Annular Momentum Control Device (AMCD). Volume 1: Laboratory model development
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1975-01-01
The annular momentum control device (AMCD) a thin hoop-like wheel with neither shaft nor spokes is described. The wheel floats in a magnetic field and can be rotated by a segmented motor. Potential advantages of such a wheel are low weight, configuration flexibility, a wheel that stiffens with increased speed, vibration isolation, and increased reliability. The analysis, design, fabrication, and testing is described of the laboratory model of the AMCD.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shakur, Asif; Sinatra, Taylor
2013-12-01
The gyroscope in a smartphone was employed in a physics laboratory setting to verify the conservation of angular momentum and the nonconservation of rotational kinetic energy. As is well-known, smartphones are ubiquitous on college campuses. These devices have a panoply of built-in sensors. This creates a unique opportunity for a new paradigm in the physics laboratory. Many traditional physics experiments can now be performed very conveniently in a pedagogically enlightening environment while simultaneously reducing the laboratory budget substantially by using student-owned smartphones.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Robinson, Stephen
2015-03-01
Angular momentum is a notoriously difficult concept to grasp. Visualization often requires three-dimensional pictures of vectors pointing in seemingly arbitrary directions. A simple student-run laboratory experiment coupled with intuitive explanations by an instructor can clear up some of the inherent ambiguity of rotational motion. Specifically, the precessional period of a suspended spinning bicycle wheel can be related to the spinning frequency through a simple algebraic expression. An explanation of this precession apart from the concept of angular momentum will be given.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shakur, Asif; Sinatra, Taylor
2013-01-01
The gyroscope in a smartphone was employed in a physics laboratory setting to verify the conservation of angular momentum and the nonconservation of rotational kinetic energy. As is well-known, smartphones are ubiquitous on college campuses. These devices have a panoply of built-in sensors. This creates a unique opportunity for a new paradigm in…
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Groom, N. J.; Woolley, C. T.; Joshi, S. M.
1981-01-01
A linear analysis and the results of a nonlinear simulation of a magnetic bearing suspension system which uses permanent magnet flux biasing are presented. The magnetic bearing suspension is part of a 4068 N-m-s (3000 lb-ft-sec) laboratory model annular momentum control device (AMCD). The simulation includes rigid body rim dynamics, linear and nonlinear axial actuators, linear radial actuators, axial and radial rim warp, and power supply and power driver current limits.
Development of a magnetically suspended momentum wheel
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hamilton, S. B.
1973-01-01
An engineering model of a magnetically suspended momentum wheel was designed, fabricated, and tested under laboratory conditions. The basic unit consisted of two magnet bearings, a sculptured aluminum rotor, brushless dc spin motor, and electronics. The magnet bearings, utilizing rare-earth cobltrat-samarium magnets were active radially and passive axially. The results of the program showed that momentum wheels with magnetic bearings are feasible and operable, and that magnetic bearings of this type are capable of being used for applications where high capacity, high stiffness, and low power consumption are required. The tests performed developed criteria for improved performance for future designs.
Energy, momentum, and angular momentum of sound pulses.
Lekner, John
2017-12-01
Pulse solutions of the wave equation can be expressed as superpositions of scalar monochromatic beam wavefunctions (solutions of the Helmholtz equation). This formulation leads to causal (unidirectional) propagation, in contrast to all currently known closed-form solutions of the wave equation. Application is made to the evaluation of the energy, momentum, and angular momentum of acoustic pulses, as integrals over the beam and pulse weight functions. Equivalence is established between integration over space of the energy, momentum, and angular momentum densities, and integration over the wavevector weight function. The inequality linking the total energy and the total momentum is made explicit in terms of the weight function formulation. It is shown that a general pulse can be viewed as a superposition of phonons, each with energy ℏck, z component of momentum ℏq, and z component of angular momentum ℏm. A closed-form solution of the wave equation is found, which is localized and causal, and its energy and momentum are evaluated explicitly.
Estimating energy-momentum and angular momentum near null infinity
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Helfer, Adam D.
2010-04-15
The energy-momentum and angular momentum contained in a spacelike two-surface of spherical topology are estimated by joining the two-surface to null infinity via an approximate no-incoming-radiation condition. The result is a set of gauge-invariant formulas for energy-momentum and angular momentum which should be applicable to much numerical work; it also gives estimates of the finite-size effects.
Wave-Induced Momentum Flux over Wind-driven Surface Waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yousefi, Kianoosh; Veron, Fabrice; Buckley, Marc; Husain, Nyla; Hara, Tetsu
2017-11-01
In recent years, the exchange of momentum between the atmosphere and the ocean has been the subject of several investigations. Although the role of surface waves on the air-sea momentum flux is now well established, detailed quantitative measurements of wave-induced momentum fluxes are lacking. In the current study, using a combined Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) system, we obtained laboratory measurements of the airflow velocity above surface waves for wind speeds ranging from 0.86 to 16.63 m s-1. The mean, turbulent, and wave-coherent velocity fields are then extracted from instantaneous measurements. Wave-induced stress can, therefore, be estimated. In strongly forced cases in high wind speeds, the wave-induced stress near the surface is a significant fraction of the total stress. At lower wind speeds and larger wave ages, the wave-induced stress is positive very close to the surface, below the critical height and decreases to a negative value further above the critical height. This indicates a shift in the direction of the wave-coherent momentum flux across the critical layer. NSF OCE1458977, NSF OCE1634051.
Physical approach to price momentum and its application to momentum strategy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choi, Jaehyung
2014-12-01
We introduce various quantitative and mathematical definitions for price momentum of financial instruments. The price momentum is quantified with velocity and mass concepts originated from the momentum in physics. By using the physical momentum of price as a selection criterion, the weekly contrarian strategies are implemented in South Korea KOSPI 200 and US S&P 500 universes. The alternative strategies constructed by the physical momentum achieve the better expected returns and reward-risk measures than those of the traditional contrarian strategy in weekly scale. The portfolio performance is not understood by the Fama-French three-factor model.
Linear momentum, angular momentum and energy in the linear collision between two balls
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hanisch, C.; Hofmann, F.; Ziese, M.
2018-01-01
In an experiment of the basic physics laboratory, kinematical motion processes were analysed. The motion was recorded with a standard video camera having frame rates from 30 to 240 fps the videos were processed using video analysis software. Video detection was used to analyse the symmetric one-dimensional collision between two balls. Conservation of linear and angular momentum lead to a crossover from rolling to sliding directly after the collision. By variation of the rolling radius the system could be tuned from a regime in which the balls move away from each other after the collision to a situation in which they re-collide.
Momentum microscopy of ? single crystals with detailed surface characterisation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ellguth, M.; Tusche, C.; Iga, F.; Suga, S.
2016-11-01
We report the in situ preparation of surfaces of the proposed topological Kondo insulator SmB? by controlled cycles of Ar ion sputtering and annealing. The procedure provides a reproducible way for the preparation of Sm- or B-rich surface terminations by low (?1080 ?C) or high (?1200 ?C) temperature annealing. The surface quality and termination were checked by low energy electron diffraction and Auger electron spectroscopy. Photoemission studies were carried out using momentum microscopy and two laboratory light sources providing polarised radiation with an energy of 6 eV (fourth harmonic of a pulsed Ti:Sapphire laser) and unpolarised radiation with an energy of 21.2 eV (He-I line of a gas discharge lamp). Full dispersions of electronic states in a wide two-dimensional momentum space were obtained by momentum microscopy from the in situ prepared Sm-terminated surface. The shape of the Fermi surface is discussed based on the sections through the bulk Brillouin zone sampled by the different photon energies.
A practical example aiding understanding momentum in 1D: the water gun experiment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
MacLeod, Katarin
2007-09-01
The law of conservation of momentum is one that students often have difficulties understanding. This experiment allows students to use childhood toys to examine and calculate the muzzle velocity of their favourite water gun by using an air track, a spark timer or data logger and the law of conservation of momentum in a one-dimensional case, a modification of the standard ballistic pendulum laboratory experiment (1990 Physics 100 Lab Manual St Francis Xavier University).
Momentum and Energy Assessments with NASA and Other Model and Data Assimilation Systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Salstein, David; Nelson, Peter; Hu, Wen-Jie; Sud, Yogesh (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
Aspects of the angular momentum cycle, energetics, and related diagnostics from a number of models, including some from the Goddard Laboratory for Atmospheres, and from the Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP) are examined. Torques that dynamically excite changes in angular momentum, including strong torques at mountains were studied. The measure of how atmospheric mass from a strong weather signal can notably change the angular momentum is studied. For AMIP, there is a spread in the angular momentum amongst models, while the GLA model does reasonably well compared to the other models in the diagnostics examined, namely angular momentum and water vapor. Trends and interannual variability in water vapor over a lengthy period was examined. The role of the diabatic heating components, especially latent heating, in the energy cycle and the terms converting available potential energy to kinetic energy, among other parts of the energy cycle, are studied. Modes of climate of the atmosphere, especially the Arctic and North Atlantic Oscillations, are analyzed as well.
Orbital angular momentum of photons, plasmons and neutrinos in a plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mendonca, J. T.; Thidé, Bo; Then, H.; Ali, S.
2009-11-01
We study the exchange of angular momentum between electromagnetic and electrostatic waves in a plasma, due to the stimulated Raman and Brillouin backscatering processes [1]. Angular momentum states for plasmon and phonon fields are introduced for the first time. We demonstrate that these states can be excited by nonlinear wave mixing, associated with the scattering processes. This could be relevant for plasma diagnostics, both in laboratory and in space. Nonlinearly coupled paraxial equations and instability growth rates are derived. The characteristic features of the plasmon modes with finite angular momentum are also discussed. The potential problem is solved and the angular momentum is explicitly calculated [2]. Finally, it is shown that an electron-neutrino beam, propagating in a background plasma, can be decomposed into orbital momentum states, similar to that of photon states. Coupling between different neutrino states, in the presence of a plasma vortex, is considered. We show that plasma vorticity can be transfered to the neutrino beam, which is relevant to the understanding of the neutrino sources in astrophysics. [1] J.T. Mendonca et al., PRL 102, 185005 (2009). [2] S. Ali and J.T. Mendonca, PoP (2009) submitted. [3] J.T. Mendonca and B. Thide, Europhys. Lett. 84, 41001 (2008).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jutzi, Martin; Michel, Patrick
2014-02-01
In this paper, we investigate numerically the momentum transferred by impacts of small (artificial) projectiles on asteroids. The study of the momentum transfer efficiency as a function of impact conditions and of the internal structure of an asteroid is crucial for performance assessment of the kinetic impactor concept of deflecting an asteroid from its trajectory. The momentum transfer is characterized by the so-called momentum multiplication factor β, which has been introduced to define the momentum imparted to an asteroid in terms of the momentum of the impactor. Here we present results of code calculations of the β factor for porous targets, in which porosity takes the form of microporosity and/or macroporosity. The results of our study using a large range of impact conditions indicate that the momentum multiplication factor β is small for porous targets even for very high impact velocities (β<2 for vimp⩽15 km/s), which is consistent with published scaling laws and results of laboratory experiments (Holsapple, K.A., Housen, K.R. [2012]. Icarus 221, 875-887; Holsapple, K.A., Housen, K.R. [2013]. Proceedings of the IAA Planetary Defense Conference 2013, Flagstaff, USA). It is found that both porosity and strength can have a large effect on the amount of transferred momentum and on the scaling of β with impact velocity. On the other hand, the macroporous inhomogeneities considered here do not have a significant effect on β.
Momentum fractionation on superstrata
Bena, Iosif; Martinec, Emil; Turton, David; ...
2016-05-11
Superstrata are bound states in string theory that carry D1, D5, and momentum charges, and whose supergravity descriptions are parameterized by arbitrary functions of (at least) two variables. In the D1-D5 CFT, typical three-charge states reside in highdegree twisted sectors, and their momentum charge is carried by modes that individually have fractional momentum. Understanding this momentum fractionation holographically is crucial for understanding typical black-hole microstates in this system. We use solution-generating techniques to add momentum to a multi-wound supertube and thereby construct the first examples of asymptotically-flat superstrata. The resulting supergravity solutions are horizonless and smooth up to well-understood orbifoldmore » singularities. Upon taking the AdS3 decoupling limit, our solutions are dual to CFT states with momentum fractionation. We give a precise proposal for these dual CFT states. Lastly, our construction establishes the very nontrivial fact that large classes of CFT states with momentum fractionation can be realized in the bulk as smooth horizonless supergravity solutions.« less
Reversal of orbital angular momentum arising from an extreme Doppler shift
Toninelli, Ermes; Horsley, Simon A. R.; Hendry, Euan; Phillips, David B.; Padgett, Miles J.
2018-01-01
The linear Doppler shift is familiar as the rise and fall in pitch of a siren as it passes by. Less well known is the rotational Doppler shift, proportional to the rotation rate between source and receiver, multiplied by the angular momentum carried by the beam. In extreme cases the Doppler shift can be larger than the rest-frame frequency and for a red shift, the observed frequency then becomes “negative.” In the linear case, this effect is associated with the time reversal of the received signal, but it can be observed only with supersonic relative motion between the source and receiver. However, the rotational case is different; if the radius of rotation is smaller than the wavelength, then the velocities required to observe negative frequencies are subsonic. Using an acoustic source at ≈100 Hz we create a rotational Doppler shift larger than the laboratory-frame frequency. We observe that once the red-shifted wave passes into the “negative frequency” regime, the angular momentum associated with the sound is reversed in sign compared with that of the laboratory frame. These low-velocity laboratory realizations of extreme Doppler shifts have relevance to superoscillatory fields and offer unique opportunities to probe interactions with rotating bodies and aspects of pseudorelativistic frame translation. PMID:29581257
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cameron, Robert P.; Cotter, J. P.
2018-05-01
We give an explicit and general description of the energy, linear momentum, angular momentum and boost momentum of a molecule to order 1/c 2, where it necessary to take account of kinetic contributions made by the electrons and nuclei as well as electromagnetic contributions made by the intramolecular field. A wealth of interesting subtleties are encountered that are not seen at order 1/c 0, including relativistic Hall shifts, anomalous velocities and hidden momenta. Some of these have well known analogues in solid state physics.
Introducing Electromagnetic Field Momentum
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hu, Ben Yu-Kuang
2012-01-01
I describe an elementary way of introducing electromagnetic field momentum. By considering a system of a long solenoid and line charge, the dependence of the field momentum on the electric and magnetic fields can be deduced. I obtain the electromagnetic angular momentum for a point charge and magnetic monopole pair partially through dimensional…
Optical angular momentum and atoms
2017-01-01
Any coherent interaction of light and atoms needs to conserve energy, linear momentum and angular momentum. What happens to an atom’s angular momentum if it encounters light that carries orbital angular momentum (OAM)? This is a particularly intriguing question as the angular momentum of atoms is quantized, incorporating the intrinsic spin angular momentum of the individual electrons as well as the OAM associated with their spatial distribution. In addition, a mechanical angular momentum can arise from the rotation of the entire atom, which for very cold atoms is also quantized. Atoms therefore allow us to probe and access the quantum properties of light’s OAM, aiding our fundamental understanding of light–matter interactions, and moreover, allowing us to construct OAM-based applications, including quantum memories, frequency converters for shaped light and OAM-based sensors. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Optical orbital angular momentum’. PMID:28069766
Reversal of orbital angular momentum arising from an extreme Doppler shift.
Gibson, Graham M; Toninelli, Ermes; Horsley, Simon A R; Spalding, Gabriel C; Hendry, Euan; Phillips, David B; Padgett, Miles J
2018-04-10
The linear Doppler shift is familiar as the rise and fall in pitch of a siren as it passes by. Less well known is the rotational Doppler shift, proportional to the rotation rate between source and receiver, multiplied by the angular momentum carried by the beam. In extreme cases the Doppler shift can be larger than the rest-frame frequency and for a red shift, the observed frequency then becomes "negative." In the linear case, this effect is associated with the time reversal of the received signal, but it can be observed only with supersonic relative motion between the source and receiver. However, the rotational case is different; if the radius of rotation is smaller than the wavelength, then the velocities required to observe negative frequencies are subsonic. Using an acoustic source at [Formula: see text]100 Hz we create a rotational Doppler shift larger than the laboratory-frame frequency. We observe that once the red-shifted wave passes into the "negative frequency" regime, the angular momentum associated with the sound is reversed in sign compared with that of the laboratory frame. These low-velocity laboratory realizations of extreme Doppler shifts have relevance to superoscillatory fields and offer unique opportunities to probe interactions with rotating bodies and aspects of pseudorelativistic frame translation. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.
Momentum transfer in asteroid impacts. I. Theory and scaling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Holsapple, Keith A.; Housen, Kevin R.
2012-11-01
When an asteroid experiences an impact, its path is changed. How much it changes is important to know for both asteroid evolution studies and for attempts to prevent an asteroid from impacting the Earth. In an impact process the total momentum of the material is conserved. However, not all of the material is of interest, but only that remaining with the asteroid. The ratio of the change of momentum of the remaining asteroid to that of the impactor is called the momentum multiplication factor; and is commonly given the symbol β. It has been known for some time that β can be greater than unity, and in some cases far greater. That could be a significant factor in attempts to deflect an asteroid with an impact, and can also be important in the stirring of objects in the asteroid belt due to mutual impacts. The escaping crater ejecta are the source of the momentum multiplication. Housen and Holsapple (Housen, K.R., Holsapple, K.A. [2011a]. Icarus 211, 856-875) have given a recent summary of ejecta characteristics and scaling. Here we use those ejecta results to determine how β depends on the impactor properties, on the asteroid size and composition, and establish the paths and time of flight of all of the ejecta particles. The approach is to add the contribution of each element of ejected mass accounting for its initial velocity, its trajectory and whether it escapes the asteroid. The goal in this paper is to provide a theoretical framework of the fundamental results which can be used as a test of the veracity of experiments and detailed numerical calculations of impacts. A subsequent paper will present direct laboratory results and numerical simulations of momentum multiplication in various geological materials.
Oblique impact: Projectile richochet, concomitant ejecta and momentum transfer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gault, Donald E.; Schultz, Peter H.
1987-01-01
Experimental studies of oblique impact indicate that projectile richochet occurs for trajectory angles less than 30 deg and that the richocheted projectile, accompanied by some target material, are ejected at velocities that are a large fraction of the impact velocity. Because the probability of occurrence of oblique impact less than 30 deg on a planetary body is about one out of every four impact events, oblique impacts would seem to be a potential mechanism to provide a source of meteorites from even the largest atmosphere-free planetary bodies. Because the amount of richocheted target material cannot be determined from previous results, additional experiments in the Ames Vertical Gun laboratory were undertaken toward that purpose using pendulums; one to measure momentum of the richocheted projectile and concomitant target ejecta, and a second to measure the momentum transferred from projectile to target. These experiments are briefly discussed.
TDRSS momentum unload planning
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cross, George R.; Potter, Mitchell A.; Whitehead, J. Douglass; Smith, James T.
1991-01-01
A knowledge-based system is described which monitors TDRSS telemetry for problems in the momentum unload procedure. The system displays TDRSS telemetry and commands in real time via X-windows. The system constructs a momentum unload plan which agrees with the preferences of the attitude control specialists and the momentum growth characteristics of the individual spacecraft. During the execution of the plan, the system monitors the progress of the procedure and watches for unexpected problems.
Controlling matter waves in momentum space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, De-Hone
2014-07-01
The transformation design method of momentum for matter waves in a harmonic trap is proposed. As applications, we design (1) a momentum invisibility cloak to control the distribution of a wave function in momentum space, (2) a quantum localization cloak that localizes a matter wave around zero momentum, and (3) the unusual quantum states of momentum space. Comprehension of these momentum cloaks in position space through the Fourier transformation is presented. In contrast to the construct of quantum cloaks in position space, the momentum cloaks presented here can only be reached by controlling the spring parameter of the trap and offering a potential there, without needing to control the effective mass of quantum particles themselves. The presented discussions also provide a possible inspiration to help localize and maintain a quantum state in momentum space by way of controlling the shape of a trap and a supplied potential.
Angular momentum of dwarf galaxies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kurapati, Sushma; Chengalur, Jayaram N.; Pustilnik, Simon; Kamphuis, Peter
2018-05-01
Mass and specific angular momentum are two fundamental physical parameters of galaxies. We present measurements of the baryonic mass and specific angular momentum of 11 void dwarf galaxies derived from neutral hydrogen (HI) synthesis data. Rotation curves were measured using 3D and 2D tilted ring fitting routines, and the derived curves generally overlap within the error bars, except in the central regions where, as expected, the 3D routines give steeper curves. The specific angular momentum of void dwarfs is found to be high compared to an extrapolation of the trends seen for higher mass bulge-less spirals, but comparable to that of other dwarf irregular galaxies that lie outside of voids. As such, our data show no evidence for a dependence of the specific angular momentum on the large scale environment. Combining our data with the data from the literature, we find a baryonic threshold of ˜109.1 M⊙ for this increase in specific angular momentum. Interestingly, this threshold is very similar to the mass threshold below which the galaxy discs start to become systematically thicker. This provides qualitative support to the suggestion that the thickening of the discs, as well as the increase in specific angular momentum, are both results of a common physical mechanism, such as feedback from star formation. Quantitatively, however, the amount of star formation observed in our dwarfs appears insufficient to produce the observed increase in specific angular momentum. It is hence likely that other processes, such as cold accretion of high angular momentum gas, also play a role in increasing the specific angular momentum.
Nonsurvivable momentum exchange system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Roder, Russell (Inventor); Ahronovich, Eliezer (Inventor); Davis, III, Milton C. (Inventor)
2007-01-01
A demiseable momentum exchange system includes a base and a flywheel rotatably supported on the base. The flywheel includes a web portion defining a plurality of web openings and a rim portion. The momentum exchange system further includes a motor for driving the flywheel and a cover for engaging the base to substantially enclose the flywheel. The system may also include components having a melting temperature below 1500 degrees Celsius. The momentum exchange system is configured to demise on reentry.
Electron scattering from high-momentum neutrons in deuterium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klimenko, A. V.; Kuhn, S. E.; Butuceanu, C.; Egiyan, K. S.; Griffioen, K. A.; Adams, G.; Ambrozewicz, P.; Anghinolfi, M.; Asryan, G.; Avakian, H.; Bagdasaryan, H.; Baillie, N.; Ball, J. P.; Baltzell, N. A.; Barrow, S.; Batourine, V.; Battaglieri, M.; Bedlinskiy, I.; Bektasoglu, M.; Bellis, M.; Benmouna, N.; Biselli, A. S.; Bouchigny, S.; Boiarinov, S.; Bradford, R.; Branford, D.; Brooks, W. K.; Bültmann, S.; Burkert, V. D.; Calarco, J. R.; Careccia, S. L.; Carman, D. S.; Cazes, A.; Chen, S.; Cole, P. L.; Coltharp, P.; Cords, D.; Corvisiero, P.; Crabb, D.; Cummings, J. P.; Dashyan, N. B.; Devita, R.; Sanctis, E. De; Degtyarenko, P. V.; Denizli, H.; Dennis, L.; Dharmawardane, K. V.; Djalali, C.; Dodge, G. E.; Donnelly, J.; Doughty, D.; Dugger, M.; Dytman, S.; Dzyubak, O. P.; Egiyan, H.; Elouadrhiri, L.; Eugenio, P.; Fatemi, R.; Fedotov, G.; Fersch, R. G.; Feuerbach, R. J.; Funsten, H.; Garçon, M.; Gavalian, G.; Gilfoyle, G. P.; Giovanetti, K. L.; Girod, F. X.; Goetz, J. T.; Gonenc, A.; Gordon, C. I. O.; Gothe, R. W.; Guidal, M.; Guillo, M.; Guler, N.; Guo, L.; Gyurjyan, V.; Hadjidakis, C.; Hakobyan, R. S.; Hardie, J.; Hersman, F. W.; Hicks, K.; Hleiqawi, I.; Holtrop, M.; Hyde-Wright, C. E.; Ilieva, Y.; Ireland, D. G.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Ito, M. M.; Jenkins, D.; Jo, H. S.; Joo, K.; Juengst, H. G.; Kellie, J. D.; Khandaker, M.; Kim, W.; Klein, A.; Klein, F. J.; Kossov, M.; Kramer, L. H.; Kubarovsky, V.; Kuhn, J.; Kuleshov, S. V.; Lachniet, J.; Laget, J. M.; Langheinrich, J.; Lawrence, D.; Li, Ji; Livingston, K.; McAleer, S.; McKinnon, B.; McNabb, J. W. C.; Mecking, B. A.; Mehrabyan, S.; Melone, J. J.; Mestayer, M. D.; Meyer, C. A.; Mibe, T.; Mikhailov, K.; Minehart, R.; Mirazita, M.; Miskimen, R.; Mokeev, V.; Morand, L.; Morrow, S. A.; Mueller, J.; Mutchler, G. S.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Napolitano, J.; Nasseripour, R.; Niccolai, S.; Niculescu, G.; Niculescu, I.; Niczyporuk, B. B.; Niyazov, R. A.; Nozar, M.; O'Rielly, G. V.; Osipenko, M.; Ostrovidov, A. I.; Park, K.; Pasyuk, E.; Paterson, C.; Pierce, J.; Pivnyuk, N.; Pocanic, D.; Pogorelko, O.; Pozdniakov, S.; Preedom, B. M.; Price, J. W.; Prok, Y.; Protopopescu, D.; Raue, B. A.; Riccardi, G.; Ricco, G.; Ripani, M.; Ritchie, B. G.; Ronchetti, F.; Rosner, G.; Rossi, P.; Sabatié, F.; Salgado, C.; Santoro, J. P.; Sapunenko, V.; Schumacher, R. A.; Serov, V. S.; Sharabian, Y. G.; Skabelin, A. V.; Smith, E. S.; Smith, L. C.; Sober, D. I.; Stavinsky, A.; Stepanyan, S. S.; Stepanyan, S.; Stokes, B. E.; Stoler, P.; Strauch, S.; Taiuti, M.; Tedeschi, D. J.; Thoma, U.; Tkabladze, A.; Tkachenko, S.; Todor, L.; Tur, C.; Ungaro, M.; Vineyard, M. F.; Vlassov, A. V.; Weinstein, L. B.; Weygand, D. P.; Williams, M.; Wolin, E.; Wood, M. H.; Yegneswaran, A.; Zana, L.; Zhang, J.; Zhao, B.
2006-03-01
We report results from an experiment measuring the semiinclusive reaction H2(e,e'ps) in which the proton ps is moving at a large angle relative to the momentum transfer. If we assume that the proton was a spectator to the reaction taking place on the neutron in deuterium, the initial state of that neutron can be inferred. This method, known as spectator tagging, can be used to study electron scattering from high-momentum (off-shell) neutrons in deuterium. The data were taken with a 5.765 GeV electron beam on a deuterium target in Jefferson Laboratory's Hall B, using the CEBAF large acceptance spectrometer. A reduced cross section was extracted for different values of final state missing mass W*, backward proton momentum p→s, and momentum transfer Q2. The data are compared to a simple plane wave impulse approximation (PWIA) spectator model. A strong enhancement in the data observed at transverse kinematics is not reproduced by the PWIA model. This enhancement can likely be associated with the contribution of final state interactions (FSI) that were not incorporated into the model. Within the framework of the simple spectator model, a “bound neutron structure function” F2neff was extracted as a function of W* and the scaling variable x* at extreme backward kinematics, where the effects of FSI appear to be smaller. For ps>0.4GeV/c, where the neutron is far off-shell, the model overestimates the value of F2neff in the region of x* between 0.25 and 0.6. A dependence of the bound neutron structure function on the neutron's “off-shell-ness” is one possible effect that can cause the observed deviation.
