confidence limits for all doses were always well below the current regulatory limit for dose to a member of the public (100 {micro}Sv or 10 mrem per year) from atmospheric releases (40 CFR Part 61, Subpart H). Based on observed air concentrations, the 97.5% confidence limit on the cumulative dose to the hypothetical person born in 1973 and living through 2005 at the Discovery Center was 150 {micro}Sv (15 mrem), while that of the hypothetical adult who spent his

  6. Simulating Afterburn with LLNL Hydrocodes

    SciTech Connect

    Daily, L D

    2004-06-11

    Presented here is a working methodology for adapting a Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) developed hydrocode, ALE3D, to simulate weapon damage effects when afterburn is a consideration in the blast propagation. Experiments have shown that afterburn is of great consequence in enclosed environments (i.e. bomb in tunnel scenario, penetrating conventional munition in a bunker, or satchel charge placed in a deep underground facility). This empirical energy deposition methodology simulates the anticipated addition of kinetic energy that has been demonstrated by experiment (Kuhl, et. al. 1998), without explicitly solving the chemistry, or resolving the mesh to capture small-scale vorticity. This effort is intended to complement the existing capability of either coupling ALE3D blast simulations with DYNA3D or performing fully coupled ALE3D simulations to predict building or component failure, for applications in National Security offensive strike planning as well as Homeland Defense infrastructure protection.

  7. Nuclear physics and heavy element research at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Stoyer, M A; Ahle, L E; Becker, J A; Bernstein, L A; Bleuel, D L; Burke, J T; Dashdorj, D; Henderson, R A; Hurst, A M; Kenneally, J M; Lesher, S R; Moody, K J; Nelson, S L; Norman, E B; Pedretti, M; Scielzo, N D; Shaughnessy, D A; Sheets, S A; Stoeffl, W; Stoyer, N J; Wiedeking, M; Wilk, P A; Wu, C Y

    2009-05-11

    This paper highlights some of the current basic nuclear physics research at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The work at LLNL concentrates on investigating nuclei at the extremes. The Experimental Nuclear Physics Group performs research to improve our understanding of nuclei, nuclear reactions, nuclear decay processes and nuclear astrophysics; an expertise utilized for important laboratory national security programs and for world-class peer-reviewed basic research.

  8. Radiation and Its Use in Biology: A Laboratory Block.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, William V.

    This booklet contains a six-week series of laboratory investigations that may be used individually or in combination to complement other biology course materials or as an independent laboratory course in radiation biology. Contents include twelve activities dealing with radiation biology, five additional activities suitable for individual work,…

  9. LLNL Results from CALIBAN-PROSPERO Nuclear Accident Dosimetry Experiments in September 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Lobaugh, M. L.; Hickman, D. P.; Wong, C. W.; Wysong, A. R.; Merritt, M. J.; Heinrichs, D. P.; Topper, J. D.

    2015-05-21

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) uses thin neutron activation foils, sulfur, and threshold energy shielding to determine neutron component doses and the total dose from neutrons in the event of a nuclear criticality accident. The dosimeter also uses a DOELAP accredited Panasonic UD-810 (Panasonic Industrial Devices Sales Company of America, 2 Riverfront Plaza, Newark, NJ 07102, U.S.A.) thermoluminescent dosimetery system (TLD) for determining the gamma component of the total dose. LLNL has participated in three international intercomparisons of nuclear accident dosimeters. In October 2009, LLNL participated in an exercise at the French Commissariat à l’énergie atomique et aux énergies alternatives (Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission- CEA) Research Center at Valduc utilizing the SILENE reactor (Hickman, et.al. 2010). In September 2010, LLNL participated in a second intercomparison at CEA Valduc, this time with exposures at the CALIBAN reactor (Hickman et al. 2011). This paper discusses LLNL’s results of a third intercomparison hosted by the French Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (Institute for Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety- IRSN) with exposures at two CEA Valduc reactors (CALIBAN and PROSPERO) in September 2014. Comparison results between the three participating facilities is presented elsewhere (Chevallier 2015; Duluc 2015).

  10. LLNL NESHAPs 1998 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, R L; Bertoldo, N A; Biermann, A H; Gallegos, G; Hall, L C; Harrach, R J; Surano, K A

    1999-06-14

    This annual report is prepared pursuant to the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) 40 CFR Part 61, Subpart H; Subpart H governs radionuclide emissions to air from Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. NESHAPs limits the emission of radionuclides to the ambient air from DOE facilities to levels resulting in an annual effective dose equivalent (EDE) of 10 mrem (100 {micro}Sv) to any member of the public. The EDEs for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) site-wide maximally exposed members of the public from 1998 operations are summarized here. (1) Livermore site: 0.055 mrem (0.55 {micro}Sv) (57% from point-source emissions, 43% from diffuse-source emissions). The point-source emissions include gaseous tritium modeled as tritiated water vapor as directed by EPA Region IX and is used for compliance purposes. LLNL believes a more realistic dose for the Livermore site is 0.049 mrem (0.49 {micro}Sv) (52% from point-source emissions, 48% from diffuse-source emissions). This dose is based on an assessment that represents a more realistic behavior of tritium gas in the environment. (2) Site 300: 0.024 mrem (0.24 {micro}Sv) (78% from point-source emissions, 22% from diffuse-source emissions). The EDEs were generally calculated using the EPA-approved CAP88-PC air-dispersion/dose-assessment model. Site-specific meteorological data, stack flow data, and emissions estimates based on radionuclide inventory data or continuous-monitoring systems data were the specific input to CAP88-PC for each modeled source.

  11. Historical summary and recommendations on Melanoma in the LLNL workforce

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, D.H. II; Hatch, F.

    1994-12-01

    This document provides a historical summary and recommendations on melanoma in the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) workforce. Melanoma of the skin comprises about 3.5% of the incidence (38,000 new cases in 1991) and 1.7% of the mortality (8500 deaths in 1991) of all cancer in the U.S. However, for several decades it has shown the fastest rate of increase of any cancer site. The following areas are discussed: background and recognition of increased melanoma at LLNL, history of melanoma studies at LLNL, results from occupational factors study, overall conclusion on increased melanoma incidence, and recommendations for future management.

  12. Laboratory Astrophysics: Study of Radiative Shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leygnac, S.; Lanz, T.; Stehlé, C.; Michaut, C.

    2002-12-01

    Radiative shocks are high Mach number shocks with a strong coupling between radiation and hydrodynamics which leads to a structure governed by a radiative precursor. They might be encountered in various astrophysical systems: stellar accretion shocks, pulsating stars, interaction of supernovae with the intestellar medium etc. A numerical one dimensional (1D) stationary study of the coupling between hydrodynamics and radiative transfer is being performed. An estimate of the error made by the 1D approach in the radiative transfer treatment is done by an approximate short characteristics approach. It shows, for exemple, how much of the radiation escapes from the medium in the configuration of the experiment. The experimental study of these shocks has been performed with the high energy density laser of the LULI, at the École Polytechnique (France). We have observed several shocks identified as radiative shocks. The shock waves propagate at about 50 km/s in a tiny 10 mm3 shock tube filled with gaz. From the measurements, it is possible to infer several features of the shock such as the speed and the electronic density.

  13. Genesis of the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Schimmerling, Walter

    2016-06-01

    A personal recollection of events leading up to the construction and commissioning of NSRL, including reference to precursor facilities and the development of the NASA Space Radiation Program. PMID:27345197

  14. Technical Justification for Radiation Controls at an Environmental Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    DUPAQUIER, J.C.

    2000-07-01

    This paper describes the technical approach used to establish radiation protection controls over incoming radioactive materials to an environmental measurements laboratory at the Hanford Site. Conditions that would trigger internal dosimetry, posting.

  15. Radiation and Health Technology Laboratory Capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Bihl, Donald E.; Lynch, Timothy P.; Murphy, Mark K.; Myers, Lynette E.; Piper, Roman K.; Rolph, James T.

    2005-07-09

    The Radiological Standards and Calibrations Laboratory, a part of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)(a) performs calibrations and upholds reference standards necessary to maintain traceability to national standards. The facility supports U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) programs at the Hanford Site, programs sponsored by DOE Headquarters and other federal agencies, radiological protection programs at other DOE and commercial nuclear sites and research and characterization programs sponsored through the commercial sector. The laboratory is located in the 318 Building of the Hanford Site's 300 Area. The facility contains five major exposure rooms and several laboratories used for exposure work preparation, low-activity instrument calibrations, instrument performance evaluations, instrument maintenance, instrument design and fabrication work, thermoluminescent and radiochromic Dosimetry, and calibration of measurement and test equipment (M&TE). The major exposure facilities are a low-scatter room used for neutron and photon exposures, a source well room used for high-volume instrument calibration work, an x-ray facility used for energy response studies, a high-exposure facility used for high-rate photon calibration work, a beta standards laboratory used for beta energy response studies and beta reference calibrations and M&TE laboratories. Calibrations are routinely performed for personnel dosimeters, health physics instrumentation, photon and neutron transfer standards alpha, beta, and gamma field sources used throughout the Hanford Site, and a wide variety of M&TE. This report describes the standards and calibrations laboratory.

  16. Radiation and Health Technology Laboratory Capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Goles, Ronald W.; Johnson, Michelle Lynn; Piper, Roman K.; Peters, Jerry D.; Murphy, Mark K.; Mercado, Mike S.; Bihl, Donald E.; Lynch, Timothy P.

    2003-07-15

    The Radiological Standards and Calibrations Laboratory, a part of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)(a) performs calibrations and upholds reference standards necessary to maintain traceability to national standards. The facility supports U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) programs at the Hanford Site, programs sponsored by DOE Headquarters and other federal agencies, radiological protection programs at other DOE and commercial nuclear sites and research and characterization programs sponsored through the commercial sector. The laboratory is located in the 318 Building of the Hanford Site's 300 Area. The facility contains five major exposure rooms and several laboratories used for exposure work preparation, low-activity instrument calibrations, instrument performance evaluations, instrument maintenance, instrument design and fabrication work, thermoluminescent and radiochromic Dosimetry, and calibration of measurement and test equipment (M&TE). The major exposure facilities are a low-scatter room used for neutron and photon exposures, a source well room used for high-volume instrument calibration work, an x-ray facility used for energy response studies, a high-exposure facility used for high-rate photon calibration work, a beta standards laboratory used for beta energy response studies and beta reference calibrations and M&TE laboratories. Calibrations are routinely performed for personnel dosimeters, health physics instrumentation, photon and neutron transfer standards alpha, beta, and gamma field sources used throughout the Hanford Site, and a wide variety of M&TE. This report describes the standards and calibrations laboratory.

  17. Galactic Cosmic Ray Simulator at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, John W.; Slaba, Tony C.; Rusek, Adam

    2015-01-01

    The external Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) spectrum is significantly modified when it passes through spacecraft shielding and astronauts. One approach for simulating the GCR space radiation environment is to attempt to reproduce the unmodified, external GCR spectrum at a ground based accelerator. A possibly better approach would use the modified, shielded tissue spectrum, to select accelerator beams impinging on biological targets. NASA plans for implementation of a GCR simulator at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at Brookhaven National Laboratory will be discussed.

  18. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Environmental Report 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, H E; Bertoldo, N A; Campbell, C G; Cerruti, S J; Coty, J D; Dibley, V R; Doman, J L; Grayson, A R; MacQueen, D H; Wegrecki, A M; Armstrong, D H; Brigdon, S L; Heidecker, K R; Hollister, R K; Khan, H N; Lee, G S; Nelson, J C; Paterson, L E; Salvo, V J; Schwartz, W W; Terusaki, S H; Wilson, K R; Woods, J M; Yimbo, P O; Gallegos, G M; Terrill, A A; Revelli, M A; Rosene, C A; Blake, R G; Woollett, J S; Kumamoto, G

    2011-09-14

    The purposes of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Environmental Report 2010 are to record Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL's) compliance with environmental standards and requirements, describe LLNL's environmental protection and remediation programs, and present the results of environmental monitoring at the two LLNL sites - the Livermore site and Site 300. The report is prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) by LLNL's Environmental Protection Department. Submittal of the report satisfies requirements under DOE Order 231.1A, Environmental Safety and Health Reporting, and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and Environment. The report is distributed electronically and is available at https://saer.llnl.gov/, the website for the LLNL annual environmental report. Previous LLNL annual environmental reports beginning in 1994 are also on the website. Some references in the electronic report text are underlined, which indicates that they are clickable links. Clicking on one of these links will open the related document, data workbook, or website that it refers to. The report begins with an executive summary, which provides the purpose of the report and an overview of LLNL's compliance and monitoring results. The first three chapters provide background information: Chapter 1 is an overview of the location, meteorology, and hydrogeology of the two LLNL sites; Chapter 2 is a summary of LLNL's compliance with environmental regulations; and Chapter 3 is a description of LLNL's environmental programs with an emphasis on the Environmental Management System including pollution prevention. The majority of the report covers LLNL's environmental monitoring programs and monitoring data for 2010: effluent and ambient air (Chapter 4); waters, including wastewater, storm water runoff, surface water, rain, and groundwater (Chapter 5); and terrestrial, including soil, sediment, vegetation, foodstuff, ambient radiation, and special status

  19. NIF Power Conditioning System Testing at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Fulkerson, E S; Newton, M; Hulsey, s; Hammon, J; Moore, W

    2001-06-05

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is now under construction at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The Power Conditioning System (PCS) for NIF, when completed will consist of a 192 nearly identical 2 megajoule capacitor storage banks driving 7680 two meter long flashlamps. A fully integrated single-module test facility was completed in August of 2000 at LLNL. The purpose to the Test Facility is to conduct Reliability and Maintainability (RAM) testing of a true ''First Article'' system (built to the final drawing package as opposed to a prototype). The test facility can be fired once every ten minutes with a total peak output current of 580kA with a pulse width of 400us. To date over 4000 full power shots have been conducted at this facility.

  20. Radiative Shocks And Plasma Jets As Laboratory Astrophysics Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Koenig, M.; Loupias, B.; Vinci, T.; Ozaki, N.; Benuzzi-Mounaix, A.; Rabec le Goahec, M.; Falize, E.; Bouquet, S.; Courtois, C.; Nazarov, W.; Aglitskiy, Y.; Faenov, A. Ya.; Pikuz, T.; Schiavi, A.

    2007-08-02

    Dedicated laboratory astrophysics experiments have been developed at LULI in the last few years. First, a high velocity (70 km/s) radiative shock has been generated in a xenon filled gas cell. We observed a clear radiative precursor, measure the shock temperature time evolution in the xenon. Results show the importance of 2D radiative losses. Second, we developed specific targets designs in order to generate high Mach number plasma jets. The two schemes tested are presented and discussed.

  1. Radiative Shocks And Plasma Jets As Laboratory Astrophysics Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenig, M.; Loupias, B.; Vinci, T.; Ozaki, N.; Benuzzi-Mounaix, A.; Rabec Le Goahec, M.; Falize, E.; Bouquet, S.; Michaut, C.; Herpe, G.; Baroso, P.; Nazarov, W.; Aglitskiy, Y.; Faenov, A. Ya.; Pikuz, T.; Courtois, C.; Woolsey, N. C.; Gregory, C. D.; Howe, J.; Schiavi, A.; Atzeni, S.

    2007-08-01

    Dedicated laboratory astrophysics experiments have been developed at LULI in the last few years. First, a high velocity (70 km/s) radiative shock has been generated in a xenon filled gas cell. We observed a clear radiative precursor, measure the shock temperature time evolution in the xenon. Results show the importance of 2D radiative losses. Second, we developed specific targets designs in order to generate high Mach number plasma jets. The two schemes tested are presented and discussed.

  2. LLNL NESHAPs 1996 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Gallegos, G.M.

    1997-01-06

    This annual report is prepared pursuant to the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) 40 CFR Part 61, Subpart H; Subpart H governs radionuclide emissions to air from Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. NESHAPs limits the emission of radionuclides to the ambient air from DOE facilities to levels resulting in an annual effective dose equivalent (EDE) of 10 mrem (10 microsieverts) to any member of the public. The EDEs for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) site-wide maximally exposed members of the public from 1996 operations were (1) Livermore site: 0. 093 mrem (0.93 microsievert) (52% from point-source emissions, 48% from diffuse-source emissions); (2) Site 300: 0.033 mrem (0.33 microsievert) (99% from point-source, 1% from diffuse-source emissions). The EDEs were generally calculated using the EPA-approved CAP88-PC air-dispersion/dose-assessment model. Site-specific meteorological data, stack flow data, and emissions estimates based on radionuclide inventory data or continuous-monitoring systems data were the specific input to CAP88-PC for each modeled source. 5 figs., 8 tabs.

  3. LLNL NESHAPs 2001 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Harrach, R.J.; Peterson, S.-R.; Gallegos, G.M.; Tate, P.J.; Bertoldo, N.A.; Althouse, P.E.

    2002-06-18

    NESHAPs limits the emission of radionuclides to the ambient air from DOE facilities to levels resulting in an annual effective dose equivalent (EDE) of 10 mrem (100 {micro}Sv) to any member of the public. The EDEs for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) site-wide maximally exposed members of the public from operations in 2001 are summarized here: (1) Livermore site: 0.017 mrem (0.17 {micro}Sv) (34% from point-source emissions, 66% from diffuse-source emissions), The point-source emissions include gaseous tritium modeled as tritiated water vapor as directed by EPA Region IX; the resulting dose is used for compliance purposes; and (2) Site 300: 0.054 mrem (0.54 {micro}Sv) (93% from point-source emissions, 7% from diffuse-source emissions); The EDEs were calculated using the EPA-approved CAP88-PC air dispersion/dose assessment model, except for doses for three diffuse sources, which were calculated from measured concentrations and dose coefficients. Site specific meteorological data, stack flow data, and emissions estimates based on radionuclide usage inventory data or continuous stack monitoring data were the specific inputs to CAP88-PC for each modeled source.

  4. LLNL NESHAPs 2000 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Gallegos, G M; Harrach, R J; Berger, R L; Bertoldo, N A; Tate, P J; Peterson, S R

    2001-06-01

    NESHAPs limits the emission of radionuclides to the ambient air from DOE facilities to levels resulting in an annual effective dose equivalent (EDE) of 10 mrem (100 {micro}Sv) to any member of the public. The EDEs for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) site-wide maximally exposed members of the public from 2000 operations are summarized here. {sm_bullet} Livermore site: 0.038 mrem (0.38 {micro}Sv) (45% from point-source emissions, 55% from diffuse-source emissions). The point-source emissions include gaseous tritium modeled as tritiated water vapor as directed by EPA Region IX, and the resulting dose is used for compliance purposes. {sm_bullet} Site 300: 0.019 mrem (0.19 {micro}Sv) (79% from point-source emissions, 21% from diffuse-source emissions). The EDEs were calculated using the EPA-approved CAP88-PC air dispersion/dose-assessment model, except for doses for four diffuse sources, which were calculated from measured concentrations and dose coefficients. Site specific meteorological data, stack flow data, and emissions estimates based on radionuclide usage inventory data or continuous stack monitoring data were the specific input to CAP88-PC for each modeled source.

  5. LLNL NESHAPs 2002 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Harrach, R J; Gallegos, G M; Peterson, S-R; Tate, P J; Bertoldo, N A; Wilson, K R; Althouse, P E; Larson, J M

    2003-06-01

    This annual report is prepared pursuant to the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs; Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61, Subpart H). Subpart H governs radionuclide emissions to air from Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. NESHAPs limits the emission of radionuclides to the ambient air from DOE facilities to levels resulting in an annual effective dose equivalent (EDE) of 10 mrem (100 {micro}Sv) to any member of the public. The EDEs for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) site-wide maximally exposed members of the public from operations in 2002 are summarized here: (1) Livermore site: 0.023 mrem (0.23 {micro}Sv) (43% from point-source emissions, 57% from diffuse-source emissions). The point-source emissions include gaseous tritium modeled as tritiated water vapor as directed by EPA Region IX; the resulting dose is used for compliance purposes; and (2) Site 300: 0.021 mrem (0.21 {micro}Sv) (85% from point-source emissions, 15% from diffuse-source emissions). The EDEs were calculated using the EPA-approved CAP88-PC air dispersion/dose-assessment model, except for doses for three diffuse sources, which were calculated from measured concentrations and dose coefficients. Site specific meteorological data, stack flow data, and emissions estimates based on radionuclide usage inventory data or continuous stack monitoring data were the specific inputs to CAP88-PC for each modeled source.

  6. LLNL NESHAPs 2003 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Harrach, R J; Gallegos, G M; Peterson, S; Wilson, K R; Althouse, P E; Larson, J M; Bertoldo, N A; Tate, P J; Bowen, B

    2004-06-23

    This annual report is prepared pursuant to the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs; Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61, Subpart H). Subpart H governs radionuclide emissions to air from Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. NESHAPs limits the emission of radionuclides to the ambient air from DOE facilities to levels resulting in an annual effective dose equivalent (EDE) of 10 mrem (100 {micro}Sv) to any member of the public. The EDEs for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) site-wide maximally exposed members of the public from operations in 2003 are summarized here. Livermore site: 0.044 mrem (0.44 {micro}Sv) (55% from point-source emissions, 45% from diffuse-source emissions). The point-source emissions include gaseous tritium modeled as tritiated water vapor as directed by EPA Region IX; the resulting dose is used for compliance purposes. Site 300: 0.017 mrem (0.17 {micro}Sv) (98% from point-source emissions, 2% from diffuse-source emissions). The EDEs were calculated using the EPA-approved CAP88-PC air dispersion/dose-assessment model, except for doses for two diffuse sources that were estimated using measured concentrations and dose coefficients. Site specific meteorological data, stack flow data, and emissions estimates based on radionuclide usage inventory data or continuous stack monitoring data were the specific inputs to CAP88-PC for each modeled source.

  7. LLNL Ocean General Circulation Model

    2005-12-29

    The LLNL OGCM is a numerical ocean modeling tool for use in studying ocean circulation over a wide range of space and time scales, with primary applications to climate change and carbon cycle science.

  8. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory environmental report for 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Sims, J.M.; Surano, K.A.; Lamson, K.C.; Balke, B.K.; Steenhoven, J.C.; Schwoegler, D.R.

    1990-01-01

    This report documents the results of the Environmental Monitoring Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and presents summary information about environmental compliance for 1990. To evaluate the effect of LLNL operations on the local environment, measurements of direct radiation and a variety of radionuclides and chemical compounds in ambient air, soil, sewage effluent surface water, groundwater, vegetation, and foodstuff were made at both the Livermore site and at Site 300 nearly. LLNL's compliance with all applicable guides, standards, and limits for radiological and nonradiological emissions to the environment was evaluated. Aside from an August 13 observation of silver concentrations slightly above guidelines for discharges to the sanitary sewer, all the monitoring data demonstrated LLNL compliance with environmental laws and regulations governing emission and discharge of materials to the environment. In addition, the monitoring data demonstrated that the environmental impacts of LLNL are minimal and pose no threat to the public to or to the environment. 114 refs., 46 figs., 79 tabs.

  9. Secondary calibration laboratory for ionizing radiation laboratory accreitation program National Institute of Standards and Technology National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, P.R.

    1993-12-31

    This paper presents an overview of the procedures and requirements for accreditation under the Secondary Calibration Laboratory for Ionizing Radiation Program (SCLIR LAP). The requirements for a quality system, proficiency testing and the onsite assessment are discussed. The purpose of the accreditation program is to establish a network of secondary calibration laboratories that can provide calibrations traceable to the primary national standards.

  10. Galactic cosmic ray simulation at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Norbury, John W; Schimmerling, Walter; Slaba, Tony C; Azzam, Edouard I; Badavi, Francis F; Baiocco, Giorgio; Benton, Eric; Bindi, Veronica; Blakely, Eleanor A; Blattnig, Steve R; Boothman, David A; Borak, Thomas B; Britten, Richard A; Curtis, Stan; Dingfelder, Michael; Durante, Marco; Dynan, William S; Eisch, Amelia J; Robin Elgart, S; Goodhead, Dudley T; Guida, Peter M; Heilbronn, Lawrence H; Hellweg, Christine E; Huff, Janice L; Kronenberg, Amy; La Tessa, Chiara; Lowenstein, Derek I; Miller, Jack; Morita, Takashi; Narici, Livio; Nelson, Gregory A; Norman, Ryan B; Ottolenghi, Andrea; Patel, Zarana S; Reitz, Guenther; Rusek, Adam; Schreurs, Ann-Sofie; Scott-Carnell, Lisa A; Semones, Edward; Shay, Jerry W; Shurshakov, Vyacheslav A; Sihver, Lembit; Simonsen, Lisa C; Story, Michael D; Turker, Mitchell S; Uchihori, Yukio; Williams, Jacqueline; Zeitlin, Cary J

    2016-02-01

    Most accelerator-based space radiation experiments have been performed with single ion beams at fixed energies. However, the space radiation environment consists of a wide variety of ion species with a continuous range of energies. Due to recent developments in beam switching technology implemented at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), it is now possible to rapidly switch ion species and energies, allowing for the possibility to more realistically simulate the actual radiation environment found in space. The present paper discusses a variety of issues related to implementation of galactic cosmic ray (GCR) simulation at NSRL, especially for experiments in radiobiology. Advantages and disadvantages of different approaches to developing a GCR simulator are presented. In addition, issues common to both GCR simulation and single beam experiments are compared to issues unique to GCR simulation studies. A set of conclusions is presented as well as a discussion of the technical implementation of GCR simulation.

  11. Galactic cosmic ray simulation at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Norbury, John W; Schimmerling, Walter; Slaba, Tony C; Azzam, Edouard I; Badavi, Francis F; Baiocco, Giorgio; Benton, Eric; Bindi, Veronica; Blakely, Eleanor A; Blattnig, Steve R; Boothman, David A; Borak, Thomas B; Britten, Richard A; Curtis, Stan; Dingfelder, Michael; Durante, Marco; Dynan, William S; Eisch, Amelia J; Robin Elgart, S; Goodhead, Dudley T; Guida, Peter M; Heilbronn, Lawrence H; Hellweg, Christine E; Huff, Janice L; Kronenberg, Amy; La Tessa, Chiara; Lowenstein, Derek I; Miller, Jack; Morita, Takashi; Narici, Livio; Nelson, Gregory A; Norman, Ryan B; Ottolenghi, Andrea; Patel, Zarana S; Reitz, Guenther; Rusek, Adam; Schreurs, Ann-Sofie; Scott-Carnell, Lisa A; Semones, Edward; Shay, Jerry W; Shurshakov, Vyacheslav A; Sihver, Lembit; Simonsen, Lisa C; Story, Michael D; Turker, Mitchell S; Uchihori, Yukio; Williams, Jacqueline; Zeitlin, Cary J

    2016-02-01

    Most accelerator-based space radiation experiments have been performed with single ion beams at fixed energies. However, the space radiation environment consists of a wide variety of ion species with a continuous range of energies. Due to recent developments in beam switching technology implemented at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), it is now possible to rapidly switch ion species and energies, allowing for the possibility to more realistically simulate the actual radiation environment found in space. The present paper discusses a variety of issues related to implementation of galactic cosmic ray (GCR) simulation at NSRL, especially for experiments in radiobiology. Advantages and disadvantages of different approaches to developing a GCR simulator are presented. In addition, issues common to both GCR simulation and single beam experiments are compared to issues unique to GCR simulation studies. A set of conclusions is presented as well as a discussion of the technical implementation of GCR simulation. PMID:26948012

  12. Galactic cosmic ray simulation at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norbury, John W.; Schimmerling, Walter; Slaba, Tony C.; Azzam, Edouard I.; Badavi, Francis F.; Baiocco, Giorgio; Benton, Eric; Bindi, Veronica; Blakely, Eleanor A.; Blattnig, Steve R.; Boothman, David A.; Borak, Thomas B.; Britten, Richard A.; Curtis, Stan; Dingfelder, Michael; Durante, Marco; Dynan, William S.; Eisch, Amelia J.; Robin Elgart, S.; Goodhead, Dudley T.; Guida, Peter M.; Heilbronn, Lawrence H.; Hellweg, Christine E.; Huff, Janice L.; Kronenberg, Amy; La Tessa, Chiara; Lowenstein, Derek I.; Miller, Jack; Morita, Takashi; Narici, Livio; Nelson, Gregory A.; Norman, Ryan B.; Ottolenghi, Andrea; Patel, Zarana S.; Reitz, Guenther; Rusek, Adam; Schreurs, Ann-Sofie; Scott-Carnell, Lisa A.; Semones, Edward; Shay, Jerry W.; Shurshakov, Vyacheslav A.; Sihver, Lembit; Simonsen, Lisa C.; Story, Michael D.; Turker, Mitchell S.; Uchihori, Yukio; Williams, Jacqueline; Zeitlin, Cary J.

    2016-02-01

    Most accelerator-based space radiation experiments have been performed with single ion beams at fixed energies. However, the space radiation environment consists of a wide variety of ion species with a continuous range of energies. Due to recent developments in beam switching technology implemented at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), it is now possible to rapidly switch ion species and energies, allowing for the possibility to more realistically simulate the actual radiation environment found in space. The present paper discusses a variety of issues related to implementation of galactic cosmic ray (GCR) simulation at NSRL, especially for experiments in radiobiology. Advantages and disadvantages of different approaches to developing a GCR simulator are presented. In addition, issues common to both GCR simulation and single beam experiments are compared to issues unique to GCR simulation studies. A set of conclusions is presented as well as a discussion of the technical implementation of GCR simulation.

  13. Modular High Current Test Facility at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Tully, L K; Goerz, D A; Speer, R D; Ferriera, T J

    2008-05-20

    This paper describes the 1 MA, 225 kJ test facility in operation at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The capacitor bank is constructed from three parallel 1.5 mF modules. The modules are capable of switching simultaneously or sequentially via solid dielectric puncture switches. The bank nominally operates up to 10 kV and reaches peak current with all three cabled modules in approximately 30 {micro}s. Parallel output plates from the bank allow for cable or busbar interfacing to the load. This versatile bank is currently in use for code validation experiments, railgun related activities, switch testing, and diagnostic development.

  14. LLNL contributions to MPD thrusters for SEI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooper, Edwin Bickford

    1991-01-01

    Some of the topics covered with respect to the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL's) contributions to Magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) Thrusters for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) include: an IR camera, plasma-induced erosion/redeposition, the Mirror Fusion Test Facility-B (MFTF-B), the Thruster Lifetime Test Facility, the RACE Compact Torus Accelerator Facility, and a RACE program summary. Some of the other topics addressed include: flux contours for HAM simulation, comparison of RACE data of plasma ring formation with the HAM 2-D magnetohydrodynamic code, and the 2-D Ring Acceleration Code (TRAC).

  15. Historical Doses from Tritiated Water and Tritiated Hydrogen Gas Released to the Atmosphere from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Part 4. Routine Releases, 1953 - 1972

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, S

    2007-08-15

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory was founded in September 1952. By 1953, operations involving tritium were underway. Annual doses to an adult, a child (age 10), and an infant (age six months to one year) from tritium released routinely from the Livermore site between 1953 and 1972 were calculated using the tritium dose model, DCART. Uncertainties about sources and release rates are high, particularly for the 1950's, and it was difficult, and sometimes impossible (e.g., when a source was only assumed to have existed) to quantify them accurately. Because of this, every effort was made to assure that the uncertainties applied to the input parameters used in DCART would result in doses that could not have been exceeded. Doses were calculated at the potential locations of the hypothetical site-wide maximally exposed individual (SWMEI), which were at a residence on Vasco Road inside the present west perimeter of the Laboratory (1953 - 1958), at an automotive garage on East Avenue (1961), and at the Discovery Center (1959, 1960, 1962 - 1972, years which predate the facility). Even with the most conservative, screening model assumptions, the highest dose to the SW-MEI (in 1957) was predicted with 95% probability to have been between 27 and 370 {micro}Sv (2.7 and 37 mrem), with the most likely dose being 130 {micro}Sv (13 mrem). Using more realistic, but still conservative assumptions about what fraction of the diet could have been contaminated, these predictions were reduced by more than a factor of two. All other annual doses (at the 97.5% confidence limits) to the SW-MEI, calculated with the most conservative and health protective assumptions, were less than 200 {micro}Sv (20 mrem), and no dose after 1958 could have exceeded 100 {micro}Sv (10 mren). The cumulative dose to the hypothetical individual at the west perimeter location for 1953 through 1972 would have been no greater than 860 {micro}Sv (83 mrem), while the dose to the individual born and raised there

  16. Metrology laboratory requirements for third-generation synchrotron radiation sources

    SciTech Connect

    Takacs, P.Z.; Quian, Shinan

    1997-11-01

    New third-generation synchrotron radiation sources that are now, or will soon, come on line will need to decide how to handle the testing of optical components delivered for use in their beam lines. In many cases it is desirable to establish an in-house metrology laboratory to do the work. We review the history behind the formation of the Optical Metrology Laboratory at Brookhaven National Laboratory and the rationale for its continued existence. We offer suggestions to those who may be contemplating setting up similar facilities, based on our experiences over the past two decades.

  17. Analysis of Radiation Impact on White Mice through Radiation Dose Mapping in Medical Physics Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutikno, Madnasri; Susilo; Arya Wijayanti, Riza

    2016-08-01

    A study about X-ray radiation impact on the white mice through radiation dose mapping in Medical Physic Laboratory is already done. The purpose of this research is to determine the minimum distance of radiologist to X-ray instrument through treatment on the white mice. The radiation exposure doses are measured on the some points in the distance from radiation source between 30 cm up to 80 with interval of 30 cm. The impact of radiation exposure on the white mice and the effects of radiation measurement in different directions are investigated. It is founded that minimum distance of radiation worker to radiation source is 180 cm and X-ray has decreased leukocyte number and haemoglobin and has increased thrombocyte number in the blood of white mice.

  18. Career development for engineers at the LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Decker, W.D.

    1982-01-01

    The career development program for engineers at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) results from a conductive atmosphere rather than a structured program approach. Although the concern for careers first emerged about twenty years ago, in the past decade the Laboratory management has set out to create a favorable climate for its employees to retain their vitality and enhance their creativity. The goal was twofold: to strengthen the Laboratory and to provide more satisfying careers for its employees. How that climate has evolved is the subject of this discussion. What has been done at Livermore may not work at another place. Each organization's make-up, mission, and needs are different, with a unique staff of employees and managers who influence the creation of the organizational climate.

  19. Savannah River Plant/Savannah River Laboratory radiation exposure report

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, C.D.; Hyman, S.D.; Keisler, L.L. and Co., Aiken, SC . Savannah River Plant); Reeder, D.F.; Jolly, L.; Spoerner, M.T.; Schramm, G.R. and Co., Aiken, SC . Savannah River Lab.)

    1989-01-01

    The protection of worker health and safety is of paramount concern at the Savannah River Site. Since the site is one of the largest nuclear sites in the nation, radiation safety is a key element in the protection program. This report is a compendium of the results in 1988 of the programs at the Savannah River Plant and the Savannah River Laboratory to protect the radiological health of employees. By any measure, the radiation protection performance at this site in 1988 was the best since the beginning of operations. This accomplishment was made possible by the commitment and support at all levels of the organizations to reduce radiation exposures to ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable). The report provides detailed information about the radiation doses received by departments and work groups within these organizations. It also includes exposure data for recent years to allow Plant and Laboratory units to track the effectiveness of their ALARA efforts. Many of the successful practices and methods that reduced radiation exposure are described. A new goal for personnel contamination cases has been established for 1989. Only through continual and innovative efforts to minimize exposures can the goals be met. The radiation protection goals for 1989 and previous years are included in the report. 27 figs., 58 tabs.

  20. LLNL E-Mail Utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Dellamaggiore, N. J.; Hamel, B. B.

    2005-10-31

    The LLNL E-mail Utilities software library is a Java API that simplifies the creation and delivery of email in Java business applications. It consists of a database-driven template engine, various strategies for composing, queuing, dispatching email and a Java Swing GUI for creating and editing email templates.

  1. LLNL-Earth3D

    SciTech Connect

    2013-10-01

    Earth3D is a computer code designed to allow fast calculation of seismic rays and travel times through a 3D model of the Earth. LLNL is using this for earthquake location and global tomography efforts and such codes are of great interest to the Earth Science community.

  2. A Radiation Laboratory Curriculum Development at Western Kentucky University

    SciTech Connect

    Barzilov, Alexander P.; Novikov, Ivan S.; Womble, Phil C.

    2009-03-10

    We present the latest developments for the radiation laboratory curriculum at the Department of Physics and Astronomy of Western Kentucky University. During the last decade, the Applied Physics Institute (API) at WKU accumulated various equipment for radiation experimentation. This includes various neutron sources (computer controlled d-t and d-d neutron generators, and isotopic 252 Cf and PuBe sources), the set of gamma sources with various intensities, gamma detectors with various energy resolutions (NaI, BGO, GSO, LaBr and HPGe) and the 2.5-MeV Van de Graaff particle accelerator. XRF and XRD apparatuses are also available for students and members at the API. This equipment is currently used in numerous scientific and teaching activities. Members of the API also developed a set of laboratory activities for undergraduate students taking classes from the physics curriculum (Nuclear Physics, Atomic Physics, and Radiation Biophysics). Our goal is to develop a set of radiation laboratories, which will strengthen the curriculum of physics, chemistry, geology, biology, and environmental science at WKU. The teaching and research activities are integrated into real-world projects and hands-on activities to engage students. The proposed experiments and their relevance to the modern status of physical science are discussed.

  3. LLNL Site 200 Risk Management PlanAgust 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Pinkston, D; Johnson, M

    2008-07-30

    It is the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) policy to perform work in a manner that protects the health and safety of employees and the public, preserves the quality of the environment, and prevents property damage using the Integrated Safety Management System. The environment, safety, and health are to take priority in the planning and execution of work activities at the Laboratory. Furthermore, it is the policy of LLNL to comply with applicable ES&H laws, regulations, and requirements (LLNL Environment, Safety and Health Manual, Document 1.2, ES&H Policies of LLNL). The program and policies that improve LLNL's ability to prevent or mitigate accidental releases are described in the LLNL Environment, Health, and Safety Manual that is available to the public. The laboratory uses an emergency management system known as the Incident Command System, in accordance with the California Standardized Emergency Management System (SEMS) to respond to Operational Emergencies and to mitigate consequences resulting from them. Operational Emergencies are defined as unplanned, significant events or conditions that require time-urgent response from outside the immediate area of the incident that could seriously impact the safety or security of the public, LLNL's employees, its facilities, or the environment. The Emergency Plan contains LLNL's Operational Emergency response policies, commitments, and institutional responsibilities for managing and recovering from emergencies. It is not possible to list in the Emergency Plan all events that could occur during any given emergency situation. However, a combination of hazard assessments, an effective Emergency Plan, and Emergency Plan Implementing Procedures (EPIPs) can provide the framework for responses to postulated emergency situations. Revision 7, 2004 of the above mentioned LLNL Emergency Plan is available to the public. The most recent revision of the LLNL Emergency Plan LLNL-AM-402556, Revision 11, March 2008, has

  4. Radiative shocks: An opportunity to study laboratory astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenig, M.; Vinci, T.; Benuzzi-Mounaix, A.; Ozaki, N.; Ravasio, A.; Rabec Le Glohaec, M.; Boireau, L.; Michaut, C.; Bouquet, S.; Atzeni, S.; Schiavi, A.; Peyrusse, O.; Batani, D.

    2006-05-01

    In this paper, experimental results on radiative shocks generated by a high power laser in a xenon gas cell are presented. Two sets of experiments have been performed at the Laser pour l'Utilisation des Lasers Intenses (LULI) laboratory. Several shock parameters were simultaneously measured: shock temperature and velocities, the precursor two-dimensional (2D) time evolution, its electron density, density gradient, and temperature. Data were obtained varying initial conditions for different laser intensities and gas pressures. Comparisons with 1D and 2D radiative hydrodynamic simulations are shown for all measured parameters (shock velocity, shape, radial expansion, and temperature as well as precursor velocity and electron density).

  5. LLNL's Regional Seismic Discrimination Research

    SciTech Connect

    Hanley, W; Mayeda, K; Myers, S; Pasyanos, M; Rodgers, A; Sicherman, A; Walter, W

    1999-07-23

    As part of the Department of Energy's research and development effort to improve the monitoring capability of the planned Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty international monitoring system, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLNL) is testing and calibrating regional seismic discrimination algorithms in the Middle East, North Africa and Western Former Soviet Union. The calibration process consists of a number of steps: (1) populating the database with independently identified regional events; (2) developing regional boundaries and pre-identifying severe regional phase blockage zones; (3) measuring and calibrating coda based magnitude scales; (4a) measuring regional amplitudes and making magnitude and distance amplitude corrections (MDAC); (4b) applying the DOE modified kriging methodology to MDAC results using the regionalized background model; (5) determining the thresholds of detectability of regional phases as a function of phase type and frequency; (6) evaluating regional phase discriminant performance both singly and in combination; (7) combining steps 1-6 to create a calibrated discrimination surface for each stations; (8) assessing progress and iterating. We have now developed this calibration procedure to the point where it is fairly straightforward to apply earthquake-explosion discrimination in regions with ample empirical data. Several of the steps outlined above are discussed in greater detail in other DOE papers in this volume or in recent publications. Here we emphasize the results of the above process: station correction surfaces and their improvement to discrimination results compared with simpler calibration methods. Some of the outstanding discrimination research issues involve cases in which there is little or no empirical data. For example in many cases there is no regional nuclear explosion data at IMS stations or nearby surrogates. We have taken two approaches to this problem, first finding and using mining explosion data when available, and

  6. Comparisons organized by Ionizing Radiation Metrology Laboratory of FTMC, Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Gudelis, A; Gorina, I

    2016-03-01

    The newly established Ionizing Radiation Metrology Laboratory of the National Metrology Institute (FTMC) in Lithuania organized four comparisons in the field of low-level radioactivity measurements in water. For gamma-ray emitters, the activity concentration in the samples was in the range 1-25Bq/kg, while for tritium it was around 2Bq/g. The assigned values of all comparisons were traceable to the primary standards of the Czech Metrology Institute (CMI). PMID:26585643

  7. Ergonomics problems and solutions in biotechnology laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Coward, T.W.; Stengel, J.W.; Fellingham-Gilbert, P.

    1995-03-01

    The multi-functional successful ergonomics program currently implemented at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) will be presented with special emphasis on recent findings in the Biotechnology laboratory environment. In addition to a discussion of more traditional computer-related repetitive stress injuries and associated statistics, the presentation will cover identification of ergonomic problems in laboratory functions such as pipetting, radiation shielding, and microscope work. Techniques to alleviate symptoms and prevent future injuries will be presented.

  8. LLNL Capabilities in Underground Coal Gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Friedmann, S J; Burton, E; Upadhye, R

    2006-06-07

    Underground coal gasification (UCG) has received renewed interest as a potential technology for producing hydrogen at a competitive price particularly in Europe and China. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) played a leading role in this field and continues to do so. It conducted UCG field tests in the nineteen-seventies and -eighties resulting in a number of publications culminating in a UCG model published in 1989. LLNL successfully employed the ''Controlled Retraction Injection Point'' (CRIP) method in some of the Rocky Mountain field tests near Hanna, Wyoming. This method, shown schematically in Fig.1, uses a horizontally-drilled lined injection well where the lining can be penetrated at different locations for injection of the O{sub 2}/steam mixture. The cavity in the coal seam therefore gets longer as the injection point is retracted as well as wider due to reaction of the coal wall with the hot gases. Rubble generated from the collapsing wall is an important mechanism studied by Britten and Thorsness.

  9. LLNL Chemical Kinetics Modeling Group

    SciTech Connect

    Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K; Mehl, M; Herbinet, O; Curran, H J; Silke, E J

    2008-09-24

    The LLNL chemical kinetics modeling group has been responsible for much progress in the development of chemical kinetic models for practical fuels. The group began its work in the early 1970s, developing chemical kinetic models for methane, ethane, ethanol and halogenated inhibitors. Most recently, it has been developing chemical kinetic models for large n-alkanes, cycloalkanes, hexenes, and large methyl esters. These component models are needed to represent gasoline, diesel, jet, and oil-sand-derived fuels.

  10. LLNL Waste Minimization Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-02-14

    This document is the February 14, 1990 version of the LLNL Waste Minimization Program Plan (WMPP). The Waste Minimization Policy field has undergone continuous changes since its formal inception in the 1984 HSWA legislation. The first LLNL WMPP, Revision A, is dated March 1985. A series of informal revision were made on approximately a semi-annual basis. This Revision 2 is the third formal issuance of the WMPP document. EPA has issued a proposed new policy statement on source reduction and recycling. This policy reflects a preventative strategy to reduce or eliminate the generation of environmentally-harmful pollutants which may be released to the air, land surface, water, or ground water. In accordance with this new policy new guidance to hazardous waste generators on the elements of a Waste Minimization Program was issued. In response to these policies, DOE has revised and issued implementation guidance for DOE Order 5400.1, Waste Minimization Plan and Waste Reduction reporting of DOE Hazardous, Radioactive, and Radioactive Mixed Wastes, final draft January 1990. This WMPP is formatted to meet the current DOE guidance outlines. The current WMPP will be revised to reflect all of these proposed changes when guidelines are established. Updates, changes and revisions to the overall LLNL WMPP will be made as appropriate to reflect ever-changing regulatory requirements. 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Twenty years of space radiation physics at the BNL AGS and NASA Space Radiation Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Miller, J; Zeitlin, C

    2016-06-01

    Highly ionizing atomic nuclei HZE in the GCR will be a significant source of radiation exposure for humans on extended missions outside low Earth orbit. Accelerators such as the LBNL Bevalac and the BNL AGS, designed decades ago for fundamental nuclear and particle physics research, subsequently found use as sources of GCR-like particles for ground-based physics and biology research relevant to space flight. The NASA Space Radiation Laboratory at BNL was constructed specifically for space radiation research. Here we review some of the space-related physics results obtained over the first 20 years of NASA-sponsored research at Brookhaven.

  12. Twenty years of space radiation physics at the BNL AGS and NASA Space Radiation Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, J.; Zeitlin, C.

    2016-06-01

    Highly ionizing atomic nuclei HZE in the GCR will be a significant source of radiation exposure for humans on extended missions outside low Earth orbit. Accelerators such as the LBNL Bevalac and the BNL AGS, designed decades ago for fundamental nuclear and particle physics research, subsequently found use as sources of GCR-like particles for ground-based physics and biology research relevant to space flight. The NASA Space Radiation Laboratory at BNL was constructed specifically for space radiation research. Here we review some of the space-related physics results obtained over the first 20 years of NASA-sponsored research at Brookhaven.

  13. Twenty years of space radiation physics at the BNL AGS and NASA Space Radiation Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Miller, J; Zeitlin, C

    2016-06-01

    Highly ionizing atomic nuclei HZE in the GCR will be a significant source of radiation exposure for humans on extended missions outside low Earth orbit. Accelerators such as the LBNL Bevalac and the BNL AGS, designed decades ago for fundamental nuclear and particle physics research, subsequently found use as sources of GCR-like particles for ground-based physics and biology research relevant to space flight. The NASA Space Radiation Laboratory at BNL was constructed specifically for space radiation research. Here we review some of the space-related physics results obtained over the first 20 years of NASA-sponsored research at Brookhaven. PMID:27345198

  14. Creating a Driven, Collapsed Radiative Shock in the Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reighard, Amy

    2006-10-01

    We report details of the first experimental campaign to create a driven, planar, radiatively collapsed in laboratory experiment. Radiation hydrodynamics experiments are challenging to realize in a laboratory setting, requiring high temperatures in a system of sufficient extent. The Omega laser at ˜10^15 W/cm^2 drives a thin slab of low-Z material at >100 km/s gas via laser ablation pressure. This slab initially shocks, then continues driving a shock through a cylindrical volume of Xe gas at 6 mg/cc. Simulations predict a collapsed layer in which the density reaches ˜45 times initial density. Side-on x-ray backlighting was the principal diagnostic. We have successfully imaged shocks with average velocities between 95-205 km/sec, with measured thicknesses of 45-150 μm in experiments lasting up to 20 ns and spanning up 2.5 mm in extent. Comparison of the shock position as a function of time from these experiments to 1D radiation hydrodynamic simulation results show some discrepancy, which will be explored. Optical depth before and behind the shock is important for meaningful comparison to these astrophysical systems. This shock is optically thin to emitted radiation in the unshocked region and optically thick to radiation in the shocked, dense region. We compare this system to collapsed shocks in astrophysical systems with similar optical depth profiles. An experiment using a Thomson scattering diagnostic across the shock front is also discussed. This research was sponsored by the National Nuclear Security Administration under the Stewardship Science Academic Alliances program through DOE Research Grants DE-FG52-03NA00064, DE-FG53-2005-NA26014, and other grants and contracts.

  15. Evaluation of Radiometers Deployed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Solar Radiation Research Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Habte, A.; Wilcox, S.; Stoffel, T.

    2014-02-01

    This study analyzes the performance of various commercially available radiometers used for measuring global horizontal irradiances and direct normal irradiances. These include pyranometers, pyrheliometers, rotating shadowband radiometers, and a pyranometer with fixed internal shading and are all deployed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Solar Radiation Research Laboratory. Data from 32 global horizontal irradiance and 19 direct normal irradiance radiometers are presented. The radiometers in this study were deployed for one year (from April 1, 2011, through March 31, 2012) and compared to measurements from radiometers with the lowest values of estimated measurement uncertainties for producing reference global horizontal irradiances and direct normal irradiances.

  16. Technical developments at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Lowenstein, D I; Rusek, A

    2007-06-01

    The NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) located at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is a center for space radiation research in both the life and physical sciences. BNL is a multidisciplinary research facility operated for the Office of Science of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The BNL scientific research portfolio supports a large and diverse science and technology program including research in nuclear and high-energy physics, material science, chemistry, biology, medial science, and nuclear safeguards and security. NSRL, in operation since July 2003, is an accelerator-based facility which provides particle beams for radiobiology and physics studies (Lowenstein in Phys Med 17(supplement 1):26-29 2001). The program focus is to measure the risks and to ameliorate the effects of radiation encountered in space, both in low earth orbit and extended missions beyond the earth. The particle beams are produced by the Booster synchrotron, an accelerator that makes up part of the injector sequence of the DOE nuclear physics program's Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. Ion species from protons to gold are presently available, at energies ranging from <100 to >1,000 MeV/n. The NSRL facility has recently brought into operation the ability to rapidly switch species and beam energy to supply a varied spectrum onto a given specimen. A summary of past operation performance, plans for future operations and recent and planned hardware upgrades will be described.

  17. LLNL NESHAPs project 1997 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Gallegos, G.M.

    1998-06-01

    NESHAP`s limits the emission of radionuclides to the ambient air from DOE facilities to levels resulting in an annual effective dose equivalent (EDE) of 10 mrem (100 ({mu}Sv) to any member of the public The EDEs for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) site- wide maximally exposed members of the public from 1997 operations were Livermore site. 0 097 mrem (0 97 {mu}Sv) (80% from point-source emissions), 20% from diffuse-source emissions), Site 300 0 014 mrem (O 14 {mu}Sv) (38% from point-source emissions, 62% from diffuse-source emissions) The EDEs were generally calculated using the EPA-approved CAP88-PC air- dispersion/dose-assessment model Site-specific meteorological data, stack flow data, and emissions estimates based on radionuclide inventory data or continuous-monitoring systems data were the specific input to CAP88-PC for each modeled source.

  18. LLNL X-band Test Station Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, David; Anderson, Scott; Hartemann, Frederic; Marsh, Roark; Wu, Sheldon; Barty, C. P. J.

    2013-10-01

    An X-band test station is being built at LLNL to support inverse Compton-scattering x-ray and gamma-ray source development. The major components for the X-band test station have been designed, fabricated, installed, and aligned. Commissioning of the high power RF and accelerator is complete, and the current status of commissioning and first beam will be presented and discussed. Future upgrade paths and configuration for a variety of x-ray and gamma-ray applications will be discussed along with schedule for planned experiments. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  19. The Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, 20 years of synchrotron light

    SciTech Connect

    Cantwell, K.

    1993-08-01

    The Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL) is now operating as a fully dedicated light source with low emittance electron optics, delivering high brightness photon beams to 25 experimental stations six to seven months per year. On October 1, 1993 SSRL became a Division of the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, rather than an Independent Laboratory of Stanford University, so that high energy physics and synchrotron radiation now function under a single DOE contract. The SSRL division of SLAC has responsibility for operating, maintaining and improving the SPEAR accelerator complex, which includes the storage ring and a 3 GeV injector. SSRL has thirteen x-ray stations and twelve VUV/Soft x-ray stations serving its 600 users. Recently opened to users is a new spherical grating monochromator (SGM) and a multiundulator beam line. Circularly polarized capabilities are being exploited on a second SGM line. New YB{sub 66} crystals installed in a vacuum double-crystal monochromator line have sparked new interest for Al and Mg edge studies. One of the most heavily subscribed stations is the rotation camera, which has been recently enhanced with a MAR imaging plate detector system for protein crystallography on a multipole wiggler. Under construction is a new wiggler-based structural molecular biology beam line with experimental stations for crystallography, small angle scattering and x-ray absorption spectroscopy. Plans for new developments include wiggler beam lines and associated facilities specialized for environmental research and materials processing.

  20. Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory activity report for 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, S.; Cantwell, K.

    1988-12-31

    During 1987, SSRL achieved many significant advances and reached several major milestones utilizing both SPEAR and PEP as synchrotron radiation sources as described in this report. Perhaps the following two are worthy of particular mention: (1) SPEAR reached an all time high of 4,190 delivered user-shifts during calendar year 1987, highlights of the many scientific results are given; (2) during a 12 day run in December of 1987, PEP was operated in a low emittance mode (calculated emittance 6.4 nanometer-radians) at 7.1 GeV with currents up to 33 mA. A second undulator beam line on PEP was commissioned during this run and used to record many spectra showing the extremely high brightness of the radiation. PEP is now by far the highest brightness synchrotron radiation source in the world. The report is divided into the following sections: (1) laboratory operations; (2) accelerator physics programs; (3) experimental facilities; (4) engineering division; (5) conferences and workshops; (6) SSRL organization; (7) experimental progress reports; (8) active proposals; (9) SSRL experiments and proposals by institution; and (10) SSRL publications.

  1. LLNL Middle East and North Africa research database

    SciTech Connect

    Ruppert, S.D.; Hauk, T.F.; Leach, R.

    1997-07-15

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) CTBT R{ampersand}D program has made significant progress assembling a comprehensive seismic database (DB) for events and derived parameters in the Middle East and North Africa (ME/NA). The LLNL research DB provides not only a coherent framework in which store and organize large volumes of collected seismic waveforms and associated event parameter information but also provides an efficient data processing/research environment. The DB is designed to be flexible and extensible in order to accommodate the large volumes of data in diverse formats from many sources in addition to maintaining detailed quality control and metadata. Researchers can make use of the relational nature of the DB and interactive analysis tools to quickly and efficiently process large volumes of data. Seismic waveforms have been systematically collected form a wide range of local and regional networks using numerous earthquake bulletins and converted a common format based on CSS3.O while undergoing quality control and corrections of errors. By combining traveltime observations, event characterization studies, and regional wave-propagation studies of the LLNL CTBT team, we are assembling a library of ground truth information and event location correction surfaces required to support the ME/NA regionalization program. Corrections and parameters distilled from the LLNL research DB will provide needed contributions to the DOE knowledge base for the ME/NA region and enable the USNDC and IDC to effectively verify CTBT compliance.

  2. LLNL electro-optical mine detection program

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, C.; Aimonetti, W.; Barth, M.; Buhl, M.; Bull, N.; Carter, M.; Clark, G.; Fields, D.; Fulkerson, S.; Kane, R.

    1994-09-30

    Under funding from the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) and the US Marine Corps (USMC), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has directed a program aimed at improving detection capabilities against buried mines and munitions. The program has provided a national test facility for buried mines in arid environments, compiled and distributed an extensive data base of infrared (IR), ground penetrating radar (GPR), and other measurements made at that site, served as a host for other organizations wishing to make measurements, made considerable progress in the use of ground penetrating radar for mine detection, and worked on the difficult problem of sensor fusion as applied to buried mine detection. While the majority of our effort has been concentrated on the buried mine problem, LLNL has worked with the U.S.M.C. on surface mine problems as well, providing data and analysis to support the COBRA (Coastal Battlefield Reconnaissance and Analysis) program. The original aim of the experimental aspect of the program was the utilization of multiband infrared approaches for the detection of buried mines. Later the work was extended to a multisensor investigation, including sensors other than infrared imagers. After an early series of measurements, it was determined that further progress would require a larger test facility in a natural environment, so the Buried Object Test Facility (BOTF) was constructed at the Nevada Test Site. After extensive testing, with sensors spanning the electromagnetic spectrum from the near ultraviolet to radio frequencies, possible paths for improvement were: improved spatial resolution providing better ground texture discrimination; analysis which involves more complicated spatial queueing and filtering; additional IR bands using imaging spectroscopy; the use of additional sensors other than IR and the use of data fusion techniques with multi-sensor data; and utilizing time dependent observables like temperature.

  3. Radiative shocks: an opportunity to study Laboratory Astrophysics.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenig, Michel

    2005-10-01

    A shock becomes radiative when it produces a significant upstream ionizing photons. This phenomenon occurs for shock velocities exceeding a given threshold which depend strongly on the medium. These velocities are typically or the order of 100 km/s and more, common value in astrophysics. Here we shall present a serie of experiments performed at LULI laboratory using the old 6 beams and the new LULI2000 facility. Scaling laws and hydrodynamic simulations allowed to design the target characteristics according to the available laser energy. A strong shock was driven in a layered solid target (CH-Ti-CH) which then accelerates into a gas cell ( 60km/s) filled with Xenon at low pressure (0.1-0.3bar) producing a radiative supercritical shock. A laser beam (8ns-532nm) probes the Xenon gas in the transverse direction and was injected into either a Mach-Zenhder or a VISAR interferometer. In this last case two additional optical framing cameras was used. On the rear side, self-emission and VISAR diagnostics were utilized. All these diagnostics allow to determine many relevant parameters linked to the shock or the radiative precursor. Indeed we shall present experimental data for the shock temperature and velocities, the precursor 2D time evolution, its electron density, density gradient and temperature. Data were obtained for different laser intensities and gas pressures. Comparisons with 1D (MULTI) and 2D (DUED) radiative hydrodynamic codes will be presented for all measured parameters (shock velocity, shape, radial expansion, and temperature as well as precursor velocity and precursor electron density).

  4. Recent Changes to the Criticality Safety Program at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Pearson, J.S.; Burch, J.G.; Huang, S.T.

    2001-08-22

    During the 1996 audit, a corrective action program was developed and implemented to enhance the Criticality Safety Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The Criticality Safety Program at LLNL has been rebuilt to combine a strong core criticality safety program with direct field support to floor operations. Field staff are integrated into the supported facility and program efforts. This method of operation effects all aspects of the criticality safety program including, as examples, development of criticality safety controls and training.

  5. Space Radiation Dosimetry with the The Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassler, Donald M.; Zeitlin, Cary; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.; Boehm, Eckhardt; Boettcher, Stephan; Burmeister, Soenke; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Kortmann, Onno; Martin, Cesar; Posner, Arik; Rafkin, Scot; Reitz, Guenther

    The Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) is a compact, lightweight energetic particle an-alyzer that will fly on the NASA 2011 Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Mission. RAD will detect and analyze energetic particle species (p, n, He, 2¡Z¡26) relevant for dosimetry on the Martian surface. The Galactic Cosmic Rays and Solar Energetic Particles produce both pri-mary and secondary radiation, with secondaries being created in both the atmosphere and the Martian regolith. Fully characterizing and understanding the surface radiation environment is fundamental to quantitatively assessing the habitability of Mars, and is an essential precursor measurement for future manned Mars missions. An extensive database to be used for calibration has been obtained for a wide range of energetic charged particle beams at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) and the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC). Neutron calibration data at 5, 15, and 19 MeV were obtained at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt. This talk will discuss the highlights of the RAD calibration campaigns and talk about what we have learned from these campaigns with respect to operating RAD on the Martian surface. We will also discuss other mission applications for RAD where dosimetry in mixed fields of energetic charged and neutral particles is needed.

  6. LLNL medical and industrial laser isotope separation: large volume, low cost production through advanced laser technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Comaskey, B.; Scheibner, K. F.; Shaw, M.; Wilder, J.

    1998-09-02

    The goal of this LDRD project was to demonstrate the technical and economical feasibility of applying laser isotope separation technology to the commercial enrichment (>lkg/y) of stable isotopes. A successful demonstration would well position the laboratory to make a credible case for the creation of an ongoing medical and industrial isotope production and development program at LLNL. Such a program would establish LLNL as a center for advanced medical isotope production, successfully leveraging previous LLNL Research and Development hardware, facilities, and knowledge.

  7. Radiative Transfer Theory Verified by Controlled Laboratory Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mishchenko, Michael I.; Goldstein, Dennis H.; Chowdhary, Jacek; Lompado, Arthur

    2013-01-01

    We report the results of high-accuracy controlled laboratory measurements of the Stokes reflection matrix for suspensions of submicrometer-sized latex particles in water and compare them with the results of a numerically exact computer solution of the vector radiative transfer equation (VRTE). The quantitative performance of the VRTE is monitored by increasing the volume packing density of the latex particles from 2 to 10. Our results indicate that the VRTE can be applied safely to random particulate media with packing densities up to 2. VRTE results for packing densities of the order of 5 should be taken with caution, whereas the polarized bidirectional reflectivity of suspensions with larger packing densities cannot be accurately predicted. We demonstrate that a simple modification of the phase matrix entering the VRTE based on the so-called static structure factor can be a promising remedy that deserves further examination.

  8. PREFACE: Acceleration and radiation generation in space and laboratory plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bingham, R.; Katsouleas, T.; Dawson, J. M.; Stenflo, L.

    1994-01-01

    Sixty-six leading researchers from ten nations gathered in the Homeric village of Kardamyli, on the southern coast of mainland Greece, from August 29-September 4, 1993 for the International Workshop on Acceleration and Radiation Generation in Space and Laboratory Plasmas. This Special Issue represents a cross-section of the presentations made at and the research stimulated by that meeting. According to the Iliad, King Agamemnon used Kardamyli as a dowry offering in order to draw a sulking Achilles into the Trojan War. 3000 years later, Kardamyli is no less seductive. Its remoteness and tranquility made it an ideal venue for promoting the free exchange of ideas between various disciplines that do not normally interact. Through invited presen tations, informal poster discussions and working group sessions, the Workshop brought together leaders from the laboratory and space/astrophysics communities working on common problems of acceleration and radiation generation in plasmas. It was clear from the presentation and discussion sessions that there is a great deal of common ground between these disciplines which is not at first obvious due to the differing terminologies and types of observations available to each community. All of the papers in this Special Issue highlight the role collective plasma processes play in accelerating particles or generating radiation. Some are state-of-the-art presentations of the latest research in a single discipline, while others investi gate the applicability of known laboratory mechanisms to explain observations in natural plasmas. Notable among the latter are the papers by Marshall et al. on kHz radiation in the magnetosphere ; Barletta et al. on collective acceleration in solar flares; and by Dendy et al. on ion cyclotron emission. The papers in this Issue are organized as follows: In Section 1 are four general papers by Dawson, Galeev, Bingham et al. and Mon which serves as an introduction to the physical mechanisms of acceleration

  9. Scientists in the Classroom Activities at LLNL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correll, Donald; Albala, Joanna; Farnsworth, Richard; Meyer, William

    2013-10-01

    LLNL fusion and plasma education activities are broadening into the ``Scientists in the Classroom'' collaboration between LLNL's Science Education Program (http://education.llnl.gov) and California's San Joaquin County Office of Education (SJCOE). Initial activities involved Grades 6-12 teachers attending the SCJOE 2013 summer workshop addressing the physical sciences content within the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) as described at http://www.nextgenscience.org/. The NGSS Science and Engineering Practices in Physics workshop (June 22-26, 2013) that took place at the University of the Pacific included participation by the first author using video conferencing facilities recently added to the Edward Teller Education Center adjacent to LLNL. ETEC (http://etec.llnl.gov/) is a partnership between LLNL and the UC Davis School of Education to provide professional development for STEM teachers. Current and future activities using fusion science and plasma physics to enhance science education associated with ``Scientists in the Classroom'' and NGSS will be presented. Work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL-ABS-639990.