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Crenshaw, Michael E., E-mail: michael.e.crenshaw4.civ@mail.mil
2014-04-15
In a continuum setting, the energy–momentum tensor embodies the relations between conservation of energy, conservation of linear momentum, and conservation of angular momentum. The well-defined total energy and the well-defined total momentum in a thermodynamically closed system with complete equations of motion are used to construct the total energy–momentum tensor for a stationary simple linear material with both magnetic and dielectric properties illuminated by a quasimonochromatic pulse of light through a gradient-index antireflection coating. The perplexing issues surrounding the Abraham and Minkowski momentums are bypassed by working entirely with conservation principles, the total energy, and the total momentum. We derivemore » electromagnetic continuity equations and equations of motion for the macroscopic fields based on the material four-divergence of the traceless, symmetric total energy–momentum tensor. We identify contradictions between the macroscopic Maxwell equations and the continuum form of the conservation principles. We resolve the contradictions, which are the actual fundamental issues underlying the Abraham–Minkowski controversy, by constructing a unified version of continuum electrodynamics that is based on establishing consistency between the three-dimensional Maxwell equations for macroscopic fields, the electromagnetic continuity equations, the four-divergence of the total energy–momentum tensor, and a four-dimensional tensor formulation of electrodynamics for macroscopic fields in a simple linear medium.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kholmetskii, Alexander; Missevitch, Oleg; Yarman, Tolga
2016-02-01
We address to the Poynting theorem for the bound (velocity-dependent) electromagnetic field, and demonstrate that the standard expressions for the electromagnetic energy flux and related field momentum, in general, come into the contradiction with the relativistic transformation of four-vector of total energy-momentum. We show that this inconsistency stems from the incorrect application of Poynting theorem to a system of discrete point-like charges, when the terms of self-interaction in the product {\\varvec{j}} \\cdot {\\varvec{E}} (where the current density {\\varvec{j}} and bound electric field {\\varvec{E}} are generated by the same source charge) are exogenously omitted. Implementing a transformation of the Poynting theorem to the form, where the terms of self-interaction are eliminated via Maxwell equations and vector calculus in a mathematically rigorous way (Kholmetskii et al., Phys Scr 83:055406, 2011), we obtained a novel expression for field momentum, which is fully compatible with the Lorentz transformation for total energy-momentum. The results obtained are discussed along with the novel expression for the electromagnetic energy-momentum tensor.
Nucleon Momentum and Spin Decompositions
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Cho, Y. M.
We construct a gauge invariant canonical momentum operator which satisfies the canonical commutation relation to resolve the old controversy on the canonical versus kinematic momentum of a charged particle in gauge theories. With this we show how to obtain the gauge independent momentum and spin decompositions of composite particles to those of the constituents in QED and QCD, which has been thought to be impossible. Moerover, we show that there are two logically acceptable nucleom momentum and spin decompositions, depending on which gluons we identify as the constituent of nucleons.
A new momentum integral method for approximating bed shear stress
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wengrove, M. E.; Foster, D. L.
2016-02-01
In nearshore environments, accurate estimation of bed stress is critical to estimate morphologic evolution, and benthic mass transfer fluxes. However, bed shear stress over mobile boundaries in wave environments is notoriously difficult to estimate due to the non-equilibrium boundary layer. Approximating the friction velocity with a traditional logarithmic velocity profile model is common, but an unsteady non-uniform flow field violates critical assumptions in equilibrium boundary layer theory. There have been several recent developments involving stress partitioning through an examination of the momentum transfer contributions that lead to improved estimates of the bed stress. For the case of single vertical profile observations, Mehdi et al. (2014) developed a full momentum integral-based method for steady-unidirectional flow that integrates the streamwise Navier-Stokes equation three times to an arbitrary position within the boundary layer. For the case of two-dimensional velocity observations, Rodriguez-Abudo and Foster (2014) were able to examine the momentum contributions from waves, turbulence and the bedform in a spatial and temporal averaging approach to the Navier-Stokes equations. In this effort, the above methods are combined to resolve the bed shear stress in both short and long wave dominated environments with a highly mobile bed. The confluence is an integral based approach for determining bed shear stress that makes no a-priori assumptions of boundary layer shape and uses just a single velocity profile time series for both the phase dependent case (under waves) and the unsteady case (under solitary waves). The developed method is applied to experimental observations obtained in a full scale laboratory investigation (Oregon State's Large Wave Flume) of the nearbed velocity field over a rippled sediment bed in oscillatory flow using both particle image velocimetry and a profiling acoustic Doppler velocimeter. This method is particularly relevant for
Flow structure at low momentum ratio river confluences
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moradi, Gelare; Rennie, Colin. D.; Cardot, Romain; Mettra, François; Lane, Stuart. N.
2017-04-01
surface at the channels margins. Numerical models, laboratory experiments and field studies have confirmed the presence of this motion. However, such studies have focused on situations where the momentum ratio is close to one and there have been fewer investigations of confluences where the momentum ratio is much less than one. This study presents field investigations in two upper Rhône river confluences in Switzerland, using an acoustic Doppler current profiler (aDcp). These two confluences are characterized by low momentum ratios but potentially higher sediment delivery ratios during extreme events. Results show that sediment delivery from the tributary during extreme events leads to the formation of a tributary mouth bar and associated bed discordance as well as a bank attached bar downstream of the tributary. In both cases, this discordant bed forms a two-layer flow and the water from the tributary penetrates into the upper part of the main river water column. This results in a mixing interface that is shifted toward the outer bank. When this mixing layer detaches from the tributary outer bank, it forms a large recirculation region in the upper part of the water column and a pronounced scour hole at this bank. The bank attached bar that forms downstream during sediment supply events leads to substantial curvature of the main channel flow, even when the flow momentum of the tributary is low and helps to shift the zone of deepest main river flow towards the outer bank.
Hydrodynamic turbulence cannot transport angular momentum effectively in astrophysical disks.
Ji, Hantao; Burin, Michael; Schartman, Ethan; Goodman, Jeremy
2006-11-16
The most efficient energy sources known in the Universe are accretion disks. Those around black holes convert 5-40 per cent of rest-mass energy to radiation. Like water circling a drain, inflowing mass must lose angular momentum, presumably by vigorous turbulence in disks, which are essentially inviscid. The origin of the turbulence is unclear. Hot disks of electrically conducting plasma can become turbulent by way of the linear magnetorotational instability. Cool disks, such as the planet-forming disks of protostars, may be too poorly ionized for the magnetorotational instability to occur, and therefore essentially unmagnetized and linearly stable. Nonlinear hydrodynamic instability often occurs in linearly stable flows (for example, pipe flows) at sufficiently large Reynolds numbers. Although planet-forming disks have extreme Reynolds numbers, keplerian rotation enhances their linear hydrodynamic stability, so the question of whether they can be turbulent and thereby transport angular momentum effectively is controversial. Here we report a laboratory experiment, demonstrating that non-magnetic quasi-keplerian flows at Reynolds numbers up to millions are essentially steady. Scaled to accretion disks, rates of angular momentum transport lie far below astrophysical requirements. By ruling out purely hydrodynamic turbulence, our results indirectly support the magnetorotational instability as the likely cause of turbulence, even in cool disks.
Coulomb wave functions in momentum space
Eremenko, V.; Upadhyay, N. J.; Thompson, I. J.; ...
2015-10-15
We present an algorithm to calculate non-relativistic partial-wave Coulomb functions in momentum space. The arguments are the Sommerfeld parameter η, the angular momentum l, the asymptotic momentum q and the 'running' momentum p, where both momenta are real. Since the partial-wave Coulomb functions exhibit singular behavior when p → q, different representations of the Legendre functions of the 2nd kind need to be implemented in computing the functions for the values of p close to the singularity and far away from it. The code for the momentum-space Coulomb wave functions is applicable for values of vertical bar eta vertical barmore » in the range of 10 -1 to 10, and thus is particularly suited for momentum space calculations of nuclear reactions.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leader, Elliot
2018-04-01
The expression for the total angular momentum carried by a laser optical vortex beam, splits, in the paraxial approximation, into two terms which seem to represent orbital and spin angular momentum respectively. There are, however, two very different competing versions of the formula for the spin angular momentum, one based on the use of the Poynting vector, as in classical electrodynamics, the other related to the canonical expression for the angular momentum which occurs in Quantum Electrodynamics. I analyze the possibility that a sufficiently sensitive optical measurement could decide which of these corresponds to the actual physical angular momentum carried by the beam.
DOE R&D Accomplishments Database
Schwinger, J.
1952-01-26
The commutation relations of an arbitrary angular momentum vector can be reduced to those of the harmonic oscillator. This provides a powerful method for constructing and developing the properties of angular momentum eigenvectors. In this paper many known theorems are derived in this way, and some new results obtained. Among the topics treated are the properties of the rotation matrices; the addition of two, three, and four angular momenta; and the theory of tensor operators.
Keeping the Momentum and Nuclear Forensics at Los Alamos National Laboratory
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Steiner, Robert Ernest; Dion, Heather M.; Dry, Donald E.
LANL has 70 years of experience in nuclear forensics and supports the community through a wide variety of efforts and leveraged capabilities: Expanding the understanding of nuclear forensics, providing training on nuclear forensics methods, and developing bilateral relationships to expand our understanding of nuclear forensic science. LANL remains highly supportive of several key organizations tasked with carrying forth the Nuclear Security Summit messages: IAEA, GICNT, and INTERPOL. Analytical chemistry measurements on plutonium and uranium matrices are critical to numerous programs including safeguards accountancy verification measurements. Los Alamos National Laboratory operates capable actinide analytical chemistry and material science laboratories suitable formore » nuclear material and environmental forensic characterization. Los Alamos National Laboratory uses numerous means to validate and independently verify that measurement data quality objectives are met. Numerous LANL nuclear facilities support the nuclear material handling, preparation, and analysis capabilities necessary to evaluate samples containing nearly any mass of an actinide (attogram to kilogram levels).« less
Demonstrating the Conservation of Angular Momentum Using Model Cars Moving along a Rotating Rod
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Abdul-Razzaq, Wathiq; Golubovic, Leonardo
2013-01-01
We have developed an exciting non-traditional experiment for our introductory physics laboratories to help students to understand the principle of conservation of angular momentum. We used electric toy cars moving along a long rotating rod. As the cars move towards the centre of the rod, the angular velocity of this system increases.…
Bias Momentum Sizing for Hovering Dual-Spin Platforms
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lim, Kyong B.; Shin, Jong-Yeob; Moerder, Daniel D.
2006-01-01
An atmospheric flight vehicle in hover is typically controlled by varying its thrust vector. Achieving both levitation and attitude control with the propulsion system places considerable demands on it for agility and precision, particularly if the vehicle is statically unstable, or nearly so. These demands can be relaxed by introducing an appropriately sized angular momentum bias aligned with the vehicle's yaw axis, thus providing an additional margin of attitude stability about the roll and pitch axes. This paper describes a methodical approach for trading off angular momentum bias level needed with desired levels of vehicle response due to the design disturbance environment given a vehicle's physical parameters. It also describes several simplifications that provide a more physical and intuitive understanding of dual-spin dynamics for hovering atmospheric vehicles. This approach also mitigates the need for control torques and inadvertent actuator saturation difficulties in trying to stabilize a vehicle via control torques produced by unsteady aerodynamics, thrust vectoring, and unsteady throttling. Simulation results, based on a subscale laboratory test flying platform, demonstrate significant improvements in the attitude control robustness of the vehicle with respect to both wind disturbances and off-center of gravity payload changes during flight.
Rindler fluid with weak momentum relaxation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khimphun, Sunly; Lee, Bum-Hoon; Park, Chanyong; Zhang, Yun-Long
2018-01-01
We realize the weak momentum relaxation in Rindler fluid, which lives on the time-like cutoff surface in an accelerating frame of flat spacetime. The translational invariance is broken by massless scalar fields with weak strength. Both of the Ward identity and the momentum relaxation rate of Rindler fluid are obtained, with higher order correction in terms of the strength of momentum relaxation. The Rindler fluid with momentum relaxation could also be approached through the near horizon limit of cutoff AdS fluid with momentum relaxation, which lives on a finite time-like cutoff surface in Anti-de Sitter(AdS) spacetime, and further could be connected with the holographic conformal fluid living on AdS boundary at infinity. Thus, in the holographic Wilson renormalization group flow of the fluid/gravity correspondence with momentum relaxation, the Rindler fluid can be considered as the Infrared Radiation(IR) fixed point, and the holographic conformal fluid plays the role of the ultraviolet(UV) fixed point.
Electromagnetic energy momentum in dispersive media
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Philbin, T. G.
2011-01-15
The standard derivations of electromagnetic energy and momentum in media take Maxwell's equations as the starting point. It is well known that for dispersive media this approach does not directly yield exact expressions for the energy and momentum densities. Although Maxwell's equations fully describe electromagnetic fields, the general approach to conserved quantities in field theory is not based on the field equations, but rather on the action. Here an action principle for macroscopic electromagnetism in dispersive, lossless media is used to derive the exact conserved energy-momentum tensor. The time-averaged energy density reduces to Brillouin's simple formula when the fields aremore » monochromatic. The time-averaged momentum density for monochromatic fields corresponds to the familiar Minkowski expression DxB, but for general fields in dispersive media the momentum density does not have the Minkowski value. The results are unaffected by the debate over momentum balance in light-matter interactions.« less
Introducing Conservation of Momentum
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brunt, Marjorie; Brunt, Geoff
2013-01-01
The teaching of the principle of conservation of linear momentum is considered (ages 15 + ). From the principle, the momenta of two masses in an isolated system are considered. Sketch graphs of the momenta make Newton's laws appear obvious. Examples using different collision conditions are considered. Conservation of momentum is considered…
Analysis techniques for momentum transport
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Scott, S.D.
1991-08-01
This report discusses the following topics on momentum analysis in tokamaks and stellarators: the momentum balance equation; deposition of torque by neutral beams; effects of toroidal rotation; and experimental observations. (LSP)
Helicon modes in uniform plasmas. III. Angular momentum
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Stenzel, R. L.; Urrutia, J. M.
Helicons are electromagnetic waves with helical phase fronts propagating in the whistler mode in magnetized plasmas and solids. They have similar properties to electromagnetic waves with angular momentum in free space. Helicons are circularly polarized waves carrying spin angular momentum and orbital angular momentum due to their propagation around the ambient magnetic field B{sub 0}. These properties have not been considered in the community of researchers working on helicon plasma sources, but are the topic of the present work. The present work focuses on the field topology of helicons in unbounded plasmas, not on helicon source physics. Helicons are excitedmore » in a large uniform laboratory plasma with a magnetic loop antenna whose dipole axis is aligned along or across B{sub 0}. The wave fields are measured in orthogonal planes and extended to three dimensions (3D) by interpolation. Since density and B{sub 0} are uniform, small amplitude waves from loops at different locations can be superimposed to generate complex antenna patterns. With a circular array of phase shifted loops, whistler modes with angular and axial wave propagation, i.e., helicons, are generated. Without boundaries radial propagation also arises. The azimuthal mode number m can be positive or negative while the field polarization remains right-hand circular. The conservation of energy and momentum implies that these field quantities are transferred to matter which causes damping or reflection. Wave-particle interactions with fast electrons are possible by Doppler shifted resonances. The transverse Doppler shift is demonstrated. Wave-wave interactions are also shown by showing collisions between different helicons. Whistler turbulence does not always have to be created by nonlinear wave-interactions but can also be a linear superposition of waves from random sources. In helicon collisions, the linear and/or orbital angular momenta can be canceled, which results in a great variety of field
Walking Through the Impulse-Momentum Theorem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haugland, Ole Anton
2013-02-01
Modern force platforms are handy tools for investigating forces during human motion. Earlier they were very expensive and were mostly used in research laboratories. But now even platforms that can measure in two directions are quite affordable. In this work we used the PASCO 2-Axis Force Platform. The analysis of the data can serve as a nice illustration of qualitative or quantitative use of the impulse-momentum theorem p - p0 = ∫t0t Fdt = I. The most common use of force platforms is to study the force from the base during the push-off period of a vertical jump. I think this is an activity of great value, and I would recommend it. The use of force platforms in teaching is well documented in research literature.1-4
Physical angular momentum separation for QED
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Weimin
2017-04-01
We study the non-uniqueness problem of the gauge-invariant angular momentum separation for the case of QED, which stems from the recent controversy concerning the proper definitions of the orbital angular momentum and spin operator of the individual parts of a gauge field system. For the free quantum electrodynamics without matter, we show that the basic requirement of Euclidean symmetry selects a unique physical angular momentum separation scheme from the multitude of the possible angular momentum separation schemes constructed using the various gauge-invariant extensions (GIEs). Based on these results, we propose a set of natural angular momentum separation schemes for the case of interacting QED by invoking the formalism of asymptotic fields. Some perspectives on such a problem for the case of QCD are briefly discussed.
Momentum harvesting techniques for solar system travel
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Willoughby, Alan J.
1991-01-01
Astronomers are lately estimating there are 400,000 earth visiting asteroids larger than 100 meters in diameter. These asteroids are uniquely accessible sources of building materials, propellants, oxygen, water, and minerals. They also constitute a huge momentum reserve, potentially usable for travel throughout the solar system. To use this momentum, these stealthy objects must be tracked and the ability to extract the desired momentum obtained. Momentum harvesting by momentum transfer from asteroid to spacecraft, and by using the momentum of the extraterrestrial material to help deliver itself to its destination is discussed. The purpose is neither to quantify nor justify the momentum exchange processes, but to stimulate collective imaginations with some intriguing possibilities which emerge when momentum as well as material is considered. A net and tether concept is the suggested means of asteroid capture, the basic momentum exchange process. The energy damping characteristics of the tether determines the velocity mismatch that can be tolerated, and hence the amount of momentum that can be harvested per capture. As the tether plays out of its reel, drag on the tether steadily accelerates the spacecraft and dilutes, in time, the would-be collision. A variety of concepts for riding and using asteroids after capture are introduced. The hitchhiker uses momentum transfer only. The beachcomber, the caveman, the swinger, the prospector, and the rock wrecker also take advantage of raw asteroid materials. The chemist and the hijacker go further, they process the asteroid into propellants. Or, an asteroid railway system could be constructed with each hijacked asteroid becoming a scheduled train. Travelers could board this space railway system assured that water, oxygen propellants, and shielding await them. Austere space travel could give way to comforts, with a speed and economy impossible without nature's gift of earth visiting asteroids.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Riley, M. A.; Simpson, J.; Paul, E. S.
2016-12-01
In 1974 Aage Bohr and Ben Mottelson predicted the different ‘phases’ that may be expected in deformed nuclei as a function of increasing angular momentum and excitation energy all the way up to the fission limit. While admitting their picture was highly conjectural they confidently stated ‘...with the ingenious experimental approaches that are being developed, we may look forward with excitement to the detailed spectroscopic studies that will illuminate the behaviour of the spinning quantised nucleus’. High resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy has indeed been a major tool in studying the structure of atomic nuclei and has witnessed numerous significant advances over the last four decades. This article will select highlights from investigations at the Niels Bohr Institute, Denmark, and Daresbury Laboratory, UK, in the late 1970s and early 1980s, some of which have continued at other national laboratories in Europe and the USA to the present day. These studies illustrate the remarkable diversity of phenomena and symmetries exhibited by nuclei in the angular momentum-excitation energy plane that continue to surprise and fascinate scientists.
Universal spin-momentum locked optical forces
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Kalhor, Farid; Thundat, Thomas; Jacob, Zubin, E-mail: zjacob@purdue.edu
2016-02-08
Evanescent electromagnetic waves possess spin-momentum locking, where the direction of propagation (momentum) is locked to the inherent polarization of the wave (transverse spin). We study the optical forces arising from this universal phenomenon and show that the fundamental origin of recently reported non-trivial optical chiral forces is spin-momentum locking. For evanescent waves, we show that the direction of energy flow, the direction of decay, and the direction of spin follow a right hand rule for three different cases of total internal reflection, surface plasmon polaritons, and HE{sub 11} mode of an optical fiber. Furthermore, we explain how the recently reportedmore » phenomena of lateral optical force on chiral and achiral particles are caused by the transverse spin of the evanescent field and the spin-momentum locking phenomenon. Finally, we propose an experiment to identify the unique lateral forces arising from the transverse spin in the optical fiber and point to fundamental differences of the spin density from the well-known orbital angular momentum of light. Our work presents a unified view on spin-momentum locking and how it affects optical forces on chiral and achiral particles.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kakehashi, Yoshiro; Chandra, Sumal
2016-04-01
We have developed a first-principles local ansatz wavefunction approach with momentum-dependent variational parameters on the basis of the tight-binding LDA+U Hamiltonian. The theory goes beyond the first-principles Gutzwiller approach and quantitatively describes correlated electron systems. Using the theory, we find that the momentum distribution function (MDF) bands of paramagnetic bcc Fe along high-symmetry lines show a large deviation from the Fermi-Dirac function for the d electrons with eg symmetry and yield the momentum-dependent mass enhancement factors. The calculated average mass enhancement m*/m = 1.65 is consistent with low-temperature specific heat data as well as recent angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) data.
Population momentum across vertebrate life histories
Koons, D.N.; Grand, J.B.; Arnold, J.M.
2006-01-01
Population abundance is critically important in conservation, management, and demographic theory. Thus, to better understand how perturbations to the life history affect long-term population size, we examined population momentum for four vertebrate classes with different life history strategies. In a series of demographic experiments we show that population momentum generally has a larger effect on long-term population size for organisms with long generation times than for organisms with short generation times. However, patterns between population momentum and generation time varied across taxonomic groups and according to the life history parameter that was changed. Our findings indicate that momentum may be an especially important aspect of population dynamics for long-lived vertebrates, and deserves greater attention in life history studies. Further, we discuss the importance of population momentum in natural resource management, pest control, and conservation arenas. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Momentum harvesting techniques for solar system travel
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Willoughby, Alan J.
1990-01-01
Astronomers are lately estimating there are 400,000 Earth visiting asteroids larger than 100 meters in diameter. These asteroids are accessible sources of building materials, propellants, oxygen, water, and minerals which also constitute a huge momentum reserve, potentially usable for travel throughout the solar system. To use this momentum, these stealthy objects must be tracked and the extraction of the momentum wanted must be learned. Momentum harvesting by momentum transfer from asteroid to spacecraft, and by using the momentum of the extraterrestrial material to help deliver itself to the destination are discussed. A net and tether concept is the suggested means of asteroid capture, the basic momentum exchange process. The energy damping characteristics of the tether will determine the velocity mismatch that can be tolerated, and hence the amount of momentum that can be harvested per capture. As it plays out of its reel, drag on the tether steadily accelerates the spacecraft. A variety of concepts for riding and using the asteroid after capture are discussed. The hitchhiker uses momentum transfer only. The beachcomber, the caveman, the swinger, the prospector, and the rock wrecker also take advantage of raw asteroidal materials. The chemist and the hijacker go further, they process the asteroid into propellant. Or, an 'asteroid railway system' could evolve with each hijacked asteroid becoming a scheduled train. Travelers could board the space railway system assured that water, oxygen, and propellants await them.
Hidden momentum of electrons, nuclei, atoms, and molecules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cameron, Robert P.; Cotter, J. P.
2018-04-01
We consider the positions and velocities of electrons and spinning nuclei and demonstrate that these particles harbour hidden momentum when located in an electromagnetic field. This hidden momentum is present in all atoms and molecules, however it is ultimately canceled by the momentum of the electromagnetic field. We point out that an electron vortex in an electric field might harbour a comparatively large hidden momentum and recognize the phenomenon of hidden hidden momentum.
Four-dimensional positron age-momentum correlation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ackermann, Ulrich; Löwe, Benjamin; Dickmann, Marcel; Mitteneder, Johannes; Sperr, Peter; Egger, Werner; Reiner, Markus; Dollinger, Günther
2016-11-01
We have performed first four-dimensional age-momentum correlation (4D-AMOC) measurements at a pulsed high intensity positron micro beam and determined the absolute value of the three-dimensional momentum of the electrons annihilating with the positrons in coincidence with the positron age in the sample material. We operated two position sensitive detectors in coincidence to measure the annihilation radiation: a pixelated HPGe-detector and a microchannel plate image intensifier with a CeBr3 scintillator pixel array. The transversal momentum resolution of the 4D-AMOC setup was measured to be about 17 × 10-3 {m}0c (FWHM) and was circa 3.5 times larger than the longitudinal momentum resolution. The total time resolution was 540 ps (FWHM). We measured two samples: a gold foil and a carbon tape at a positron implantation energy of 2 keV. For each sample discrete electron momentum states and their respective positron lifetimes were extracted.
Apparatus for Investigating Momentum and Energy Conservation With MBL and Video Analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
George, Elizabeth; Vazquez-Abad, Jesus
1998-04-01
We describe the development and use of a laboratory setup that is appropriate for computer-aided student investigation of the principles of conservation of momentum and mechanical energy in collisions. The setup consists of two colliding carts on a low-friction track, with one of the carts (the target) attached to a spring, whose extension or compression takes the place of the pendulum's rise in the traditional ballistic pendulum apparatus. Position vs. time data for each cart are acquired either by using two motion sensors or by digitizing images obtained with a video camera. This setup allows students to examine the time history of momentum and mechanical energy during the entire collision process, rather than simply focusing on the before and after regions. We believe that this setup is suitable for helping students gain understanding as the processes involved are simple to follow visually, to manipulate, and to analyze.
Intrinsic Angular Momentum of Light.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Santarelli, Vincent
1979-01-01
Derives a familiar torque-angular momentum theorem for the electromagnetic field, and includes the intrinsic torques exerted by the fields on the polarized medium. This inclusion leads to the expressions for the intrinsic angular momentum carried by the radiation traveling through a charge-free medium. (Author/MA)
Momentum and Energy Assessments with NASA and Other Model and Data Assimilation Systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Salstein, David; Nelson, Peter; Hu, Wen-Jie
2001-01-01
Support from the NASA Global Modeling and Analysis Program has been used for the following research objectives: 1) the study of aspects of dynamics of torques and angular momentum based on the Goddard GEOS and other analyses; 2) the study of how models participating in the second Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP-2) have success in simulating certain large-scale quantities; 3) the study of the energetics and momentum cycle from certain runs from the Goddard Laboratory for Atmospheres and other models as well; 4) the assessment of changes in diabatic heating and related energetics in the community climate model (CCM3); 5) the analysis of modes of climate of the atmosphere, especially the Arctic and North Atlantic Oscillations. Further information on these endeavors will be provided in published works and the Final Report of the project.