  10. Regional seismic discrimination research at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, W.R.; Mayeda, K.M.; Goldstein, P.; Patton, H.J.; Jarpe, S.; Glenn, L.

    1995-10-01

    The ability to verify a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) depends in part on the ability to seismically detect and discriminate between potential clandestine underground nuclear tests and other seismic sources, including earthquakes and mining activities. Regional techniques are necessary to push detection and discrimination levels down to small magnitudes, but existing methods of event discrimination are mainly empirical and show much variability from region to region. The goals of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL`s) regional discriminant research are to evaluate the most promising discriminants, improve the understanding of their physical basis and use this information to develop new and more effective discriminants that can be transported to new regions of high monitoring interest. In this report the authors discuss preliminary efforts to geophysically characterize the Middle East and North Africa. They show that the remarkable stability of coda allows one to develop physically based, stable single station magnitude scales in new regions. They then discuss progress to date on evaluating and improving physical understanding and ability to model regional discriminants, focusing on the comprehensive NTS dataset. The authors apply this modeling ability to develop improved discriminants including slopes of P to S ratios. They find combining disparate discriminant techniques is particularly effective in identifying consistent outliers such as shallow earthquakes and mine seismicity. Finally they discuss development and use of new coda and waveform modeling tools to investigate special events.

  11. LLNL Middle East, North Africa and Western Eurasia Knowledge Base

    SciTech Connect

    O'Boyle, J; Ruppert, S D; Hauk, T F; Dodge, D A; Ryall, F; Firpo, M A

    2001-07-12

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Ground-Based Nuclear Event Monitoring (GNEM) program has made significant progress populating a comprehensive Seismic Research Knowledge Base (SRKB) and deriving calibration parameters for the Middle East, North Africa and Western Eurasia (ME/NA/WE) regions. The LLNL SRKB provides not only a coherent framework in which to store and organize very large volumes of collected seismic waveforms, associated event parameter information, and spatial contextual data, but also provides an efficient data processing/research environment for deriving location and discrimination correction surfaces. The SRKB is a flexible and extensible framework consisting of a relational database (RDB), Geographical Information System (GIS), and associated product/data visualization and data management tools. This SRKB framework is designed to accommodate large volumes of data (almost 3 million waveforms from 57,000 events) in diverse formats from many sources (both LLNL derived research and integrated contractor products), in addition to maintaining detailed quality control and metadata. We have developed expanded look-up tables for critical station parameter information (including location and response) and an integrated and reconciled event catalog data set (including specification of preferred origin solutions and associated phase arrivals) for the PDE, CMT, ISC, REB and selected regional catalogs. Using the SRKB framework, we are combining traveltime observations, event characterization studies, and regional tectonic models to assemble a library of ground truth information and phenomenology (e.g. travel-time and amplitude) correction surfaces required for support of the ME/NA/WE regionalization program. We also use the SRKB to integrate data and research products from a variety of sources, such as contractors and universities, to merge and maintain quality control of the data sets. Corrections and parameters distilled from the LLNL SRKB

  12. Radar Cross-Section Measurements of V22 Blade Tip with and without LLNL Tipcap Reflector

    SciTech Connect

    Poland, D; Simpson, R

    2000-07-01

    It is desired to quantify the effect, in terms of radar cross-section (RCS), of the addition of a small aluminum reflector to the end of the V22 blades. This reflector was designed and manufactured in order to facilitate blade lag measurements by the 95 GHz Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Radar Blade Tracker (RBT) system. The reflector used in these measurements was designed and fabricated at LLNL and is pictured in Figure 1.

  13. Hazardous-waste analysis plan for LLNL operations

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, R.S.

    1982-02-12

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is involved in many facets of research ranging from nuclear weapons research to advanced Biomedical studies. Approximately 80% of all programs at LLNL generate hazardous waste in one form or another. Aside from producing waste from industrial type operations (oils, solvents, bottom sludges, etc.) many unique and toxic wastes are generated such as phosgene, dioxin (TCDD), radioactive wastes and high explosives. One key to any successful waste management program must address the following: proper identification of the waste, safe handling procedures and proper storage containers and areas. This section of the Waste Management Plan will address methodologies used for the Analysis of Hazardous Waste. In addition to the wastes defined in 40 CFR 261, LLNL and Site 300 also generate radioactive waste not specifically covered by RCRA. However, for completeness, the Waste Analysis Plan will address all hazardous waste.

  14. GCR Simulator Development Status at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slaba, T. C.; Norbury, J. W.; Blattnig, S. R.

    2015-01-01

    There are large uncertainties connected to the biological response for exposure to galactic cosmic rays (GCR) on long duration deep space missions. In order to reduce the uncertainties and gain understanding about the basic mechanisms through which space radiation initiates cancer and other endpoints, radiobiology experiments are performed with mono-energetic ions beams. Some of the accelerator facilities supporting such experiments have matured to a point where simulating the broad range of particles and energies characteristic of the GCR environment in a single experiment is feasible from a technology, usage, and cost perspective. In this work, several aspects of simulating the GCR environment at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) are discussed. First, comparisons are made between direct simulation of the external, free space GCR field, and simulation of the induced tissue field behind shielding. It is found that upper energy constraints at NSRL limit the ability to simulate the external, free space field directly (i.e. shielding placed in the beam line in front of a biological target and exposed to a free space spectrum). Second, a reference environment for the GCR simulator and suitable for deep space missions is identified and described in terms of fluence and integrated dosimetric quantities. Analysis results are given to justify the use of a single reference field over a range of shielding conditions and solar activities. Third, an approach for simulating the reference field at NSRL is presented. The approach directly considers the hydrogen and helium energy spectra, and the heavier ions are collectively represented by considering the linear energy transfer (LET) spectrum. While many more aspects of the experimental setup need to be considered before final implementation of the GCR simulator, this preliminary study provides useful information that should aid the final design. Possible drawbacks of the proposed methodology are discussed and weighed

  15. Laboratory Studies of Supersonic Magnetized Plasma Jets and Radiative Shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedev, Sergey

    2013-06-01

    In this talk I will focus on laboratory plasma experiments producing magnetically driven supersonic plasma jets and on the interaction of these jets with ambient media. The experiments are scalable to astrophysical flows in that the critical dimensionless numbers such as the plasma collisionality, the plasma beta, the Reynolds number and the magnetic Reynolds number are all in the astrophysically appropriate ranges. The experimental results will be compared with computer simulations performed with laboratory plasma codes and with astrophysical codes. In the experiments the jets are driven and collimated by the toroidal magnetic fields and it is found that the level of MHD instabilities in the jets strongly depends on the strength of the field represented by the ratio of the thermal to magnetic field pressures (plasma beta). The experiments show the possibility of formation of episodic outflows, with periodic ejections of magnetic bubbles naturally evolving into a heterogeneous jet propagating inside a channel made of self-collimated magnetic cavities [1,2]. We also found that it is possible to form quasi-laminar jets which are “indirectly” collimated by the toroidal magnetic fields, but this requires the presence of the lower density halo plasma surrounding the central jet [3]. Studies of the radiative shocks formed in the interaction of the supersonic magnetized plasma flows with ambient plasma will be also presented, and the development of cooling instabilities in the post-shock plasma will be discussed. This research was sponsored by EPSRC Grant No. EP/G001324/1 and by the OFES DOE under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-SC-0001063. References 1. A. Ciardi, S.V. Lebedev, A. Frank et al., The Astrophysical Journal, 691: L147-L150 (2009) 2. F.A. Suzuki-Vidal, S.V. Lebedev, S.N. Bland et al., Physics of Plasmas, 17, 112708 (2010). 3. F.A. Suzuki-Vidal, M. Bocchi, S.V. Lebedev et al., Physics of Plasmas, 19, 022708 (2012).

  16. The NASA Microelectronics Space Radiation Effects Program (MSREP) at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, C.; Coss, J.; Nichols, D.; Shaw, D.

    1991-01-01

    The primary objective of the Microelectronics Space Radiation Effects Program (MSREP) at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is to assist NASA in the selection of radiation hardened microelectronic parts for insertion in NASA space systems through radiation testing and research. Prior to presenting examples of the research and testing on Single Event Effects (SEE) and Total Ionizing Dose (TID) effects, the space radiation environment and radiation requirements for the CRAFT/Cassini program, a typical JPL space project, are discussed.

  17. Photoelectron Spectroscopy of U Oxide at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, J G; Yu, S; Chung, B W; Waddill, G D

    2010-03-02

    In our laboratory at LLNL, an effort is underway to investigate the underlying complexity of 5f electronic structure with spin-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy using chiral photonic excitation, i.e. Fano Spectroscopy. Our previous Fano measurements with Ce indicate the efficacy of this approach and theoretical calculations and spectral simulations suggest that Fano Spectroscopy may resolve the controversy concerning Pu electronic structure and electron correlation. To this end, we have constructed and commissioned a new Fano Spectrometer, testing it with the relativistic 5d system Pt. Here, our preliminary photoelectron spectra of the UO{sub 2} system are presented. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy has been used to characterize a sample of UO{sub 2} grown on an underlying substrate of Uranium. Both AlK{alpha} (1487 eV) and MgK{alpha} (1254 eV) emission were utilized as the excitation. Using XPS and comparing to reference spectra, it has been shown that our sample is clearly UO{sub 2}.

  18. Calibration of the LLNL Imaging Proton Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmus, A. M.; Manuel, M. J.-E.; Kuranz, C. C.; Klein, S.; Belancourt, P. X.; Fein, J. R.; MacDonald, M. J.; Drake, R. P.; Hazi, A. U.; Pollock, B. B.; Park, J.; Williams, G. J.; Chen, H.

    2014-10-01

    Ultra intense short pulse lasers incident on solid targets (e.g. Au foil) produce well collimated, broadband proton beams. These proton beams can be used to characterize magnetic fields in high-energy-density systems. The Imaging Proton Spectrometer (IPS) was previously designed and built (H. Chen 2010, RSI) for use with such laser produced proton beams. The IPS has an energy range of 50 keV-40 MeV with a resolving power (E/dE) of about 250 at 0.5 MeV and 350 at 2 MeV, as well as a single spatial imaging direction. In order to better characterize the imaging capability of this diagnostic, a 3D FEA solver has been used to calculate the magnetic field of the IPS. Particle trajectories are then obtained via numerical integration to calibrate the imaging axis of the IPS. Experiments using alpha sources will be used to verify the calculated calibration. This work is funded by the NNSA-DS and SC-OFES Joint Program in High-Energy-Density Laboratory Plasmas, Grant Number DE-NA0001840. Work by LLNL was performed under the auspices of U.S. DOE under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  19. The new LLNL AMS sample changer

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, M.L.; Norman, P.J.; Garibaldi, J.L.; Hornady, R.S.

    1993-09-07

    The Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry at LLNL has installed a new 64 position AMS sample changer on our spectrometer. This new sample changer has the capability of being controlled manually by an operator or automatically by the AMS data acquisition computer. Automatic control of the sample changer by the data acquisition system is a necessary step towards unattended AMS operation in our laboratory. The sample changer uses a fiber optic shaft encoder for rough rotational indexing of the sample wheel and a series of sequenced pneumatic cylinders for final mechanical indexing of the wheel and insertion and retraction of samples. Transit time from sample to sample varies from 4 s to 19 s, depending on distance moved. Final sample location can be set to within 50 microns on the x and y axis and within 100 microns in the z axis. Changing sample wheels on the new sample changer is also easier and faster than was possible on our previous sample changer and does not require the use of any tools.

  20. Assessment of sediment monitoring at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Gallegos, G.

    1994-03-17

    Three separate sediment monitoring studies have been conducted at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Livermore site. ``Sediment`` is defined here as finely divided solid materials that have settled out of an active stream or standing water. Sediment samples from all three studies were analyzed for a number of contaminants including {sup 239}pu, {sup 3}H, gamma emitting radionuclides, heavy metals, volatile organic compounds and pesticides. The analytical results for metals and organic compounds were compared to limits for disposal of hazardous waste, the tritium values were compared to drinking water standards, and the other radionuclides were compared to soils monitoring values. No tritium values were above (or were greater than 55% of drinking water standards), and no other radionuclides in sediments were above soils values. In all of the studies, only two metals, lead and mercury, and six organic compounds, benzo(a)-pyrene, Dieldrin, p,p{prime}-DDT, Endosulfan L endosulfan sulfate, and vinyl chloride were above waste disposal limits. Three of the high contaminants, mercury, benzo(a)-pyrene, and vinyl chloride, were found at one sampling location; the others were not connected by drainage channels or physical proximity to each other. Overall, a total of 247 samples were analyzed, and the sporadic identification of materials over disposal limits demonstrates that there is negligible contamination of sediment.

  1. Identification and evaluation of the nonradioactive toxic components in LLNL weapon designs, Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.A.; Lipska-Quinn, A.E.

    1994-01-01

    The proper industrial hygiene strategy and response to a weapons accident is dependent upon the nonradioactive toxic materials contained in each weapon system. For example, in order to use the proper sampling and support equipment, e.g., personal protective and air sampling equipment, the Accident Response Group (ARG) Team needs a detailed inventory of nonradioactive toxic and potentially toxic materials in the weapon systems. The DOE Albuquerque Office or Operations funded the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Sandia National Laboratory to identify and evaluate the nonradioactive toxic components of their respective weapons designs. This report summarizes LLNL`s first year`s activities and results.

  2. Environmental monitoring at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory: Annual report, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, R.C.; Brekke, D.D.

    1988-04-01

    This report documents the results of the Environmental Monitoring Program at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLNL) for 1987. To evaluate the effect of LLNL operations on the local environment, measurements were made of direct radiation and a variety of radionuclides and chemical pollutants in ambient air, soil, sewage effluents, surface water, groundwater, vegetation, foodstuff, and milk at both the Livermore site and nearby Site 300. Evaluations were made of LLNL's compliance with the applicable guides, standards, and limits for radiological and nonradiological releases to the environment. The data indicates that the only releases in excess of applicable standards were four releases to the sanitary sewer. LLNL operations had no adverse impact on the environment during 1987. 65 refs., 24 figs.

  3. Environmental monitoring at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory: 1986 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, R.C.; Buddemeier, R.W.; Brekke, D.D.

    1987-04-01

    This report documents the results of the environmental monitoring program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for 1986. To evaluate the effect of LLNL operations on the local environment, measurements of direct radiation and a variety of radionuclides and chemical pollutants in ambient air, soil, surface water, groundwater, vegetation, milk, foodstuff, and sewage effluents were made at both the Livermore site and nearby Site 300. This report was prepared to meet the requirements of DOE Order 5484.1. Evaluations are made of LLNL's compliance with all applicable guides, standards, and limits for radiological and nonradiological releases to the environment. The data indicate that no releases in excess of the applicable standards were made during 1986, and that LLNL operations had no adverse environmental impact.

  4. Fire science at LLNL: A review

    SciTech Connect

    Hasegawa, H.K.

    1990-03-01

    This fire sciences report from LLNL includes topics on: fire spread in trailer complexes, properties of welding blankets, validation of sprinkler systems, fire and smoke detectors, fire modeling, and other fire engineering and safety issues. (JEF)

  5. Circumsolar Radiation Data: The Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Reduced Data Base

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Reduced Data Base contains approximately 288 megabytes of information, including detailed intensity profiles of the solar and circumsolar region, the total and spectrally divided direct normal radiation data, as well as the total hemispherical solar radiation in the horizontal plane and the plane facing the sun. Data are available for 11 locations in the United States in the period 1976 to 1981. The measurements were made by four circumsolar telescopes operating about 16 hours per day. The Reduced Data Base represents about one-tenth of the total data taken by the circumsolar telescopes. The sites, the amount of data available for each site, and the collection dates are: • Albuquerque (STTF), New Mexico (28,971 data sets from 4/77 to 10/79 • Albuquerque (TETF), New Mexico (13,851 data sets from 5/76 to 3/77) • Argonne, Illinois (9,702 data sets from 8/77 to 8/78) • Atlanta, Georgia (38,405 data sets from 6/77 to 6/80) • Barstow, California (36,632 data sets from 7/77 to 10/79) • Boardman, Oregon (4,782 data sets from 2/77 to 5/77) • China Lake, California (10,683 data sets from 7/76 to 3/77) • Colstrip, Montana (616 data sets from 5/77 to 6/77) • Edwards Air Force Base, California (27,344 data sets from 10/79 to 6/81) • Fort Hood (Bunker), Texas (5,150 data sets from 7/76 to 11/76) • Fort Hood (TES), Texas (8,250 data sets from 11/76 to 8/77) Note that each data set is composed of 20 lines of information with each line consistingof 77 characters. These are archived ASCII files. [Information on sites, number of data sets, etc. taken from the online publication (out of print) at http://rredc.nrel.gov/solar/pubs/circumsolar/index.html

  6. Environmental Remediation Sciences Program at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Bargar, John R.

    2006-11-15

    Synchrotron radiation (SR)-based techniques provide unique capabilities to address scientific issues underpinning environmental remediation science and have emerged as major research tools in this field. The high intensity of SR sources and x-ray photon-in/photon-out detection allow noninvasive in-situ analysis of dilute, hydrated, and chemically/structurally complex natural samples. SR x-rays can be focused to beams of micron and sub-micron dimension, which allows the study of microstructures, chemical microgradients, and microenvironments such as in biofilms, pore spaces, and around plant roots, that may control the transformation of contaminants in the environment. The utilization of SR techniques in environmental remediation sciences is often frustrated, however, by an ''activation energy barrier'', which is associated with the need to become familiar with an array of data acquisition and analysis techniques, a new technical vocabulary, beam lines, experimental instrumentation, and user facility administrative procedures. Many investigators find it challenging to become sufficiently expert in all of these areas or to maintain their training as techniques evolve. Another challenge is the dearth of facilities for hard x-ray micro-spectroscopy, particularly in the 15 to 23 KeV range, which includes x-ray absorption edges of the priority DOE contaminants Sr, U, Np, Pu, and Tc. Prior to the current program, there were only two (heavily oversubscribed) microprobe facilities in the U.S. that could fully address this energy range (one at each of APS and NSLS); none existed in the Western U.S., in spite of the relatively large number of DOE laboratories in this region.

  7. Reverberation Chamber Uniformity Validation and Radiated Susceptibility Test Procedures for the NASA High Intensity Radiated Fields Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koppen, Sandra V.; Nguyen, Truong X.; Mielnik, John J.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Langley Research Center's High Intensity Radiated Fields Laboratory has developed a capability based on the RTCA/DO-160F Section 20 guidelines for radiated electromagnetic susceptibility testing in reverberation chambers. Phase 1 of the test procedure utilizes mode-tuned stirrer techniques and E-field probe measurements to validate chamber uniformity, determines chamber loading effects, and defines a radiated susceptibility test process. The test procedure is segmented into numbered operations that are largely software controlled. This document is intended as a laboratory test reference and includes diagrams of test setups, equipment lists, as well as test results and analysis. Phase 2 of development is discussed.

  8. Impact of the Revised 10 CFR 835 on the Neutron Dose Rates at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Radev, R

    2009-01-13

    In June 2007, 10 CFR 835 [1] was revised to include new radiation weighting factors for neutrons, updated dosimetric models, and dose terms consistent with the newer ICRP recommendations. A significant aspect of the revised 10 CFR 835 is the adoption of the recommendations outlined in ICRP-60 [2]. The recommended new quantities demand a review of much of the basic data used in protection against exposure to sources of ionizing radiation. The International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements has defined a number of quantities for use in personnel and area monitoring [3,4,5] including the ambient dose equivalent H*(d) to be used for area monitoring and instrument calibrations. These quantities are used in ICRP-60 and ICRP-74. This report deals only with the changes in the ambient dose equivalent and ambient dose rate equivalent for neutrons as a result of the implementation of the revised 10 CFR 835. In the report, the terms neutron dose and neutron dose rate will be used for convenience for ambient neutron dose and ambient neutron dose rate unless otherwise stated. This report provides a qualitative and quantitative estimate of how much the neutron dose rates at LLNL will change with the implementation of the revised 10 CFR 835. Neutron spectra and dose rates from selected locations at the LLNL were measured with a high resolution spectroscopic neutron dose rate system (ROSPEC) as well as with a standard neutron rem meter (a.k.a., a remball). The spectra obtained at these locations compare well with the spectra from the Radiation Calibration Laboratory's (RCL) bare californium source that is currently used to calibrate neutron dose rate instruments. The measurements obtained from the high resolution neutron spectrometer and dose meter ROSPEC and the NRD dose meter compare within the range of {+-}25%. When the new radiation weighting factors are adopted with the implementation of the revised 10 CFR 835, the measured dose rates will increase by up to 22

  9. Review of LLNL Mixed Waste Streams for the Application of Potential Waste Reduction Controls

    SciTech Connect

    Belue, A; Fischer, R P

    2007-01-08

    In July 2004, LLNL adopted the International Standard ISO 14001 as a Work Smart Standard in lieu of DOE Order 450.1. In support of this new requirement the Director issued a new environmental policy that was documented in Section 3.0 of Document 1.2, ''ES&H Policies of LLNL'', in the ES&H Manual. In recent years the Environmental Management System (EMS) process has become formalized as LLNL adopted ISO 14001 as part of the contract under which the laboratory is operated for the Department of Energy (DOE). On May 9, 2005, LLNL revised its Integrated Safety Management System Description to enhance existing environmental requirements to meet ISO 14001. Effective October 1, 2005, each new project or activity is required to be evaluated from an environmental aspect, particularly if a potential exists for significant environmental impacts. Authorizing organizations are required to consider the management of all environmental aspects, the applicable regulatory requirements, and reasonable actions that can be taken to reduce negative environmental impacts. During 2006, LLNL has worked to implement the corrective actions addressing the deficiencies identified in the DOE/LSO audit. LLNL has begun to update the present EMS to meet the requirements of ISO 14001:2004. The EMS commits LLNL--and each employee--to responsible stewardship of all the environmental resources in our care. The generation of mixed radioactive waste was identified as a significant environmental aspect. Mixed waste for the purposes of this report is defined as waste materials containing both hazardous chemical and radioactive constituents. Significant environmental aspects require that an Environmental Management Plan (EMP) be developed. The objective of the EMP developed for mixed waste (EMP-005) is to evaluate options for reducing the amount of mixed waste generated. This document presents the findings of the evaluation of mixed waste generated at LLNL and a proposed plan for reduction.

  10. Evaluation of OGC Standards for Use in LLNL GIS

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, H; Chou, R M; Chubb, K K; Schek, J L

    2006-06-23

    Over the summer of 2005, the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Computer Applications and Research Department conducted a small project that examined whether Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standards might be useful in meeting program mission requirements more effectively. OGC standards are intended to facilitate interoperability between geospatial processing systems to lower development costs and to avoid duplication of effort and vendor lock-in. Some OGC standards appear to be gaining traction in the geospatial data community, the Federal government, Department of Energy (DOE) and Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and so an evaluation was deemed appropriate.

  11. Space Radiation Research Unit, International Open Laboratory in NIRS

    PubMed Central

    Uchihori, Yukio; Hei, Tom K.; Konishi, Teruaki; Kobayashi, Alisa; Kitamura, Hisashi; Kodaira, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Shingo

    2014-01-01

    The radiation environment encountered by astronauts during spaceflight is far more complex than any radiation field existed on Earth. Space crew living and working in the International Space Station (ISS) are exposed to a mixed radiation field comprises primary high-energy cosmic rays, including energetic protons and heavy ions, and to secondary radiations, including energetic neutrons, produced when the primary radiation interacts with the mass of the space station and its contents. The doses of ionizing radiation received by astronauts and cosmonauts aboard the ISS are many times greater than those received by radiation workers on the ground. Exposure to ionizing radiation in space includes high LET events than can produce significant biological damage in human cells and tissues, and thus represents an important risk to space crew health and safety. The Space Radiation Research Unit at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) includes both physicists and radiation biologists and there is extensive collaboration between these two groups. This provides us with the expertise needed to investigate the effects of space crew exposure to the highly complex, mixed radiation environment encountered in space. In addition, NIRS is home to a heavy ion accelerator, HIMAC and the Medical Cyclotron that can be used to simulate various components of the space radiation environment. Recently, we have developed a medium energy proton radiation field using the NIRS Medical Cyclotron. [How about a sentence or two on the significance of this proton facilities.] In addition, NIRS has also developed a high precision tool, the Single Particle Irradiation System to Cell (SPICE) microbeam facility, for use in investigating various radiobiological endpoints, including the bystander effect and the adaptive response of various cell types, Caenorhabditis elegans and in Medaka fish. Some of these research activities are described in these proceedings [1, 2]. The Space Radiation

  12. Laboratory experiments on Radiative Shocks relevant to Stellar Accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaulagain, Uddhab

    2015-08-01

    Radiative shocks are strong shocks which are characterized by a plasma at high temperatures emitting an important fraction of its energy as radiation. Radiative shocks are found in many astrophysical systems, including stellar accretion shocks, supernovae remnants, jet driven shocks, etc. In the case of stellar accretion, matter is funneled into accretion columns by the stellar magnetic field, and falls at several hundreds km/s from the circumstellar envelope onto the stellar photosphere. This generates a strong radiative shock with x-ray spectral signatures that are a key ingredient to quantify the mass accretion rate. The physical structure and dynamics of such plasmas is complex, and experimental benchmarks are needed to provide a deeper understanding of the physics at play.Recently, radiative shocks have also been produced experimentally using high energy lasers. We discuss the results of an experiment performed on the Prague Asterix Laser System (PALS) facility. Shocks are generated by focusing the PALS Infrared laser beam on millimetre-scale targets filled with xenon gas at low pressure. The shock that is generated then propagates in the gas with a sufficiently high velocity such that the shock is in a radiative flux dominated regime. We will present the first instantaneous imaging of a radiative shock at 21.2 nm which is characterized by the presence of both the radiative precursor and the post shock structure. These results are complemented with time-and-space resolved XUV plasma self-emission measurements using fast diodes. Interpretation of the data, supported by numerical simulations using the 2-D radiative-hydrodynamics code ARWEN, will be presented showing the importance of radiative processes from atomic to larger scales.

  13. LLNL/YMP Waste Container Fabrication and Closure Project; GFY technical activity summary

    SciTech Connect

    1990-10-01

    The Department of Energy`s Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) Program is studying Yucca Mountain, Nevada as a suitable site for the first US high-level nuclear waste repository. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has the responsibility for designing and developing the waste package for the permanent storage of high-level nuclear waste. This report is a summary of the technical activities for the LLNL/YMP Nuclear Waste Disposal Container Fabrication and Closure Development Project. Candidate welding closure processes were identified in the Phase 1 report. This report discusses Phase 2. Phase 2 of this effort involved laboratory studies to determine the optimum fabrication and closure processes. Because of budget limitations, LLNL narrowed the materials for evaluation in Phase 2 from the original six to four: Alloy 825, CDA 715, CDA 102 (or CDA 122) and CDA 952. Phase 2 studies focused on evaluation of candidate material in conjunction with fabrication and closure processes.

  14. Evaluation of LLNL's Nuclear Accident Dosimeters at the CALIBAN Reactor September 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Hickman, D P; Wysong, A R; Heinrichs, D P; Wong, C T; Merritt, M J; Topper, J D; Gressmann, F A; Madden, D J

    2011-06-21

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory uses neutron activation elements in a Panasonic TLD holder as a personnel nuclear accident dosimeter (PNAD). The LLNL PNAD has periodically been tested using a Cf-252 neutron source, however until 2009, it was more than 25 years since the PNAD has been tested against a source of neutrons that arise from a reactor generated neutron spectrum that simulates a criticality. In October 2009, LLNL participated in an intercomparison of nuclear accident dosimeters at the CEA Valduc Silene reactor (Hickman, et.al. 2010). In September 2010, LLNL participated in a second intercomparison of nuclear accident dosimeters at CEA Valduc. The reactor generated neutron irradiations for the 2010 exercise were performed at the Caliban reactor. The Caliban results are described in this report. The procedure for measuring the nuclear accident dosimeters in the event of an accident has a solid foundation based on many experimental results and comparisons. The entire process, from receiving the activated NADs to collecting and storing them after counting was executed successfully in a field based operation. Under normal conditions at LLNL, detectors are ready and available 24/7 to perform the necessary measurement of nuclear accident components. Likewise LLNL maintains processing laboratories that are separated from the areas where measurements occur, but contained within the same facility for easy movement from processing area to measurement area. In the event of a loss of LLNL permanent facilities, the Caliban and previous Silene exercises have demonstrated that LLNL can establish field operations that will very good nuclear accident dosimetry results. There are still several aspects of LLNL's nuclear accident dosimetry program that have not been tested or confirmed. For instance, LLNL's method for using of biological samples (blood and hair) has not been verified since the method was first developed in the 1980's. Because LLNL and the other DOE

  15. Laboratory Training Manual on the Use of Isotopes and Radiation in Entomology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria).

    This publication should be useful for those who are interested in the theory and application of isotopes and radiation in agriculture and entomology. There are two main parts in the publication. Part I, entitled Basic Part, includes topics which an individual should know about radioisotopes and radiation. There are laboratory exercises included in…

  16. Galactic Cosmic Ray Simulation at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, John W.; Slaba, Tony C.; Rusek, Adam

    2015-01-01

    The external Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) spectrum is significantly modified when it passes through spacecraft shielding and astronauts. One approach for simulating the GCR space radiation environment at ground based accelerators would use the modified spectrum, rather than the external spectrum, in the accelerator beams impinging on biological targets. Two recent workshops have studied such GCR simulation. The first workshop was held at NASA Langley Research Center in October 2014. The second workshop was held at the NASA Space Radiation Investigators' workshop in Galveston, Texas in January 2015. The results of these workshops will be discussed in this paper.

  17. Summary of LLNL Russian Projects

    SciTech Connect

    Schilling, O

    2007-01-16

    The objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate more efficient methods for solving radiation transport equations using adaptivity in angle variables. Conventional angular discretization methods require that the angular finite-difference grid be fine enough in any region. If the grid is too coarse, the well-known ''ray effects'' appear. In addition, subdomains appear with a highly anisotropic particle flux distribution over directions (where a very fine angular difference grid must be used), as well as subdomains where the distribution is nearly isotropic. In view of this, a promising approach to multi-dimensional transport solution efficiency enhancement using finite-difference approximations is one employing adaptive grids. Such adaptive methods are expected to resolve the ''ray effect'' problem in a cost-efficient manner. The algorithm for solving the radiation transport equation using an angle-adaptive method with dynamic criteria for constructing the grid was evaluated using a set of benchmark test problems (pipe, slit, vacuum, and spherical).

  18. Note: Measurement system for the radiative forcing of greenhouse gases in a laboratory scale.

    PubMed

    Kawamura, Yoshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    The radiative forcing of the greenhouse gases has been studied being based on computational simulations or the observation of the real atmosphere meteorologically. In order to know the greenhouse effect more deeply and to study it from various viewpoints, the study on it in a laboratory scale is important. We have developed a direct measurement system for the infrared back radiation from the carbon dioxide (CO2) gas. The system configuration is similar with that of the practical earth-atmosphere-space system. Using this system, the back radiation from the CO2 gas was directly measured in a laboratory scale, which roughly coincides with meteorologically predicted value.

  19. Note: Measurement system for the radiative forcing of greenhouse gases in a laboratory scale.

    PubMed

    Kawamura, Yoshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    The radiative forcing of the greenhouse gases has been studied being based on computational simulations or the observation of the real atmosphere meteorologically. In order to know the greenhouse effect more deeply and to study it from various viewpoints, the study on it in a laboratory scale is important. We have developed a direct measurement system for the infrared back radiation from the carbon dioxide (CO2) gas. The system configuration is similar with that of the practical earth-atmosphere-space system. Using this system, the back radiation from the CO2 gas was directly measured in a laboratory scale, which roughly coincides with meteorologically predicted value. PMID:26827362

  20. Radiation Induced Chemistry of Icy Surfaces: Laboratory Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gudipati, Murthy S.; Lignell, Antti; Li, Irene; Yang, Rui; Jacovi, Ronen

    2011-01-01

    We will discuss laboratory experiments designed to enhance our understanding the chemical processes on icy solar system bodies, enable interpretation of in-situ and remote-sensing data, and help future missions to icy solar system bodies, such as comets, Europa, Ganymede, Enceladus etc.

  1. Aircraft Radiation Shield Experiments--Preflight Laboratory Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singleterry, Robert C., Jr.; Shinn, Judy L.; Wilson, John W.; Maiden, Donald L.; Thibeault, Sheila A.; Badavi, Francis F.; Conroy, Thomas; Braby, Leslie

    1999-01-01

    In the past, measurements onboard a research Boeing 57F (RB57-F) aircraft have demonstrated that the neutron environment within the aircraft structure is greater than that in the local external environment. Recent studies onboard Boeing 737 commercial flights have demonstrated cabin variations in radiation exposure up to 30 percent. These prior results were the basis of the present study to quantify the potential effects of aircraft construction materials on the internal exposures of the crew and passengers. The present study constitutes preflight measurements using an unmoderated Cf-252 fission neutron source to quantify the effects of three current and potential aircraft materials (aluminum, titanium, and graphite-epoxy composite) on the fast neutron flux. Conclusions about the effectiveness of the three selected materials for radiation shielding must wait until testing in the atmosphere is complete; however, it is clear that for shielding low-energy neutrons, the composite material is an improved shielding material over aluminum or titanium.

  2. Measurements of energetic particle radiation in transit to Mars on the Mars Science Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Zeitlin, C; Hassler, D M; Cucinotta, F A; Ehresmann, B; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R F; Brinza, D E; Kang, S; Weigle, G; Böttcher, S; Böhm, E; Burmeister, S; Guo, J; Köhler, J; Martin, C; Posner, A; Rafkin, S; Reitz, G

    2013-05-31

    The Mars Science Laboratory spacecraft, containing the Curiosity rover, was launched to Mars on 26 November 2011, and for most of the 253-day, 560-million-kilometer cruise to Mars, the Radiation Assessment Detector made detailed measurements of the energetic particle radiation environment inside the spacecraft. These data provide insights into the radiation hazards that would be associated with a human mission to Mars. We report measurements of the radiation dose, dose equivalent, and linear energy transfer spectra. The dose equivalent for even the shortest round-trip with current propulsion systems and comparable shielding is found to be 0.66 ± 0.12 sievert.

  3. Measurements of energetic particle radiation in transit to Mars on the Mars Science Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Zeitlin, C; Hassler, D M; Cucinotta, F A; Ehresmann, B; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R F; Brinza, D E; Kang, S; Weigle, G; Böttcher, S; Böhm, E; Burmeister, S; Guo, J; Köhler, J; Martin, C; Posner, A; Rafkin, S; Reitz, G

    2013-05-31

    The Mars Science Laboratory spacecraft, containing the Curiosity rover, was launched to Mars on 26 November 2011, and for most of the 253-day, 560-million-kilometer cruise to Mars, the Radiation Assessment Detector made detailed measurements of the energetic particle radiation environment inside the spacecraft. These data provide insights into the radiation hazards that would be associated with a human mission to Mars. We report measurements of the radiation dose, dose equivalent, and linear energy transfer spectra. The dose equivalent for even the shortest round-trip with current propulsion systems and comparable shielding is found to be 0.66 ± 0.12 sievert. PMID:23723233

  4. Synchrotron radiation applications in medical research at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Thomlinson, W.

    1997-08-01

    In the relatively short time that synchrotrons have been available to the scientific community, their characteristic beams of UV and X-ray radiation have been applied to virtually all areas of medical science which use ionizing radiation. The ability to tune intense monochromatic beams over wide energy ranges clearly differentiates these sources from standard clinical and research tools. The tunable spectrum, high intrinsic collimation of the beams, polarization and intensity of the beams make possible in-vitro and in-vivo research and therapeutic programs not otherwise possible. From the beginning of research operation at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), many programs have been carrying out basic biomedical research. At first, the research was limited to in-vitro programs such as the x-ray microscope, circular dichroism, XAFS, protein crystallography, micro-tomography and fluorescence analysis. Later, as the coronary angiography program made plans to move its experimental phase from SSRL to the NSLS, it became clear that other in-vivo projects could also be carried out at the synchrotron. The development of SMERF (Synchrotron Medical Research Facility) on beamline X17 became the home not only for angiography but also for the MECT (Multiple Energy Computed Tomography) project for cerebral and vascular imaging. The high energy spectrum on X17 is necessary for the MRT (Microplanar Radiation Therapy) experiments. Experience with these programs and the existence of the Medical Programs Group at the NSLS led to the development of a program in synchrotron based mammography. A recent adaptation of the angiography hardware has made it possible to image human lungs (bronchography). Fig. 1 schematically depicts the broad range of active programs at the NSLS.

  5. LLNL Middle East and North Africa research database

    SciTech Connect

    Dodge, D; Hauk, T; Moore, R M; O'Boyle, J; Ruppert, S

    1999-07-23

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Research and Development (CTBT R and D) program has made significant progress populating a comprehensive seismic research database (RDB) for seismic events and derived research products in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). Our original ME/NA study region has enlarged and is now defined as an area including the Middle East, Africa, Europe, Southwest Asia, the Former Soviet Union and the Scandinavian/Arctic region. The LLNL RDB will facilitate calibration of all International Monitoring System (IMS) stations (primary and auxiliary) or their surrogates (if not yet installed) as well as a variety of gamma stations. The RDB provides not only a coherent framework in which to store and organize large volumes of collected seismic waveforms and associated event parameter information, but also provides an efficient data processing/research environment for deriving location and discrimination correction sur faces and capabilities. In order to accommodate large volumes of data from many sources with diverse formats the RDB is designed to be flexible and extensible in addition to maintaining detailed quality control information and associated metadata. Station parameters, instrument responses, phase pick information, and event bulletins were compiled and made available through the RDB. For seismic events in the MENA region occurring between 1976 and 1999, we have systematically assembled, quality checked and organized event waveforms; continuous seismic data from 1990 to present are archived for many stations. Currently, over 11,400 seismic events and 1.2 million waveforms are maintained in the RDB and made readily available to researchers. In addition to open sources of seismic data, we have established collaborative relationships with several ME/NA countries that have yielded additional ground truth and broadband waveform data essential for regional calibration and capability

  6. Magnetically collimated pair jets at the LLNL Titan laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Jackson; Chen, Hui; Barnak, Daniel; Betti, Riccardo; Fiksel, Gennady; Hazi, Andrew; Kerr, Shaun; Krauland, Christine; Link, Anthony; Manuel, Mario; Meyerhofer, David; Nagel, Sabrina; Park, Jaebum; Peebles, Jonathan; Pollock, Bradley; Tommasini, Riccardo

    2015-11-01

    Positron-electron pair production experiments were performed at the Titan laser at the Jupiter Laser Facility to investigate the dependence of target thickness and atomic number on pair yield. Externally applied axial magnetic fields, generated by a Helmholtz coil, were used to collimate positrons where the signal observed at the detector increased by a factor of 20 over reference shots without a field. This enabled the detection of positrons from a range of target materials. The emitted positron yield was found to be proportional to the square of the atomic number. This scaling is reduced from the Bethe-Heitler cross section of Z4 by Compton scattering and the stopping power of the target. Monte Carlo simulations support these conclusions, providing a power-law scaling of emitted positrons for all materials and a range of mm-thick targets. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 and funded by the LLNL LDRD program under tracking code 12-ERD-062 and the LLNL LGSP.

  7. A Novel Approach to Semantic and Coreference Annotation at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Firpo, M

    2005-02-04

    A case is made for the importance of high quality semantic and coreference annotation. The challenges of providing such annotation are described. Asperger's Syndrome is introduced, and the connections are drawn between the needs of text annotation and the abilities of persons with Asperger's Syndrome to meet those needs. Finally, a pilot program is recommended wherein semantic annotation is performed by people with Asperger's Syndrome. The primary points embodied in this paper are as follows: (1) Document annotation is essential to the Natural Language Processing (NLP) projects at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); (2) LLNL does not currently have a system in place to meet its need for text annotation; (3) Text annotation is challenging for a variety of reasons, many related to its very rote nature; (4) Persons with Asperger's Syndrome are particularly skilled at rote verbal tasks, and behavioral experts agree that they would excel at text annotation; and (6) A pilot study is recommend in which two to three people with Asperger's Syndrome annotate documents and then the quality and throughput of their work is evaluated relative to that of their neuro-typical peers.

  8. Plutonium measurements by accelerator mass spectrometry at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    McAninch, J E; Hamilton, T F; Broan, T A; Jokela, T A; Knezovich, T J; Ognibene, T J; Proctor, I D; Roberts, M L; Southon, J R; Vogel, J S; Sideras-Haddad, E

    1999-10-26

    Mass spectrometric methods provide sensitive, routine, and cost-effective analyses of long-lived radionuclides. Here the authors report on the status of work at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to develop a capability for actinide measurements by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) to take advantage of the high potential of AMS for rejection of interferences. This work demonstrates that the LLNL AMS spectrometer is well-suited for providing high sensitivity, robust, high throughput measurements of plutonium concentrations and isotope ratios. Present backgrounds are {approximately}2 x 10{sup 7}atoms per sample for environmental samples prepared using standard alpha spectrometry protocols. Recent measurements of {sup 239+240}Pu and {sup 241}Pu activities and {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu isotope ratios in IAEA reference materials agree well with IAEA reference values and with alpha spectrometry and recently published ICP-MS results. Ongoing upgrades of the AMS spectrometer are expected to reduce backgrounds below 1 x 10{sup 6} atoms per sample while allowing simplifications of the sample preparation chemistry. These simplifications will lead to lower per-sample costs, higher throughput, faster turn around and, ultimately, to larger and more robust data sets.

  9. Establishment of the Radiation Detection Laboratory at Fisk University

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold Burger, Ph.D.

    2008-02-28

    Synthetic CdZnTe (CZT) semiconducting crystals are highly suitable for the room temperature-based detection of gamma radiation. The surface preparation of Au contacts on surfaces of CZT detectors is typically conducted after (1) polishing to remove artifacts from crystal sectioning and (2) chemical etching, which removes residual mechanical surface damage however etching results in a Te rich surface layer that is prone to oxidize. Our studies show that CZT surfaces that are only polished (as opposed to polished and etched) can be contacted with Au and will yield lower surface currents. Due to their decreased dark currents, these as-polished surfaces can be used in the fabrication of gamma detectors exhibiting a higher performance than polished and etched surfaces with relatively less peak tailing and greater energy resolution.032}

  10. LLNL Workshop on TEM of Pu

    SciTech Connect

    King, W.E.

    1996-09-10

    On Sept. 10, 1996, LLNL hosted a workshop aimed at answering the question: Is it possible to carry out transmission electron microscopy (TEM) on plutonium metal in an electron microscope located outside the LLNL plutonium facility. The workshop focused on evaluation of a proposed plan for Pu microscopy both from a technical and environment, health, and safety point of view. After review and modification of the plan, workshop participants unanimously concluded that: (1) the technical plan is sound, (2) this technical plan, including a proposal for a new TEM, provides significant improvements and unique capabilities compared with the effort at LANL and is therefore complementary, (3) there is no significant environment, health, and safety obstacle to this plan.

  11. Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory. Activity report for 1989

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    The April, 1990 SPEAR synchrotron radiation run was one of the two or three best in SSRL`s history. High currents were accumulated, ramping went easily, lifetimes were long, beam dumps were infrequent and the average current was 42.9 milliamps. In the one month of operation, 63 different experiments involving 208 scientists from 50 institutions received beam. The end-of-run summary forms completed by the experimenters indicated high levels of user satisfaction with the beam quality and with the outstanding support received from the SSRL technical and scientific staffs. These fine experimental conditions result largely from the SPEAR repairs and improvements performed during the past year and described in Section I. Also quite significant was Max Cornacchia`s leadership of the SLAG staff. SPEAR`s performance this past April stands in marked contrast to that of the January-March, 1989 run which is also described in Section I. It is, we hope, a harbinger of the operation which will be provided in FY `91, when the SPEAR injector project is completed and SPEAR is fully dedicated to synchrotron radiation research. Over the coming years, SSRL intends to give highest priority to increasing the effectiveness of SPEAR and its various beam lines. The beam line and facility improvements performed during 1989 are described in Section III. In order to concentrate effort on SSRL`s three highest priorities prior to the March-April run: (1) to have a successful run, (2) to complete and commission the injector, and (3) to prepare to operate, maintain and improve the SPEAR/injector system, SSRL was reorganized. In the new organization, all the technical staff is contained in three groups: Accelerator Research and Operations Division, Injector Project and Photon Research and Operations Division, as described in Section IV. In spite of the limited effectiveness of the January-March, 1989 run, SSRL`s users made significant scientific progress, as described in Section V of this report.

  12. Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory activity report for 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Cantwell, K.

    1987-12-31

    1986 was another year of major advances for SSRL as the ultimate capabilities of PEP as a synchrotron radiation source became more apparent and a second PEP beam line was initiated, while effective development and utilization of SPEAR proceeded. Given these various PEP developments, SSRL abandoned its plans for a separate diffraction limited ring, as they abandoned their plans for a 6--7 GeV ring of the APS type last year. It has become increasingly apparent that SSRL should concentrate on developing SPEAR and PEP as synchrotron radiation sources. Consequently, initial planning for a 3 GeV booster synchrotron injector for SPEAR was performed in 1986, with a proposal to the Department of Energy resulting. As described in Chapter 2, the New Rings Group and the Machine Physics Group were combined into one Accelerator Physics Group. This group is focusing mainly on the improvement of SPEAR`s operating conditions and on planning for the conversion of PEP into a fourth generation x-ray source. Considerable emphasis is also being given to the training of accelerator physics graduate students. At the same time, several improvements of SSRL`s existing facilities were made. These are described in Chapter 3. Chapter 4 describes new SSRL beam lines being commissioned. Chapter 5 discusses SSRL`s present construction projects. Chapter 6 discusses a number of projects presently underway in the engineering division. Chapter 7 describes SSRL`s advisory panels while Chapter 8 discusses SSRL`s overall organization. Chapter 9 describes the experimental progress reports.

  13. Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory. Activity report for 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Cantwell, K.

    1996-01-01

    For SSRL operations, 1988 was a year of stark contrasts. The first extended PEP parasitic running since the construction of our two beam lines on that storage ring took place in November and December. Four experiments discussed below, were performed and detailed operational procedures which allowed synchrotron radiation an high energy users to coexist were established. SSRL anticipates that there will be significant amounts of beam time when PEP is run again for high energy physics. On the other hand, activity on SPEAR consisted of brief parasitic running on the VUV lines in December when the ring was operated at 1.85 GeV for colliding beam experiments. There was no dedicated SPEAR running throughout the entire calendar year. This is the first time since dedicated SPEAR operation was initiated in 1980 that there was no such running. The decision was motivated by both cost and performance factors, as discussed in Section 1 of this report. Fortunately, SLAC and SSRL have reached an agreement on SPEAR and PEP dedicated time charges which eliminates the cost volatility which was so important in the cancellation of the June-July dedicated SPEAR run. As discussed in Section 2, the 3 GeV SPEAR injector construction is proceeding on budget and on schedule. The injector will overcome the difficulties associated with the SLC-era constraint of only two injections per day. SSR and SLAC have also embarked on a program to upgrade SPEAR to achieve high reliability and performance. As a consequence, SSRL`s users may anticipate a highly effective SPEAR by 1991, at the latest. At that time, SPEAR is expected to be fully dedicated to synchrotron radiation research and operated by SSRL. Also contained in this report is a discussion of the improvements to SSRL`s experimental facilities and highlights of the experiments of the past year.

  14. LIFTERS-hyperspectral imaging at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Fields, D.; Bennett, C.; Carter, M.

    1994-11-15

    LIFTIRS, the Livermore Imaging Fourier Transform InfraRed Spectrometer, recently developed at LLNL, is an instrument which enables extremely efficient collection and analysis of hyperspectral imaging data. LIFTIRS produces a spatial format of 128x128 pixels, with spectral resolution arbitrarily variable up to a maximum of 0.25 inverse centimeters. Time resolution and spectral resolution can be traded off for each other with great flexibility. We will discuss recent measurements made with this instrument, and present typical images and spectra.

  15. Results of the radiological survey at the Space Radiation Effects Laboratory, Newport News, Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Yalcintas, M.G.

    1986-08-01

    The Space Radiation Effects Laboratory located in Newport News, Virginia, was operated by the College of William and Mary for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). A synchrocyclotron was formerly in operation in this laboratory and a primary beam of 600 MeV protons and secondary beams of 400 MeV pions and muons were produced for the purpose of studying the effects of radiation on materials planned for use in space. The synchrocyclotron was removed in 1980. At several locations, the scattered radiation caused an induced radioactivity within the walls of the cyclotron room. A radiological survey has been performed to determine the amount of residual radioactivity on the walls. Calculations were performed to determine the thickness of the concrete walls and floor for shielding the residual radiation in the cyclotron room. Recommendations were made to minimize exposure to a potential occupant working in the building from the residual radioactivity on the walls and floor of the cyclotron room.

  16. A transition radiation detector prototype to measure the energy of muons in cosmic ray laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellotti, R.; Cafagna, F.; Calicchio, M.; Castellano, M.; De Cataldo, G.; De Marzo, C.; Enriquez, O.; Favuzzi, C.; Fusco, P.; Giglietto, N.; Mongelli, M.; Nappi, E.; Perchiazzi, M.; Sacchetti, A.; Spinelli, P.

    1991-07-01

    We have developed and tested a transition radiation detector prototype suitable to measure the energy of muons in cosmic ray laboratories. The technical solutions adopted, based on extruded tubes as detectors and foam or fiber mats as radiators, allow to cover very large areas with a low number of channels and ensure stability of operation. Using an argon-carbon dioxide gas mixture it is possible to explore the muon energy range up to 1 TeV.

  17. Technical qualification requirements and training programs for radiation protection personnel at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Copenhaver, E.D.; Houser, B.S.; Butler, H.M. Jr.; Bogard, J.S.; Fair, M.F.; Haynes, C.E.; Parzyck, D.C.

    1986-04-01

    This document deals with the policies and practices of the Environmental and Occupational Safety Division (EOSD) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in regard to the selection, training, qualification, and requalification of radiation protection staff assigned to reactor and nonreactor nuclear facilities. Included are personnel at facilities that: (1) operate reactors or particle accelerators; (2) produce, process, or store radioactive liquid or solid waste; (3) conduct separations operations; (4) engage in research with radioactive materials and radiation sources; and (5) conduct irradiated materials inspection, fuel fabrication, deconamination, or recovery operations. The EOSD personnel also have environmental surveillance and operational and industrial safety responsibilities related to the total Laboratory.

  18. A shallow underground laboratory for low-background radiation measurements and materials development

    SciTech Connect

    Aalseth, C. E.; Bonicalzi, R. M.; Cantaloub, M. G.; Day, A. R.; Erikson, L. E.; Fast, J.; Forrester, J. B.; Fuller, E. S.; Glasgow, B. D.; Greenwood, L. R.; Hoppe, E. W.; Hossbach, T. W.; Hyronimus, B. J.; Keillor, M. E.; Mace, E. K.; McIntyre, J. I.; Merriman, J. H.; Myers, A. W.; Overman, C. T.; Overman, N. R.; and others

    2012-11-15

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory recently commissioned a new shallow underground laboratory, located at a depth of approximately 30 meters-water-equivalent. This new addition to the small class of radiation measurement laboratories located at modest underground depths houses the latest generation of custom-made, high-efficiency, low-background gamma-ray spectrometers and gas proportional counters. This paper describes the unique capabilities present in the shallow underground laboratory; these include large-scale ultra-pure materials production and a suite of radiation detection systems. Reported data characterize the degree of background reduction achieved through a combination of underground location, graded shielding, and rejection of cosmic-ray events. We conclude by presenting measurement targets and future opportunities.

  19. A Shallow Underground Laboratory for Low-Background Radiation Measurements and Materials Development

    SciTech Connect

    Aalseth, Craig E.; Bonicalzi, Ricco; Cantaloub, Michael G.; Day, Anthony R.; Erikson, Luke E.; Fast, James E.; Forrester, Joel B.; Fuller, Erin S.; Glasgow, Brian D.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Hoppe, Eric W.; Hossbach, Todd W.; Hyronimus, Brian J.; Keillor, Martin E.; Mace, Emily K.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Merriman, Jason H.; Myers, Allan W.; Overman, Cory T.; Overman, Nicole R.; Panisko, Mark E.; Seifert, Allen; Warren, Glen A.; Runkle, Robert C.

    2012-11-08

    Abstract: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory recently commissioned a new shallow underground laboratory, located at a depth of approximately 30 meters water-equivalent. This new addition to the small class of radiation measurement laboratories located at modest underground depths worldwide houses the latest generation of custom-made, high-efficiency, low-background gamma-ray spectrometers and gas proportional counters. This manuscript describes the unique capabilities present in the shallow underground laboratory; these include large-scale ultra-pure materials production and a suite of radiation detection systems. Reported data characterize the degree of background reduction achieved through a combination of underground location, graded shielding, and rejection of cosmic-ray events. We conclude by presenting measurement targets and future opportunities.

  20. High-Energy Neutron Imaging Development at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, J; Rusnak, B; Fitsos, P

    2006-12-06

    We are proceeding with the development of a high-energy (10 MeV) neutron imaging system for use as an inspection tool in nuclear stockpile stewardship applications. Our goal is to develop and deploy an imaging system capable of detecting cubic-mm-scale voids, cracks or other significant structural defects in heavily-shielded low-Z materials within nuclear device components. The final production-line system will be relatively compact (suitable for use in existing or proposed facilities within the DOE complex) and capable of acquiring both radiographic and tomographic (CT) images. In this report, we will review our programmatic accomplishments to date, highlighting recent (FY06) progress on engineering and technology development issues related to the proposed imaging system. We will also discuss our preliminary project plan for FY07, including engineering initiatives, proposed radiation damage experiments (neutrons and x rays) and potential options for conducting classified neutron imaging experiments at LLNL.

  1. RESULTS OF THE NASA SPACE RADIATION LABORATORY BEAM STUDIES PROGRAM AT BNL.

    SciTech Connect

    BROWN,K.A.AHRENS,L.BEUTTENMULLER,R.H.ET AL.

    2004-07-05

    The NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) was constructed in collaboration with NASA for the purpose of performing radiation effect studies for the NASA space program. The NSRL makes use of heavy ions in the range of 0.05 to 3 GeV/n slow extracted from BNL's AGS Booster. The purpose of the NSRL Beam Studies Program is to develop a clear understanding of the beams delivered to the facility, to fully characterize those beams, and to develop new capabilities in the interest of understanding the radiation environment in space. In this report we will describe the first results from this program.

  2. National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program: the Hydrogeochemical Stream Sediment Reconnaissance Program at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, G.H.

    1980-08-01

    From early 1975 to mid 1979, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) participated in the Hydrogeochemical Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR), part of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE). The Laboratory was initially responsible for collecting, analyzing, and evaluating sediment and water samples from approximately 200,000 sites in seven western states. Eventually, however, the NURE program redefined its sampling priorities, objectives, schedules, and budgets, with the increasingly obvious result that LLNL objectives and methodologies were not compatible with those of the NURE program office, and the LLNL geochemical studies were not relevant to the program goal. The LLNL portion of the HSSR program was consequently terminated, and all work was suspended by June 1979. Of the 38,000 sites sampled, 30,000 were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analyses (INAA), delayed neutron counting (DNC), optical emission spectroscopy (OES), and automated chloride-sulfate analyses (SC). Data from about 13,000 sites have been formally reported. From each site, analyses were published of about 30 of the 60 elements observed. Uranium mineralization has been identified at several places which were previously not recognized as potential uranium source areas, and a number of other geochemical anomalies were discovered.

  3. X- and {gamma}-ray computed tomography applications at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Roberson, G.P.; Martz, H.E.; Schneberk, D.J.; Azevedo, S.G.

    1993-04-01

    Members of the Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) Section at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) have implemented the advanced three-dimensional imaging technique of x and {gamma}-ray computed tomography (CAT or CT) for industrial and scientific nondestructive evaluation. This technique provides internal and external views of materials, components, and assemblies nonintrusively. Our research and development includes building CT scanners as well as data preprocessing, image reconstruction, display and analysis algorithms. These capabilities have been applied for a variety of industrial and scientific NDE applications where objects can range in size from 1 mm{sup 3} to 1 m{sup 3}. Here we discuss the usefulness of Cr to evaluate: Ballistic target materials, high-explosives shape charges, missile nosetips, and reactor-fuel tubes.

  4. Evaluation of 133Xe radiation exposure dosimetry for workers in nuclear medicine laboratories.

    PubMed

    Piltingsrud, H V; Gels, G L

    1982-06-01

    Evaluation of past studies of 133Xe dosimetry and nuclear medicine laboratory air concentrations of 133Xe indicates that significant levels of 133Xe may exist in routine operational environments of a nuclear medicine laboratory. This leads to the question of whether present health physics radiation control methods are adequate to keep occupational personnel exposures within acceptable levels. It would appear that if personnel dosimeters (film and TLD badges) respond properly to the radiation of 133Xe, normal health physics control procedures are probably adequate. If they do not respond adequately, personnel exposures may exceed recommended levels and special instrumentation or administrative procedures are called for. Therefore, the first step in studying potential problems in the subject area is to evaluate the response of a variety of personnel radiation dosimeters to 133Xe. This paper describes the methods and materials used to expose personnel dosimeters to known amounts of 133Xe radiations in an exposure chamber constructed at the BRH Nuclear Medicine Laboratory. Also presented are calculated values for Dose Equivalents (D.E.) in a phantom from external radiation resulting from immersion in clouds having a constant concentration of 133Xe but varying cloud radii. This implies the relative importance of the beta and the X + gamma radiation responses of the personnel dosimeters under various exposure conditions. Results of this study indicate that none of the dosimeter systems evaluated provide adequate performance for use as a primary indicator of the D.E. resulting from 133Xe radiations for a worker in a nuclear medicine laboratory, and that personnel dosimetry considerations in 133Xe-containing atmospheres are very dependent on the radii of the 133Xe clouds.

  5. The Harold Brown view: LLNL then and now

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, H. )

    1993-08-01

    Harold Brown was the Laboratory's third Director, serving from 1960 to 1961. He joined the Livermore laboratory in 1952. At Livermore, Brown worked on the Polaris warhead and on Project Plowshare, program designed to apply nuclear explosives to peaceful uses (such as excavating harbors). Brown succeeded Edward Teller as Director of the Livermore Laboratory in July 1960. His tenure as Director was particularly challenging as these were the years of the moratorium on nuclear testing. He was the driving force in expanding the Laboratory's capabilities for simulating nuclear explosions with computers. As part of LLNL's 40th anniversary observances, Brown was invited to lecture on his views of the changing world and the role of the Laboratory. He reminisced about events that occurred in the Laboratory's early years, with an eye to finding lessons for the future. In particular, he cited Project Plowshare and the MX ICBM as examples of projects that were technologically and economically feasible but unacceptable in terms of public perception. Brown also discussed the international security environment and the Laboratory's role in support of the national security goals of the United States. He defined U.S. security as protecting America against external threats to its physical survival, to its democratic form of government, or to the well-being of the people of the United States. By this definition, issues of international trade and market access have a strong bearing on national security. Thus the Laboratory can find much important and interesting work to do under the heading of national security and economic competitiveness. Brown also pointed out, however, that working effectively with the private sector will take a change in culture since the private-sector market is very different from and more competitive than the nuclear weapons world or the government's nondefense market.

  6. MULTIPLE FUNCTIONS LONG TRACE PROFILER (LTP-MF) FOR NATIONAL SYNCHROTRON RADIATION LABORATORY OF CHINA.

    SciTech Connect

    QIAN, S.; WANG, Q.; HONG, Y.; TAKACS, P.

    2005-07-31

    The Long Trace Profiler (LTP) is a useful optical metrology instrument for measuring the figure and slope error of cylindrical aspheres commonly used as synchrotron radiation (SR) optics. It is used extensively at a number of synchrotron radiation laboratories around the world. In order to improve SR beam line quality and resolution, the National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) of China is developing a versatile LTP that can be used to measure both SR optics and more conventional ''normal'' optical surfaces. The optical metrology laboratories at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and NSRL are collaborating in developing a multiple functions LTP (LTP-MF). Characteristics of the LTP-MF are: a very compact and lightweight optical head, a large angular test range ({+-} 16 mad) and high accuracy. The LTP-MF can be used in various configurations: as a laboratory-based LTP, an in-situ LTP or penta-prism LTP, as an angle monitor, a portable LTP, and a small radius of curvature test instrument. The schematic design of the compact optical head and a new compact slide are introduced. Analysis of different measurements modes and systematic error correction methods are introduced.

  7. LLNL vapor phase manufacturing progress report, June--December 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Anklam, T.; Benterou, J.; Berzins, L.; Braun, D.; Haynam, C.; Heestand, G.; McClelland, M.

    1996-01-09

    This report gives progress made on the following milestones: demonstrate Ti and Nb monitoring at 3M site, demonstrate Al monitoring at LLNL, complete baseline melt and vapor plume model for the metal matrix process (3M fiber coating process), prototype a laser at LLNL to monitor Cu, ZrO{sub 2} monitoring demonstration at LLNL, Se monitoring demonstration, and process scale-up study for YBCO high-temperature superconductor.

  8. Radio frequency resonator structure and diagnostic measurements for a laboratory simulation of Auroral Kilometric Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald, K.; Speirs, D. C.; McConville, S. L.; Phelps, A. D. R.; Robertson, C. W.; Whyte, C. G.; He, W.; Gillespie, K. M.; Cross, A. W.; Bingham, R.

    2008-05-15

    Auroral Kilometric Radiation is emitted from regions of depleted plasma density in the Earth's polar magnetosphere. The radiation frequency is close to the local electron cyclotron frequency, polarized in the X-mode with an efficiency of {approx}1%, with power up to 1 GW. Kinetic analysis of the instability in the descending auroral flux indicated that the phenomena scaled with the cyclotron frequency. Therefore, an experimental reproduction of the auroral geometry has been created scaled to laboratory dimensions by raising the radiation frequency to the microwave range. The experiment transports a 75-85 keV electron beam through a region of increasing magnetic flux density, with a mirror ratio of up to 30. The experiments measured the mode, spectrum, power, and conversion efficiency of the emitted radiation as a function of the mirror ratio in two resonance regimes, with frequencies of 4.42 and 11.7 GHz. The microwave diagnostics and measurements will be presented in this paper.

  9. Mars' surface radiation environment measured with the Mars Science Laboratory's Curiosity rover.

    PubMed

    Hassler, Donald M; Zeitlin, Cary; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F; Ehresmann, Bent; Rafkin, Scot; Eigenbrode, Jennifer L; Brinza, David E; Weigle, Gerald; Böttcher, Stephan; Böhm, Eckart; Burmeister, Soenke; Guo, Jingnan; Köhler, Jan; Martin, Cesar; Reitz, Guenther; Cucinotta, Francis A; Kim, Myung-Hee; Grinspoon, David; Bullock, Mark A; Posner, Arik; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Vasavada, Ashwin; Grotzinger, John P

    2014-01-24

    The Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) on the Mars Science Laboratory's Curiosity rover began making detailed measurements of the cosmic ray and energetic particle radiation environment on the surface of Mars on 7 August 2012. We report and discuss measurements of the absorbed dose and dose equivalent from galactic cosmic rays and solar energetic particles on the martian surface for ~300 days of observations during the current solar maximum. These measurements provide insight into the radiation hazards associated with a human mission to the surface of Mars and provide an anchor point with which to model the subsurface radiation environment, with implications for microbial survival times of any possible extant or past life, as well as for the preservation of potential organic biosignatures of the ancient martian environment.