The light-front gauge-invariant energy-momentum tensor
Lorce, Cedric
2015-08-11
In this study, we provide for the first time a complete parametrization for the matrix elements of the generic asymmetric, non-local and gauge-invariant canonical energy-momentum tensor, generalizing therefore former works on the symmetric, local and gauge-invariant kinetic energy-momentum tensor also known as the Belinfante-Rosenfeld energy-momentum tensor. We discuss in detail the various constraints imposed by non-locality, linear and angular momentum conservation. We also derive the relations with two-parton generalized and transverse-momentum dependent distributions, clarifying what can be learned from the latter. In particular, we show explicitly that two-parton transverse-momentum dependent distributions cannot provide any model-independent information about the parton orbitalmore » angular momentum. On the way, we recover the Burkardt sum rule and obtain similar new sum rules for higher-twist distributions.« less
Momentum sharing in imbalanced Fermi systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hen, O.; Sargsian, M.; Weinstein, L. B.; Piasetzky, E.; Hakobyan, H.; Higinbotham, D. W.; Braverman, M.; Brooks, W. K.; Gilad, S.; Adhikari, K. P.; Arrington, J.; Asryan, G.; Avakian, H.; Ball, J.; Baltzell, N. A.; Battaglieri, M.; Beck, A.; Beck, S. May-Tal; Bedlinskiy, I.; Bertozzi, W.; Biselli, A.; Burkert, V. D.; Cao, T.; Carman, D. S.; Celentano, A.; Chandavar, S.; Colaneri, L.; Cole, P. L.; Crede, V.; D'Angelo, A.; De Vita, R.; Deur, A.; Djalali, C.; Doughty, D.; Dugger, M.; Dupre, R.; Egiyan, H.; El Alaoui, A.; El Fassi, L.; Elouadrhiri, L.; Fedotov, G.; Fegan, S.; Forest, T.; Garillon, B.; Garcon, M.; Gevorgyan, N.; Ghandilyan, Y.; Gilfoyle, G. P.; Girod, F. X.; Goetz, J. T.; Gothe, R. W.; Griffioen, K. A.; Guidal, M.; Guo, L.; Hafidi, K.; Hanretty, C.; Hattawy, M.; Hicks, K.; Holtrop, M.; Hyde, C. E.; Ilieva, Y.; Ireland, D. G.; Ishkanov, B. I.; Isupov, E. L.; Jiang, H.; Jo, H. S.; Joo, K.; Keller, D.; Khandaker, M.; Kim, A.; Kim, W.; Klein, F. J.; Koirala, S.; Korover, I.; Kuhn, S. E.; Kubarovsky, V.; Lenisa, P.; Levine, W. I.; Livingston, K.; Lowry, M.; Lu, H. Y.; MacGregor, I. J. D.; Markov, N.; Mayer, M.; McKinnon, B.; Mineeva, T.; Mokeev, V.; Movsisyan, A.; Camacho, C. Munoz; Mustapha, B.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Niccolai, S.; Niculescu, G.; Niculescu, I.; Osipenko, M.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Paremuzyan, R.; Park, K.; Pasyuk, E.; Phelps, W.; Pisano, S.; Pogorelko, O.; Price, J. W.; Procureur, S.; Prok, Y.; Protopopescu, D.; Puckett, A. J. R.; Rimal, D.; Ripani, M.; Ritchie, B. G.; Rizzo, A.; Rosner, G.; Roy, P.; Rossi, P.; Sabatié, F.; Schott, D.; Schumacher, R. A.; Sharabian, Y. G.; Smith, G. D.; Shneor, R.; Sokhan, D.; Stepanyan, S. S.; Stepanyan, S.; Stoler, P.; Strauch, S.; Sytnik, V.; Taiuti, M.; Tkachenko, S.; Ungaro, M.; Vlassov, A. V.; Voutier, E.; Walford, N. K.; Wei, X.; Wood, M. H.; Wood, S. A.; Zachariou, N.; Zana, L.; Zhao, Z. W.; Zheng, X.; Zonta, I.; aff16
2014-10-01
The atomic nucleus is composed of two different kinds of fermions: protons and neutrons. If the protons and neutrons did not interact, the Pauli exclusion principle would force the majority of fermions (usually neutrons) to have a higher average momentum. Our high-energy electron-scattering measurements using 12C, 27Al, 56Fe, and 208Pb targets show that even in heavy, neutron-rich nuclei, short-range interactions between the fermions form correlated high-momentum neutron-proton pairs. Thus, in neutron-rich nuclei, protons have a greater probability than neutrons to have momentum greater than the Fermi momentum. This finding has implications ranging from nuclear few-body systems to neutron stars and may also be observable experimentally in two-spin-state, ultracold atomic gas systems.
Photon-momentum transfer in molecular photoionization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chelkowski, Szczepan; Bandrauk, André D.
2018-05-01
In most models and theoretical calculations describing multiphoton ionization by infrared light, the dipole approximation is used. This is equivalent to setting the very small photon momentum to zero. Using numerical solutions of the (nondipole) three-dimensional time-dependent Schrödinger equation for one electron in a H2+ molecular ion we investigate the effect the photon-momentum transfer to the photoelectron in an H2+ ion in various regimes. We find that the photon-momentum transfer in a molecule is very different from the transfer in atoms due to two-center interference effects. The photon-momentum transfer is very sensitive to the symmetry of the initial electronic state and is strongly dependent on the internuclear distance and on the ellipticity of the laser.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brevik, Iver
2017-02-01
A discussion is given on the interpretation and physical importance of the Minkowski momentum in macroscopic electrodynamics (essential for the Abraham-Minkowski problem). We focus on the following two facets: (1) Adopting a simple dielectric model where the refractive index n is constant, we demonstrate by means of a mapping procedure how the electromagnetic field in a medium can be mapped into a corresponding field in vacuum. This mapping was presented many years ago (Brevik and Lautrup, 1970), but is apparently not well known. A characteristic property of this procedure is that it shows how naturally the Minkowski energy-momentum tensor fits into the canonical formalism. Especially the spacelike character of the electromagnetic total four-momentum for a radiation field (implying negative electromagnetic energy in some inertial frames), so strikingly demonstrated in the Cherenkov effect, is worth attention. (2) Our second objective is to give a critical analysis of some recent experiments on electromagnetic momentum. Care must here be taken in the interpretations: it is easy to be misled and conclude that an experiment is important for the energy-momentum problem, while what is demonstrated experimentally is merely the action of the Abraham-Minkowski force acting in surface layers or inhomogeneous regions. The Abraham-Minkowski force is common for the two energy-momentum tensors and carries no information about field momentum. As a final item, we propose an experiment that might show the existence of the Abraham force at high frequencies. This would eventually be a welcome optical analogue to the classic low-frequency 1975 Lahoz-Walker experiment.
Distributed control using linear momentum exchange devices
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sharkey, J. P.; Waites, Henry; Doane, G. B., III
1987-01-01
MSFC has successfully employed the use of the Vibrational Control of Space Structures (VCOSS) Linear Momentum Exchange Devices (LMEDs), which was an outgrowth of the Air Force Wright Aeronautical Laboratory (AFWAL) program, in a distributed control experiment. The control experiment was conducted in MSFC's Ground Facility for Large Space Structures Control Verification (GF/LSSCV). The GF/LSSCV's test article was well suited for this experiment in that the LMED could be judiciously placed on the ASTROMAST. The LMED placements were such that vibrational mode information could be extracted from the accelerometers on the LMED. The LMED accelerometer information was processed by the control algorithms so that the LMED masses could be accelerated to produce forces which would dampen the vibrational modes of interest. Experimental results are presented showing the LMED's capabilities.
Momentum and Angular Momentum Transfer in Oblique Impacts: Implications for Asteroid Rotations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yanagisawa, Masahisa; Hasegawa, Sunao; Shirogane, Nobutoshi
1996-09-01
We conducted a series of high velocity oblique impact experiments (0.66-6.7 km/s) using polycarbonate (plastic) projectiles and targets made of mortar, aluminum alloy, and mild steel. We then calculated the efficiencies of momentum transfer for small cratering impacts. They are η = (M‧Vn‧)/(mvn) and ζ = (M‧Vt‧)/(mvt), wheremandvare the mass and velocity of a projectile, andM‧ andV‧ represent those of a postimpact target. Subscripts “n” and “t” denote the components normal and tangential to the target surface at the impact point, respectively. The main findings are: (1) η increases with increasing impact velocity; (2) η is larger for mortar than for ductile metallic targets; (3) ζ for mortar targets seems to increase with the impact velocity in the velocity range less than about 2 km/s and decrease with it in the higher velocity range; (4) ζ for the aluminum alloy targets correlates negatively with incident zenith angle of the projectile. In addition to these findings on the momentum transfer, we show theoretically that “ζL” can be expressed by η and ζ for small cratering impact. Here, ζLis the spin angular momentum that the target acquires at impact divided by the collisional angular momentum due to the projectile. This is an important parameter to study the collisional evolution of asteroid rotation. For a spherical target, ζLis shown to be well approximated by ζ.
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Kuritsyn, A.; Fiksel, G.; Almagri, A. F.
2009-05-15
In this paper measurements of momentum and current transport caused by current driven tearing instability are reported. The measurements are done in the Madison Symmetric Torus reversed-field pinch [R. N. Dexter, D. W. Kerst, T. W. Lovell, S. C. Prager, and J. C. Sprott, Fusion Technol. 19, 131 (1991)] in a regime with repetitive bursts of tearing instability causing magnetic field reconnection. It is established that the plasma parallel momentum profile flattens during these reconnection events: The flow decreases in the core and increases at the edge. The momentum relaxation phenomenon is similar in nature to the well established relaxationmore » of the parallel electrical current and could be a general feature of self-organized systems. The measured fluctuation-induced Maxwell and Reynolds stresses, which govern the dynamics of plasma flow, are large and almost balance each other such that their difference is approximately equal to the rate of change of plasma momentum. The Hall dynamo, which is directly related to the Maxwell stress, drives the parallel current profile relaxation at resonant surfaces at the reconnection events. These results qualitatively agree with analytical calculations and numerical simulations. It is plausible that current-driven instabilities can be responsible for momentum transport in other laboratory and astrophysical plasmas.« less
Variations in atmospheric angular momentum
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rosen, R. D.; Salstein, D. A.
1981-01-01
Twice-daily values of the atmosphere's angular momentum about the polar axis during the five years from 1976 through 1980 are presented in graphs and a table. The compilation is based on a global data set, incorporating 90 percent of the mass of the atmosphere. The relationship between changes in the angular momentum of the atmosphere and changes in the length of day is described, as are the main sources of error in the data. The variability in angular momentum is revealed in a preliminary fashion by means of a spectral decomposition. The data presented should stimulate comparisons with other measures of the length of day and so provide a basis for greater understanding of Earth-atmosphere interactions.
Momentum sharing in imbalanced Fermi systems
Hen, O.; Sargsian, M.; Weinstein, L. B.; ...
2014-10-16
The atomic nucleus is composed of two different kinds of fermions, protons and neutrons. If the protons and neutrons did not interact, the Pauli exclusion principle would force the majority fermions (usually neutrons) to have a higher average momentum. Our high-energy electron scattering measurements using 12C, 27Al, 56Fe and 208Pb targets show that, even in heavy neutron-rich nuclei, short-range interactions between the fermions form correlated high-momentum neutron-proton pairs. Thus, in neutron-rich nuclei, protons have a greater probability than neutrons to have momentum greater than the Fermi momentum. This finding has implications ranging from nuclear few body systems to neutron starsmore » and may also be observable experimentally in two-spin state, ultra-cold atomic gas systems.« less
Momentum Management Tool for Low-Thrust Missions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Swenka, Edward R.; Smith, Brett A.; Vanelli, Charles A.
2010-01-01
A momentum management tool was designed for the Dawn low-thrust interplanetary spacecraft en route to the asteroids Vesta and Ceres, in an effort to better understand the early creation of the solar system. Momentum must be managed to ensure the spacecraft has enough control authority to perform necessary turns and hold a fixed inertial attitude against external torques. Along with torques from solar pressure and gravity-gradients, ion-propulsion engines produce a torque about the thrust axis that must be countered by the four reaction wheel assemblies (RWA). MomProf is a ground operations tool built to address these concerns. The momentum management tool was developed during initial checkout and early cruise, and has been refined to accommodate a wide range of momentum-management issues. With every activity or sequence, wheel speeds and momentum state must be checked to avoid undesirable conditions and use of consumables. MomProf was developed to operate in the MATLAB environment. All data are loaded into MATLAB as a structure to provide consistent access to all inputs by individual functions within the tool. Used in its most basic application, the Dawn momentum tool uses the basic principle of angular momentum conservation, computing momentum in the body frame, and RWA wheel speeds, for all given orientations in the input file. MomProf was designed specifically to be able to handle the changing external torques and frequent de - saturations. Incorporating significant external torques adds complexity since there are various external torques that act under different operational modes.
Zapotec Simulations of Momentum Transfer for Impacts into Thin Aluminum Targets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Helminiak, Nathaniel; Sable, Peter; Gullerud, Arne; Hollenshead, Jeromy; Hertel, Gene
2017-06-01
The momentum transfers between small, 3.2 mm, aluminum spheres into thin aluminum targets was characterized utilizing the numerical solver, Zapotec, which couples the CTH hydrocode and a transient finite elements code, Sierra/SM. The results are compared to experimental work, conducted at the NASA Ames Research Center. Square 15 × 15cm2 aluminum targets ranged in thickness from 5 to 48.2 mm were impacted at a range of velocities from 1 to 9 km/s. From these tests, the components of spray and ejecta momentum, along the axis of impact, normal to the plate surface, were measured. Variations of hole diameter and target mass loss, with respect to initial projectile velocity, were also recorded. The data presented covers a range of phases corresponding to impact behavior ranging from inelastic collision, through spalling behavior, and ending with complete penetration. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory, operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.
Autonomous momentum management for space station
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hahn, E.
1984-01-01
Momentum management for the CDG planar space platform is discussed. It is assumed that the external torques on the space station are gravity gradient and aerodynamic, both have bias and cyclic terms. The integrals of the cyclic torques are the cyclic momenti which will be stored in the momentum storage actuator. Techniques to counteract the bias torques and center the cyclic momentum and gravity gradient desaturation by adjusting vehicle attitude, aerodynamic desaturation using solar panels and radiators and the deployment of flat plates at the end of long booms generating aerodynamic torques are investigated.
Transverse angular momentum in topological photonic crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deng, Wei-Min; Chen, Xiao-Dong; Zhao, Fu-Li; Dong, Jian-Wen
2018-01-01
Engineering local angular momentum of structured light fields in real space enables applications in many fields, in particular, the realization of unidirectional robust transport in topological photonic crystals with a non-trivial Berry vortex in momentum space. Here, we show transverse angular momentum modes in silicon topological photonic crystals when considering transverse electric polarization. Excited by a chiral external source with either transverse spin angular momentum or transverse phase vortex, robust light flow propagating along opposite directions is observed in several kinds of sharp-turn interfaces between two topologically-distinct silicon photonic crystals. A transverse orbital angular momentum mode with alternating phase vortex exists at the boundary of two such photonic crystals. In addition, unidirectional transport is robust to the working frequency even when the ring size or location of the pseudo-spin source varies in a certain range, leading to the superiority of the broadband photonic device. These findings enable one to make use of transverse angular momentum, a kind of degree of freedom, to achieve unidirectional robust transport in the telecom region and other potential applications in integrated photonic circuits, such as on-chip robust delay lines.
Momentum kill procedure can quickly control blowouts
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Watson, W.D.; Moore, P.
1993-08-30
The momentum kill method can help in quickly regaining control of a blowing well, providing the blowing well rate and fluid properties can be estimated reasonably. The momentum of the kill fluid counteracts and overcomes the flowing momentum of formation fluids. In other words, sufficient mud density pumped at a sufficient rate is directed into the flow stream to force the escaping fluid column back into the well bore. Sufficient kill fluid hydrostatic pressure must be stacked'' in the hole so that the well remains dead after the operation. The momentum kill is not a panacea for all blowouts. Anmore » assessment must be made of the potential problems unique to this method, and certain requirements must be met if the technique is to be successful. The paper discusses some of the considerations for evaluating the use of the momentum kill method.« less
Gas Accretion and Angular Momentum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stewart, Kyle R.
In this chapter, we review the role of gas accretion to the acquisition of angular momentum, both in galaxies and in their gaseous halos. We begin by discussing angular momentum in dark matter halos, with a brief review of tidal torque theory and the importance of mergers, followed by a discussion of the canonical picture of galaxy formation within this framework, where halo gas is presumed to shock-eat to the virial temperature of the halo, following the same spin distribution as the dark matter halo before cooling to the center of the halo to form a galaxy there. In the context of recent observational evidence demonstrating the presence of high angular momentum gas in galaxy halos, we review recent cosmological hydrodynamic simulations that have begun to emphasize the role of "cold flow" accretion—anisotropic gas accretion along cosmic filaments that does not shock-heat before sinking to the central galaxy. We discuss the implications of these simulations, reviewing a number of recent developments in the literature, and suggest a revision to the canonical model as it relates to the expected angular momentum content of gaseous halos around galaxies.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koma, Y.
The derivative of the topological susceptibility at zero momentum is responsible for the validity of the Witten-Veneziano formula for the η mass, and also for the resolution of the EMC pro- ton spin problem. We investigate the momentum dependence of the topological susceptibility and its derivative at zero momentum using lattice QCD simulations with overlap fermions within quenched approximation. We expose the role of the low-lying Dirac eigenmodes for the topolog- ical charge density, and find the negative value for the derivative. While the sign of the derivative is consistent with the QCD sum rule in pure Yang-Mills theory, the absolute value becomes larger if only the contribution from the zero modes and the low-lying eigenmodes is taken into account.
Momentum transport at the Mars magnetopause
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Perez-de-Tejada, H.
1991-07-01
The conditions leading to the transport of momentum of the shocked solarwind to the Mars magnetosphere are examined. It is argued that planetary pickup ions born in the magnetosheath and scattered across the magnetopause by local turbulent waves carry that momentum and deliver it to the magnetospheric plasma. It is further suggested that as the pickup ions experience momentum scattering interactions with the wave field in the velocity shear adjacent to the magnetosphere they are subject to a gradual internment within that region of space. The end effect of this phenomenon is that the pickup ions deliver a larger amountmore » of momentum to the local flow than what they can subtract from it. Calculations of the efficiency of the process lead to values of the effective mean free path of the pickup ions of the order of a few hundred kilometers.« less
Enhanced momentum feedback from clustered supernovae
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gentry, Eric S.; Krumholz, Mark R.; Dekel, Avishai; Madau, Piero
2017-02-01
Young stars typically form in star clusters, so the supernovae (SNe) they produce are clustered in space and time. This clustering of SNe may alter the momentum per SN deposited in the interstellar medium (ISM) by affecting the local ISM density, which in turn affects the cooling rate. We study the effect of multiple SNe using idealized 1D hydrodynamic simulations which explore a large parameter space of the number of SNe, and the background gas density and metallicity. The results are provided as a table and an analytic fitting formula. We find that for clusters with up to ˜100 SNe, the asymptotic momentum scales superlinearly with the number of SNe, resulting in a momentum per SN which can be an order of magnitude larger than for a single SN, with a maximum efficiency for clusters with 10-100 SNe. We argue that additional physical processes not included in our simulations - self-gravity, breakout from a galactic disc, and galactic shear - can slightly reduce the momentum enhancement from clustering, but the average momentum per SN still remains a factor of 4 larger than the isolated SN value when averaged over a realistic cluster mass function for a star-forming galaxy. We conclude with a discussion of the possible role of mixing between hot and cold gas, induced by multidimensional instabilities or pre-existing density variations, as a limiting factor in the build-up of momentum by clustered SNe, and suggest future numerical experiments to explore these effects.
Momentum Maps and Stochastic Clebsch Action Principles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cruzeiro, Ana Bela; Holm, Darryl D.; Ratiu, Tudor S.
2018-01-01
We derive stochastic differential equations whose solutions follow the flow of a stochastic nonlinear Lie algebra operation on a configuration manifold. For this purpose, we develop a stochastic Clebsch action principle, in which the noise couples to the phase space variables through a momentum map. This special coupling simplifies the structure of the resulting stochastic Hamilton equations for the momentum map. In particular, these stochastic Hamilton equations collectivize for Hamiltonians that depend only on the momentum map variable. The Stratonovich equations are derived from the Clebsch variational principle and then converted into Itô form. In comparing the Stratonovich and Itô forms of the stochastic dynamical equations governing the components of the momentum map, we find that the Itô contraction term turns out to be a double Poisson bracket. Finally, we present the stochastic Hamiltonian formulation of the collectivized momentum map dynamics and derive the corresponding Kolmogorov forward and backward equations.
A compact magnetic bearing for gimballed momentum wheel
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yabu-Uchi, K.; Inoue, M.; Akishita, S.; Murakami, C.; Okamoto, O.
1983-01-01
A three axis controlled magnetic bearing and its application to a momentum wheel are described. The four divided stators provide a momentum wheel with high reliability, low weight, large angular momentum storage capacity, and gimbal control. Those characteristics are desirable for spacecraft attitude control.
Momentum management strategy during Space Station buildup
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bishop, Lynda; Malchow, Harvey; Hattis, Philip
1988-01-01
The use of momentum storage devices to control effectors for Space Station attitude control throughout the buildup sequence is discussed. Particular attention is given to the problem of providing satisfactory management of momentum storage effectors throughout buildup while experiencing variable torque loading. Continuous and discrete control strategies are compared and the effects of alternative control moment gyro strategies on peak momentum storage requirements and on commanded maneuver characteristics are described.
Whole-body angular momentum during stair ascent and descent.
Silverman, Anne K; Neptune, Richard R; Sinitski, Emily H; Wilken, Jason M
2014-04-01
The generation of whole-body angular momentum is essential in many locomotor tasks and must be regulated in order to maintain dynamic balance. However, angular momentum has not been investigated during stair walking, which is an activity that presents a biomechanical challenge for balance-impaired populations. We investigated three-dimensional whole-body angular momentum during stair ascent and descent and compared it to level walking. Three-dimensional body-segment kinematic and ground reaction force (GRF) data were collected from 30 healthy subjects. Angular momentum was calculated using a 13-segment whole-body model. GRFs, external moment arms and net joint moments were used to interpret the angular momentum results. The range of frontal plane angular momentum was greater for stair ascent relative to level walking. In the transverse and sagittal planes, the range of angular momentum was smaller in stair ascent and descent relative to level walking. Significant differences were also found in the ground reaction forces, external moment arms and net joint moments. The sagittal plane angular momentum results suggest that individuals alter angular momentum to effectively counteract potential trips during stair ascent, and reduce the range of angular momentum to avoid falling forward during stair descent. Further, significant differences in joint moments suggest potential neuromuscular mechanisms that account for the differences in angular momentum between walking conditions. These results provide a baseline for comparison to impaired populations that have difficulty maintaining dynamic balance, particularly during stair ascent and descent. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Momentum signatures of the Anderson transition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sanjib, Ghosh
This thesis explores for possible signatures of Anderson localization and the Anderson metal-insulator transition (MIT) in momentum space. We find that an initial plane-wave propagating in a disordered medium exhibits a diffusive background and two interference peaks, the coherent backscattering (CBS) and the coherent forward scattering (CFS) peaks in the momentum distribution. We show, the signatures of Anderson localization and the Anderson transition are encoded in the dynamical properties of the two interference peaks, CBS and CFS. We develop finite-time scaling theory for the angular width of the CBS peak and in the height of the CFS peak. We demonstrate how to extract properties like critical exponent, the mobility edge and signatures of multifractality from this finite-time analysis. These momentum space signatures of the Anderson transition are novel and they promise to be experimental observables for wide range of systems, from cold atoms to classical waves or any wave systems where the momentum distribution is accessible.
Force, torque, linear momentum, and angular momentum in classical electr odynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mansuripur, Masud
2017-10-01
The classical theory of electrodynamics is built upon Maxwell's equations and the concepts of electromagnetic (EM) field, force, energy, and momentum, which are intimately tied together by Poynting's theorem and by the Lorentz force law. Whereas Maxwell's equations relate the fields to their material sources, Poynting's theorem governs the flow of EM energy and its exchange between fields and material media, while the Lorentz law regulates the back-and-forth transfer of momentum between the media and the fields. An alternative force law, first proposed by Einstein and Laub, exists that is consistent with Maxwell's equations and complies with the conservation laws as well as with the requirements of special relativity. While the Lorentz law requires the introduction of hidden energy and hidden momentum in situations where an electric field acts on a magnetized medium, the Einstein-Laub (E-L) formulation of EM force and torque does not invoke hidden entities under such circumstances. Moreover, total force/torque exerted by EM fields on any given object turns out to be independent of whether the density of force/torque is evaluated using the law of Lorentz or that of Einstein and Laub. Hidden entities aside, the two formulations differ only in their predicted force and torque distributions inside matter. Such differences in distribution are occasionally measurable, and could serve as a guide in deciding which formulation, if either, corresponds to physical reality.
Momentum considerations on the New MEXICO experiment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Parra, E. A.; Boorsma, K.; Schepers, J. G.; Snel, H.
2016-09-01
The present paper regards axial and angular momentum considerations combining detailed loads from pressure sensors and the flow field mapped with particle image velocimetry (PIV) techniques. For this end, the study implements important results leaning on experimental data from wind tunnel measurements of the New MEXICO project. The measurements, taken on a fully instrumented rotor, were carried out in the German Dutch Wind tunnel Organisation (DNW) testing the MEXICO rotor in the open section. The work revisits the so-called momentum theory, showing that the integral thrust and torque measured on the rotor correspond with an extent of 0.7 and 2.4% respectively to the momentum balance of the global flow field using the general momentum equations. Likewise, the sectional forces combined with the local induced velocities are found to plausibly obey the annular streamtube theory, albeit some limitations in the axial momentum become more apparent at high inductions after a=0.3. Finally, azimuth induced velocities are measured and compared to predictions from models of Glauert and Burton et al., showing close-matching forecasts for blade spans above 25%.
Energy and Momentum Transport in String Waves
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Juenker, D. W.
1976-01-01
Formulas are derived for the energy, momentum, and angular momentum transmitted by waves of arbitrary shape in an inextensible string by pure transverse waves in a string using Tait's procedure. (Author/CP)
Identified hadron transverse momentum spectra in Au+Au collisions at sNN=62.4 GeV
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Ballintijn, M.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Chai, Z.; Decowski, M. P.; García, E.; Gburek, T.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Hauer, M.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Hołyński, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Khan, N.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Reed, C.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Sagerer, J.; Seals, H.; Sedykh, I.; Smith, C. E.; Stankiewicz, M. A.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Sukhanov, A.; Tonjes, M. B.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; Nieuwenhuizen, G. J. Van; Vaurynovich, S. S.; Verdier, R.; Veres, G. I.; Wenger, E.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Woźniak, K.; Wysłouch, B.
2007-02-01
Transverse momentum spectra of pions, kaons, protons, and antiprotons from Au+Au collisions at sNN = 62.4 GeV have been measured by the PHOBOS experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The identification of particles relies on three different methods: low momentum particles stopping in the first detector layers; the specific energy loss (dE/dx) in the silicon spectrometer, and time-of-flight measurement. These methods cover the transverse momentum ranges 0.03 0.2, 0.2 1.0, and 0.5 3.0 GeV/c, respectively. Baryons are found to have substantially harder transverse momentum spectra than mesons. The pT region in which the proton to pion ratio reaches unity in central Au+Au collisions at sNN = 62.4 GeV fits into a smooth trend as a function of collision energy. At low transverse mass, the spectra of various species exhibit a significant deviation from transverse mass scaling. The observed particle yields at very low pT are comparable to extrapolations from higher pT for kaons, protons and antiprotons. By comparing our results to Au+Au collisions at sNN = 200 GeV, we conclude that the net proton yield at midrapidity is proportional to the number of participant nucleons in the collision.
Stern-Gerlach-like approach to electron orbital angular momentum measurement
Harvey, Tyler R.; Grillo, Vincenzo; McMorran, Benjamin J.
2017-02-28
Many methods now exist to prepare free electrons into orbital-angular-momentum states, and the predicted applications of these electron states as probes of materials and scattering processes are numerous. The development of electron orbital-angular-momentum measurement techniques has lagged behind. We show that coupling between electron orbital angular momentum and a spatially varying magnetic field produces an angular-momentum-dependent focusing effect. We propose a design for an orbital-angular-momentum measurement device built on this principle. As the method of measurement is noninterferometric, the device works equally well for mixed, superposed, and pure final orbital-angular-momentum states. The energy and orbital-angular-momentum distributions of inelastically scattered electronsmore » may be simultaneously measurable with this technique.« less
Stern-Gerlach-like approach to electron orbital angular momentum measurement
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Harvey, Tyler R.; Grillo, Vincenzo; McMorran, Benjamin J.
Many methods now exist to prepare free electrons into orbital-angular-momentum states, and the predicted applications of these electron states as probes of materials and scattering processes are numerous. The development of electron orbital-angular-momentum measurement techniques has lagged behind. We show that coupling between electron orbital angular momentum and a spatially varying magnetic field produces an angular-momentum-dependent focusing effect. We propose a design for an orbital-angular-momentum measurement device built on this principle. As the method of measurement is noninterferometric, the device works equally well for mixed, superposed, and pure final orbital-angular-momentum states. The energy and orbital-angular-momentum distributions of inelastically scattered electronsmore » may be simultaneously measurable with this technique.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kakehashi, Yoshiro; Chandra, Sumal
2017-03-01
The momentum distribution function (MDF) bands of iron-group transition metals from Sc to Cu have been investigated on the basis of the first-principles momentum dependent local ansatz wavefunction method. It is found that the MDF for d electrons show a strong momentum dependence and a large deviation from the Fermi-Dirac distribution function along high-symmetry lines of the first Brillouin zone, while the sp electrons behave as independent electrons. In particular, the deviation in bcc Fe (fcc Ni) is shown to be enhanced by the narrow eg (t2g) bands with flat dispersion in the vicinity of the Fermi level. Mass enhancement factors (MEF) calculated from the jump on the Fermi surface are also shown to be momentum dependent. Large mass enhancements of Mn and Fe are found to be caused by spin fluctuations due to d electrons, while that for Ni is mainly caused by charge fluctuations. Calculated MEF are consistent with electronic specific heat data as well as recent angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy data.
Electro-optic analyzer of angular momentum hyperentanglement
Wu, Ziwen; Chen, Lixiang
2016-01-01
Characterizing a high-dimensional entanglement is fundamental in quantum information applications. Here, we propose a theoretical scheme to analyze and characterize the angular momentum hyperentanglement that two photons are entangled simultaneously in spin and orbital angular momentum. Based on the electro-optic sampling with a proposed hyper-entanglement analyzer and the simple matrix operation using Cramer rule, our simulations show that it is possible to retrieve effectively both the information about the degree of polarization entanglement and the spiral spectrum of high-dimensional orbital angular momentum entanglement. PMID:26911530
Energy-momentum tensor of perturbed tachyon matter
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Jokela, Niko; Department of Mathematics and Physics, University of Haifa at Oranim, Tivon 36006; Jaervinen, Matti
2009-05-15
We add an initial nonhomogeneous perturbation to an otherwise homogeneous condensing tachyon background and compute its spacetime energy-momentum tensor from world-sheet string theory. We show that in the far future the energy-momentum tensor corresponds to nonhomogeneous pressureless tachyon matter.
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Ning, S. A.; Hayman, G.; Damiani, R.
Blade element momentum methods, though conceptually simple, are highly useful for analyzing wind turbines aerodynamics and are widely used in many design and analysis applications. A new version of AeroDyn is being developed to take advantage of new robust solution methodologies, conform to a new modularization framework for National Renewable Energy Laboratory's FAST, utilize advanced skewed-wake analysis methods, fix limitations with previous implementations, and to enable modeling of highly flexible and nonstraight blades. This paper reviews blade element momentum theory and several of the options available for analyzing skewed inflow. AeroDyn implementation details are described for the benefit of usersmore » and developers. These new options are compared to solutions from the previous version of AeroDyn and to experimental data. Finally, recommendations are given on how one might select from the various available solution approaches.« less
Josephson oscillation and self-trapping in momentum space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zheng, Yi; Feng, Shiping; Yang, Shi-Jie
2018-04-01
The Creutz ladder model is studied in the presence of unconventional flux induced by complex tunneling rates along and between the two legs. In the vortex phase, the double-minima band structure is regarded as a double well. By introducing a tunable coupling between the two momentum minima, we demonstrate a phenomenon of Josephson oscillations in momentum space. The condensate density locked in one of the momentum valleys is referred to as macroscopic quantum self-trapping. The on-site interaction of the lattice provides an effective analogy to the double-well model within the two-mode approximation which allows for a quantitative understanding of the Josephson effect and the self-trapping in momentum space.
Chaos-assisted broadband momentum transformation in optical microresonators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Xuefeng; Shao, Linbo; Zhang, Shu-Xin; Yi, Xu; Wiersig, Jan; Wang, Li; Gong, Qihuang; Lončar, Marko; Yang, Lan; Xiao, Yun-Feng
2017-10-01
The law of momentum conservation rules out many desired processes in optical microresonators. We report broadband momentum transformations of light in asymmetric whispering gallery microresonators. Assisted by chaotic motions, broadband light can travel between optical modes with different angular momenta within a few picoseconds. Efficient coupling from visible to near-infrared bands is demonstrated between a nanowaveguide and whispering gallery modes with quality factors exceeding 10 million. The broadband momentum transformation enhances the device conversion efficiency of the third-harmonic generation by greater than three orders of magnitude over the conventional evanescent-wave coupling. The observed broadband and fast momentum transformation could promote applications such as multicolor lasers, broadband memories, and multiwavelength optical networks.
Smoothed dissipative particle dynamics with angular momentum conservation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Müller, Kathrin; Fedosov, Dmitry A.; Gompper, Gerhard
2015-01-01
Smoothed dissipative particle dynamics (SDPD) combines two popular mesoscopic techniques, the smoothed particle hydrodynamics and dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) methods, and can be considered as an improved dissipative particle dynamics approach. Despite several advantages of the SDPD method over the conventional DPD model, the original formulation of SDPD by Español and Revenga (2003) [9], lacks angular momentum conservation, leading to unphysical results for problems where the conservation of angular momentum is essential. To overcome this limitation, we extend the SDPD method by introducing a particle spin variable such that local and global angular momentum conservation is restored. The new SDPD formulation (SDPD+a) is directly derived from the Navier-Stokes equation for fluids with spin, while thermal fluctuations are incorporated similarly to the DPD method. We test the new SDPD method and demonstrate that it properly reproduces fluid transport coefficients. Also, SDPD with angular momentum conservation is validated using two problems: (i) the Taylor-Couette flow with two immiscible fluids and (ii) a tank-treading vesicle in shear flow with a viscosity contrast between inner and outer fluids. For both problems, the new SDPD method leads to simulation predictions in agreement with the corresponding analytical theories, while the original SDPD method fails to capture properly physical characteristics of the systems due to violation of angular momentum conservation. In conclusion, the extended SDPD method with angular momentum conservation provides a new approach to tackle fluid problems such as multiphase flows and vesicle/cell suspensions, where the conservation of angular momentum is essential.
Normal and Tangential Momentum Accommodation for Earth Satellite Conditions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Knechtel, Earl D.; Pitts, William C.
1973-01-01
Momentum accommodation was determined experimentally for gas-surface interactions simulating in a practical way those of near-earth satellites. Throughout the ranges of gas energies and incidence angles of interest for earth-conditions, two components of force were measured by means of a vacuum microbalance to determine the normal and tangential momentum-accommodation coefficients for nitrogen ions on technical-quality aluminum surfaces. For these experimental conditions, the electrodynamics of ion neutralization near the surface indicate that results for nitrogen ions should differ relatively little from those for nitrogen molecules, which comprise the largest component of momentum flux for near-earth satellites. The experimental results indicated that both normal and tangential momentum-accommodation coefficients varied widely with energy, tending to be relatively well accommodated at the higher energies, but becoming progressively less accommodated as the energy was reduced to and below that for earth-satellite speeds. Both coefficients also varied greatly with incidence angle, the normal momentum becoming less accommodated as the incidence angle became more glancing, whereas the tangential momentum generally became more fully accommodated. For each momentum coefficient, an empirical correlation function was obtained which closely approximated the experimental results over the ranges of energy and incidence angle. Most of the observed variations of momentum accommodation with energy and incidence angle were qualitatively indicated by a calculation using a three-dimensional model that simulated the target surface by a one-dimensional attractive potential and hard sphere reflectors.
Calculating the momentum enhancement factor for asteroid deflection studies
Heberling, Tamra; Gisler, Galen; Plesko, Catherine; ...
2017-10-17
The possibility of kinetic-impact deflection of threatening near-Earth asteroids will be tested for the first time in the proposed AIDA (Asteroid Impact Deflection Assessment) mission, involving NASAs DART (Double Asteroid Redirection Test). The impact of the DART spacecraft onto the secondary of the binary asteroid 65803 Didymos at a speed of 5 to 7 km/s is expected to alter the mutual orbit by an observable amount. Furthermore, the velocity transferred to the secondary depends largely on the momentum enhancement factor, typically referred to as beta. Here, we use two hydrocodes developed at Los Alamos, RAGE and PAGOSA, to calculate anmore » approximate value for beta in laboratory-scale benchmark experiments. Convergence studies comparing the two codes show the importance of mesh size in estimating this crucial parameter.« less
Calculating the momentum enhancement factor for asteroid deflection studies
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Heberling, Tamra; Gisler, Galen; Plesko, Catherine
The possibility of kinetic-impact deflection of threatening near-Earth asteroids will be tested for the first time in the proposed AIDA (Asteroid Impact Deflection Assessment) mission, involving NASAs DART (Double Asteroid Redirection Test). The impact of the DART spacecraft onto the secondary of the binary asteroid 65803 Didymos at a speed of 5 to 7 km/s is expected to alter the mutual orbit by an observable amount. Furthermore, the velocity transferred to the secondary depends largely on the momentum enhancement factor, typically referred to as beta. Here, we use two hydrocodes developed at Los Alamos, RAGE and PAGOSA, to calculate anmore » approximate value for beta in laboratory-scale benchmark experiments. Convergence studies comparing the two codes show the importance of mesh size in estimating this crucial parameter.« less
Observation of Polarization Vortices in Momentum Space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Yiwen; Chen, Ang; Liu, Wenzhe; Hsu, Chia Wei; Wang, Bo; Guan, Fang; Liu, Xiaohan; Shi, Lei; Lu, Ling; Zi, Jian
2018-05-01
The vortex, a fundamental topological excitation featuring the in-plane winding of a vector field, is important in various areas such as fluid dynamics, liquid crystals, and superconductors. Although commonly existing in nature, vortices were observed exclusively in real space. Here, we experimentally observed momentum-space vortices as the winding of far-field polarization vectors in the first Brillouin zone of periodic plasmonic structures. Using homemade polarization-resolved momentum-space imaging spectroscopy, we mapped out the dispersion, lifetime, and polarization of all radiative states at the visible wavelengths. The momentum-space vortices were experimentally identified by their winding patterns in the polarization-resolved isofrequency contours and their diverging radiative quality factors. Such polarization vortices can exist robustly on any periodic systems of vectorial fields, while they are not captured by the existing topological band theory developed for scalar fields. Our work provides a new way for designing high-Q plasmonic resonances, generating vector beams, and studying topological photonics in the momentum space.
Observation of Polarization Vortices in Momentum Space.
Zhang, Yiwen; Chen, Ang; Liu, Wenzhe; Hsu, Chia Wei; Wang, Bo; Guan, Fang; Liu, Xiaohan; Shi, Lei; Lu, Ling; Zi, Jian
2018-05-04
The vortex, a fundamental topological excitation featuring the in-plane winding of a vector field, is important in various areas such as fluid dynamics, liquid crystals, and superconductors. Although commonly existing in nature, vortices were observed exclusively in real space. Here, we experimentally observed momentum-space vortices as the winding of far-field polarization vectors in the first Brillouin zone of periodic plasmonic structures. Using homemade polarization-resolved momentum-space imaging spectroscopy, we mapped out the dispersion, lifetime, and polarization of all radiative states at the visible wavelengths. The momentum-space vortices were experimentally identified by their winding patterns in the polarization-resolved isofrequency contours and their diverging radiative quality factors. Such polarization vortices can exist robustly on any periodic systems of vectorial fields, while they are not captured by the existing topological band theory developed for scalar fields. Our work provides a new way for designing high-Q plasmonic resonances, generating vector beams, and studying topological photonics in the momentum space.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Diallo, S. O.; Lin, J. Y. Y.; Abernathy, D. L.; Azuah, R. T.
2016-11-01
Inelastic neutron scattering at high momentum transfers (i.e. Q ≥ 20 A ˚), commonly known as deep inelastic neutron scattering (DINS), provides direct observation of the momentum distribution of light atoms, making it a powerful probe for studying single-particle motions in liquids and solids. The quantitative analysis of DINS data requires an accurate knowledge of the instrument resolution function Ri(Q , E) at each momentum Q and energy transfer E, where the label i indicates whether the resolution was experimentally observed i = obs or simulated i=sim. Here, we describe two independent methods for determining the total resolution function Ri(Q , E) of the ARCS neutron instrument at the Spallation Neutron Source, Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The first method uses experimental data from an archetypical system (liquid 4He) studied with DINS, which are then numerically deconvoluted using its previously determined intrinsic scattering function to yield Robs(Q , E). The second approach uses accurate Monte Carlo simulations of the ARCS spectrometer, which account for all instrument contributions, coupled to a representative scattering kernel to reproduce the experimentally observed response S(Q , E). Using a delta function as scattering kernel, the simulation yields a resolution function Rsim(Q , E) with comparable lineshape and features as Robs(Q , E), but somewhat narrower due to the ideal nature of the model. Using each of these two Ri(Q , E) separately, we extract characteristic parameters of liquid 4He such as the intrinsic linewidth α2 (which sets the atomic kinetic energy 〈 K 〉 ∼α2) in the normal liquid and the Bose-Einstein condensate parameter n0 in the superfluid phase. The extracted α2 values agree well with previous measurements at saturated vapor pressure (SVP) as well as at elevated pressure (24 bars) within experimental precision, independent of which Ri(Q , y) is used to analyze the data. The actual observed n0 values at each Q vary little
Open clusters as laboratories: The angular momentum evolution of young stars
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stauffer, John R.
1994-01-01
This is the annual status report for the third year of our LTSA grant 'Open Clusters as Laboratories.' Because we have now had a few years to work on the project, we have started to produce and publish a large number of papers. We have been extremely successful in obtaining ROSAT observations of open clusters. With the demise of the PSPC on ROSAT, our main data source has come to an end and we will be able to concentrate on analyzing those data.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Parker, G. W.
1978-01-01
Discusses, classically and quantum mechanically, the angular momentum induced in the bound motion of an electron by an external magnetic field. Calculates the current density and its magnetic moment, and then uses two methods to solve the first-order perturbation theory equation for the required eigenfunction. (Author/GA)
Edge momentum transport by neutrals: an interpretive numerical framework
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Omotani, J. T.; Newton, S. L.; Pusztai, I.; Viezzer, E.; Fülöp, T.; The ASDEX Upgrade Team
2017-06-01
Due to their high cross-field mobility, neutrals can contribute to momentum transport even at the low relative densities found inside the separatrix and they can generate intrinsic rotation. We use a charge-exchange dominated solution to the neutral kinetic equation, coupled to neoclassical ions, to evaluate the momentum transport due to neutrals. Numerical solutions to the drift-kinetic equation allow us to cover the full range of collisionality, including the intermediate levels typical of the tokamak edge. In the edge there are several processes likely to contribute to momentum transport in addition to neutrals. Therefore, we present here an interpretive framework that can evaluate the momentum transport through neutrals based on radial plasma profiles. We demonstrate its application by analysing the neutral angular momentum flux for an L-mode discharge in the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak. The magnitudes of the angular momentum fluxes we find here due to neutrals of 0.6-2 \\text{N} \\text{m} are comparable to the net torque on the plasma from neutral beam injection, indicating the importance of neutrals for rotation in the edge.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Belyaev, Mikhail A.; Quataert, Eliot
2018-04-01
We present unstratified 3D MHD simulations of an accretion disk with a boundary layer (BL) that have a duration ˜1000 orbital periods at the inner radius of the accretion disk. We find the surprising result that angular momentum piles up in the boundary layer, which results in a rapidly rotating belt of accreted material at the surface of the star. The angular momentum stored in this belt increases monotonically in time, which implies that angular momentum transport mechanisms in the BL are inefficient and do not couple the accretion disk to the star. This is in spite of the fact that magnetic fields are advected into the BL from the disk and supersonic shear instabilities in the BL excite acoustic waves. In our simulations, these waves only carry a small fraction (˜10%) of the angular momentum required for steady state accretion. Using analytical theory and 2D viscous simulations in the R - ϕ plane, we derive an analytical criterion for belt formation to occur in the BL in terms of the ratio of the viscosity in the accretion disk to the viscosity in the BL. Our MHD simulations have a dimensionless viscosity (α) in the BL that is at least a factor of ˜100 smaller than that in the disk. We discuss the implications of these results for BL dynamics and emission.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Derrick, M.; Krakauer, D.; Magill, S.; Mikunas, D.; Musgrave, B.; Repond, J.; Stanek, R.; Talaga, R. L.; Zhang, H.; Ayad, R.; Bari, G.; Basile, M.; Bellagamba, L.; Boscherini, D.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruni, P.; Romeo, G. Cara; Castellini, G.; Chiarini, M.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Contin, A.; Corradi, M.; Gialas, I.; Giusti, P.; Iacobucci, G.; Laurenti, G.; Levi, G.; Margotti, A.; Massam, T.; Nania, R.; Nemoz, C.; Palmonari, F.; Polini, A.; Sartorelli, G.; Timellini, R.; Garcia, Y. Zamora; Zichichi, A.; Bargende, A.; Crittenden, J.; Desch, K.; Diekmann, B.; Doeker, T.; Eckert, M.; Feld, L.; Frey, A.; Geerts, M.; Geitz, G.; Grothe, M.; Haas, T.; Hartmann, H.; Haun, D.; Heinloth, K.; Hilger, E.; Jakob, H.-P.; Katz, U. F.; Mari, S. M.; Mass, A.; Mengel, S.; Mollen, J.; Paul, E.; Rembser, Ch.; Schattevoy, R.; Schramm, D.; Stamm, J.; Wedemeyer, R.; Campbell-Robson, S.; Cassidy, A.; Dyce, N.; Foster, B.; George, S.; Gilmore, R.; Heath, G. P.; Heath, H. F.; Llewellyn, T. J.; Morgado, C. J. S.; Norman, D. J. P.; O'Mara, J. A.; Tapper, R. J.; Wilson, S. S.; Yoshida, R.; Rau, R. R.; Arneodo, M.; Iannotti, L.; Schioppa, M.; Susinno, G.; Bernstein, A.; Caldwell, A.; Cartiglia, N.; Parsons, J. A.; Ritz, S.; Sciulli, F.; Straub, P. B.; Wai, L.; Yang, S.; Zhu, Q.; Borzemski, P.; Chwastowski, J.; Eskreys, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Zachara, M.; Zawiejski, L.; Adamczyk, L.; Bednarek, B.; Jeleń, K.; Kisielewska, D.; Kowalski, T.; Rulikowska-Zarębska, E.; Suszycki, L.; Zając, J.; Kotański, A.; Przybycień, M.; Bauerdick, L. A. T.; Behrens, U.; Beier, H.; Bienlein, J. K.; Coldewey, C.; Deppe, O.; Desler, K.; Drews, G.; Flasiński, M.; Gilkinson, D. J.; Glasman, C.; Göttlicher, P.; Große-Knetter, J.; Gutjahr, B.; Hain, W.; Hasell, D.; Heßling, H.; Iga, Y.; Joos, P.; Kasemann, M.; Klanner, R.; Koch, W.; Köpke, L.; Kötz, U.; Kowalski, H.; Labs, L.; Ladage, A.; Löhr, B.; Löwe, M.; Lüke, D.; Mańczak, O.; Monteiro, T.; Ng, J. S. T.; Nickel, S.; Notz, D.; Ohrenberg, K.; Roco, M.; Rohde, M.; Roldán, J.; Schneekloth, U.; Schulz, W.; Selonke, F.; Stiliaris, E.; Surrow, B.; Voß, T.; Westphal, D.; Wolf, G.; Youngman, C.; Zhou, J. F.; Grabosch, H. J.; Kharchilava, A.; Leich, A.; Mattingly, M. C. K.; Meyer, A.; Schlenstedt, S.; Wulff, N.; Barbagli, G.; Pelfer, P.; Anzivino, G.; Maccarrone, G.; de Pasquale, S.; Votano, L.; Bamberger, A.; Eisenhardt, S.; Freidhof, A.; Söldner-Rembold, S.; Schroeder, J.; Trefzger, T.; Brook, N. H.; Bussey, P. J.; Doyle, A. T.; Fleck, J. I.; Saxon, D. H.; Utley, M. L.; Wilson, A. S.; Dannemann, A.; Holm, U.; Horstmann, D.; Neumann, T.; Sinkus, R.; Wick, K.; Badura, E.; Burow, B. D.; Hagge, L.; Lohrmann, E.; Mainusch, J.; Milewski, J.; Nakahata, M.; Pavel, N.; Poelz, G.; Schott, W.; Zetsche, F.; Bacon, T. C.; Butterworth, I.; Gallo, E.; Harris, V. L.; Hung, B. Y. H.; Long, K. R.; Miller, D. B.; Morawitz, P. P. O.; Prinias, A.; Sedgbeer, J. K.; Whitfield, A. F.; Mallik, U.; McCliment, E.; Wang, M. Z.; Wang, S. M.; Wu, J. T.; Zhang, Y.; Cloth, P.; Filges, D.; An, S. H.; Hong, S. M.; Nam, S. W.; Park, S. K.; Suh, M. H.; Yon, S. H.; Imlay, R.; Kartik, S.; Kim, H.-J.; McNeil, R. R.; Metcalf, W.; Nadendla, V. K.; Barreiro, F.; Cases, G.; Graciani, R.; Hernández, J. M.; Hervás, L.; Labarga, L.; Del Peso, J.; Puga, J.; Terron, J.; de Trocóniz, J. F.; Smith, G. R.; Corriveau, F.; Hanna, D. S.; Hartmann, J.; Hung, L. W.; Lim, J. N.; Matthews, C. G.; Patel, P. M.; Sinclair, L. E.; Stairs, D. G.; St. Laurent, M.; Ullmann, R.; Zacek, G.; Bashkirov, V.; Dolgoshein, B. A.; Stifutkin, A.; Bashindzhagyan, G. L.; Ermolov, P. F.; Gladilin, L. K.; Golubkov, Y. A.; Kobrin, V. D.; Kuzmin, V. A.; Proskuryakov, A. S.; Savin, A. A.; Shcheglova, L. M.; Solomin, A. N.; Zotov, N. P.; Botje, M.; Chlebana, F.; Dake, A.; Engelen, J.; de Kamps, M.; Kooijman, P.; Kruse, A.; Tiecke, H.; Verkerke, W.; Vreeswijk, M.; Wiggers, L.; de Wolf, E.; van Woudenberg, R.; Acosta, D.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L. S.; Honscheid, K.; Li, C.; Ling, T. Y.; McLean, K. W.; Murray, W. N.; Park, I. H.; Romanowski, T. A.; Seidlein, R.; Bailey, D. S.; Blair, G. A.; Byrne, A.; Cashmore, R. J.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Daniels, D.; Devenish, R. C. E.; Harnew, N.; Lancaster, M.; Luffman, P. E.; Lindemann, L.; McFall, J. D.; Nath, C.; Noyes, V. A.; Quadt, A.; Uijterwaal, H.; Walczak, R.; Wilson, F. F.; Yip, T.; Abbiendi, G.; Bertolin, A.; Brugnera, R.; Carlin, R.; Dal Corso, F.; de Giorgi, M.; Dosselli, U.; Limentani, S.; Morandin, M.; Posocco, M.; Stanco, L.; Stroili, R.; Voci, C.; Bulmahn, J.; Butterworth, J. M.; Feild, R. G.; Oh, B. Y.; Whitmore, J. J.; D'Agostini, G.; Marini, G.; Nigro, A.; Tassi, E.; Hart, J. C.; McCubbin, N. A.; Prytz, K.; Shah, T. P.; Short, T. L.; Barberis, E.; Dubbs, T.; Heusch, C.; van Hook, M.; Hubbard, B.; Lockman, W.; Rahn, J. T.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Seiden, A.; Biltzinger, J.; Seifert, R. J.; Schwarzer, O.; Walenta, A. H.; Zech, G.; Abramowicz, H.; Briskin, G.; Dagan, S.; Levy, A.; Hasegawa, T.; Hazumi, M.; Ishii, T.; Kuze, M.; Mine, S.; Nagasawa, Y.; Nakao, M.; Suzuki, I.; Tokushuku, K.; Yamada, S.; Yamazaki, Y.; Chiba, M.; Hamatsu, R.; Hirose, T.; Homma, K.; Kitamura, S.; Nakamitsu, Y.; Yamauchi, K.; Cirio, R.; Costa, M.; Ferrero, M. I.; Lamberti, L.; Maselli, S.; Peroni, C.; Sacchi, R.; Solano, A.; Staiano, A.; Dardo, M.; Bailey, D. C.; Bandyopadhyay, D.; Benard, F.; Brkic, M.; Crombie, M. B.; Gingrich, D. M.; Hartner, G. F.; Joo, K. K.; Levman, G. M.; Martin, J. F.; Orr, R. S.; Sampson, C. R.; Teuscher, R. J.; Catterall, C. D.; Jones, T. W.; Kaziewicz, P. B.; Lane, J. B.; Saunders, R. L.; Shulman, J.; Blankenship, K.; Lu, B.; Mo, L. W.; Bogusz, W.; Charchula, K.; Ciborowski, J.; Gajewski, J.; Grzelak, G.; Kasprzak, M.; Krzyżanowski, M.; Muchorowski, K.; Nowak, R. J.; Pawlak, J. M.; Tymieniecka, T.; Wróblewski, A. K.; Zakrzewski, J. A.; Żarnecki, A. F.; Adamus, M.; Eisenberg, Y.; Karshon, U.; Revel, D.; Zer-Zion, D.; Ali, I.; Badgett, W. F.; Behrens, B.; Dasu, S.; Fordham, C.; Foudas, C.; Goussiou, A.; Loveless, R. J.; Reeder, D. D.; Silverstein, S.; Smith, W. H.; Vaiciulis, A.; Wodarczyk, M.; Tsurugai, T.; Bhadra, S.; Cardy, M. L.; Fagerstroem, C.-P.; Frisken, W. R.; Furutani, K. M.; Khakzad, M.; Schmidke, W. B.
1995-06-01
Inclusive transverse momentum spectra of charged particles in photoproduction events in the laboratory pseudorapidity range -1.2<η<1.4 have been measured up to p T =8 GeV usign the ZEUS detector. Diffractive and non-diffractive reactions have been selected with an average γ p centre of mass (c.m.) energy of < W>=180 GeV. For diffractive reactions, the p T spectra of the photon dissociation events have been measured in two intervals of the dissociated photon mass with mean values < M X >=5 GeV and 10 GeV. The inclusive transverse momentum spectra fall exponentially in the low p T region. The non-diffractive data show a pronounced high p T tail departing from the exponential shape. The p T distributions are compared to lower energy photoproduction data and to hadron-hadron collisions at a similar c.m. energy. The data are also compared to the results of a next-to-leading order QCD calculation.
Continuous Wheel Momentum Dumping Using Magnetic Torquers and Thrusters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oh, Hwa-Suk; Choi, Wan-Sik; Eun, Jong-Won
1996-12-01
Two momentum management schemes using magnetic torquers and thrusters are sug-gested. The stability of the momentum dumping logic is proved at a general attitude equilibrium. Both momentum dumping control laws are implemented with Pulse-Width- Pulse-Frequency Modulated on-off control, and shown working equally well with the original continuous and variable strength control law. Thrusters are assummed to be asymmetrically configured as a contingency case. Each thruster is fired following separated control laws rather than paired thrusting. Null torque thrusting control is added on the thrust control calculated from the momentum control law for the gener-ation of positive thrusting force. Both magnetic and thrusting control laws guarantee the momentum dumping, however, the wheel inner loop control is needed for the "wheel speed" dumping, The control laws are simulated on the KOrea Multi-Purpose SATellite (KOMPSAT) model.
Relativistic differential-difference momentum operators and noncommutative differential calculus
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Mir-Kasimov, R. M., E-mail: mirkr@theor.jinr.ru
2013-09-15
The relativistic kinetic momentum operators are introduced in the framework of the Quantum Mechanics (QM) in the Relativistic Configuration Space (RCS). These operators correspond to the half of the non-Euclidean distance in the Lobachevsky momentum space. In terms of kinetic momentum operators the relativistic kinetic energy is separated as the independent term of the total Hamiltonian. This relativistic kinetic energy term is not distinguishing in form from its nonrelativistic counterpart. The role of the plane wave (wave function of the motion with definite value of momentum and energy) plays the generating function for the matrix elements of the unitary irrepsmore » of Lorentz group (generalized Jacobi polynomials). The kinetic momentum operators are the interior derivatives in the framework of the noncommutative differential calculus over the commutative algebra generated by the coordinate functions over the RCS.« less
Nuclear physics. Momentum sharing in imbalanced Fermi systems.