  10. Mars' Surface Radiation Environment Measured with the Mars Science Laboratory's Curiosity Rover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassler, Donald M.; Zeitlin, Cary; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.; Ehresmann, Bent; Rafkin, Scot; Eigenbrode, Jennifer L.; Brinza, David E.; Weigle, Gerald; Böttcher, Stephan; Böhm, Eckart; Burmeister, Soenke; Guo, Jingnan; Köhler, Jan; Martin, Cesar; Reitz, Guenther; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Kim, Myung-Hee; Grinspoon, David; Bullock, Mark A.; Posner, Arik; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Vasavada, Ashwin; Grotzinger, John P.; MSL Science Team; Kemppinen, Osku; Cremers, David; Bell, James F.; Edgar, Lauren; Farmer, Jack; Godber, Austin; Wadhwa, Meenakshi; Wellington, Danika; McEwan, Ian; Newman, Claire; Richardson, Mark; Charpentier, Antoine; Peret, Laurent; King, Penelope; Blank, Jennifer; Schmidt, Mariek; Li, Shuai; Milliken, Ralph; Robertson, Kevin; Sun, Vivian; Baker, Michael; Edwards, Christopher; Ehlmann, Bethany; Farley, Kenneth; Griffes, Jennifer; Miller, Hayden; Newcombe, Megan; Pilorget, Cedric; Rice, Melissa; Siebach, Kirsten; Stack, Katie; Stolper, Edward; Brunet, Claude; Hipkin, Victoria; Léveillé, Richard; Marchand, Geneviève; Sánchez, Pablo Sobrón; Favot, Laurent; Cody, George; Steele, Andrew; Flückiger, Lorenzo; Lees, David; Nefian, Ara; Martin, Mildred; Gailhanou, Marc; Westall, Frances; Israël, Guy; Agard, Christophe; Baroukh, Julien; Donny, Christophe; Gaboriaud, Alain; Guillemot, Philippe; Lafaille, Vivian; Lorigny, Eric; Paillet, Alexis; Pérez, René; Saccoccio, Muriel; Yana, Charles; Armiens-Aparicio, Carlos; Rodríguez, Javier Caride; Blázquez, Isaías Carrasco; Gómez, Felipe Gómez; Hettrich, Sebastian; Malvitte, Alain Lepinette; Jiménez, Mercedes Marín; Martínez-Frías, Jesús; Martín-Soler, Javier; Martín-Torres, F. Javier; Jurado, Antonio Molina; Mora-Sotomayor, Luis; Caro, Guillermo Muñoz; López, Sara Navarro; Peinado-González, Verónica; Pla-García, Jorge; Manfredi, José Antonio Rodriguez; Romeral-Planelló, Julio José; Fuentes, Sara Alejandra Sans; Martinez, Eduardo Sebastian; Redondo, Josefina Torres; Urqui-O'Callaghan, Roser; Mier, María-Paz Zorzano; Chipera, Steve; Lacour, Jean-Luc; Mauchien, Patrick; Sirven, Jean-Baptiste; Manning, Heidi; Fairén, Alberto; Hayes, Alexander; Joseph, Jonathan; Squyres, Steven; Sullivan, Robert; Thomas, Peter; Dupont, Audrey; Lundberg, Angela; Melikechi, Noureddine; Mezzacappa, Alissa; Berger, Thomas; Matthia, Daniel; Prats, Benito; Atlaskin, Evgeny; Genzer, Maria; Harri, Ari-Matti; Haukka, Harri; Kahanpää, Henrik; Kauhanen, Janne; Kemppinen, Osku; Paton, Mark; Polkko, Jouni; Schmidt, Walter; Siili, Tero; Fabre, Cécile; Wray, James; Wilhelm, Mary Beth; Poitrasson, Franck; Patel, Kiran; Gorevan, Stephen; Indyk, Stephen; Paulsen, Gale; Gupta, Sanjeev; Bish, David; Schieber, Juergen; Gondet, Brigitte; Langevin, Yves; Geffroy, Claude; Baratoux, David; Berger, Gilles; Cros, Alain; d'Uston, Claude; Forni, Olivier; Gasnault, Olivier; Lasue, Jérémie; Lee, Qiu-Mei; Maurice, Sylvestre; Meslin, Pierre-Yves; Pallier, Etienne; Parot, Yann; Pinet, Patrick; Schröder, Susanne; Toplis, Mike; Lewin, Éric; Brunner, Will; Heydari, Ezat; Achilles, Cherie; Oehler, Dorothy; Sutter, Brad; Cabane, Michel; Coscia, David; Israël, Guy; Szopa, Cyril; Dromart, Gilles; Robert, François; Sautter, Violaine; Le Mouélic, Stéphane; Mangold, Nicolas; Nachon, Marion; Buch, Arnaud; Stalport, Fabien; Coll, Patrice; François, Pascaline; Raulin, François; Teinturier, Samuel; Cameron, James; Clegg, Sam; Cousin, Agnès; DeLapp, Dorothea; Dingler, Robert; Jackson, Ryan Steele; Johnstone, Stephen; Lanza, Nina; Little, Cynthia; Nelson, Tony; Wiens, Roger C.; Williams, Richard B.; Jones, Andrea; Kirkland, Laurel; Treiman, Allan; Baker, Burt; Cantor, Bruce; Caplinger, Michael; Davis, Scott; Duston, Brian; Edgett, Kenneth; Fay, Donald; Hardgrove, Craig; Harker, David; Herrera, Paul; Jensen, Elsa; Kennedy, Megan R.; Krezoski, Gillian; Krysak, Daniel; Lipkaman, Leslie; Malin, Michael; McCartney, Elaina; McNair, Sean; Nixon, Brian; Posiolova, Liliya; Ravine, Michael; Salamon, Andrew; Saper, Lee; Stoiber, Kevin; Supulver, Kimberley; Van Beek, Jason; Van Beek, Tessa; Zimdar, Robert; French, Katherine Louise; Iagnemma, Karl; Miller, Kristen; Summons, Roger; Goesmann, Fred; Goetz, Walter; Hviid, Stubbe; Johnson, Micah; Lefavor, Matthew; Lyness, Eric; Breves, Elly; Dyar, M. Darby; Fassett, Caleb; Blake, David F.; Bristow, Thomas; DesMarais, David; Edwards, Laurence; Haberle, Robert; Hoehler, Tori; Hollingsworth, Jeff; Kahre, Melinda; Keely, Leslie; McKay, Christopher; Wilhelm, Mary Beth; Bleacher, Lora; Brinckerhoff, William; Choi, David; Conrad, Pamela; Dworkin, Jason P.; Floyd, Melissa; Freissinet, Caroline; Garvin, James; Glavin, Daniel; Harpold, Daniel; Jones, Andrea; Mahaffy, Paul; Martin, David K.; McAdam, Amy; Pavlov, Alexander; Raaen, Eric; Smith, Michael D.; Stern, Jennifer; Tan, Florence; Trainer, Melissa; Meyer, Michael; Voytek, Mary; Anderson, Robert C.; Aubrey, Andrew; Beegle, Luther W.; Behar, Alberto; Blaney, Diana; Calef, Fred; Christensen, Lance; Crisp, Joy A.; DeFlores, Lauren; Ehlmann, Bethany; Feldman, Jason; Feldman, Sabrina; Flesch, Gregory; Hurowitz, Joel; Jun, Insoo; Keymeulen, Didier; Maki, Justin; Mischna, Michael; Morookian, John Michael; Parker, Timothy; Pavri, Betina; Schoppers, Marcel; Sengstacken, Aaron; Simmonds, John J.; Spanovich, Nicole; Juarez, Manuel de la Torre; Webster, Christopher R.; Yen, Albert; Archer, Paul Douglas; Jones, John H.; Ming, Douglas; Morris, Richard V.; Niles, Paul; Rampe, Elizabeth; Nolan, Thomas; Fisk, Martin; Radziemski, Leon; Barraclough, Bruce; Bender, Steve; Berman, Daniel; Dobrea, Eldar Noe; Tokar, Robert; Vaniman, David; Williams, Rebecca M. E.; Yingst, Aileen; Lewis, Kevin; Leshin, Laurie; Cleghorn, Timothy; Huntress, Wesley; Manhès, Gérard; Hudgins, Judy; Olson, Timothy; Stewart, Noel; Sarrazin, Philippe; Grant, John; Vicenzi, Edward; Wilson, Sharon A.; Hamilton, Victoria; Peterson, Joseph; Fedosov, Fedor; Golovin, Dmitry; Karpushkina, Natalya; Kozyrev, Alexander; Litvak, Maxim; Malakhov, Alexey; Mitrofanov, Igor; Mokrousov, Maxim; Nikiforov, Sergey; Prokhorov, Vasily; Sanin, Anton; Tretyakov, Vladislav; Varenikov, Alexey; Vostrukhin, Andrey; Kuzmin, Ruslan; Clark, Benton; Wolff, Michael; McLennan, Scott; Botta, Oliver; Drake, Darrell; Bean, Keri; Lemmon, Mark; Schwenzer, Susanne P.; Anderson, Ryan B.; Herkenhoff, Kenneth; Lee, Ella Mae; Sucharski, Robert; Hernández, Miguel Ángel de Pablo; Ávalos, Juan José Blanco; Ramos, Miguel; Malespin, Charles; Plante, Ianik; Muller, Jan-Peter; Navarro-González, Rafael; Ewing, Ryan; Boynton, William; Downs, Robert; Fitzgibbon, Mike; Harshman, Karl; Morrison, Shaunna; Dietrich, William; Kortmann, Onno; Palucis, Marisa; Sumner, Dawn Y.; Williams, Amy; Lugmair, Günter; Wilson, Michael A.; Rubin, David; Jakosky, Bruce; Balic-Zunic, Tonci; Frydenvang, Jens; Jensen, Jaqueline Kløvgaard; Kinch, Kjartan; Koefoed, Asmus; Madsen, Morten Bo; Stipp, Susan Louise Svane; Boyd, Nick; Campbell, John L.; Gellert, Ralf; Perrett, Glynis; Pradler, Irina; VanBommel, Scott; Jacob, Samantha; Owen, Tobias; Rowland, Scott; Atlaskin, Evgeny; Savijärvi, Hannu; García, César Martín; Mueller-Mellin, Reinhold; Bridges, John C.; McConnochie, Timothy; Benna, Mehdi; Franz, Heather; Bower, Hannah; Brunner, Anna; Blau, Hannah; Boucher, Thomas; Carmosino, Marco; Atreya, Sushil; Elliott, Harvey; Halleaux, Douglas; Rennó, Nilton; Wong, Michael; Pepin, Robert; Elliott, Beverley; Spray, John; Thompson, Lucy; Gordon, Suzanne; Newsom, Horton; Ollila, Ann; Williams, Joshua; Vasconcelos, Paulo; Bentz, Jennifer; Nealson, Kenneth; Popa, Radu; Kah, Linda C.; Moersch, Jeffrey; Tate, Christopher; Day, Mackenzie; Kocurek, Gary; Hallet, Bernard; Sletten, Ronald; Francis, Raymond; McCullough, Emily; Cloutis, Ed; ten Kate, Inge Loes; Kuzmin, Ruslan; Arvidson, Raymond; Fraeman, Abigail; Scholes, Daniel; Slavney, Susan; Stein, Thomas; Ward, Jennifer; Berger, Jeffrey; Moores, John E.

    2014-01-01

    The Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) on the Mars Science Laboratory's Curiosity rover began making detailed measurements of the cosmic ray and energetic particle radiation environment on the surface of Mars on 7 August 2012. We report and discuss measurements of the absorbed dose and dose equivalent from galactic cosmic rays and solar energetic particles on the martian surface for ~300 days of observations during the current solar maximum. These measurements provide insight into the radiation hazards associated with a human mission to the surface of Mars and provide an anchor point with which to model the subsurface radiation environment, with implications for microbial survival times of any possible extant or past life, as well as for the preservation of potential organic biosignatures of the ancient martian environment.

  11. Experiences and Management of Pregnant Radiation Workers at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Bliss, Mary; Bowyer, Sonya M.; Bryant, Janet L.; Lipton, Mary S.; Wahl, Karen L.

    2001-03-06

    Radiation workers at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory are divided into two classes based on whether or not they can encounter radioactive contamination in the normal course of their work. Level I workers primarily handle sealed radioactive materials such as those used to calibrate detectors. Level II workers perform benchtop chemistry. The U.S. Department of Energy has strict guidelines on the management of pregnant radiation workers. Staff members may voluntarily notify their line managers of a pregnancy and be subjected to stringent radiation exposure limits for the developing fetus. The staff member and manager develop a plan to limit and monitor radiation dose for the remainder of the pregnancy. Several examples of dose management plans and case examples of the impact of pregnancy on staff member?s technical work and projects will be presented.

  12. Mars' surface radiation environment measured with the Mars Science Laboratory's Curiosity rover.

    PubMed

    Hassler, Donald M; Zeitlin, Cary; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F; Ehresmann, Bent; Rafkin, Scot; Eigenbrode, Jennifer L; Brinza, David E; Weigle, Gerald; Böttcher, Stephan; Böhm, Eckart; Burmeister, Soenke; Guo, Jingnan; Köhler, Jan; Martin, Cesar; Reitz, Guenther; Cucinotta, Francis A; Kim, Myung-Hee; Grinspoon, David; Bullock, Mark A; Posner, Arik; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Vasavada, Ashwin; Grotzinger, John P

    2014-01-24

    The Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) on the Mars Science Laboratory's Curiosity rover began making detailed measurements of the cosmic ray and energetic particle radiation environment on the surface of Mars on 7 August 2012. We report and discuss measurements of the absorbed dose and dose equivalent from galactic cosmic rays and solar energetic particles on the martian surface for ~300 days of observations during the current solar maximum. These measurements provide insight into the radiation hazards associated with a human mission to the surface of Mars and provide an anchor point with which to model the subsurface radiation environment, with implications for microbial survival times of any possible extant or past life, as well as for the preservation of potential organic biosignatures of the ancient martian environment. PMID:24324275

  13. LLNL Scientists Use NERSC to Advance Global Aerosol Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Bergmann, D J; Chuang, C; Rotman, D

    2004-10-13

    While ''greenhouse gases'' have been the focus of climate change research for a number of years, DOE's ''Aerosol Initiative'' is now examining how aerosols (small particles of approximately micron size) affect the climate on both a global and regional scale. Scientists in the Atmospheric Science Division at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) are using NERSC's IBM supercomputer and LLNL's IMPACT (atmospheric chemistry) model to perform simulations showing the historic effects of sulfur aerosols at a finer spatial resolution than ever done before. Simulations were carried out for five decades, from the 1950s through the 1990s. The results clearly show the effects of the changing global pattern of sulfur emissions. Whereas in 1950 the United States emitted 41 percent of the world's sulfur aerosols, this figure had dropped to 15 percent by 1990, due to conservation and anti-pollution policies. By contrast, the fraction of total sulfur emissions of European origin has only dropped by a factor of 2 and the Asian emission fraction jumped six fold during the same time, from 7 percent in 1950 to 44 percent in 1990. Under a special allocation of computing time provided by the Office of Science INCITE (Innovative and Novel Computational Impact on Theory and Experiment) program, Dan Bergmann, working with a team of LLNL scientists including Cathy Chuang, Philip Cameron-Smith, and Bala Govindasamy, was able to carry out a large number of calculations during the past month, making the aerosol project one of the largest users of NERSC resources. The applications ran on 128 and 256 processors. The objective was to assess the effects of anthropogenic (man-made) sulfate aerosols. The IMPACT model calculates the rate at which SO{sub 2} (a gas emitted by industrial activity) is oxidized and forms particles known as sulfate aerosols. These particles have a short lifespan in the atmosphere, often washing out in about a week. This means that their effects on climate tend to be

  14. Implementation of a New Nonnuclear Standard at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    van Warmerdam, C

    2005-04-26

    The objective of this paper is to introduce the process and philosophies used to implement the new Work Smart Standard (WSS), ''Safety Basis Requirements for Nonnuclear Facilities at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site Specific Standard'' (UCRL-ID-150214), approved in 2003 and revised January, 2004. This work relates directly to the following workshop theme: ''Improvements in Chemical, Biological, and Non-nuclear Safety Analysis.'' This paper will describe the approach used to implement the new nonnuclear standard at LLNL and corresponding guidance manual: ES&H Manual, Document 3.1. The varied activities can be broken down into three main parts: (1) Implementation Plan Schedule. The Implementation Plan includes the due dates for revising nonnuclear facility safety analysis documentation to meet the new standard. Implementation of the new methodology is being phased over a 4-year period. Each directorate was tasked to schedule the revision date for each of their nonnuclear facilities, using agreed upon priority-ranking criteria. (2) Program Infrastructure. This includes the development of training courses, procedures, a website and tools required to perform the work (i.e. Q List, de minimus list) or tools helpful to perform the work; such as a program to automate the classification of chemical inventories and establish maximum facility inventory limits (MFILs). (3) Delegation request packages. NNSA agreed to grant delegation to LLNL for local approval of nonnuclear safety basis documents (SBDs) in a phased manner. The first package submitted was for the Tier 1 (or Screening Report SBDs), the next is for the Tier 2 SBDs, and the last package will include the Tier 3 SBDs. The packages generally include 2-4 example SBDs at the level for which NNSA delegation is being sought, relevant training course material, and applicable procedures. The Implementation Plan was approved by LLNL's Deputy Director of Operations (DDO) in August 2004 and will be reviewed, updated

  15. Advanced Compton scattering light source R&D at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Albert, F; Anderson, S G; Anderson, G; Betts, S M; Chu, T S; Gibson, D J; Marsh, R A; Messerly, M; Shverdin, M Y; Wu, S; Hartemann, F V; Siders, C W; Barty, C P

    2010-02-16

    We report the design and current status of a monoenergetic laser-based Compton scattering 0.5-2.5 MeV {gamma}-ray source. Previous nuclear resonance fluorescence results and future linac and laser developments for the source are presented. At MeV photon energies relevant for nuclear processes, Compton scattering light sources are attractive because of their relative compactness and improved brightness above 100 keV, compared to typical 4th generation synchrotrons. Recent progress in accelerator physics and laser technology have enabled the development of a new class of tunable Mono-Energetic Gamma-Ray (MEGa-Ray) light sources based on Compton scattering between a high-brightness, relativistic electron beam and a high intensity laser pulse produced via chirped-pulse amplification (CPA). A new precision, tunable gamma-ray source driven by a compact, high-gradient X-band linac is currently under development and construction at LLNL. High-brightness, relativistic electron bunches produced by an X-band linac designed in collaboration with SLAC will interact with a Joule-class, 10 ps, diode-pumped CPA laser pulse to generate tunable {gamma}-rays in the 0.5-2.5 MeV photon energy range via Compton scattering. Based on the success of the previous Thomson-Radiated Extreme X-rays (T-REX) Compton scattering source at LLNL, the source will be used to excite nuclear resonance fluorescence lines in various isotopes; applications include homeland security, stockpile science and surveillance, nuclear fuel assay, and waste imaging and assay. After a brief presentation of successful nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) experiments done with T-REX, the new source design, key parameters, and current status are presented.

  16. Comparison of Martian Surface Radiation Predictions to the Measurements of Mars Science Laboratory Radiation Assessment Detector (MSL/RAD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, M. H. Y.; Cucinotta, F.; Zeitlin, C. J.; Hassler, D.; Ehresmann, B.; Rafkin, S. C.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R. F.; Böttcher, S. I.; Boehm, E.; Guo, J.; Kohler, J.; Martin-Garcia, C.; Reitz, G.; Posner, A.

    2014-12-01

    For the analysis of radiation risks to astronauts and planning exploratory space missions, detailed knowledge of particle spectra is an important factor. Detailed measurements of the energetic particle radiation environment on the surface of Mars have been made by the Mars Science Laboratory Radiation Assessment Detector (MSL-RAD) on the Curiosity rover since August 2012, and particle fluxes for a wide range of ion species (up to several hundred MeV/u) and high energy neutrons (8 - 1000 MeV) have been available for the first 200 sols. Although the data obtained on the surface of Mars for 200 sols are limited in the narrow energy spectra, the simulation results using the Badhwar-O'Neill galactic cosmic ray (GCR) environment model and the high-charge and energy transport (HZETRN) code are compared to the data. For the nuclear interactions of primary GCR through Mars atmosphere and Curiosity rover, the quantum multiple scattering theory of nuclear fragmentation (QMSFRG) is used, which includes direct knockout, evaporation and nuclear coalescence. Daily atmospheric pressure measurements at Gale Crater by the MSL Rover Environmental Monitoring Station are implemented into transport calculations for describing the daily column depth of atmosphere. Particles impinging on top of the Martian atmosphere reach the RAD after traversing varying depths of atmosphere that depend on the slant angles, and the model accounts for shielding of the RAD by the rest of the instrument. Calculations of stopping particle spectra are in good agreement with the RAD measurements for the first 200 sols by accounting changing heliospheric conditions and atmospheric pressure. Detailed comparisons between model predictions and spectral data of various particle types provide the validation of radiation transport models, and thus increase the accuracy of the predictions of future radiation environments on Mars. These contributions lend support to the understanding of radiation health risks to

  17. Comparison of Martian Surface Radiation Predictions to the Measurements of Mars Science Laboratory Radiation Assessment Detector (MSL/RAD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Zeitlin, Cary; Hassler, Donald M.; Ehresmann, Bent; Rafkin, Scot C. R.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F; Boettcher, Stephan; Boehm, Eckart; Guo, Jingnan; Koehler, Jan; Martin, Cesar; Reitz, Guenther; Posner, Erik

    2014-01-01

    For the analysis of radiation risks to astronauts and planning exploratory space missions, detailed knowledge of particle spectra is an important factor. Detailed measurements of the energetic particle radiation environment on the surface of Mars have been made by the Mars Science Laboratory Radiation Assessment Detector (MSL-RAD) on the Curiosity rover since August 2012, and particle fluxes for a wide range of ion species (up to several hundred MeV/u) and high energy neutrons (8 - 1000 MeV) have been available for the first 200 sols. Although the data obtained on the surface of Mars for 200 sols are limited in the narrow energy spectra, the simulation results using the Badhwar-O'Neill galactic cosmic ray (GCR) environment model and the high-charge and energy transport (HZETRN) code are compared to the data. For the nuclear interactions of primary GCR through Mars atmosphere and Curiosity rover, the quantum multiple scattering theory of nuclear fragmentation (QMSFRG) is used, which includes direct knockout, evaporation and nuclear coalescence. Daily atmospheric pressure measurements at Gale Crater by the MSL Rover Environmental Monitoring Station are implemented into transport calculations for describing the daily column depth of atmosphere. Particles impinging on top of the Martian atmosphere reach the RAD after traversing varying depths of atmosphere that depend on the slant angles, and the model accounts for shielding of the RAD by the rest of the instrument. Calculations of stopping particle spectra are in good agreement with the RAD measurements for the first 200 sols by accounting changing heliospheric conditions and atmospheric pressure. Detailed comparisons between model predictions and spectral data of various particle types provide the validation of radiation transport models, and thus increase the accuracy of the predictions of future radiation environments on Mars. These contributions lend support to the understanding of radiation health risks to

  18. An Experimental Investigation of the Role of Radiation in Laboratory Bench-Top Experiments in Thermal Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twomey, Patrick; O'Sullivan, Colm; O'Riordan, John

    2009-01-01

    A simple undergraduate experiment designed to study cooling purely by radiation and cooling by a combination of convection and radiation is described. Results indicate that the contribution from radiative cooling in normal laboratory experiments is more significant than students often realize, even in the case of forced cooling. (Contains 1…

  19. Radiation Laboratory, University of Notre Dame: Quarterly report, October 1--December 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-17

    The Notre Dame Radiation Laboratory is a facility of the Department of Energy operated for the DOE by the University of Notre Dame under contract No. DE-AC02-76ER00038. This quarterly report summarizes the progress on the programs within the Laboratory for the period of October 1, 193 through December 31, 1993. The activities of the staff during this period are noted. A list of publications is presented. A listing and a brief description of each of the reports issued during this quarter are provided.

  20. Training and qualification of health and safety technicians at a national laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Egbert, W.F.; Trinoskey, P.A.

    1994-10-01

    Over the last 30 years, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has successfully implemented the concept of a multi-disciplined technician. LLNL Health and Safety Technicians have responsibilities in industrial hygiene, industrial safety, health physics, as well as fire, explosive, and criticality safety. One of the major benefits to this approach is the cost-effective use of workers who display an ownership of health and safety issues which is sometimes lacking when responsibilities are divided. Although LLNL has always promoted the concept of a multi-discipline technician, this concept is gaining interest within the Department of Energy (DOE) community. In November 1992, individuals from Oak Ridge Institute of Science and Education (ORISE) and RUST Geotech, joined by LLNL established a committee to address the issues of Health and Safety Technicians. In 1993, the DOE Office of Environmental, Safety and Health, in response to the Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board Recommendation 91-6, stated DOE projects, particularly environmental restoration, typically present hazards other than radiation such as chemicals, explosives, complex construction activities, etc., which require additional expertise by Radiological Control Technicians. They followed with a commitment that a training guide would be issued. The trend in the last two decades has been toward greater specialization in the areas of health and safety. In contrast, the LLNL has moved toward a generalist approach integrating the once separate functions of the industrial hygiene and health physics technician into one function.

  1. BANK UPGRADE FOR SSPX AT LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Marchiano, M M; Cook, E G; Geer, R W; Kemptner, R O; McLean, H S; Martovetsky, N N; Moller, J M; Morris, K L; Stallard, B W; Watson, J A; Wood, R D

    2005-05-31

    A new 5kV, 1.5MJ modular capacitor bank has been designed for the Sustained Spheromak Physics Experiment (SSPX) at LLNL. The new bank consists of thirty 4mF capacitors that are independently controlled by light-triggered thyristors. By closing all switches simultaneously, the bank will provide a mega-ampere discharge. The new bank will also allow additional capabilities to SSPX, including higher peak gun current, longer current pulses, and multi-pulse plasma buildup. Experiment results for a single stage prototype will be presented, deliver a single large current spike, or, switches can be triggered in sequence to deliver a longer lower current pulse. Multiple pulses can be created by triggering sections of the modular bank in intervals.

  2. FY15 LLNL OMEGA Experimental Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Heeter, R. F.; Baker, K. L.; Barrios, M. A.; Beckwith, M. A.; Casey, D. T.; Celliers, P. M.; Chen, H.; Coppari, F.; Fournier, K. B.; Fratanduono, D. E.; Frenje, J.; Huntington, C. M.; Kraus, R. G.; Lazicki, A. E.; Martinez, D. A.; McNaney, J. M.; Millot, M. A.; Pak, A. E.; Park, H. S.; Ping, Y.; Pollock, B. B.; Smith, R. F.; Wehrenberg, C. E.; Widmann, K.; Collins, G. W.; Landen, O. L.; Wan, A.; Hsing, W.

    2015-12-04

    In FY15, LLNL’s High-Energy-Density Physics (HED) and Indirect Drive Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF-ID) programs conducted several campaigns on the OMEGA laser system and on the EP laser system, as well as campaigns that used the OMEGA and EP beams jointly. Overall these LLNL programs led 468 target shots in FY15, with 315 shots using just the OMEGA laser system, 145 shots using just the EP laser system, and 8 Joint shots using Omega and EP together. Approximately 25% of the total number of shots (56 OMEGA shots and 67 EP shots, including the 8 Joint shots) supported the Indirect Drive Inertial Confinement Fusion Campaign (ICF-ID). The remaining 75% (267 OMEGA shots and 86 EP shots) were dedicated to experiments for High-Energy-Density Physics (HED). Highlights of the various HED and ICF campaigns are summarized in the following reports.

  3. Potential for improved radiation thermometry measurement uncertainty through implementing a primary scale in an industrial laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willmott, Jon R.; Lowe, David; Broughton, Mick; White, Ben S.; Machin, Graham

    2016-09-01

    A primary temperature scale requires realising a unit in terms of its definition. For high temperature radiation thermometry in terms of the International Temperature Scale of 1990 this means extrapolating from the signal measured at the freezing temperature of gold, silver or copper using Planck’s radiation law. The difficulty in doing this means that primary scales above 1000 °C require specialist equipment and careful characterisation in order to achieve the extrapolation with sufficient accuracy. As such, maintenance of the scale at high temperatures is usually only practicable for National Metrology Institutes, and calibration laboratories have to rely on a scale calibrated against transfer standards. At lower temperatures it is practicable for an industrial calibration laboratory to have its own primary temperature scale, which reduces the number of steps between the primary scale and end user. Proposed changes to the SI that will introduce internationally accepted high temperature reference standards might make it practicable to have a primary high temperature scale in a calibration laboratory. In this study such a scale was established by calibrating radiation thermometers directly to high temperature reference standards. The possible reduction in uncertainty to an end user as a result of the reduced calibration chain was evaluated.

  4. International Collaboration for Galactic Cosmic Ray Simulation at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, John W.; Slaba, Tony C.; Rusek, Adam; Durante, Marco; Reitz, Guenther

    2015-01-01

    An international collaboration on Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) simulation is being formed to make recommendations on how to best simulate the GCR spectrum at ground based accelerators. The external GCR spectrum is significantly modified when it passes through spacecraft shielding and astronauts. One approach for simulating the GCR space radiation environment at ground based accelerators would use the modified spectrum, rather than the external spectrum, in the accelerator beams impinging on biological targets. Two recent workshops have studied such GCR simulation. The first workshop was held at NASA Langley Research Center in October 2014. The second workshop was held at the NASA Space Radiation Investigators' workshop in Galveston, Texas in January 2015. The anticipated outcome of these and other studies may be a report or journal article, written by an international collaboration, making accelerator beam recommendations for GCR simulation. This poster describes the status of GCR simulation at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory and encourages others to join the collaboration.

  5. Laboratory simulation of interplanetary ultraviolet radiation (broad spectrum) and its effects on Deinococcus radiodurans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulino-Lima, Ivan Gláucio; Pilling, Sérgio; Janot-Pacheco, Eduardo; de Brito, Arnaldo Naves; Barbosa, João Alexandre Ribeiro Gonçalves; Leitão, Alvaro Costa; Lage, Claudia de Alencar Santos

    2010-08-01

    The radiation-resistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans was exposed to a simulated interplanetary UV radiation at the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS). Bacterial samples were irradiated on different substrates to investigate the influence of surface relief on cell survival. The effects of cell multi-layers were also investigated. The ratio of viable microorganisms remained virtually the same (average 2%) for integrated doses from 1.2 to 12 kJ m -2, corresponding to 16 h of irradiation at most. The asymptotic profiles of the curves, clearly connected to a shielding effect provided by multi-layering cells on a cavitary substrate (carbon tape), means that the inactivation rate may not change significantly along extended periods of exposure to radiation. Such high survival rates reinforce the possibility of an interplanetary transfer of viable microbes.

  6. Laboratory Calibration of X-ray Velocimeters for Radiation Driven Winds and Outflows Surrounding X-ray Binaries and Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Gregory V.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Graf, A.; Hell, N.; Liedahl, D.; Magee, E. W.; Träbert, E.; Beilmann, C.; Bernitt, S.; Crespo-Lopez-Urritiua, J.; Eberle, S.; Kubicek, K.; Mäckel, V.; Rudolph, J.; Steinbrügge, R.; Ullrich, J.; Kelley, R. L.; Kilbourne, C. A.; Leutenegger, M.; Porter, F. S.; Rasmussen, A.; Simon, M.; Epp, S.

    2011-09-01

    High resolution measurements of X-ray absorption and fluorescence by radiation driven winds and outflows surrounding X-ray binaries and AGN provide a powerful means for measuring wind velocities. The accuracy of these X-ray velocimeters is limited by the accuracy of atomic data. For example, in the case of the high mass X-ray binary Vela X-1 the uncertainty in the calculated transition wavelengths of the K alpha lines produced by photoionization and photoexcitation of Si L-shell ions is comparable to the likely Doppler shifts, making it impossible to determine a reliable velocity. Similar problems also exist in the case of absorption of X-rays by M-shell Fe ions, which produces in some AGN the so-called unresolved transition array across the 15-17 angstrom band. In this case, there is a 15-45 milliangstrom variation among different wavelength calculations. The uncertainty in the calculations makes it impossible to reliably determine the true velocity structure of the outflow, and in turn, prevents a reliable determination of the mass-loss rate of the AGN. We present results of a recent series of laboratory experiments conducted using an electron beam ion trap coupled with the LCLS X-ray free electron laser and the BESSY-II synchrotron and designed to calibrate the velocimeters provided by high resolution instruments on Chandra and XMM-Newton. We also present results of resonant photoexcitation measurements of the transition wavelength of an Fe XVI satellite line 'coincident' with the 2p-3d Fe XVII line 3D at 15.26 angstroms. This line has never been resolved using emission spectroscopy and its measurement confirms the intensity of line 3D is sensitive to the relative abundance of Fe XVI and XVII and thus temperature. Work at LLNL was performed under the auspices of DOE under contract DE-AC53-07NA27344 and supported by NASA's APRA program.

  7. Code Verification Results of an LLNL ASC Code on Some Tri-Lab Verification Test Suite Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, S R; Bihari, B L; Salari, K; Woodward, C S

    2006-12-29

    As scientific codes become more complex and involve larger numbers of developers and algorithms, chances for algorithmic implementation mistakes increase. In this environment, code verification becomes essential to building confidence in the code implementation. This paper will present first results of a new code verification effort within LLNL's B Division. In particular, we will show results of code verification of the LLNL ASC ARES code on the test problems: Su Olson non-equilibrium radiation diffusion, Sod shock tube, Sedov point blast modeled with shock hydrodynamics, and Noh implosion.

  8. Phase II Audit Report - Energy & Water Audits of LLNL Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Horst, B I; Jacobs, P C; Pierce, S M

    2005-08-03

    This report describes Phase II of a project conducted for the Mechanical Utilities Division (UTel), Energy Management Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) by Architectural Energy Corporation (AEC). The overall project covers energy efficiency and water conservation auditing services for 215 modular and prefabricated buildings at LLNL. The primary goal of this project is to demonstrate compliance with DOE Order 430.2A, Contractor Requirements Document section 2.d (2) Document, to demonstrate annual progress of at least 10 percent toward completing energy and water audits of all facilities. Although this project covers numerous buildings, they are all similar in design and use. The approach employed for completing audits for these facilities involves a ''model-similar building'' approach. In the model-similar building approach, similarities between groups of buildings are established and quantified. A model (or test case) building is selected and analyzed for each model-similar group using a detailed DOE-2 simulation. The results are extended to the group of similar buildings based on careful application of quantified similarities, or ''extension measures''. This approach leverages the relatively minor effort required to evaluate one building in some detail to a much larger population of similar buildings. The facility wide energy savings potential was calculated for a select set of measures that have reasonable payback based on the detailed building analysis and are otherwise desirable to the LLNL facilities staff. The selected measures are: (1) HVAC Tune-up. This is considered to be a ''core measure'', based on the energy savings opportunity and the impact on thermal comfort. All HVAC units in the study are assumed to be tuned up under this measure. See the Appendix for a detailed calculation by building and HVAC unit. (2) HVAC system scheduling. This is also considered to be a ''core measure'', based on the energy savings opportunity and

  9. Job factors, radiation and cancer mortality at Oak Ridge National Laboratory: follow-up through 1984.

    PubMed

    Wing, S; Shy, C M; Wood, J L; Wolf, S; Cragle, D L; Tankersley, W; Frome, E L

    1993-02-01

    A previous study of mortality among white men hired at Oak Ridge National Laboratory between 1943 and 1972 (n = 8,318) revealed an association between low-dose external penetrating ionizing radiation and cancer mortality in follow-up through 1984. The association was not observed in follow-up through 1977. This report considers the role of possible selection and confounding factors not previously studied. Control for hire during the World War II era and employment duration of less than 1 year had little effect on the radiation risk estimates. Risks associated with length of time spent in 15 job categories were considered as proxies for the effects of other occupational carcinogens. Adjustment for employment duration in each job category one at a time produced only small changes in the radiation risk estimate. Adjustment for potential exposures to beryllium, lead, and mercury also had little effect on the radiation risk estimates. These analyses suggest that selection factors and potential for chemical exposure do not account for the previously noted association of external radiation dose with cancer mortality. However, power to detect effects of chemical exposures is limited by a lack of individual exposure measures.

  10. The low-energy toroidal grating monochromator beamline at the synchrotron radiation source at Daresbury Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Hoyland, M.A. ); Harrington, J.Q.; Weston, M.I. )

    1992-01-01

    The bending magnet beam line 1.2 low-energy toroidal grating monochromator of the synchrotron radiation source (SRS) at Daresbury Laboratory, was designed{sup 1} to deliver moderately high fluxes ({similar to} 5 {times} 10{sup 11} photons s{sup {minus}1}), of linearly polarized, medium resolution ({similar to}0.2 eV) radiation in the energy range 5--85 eV. The colinear optical system utilizes platinum-coated silicon-carbide mirrors to focus the broad-band radiation emergent from the SRS at the entrance slits of the three grating monochromator. A single ellipsoidal mirror is then used to doubly focus the desired narrow-band radiation at the sample position. The colinear arrangement of the optical elements ensures that the radiation at the sample point is strongly horizontally plane polarized (estimated to be of order 90%). The entire system has been the subject of detailed analyses using the raytracing program SHADOW,{sup 2} and standard optical theory. These calculations have been compared with experimental determinations of photon flux outputs and resolution measurements.

  11. Dispersion of Radionuclides and Exposure Assessment in Urban Environments: A Joint CEA and LLNL Report

    SciTech Connect

    Glascoe, Lee; Gowardhan, Akshay; Lennox, Kristin; Simpson, Matthew; Yu, Kristen; Armand, Patrick; Duchenne, Christophe; Mariotte, Frederic; Pectorin, Xavier

    2014-12-19

    In the interest of promoting the international exchange of technical expertise, the US Department of Energy’s Office of Emergency Operations (NA-40) and the French Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique et aux énergies alternatives (CEA) requested that the National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC) of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Livermore, California host a joint table top exercise with experts in emergency management and atmospheric transport modeling. In this table top exercise, LLNL and CEA compared each other’s flow and dispersion models. The goal of the comparison is to facilitate the exchange of knowledge, capabilities, and practices, and to demonstrate the utility of modeling dispersal at different levels of computational fidelity. Two modeling approaches were examined, a regional scale modeling approach, appropriate for simple terrain and/or very large releases, and an urban scale modeling approach, appropriate for small releases in a city environment. This report is a summary of LLNL and CEA modeling efforts from this exercise. Two different types of LLNL and CEA models were employed in the analysis: urban-scale models (Aeolus CFD at LLNL/NARAC and Parallel- Micro-SWIFT-SPRAY, PMSS, at CEA) for analysis of a 5,000 Ci radiological release and Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Models (LODI at LLNL/NARAC and PSPRAY at CEA) for analysis of a much larger (500,000 Ci) regional radiological release. Two densely-populated urban locations were chosen: Chicago with its high-rise skyline and gridded street network and Paris with its more consistent, lower building height and complex unaligned street network. Each location was considered under early summer daytime and nighttime conditions. Different levels of fidelity were chosen for each scale: (1) lower fidelity mass-consistent diagnostic, intermediate fidelity Navier-Stokes RANS models, and higher fidelity Navier-Stokes LES for urban-scale analysis, and (2) lower-fidelity single

  12. Plutonium Decontamination Using CBI Decon Gel 1101 in Highly Contaminated and Unique Areas at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Sutton, M; Fischer, R P; Thoet, M M; O'Neill, M; Edgington, G

    2008-06-09

    A highly contaminated glove-box at LLNL containing plutonium was decontaminated using a strippable decontamination gel. 6 x 12 inch quadrants were mapped out on each of the surfaces. The gel was applied to various surfaces inside the glove-box and was allowed to cure. The radioactivity in each quadrant was measured using a LLNL Blue Alpha meter with a 1.5 inch standoff distance. The results showed decontamination factors of 130 and 210 on cast steel and Lexan{reg_sign} surfaces respectively after several applications. The gel also absorbed more than 91% of the radiation emitted from the surfaces during gel curing. The removed strippable film was analyzed by neutron multiplicity counting and gamma spectroscopy, yielding relative mass information and radioisotopic composition respectively.

  13. UV Radiation: a new first year physics/life sciences laboratory experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petelina, S. V.; Siddaway, J. M.

    2010-12-01

    Unfortunately, Australia leads the world in the number of skin cancer cases per capita. Three major factors that contribute to this are: 1) the level of damaging ultraviolet (UV) radiation in Australia is higher than in many other countries. This is caused, among other factors, by the stratospheric ozone depletion and Antarctic ozone hole; 2) many people in Australia are of Irish-Scottish origin and their skin can not repair the damage caused by the UV radiation as effectively as the skin of people of other origins; 3) Australia is one of the world’s leaders in the outdoor activities where people tend to spend more time outside. As our experience has shown, most Australian University students, high school students, and even high school teachers were largely unaware of the UV damage details and effective safety measures. Therefore, a need for new ways to educate people became apparent. The general aim of this new 1st year laboratory experiment, developed and first offered at La Trobe University (Melbourne, Australia) in 2009, is to investigate how UV-B radiation levels change under various solar illumination conditions and how effective different types of protection are. After pre-lab readings on physical concepts and biological effects of UV radiation, and after solving all pre-lab problems, the students go outside and measure the actual change in UV-B and UV-A radiation levels under various conditions. Some of these conditions are: direct sun, shade from a building, shade under the roof, reflection from various surfaces, direct sun through cheap and expensive sunglasses and eyeglasses, direct sun through various types of cloth and hair. The equipment used is the UV-Probe manufactured by sglux SolGel Technologies GmbH. The students’ feedback on this new laboratory experiment was very positive. It was ranked top among all physics experiments offered as part of that subject (Physics for Life Sciences) in 2009 and top among all physics experiments presented for

  14. Quality assurance for radon exposure chambers at the National Air and Radiation Environmental Laboratory, Montgomery, Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Semler, M.O.; Sensintaffar, E.L.

    1993-12-31

    The Office of Radiation and Indoor Air, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), operates six radon exposure chambers in its two laboratories, the National Air and Radiation Environmental Laboratory (NAREL) in Montgomery, Alabama, and the Las Vegas Facility, Las Vegas, Nevada. These radon exposure chambers are used to calibrate and test portable radon measuring instruments, test commercial suppliers of radon measurement services through the Radon Measurement Proficiency Program, and expose passive measurement devices to known radon concentrations as part of a quality assurance plan for federal and state studies measuring indoor radon concentrations. Both laboratories participate in national and international intercomparisons for the measurement of radon and are presently working with the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to receive a certificate of traceability for radon measurements. NAREL has developed an estimate of the total error in its calibration of each chamber`s continuous monitors as part of an internal quality assurance program. This paper discusses the continuous monitors and their calibration for the three chambers located in Montgomery, Alabama, as well as the results of the authors intercomparisons and total error analysis.

  15. Natural Language Processing as a Discipline at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Firpo, M A

    2005-02-04

    The field of Natural Language Processing (NLP) is described as it applies to the needs of LLNL in handling free-text. The state of the practice is outlined with the emphasis placed on two specific aspects of NLP: Information Extraction and Discourse Integration. A brief description is included of the NLP applications currently being used at LLNL. A gap analysis provides a look at where the technology needs work in order to meet the needs of LLNL. Finally, recommendations are made to meet these needs.

  16. PERFORMANCE AND CAPABILITIES OF THE NASA SPACE RADIATION LABORATORY AT BNL.

    SciTech Connect

    BROWN, K.A.; AHRENS, L.; CHIANG, I.H.; GARDNER, C.; GASSNER, D.; HAMMONS, L.; HARVEY, M.; MORRIS, J.; RUSEK, A.; SAMPSON, P.; SIVERTZ, M.; TSOUPAS, N.; ZENO, K.

    2006-06-23

    The NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at BNL was commissioned in October 2002 and the facility became operational in July 2003. NSRL was constructed in collaboration with NASA for the purpose of performing radiation effect studies for the NASA space program. NSRL can accept a wide variety of ions from BNL's AGS Booster; these are slow extracted with kinetic energies ranging from 0.3 to 3 GeV/n. Fast extraction from Booster to NSRL has also been developed and used. Many different beam conditions have been produced for experiments at NSRL, including very low intensity. In this report we will describe the facility and its performance over the eight experimental run periods that have taken place since it became operational. We will also describe the current and future capabilities of the NSRL.

  17. Laboratory-based maximum slip rates in earthquake rupture zones and radiated energy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGarr, A.; Fletcher, Joe B.; Boettcher, M.; Beeler, N.; Boatwright, J.

    2010-01-01

    Laboratory stick-slip friction experiments indicate that peak slip rates increase with the stresses loading the fault to cause rupture. If this applies also to earthquake fault zones, then the analysis of rupture processes is simplified inasmuch as the slip rates depend only on the local yield stress and are independent of factors specific to a particular event, including the distribution of slip in space and time. We test this hypothesis by first using it to develop an expression for radiated energy that depends primarily on the seismic moment and the maximum slip rate. From laboratory results, the maximum slip rate for any crustal earthquake, as well as various stress parameters including the yield stress, can be determined based on its seismic moment and the maximum slip within its rupture zone. After finding that our new equation for radiated energy works well for laboratory stick-slip friction experiments, we used it to estimate radiated energies for five earthquakes with magnitudes near 2 that were induced in a deep gold mine, an M 2.1 repeating earthquake near the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) site and seven major earthquakes in California and found good agreement with energies estimated independently from spectra of local and regional ground-motion data. Estimates of yield stress for the earthquakes in our study range from 12 MPa to 122 MPa with a median of 64 MPa. The lowest value was estimated for the 2004 M 6 Parkfield, California, earthquake whereas the nearby M 2.1 repeating earthquake, as recorded in the SAFOD pilot hole, showed a more typical yield stress of 64 MPa.

  18. Effective cleanup at LLNL. Innovative technologies and approaches

    SciTech Connect

    Lamarre, A.; Angleberger, K.; Brown, M. G.

    1998-11-12

    At the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Livermore Site Superfund Site, ground water restoration efforts have been ongoing since 1989. Based on plans committed to by DOE in the Record of Decision (ROD) for the Site in 1992, ground water cleanup was predicted to take 61 years. What began as conventional pump and treat has evolved into an effective Engineered Plume Collapse strategy that employs a well-stocked tool box of remediation technologies, processes, and methodologies. This "tool box" approach has proven effective in solving the vexing problem of restoring the chlorinated volatile organic compound (CVOC) contaminated aquifers beneath the site. The Engineered Plume Collapse strategy has been used to hydraulically control the plumes on the western and southern boundaries of the site, doubled the pounds of CVOC removed from the subsurface compared to predictions in the ROD plans, and "collapsed" offsite plumes. The three major components of the Engineered Plume Collapse strategy are: (1) collection and use of historical and current chemical and hydrogeologic data to accurately identify areas of contamination in the subsurface and guide decisions about on-going remediation needs, (2) design, construction and operation of small, portable, and inexpensive ground water treatment units to implement pump and treat and collapse contaminant plumes back to their source areas, and (3) effective use of more energetic contaminant mass removal technologies in source areas, such as chemical oxidation, reductive dehalogenation, steam stripping, and electro-osmosis.

  19. AMS measurements of actinides and technetium at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    McAninch, J

    1999-09-01

    The Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (CAMS) and the Health and Ecological Assessment Division (HEA) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) are developing methods for the measurement of technetium and plutonium as part of a long-term effort to expand our accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) capabilities to isotopes throughout the periodic table. AMS provides ultratrace sensitivity for these nuclides with high rejection of interferences and low susceptibility to matrix components. These advantages will lead to reduced demands on the sample preparation chemistry, high throughput, and rapid turn around of results. Ultimately these will result in larger, more reliable, and more complete data sets. We have begun measurements of 99 Tc and Pu isotopes in environmental samples, including IAEA reference materials. The following sections contain a summary of our sample preparation and AMS measurement protocols, and the results of some recent measurements. It should be noted that the results presented here are mostly of a preliminary nature, and are meant only to demonstrate the current status of the methods.

  20. Java Performance for Scientific Applications on LLNL Computer Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kapfer, C; Wissink, A

    2002-05-10

    Languages in use for high performance computing at the laboratory--Fortran (f77 and f90), C, and C++--have many years of development behind them and are generally considered the fastest available. However, Fortran and C do not readily extend to object-oriented programming models, limiting their capability for very complex simulation software. C++ facilitates object-oriented programming but is a very complex and error-prone language. Java offers a number of capabilities that these other languages do not. For instance it implements cleaner (i.e., easier to use and less prone to errors) object-oriented models than C++. It also offers networking and security as part of the language standard, and cross-platform executables that make it architecture neutral, to name a few. These features have made Java very popular for industrial computing applications. The aim of this paper is to explain the trade-offs in using Java for large-scale scientific applications at LLNL. Despite its advantages, the computational science community has been reluctant to write large-scale computationally intensive applications in Java due to concerns over its poor performance. However, considerable progress has been made over the last several years. The Java Grande Forum [1] has been promoting the use of Java for large-scale computing. Members have introduced efficient array libraries, developed fast just-in-time (JIT) compilers, and built links to existing packages used in high performance parallel computing.

  1. Laser Design for Next Generation Compton Scattering Source at LLNL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shverdin, Miro; Albert, Felicie; Anderson, Scott; Bayramian, Andy; Betts, Shawn; Cross, Rick; Ebbers, Chris; Gibson, David; Marsh, Roark; Messerly, Michael; Hartemann, Fred; Scarpetti, Ray; Siders, Craig; Barty, Chris

    2010-11-01

    We describe laser systems designed for the next generation Mono-Energetic Gamma-Ray (MEGa-ray) Compton scattering light source at LLNL. An 80 fs Yb:doped fiber oscillator seeds a photogun drive laser (PDL) and a high energy interaction system laser (ILS). Utilizing chirped pulse amplification (CPA) in fiber, the PDL will generate 80 μJ, spatially and temporally shaped pulses at 263 nm at 120 Hz precisely synchronized to the linac RF. The PDL system employs large mode photonic bandgap fibers and large area multi-layer dielectric gratings to generate over 1mJ per pulse with high recompression fidelity prior to frequency quadrupling. The high energy, 120 W ILS utilizes (CPA) in Nd:YAG to amplify a sub-nanometer bandwidth 20 μJ pulses from a fiber system to 1 J. A novel pulse stretcher provides a dispersion of over 7000 ps/nm to expand a several picosecond wide seed pulse to 6 ns. After amplification, the pulse is recompressed to 10 ps with a hyper-dispersive pulse compressor. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  2. Solar and Photovoltaic Data from the University of Oregon Solar Radiation Monitoring Laboratory (UO SRML)

    DOE Data Explorer

    The UO SRML is a regional solar radiation data center whose goal is to provide sound solar resource data for planning, design, deployment, and operation of solar electric facilities in the Pacific Northwest. The laboratory has been in operation since 1975. Solar data includes solar resource maps, cumulative summary data, daily totals, monthly averages, single element profile data, parsed TMY2 data, and select multifilter radiometer data. A data plotting program and other software tools are also provided. Shade analysis information and contour plots showing the effect of tilt and orientation on annual solar electric system perfomance make up a large part of the photovoltaics data.(Specialized Interface)

  3. LLNL/JNC repository collaboration interim progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Bourcier, W.L.; Couch, R.G.; Gansemer, J.; Halsey, W.G.; Palmer, C.E.; Sinz, K.H.; Stout, R.B.; Wijesinghe, A.; Wolery, T.J.

    1999-07-01

    Under this Annex, a research program on the near-field performance assessment related to the geological disposal of radioactive waste will be carried out at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in close collaboration with the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation of Japan (PNC). This program will focus on activities that provide direct support for PNC's near-term and long-term needs that will, in turn, utilize and further strengthen US capabilities for radioactive waste management. The work scope for two years will be designed based on the PNC's priorities for its second progress report (the H12 report) of research and development for high-level radioactive waste disposal and on the interest and capabilities of the LLNL. The work will focus on the chemical modeling for the near-field environment and long-term mechanical modeling of engineered barrier system as it evolves. Certain activities in this program will provide for a final iteration of analyses to provide additional technical basis prior to the year 2000 as determined in discussions with the PNC's technical coordinator. The work for two years will include the following activities: Activity 1: Chemical Modeling of EBS Materials Interactions--Task 1.1 Chemical Modeling of Iron Effects on Borosilicate Glass Durability; and Task 1.2 Changes in Overpack and Bentonite Properties Due to Metal, Bentonite and Water Interactions. Activity 2: Thermodynamic Database Validation and Comparison--Task 2.1 Set up EQ3/6 to Run with the Pitzer-based PNC Thermodynamic Data Base; Task 2.2 Provide Expert Consultation on the Thermodynamic Data Base; and Task 2.3 Provide Analysis of Likely Solubility Controls on Selenium. Activity 3: Engineered Barrier Performance Assessment of the Unsaturated, Oxidizing Transient--Task 3.1 Apply YMIM to PNC Transient EBS Performance; Task 3.2 Demonstrate Methods for Modeling the Return to Reducing Conditions; and Task 3.3 Evaluate the Potential for Stress Corrosion

  4. Lightning Protection System for HE Facilities at LLNL - Certification Template

    SciTech Connect

    Clancy, T J; Ong, M M; Brown, C G

    2005-12-08

    This document is meant as a template to assist in the development of your own lighting certification process. Aside from this introduction and the mock representative name of the building (Building A), this document is nearly identical to a lightning certification report issued by the Engineering Directorate at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. At the date of this release, we have certified over 70 HE processing and storage cells at our Site 300 facilities. In Chapters 1 and 2 respectively, we address the need and methods of lightning certification for HE processing and storage facilities at LLNL. We present the preferred method of lightning protection in Chapter 3, as well as the likely building modifications that are needed to comply with this method. In Chapter 4, we present the threat assessment and resulting safe work areas within a cell. After certification, there may be changes to operations during a lightning alert, and this is discussed in Chapter 5. Chapter 6 lists the maintenance requirements for the continuation of lighting certification status. Appendices of this document are meant as an aid in developing your own certification process, and they include a bonding list, an inventory of measurement equipment, surge suppressors in use at LLNL, an Integrated Work and Safety form (IWS), and a template certification sign-off sheet. The lightning certification process involves more that what is spelled out in this document. The first steps involve considerable planning, the securing of funds, and management and explosives safety buy-in. Permits must be obtained, measurement equipment must be assembled and tested, and engineers and technicians must be trained in their use. Cursory building inspections are also recommended, and surge suppression for power systems must be addressed. Upon completion of a certification report and its sign-off by management, additional work is required. Training will be needed in order to educate workers and facility managers

  5. Summary Statistics for Homemade ?Play Dough? -- Data Acquired at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Kallman, J S; Morales, K E; Whipple, R E; Huber, R D; Martz, A; Brown, W D; Smith, J A; Schneberk, D J; Martz, Jr., H E; White, III, W T

    2010-03-11

    Using x-ray computerized tomography (CT), we have characterized the x-ray linear attenuation coefficients (LAC) of a homemade Play Dough{trademark}-like material, designated as PDA. Table 1 gives the first-order statistics for each of four CT measurements, estimated with a Gaussian kernel density estimator (KDE) analysis. The mean values of the LAC range from a high of about 2700 LMHU{sub D} 100kVp to a low of about 1200 LMHUD at 300kVp. The standard deviation of each measurement is around 10% to 15% of the mean. The entropy covers the range from 6.0 to 7.4. Ordinarily, we would model the LAC of the material and compare the modeled values to the measured values. In this case, however, we did not have the detailed chemical composition of the material and therefore did not model the LAC. Using a method recently proposed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), we estimate the value of the effective atomic number, Z{sub eff}, to be near 10. LLNL prepared about 50mL of the homemade 'Play Dough' in a polypropylene vial and firmly compressed it immediately prior to the x-ray measurements. We used the computer program IMGREC to reconstruct the CT images. The values of the key parameters used in the data capture and image reconstruction are given in this report. Additional details may be found in the experimental SOP and a separate document. To characterize the statistical distribution of LAC values in each CT image, we first isolated an 80% central-core segment of volume elements ('voxels') lying completely within the specimen, away from the walls of the polypropylene vial. All of the voxels within this central core, including those comprised of voids and inclusions, are included in the statistics. We then calculated the mean value, standard deviation and entropy for (a) the four image segments and for (b) their digital gradient images. (A digital gradient image of a given image was obtained by taking the absolute value of the difference between the initial image

  6. [Experience of the development special medical technical laboratory for studies of effects caused by potent electromagnetic radiation in biologic objects].

    PubMed

    Gorodetsky, B N; Kalyada, T V; Petrov, S V

    2015-01-01

    This article covers topics of creating special medical technical laboratory for medial and biologic studies concerning influence of potent high-frequency elecromagnetic radiation on various biologic objects. The authors gave example of such laboratory, described its construction features, purpose and main characteristics of the included devices.

  7. LLNL Middle East and North Africa and Former Soviet Union Research Database

    SciTech Connect

    O'Boyle, J.L.; Ruppert, S.D.; Hauk, T.F.; Dodge, D.; Firpo, M.

    2000-07-14

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring (GNEM) R and D program has made significant progress populating a comprehensive Seismic Research knowledge Base (SRKB) and deriving calibration parameters for the Middle East and North Africa (ME/NA) and Former Soviet Union (FSU) regions. The LLNL SRKB provides not only a coherent framework in which to store and organize very large volumes of collected seismic waveforms, associated event parameter information, and spatial contextual data, but also provides an efficient data processing/research environment for deriving location and discrimination correction surfaces. The SRKB is a flexible and extensible framework consisting of a relational database (RDB), Geographical Information System (GIS), and associated product/data visualization and data management tools. This SRKB framework is designed to accommodate large volumes of data (over 2 million waveforms from 20,000 events) in diverse formats from many sources in addition to maintaining detailed quality control and metadata. Using the SRKB framework, they are combining travel-time observations, event characterization studies, and regional tectonic models to assemble a library of ground truth information and phenomenology correction surfaces required for support of the ME/NA and FSU regionalization program. Corrections and parameters distilled from the LLNL SRKB provide needed contributions to the DOE Knowledge Base (DOE KB) for the ME/NA and FSU regions and will help improve monitoring for underground nuclear testing. The LLNL research products will facilitate calibration of IMS stations (primary and auxiliary), their surrogates (if not yet installed) and selected gamma stations necessary to complete the above tasks in the ME/NA and FSU regions. They present expanded lookup tables for critical station parameter information (including location and response) and a new integrated and reconciled event catalog dataset including

  8. Fossil Fuel Emission Verification Modeling at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Cameron-Smith, P; Kosovic, B; Guilderson, T; Monache, L D; Bergmann, D

    2009-08-06

    We have an established project at LLNL to develop the tools needed to constrain fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions using measurements of the carbon-14 isotope in atmospheric samples. In Figure 1 we show the fossil fuel plumes from Los Angeles and San Francisco for two different weather patterns. Obviously, a measurement made at any given location is going to depend on the weather leading up to the measurement. Thus, in order to determine the GHG emissions from some region using in situ measurements of those GHGs, we use state-of-the-art global and regional atmospheric chemistry-transport codes to simulate the plumes: the LLNL-IMPACT model (Rotman et al., 2004) and the WRFCHEM community code (http://www.wrf-model.org/index.php). Both codes can use observed (aka assimilated) meteorology in order to recreate the actual transport that occurred. The measured concentration of each tracer at a particular spatio-temporal location is a linear combination of the plumes from each region at that location (for non-reactive species). The challenge is to calculate the emission strengths for each region that fit the observed concentrations. In general this is difficult because there are errors in the measurements and modeling of the plumes. We solve this inversion problem using the strategy illustrated in Figure 2. The Bayesian Inference step combines the a priori estimates of the emissions, and their uncertainty, for each region with the results of the observations, and their uncertainty, and an ensemble of model predicted plumes for each region, and their uncertainty. The result is the mathematical best estimate of the emissions and their errors. In the case of non-linearities, or if we are using a statistical sampling technique such as a Markov Chain Monte Carlo technique, then the process is iterated until it converges (ie reaches stationarity). For the Bayesian inference we can use both a direct inversion capability, which is fast but requires assumptions of linearity and

  9. Influence of ambient meteorology on the accuracy of radiation measurements: insights from field and laboratory experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oswald, Sandro M.; Pietsch, Helga; Baumgartner, Dietmar J.; Rieder, Harald E.

    2016-04-01

    A precise knowledge of the surface energy budget, which includes the solar and terrestrial radiation fluxes, is needed to accurately characterize the global energy balance which is largely determining Earth's climate. To this aim national and global monitoring networks for surface radiative fluxes have been established in recent decades. The most prominent among these networks is the so-called Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) operating under the auspices of the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) (Ohmura et al., 1998). National monitoring networks such as the Austrian RADiation Monitoring Network (ARAD), which has been established in 2010 by a consortium of the Central Agency of Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG), the University of Graz, the University of Innsbruck, and the University of Natural Resources and Applied Sciences, Vienna (BOKU), orient themselves on BSRN standards (McArthur, 2005). ARAD comprises to date five sites (Wien Hohe Warte, Graz/University, Innsbruck/University, Kanzelhöhe Observatory and Sonnblick (which is also a BSRN site)) and aims to provide long-term monitoring of radiation budget components at highest accuracy and to capture the spatial patterns of radiation climate in Austria (Olefs et al., 2015). Given the accuracy requirement for the local monitoring of radiative fluxes instrument offsets, triggered by meteorological factors and/or instrumentation, pose a major challenge in radiation monitoring. Within this study we investigate effects of ambient meteorology on the accuracy of radiation measurements performed with pyranometers contained in various heating/ventilation systems (HV-systems), all of which used in regular operation within the ARAD network. We focus particularly on instrument offsets observed following precipitation events. To quantify pyranometer responses to precipitation we performed a series of controlled laboratory experiments as well as targeted field campaigns in 2015 and 2016. Our results indicate

  10. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Radiation Control Program - Partners in Site Restoration

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, S. L.; Stafford, M. W.

    2002-02-26

    In 1998, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) awarded the Management and Integration (M&I) contract for all five of the Oak Ridge Operations (ORO) facilities to Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC). At Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), a world renowned national laboratory and research and development facility, the BJC mission involves executing the DOE Environmental Management (EM) program. In addition to BJC's M&I contract, UT-Battelle, LLC, a not-for-profit company, is the Management and Operating (M&O) contractor for DOE on the ORNL site. As part of ORNL's EM program, legacy inactive facilities (i.e., reactors, nuclear material research facilities, burial grounds, and underground storage tanks) are transferred to BJC and are designated as remediation, decontamination and decommissioning (D&D), or long-term surveillance and maintenance (S&M) facilities. Facilities operated by both UT-Battelle and BJC are interspersed throughout the site and are usually in close proximity. Both UT-Battelle and BJC have DOE-approved Radiation Protection Programs established in accordance with 10 CFR 835. The BJC Radiological Control (RADCON) Program adapts to the M&I framework and is comprised of a combination of subcontracted program responsibilities with BJC oversight. This paper focuses on the successes and challenges of executing the BJC RADCON Program for BJC's ORNL Project through a joint M&I contractor relationship, while maintaining a positive working relationship and partnership with UT-Battelle's Radiation Protection organization.

  11. Challenges in biotechnology at LLNL: from genes to proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Albala, J S

    1999-03-11

    This effort has undertaken the task of developing a link between the genomics, DNA repair and structural biology efforts within the Biology and Biotechnology Research Program at LLNL. Through the advent of the I.M.A.G.E. (Integrated Molecular Analysis of Genomes and their Expression) Consortium, a world-wide effort to catalog the largest public collection of genes, accepted and maintained within BBRP, it is now possible to systematically express the protein complement of these to further elucidate novel gene function and structure. The work has ensued in four phases, outlined as follows: (1) Gene and System selection; (2) Protein expression and purification; (3) Structural analysis; and (4) biological integration. Proteins to be expressed have been those of high programmatic interest. This includes, in particular, proteins involved in the maintenance of genome integrity, particularly those involved in the repair of DNA damage, including ERCC1, ERCC4, XRCC2, XRCC3, XRCC9, HEX1, APN1, p53, RAD51B, RAD51C, and RAD51. Full-length cDNA cognates of selected genes were isolated, and cloned into baculovirus-based expression vectors. The baculoviral expression system for protein over-expression is now well-established in the Albala laboratory. Procedures have been successfully optimized for full-length cDNA clining into expression vectors for protein expression from recombinant constructs. This includes the reagents, cell lines, techniques necessary for expression of recombinant baculoviral constructs in Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells. The laboratory has also generated a high-throughput baculoviral expression paradigm for large scale expression and purification of human recombinant proteins amenable to automation.