Hen, O; Sargsian, M; Weinstein, L B; Piasetzky, E; Hakobyan, H; Higinbotham, D W; Braverman, M; Brooks, W K; Gilad, S; Adhikari, K P; Arrington, J; Asryan, G; Avakian, H; Ball, J; Baltzell, N A; Battaglieri, M; Beck, A; May-Tal Beck, S; Bedlinskiy, I; Bertozzi, W; Biselli, A; Burkert, V D; Cao, T; Carman, D S; Celentano, A; Chandavar, S; Colaneri, L; Cole, P L; Crede, V; D'Angelo, A; De Vita, R; Deur, A; Djalali, C; Doughty, D; Dugger, M; Dupre, R; Egiyan, H; El Alaoui, A; El Fassi, L; Elouadrhiri, L; Fedotov, G; Fegan, S; Forest, T; Garillon, B; Garcon, M; Gevorgyan, N; Ghandilyan, Y; Gilfoyle, G P; Girod, F X; Goetz, J T; Gothe, R W; Griffioen, K A; Guidal, M; Guo, L; Hafidi, K; Hanretty, C; Hattawy, M; Hicks, K; Holtrop, M; Hyde, C E; Ilieva, Y; Ireland, D G; Ishkanov, B I; Isupov, E L; Jiang, H; Jo, H S; Joo, K; Keller, D; Khandaker, M; Kim, A; Kim, W; Klein, F J; Koirala, S; Korover, I; Kuhn, S E; Kubarovsky, V; Lenisa, P; Levine, W I; Livingston, K; Lowry, M; Lu, H Y; MacGregor, I J D; Markov, N; Mayer, M; McKinnon, B; Mineeva, T; Mokeev, V; Movsisyan, A; Munoz Camacho, C; Mustapha, B; Nadel-Turonski, P; Niccolai, S; Niculescu, G; Niculescu, I; Osipenko, M; Pappalardo, L L; Paremuzyan, R; Park, K; Pasyuk, E; Phelps, W; Pisano, S; Pogorelko, O; Price, J W; Procureur, S; Prok, Y; Protopopescu, D; Puckett, A J R; Rimal, D; Ripani, M; Ritchie, B G; Rizzo, A; Rosner, G; Roy, P; Rossi, P; Sabatié, F; Schott, D; Schumacher, R A; Sharabian, Y G; Smith, G D; Shneor, R; Sokhan, D; Stepanyan, S S; Stepanyan, S; Stoler, P; Strauch, S; Sytnik, V; Taiuti, M; Tkachenko, S; Ungaro, M; Vlassov, A V; Voutier, E; Walford, N K; Wei, X; Wood, M H; Wood, S A; Zachariou, N; Zana, L; Zhao, Z W; Zheng, X; Zonta, I
2014-10-31
The atomic nucleus is composed of two different kinds of fermions: protons and neutrons. If the protons and neutrons did not interact, the Pauli exclusion principle would force the majority of fermions (usually neutrons) to have a higher average momentum. Our high-energy electron-scattering measurements using (12)C, (27)Al, (56)Fe, and (208)Pb targets show that even in heavy, neutron-rich nuclei, short-range interactions between the fermions form correlated high-momentum neutron-proton pairs. Thus, in neutron-rich nuclei, protons have a greater probability than neutrons to have momentum greater than the Fermi momentum. This finding has implications ranging from nuclear few-body systems to neutron stars and may also be observable experimentally in two-spin-state, ultracold atomic gas systems. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
Nanomechanical effects of light unveil photons momentum in medium
Verma, Gopal; Chaudhary, Komal; Singh, Kamal P.
2017-01-01
Precision measurement on momentum transfer between light and fluid interface has many implications including resolving the intriguing nature of photons momentum in a medium. For example, the existence of Abraham pressure of light under specific experimental configuration and the predictions of Chau-Amperian formalism of optical momentum for TE and TM polarizations remain untested. Here, we quantitatively and cleanly measure nanomehanical dynamics of water surface excited by radiation pressure of a laser beam. We systematically scanned wide range of experimental parameters including long exposure times, angle of incidence, spot size and laser polarization, and used two independent pump-probe techniques to validate a nano- bump on the water surface under all the tested conditions, in quantitative agreement with the Minkowski’s momentum of light. With careful experiments, we demonstrate advantages and limitations of nanometer resolved optical probing techniques and narrow down actual manifestation of optical momentum in a medium. PMID:28198468
A new momentum management controller for the space station
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wie, B.; Byun, K. W.; Warren, V. W.
1988-01-01
A new approach to CMG (control moment gyro) momentum management and attitude control of the Space Station is developed. The control algorithm utilizes both the gravity-gradient and gyroscopic torques to seek torque equilibrium attitude in the presence of secular and cyclic disturbances. Depending upon mission requirements, either pitch attitude or pitch-axis CMG momentum can be held constant: yaw attitude and roll-axis CMG momentum can be held constant, while roll attitude and yaw-axis CMG momentum cannot be held constant. As a result, the overall attitude and CMG momentum oscillations caused by cyclic aero-dynamic disturbances are minimized. A state feedback controller with minimal computer storage requirement for gain scheduling is also developed. The overall closed-loop system is stable for + or - 30 percent inertia matrix variations and has more than + or - 10 dB and 45 deg stability margins in each loop.
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Atayan, M.R.; Gulkanyan, H.; Bai Yuting
Rapidity, azimuthal and multiplicity dependence of mean transverse momentum and transverse momentum correlations of charged particles is studied in {pi}{sup +}p and K{sup +}p collisions at 250 GeV/c incident beam momentum. For the first time, it is found that the rapidity dependence of the two-particle transverse momentum correlation is different from that of the mean transverse momentum, but both have similar multiplicity dependence. In particular, the transverse momentum correlations are boost invariant. This is similar to the recently found boost invariance of the charge balance function. A strong azimuthal dependence of the transverse momentum correlations originates from the constraint ofmore » energy-momentum conservation. The results are compared with those from the PYTHIA Monte Carlo generator. The similarities to and differences with the results from current heavy ion experiments are discussed.« less
Chaos-assisted broadband momentum transformation in optical microresonators.
Jiang, Xuefeng; Shao, Linbo; Zhang, Shu-Xin; Yi, Xu; Wiersig, Jan; Wang, Li; Gong, Qihuang; Lončar, Marko; Yang, Lan; Xiao, Yun-Feng
2017-10-20
The law of momentum conservation rules out many desired processes in optical microresonators. We report broadband momentum transformations of light in asymmetric whispering gallery microresonators. Assisted by chaotic motions, broadband light can travel between optical modes with different angular momenta within a few picoseconds. Efficient coupling from visible to near-infrared bands is demonstrated between a nanowaveguide and whispering gallery modes with quality factors exceeding 10 million. The broadband momentum transformation enhances the device conversion efficiency of the third-harmonic generation by greater than three orders of magnitude over the conventional evanescent-wave coupling. The observed broadband and fast momentum transformation could promote applications such as multicolor lasers, broadband memories, and multiwavelength optical networks. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.
Transverse Momentum Distributions of Electron in Simulated QED Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaur, Navdeep; Dahiya, Harleen
2018-05-01
In the present work, we have studied the transverse momentum distributions (TMDs) for the electron in simulated QED model. We have used the overlap representation of light-front wave functions where the spin-1/2 relativistic composite system consists of spin-1/2 fermion and spin-1 vector boson. The results have been obtained for T-even TMDs in transverse momentum plane for fixed value of longitudinal momentum fraction x.
Plasma electron hole kinematics. I. Momentum conservation
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Hutchinson, I. H.; Zhou, C.
We analyse the kinematic properties of a plasma electron hole: a non-linear self-sustained localized positive electric potential perturbation, trapping electrons, which behaves as a coherent entity. When a hole accelerates or grows in depth, ion and electron plasma momentum is changed both within the hole and outside, by an energization process we call jetting. We present a comprehensive analytic calculation of the momentum changes of an isolated general one-dimensional hole. The conservation of the total momentum gives the hole's kinematics, determining its velocity evolution. Our results explain many features of the behavior of hole speed observed in numerical simulations, includingmore » self-acceleration at formation, and hole pushing and trapping by ion streams.« less
Adaptive momentum management for large space structures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hahn, E.
1987-01-01
Momentum management is discussed for a Large Space Structure (LSS) with the structure selected configuration being the Initial Orbital Configuration (IOC) of the dual keel space station. The external forces considered were gravity gradient and aerodynamic torques. The goal of the momentum management scheme developed is to remove the bias components of the external torques and center the cyclic components of the stored angular momentum. The scheme investigated is adaptive to uncertainties of the inertia tensor and requires only approximate knowledge of principle moments of inertia. Computational requirements are minimal and should present no implementation problem in a flight type computer and the method proposed is shown to be effective in the presence of attitude control bandwidths as low as .01 radian/sec.
The price momentum of stock in distribution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Haijun; Wang, Longfei
2018-02-01
In this paper, a new momentum of stock in distribution is proposed and applied in real investment. Firstly, assuming that a stock behaves as a multi-particle system, its share-exchange distribution and cost distribution are introduced. Secondly, an estimation of the share-exchange distribution is given with daily transaction data by 3 σ rule from the normal distribution. Meanwhile, an iterative method is given to estimate the cost distribution. Based on the cost distribution, a new momentum is proposed for stock system. Thirdly, an empirical test is given to compare the new momentum with others by contrarian strategy. The result shows that the new one outperforms others in many places. Furthermore, entropy of stock is introduced according to its cost distribution.
Maximum Torque and Momentum Envelopes for Reaction Wheel Arrays
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Markley, F. Landis; Reynolds, Reid G.; Liu, Frank X.; Lebsock, Kenneth L.
2009-01-01
Spacecraft reaction wheel maneuvers are limited by the maximum torque and/or angular momentum that the wheels can provide. For an n-wheel configuration, the torque or momentum envelope can be obtained by projecting the n-dimensional hypercube, representing the domain boundary of individual wheel torques or momenta, into three dimensional space via the 3xn matrix of wheel axes. In this paper, the properties of the projected hypercube are discussed, and algorithms are proposed for determining this maximal torque or momentum envelope for general wheel configurations. Practical strategies for distributing a prescribed torque or momentum among the n wheels are presented, with special emphasis on configurations of four, five, and six wheels.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ji, H.; Burin, M.; Schartman, E.; Goodman, J.; Liu, W.
2006-01-01
Two plausible mechanisms have been proposed to explain rapid angular momentum transport during accretion processes in astrophysical disks: nonlinear hydrodynamic instabilities and magnetorotational instability (MRI). A laboratory experiment in a short Taylor-Couette flow geometry has been constructed in Princeton to study both mechanisms, with novel features for better controls of the boundary-driven secondary flows (Ekman circulation). Initial results on hydrodynamic stability have shown negligible angular momentum transport in Keplerian-like flows with Reynolds numbers approaching one million, casting strong doubt on the viability of nonlinear hydrodynamic instability as a source for accretion disk turbulence.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sanchez, D. J.; Oesch, D. W.; Reynolds, O. R.
2013-08-01
Context. We have recently shown that the phenomenon known as "branch points" in AO are markers for photons carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM). In doing so, we have demonstrated that atmospheric turbulence creates well defined OAM states in beams propagating through it. Aims: In this paper, we extend our previous research to include any astrophysical turbulent assemblage of molecules or atoms (TAMA), demonstrating that these clouds, similar to Earth's atmosphere, also create photonic orbital angular momentum (POAM) in electromagnetic waves propagating through them. A TAMA is any gaseous cloud with a varying density and therefore variation in its index of refraction, which includes but is not limited to stellar envelopes, circumstellar disks, molecular clouds, planetary atmospheres, and the interstellar medium. Methods: We applied our previous theoretical, simulation, and laboratory results to astrophysical TAMAs. Additionally, we demonstrated how sensors designed for AO can be used to measure this POAM flux. Results: Our results apply to light propagating through any TAMA. Since TAMA are ubiquitous in the cosmos, steady, long lasting POAM fluxes will be ubiquitous as well. Conclusions: Our results, which include theory, benchtop laboratory data, and wave optic simulation, indicate that, under the right conditions, POAM fluxes can reach over 50% of the total photon flux. An initial set of on-sky experimental observations appear to corroborate the laboratory results with two of the five stars, HR 1529 and HR 1577, showing POAM fluxes of 3% ± 1% and 2% ± 1% of the total flux, and a third, HR 1895, with a PAOM flux of up to 17% ± 2% of the total flux. We express our gratitude to the Air Force Office of Scientific Research for their support of this research.Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgData referred to in measurements are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via
Effects of Wall-Normal and Angular Momentum Injections in Airfoil Separation Control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Munday, Phillip M.; Taira, Kunihiko
2018-05-01
The objective of this computational study is to quantify the influence of wall-normal and angular momentum injections in suppressing laminar flow separation over a canonical airfoil. Open-loop control of fully separated, incompressible flow over a NACA 0012 airfoil at $\\alpha = 9^\\circ$ and $Re = 23,000$ is examined with large-eddy simulations. This study independently introduces wall-normal momentum and angular momentum into the separated flow using swirling jets through model boundary conditions. The response of the flow field and the surface vorticity fluxes to various combinations of actuation inputs are examined in detail. It is observed that the addition of angular momentum input to wall-normal momentum injection enhances the suppression of flow separation. Lift enhancement and suppression of separation with the wall-normal and angular momentum inputs are characterized by modifying the standard definition of the coefficient of momentum. The effect of angular momentum is incorporated into the modified coefficient of momentum by introducing a characteristic swirling jet velocity based on the non-dimensional swirl number. With this single modified coefficient of momentum, we are able to categorize each controlled flow into separated, transitional, and attached flows.
Plasma momentum meter for momentum flux measurements
Zonca, Fulvio; Cohen, Samuel A.; Bennett, Timothy; Timberlake, John R.
1993-01-01
Invention comprises an instrument in which momentum flux onto a biasable target plate is transferred via a suspended quartz tube onto a sensitive force transducer--a capacitance-type pressure gauge. The transducer is protected from thermal damage, arcing and sputtering, and materials used in the target and pendulum are electrically insulating, rigid even at elevated temperatures, and have low thermal conductivity. The instrument enables measurement of small forces (10.sup.-5 to 10.sup.3 N) accompanied by high heat fluxes which are transmitted by energetic particles with 10's of eV of kinetic energy in a intense magnetic field and pulsed plasma environment.
Autonomous momentum management for space station, exhibit A
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hahn, E.
1984-01-01
The report discusses momentum management for the CDG Planar Space Platform. The external torques on the Space Station are assumed to be gravity gradient and aerodynamic with both having bias and cyclic terms. The integrals of the cyclic torques are the cyclic momenti which will be stored in the momentum storage actuator. Various techniques to counteract the bias torques and center the cyclic momentum were investigated including gravity gradient desaturation by adjusting vehicle attitude, aerodynamic desaturation using solar panels and radiators and the deployment of flat plates at the end of long booms generating aerodynamic torques.
Time series momentum and contrarian effects in the Chinese stock market
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shi, Huai-Long; Zhou, Wei-Xing
2017-10-01
This paper concentrates on the time series momentum or contrarian effects in the Chinese stock market. We evaluate the performance of the time series momentum strategy applied to major stock indices in mainland China and explore the relation between the performance of time series momentum strategies and some firm-specific characteristics. Our findings indicate that there is a time series momentum effect in the short run and a contrarian effect in the long run in the Chinese stock market. The performances of the time series momentum and contrarian strategies are highly dependent on the look-back and holding periods and firm-specific characteristics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Momota, S.; Kanazawa, M.; Kitagawa, A.; Sato, S.
2018-04-01
Longitudinal momentum (PL) distributions of projectilelike fragments produced at E =290 MeV /nucleon are investigated. PL distributions of fragments produced by Ar and Kr beams with a wide variety of targets (C, Al, Nb, Tb, and Au) were measured using the fragment separator at HIMAC. PL distributions observed for fragments with a wide range of mass losses Δ A (1-30 for Ar beam and 1-64 for Kr beam), show a slightly, but definitely asymmetric nature. The peak shift and width were obtained from the observed PL distributions. No significant target dependence was found in either the peak shift or width. For the practical application, the variation in momentum peak shift with fragment mass (AF) was represented by a parabolic function. The width on the high-PL side (σHigh) is well reproduced by the Goldhaber formula, which is obtained from the contribution of the Fermi momentum. The behavior of the reduced width, σ0, obtained from σHigh via the Goldhaber formulation, is consistent with the mass-dependent Fermi momentum of a nucleon. The width on the low-PL side (σLow) is markedly larger than σHigh and exhibits a clear AF dependence.
General Navier–Stokes-like momentum and mass-energy equations
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Monreal, Jorge, E-mail: jmonreal@mail.usf.edu
2015-03-15
A new system of general Navier–Stokes-like equations is proposed to model electromagnetic flow utilizing analogues of hydrodynamic conservation equations. Such equations are intended to provide a different perspective and, potentially, a better understanding of electromagnetic mass, energy and momentum behaviour. Under such a new framework additional insights into electromagnetism could be gained. To that end, we propose a system of momentum and mass-energy conservation equations coupled through both momentum density and velocity vectors.
Momentum transfer in relativistic heavy ion charge-exchange reactions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Townsend, L. W.; Wilson, J. W.; Khan, F.; Khandelwal, G. S.
1991-01-01
Relativistic heavy ion charge-exchange reactions yield fragments (Delta-Z = + 1) whose longitudinal momentum distributions are downshifted by larger values than those associated with the remaining fragments (Delta-Z = 1, -2,...). Kinematics alone cannot account for the observed downshifts; therefore, an additional contribution from collision dynamics must be included. In this work, an optical model description of collision momentum transfer is used to estimate the additional dynamical momentum downshift. Good agreement between theoretical estimates and experimental data is obtained.
Time-resolved orbital angular momentum spectroscopy
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Noyan, Mehmet A.; Kikkawa, James M.
We introduce pump-probe magneto-orbital spectroscopy, wherein Laguerre-Gauss optical pump pulses impart orbital angular momentum to the electronic states of a material and subsequent dynamics are studied with 100 fs time resolution. The excitation uses vortex modes that distribute angular momentum over a macroscopic area determined by the spot size, and the optical probe studies the chiral imbalance of vortex modes reflected off the sample. First observations in bulk GaAs yield transients that evolve on time scales distinctly different from population and spin relaxation, as expected, but with surprisingly large lifetimes.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
DeHart, Russell
2017-01-01
This study determines the feasibility of creating a tool that can accurately predict Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) reaction wheel assembly (RWA) angular momentum, weeks or even months into the future. LRO is a three-axis stabilized spacecraft that was launched on June 18, 2009. While typically nadir-pointing, LRO conducts many types of slews to enable novel science collection. Momentum unloads have historically been performed approximately once every two weeks with the goal of maintaining system total angular momentum below 70 Nms; however flight experience shows the models developed before launch are overly conservative, with many momentum unloads being performed before system angular momentum surpasses 50 Nms. A more accurate model of RWA angular momentum growth would improve momentum unload scheduling and decrease the frequency of these unloads. Since some LRO instruments must be deactivated during momentum unloads and in the case of one instrument, decontaminated for 24 hours there after a decrease in the frequency of unloads increases science collection. This study develops a new model to predict LRO RWA angular momentum. Regression analysis of data from October 2014 to October 2015 was used to develop relationships between solar beta angle, slew specifications, and RWA angular momentum growth. The resulting model predicts RWA angular momentum using input solar beta angle and mission schedule data. This model was used to predict RWA angular momentum from October 2013 to October 2014. Predictions agree well with telemetry; of the 23 momentum unloads performed from October 2013 to October 2014, the mean and median magnitude of the RWA total angular momentum prediction error at the time of the momentum unloads were 3.7 and 2.7 Nms, respectively. The magnitude of the largest RWA total angular momentum prediction error was 10.6 Nms. Development of a tool that uses the models presented herein is currently underway.
Localization in momentum space of ultracold atoms in incommensurate lattices
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Larcher, M.; Dalfovo, F.; Modugno, M.
2011-01-15
We characterize the disorder-induced localization in momentum space for ultracold atoms in one-dimensional incommensurate lattices, according to the dual Aubry-Andre model. For low disorder the system is localized in momentum space, and the momentum distribution exhibits time-periodic oscillations of the relative intensity of its components. The behavior of these oscillations is explained by means of a simple three-mode approximation. We predict their frequency and visibility by using typical parameters of feasible experiments. Above the transition the system diffuses in momentum space, and the oscillations vanish when averaged over different realizations, offering a clear signature of the transition.
The mass and angular momentum of reconstructed metric perturbations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van de Meent, Maarten
2017-06-01
We prove a key result regarding the mass and angular momentum content of linear vacuum perturbations of the Kerr metric obtained through the formalism developed by Chrzarnowski, Cohen, and Kegeles (CCK). More precisely, we prove that the Abbott-Deser mass and angular momentum integrals of any such perturbation vanish when that perturbation was obtained from a regular Fourier mode of the Hertz potential. As a corollary we obtain a generalization of previous results on the completion of the ‘no string’ radiation gauge metric perturbation generated by a point particle. We find that for any bound orbit around a Kerr black hole, the mass and angular momentum perturbations completing the CCK metric are simply the energy and angular momentum of the particle ‘outside’ the orbit and vanish ‘inside’ the orbit.
The momentum of an electromagnetic wave inside a dielectric
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Testa, Massimo, E-mail: massimo.testa@roma1.infn.it
2013-09-15
The problem of assigning a momentum to an electromagnetic wave packet propagating inside an insulator has become known under the name of the Abraham–Minkowski controversy. In the present paper we re-examine this issue making the hypothesis that the forces exerted on an insulator by an electromagnetic field do not distinguish between polarization and free charges. Under this assumption we show that the Abraham expression for the radiation mechanical momentum is highly favored. -- Highlights: •We discuss an approximation to treat electrodynamics of a dielectric material. •We support the Abraham form for the electromagnetic momentum. •We deduce Snell’s law from themore » conservation of the Abraham momentum. •We show how to deal with the electric field discontinuity at the dielectric boundary.« less
Momentum-space cigar geometry in topological phases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Palumbo, Giandomenico
2018-01-01
In this paper, we stress the importance of momentum-space geometry in the understanding of two-dimensional topological phases of matter. We focus, for simplicity, on the gapped boundary of three-dimensional topological insulators in class AII, which are described by a massive Dirac Hamiltonian and characterized by an half-integer Chern number. The gap is induced by introducing a magnetic perturbation, such as an external Zeeman field or a ferromagnet on the surface. The quantum Bures metric acquires a central role in our discussion and identifies a cigar geometry. We first derive the Chern number from the cigar geometry and we then show that the quantum metric can be seen as a solution of two-dimensional non-Abelian BF theory in momentum space. The gauge connection for this model is associated to the Maxwell algebra, which takes into account the Lorentz symmetries related to the Dirac theory and the momentum-space magnetic translations connected to the magnetic perturbation. The Witten black-hole metric is a solution of this gauge theory and coincides with the Bures metric. This allows us to calculate the corresponding momentum-space entanglement entropy that surprisingly carries information about the real-space conformal field theory describing the defect lines that can be created on the gapped boundary.
Hidden momentum and the Abraham-Minkowski debate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saldanha, Pablo L.; Filho, J. S. Oliveira
2017-04-01
We use an extended version of electrodynamics, which admits the existence of magnetic charges and currents, to discuss how different models for electric and magnetic dipoles do or do not carry hidden momentum under the influence of external electromagnetic fields. Based on that, we discuss how the models adopted for the electric and magnetic dipoles from the particles that compose a material medium influence the expression for the electromagnetic part of the light momentum in the medium. We show that Abraham expression is compatible with electric dipoles formed by electric charges and magnetic dipoles formed by magnetic charges, while Minkowski expression is compatible with electric dipoles formed by magnetic currents and magnetic dipoles formed by electric currents. The expression ɛ0E ×B , on the other hand, is shown to be compatible with electric dipoles formed by electric charges and magnetic dipoles formed by electric currents, which are much more natural models. So this expression has an interesting interpretation in the Abraham-Minkowski debate about the momentum of light in a medium: It is the expression compatible with the nonexistence of magnetic charges. We also provide a simple justification of why Abraham and Minkowski momenta can be associated with the kinetic and canonical momentum of light, respectively.
Staggering of angular momentum distribution in fission
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tamagno, Pierre; Litaize, Olivier
2018-03-01
We review here the role of angular momentum distributions in the fission process. To do so the algorithm implemented in the FIFRELIN code [?] is detailed with special emphasis on the place of fission fragment angular momenta. The usual Rayleigh distribution used for angular momentum distribution is presented and the related model derivation is recalled. Arguments are given to justify why this distribution should not hold for low excitation energy of the fission fragments. An alternative ad hoc expression taking into account low-lying collectiveness is presented as has been implemented in the FIFRELIN code. Yet on observables currently provided by the code, no dramatic impact has been found. To quantify the magnitude of the impact of the low-lying staggering in the angular momentum distribution, a textbook case is considered for the decay of the 144Ba nucleus with low excitation energy.
An optical model description of momentum transfer in heavy ion collisions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Khan, F.; Khandelwal, G. S.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Wilson, J. W.; Norbury, John W.
1989-01-01
An optical model description of momentum transfer in relativistic heavy ion collisions, based upon composite particle multiple scattering theory, is presented. The imaginary component of the complex momentum transfer, which comes from the absorptive part of the optical potential, is identified as the longitudinal momentum downshift of the projectile. Predictions of fragment momentum distribution observables are made and compared with experimental data. Use of the model as a tool for estimating collision impact parameters is discussed.
The Angular Momentum of Baryons and Dark Matter Halos Revisited
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kimm, Taysun; Devriendt, Julien; Slyz, Adrianne; Pichon, Christophe; Kassin, Susan A.; Dubois, Yohan
2011-01-01
Recent theoretical studies have shown that galaxies at high redshift are fed by cold, dense gas filaments, suggesting angular momentum transport by gas differs from that by dark matter. Revisiting this issue using high-resolution cosmological hydrodynamics simulations with adaptive-mesh refinement (AMR), we find that at the time of accretion, gas and dark matter do carry a similar amount of specific angular momentum, but that it is systematically higher than that of the dark matter halo as a whole. At high redshift, freshly accreted gas rapidly streams into the central region of the halo, directly depositing this large amount of angular momentum within a sphere of radius r = 0.1R(sub vir). In contrast, dark matter particles pass through the central region unscathed, and a fraction of them ends up populating the outer regions of the halo (r/R(sub vir) > 0.1), redistributing angular momentum in the process. As a result, large-scale motions of the cosmic web have to be considered as the origin of gas angular momentum rather than its virialised dark matter halo host. This generic result holds for halos of all masses at all redshifts, as radiative cooling ensures that a significant fraction of baryons remain trapped at the centre of the halos. Despite this injection of angular momentum enriched gas, we predict an amount for stellar discs which is in fair agreement with observations at z=0. This arises because the total specific angular momentum of the baryons (gas and stars) remains close to that of dark matter halos. Indeed, our simulations indicate that any differential loss of angular momentum amplitude between the two components is minor even though dark matter halos continuously lose between half and two-thirds of their specific angular momentum modulus as they evolve. In light of our results, a substantial revision of the standard theory of disc formation seems to be required. We propose a new scenario where gas efficiently carries the angular momentum generated
A systematic construction of microstate geometries with low angular momentum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bena, Iosif; Heidmann, Pierre; Ramírez, Pedro F.
2017-10-01
We outline a systematic procedure to obtain horizonless microstate geometries that have the same charges as three-charge five-dimensional black holes with a macroscopically-large horizon area and an arbitrarily-small angular momentum. There are two routes through which such solutions can be constructed: using multi-center Gibbons-Hawking (GH) spaces or using superstratum technology. So far the only solutions corre-sponding to microstate geometries for black holes with no angular momentum have been obtained via superstrata [1], and multi-center Gibbons-Hawking spaces have been believed to give rise only to microstate geometries of BMPV black holes with a large angular mo-mentum [2]. We perform a thorough search throughout the parameter space of smooth horizonless solutions with four GH centers and find that these have an angular momentum that is generally larger than 80% of the cosmic censorship bound. However, we find that solutions with three GH centers and one supertube (which are smooth in six-dimensional supergravity) can have an arbitrarily-low angular momentum. Our construction thus gives a recipe to build large classes of microstate geometries for zero-angular-momentum black holes without resorting to superstratum technology.
Momentum transfer conduits -- A new microscopic look at porous media
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Moaveni, S.
In this paper, the flow of fluid through porous media is investigated on a microscopic scale by representing a porous medium by an assemblage of hypothetical conduits through which the fluid momentum is transferred across the medium. It is shown that the rate of transfer of fluid momentum depends on the geometrical structure of the conduits such as the number density of momentum transfer conduits (MTCs), the length distribution and the directional distribution of these hypothetical conduits. In addition an expression for the total number of momentum transfer conduits reaching an arbitrary areal element is developed. Finally, an average heightmore » normal to an arbitrary areal element at which the MTCs were last discharged is formulated. This idea leads to definition of momentum thickness, which in turn may be used to define an effective (pseudo) viscosity for a given porous medium.« less
Turbulence induced radial transport of toroidal momentum in boundary plasma of EAST tokamak
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Zhao, N.; Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031; Yan, N., E-mail: yanning@ipp.ac.cn
Turbulence induced toroidal momentum transport in boundary plasma is investigated in H-mode discharge using Langmuir-Mach probes on EAST. The Reynolds stress is found to drive an inward toroidal momentum transport, while the outflow of particles convects the toroidal momentum outwards in the edge plasma. The Reynolds stress driven momentum transport dominates over the passive momentum transport carried by particle flux, which potentially provides a momentum source for the edge plasma. The outflow of particles delivers a momentum flux into the scrape-off layer (SOL) region, contributing as a momentum source for the SOL flows. At the L-H transitions, the outward momentummore » transport suddenly decreases due to the suppression of edge turbulence and associated particle transport. The SOL flows start to decelerate as plasma entering into H-mode. The contributions from turbulent Reynolds stress and particle transport for the toroidal momentum transport are identified. These results shed lights on the understanding of edge plasma accelerating at L-H transitions.« less
Effect of stride length on overarm throwing delivery: A linear momentum response.
Ramsey, Dan K; Crotin, Ryan L; White, Scott
2014-12-01
Changing stride length during overhand throwing delivery is thought to alter total body and throwing arm linear momentums, thereby altering the proportion of throwing arm momentum relative to the total body. Using a randomized cross-over design, nineteen pitchers (15 collegiate and 4 high school) were assigned to pitch two simulated 80-pitch games at ±25% of their desired stride length. An 8-camera motion capture system (240Hz) integrated with two force plates (960Hz) and radar gun tracked each throw. Segmental linear momentums in each plane of motion were summed yielding throwing arm and total body momentums, from which compensation ratio's (relative contribution between the two) were derived. Pairwise comparisons at hallmark events and phases identified significantly different linear momentum profiles, in particular, anteriorly directed total body, throwing arm, and momentum compensation ratios (P⩽.05) as a result of manipulating stride length. Pitchers with shorter strides generated lower forward (anterior) momentum before stride foot contact, whereas greater upward and lateral momentum (toward third base) were evident during the acceleration phase. The evidence suggests insufficient total body momentum in the intended throwing direction may potentially influence performance (velocity and accuracy) and perhaps precipitate throwing arm injuries. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Nonlinear parallel momentum transport in strong electrostatic turbulence
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Wang, Lu, E-mail: luwang@hust.edu.cn; Wen, Tiliang; Diamond, P. H.
2015-05-15
Most existing theoretical studies of momentum transport focus on calculating the Reynolds stress based on quasilinear theory, without considering the nonlinear momentum flux-〈v{sup ~}{sub r}n{sup ~}u{sup ~}{sub ∥}〉. However, a recent experiment on TORPEX found that the nonlinear toroidal momentum flux induced by blobs makes a significant contribution as compared to the Reynolds stress [Labit et al., Phys. Plasmas 18, 032308 (2011)]. In this work, the nonlinear parallel momentum flux in strong electrostatic turbulence is calculated by using a three dimensional Hasegawa-Mima equation, which is relevant for tokamak edge turbulence. It is shown that the nonlinear diffusivity is smaller thanmore » the quasilinear diffusivity from Reynolds stress. However, the leading order nonlinear residual stress can be comparable to the quasilinear residual stress, and so may be important to intrinsic rotation in tokamak edge plasmas. A key difference from the quasilinear residual stress is that parallel fluctuation spectrum asymmetry is not required for nonlinear residual stress.« less
INTERNAL GRAVITY WAVES IN MASSIVE STARS: ANGULAR MOMENTUM TRANSPORT
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Rogers, T. M.; Lin, D. N. C.; McElwaine, J. N.
2013-07-20
We present numerical simulations of internal gravity waves (IGW) in a star with a convective core and extended radiative envelope. We report on amplitudes, spectra, dissipation, and consequent angular momentum transport by such waves. We find that these waves are generated efficiently and transport angular momentum on short timescales over large distances. We show that, as in Earth's atmosphere, IGW drive equatorial flows which change magnitude and direction on short timescales. These results have profound consequences for the observational inferences of massive stars, as well as their long term angular momentum evolution. We suggest IGW angular momentum transport may explainmore » many observational mysteries, such as: the misalignment of hot Jupiters around hot stars, the Be class of stars, Ni enrichment anomalies in massive stars, and the non-synchronous orbits of interacting binaries.« less
Gravity wave momentum flux estimation from CRISTA satellite data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ern, M.; Preusse, P.; Alexander, M. J.; Offermann, D.
2003-04-01
Temperature altitude profiles measured by the CRISTA satellite were analyzed for gravity waves (GWs). Amplitudes, vertical and horizontal wavelengths of GWs are retrieved by applying a combination of maximum entropy method (MEM) and harmonic analysis (HA) to the temperature height profiles and subsequently comparing the so retrieved GW phases of adjacent altitude profiles. From these results global maps of the absolute value of the vertical flux of horizontal momentum have been estimated. Significant differences between distributions of the temperature variance and distributions of the momentum flux exist. For example, global maps of the momentum flux show a pronounced northward shift of the equatorial maximum whereas temperature variance maps of the tropics/subtropics are nearly symmetric with respect to the equator. This indicates the importance of the influence of horizontal and vertical wavelength distribution on global structures of the momentum flux.
The energy-momentum tensor(s) in classical gauge theories
Blaschke, Daniel N.; Gieres, François; Reboud, Méril; ...
2016-07-12
We give an introduction to, and review of, the energy-momentum tensors in classical gauge field theories in Minkowski space, and to some extent also in curved space-time. For the canonical energy-momentum tensor of non-Abelian gauge fields and of matter fields coupled to such fields, we present a new and simple improvement procedure based on gauge invariance for constructing a gauge invariant, symmetric energy-momentum tensor. In conclusion, the relationship with the Einstein-Hilbert tensor following from the coupling to a gravitational field is also discussed.
The total energy-momentum tensor for electromagnetic fields in a dielectric
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Crenshaw, Michael E.
2017-08-01
Radiation pressure is an observable consequence of optically induced forces on materials. On cosmic scales, radiation pressure is responsible for the bending of the tails of comets as they pass near the sun. At a much smaller scale, optically induced forces are being investigated as part of a toolkit for micromanipulation and nanofabrication technology [1]. A number of practical applications of the mechanical effects of light-matter interaction are discussed by Qiu, et al. [2]. The promise of the nascent nanophotonic technology for manufacturing small, low-power, high-sensitivity sensors and other devices has likely motivated the substantial current interest in optical manipulation of materials at the nanoscale, see, for example, Ref. [2] and the references therein. While substantial progress toward optical micromanipulation has been achieved, e.g. optical tweezers [1], in this report we limit our consideration to the particular issue of optically induced forces on a transparent dielectric material. As a matter of electromagnetic theory, these forces remain indeterminate and controversial. Due to the potential applications in nanotechnology, the century-old debate regarding these forces, and the associated momentums, has ramped up considerably in the physics community. The energy-momentum tensor is the centerpiece of conservation laws for the unimpeded, inviscid, incompressible flow of non-interacting particles in the continuum limit in an otherwise empty volume. The foundations of the energy-momentum tensor and the associated tensor conservation theory come to electrodynamics from classical continuum dynamics by applying the divergence theorem to a Taylor series expansion of a property density field of a continuous flow in an otherwise empty volume. The dust tensor is a particularly simple example of an energy-momentum tensor that deals with particles of matter in the continuum limit in terms of the mass density ρm, energy density ρmc 2 , and momentum density
Studies of transverse momentum dependent parton distributions and Bessel weighting
Aghasyan, M.; Avakian, H.; De Sanctis, E.; ...
2015-03-01
In this paper we present a new technique for analysis of transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions, based on the Bessel weighting formalism. The procedure is applied to studies of the double longitudinal spin asymmetry in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering using a new dedicated Monte Carlo generator which includes quark intrinsic transverse momentum within the generalized parton model. Using a fully differential cross section for the process, the effect of four momentum conservation is analyzed using various input models for transverse momentum distributions and fragmentation functions. We observe a few percent systematic offset of the Bessel-weighted asymmetry obtained from Montemore » Carlo extraction compared to input model calculations, which is due to the limitations imposed by the energy and momentum conservation at the given energy/Q2. We find that the Bessel weighting technique provides a powerful and reliable tool to study the Fourier transform of TMDs with controlled systematics due to experimental acceptances and resolutions with different TMD model inputs.« less
Studies of transverse momentum dependent parton distributions and Bessel weighting
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Aghasyan, M.; Avakian, H.; De Sanctis, E.
In this paper we present a new technique for analysis of transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions, based on the Bessel weighting formalism. The procedure is applied to studies of the double longitudinal spin asymmetry in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering using a new dedicated Monte Carlo generator which includes quark intrinsic transverse momentum within the generalized parton model. Using a fully differential cross section for the process, the effect of four momentum conservation is analyzed using various input models for transverse momentum distributions and fragmentation functions. We observe a few percent systematic offset of the Bessel-weighted asymmetry obtained from Montemore » Carlo extraction compared to input model calculations, which is due to the limitations imposed by the energy and momentum conservation at the given energy/Q2. We find that the Bessel weighting technique provides a powerful and reliable tool to study the Fourier transform of TMDs with controlled systematics due to experimental acceptances and resolutions with different TMD model inputs.« less
Gas kinematics, morphology and angular momentum in the FIRE simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
El-Badry, Kareem; Quataert, Eliot; Wetzel, Andrew; Hopkins, Philip F.; Weisz, Daniel R.; Chan, T. K.; Fitts, Alex; Boylan-Kolchin, Michael; Kereš, Dušan; Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André; Garrison-Kimmel, Shea
2018-01-01
We study the z = 0 gas kinematics, morphology and angular momentum content of isolated galaxies in a suite of cosmological zoom-in simulations from the FIRE project spanning Mstar = 106-11 M⊙. Gas becomes increasingly rotationally supported with increasing galaxy mass. In the lowest mass galaxies (Mstar < 108 M⊙), gas fails to form a morphological disc and is primarily dispersion and pressure supported. At intermediate masses (Mstar = 108-10 M⊙), galaxies display a wide range of gas kinematics and morphologies, from thin, rotating discs to irregular spheroids with negligible net rotation. All the high-mass (Mstar = 1010-11 M⊙) galaxies form rotationally supported gas discs. Many of the haloes whose galaxies fail to form discs harbour high angular momentum gas in their circumgalactic medium. The ratio of the specific angular momentum of gas in the central galaxy to that of the dark matter halo increases significantly with galaxy mass, from 〈jgas〉/〈jDM〉 ∼ 0.1 at M_star=10^{6-7} M_{⊙} to 〈jgas〉/〈jDM〉 ∼ 2 at Mstar = 1010-11 M⊙. The reduced rotational support in the lowest mass galaxies owes to (a) stellar feedback and the UV background suppressing the accretion of high angular momentum gas at late times, and (b) stellar feedback driving large non-circular gas motions. We broadly reproduce the observed scaling relations between galaxy mass, gas rotation velocity, size and angular momentum, but may somewhat underpredict the incidence of disky, high angular momentum galaxies at the lowest observed masses (Mstar = (106-2 × 107) M⊙). Stars form preferentially from low angular momentum gas near the galactic centre and are less rotationally supported than gas. The common assumption that stars follow the same rotation curve as gas thus substantially overestimates the simulated galaxies' stellar angular momentum, particularly at low masses.
Plasma momentum meter for momentum flux measurements
Zonca, F.; Cohen, S.A.; Bennett, T.; Timberlake, J.R.
1993-08-24
An apparatus is described for measuring momentum flux from an intense plasma stream, comprising: refractory target means oriented normal to the flow of said plasma stream for bombardment by said plasma stream where said bombardment by said plasma stream applies a pressure to said target means, pendulum means for communicating a translational displacement of said target to a force transducer where said translational displacement of said target is transferred to said force transducer by an elongated member coupled to said target, where said member is suspended by a pendulum configuration means and where said force transducer is responsive to said translational displacement of said member, and force transducer means for outputting a signal representing pressure data corresponding to said displacement.
Mass and angular-momentum inequalities for axi-symmetric initial data sets. II. Angular momentum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chruściel, Piotr T.; Li, Yanyan; Weinstein, Gilbert
2008-10-01
We extend the validity of Dain's angular-momentum inequality to maximal, asymptotically flat, initial data sets on a simply connected manifold with several asymptotically flat ends which are invariant under a U(1) action and which admit a twist potential.
Studies of Transverse Momentum Dependent Parton Distributions and Bessel Weighting
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gamberg, Leonard
2015-04-01
We present a new technique for analysis of transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions, based on the Bessel weighting formalism. Advantages of employing Bessel weighting are that transverse momentum weighted asymmetries provide a means to disentangle the convolutions in the cross section in a model independent way. The resulting compact expressions immediately connect to work on evolution equations for transverse momentum dependent parton distribution and fragmentation functions. As a test case, we apply the procedure to studies of the double longitudinal spin asymmetry in SIDIS using a dedicated Monte Carlo generator which includes quark intrinsic transverse momentum within the generalized parton model. Using a fully differential cross section for the process, the effect of four momentum conservation is analyzed using various input models for transverse momentum distributions and fragmentation functions. We observe a few percent systematic offset of the Bessel-weighted asymmetry obtained from Monte Carlo extraction compared to input model calculations. Bessel weighting provides a powerful and reliable tool to study the Fourier transform of TMDs with controlled systematics due to experimental acceptances and resolutions with different TMD model inputs. Work is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-FG02-07ER41460.
Studies of Transverse Momentum Dependent Parton Distributions and Bessel Weighting
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gamberg, Leonard
2015-10-01
We present a new technique for analysis of transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions, based on the Bessel weighting formalism. Advantages of employing Bessel weighting are that transverse momentum weighted asymmetries provide a means to disentangle the convolutions in the cross section in a model independent way. The resulting compact expressions immediately connect to work on evolution equations for transverse momentum dependent parton distribution and fragmentation functions. As a test case, we apply the procedure to studies of the double longitudinal spin asymmetry in SIDIS using a dedicated Monte Carlo generator which includes quark intrinsic transverse momentum within the generalized parton model. Using a fully differential cross section for the process, the effect of four momentum conservation is analyzed using various input models for transverse momentum distributions and fragmentation functions. We observe a few percent systematic offset of the Bessel-weighted asymmetry obtained from Monte Carlo extraction compared to input model calculations. Bessel weighting provides a powerful and reliable tool to study the Fourier transform of TMDs with controlled systematics due to experimental acceptances and resolutions with different TMD model inputs. Work is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-FG02-07ER41460.
Axial momentum lost to a lateral wall of a helicon plasma source.
Takahashi, Kazunori; Chiba, Aiki; Komuro, Atsushi; Ando, Akira
2015-05-15
Momentum exerted to a lateral wall of a helicon plasma source is individually measured for argon, krypton, and xenon gases. A significant loss of the axial plasma momentum to the lateral wall, which has been assumed to be negligible, is experimentally identified when an axially asymmetric density profile is formed in the source. This indicates that the radially lost ions deliver not only the radial momentum but also the axial momentum to the lateral wall. The formation of the axial asymmetry causing the momentum loss is interpreted with competition between the magnetic field and neutral depletion effects.
Bootstrapping rapidity anomalous dimensions for transverse-momentum resummation
Li, Ye; Zhu, Hua Xing
2017-01-11
Soft function relevant for transverse-momentum resummation for Drell-Yan or Higgs production at hadron colliders are computed through to three loops in the expansion of strong coupling, with the help of bootstrap technique and supersymmetric decomposition. The corresponding rapidity anomalous dimension is extracted. Furthermore, an intriguing relation between anomalous dimensions for transverse-momentum resummation and threshold resummation is found.
Jet axes and universal transverse-momentum-dependent fragmentation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Neill, Duff; Scimemi, Ignazio; Waalewijn, Wouter J.
2017-04-01
We study the transverse momentum spectrum of hadrons in jets. By measuring the transverse momentum with respect to a judiciously chosen axis, we find that this observable is insensitive to (the recoil of) soft radiation. Furthermore, for small transverse momenta we show that the effects of the jet boundary factorize, leading to a new transverse-momentum-dependent (TMD) fragmentation function. In contrast to the usual TMD fragmentation functions, it does not involve rapidity divergences and is universal in the sense that it is independent of the type of process and number of jets. These results directly apply to sub-jets instead of hadrons. We discuss potential applications, which include studying nuclear modification effects in heavy-ion collisions and identifying boosted heavy resonances.
Proposed CMG momentum management scheme for space station
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bishop, L. R.; Bishop, R. H.; Lindsay, K. L.
1987-01-01
A discrete control moment gyro (CMG) momentum management scheme (MMS) applicable to spacecraft with principal axes misalignments, such as the proposed NASA dual keel space station, is presented in this paper. The objective of the MMS is to minmize CMG angular momentum storage requirements for maintaining the space station near local vertical in the presence of environmental disturbances. It utilizes available environmental disturbances, namely gravity gradient torques, to minimize CMG momentum storage. The MMS is executed once per orbit and generates a commanded torque equilibrium attitude (TEA) time history which consists of a yaw, pitch and roll angle command profile. Although the algorithm is called only once per orbit to compute the TEA profile, the space station will maneuver several discrete times each orbit.
Chirality and the angular momentum of light
Götte, Jörg B.; Barnett, Stephen M.; Yao, Alison M.
2017-01-01
Chirality is exhibited by objects that cannot be rotated into their mirror images. It is far from obvious that this has anything to do with the angular momentum of light, which owes its existence to rotational symmetries. There is nevertheless a subtle connection between chirality and the angular momentum of light. We demonstrate this connection and, in particular, its significance in the context of chiral light–matter interactions. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Optical orbital angular momentum’. PMID:28069764
Hovering Dual-Spin Vehicle Groundwork for Bias Momentum Sizing Validation Experiment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rothhaar, Paul M.; Moerder, Daniel D.; Lim, Kyong B.
2008-01-01
Angular bias momentum offers significant stability augmentation for hovering flight vehicles. The reliance of the vehicle on thrust vectoring for agility and disturbance rejection is greatly reduced with significant levels of stored angular momentum in the system. A methodical procedure for bias momentum sizing has been developed in previous studies. This current study provides groundwork for experimental validation of that method using an experimental vehicle called the Dual-Spin Test Device, a thrust-levitated platform. Using measured data the vehicle's thrust vectoring units are modeled and a gust environment is designed and characterized. Control design is discussed. Preliminary experimental results of the vehicle constrained to three rotational degrees of freedom are compared to simulation for a case containing no bias momentum to validate the simulation. A simulation of a bias momentum dominant case is presented.
DOE R&D Accomplishments Database
Cronin, J. W.; Frisch, H. J.; Shochet, M. J.; Boymond, J. P.; Mermod, R.; Piroue, P. A.; Sumner, R. L.
1974-07-15
In an experiment at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory we have compared the production of large transverse momentum hadrons from targets of W, Ti, and Be bombarded by 300 GeV protons. The hadron yields were measured at 90 degrees in the proton-nucleon c.m. system with a magnetic spectrometer equipped with 2 Cerenkov counters and a hadron calorimeter. The production cross-sections have a dependence on the atomic number A that grows with P{sub 1}, eventually leveling off proportional to A{sup 1.1}.
Maximum Torque and Momentum Envelopes for Reaction Wheel Arrays
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reynolds, R. G.; Markley, F. Landis
2001-01-01
Spacecraft reaction wheel maneuvers are limited by the maximum torque and/or angular momentum which the wheels can provide. For an n-wheel configuration, the torque or momentum envelope can be obtained by projecting the n-dimensional hypercube, representing the domain boundary of individual wheel torques or momenta, into three dimensional space via the 3xn matrix of wheel axes. In this paper, the properties of the projected hypercube are discussed, and algorithms are proposed for determining this maximal torque or momentum envelope for general wheel configurations. Practical implementation strategies for specific wheel configurations are also considered.
Tropical Gravity Wave Momentum Fluxes and Latent Heating Distributions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Geller, Marvin A.; Zhou, Tiehan; Love, Peter T.
2015-01-01
Recent satellite determinations of global distributions of absolute gravity wave (GW) momentum fluxes in the lower stratosphere show maxima over the summer subtropical continents and little evidence of GW momentum fluxes associated with the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ). This seems to be at odds with parameterizations forGWmomentum fluxes, where the source is a function of latent heating rates, which are largest in the region of the ITCZ in terms of monthly averages. The authors have examined global distributions of atmospheric latent heating, cloud-top-pressure altitudes, and lower-stratosphere absolute GW momentum fluxes and have found that monthly averages of the lower-stratosphere GW momentum fluxes more closely resemble the monthly mean cloud-top altitudes rather than the monthly mean rates of latent heating. These regions of highest cloud-top altitudes occur when rates of latent heating are largest on the time scale of cloud growth. This, plus previously published studies, suggests that convective sources for stratospheric GW momentum fluxes, being a function of the rate of latent heating, will require either a climate model to correctly model this rate of latent heating or some ad hoc adjustments to account for shortcomings in a climate model's land-sea differences in convective latent heating.
Poloidal rotation driven by nonlinear momentum transport in strong electrostatic turbulence
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Wang, Lu; Wen, Tiliang; Diamond, P. H.
2016-08-11
Virtually, all existing theoretical works on turbulent poloidal momentum transport are based on quasilinear theory. Nonlinear poloidal momentum flux—more » $$\\langle {{\\tilde{v}}_{r}}\\tilde{n}{{\\tilde{v}}_{\\theta}}\\rangle $$ is universally neglected. However, in the strong turbulence regime where relative fluctuation amplitude is no longer small, quasilinear theory is invalid. This is true at the all-important plasma edge. In this work, nonlinear poloidal momentum flux $$\\langle {{\\tilde{v}}_{r}}\\tilde{n}{{\\tilde{v}}_{\\theta}}\\rangle $$ in strong electrostatic turbulence is calculated using the Hasegawa–Mima equation, and is compared with quasilinear poloidal Reynolds stress. A novel property is that symmetry breaking in fluctuation spectrum is not necessary for a nonlinear poloidal momentum flux. This is fundamentally different from the quasilinear Reynold stress. Furthermore, the comparison implies that the poloidal rotation drive from the radial gradient of nonlinear momentum flux is comparable to that from the quasilinear Reynolds force. Nonlinear poloidal momentum transport in strong electrostatic turbulence is thus not negligible for poloidal rotation drive, and so may be significant to transport barrier formation.« less
Relation of the runaway avalanche threshold to momentum space topology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McDevitt, Christopher J.; Guo, Zehua; Tang, Xian-Zhu
2018-02-01
The underlying physics responsible for the formation of an avalanche instability due to the generation of secondary electrons is studied. A careful examination of the momentum space topology of the runaway electron population is carried out with an eye toward identifying how qualitative changes in the momentum space of the runaway electrons is correlated with the avalanche threshold. It is found that the avalanche threshold is tied to the merger of an O and X point in the momentum space of the primary runaway electron population. Such a change of the momentum space topology is shown to be accurately described by a simple analytic model, thus providing a powerful means of determining the avalanche threshold for a range of model assumptions.
Relation of the runaway avalanche threshold to momentum space topology
McDevitt, Christopher J.; Guo, Zehua; Tang, Xian -Zhu
2018-01-05
Here, the underlying physics responsible for the formation of an avalanche instability due to the generation of secondary electrons is studied. A careful examination of the momentum space topology of the runaway electron population is carried out with an eye toward identifying how qualitative changes in the momentum space of the runaway electrons is correlated with the avalanche threshold. It is found that the avalanche threshold is tied to the merger of an O and X point in the momentum space of the primary runaway electron population. Such a change of the momentum space topology is shown to be accuratelymore » described by a simple analytic model, thus providing a powerful means of determining the avalanche threshold for a range of model assumptions.« less
Relation of the runaway avalanche threshold to momentum space topology
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
McDevitt, Christopher J.; Guo, Zehua; Tang, Xian -Zhu
Here, the underlying physics responsible for the formation of an avalanche instability due to the generation of secondary electrons is studied. A careful examination of the momentum space topology of the runaway electron population is carried out with an eye toward identifying how qualitative changes in the momentum space of the runaway electrons is correlated with the avalanche threshold. It is found that the avalanche threshold is tied to the merger of an O and X point in the momentum space of the primary runaway electron population. Such a change of the momentum space topology is shown to be accuratelymore » described by a simple analytic model, thus providing a powerful means of determining the avalanche threshold for a range of model assumptions.« less
Interaction of a magnet and a point charge: Unrecognized internal electromagnetic momentum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boyer, Timothy H.
2015-05-01
Whereas nonrelativistic mechanics always connects the total momentum of a system to the motion of the center of mass, relativistic systems, such as interacting electromagnetic charges, can have internal linear momentum in the absence of motion of the system's center of energy. This internal linear momentum of a system is related to the controversial concept of "hidden momentum." We suggest that the term "hidden momentum" be abandoned. Here, we use the relativistic conservation law for the center of energy to give an unambiguous definition of the "internal momentum of a system," and then we exhibit this internal momentum for the system of a magnet (modeled as a circular ring of moving charges) and a distant static point charge. The calculations provide clear illustrations of this system for three cases: (a) the moving charges of the magnet are assumed to continue in their unperturbed motion; (b) the moving charges of the magnet are free to accelerate but have no mutual interactions; and (c) the moving charges of the magnet are free to accelerate and also interact with each other. When the current-carrying charges of the magnet are allowed to interact, the magnet itself will contain internal electromagnetic linear momentum, something that has not been described clearly in the research and teaching literature.
Momentum distributions for H 2 ( e , e ' p )
Ford, William P.; Jeschonnek, Sabine; Van Orden, J. W.