  12. LLNL Contribution to LLE FY09 Annual Report: NIC and HED Results

    SciTech Connect

    Heeter, R F; Landen, O L; Hsing, W W; Fournier, K B

    2009-10-01

    In FY09, LLNL led 238 target shots on the OMEGA Laser System. Approximately half of these LLNL-led shots supported the National Ignition Campaign (NIC). The remainder was dedicated to experiments for the high-energy-density stewardship experiments (HEDSE). Objectives of the LLNL led NIC campaigns at OMEGA included: (1) Laser-plasma interaction studies in physical conditions relevant for the NIF ignition targets; (2) Demonstration of Tr = 100 eV foot symmetry tuning using a reemission sphere; (3) X-ray scattering in support of conductivity measurements of solid density Be plasmas; (4) Experiments to study the physical properties (thermal conductivity) of shocked fusion fuels; (5) High-resolution measurements of velocity nonuniformities created by microscopic perturbations in NIF ablator materials; (6) Development of a novel Compton Radiography diagnostic platform for ICF experiments; and (7) Precision validation of the equation of state for quartz. The LLNL HEDSE campaigns included the following experiments: (1) Quasi-isentropic (ICE) drive used to study material properties such as strength, equation of state, phase, and phase-transition kinetics under high pressure; (2) Development of a high-energy backlighter for radiography in support of material strength experiments using Omega EP and the joint OMEGA-OMEGA-EP configuration; (3) Debris characterization from long-duration, point-apertured, point-projection x-ray backlighters for NIF radiation transport experiments; (4) Demonstration of ultrafast temperature and density measurements with x-ray Thomson scattering from short-pulse laser-heated matter; (5) The development of an experimental platform to study nonlocal thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) physics using direct-drive implosions; (6) Opacity studies of high-temperature plasmas under LTE conditions; and (7) Characterization of copper (Cu) foams for HEDSE experiments.

  13. The Neutral Beam Test Facility and Radiation Effects Facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    McKenzie-Wilson, R.B.

    1990-01-01

    As part of the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has constructed a Neutral Beam Test Facility (NBTF) and a Radiation Effects Facility (REF). These two facilities use the surplus capacity of the 200-MeV Linac injector for the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS). The REF can be used to simulate radiation damage effects in space from both natural and man made radiation sources. The H{sup {minus}} beam energy, current and dimensions can be varied over a wide range leading to a broad field of application. The NBTF has been designed to carry out high precision experiments and contains an absolute reference target system for the on-line calibration of measurements carried out in the experimental hall. The H{sup {minus}} beam energy, current and dimensions can also be varied over a wide range but with tradeoffs depending on the required accuracy. Both facilities are fully operational and will be described together with details of the associated experimental programs.

  14. Early parathyroid hormone laboratory abnormalities related to therapeutic radiation of neck: an Egyptian experience.

    PubMed

    Aboelnaga, Mohamed M; Aboelnaga, Engy M

    2015-05-01

    The effect of neck radiation on parathyroid hormone (PTH) is studied on concern as late effect of radiotherapy for benign or malignant diseases. However, the early effect on PTH is still in debate and need further evaluations. We aimed, in our study, to assess early effect of neck radiation on PTH, and related calcium and phosphorus levels. Patients diagnosed with breast or head and neck cancer who planned to received radiotherapy to neck as a definite or a part of their treatment enrolled in this prospective single-arm study from June 2012 to June 2013. Laboratory assessment of PTH, serum calcium, phosphorus and albumin was obtained before starting radiotherapy, 3 weeks and 3 months after radiation. Fifty-two patients included 24 (46.2 %) males and 28(53.8 %) females. Median age of diagnosis was 55 years. Thirty-six patients had head and neck cancer, while 16 patients were diagnosed as breast cancer. The difference in PTH and calcium levels before and after radiotherapy was statistically significant (P = 0.014 and P = 0.001 for 3 weeks and P = 0.015 and P = 0.004 for 3 months, respectively); even after correction of calcium level according to albumin level, the same results were obtained, while there was no significant difference in their levels after 3 weeks in comparison with 3 months after radiotherapy. The variation of level of phosphorus was not significant. PTH and calcium can be affected early with neck radiation, so follow-up of calcium and PTH level is mandatory for cases that will receive neck radiotherapy. PMID:25904502

  15. Laboratory Kinetic Studies of OH and CO2 Relevant to Upper Atmospheric Radiation Balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, David D.; Villalta, Peter; Zahniser, Mark S.; Kolb, Charles E.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to quantify the rates of two processes which are crucial to our understanding of radiative energy balance in the upper atmosphere. The first process is radiative emission from vibrationally hot OH radicals following the H + O3 reaction in the upper mesosphere. The importance of this process depends strongly on the OH radiative emission coefficients. Our goal was to measure the OH permanent dipole moment in excited vibrational states and to use these measurements to construct an improved OH dipole moment function and improved radiative emission coefficients. Significant progress was made on these experiments including the construction of a supersonic jet source for vibrationally excited OH radicals. Unfortunately, our efforts to transport the OH radicals into a second lower pressure vacuum chamber were not successful, and we were unable to make improved dipole moment measurements for OH. The second key kinetic process which we attempted to quantify during this project is the rate of relaxation of bend-excited CO2 by oxygen atoms. Since excitation of the bending vibrational mode of CO2 is the major cooling mechanism in the upper mesosphere/lower thermosphere, the cooling rate of this region depends crucially on the rate of energy transfer out of this state. It is believed that the most efficient transfer mechanism is via atomic oxygen but the rate for this process has not been directly measured in the laboratory at appropriate temperatures and even the room temperature rate remains controversial. We attempted to directly measure the relaxation rate Of CO2 (010) by oxygen atoms using the discharge flow technique. This experiment was set up at Aerodyne Research. Again, significant progress was achieved in this experiment. A hot CO2 source was set up, bend excited CO2 was detected and the rate of relaxation of bend excited CO2 by He atoms was measured. Unfortunately, the project ran out of time before the oxygen atom kinetic studies could

  16. Radiation, work experience, and cause specific mortality among workers at an energy research laboratory.

    PubMed Central

    Checkoway, H; Mathew, R M; Shy, C M; Watson, J E; Tankersley, W G; Wolf, S H; Smith, J C; Fry, S A

    1985-01-01

    A retrospective cohort mortality study was conducted among 8375 white male employees who had worked at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for at least one month between 1943 and 1972. This plant has been the site of energy related research, including uranium and plutonium reactor technology and radioisotope production. Radiation doses, primarily from gamma rays, were generally low; the median cumulative exposure for workers was 0.16 rems. Historical follow up was conducted for the years 1943-77 and ascertainment of vital status was achieved for 92.3% of the cohort. Standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) were computed to contrast the subjects' cause specific mortality experience with that of the United States white male population. The observed number of 966 deaths from all causes was 73% of the number expected. Mortality deficits were also seen for arteriosclerotic heart disease (SMR = 0.75; 344 observed) and all cancers (SMR = 0.78; 194 observed). These results are indicative of the healthy worker effect and the favourable influence on health of the cohort's relatively high socioeconomic status. Non-statistically significant raised SMRs were seen for all leukaemias (SMR = 1.49, 16 observed), cancer of the prostate (SMR = 1.16, 14 observed), and Hodgkin's disease (SMR = 1.10, 5 observed). Internal comparisons of mortality (standardised rate ratios, SRRs) were made between subgroups of the cohort according to radiation dose level and duration of employment in various job categories. No consistent gradients of cause specific mortality were detected for radiation exposure. Leukaemia mortality was highest among workers with greater than or equal to 10 years employment in engineering (SRR = 2.40) and maintenance (SRR = 3.12) jobs. The association of leukaemia with employment in engineering was unexpected; maintenance jobs entail potential exposures to radiation and to a wide range of organic chemicals; metals, and other substances. PMID:4016003

  17. M4FT-15LL0806062-LLNL Thermodynamic and Sorption Data FY15 Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    Zavarin, M.; Wolery, T. J.

    2015-08-31

    This progress report (Milestone Number M4FT-15LL0806062) summarizes research conducted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) within Work Package Number FT-15LL080606. The focus of this research is the thermodynamic modeling of Engineered Barrier System (EBS) materials and properties and development of thermodynamic databases and models to evaluate the stability of EBS materials and their interactions with fluids at various physicochemical conditions relevant to subsurface repository environments. The development and implementation of equilibrium thermodynamic models are intended to describe chemical and physical processes such as solubility, sorption, and diffusion.

  18. Environmental Protection Department LLNL NESHAPs 2007 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Bertoldo, N A; Larson, J M; Wilson, K R

    2008-06-25

    This annual report is prepared pursuant to the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs; Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61, Subpart H). Subpart H governs radionuclide emissions to air from U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. NESHAPs limits the emission of radionuclides to the ambient air from DOE facilities to levels resulting in an annual effective dose equivalent (EDE) of 10 mrem (100 {micro}Sv) to any member of the public. The EDEs for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) site-wide maximally exposed members of the public from operations in 2007 are summarized here. Livermore site: 0.0031 mrem (0.031 {micro}Sv) (42% from point source emissions, 58% from diffuse source emissions). The point source emissions include gaseous tritium modeled as tritiated water vapor as directed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region IX; the resulting dose is used for compliance purposes. Site 300: 0.0035 mrem (0.035 {micro}Sv) (90% from point source emissions, 10% from diffuse source emissions). The EDEs were calculated using the U.S. EPA-approved CAP88-PC air dispersion/dose-assessment model, except for doses for two diffuse sources that were estimated using measured radionuclide concentrations and dose calculations. Specific inputs to CAP88-PC for the modeled sources included site-specific meteorological data and source emissions data, the latter variously based on continuous stack effluent monitoring data, stack flow or other release-rate information, ambient air monitoring data, and facility knowledge.

  19. Rossby wave radiation by an eddy on a beta-plane: Experiments with laboratory altimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Y.; Afanasyev, Y. D.

    2015-07-15

    Results from the laboratory experiments on the evolution of vortices (eddies) generated in a rotating tank with topographic β-effect are presented. The focus of the experiments is on the far-field flow which contains Rossby waves emitted by travelling vortices. The surface elevation and velocity fields are measured by the altimetric imaging velocimetry. The experiments are supplemented by shallow water numerical simulations as well as a linear theory which describes the Rossby wave radiation by travelling vortices. The cyclonic vortices observed in the experiments travel to the northwest and continuously radiate Rossby waves. Measurements show that initially axisymmetric vortices develop a dipolar component which enables them to perform translational motion. A pattern of alternating zonal jets to the west of the vortex is created by Rossby waves with approximately zonal crests. Energy spectra of the flows in the wavenumber space indicate that a wavenumber similar to that introduced by Rhines for turbulent flows on the β-plane can be introduced here. The wavenumber is based on the translational speed of a vortex rather than on the root-mean-square velocity of a turbulent flow. The comparison between the experiments and numerical simulations demonstrates that evolving vortices also emit inertial waves. While these essentially three-dimensional non-hydrostatic waves can be observed in the altimetric data, they are not accounted for in the shallow water simulations.

  20. Rock Formation and Cosmic Radiation Exposure Ages in Gale Crater Mudstones from the Mars Science Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahaffy, Paul; Farley, Ken; Malespin, Charles; Gellert, Ralph; Grotzinger, John

    2014-05-01

    The quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) in the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) suite of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) has been utilized to secure abundances of 3He, 21Ne, 36Ar, and 40Ar thermally evolved from the mudstone in the stratified Yellowknife Bay formation in Gale Crater. As reported by Farley et al. [1] these measurements of cosmogenic and radiogenic noble gases together with Cl and K abundances measured by MSL's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer enable a K-Ar rock formation age of 4.21+0.35 Ga to be established as well as a surface exposure age to cosmic radiation of 78+30 Ma. Understanding surface exposures to cosmic radiation is relevant to the MSL search for organic compounds since even the limited set of studies carried out, to date, indicate that even 10's to 100's of millions of years of near surface (1-3 meter) exposure may transform a significant fraction of the organic compounds exposed to this radiation [2,3,4]. Transformation of potential biosignatures and even loss of molecular structural information in compounds that could point to exogenous or endogenous sources suggests a new paradigm in the search for near surface organics that incorporates a search for the most recently exposed outcrops through erosional processes. The K-Ar rock formation age determination shows promise for more precise in situ measurements that may help calibrate the martian cratering record that currently relies on extrapolation from the lunar record with its ground truth chronology with returned samples. We will discuss the protocol for the in situ noble gas measurements secured with SAM and ongoing studies to optimize these measurements using the SAM testbed. References: [1] Farley, K.A.M Science Magazine, 342, (2013). [2] G. Kminek et al., Earth Planet Sc Lett 245, 1 (2006). [3] Dartnell, L.R., Biogeosciences 4, 545 (2007). [4] Pavlov, A. A., et al. Geophys Res Lett 39, 13202 (2012).

  1. LLNL: Science in the National Interest

    ScienceCinema

    George Miller

    2016-07-12

    This is Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. located in the Livermore Valley about 50 miles east of San Francisco, the Lab is where the nations topmost science, engineering and technology come together. National security, counter-terrorism, medical technologies, energy, climate change our researchers are working to develop solutions to these challenges. For more than 50 years, we have been keeping America strong.

  2. LLNL: Science in the National Interest

    SciTech Connect

    George Miller

    2010-01-05

    This is Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. located in the Livermore Valley about 50 miles east of San Francisco, the Lab is where the nations topmost science, engineering and technology come together. National security, counter-terrorism, medical technologies, energy, climate change our researchers are working to develop solutions to these challenges. For more than 50 years, we have been keeping America strong.

  3. ER-20037 LLNL eternal pathfinder wing spar design study report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    This document outlines the results of a design study performed by EDO-FSD on the LLNL Eternal Pathfinder Wing Spar/Fuel Tank. The main focus of the design study was the weight minimization of the composite wall of the mid span spar section of the aircraft. The torque, shear, moment and pressure loading requirements, as well as LLNL`s preliminary drawings, were used to develop a reduced weight mid-span spar design. The design study also encompassed details such as the pressure bulkheads, wing rod connectors, and attachment flanges.

  4. Radiation and mortality of workers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory: positive associations for doses received at older ages.

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, D B; Wing, S

    1999-01-01

    We examined associations between low-level exposure to ionizing radiation and mortality among 14,095 workers hired at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory between 1943 and 1972. Workers at the facility were individually monitored for external exposure to ionizing radiation and have been followed through 1990 to ascertain cause of death information. Positive associations were observed between low-level exposure to external ionizing radiation and mortality. These associations were larger for doses received after 45 years of age, larger under longer lag assumptions, and primarily due to cancer causes of death. All cancer mortality was estimated to increase 4.98% [standard error (SE) = 1.5] per 10-mSv cumulative dose received after age 45 under a 10-year lag, and 7.31% (SE = 2.2) per 10-mSv cumulative dose received after age 45 under a 20-year lag. Associations between radiation dose and lung cancer were of similar magnitude to associations between radiation dose and all cancers except lung cancer. Nonmalignant respiratory disease exhibited a positive association with cumulative radiation dose received after age 45, whereas ischemic heart disease exhibited no association with radiation dose. These findings suggest increases in cancer mortality associated with low-level external exposure to ionizing radiation and potentially greater sensitivity to the carcinogenic effects of ionizing radiation with older ages at exposure. Images Figure 1 PMID:10417363

  5. Laboratory Simulation of Frozen Methanol Under X-ray Radiation Field: Relevancies to Astrophysical Ices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, Diana; Rocco, Maria Luiza M.; Boechat-Roberty, Heloisa Maria

    The origin of complex organic molecules detected in comets, meteorites, star-forming regions and other environments are currently subject of discussion. Depending on the environment, it is dominated by X-rays, UV photons as well as by charged particles, electrons and ions with high or low energies. Every particle will promote a different fragmentation in the molecule and different phenomena in the ice, favoring the formation of an ion species rather than another. To predict the chemical evolution and to quantify the complex organics incorporated into grains or desorbed to the gas phase, it is necessary to establish the main formation route, which can be tested in the laboratories. In this way, the study of the effects of different ionization agents on the ices becomes crucial. Methanol (CH3 OH), the simplest organic alcohol, is an important precursor of more complex prebiotic species and is found abundantly in icy mantles on interstellar and protostellar dust grains. This molecule has been detected through infrared spectroscopy in some astrophysics environments as W33A and RAFGL 7009. Additionally, methanol has been found in comets, as Hale-Bopp, and other solar system bodies, such as the centaur 5145 Pholus. All of these astronomical environments are subjected to some form of ionizing agents such as cosmic rays, electrons and photons (e.g. stellar radiation field). In this work, synchrotron radiation from the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory at the O 1s-edge was employed to perform desorption experiments on the frozen methanol. The desorp-tion rates (desorbed ion per incident photon) of the most intense ions desorbed from methanol due soft X-ray bombardment are estimated. The desorption rates are critical parameters for modeling the chemistry of interstellar clouds. Moreover, a comparison among our results and literature using different ionization agents and different phases (photons at 292 eV and elec-trons at 70 eV in gaseous phase and heavy ions around 65

  6. Direct Penetrating Radiation Monitoring Systems: Technical Evaluation for Use at Area G, Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    D. Kraig; W. A. Treadaway; R. J. Wechsler

    1999-10-01

    Recent advances and commercialization of electret-ion-chamber (EIC) technology for photon measurements prompted us to consider EKs as a replacement for our TLD system. After laboratory tests indicated that both systems gave adequate results for controlled exposures, throughout 1998 we conducted field tests with paired TLDs and EICS, in LANL technical areas and in public areas. We had approximately 30 paired sampling sites at Area G. At each sampling site, we deployed three TLDs and three EICS. The EICS were contained in air-tight jars, each of which was placed in a Tyvek envelope and hung about 1 m above the ground. The dosimeters were read (and, if necessary, replaced) every three months. At the sites outside Area G, the TLD readings for the first two quarters were statistically significantly higher than those of the EICS: group average exposures were 38 and 36, compared with 33 mR (both quarters) for the EICS; during quarter 3, the EIC average (40 mR) was higher than the TLD average (34 mR); and during quarter 4, the two systems were statistically the same: EIC = 42, TLD = 41 with a p-value of 0.61. We are still evaluating these differences and performing additional laboratory studies to determine causes. At the Area G sites,we noticed that several of the TLDs gave much higher readings than their co-located EICS; we believe that the TLDs were over-responding by {approx}50% to the low-energy (60-keV) gamma radiation associated with {sup 241}Am, whereas the EICS were responding accurately. We conclude that EICS are more accurate at a wide range of gamma energies and are preferable to TLDs in environments where a significant fraction of the photons are low energy.

  7. Development of an on-line radiation detection and measurements laboratory course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopp, Derick G.

    An on-line radiation detection and measurements lab is being developed with a grant from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The on-line laboratory experiments are designed to provide a realistic laboratory experience and will be offered to students at colleges/universities where such a course is not offered. This thesis presents four web-based experiments: 1) nuclear electronics, 2) gamma-ray spectroscopy with scintillation detectors, 3) gamma-ray attenuation in matter and external dosimetry, and 4) alpha spectroscopy and absorption in matter. The students access the experiments through a broad-band internet connection. Computer-controlled instrumentation developed in National Instruments (NI) LabVIEW(TM) communicates with the URSA-II (SE International, Inc.) data acquisition system, which controls the detector bias voltage, pulse shaping, amplifier gain, and ADC. Detector and amplifier output pulses can be displayed with other instrumentation developed in LabVIEW(TM) for the digital oscilloscope (USB-5132, NI). Additional instrumentation developed in LabVIEW(TM) is used to control the positions of all sources with stepper motor controllers (VXM-1, Velmex, Inc.) and to adjust pressure in the alpha chamber with a digital vacuum regulator (Model 200, J-KEM, Inc.). Unique interactive interfaces are created by integrating all of the necessary instrumentation to conduct each lab. These interfaces provide students with seamless functionality for data acquisition, experimental control, and live data display with real-time updates for each experiment. A webcam is set up to stream the experiment live so the student can observe the physical instruments and receive visual feedback from the system in real time.

  8. LLNL-G3Dv3: Global P-wave tomography model for improved regional and teleseismic travel time prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, Nathan A.; Myers, Steve C.; Johannesson, Gardar; Matzel, Eric

    2013-04-01

    We develop a global-scale P-wave velocity model (LLNL-G3Dv3) designed to accurately predict seismic travel times at regional and teleseismic distances simultaneously. The model provides a new image of Earth's interior, but the underlying practical purpose of the model is to provide enhanced seismic event location capabilities. The LLNL-G3Dv3 model is based on ~2.8 million P and Pn arrivals that are re-processed using our global multiple-event locator called Bayesloc. We construct LLNL-G3Dv3 within a spherical tessellation based framework, allowing for explicit representation of undulating and discontinuous layers including the crust and transition zone layers. Using a multi-scale inversion technique, regional trends as well as fine details are captured where the data allow. LLNL-G3Dv3 exhibits large-scale structures including cratons and superplumes as well numerous complex details in the upper mantle including within the transition zone. Particularly, the model reveals new details of a vast network of subducted slabs trapped within the transition beneath much of Eurasia, including beneath the Tibetan Plateau. We demonstrate the impact of Bayesloc multiple-event location on the resulting tomographic images through comparison with images produced without the benefit of multiple-event constraints (single-event locations). We find that the multiple-event locations allow for better reconciliation of the large set of direct P phases recorded at 0-97° distance and yield a smoother and more continuous image relative to the single-event locations. Travel times predicted from a 3-D model are also found to be strongly influenced by the initial locations of the input data, even when an iterative inversion/relocation technique is employed. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL-ABS-559093

  9. Proceedings of the LLNL Technical Women`s Symposium

    SciTech Connect

    von Holtz, E.

    1993-12-31

    This report documents events of the LLNL Technical Women`s Symposium. Topics include; future of computer systems, environmental technology, defense and space, Nova Inertial Confinement Fusion Target Physics, technical communication, tools and techniques for biology in the 1990s, automation and robotics, software applications, materials science, atomic vapor laser isotope separation, technical communication, technology transfer, and professional development workshops.

  10. Proceedings of the LLNL technical women`s symposium

    SciTech Connect

    von Holtz, E.

    1994-12-31

    Women from institutions such as LLNL, LBL, Sandia, and SLAC presented papers at this conference. The papers deal with many aspects of global security, global ecology, and bioscience; they also reflect the challenges faced in improving business practices, communicating effectively, and expanding collaborations in the industrial world. Approximately 87 ``abstracts`` are included in six sessions; more are included in the addendum.

  11. Capabilities required to conduct the LLNL plutonium mission

    SciTech Connect

    Kass, J.; Bish, W.; Copeland, A.; West, J.; Sack, S.; Myers, B.

    1991-09-10

    This report outlines the LLNL plutonium related mission anticipated over the next decade and defines the capabilities required to meet that mission wherever the Plutonium Facility is located. If plutonium work is relocated to a place where the facility is shared, then some capabilities can be commonly used by the sharing parties. However, it is essential that LLNL independently control about 20000 sq ft of net lab space, filled with LLNL controlled equipment, and staffed by LLNL employees. It is estimated that the cost to construct this facility should range from $140M to $200M. Purchase and installation of equipment to replace that already in Bldg 332 along with additional equipment identified as being needed to meet the mission for the next ten to fifteen years, is estimated to cost $118M. About $29M of the equipment could be shared. The Hardened Engineering Test Building (HETB) with its additional 8000 sq ft of unique test capability must also be replaced. The fully equipped replacement cost is estimated to be about $10M. About 40000 sq ft of setup and support space are needed along with office and related facilities for a 130 person resident staff. The setup space is estimated to cost $8M. The annual cost of a 130 person resident staff (100 programmatic and 30 facility operation) is estimated to be $20M.

  12. The design and implementation of the LLNL gigabit testbed

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, D.

    1994-12-01

    This paper will look at the design and implementation of the LLNL Gigabit testbed (LGTB), where various high speed networking products, can be tested in one environment. The paper will discuss the philosophy behind the design of and the need for the testbed, the tests that are performed in the testbed, and the tools used to implement those tests.

  13. Laboratory Directed Research and Development FY 2000 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Ayat, R

    2001-05-24

    This Annual Report provides an overview of the FY2000 Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and presents a summary of the results achieved by each project during the year.

  14. Laboratory Experiments on Rotation and Alignment of the Analogs of Interstellar Dust Grains by Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbas, M. M.; Craven, P. D.; Spann, J. F.; Tankosic, D.; LeClair, A.; Gallagher, D. L.; West, E. A.; Weingartner, J. C.; Witherow, W. K.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.

    2004-01-01

    The processes and mechanisms involved in the rotation and alignment of interstellar dust grains have been of great interest in astrophysics ever since the surprising discovery of the polarization of starlight more than half a century ago. Numerous theories, detailed mathematical models, and numerical studies of grain rotation and alignment with respect to the Galactic magnetic field have been presented in the literature. In particular, the subject of grain rotation and alignment by radiative torques has been shown to be of particular interest in recent years. However, despite many investigations, a satisfactory theoretical understanding of the processes involved in subject, we have carried out some unique experiments to illuminate the processes involved in the rotation of dust grains in the interstellar medium. In this paper we present the results of some preliminary laboratory experiments on the rotation of individual micron/submicron-sized, nonspherical dust grains levitated in an electrodynamic balance evacuated to pressures of approximately 10(exp -3) to 10(exp -5) torr. The particles are illuminated by laser light at 5320 A, and the grain rotation rates are obtained by analyzing the low-frequency (approximately 0 - 100 kHz) signal of the scattered light detected by a photodiode detector. The rotation rates are compared with simple theoretical models to retrieve some basic rotational parameters. The results are examined in light of the current theories of alignment.

  15. Laboratory Experiments on Rotation of Micron Size Cosmic Dust Grains with Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbas, M. M.; Craven, P. D.; Spann, J. F.; Tankosic, D.; LeClair, A.; Gallagher, D. L.; West, E.; Weingartner, J.; Witherow, W. K.

    2004-01-01

    The processes and mechanisms involved in the rotation and alignment of interstellar dust grains have been of great interest in astrophysics ever since the surprising discovery of the polarization of starlight more than half a century ago. Numerous theories, detailed mathematical models and numerical studies of grain rotation and alignment along the Galactic magnetic field have been presented in the literature. In particular, the subject of grain rotation and alignment by radiative torques has been shown to be of particular interest in recent years. However, despite many investigations, a satisfactory theoretical understanding of the processes involved in grain rotation and alignment has not been achieved. As there appears to be no experimental data available on this subject, we have carried out some unique experiments to illuminate the processes involved in rotation of dust grains in the interstellar medium. In this paper we present the results of some preliminary laboratory experiments on the rotation of individual micron/submicron size nonspherical dust grains levitated in an electrodynamic balance evacuated to pressures of approx. 10(exp -3) to 10(exp -5) torr. The particles are illuminated by laser light at 5320 A, and the grain rotation rates are obtained by analyzing the low frequency (approx. 0-100 kHz) signal of the scattered light detected by a photodiode detector. The rotation rates are compared with simple theoretical models to retrieve some basic rotational parameters. The results are examined in the light of the current theories of alignment.

  16. Laboratory Experiments on Rotation and Alignment of the Analogs of Interstellar Dust Grains by Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbas, M. M.; Craven, P. D.; Spann, J. F.; Tankosic, D.; LeClair, A.; Gallagher, D. L.; West, E. A.; Weingartner, J. C.; Witherow, W. K.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.

    2004-01-01

    The processes and mechanisms involved in the rotation and alignment of interstellar dust grains have been of great interest in astrophysics ever since the surprising discovery of the polarization of starlight more than half a century ago. Numerous theories, detailed mathematical models and numerical studies of grain rotation and alignment with respect to the Galactic magnetic field have been presented in the literature. In particular, the subject of grain rotation and alignment by radiative torques has been shown to be of particular interest in recent years. However, despite many investigations, a satisfactory theoretical understanding of the processes involved in grain rotation and alignment has not been achieved. As there appears to be no experimental data available on this subject, we have carried out some unique experiments to illuminate the processes involved in rotation of dust grains in the interstellar medium. In this paper we present the results of some preliminary laboratory experiments on the rotation of individual micron/submicron size nonspherical dust grains levitated in an electrodynamic balance evacuated to pressures of approximately 10(exp -3) to 10(exp -5) torr. The particles are illuminated by laser light at 5320 Angstroms, and the grain rotation rates are obtained by analyzing the low frequency (approximately 0-100 kHz) signal of the scattered light detected by a photodiode detector. The rotation rates are compared with simple theoretical models to retrieve some basic rotational parameters. The results are examined in the light of the current theories of alignment.

  17. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory low-level waste systems performance assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-01

    This Low-Level Radioactive Waste (LLW) Systems Performance Assessment (PA) presents a systematic analysis of the potential risks posed by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) waste management system. Potential risks to the public and environment are compared to established performance objectives as required by DOE Order 5820.2A. The report determines the associated maximum individual committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE) to a member of the public from LLW and mixed waste. A maximum annual CEDE of 0.01 mrem could result from routine radioactive liquid effluents. A maximum annual CEDE of 0.003 mrem could result from routine radioactive gaseous effluents. No other pathways for radiation exposure of the public indicated detectable levels of exposure. The dose rate, monitoring, and waste acceptance performance objectives were found to be adequately addressed by the LLNL Program. 88 refs., 3 figs., 17 tabs.

  18. Microscopic properties of xenon plasmas for density and temperature regimes of laboratory astrophysics experiments on radiative shocks.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, R; Espinosa, G; Gil, J M; Stehlé, C; Suzuki-Vidal, F; Rubiano, J G; Martel, P; Mínguez, E

    2015-05-01

    This work is divided into two parts. In the first one, a study of radiative properties (such as monochromatic and the Rosseland and Planck mean opacities, monochromatic emissivities, and radiative power loss) and of the average ionization and charge state distribution of xenon plasmas in a range of plasma conditions of interest in laboratory astrophysics and extreme ultraviolet lithography is performed. We have made a particular emphasis in the analysis of the validity of the assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium and the influence of the atomic description in the calculation of the radiative properties. Using the results obtained in this study, in the second part of the work we have analyzed a radiative shock that propagated in xenon generated in an experiment carried out at the Prague Asterix Laser System. In particular, we have addressed the effect of plasma self-absorption in the radiative precursor, the influence of the radiation emitted from the shocked shell and the plasma self-emission in the radiative precursor, the cooling time in the cooling layer, and the possibility of thermal instabilities in the postshock region.

  19. Over Batch Analysis for the LLNL Plutonium Packaging System (PuPS)

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, D; Dodson, K

    2007-11-19

    This document addresses the concern raised in the Savannah River Site (SRS) Acceptance Criteria (Reference 1, Section 6.a.3) about receiving an item that is over batched by 1.0 kg of fissile materials. This document shows that the occurrence of this is incredible. Some of the Department of Energy Standard 3013 (DOE-STD-3013) requirements are described in Section 2.1. The SRS requirement is discussed in Section 2.2. Section 2.3 describes the way fissile materials are handled in the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Plutonium Facility (B332). Based on the material handling discussed in Section 2.3, there are only three errors that could result in a shipping container being over batched. These are: incorrect measurement of the item, selecting the wrong item to package, and packaging two items into a single shipping container. The analysis in Section 3 shows that the first two events are incredible because of the controls that exist at LLNL. The third event is physically impossible. Therefore, it is incredible for an item to be shipped to SRS that is more than 1.0 kg of fissile materials over batched.

  20. Over Batch Analysis for the LLNL DOE-STD-3013 Packaging System

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, D C; Dodson, K

    2009-07-02

    This document addresses the concern raised in the Savannah River Site (SRS) Acceptance Criteria about receiving an item that is over batched by 1.0 kg of fissile materials. This document shows that the occurrence of this is incredible. Some of the Department of Energy Standard 3013 (DOE-STD-3013) requirements are described in Section 2.1. The SRS requirement is discussed in Section 2.2. Section 2.3 describes the way fissile materials are handled in the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Plutonium Facility (B332). Based on the material handling discussed in Section 2.3, there are only three errors that could result in a shipping container being over batched. These are: incorrect measurement of the item, selecting the wrong item to package, and packaging two items into a single shipping container. The analysis in Section 3 shows that the first two events are incredible because of the controls that exist at LLNL. The third event is physically impossible. Therefore, it is incredible for an item to be shipped to SRS that is more than 1.0 kg of fissile materials over batched.

  1. Design, operation, and application of the LLNL Portable Tritium Processing System

    SciTech Connect

    Reitz, T.C.; Smuda, P.A.; Benapfl, M.A.

    1994-06-01

    A Portable Tritium Processing System (PTPS) has been developed at LLNL that could be applied to fusion energy related tritium processing and decontamination operations. The PTPS has four basic capabilities. These are: oil-free pumping, oil-free gas transfer, gas analysis, and gas phase tritium scrubbing. The design of the PTPS takes into consideration today`s stringent release requirements, and utilizes secondary containment throughout the system. Because the system is portable, it can provide complete stand alone tritium processing, and can pass through a typical 36 inch laboratory door, and into confined spaces. This system can easily be moved to different locations within a facility such that the single tritium processing system can provide close-coupled support to multiple operations. Typical setup time for the PTPS is approximately two weeks. The PTPS has been in operation at LLNL for approximately one year. During this time, gram quantities of tritium have been successfully processed through the system. Releases to the stack attributable directly to the PTPS have been less than 0.1 curies, with most of this quantity being a product of maintenance operations.

  2. Broad-band soft x-ray diagnostic instruments at the LLNL Novette laser facility

    SciTech Connect

    Tirsell, K.G.; Lee, P.H.Y.; Nilson, D.G.; Medecki, H.

    1983-09-15

    Complementary broad-band instruments have been developed to measure time dependent, absolute soft x-ray spectra at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Nd glass laser irradiation facilities. Absolute flux measurements of x rays emitted from laser-produced plasmas are important for understanding laser absorption and energy transport. We will describe two new 10-channel XRD systems that have been installed at the LLNL Novette facility for use in the 0.15- to 1.5-keV range. Since XRD channel time response is limited by available oscilloscope performance to 120 ps, a soft x-ray streak camera has been developed for better time resolution (20 ps) and greater dynamic range (approx.10/sup 3/) in the same x-ray energy region. Using suitable filters, grazing incidence mirrors, and a gold or cesium-iodide transmission cathode, this streak camera instrument has been installed at Novette to provide one broad and four relatively narrow channels. It can also be used in a single channel, spatially discriminating mode by means of pinhole imaging. The complementary nature of these instruments has been enhanced by locating them in close proximity and matching their channel energy responses. As an example of the use of these instruments, we present results from Novette 2..omega..(0.53 ..mu..m) gold disk irradiations at 1 ns and 10/sup 14/ to 10/sup 15/ W/cm/sup 2/.

  3. Methods for high precision 14C AMS measurement of atmospheric CO2 at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Graven, H D; Guilderson, T P; Keeling, R F

    2006-10-18

    Development of {sup 14}C analysis with precision better than 2{per_thousand} has the potential to expand the utility of {sup 14}CO{sub 2} measurements for carbon cycle investigations as atmospheric gradients currently approach traditional measurement precision of 2-5{per_thousand}. The AMS facility at the Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, produces high and stable beam currents that enable efficient acquisition times for large numbers of {sup 14}C counts. One million {sup 14}C atoms can be detected in approximately 25 minutes, suggesting that near 1{per_thousand} counting precision is economically feasible at LLNL. The overall uncertainty in measured values is ultimately determined by the variation between measured ratios in several sputtering periods of the same sample and by the reproducibility of replicate samples. Experiments on the collection of one million counts on replicate samples of CO{sub 2} extracted from a whole air cylinder show a standard deviation of 1.7{per_thousand} in 36 samples measured over several wheels. This precision may be limited by the reproducibility of Oxalic Acid I standard samples, which is considerably poorer. We outline the procedures for high-precision sample handling and analysis that have enabled reproducibility in the cylinder extraction samples at the <2{per_thousand} level and describe future directions to continue increasing measurement precision at LLNL.

  4. KULL: LLNL's ASCI Inertial Confinement Fusion Simulation Code

    SciTech Connect

    Rathkopf, J. A.; Miller, D. S.; Owen, J. M.; Zike, M. R.; Eltgroth, P. G.; Madsen, N. K.; McCandless, K. P.; Nowak, P. F.; Nemanic, M. K.; Gentile, N. A.; Stuart, L. M.; Keen, N. D.; Palmer, T. S.

    2000-01-10

    KULL is a three dimensional, time dependent radiation hydrodynamics simulation code under development at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. A part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI), KULL's purpose is to simulate the physical processes in Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) targets. The National Ignition Facility, where ICF experiments will be conducted, and ASCI are part of the experimental and computational components of DOE's Stockpile Stewardship Program. This paper provides an overview of ASCI and describes KULL, its hydrodynamic simulation capability and its three methods of simulating radiative transfer. Particular emphasis is given to the parallelization techniques essential to obtain the performance required of the Stockpile Stewardship Program and to exploit the massively parallel processor machines that ASCI is procuring.

  5. Representative benthic bioindicator organisms for use in radiation effects research: Culture of Neanthes arenaceodentata (Polychaeta)

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, F.L.; Knezovich, J.P.; Martinelli, R.E.

    1992-09-01

    The purpose of this document is to present a comprehensive synthesis of information pertaining to the selection and maintenance of bioindicator organisms for use in radiation-effects research. The focus of this report is on the benthic polychaete, Neanthes arenaceodentata, a species that has been used successfully at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and other institutions to define the impacts of radiation and chemical toxicants on aquatic organisms. In this document, the authors provide a rationale for the selection of this organism, a description of its reproductive biology, and a description of the conditions that are required for the maintenance and rearing of the organism for use in toxicological research.

  6. Machining of beryllium with the LLNL Precision Engineering Research Lathe

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, R.J.

    1985-04-01

    In August 1984, six flat samples of beryllium, which were prepared by Brush-Wellmen Corp. using various pressing and sintering processes, were machined at LLNL on the recently completed Precision Engineering Research Lathe (PERL). The purpose of this study, which was conducted in cooperation with the Hughes Aircraft Corporation and partially funded by that organization, was to determine the optical properties of machined beryllium surfaces when prepared under highly controlled conditions using high quality machine tools and CBN (cubic boron nitrite) cutting tools. This report will summarize the materials properties, the machining conditions used on the PERL and a comparison of the completed samples using optical measuring techniques and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The mirror surface reflecting measurements in the IR region are to be made by the group at Hughes Aircraft and will be exchanged with LLNL as a part of this joint technical effort. 3 refs., 14 figs.

  7. The UC-LLNL Regional Climate System Model

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, N.L.; Kim, Jinwon

    1996-09-01

    The UC-LLNL Regional Climate System Model has been under development since 1991. The unique system simulates climate from the global scale down to the watershed catchment scale, and consists of data pre- and post- processors, and four model components. The four model components are (1) a mesoscale atmospheric simulation model, (2) a soil-plant-snow model, (3) a watershed hydrology-riverflow model, and (4) a suite of crop response models. The first three model components have been coupled, and the system includes two-way feedbacks between the soil-plant-snow model and the mesoscale atmospheric simulation model. This three-component version of RCSM has been tested, validated, and successfully used for operational quantitative precipitation forecasts and seasonal water resource studies over the southwestern US. We are currently implementation and validating the fourth component, the Decision Support system for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT). A description of the UC-LLNL RCSM and some recent results are presented.

  8. Non-Compliance Tracking and Trending at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, S T; Pearson, J S

    2001-08-22

    The Criticality Safety Section at LLNL has a formal set of procedures to guide the administrative and technical work of the section. Two of these procedures, ''Response to a Criticality Safety Infraction'' and ''CSG Criticality Safety Non-Compliance and Audit Tracking System,'' provide combined guidance for response, tracking, and trending for procedural non-compliances. Combined with a database, this system provides a framework to systematically respond to, document, track and trend criticality safety non-compliances, as well as audit findings.

  9. Stiff-system problems and solutions at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Hindmarsh, A.C.

    1982-03-01

    Difficult stiff system problems encountered at LLNL are typified by those arising from various atmospheric kinetics models, which include reaction kinetics and transport in up to two space dimensions. Approaches devised for these problems resulted in several general purpose stiff system solvers. These have since evolved into a new systematized collection of solvers, called ODEPACK, based on backward differentiation formulas in the stiff case. A model kinetics-transport problem is used to illustrate the various solvers.

  10. Gamma-Ray Compton Light Source Development at LLNL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartemann, Frederic; Anderson, Scott; Gibson, David; Hagmann, Chris; Johnson, Micah; Jovanovic, Igor; Messerly, Mike; Pruet, Jason; Shverdin, Miro; Tremaine, Aaron; McNabb, Dennis; Siders, Craig; Barty, Chris

    2007-03-01

    A new class of tunable, monochromatic gamma-ray sources capable of operating at high peak and average brightness is currently being developed at LLNL for nuclear photo-science and applications. These novel systems are based on Compton scattering of laser photons by a high brightness relativistic electron beam produced by an rf photoinjector. Key technologies, basic scaling laws, and recent experimental results will be presented, along with an overview of future research and development directions.

  11. GAMA-LLNL Alpine Basin Special Study: Scope of Work

    SciTech Connect

    Singleton, M J; Visser, A; Esser, B K; Moran, J E

    2011-12-12

    For this task LLNL will examine the vulnerability of drinking water supplies in foothills and higher elevation areas to climate change impacts on recharge. Recharge locations and vulnerability will be determined through examination of groundwater ages and noble gas recharge temperatures in high elevation basins. LLNL will determine whether short residence times are common in one or more subalpine basin. LLNL will measure groundwater ages, recharge temperatures, hydrogen and oxygen isotopes, major anions and carbon isotope compositions on up to 60 samples from monitoring wells and production wells in these basins. In addition, a small number of carbon isotope analyses will be performed on surface water samples. The deliverable for this task will be a technical report that provides the measured data and an interpretation of the data from one or more subalpine basins. Data interpretation will: (1) Consider climate change impacts to recharge and its impact on water quality; (2) Determine primary recharge locations and their vulnerability to climate change; and (3) Delineate the most vulnerable areas and describe the likely impacts to recharge.

  12. Optimization of a rotating thermally conducting joint and incorporation in a laboratory model deployable radiator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinderer, B.

    1980-03-01

    A thermal and mechanical optimization of a thermally conducting joint and an attached heat pipe radiator was performed. A thermal node model was established to calculate different design configurations. The sealing-bearing concept was redesigned to minimize torque. Axially grooved heat pipe profiles were established for the design goal of this deployable radiator model. An engineering model deployable radiator was constructed and submitted to a thermal-vacuum test. Temperature drops from feeder to radiator closely met predictions, but measured torque exceeded expectations but was within an acceptable range for space applications. The heat pipe network comprising the heat pipes of the radiator and those integrated in the rotor profile was not entirely satisfactory. Evaluation of the results of thermal-vacuum test and previous heat pipe tests led to no definite explanation for the problems with some of the radiator heat pipes.

  13. LLNL-G3Dv3: global P-wave tomography model for improved regional and teleseismic travel time prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, N. A.; Myers, S. C.; Johannesson, G.; Matzel, E.

    2013-05-01

    We develop a global-scale P-wave velocity model (LLNL-G3Dv3) designed to accurately predict seismic travel times at regional and teleseismic distances simultaneously. The model provides a new image of Earth's interior, but the underlying practical purpose of the model is to provide enhanced seismic event location capabilities. The LLNL-G3Dv3 model is based on ~2.8 million P and Pn arrivals that are re-processed using our global multiple-event locator called Bayesloc. We construct LLNL-G3Dv3 within a spherical tessellation based framework, allowing for explicit representation of undulating and discontinuous layers including the crust and transition zone layers. Using a multi-scale inversion technique, regional trends as well as fine details are captured where the data allow. LLNL-G3Dv3 exhibits large-scale structures including cratons and superplumes as well numerous complex details in the upper mantle including within the transition zone. Particularly, the model reveals new details of a vast network of subducted slabs trapped within the transition beneath much of Eurasia, including beneath the Tibetan Plateau. We demonstrate the impact of Bayesloc multiple-event location on the resulting tomographic images through comparison with images produced without the benefit of multiple-event constraints (single-event locations). We find that the multiple-event locations allow for better reconciliation of the large set of direct P phases recorded at 0-97° distance and yield a smoother and more continuous image relative to the single-event locations. Travel times predicted from a 3-D model are also found to be strongly influenced by the initial locations of the input data, even when an iterative inversion/relocation technique is employed. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL-ABS-559093 Summary of the LLNL-G3Dv3 model architecture. a) Selected levels of the

  14. FY2008 Report on GADRAS Radiation Transport Methods.

    SciTech Connect

    Mattingly, John.; Mitchell, Dean J; Harding, Lee T.; Varley, Eric S.; Hilton, Nathan R.

    2008-10-01

    The primary function of the Gamma Detector Response and Analysis Software (GADRAS) is the solution of inverse radiation transport problems, by which the con-figuration of an unknown radiation source is inferred from one or more measured radia-tion signatures. GADRAS was originally developed for the analysis of gamma spec-trometry measurements. During fiscal years 2007 and 2008, GADRAS was augmented to implement the simultaneous analysis of neutron multiplicity measurements. This report describes the radiation transport methods developed to implement this new capability. This work was performed at the direction of the National Nuclear Security Administration's Office of Nonproliferation Research and Development. It was executed as an element of the Proliferation Detection Program's Simulation, Algorithm, and Modeling element. Acronyms BNL Brookhaven National Laboratory CSD Continuous Slowing-Down DU depleted uranium ENSDF Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data Files GADRAS Gamma Detector Response and Analysis Software HEU highly enriched uranium LANL Los Alamos National Laboratory LLNL Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory NA-22 Office of Nonproliferation Research and Development NNDC National Nuclear Data Center NNSA National Nuclear Security Administration ODE ordinary differential equation ONEDANT One-dimensional diffusion accelerated neutral particle transport ORNL Oak Ridge National Laboratory PARTISN Parallel time-dependent SN PDP Proliferation Detection Program RADSAT Radiation Scenario Analysis Toolkit RSICC Radiation Safety Information Computational Center SAM Simulation, Algorithms, and Modeling SNL Sandia National Laboratories SNM special nuclear material ToRI Table of Radioactive Isotopes URI uniform resource identifier XML Extensible Markup Language

  15. Large-scale stimulated rotational Raman scattering experiments using the LLNL Nova laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, J. R.

    1986-10-01

    The LLNL Nova laser is a ten-beam neodymium-glass laser system which can generate up to 15 kJ per beam in a few nanoseconds. Stimulated rotational Raman scattering (SRRS) in air limits the power delivered to one of the two target chambers of the laser if the beams are allowed to propagate in air over the entire distance. We have therefore conducted experiments using Nova to study the growth and properties of SRRS in air to assess its importance for Nova, future fusion lasers. Our early experimental results were published last November (Opt. Lett., 10, 565 (1985)). These show that the growth of SRRS from amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) in a high Fresnel number geometry is in agreement with predictions from calculated gains, and that the near-field distribution of the Raman-shifted radiation is a divergent beam with a fine speckle structure.

  16. B190 computer controlled radiation monitoring and safety interlock system

    SciTech Connect

    Espinosa, D L; Fields, W F; Gittins, D E; Roberts, M L

    1998-08-01

    The Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (CAMS) in the Earth and Environmental Sciences Directorate at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) operates two accelerators and is in the process of installing two new additional accelerators in support of a variety of basic and applied measurement programs. To monitor the radiation environment in the facility in which these accelerators are located and to terminate accelerator operations if predetermined radiation levels are exceeded, an updated computer controlled radiation monitoring system has been installed. This new system also monitors various machine safety interlocks and again terminates accelerator operations if machine interlocks are broken. This new system replaces an older system that was originally installed in 1988. This paper describes the updated B190 computer controlled radiation monitoring and safety interlock system.

  17. On the Observation of Jitter Radiation in Solid-Density Laser-Plasma Laboratory Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keenan, Brett; Medvedev, Mikhail

    2015-11-01

    Plasmas created by high-intensity lasers are often subject to the formation of kinetic-streaming instabilities, such as the Weibel instability, which lead to the spontaneous generation of high-amplitude, tangled magnetic fields. These fields typically exist on small spatial scales, i.e., ``sub-Larmor scales''. Radiation from charged particles moving through small-scale electromagnetic (EM) turbulence, known as jitter radiation, has spectral characteristics distinct from both synchrotron and cyclotron radiation, and it carries valuable information on the statistical properties of the EM field structure and evolution. Consequently, jitter radiation from laser-produced plasmas may offer insight into the underlying electromagnetic turbulence. Here we investigate the prospects for, and demonstrate the feasibility of, such direct radiative diagnostics for mildly relativistic, solid-density laser plasmas produced in lab experiments. Supported by grant DOE grant DE-FG02-07ER54940 and NSF grant AST-1209665.

  18. Charged particle spectra obtained with the Mars Science Laboratory Radiation Assessment Detector (MSL/RAD) on the surface of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehresmann, Bent; Zeitlin, Cary; Hassler, Donald M.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.; Böhm, Eckart; Böttcher, Stephan; Brinza, David E.; Burmeister, Sönke; Guo, Jingnan; Köhler, Jan; Martin, Cesar; Posner, Arik; Rafkin, Scot; Reitz, Günther

    2014-03-01

    The Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD)—situated inside the Mars Science Laboratory's Curiosity rover—is the first ever instrument to measure the energetic particle radiation environment on the surface of Mars. To fully understand the influence of this surface radiation field in terms of potential hazard to life, a detailed knowledge of its composition is necessary. Charged particles are a major component of this environment, both galactic cosmic rays propagating to the Martian surface and secondary particles created by interactions of these cosmic rays with the atoms of the Martian atmosphere and soil. Here we present particle fluxes for a wide range of ion species, providing detailed energy spectra in the low-energy range (up to several hundred MeV/nucleon particle energy), and integral fluxes for higher energies. In addition to being crucial for the understanding of the hazards of this radiation to possible future manned missions to Mars, the data reported here provide valuable input for evaluating and validating particle transport models currently used to estimate the radiation environment on Mars and elsewhere in space. It is now possible for the first time to compare model results for expected surface particle fluxes with actual ground-based measurements.

  19. A historical perspective on fifteen years of laser damage thresholds at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Rainer, F.; De Marco, F.P.; Staggs, M.C.; Kozlowski, M.R.; Atherton, L.J.; Sheehan, L.M.

    1993-12-21

    We have completed a fifteen year, referenced and documented compilation of more than 15,000 measurements of laser-induced damage thresholds (LIDT) conducted at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). These measurements cover the spectrum from 248 to 1064 nm with pulse durations ranging from < 1 ns to 65 ns and at pulse-repetition frequencies (PRF) from single shots to 6.3 kHz. We emphasize the changes in LIDTs during the past two years since we last summarized our database. We relate these results to earlier data concentrating on improvements in processing methods, materials, and conditioning techniques. In particular, we highlight the current status of anti-reflective (AR) coatings, high reflectors (HR), polarizers, and frequency-conversion crystals used primarily at 355 nm and 1064 nm.

  20. LLNL 10(a)(1)(A) Annual Report (TE-053672-2)--2005

    SciTech Connect

    Woollett, J

    2006-01-26

    This report summarizes research related to Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Experimental Test Site, Site 300 (S300), located within Alameda and San Joaquin Counties (Figure 1) and conducted under the 10(a)(1)(A) (Recovery) permit TE-053672-2. This property is held in ownership by the U.S. Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). The 2005 Recovery research at S300 involved fieldwork associated with only two species: Alameda whipsnake (Masticophis lateralis euryxanthus) and the California red-legged frog (Rana aurora draytonii) (RLF). Note: the whipsnake subspecies existing at S300 shows taxonomic variation (generally 50% chaparral whipsnake [Masticophis lateralis] traits) when compared to the Alameda whipsnake (Riemer 1954) and therefore it will be referred to as ''California whipsnake (Masticophis lateralis)'' (CWS) for classification purposes in this report (Swaim 2004).

  1. Progress in table-top transient collisional excitation x-ray lasers at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Da Silva, L B; Dunn, J; Li, Y; Nilsen, J; Osterheld, A; Shepherd, R; Shlyaptsev, V N

    1999-02-07

    We present progress in experiments for high efficiency Ne-like and Ni-like ion x-ray lasers using the transient collisional excitation scheme. Experimental results have been obtained on the COMET 15 TW table-top laser system at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The plasma formation, ionization and collisional excitation of the x-ray laser have been optimized using two sequential laser pulses of 600 ps and 1 ps duration with an optional pre-pulse. We have observed high gains up to 55 cm{sup {minus}1} in Ne-like and Ni-like ion schemes for various atomic numbers. We report strong output for the 4d - 4p line in lower Z Ni-like ion sequence for Mo to Y, lasing from {approximately}190 {angstrom} to 240 {angstrom}, by pumping with less than 5 J energy on target.

  2. Table-top transient collisional excitation x-ray laser research at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, J., Osterheld, A.L., Shepherd, R., White, W.E., Shlyaptsev, V.N., Bullock, A.B., Stewart, R.E.

    1997-10-06

    We describe recent experiments at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to produce a table-top x-ray laser. Using a combination of long 800 ps and short {approximately}1 ps high power laser pulses with {approximately} 6 J in each beam, a transient collisionally excited Ne-like ion x-ray laser scheme has been investigated. We present results of high x-ray laser gain for the Ne- like Ti 3p-3s J=O-l transition at 326 {Angstrom} and have achieved gL product of 15 for target lengths up to 1 cm. We have extended the transient collisional scheme to shorter wavelengths using the Ni-like analog, specifically the 4d-4p J=O-l of Ni-like Pd at 147 {Angstrom}.

  3. Engineering support for LLNL Chemistry's High Explosive Technology group. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Weston, A.M.; James, E.

    1985-12-01

    Support for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) High Explosive Technology (HET), part of the Chemistry Division is described. Brief progress reports are presented for the following six tasks: (1) assess mechanical and explosive response of proposed extreme environmental weapon systems; (2) perform a hazard study relating to Trident D-5 motor response; (3) continue development and application of the deflagration to detonation (DDT) computer model (code RDUCT) for the hazard assessment for rocket propellants (HARP) program; (4) perform rocket motor vulnerability calculations for a proposed new air force mobile missile; (5) perform additional analyses relating to radioisotope thermo-electric generator PuO2 containment with possible NASA space shuttle accident scenarios; and (6) develop a relational data base for information pertinent to the hazard studies relating to the Trident D-5 motor response and the associated HARP program. (AT)

  4. LLNL small-scale static spark machine: static spark sensitivity test

    SciTech Connect

    Foltz, M F; Simpson, L R

    1999-08-23

    Small-scale safety testing of explosives and other energetic materials is done in order to determine their sensitivity to various stimuli, such as friction, static spark, and impact. Typically this testing is done to discover potential handling problems that may exist for either newly synthesized materials of unknown behavior, or materials that have been stored for long periods of time. This report describes the existing ''Static Spark Test Apparatus'' at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), as well as the method used to evaluate the relative static spark sensitivity of energetic materials. The basic design, originally developed by the Picatinny Arsenal in New Jersey, is discussed. The accumulated data for the materials tested to date is not included here, with the exception of specific examples that have yielded interesting or unusual results during the tests.

  5. Criticality Safety Evaluation of a LLNL Training Assembly for Criticality Safety (TACS)

    SciTech Connect

    Heinrichs, D P

    2006-06-26

    Hands-on experimental training in the physical behavior of multiplying systems is one of ten key areas of training required for practitioners to become qualified in the discipline of criticality safety as identified in DOE-STD-1135-99, ''Guidance for Nuclear Criticality Safety Engineer Training and Qualification''. This document is a criticality safety evaluation of the training activities (or operations) associated with HS-3200, ''Laboratory Class for Criticality Safety''. These activities utilize the Training Assembly for Criticality Safety (TACS). The original intent of HS-3200 was to provide LLNL fissile material handlers with a practical hands-on experience as a supplement to the academic training they receive biennially in HS-3100, ''Fundamentals of Criticality Safety'', as required by ANSI/ANS-8.20-1991, ''Nuclear Criticality Safety Training''. HS-3200 is to be enhanced to also address the training needs of nuclear criticality safety professionals under the auspices of the NNSA Nuclear Criticality Safety Program.

  6. Report on the B-Fields at NIF Workshop Held at LLNL October 12-13, 2015

    SciTech Connect

    Fournier, K. B.; Moody, J. D.

    2015-12-13

    A national ICF laboratory workshop on requirements for a magnetized target capability on NIF was held by NIF at LLNL on October 12 and 13, attended by experts from LLNL, SNL, LLE, LANL, GA, and NRL. Advocates for indirect drive (LLNL), magnetic (Z) drive (SNL), polar direct drive (LLE), and basic science needing applied B (many institutions) presented and discussed requirements for the magnetized target capabilities they would like to see. 30T capability was most frequently requested. A phased operation increasing the field in steps experimentally can be envisioned. The NIF management will take the inputs from the scientific community represented at the workshop and recommend pulse-powered magnet parameters for NIF that best meet the collective user requests. In parallel, LLNL will continue investigating magnets for future generations that might be powered by compact laser-B-field generators (Moody, Fujioka, Santos, Woolsey, Pollock). The NIF facility engineers will start to analyze compatibility of the recommended pulsed magnet parameters (size, field, rise time, materials) with NIF chamber constraints, diagnostic access, and final optics protection against debris in FY16. The objective of this assessment will be to develop a schedule for achieving an initial Bfield capability. Based on an initial assessment, room temperature magnetized gas capsules will be fielded on NIF first. Magnetized cryo-ice-layered targets will take longer (more compatibility issues). Magnetized wetted foam DT targets (Olson) may have somewhat fewer compatibility issues making them a more likely choice for the first cryo-ice-layered target fielded with applied Bz.

  7. LLNL Measurements of Graded-Index Multi-Mode Fiber (ITF 47)

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, T.T.

    2000-05-01

    The Russian Federal Nuclear Center-All Russian Research Institute of Technical Physics, located in the Nuclear City of Snezhinsk, east of the Ural mountains and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories have been investigating the possibility of establishing a commercial optical fiber manufacturing facility. These discussions began in the summer of 1998. At that time three samples (single mode and multi-mode) of optical fiber were left at the Sandia National Laboratory. Sandia measured two of the segments and sent them to LLNL. The optical loss at 1550 nm and 1300 nm were higher than commercially available fiber. The measurements were complicated because the geometry of the fibers also did not meet specification. Since the core was not adequately centered coupling of optical energy into the fiber being tested varied widely depending on which end of the fiber was used for insertion. The results of these measurements were summarized in the informal report dated June 11, 1999, which was hand carried by Dr. Paul Herman during his July 1999 visit. During the July visit a 1.2-km long section of graded-index multimode fiber, ITF 47, was given to Herman. We had requested samples longer than the earlier ones (which were {approx}0.1 km long) in order that a cutback method could be used for the transmission measurements. The optical loss using the cutback technique and the transmission spectral measurements in the 600-1700 mn region are reported. Also physical measurements are reported of the fiber's diameter, concentricity, ellipticity and tensile strength (proof test). The test results are summarized in Table 1, ''Comparative Data for Multi-mode Optical Fiber.'' The table includes the values from the Industrial specification TIA/EIA 402AAAB, the commercial specification for Corning's 50/125 CPC6, the values measured on ITF-47 and provided by C-70, and LLNL's values for ITF-47 as well as the multimode values from the June 1999 samples.

  8. Development of a quality assurance program for ionizing radiation secondary calibration laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Heaton, H.T. II; Taylor, A.R. Jr.

    1993-12-31

    For calibration laboratories, routine calibrations of instruments meeting stated accuracy goals are important. One method of achieving the accuracy goals is to establish and follow a quality assurance program designed to monitor all aspects of the calibration program and to provide the appropriate feedback mechanism if adjustments are needed. In the United States there are a number of organizations with laboratory accreditation programs. All existing accreditation programs require that the laboratory implement a quality assurance program with essentially the same elements in all of these programs. Collectively, these elements have been designated as a Measurement Quality Assurance (MQA) program. This paper will briefly discuss the interrelationship of the elements of an MQA program. Using the Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) X-ray Calibration Laboratory (XCL) as an example, it will focus on setting up a quality control program for the equipment in a Secondary Calibration Laboratory.

  9. The EBIT Calorimeter Spectrometer: a new, permanent user facility at the LLNL EBIT

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, F S; Beiersdorfer, P; Brown, G V; Doriese, W; Gygax, J; Kelley, R L; Kilbourne, C A; King, J; Irwin, K; Reintsema, C; Ullom, J

    2007-09-07

    The EBIT Calorimeter Spectrometer (ECS) is currently being completed and will be installed at the EBIT facility at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in October 2007. The ECS will replace the smaller XRS/EBIT microcalorimeter spectrometer that has been in almost continuous operation since 2000. The XRS/EBIT was based on a spare laboratory cryostat and an engineering model detector system from the Suzaku/XRS observatory program. The new ECS spectrometer was built to be a low maintenance, high performance implanted silicon microcalorimeter spectrometer with 4 eV resolution at 6 keV, 32 detector channels, 10 {micro}s event timing, and capable of uninterrupted acquisition sessions of over 60 hours at 50 mK. The XRS/EBIT program has been very successful, producing many results on topics such as laboratory astrophysics, atomic physics, nuclear physics, and calibration of the spectrometers for the National Ignition Facility. The ECS spectrometer will continue this work into the future with improved spectral resolution, integration times, and ease-of-use. We designed the ECS instrument with TES detectors in mind by using the same highly successful magnetic shielding as our laboratory TES cryostats. This design will lead to a future TES instrument at the LLNL EBIT. Here we discuss the legacy of the XRS/EBIT program, the performance of the new ECS spectrometer, and plans for a future TES instrument.

  10. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Environmental Report 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, H. E.; Bertoldo, N. A.; Blake, R. G.; Buscheck, W. M.; Byrne, J. G.; Cerruti, S. J.; Bish, C. B.; Fratanduono, M. E.; Grayson, A. R.; MacQueen, D. H.; Montemayor, W. E.; Ottaway, H. L.; Paterson, L. E.; Revelli, M. A.; Rosene, C. A.; Swanson, K. A.; Terrill, A. A.; Wegrecki, A. M.; Wilson, K. R.; Woollett, J. S.

    2015-09-29

    The purposes of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Environmental Report 2014 are to record Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory’s (LLNL’s) compliance with environmental standards and requirements, describe LLNL’s environmental protection and remediation programs, and present the results of environmental monitoring at the two LLNL sites—the Livermore Site and Site 300. The report is prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) by LLNL’s Environmental Functional Area. Submittal of the report satisfies requirements under DOE Order 231.1B, “Environment, Safety and Health Reporting,” and DOE Order 458.1, “Radiation Protection of the Public and Environment.”

  11. Facility-specific radiation exposure risks and their implications for radiation workers at Department of Energy laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Adam Christopher

    This research develops a new framework for evaluating the occupational risks of exposure to hazardous substances in any setting where As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) practices are mandated or used. The evaluation is performed by developing a hypothesis-test-based procedure for evaluating the homogeneity of various epidemiological cohorts, and thus the appropriateness of the application of aggregate data-pooling techniques to those cohorts. A statistical methodology is then developed as an alternative to aggregate pooling for situations in which individual cohorts show heterogeneity between them and are thus unsuitable for pooled analysis. These methods are then applied to estimate the all-cancer mortality risks incurred by workers at four Department-of-Energy nuclear weapons laboratories. Both linear, no-threshold and dose-bin averaged risks are calculated and it is further shown that aggregate analysis tends to overestimate the risks with respect to those calculated by the methods developed in this work. The risk estimates developed in Chapter 2 are, in Chapter 3, applied to assess the risks to workers engaged in americium recovery operations at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The work described in Chapter 3 develops a full radiological protection assessment for the new americium recovery project, including development of exposure cases, creation and modification of MCNP5 models, development of a time-and-motion study, and the final synthesis of all data. This work also develops a new risk-based method of determining whether administrative controls, such as staffing increases, are ALARA-optimized. The EPA's estimate of the value of statistical life is applied to these risk estimates to determine a monetary value for risk. The rate of change of this "risk value" (marginal risk) is then compared with the rate of change of workers' compensations as additional workers are added to the project to reduce the dose (and therefore, presumably, risk) to each

  12. Feasibility Study: Potential Enhancements for the LLNL Renewables Website

    SciTech Connect

    Kearns, F; Krawchuk, M; Moritz, M; Stephens, S; Goldstein, N

    2008-01-25

    This feasibility study investigates additional improvements/extensions to the LLNL Renewables Website. Currently, the Renewables Website focuses on wind energy in California. Future enhancements will include other renewable energy sources. The extensions described below are focused along two separate yet related avenues: (1) Forecasting wildfire risk in the regions of California where new development may occur, as a part of the 'Million Solar Roofs' program. (2) Gaining a better understanding of the ecological components and potential of biofuels from forests in California. These two avenues are further described in the report. Following is a technical description of the Center for Fire Research and Outreach computing and web service capabilities.

  13. Measuring Neutrons and Gamma Rays on Mars - The Mars Science Laboratory Radiation Assessment Detector MSL/RAD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wimmer-Schweingruber, R. F.; Martin, C.; Kortmann, O.; Boehm, E.; Kharytonov, A.; Ehresmann, B.; Hassler, D. M.; Zeitlin, C.; Rad Team

    2010-12-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) missions Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) will measure the radiation environment on the Martian surface. One of the difficult measurements is that of the neutral radiation component consisting of neutrons and gamma rays. Different from Earth, this neutral component contributes substantially to the total dose on the planetary surface, principally because the Martian atmosphere is so thin. The RAD instrument is capable of measuring neutral particles through a combination of sensitive anti-coincidence and organic and inorganic scintillator materials. In this work, we will explain how RAD will measure the neutral particle radiation on Mars and compare with calibration results. The problem of inverting measured neutron and gamma data is a non-trivial task. For all inversions, one generally assumes that the measurement process can be described by a system of linear equations, A ěc{f} = ěc{z}, where the matrix A describes the instrument response function (IRF), ěc{f} the underlying, but unknown, ``real'' physical parameters, and ěc{z} the measured data. The inversion of this deceptively simple-looking set of equations is in fact a key example of an ill-posed or inverse problem. Such problems are notoriously difficult to solve.

  14. Ultraviolet radiation affects emission of ozone-depleting substances by marine macroalgae: results from a laboratory incubation study.

    PubMed

    Laturnus, Frank; Svensson, Teresia; Wiencke, Christian; Oberg, Gunilla

    2004-12-15

    The depletion of stratospheric ozone due to the effects of ozone-depleting substances, such as volatile organohalogens, emitted into the atmosphere from industrial and natural sources has increased the amount of ultraviolet radiation reaching the earth's surface. Especially in the subpolar and polar regions, where stratospheric ozone destruction is the highest, individual organisms and whole ecosystems can be affected. In a laboratory study, several species of marine macroalgae occurring in the polar and northern temperate regions were exposed to elevated levels of ultraviolet radiation. Most of the macroalgae released significantly more chloroform, bromoform, dibromomethane, and methyl iodide-all volatile organohalogens. Calculating on the basis of the release of total chlorine, bromine, and iodine revealed that, except for two macroalgae emitting chlorine and one alga emitting iodine, exposure to ultraviolet radiation caused macroalgae to emit significantly more total chlorine, bromine, and iodine. Increasing levels of ultraviolet radiation due to possible further destruction of the stratospheric ozone layer as a result of ongoing global atmospheric warming may thus increase the future importance of marine macroalgae as a source for the global occurrence of reactive halogen-containing compounds.

  15. RADIATION MEASUREMENTS BY BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY DURING THE WOODS HOLE OCEANOGRAPHIC INSTITUTION INTERCOMPARISON STUDY, MAY-JUNE 2000.

    SciTech Connect

    REYNOLDS, R.M.; BARTHOLOMEW, M.J.; MILLER, M.A.; SMITH, S.; EDWARDS, R.

    2000-12-01

    The WHOI buoy radiometer intercomparison took place during May and June, 2000 at the WHOI facility. The WHOI IMET, JAMSTEC Triton, and NOAA TAO buoy systems were operated from a beach site and the Brookhaven National Laboratory set up two Portable Radiation Package systems (P01 and P02) alongside the WHOI instrumentation on the roof of the Clark Building, about 300 m away. The BNL instruments were named ''P01'' and ''P02'' and were identical. Buoy instruments were all leveled to {+-}1{degree} to horizontal. The purpose of the project was to compare the buoy systems with precision measurements so that any differences in data collection or processing would be evaluated. BNL was pleased to participate so the PRP system could be evaluated as a calibration tool. The Portable Radiation Package is an integral component of the BNL Shipboard Oceanographic and Atmospheric Radiation (SOAR) system. It is designed to make accurate downwelling radiation measurements, including the three solar irradiance components (direct normal, diffuse and global) at six narrowband channels, aerosol optical depth measurements, and broadband longwave and shortwave irradiance measurements.

  16. Use of the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory at Brookhaven National Laboratory to Conduct Charged Particle Radiobiology Studies Relevant to Ion Therapy.

    PubMed

    Held, Kathryn D; Blakely, Eleanor A; Story, Michael D; Lowenstein, Derek I

    2016-06-01

    Although clinical studies with carbon ions have been conducted successfully in Japan and Europe, the limited radiobiological information about charged particles that are heavier than protons remains a significant impediment to exploiting the full potential of particle therapy. There is growing interest in the U.S. to build a cancer treatment facility that utilizes charged particles heavier than protons. Therefore, it is essential that additional radiobiological knowledge be obtained using state-of-the-art technologies and biological models and end points relevant to clinical outcome. Currently, most such ion radiotherapy-related research is being conducted outside the U.S. This article addresses the substantial contributions to that research that are possible at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), which is the only facility in the U.S. at this time where heavy-ion radiobiology research with the ion species and energies of interest for therapy can be done. Here, we briefly discuss the relevant facilities at NSRL and how selected charged particle biology research gaps could be addressed using those facilities. PMID:27195609

  17. Laboratory observation of secondary shock formation ahead of a strongly radiative blast wave

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, J F; Edwards, M J; Froula, D H; Edens, A D; Gregori, G; Ditmire, T R

    2006-04-20

    We have previously reported the experimental discovery of a second shock forming ahead of a radiative shock propagating in Xe. The initial shock is spherical, radiative, with a high Mach number, and it sends a supersonic radiative heat far ahead of itself. The heat wave rapidly slows to a transonic regime and when its Mach number drops to two with respect to the downstream plasma, the heat wave drives a second shock ahead of itself to satisfy mass and momentum conservation in the heat wave reference frame. We now show experimental data from a range of mixtures of Xe and N{sub 2}, gradually changing the properties of the initial shock and the environment into which the shock moves and radiates (the radiative conductivity and the heat capacity). We have successfully observed second shock formation over the entire range from 100% Xe mass fraction to 100% N{sub 2}. The formation radius of the second shock as a function of Xe mass fraction is consistent with an analytical estimate.

  18. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory?s Book of Minimum Detectable Activity for Direct Measurement of Internally Deposited Radionuclides in Radiation Workers

    SciTech Connect

    Hickman, D P

    2008-10-08

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory maintains an in vivo measurement program designed to identify and evaluate the activity of radionuclides deposited in the body. Two types of systems are primarily used for the routine monitoring of radiation workers, the lung counting system and the scanning bed whole body counting system. The lung counting system is comprised of two Canberra ACTII detector sets. Each ACTII set contains two planar germanium detectors with carbon composite end windows optimized to measure low energy photon emitting radionuclides. The ACTII detectors are placed on the upper torso over the lungs for the direct measurement of internally deposited radionuclides in the lungs that emit low energy photons. A correction for the thickness of the chest wall is applied to the efficiency. Because the thickness of the chest wall is a key factor in the measurement of low energy photon emitting radionuclides in the lung, the minimum detectable activity is a function of the chest wall thickness. The scanning bed whole body counting system is comprised of a thin air mattress on top of a carbon fiber bed that slowly scans over four high purity germanium detectors. The scanning system is designed to minimize variations in detected activity due to radionuclide distribution in the body. The scanning bed detection system is typically used for the measurement of internally deposited radionuclides that emit photons above 100 to 200 keV. MDAs have been generated for radionuclides that provide energies above 80 keV since the lowest calibration energy for the system is approximately 86 keV. The following charts and table provide best determination of minimum detectable activity using human subjects as controls for the background contributions. A wide variety of radionuclides are used throughout the laboratory and the following pages represent several of the radionuclides that have been encountered at the Whole Body and Spectroscopy Laboratories within Hazards Control.

  19. A probabilistic risk assessment of the LLNL Plutonium Facility`s evaluation basis fire operational accident. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Brumburgh, G. P.

    1995-02-27

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Plutonium Facility conducts numerous programmatic activities involving plutonium to include device fabrication, development of improved and/or unique fabrication techniques, metallurgy research, and laser isotope separation. A Safety Analysis Report (SAR) for the building 332 Plutonium Facility was completed in July 1994 to address operational safety and acceptable risk to employees, the public, government property, and the environmental. This paper outlines the PRA analysis of the Evaluation Basis Fire (EBF) operational accident. The EBF postulates the worst-case programmatic impact event for the Plutonium Facility.

  20. Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory 1991 activity report. Facility developments January 1991--March 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Cantwell, K.; St. Pierre, M.

    1992-12-31

    SSRL is a national facility supported primarily by the Department of Energy for the utilization of synchrotron radiation for basic and applied research in the natural sciences and engineering. It is a user-oriented facility which welcomes proposals for experiments from all researchers. The synchrotron radiation is produced by the 3.5 GeV storage ring, SPEAR, located at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). SPEAR is a fully dedicated synchrotron radiation facility which operates for user experiments 7 to 9 months per year. SSRL currently has 24 experimental stations on the SPEAR storage ring. There are 145 active proposals for experimental work from 81 institutions involving approximately 500 scientists. There is normally no charge for use of beam time by experimenters. This report summarizes the activity at SSRL for the period January 1, 1991 to December 31, 1991 for research. Facility development through March 1992 is included.

  1. Transition-ready technologies and expertise from the Chemical and Biological National Security Program at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Folta, P A; McBride, M T

    2006-02-22

    HSARPA has initiated a new Bioinformatics and Assay Development solicitation, BIAD2 (BAA 06-01), to address a number of technology gaps and requirements for biodetection (www.hsarpabaa.com). This solicitation will leverage the vast research and development capabilities of the private sector and academia in order to meet the needs of HSARPA and Homeland Security. In order to meet these requirements, this solicitation will: (1) Develop and validate actionable assays for the public and private sector; (2) Develop and validate new assays and novel assay methodologies to enhance existing detection systems and enable future detection platforms; (3) Develop next generation assays which are robust against novel, emerging and engineered threats; (4) Develop novel assays that detect low levels of ribonucleic acid (RNA)-based viral threats in complex backgrounds; (5) Develop novel assays to characterize the viability, degree of virulence or toxicity, and countermeasure resistance of a biological agent; and (6) Develop new bioinformatics tools to support assay development and assay validation The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Bioassays and Signature Program (BSP) develops nationally-validated detection and identification assays to cover the full range of biological threat agents, starting from human, animal, and plant pathogens on the Select Agent list. The assays that have been co-developed by the CDC and the BSP are used internationally and represent the gold standard for molecular detection of select agent pathogens for the public health community. They are also used in the DHS environmental monitoring operations such as BioWatch and DHS National Security Special Events support. These reagents have been used to process and analyze more than 5 million samples and have delivered exceptional performance for the end users, with zero false positives since their deployment. Currently, highly-multiplexed nucleic acid assays that represent the ''next-generation'' in

  2. LLNL's Precision Compton Scattering Light Source: Status & Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartemann, F. V.; Albert, F.; Anderson, S. G.; Bayramian, A. J.; Cross, R. R.; Ebbers, C. A.; Gibson, D. J.; Houck, T. L.; Marsh, R. A.; Messerly, M. J.; Shverdin, M. Y.; Wu, S. S.; Scarpetti, R. D.; Siders, C. W.; McNabb, D. P.; Bonanno, R. E.; Barty, C. P. J.; Adolphsen, C. E.; Chu, T. S.; Jongewaard, E. N.; Li, Z.; Tantawi, S. G.; Vlieks, A. E.; Wang, J. W.; Raubenheimer, T. O.

    2010-11-01

    A precision, tunable, monochromatic (< 0.4% rms spectral width) source driven by a compact, high-gradient X-band linac designed in collaboration with SLAC is under construction at LLNL. High-brightness (250 pC, 3.5 ps, 0.4 mm.mrad), relativistic electron bunches will interact with a Joule-class, 10 ps, diode-pumped laser pulse to generate tunable >=-rays in the 0.5-2.5 MeV photon energy range. This >=-ray source will be used to excite nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) in various isotopes, of interest for homeland security, stockpile science and surveillance, nuclear fuel assay, and waste imaging and assay. The source current status will be discussed, along with important applications, including NRF and in situ ps thermal measurements. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. DoE by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344, and funded by the DHS DNDO.

  3. New Monte Carlo simulations of the LLNL pulsed-sphere experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Marchetti, A.A., LLNL

    1998-07-01

    From the late 1960s to about 1985, the Pulsed-Sphere Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) was carried out to measure 14-MeV neutron leakage spectra from target spheres made out of various elements, compounds, and mixtures Data from these experiments have been and continue to be fundamental in the evaluation of neutron Monte Carlo transport codes and cross section data libraries In addition, the data provide important integral information for stockpile stewardship, fusion technology, neutron therapy, and other applications Therefore, comparisons between computer Monte Carlo simulations and the results of these experiments are pivotal for the integral testing of processed nuclear data libraries and transport codes Fortunately, a large subset of data from the pulsed-sphere program (some 70 experiments) is available as a computer file called disp93in Furthermore, in the past few years, there has been a remarkable improvement in computer performance that allows for more realistic simulations by Monte Carlo codes such as TART 4 Previous TART simulations of the pulsed-sphere experiments were performed using simplified models with relatively small numbers of histories and very large solid angle detectors to offset the limitations in computer power. Also, not all the TART input files were created with the same level of detail For example, some input files included the air around the sphere while others did not These factors prompted a study to simulate in more detail all of the available pulsed-sphere experiments using the Monte Carlo transport code, TART, and the LLNL evaluated neutron data library, ENDL The timing of this study is significant because many years have passed since those experiments were done, and only a few people who participated in them are still working at LLNL Their help has been essential for an accurate documentation of the experiments For the Stewardship Program it is important to preserve and make use of as much of the data as

  4. Charged particle spectra measured during the transit to Mars with the Mars Science Laboratory Radiation Assessment Detector (MSL/RAD).

    PubMed

    Ehresmann, Bent; Hassler, Donald M; Zeitlin, Cary; Guo, Jingnan; Köhler, Jan; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F; Appel, Jan K; Brinza, David E; Rafkin, Scot C R; Böttcher, Stephan I; Burmeister, Sönke; Lohf, Henning; Martin, Cesar; Böhm, Eckart; Matthiä, Daniel; Reitz, Günther

    2016-08-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) started its 253-day cruise to Mars on November 26, 2011. During cruise the Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD), situated on board the Curiosity rover, conducted measurements of the energetic-particle radiation environment inside the spacecraft. This environment consists mainly of galactic cosmic rays (GCRs), as well as secondary particles created by interactions of these GCRs with the spacecraft. The RAD measurements can serve as a proxy for the radiation environment a human crew would encounter during a transit to Mars, for a given part of the solar cycle, assuming that a crewed vehicle would have comparable shielding. The measurements of radiological quantities made by RAD are important in themselves, and, the same data set allow for detailed analysis of GCR-induced particle spectra inside the spacecraft. This provides important inputs for the evaluation of current transport models used to model the free-space (and spacecraft) radiation environment for different spacecraft shielding and different times in the solar cycle. Changes in these conditions can lead to significantly different radiation fields and, thus, potential health risks, emphasizing the need for validated transport codes. Here, we present the first measurements of charged particle fluxes inside a spacecraft during the transit from Earth to Mars. Using data obtained during the last two month of the cruise to Mars (June 11-July 14, 2012), we have derived detailed energy spectra for low-Z particles stopping in the instrument's detectors, as well as integral fluxes for penetrating particles with higher energies. Furthermore, we analyze the temporal changes in measured proton fluxes during quiet solar periods (i.e., when no solar energetic particle events occurred) over the duration of the transit (December 9, 2011-July 14, 2012) and correlate them with changing heliospheric conditions. PMID:27662785

  5. Charged particle spectra measured during the transit to Mars with the Mars Science Laboratory Radiation Assessment Detector (MSL/RAD).

    PubMed

    Ehresmann, Bent; Hassler, Donald M; Zeitlin, Cary; Guo, Jingnan; Köhler, Jan; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F; Appel, Jan K; Brinza, David E; Rafkin, Scot C R; Böttcher, Stephan I; Burmeister, Sönke; Lohf, Henning; Martin, Cesar; Böhm, Eckart; Matthiä, Daniel; Reitz, Günther

    2016-08-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) started its 253-day cruise to Mars on November 26, 2011. During cruise the Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD), situated on board the Curiosity rover, conducted measurements of the energetic-particle radiation environment inside the spacecraft. This environment consists mainly of galactic cosmic rays (GCRs), as well as secondary particles created by interactions of these GCRs with the spacecraft. The RAD measurements can serve as a proxy for the radiation environment a human crew would encounter during a transit to Mars, for a given part of the solar cycle, assuming that a crewed vehicle would have comparable shielding. The measurements of radiological quantities made by RAD are important in themselves, and, the same data set allow for detailed analysis of GCR-induced particle spectra inside the spacecraft. This provides important inputs for the evaluation of current transport models used to model the free-space (and spacecraft) radiation environment for different spacecraft shielding and different times in the solar cycle. Changes in these conditions can lead to significantly different radiation fields and, thus, potential health risks, emphasizing the need for validated transport codes. Here, we present the first measurements of charged particle fluxes inside a spacecraft during the transit from Earth to Mars. Using data obtained during the last two month of the cruise to Mars (June 11-July 14, 2012), we have derived detailed energy spectra for low-Z particles stopping in the instrument's detectors, as well as integral fluxes for penetrating particles with higher energies. Furthermore, we analyze the temporal changes in measured proton fluxes during quiet solar periods (i.e., when no solar energetic particle events occurred) over the duration of the transit (December 9, 2011-July 14, 2012) and correlate them with changing heliospheric conditions.

  6. Charged particle spectra measured during the transit to Mars with the Mars Science Laboratory Radiation Assessment Detector (MSL/RAD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehresmann, Bent; Hassler, Donald M.; Zeitlin, Cary; Guo, Jingnan; Köhler, Jan; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.; Appel, Jan K.; Brinza, David E.; Rafkin, Scot C. R.; Böttcher, Stephan I.; Burmeister, Sönke; Lohf, Henning; Martin, Cesar; Böhm, Eckart; Matthiä, Daniel; Reitz, Günther

    2016-08-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) started its 253-day cruise to Mars on November 26, 2011. During cruise the Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD), situated on board the Curiosity rover, conducted measurements of the energetic-particle radiation environment inside the spacecraft. This environment consists mainly of galactic cosmic rays (GCRs), as well as secondary particles created by interactions of these GCRs with the spacecraft. The RAD measurements can serve as a proxy for the radiation environment a human crew would encounter during a transit to Mars, for a given part of the solar cycle, assuming that a crewed vehicle would have comparable shielding. The measurements of radiological quantities made by RAD are important in themselves, and, the same data set allow for detailed analysis of GCR-induced particle spectra inside the spacecraft. This provides important inputs for the evaluation of current transport models used to model the free-space (and spacecraft) radiation environment for different spacecraft shielding and different times in the solar cycle. Changes in these conditions can lead to significantly different radiation fields and, thus, potential health risks, emphasizing the need for validated transport codes. Here, we present the first measurements of charged particle fluxes inside a spacecraft during the transit from Earth to Mars. Using data obtained during the last two month of the cruise to Mars (June 11-July 14, 2012), we have derived detailed energy spectra for low-Z particles stopping in the instrument's detectors, as well as integral fluxes for penetrating particles with higher energies. Furthermore, we analyze the temporal changes in measured proton fluxes during quiet solar periods (i.e., when no solar energetic particle events occurred) over the duration of the transit (December 9, 2011-July 14, 2012) and correlate them with changing heliospheric conditions.

  7. LLNL 10(a)(1)(A) Annual Report (TE-053672-2)--2006

    SciTech Connect

    Woollett, J

    2007-01-31

    This report summarizes research related to Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Experimental Test Site, Site 300 (S300), located within Alameda and San Joaquin Counties (Figure 1) and conducted under the 10(a)(1)(A) (Recovery) permit TE-053672-2. The U.S. Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) holds this property in ownership. The 2006 recovery research at S300 involved fieldwork associated with two species: the California whipsnake (Masticophis lateralis) (MALA) and the California red-legged frog (Rana aurora draytonii) (CRLF). A research project (Biological Opinion 1-1-02-F-0064) investigating the direct effects (fatality/harm) and indirect impacts (habitat alteration) of prescribed burning of coastal sage scrub on MALA was permitted by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), Sacramento Office, in the Spring of 2002. Several different public resource management agencies were approved by the Service to implement recovery-oriented (fuels treatment) studies associated with this research plan. LLNL's proposed seven-year study was initiated in 2002 and is anticipated to conclude in 2008. Results reflected in this report apply to information gathered during the first five years of the project; because of the low MALA sample size collected onsite and the unforeseen wildland fire that burned both of the study sites in 2005, long term conservation-related measures for MALA are not yet evident from study analyses. The CRLF research (Biological Opinion 1-1-02-F-0062) involved translocating individuals from two wetland locations that had received artificial (potable) water discharges for the last 15-20 years. CRLF's that occupied the wetland sites were moved to an enhanced wetland area further downstream (engineered pools in a pre-existing perennial drainage) in an area called ''Mid-Elk Ravine''. The aboveground, potable water flows were terminated once all CRLF translocations had been completed (Summer of 2006).

  8. Summary of the LLNL gasoline spill demonstration - dynamic underground stripping project

    SciTech Connect

    Newmark, R.L.; Aines, R.D.

    1995-04-03

    Underground spills of volatile hydrocarbons (solvents or fuels) can be difficult to clean up when the hydrocarbons are present both above and below the water table and are found in relatively impermeable clays. Years of groundwater pumping may not completely remove the contamination. Researchers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and the College of Engineering at the University of California at Berkeley (UCB) have collaborated to develop a technique called Dynamic Underground Stripping to remove localized underground spills in a relatively short time. The U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management has sponsored a full-scale demonstration of this technique at the LLNL gasoline spill site. When highly concentrated contamination is found above the standing water table, vacuum extraction has been very effective at both removing the contaminant and enhancing biological remediation through the addition of oxygen. Below the water table, however, these advantages cannot be obtained. For such sites where the contamination is too deep for excavation, there are currently no widely applicable cleanup methods. Dynamic Underground Stripping removes separate-phase organic contaminants below the water table by heating the subsurface above the boiling point of water, and then removing both contaminant and water by vacuum extraction. The high temperatures both convert the organic to vapor and enhance other removal paths by increasing diffusion and eliminating sorption. Because this method uses rapid, high-energy techniques in cleaning the soil, it requires an integrated system of underground monitoring and imaging methods to control and evaluate the process in real time.

  9. An aerial radiological survey of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and surrounding area, Livermore, California

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over four areas in the California cities of Dublin, Livermore, and Tracy from 8 through 29 April 1986. Although a similar aerial survey had been previously conducted over Livermore and Tracy in 1975, this was the first such survey performed over the city of Dublin. The surveyed areas included the Camp Parks training facility in Dublin; the Las Positas Golf Course and the Livermore sewage treatment plant in west Livermore; the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) facilities in east Livermore; and the LLNL facilities at Site 300 located three miles southwest of the city of Tracy, California. Only naturally-occurring radiation was detected over the Camp Parks area in Dublin and over the golf course and sewage treatment plant in west Livermore. Man-made radionuclides were detected over the LLNL facilities in east Livermore and over Site 300. These man-made sources were typical of source storage and radiological activities conducted at the facilities. In areas where only naturally-occurring gamma emitters were detected, the observed range of activity was essentially the same in both the 1975 and 1986 surveys. 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Laboratory observation of secondary shock formation ahead of a strongly radiative blast wave

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, J F; Edwards, M J; Froula, D H; Gregori, G; Edens, A; Ditmire, T

    2005-11-16

    High Mach number blast waves were created by focusing a laser pulse on a solid pin, surrounded by nitrogen or xenon gas. In xenon, the initial shock is strongly radiative, sending out a supersonic radiative heat wave far ahead of itself. The shock propagates into the heated gas, diminishing in strength as it goes. The radiative heat wave also slows, and when its Mach number drops to 2 with respect to the downstream plasma, the heat wave drives a second shock ahead of itself to satisfy mass and momentum conservation in the heat wave reference frame; the heat wave becomes subsonic behind the second shock. For some time both shocks are observed simultaneously. Eventually the initial shock dimimishes in strength so much that it can longer be observed, but the second shock continues to propagate long after this time. This sequence of events is a new phenomenon that has not previously been discussed in literature. Numerical simulation clarifies the origin of the second shock, and its position is consistent with an analytical estimate.

  11. Analyses in Support of Z-IFE: LLNL Progress Report for FY-04

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, W; Abbott, R; Latkowski, J; Moir, R; Reyes, S; Schmitt, R

    2004-10-06

    During the last quarter of FY2004, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) conducted a brief study of power plant options for a z-pinch-based inertial fusion energy (Z-IFE) power plant. Areas that were covered include chamber design, thick-liquid response, neutronics and activation, and systems studies. This report summarizes the progress made in each of these areas, provides recommendations for improvements to the basic design concept, and identifies future work that is needed. As a starting point to the LLNL studies, we have taken information provided in several publications and presentations. In particular, many of the basic parameters were taken from the ZP-3 study, which is described in reference 4. The ZP-3 design called for 12 separate target chambers, with any 10 of them operating at a given time. Each chamber would be pulsed at a repetition rate of 0.1 Hz with a target yield of 3 GJ. Thus, each chamber would have a fusion power of 300 MW for a power plant total of 3000 MW. The ZP-3 study considered several options for the recyclable transmission lines (RTL). Early in the study, the LLNL group questioned the use of many chambers as well as the yield limitation of 3 GJ. The feeling was that a large number of chambers would invariably lead to a considerably higher system cost than for a system with fewer chambers. Naturally, this trend would be somewhat offset by the increased availability that might be possible with many chambers. Reference 4 points out that target yields as high as 20 GJ would be possible with currently available manufacturing technology. The LLNL team considered yields ranging from 3 to 20 GJ. Our findings indicate that higher yields, which lead one to fewer chambers, make the most sense from an economic point of view. Systems modeling, including relative economics, is covered in Section 2. Regardless of the number of chambers of the fusion yield per target, a Z-IFE power plant would make use of a thick-liquid wall protection scheme

  12. Laboratory kinetic studies of OH and CO2 relevant to upper atmospheric radiation balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, David D.; Zahniser, Mark S.; Kolb, Charles E.

    1994-01-01

    During the first year of this program, we have made considerable progress toward the measurement of the dipole moments of vibrationally excited OH radicals. Our primary accomplishments have been 1) the modification of the original slit jet spectrometer for the study of radical species and 2) the observation of infrared chemiluminescence from the vibrationally excited OH radicals formed in the H + ozone reaction in the supersonic jet. We are optimistic that we will soon observe OH* laser induced fluorescence in the jet. Modulation of this fluorescence with microwave radiation in an applied electric field will be the final step required for the precise determination of the vibrational dependence of the OH dipole moment.

  13. Results of LLNL investigation of NYCT data sets

    SciTech Connect

    Sale, K; Harrison, M; Guo, M; Groza, M

    2007-08-01

    Upon examination we have concluded that none of the alarms indicate the presence of a real threat. A brief history and results from our examination of the NYCT ASP occupancy data sets dated from 2007-05-14 19:11:07 to 2007-06-20 15:46:15 are presented in this letter report. When the ASP data collection campaign at NYCT was completed, rather than being shut down, the Canberra ASP annunciator box was unplugged leaving the data acquisition system running. By the time it was discovered that the ASP was still acquiring data about 15,000 occupancies had been recorded. Among these were about 500 alarms (classified by the ASP analysis system as either Threat Alarms or Suspect Alarms). At your request, these alarms have been investigated. Our conclusion is that none of the alarm data sets indicate the presence of a real threat (within statistics). The data sets (ICD1 and ICD2 files with concurrent JPEG pictures) were delivered to LLNL on a removable hard drive labeled FOUO. The contents of the data disk amounted to 53.39 GB of data requiring over two days for the standard LLNL virus checking software to scan before work could really get started. Our first step was to walk through the directory structure of the disk and create a database of occupancies. For each occupancy, the database was populated with the occupancy date and time, occupancy number, file path to the ICD1 data and the alarm ('No Alarm', 'Suspect Alarm' or 'Threat Alarm') from the ICD2 file along with some other incidental data. In an attempt to get a global understanding of what was going on, we investigated the occupancy information. The occupancy date/time and alarm type were binned into one-hour counts. These data are shown in Figures 1 and 2.

  14. Site selection and containment evaluation for LLNL nuclear events

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, C.W.

    1993-06-01

    During approximately the past decade, the site selection process at LLNL has evolved as the Test Program needs and resources have changed, containment practices have been modified, and the DOE and other regulatory agencies have become more restrictive. Throughout this period the Containment Program and the Field Operations Program at LLNL have managed a cooperative effort to improve site selection. The site selection process actually is three inter-related tasks, namely, selection of a stockpile hole for a specific nuclear test, selection of a drill site for a stockpile hole, and selection of a new drill site for a specific test. Each proposed site is carefully reviewed for known or projected geologic structure and medium properties, nearby holes, containment experience in the region, likelihood of drilling problems, programmatic need for a given depth of hole, and scheduling of Test Program events and resources. By using our data bank, our general knowledge of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) geology, and other information sources, as well as our background in drilling large diameter holes at the NTS, we have been able to optimize our use of NTS real estate and programmatic resources. The containment evaluation of a site is facilitated by considering the location before the hole is drilled. Discuss imposed restraints and our criteria and guidelines for site selection and assignment of events to specific holes, along with the factors that influence selection of a Working Point (WP) depth. Since siting and containment evaluation are strongly related, most major factors related to the containment evaluation process will also be reviewed.

  15. GAMMA-RAY COMPTON LIGHT SOURCE DEVELOPMENT AT LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Hartemann, F V; Anderson, S G; Gibson, D J; Hagmann, C A; Johnson, M S; Jovanovic, I; Messerly, M J; Pruet, J A; Shverdin, M Y; Tremaine, A M; McNabb, D P; Siders, C W; Barty, C J

    2007-08-15

    A new class of tunable, monochromatic {gamma}-ray sources capable of operating at high peak and average brightness is currently being developed at LLNL for nuclear photoscience and applications. These novel systems are based on Compton scattering of laser photons by a high brightness relativistic electron beam produced by an rf photoinjector. A prototype, capable of producing > 10{sup 8} 0.7 MeV photons in a single shot, with a fractional bandwidth of 1%, and a repetition rate of 10 Hz, is currently under construction at LLNL; this system will be used to perform nuclear resonance fluorescence experiments. A new symmetrized S-band rf gun, using a Mg photocathode, will produce up to 1 nC of charge in an 8 ps bunch, with a normalized emittance modeled at 0.8 mm.mrad; electrons are subsequently accelerated up to 120 MeV to interact with a 500 mJ, 10 ps, 355 nm laser pulse and generate {gamma}-rays. The laser front end is a fiber-based system, using corrugated-fiber Bragg gratings for stretching, and drives both the frequency-quadrupled photocathode illumination laser and the Nd:YAG interaction laser. Two new technologies are used in the laser: a hyper-Michelson temporal pulse stacker capable of producing 8 ps square UV pulses, and a hyper-dispersion compressor for the interaction laser. Other key technologies, basic scaling laws, and recent experimental results will also be presented, along with an overview of future research and development directions.

  16. Building a LLNL Capability in Radioactive Ion Beam Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Bernstein, L A; Becker, J A; Garrett, P E; Younes, W; Schiller, A

    2002-01-31

    The purpose of this LDRD was to establish a program at LLNL in radioactive ion beam (RIB) experiments that would use these experiments to address a wide range physics issues in both stellar nucleosynthesis and stockpile stewardship radiochemistry. The LDRD was funded for a total of two years (fiscal years 2000 and 2001) and transferred to the Physical Data Research Program in fiscal year 2002. Reactions on unstable nuclei and isomeric states play a central role in the formation of elements in both stars and nuclear devices. However, the abilities of reaction models to predict cross sections on radioactive nuclei are uncertain at best. This can be attributed to the lack of experimental data to guide reaction-modeling efforts. Only the 10% of all bound nuclei that can be formed with stable targets and beams have been accessed and studied. The proposed Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA) and existing RIB facilities offer an unprecedented opportunity to address many of the outstanding questions in nuclear structure, reactions and astrophysics by enabling the observation of nuclear reactions with radioactive targets and/or beams. The primary goal of this LDRD is to develop three experimental capabilities for use with RIB experiments: (1) Level density and {gamma}-ray strength function measurements using statistical {gamma}-rays. (2) Charged particle-induced cross sections measurements on radioactive nuclei. (3) Neutron-induced cross section measurements on a radioactive target. RIA and RIB based experiments are the new frontier for nuclear physics. The joint DOE/NSF nuclear science advisory committee has named development of a RIA facility in the United States as the highest new construction priority. In addition to addressing the questions presented above, this LDRD has helped to establish a position for LLNL at the forefront of the international nuclear science community.

  17. The LLNL-G3D global P-wave velocity model and the significance of the BayesLoc multiple-event location procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, N. A.; Myers, S. C.; Johannesson, G.; Matzel, E.

    2011-12-01

    LLNL-G3D is a global-scale model of P-wave velocity designed to accurately predict seismic travel times at regional and teleseismic distances simultaneously. The underlying goal of the model is to provide enhanced seismic event location capabilities. Previous versions of LLNL-G3D (versions 1 and 2) provide substantial improvements in event location accuracy via 3-D ray tracing. The latest models are based on ~2.7 million P and Pn arrivals that are re-processed using our global multi-event locator known as BayesLoc. Bayesloc is a formulation of the joint probability distribution across multiple-event location parameters, including hypocenters, travel time corrections, pick precision, and phase labels. Modeling the whole multiple-event system results in accurate locations and an internally consistent data set that is ideal for tomography. Our recently developed inversion approach (called Progressive Multi-level Tessellation Inversion or PMTI) captures regional trends and fine details where data warrant. Using PMTI, we model multiple heterogeneity scale lengths without defining parameter grids with variable densities based on some ad hoc criteria. LLNL-G3Dv3 (version 3) is produced with data generated with the BayesLoc procedure, recently modified to account for localized travel time trends via a multiple event clustering technique. We demonstrate the significance of BayesLoc processing, the impact on the resulting tomographic images, and the application of LLNL-G3D to seismic event location. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL-ABS-491805.

  18. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory DIII-D cooperation: 1987 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, S.L.; Calderon, M.O.; Ellis, R.M.; Evans, J.C.; Ferguson, S.W.; Hill, D.N.; James, R.A.; Jenkins, S.L.; Karlsen, C.E.; Kevan, D.

    1988-02-24

    This report summarizes the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) DIII-D cooperation during FY87. The LLNL participation in DIII-D concentrated on three principal areas: ECH and current-drive physics, divertor and edge physics, and tokamak operations. These topics are dicussed in this report. 27 refs., 11 figs.

  19. Laboratory investigation of electric charging of dust particles by electrons, ions, and UV radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Svestka, Jiri; Pinter, S.; Gruen, E.

    1989-01-01

    In many cosmic environments electric charging of dust particles occurs by electrons, ions, and UV radiation. In case of interstellar dust particles the value of their electric charge can have, for instance, very important consequences for their destruction rate in supernova remnant's shock waves and can globally influence the overall life cycle of dust particles in galaxies. For experimental simulation of charging processes a vacuum chamber was used in which the particles fall through an electron or ion beam of energies up to 10 KeV. The aim of the experiments was to attain maximum charge of dust particles. Furthermore the influence of the rest gas was also determined because electrons and ions produced by collisional ionization of the rest gas can result in significant effects. For measurement particles from 1 to 100 microns from glass, carbon, Al, Fe, MgO, and very loosely bound conglomerates of Al2O3 were used.

  20. The Advanced Photon Source: A national synchrotron radiation research facility at Argonne National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The vision of the APS sprang from prospective users, whose unflagging support the project has enjoyed throughout the decade it has taken to make this facility a reality. Perhaps the most extraordinary aspect of synchrotron radiation research, is the extensive and diverse scientific makeup of the user community. From this primordial soup of scientists exchanging ideas and information, come the collaborative and interdisciplinary accomplishments that no individual alone could produce. So, unlike the solitary Roentgen, scientists are engaged in a collective and dynamic enterprise with the potential to see and understand the structures of the most complex materials that nature or man can produce--and which underlie virtually all modern technologies. This booklet provides scientists and laymen alike with a sense of both the extraordinary history of x-rays and the knowledge they have produced, as well as the potential for future discovery contained in the APS--a source a million million times brighter than the Roentgen tube.

  1. Measurement and simulation of the impact of coherent synchrotron radiation on the Jefferson Laboratory energy recovery linac electron beam

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, C C.; Biedron, S G.; Edelen, A L.; Milton, S V.; Benson, S; Douglas, D; Li, R; Tennant, C D.; Carlsten, B E.

    2015-03-09

    In an experiment conducted on the Jefferson Laboratory IR free-electron laser driver, the effects of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) on beam quality were studied. The primary goal of this work was to explore CSR output and effect on the beam with variation of the bunch compression in the IR recirculator. Here we examine the impact of CSR on the average energy loss as a function of bunch compression as well as the impact of CSR on the energy spectrum of the bunch. Simulation of beam dynamics in the machine, including the one-dimensional CSR model, shows very good agreement with the measured effect of CSR on the average energy loss as a function of compression. Finally, a well-defined structure is observed in the energy spectrum with a feature in the spectrum that varies as a function of the compression. This effect is examined in simulations, as well, and a simple explanation for the variation is proposed.

  2. Measurement and simulation of the impact of coherent synchrotron radiation on the Jefferson Laboratory energy recovery linac electron beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, C. C.; Biedron, S. G.; Edelen, A. L.; Milton, S. V.; Benson, S.; Douglas, D.; Li, R.; Tennant, C. D.; Carlsten, B. E.

    2015-03-01

    In an experiment conducted on the Jefferson Laboratory IR free-electron laser driver, the effects of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) on beam quality were studied. The primary goal of this work was to explore CSR output and effect on the beam with variation of the bunch compression in the IR recirculator. Here we examine the impact of CSR on the average energy loss as a function of bunch compression as well as the impact of CSR on the energy spectrum of the bunch. Simulation of beam dynamics in the machine, including the one-dimensional CSR model, shows very good agreement with the measured effect of CSR on the average energy loss as a function of compression. Finally, a well-defined structure is observed in the energy spectrum with a feature in the spectrum that varies as a function of the compression. This effect is examined in simulations, as well, and a simple explanation for the variation is proposed.

  3. Radiative Power Loss Calculations for Krypton and Argon in Intermediate-to-High Density Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Fournier, K B; Chung, H-K; Lee, R W

    2001-12-01

    The scope of work for this subcontract requires that state-of-the-art, detailed atomic kinetics calculations be applied to compute the total radiative cooling rates for Ar and Kr in high density plasmas. This is in support of the Defense Threat Reduction Agency's program of development of simulators with high-fluence radiation and spectral fidelity. Using collisional-radiative modeling codes and unique expertise at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), the total radiative yields from Ar and Kr, integrated over all photon energies, have been computed. Spectrally resolved yields from K-shell Ar and K- and L-shell Kr have also been tabulated. The present calculations show that high electron density in the plasma sources is essential to maximize the fraction of power output in various x-ray bands.

  4. The EBIT Calorimeter Spectrometer: A New, Permanent User Facility at the LLNL EBIT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porter, S.

    2007-01-01

    The EBIT Calorimeter Spectrometer (ECS) has recently been completed and is currently being installed at the EBIT facility at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The ECS will replace the smaller XRS/EBIT spectrometer that has been in almost continuous operation since 2000. The XRS/EBIT was based on a spare laboratory cryostat and an engineering model detector system from the Suzaku/XRS observatory. The new ECS spectrometer was built from the ground up to be a low maintenance, high performance microcalorimeter spectrometer with 4 eV resolution at 6 keV, 32 detector channels, 10 us event timing, and capable of uninterrupted acquisition sessions of over 70 hours at 50 mK. The XRSIEBIT program has been extremely successful, producing over two-dozen refereed publications on topics such as laboratory astrophysics, atomic physics, nuclear physics, and calibration of the spectrometers for the National Ignition Facility, with many more publications in preparation. The ECS spectrometer will continue this work into the future with improved spectral resolution, integration times, and ease-of-use. We designed the ECS instrument with TES detectors in mind by using the same highly successful magnetic shielding as our laboratory TES cryostats. This design will lead to a future TES instrument at the LLNL EBIT. This proposed future instrument would include a hybrid detector system with 0.8 eV resolution in the band from 0.1-1.0 keV, 2 eV from 0.1-10 keV, and 30 eV from 0.5-100 keV, with high quantum efficiency in each band. Here we discuss the legacy of the XRS/EBIT program, the performance of the new ECS spectrometer, and plans for a future TES spectrometer.

  5. Shielding calculations and verifications for the new Radiation Instrument Calibration Facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    George, G. L.; Olsher, R. H.; Seagraves, D. T.

    2002-01-01

    MCNP-4C1 was used to perform the shielding design for the new Central Health Physics Calibration Facility (CHPCF) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The problem of shielding the facility was subdivided into three separate components: (1) Transmission; (2) Skyshine; and (3) Maze Streaming/ Transmission. When possible, actual measurements were taken to verify calculation results. The comparison of calculation versus measurement results shows excellent agreement for neutron calculations. For photon comparisons, calculations resulted in conservative estimates of the Effective Dose Equivalent (EDE) compared to measured results. This disagreement in the photon measurements versus calculations is most likely due to several conservative assumptions regarding shield density and composition. For example, reinforcing steel bars (Rebar) in the concrete shield walls were not included in the shield model.

  6. [The opportunity to use combined stem cells transplantation for haemopoesis activation in the old and mature laboratory animals under the conditions of ionizing radiation].

    PubMed

    Grebnev, D Iu; Maklakova, I Iu; Iastrebov, A P

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study the influence of combined transplantation of stem cells (multypotent mesenchimal stromal and haemopoetic stem cells) on the haemopoesis of old and mature laboratory animals under the condition of ionizing radiation. The result of the experiment shows that under physiological conditions the combined transplantation brings the erithropoesis activation, under the ionizing radiation conditions it brings the erythroid and granulocytopoesis activation. Moreover the combined MMSC and HSC transplantation gives cytoprotective action on the myeloid tissue due to decrease of cyto genically changed cells in the mature animals under the condition of ionizing radiation, but in the old animals this effect can be seen even under physiological condition. Combined transplantation of MMSC and GSC can be used in the mature and old laboratory animals under the conditions of ionising radiation for the haemopoesis activation.

  7. The Advanced Light Source at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory: A high-brightness soft x-ray synchrotron-radiation facility

    SciTech Connect

    Schlachter, A.S.; Robinson, A.L.

    1990-07-01

    The Advanced Light Source, a third-generation national synchrotron-radiation facility now under construction at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, is scheduled to begin serving qualified users across a broad spectrum of research areas in the spring of 1993. Based on a low-emittance electron storage ring optimized to operate at 1.5 GeV, the ALS will have 10 long straight sections available for insertion devices (undulators and wigglers) and 24 high-quality bend-magnet ports. The short pulse width (30--50 ns) will be ideal for time-resolved measurements. Undulators will generate high-brightness soft x-ray and ultraviolet (XUV) radiation from below 20 eV to above 2 keV. Wigglers and bend magnets will extend the spectrum by generating high fluxes of hard x-rays to photon energies above 10 keV. The ALS will support an extensive research program in which XUV radiation is used to study matter in all its varied gaseous, liquid, and solid forms. The high brightness will open new areas of research in the materials sciences, such as spatially resolved spectroscopy (spectromicroscopy). Biological applications will include x-ray microscopy with element-specific sensitivity in the water window of the spectrum where water is much more transparent than protein. The ALS will be an excellent research tool for atomic physics and chemistry because the high flux will allow measurements to be made with tenuous gas-phase targets. 8 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Evaluation of gamma radiation levels for reducing pathogenic bacteria and fungi in animal sewage and laboratory effluents.

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, M M; Brooks, B W; Stewart, R B; Dion, W; Trudel, J R; Ouwerkerk, T

    1987-01-01

    Sewage samples collected from animal wastes and from effluents at an animal disease laboratory were inoculated with known numbers of pathogenic organisms and subjected to various doses of gamma radiation from a 60Co source. Surviving test organisms were quantitatively determined by selective and enrichment techniques. The experiment was modeled as a quantal assay in which probit analysis was applied to obtain D10 values. The D10 value represents the irradiating dose required to reduce the population by 90%. The D10 value ranged from 13.4 krad for Campylobacter fetus to 156.6 krad for Streptococcus faecalis in animal sewage. However, the D10 value for the laboratory effluent was generally lower. Based on the estimated D10 values, the rating of the test organisms in decreasing order of radiosensitivity appeared as follows: Brucella abortus, Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus, Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, Campylobacter laridis, Mycobacterium fortuitum, Aspergillus fumigatus, Salmonella muenster, Candida albicans, Clostridium difficile and Streptococcus faecalis. If the D5 and D1 values were utilized, this listing would be only slightly altered. PMID:3651881

  9. Lacustrine mollusc radiations in the Lake Malawi Basin: experiments in a natural laboratory for evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Damme, D.; Gautier, A.

    2013-09-01

    In terminal Pliocene-early Pleistocene times, part of the Malawi Basin was occupied by paleo-lake Chiwondo. Molluscan biostratigraphy situates this freshwater lake either in the East African wet phase between 2.7-2.4 Ma or that of 2.0-1.8 Ma. In-lake divergent evolution remained restricted to a few molluscan taxa and was very modest. The lacustrine Chiwondo fauna went extinct at the beginning of the Pleistocene. The modern Lake Malawi malacofauna is depauperate and descends from ubiquistic southeast African taxa and some Malawi basin endemics that invaded the present lake after the Late Pleistocene mega-droughts. The Pleistocene aridity crises caused dramatic changes, affecting the malacofauna of all East African lakes. All lacustrine endemic faunas that had evolved in the Pliocene rift lakes, such as paleo-lake Chiwondo, became extinct. In Lake Tanganyika, the freshwater ecosystem did not crash as in other lakes, but the environmental changes were sufficiently important to trigger a vast radiation. All African endemic lacustrine molluscan clades that are the result of in-lake divergence are hence geologically young, including the vast Lavigeria clade in Lake Tanganyika (ca. 43 species).

  10. NREL Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL): Baseline Measurement System (BMS); Golden, Colorado (Data)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Stoffel, T.; Andreas, A.

    1981-07-15

    The SRRL was established at the Solar Energy Research Institute (now NREL) in 1981 to provide continuous measurements of the solar resources, outdoor calibrations of pyranometers and pyrheliometers, and to characterize commercially available instrumentation. The SRRL is an outdoor laboratory located on South Table Mountain, a mesa providing excellent solar access throughout the year, overlooking Denver. Beginning with the basic measurements of global horizontal irradiance, direct normal irradiance and diffuse horizontal irradiance at 5-minute intervals, the SRRL Baseline Measurement System now produces more than 130 data elements at 1-min intervals that are available from the Measurement & Instrumentation Data Center Web site. Data sources include global horizontal, direct normal, diffuse horizontal (from shadowband and tracking disk), global on tilted surfaces, reflected solar irradiance, ultraviolet, infrared (upwelling and downwelling), photometric and spectral radiometers, sky imagery, and surface meteorological conditions (temperature, relative humidity, barometric pressure, precipitation, snow cover, wind speed and direction at multiple levels). Data quality control and assessment include daily instrument maintenance (M-F) with automated data quality control based on real-time examinations of redundant instrumentation and internal consistency checks using NREL's SERI-QC methodology. Operators are notified of equipment problems by automatic e-mail messages generated by the data acquisition and processing system. Radiometers are recalibrated at least annually with reference instruments traceable to the World Radiometric Reference (WRR).

  11. New developments and applications of intense pulsed radiation sources at Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, D.

    1998-02-01

    In the past thirty-six months, tremendous strides have been made in x-ray production using high-current z-pinches. Today, the x-ray energy (1.9 MJ) and power (200 TW) output of the Z accelerator (formerly PBFA-II) is the largest available in the laboratory. These z-pinch x-ray sources are being developed for research into the physics of high energy density plasmas of interest in weapon behavior and in inertial confinement fusion. Beyond the Z accelerator current of 20 MA, an extrapolation to the X-1 accelerator level of 60 MA may have the potential to drive high-yield ICF reactions at affordable cost if several challenging technical problems can be overcome. New developments have also taken place at Sandia in the area of high current, mm-diameter electron beams for advanced hydrodynamic radiography. On SABRE, x-ray spot diameters were less than 2 mm with a dose of 100 R at 1 meter in a 40 ns pulse.

  12. Composition, size distribution, optical properties, and radiative effects of laboratory-resuspended PM10 from geological dust of the Rome area, by electron microscopy and radiative transfer modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietrodangelo, A.; Salzano, R.; Bassani, C.; Pareti, S.; Perrino, C.

    2015-11-01

    In this work, new information has been gained on the laboratory-resuspended PM10 fraction from geological topsoil and outcropped rocks representative of the Rome area (Latium). Mineralogical composition, size distribution, optical properties and the surface radiative forcing efficiency (RFE) of dust types representing the compositional end members of this geological area have been addressed. A multi-disciplinary approach was used, based on chamber resuspension of raw materials and sampling of the PM10 fraction, to simulate field sampling at dust source, scanning electron microscopy/X-ray energy-dispersive microanalysis (SEM XEDS) of individual mineral particles, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of bulk dust samples, building of number and volume size distribution (SD) from microanalysis data of mineral particles and fitting to a log-normal curve, and radiative transfer modelling (RTM) to retrieve optical properties and radiative effects of the compositional end-member dust samples. The mineralogical composition of Rome lithogenic PM10 varies between an end-member dominated by silicate minerals (from volcanics lithotypes), and one mostly composed of calcite (from travertine or limestones). Lithogenic PM10 with intermediate composition derives mainly from siliciclastic rocks or marlstones. Size and mineral species of PM10 particles of silicate-dominated dust types are tuned mainly by rock weathering and, to lesser extent, by debris formation or crystallization; chemical precipitation of CaCO3 plays a major role in calcite-dominated types. These differences are reflected in the diversity of volume distributions, either within dust types or mineral species. Differences are also observed between volume distributions of calcite from travertine (natural source; SD unimodal at 5 μm a.d.) and from road dust (anthropic source; SD bimodal at 3.8 and 1.8 μm a.d.). The volcanics and travertine dusts differently affect the single scattering albedo (SSA) and the asymmetry

  13. Technical Safety Appraisal of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-01

    This report documents the results of the Technical Safety Appraisal (TSA) of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) (including the Site 300 area), Livermore, California, conducted from February 26 to April 5, 1990. The purpose of the assessment was to provide the Secretary of Energy with the status of Environment, Safety and Health (ES H) Programs at LLNL. LLNL is operated by the University of California for the Department of Energy (DOE), and is a multi-program, mission-oriented institution engaged in fundamental and applied research programs that require a multidisciplinary approach. 1 fig.

  14. Criticality Safety Evaluation of the LLNL Inherently Safe Subcritical Assembly (ISSA)

    SciTech Connect

    Percher, Catherine

    2012-06-19

    The LLNL Nuclear Criticality Safety Division has developed a training center to illustrate criticality safety and reactor physics concepts through hands-on experimental training. The experimental assembly, the Inherently Safe Subcritical Assembly (ISSA), uses surplus highly enriched research reactor fuel configured in a water tank. The training activities will be conducted by LLNL following the requirements of an Integration Work Sheet (IWS) and associated Safety Plan. Students will be allowed to handle the fissile material under the supervision of LLNL instructors. This report provides the technical criticality safety basis for instructional operations with the ISSA experimental assembly.

  15. Detailed characterization of the LLNL imaging proton spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmus, A. M.; Hazi, A. U.; Manuel, M. J.-E.; Kuranz, C. C.; Klein, S. R.; Belancourt, P. X.; Fein, J. R.; MacDonald, M. J.; Drake, R. P.; Pollock, B. B.; Park, J.; Williams, G. J.; Chen, H.

    2016-11-01

    Ultra-intense short pulse lasers incident on solid targets (e.g., thin Au foils) produce well collimated, broad-spectrum proton beams. These proton beams can be used to characterize magnetic fields, electric fields, and density gradients in high energy-density systems. The LLNL-Imaging Proton Spectrometer (L-IPS) was designed and built [H. Chen et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 10D314 (2010)] for use with such laser produced proton beams. The L-IPS has an energy range of 50 keV-40 MeV with a resolving power (E/dE) of about 275 at 1 MeV and 21 at 20 MeV, as well as a single spatial imaging axis. In order to better characterize the dispersion and imaging capability of this diagnostic, a 3D finite element analysis solver is used to calculate the magnetic field of the L-IPS. Particle trajectories are then obtained via numerical integration to determine the dispersion relation of the L-IPS in both energy and angular space.

  16. Resolution limitations and optimization of the LLNL streak camera focus

    SciTech Connect

    Lerche, R.A.; Griffith, R.L.

    1987-09-01

    The RCA C73435 image tube is biased at voltages far from its original design in the LLNL ultrafast (10 ps) streak camera. Its output resolution at streak camera operating potentials has been measured as a function of input slit width, incident-light wavelength, and focus-grid voltage. The temporal resolution is insensitive to focus-grid voltage for a narrow (100 ..mu..m) input slit, but is very sensitive to focus-grid voltage for a wide (2 mm) input slit. At the optimum wide-slit focus voltage, temporal resolution is insensitive to slit width. Spatial resolution is nearly independent of focus-grid voltage for values that give good temporal resolution. Both temporal and spatial resolution depend on the incident-light wavelength. Data for 1.06-..mu..m light show significantly better focusing than for 0.53-..mu..m light. Streak camera operation is simulated with a computer program that calculates photoelectron trajectories. Electron ray tracing describes all of the observed effects of slit width, incident-light wavelength, and focus-grid voltage on output resolution. 7 refs.

  17. Status of surface processes in the LLNL zonally symmetric model

    SciTech Connect

    Gleckler, P.J. )

    1989-09-30

    A surface package has been developed for use in the LLNL zonally symmetric model (ZSM). Surface energy balances are computed for both land and ocean. The ocean is modeled as a well-mixed slab, the land as a single layer with constant thermal conductivity. A land surface moisture budget includes rain, evaporation, sublimation, snowfall, snowmelt and runoff. There is a highly simplified parameterization of surface albedo for freezing oceans and snow covered land. Land and sea air is instantly mixed' by averaging pertinent land and sea surface variables (weighted by their respective areas in each zone) before use in subsequent atmospheric computations. Initial tests have demonstrated that the surface package is working properly. It has been demonstrated that the model produces a reasonable annually averaged' climate. There are some aspects of ZSM which need to be improved, most notably that of cloud cover. The next stage in the development is to test the model in seasonal mode. An improved treatment of surface albedo is currently being coded. When ZSM has been tested in seasonal mode, a sea ice routine will be added to the surface package. There are also plans to implement a method which accounts for the interaction between land and sea air. 5 refs., 15 figs.

  18. Environmental Protection Department, Operations and Regulatory Affairs Division, LLNL NESHAPs 2006 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, J; Peterson, S; Wilson, K R

    2007-06-20

    NESHAPs limits the emission of radionuclides to the ambient air from DOE facilities to levels resulting in an annual effective dose equivalent (EDE) of 10 mrem (100 {micro}Sv) to any member of the public. The EDEs for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) site-wide maximally exposed members of the public from operations in 2006 are summarized here. Livermore site: 0.0045 mrem (0.045 {micro}Sv) (36% from point source emissions, 64% from diffuse source emissions). The point source emissions include gaseous tritium modeled as tritiated water vapor as directed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region IX; the resulting dose is used for compliance purposes. Site 300: 0.016 mrem (0.16 {micro}Sv) (87.5% from point source emissions, 12.5% from diffuse source emissions). The EDEs were calculated using the EPA-approved CAP88-PC air dispersion/dose-assessment model, except for doses for two diffuse sources that were estimated using measured radionuclide concentrations and dose coefficients. Specific inputs to CAP88-PC for the modeled sources included site-specific meteorological data and source emissions data, the latter variously based on continuous stack effluent monitoring data, stack flow or other release-rate information, ambient air monitoring data, and facility knowledge.

  19. Harnessing the killer micros: Applications from LLNL's massively parallel computing initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Belak, J.F.

    1991-07-01

    Recent developments in microprocessor technology have led to performance on scalar applications exceeding traditional supercomputers. This suggests that coupling hundreds or even thousands of these killer-micros'' (all working on a single physical problem) may lead to performance on vector applications in excess of vector supercomputers. Also, future generation killer-micros are expected to have vector floating point units as well. The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of the parallel computing environment at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. However, the perspective is necessarily quite narrow and most of the examples are taken from the author's implementation of a large scale molecular dynamics code on the BBN-TC2000 at LLNL. Parallelism is achieved through a geometric domain decomposition -- each processor is assigned a distinct region of space and all atoms contained therein. As the atomic positions evolve, the processors must exchange ownership of specific atoms. This geometric domain decomposition proves to be quite general and we highlight its application to image processing and hydrodynamics simulations as well. 10 refs., 6 figs.

  20. Summary of LLNL`s accomplishments for the FY93 Waste Processing Operations Program

    SciTech Connect

    Grasz, E.; Domning, E.; Heggins, D.; Huber, L.; Hurd, R.; Martz, H.; Roberson, P.; Wilhelmsen, K.

    1994-04-01

    Under the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Office of Technology Development (OTD)-Robotic Technology Development Program (RTDP), the Waste Processing Operations (WPO) Program was initiated in FY92 to address the development of automated material handling and automated chemical and physical processing systems for mixed wastes. The Program`s mission was to develop a strategy for the treatment of all DOE mixed, low-level, and transuranic wastes. As part of this mission, DOE`s Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) was charged with the development of innovative waste treatment technologies to surmount shortcomings of existing baseline systems. Current technology advancements and applications results from cooperation of private industry, educational institutions, and several national laboratories operated for DOE. This summary document presents the LLNL Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ER and WM) Automation and Robotics Section`s contributions in support of DOE`s FY93 WPO Program. This document further describes the technological developments that were integrated in the 1993 Mixed Waste Operations (MWO) Demonstration held at SRTC in November 1993.

  1. Preliminary results of the LLNL airborne experimental test-bed SAR system

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, M.G.; Mullenhoff, C.J.; Kiefer, R.D.; Brase, J.M.; Wieting, M.G.; Berry, G.L.; Jones, H.E.

    1996-01-16

    The Imaging and Detection Program (IDP) within Laser Programs at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in cooperation with the Hughes Aircraft Company has developed a versatile, high performance, airborne experimental test-bed (AETB) capability. The test-bed has been developed for a wide range of research and development experimental applications including radar and radiometry plus, with additional aircraft modifications, optical systems. The airborne test-bed capability has been developed within a Douglas EA-3B Skywarrior jet aircraft provided and flown by Hughes Aircraft Company. The current test-bed payload consists of an X-band radar system, a high-speed data acquisition, and a real-time processing capability. The medium power radar system is configured to operate in a high resolution, synthetic aperture radar (SAR) mode and is highly configurable in terms of waveforrns, PRF, bandwidth, etc. Antennas are mounted on a 2-axis gimbal in the belly radome of the aircraft which provides pointing and stabilization. Aircraft position and antenna attitude are derived from a dedicated navigational system and provided to the real-time SAR image processor for instant image reconstruction and analysis. This paper presents a further description of the test-bed and payload subsystems plus preliminary results of SAR imagery.

  2. No-thermal plasma processing of VOCs and NO{sub x} at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Merritt, B.T.; Hsiao, M.C.; Penetrante, B.M.; Vogtlin, G.E.; Wallman, P.H.

    1995-02-15

    For the past few years, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has been conducting a comprehensive research program on the application of non-thermal plasmas for air pollution control and abatement. This program combines an extensive modeling effort with an experimental facility and test program. We believe that there are two major issues to be addressed in order to apply non-thermal plasma processing to air pollution control; these are electrical energy consumption and byproduct identification. The thrust of our work has been to understand the scalability of the non-thermal process by focusing on the energy efficiency of the non-thermal process and to identify the byproducts to ensure that effluent gases from a non-thermal processor are benign. We have compared different types of electrical discharge reactors both theoretically and experimentally. Our interests in the application of non-thermal plasmas vary from the destruction of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to NO{sub x} reduction for mobile applications. This paper will discuss the processing of both NO{sub x} and VOCs by non-thermal plasmas at LLNL.

  3. Environmental Protection Department Operations and Regulatory Affairs Division LLNL NESHAPs 2005 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, J; Peterson, S R; Wilson, K; Bowen, B; MacQueen, D; Wegrecki, A

    2006-06-19

    This annual report is prepared pursuant to the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs; Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61, Subpart H). Subpart H governs radionuclide emissions to air from Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. NESHAPs limits the emission of radionuclides to the ambient air from DOE facilities to levels resulting in an annual effective dose equivalent (EDE) of 10 mrem (100 {micro}Sv) to any member of the public. The EDEs for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) site-wide maximally exposed members of the public from operations in 2005 are summarized here. Livermore site: 0.0065 mrem (0.065 {micro}Sv) (41% from point source emissions, 59% from diffuse source emissions). The point source emissions include gaseous tritium modeled as tritiated water vapor as directed by EPA Region IX; the resulting dose is used for compliance purposes. Site 300: 0.018 mrem (0.18 {micro}Sv) (48% from point source emissions, 52% from diffuse source emissions). The EDEs were calculated using the EPA-approved CAP88-PC air dispersion/dose-assessment model, except for doses for two diffuse sources that were estimated using measured radionuclide concentrations and dose coefficients. Specific inputs to CAP88-PC for the modeled sources included site-specific meteorological data and source emissions data, the latter variously based on continuous stack effluent monitoring data, stack flow or other release-rate information, ambient air monitoring data, and facility knowledge.

  4. Empirical validation of the conceptual design of the LLNL 60-kg contained-firing facility

    SciTech Connect

    Pastrnak, J.W.; Baker, C.F.; Simmons, L.F.

    1995-02-24

    In anticipation of increasingly stringent environmental regulations, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is proposing to modify an existing facility to add a 60-kg firing chamber and related support areas. This modification will provide blast-effects containment for most of its open-air, high-explosive, firing operations. Even though these operations are within current environmental limits, containment of the blast effects and hazardous debris will further drastically reduce emissions to the environment and minimize the hazardous waste generated. The major design consideration of such a chamber is its overall structural dynamic response in terms of its long-term ability to contain all blast effects from repeated internal detonations of high explosives. Another concern is how much other portions of the facility outside the firing chamber must be hardened to ensure personnel protection in the event of an accidental detonation while the chamber door is open. To assess these concerns, a 1/4-scale replica model of the planned contained firing chamber was engineered, constructed, and tested with scaled explosive charges ranging from 25 to 125% of the operational explosives limit of 60 kg. From 16 detonations of high explosives, 880 resulting strains, blast pressures, and temperatures within the model were measured to provide information for the final design.