2014-12-29
[Background] A primary goal of deuteron electrodisintegration is the possibility of extracting the deuteron momentum distribution. This extraction is inherently fraught with difficulty, as the momentum distribution is not an observable and the extraction relies on theoretical models dependent on other models as input. [Purpose] We present a new method for extracting the momentum distribution which takes into account a wide variety of model inputs thus providing a theoretical uncertainty due to the various model constituents. [Method] The calculations presented here are using a Bethe-Salpeter like formalism with a wide variety of bound state wave functions, form factors, and finalmore » state interactions. We present a method to extract the momentum distributions from experimental cross sections, which takes into account the theoretical uncertainty from the various model constituents entering the calculation. [Results] In order to test the extraction pseudo-data was generated, and the extracted "experimental'' distribution, which has theoretical uncertainty from the various model inputs, was compared with the theoretical distribution used to generate the pseudo-data. [Conclusions] In the examples we compared the original distribution was typically within the error band of the extracted distribution. The input wave functions do contain some outliers which are discussed in the text, but at least this process can provide an upper bound on the deuteron momentum distribution. Due to the reliance on the theoretical calculation to obtain this quantity any extraction method should account for the theoretical error inherent in these calculations due to model inputs.« less
Intense structures of different momentum fluxes in turbulent channels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Osawa, Kosuke; Jiménez, Javier
2018-04-01
The effect of different definitions of the momentum flux on the properties of the coherent structures of the logarithmic region of wall-bounded turbulence is investigated by comparing the structures of intense tangential Reynolds stress with those of the alternative flux proposed in [Jimenez (2016) J. Fluid Mech. 809:585]. Despite the fairly different statistical properties of the two flux definitions, it is found that their intense structures show many similarities, such as the dominance of ‘wall-attached’ objects, and geometric self-similarity. However, the new structures are wider, although not taller, than the classical ones, and include both high- and low-momentum regions within the same object. It is concluded that they represent the same phenomenon as the classical group of a sweep, an ejection, and a roller, which should thus be considered as the fundamental coherent structure of the momentum flux. The present results suggest that the properties of these momentum structures are robust with respect to the definition of the fluxes.
Low-momentum ghost dressing function and the gluon mass
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Boucaud, Ph.; Leroy, J. P.; Le Yaouanc, A.
2010-09-01
We study the low-momentum ghost propagator Dyson-Schwinger equation in the Landau gauge, assuming for the truncation a constant ghost-gluon vertex, as it is extensively done, and a simple model for a massive gluon propagator. Then, regular Dyson-Schwinger equation solutions (the zero-momentum ghost dressing function not diverging) appear to emerge, and we show the ghost propagator to be described by an asymptotic expression reliable up to the order O(q{sup 2}). That expression, depending on the gluon mass and the zero-momentum Taylor-scheme effective charge, is proven to fit pretty well some low-momentum ghost propagator data [I. L. Bogolubsky, E. M. Ilgenfritz, M.more » Muller-Preussker, and A. Sternbeck, Phys. Lett. B 676, 69 (2009); Proc. Sci., LAT2007 (2007) 290] from big-volume lattice simulations where the so-called ''simulated annealing algorithm'' is applied to fix the Landau gauge.« less
Spacecraft momentum unloading using controlled magnetic torques
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Linder, David M. (Inventor); Goodzeit, Neil E. (Inventor); Schwarzschild, Marc (Inventor)
1992-01-01
A method for maintaining the attitude of a three-axis controlled satellite by use of magnetic torquers includes using magnetometers for measuring the direction of the ambient geomagnetic field. The direction of the net reaction wheel momentum is also determined. The angle between the direction of the geomagnetic field and the net reaction wheel momentum is determined. The angle is compared with a threshold value. Magnetic torquer power consumption is reduced by operating the magnetic torquers only when the angle exceeds the threshold value.
Polarization momentum transfer collision: Faxen-Holtzmark theory and quantum dynamic shielding.
Ki, Dae-Han; Jung, Young-Dae
2013-04-21
The influence of the quantum dynamic shielding on the polarization momentum transport collision is investigated by using the Faxen-Holtzmark theory in strongly coupled Coulomb systems. The electron-atom polarization momentum transport cross section is derived as a function of the collision energy, de Broglie wavelength, Debye length, thermal energy, and atomic quantum states. It is found that the dynamic shielding enhances the scattering phase shift as well as the polarization momentum transport cross section. The variation of quantum effect on the momentum transport collision due to the change of thermal energy and de Broglie wavelength is also discussed.
Perturbative momentum transport in MAST L-mode plasmas
Guttenfelder, W.; Field, A. R.; Lupelli, I.; ...
2017-03-28
Non-axisymmetric magnetic fields are used to perturbatively probe momentum transport physics in MAST L-mode plasmas. The low beta L-mode target was chosen to complement previous experiments conducted in high beta NSTX H-mode plasmas (beta N = 3.5-4.6) where an inward momentum pinch was measured. In those cases quasi-linear gyrokinetic simulations of unstable ballooning micro-instabilities predict weak or outward momentum convection, in contrast to the measurements. The weak pinch was predicted to be due to both electromagnetic effects at high beta and low aspect ratio minimizing the symmetry-breaking of the instabilities responsible for momentum transport. In an attempt to lessen thesemore » electromagnetic effects at low aspect ratio, perturbative experiments were run in MAST L-mode discharges at lower beta (beta N = 2). The perturbative transport analysis used the time-dependent response following the termination of applied 3D fields that briefly brake the plasma rotation ( similar to the NSTX H-mode experiments). Assuming time-invariant diffusive (chi(phi))and convective (V-phi) transport coefficients, an inward pinch is inferred with magnitudes, (RV phi/chi(phi)) = (-1)-(-9), similar to those found in NSTX H-modes and in conventional tokamaks. However, if experimental uncertainties due to non-stationary conditions during and after the applied 3D field are considered, a weak pinch or even outward convection is inferred, ( RV phi/chi(phi)) = (-1)-(+5). Linear gyrokinetic simulations indicate that for these lower beta L-modes, the predicted momentum pinch is predicted to be relatively small, ( RV phi/chi(phi))(sim) approximate to -1. While this falls within the experimentally inferred range, the uncertainties are practically too large to quantitatively validate the predictions. Challenges and implications for this particular experimental technique are discussed, as well as additional possible physical mechanisms that may be important in understanding momentum
Perturbative momentum transport in MAST L-mode plasmas
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Guttenfelder, W.; Field, A. R.; Lupelli, I.
Non-axisymmetric magnetic fields are used to perturbatively probe momentum transport physics in MAST L-mode plasmas. The low beta L-mode target was chosen to complement previous experiments conducted in high beta NSTX H-mode plasmas (beta N = 3.5-4.6) where an inward momentum pinch was measured. In those cases quasi-linear gyrokinetic simulations of unstable ballooning micro-instabilities predict weak or outward momentum convection, in contrast to the measurements. The weak pinch was predicted to be due to both electromagnetic effects at high beta and low aspect ratio minimizing the symmetry-breaking of the instabilities responsible for momentum transport. In an attempt to lessen thesemore » electromagnetic effects at low aspect ratio, perturbative experiments were run in MAST L-mode discharges at lower beta (beta N = 2). The perturbative transport analysis used the time-dependent response following the termination of applied 3D fields that briefly brake the plasma rotation ( similar to the NSTX H-mode experiments). Assuming time-invariant diffusive (chi(phi))and convective (V-phi) transport coefficients, an inward pinch is inferred with magnitudes, (RV phi/chi(phi)) = (-1)-(-9), similar to those found in NSTX H-modes and in conventional tokamaks. However, if experimental uncertainties due to non-stationary conditions during and after the applied 3D field are considered, a weak pinch or even outward convection is inferred, ( RV phi/chi(phi)) = (-1)-(+5). Linear gyrokinetic simulations indicate that for these lower beta L-modes, the predicted momentum pinch is predicted to be relatively small, ( RV phi/chi(phi))(sim) approximate to -1. While this falls within the experimentally inferred range, the uncertainties are practically too large to quantitatively validate the predictions. Challenges and implications for this particular experimental technique are discussed, as well as additional possible physical mechanisms that may be important in understanding momentum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Falter, James L.; Lowe, Ryan J.; Zhang, Zhenlin
2016-09-01
Here we synthesize data from previous field and laboratory studies describing how rates of nutrient uptake and metabolite exchange (mass transfer) are related to form drag and bottom stresses (momentum transfer). Reanalysis of this data shows that rates of mass transfer are highly correlated (r2 ≥ 0.9) with the root of the bottom stress (τbot0.4) under both waves and currents and only slightly higher under waves (~10%). The amount of mass transfer that can occur per unit bottom stress (or form drag) is influenced by morphological features ranging anywhere from millimeters to meters in scale; however, surface-scale roughness (millimeters) appears to have little effect on actual nutrient uptake by living reef communities. Although field measurements of nutrient uptake by natural reef communities agree reasonably well with predictions based on existing mass-momentum transfer relationships, more work is needed to better constrain these relationships for more rugose and morphologically complex communities.
Waters Rockets for Teaching Momentum and Energy Concepts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sizemore, Jim; Parish, R. J.; Hooten, James T.
2012-10-01
Concepts regarding momentum and energy are especially difficult for students to grasp and concrete examples are valuable. We will discuss, and show video, of launching water rockets using standard plastic soda and water bottles and describe the launcher composed of PVC pipe and a bicycle pump. We pose the question to students of the ratio of water to air that achieves the greatest time-of-flight. Immediate feedback is obtained by immediately testing student's hypotheses. After several launches the students understanding of Newton's Third Law and momentum and energy concepts improves. This is an engaging activity, students enjoy watching their instructors become thoroughly drenched, and students are enthusiastic. This enthusiasm, fun, and immediate testing of hypotheses reinforce momentum and energy concepts as will be shown by questionnaire results.
1D momentum-conserving systems: the conundrum of anomalous versus normal heat transport
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Yunyun; Liu, Sha; Li, Nianbei; Hänggi, Peter; Li, Baowen
2015-04-01
Transport and the spread of heat in Hamiltonian one dimensional momentum conserving nonlinear systems is commonly thought to proceed anomalously. Notable exceptions, however, do exist of which the coupled rotator model is a prominent case. Therefore, the quest arises to identify the origin of manifest anomalous energy and momentum transport in those low dimensional systems. We develop the theory for both, the statistical densities for momentum- and energy-spread and particularly its momentum-/heat-diffusion behavior, as well as its corresponding momentum/heat transport features. We demonstrate that the second temporal derivative of the mean squared deviation of the momentum spread is proportional to the equilibrium correlation of the total momentum flux. Subtracting the part which corresponds to a ballistic momentum spread relates (via this integrated, subleading momentum flux correlation) to an effective viscosity, or equivalently, to the underlying momentum diffusivity. We next put forward the intriguing hypothesis: normal spread of this so adjusted excess momentum density causes normal energy spread and alike normal heat transport (Fourier Law). Its corollary being that an anomalous, superdiffusive broadening of this adjusted excess momentum density in turn implies an anomalous energy spread and correspondingly anomalous, superdiffusive heat transport. This hypothesis is successfully corroborated within extensive molecular dynamics simulations over large extended time scales. Our numerical validation of the hypothesis involves four distinct archetype classes of nonlinear pair-interaction potentials: (i) a globally bounded pair interaction (the noted coupled rotator model), (ii) unbounded interactions acting at large distances (the coupled rotator model amended with harmonic pair interactions), (iii) the case of a hard point gas with unbounded square-well interactions and (iv) a pair interaction potential being unbounded at short distances while displaying an
Momentum loss in proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Khan, Ferdous; Townsend, Lawrence W.
1993-01-01
An optical model description, based on multiple scattering theory, of longitudinal momentum loss in proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions is presented. The crucial role of the imaginary component of the nucleon-nucleon transition matrix in accounting for longitudinal momentum transfer is demonstrated. Results obtained with this model are compared with Intranuclear Cascade (INC) calculations, as well as with predictions from Vlasov-Uehling-Uhlenbeck (VUU) and quantum molecular dynamics (QMD) simulations. Comparisons are also made with experimental data where available. These indicate that the present model is adequate to account for longitudinal momentum transfer in both proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions over a wide range of energies.
Transverse momentum resummation for dijet correlation in hadronic collisions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Peng; Yuan, C.-P.; Yuan, Feng
2015-11-01
We study transverse momentum resummation for the azimuthal angular correlation in dijet production in hadron collisions based on the Collins-Soper-Sterman formalism. The complete one-loop calculations are carried out in the collinear framework for the differential cross sections at low imbalance transverse momentum between the two jets. Important cross-checks are performed to demonstrate that the soft divergences are canceled out between different diagrams and, in particular, for those associated with the final state jets. The leading and subleading logarithms are identified. All order resummation is derived following the transverse momentum dependent factorization at this order. Its phenomenological applications are also presented.
An interactive computer program for sizing spacecraft momentum storage devices
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wilcox, F. J., Jr.
1980-01-01
An interactive computer program was developed which computes the sizing requirements for nongimbled reaction wheels, control moment gyros (CMG), and dual momentum control devices (DMCD) used in Earth-orbiting spacecraft. The program accepts as inputs the spacecraft's environmental disturbance torques, rotational inertias, maneuver rates, and orbital data. From these inputs, wheel weights are calculated for a range of radii and rotational speeds. The shape of the momentum wheel may be chosen to be either a hoop, solid cylinder, or annular cylinder. The program provides graphic output illustrating the trade-off potential between the weight, radius, and wheel speed. A number of the intermediate calculations such as the X-, Y-, and Z-axis total momentum, the momentum absorption requirements for reaction wheels, CMG's, DMCD's, and basic orbit analysis information are also provided as program output.
Zero-point angular momentum of supersymmetric Penning trap
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Jian-zu; Xu, Qiang
2000-10-01
The quantum behavior of supersymmetric Penning trap, specially the superpartner of its angular momentum, is investigated in the formulation of multi-dimensional semiunitary transformation of supersymmetric quantum mechanics. In the limit case of vanishing kinetic energy it is found that its lowest angular momentum is 3ℏ/2, which provides a possibility of directly checking the idea of supersymmetric quantum mechanics and thus suggests a possible experimental verification about this prediction.
Symmetric large momentum transfer for atom interferometry with BECs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abend, Sven; Gebbe, Martina; Gersemann, Matthias; Rasel, Ernst M.; Quantus Collaboration
2017-04-01
We develop and demonstrate a novel scheme for a symmetric large momentum transfer beam splitter for interferometry with Bose-Einstein condensates. Large momentum transfer beam splitters are a key technique to enhance the scaling factor and sensitivity of an atom interferometer and to create largely delocalized superposition states. To realize the beam splitter, double Bragg diffraction is used to create a superposition of two symmetric momentum states. Afterwards both momentum states are loaded into a retro-reflected optical lattice and accelerated by Bloch oscillations on opposite directions, keeping the initial symmetry. The favorable scaling behavior of this symmetric acceleration, allows to transfer more than 1000 ℏk of total differential splitting in a single acceleration sequence of 6 ms duration while we still maintain a fraction of approx. 25% of the initial atom number. As a proof of the coherence of this beam splitter, contrast in a closed Mach-Zehnder atom interferometer has been observed with up to 208 ℏk of momentum separation, which equals a differential wave-packet velocity of approx. 1.1 m/s for 87Rb. The presented work is supported by the CRC 1128 geo-Q and the DLR with funds provided by the Federal Ministry of Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi) due to an enactment of the German Bundestag under Grant No. DLR 50WM1552-1557 (QUANTUS-IV-Fallturm).
Energy-momentum tensor of bouncing gravitons
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Iofa, Mikhail Z.
2015-07-14
In models of the Universe with extra dimensions gravity propagates in the whole space-time. Graviton production by matter on the brane is significant in the early hot Universe. In a model of 3-brane with matter embedded in 5D space-time conditions for gravitons emitted from the brane to the bulk to return back to the brane are found. For a given 5-momentum of graviton falling back to the brane the interval between the times of emission and return to the brane is calculated. A method to calculate contribution to the energy-momentum tensor from multiple graviton bouncings is developed. Explicit expressions formore » contributions to the energy-momentum tensor of gravitons which have made one, two and three bounces are obtained and their magnitudes are numerically calculated. These expressions are used to solve the evolution equation for dark radiation. A relation connecting reheating temperature and the scale of extra dimension is obtained. For the reheating temperature T{sub R}∼10{sup 6} GeV we estimate the scale of extra dimension μ to be of order 10{sup −9} GeV (μ{sup −1}∼10{sup −5} cm)« less
Energy-momentum tensor of bouncing gravitons
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Iofa, Mikhail Z., E-mail: iofa@theory.sinp.msu.ru
2015-07-01
In models of the Universe with extra dimensions gravity propagates in the whole space-time. Graviton production by matter on the brane is significant in the early hot Universe. In a model of 3-brane with matter embedded in 5D space-time conditions for gravitons emitted from the brane to the bulk to return back to the brane are found. For a given 5-momentum of graviton falling back to the brane the interval between the times of emission and return to the brane is calculated. A method to calculate contribution to the energy-momentum tensor from multiple graviton bouncings is developed. Explicit expressions formore » contributions to the energy-momentum tensor of gravitons which have made one, two and three bounces are obtained and their magnitudes are numerically calculated. These expressions are used to solve the evolution equation for dark radiation. A relation connecting reheating temperature and the scale of extra dimension is obtained. For the reheating temperature T{sub R}∼ 10{sup 6} GeV we estimate the scale of extra dimension μ to be of order 10{sup −9} GeV (μ{sup −1}∼ 10{sup −5} cm)« less
Singularity in the Laboratory Frame Angular Distribution Derived in Two-Body Scattering Theory
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dick, Frank; Norbury, John W.
2009-01-01
The laboratory (lab) frame angular distribution derived in two-body scattering theory exhibits a singularity at the maximum lab scattering angle. The singularity appears in the kinematic factor that transforms the centre of momentum (cm) angular distribution to the lab angular distribution. We show that it is caused in the transformation by the…
Too Much Too Fast: The Dangers of Technological Momentum.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dyer, Dean
This paper discusses the dangers of technological momentum. Technological momentum is defined as the increase in the rate of the evolution of technology, its infusion into societal tasks and recreations, society's dependence on technology, and the impact of technology on society. Topics of discussion include changes in response to user needs,…
Angular momentum exchange in white dwarf binaries accreting through direct impact
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Sepinsky, J. F.; Kalogera, V., E-mail: jeremy.sepinsky@scranton.edu, E-mail: vicky@northwestern.edu
We examine the exchange of angular momentum between the component spins and the orbit in semi-detached double white dwarf binaries undergoing mass transfer through direct impact of the transfer stream. We approximate the stream as a series of discrete massive particles ejected in the ballistic limit at the inner Lagrangian point of the donor toward the accretor. This work improves upon similar earlier studies in a number of ways. First, we self-consistently calculate the total angular momentum of the orbit at all times. This includes changes in the orbital angular momentum during the ballistic trajectory of the ejected mass, asmore » well as changes during the ejection/accretion due to the radial component of the particle's velocity. Second, we calculate the particle's ballistic trajectory for each system, which allows us to determine the precise position and velocity of the particle upon accretion. We can then include specific information about the radius of the accretor as well as the angle of impact. Finally, we ensure that the total angular momentum is conserved, which requires the donor star spin to vary self-consistently. With these improvements, we calculate the angular momentum change of the orbit and each binary component across the entire parameter space of direct impact double white dwarf binary systems. We find a significant decrease in the amount of angular momentum removed from the orbit during mass transfer, as well as cases where this process increases the angular momentum of the orbit at the expense of the spin angular momentum of the donor. We conclude that, unlike earlier claims in the literature, mass transfer through direct impact need not destabilize the binary and that the quantity and sign of the orbital angular momentum transfer depends on the binary properties, particularly the masses of the double white dwarf binary component stars. This stabilization may significantly impact the population synthesis calculations of the expected numbers
Predicting rainfall erosivity by momentum and kinetic energy in Mediterranean environment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carollo, Francesco G.; Ferro, Vito; Serio, Maria A.
2018-05-01
Rainfall erosivity is an index that describes the power of rainfall to cause soil erosion and it is used around the world for assessing and predicting soil loss on agricultural lands. Erosivity can be represented in terms of both rainfall momentum and kinetic energy, both calculated per unit time and area. Contrasting results on the representativeness of these two variables are available: some authors stated that momentum and kinetic energy are practically interchangeable in soil loss estimation while other found that kinetic energy is the most suitable expression of rainfall erosivity. The direct and continuous measurements of momentum and kinetic energy by a disdrometer allow also to establish a relationship with rainfall intensity at the study site. At first in this paper a comparison between the momentum-rainfall intensity relationships measured at Palermo and El Teularet by an optical disdrometer is presented. For a fixed rainfall intensity the measurements showed that the rainfall momentum values measured at the two experimental sites are not coincident. However both datasets presented a threshold value of rainfall intensity over which the rainfall momentum assumes a quasi-constant value. Then the reliability of a theoretically deduced relationship, linking momentum, rainfall intensity and median volume diameter, is positively verified using measured raindrop size distributions. An analysis to assess which variable, momentum or kinetic energy per unit area and time, is the best predictor of erosivity in Italy and Spain was also carried out. This investigation highlighted that the rainfall kinetic energy per unit area and time can be substituted by rainfall momentum as index for estimating the rainfall erosivity, and this result does not depend on the site where precipitation occurs. Finally, rainfall intensity measurements and soil loss data collected from the bare plots equipped at Sparacia experimental area were used to verify the reliability of some
Twisted molecular excitons as mediators for changing the angular momentum of light
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zang, Xiaoning; Lusk, Mark T.
2017-07-01
Molecules with CN or CN h symmetry can absorb quanta of optical angular momentum to generate twisted excitons with well-defined quasiangular momenta of their own. Angular momentum is conserved in such interactions at the level of a paraxial approximation for the light beam. A sequence of absorption events can thus be used to create a range of excitonic angular momenta. Subsequent decay can produce radiation with a single angular momentum equal to that accumulated. Such molecules can thus be viewed as mediators for changing the angular momentum of light. This sidesteps the need to exploit nonlinear light-matter interactions based on higher-order susceptibilities. A tight-binding paradigm is used to verify angular momentum conservation and demonstrate how it can be exploited to change the angular momentum of light. The approach is then extended to a time-dependent density functional theory setting where the key results are shown to hold in a many-body, multilevel setting.
Modeling of Momentum Correlations in Heavy Ion Collisions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pruneau, Claude; Sharma, Monika
2010-02-01
Measurements of transverse momentum (pt) correlations and fluctuations in heavy ion collisions (HIC) are of interest because they provide information on the collision dynamics not readily available from number correlations. For instance, pt fluctuations are expected to diverge for a system near its tri-critical point [1]. Integral momentum correlations may also be used to estimate the shear viscosity of the quark gluon plasma produced in HIC [2]. Integral correlations measured over large fractions of the particle phase space average out several dynamical contributions and as such may be difficult to interpret. It is thus of interest to seek extensions of integral correlation variables that may provide more detailed information about the collision dynamics. We introduce a variety of differential momentum correlations and discuss their basic properties in the light of simple toy models. We also present theoretical predictions based on the PYTHIA, HIJING, AMPT, and EPOS models. Finally, we discuss the interplay of various dynamical effects that may play a role in the determination of the shear viscosity based on the broadening of momentum correlations measured as function of collision centrality. [1] L. Stodolsky, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75 (1995) 1044. [2] S. Gavin and M. A. Aziz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97 (2006) 162302. )
Initial angular momentum and flow in high energy nuclear collisions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fries, Rainer J.; Chen, Guangyao; Somanathan, Sidharth
2018-03-01
We study the transfer of angular momentum in high energy nuclear collisions from the colliding nuclei to the region around midrapidity, using the classical approximation of the color glass condensate (CGC) picture. We find that the angular momentum shortly after the collision (up to times ˜1 /Qs , where Qs is the saturation scale) is carried by the "β -type" flow of the initial classical gluon field, introduced by some of us earlier. βi˜μ1∇iμ2-μ2∇iμ1 (i =1 ,2 ) describes the rapidity-odd transverse energy flow and emerges from Gauss's law for gluon fields. Here μ1 and μ2 are the averaged color charge fluctuation densities in the two nuclei, respectively. Interestingly, strong coupling calculations using anti-de Sitter/conformal field theory (AdS/CFT) techniques also find an energy flow term featuring this particular combination of nuclear densities. In classical CGC the order of magnitude of the initial angular momentum per rapidity in the reaction plane, at a time 1 /Qs , is |d L2/d η |≈ RAQs-3ɛ¯0/2 at midrapidity, where RA is the nuclear radius, and ɛ¯0 is the average initial energy density. This result emerges as a cancellation between a vortex of energy flow in the reaction plane aligned with the total angular momentum, and energy shear flow opposed to it. We discuss in detail the process of matching classical Yang-Mills results to fluid dynamics. We will argue that dissipative corrections should not be discarded to ensure that macroscopic conservation laws, e.g., for angular momentum, hold. Viscous fluid dynamics tends to dissipate the shear flow contribution that carries angular momentum in boost-invariant fluid systems. This leads to small residual angular momentum around midrapidity at late times for collisions at high energies.
Spacecraft momentum management procedures. [large space telescope
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chen, L. C.; Davenport, P. B.; Sturch, C. R.
1980-01-01
Techniques appropriate for implementation onboard the space telescope and other spacecraft to manage the accumulation of momentum in reaction wheel control systems using magnetic torquing coils are described. Generalized analytical equations are derived for momentum control laws that command the magnetic torquers. These control laws naturally fall into two main categories according to the methods used for updating the magnetic dipole command: closed loop, in which the update is based on current measurements to achieve a desired torque instantaneously, and open-loop, in which the update is based on predicted information to achieve a desired momentum at the end of a period of time. Physical interpretations of control laws in general and of the Space Telescope cross product and minimum energy control laws in particular are presented, and their merits and drawbacks are discussed. A technique for retaining the advantages of both the open-loop and the closed-loop control laws is introduced. Simulation results are presented to compare the performance of these control laws in the Space Telescope environment.
Angular momentum conservation law in light-front quantum field theory
Chiu, Kelly Yu-Ju; Brodsky, Stanley J.
2017-03-31
We prove the Lorentz invariance of the angular momentum conservation law and the helicity sum rule for relativistic composite systems in the light-front formulation. We explicitly show that j 3, the z -component of the angular momentum remains unchanged under Lorentz transformations generated by the light-front kinematical boost operators. The invariance of j 3 under Lorentz transformations is a feature unique to the front form. Applying the Lorentz invariance of the angular quantum number in the front form, we obtain a selection rule for the orbital angular momentum which can be used to eliminate certain interaction vertices in QED andmore » QCD. We also generalize the selection rule to any renormalizable theory and show that there exists an upper bound on the change of orbital angular momentum in scattering processes at any fixed order in perturbation theory.« less
Angular momentum conservation law in light-front quantum field theory
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Chiu, Kelly Yu-Ju; Brodsky, Stanley J.
We prove the Lorentz invariance of the angular momentum conservation law and the helicity sum rule for relativistic composite systems in the light-front formulation. We explicitly show that j 3, the z -component of the angular momentum remains unchanged under Lorentz transformations generated by the light-front kinematical boost operators. The invariance of j 3 under Lorentz transformations is a feature unique to the front form. Applying the Lorentz invariance of the angular quantum number in the front form, we obtain a selection rule for the orbital angular momentum which can be used to eliminate certain interaction vertices in QED andmore » QCD. We also generalize the selection rule to any renormalizable theory and show that there exists an upper bound on the change of orbital angular momentum in scattering processes at any fixed order in perturbation theory.« less
Angular momentum conservation law in light-front quantum field theory
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Chiu, Kelly Yu-Ju; Brodsky, Stanley J.
We prove the Lorentz invariance of the angular momentum conservation law and the helicity sum rule for relativistic composite systems in the light-front formulation. We explicitly show that j 3 , the z -component of the angular momentum remains unchanged under Lorentz transformations generated by the light-front kinematical boost operators. The invariance of j 3 under Lorentz transformations is a feature unique to the front form. Applying the Lorentz invariance of the angular quantum number in the front form, we obtain a selection rule for the orbital angular momentum which can be used to eliminate certain interaction vertices in QEDmore » and QCD. We also generalize the selection rule to any renormalizable theory and show that there exists an upper bound on the change of orbital angular momentum in scattering processes at any fixed order in perturbation theory.« less
Orbiter/Space lab momentum management for POP orientations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cox, J. W.
1974-01-01
An angular momentum management scheme applicable to the orbiter/spacelab is described. The basis of the scheme is to periodically maneuver the vehicle through a small angle thereby using the gravity gradient torque to dump momentum from the control moment gyro (CMG) control system. The orbiter is operated with its principal vehicle axis perpendicular to the orbital plane. Numerous case runs were conducted on the hybrid simulation and representative cases are included.