  5. LLNL Underground-Coal-Gasification Project. Quarterly progress report, July-September 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, D.R.; Clements, W.

    1981-11-09

    We have continued our laboratory studies of forward gasification in small blocks of coal mounted in 55-gal drums. A steam/oxygen mixture is fed into a small hole drilled longitudinally through the center of the block, the coal is ignited near the inlet and burns toward the outlet, and the product gases come off at the outlet. Various diagnostic measurements are made during the course of the burn, and afterward the coal block is split open so that the cavity can be examined. Development work continues on our mathematical model for the small coal block experiments. Preparations for the large block experiments at a coal outcrop in the Tono Basin of Washington State have required steadily increasing effort with the approach of the scheduled starting time for the experiments (Fall 1981). Also in preparation is the deep gasification experiment, Tono 1, planned for another site in the Tono Basin after the large block experiments have been completed. Wrap-up work continues on our previous gasification experiments in Wyoming. Results of the postburn core-drilling program Hoe Creek 3 are presented here. Since 1976 the Soviets have been granted four US patents on various aspects of the underground coal gasification process. These patents are described here, and techniques of special interest are noted. Finally, we include ten abstracts of pertinent LLNL reports and papers completed during the quarter.

  6. 2020 Foresight Forging the Future of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Chrzanowski, P.

    2000-01-01

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) of 2020 will look much different from the LLNL of today and vastly different from how it looked twenty years ago. We, the members of the Long-Range Strategy Project, envision a Laboratory not defined by one program--nuclear weapons research--but by several core programs related to or synergistic with LLNL's national security mission. We expect the Laboratory to be fully engaged with sponsors and the local community and closely partnering with other research and development (R&D) organizations and academia. Unclassified work will be a vital part of the Laboratory of 2020 and will visibly demonstrate LLNL's international science and technology strengths. We firmly believe that there will be a critical and continuing role for the Laboratory. As a dynamic and versatile multipurpose laboratory with a national security focus, LLNL will be applying its capabilities in science and technology to meet the needs of the nation in the 21st century. With strategic investments in science, outstanding technical capabilities, and effective relationships, the Laboratory will, we believe, continue to play a key role in securing the nation's future.

  7. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory post-Loma Prieta earthquake initiative: Seismic analysis of an elevated portion of the Bay Bridge distribution system structure

    SciTech Connect

    McCallen, D.; Goudreau, G.

    1990-06-01

    Because of the importance of earthquake safety for the citizens of California, and the potential devastating effects of future large earthquakes on the California economy, upper management at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) made a decision that LLNL should make available any unique laboratory resources to aid in post-earthquake studies. One area in which LLNL has attempted to help is in computer simulation of the performance of large scale transportation structures. The computer horsepower available at LLNL, coupled together with the in-house finite element software capabilities, results in a unique numerical simulation capability for large structures. The effort summarized in this report is one of a number of post-earthquake efforts at LLNL. The financial support for this project was provided by the LLNL Engineering Department. 9 refs., 26 figs.

  8. Organism/Organic Exposure to Orbital Stresses (OOREOS) Satellite: Radiation Exposure in LEO and Supporting Laboratory Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattioda, Andrew Lige; Cook, Amanda Marie; Quinn, Richard C.; Elsaesser, Andreas; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Ricca,Alessandra; Jones, Nykola C.; Hoffman, Soren; Ricco,Antonio

    2014-01-01

    We will present the results from the exposure of the metalloporphyrin iron tetraphenylporphyrin chloride (FeTPPCI), anthraufin (C(sub 14)H(sub 8)(O sub 4) (Anth) and Isoviolanthrene (C(sub 34H sub 18) (IVA) to the outher space environment, measured in situ aboard the Organism/Organic Exposure to Orbital Stresses nanosatellite. The compounds were exposed for a period of 17 months (3700 hours of direct solar exposure) including broad-spectrum solar radiation (approx. 122 nm to the near infrared). The organic films are enclosed in hermetically sealed sample cells that contain one of four astrobiologically relevant microenvironments. Transmission spectra (200-1000 nm) were recorded for each film, at first daily and subsequently every 15 days, along with a solar spectrum and the dark response of the detector array. In addition to analysis via UV-Vis spectroscopy, the laboratory controls were also monitored via infrared and far-UV spectroscopy. The results presented will include the finding that the FeTPPCI and IVA organic films in contact with a humid headspace gas (0.8-2.3%) exhibit faster degradation times, upon irradiation, in comparison with identical films under dry headspaces gases, whereas the Anth thin film exhibited a higher degree of photostability. In the companion laboratory experiments, simulated solar exposure of FeTPI films in contact with either Ar or CO(sub -2):O(sub -2):Ar (10:0.01:1000) headspace gas results in growth of a band in the films infrared spectra at 1961 cm(sup 1). Our assignment of this new spectral feature and the corresponding rational will be presented. The relevance of O/OREOS findings to planetary science, biomarker research, and the photostability of organic materials in astrobiologically relevant environments will also be discussed.

  9. Astronomy Applications of Adaptive Optics at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Bauman, B J; Gavel, D T

    2003-04-23

    Astronomical applications of adaptive optics at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has a history that extends from 1984. The program started with the Lick Observatory Adaptive Optics system and has progressed through the years to lever-larger telescopes: Keck, and now the proposed CELT (California Extremely Large Telescope) 30m telescope. LLNL AO continues to be at the forefront of AO development and science.

  10. Astronomy applications of adaptive optics at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauman, Brian J.; Gavel, Donald T.

    2003-06-01

    Astronomical applications of adaptive optics at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has a history that extends from 1984. The program started with the Lick Observatory Adaptive Optics system and has progressed through the years to lever-larger telescopes: Keck, and now the proposed CELT (California Extremely Large Telescope) 30m telescope. LLNL AO continues to be at the forefront of AO development and science.

  11. Training the Masses ? Web-based Laser Safety Training at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Sprague, D D

    2004-12-17

    The LLNL work smart standard requires us to provide ongoing laser safety training for a large number of persons on a three-year cycle. In order to meet the standard, it was necessary to find a cost and performance effective method to perform this training. This paper discusses the scope of the training problem, specific LLNL training needs, various training methods used at LLNL, the advantages and disadvantages of these methods and the rationale for selecting web-based laser safety training. The tools and costs involved in developing web-based training courses are also discussed, in addition to conclusions drawn from our training operating experience. The ILSC lecture presentation contains a short demonstration of the LLNL web-based laser safety-training course.

  12. Measurement and simulation of the impact of coherent synchrotron radiation on the Jefferson Laboratory energy recovery linac electron beam

    DOE PAGES

    Hall, C C.; Biedron, S G.; Edelen, A L.; Milton, S V.; Benson, S; Douglas, D; Li, R; Tennant, C D.; Carlsten, B E.

    2015-03-09

    In an experiment conducted on the Jefferson Laboratory IR free-electron laser driver, the effects of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) on beam quality were studied. The primary goal of this work was to explore CSR output and effect on the beam with variation of the bunch compression in the IR recirculator. Here we examine the impact of CSR on the average energy loss as a function of bunch compression as well as the impact of CSR on the energy spectrum of the bunch. Simulation of beam dynamics in the machine, including the one-dimensional CSR model, shows very good agreement with themore » measured effect of CSR on the average energy loss as a function of compression. Finally, a well-defined structure is observed in the energy spectrum with a feature in the spectrum that varies as a function of the compression. This effect is examined in simulations, as well, and a simple explanation for the variation is proposed.« less

  13. Lead, Uranium, and Nickel Compound Data from the XAFS Library at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL)

    DOE Data Explorer

    The x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (XAFS) library at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory is intended to be a reference library of XAFS spectra for various lead, uranium, and nickel compounds. Compounds are organized by central atom and all spectra are transmission data. Molecular Environmental Science (MES) research at SSRL focuses on the fundamental interfacial, molecular- and nano-scale processes that control contaminant and nutrient cycling in the biosphere with the goal of elucidating global elemental cycles and anthropogenic influences on the environment. Key areas of investigation include the: (a) Structural chemistry of water and dissolved solutes, (b) Structural chemistry and reactivity of complex natural environmental materials with respect to heavy metals and metalloids (biominerals, Fe- and Mn-oxides, biofilms, and organic materials), (c) Reactions at environmental interfaces, including sorption, precipitation and dissolution processes that affect the bioavailability of heavy metals and other contaminants, and (d) Microbial transformations of metals and anions. SSRL-based MES research utilizes synchrotron-based x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), x-ray diffraction (XRD), small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS), x-ray standing wave (XSW) spectroscopy, and photoemission spectroscopy (PES) because of their unique capabilities to probe structure/composition relationships in complex, non-crystalline, and dilute materials. [copied from http://www-ssrl.slac.stanford.edu/mes/index.html

  14. Radiation

    NASA Video Gallery

    Outside the protective cocoon of Earth's atmosphere, the universe is full of harmful radiation. Astronauts who live and work in space are exposed not only to ultraviolet rays but also to space radi...

  15. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Environmental Report 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, H. E.; Bertoldo, N. A.; Blake, R. G.; Cerruti, S. J.; Dibley, V. R.; Doman, J. L.; Fish, C. B.; Grayson, A. R.; Heidecker, K. R.; Kumamoto, G.; MacQueen, D. H.; Montemayor, W. E.; Ottaway, H. L.; Paterson, L. E.; Revelli, M. A.; Rosene, C. A.; Terrill, A. A.; Wegrecki, A. M.; Wilson, K. R.; Woollett, J. S.; Veseliza, R.

    2014-10-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is a premier research laboratory that is part of the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). As a national security laboratory, LLNL is responsible for ensuring that the nation’s nuclear weapons remain safe, secure, and reliable. The Laboratory also meets other pressing national security needs, including countering the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and strengthening homeland security, and conducting major research in atmospheric, earth, and energy sciences; bioscience and biotechnology; and engineering, basic science, and advanced technology. The Laboratory is managed and operated by Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC (LLNS), and serves as a scientific resource to the U.S. government and a partner to industry and academia. LLNL operations have the potential to release a variety of constituents into the environment via atmospheric, surface water, and groundwater pathways. Some of the constituents, such as particles from diesel engines, are common at many types of facilities while others, such as radionuclides, are unique to research facilities like LLNL. All releases are highly regulated and carefully monitored. LLNL strives to maintain a safe, secure and efficient operational environment for its employees and neighboring communities. Experts in environment, safety and health (ES&H) support all Laboratory activities. LLNL’s radiological control program ensures that radiological exposures and releases are reduced to as low as reasonably achievable to protect the health and safety of its employees, contractors, the public, and the environment. LLNL is committed to enhancing its environmental stewardship and managing the impacts its operations may have on the environment through a formal Environmental Management System. The Laboratory encourages the public to participate in matters related to the Laboratory’s environmental impact on the

  16. The value of assessments in Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s Waste Certification Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, E.M.

    1995-05-01

    This paper will discuss the value of assessments in Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s Waste Certification Programs by: introducing the organization and purpose of the LLNL Waste Certification Programs for transuranic, low-level, and hazardous waste; examining the differences in internal assessment/audit requirements for these programs; discussing the values and costs of assessments in a waste certification program; presenting practical recommendations to maximize the value of your assessment programs; and presenting improvements in LLNL`s waste certification processes that resulted from assessments.

  17. The PEREGRINETM program: using physics and computer simulation to improve radiation therapy for cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann Siantar, Christine L.; Moses, Edward I.

    1998-11-01

    When using radiation to treat cancer, doctors rely on physics and computer technology to predict where the radiation dose will be deposited in the patient. The accuracy of computerized treatment planning plays a critical role in the ultimate success or failure of the radiation treatment. Inaccurate dose calculations can result in either insufficient radiation for cure, or excessive radiation to nearby healthy tissue, which can reduce the patient's quality of life. This paper describes how advanced physics, computer, and engineering techniques originally developed for nuclear weapons and high-energy physics research are being used to predict radiation dose in cancer patients. Results for radiation therapy planning, achieved in the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) 0143-0807/19/6/005/img2 program show that these tools can give doctors new insights into their patients' treatments by providing substantially more accurate dose distributions than have been available in the past. It is believed that greater accuracy in radiation therapy treatment planning will save lives by improving doctors' ability to target radiation to the tumour and reduce suffering by reducing the incidence of radiation-induced complications.

  18. Inspection of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Drug-Free Workplace Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-04-11

    The subject report is provided to discuss findings and recommendations on the inspection of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The purpose of this inspection was to review (1) implementation of drug abuse policies and procedures at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), (2) the role of the San Francisco Operations Office (SAN) in planning and implementing LLNL's drug abuse policies and procedures, and (3) the role of the various drug-related program activities at DOE Headquarters, i.e., the Personnel Assurance Program (PAP), the Personnel Security Assurance Program (PSAP), the Federal Drug-Free Workplace Program (DFW/F), and the Contractor Drug-Free Workplace Program (DFW/C).

  19. Impact of the January 1980 earthquakes on the Lawrence Livermore National laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, R.C.; Hill, E.E.; Zevanove, L.R.; Di Grazra, H.X.

    1982-03-01

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) a large research laboratory primarily devoted to nuclear weapons design, was struck by two moderately severe earthquakes in January 1980. Damage, though not minor, was not extensive considering the duration and magnitude of the earthquakes. Taking advantage of the experience, LLNL set up a committee to conduct extensive evaluations of its design criteria, for both critical and noncritical facilities, and of its emergency response procedures. The committee's report recommended 25 measures for upgrading earthquake preparedness based on LLNL's and other institutions' earthquake experience. This article is based on that report.

  20. [The opportunity to use combined stem cells transplantation for haemopoesis activation in the old and mature laboratory animals under the conditions of ionizing radiation].

    PubMed

    Grebnev, D U

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study the influence of combined transplantation of stem cells (multypotent mesenchimal stromal and hem poetic stem cells) on the haemopoesis of old and mature laboratory animals under the condition of ionizing radiation. The experiments were conducted on 48 white male mice with the body weight of 30 g, age of 3-4 months, and 48 male mice of 3 years of age and body mass of 50 g. The experiments for obtaining the MMSC and HSC cultures were conducted on 16 laboratory animals: female mice of 3-4 months of age and body mass of 30 g., 18 days gestation period. The control group was formed by the animals not under the ionizing radiation. The experimental group animals got the dose of 4 Gr. These animals also got MMSC and HSC mixture intravenously in the doses of 6 mln. c/kg. and 330 thousand cell/kg prospectively. The control group animals got the 0.9% NaCl - 0.2 ml. intravenously. The infusions were made 1 hour after radiation once. As the result of the experiment it was shown that under physiological conditions combined transplantation brings the erithropoesis activation, under the ionizing radiation conditions it brings the erythroid and granulocytopoesis activation. More over the combined MMSC and HSC transplantation gives cytoprotective action on the myeloid tissue due to decrease of cyto genically changed cells in the mature animals under the condition of ionizing radiation, but in the old animals this effect can be seen even under physiological condition. Conclusions: Combined transplantation of MMSC and GSC can be used in the mature and old laboratory animals under the conditions of ionising radiation for the haemopoesis activation.

  1. Laboratory insights into the chemical and kinetic evolution of several organic molecules under simulated Mars surface UV radiation conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poch, O.; Kaci, S.; Stalport, F.; Szopa, C.; Coll, P.

    2014-11-01

    The search for organic carbon at the surface of Mars, as clues of past habitability or remnants of life, is a major science goal of Mars' exploration. Understanding the chemical evolution of organic molecules under current martian environmental conditions is essential to support the analyses performed in situ. What molecule can be preserved? What is the timescale of organic evolution at the surface? This paper presents the results of laboratory investigations dedicated to monitor the evolution of organic molecules when submitted to simulated Mars surface ultraviolet radiation (190-400 nm), mean temperature (218 ± 2 K) and pressure (6 ± 1 mbar) conditions. Experiments are done with the MOMIE simulation setup (for Mars Organic Molecules Irradiation and Evolution) allowing both a qualitative and quantitative characterization of the evolution the tested molecules undergo (Poch, O. et al. [2013]. Planet. Space Sci. 85, 188-197). The chemical structures of the solid products and the kinetic parameters of the photoreaction (photolysis rate, half-life and quantum efficiency of photodecomposition) are determined for glycine, urea, adenine and chrysene. Mellitic trianhydride is also studied in order to complete a previous study done with mellitic acid (Stalport, F., Coll, P., Szopa, C., Raulin, F. [2009]. Astrobiology 9, 543-549), by studying the evolution of mellitic trianhydride. The results show that solid layers of the studied molecules have half-lives of 10-103 h at the surface of Mars, when exposed directly to martian UV radiation. However, organic layers having aromatic moieties and reactive chemical groups, as adenine and mellitic acid, lead to the formation of photoresistant solid residues, probably of macromolecular nature, which could exhibit a longer photostability. Such solid organic layers are found in micrometeorites or could have been formed endogenously on Mars. Finally, the quantum efficiencies of photodecomposition at wavelengths from 200 to 250 nm

  2. Recent advances in indirect drive ICF target physics at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Bernat, T P; Collins, G W; Haan, S; Hammel, B A; Landen, O L; MacGowan, B J; Sutter, L J

    1998-01-13

    In preparation for ignition on the National Ignition Facility, the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Inertial Confinement Fusion Program, working in collaboration with Los Alamos National Laboratory, Commissariat a 1'Energie Atomique (CEA), and Laboratory for Laser Energetics at the University of Rochester, has performed a broad range of experiments on the Nova and Omega lasers to test the fundamentals of the NIF target designs. These studies have refined our understanding of the important target physics, and have led to many of the specifications for the NIF laser and the cryogenic ignition targets. Our recent work has been focused in the areas of hohlraum energetics, symmetry, shock physics, and target design optimization & fabrication.

  3. Radiative transfer modeling of dust-coated Pancam calibration target materials: Laboratory visible/near-infrared spectrogoniometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, J. R.; Sohl-Dickstein, J.; Grundy, W.M.; Arvidson, R. E.; Bell, J.F.; Christensen, P.R.; Graff, T.; Guinness, E.A.; Kinch, K.; Morris, R.; Shepard, M.K.

    2006-01-01

    Laboratory visible/near-infrared multispectral observations of Mars Exploration Rover Pancam calibration target materials coated with different thicknesses of Mars spectral analog dust were acquired under variable illumination geometries using the Bloomsburg University Goniometer. The data were fit with a two-layer radiative transfer model that combines a Hapke formulation for the dust with measured values of the substrate interpolated using a He-Torrance approach. We first determined the single-scattering albedo, phase function, opposition effect width, and amplitude for the dust using the entire data set (six coating thicknesses, three substrates, four wavelengths, and phase angles 3??-117??). The dust exhibited single-scattering albedo values similar to other Mars analog soils and to Mars Pathfinder dust and a dominantly forward scattering behavior whose scattering lobe became narrower at longer wavelengths. Opacity values for each dust thickness corresponded well to those predicted from the particles sizes of the Mars analog dust. We then restricted the number of substrates, dust thicknesses, and incidence angles input to the model. The results suggest that the dust properties are best characterized when using substrates whose reflectances are brighter and darker than those of the deposited dust and data that span a wide range of dust thicknesses. The model also determined the dust photometric properties relatively well despite limitations placed on the range of incidence angles. The model presented here will help determine the photometric properties of dust deposited on the MER rovers and to track the multiple episodes of dust deposition and erosion that have occurred at both landing sites. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  4. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory site seismic safety program: summary of findings

    SciTech Connect

    Scheimer, J.F.

    1985-07-01

    This report summarizes the final assessments of geologic hazards at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Detailed discussions of investigations are documented in a series of reports produced by LLNL's Site Seismic Safety Program and their consultants. The Program conducted a probabilistic assessment of hazards at the site as a result of liquefaction, landslide, and strong ground shaking, using existing models to explicitly treat uncertainties. The results indicate that the Greenville and Las Positas-Verona Fault systems present the greatest hazard to the LLNL site as a result of ground shaking, with a lesser contribution from the Calaveras Fault. Other, more distant fault systems do not materially contribute to the hazard. No evidence has been found that the LLNL site will undergo soil failures such as landslides or liquefaction. In addition, because of the locations and ages of the faults in the LLNL area, surface ground rupture during an earthquake is extremely unlikely.

  5. Note: Recent achievements at the 60-MeV Linac for sub-picosecond terahertz radiation at the Pohang Accelerator Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Yim, Changmook; Hong, Juho; Parc, Yongwoon; Ko, In Soo; Jung, Seonghoon; Park, Jaehun; Kang, Heung-Sik; Han, Daehun; Ryu, Jaehyun

    2011-10-15

    A femtosecond (fs) terahertz (THz) linac has been constructed to generate fs-THz radiation by using ultrashort electron beam at the Pohang Accelerator Laboratory. To generate an ultrashort electron beam with 60-MeV energy, a chicane bunch compressor has been adopted. Simulation studies have been conducted to design the linac. In this note, recent achievements at 60-MeV linac are presented.

  6. Atomic data generation and collisional radiative modeling of argon II, argon III, and neon I for laboratory and astrophysical plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munoz Burgos, Jorge Manuel

    Accurate knowledge of atomic processes plays a key role in modeling the emission in laboratory as well as in astrophysical plasmas. These processes are included in a collisional-radiative model and the results are compared with experimental measurements for Ar and Ne ions from the ASTRAL (Auburn Steady sTate Research fAciLity) experiment. The accuracy of our model depends upon the quality of the atomic data we use. Atomic data for near neutral systems present a challenge due to the low accuracy of perturbative methods for these systems. In order to improve our model we rely on non-perturbative methods such as R - Matrix and RMPS ( R -Matrix with Pseudo-States) to include correlation in the collision cross-sections. In the case of Ar + we compared R -Matrix electron-impact excitation data against the results from a new RMPS calculation. The aim was to assess the effects of continuum-coupling effects on the atomic data and the resulting spectrum. We do our spectral modeling using the ADAS suite of codes. Our collisional-radiative formalism assumes that the excited levels are in quasi- static equilibrium with the ground and metastable populations. In our model we allow for N e and T e variation along the line of sight by fitting our densities and temperature profiles with those measured within the experiment. The best results so far have been obtained by the fitting of the experimental temperature and density profiles with Gaussian and polynomial distribution functions. The line of sight effects were found to have a significant effect on the emission modeling. The relative emission rates were measured in the ASTRAL helicon plasma source. A spectrometer which features a 0.33 m Criss-Cross Scanning monochromator and a CCD camera is used for this study. ASTRAL produces bright intense Ar and Ne plasmas with n e = 10 11 to 10 13 cm -3 and T e = 2 to 10 eV. A series of 7 large coils produce an axial magnetic field up to 1.3 kGauss. A fractional helix antenna is used to

  7. Atomic data generation and collisional radiative modeling of argon II, argon III, and neon I for laboratory and astrophysical plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munoz Burgos, Jorge Manuel

    Accurate knowledge of atomic processes plays a key role in modeling the emission in laboratory as well as in astrophysical plasmas. These processes are included in a collisional-radiative model and the results are compared with experimental measurements for Ar and Ne ions from the ASTRAL (Auburn Steady sTate Research fAciLity) experiment. The accuracy of our model depends upon the quality of the atomic data we use. Atomic data for near neutral systems present a challenge due to the low accuracy of perturbative methods for these systems. In order to improve our model we rely on non-perturbative methods such as R - Matrix and RMPS ( R -Matrix with Pseudo-States) to include correlation in the collision cross-sections. In the case of Ar + we compared R -Matrix electron-impact excitation data against the results from a new RMPS calculation. The aim was to assess the effects of continuum-coupling effects on the atomic data and the resulting spectrum. We do our spectral modeling using the ADAS suite of codes. Our collisional-radiative formalism assumes that the excited levels are in quasi- static equilibrium with the ground and metastable populations. In our model we allow for N e and T e variation along the line of sight by fitting our densities and temperature profiles with those measured within the experiment. The best results so far have been obtained by the fitting of the experimental temperature and density profiles with Gaussian and polynomial distribution functions. The line of sight effects were found to have a significant effect on the emission modeling. The relative emission rates were measured in the ASTRAL helicon plasma source. A spectrometer which features a 0.33 m Criss-Cross Scanning monochromator and a CCD camera is used for this study. ASTRAL produces bright intense Ar and Ne plasmas with n e = 10 11 to 10 13 cm -3 and T e = 2 to 10 eV. A series of 7 large coils produce an axial magnetic field up to 1.3 kGauss. A fractional helix antenna is used to

  8. Implementation of the Missing Aerosol Physics into LLNL IMPACT

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, C

    2005-02-09

    In recent assessments of climate forcing, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change lists aerosol as one o f the most important anthropogenic agents that influence climate. Atmospheric aerosols directly affect the radiative fluxes at the surface and top of the Earth's atmosphere by scattering and/or absorbing radiation. Further, aerosols indirectly change cloud microphysical properties (such as cloud drop effective radius) that also affect the radiative fluxes. However, the estimate of the magnitude of aerosol climatic effect varies widely, and aerosol/cloud interactions remain one of the most uncertain aspects of climate models today. The Atmospheric Sciences Division has formulated a plan to enhance and expand our modeling expertise in aerosol/cloud/climate interactions. Under previous LDRD support, we successfully developed a computationally efficient version of IMPACT to simulate aerosol climatology. This new version contains a compact chemical mechanism for the prediction of sulfate and also predicts the distributions of organic carbon (OC), black carbon (BC), dust, and sea salt. Furthermore, we implemented a radiation package into IMPACT to calculate the radiative forcing and heating/cooling rates by aerosols. This accomplishment built the foundation of our currently funded projects under the NASA Global Modeling and Analysis Program as well as the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Program. Despite the fact that our research is being recognized as an important effort to quantify the effects of anthropogenic aerosols on climate, the major shortcoming of our previous simulations on aerosol climatic effects is the over simplification of spatial and temporal variations of aerosol size distributions that are shaped by complicated nucleation, growth, transport and removal processes. Virtually all properties of atmospheric aerosols and clouds depend strongly on aerosol size distribution. Moreover, molecular processing on aerosol surfaces alters the hygroscopic

  9. High speed optical links between LLNL and Berkeley

    SciTech Connect

    Lennon, W.J.; Thombley, R.L.

    1994-08-08

    The Advanced Telecommunications Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, in collaboration with Pacific Bell, is developing an experimental high speed, four wavelength, protocol independent optical link for evaluating wide area networking interconnection schemes and the use of fiber amplifiers. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, as a super-user, supercomputer, and super-application site, is anticipating the future bandwidth and protocol requirements to connect to other such sites as well as to connect to remote sited control centers and experiments. In this paper we discuss our vision of the future of Wide Area Networking and describe the plans for the wavelength division multiplexed link between Livermore and the University of California at Berkeley.

  10. Analyses in Support of Z-Pinch IFE and Actinide Transmutation - LLNL Progress Report for FY-06

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, W R; Moir, R W; Abbott, R

    2006-09-19

    This report documents results of LLNL's work in support of two studies being conducted by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL): the development of the Z-pinch driven inertial fusion energy (Z-IFE), and the use of Z-pinch driven inertial fusion as a neutron source to destroy actinides from fission reactor spent fuel. LLNL's efforts in FY06 included: (1) Development of a systems code for Z-IFE and use of the code to examine the operating parameter space in terms of design variables such as the Z-pinch driver energy, the chamber pulse repetition rate, the number of chambers making up the power plant, and the total net electric power of the plant. This is covered in Section 3 with full documentation of the model in Appendix A. (2) Continued development of innovative concepts for the design and operation of the recyclable transmission line (RTL) and chamber for Z-IFE. The work, which builds on our FY04 and FY05 contributions, emphasizes design features that are likely to lead to a more attractive power plant including: liquid jets to protect all structures from direct exposure to neutrons, rapid insertion of the RTL to maximize the potential chamber rep-rate, and use of cast flibe for the RTL to reduce recycling and remanufacturing costs and power needs. See Section 4 and Appendix B. (3) Description of potential figures of merit (FOMs) for actinide transmutation technologies and a discussion of how these FOMs apply and can be used in the ongoing evaluation of the Z-pinch actinide burner, referred to as the In-Zinerator. See Section 5. (4) A critique of, and suggested improvements to, the In-Zinerator chamber design in response to the SNL design team's request for feedback on its preliminary design. This is covered in Section 6.

  11. Instruction manual for installation, operation, and maintenance of the Q-250 LLNL filter-life tester

    SciTech Connect

    Foote, K.L.; da Roza, R.A.

    1990-12-21

    This manual describes the installation, operation, and maintenance of the LLNL, filter-life tester Q-250. This apparatus is designed to determined the gas life of a variety of chemical filters, such as M10-A1, M11, M13-A2, C2, and similar filters. The LLNL filter-life tester can generate isopropymethylphosphonoflouridate (GB) or dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) vapors in air at flow rates of up to 50 1pm. These filters and their specifications are listed in Appendix A. CAUTION: Personnel performing operations with this tester must be completely familiar with the contents of this manual, knowledgeable in system operation, and knowledgeable of materials used in operation of the LLNL filter-life tester.

  12. Storage in the LLNL Octopus network: an overview and reflections

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, S.; Watson, R.

    1984-02-28

    The paper reviews the environment and characteristics of the central storage system at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Computation Center. It then discusses some lessons learned from the successes and problems during 15 years of experience with this system and finally indicates some future directions.

  13. The role of the EPA radiation quality assurance program in the measurement quality assurance accreditation program for radioassay laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Grady, T.M.

    1993-12-31

    As the nature and extent of radiological contamination becomes better documented and more public, radioanalytical laboratories are faced with a constantly expanding variety of new and difficult analytical requirements. Concurrent with those requirements is the responsibility to provide customers, regulatory officials, or the public with defensible data produced in an environment of verifiable, controlled quality. To meet that need, a quality assurance accreditation program for radioassay laboratories has been proposed by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). The standard will provide the organizational framework and functional requirements needed to assure the quality of laboratory outputs. Under the proposed program, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) Laboratory Intercomparison Program plays a key role as a reference laboratory. The current and proposed roles of the EPA Intercomparison Program are discussed, as are the functional relationships between EPA, the accreditating organization, and the service and monitoring laboratories.

  14. Detector Characterization Report, Response Related to Linear Movement and Radiation Levels for an Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)-Developed Ion Chamber and a Commercial Ion Chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Chiaro, P.J.

    2001-01-11

    Recent activities regarding the safeguarding of radioactive material have indicated there is a need to use radiation sensors to monitor intentional or unintentional material movement. Existing radiation detection systems were not typically designed for this type of operation since most of their use accounted for monitoring material while the material is stationary. To ensure that a radiation monitoring system is capable of detecting the movement of radioactive material, a series of tests were needed. These tests would need to be performed in known radiological conditions, under controlled environmental conditions, and at known movement speeds. The Radiation Effects Facility (REF), located at the Radiation Calibration Laboratory, provided the necessary capabilities to perform these tests. This report provides a compilation of the results from a characterization of two different sensors--a simple, air ionization chamber-based sensor developed at ORNL that consists of an ion chamber connected to a separate amplifier, and an Eberline model RO-7-LD. The RO-7-LD is also an air ionization chamber-based sensor, but the electronics are in the same physical package.

  15. Diversification and strategic management of LLNL`s R&D portfolio

    SciTech Connect

    Glinsky, M.E.

    1994-12-01

    Strategic management of LLNL`s research effort is addressed. A general framework is established by presenting the McKinsey/BCG Matrix Analysis as it applies to the research portfolio. The framework is used to establish the need for the diversification into new attractive areas of research and for the improvement of the market position of existing research in those attractive areas. With the need for such diversification established, attention is turned to optimizing it. There are limited resources available. It is concluded that LLNL should diversify into only a few areas and try to obtain full market share as soon as possible.

  16. Error correction of the DEA (Digital Electronic Automation) Coordinate Measuring Machines at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, D.L.

    1989-11-14

    LLNL uses Coordinate Measuring Machines (CMM) manufactured by Digital Electronic Automation, Inc. (DEA) to provide in-process and final measurements of various components as they are assembled and aligned for later experimentation. The machines achieve their accuracy by using real-time passive error compensation to correct for all 21 parametric error components. LLNL does its own parametric testing and downloading of error correction data into the CMM's computer. This paper describes the theory, the parametric tests, the data or map,'' and the final checkout of the machines. 4 refs., 20 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Evaluation of Cavity Collapse and Surface Crater Formation for Selected Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Underground Nuclear Tests - 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, S K; Pawloski, G A; Raschke, K

    2007-04-26

    This report describes evaluation of collapse evolution for selected LLNL underground nuclear tests at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The work is being done at the request of NSTec and supports the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Association Nevada Site Office Borehole Management Program (BMP). The primary objective of this program is to close (plug) weapons program legacy boreholes that are deemed no longer useful. Safety decisions must be made before a crater area, or potential crater area, can be reentered for any work. Our statements on cavity collapse and crater formation are input into their safety decisions. The BMP is an on-going program to address hundreds of boreholes at the NTS. Each year NSTec establishes a list of holes to be addressed. They request the assistance of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Los Alamos National Laboratory Containment Programs to provide information related to the evolution of collapse history and make statements on completeness of collapse as relates to surface crater stability. These statements do not include the effects of erosion that may modify the collapse craters over time. They also do not address possible radiation dangers that may be present. Subject matter experts from the LLNL Containment Program and the Chemical Sciences Division who had been active in weapons testing activities performed these evaluations. Information used included drilling and hole construction, emplacement and stemming, timing and sequence of the selected test and nearby tests, geology, yield, depth of burial, collapse times, surface crater sizes, cavity and crater volume estimations, and ground motion. Both classified and unclassified data were reviewed. Various amounts of information are available for these tests, depending on their age and other associated activities. Lack of data can hamper evaluations and introduce uncertainty. We make no attempt to quantify this uncertainty. The following unclassified summary

  18. Development of polishing methods for Chemical Vapor Deposited Silicon Carbide mirrors for synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Fuchs, B.A.; Brown, N.J.

    1987-01-01

    Material properties of Chemical Vapor Deposited Silicon Carbide (CVD SiC) make it ideal for use in mirrors for synchrotron radiation experiments. We developed methods to grind and polish flat samples of CVD SiC down to measured surface roughness values as low as 1.1 Angstroms rms. We describe the processing details, including observations we made during trial runs with alternative processing recipes. We conclude that pitch polishing using progressively finer diamond abrasive, augmented with specific water based lubricants and additives, produces superior results. Using methods based on these results, a cylindrical and a toroidal mirror, each about 100 x 300mm, were respectively finished by Continental Optical and Frank Cooke, Incorporated. WYCO Interferometry shows these mirrors have surface roughness less than 5.7 Angstroms rms. These mirrors have been installed on the LLNL/UC X-ray Calibration and Standards Facility at the Stanford Synthrotron Radiation Laboratory.

  19. Sandia National Laboratories/California site environmental report for 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Condouris, R.A.; Holland, R.C.

    1998-06-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is committed to conducting its operations in an environmentally safe and sound manner. It is mandatory that activities at SNL/California comply with all applicable environmental statutes, regulations, and standards. Moreover, SNL/California continuously strives to reduce risks to employees, the public, and the environment to the lowest levels reasonably possible. To help verify effective protection of public safety and preservation of the environment, SNL/California maintains an extensive, ongoing environmental monitoring program. This program monitors all significant effluents and the environment at the SNL/California site perimeter. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) performs off-site external radiation monitoring for both sites. These monitoring efforts ensure that emission controls are effective in preventing contamination of the environment. As part of SNL/California`s Environmental Monitoring Program, an environmental surveillance system measures the possible presence of hazardous materials in groundwater, stormwater, and sewage. The program also includes an extensive environmental dosimetry program, which measures external radiation levels around the Livermore site and nearby vicinity. The Site Environmental Report describes the results of SNL/California`s environmental protection activities during the calendar year. It also summarizes environmental monitoring data and highlights major environmental programs. Overall, it evaluates SNL/California`s environmental management performance and documents the site`s regulatory compliance status.

  20. Radiation from particles moving in small-scale magnetic fields created in solid-density laser-plasma laboratory experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keenan, Brett D.; Medvedev, Mikhail V.

    2015-11-01

    Plasmas created by high-intensity lasers are often subject to the formation of kinetic-streaming instabilities, such as the Weibel instability, which lead to the spontaneous generation of high-amplitude, tangled magnetic fields. These fields typically exist on small spatial scales, i.e., "sub-Larmor scales." Radiation from charged particles moving through small-scale electromagnetic (EM) turbulence has spectral characteristics distinct from both synchrotron and cyclotron radiation, and it carries valuable information on the statistical properties of the EM field structure and evolution. Consequently, this radiation from laser-produced plasmas may offer insight into the underlying electromagnetic turbulence. Here, we investigate the prospects for, and demonstrate the feasibility of, such direct radiative diagnostics for mildly relativistic, solid-density laser plasmas produced in lab experiments.

  1. Radiation from particles moving in small-scale magnetic fields created in solid-density laser-plasma laboratory experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Keenan, Brett D. Medvedev, Mikhail V.

    2015-11-15

    Plasmas created by high-intensity lasers are often subject to the formation of kinetic-streaming instabilities, such as the Weibel instability, which lead to the spontaneous generation of high-amplitude, tangled magnetic fields. These fields typically exist on small spatial scales, i.e., “sub-Larmor scales.” Radiation from charged particles moving through small-scale electromagnetic (EM) turbulence has spectral characteristics distinct from both synchrotron and cyclotron radiation, and it carries valuable information on the statistical properties of the EM field structure and evolution. Consequently, this radiation from laser-produced plasmas may offer insight into the underlying electromagnetic turbulence. Here, we investigate the prospects for, and demonstrate the feasibility of, such direct radiative diagnostics for mildly relativistic, solid-density laser plasmas produced in lab experiments.

  2. Radiation Induced Stress Relaxation in Silicone and Polyurethane Elastomers

    SciTech Connect

    Spellman, G; Gourdin, W; Jensen, W; Pearson, M; Fine, I

    2007-08-22

    Many different materials are used in the National Ignition Facility, NIF, located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, LLNL. Some of these are exposed to significant doses of ionizing radiation. Two elastomers are of special interest because they are used in sealing applications with long expected lifetimes. These are LPU4, a polyurethane formulated at LLNL, and Dow Corning DC93-500, a silicone RTV elastomer. In 2004 a program to determine the impact of ionizing radiation on the stress relaxation and compression set characteristics of these two elastomers was undertaken. Since the materials are used in continuous compression and must reliably seal, the primary test utilized was a stress relaxation test. This test provides insight into the ability of a seal to remain functional in a static seal. The test determines how much residual force remains after a certain period of time under compression. The temperature and absorbed radiation dose can dramatically impact this property. In this study the only independent environmental variable studied is the effect of radiation at ambient temperatures. Two levels of radiation exposure were studied, 1 MRad, and 10 MRad. One of the independent test parameters is the compression deflection during storage and in this test the value used was 25%. The need for a compression retention mechanism ruled out radiation exposure in the compressed direction since the high atomic number materials for that device would block the radiation. Therefore, an annular ring was chosen for the specimen shape. The procedures are, as closely as possible, based on ASTM D 6147-97. Since the data is readily obtained at the end of the stress relaxation test, the samples were also evaluated for compression set. Compression set is the essentially permanent deformation incurred in a seal after the seal is compressed for some period of time and then unloaded. Though this is indicative of potential sealing reliability, it is not as direct an indicator of

  3. Bilogical effects of ionizing radiation: epidemiological surveys and laboratory animal experiments. Implications for risk evaluation and decision processes

    SciTech Connect

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1981-04-01

    General background is given for an understanding of the potential health effects in populations exposed to low-level ionizing radiations. The discussion is within the framework of the scientific deliberations and controversies that arose during preparation of the current report of the committee on the biological effects of ionizing radiation of the National Academy of Science - National Research Council (1980 Beir-III Report). (ACR)

  4. A possible approach to large-scale laboratory testing for acute radiation sickness after a nuclear detonation.

    PubMed

    Adalja, Amesh A; Watson, Matthew; Wollner, Samuel; Toner, Eric

    2011-12-01

    After the detonation of an improvised nuclear device, several key actions will be necessary to save the greatest number of lives possible. Among these tasks, the identification of patients with impending acute radiation sickness is a critical problem that so far has lacked a clear solution in national planning. We present one possible solution: the formation of a public-private partnership to augment the capacity to identify those at risk for acute radiation sickness. PMID:21988186

  5. Leaching study of PNL 76-68 glass beads using the LLNL continuous-flow method and the PNL-modified IAEA method. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Buddemeier, R.W.; Coles, D.G.; Mensing, R.W.; Rego, J.; Weed, H.C.

    1982-08-20

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has conducted a long-term single-pass continuous-flow (SPCF) leaching test of the glass waste form PNL 76-68. Leaching rates of Np, Pu, and various stable elements were measured at 25/sup 0/ and 75/sup 0/C with three different solutions and three different flow rates. The purposes of the study were: (1) to compare SPCF leaching results with the results of a modified IAEA leach test performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL); (2) to establish elemental leach rates and their variation with temperature, flow rate and solution composition; and (3) to gain insight into the leaching mechanisms. The LLNL and PNL leach tests yielded results which appear to agree within experimental uncertainties. The magnitude of the leach rates determined for Np and the glass matrix elements is 10/sup -5/ grams of glass/cm/sup 2/ geometric solid surface area/day. The rates increase with temperature and with solution flow rate, and are similar in brine and distilled water but higher in a bicarbonate solution. Other cations exhibit somewhat different behavior, and Pu in particular yields a much lower apparent leach rate, probably because of sorption or precipitation effects after release from the glass matrix. After the initial few days, most elements are leached at a constant rate. Matrix dissolution appears to be the most probable rate controlling step for the leaching of most elements.

  6. Summary of the LLNL one-dimensional transport-kinetics model of the troposphere and stratosphere: 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Wuebbles, D.J.

    1981-09-01

    Since the LLNL one-dimensional coupled transport and chemical kinetics model of the troposphere and stratosphere was originally developed in 1972 (Chang et al., 1974), there have been many changes to the model's representation of atmospheric physical and chemical processes. A brief description is given of the current LLNL one-dimensional coupled transport and chemical kinetics model of the troposphere and stratosphere.

  7. Optical & Environmental Performance of Durable Silver Mirror Coatings Fabricated at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, J; Sanders, D

    2004-03-05

    A Family of Durable Silver Mirror Designs has been fabricated at LLNL. We report here on the optical and environmental performance of the basic design, which can be cleaned with standard glass cleaner and cloth after months of exposure to outside atmosphere.

  8. Historical Background of Ultrahigh Pressure Shock Compression Experiments at LLNL: 1973 to 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Nellis, W.J.

    2000-10-09

    My purpose is to recount the historical development of ultrahigh pressure shock compression experiments at LLNL, which I experienced in the period 1973 to 2000. I used several experimental techniques: shock-impedance-match experiments using planar shock waves driven by nuclear explosives (NIMs), the Janus Laser, a railgun, and a two-stage light-gas gun.

  9. LLNL radioactive waste management plan as per DOE Order 5820. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-12-10

    The following aspects of LLNL's radioactive waste management plan are discussed: program administration; description of waste generating processes; radioactive waste collection, treatment, and disposal; sanitary waste management; site 300 operations; schedules and major milestones for waste management activities; and environmental monitoring programs (sampling and analysis).

  10. Preliminary evaluation of potential substitutes for chlorofluorocarbon refrigerants at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Rogozen, M.B. )

    1989-12-30

    Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are organic compounds composed of carbon, chlorine and fluorine. CFCs are widely used as refrigerants, solvents, and blowing agents, and, although they are chemically inert in the lower atmosphere, CFCs break apart upon reaching the stratosphere and release chlorine, which destroys ozone molecules that serve as the earth's natural barrier to harmful ultraviolet radiation. Growing concern about the damage to stratospheric ozone has led to an international treaty to limit production and use of certain chlorofluorocarbons. Since the use of CFCs is so extensive, major efforts are under way to identify, test, and commercialize CFC substitutes. The objectives of the preliminary investigation reported here were to identify likely substitutes for CFCs used a refrigerants at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and to evaluate current information on their feasibility and health effects. Section 2 contains a brief discussion of the regulatory background. Section 3 describes the chlorofluorocarbon refrigerants currently used at LLNL. Substitutes are identified and discussed in Section 4. Section 5 contains recommendations for further research, and references are presented in Section 6. 29 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. The need to integrate laboratory- and ecosystem-level research for assessment of the ecological impact of radiation.

    PubMed

    Bréchignac, François

    2016-10-01

    Despite the fact that the Chernobyl and Fukushima accidents have both stimulated research on the environmental impact of radiation, interpretations about the occurrence of ecological effects in the contaminated areas still do not converge. In an effort to improve the situation and progress toward better general scientific understanding of ecological impacts of radiation, reasons that may explain the disagreements and discrepancies are explored. The divergence in interpretations of the impacts from both nuclear accidents arises from differences in methodological and conceptual inference strategies (a cultural issue) more so than fundamental differences in the processes governing ecological harm. Improved integration of scientific communities that use different study approaches should be encouraged to better understand and monitor the determination of the ecological impacts of radiation. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2016;12:673-676. © 2016 SETAC. PMID:27640414

  12. The need to integrate laboratory- and ecosystem-level research for assessment of the ecological impact of radiation.

    PubMed

    Bréchignac, François

    2016-10-01

    Despite the fact that the Chernobyl and Fukushima accidents have both stimulated research on the environmental impact of radiation, interpretations about the occurrence of ecological effects in the contaminated areas still do not converge. In an effort to improve the situation and progress toward better general scientific understanding of ecological impacts of radiation, reasons that may explain the disagreements and discrepancies are explored. The divergence in interpretations of the impacts from both nuclear accidents arises from differences in methodological and conceptual inference strategies (a cultural issue) more so than fundamental differences in the processes governing ecological harm. Improved integration of scientific communities that use different study approaches should be encouraged to better understand and monitor the determination of the ecological impacts of radiation. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2016;12:673-676. © 2016 SETAC.

  13. Achieving Order through CHAOS: the LLNL HPC Linux Cluster Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Braby, R L; Garlick, J E; Goldstone, R J

    2003-05-02

    Since fall 2001, Livermore Computing at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has deployed 11 Intel IA-32-based Linux clusters ranging in size up to 1154 nodes. All provide a common programming model and implement a similar cluster architecture. Hardware components are carefully selected for performance, usability, manageability, and reliability and are then integrated and supported using a strategy that evolved from practical experience. Livermore Computing Linux clusters run a common software environment that is developed and maintained in-house while drawing components and additional support from the open source community and industrial partnerships. The environment is based on Red Hat Linux and adds kernel modifications, cluster system management, monitoring and failure detection, resource management, authentication and access control, development environment, and parallel file system. The overall strategy has been successful and demonstrates that world-class high-performance computing resources can be built and maintained using commodity off-the-shelf hardware and open source software.

  14. High-Energy Neutron Imaging Development at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, J M; Rusnak, B; Shen, S

    2005-02-16

    We are proceeding with the development of a high-energy (10 MeV) neutron imaging system for use as an inspection tool in nuclear stockpile stewardship applications. Our goal is to develop and deploy an imaging system capable of detecting cubic-mm-scale voids, cracks or other significant structural defects in heavily-shielded low-Z materials within nuclear device components. The final production-line system will be relatively compact (suitable for use in existing facilities within the DOE complex) and capable of acquiring both radiographic and tomographic (CT) images. In this report, we will review our recent programmatic accomplishments, focusing primarily on progress made in FY04. The design status of the high-intensity, accelerator-driven neutron source and large-format imaging detector associated with the system will be discussed and results from a recent high-energy neutron imaging experiment conducted at the Ohio University Accelerator Laboratory (OUAL) will also be presented.

  15. Laboratory measurements of materials in extreme conditions; The use of high energy radiation sources for high pressure studies

    SciTech Connect

    Cauble, R.; Remington, B.A.

    1998-06-01

    High energy lasers can be used to study material conditions that are appropriate fort inertial confinement fusion: that is, materials at high densities, temperatures, and pressures. Pulsed power devices can offer similar opportunities. The National Ignition Facility (NIF) will be a high energy multi-beam laser designed to achieve the thermonuclear ignition of a mm-scale DT-filled target in the laboratory. At the same time, NE will provide the physics community with a unique tool for the study of high energy density matter at states unreachable by any other laboratory technique. Here we describe how these lasers and pulsed power tools can contribute to investigations of high energy density matter in the areas of material properties and equations of state, extend present laboratory shock techniques such as high-speed jets to new regimes, and allow study of extreme conditions found in astrophysical phenomena.

  16. Optical constants of sulphuric acid in the far infrared. [laboratory spectra for radiative transfer measurements of Venus atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, A. D.

    1976-01-01

    The IR absorption spectrum of a 75% sulphuric acid solution is obtained experimentally in the 20-50 micron wavelength region. The complex refractive index is determined from these measurements by integration of the Kramers-Kronig dispersion relation. The application of this data to radiative transfer processes in the atmosphere of Venus is briefly discussed.

  17. Design of a synchrotron radiation detector for the test beam lines at the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Hutton, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    As part of the particle- and momentum-tagging instrumentation required for the test beam lines of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC), the synchrotron radiation detector (SRD) was designed to provide electron tagging at momentum above 75 GeV. In a parallel effort to the three test beam lines at the SSC, schedule demands required testing and calibration operations to be initiated at Fermilab. Synchrotron radiation detectors also were to be installed in the NM and MW beam lines at Femilab before the test beam lines at the SSC would become operational. The SRD is the last instrument in a series of three used in the SSC test beam fines. It follows a 20-m drift section of beam tube downstream of the last silicon strip detector. A bending dipole just in of the last silicon strip detector produces the synchrotron radiation that is detected in a 50-mm-square cross section NaI crystal. A secondary scintillator made of Bicron BC-400 plastic is used to discriminate whether it is synchrotron radiation or a stray particle that causes the triggering of the NaI crystal`s photo multiplier tube (PMT).

  18. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from Steamboat Springs, Colorado, for the Storm Peak Laboratory Cloud Property Validation Experiment (STORMVEX)

    DOE Data Explorer

    In October 2010, the initial deployment of the second ARM Mobile Facility (AMF2) took place at Steamboat Springs, Colorado, for the Storm Peak Laboratory Cloud Property Validation Experiment (STORMVEX). The objective of this field campaign was to obtain data about liquid and mixed-phase clouds using AMF2 instruments in conjunction with Storm Peak Laboratory (located at an elevation of 3220 meters on Mt. Werner), a cloud and aerosol research facility operated by the Desert Research Institute. STORMVEX datasets are freely available for viewing and download. Users are asked to register with the ARM Archive; the user's email address is used from that time forward as the login name.

  19. Analysis of stray radiation produced by the advanced light source (1.9 GeV synchrotron radiation source) at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Ajemian, R.C.

    1995-12-31

    The yearly environmental dose equivalent likely to result at the closest site boundary from the Advanced Light Source was determined by generating multiple linear regressions. The independent variables comprised quantified accelerator operating parameters and measurements from synchronized, in-close (outside shielding prior to significant atmospheric scattering), state-of-the-art neutron remmeters and photon G-M tubes. Neutron regression models were more successful than photon models due to lower relative background radiation and redundant detectors at the site boundary. As expected, Storage Ring Beam Fill and Beam Crashes produced radiation at a higher rate than gradual Beam Decay; however, only the latter did not include zero in its 95% confidence interval. By summing for all three accelerator operating modes, a combined yearly DE of 4.3 mRem/yr with a 90% CI of (0.04-8.63) was obtained. These results fall below the DOE reporting level of 10 mRem/yr and suggest repeating the study with improved experimental conditions.

  20. The LLNL Flash X-Ray Induction Linear Accelerator (FXR)

    SciTech Connect

    Multhauf, L G

    2002-09-19

    The FXR is an induction linear accelerator used for high-speed radiography at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Experimental Test Site. It was designed specifically for the radiography of very thick explosive objects. Since its completion in 1982, it has been very actively used for a large variety of explosives tests, and has been periodically upgraded to achieve higher performance. Upgrades have addressed machine reliability, radiographic sensitivity and resolution, two-frame imaging by double pulsing improvements that are described in detail in the paper. At the same time, the facility in which it was installed has also been extensively upgraded, first by adding space for optical and interferometric diagnostics, and more recently by adding a containment chamber to prevent the environmental dispersal of hazardous and radioactive materials. The containment addition also further expands space for new non-radiographic diagnostics. The new Contained Firing Facility is still in the process of activation. At the same time, FXR is continuing to undergo modifications aimed primarily at further increasing radiographic resolution and sensitivity, and at improving double-pulsed performance.

  1. CBM.DIAGB.03.10.LLNL.007 Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Slezak, T; Torres, M

    2011-03-30

    The purpose of this project was to construct a system for characterizing the threat potential of genomic sequences, specifically assembled draft genomes. New genomes are characterized by initially comparing them against already-sequenced genomes. If the new genome is determined to be from a high-threat species, detailed (forensic-level) characterization is done based on gene and SNP (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism) data comparisons with all other previously sequenced members of that high-threat species. New genomes are compared against a large set of known virulence and antibiotic-resistance genes and also compared against a large set of vectors that could be used for bacterial genetic engineering. Together, these analyses provide a comprehensive initial assessment of the most likely phylogenetic placement of a new genome, plus an assessment of the known-gene content and an indication of any possible bacterial genetic engineering utilizing vector-mediated techniques. This provides an initial threat potential summary based on high information content comparisons (e.g., thousands of genes, SNPs, and potential genetic engineering vectors) that can be used to guide subsequent operational response or more detailed laboratory characterization.

  2. The LLNL 150-mm equation-of-state gun system

    SciTech Connect

    Rienecker, F.; Honodel, C.; Waldron, R.; Moor, E.; Perfect, S.; Bast, R.

    1987-09-22

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is currently designing a large gun system for expanded studies of a wide range of materials, including samples of high explosives weighing up to 10 kg. In its initial configuration, the system will have a 150-mm bore, 20-m-long, single-stage gun that can fire a 10-kg projectile at velocities of 2.2 km/s. Future plans include conversion either to a two-stage gun, or to a single-stage 100-mm gun, and conversion to a ballistic range. The high-explosive samples will be contained in a stainless steel tank that is 3.8 m in diameter, 12.5-m long, and 89-mm thick. This paper emphasizes improvements in the gun design, including tube couplings that use large coupling nuts and elastic interference fits to achieve precise alignment, a rail support system that allows rapid changes of configuration without need for re-alignment, and a barrel venting experiment designed to reduce projectile tilt in free flight. In addition, the authors discuss a computer modeling experiment in which they examined the effects of stress and strain on one part of the gun, the breech. Results showed that peak stresses would cause the breech to deform, producing autofrettaged conditions.

  3. Progress Toward Measuring CO2 Isotopologue Fluxes in situ with the LLNL Miniature, Laser-based CO2 Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osuna, J. L.; Bora, M.; Bond, T.

    2015-12-01

    One method to constrain photosynthesis and respiration independently at the ecosystem scale is to measure the fluxes of CO2­ isotopologues. Instrumentation is currently available to makes these measurements but they are generally costly, large, bench-top instruments. Here, we present progress toward developing a laser-based sensor that can be deployed directly to a canopy to passively measure CO2 isotopologue fluxes. In this study, we perform initial proof-of-concept and sensor characterization tests in the laboratory and in the field to demonstrate performance of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) tunable diode laser flux sensor. The results shown herein demonstrate measurement of bulk CO2 as a first step toward achieving flux measurements of CO2 isotopologues. The sensor uses a Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser (VCSEL) in the 2012 nm range. The laser is mounted in a multi-pass White Cell. In order to amplify the absorption signal of CO2 in this range we employ wave modulation spectroscopy, introducing an alternating current (AC) bias component where f is the frequency of modulation on the laser drive current in addition to the direct current (DC) emission scanning component. We observed a strong linear relationship (r2 = 0.998 and r2 = 0.978 at all and low CO2 concentrations, respectively) between the 2f signal and the CO2 concentration in the cell across the range of CO2 concentrations relevant for flux measurements. We use this calibration to interpret CO2 concentration of a gas flowing through the White cell in the laboratory and deployed over a grassy field. We will discuss sensor performance in the lab and in situ as well as address steps toward achieving canopy-deployed, passive measurements of CO2 isotopologue fluxes. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL-ABS-675788

  4. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-12-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the Department of Energy (DOE) Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), conducted December 1 through 19, 1986. The Survey is being conducted by an interdisciplinary team of environmental specialists, led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. Individual team components are being supplied by a private contractor. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with LLNL. The Survey covers all environmental media all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations performed at LLNL, and interviews with site personnel. A Sampling and Analysis Plan was developed to assist in further assessing certain of the environmental problems identified during performance of on-site activities. The Sampling and Analysis Plan will be executed by a DOE National Laboratory. When completed, the results will be incorporated into the LLNL Environmental Survey Interim Report. The Interim Report will reflect the final determinations of the LLNL Survey. 70 refs., 58 figs., 52 tabs.,

  5. Summary Report of Summer 2009 NGSI Human Capital Development Efforts at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Dougan, A; Dreicer, M; Essner, J; Gaffney, A; Reed, J; Williams, R

    2009-11-16

    In 2009, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) engaged in several activities to support NA-24's Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI). This report outlines LLNL's efforts to support Human Capital Development (HCD), one of five key components of NGSI managed by Dunbar Lockwood in the Office of International Regimes and Agreements (NA-243). There were five main LLNL summer safeguards HCD efforts sponsored by NGSI: (1) A joint Monterey Institute of International Studies/Center for Nonproliferation Studies-LLNL International Safeguards Policy and Information Analysis Course; (2) A Summer Safeguards Policy Internship Program at LLNL; (3) A Training in Environmental Sample Analysis for IAEA Safeguards Internship; (4) Safeguards Technology Internships; and (5) A joint LLNL-INL Summer Safeguards Lecture Series. In this report, we provide an overview of these five initiatives, an analysis of lessons learned, an update on the NGSI FY09 post-doc, and an update on students who participated in previous NGSI-sponsored LLNL safeguards HCD efforts.

  6. Laboratory directed research and development FY98 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Ayat, R; Holzrichter, J

    1999-05-01

    In 1984, Congress and the Department of Energy (DOE) established the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program to enable the director of a national laboratory to foster and expedite innovative research and development (R and D) in mission areas. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) continually examines these mission areas through strategic planning and shapes the LDRD Program to meet its long-term vision. The goal of the LDRD Program is to spur development of new scientific and technical capabilities that enable LLNL to respond to the challenges within its evolving mission areas. In addition, the LDRD Program provides LLNL with the flexibility to nurture and enrich essential scientific and technical competencies and enables the Laboratory to attract the most qualified scientists and engineers. The FY98 LDRD portfolio described in this annual report has been carefully structured to continue the tradition of vigorously supporting DOE and LLNL strategic vision and evolving mission areas. The projects selected for LDRD funding undergo stringent review and selection processes, which emphasize strategic relevance and require technical peer reviews of proposals by external and internal experts. These FY98 projects emphasize the Laboratory's national security needs: stewardship of the U.S. nuclear weapons stockpile, responsibility for the counter- and nonproliferation of weapons of mass destruction, development of high-performance computing, and support of DOE environmental research and waste management programs.

  7. Radiation Detection Field Test at the Federal Express (FedEx) Air Cargo Facility at Denver International Airport (DIA)

    SciTech Connect

    Weirup, D; Waters, A; Hall, H; Dougan, A; Trombino, D; Mattesich, G; Hull, E; Bahowick, S; Loshak, A; Gruidl, J

    2004-02-11

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) recently conducted a field-test of radiation detection and identification equipment at the air cargo facility of Federal Express (FedEx) located at Denver International Airport (DIA) over a period of two weeks. Comprehensive background measurements were performed and were analyzed, and a trial strategy for detection and identification of parcels displaying radioactivity was implemented to aid in future development of a comprehensive protection plan. The purpose of this project was threefold: {sm_bullet} Quantify background radiation environments at an air cargo facility. {sm_bullet} Quantify and identify ''nuisance'' alarms. {sm_bullet} Evaluate the performance of various isotope identifiers deployed in an operational environment (in this case, the operational environment included the biggest blizzard in over 90 years!).

  8. Coyote series data report LLNL/NWC 1981 LNG spill tests dispersion, vapor burn, and rapid-phase-transition. Volume 1. [7 experiments with liquefied natural gas, 2 with liquid methane, and one with liquid nitrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Goldwire, H.C. Jr.; Rodean, H.C.; Cederwall, R.T.; Kansa, E.J.; Koopman, R.P.; McClure, J.W.; McRae, T.G.; Morris, L.K.; Kamppinen, L.; Kiefer, R.D.

    1983-10-01

    The Coyote series of liquefied natural gas (LNG) spill experiments was performed at the Naval Weapons Center (NWC), China Lake, California, during the summer and fall of 1981. These tests were a joint effort of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and the NWC and were sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Gas Research Institute. There were ten Coyote experiments, five primarily for the study of vapor dispersion and burning vapor clouds, and five for investigating the occurrence of rapid-phase-transition (RPT) explosions. Each of the last four of the five RPT tests consisted of a series of three spills. Seven experiments were with LNG, two were with liquid methane (LCH/sub 4/), and one was with liquid nitrogen (LN/sub 2/). Three arrays of instrumentation were deployed. An array of RPT diagnostic instruments was concentrated at the spill pond and was operated during all of the tests, vapor burn as well as RPT. The wind-field array was operated during the last nine experiments to define the wind direction and speed in the area upwind and downwind of the spill pond. The gas-dispersion array was deployed mostly downwind of the spill pond to measure gas concentration, humidity, temperature, ground heat flux, infrared (IR) radiation, and flame-front passage during three of the vapor dispersion and burn experiments (Coyotes 3, 5, and 6). High-speed color motion pictures were taken during every test, and IR imagery (side and overhead) was obtained during some vapor-burn experiments. Data was obtained by radiometers during Coyotes 3, 6, and 7. This report presents a comprehensive selection of the data obtained. It does not include any data analysis except that required to determine the test conditions and the reliability of the data. Data analysis is to be reported in other publications. 19 references, 76 figures, 13 tables.

  9. LLNL I/O Testbed Analysis of IBM M80 (P660 6M1)

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzgerald, K; Daveler, J; Heer, T; Gleicher, M

    2002-02-01

    The HPSS hierarchical storage system currently uses ''mover'' nodes to interface client processes to the hardware devices. As archival bandwidth requirements increase, the number of mover nodes required to provide the necessary bandwidth has become a significant factor both in terms of capital expense and administrative overhead. The LLNL data storage group would therefore like to select the most powerful yet cost effective IBM architecture currently available for use as future HPSS movers nodes. The LLNL storage group currently uses IBM ''winterhawk2'' SP nodes as HPSS mover nodes. Several IBM architectures including ''nighthawk'' SP nodes and several ''P'' series IBM architectures were considered and the ''M80'' system appeared to be the most promising based upon its high memory bandwidth and capability to attach multiple ''RIO'' drawers offering 64bit 66MHz PCI buses.

  10. Multicenter long-term validation of a minicourse in radiation-reducing techniques in the catheterization laboratory.

    PubMed

    Kuon, Eberhard; Weitmann, Kerstin; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Dörr, Marcus; Hummel, Astrid; Riad, Alexander; Busch, Mathias C; Felix, Stephan B; Empen, Klaus

    2015-02-01

    Patient radiation exposure in invasive cardiology is considerable. We aimed to investigate, in a multicenter field study, the long-term efficacy of an educational 90-minute workshop in cardiac invasive techniques with reduced irradiation. Before and at a median period of 2.5 months and 2.0 years after the minicourse (periods I, II, and III, respectively) at 5 German cardiac centers, 18 interventionalists documented various radiation parameters for 10 coronary angiographies. The median patient dose area product (DAP) for periods I, II, and III amounted to 26.6, 12.2, and 9.6 Gy × cm(2), respectively. The short-term and long-term effects were related to shorter median fluoroscopy times (180, 138, and 114 seconds), fewer radiographic frames (745, 553, and 417) because of fewer (11, 11, and 10) and shorter (64, 52, and 44 frames/run) runs, consistent collimation, and restriction to an adequate image quality; both radiographic DAP/frame (27.7, 17.3, and 18.4 mGy × cm(2)) and fluoroscopic DAP/second (26.6, 12.9, and 14.9 mGy × cm(2)) decreased significantly. Multivariate analysis over time indicated increasing efficacy of the minicourse itself (-55% and -64%) and minor influence of interventionist experience (-4% and -3% per 1,000 coronary angiographies, performed lifelong until the minicourse and until period III). In conclusion, autonomous self-surveillance of various dose parameters and feedback on individual radiation safety efforts supported the efficacy of a 90-minute course program toward long-lasting and ongoing patient dose reduction. PMID:25579886

  11. Comparison of CAISO-run Plexos output with LLNL-run Plexos output

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, A; Meyers, C; Smith, S

    2011-12-20

    In this report we compare the output of the California Independent System Operator (CAISO) 33% RPS Plexos model when run on various computing systems. Specifically, we compare the output resulting from running the model on CAISO's computers (Windows) and LLNL's computers (both Windows and Linux). We conclude that the differences between the three results are negligible in the context of the entire system and likely attributed to minor differences in Plexos version numbers as well as the MIP solver used in each case.

  12. LLNL Fire Protection Engineering Standard 5.8 Facility Survey Program

    SciTech Connect

    Sharry, J A

    2012-01-04

    This standard describes the LLNL Fire Protection Facility Survey Program. The purpose of this standard is to describe the type of facility surveys required to fulfill the requirements of DOE Order 420.1B, Facility Safety. Nothing in this standard is intended to prevent the development of a FHA using alternative approaches. Alternate approaches, including formatting, will be by exception only, and approved by the Fire Marshal/Fire Protection Engineering Subject Matter Expert in advance of their use.

  13. Plan for Developing and Implementing the LLNL Plutonium Facility and Packaging Program

    SciTech Connect

    Dodson, K E; Burch, J G; Krikorian, O H; Riley, D C

    2005-03-29

    The LLNL Plutonium Facility uses glove boxes for performing operations involving special nuclear materials (SNM) that for the most part are not connected to each other. Having standalone glove boxes mandates bag-in and bag-out operations to provide personnel safety in material transfers. The use of inexpensive disposable primary and secondary containers (i.e., food pack and paint cans) decreases operational risks by reducing glove box transfers. Typically, containers consist of produce cans, paint cans, lard cans, and egg cans; however, some cans with bolted flanges have been used for protection from oxidation or to reduce dose to the handler. The lard cans and egg cans are slip lid cans and have predominantly been used for the outermost containment, or secondary can, in the packaging configuration. For non-weapon parts the packaging has generally been, from the inner most container to the outside container as (1) the primary can, (2) a bag-out bag, (3) a poultry bag, and (4) a secondary can. This system has evolved over many years and has proven to be effective. During FY2002 through FY2004, the ''Legacy'' material projects at LLNL inspected, repackaged and processed (if necessary), approximately 1500 items, which translates to at least 3000 containers (primary and secondary). There were no failed containers identified during this repacking campaign; however, a documented technical basis does not exist for LLNL's current packaging system. In addition, this system may not meet drop test criteria. To assure that material is packaged and stored safely and consistently, LLNL is developing criteria for packaging and storage of special nuclear materials, as well as the associated technical basis. This document describes the plan for developing these criteria, technical basis, and implementation of the approved packaging and storage plan.

  14. LLNL and TRW extend benchmark environmental stress testing for two alternative printed board cleaners

    SciTech Connect

    Hersey, R.J. Jr.; Meltzer, M.; Hofstad, H.W.; Lawrence, M.; Sanborn, R.; Arauco, H.

    1995-03-01

    TRW Corporation and LLNL jointly conducted a testing program to evaluate the effectiveness of non-CFC defluxing chemistries on printed boards designed for high reliability military and aerospace applications. TRW assessed existing data for alternative chemistries, selected candidates for further testing, implemented the cleaning processes, and performed ionic conductivity testing on the spent solvents. LLNL designed and fabricated special circuit boards with interdigitated comb patterns to allow insulation resistance (IR) measurements under selected soldered components. LLNL designed the test and measurement setup and conducted accelerated environmental stress testing of flux residues for 28 days following cleaning. Statistical analyses of the IR measurements were correlated with visual observations and spectroscopic (FTIR) measurements. Performance of the alternative chemistries was compared with that of a standard CFC cleaning agent also included in the test program. The program was designed to follow the same environmental stress and electrical measurement requirements as the IPC/DOD/EPA Ad Hoc Solvent Working Group`s benchmark 7-day test plan, but with certain minor modifications and extension to 28 days.

  15. Physics of laser fusion. Volume II. Diagnostics of experiments on laser fusion targets at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Ahlstrom, H.G.

    1982-01-01

    These notes present the experimental basis and status for laser fusion as developed at LLNL. There are two other volumes in this series: Vol. I, by C.E. Max, presents the theoretical laser-plasma interaction physics; Vol. III, by J.F. Holzrichter et al., presents the theory and design of high-power pulsed lasers. A fourth volume will present the theoretical implosion physics. The notes consist of six sections. The first, an introductory section, provides some of the history of inertial fusion and a simple explanation of the concepts involved. The second section presents an extensive discussion of diagnostic instrumentation used in the LLNL Laser Fusion Program. The third section is a presentation of laser facilities and capabilities at LLNL. The purpose here is to define capability, not to derive how it was obtained. The fourth and fifth sections present the experimental data on laser-plasma interaction and implosion physics. The last chapter is a short projection of the future.

  16. Intercomparison exercise on external gamma dose rate under field conditions at the laboratory of natural radiation (Saelices el Chico, Spain).

    PubMed

    Gutierrez-Villanueva, J L; Sainz-Fernández, C; Fuente-Merino, I; Sáez-Vergara, J C; Correa-Garcés, E; Quindos-Poncela, L S

    2013-08-01

    The last nuclear accident in Fukushima nuclear power plant has increased the necessity for measuring radiation in the environment. Therefore, radiation monitors providing results traceable throughout the country become essential and it is very important to test them under the same environmental conditions. The first intercomparison of natural radioactivity under field conditions was held in Saelices el Chico (Salamanca, Spain) in May 2011, including an exercise on environmental dose rate. This article presents the results achieved by 19 instruments belonging to 12 institutions from 7 different countries. The tested detectors are proportional counters, ionisation chambers, Geiger-Müller and scintillators measuring dose rate in three stations with reference values from 110 to 1800 nGy h(-1). All the results were given in terms of air kerma (nGy h(-1)) and the measurements show agreement within 25 % in all the sites. Evaluation criteria based on accuracy and statistical uncertainty were also carried out and 25 % of participants passed the test in all sites.

  17. Evaluation of Cavity Collapse and Surface Crater Formation for Selected Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Underground Nuclear Tests - 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Pawloski, G A

    2011-01-03

    This report evaluates collapse evolution for selected Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) underground nuclear tests at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS, formerly called the Nevada Test Site). The work is being done at the request of Navarro-Interra LLC, and supports environmental restoration efforts by the Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration for the Nevada Site Office. Safety decisions must be made before a surface crater area, or potential surface crater area, can be reentered for any work. Our statements on cavity collapse and surface crater formation are input into their safety decisions. These statements do not include the effects of erosion that may modify the surface collapse craters over time. They also do not address possible radiation dangers that may be present. Subject matter experts from the LLNL Containment Program who had been active in weapons testing activities performed these evaluations. Information used included drilling and hole construction, emplacement and stemming, timing and sequence of the selected test and nearby tests, geology, yield, depth of burial, collapse times, surface crater sizes, cavity and crater volume estimations, and ground motion. Both classified and unclassified data were reviewed. Various amounts of information are available for these tests, depending on their age and other associated activities. Lack of data can hamper evaluations and introduce uncertainty. We make no attempt to quantify this uncertainty.

  18. Reducing the solid waste stream: reuse and recycling at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, K. L.

    1997-08-01

    In Fiscal Year (FY) 1996 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) increased its solid waste diversion by 365 percent over FY 1992 in five solid waste categories - paper, cardboard, wood, metals, and miscellaneous. (LLNL`s fiscal year is from October 1 to September 30.) LLNL reused/ recycled 6,387 tons of waste, including 340 tons of paper, 455 tons of scrap wood, 1,509 tons of metals, and 3,830 tons of asphalt and concrete (Table1). An additional 63 tons was diverted from landfills by donating excess food, selling toner cartridges for reconditioning, using rechargeable batteries, redirecting surplus equipment to other government agencies and schools, and comporting plant clippings. LLNL also successfully expanded its demonstration program to recycle and reuse construction and demolition debris as part of its facility-wide, comprehensive solid waste reduction programs.

  19. Thirty-sixth Lauriston S. Taylor Lecture on radiation protection and measurements--from the field to the laboratory and back: the what ifs, wows, and who cares of radiation biology.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Antone L

    2013-11-01

    My scientific journey started at the University of Utah chasing fallout. It was on everything, in everything, and was distributed throughout the ecosystem. This resulted in radiation doses to humans and caused me great concern. From this concern I asked the question, "Are there health effects from these radiation doses and levels of radioactive contamination?" I have invested my scientific career trying to address this basic question. While conducting research, I got acquainted with many of the What ifs of radiation biology. The major What if in my research was, "What if we have underestimated the radiation risk for internally-deposited radioactive material?" While conducting research to address this important question, many other What ifs came up related to dose, dose rate, and dose distribution. I also encountered a large number of Wows. One of the first was when I went from conducting environmental fallout studies to research in a controlled laboratory. The activity in fallout was expressed as pCi L⁻¹, whereas it was necessary to inject laboratory animals with μCi g⁻¹ body weight to induce measurable biological changes, chromosome aberrations, and cancer. Wow! That is seven to nine orders of magnitude above the activity levels found in the environment. Other Wows have made it necessary for the field of radiation biology to make important paradigm shifts. For example, one shift involved changing from "hit theory" to total tissue responses as the result of bystander effects. Finally, Who cares? While working at U.S. Department of Energy headquarters and serving on many scientific committees, I found that science does not drive regulatory and funding decisions. Public perception and politics seem to be major driving forces. If scientific data suggested that risk had been underestimated, everyone cared. When science suggested that risk had been overestimated, no one cared. This result-dependent Who cares? was demonstrated as we tried to generate interactions

  20. Update of Earthquake Strong-Motion Instrumentation at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, Robert C.

    2013-09-01

    Following the January 1980 earthquake that was felt at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), a network of strong-motion accelerographs was installed at LLNL. Prior to the 1980 earthquake, there were no accelerographs installed. The ground motion from the 1980 earthquake was estimated from USGS instruments around the Laboratory to be between 0.2 – 0.3 g horizontal peak ground acceleration. These instruments were located at the Veterans Hospital, 5 miles southwest of LLNL, and in San Ramon, about 12 miles west of LLNL. In 2011, the Department of Energy (DOE) requested to know the status of our seismic instruments. We conducted a survey of our instrumentation systems and responded to DOE in a letter. During this survey, it was found that the recorders in Buildings 111 and 332 were not operational. The instruments on Nova had been removed, and only three of the 10 NIF instruments installed in 2005 were operational (two were damaged and five had been removed from operation at the request of the program). After the survey, it was clear that the site seismic instrumentation had degraded substantially and would benefit from an overhaul and more attention to ongoing maintenance. LLNL management decided to update the LLNL seismic instrumentation system. The updated system is documented in this report.

  1. Evaluation of Cavity Collapse and Surface Crater Formation for Selected Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Tests - 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Pawloski, G A

    2011-02-28

    This report evaluates collapse evolution for selected Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) underground nuclear tests at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS, formerly called the Nevada Test Site). The work is being done at the request of National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec) and supports the Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration for the Nevada Site Office Borehole Management Program (BMP). The primary objective of this program is to close (plug) weapons program legacy boreholes that are deemed no longer useful. Safety decisions must be made before a crater area, or potential crater area, can be reentered for any work. Our statements on cavity collapse and crater formation are input into their safety decisions. The BMP is an on-going program to address hundreds of boreholes at the NTS. Each year NSTec establishes a list of holes to be addressed. They request the assistance of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Los Alamos National Laboratory Containment Programs to provide information related to the evolution of collapse history and make statements on completeness of collapse as relates to surface crater stability. These statements do not include the effects of erosion that may modify the collapse craters over time. They also do not address possible radiation dangers that may be present. Subject matter experts from the LLNL Containment Program who had been active in weapons testing activities performed these evaluations. Information used included drilling and hole construction, emplacement and stemming, timing and sequence of the selected test and nearby tests, geology, yield, depth of burial, collapse times, surface crater sizes, cavity and crater volume estimations, ground motion, and radiological release information. Both classified and unclassified data were reviewed. Various amounts of information are available for these tests, depending on their age and other associated activities. Lack of data can hamper

  2. Optical Design Capabilities at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Lawson, J K

    2002-12-30

    Optical design capabilities continue to play the same strong role at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) that they have played in the past. From defense applications to the solid-state laser programs to the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS), members of the optical design group played critical roles in producing effective system designs and are actively continuing this tradition. This talk will explain the role optical design plays at LLNL, outline current capabilities and summarize a few activities in which the optical design team has been recently participating.

  3. Laboratory Measurements of Oxygen Gas Release from Basaltic Minerals Exposed to UV- Radiation: Implications for the Viking Gas Exchange Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurowitz, J. A.; Yen, A. S.

    2007-12-01

    The biology experiments onboard the Viking Landers determined that the Martian soils at Chryse and Utopia Planitia contain an unknown chemical compound of a highly oxidizing nature. The Gas Exchange Experiments (GEx) demonstrated that the humidification of a 1-cc Martian soil sample resulted in the production of as much as 790 nanomoles of oxygen gas. Yen et al. (2000) have provided experimental evidence that superoxide radicals can be generated on plagioclase feldspar (labradorite) grain surfaces by exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light in the presence of oxygen gas. Adsorbed superoxide radicals are thought to react readily with water vapor, and produce oxygen gas in quantities sufficient to explain the Viking GEx results. Direct evidence for the formation of oxygen gas, however, was not provided in the experiments of Yen et al (2000). Accordingly, the motivation of this study is to determine whether superoxide radicals adsorbed on labradorite surfaces are capable of producing oxygen gas upon exposure to water vapor. We have constructed an experimental apparatus that is capable of monitoring oxygen gas release from basaltic mineral powders that have been exposed to UV-radiation under Martian atmospheric pressure conditions. The apparatus consists of a stainless-steel vacuum chamber with a UV- transparent window where sample radiation exposures are performed. The vacuum chamber has multiple valved ports for injection of gases and water vapor. The vacuum chamber is connected via a precision leak valve to a quadrupole mass spectrometer, which measures changes in the composition of the headspace gases over our mineral samples. We will report on the results of our experiments, which are aimed at detecting and quantifying oxygen gas release from UV-exposed basaltic mineral samples using this new experimental facility. These results will further constrain whether superoxide ions adsorbed on mineral surfaces provide a viable explanation for the Viking GEx results, which have

  4. Small-angle x-ray scattering/diffraction system for studies of biological and other materials at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (abstract)a)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakatsuki, S.; Hodgson, K. O.; Eliezer, D.; Rice, M.; Hubbard, S.; Gillis, N.; Doniach, S.; Spann, U.

    1992-01-01

    A versatile small-angle x-ray diffraction/scattering system has been developed at Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory for studies of biological and other materials. The system includes two sets of collimation slits separated by an ionization chamber, a sample holder cooled by a circulation bath, a vacuum/He scattering path after the sample holder and a detector, either a linear one-dimensional position-sensitive proportional counter or a position-sensitive quadrant detector. Data aquisition is controlled by a VAXstation through a CAMAC interface. Menu-driven data acquisition and on-line analysis software has been developed. The system can be used to collect small- to intermediate-angle x-ray scattering and diffraction data. Monochromatic, anomalous, and time-resolved diffraction/scattering experiments are possible. A time-resolved spectrophotometer using photodiode arrays has also been developed for simultaneous measurements of optical absorption spectra and x-ray scattering/diffraction.

  5. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Summer Employment Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, A J

    2002-08-06

    This document will serve as a summary of my work activities as a summer employee for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The intent of this document is to provide an overview of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) project, to explain the role of the department that I am working for, and to discuss my specific assigned tasks and their impact on the NIF project as a whole.

  6. University of Rochester, Laboratory for Laser Energetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1987-01-01

    In FY86 the Laboratory has produced a list of accomplishments in which it takes pride. LLE has met every laser-fusion program milestone to date in a program of research for direct-drive ultraviolet laser fusion originally formulated in 1981. LLE scientists authored or co-authored 135 scientific papers during 1985 to 1986. The collaborative experiments with NRL, LANL, and LLNL have led to a number of important ICF results. The cryogenic target system developed by KMS Fusion for LLE will be used in future high-density experiments on OMEGA to demonstrate the compression of thermonuclear fuel to 100 to 200 times that of solid (20 to 40 g/cm) in a test of the direct-drive concept, as noted in the National Academy of Sciences' report. The excellence of the advanced technology efforts at LLE is illustrated by the establishment of the Ultrafast Science Center by the Department of Defense through the Air Force Office of Scientific Research. Research in the Center will concentrate on bridging the gap between high-speed electronics and ultrafast optics by providing education, research, and development in areas critical to future communications and high-speed computer systems. The Laboratory for Laser Energetics continues its pioneering work on the interaction of intense radiation with matter. This includes inertial-fusion and advanced optical and optical electronics research; training people in the technology and applications of high-power, short-pulse lasers; and interacting with the scientific community, business, industry, and government to promote the growth of laser technology.

  7. Laboratory Directed Research and Development FY2001 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Ayat, R

    2002-06-20

    Established by Congress in 1991, the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program provides the Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) laboratories, like Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL or the Laboratory), with the flexibility to invest up to 6% of their budget in long-term, high-risk, and potentially high payoff research and development (R&D) activities to support the DOE/NNSA's national security missions. By funding innovative R&D, the LDRD Program at LLNL develops and extends the Laboratory's intellectual foundations and maintains its vitality as a premier research institution. As proof of the Program's success, many of the research thrusts that started many years ago under LDRD sponsorship are at the core of today's programs. The LDRD Program, which serves as a proving ground for innovative ideas, is the Laboratory's most important single resource for fostering excellent science and technology for today's needs and tomorrow's challenges. Basic and applied research activities funded by LDRD enhance the Laboratory's core strengths, driving its technical vitality to create new capabilities that enable LLNL to meet DOE/NNSA's national security missions. The Program also plays a key role in building a world-class multidisciplinary workforce by engaging the Laboratory's best researchers, recruiting its future scientists and engineers, and promoting collaborations with all sectors of the larger scientific community.

  8. Chemical evolution of organic molecules under Mars-like UV radiation conditions simulated in the laboratory with the “Mars organic molecule irradiation and evolution” (MOMIE) setup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poch, O.; Noblet, A.; Stalport, F.; Correia, J. J.; Grand, N.; Szopa, C.; Coll, P.

    2013-09-01

    Understanding the evolution of organic matter on Mars is a major goal to drive and discuss past, present and future in situ analyses. Here we demonstrate the ability of the MOMIE (for Mars organic molecules irradiation and evolution) laboratory device in giving both in situ qualitative and quantitative data on the evolution of organic molecules under simulated Martian surface ultraviolet light (190-400 nm), mean temperature (218±2 K) and pressure (6±1 mbar). We describe the chemical evolution of glycine, an amino acid, which is very rapidly processed when exposed to direct ultraviolet radiations, with a molecular half-life of 231±110 h on Mars consistent with existing results. Moreover we report the first tentative detection of peptide bond formation activated by UV radiation reaching the Mars surface. We show that organics as simple as glycine could experience multiple chemical pathways at Mars, both in the solid and gaseous phase. Finally, we derive the quantum efficiency for the photodestruction of glycine of 2.18±1.45×10-3 molecule photon-1 in the 200-250 nm wavelength range. This value is significantly higher than previous estimates done by methane evolved measurements. Current and future studies performed with this simulation setup could produce kinetic and chemical insights into the evolution of organics on Mars.

  9. Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 1996 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ryerson, F. J., Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics

    1998-03-23

    The Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics (IGPP) is a Multicampus Research Unit of the University of California (UC). IGPP was founded in 1946 at UC Los Angeles with a charter to further research in the earth and planetary sciences and in related fields. The Institute now has branches at UC campuses in Los Angeles, San Diego, and Riverside, and at Los Alamos and Lawrence Livermore national laboratories. The University-wide IGPP has played an important role in establishing interdisciplinary research in the earth and planetary sciences. For example, IGPP was instrumental in founding the fields of physical oceanography and space physics, which at the time fell between the cracks of established university departments. Because of its multicampus orientation, IGPP has sponsored important interinstitutional consortia in the earth and planetary sciences. Each of the five branches has a somewhat different intellectual emphasis as a result of the interplay between strengths of campus departments and Laboratory programs. The IGPP branch at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) was approved by the Regents of the University of California in 1982. IGPP-LLNL emphasizes research in seismology, geochemistry, cosmochemistry, and astrophysics. It provides a venue for studying the fundamental aspects of these fields, thereby complementing LLNL programs that pursue applications of these disciplines in national security and energy research. IGPP-LLNL is directed by Charles Alcock and was originally organized into three centers: Geosciences, stressing seismology; High-Pressure Physics, stressing experiments using the two-stage light-gas gun at LLNL; and Astrophysics, stressing theoretical and computational astrophysics. In 1994, the activities of the Center for High-Pressure Physics were merged with those of the Center for Geosciences. The Center for Geosciences, headed by Frederick Ryerson, focuses on research in geophysics and geochemistry. The Astrophysics Research

  10. Geology of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory site and adjacent areas

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, D W; Sweeney, J J; Kasameyer, P W; Burkhard, N R; Knauss, K G; Shlemon, R J

    1984-08-01

    LLNL is underlain by a thick sequence of late Tertiary and Quaternary alluvial deposits overlying a complex basement of Mesozoic metamorphic rocks of the Franciscan Assemblage and late Mesozoic and Tertiary marine sedimentary rocks. The ancestral Greenville Fault separates the Franciscan basement terrain from the late Mesozoic and Tertiary basement. The late Tertiary and Quaternary alluvial deposits include lacustrine, alluvial fan, and stream channel deposits. Soil profiles and relative and absolute age data demonstrate that most of the near-surface materials beneath LLNL range in age from latest Pleistocene to 100,000 y or greater. A low net sedimentation rate is indicated by the data. Depths to groundwater beneath LLNL vary from about 13 m beneath the northeast corner of the laboratory to about 49 m beneath the southeast corner. Depths to water beneath portions of the laboratory where major buildings are located range from 18 to 30 m. LLNL is located in a seismically active region. Deformation of Quaternary materials and periodic seismicity support this conclusion. Historic seismicity has been experienced along the Calaveras and Greenville Faults that bound the Livermore Valley on the west and east, respectively, and also appears associated with the Las Positas Fault Zone. The Calaveras Fault is located approximately 17 km west of LLNL, and recently active strands of the Greenville Fault Zone are located approximately 1.1 km northeast of the laboratory. Geologic evidence demonstrates Holocene activity along strands of the Las Positas Fault Zone that lie about 90 m southeast of LLNL at their point of closest approach. Pavement fracturing at the intersection of Greenville Road and East Avenue suggests that a strand of the Las Positas Fault may be located about 15 m southeast of the southeast corner of the laboratory. Other potential sources of seismicity could affect LLNL. 126 references, 71 figures, 18 tables.

  11. Progress in safety and environmental aspects of inertial fusion energy at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Latkowski, J F; Reyes, S; Meier, W R

    2000-06-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is making significant progress in several areas related to the safety and environmental (S and E) aspects of inertial fusion energy (IFE). A detailed accident analysis has been completed for the HYLIFE-II power plant design. Additional accident analyses are underway for both the HYLIFE-II and Sombrero designs. Other S and E work at LLNL has addressed the issue of the driver-chamber interface and its importance for both heavy-ion and laser-driven IFE. Radiation doses and fluences have been calculated for final focusing mirrors and magnets and shielding optimization is underway to extend the anticipated lifetimes for key components. Target designers/fabrication specialists have been provided with ranking information related to the S and E characteristics of candidate target materials (e.g., ability to recycle, accident consequences, and waste management). Ongoing work in this area will help guide research directions and the selection of target materials. Published and continuing work on fast ignition has demonstrated some of the potentially attractive S and E features of such designs. In addition to reducing total driver energies, fast ignition may ease target fabrication requirements, reduce radiation damage rates, and enable the practical use of advanced (e.g., tritium-lean) labels with significantly reduced neutron production rates, the possibility of self-breeding targets, and dramatically increased flexibility in blanket design. Domestic and international collaborations are key to success in the above areas. A brief summary of each area is given and plans for future work are outlined.

  12. Effect of Solar Radiation on the Optical Properties and Molecular Composition of Laboratory Proxies of Atmospheric Brown Carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hyun Ji; Aiona, Paige K.; Laskin, Alexander; Laskin, Julia; Nizkorodov, Sergey

    2014-09-02

    Sources, optical properties, and chemical composition of atmospheric brown carbon (BrC) aerosol are uncertain, making it challenging to estimate its contribution to radiative forcing. Furthermore, optical properties of BrC may change significantly during its atmospheric aging. We examined the effect of solar photolysis on the molecular composition, mass absorption coefficient, and fluorescence of secondary organic aerosol prepared by high-NOx photooxidation of naphthalene (NAP SOA). The aqueous solutions of NAP SOA was observed to photobleach with an effective half-time of ~15 hours (with sun in its zenith) for the loss of the near-UV (300 -400 nm) absorbance. The molecular composition of NAP SOA was significantly modified by photolysis, with the average SOA formula changing from C14.1H14.5O5.1N0.08 to C11.8H14.9O4.5N0.02 after 4 hours of irradiation. The average O/C ratio did not change significantly, however, suggesting that it is not a good metric for assessing the extent of photolysis-driven aging in NAP SOA (and in BrC in general). In contrast to NAP SOA, the photolysis of BrC material produced by aqueous reaction of limonene+O3 SOA (LIM/O3 SOA) with ammonium sulfate was much faster, but it did not result in a significant change in the molecular level composition. The characteristic absorbance of the aged LIM/O3 SOA in the 450-600 nm range decayed with an effective half-time of <0.5 hour. This result emphasizes the highly variable and dynamic nature of different types of atmospheric BrC.

  13. Preliminary report of the past and present uses, storage, and disposal of hazardous materials at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Dreicer, M.

    1985-12-01

    This report contains the findings of a records search performed to survey the past and present use, storage, and disposal of hazardous materials and wastes at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) site. This report provides a point of departure for further planning of environmental protection activities at the site. This report was conducted using the LLNL archives and library, documents from the US Navy, old LLNL Plant Engineering blueprint files, published articles and reports, Environmental Protection Program records, employee interviews, and available aerial photographs. Sections I and II of this report provide an introduction to the LLNL site and its environmental characteristics. Several tenants have occupied the site prior to the establishment of LLNL, currently operated by the University of California for the US Department of Energy. Section III of this report contains information on environmentally related operations of early site users, the US Navy and California Research and Development. Section IV of this report contains information on the handling of hazardous materials and wastes by LLNL programs. The information is presented in 12 sub-sections, one for each currently operating LLNL program. General site areas, i.e., garbage trenches, the traffic circle landfill, the taxi strip, and old ammunition bunkers are discussed in Section V. 12 refs., 23 figs., 27 tabs.

  14. Examining Radiation-Induced In Vivo and In Vitro Gene Expression Changes of the Peripheral Blood in Different Laboratories for Biodosimetry Purposes: First RENEB Gene Expression Study.

    PubMed

    Abend, M; Badie, C; Quintens, R; Kriehuber, R; Manning, G; Macaeva, E; Njima, M; Oskamp, D; Strunz, S; Moertl, S; Doucha-Senf, S; Dahlke, S; Menzel, J; Port, M

    2016-02-01

    The risk of a large-scale event leading to acute radiation exposure necessitates the development of high-throughput methods for providing rapid individual dose estimates. Our work addresses three goals, which align with the directive of the European Union's Realizing the European Network of Biodosimetry project (EU-RENB): 1. To examine the suitability of different gene expression platforms for biodosimetry purposes; 2. To perform this examination using blood samples collected from prostate cancer patients (in vivo) and from healthy donors (in vitro); and 3. To compare radiation-induced gene expression changes of the in vivo with in vitro blood samples. For the in vitro part of this study, EDTA-treated whole blood was irradiated immediately after venipuncture using single X-ray doses (1 Gy/min(-1) dose rate, 100 keV). Blood samples used to generate calibration curves as well as 10 coded (blinded) samples (0-4 Gy dose range) were incubated for 24 h in vitro, lysed and shipped on wet ice. For the in vivo part of the study PAXgene tubes were used and peripheral blood (2.5 ml) was collected from prostate cancer patients before and 24 h after the first fractionated 2 Gy dose of localized radiotherapy to the pelvis [linear accelerator (LINAC), 580 MU/min, exposure 1-1.5 min]. Assays were run in each laboratory according to locally established protocols using either microarray platforms (2 laboratories) or qRT-PCR (2 laboratories). Report times on dose estimates were documented. The mean absolute difference of estimated doses relative to the true doses (Gy) were calculated. Doses were also merged into binary categories reflecting aspects of clinical/diagnostic relevance. For the in vitro part of the study, the earliest report time on dose estimates was 7 h for qRT-PCR and 35 h for microarrays. Methodological variance of gene expression measurements (CV ≤10% for technical replicates) and interindividual variance (≤twofold for all genes) were low. Dose estimates based on

  15. Evaluation of Open Geospatial Consortium Standards fur Use In LLNL Geographic Information Systems (GIS)

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, H; Chou, R; Chubb, K; Schek, J

    2005-09-28

    The objective of this project is to evaluate existing and emerging Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standards for use in LLNL programs that rely heavily on geographic data. OGC standards are intended to facilitate interoperability between geospatial processing systems to avoid duplication of effort, lower development costs, and encourage competition based on improved capability and performance rather than vendor lock-in. Some of these standards appear to be gaining traction in the geospatial data community, the Federal government, DOE and DHS. A serious evaluation of this technology is appropriate at this time due to increasing interest and mandated compliance in the Federal government in some situations. A subset of OGC standards is identified and reviewed with a focus on applications to LLNL programs. Each standard or recommendation reviewed was evaluated in general terms. In addition, for specific programs such as Gen&SIS and NARAC, a specific evaluation was made of several of the standards and how they could be used most effectively. It is also important to evaluate the acceptance of these standards in the commercial arena. The implementation of OGC standards by the largest GIS vendor (ESRI) was reviewed. At present, OGC standards are primary useful in specific situations. More generally, many of the standards are immature and their impact on the government and commercial sectors is unclear. Consequently, OGC and related developments need to be observed. As specific standards or groups of standards mature and establish their relevance, these can also be incorporated in LLNL programs as requirements dictate, especially if open implementations and commercial products are available.

  16. Isentropic Compression Experiments Performed By LLNL On Energetic Material Samples Using The Z Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Vandersall, K S; Reisman, D B; Forbes, J W; Hare, D E; Garcia, F; Uphaus, T M; Elsholz, A J; Tarver, C M; Eggert, J H

    2007-10-25

    Several experiments have been conducted by LLNL researchers using isentropic compression experiments (ICE) on energetic materials as samples from Fiscal Year 2001 (FY01) to Fiscal Year 2005 (FY05). Over this span of time, advancements of the experimental techniques and modeling of the results have evolved to produce improved results. This report documents the experiments that have been performed, provides details of the results generated, and modeling and analysis advances to fully understand the results. Publications on the topics by the various principal investigators (PI's) are detailed in the Appendices for quick reference for the work as it progressed.

  17. Analyses in Support of Z-IFE LLNL Progress Report for FY-05

    SciTech Connect

    Moir, R W; Abbott, R P; Callahan, D A; Latkowski, J F; Meier, W R; Reyes, S

    2005-10-17

    The FY04 LLNL study of Z-IFE [1] proposed and evaluated a design that deviated from SNL's previous baseline design. The FY04 study included analyses of shock mitigation, stress in the first wall, neutronics and systems studies. In FY05, the subject of this report, we build on our work and the theme of last year. Our emphasis continues to be on alternatives that hold promise of considerable improvements in design and economics compared to the base-line design. Our key results are summarized here.

  18. LLNL heart valve condition classification project anechoic testing results at the TRANSDEC evaluation facility

    SciTech Connect

    Candy, J V

    1999-10-31

    This report first briefly outlines the procedures and support/activation fixture developed at LLNL to perform the heart valve tests in an anechoic-like tank at the US Navy Transducer Evaluation Facility (TransDec) located in San Diego, CA. Next they discuss the basic experiments performed and the corresponding experimental plan employed to gather meaningful data systematically. The signal processing required to extract the desired information is briefly developed along with some of the data. Finally, they show the results of the individual runs for each valve, point out any of the meaningful features and summaries.

  19. Energy and Technology Review, July 1984: state of the Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    Each year, Director Roger Batzel addresses the LLNL staff on the state of the Laboratory and the achievements of the past year. On May 17, 1984, Dr. Batzel reported on the estimated budget for fiscal year 1985, which includes an 8.5% increase in operating funds, and on recent progress in our major programs. In this issue, we summarize Dr. Batzel's address and present a sampling of Laboratory achievements.

  20. Center for accelerator mass spectrometry Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, M.L.; Southon, J.R.; Proctor, I.D.

    1997-09-01

    The Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (CAMS) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is a multi-disciplinary research organization that conducts both technological and applications research. CAMS operates both an HVEC FN tandem and a NEC Model 5SDH-2 tandem accelerator. Using highly sensitive accelerator-based element and isotope detection methods, staff at CAMS collaborate with a broad scope of external and internal researchers to solve problems for LLNL, the University of California, the U.S. Department of Energy, and other academic, government, and industrial laboratories. The HVEC FN tandem is used by the LLNL Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) group. AMS is a technique that uses isotope ratio mass spectrometry at MeV energies to quantify long lived radioisotopes. For AMS, the FN tandem is operated under a distributed computer control system that makes possible rapid and precise switching between experimental configurations on a daily basis. The accelerator and beam lines are unshielded with radiation protection provided by a computer supervised radiation monitoring system and proximity shielding. With AMS, we routinely measure the isotopes {sup 3} H, {sup 7} Be, {sup 10} Be, {sup 14} C, {sup 26} Al, {sup 36} Cl, {sup 41} Ca, {sup 59} Ni, and {sup 129} I at abundances as low as 1 part in 10{sup 15} . Research programs are as diverse as archaeology, dosimetry of carcinogens and mutagens, oceanic and atmospheric chemistry, paleoclimatology, and detection of signatures of nuclear fuel reprocessing for non-proliferation purposes. During the past year our AMS group has run approximately 20,000 research samples. The NEC Model 5SDH-2 tandem accelerator is used by the Ion Micro Analysis Group (IMAG), a joint collaboration between LLNL and Sandia National Laboratories/California in biological and materials science research. The 1.7 MV accelerator and an Oxford Microbeams Quadrupole Triplet Lens System are used to create a 3 MeV micron scale focused ion

  1. Normalized Tritium Quantification Approach (NoTQA) a Method for Quantifying Tritium Contaminated Trash and Debris at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Dominick, J L; Rasmussen, C L

    2008-07-23

    Several facilities and many projects at LLNL work exclusively with tritium. These operations have the potential to generate large quantities of Low-Level Radioactive Waste (LLW) with the same or similar radiological characteristics. A standardized documented approach to characterizing these waste materials for disposal as radioactive waste will enhance the ability of the Laboratory to manage them in an efficient and timely manner while ensuring compliance with all applicable regulatory requirements. This standardized characterization approach couples documented process knowledge with analytical verification and is very conservative, overestimating the radioactivity concentration of the waste. The characterization approach documented here is the Normalized Tritium Quantification Approach (NoTQA). This document will serve as a Technical Basis Document which can be referenced in radioactive waste characterization documentation packages such as the Information Gathering Document. In general, radiological characterization of waste consists of both developing an isotopic breakdown (distribution) of radionuclides contaminating the waste and using an appropriate method to quantify the radionuclides in the waste. Characterization approaches require varying degrees of rigor depending upon the radionuclides contaminating the waste and the concentration of the radionuclide contaminants as related to regulatory thresholds. Generally, as activity levels in the waste approach a regulatory or disposal facility threshold the degree of required precision and accuracy, and therefore the level of rigor, increases. In the case of tritium, thresholds of concern for control, contamination, transportation, and waste acceptance are relatively high. Due to the benign nature of tritium and the resulting higher regulatory thresholds, this less rigorous yet conservative characterization approach is appropriate. The scope of this document is to define an appropriate and acceptable

  2. Seismic hazard studies for the High Flux Beam Reactor at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Costantino, C.J.; Heymsfield, E. . Dept. of Civil Engineering); Park, Y.J.; Hofmayer, C.H. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a calculation to determine the site specific seismic hazard appropriate for the deep soil site at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) which is to be used in the risk assessment studies being conducted for the High Flux Beam Reactor (HFBR). The calculations use as input the seismic hazard defined for the bedrock outcrop by a study conducted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Variability in site soil properties were included in the calculations to obtain the seismic hazard at the ground surface and compare these results with those using the generic amplification factors from the LLNL study. 9 refs., 8 figs.

  3. Historical Background of Ultrahigh Pressure Shock Compression Experiments at LLNL: 1973 to 2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nellis, W. J.

    2000-10-01

    My purpose is to recount the historical development of ultrahigh pressure shock compression experiments at LLNL, which I experienced in the period 1973 to 2000. I used several experimental techniques: shock-impedance-match experiments using planar shock waves driven by nuclear explosives (NIMs), the Janus Laser, a railgun, and a two-stage light-gas gun. Two things have motivated me: (1) the interaction between programmatic needs and scientific understanding (i.e., there are lots of scientifically interesting things to do here which are important programmatically) and (2) accurate experimental data are required to develop accurate theoretical models (or as Feynman said, 'If it (theory) disagrees with experiment, it is wrong'). The iteration between experiment and theory is commonly known as the scientific method. I arrived at LLNL with a PhD in Condensed Matter Physics (thesis on measuring thermal and electrical conductivities of rare-earth single crystals), postdoctoral experience (measuring electrical and magnetic properties of Pu, Np, and U intermetallic compounds and alloys), three years experience teaching 7-8 different undergraduate physics courses while running the college's computer terminal, a belief in the scientific method, and an intense interest in understanding materials physics. I managed to get one of the few jobs available in physics in 1973.

  4. Analysis of EUV Oxygen Spectra from LLNL SSPX and UNR Laser Plasma Source of ``Sparky''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilcox, P. G.; Safronova, A. S.; Kantsyrev, V. L.; Safronova, U. I.; Williamson, K. M.; Weller, M. E.; Clementson, J.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Struve, K. W.

    2008-11-01

    In our recent work [Wilcox et al, RSI (2008, in press)] we applied a non- LTE kinetic model of oxygen to analyze an oxygen spectrum between 140 and 240 å, produced on LLNL SSPX. Here we study the whole collection of recent experimental SSPX EUV oxygen spectra produced under different plasma conditions, specifically in the broad range of temperatures from as low as 15 eV up to 280 eV, and at an electron density of around 10 ^14 cm-3. In addition, we analyze new experimental data from EUV oxygen and carbon spectra, recorded at much higher density at the compact laser plasma source of ``Sparky'' at UNR . The comprehensive comparison of EUV oxygen spectra from both experiments with theoretical calculations was accomplished, and temperature and density sensitive lines were identified.This work is relevant to diagnostics of plasma with low -- Z ions and Tokamak plasma in particular. Work is supported by DOE under grant DE-FG02-08ER54951 and in part under NNSA Coop. Agr. DE-FC52-06NA27588 and DE-FC52-06NA27586. Work at LLNL was performed under auspices of the DOE under contract DE-AC52-07NA2344.

  5. LLNL review of the 1994 accelerator production of tritium (APT) concept

    SciTech Connect

    Alesso, H.P.; Barnard, J.J.; Booth, R.

    1995-03-08

    LLNL was asked in September 1994 to review the accelerator production of tritium (APT) concept as it had evolved up to the fall of 1994. The purpose was not to compare it to other sources of tritium, but to identify possible technical flaws in the concept and to assess feasibility. The APT concept reviewed was based on a 1.0 GeV normal conducting proton linac operating CW at currents up to 200 mA with a target of tungsten and blanket of {sup 3}He and lead. The LLNL review group concurs with the conclusions of four previous reviews (1989 to 1994) that this concept can meet the tritium requirements of a reduced stockpile of approximately 3,500 {+-} 1,500 warheads. The authors believe that the predicted tritium production rate is based on sound nuclear and transport models and that the schedules for technology demonstrations, design, and construction are realistic. They conclude that the technical risk of the concept is low and can be managed within the risk reduction program. The risk reduction program should focus on risk to the schedule and on cost reduction.

  6. Closure plan for the decommissioned high explosives rinse-water lagoons at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site 300

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, D.W.; Lamarre, A.L.; Crow, N.B.; Swearengen, P.M.

    1988-05-31

    The High Explosives (HE) Process Area is a major facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Site 300. Within the Process Area, rinse water from various buildings formerly was discharged to nine relatively small, unlined lagoons where it was disposed of by evaporation and infiltration. In 1985, LLNL decommissioned these lagoons and diverted the rinse waters to two doubly lined surface impoundments. LLNL conducted the hydrogeologic investigations required to support the permanent closure of the none decommissioned lagoons. These studies included drilling ground water monitoring wells and extensively collecting soil and rock samples, which were analyzed for EPA toxic metals, HE compounds, and purgeable and extractable priority organic pollutants. On October 26, 1987, the RWQCB requested that we prepare a comprehensive report to summarize and discuss the findings of the LLNL HE Process Area Investigation. This report is our response to the Board's request. 22 refs., 19 figs. , 45 tabs.

  7. Final deactivation project report on the High Radiation Level Analytical Facility, Building 3019B at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the condition of the High Radiation Level Analytical Facility (Building 3019B) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) after completion of deactivation activities. This report identifies the activities conducted to place the facility in a safe and environmentally sound condition prior to transfer to the Environmental Restoration EM-40 Program. This document provides a history and description of the facility prior to the commencement of deactivation activities and documents the condition of the building after completion of all deactivation activities. Turnover items, such as the Post-Deactivation Surveillance and Maintenance (S&M) Plan, remaining hazardous materials inventory, radiological controls, safeguards and security, quality assurance, facility operations, and supporting documentation provided in the Nuclear Material and Facility Stabilization (EM-60) Turnover package are discussed. Building 3019B will require access to perform required S&M activities to maintain the building safety envelope. Building 3019B was stabilized during deactivation so that when transferred to the EM-40 Program, only a minimal S&M effort would be required to maintain the building safety envelope. Other than the minimal S&M activities the building will be unoccupied and the exterior doors locked to prevent unauthorized access. The building will be entered only to perform the required S&M until decommissioning activities begin.

  8. Foreign Travel Trip Report for LLNL travel with DOE FES funding,May 19th-30th, 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph, I

    2012-07-05

    . The first studies of the implications for ITER (A. Kukushkin, ITER) have shown a great reduction in operational parameter space that, at present, can only be lifted by increasing target plate heat flux limits. During my visit to the CRPP at the EPFL, I delivered an invited talk in order to disseminate new results of the recent publication [1] on using non-axisymmetric perturbations of the SOL to control the edge plasma. I was given a tour of both the TCV tokamak and the TORPEX simple magnetized plasma device/divertor simulator. TORPEX is an excellent laboratory for exploring the physics of simple magnetized plasmas that are relevant to the scrape-off layer of a tokamak. Properly designed experiments on TORPEX can potentially be used to test the theory of controlling the edge plasma using non-axisymmetric potentials and currents in the SOL developed by LLNL described in [1].

  9. Target Diagnostic Technology Research and Development for the LLNL ICF and HED Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, P; Bennett, C; Holder, J; Kimbrough, J; Landen, O; Lerche, D; Lowry, M; McDonald, J; Perry, T; Turner, B; Weber, F

    2003-08-22

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is under construction at LLNL for the Department of Energy Stockpile Stewardship Program. It will be used for experiments for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Ignition, High Energy Density (HED) science, and basic science. Many issues confront experimentalists who wish to design, fabricate, and install diagnostics on the NIF. To foster this process the ICF and HED programs at LLNL have formed a diagnostic research and development group to look at issues outside the charter of facility diagnostics (core diagnostics). We will present data from instrumentation and associated technology that is being developed by this group. A major portion of our instrumentation work is on improvements for readout systems. We have several efforts related to CCD device development. Work has been done in collaboration with the University of Arizona to backthin a large format CCD device (36mm{sup 2}). This work has shown good results. The device has very high quantum efficiency, low noise readout and high charge transfer efficiency. The device is being fielded in direct optical, direct x-ray and 13-15 RV electron readout applications. In addition to readout device development we have completed work on a CCD readout system. With a commercial vendor we have developed a large format, compact, Ethernet addressable CCD camera system. This system fits in shoebox size volume, is thermal electrically cooled, supports a variety of CCD devices and can be run from remote locations via TCP/IP protocol. We are also doing work to improve streak camera systems. We have coupled our large format CCD system to an MK2 Kentech streak tube. Improvements have been made to the resolution and dynamic range of the system. Similar improvements have been made to the LLNL optical streak camera systems. We will present data from the optical and x-ray streak camera work. In addition we will present data from single shot high-speed, high dynamic range data link work. In

  10. Laboratory Directed Research and Development FY2011 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Craig, W; Sketchley, J; Kotta, P

    2012-03-22

    A premier applied-science laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has earned the reputation as a leader in providing science and technology solutions to the most pressing national and global security problems. The LDRD Program, established by Congress at all DOE national laboratories in 1991, is LLNL's most important single resource for fostering excellent science and technology for today's needs and tomorrow's challenges. The LDRD internally directed research and development funding at LLNL enables high-risk, potentially high-payoff projects at the forefront of science and technology. The LDRD Program at Livermore serves to: (1) Support the Laboratory's missions, strategic plan, and foundational science; (2) Maintain the Laboratory's science and technology vitality; (3) Promote recruiting and retention; (4) Pursue collaborations; (5) Generate intellectual property; and (6) Strengthen the U.S. economy. Myriad LDRD projects over the years have made important contributions to every facet of the Laboratory's mission and strategic plan, including its commitment to nuclear, global, and energy and environmental security, as well as cutting-edge science and technology and engineering in high-energy-density matter, high-performance computing and simulation, materials and chemistry at the extremes, information systems, measurements and experimental science, and energy manipulation. A summary of each project was submitted by the principal investigator. Project summaries include the scope, motivation, goals, relevance to DOE/NNSA and LLNL mission areas, the technical progress achieved in FY11, and a list of publications that resulted from the research. The projects are: (1) Nuclear Threat Reduction; (2) Biosecurity; (3) High-Performance Computing and Simulation; (4) Intelligence; (5) Cybersecurity; (6) Energy Security; (7) Carbon Capture; (8) Material Properties, Theory, and Design; (9) Radiochemistry; (10) High-Energy-Density Science; (11) Laser Inertial

  11. Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Stoffel, T.; Andreas, A.; Reda, I.; Dooraghi, M.; Habte, A.; Kutchenreiter, M.; Wilcox, S.

    2012-07-01

    SunShot Initiative awardee posters describing the different technologies within the four subprograms of the DOE Solar Program (Photovoltaics, Concentrating Solar Power, Soft Costs, and Systems Integration).

  12. Progress in Z-Pinch driven dynamic-hohlraums for high-temperature radiation-flow and ICF experiments at Sandia National Laboratories.

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, James E.; Haines, Malcolm G.; Chandler, Gordon Andrew; Bliss, David Emery; Olson, Richard Edward; Sanford, Thomas W. L.; Olson, Craig Lee; Nash, Thomas J.; Ruiz, Carlos L.; Matzen, Maurice Keith; Idzorek, George C.; Stygar, William A.; Apruzese, John P.; Cuneo, Michael Edward; Cooper, Gary Wayne; Chittenden, Jeremy Paul; Chrien, Robert E.; Slutz, Stephen A.; Mock, Raymond Cecil; Leeper, Ramon Joe; Sarkisov, Gennady Sergeevich; Peterson, Darrell L.; Lemke, Raymond William; Mehlhorn, Thomas Alan; Roderick, Norman Frederick; Watt, Robert G.

    2004-06-01

    Progress in understanding the physics of dynamic-hohlraums is reviewed for a system capable of generating 13 TW of axial radiation for high temperature (>200 eV) radiation-flow experiments and ICF capsule implosions.

  13. Screening Program Reduced Melanoma Mortality at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 1984-1996

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, MD, J S; II, PhD, D; MD, PhD, M

    2006-10-12

    Worldwide incidence of cutaneous malignant melanoma has increased substantially, and no screening program has yet demonstrated reduction in mortality. We evaluated the education, self examination and targeted screening campaign at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) from its beginning in July 1984 through 1996. The thickness and crude incidence of melanoma from the years before the campaign were compared to those obtained during the 13 years of screening. Melanoma mortality during the 13-year period was based on a National Death Index search. Expected yearly deaths from melanoma among LLNL employees were calculated by using California mortality data matched by age, sex, and race/ethnicity and adjusted to exclude deaths from melanoma diagnosed before the program began or before employment at LLNL. After the program began, crude incidence of melanoma thicker than 0.75 mm decreased from 18 to 4 cases per 100,000 person-years (p = 0.02), while melanoma less than 0.75mm remained stable and in situ melanoma increased substantially. No eligible melanoma deaths occurred among LLNL employees during the screening period compared with a calculated 3.39 expected deaths (p = 0.034). Education, self examination and selective screening for melanoma at LLNL significantly decreased incidence of melanoma thicker than 0.75 mm and reduced the melanoma-related mortality rate to zero. This significant decrease in mortality rate persisted for at least 3 yr after employees retired or otherwise left the laboratory.

  14. Evaluation of Cavity Collapse and Surface Crater Formation for Selected Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Underground Nuclear Tests - 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Pawloski, G A; Raschke, K

    2006-03-16

    This report describes evaluation of collapse evolution for selected LLNL underground nuclear tests at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The work is being done at the request of Bechtel Nevada and supports the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Association Nevada Site Office Borehole Management Program (BMP). The primary objective of this program is to close (plug) weapons program legacy boreholes that are deemed no longer useful. Safety decisions must be made before a crater area, or potential crater area, can be reentered for any work. Our statements on cavity collapse and crater formation are input into their safety decisions. The BMP is an on-going program to address hundreds of boreholes at the NTS. Each year Bechtel Nevada establishes a list of holes to be addressed. They request the assistance of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Los Alamos National Laboratory Containment Programs to provide information related to the evolution of collapse history and make statements on completeness of collapse as relates to surface crater stability. These statements do not include the effects of erosion that may modify the collapse craters over time. They also do not address possible radiation dangers that may be present. Subject matter experts from the LLNL Containment Program and the Chemistry Biology and Nuclear Sciences Division who had been active in weapons testing activities performed these evaluations. Information used included drilling and hole construction, emplacement and stemming, timing and sequence of the selected test and nearby tests, geology, yield, depth of burial, collapse times, surface crater sizes, cavity and crater volume estimations, and ground motion. Both classified and unclassified data were reviewed. Various amounts of information are available for these tests, depending on their age and other associated activities. Lack of data can hamper evaluations and introduce uncertainty. We make no attempt to quantify this uncertainty.

  15. Report on the Threatened Valley Elderberry Longhorn Beetle and its Elderberry Food Plant at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory--Site 300

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, Ph.D., R A; Woollett, J

    2004-11-16

    This report describes the results of an entomological survey in 2002 to determine the presence of the federally-listed, threatened Valley Elderberry Longhorn Beetle or ''VELB'' (Desmocerus culifornicus dimorphus: Coleoptera, Cerambycidae) and its elderberry food plant (Sumbucus mexicana: Caprifoliaceae) on the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Experimental Test Site, known as Site 300. In addition, an area located immediately southeast of Site 300, which is owned and managed by the California Department of Fish and Game (CDFG), but secured by LLNL, was also included in this survey. This report will refer to the survey areas as the LLNL-Site 300 and the CDFG site. The 2002 survey included mapping the locations of elderberry plants that were observed using a global positioning system (GPS) to obtain positional coordinates for every elderberry plant at Site 300. In addition, observations of VELB adults and signs of their infestation on elderberry plants were also mapped using GPS technology. LLNL requested information on the VELB and its elderberry food plants to update earlier information that had been collected in 1991 (Arnold 1991) as part of the 1992 EIS/EIR for continued operation of LLNL. No VELB adults were observed as part of this prior survey. The findings of the 2002 survey reported herein will be used by LLNL as it updates the expected 2004 Environmental Impact Statement for ongoing operations at LLNL, including Site 300.

  16. Increasing the life of cutting fluids used in the LLNL machine shop

    SciTech Connect

    Cadena, C.A.; da Roza, R.A.; Johnson, J.S.; Szidon, R.D.

    1981-11-18

    The objective of this study was to extend the working life of cutting fluids used in metal machining operations at LLNL. The characteristics of the fluids in nine different machines were studied. The pH, bacteria level, percent coolant concentrate, percent tramp oil, and total undissolved solids were monitored on a week-to-week basis for 6 weeks. During this time, the criteria and procedures used for changing the cutting fluids in the machines were also observed. Although the study is incomplete, the following recommendations were made. Cutting fluids should be diluted with deionized water and the concentration of the cutting fluid should be monitored regularly with a refractometer. A bactericide should be added to the cutting fluid. The machines should have a thorough initial cleaning and machine oil leaks should be eliminated. Only one cutting fluid should be used throughout the shop. Methods for removing metal particles from used cutting oils should be investigated. (LCL)

  17. Sub-picosecond streak camera measurements at LLNL: From IR to x-rays

    SciTech Connect

    Kuba, J; Shepherd, R; Booth, R; Steward, R; Lee, E W; Cross, R R; Springer, P T

    2003-12-21

    An ultra fast, sub-picosecond resolution streak camera has been recently developed at the LLNL. The camera is a versatile instrument with a wide operating wavelength range. The temporal resolution of up to 300 fs can be achieved, with routine operation at 500 fs. The streak camera has been operated in a wide wavelength range from IR to x-rays up to 2 keV. In this paper we briefly review the main design features that result in the unique properties of the streak camera and present its several scientific applications: (1) Streak camera characterization using a Michelson interferometer in visible range, (2) temporally resolved study of a transient x-ray laser at 14.7 nm, which enabled us to vary the x-ray laser pulse duration from {approx}2-6 ps by changing the pump laser parameters, and (3) an example of a time-resolved spectroscopy experiment with the streak camera.

  18. Ultrafast Materials Probing with the LLNL Thomson X-Ray Source

    SciTech Connect

    Springer, P; Anderson, S; Brown, W; Barty, C; Cauble, R; Crane, J; Cynn, H; Ebbers, C; Fittinghoff, D; Gibson, D; Hartemann, F; Javanovich, I; Kuba, J; LeSage, G; McMahan, A; Minich, R; Moriarty, J; Remington, B; Slaughter, D; Steitz, F H; Tremaine, A; Yoo, C-s; Rosenzweig, J; Ditmire, T

    2002-09-03

    The use of short laser pulses to generate very high brightness, ultra short (fs to ps) x-ray pulses is a topic of great interest. In principle, fantosecond-scale pump-probe experiments can be used to temporally resolve structural dynamics of materials on the time scale of atomic motion. The development of sub-ps x-ray pulses will make possible a wide range of materials and plasma physics studies with unprecedented time resolution. The Thomson scattering project at LLNL will provide such a novel x-ray source of high power using short laser pulses and a high brightness, relativistic electron bunch. The system is based on a 5mm-mrad normalized emittance photoinjector, 100 MeV electron RF linac, and a 300 mJ, 35 fs solid-state laser system. The Thomson source will produce ultra fast pulses with x-ray energies (60 kev) capable of probing into high-Z metals.

  19. LLNL Precision Compton Scattering Light Source: X-band RF Photoinjector and Accelerator Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsh, Roark; Anderson, S. G.; Gibson, D. J.; Wu, S. S.; Hartemann, F. V.; Houck, T. L.; Ebbers, C.; Scarpetti, R. D.; Barty, C. P. J.; Adolphsen, C.; Chu, T. S.; Li, Z.; Tantawi, S. G.; Vlieks, A. E.; Wang, J. W.; Raubenheimer, T. O.

    2010-11-01

    The design and optimization of a Mono-Energetic Gamma-Ray (MEGa-Ray) Compton scattering source are presented. This precision light source with up to 2.5 MeV photon energy is currently being built at LLNL using high gradient X-band accelerator technology in collaboration with SLAC. The design of a high brightness 5.59 cell X-band RF photoinjector will be presented. An ``early light'' machine has been designed using the 250 pC, <1mm-mrad electron bunches from the photoinjector, a single T53 traveling wave accelerator section, and Joule-class diode pumped laser pulses to produce diagnostic Compton scattered photons. Design of this ``early-light'' machine will be presented with discussion of the various components, layout considerations, and plans for the full 250 MeV linear accelerator.

  20. Review of Excess Weapons Plutonium Disposition LLNL Contract Work in Russia-(English)

    SciTech Connect

    Jardine, L; Borisov, G B

    2002-07-11

    This third meeting of the recently completed and ongoing Russian plutonium immobilization contract work was held at the State Education Center (SEC) in St. Petersburg on January 14-18, 2002. The meeting agenda is reprinted here as Appendix A and the attendance list as Appendix B. The meeting had 58 Russian participants from 21 Russian organizations, including the industrial sites (Mayak, Krasonayarsk-26, Tomsk), scientific institutes (VNIINM, KRI, VNIPIPT, RIAR), design organizations (VNIPIET and GSPI), universities (Nyzhny Novgorod, Urals Technical), Russian Academy of Sciences (Institute of Physical Chemistry or IPhCh, Institute of Ore-Deposit Geology, Petrography, Mineralogy, and Geochemistry or IGEM), Radon-Moscow, S&TC Podol'osk, Kharkov-Ukraine, GAN-SEC-NRS and SNIIChM, the RF Ministry of Atomic Energy (Minatom) and Gosatomnadzor (GAN). This volume, published by LLNL, documents this third annual meeting. Forty-nine technical papers were presented by the Russian participants, and nearly all of these have been collected in this Proceedings. The two objectives for the meeting were to: (1) Bring together the Russian organizations, experts, and managers performing this contract work into one place for four days to review and discuss their work amongst each other. (2) Publish a meeting summary and proceedings of all the excellent Russian plutonium immobilization and other plutonium disposition contract work in one document so that the wide extent of the Russian immobilization activities are documented, referencable and available for others to use, as were the Proceedings of the two previous meetings. Attendees gave talks describing their LLNL contract work and submitted written papers documenting their contract work (in English and Russian), in both hard copy and on computer disks. Simultaneous translation into Russian and English was used for presentations made at the State Region Educational Center (SEC).

  1. LLNL compiled first pages ordered by ascending B&R code

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, G; Kumar, M; Tobin, J; Noy, A; Browning, N

    2010-01-26

    We aim to develop a fundamental understanding of materials dynamics (from {micro}s to ns) in systems where the required combination of spatial and temporal resolution can only be reached by the dynamic transmission electron microscope (DTEM). In this regime, the DTEM is capable of studying complex transient phenomena with several orders of magnitude time resolution advantage over any existing in-situ TEM. Using the unique in situ capabilities and the nanosecond time resolution of the DTEM, we seek to study complex transient phenomena associated with rapid processes in materials, such as active sites on nanoscale catalysts and the atomic level mechanisms and microstructural features for nucleation and growth associated with phase transformations in materials, specifically in martensite formation and crystallization reactions from the amorphous phase. We also will study the transient phase evolution in rapid solid-state reactions, such as those occurring in reactive multilayer foils (RMLF). Program Impact: The LLNL DTEM possesses unique capabilities for capturing time resolved images and diffraction patterns of rapidly evolving materials microstructure under strongly driven conditions. No other instrument in the world can capture images with <10 nm spatial resolution of interesting irreversible materials processes such as phase transformations, plasticity, or morphology changes with 15 ns time resolution. The development of this innovative capability requires the continuing collaboration of laser scientists, electron microscopists, and materials scientists experienced in time resolved observations of materials that exist with particularly relevant backgrounds at LLNL. The research team has made observations of materials processes that are possible by no other method, such as the rapid crystallization of thin film NiTi that identified a change in mechanism at high heating rates as compared to isothermal anneals through changes in nucleation and growth rates of the

  2. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s Computer Security Short Subjects Videos: Hidden Password, The Incident, Dangerous Games and The Mess; Computer Security Awareness Guide

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    A video on computer security is described. Lonnie Moore, the Computer Security Manager, CSSM/CPPM at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Gale Warshawsky, the Coordinator for Computer Security Education and Awareness at LLNL, wanted to share topics such as computer ethics, software piracy, privacy issues, and protecting information in a format that would capture and hold an audience`s attention. Four Computer Security Short Subject videos were produced which ranged from 1--3 minutes each. These videos are very effective education and awareness tools that can be used to generate discussions about computer security concerns and good computing practices.

  3. Studies of acute and chronic radiation injury at the Biological and Medical Research Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 1970-1992: The JANUS Program Survival and Pathology Data

    SciTech Connect

    Grahn, D.; Wright, B.J.; Carnes, B.A.; Williamson, F.S.; Fox, C.

    1995-02-01

    A research reactor for exclusive use in experimental radiobiology was designed and built at Argonne National Laboratory in the 1960`s. It was located in a special addition to Building 202, which housed the Division of Biological and Medical Research. Its location assured easy access for all users to the animal facilities, and it was also near the existing gamma-irradiation facilities. The water-cooled, heterogeneous 200-kW(th) reactor, named JANUS, became the focal point for a range of radiobiological studies gathered under the rubic of {open_quotes}the JANUS program{close_quotes}. The program ran from about 1969 to 1992 and included research at all levels of biological organization, from subcellular to organism. More than a dozen moderate- to large-scale studies with the B6CF{sub 1} mouse were carried out; these focused on the late effects of whole-body exposure to gamma rays or fission neutrons, in matching exposure regimes. In broad terms, these studies collected data on survival and on the pathology observed at death. A deliberate effort was made to establish the cause of death. This archieve describes these late-effects studies and their general findings. The database includes exposure parameters, time of death, and the gross pathology and histopathology in codified form. A series of appendices describes all pathology procedures and codes, treatment or irradiation codes, and the manner in which the data can be accessed in the ORACLE database management system. A series of tables also presents summaries of the individual experiments in terms of radiation quality, sample sizes at entry, mean survival times by sex, and number of gross pathology and histopathology records.

  4. LLNL's Big Science Capabilities Help Spur Over $796 Billion in U.S. Economic Activity Sequencing the Human Genome

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, Jeffrey S.

    2015-07-28

    LLNL’s successful history of taking on big science projects spans beyond national security and has helped create billions of dollars per year in new economic activity. One example is LLNL’s role in helping sequence the human genome. Over $796 billion in new economic activity in over half a dozen fields has been documented since LLNL successfully completed this Grand Challenge.

  5. Evaluation of Cavity Collapse and Surface Crater Formation for Selected Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Underground Nuclear Tests - 2011, Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    Pawloski, G A

    2012-01-30

    This report evaluates collapse evolution for selected Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) underground nuclear tests at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS, formerly called the Nevada Test Site). The work is being done to support several different programs that desire access to the ground surface above expended underground nuclear tests. The programs include: the Borehole Management Program, the Environmental Restoration Program, and the National Center for Nuclear Security Gas-Migration Experiment. Safety decisions must be made before a crater area, or potential crater area, can be reentered for any work. Evaluation of cavity collapse and crater formation is input into the safety decisions. Subject matter experts from the LLNL Containment Program who participated in weapons testing activities perform these evaluations. Information used included drilling and hole construction, emplacement and stemming, timing and sequence of the selected test and nearby tests, geology, yield, depth of burial, collapse times, surface crater sizes, cavity and crater volume estimations, ground motion, and radiological release information. Both classified and unclassified data were reviewed. The evaluations do not include the effects of erosion that may modify the collapse craters over time. They also do not address possible radiation dangers that may be present. Various amounts of information are available for these tests, depending on their age and other associated activities. Lack of data can hamper evaluations and introduce uncertainty. We make no attempt to quantify this uncertainty. Evaluation of Cavity Collapse and Surface Crater Formation for Selected Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Underground Nuclear Tests - 2011 was published on March 2, 2011. This report, considered Part 2 of work undertaken in calendar year 2011, compiles evaluations requested after the March report. The following unclassified summary statements describe collapse evolution and crater

  6. Laboratory directed research and development fy1999 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Ayat, R A

    2000-04-11

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) was founded in 1952 and has been managed since its inception by the University of California (UC) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Because of this long association with UC, the Laboratory has been able to recruit a world-class workforce, establish an atmosphere of intellectual freedom and innovation, and achieve recognition in relevant fields of knowledge as a scientific and technological leader. This environment and reputation are essential for sustained scientific and technical excellence. As a DOE national laboratory with about 7,000 employees, LLNL has an essential and compelling primary mission to ensure that the nation's nuclear weapons remain safe, secure, and reliable and to prevent the spread and use of nuclear weapons worldwide. The Laboratory receives funding from the DOE Assistant Secretary for Defense Programs, whose focus is stewardship of our nuclear weapons stockpile. Funding is also provided by the Deputy Administrator for Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation, many Department of Defense sponsors, other federal agencies, and the private sector. As a multidisciplinary laboratory, LLNL has applied its considerable skills in high-performance computing, advanced engineering, and the management of large research and development projects to become the science and technology leader in those areas of its mission responsibility. The Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program was authorized by the U.S. Congress in 1984. The Program allows the Director of each DOE laboratory to fund advanced, creative, and innovative research and development (R&D) activities that will ensure scientific and technical vitality in the continually evolving mission areas at DOE and the Laboratory. In addition, the LDRD Program provides LLNL with the flexibility to nurture and enrich essential scientific and technical competencies, which attract the most qualified scientists and engineers. The LDRD Program also

  7. Supplement analysis for continued operation of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore. Volume 2: Comment response document

    SciTech Connect

    1999-03-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), prepared a draft Supplement Analysis (SA) for Continued Operation of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore (SNL-L), in accordance with DOE`s requirements for implementation of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) (10 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 1021.314). It considers whether the Final Environmental Impact Statement and Environmental Impact Report for Continued Operation of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore (1992 EIS/EIR) should be supplement3ed, whether a new environmental impact statement (EIS) should be prepared, or no further NEPA documentation is required. The SA examines the current project and program plans and proposals for LLNL and SNL-L, operations to identify new or modified projects or operations or new information for the period from 1998 to 2002 that was not considered in the 1992 EIS/EIR. When such changes, modifications, and information are identified, they are examined to determine whether they could be considered substantial or significant in reference to the 1992 proposed action and the 1993 Record of Decision (ROD). DOE released the draft SA to the public to obtain stakeholder comments and to consider those comments in the preparation of the final SA. DOE distributed copies of the draft SA to those who were known to have an interest in LLNL or SNL-L activities in addition to those who requested a copy. In response to comments received, DOE prepared this Comment Response Document.

  8. Final Report Bald and Golden Eagle Territory Surveys for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Fratanduono, M. L.

    2014-11-25

    Garcia and Associates (GANDA) was contracted by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to conduct surveys for bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) at Site 300 and in the surrounding area out to 10-miles. The survey effort was intended to document the boundaries of eagle territories by careful observation of eagle behavior from selected viewing locations throughout the study area.

  9. Remedial investigation and feasibility study for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site 300 Pit 7 Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Taffet, M.J. ); Oberdorfer, J.A. ); McIlvride, W.A. )

    1989-10-01

    This report summarizes the results and conclusions of the investigation of tritium and other compounds in ground water in the vicinity of landfills at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Site 300 Pit 7 Complex. 91 refs., 110 figs., 43 tabs.

  10. Final Report for LDRD Project ''A New Era of Research in Aerosol/Cloud/Climate Interactions at LLNL''

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, C; Bergman, D J; Dignon, J E; Connell, P S

    2002-01-31

    Observations of global temperature records seem to show less warming than predictions of global warming brought on by increasing concentrations of CO{sub 2} and other greenhouse gases. One of the reasonable explanations for this apparent inconsistency is that the increasing concentrations of anthropogenic aerosols may be partially counteracting the effects of greenhouse gases. Aerosols can scatter or absorb the solar radiation, directly change the planetary albedo. Aerosols, unlike CO{sub 2}, may also have a significant indirect effect by serving as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). Increases in CCN can result in clouds with more but smaller droplets, enhancing the reflection of solar radiation. Aerosol direct and indirect effects are a strong function of the distributions of all aerosol types and the size distribution of the aerosol in question. However, the large spatial and temporal variabilities in the concentration, chemical characteristics, and size distribution of aerosols have made it difficult to assess the magnitude of aerosol effects on atmospheric radiation. These variabilities in aerosol characteristics as well as their effects on clouds are the leading sources of uncertainty in predicting future climate variation. Inventory studies have shown that the present-day anthropogenic emissions contribute more than half of fine particle mass primarily due to sulfate and carbonaceous aerosols derived from fossil fuel combustion and biomass burning. Parts of our earlier studies have been focused on developing an understanding of global sulfate and carbonaceous aerosol abundances and investigating their climate effects [Chuang et al., 1997; Penner et al., 1998]. We have also modeled aerosol optical properties to account for changes in the refractive indices with relative humidity and dry aerosol composition [Grant et al., 1999]. Moreover, we have developed parameterizations of cloud response to aerosol abundance for use in global models to evaluate the importance

  11. Gatling gun approach to long duration x-ray drives for laboratory astrophysics studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, David; Kane, J. O.; Heeter, R. F.; Casner, A.; Villette, B.; Mancini, R. C.; Remington, B. A.

    2013-10-01

    Laboratory astrophysics studies investigating the pillar structures in the Eagle Nebula, or photoionization studies require a steady light source of sufficient duration to recreate relevant physics. To address these experimental requirements we successfully developed a 30 ns, 90 eV x-ray radiation drive using a foam-filled multi-barrel (``Gatling Gun'') hohlraum driven with three 10ns pulse UV beams on the Omega EP laser system located at LLE. The multi-barrel hohlraum consisted of three adjacent Cu cavities, heated in succession to generate long duration x-ray source. The Gatling gun approach mitigated the issues of LEH closure from a single hohlraum heated for extended durations. Characterization of the Gatling gun hohlraum, using uDMX and VISAR diagnostics, will be presented. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL-ABS-640737.

  12. Environmental monitoring at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. 1984 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Griggs, K.S.; Myers, D.S.; Buddemeier, R.W.

    1985-02-01

    A strict effluent-control program that emphasizes controlling effluents at the source has been in effect since LLNL began operation. The Environmental Monitoring program evaluates the effectiveness of these measures, documents whether effluents from LLNL and Site 300 operations are within applicable standards, and estimates the impact of these operations on the environment. Sensitive monitoring equipment is used that can detect radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants at environmental background levels. The program includes the collection and analysis of air, soil, water, sewer effluent, vegetation, foodstuffs, and milk samples. Also, environmental background radiation is measured at numerous locations in the vicinity of LLNL using gamma and neutron dosimeters. This report summarizes the results of the 1984 program. 28 refs, 25 figs., 40 tabs.

  13. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Response to the Federal Communication Commission Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

    SciTech Connect

    Dowls, F

    2000-08-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has been conducting UWB research for the past few decades and submits a general comments section and a paragraph by paragraph response for consideration. In general, the proposed rules look very sound and encouraging for promoting use of the spectrum by both government and commercial users. General comments include recommending minimum frequency spreading specification, possibly clarifying the peak power limits and keeping the high frequency limit as high as possible. LLNL finds that minimum interference occurs by keeping wideband wide and narrowband narrow and keeping the middle ground clear.

  14. Micro-electro-mechanical systems projects at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Folta, J.A.

    1995-08-04

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) MicroTechnology Center has developed a wide variety of special capabilities used to design, build, and test MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems). Our customers are both the LLNL Programs and a variety of external customers. Typical applications include: custom microstructures for scientific experiments; physical sensors; photonics; miniature tools for catheter-based surgery; and microinstruments for chemical analysis for biomedicine, environments and treaty verification. The majority of our prototype MEMS devices are fabricated with bulk silicon micromachining, but we also utilize surface micromachining capabilities.

  15. The Organism/Organic Exposure to Orbital Stresses (O/OREOS) satellite: radiation exposure in low-earth orbit and supporting laboratory studies of iron tetraphenylporphyrin chloride.

    PubMed

    Cook, Amanda M; Mattioda, Andrew L; Ricco, Antonio J; Quinn, Richard C; Elsaesser, Andreas; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Ricca, Alessandra; Jones, Nykola C; Hoffmann, Søren V

    2014-02-01

    We report results from the exposure of the metalloporphyrin iron tetraphenylporphyrin chloride (FeTPPCl) to the outer space environment, measured in situ aboard the Organism/Organic Exposure to Orbital Stresses nanosatellite. FeTPPCl was exposed for a period of 17 months (3700 h of direct solar exposure), which included broad-spectrum solar radiation (∼122 nm to the near infrared). Motivated by the potential role of metalloporphyrins as molecular biomarkers, the exposure of thin-film samples of FeTPPCl to the space environment in low-Earth orbit was monitored in situ via ultraviolet/visible spectroscopy and reported telemetrically. The space data were complemented by laboratory exposure experiments that used a high-fidelity solar simulator covering the spectral range of the spaceflight measurements. We found that thin-film samples of FeTPPCl that were in contact with a humid headspace gas (0.8-2.3% relative humidity) were particularly susceptible to destruction upon irradiation, degrading up to 10 times faster than identical thin films in contact with dry headspace gases; this degradation may also be related to the presence of oxides of nitrogen in those cells. In the companion terrestrial experiments, simulated solar exposure of FeTPPCl films in contact with either Ar or CO2:O2:Ar (10:0.01:1000) headspace gas resulted in growth of a band in the films' infrared spectra at 1961 cm(-1). We concluded that the most likely carriers of this band are allene (C3H4) and chloropropadiene (C3H3Cl), putative molecular fragments of the destruction of the porphyrin ring. The thin films studied in space and in solar simulator-based experiments show qualitatively similar spectral evolution as a function of contacting gaseous species but display significant differences in the time dependence of those changes. The relevance of our findings to planetary science, biomarker research, and the photostability of organic materials in astrobiologically relevant environments is

  16. The Organism/Organic Exposure to Orbital Stresses (O/OREOS) satellite: radiation exposure in low-earth orbit and supporting laboratory studies of iron tetraphenylporphyrin chloride.

    PubMed

    Cook, Amanda M; Mattioda, Andrew L; Ricco, Antonio J; Quinn, Richard C; Elsaesser, Andreas; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Ricca, Alessandra; Jones, Nykola C; Hoffmann, Søren V

    2014-02-01

    We report results from the exposure of the metalloporphyrin iron tetraphenylporphyrin chloride (FeTPPCl) to the outer space environment, measured in situ aboard the Organism/Organic Exposure to Orbital Stresses nanosatellite. FeTPPCl was exposed for a period of 17 months (3700 h of direct solar exposure), which included broad-spectrum solar radiation (∼122 nm to the near infrared). Motivated by the potential role of metalloporphyrins as molecular biomarkers, the exposure of thin-film samples of FeTPPCl to the space environment in low-Earth orbit was monitored in situ via ultraviolet/visible spectroscopy and reported telemetrically. The space data were complemented by laboratory exposure experiments that used a high-fidelity solar simulator covering the spectral range of the spaceflight measurements. We found that thin-film samples of FeTPPCl that were in contact with a humid headspace gas (0.8-2.3% relative humidity) were particularly susceptible to destruction upon irradiation, degrading up to 10 times faster than identical thin films in contact with dry headspace gases; this degradation may also be related to the presence of oxides of nitrogen in those cells. In the companion terrestrial experiments, simulated solar exposure of FeTPPCl films in contact with either Ar or CO2:O2:Ar (10:0.01:1000) headspace gas resulted in growth of a band in the films' infrared spectra at 1961 cm(-1). We concluded that the most likely carriers of this band are allene (C3H4) and chloropropadiene (C3H3Cl), putative molecular fragments of the destruction of the porphyrin ring. The thin films studied in space and in solar simulator-based experiments show qualitatively similar spectral evolution as a function of contacting gaseous species but display significant differences in the time dependence of those changes. The relevance of our findings to planetary science, biomarker research, and the photostability of organic materials in astrobiologically relevant environments is

  17. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory hot spot mobile laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Buddemeier, B

    1999-08-27

    Gross alpha/beta/tritium liquid The Hot Spot Mobile Laboratory is an asset used to analyze samples (some high hazard) from the field. Field laboratories allow the quick turnaround of samples needed to establish weapon condition and hazard assessment for the protection of responders and the public. The Hot Spot Lab is configured to fly anywhere in the world and is staffed by expert scientists and technicians from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory who perform similar functions in their routine jobs. The Hot Spot Team carries sample control kits to provide responding field teams with the procedures, tools, and equipment for sample collection and field measurements. High-hazard samples brought back from the field are prepared for analysis in HEPA-filtered gloveboxes staffed by technicians from LLNL's Plutonium Facility. The samples are passed on to the Mobile Laboratory which carries a variety of radiological and chemical analytical equipment in portable configuration for use in the field. Equipment and personnel can also deploy special assets to local hospitals or the field for detection of plutonium in a lung or wound. Quick assessment of personnel contamination is essential for time-critical medical intervention. In addition to pulling the trailer, the Hot Spot Truck also stores some of the equipment, consumables, and a PTO generator. The Hot Spot Laboratory has the capability to be self-sufficient for several weeks when deployed to determine Pu uptake.

  18. Precision and manufacturing at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, T.T.; Wasley, R.J.; Stowers, I.F.; Donaldson, R.R.; Thompson, D.C.

    1993-11-01

    Precision Engineering is one of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s core strengths. This paper discusses the past and present current technology transfer efforts of LLNL`s Precision Engineering program and the Livermore Center for Advanced Manufacturing and Productivity (LCAMP). More than a year ago the Precision Machining Commercialization project embodied several successful methods of transferring high technology from the National Laboratories to industry. Currently LCAMP has already demonstrated successful technology transfer and is involved in a broad spectrum of current programs. In addition this paper discusses other technologies ripe for future transition including the Large Optics Diamond Turning Machine.

  19. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site Seismic Safety Program: Summary of findings

    SciTech Connect

    Scheimer, J.F.; Burkhard, N.R.; Emerson, D.O.

    1991-05-01

    This report summarizes the final assessments of geologic hazards at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and includes a revision of the peak acceleration hazard curve. Detailed discussions of investigations are documented in a series of reports produced by LLNL's Site Seismic Safety Program and their consultants. The Program conducted a probabilistic assessment of hazards at the site as a result of liquefaction, landslide, and strong ground shaking, using existing models to explicitly treat uncertainties. The results indicate the Greenville and Las Positas-Verona Fault systems present the greatest hazard to the LLNL site as a result of ground shaking, with a lesser contribution from the Calaveras Fault. Other, more distant fault systems do not materially contribute to the hazard. No evidence has been found that the LLNL site will undergo soil failures such as landslides or liquefaction. In addition, because of the locations and ages of the faults in the LLNL area, surface ground rupture during an earthquake is extremely unlikely. 21 refs., 3 figs.

  20. Overview of Tabletop X-ray Laser Development at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, J; Shlyaptsev, V; Nilsen, J; Smith, R; Keenan, R; Moon, S; Filevich, J; Rocca, J; Nelson, A; Hunter, J; Marconi, M; Li, Y; Osterheld, A; Shepherd, R; Fiedorowicz, H; Bartnik, A; Faenov, A Y; Pikuz, T; Zeitoun, P; Hubert, S; Jacquemot, S; Fajardo, M

    2006-11-03

    It is almost a decade since the first tabletop x-ray laser experiments were implemented at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The decision to pursue the picosecond-driven schemes at LLNL was largely based around the early demonstration of the tabletop Ne-like Ti x-ray laser at the Max Born Institute (MBI) as well as the established robustness of collisional excitation schemes. These picosecond x-ray lasers have been a strong growth area for x-ray laser research. Rapid progress in source development and characterization has achieved ultrahigh peak brightness rivaling the previous activities on the larger facilities. Various picosecond soft-x-ray based applications have benefited from the increased repetition rates. We will describe the activities at LLNL in this area.

  1. Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory: 1986 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Max, C.E.

    1987-07-01

    The purpose of the Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics (IGPP) at LLNL is to enrich the opportunities of University of California campus researchers by making available to them some of the Laboratory's unique facilities and expertise, and to broaden the scientific horizon of LLNL researchers by encouraging collaborative or interdisciplinary work with other UC scientists. The IGPP continues to emphasize three fields of research - geoscience, astrophysics, and high-pressure physics - each administered by a corresponding IGPP Research Center. Each Research Center coordinates the mini-grant work in its field, and also works with the appropriate LLNL programs and departments, which frequently can provide supplementary funding and facilities for IGPP projects. 62 refs., 18 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. T-REX: Thomson-Radiated Extreme X-rays Moving X-Ray Science into the ''Nuclear'' Applications Space with Thompson Scattered Photons

    SciTech Connect

    Barty, C P; Hartemann, F V

    2004-09-21

    The scattering of laser photons from relativistic electrons (Thomson scattering) has been demonstrated to be a viable method for the production of ultrashort-duration pulses of tunable radiation in the 10-keV to 100-keV range. Photons in this range are capable of exciting or ionizing even the most tightly bound of atomic electrons. A wide variety of atomistic scale applications are possible. For example, Thomson x-ray sources have been constructed at LLNL (PLEIADES) and LBL as picosecond, stroboscopic probes of atomic-scale dynamics and at Vanderbilt University as element-specific tools for medical radiography and radiology. While these sources have demonstrated an attractive ability to simultaneously probe on an atomic spatial and temporal scale, they do not necessarily exploit the full potential of the Thomson scattering process to produce high-brightness, high-energy photons. In this white paper, we suggest that the peak brightness of Thomson sources can scale as fast as the 4th power of electron beam energy and that production via Thomson scattering of quasi-monochromatic, tunable radiation in the ''nuclear-range'' between 100-keV and several MeV is potentially a much more attractive application space for this process. Traditional sources in this regime are inherently ultra-broadband and decline rapidly in brightness as a function of photon energy. The output from dedicated, national-laboratory-scale, synchrotron facilities, e.g. APS, SPring8, ESRF etc., declines by more than 10 orders from 100 keV to 1 MeV. At 1 MeV, we conservatively estimate that Thomson-source, peak brightness can exceed that of APS (the best machine in the DOE complex) by more than 15 orders of magnitude. In much the same way that tunable lasers revolutionized atomic spectroscopy, this ''Peta-step'' advance in tunable, narrow-bandwidth, capability should enable entirely new fields of study and new, programmatically-interesting, applications such as: micrometer-spatial-resolution, Me

  3. 50 MW X-BAND RF SYSTEM FOR A PHOTOINJECTOR TEST STATION AT LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, R A; Anderson, S G; Barty, C J; Beer, G K; Cross, R R; Ebbers, C A; Gibson, D J; Hartemann, F V; Houck, T L; Adolphsen, C; Candel, A; Chu, T S; Jongewaard, E N; Li, Z; Raubenheimer, T; Tantawi, S G; Vlieks, A; Wang, F; Wang, J W; Zhou, F; Deis, G A

    2011-03-11

    In support of X-band photoinjector development efforts at LLNL, a 50 MW test station is being constructed to investigate structure and photocathode optimization for future upgrades. A SLAC XL-4 klystron capable of generating 50 MW, 1.5 microsecond pulses will be the high power RF source for the system. Timing of the laser pulse on the photocathode with the applied RF field places very stringent requirements on phase jitter and drift. To achieve these requirements, the klystron will be powered by a state of the art, solid-state, high voltage modulator. The 50 MW will be divided between the photoinjector and a traveling wave accelerator section. A high power phase shifter is located between the photoinjector and accelerator section to adjust the phasing of the electron bunches with respect to the accelerating field. A variable attenuator is included on the input of the photoinjector. The distribution system including the various x-band components is being designed and constructed. In this paper, we will present the design, layout, and status of the RF system.

  4. Level II Milestone Review of LLNL Program on Grain-Scale Dynamics in Explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Nicol, M F; Benson, D J; Yip, S

    2003-01-14

    This document describes an evaluation of the Level II Milestone achievements of the LLNL program on Grain-Scale Dynamics in Explosives on January 14, 2003. ''The Grain-Scale Dynamics in Explosives Program'' is a mixture of advanced computational methodology and physico-chemical theory applied to understanding deflagration and detonation of plastic-bonded explosives from the nano to the macro scales. At many points, the modeling is tied directly to experiments within the precisions of both. Advances are needed in the experimental, theoretical, and computational aspects of detonations. Work reported in this review represents significant, cross-pollinating advances in each area. The team successfully carried out ALE-3D simulations of deflagration in PBX with grain scale effects. (Milestone requirements 1 and 2), interpreted experimental data on flame speed vs. pressure and sensitivity to global kinetics in terms of ALE-3D simulations (Milestone requirement 3), and used the results of these simulations to develop a continuum reactive flow model that captures some of these effects (Milestone requirement 4). By comparing experiments and detonation velocities in small diameter, unconfined explosives, they found non-idealities that remain at intermediate diameters (ca. 1.5 mm) that require further analysis. In all of these areas, the project team has met, indeed exceeded, their Level II Milestone goals.

  5. The LANL/LLNL Prompt Fission Neutron Spectrum Program at LANSCE and Approach to Uncertainties

    SciTech Connect

    Haight, R.C.; Wu, C.Y.; Lee, H.Y.; Taddeucci, T.N.; Perdue, B.A.; O'Donnell, J.M.; Fotiades, N.; Devlin, M.; Ullmann, J.L.; Bredeweg, T.A.; Jandel, M.; Nelson, R.O.; Wender, S.A.; Neudecker, D.; Rising, M.E.; Mosby, S.; Sjue, S.; White, M.C.; Bucher, B.; Henderson, R.

    2015-01-15

    New data on the prompt fission neutron spectra (PFNS) from neutron-induced fission with higher accuracies are needed to resolve discrepancies in the literature and to address gaps in the experimental data. The Chi-Nu project, conducted jointly by LANL and LLNL, aims to measure the shape of the PFNS for fission of {sup 239}Pu induced by neutrons from 0.5 to 20 MeV with accuracies of 3–5% in the outgoing energy from 0.1 to 9 MeV and 15% from 9 to 12 MeV and to provide detailed experimental uncertainties. Neutrons from the WNR/LANSCE neutron source are being used to induce fission in a Parallel-Plate Avalanche Counter (PPAC). Two arrays of neutron detectors are used to cover the energy range of neutrons emitted promptly in the fission process. Challenges for the present experiment include background reduction, use of {sup 239}Pu in a PPAC, and understanding neutron detector response. Achieving the target accuracies requires the understanding of many systematic uncertainties. The status and plans for the future will be presented.

  6. An LLNL perspective on ASCI data mining and pattern recognition requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, C; Kamath, C; Musick, R

    1999-01-01

    The working document has been put together by the members of the Sapphire project at LLNL. The goal of Sapphire is to apply and extend techniques from data mining and pattern recognition in order to detect automatically the areas of interest in very large data sets. The intent is to help scientists address the problem of data overload by providing them effective and efficient ways of exploring and analyzing massive data sets. One of the key areas where they expect this technology to be used is in the analysis of the output from ASCI simulations. It is expected that a simulation running on the 100 Tflop ASCI machine in the year 2004 will produce data at the rate of 12TB/hour. Given the difficulties they currently have in analyzing and visualizing a terabyte of data, it is imperative that they start planning now for ways that will make the analysis of petabyte data sets feasible. This document focuses on the relevance of data mining and pattern recognition to ASCI, discusses potential applications of these techniques in ASCI, and identifies research issues that arise as they apply the algorithms in these areas to massive data sets.

  7. Table-top transient collisional excitation x-ray laser research at LLNL: Status June 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, J., LLNL

    1997-07-01

    This is a status report of transient collisional excitation x-ray laser experiments at LLNL during June 1997 that have the advantage of being conducted on a table-top. Two laser drivers with modest energy {approximately}6 J are used in the scheme: a long {approximately}1 ns pulse to preform and ionize the plasma followed by a short {approximately}1 ps pulse to produce the excitation and population inversion. The beams are co-propagated and focused using a combination of a cylindrical lens and paraboloid to a line of {approximately}70 {micro}m x 12.5 mm dimensions. High repetition rates approaching 1 shot/3 min. allow typically in excess of 50 target shots in a day. Various slab targets have been irradiated and we report preliminary results for x-ray laser gain in 3p-3s J=0-1 Ne-like Ti and Fe transitions where gains as high as 24 cm{sup -1} and gL products of {approximately}15 have been observed.

  8. Development of a Sub-Picosecond Tunable X-Ray Source at the LLNL Electron Linac

    SciTech Connect

    Slaughter, D; Springer, P; Le Sage, G; Crane, J; Ditmire, T; Cowan, T; Anderson, S G; Rosenzweig, J B

    2001-08-31

    The use of ultrafast laser pulses to generate very high brightness, ultra short (fs to ps) pulses of x-rays is a topic of great interest to the x-ray user community. In principle, femtosecond-scale pump-probe experiments can be used to temporally resolve structural dynamics of materials on the time scale of atomic motion. The development of sub-ps x-ray pulses will make possible a wide range of materials and plasma physics studies with unprecedented time resolution. A current project at LLNL will provide such a novel x-ray source based on Thomson scattering of high power, short laser pulses with a high peak brightness, relativistic electron bunch. The system is based on a 5 mm-mrad normalized emittance photoinjector, a 100 MeV electron RF linac, and a 300 mJ, 35 fs solid-state laser system. The Thomson x-ray source produces ultra fast pulses with x-ray energies capable of probing into high-Z metals, and a high flux per pulse enabling single shot experiments. The system will also operate at a high repetition rate ({approx} 10 Hz).

  9. LASER TECHNOLOGY FOR PRECISION MONOENERGETIC GAMMA-RAY SOURCE R&D AT LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Shverdin, M Y; Bayramian, A; Albert, F; Anderson, S G; Betts, S M; Chu, T S; Cross, R R; Gibson, D J; Marsh, R; Messerly, M; Phan, H; Prantil, M; Wu, S; Ebbers, C; Scarpetti, R D; Hartemann, F V; Siders, C W; McNabb, D P; Bonanno, R E; Barty, C P

    2010-04-20

    Generation of mono-energetic, high brightness gamma-rays requires state of the art lasers to both produce a low emittance electron beam in the linac and high intensity, narrow linewidth laser photons for scattering with the relativistic electrons. Here, we overview the laser systems for the 3rd generation Monoenergetic Gamma-ray Source (MEGa-ray) currently under construction at Lawrence Livermore National Lab (LLNL). We also describe a method for increasing the efficiency of laser Compton scattering through laser pulse recirculation. The fiber-based photoinjector laser will produce 50 {micro}J temporally and spatially shaped UV pulses at 120 Hz to generate a low emittance electron beam in the X-band RF photoinjector. The interaction laser generates high intensity photons that focus into the interaction region and scatter off the accelerated electrons. This system utilizes chirped pulse amplification and commercial diode pumped solid state Nd:YAG amplifiers to produce 0.5 J, 10 ps, 120 Hz pulses at 1064 nm and up to 0.2 J after frequency doubling. A single passively mode-locked Ytterbium fiber oscillator seeds both laser systems and provides a timing synch with the linac.

  10. Leaching study of PNL 76-68 glass beads using the LLNL continuous-flow method and the PNL modified IAEA method. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Coles, D.G.; Mensing, R.W.; Rego, J.; Weed, H.C.; Buddemeier, R.W.

    1982-10-04

    A long-term single-pass continuous-flow (SPCF) leaching test was conducted on the glass waste form PNL 76-68. Leaching rates of Np, Pu and various stable elements were measured at 25 and 75/sup 0/C with three different solutions and three different flow rates. The SPCF leaching results were compared with results of a modified IAEA leach test performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL). Elemental leach rates and their variation with temperature, flow rate and solution composition were established. The LLNL and PNL leach test results appear to agree within experimental uncertainties. The magnitude of the leach rates determined for Np and the glass matrix elements is 10/sup -5/ grams of glass/cm/sup 2/ geometric solid surface area/day. The rates increase with temperature and with solution flow rate, and are similar in brine and distilled water but higher in a bicarbonate solution. Other cations exhibit somewhat different behavior, and Pu in particular yields a much lower apparent leach rate, probably because of sorption or precipitation effects after release from the glass matrix. After the initial few days, most elements are leached at a constant rate. Matrix dissolution appears to be the most probable rate controlling step for the leaching of most elements. 23 figures, 12 tables.

  11. Joint research and development on toxic-material emergency response between ENEA and LLNL. 1982 progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Gudiksen, P.; Lange, R.; Dickerson, M.; Sullivan, T.; Rosen, L.; Walker, H.; Boeri, G.B.; Caracciolo, R.; Fiorenza, R.

    1982-11-01

    A summary is presented of current and future cooperative studies between ENEA and LLNL researchers designed to develop improved real-time emergency response capabilities for assessing the environmental consequences resulting from an accidental release of toxic materials into the atmosphere. These studies include development and evaluation of atmospheric transport and dispersion models, interfacing of data processing and communications systems, supporting meteorological field experiments, and integration of radiological measurements and model results into real-time assessments.

  12. Radiation Transmission Measurements for a Lightweight Fabric

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, H; Singh, M S; DeMeo, R F

    2003-01-17

    Radiation Shield Technologies has developed a lightweight fabric, shown in Fig. 1, with radiation shielding properties for X ray, gamma ray and beta particle emissions in the range of energies relevant to clinical and Homeland Security applications. Detailed measurements were done to measure the shielding properties of this material against the spectra of standard radionuclides and x-ray generators. The mass attenuation coefficients were calculated using LLNL cross section data, a 3-D photon transport code, elemental weight fractions and the measured density of the fabric.

  13. LLNL-Generated Content for the California Academy of Sciences, Morrison Planetarium Full-Dome Show: Earthquake

    SciTech Connect

    Rodgers, A J; Petersson, N A; Morency, C E; Simmons, N A; Sjogreen, B

    2012-01-23

    The California Academy of Sciences (CAS) Morrison Planetarium is producing a 'full-dome' planetarium show on earthquakes and asked LLNL to produce content for the show. Specifically the show features numerical ground motion simulations of the M 7.9 1906 San Francisco and a possible future M 7.05 Hayward fault scenario earthquake. The show also features concepts of plate tectonics and mantle convection using images from LLNL's G3D global seismic tomography. This document describes the data that was provided to the CAS in support of production of the 'Earthquake' show. The CAS is located in Golden Gate Park, San Francisco and hosts over 1.6 million visitors. The Morrison Planetarium, within the CAS, is the largest all digital planetarium in the world. It features a 75-foot diameter spherical section projection screen tilted at a 30-degree angle. Six projectors cover the entire field of view and give a three-dimensional immersive experience. CAS shows strive to use scientifically accurate digital data in their productions. The show, entitled simply 'Earthquake', will debut on 26 May 2012. They are working on graphics and animations based on the same data sets for display on LLNL powerwalls and flat-screens as well as for public release.

  14. Standing up the National Ignition Facility radiation protection program.

    PubMed

    Kohut, Thomas R; Thacker, Rick L; Beale, Richard M; Dillon, Jon T

    2013-06-01

    Operation of the NIF requires a large and varied number of routine and infrequent activities involving contaminated and radioactive systems, both in servicing online equipment and offline refurbishment of components. Routine radiological operations include up to several dozen entries into contaminated systems per day, multiple laboratories refurbishing radiologically impacted parts, handling of tens of curies of tritium, and (eventually) tens of workers spending most of their day working in radiation areas and handling moderately activated parts. Prior to the introduction of radioactive materials and neutron producing experiments (capable of causing activation), very few of the operating staff had any radiological qualifications or experience. To support the full NIF operating program, over 600 radiological workers needed to be trained, and a functional and large-scale radiological protection program needed to be put in place. It quickly became evident that there was a need to supplement the LLNL site radiological protection staff with additional radiological controls technicians and a radiological protection staff within NIF operations to manage day-to-day activities. This paper discusses the approach taken to stand up the radiological protection program and some lessons learned.

  15. Cancer risk in space due to radiation assessed by determining cell lethality and mutation frequencies of prokaryotes and a plasmid during the Second International Microgravity Laboratory (IML-2) Space Shuttle experiment.

    PubMed

    Harada, K; Obiya, Y; Nakano, T; Kawashima, M; Miki, T; Kobayashi, Y; Watanabe, H; Okaichi, K; Ohnishi, T; Mukai, C; Nagaoka, S

    1997-01-01

    We participated in a space experiment conducted during the 2nd International Microgravity Laboratory Mission (IML-2) project. The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of space radiation, i.e., high-LET (linear energy transfer) cosmic radiation, on living organisms in the 'Realtime Radiation Monitoring Device (RRMD)'. The biological samples, dried E. coli DNA repair-deficient mutant cells and shuttle vector plasmid pZl89 DNA, were prepared and placed in a biospecimen box sandwiched between 'Harzlas' plastic radiation detectors. This box was then loaded into the RRMD sensor unit in the Space Shuttle 'Columbia' and an identical box was left in the NASA John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) as a control. 'Columbia' (flight No. STS-65) was launched from KSC in Florida, USA on July 8, 1994. The mission duration was 14.75 days and after 'Columbia' returned to earth, we studied (i) the lethal and mutagenic effects of high-LET cosmic radiation on E. coli mutants and (ii) the relationship between high-LET cosmic radiation and the mutation frequency of pZ189 DNA. There were virtually no differences between the cell viabilities of the space and control samples of Escherichia coli KMBL3835 (wild-type), KY383 (lexA-), KY385 (recA-) and KY386 (uvrA-), nor between the mutation frequency ratios of the space and control E. coli mutant samples. Furthermore, the survival and mutation frequency of the supF gene of pZ189 DNA space samples did not differ from those of the control samples. We concluded there was no cancer risk during this Space Shuttle flight.

  16. Synergistic effect of high charge and energy particle radiation and chronological age on biomarkers of oxidative stress and tissue degeneration: a ground-based study using the vertebrate laboratory model organism Oryzias latipes.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xuan; Zhang, Xinyan; Ding, Lingling; Lee, Jeffrey R; Weinberger, Paul M; Dynan, William S

    2014-01-01

    High charge and energy (HZE) particles are a main hazard of the space radiation environment. Uncertainty regarding their health effects is a limiting factor in the design of human exploration-class space missions, that is, missions beyond low earth orbit. Previous work has shown that HZE exposure increases cancer risk and elicits other aging-like phenomena in animal models. Here, we investigate how a single exposure to HZE particle radiation, early in life, influences the subsequent age-dependent evolution of oxidative stress and appearance of degenerative tissue changes. Embryos of the laboratory model organism, Oryzias latipes (Japanese medaka fish), were exposed to HZE particle radiation at doses overlapping the range of anticipated human exposure. A separate cohort was exposed to reference γ-radiation. Survival was monitored for 750 days, well beyond the median lifespan. The population was also sampled at intervals and liver tissue was subjected to histological and molecular analysis. HZE particle radiation dose and aging contributed synergistically to accumulation of lipid peroxidation products, which are a marker of chronic oxidative stress. This was mirrored by a decline in PPARGC1A mRNA, which encodes a transcriptional co-activator required for expression of oxidative stress defense genes and for mitochondrial maintenance. Consistent with chronic oxidative stress, mitochondria had an elongated and enlarged ultrastructure. Livers also had distinctive, cystic lesions. Depending on the endpoint, effects of γ-rays in the same dose range were either lesser or not detected. Results provide a quantitative and qualitative framework for understanding relative contributions of HZE particle radiation exposure and aging to chronic oxidative stress and tissue degeneration. PMID:25375139

  17. Synergistic Effect of High Charge and Energy Particle Radiation and Chronological Age on Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress and Tissue Degeneration: A Ground-Based Study Using the Vertebrate Laboratory Model Organism Oryzias latipes

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xuan; Zhang, Xinyan; Ding, Lingling; Lee, Jeffrey R.; Weinberger, Paul M.; Dynan, William S.

    2014-01-01

    High charge and energy (HZE) particles are a main hazard of the space radiation environment. Uncertainty regarding their health effects is a limiting factor in the design of human exploration-class space missions, that is, missions beyond low earth orbit. Previous work has shown that HZE exposure increases cancer risk and elicits other aging-like phenomena in animal models. Here, we investigate how a single exposure to HZE particle radiation, early in life, influences the subsequent age-dependent evolution of oxidative stress and appearance of degenerative tissue changes. Embryos of the laboratory model organism, Oryzias latipes (Japanese medaka fish), were exposed to HZE particle radiation at doses overlapping the range of anticipated human exposure. A separate cohort was exposed to reference γ-radiation. Survival was monitored for 750 days, well beyond the median lifespan. The population was also sampled at intervals and liver tissue was subjected to histological and molecular analysis. HZE particle radiation dose and aging contributed synergistically to accumulation of lipid peroxidation products, which are a marker of chronic oxidative stress. This was mirrored by a decline in PPARGC1A mRNA, which encodes a transcriptional co-activator required for expression of oxidative stress defense genes and for mitochondrial maintenance. Consistent with chronic oxidative stress, mitochondria had an elongated and enlarged ultrastructure. Livers also had distinctive, cystic lesions. Depending on the endpoint, effects of γ-rays in the same dose range were either lesser or not detected. Results provide a quantitative and qualitative framework for understanding relative contributions of HZE particle radiation exposure and aging to chronic oxidative stress and tissue degeneration. PMID:25375139

  18. Synergistic Effect of High Charge and Energy Particle Radiation and Chronological Age on Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress and Tissue Degeneration: A Ground-Based Study Using the Vertebrate Laboratory Model Organism Oryzias latipes

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Xuan; Zhang, Xinyan; Ding, Lingling; Lee, Jeffrey R.; Weinberger, Paul M.; Dynan, William S.

    2014-11-06

    High charge and energy (HZE) particles are a main hazard of the space radiation environment. Uncertainty regarding their health effects is a limiting factor in the design of human exploration-class space missions, that is, missions beyond low earth orbit. Previous work has shown that HZE exposure increases cancer risk and elicits other aging-like phenomena in animal models. Here, we investigate how a single exposure to HZE particle radiation, early in life, influences the subsequent age-dependent evolution of oxidative stress and appearance of degenerative tissue changes. Embryos of the laboratory model organism, Oryzias latipes (Japanese medaka fish), were exposed to HZE particle radiation at doses overlapping the range of anticipated human exposure. A separate cohort was exposed to reference γ-radiation. Survival was monitored for 750 days, well beyond the median lifespan. The population was also sampled at intervals and liver tissue was subjected to histological and molecular analysis. HZE particle radiation dose and aging contributed synergistically to accumulation of lipid peroxidation products, which are a marker of chronic oxidative stress. This was mirrored by a decline in PPARGC1A mRNA, which encodes a transcriptional co-activator required for expression of oxidative stress defense genes and for mitochondrial maintenance. Consistent with chronic oxidative stress, mitochondria had an elongated and enlarged ultrastructure. Livers also had distinctive, cystic lesions. Depending on the endpoint, effects of γ-rays in the same dose range were either lesser or not detected. Results provide a quantitative and qualitative framework for understanding relative contributions of HZE particle radiation exposure and aging to chronic oxidative stress and tissue degeneration.

  19. Synergistic Effect of High Charge and Energy Particle Radiation and Chronological Age on Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress and Tissue Degeneration: A Ground-Based Study Using the Vertebrate Laboratory Model Organism Oryzias latipes

    DOE PAGES

    Zheng, Xuan; Zhang, Xinyan; Ding, Lingling; Lee, Jeffrey R.; Weinberger, Paul M.; Dynan, William S.

    2014-11-06

    High charge and energy (HZE) particles are a main hazard of the space radiation environment. Uncertainty regarding their health effects is a limiting factor in the design of human exploration-class space missions, that is, missions beyond low earth orbit. Previous work has shown that HZE exposure increases cancer risk and elicits other aging-like phenomena in animal models. Here, we investigate how a single exposure to HZE particle radiation, early in life, influences the subsequent age-dependent evolution of oxidative stress and appearance of degenerative tissue changes. Embryos of the laboratory model organism, Oryzias latipes (Japanese medaka fish), were exposed to HZEmore » particle radiation at doses overlapping the range of anticipated human exposure. A separate cohort was exposed to reference γ-radiation. Survival was monitored for 750 days, well beyond the median lifespan. The population was also sampled at intervals and liver tissue was subjected to histological and molecular analysis. HZE particle radiation dose and aging contributed synergistically to accumulation of lipid peroxidation products, which are a marker of chronic oxidative stress. This was mirrored by a decline in PPARGC1A mRNA, which encodes a transcriptional co-activator required for expression of oxidative stress defense genes and for mitochondrial maintenance. Consistent with chronic oxidative stress, mitochondria had an elongated and enlarged ultrastructure. Livers also had distinctive, cystic lesions. Depending on the endpoint, effects of γ-rays in the same dose range were either lesser or not detected. Results provide a quantitative and qualitative framework for understanding relative contributions of HZE particle radiation exposure and aging to chronic oxidative stress and tissue degeneration.« less

  20. Shrapnel impact probability and diagnostic port failure analysis for LLNL`s explosives testing contained firing facility (CFF)

    SciTech Connect

    Price, D. E., LLNL

    1998-05-22

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory` s (LLNL) Contained Firing Facility (CFF) is a facility to be constructed for explosives testing of up to 60 kg of explosives at LLNL` s Site 300 Explosives Test Site. The CFF will be a large, rectangular, reinforced concrete firing chamber, lined with steel for shrapnel protection. The CFF will contain several glass ports for cameras, lasers, and other diagnostic equipment to be used for data collection during planned explosives detonations. Glass is used due to the need for the greatest possible optical clarity. This study was performed during the CFF final design stage to determine probabilities and consequences (bounding and best estimate) of impact of shrapnel, due to concerns about the possible effects of rebounding shrapnel on these glass diagnostic ports. We developed a customized version of the Persistence of Vision{trademark} Ray-Tracer (POV-Ray{trademark}) version 3.02 code for the Macintosh TM Operating System (MacOS{trademark}). POV-Ray creates three- dimensional, very high quality (photo-realistic) images with realistic reflections, shading, textures, perspective, and other effects using a rendering technique called ray-tracing. It reads a text file that describes the objects and lighting in a scene and generates an image of that scene from the viewpoint of a camera, also described in the text file. The customized code (POV-Ray Shrapnel Tracker, V3.02 - Custom Build) generates fragment trajectory paths at user designated angle intervals in three dimensions, tracks these trajectory paths through any complex three-dimensional space, and outputs detailed data for each ray as requested by the user, including trajectory source location, initial direction of each trajectory, vector data for each surface/trajectory interaction, and any impacts with designated model target surfaces during any trajectory segment (direct path or reflected paths). This allows determination of the three-dimensional trajectory of each

  1. Laboratory Data for X-Ray Astronomy

    SciTech Connect

    Beiersdorfer, P.; Brown, G.V.; Chen, H.; Gu, M.F.; Kahn, S.M.; Lepson, J.K.; Savin, D.W.; Utter, S.B.

    2000-03-02

    Laboratory facilities have made great strides in producing large sets of reliable data for X-ray astronomy, which include ionization and recombination cross sections needed for charge balance calculations as well as the atomic data needed for interpreting X-ray line formation. We discuss data from the new generation sources and pay special attention to the LLNL electron beam ion trap experiment, which is unique in it's ability to provide direct laboratory access to spectral data under precisely controlled conditions that simulate those found in many astrophysical plasmas. Examples of spectral data obtained in the 1-160 A wavelength range are given illustrating the type of laboratory X-ray data produced in support of such missions as Chandra, XMM, ASCA and EUVE.

  2. Laboratory Data for X-Ray Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beiersdorfer, P.; Brown, G. V.; Chen, H.; Gu, M.-F.; Kahn, S. M.; Lepson, J. K.; Savin, D. W.; Utter, S. B.

    2000-01-01

    Laboratory facilities have made great strides in producing large sets of reliable data for X-ray astronomy, which include ionization and recombination cross sections needed for charge balance calculations as well as the atomic data needed for interpreting X-ray line formation. We discuss data from the new generation sources and pay special attention to the LLNL electron beam ion trap experiment, which is unique in its ability to provide direct laboratory access to spectral data under precisely controlled conditions that simulate those found in many astrophysical plasmas. Examples of spectral data obtained in the 1-160 A wavelength range are given illustrating the type of laboratory X-ray data produced in support of such missions as Chandra, X-Ray Multi-Mirror telescope (XMM), Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA) and Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer Satellite (EUVE).

  3. Energy and technology review, January--February 1995. State of the laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Bookless, W.A.; Stull, S.; Cassady, C.; Kaiper, G.; Ledbetter, G.; McElroy, L.; Parker, A.

    1995-02-01

    This issue of Energy and Technology Review highlights the Laboratory`s 1994 accomplishments in their mission areas and core programs--economic competitiveness, national security, lasers, energy, the environment, biology and biotechnology, engineering, physics and space science, chemistry and materials science, computations, and science and math education. LLNL is a major national resource of science and technology expertise, and they are committed to applying this expertise to meet vital national needs.

  4. Risk-based prioritization of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Environmental Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.G.; Merkhofer, M.W.; Voth, M.; Sire, D.

    1995-03-01

    This paper describes an application of a formal prioritization system to help the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) allocate funds for environmental projects. The system, known as the Laboratory Integration and Prioritization System (LIPS), was jointly developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and the US Department of Energy (DOE). LIPS is based on a formal approach for multi-criteria decision-making known as multiattribute utility analysis. The system is designed to provide a logical, practical, and equitable means for estimating and comparing the benefits to be obtained from funding project work.

  5. Ghostly events: A review of the namesakes of LLNL nuclear tests of the past few years

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, C.W.

    1993-02-01

    Beginning in Fiscal Year 1986, the LLNL named its tests at the Nevada Test Site for ghost towns and other historical place names in California and Nevada. The first test so named was GOLDSTONE conducted on December 28, 1985. The list of names was used until recently when a new set of names was adopted for use in FY-93 and later. The locations used for event names often had interesting histories of their own. Some sites have virtually disappeared, some are still identifiable ghost towns, some never were towns, and others are relatively recent or still inhabited locations. This paper is a compilation of brief histories of the locations for which tests were named. The towns mostly, but not entirely, date from the mining booms of about 1850 to the early twentieth century. Many of these communities had brief existences; populations ranged from a few hardy souls to several thousand, and amenities ranged from primitive to, in a few rare cases, opulent. The development tended to follow a similar pattern based on size and duration of activity, usually starting with a collection of tents, commonly known as rag-towns''. Generally even the small communities soon had a store, some sort of lodging, and a saloon and gambling hall. As towns grew, if they lasted long enough, they would often acquire a post office, more saloons and stores, better water supplies and transportation, more permanent hotels, sometimes a newspaper, and often a red-light district. This was followed finally by permanent residences and by churches and schools, possibly even a library, and the other trappings of a real community; the ultimate goal was to have a court house. Most sites, of course, went through boom and bust before the full cycle could be realized. These places are the remains of a fascinating and important part of our heritage.

  6. Ghostly events: A review of the namesakes of LLNL nuclear tests of the past few years

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, C.W.

    1993-02-01

    Beginning in Fiscal Year 1986, the LLNL named its tests at the Nevada Test Site for ghost towns and other historical place names in California and Nevada. The first test so named was GOLDSTONE conducted on December 28, 1985. The list of names was used until recently when a new set of names was adopted for use in FY-93 and later. The locations used for event names often had interesting histories of their own. Some sites have virtually disappeared, some are still identifiable ghost towns, some never were towns, and others are relatively recent or still inhabited locations. This paper is a compilation of brief histories of the locations for which tests were named. The towns mostly, but not entirely, date from the mining booms of about 1850 to the early twentieth century. Many of these communities had brief existences; populations ranged from a few hardy souls to several thousand, and amenities ranged from primitive to, in a few rare cases, opulent. The development tended to follow a similar pattern based on size and duration of activity, usually starting with a collection of tents, commonly known as ``rag-towns``. Generally even the small communities soon had a store, some sort of lodging, and a saloon and gambling hall. As towns grew, if they lasted long enough, they would often acquire a post office, more saloons and stores, better water supplies and transportation, more permanent hotels, sometimes a newspaper, and often a red-light district. This was followed finally by permanent residences and by churches and schools, possibly even a library, and the other trappings of a real community; the ultimate goal was to have a court house. Most sites, of course, went through boom and bust before the full cycle could be realized. These places are the remains of a fascinating and important part of our heritage.

  7. First and second harmonic ECRH experience at gyrotron frequencies at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Stallard, B.

    1987-11-01

    Plasma heating of electrons in both mirror machines and tokamaks, using mm wave gyrotron sources, have been carried out in many experiments in recent years. The technology for both sources and mode-preserving waveguide transmission systems is well developed at power levels of 200 kW. At LLNL electron heating at 28 GHz in the TMX-U tandem mirror has been used to create hot electrons required for a thermal barrier (potential well). TMX-U, and other devices operating at lower frequency and power (10 GHz, few kW), routinely generates electron populations with mean energies of 100 to 500 keV and densities in the low to mid 10/sup 11/ cm/sup -3/ range. Radial pressure profiles vary from peaked-on-axis to hollow and are dependent on the mod-B resonance surfaces. Experiments on the axisymmetric mirror SM-1 have shown improved heating efficiency using multiple frequencies with narrow frequency separation. The importance of rf diffusion in determining electron confinement has been shown in CONSTANCE B. Fokker-Planck and particle orbit models have been useful for understanding the importance of cavity heating for creating runaway electrons, the sensitivity of hot electron production to cold plasma, the reduction of electron lifetime by rf diffusion, and the effect of multiple frequencies on heating stochasticity. Potential wells generated in plasmas with large fractions of mirror-trapped electrons have been measured in TMX-U. These offer prospects for enhanced confinement of highly stripped ions. 11 refs., 18 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. LLNL MOX fuel lead assemblies data report for the surplus plutonium disposition environmental impact statement

    SciTech Connect

    O`Connor, D.G.; Fisher, S.E.; Holdaway, R.

    1998-08-01

    The purpose of this document is to support the US Department of Energy (DOE) Fissile Materials Disposition Program`s preparation of the draft surplus plutonium disposition environmental impact statement. This is one of several responses to data call requests for background information on activities associated with the operation of the lead assembly (LA) mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication facility. The DOE Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (DOE-MD) has developed a dual-path strategy for disposition of surplus weapons-grade plutonium. One of the paths is to disposition surplus plutonium through irradiation of MOX fuel in commercial nuclear reactors. MOX fuel consists of plutonium and uranium oxides (PuO{sub 2} and UO{sub 2}), typically containing 95% or more UO{sub 2}. DOE-MD requested that the DOE Site Operations Offices nominate DOE sites that meet established minimum requirements that could produce MOX LAs. LLNL has proposed an LA MOX fuel fabrication approach that would be done entirely inside an S and S Category 1 area. This includes receipt and storage of PuO{sub 2} powder, fabrication of MOX fuel pellets, assembly of fuel rods and bundles, and shipping of the packaged fuel to a commercial reactor site. Support activities will take place within a Category 1 area. Building 332 will be used to receive and store the bulk PuO{sub 2} powder, fabricate MOX fuel pellets, and assemble fuel rods. Building 334 will be used to assemble, store, and ship fuel bundles. Only minor modifications would be required of Building 332. Uncontaminated glove boxes would need to be removed, petition walls would need to be removed, and minor modifications to the ventilation system would be required.

  9. Progress Towards Optimally Efficient Schemes for Monte Carlo Thermal Radiation Transport

    SciTech Connect

    Smedley-Stevenson, R P; Brooks III, E D

    2007-09-26

    In this summary we review the complementary research being undertaken at AWE and LLNL aimed at developing optimally efficient algorithms for Monte Carlo thermal radiation transport based on the difference formulation. We conclude by presenting preliminary results on the application of Newton-Krylov methods for solving the Symbolic Implicit Monte Carlo (SIMC) energy equation.

  10. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-F-36, 108-F Biological Laboratory, and for the 116-F-15, 108-F Radiation Crib, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2007-003

    SciTech Connect

    L. M. Dittmer

    2007-05-24

    The 116-F-15 waste site is the former location of the 108-F Radiation Crib that was located in the first floor of the 108-F Biological Laboratory. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The current site conditions achieve the remedial action objectives and the corresponding remedial action goals established in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  11. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Working Reference Material Production Pla

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Amy; Thronas, Denise; Marshall, Robert

    1998-11-04

    This Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Working Reference Material Production Plan was written for LLNL by the Los Alamos National Laboratory to address key elements of producing seven Pu-diatomaceous earth NDA Working Reference Materials (WRMS). These WRMS contain low burnup Pu ranging in mass from 0.1 grams to 68 grams. The composite Pu mass of the seven WRMS was designed to approximate the maximum TRU allowable loading of 200 grams Pu. This document serves two purposes: first, it defines all the operations required to meet the LLNL Statement of Work quality objectives, and second, it provides a record of the production and certification of the WRMS. Guidance provided in ASTM Standard Guide C1128-89 was used to ensure that this Plan addressed all the required elements for producing and certifying Working Reference Materials. The Production Plan was written to provide a general description of the processes, steps, files, quality control, and certification measures that were taken to produce the WRMS. The Plan identifies the files where detailed procedures, data, quality control, and certification documentation and forms are retained. The Production Plan is organized into three parts: a) an initial section describing the preparation and characterization of the Pu02 and diatomaceous earth materials, b) middle sections describing the loading, encapsulation, and measurement on the encapsulated WRMS, and c) final sections describing the calculations of the Pu, Am, and alpha activity for the WRMS and the uncertainties associated with these quantities.

  12. Environmental compliance Modeling at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Brandstetter, E.R., LLNL

    1998-02-01

    This paper presents a post-rehabilitation monitoring and modeling study of the sanitary sewer system at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The study evaluated effectiveness of sewer system rehabilitation efforts and defined benchmarks for environmental success. A PCSWMM model for the sanitary sewer system was developed and applied to demonstrate the success of a $5 million rehabilitation effort. It determined that rainfall-dependent inflow and infiltration (RDI&I) had been reduced by 88%, and that system upgrades adequately manage predicted peak flows. An ongoing modeling and analysis program currently assists management in evaluating the system`s needs for continuing maintenance and further upgrades. This paper also summarizes a 1989 study that evaluated data collected from December 1, 1988, to January 6, 1989, to determine the adequacy of the LLNL sewer system to accommodate present and future peak flows, and the Sanitary Sewer Rehabilitation (SSR) project, which took place from 1991 through 1995.

  13. Special Analysis for the Disposal of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory EnergyX Macroencapsulated Waste Stream at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Shott, Gregory J.

    2015-06-01

    This special analysis (SA) evaluates whether the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) EnergyX Macroencapsulated waste stream (B LAMACRONCAP, Revision 1) is suitable for disposal by shallow land burial (SLB) at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The LLNL EnergyX Macroencapsulated waste stream is macroencapsulated mixed waste generated during research laboratory operations and maintenance (LLNL 2015). The LLNL EnergyX Macroencapsulated waste stream required a special analysis due to tritium (3H), cobalt-60 (60Co), cesium-137 (137Cs), and radium-226 (226Ra) exceeding the NNSS Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) Action Levels (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office [NNSA/NFO] 2015).The results indicate that all performance objectives can be met with disposal of the waste stream in a SLB trench. Addition of the LLNL EnergyX Macroencapsulated inventory slightly increases multiple performance assessment results, with the largest relative increase occurring for the all-pathways annual total effective dose (TED). The maximum mean and 95th percentile 222Rn flux density remain less than the performance objective throughout the compliance period. The LLNL EnergyX Macroencapsulated waste stream is suitable for disposal by SLB at the Area 5 RWMS. The waste stream is recommended for approval without conditions.

  14. ULTRA-SHORT X-RAY RADIATION COMING FROM A LASER WAKEFIELD ACCELERATOR

    SciTech Connect

    Leurent, V; Michel, P; Clayton, C E; Pollock, B; Doeppner, T; Wang, T L; Ralph, J; Pak, A; Joshi, C; Tynan, G; Divol, L; Palastro, J P; Glenzer, S H; Froula, D H

    2008-06-17

    A Laser Wakefield Accelerator (LWFA) is under development at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to produce electron bunches with GeV class energy and energy spreads of a few-percent. The ultimate goal is to provide a bright and compact photon source for high energy density physics. The interaction of a high power (200 TW), short pulse (50 fs) laser with neutral He gas can generate quasi-monoenergetic electrons beams at energies up to 1 GeV [1]. The laser pulse can be self-guided over a dephasing length of 1 cm (for a plasma density of 1.5 x 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3}) overcoming the limitation of vacuum diffraction. Betatron radiation is emitted while the accelerated electrons undergo oscillations in the wakefield electrostatic field. Here we present electron spectrum measurements with a two screen spectrometer allowing to fix the ambiguities due to unknown angle at the plasma exit. We have measured monoenergetic electron beams at energies around 110 MeV. Furthermore a forward directed x-ray beam is observed. The peak energy of the measured synchrotron spectrum is reconstructed based on the energy deposited after different sets of filters, assuming x-ray radiation described in the synchrotron asymptotic limit (SAL) and is found around 6 keV.

  15. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Emergency Response Capability 2009 Baseline Needs Assessment Performance Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Sharry, J A

    2009-12-30

    This document was prepared by John A. Sharry, LLNL Fire Marshal and Division Leader for Fire Protection and was reviewed by Sandia/CA Fire Marshal, Martin Gresho. This document is the second of a two-part analysis of Emergency Response Capabilities of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The first part, 2009 Baseline Needs Assessment Requirements Document established the minimum performance criteria necessary to meet mandatory requirements. This second part analyses the performance of Lawrence Livermore Laboratory Emergency Management Department to the contents of the Requirements Document. The document was prepared based on an extensive review of information contained in the 2004 BNA, a review of Emergency Planning Hazards Assessments, a review of building construction, occupancy, fire protection features, dispatch records, LLNL alarm system records, fire department training records, and fire department policies and procedures. On October 1, 2007, LLNL contracted with the Alameda County Fire Department to provide emergency response services. The level of service called for in that contract is the same level of service as was provided by the LLNL Fire Department prior to that date. This Compliance Assessment will evaluate fire department services beginning October 1, 2008 as provided by the Alameda County Fire Department.

  16. Mitigation Monitoring Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory FY00 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Mcguff, R R

    2003-12-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has completed eight years of implementing the mitigation measures from the Final Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report (EIS/EIR) for the Continued Operation of LLNL and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Livermore. This eighth annual report documents LLNL's implementation of the mitigation measures during the fiscal year ending September 30, 2000 (FY00). It provides background information on the mitigation measures, describes activities undertaken during FY00, and documents changes in the monitoring program. Table 1 on page 12, provides a numerical listing of each mitigation measure, the department responsible for implementing it, and the location within this report where the status is discussed. The discussion of the mitigation measures is organized by the University of California (UC)'s three categories of approaches to implementation: project-specific, service-level and administrative. Table 2 on page 19, Table 6 on page 55, and Table 7 on page 63 provide a detailed discussion of each mitigation measure, including LLNL's implementation strategy and the status as of the end of the fiscal year. Table 3 on page 37, Table 4 on page 46, and Table 5 on page 47 list each construction project undertaken in FY00 and the mitigation measures implemented.

  17. Precision and manufacturing at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saito, Theodore T.; Wasley, Richard J.; Stowers, Irving F.; Donaldson, Robert R.; Thompson, Daniel C.

    1994-01-01

    Precision Engineering is one of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's core strengths. This paper discusses the past and present current technology transfer efforts of LLNL's Precision Engineering program and the Livermore Center for Advanced Manufacturing and Productivity (LCAMP). More than a year ago the Precision Machine Commercialization project embodied several successful methods of transferring high technology from the National Laboratories to industry. Currently, LCAMP has already demonstrated successful technology transfer and is involved in a broad spectrum of current programs. In addition, this paper discusses other technologies ripe for future transition including the Large Optics Diamond Turning Machine.

  18. Environment, safety and health progress assessment of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-01

    This report documents the result of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environment, Safety and Health (ES H) Progress Assessment of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Livermore, California. The onsite assessment, which was conducted from November 9 through November 20, 1992, included a selective review of the ES H management systems and programs with principal focus on the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Defense Programs (DP); San Francisco Field Office (SF), including the Livermore Site Office (LSO); and the site contractor, the University of California. The purpose of the LLNL ES H Progress Assessment is to provide the Secretary with an independent assessment of the adequacy and effectiveness of the DOE and contractor management structures, resources, and systems to address ES H issues and requirements. The assessment was not a comprehensive compliance assessment of ES H activities. The point of reference for assessing programs at LLNL was, for the most part, the Tiger Team Assessment of LLNL, which was conducted from February 26 through April 5, 1990. The LLNL Progress Assessment was conducted by a team of 12 professionals from various DOE offices and their support contractors, with expertise in the areas of management, environment, safety, and health. The Progress Assessment Team concluded that LLNL management recognizes the importance that the Secretary of Energy places on ES H excellence and has responded with improvements in all ES H areas. Progress has been made in addressing the deficiencies identified in the 1990 Tiger Team Assessment. Although much remains to be done and concerns were noted in several areas, these concerns do not diminish the significance of the progress made since the 1990 Tiger Team Assessment.

  19. Environment, safety and health progress assessment of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-01

    This report documents the result of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environment, Safety and Health (ES&H) Progress Assessment of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Livermore, California. The onsite assessment, which was conducted from November 9 through November 20, 1992, included a selective review of the ES&H management systems and programs with principal focus on the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Defense Programs (DP); San Francisco Field Office (SF), including the Livermore Site Office (LSO); and the site contractor, the University of California. The purpose of the LLNL ES&H Progress Assessment is to provide the Secretary with an independent assessment of the adequacy and effectiveness of the DOE and contractor management structures, resources, and systems to address ES&H issues and requirements. The assessment was not a comprehensive compliance assessment of ES&H activities. The point of reference for assessing programs at LLNL was, for the most part, the Tiger Team Assessment of LLNL, which was conducted from February 26 through April 5, 1990. The LLNL Progress Assessment was conducted by a team of 12 professionals from various DOE offices and their support contractors, with expertise in the areas of management, environment, safety, and health. The Progress Assessment Team concluded that LLNL management recognizes the importance that the Secretary of Energy places on ES&H excellence and has responded with improvements in all ES&H areas. Progress has been made in addressing the deficiencies identified in the 1990 Tiger Team Assessment. Although much remains to be done and concerns were noted in several areas, these concerns do not diminish the significance of the progress made since the 1990 Tiger Team Assessment.

  20. Environmental impact report addendum for the continued operation of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Weston, R. F.

    1996-10-01

    An environmental impact statement/environmental impact report (ES/EIR) for the continued operation and management of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) was prepared jointly by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the University of California (UC). The scope of the document included near-term (within 5-10 years) proposed projects. The UC Board of Regents, as state lead agency under the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA), certified and adopted the EIR by issuing a Notice of Determination on November 20, 1992. The DOE, as the lead federal agency under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), adopted a Record of Decision for the ES on January 27, 1993 (58 Federal Register [FR] 6268). The DOE proposed action was to continue operation of the facility, including near-term proposed projects. The specific project evaluated by UC was extension of the contract between UC and DOE for UC`s continued operation and management of LLNL (both sites) from October 1, 1992, through September 30, 1997. The 1992 ES/EIR analyzed impacts through the year 2002. The 1992 ES/EIR comprehensively evaluated the potential environmental impacts of operation and management of LLNL within the near-term future. Activities evaluated included programmatic enhancements and modifications of facilities and programs at the LLNL Livermore site and at LLNL`s Experimental Test Site (Site 300) in support of research and development missions 2048 established for LLNL by Congress and the President. The evaluation also considered the impacts of infrastructure and building maintenance, minor modifications to buildings, general landscaping, road maintenance, and similar routine support activities.