Demonstrating the conservation of angular momentum using spherical magnets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lindén, Johan; Slotte, Joakim; Källman, Kjell-Mikael
2018-01-01
An experimental setup for demonstrating the conservation of angular momentum of rotating spherical magnets is described. Two spherical Nd-Fe-B magnets are placed on a double inclined plane and projected towards each other with pre-selected impact parameters ranging from zero to a few tens of millimeters. After impact, the two magnets either revolve vigorously around the common center of mass or stop immediately, depending on the value of the impact parameter. Using a pick-up coil connected to an oscilloscope, the angular frequency for the rotating magnets was measured, and an estimate for the angular momentum was obtained. A high-speed video camera captured the impact and was used for measuring linear and angular velocities of the magnets. A very good agreement between the initial angular momentum before the impact and the final angular momentum of the revolving dumbbell is observed. The two rotating magnets, and the rotating electromagnetic field emanating from them, can also be viewed as a toy model for the newly discovered gravitational waves, where two black holes collide after revolving around each other. (Enhanced online)
Momentum flux measurements: Techniques and needs, part 4.5A
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fritts, D. C.
1984-01-01
The vertical flux of horizontal momentum by internal gravity waves is now recognized to play a significant role in the large-scale circulation and thermal structure of the middle atmosphere. This is because a divergence of momentum flux due to wave dissipation results in an acceleration of the local mean flow towards the phase speed of the gravity wave. Such mean flow acceleration are required to offset the large zonal accelerations driven by Coriolis torques acting on the diabatic meridional circulation. Techniques and observations regarding the momentum flux distribution in the middle atmosphere are discussed.
Orbital Angular Momentum Multiplexing over Visible Light Communication Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tripathi, Hardik Rameshchandra
This thesis proposes and explores the possibility of using Orbital Angular Momentum multiplexing in Visible Light Communication system. Orbital Angular Momentum is mainly applied for laser and optical fiber transmissions, while Visible Light Communication is a technology using the light as a carrier for wireless communication. In this research, the study of the state of art and experiments showing some results on multiplexing based on Orbital Angular Momentum over Visible Light Communication system were done. After completion of the initial stage; research work and simulations were performed on spatial multiplexing over Li-Fi channel modeling. Simulation scenarios which allowed to evaluate the Signal-to-Noise Ratio, Received Power Distribution, Intensity and Illuminance were defined and developed.
The Hilsch Tube, Rossby Vortices, and a Carnot Engine: Angular Momentum Transport in Astrophysics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beckley, Howard F.; Klein, B.; Milburn, M.; Schindel, P.; Westpfahl, D. J.; Teare, S.; Li, H.; Colgate, S. A.
2008-05-01
We are attempting to demonstrate that the common laboratory vortex or Hilsch tube is a paradigm for the angular momentum transport by Rossby vortices in Keplerian accretion disks, either in super massive black hole formation or in star formation. Near supersonic rotating flow is induced in a cylinder by gas pressure injected through a tangential nozzle in a typical Ranque vortex or Hilsch tube. The gas exits through both an on-axis hole and a peripheral radially-aligned hole. The surprising result, demonstrated in hundreds of class rooms, is that one of the exit gas streams is hot and the other is cold. Depressing is that the typical explanation is given in terms of a "Maxwell daemon” that separates hot molecules from cold molecules, just as is the basis of any perpetual motion machine that violates the second law of thermodynamics. Instead we believe that the rotational flow is unstable to the formation of Rossby vortices that co-rotate with the azimuthal flow and act like semi-ridged turbine vanes. These quasi-vanes act like a Carnot turbine engine to the flow that escapes on axis and is therefore cooled by doing work. With the resulting free-energy, the vortices accelerate the peripheral flow which in turn becomes hot by friction with the cylinder wall. As a first step we expect to demonstrate that a free-running turbine, where metal vanes form the Carnot engine, will demonstrate the temperature effect. Such a suggestive result may lead to funding of time-dependent Schlerian photography of a vortex tube that can demonstrate the formation and pressure distribution of the Rossby vortices and coherent transport of angular momentum. This work is supported by a cooperative agreement between the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, the University of California, Los Alamos National Laboratory, and the U.S. Dept. of Energy.
Zhang, Chen; Deng, Li; Zhu, Jianfeng; Hong, Weijun; Wang, Ling; Yang, Wenjie; Li, Shufang
2018-06-21
Three kinds of multifunctional graphene metasurfaces based on Pancharatnam⁻Berry (PB) phase cells are proposed and numerically demonstrated to control a reflected wave’s spin angular momentum (SAM) and orbital angular momentum (OAM) in the terahertz (THz) regime. Each proposed metasurface structure is composed of an array of graphene strips with different deviation angles and a back-grounded quartz substrate. In order to further help readers have a deeper insight into the graphene-based metasurfaces, a detailed design strategy is also provided. With the aid of the designed graphene elements, the proposed metasurfaces can achieve the full 360° range of phase coverage and provide manipulation of SAM and OAM of a circularly polarized (CP) wave at will. More importantly, simultaneous control of these two momentums can also be realized, and in order to demonstrate this function, a THz spin-controlled OAM beam generator with diverse topological charges is created, which can provide one more degree of freedom to improve the channel capability without increasing the bandwidth compared to a linearly polarized (LP) OAM beam. Numerical results verify the proposed graphene metasurfaces, which pave the way for generating spin OAM vortex waves for THz communication systems.
Angular momentum transfer in low velocity oblique impacts - Implications for asteroids
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yanagisawa, Masahisa; Eluszkiewicz, Janusz; Ahrens, Thomas J.
1991-01-01
An experimental study has been conducted for the low-velocity oblique impact efficiency of angular momentum transfer, which is defined as that fraction of incident angular momentum that is transferred to the rotation of a target. The results obtained suggest that more energetic impacts are able to transfer angular momentum more efficiently. In the cases of ricochetted projectiles, the fraction of angular momentum carried off by the ejecta was noted to be less than 30 percent. It is suggested that, if asteroid spin rates are due to mutual noncatastrophic collisions and the taxonomic classes are indicative of bulk properties, the differences between corresponding spin rates will be smaller than expected from a consideration of relative strength and density alone.
1980-09-01
k ADAOGZ 826 ~~~~~~~~~AIR FORCE FLIGHT DNMC A RGTPTESNABO / / I SKIN FRICTION MEASUREMENTS AT A MACH NUMBER OF THREE AND MOMENT--ETCIU) UNCASSFIE...AT A MACH NUMBER OF THREE AND MOMENTUM THICKNESS REYNOLDS NUMEERS UP TO A HALF MILLION Anthony W. Fiore Aeromechanics Division DTIC September 1980...NOR(&) S. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER (s) 9. PER ORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS PROR UNT N WU Flight Dynamics Laboratory (AFWAL/FIMG)RA; WOKUNTU
Predictive momentum management for a space station measurement and computation requirements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Adams, John Carl
1986-01-01
An analysis is made of the effects of errors and uncertainties in the predicting of disturbance torques on the peak momentum buildup on a space station. Models of the disturbance torques acting on a space station in low Earth orbit are presented, to estimate how accurately they can be predicted. An analysis of the torque and momentum buildup about the pitch axis of the Dual Keel space station configuration is formulated, and a derivation of the Average Torque Equilibrium Attitude (ATEA) is presented, for the case of no MRMS (Mobile Remote Manipulation System) motion, Y vehicle axis MRMS motion, and Z vehicle axis MRMS motion. Results showed the peak momentum buildup to be approximately 20000 N-m-s and to be relatively insensitive to errors in the predicting torque models, for Z axis motion of the MRMS was found to vary significantly with model errors, but not exceed a value of approximately 15000 N-m-s for the Y axis MRMS motion with 1 deg attitude hold error. Minimum peak disturbance momentum was found not to occur at the ATEA angle, but at a slightly smaller angle. However, this minimum peak momentum attitude was found to produce significant disturbance momentum at the end of the predicting time interval.
Simplified Generation of High-Angular-Momentum Light Beams
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Maleki, Lute; Matsko, Andrey; Strekalov, Dmitry; Grudinin, Ivan
2007-01-01
A simplified method of generating a beam of light having a relatively high value of angular momentum (see figure) involves the use of a compact apparatus consisting mainly of a laser, a whispering- gallery-mode (WGM) resonator, and optical fibers. The method also can be used to generate a Bessel beam. ( Bessel beam denotes a member of a class of non-diffracting beams, so named because their amplitudes are proportional to Bessel functions of the radii from their central axes. High-order Bessel beams can have high values of angular momentum.) High-angular-momentum light beams are used in some applications in biology and nanotechnology, wherein they are known for their ability to apply torque to make microscopic objects rotate. High-angular-momentum light beams could also be used to increase bandwidths of fiber-optic communication systems. The present simplified method of generating a high-angular-momentum light beam was conceived as an alternative to prior such methods, which are complicated and require optical setups that include, variously, holograms, modulating Fabry-Perot cavities, or special microstructures. The present simplified method exploits a combination of the complex structure of the electromagnetic field inside a WGM resonator, total internal reflection in the WGM resonator, and the electromagnetic modes supported by an optical fiber. The optical fiber used to extract light from the WGM resonator is made of fused quartz. The output end of this fiber is polished flat and perpendicular to the fiber axis. The input end of this fiber is cut on a slant and placed very close to the WGM resonator at an appropriate position and orientation. To excite the resonant whispering- gallery modes, light is introduced into the WGM resonator via another optical fiber that is part of a pigtailed fiber-optic coupler. Light extracted from the WGM resonator is transformed into a high-angular- momentum beam inside the extraction optical fiber and this beam is emitted from the
Relativistic Momentum and Kinetic Energy, and E = mc[superscript 2
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hu, Ben Yu-Kuang
2009-01-01
Based on relativistic velocity addition and the conservation of momentum and energy, I present simple derivations of the expressions for the relativistic momentum and kinetic energy of a particle, and for the formula E = mc[superscript 2]. (Contains 5 footnotes and 2 figures.)
Martin, Caroline; Kulpa, Richard; Delamarche, Paul; Bideau, Benoit
2013-03-01
The purpose of the study was to identify the relationships between segmental angular momentum and ball velocity between the following events: ball toss, maximal elbow flexion (MEF), racket lowest point (RLP), maximal shoulder external rotation (MER), and ball impact (BI). Ten tennis players performed serves recorded with a real-time motion capture. Mean angular momentums of the trunk, upper arm, forearm, and the hand-racket were calculated. The anteroposterior axis angular momentum of the trunk was significantly related with ball velocity during the MEF-RLP, RLP-MER, and MER-BI phases. The strongest relationships between the transverse-axis angular momentums and ball velocity followed a proximal-to-distal timing sequence that allows the transfer of angular momentum from the trunk (MEF-RLP and RLP-MER phases) to the upper arm (RLP-MER phase), forearm (RLP-MER and MER-BI phases), and the hand-racket (MER-BI phase). Since sequence is crucial for ball velocity, players should increase angular momentums of the trunk during MEF-MER, upper arm during RLP-MER, forearm during RLP-BI, and the hand-racket during MER-BI.
The Momentum Kick Model Description of the Near-Side Ridge and Jet Quenching
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Wong, Cheuk-Yin
2008-12-01
In the momentum kick model, a near-side jet parton occurs near the surface, kicks medium partons, loses energy, and fragments into the trigger particle and fragmentation products. The kicked medium partons subsequently materialize as the observed ridge particles which cary direct information on the magnitude of the momentum kick and the initial parton momentum distribution at the moment of jet-parton collision. The initial parton momentum distribution, extracted from the STAR ridge data for central Au-Au collisions at \\sqrt{s_NN} = 200 GeV, has a thermal-like transverse momentum distribution, but a non-Gaussian, relatively flat rapidity distribution at mid-rapidity with sharp kinematic boundariesmore » at large rapidities. The degree of jet quenching and the centrality dependence of the ridge yield can also be described by the momentum kick model.« less
Variations in atmospheric angular momentum and the length of day
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rosen, R. D.; Salstein, D. A.
1982-01-01
Six years of twice daily global analyses were used to create and study a lengthy time series of high temporal resolution angular momentum values. Changes in these atmospheric values were compared to independently determined charges in the rotation rate of the solid Earth. Finally, the atmospheric data was examined in more detail to determine the time and space scales on which variations in momentum occur within the atmosphere and which regions are contributing most to the changes found in the global integral. The data and techniques used to derive the time series of momentum values are described.
Incoherent beam combining based on the momentum SPGD algorithm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Guoqing; Liu, Lisheng; Jiang, Zhenhua; Guo, Jin; Wang, Tingfeng
2018-05-01
Incoherent beam combining (ICBC) technology is one of the most promising ways to achieve high-energy, near-diffraction laser output. In this paper, the momentum method is proposed as a modification of the stochastic parallel gradient descent (SPGD) algorithm. The momentum method can improve the speed of convergence of the combining system efficiently. The analytical method is employed to interpret the principle of the momentum method. Furthermore, the proposed algorithm is testified through simulations as well as experiments. The results of the simulations and the experiments show that the proposed algorithm not only accelerates the speed of the iteration, but also keeps the stability of the combining process. Therefore the feasibility of the proposed algorithm in the beam combining system is testified.
Adaptive momentum management for the dual keel Space Station
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hopkins, M.; Hahn, E.
1987-01-01
The report discusses momentum management for a large space structure with the structure selected configuration being the Initial Orbital Configuration of the dual-keel Space Station. The external torques considered were gravity gradient and aerodynamic torques. The goal of the momentum management scheme developed is to remove the bias components of the external torques and center the cyclic components of the stored angular momentum. The scheme investigated is adaptive to uncertainties of the inertia tensor and requires only approximate knowledge of principal moments of inertia. Computational requirements are minimal and should present no implementation problem in a flight-type computer. The method proposed is shown to be effective in the presence of attitude control bandwidths as low as 0.01 radian/sec.
Design and Optimization of Composite Gyroscope Momentum Wheel Rings
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Arnold, Steven M.
2007-01-01
Stress analysis and preliminary design/optimization procedures are presented for gyroscope momentum wheel rings composed of metallic, metal matrix composite, and polymer matrix composite materials. The design of these components involves simultaneously minimizing both true part volume and mass, while maximizing angular momentum. The stress analysis results are combined with an anisotropic failure criterion to formulate a new sizing procedure that provides considerable insight into the design of gyroscope momentum wheel ring components. Results compare the performance of two optimized metallic designs, an optimized SiC/Ti composite design, and an optimized graphite/epoxy composite design. The graphite/epoxy design appears to be far superior to the competitors considered unless a much greater premium is placed on volume efficiency compared to mass efficiency.
Widths of transverse momentum distributions in intermediate-energy heavy-ion collisions.
Khan, F; Townsend, L W
1993-08-01
The need to include dynamical collision momentum transfer contributions, arising from interacting nuclear and Coulomb fields, to estimates of fragment momentum distributions is discussed. Methods based upon an optical potential model are presented. Comparisons with recent experimental data of the Siegen group for variances of transverse momentum distributions for gold nuclei at 980 A MeV fragmenting on silver foil and plastic nuclear track detector targets are made. The agreement between theory and experiment is good.
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Teklu, Adelheid F.; Remus, Rhea-Silvia; Dolag, Klaus
The evolution and distribution of the angular momentum of dark matter (DM) halos have been discussed in several studies over the past decades. In particular, the idea arose that angular momentum conservation should allow us to infer the total angular momentum of the entire DM halo from measuring the angular momentum of the baryonic component, which is populating the center of the halo, especially for disk galaxies. To test this idea and to understand the connection between the angular momentum of the DM halo and its galaxy, we use a state-of-the-art, hydrodynamical cosmological simulation taken from the set of Magneticummore » Pathfinder simulations. Thanks to the inclusion of the relevant physical processes, the improved underlying numerical methods, and high spatial resolution, we successfully produce populations of spheroidal and disk galaxies self-consistently. Thus, we are able to study the dependence of galactic properties on their morphology. We find that (1) the specific angular momentum of stars in disk and spheroidal galaxies as a function of their stellar mass compares well with observational results; (2) the specific angular momentum of the stars in disk galaxies is slightly smaller compared to the specific angular momentum of the cold gas, in good agreement with observations; (3) simulations including the baryonic component show a dichotomy in the specific stellar angular momentum distribution when splitting the galaxies according to their morphological type (this dichotomy can also be seen in the spin parameter, where disk galaxies populate halos with slightly larger spin compared to spheroidal galaxies); (4) disk galaxies preferentially populate halos in which the angular momentum vector of the DM component in the central part shows a better alignment to the angular momentum vector of the entire halo; and (5) the specific angular momentum of the cold gas in disk galaxies is approximately 40% smaller than the specific angular momentum of the total
Transverse momentum at work in high-energy scattering experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Signori, Andrea
2017-01-01
I will review some aspects of the definition and the phenomenology of Transverse-Momentum-Dependent distributions (TMDs) which are potentially interesting for the physics program at several current and future experimental facilities. First of all, I will review the definition of quark, gluon and Wilson loop TMDs based on gauge invariant hadronic matrix elements. Looking at the phenomenology of quarks, I will address the flavor dependence of the intrinsic transverse momentum in unpolarized TMDs, focusing on its extraction from Semi-Inclusive Deep-Inelastic Scattering. I will also present an estimate of its impact on the transverse momentum spectrum of W and Z bosons produced in unpolarized hadronic collisions and on the determination of the W boson mass. Moreover, the combined effect of the flavor dependence and the evolution of TMDs with the energy scale will be discussed for electron-positron annihilation. Concerning gluons, I will present from an effective theory point of view the TMD factorization theorem for the transverse momentum spectrum of pseudoscalar quarkonium produced in hadronic collisions. Relying on this, I will discuss the possibility of extracting precise information on (un)polarized gluon TMDs at a future Fixed Target Experiment at the LHC (AFTER@LHC).
GALACTIC ANGULAR MOMENTUM IN THE ILLUSTRIS SIMULATION: FEEDBACK AND THE HUBBLE SEQUENCE
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Genel, Shy; Fall, S. Michael; Snyder, Gregory F.
We study the stellar angular momentum of thousands of galaxies in the Illustris cosmological simulation, which captures gravitational and gas dynamics within galaxies, as well as feedback from stars and black holes. We find that the angular momentum of the simulated galaxies matches observations well, and in particular two distinct relations are found for late-type versus early-type galaxies. The relation for late-type galaxies corresponds to the value expected from full conservation of the specific angular momentum generated by cosmological tidal torques. The relation for early-type galaxies corresponds to retention of only ∼30% of that, but we find that those early-typemore » galaxies with low angular momentum at z = 0 nevertheless reside at high redshift on the late-type relation. Some of them abruptly lose angular momentum during major mergers. To gain further insight, we explore the scaling relations in simulations where the galaxy formation physics is modified with respect to the fiducial model. We find that galactic winds with high mass-loading factors are essential for obtaining the high angular momentum relation typical for late-type galaxies, while active galactic nucleus feedback largely operates in the opposite direction. Hence, feedback controls the stellar angular momentum of galaxies, and appears to be instrumental for establishing the Hubble sequence.« less
Revolution evolution: tracing angular momentum during star and planetary system formation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Davies, Claire Louise
2015-04-01
Stars form via the gravitational collapse of molecular clouds during which time the protostellar object contracts by over seven orders of magnitude. If all the angular momentum present in the natal cloud was conserved during collapse, stars would approach rotational velocities rapid enough to tear themselves apart within just a few Myr. In contrast to this, observations of pre-main sequence rotation rates are relatively slow (∼ 1 - 15 days) indicating that significant quantities of angular momentum must be removed from the star. I use observations of fully convective pre-main sequence stars in two well-studied, nearby regions of star formation (namely the Orion Nebula Cluster and Taurus-Auriga) to determine the removal rate of stellar angular momentum. I find the accretion disc-hosting stars to be rotating at a slower rate and contain less specific angular momentum than the disc-less stars. I interpret this as indicating a period of accretion disc-regulated angular momentum evolution followed by near-constant rotational evolution following disc dispersal. Furthermore, assuming that the age spread inferred from the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram constructed for the star forming region is real, I find that the removal rate of angular momentum during the accretion-disc hosting phase to be more rapid than that expected from simple disc-locking theory whereby contraction occurs at a fixed rotation period. This indicates a more efficient process of angular momentum removal must operate, most likely in the form of an accretion-driven stellar wind or outflow emanating from the star-disc interaction. The initial circumstellar envelope that surrounds a protostellar object during the earliest stages of star formation is rotationally flattened into a disc as the star contracts. An effective viscosity, present within the disc, enables the disc to evolve: mass accretes inwards through the disc and onto the star while momentum migrates outwards, forcing the outer regions of the
Contribution of limb momentum to power transfer in athletic wheelchair pushing.
Masson, G; Bégin, M-A; Lopez Poncelas, M; Pelletier, S-K; Lessard, J-L; Laroche, J; Berrigan, F; Langelier, E; Smeesters, C; Rancourt, D
2016-09-06
Pushing capacity is a key parameter in athletic racing wheelchair performance. This study estimated the potential contribution of upper limb momentum to pushing. The question is relevant since it may affect the training strategy adopted by an athlete. A muscle-free Lagrangian dynamic model of the upper limb segments was developed and theoretical predictions of power transfer to the wheelchair were computed during the push phase. Results show that limb momentum capacity for pushing can be in the order of 40J per push cycle at 10m/s, but it varies with the specific pushing range chosen by the athlete. Although use of momentum could certainly help an athlete improve performance, quantifying the actual contribution of limb momentum to pushing is not trivial. A preliminary experimental investigation on an ergometer, along with a simplified model of the upper limb, suggests that momentum is not the sole contributor to power transfer to a wheelchair. Muscles substantially contribute to pushing, even at high speeds. Moreover, an optimal pushing range is challenging to find since it most likely differs if an athlete chooses a limb momentum pushing strategy versus a muscular exertion pushing strategy, or both at the same time. The study emphasizes the importance of controlling pushing range, although one should optimize it while also taking the dynamics of the recovery period into account. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Incorporating swirl effects into the coefficient of momentum for separation control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taira, Kunihiko; Munday, Phillip
2017-11-01
Addition of swirl in flow control has been known to enhance suppression of separation over airfoils at high angles of attack. Utilizing large eddy simulations, the present open-loop control study examines the influence of wall-normal and angular momentum injections in mitigating separation over a NACA0012 airfoil at α =9° and Re = 23 , 000 . We introduce these swirling jets near the separation point with wall-normal momentum and swirl independently prescribed through velocity boundary conditions. The changes to the flow from control are examined and the corresponding lift enhancement and drag reduction are assessed as a function of the two velocity components. Since the standard coefficient of momentum does not consider swirling effects, we extend its definition to incorporate both the wall-normal momentum and swirl to quantify the overall flow control effectiveness. We are able to observe a trend in lift force enhancement over this single modified coefficient of momentum (that is dependent on the non-dimensional jet velocity ratio and swirl number). Moreover, we are able to identify a critical value for the modified momentum coefficient and categorize controlled flows into separated, transitional, and attached flows. This work was supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (Award Number FA9550-13-1-0183) and the Office of Naval Research (Award Number N00014-16-1-2443).
The transverse momentum distribution of hadrons within jets
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Kang, Zhong -Bo; Liu, Xiaohui; Ringer, Felix
We study the transverse momentum distribution of hadrons within jets, where the transverse momentum is defined with respect to the standard jet axis. We consider the case where the jet substructure measurement is performed for an inclusive jet sample pp → jet + X. We demonstrate that this observable provides new opportunities to study transverse momentum dependent fragmentation functions (TMDFFs) which are currently poorly constrained from data, especially for gluons. The factorization of the cross section is obtained within Soft Collinear Effective Theory (SCET), and we show that the relevant TMDFFs are the same as for the more traditional processesmore » semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering (SIDIS) and electron-positron annihilation. Different than in SIDIS, the observable for the in-jet fragmentation does not depend on TMD parton distribution functions which allows for a cleaner and more direct probe of TMDFFs. We present numerical results and compare to available data from the LHC.« less
Tunable orbital angular momentum in high-harmonic generation
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Gauthier, David; Ribič, P. Rebernik; Adhikary, G.
Optical vortices are currently one of the most intensively studied topics in optics. These light beams, which carry orbital angular momentum (OAM), have been successfully utilized in the visible and infrared in a wide variety of applications. Moving to shorter wavelengths may open up completely new research directions in the areas of optical physics and material characterization. Here, we report on the generation of extreme-ultraviolet optical vortices with femtosecond duration carrying a controllable amount of OAM. From a basic physics viewpoint, our results help to resolve key questions such as the conservation of angular momentum in highly nonlinear light–matter interactions,more » and the disentanglement and independent control of the intrinsic and extrinsic components of the photon’s angular momentum at short-wavelengths. Finally, the methods developed here will allow testing some of the recently proposed concepts such as OAM-induced dichroism, magnetic switching in organic molecules and violation of dipolar selection rules in atoms.« less
Orbital and spin angular momentum in conical diffraction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berry, M. V.; Jeffrey, M. R.; Mansuripur, M.
2005-11-01
The angular momentum Jinc of a light beam can be changed by passage through a slab of crystal. When the beam is incident along the optic axis of a biaxial crystal, which may also possess optical activity (chirality), the final angular momentum J can have both orbital (Jorb) and spin (Jsp) contributions, which we calculate paraxially exactly for arbitrary biaxiality and chirality and initially uniformly polarized beams with circular symmetry. For the familiar special case of a non-chiral crystal with fully developed conical-refraction rings, J is purely orbital and equal to Jinc/2, reflecting an interesting singularity structure in the beam. Explicit formulas and numerical computations are presented for a Gaussian incident beam. The change in angular momentum results in a torque on the crystal, along the axis of the incident beam. An additional, much larger, torque, about an axis lying in the slab, arises from the offset of the cone of conical refraction relative to the incident beam.
Tunable orbital angular momentum in high-harmonic generation
Gauthier, David; Ribič, P. Rebernik; Adhikary, G.; ...
2017-04-05
Optical vortices are currently one of the most intensively studied topics in optics. These light beams, which carry orbital angular momentum (OAM), have been successfully utilized in the visible and infrared in a wide variety of applications. Moving to shorter wavelengths may open up completely new research directions in the areas of optical physics and material characterization. Here, we report on the generation of extreme-ultraviolet optical vortices with femtosecond duration carrying a controllable amount of OAM. From a basic physics viewpoint, our results help to resolve key questions such as the conservation of angular momentum in highly nonlinear light–matter interactions,more » and the disentanglement and independent control of the intrinsic and extrinsic components of the photon’s angular momentum at short-wavelengths. Finally, the methods developed here will allow testing some of the recently proposed concepts such as OAM-induced dichroism, magnetic switching in organic molecules and violation of dipolar selection rules in atoms.« less
The transverse momentum distribution of hadrons within jets
Kang, Zhong -Bo; Liu, Xiaohui; Ringer, Felix; ...
2017-11-13
We study the transverse momentum distribution of hadrons within jets, where the transverse momentum is defined with respect to the standard jet axis. We consider the case where the jet substructure measurement is performed for an inclusive jet sample pp → jet + X. We demonstrate that this observable provides new opportunities to study transverse momentum dependent fragmentation functions (TMDFFs) which are currently poorly constrained from data, especially for gluons. The factorization of the cross section is obtained within Soft Collinear Effective Theory (SCET), and we show that the relevant TMDFFs are the same as for the more traditional processesmore » semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering (SIDIS) and electron-positron annihilation. Different than in SIDIS, the observable for the in-jet fragmentation does not depend on TMD parton distribution functions which allows for a cleaner and more direct probe of TMDFFs. We present numerical results and compare to available data from the LHC.« less
On the energy-momentum tensor in Moyal space
Balasin, Herbert; Blaschke, Daniel N.; Gieres, François; ...
2015-06-26
We study the properties of the energy-momentum tensor of gauge fields coupled to matter in non-commutative (Moyal) space. In general, the non-commutativity affects the usual conservation law of the tensor as well as its transformation properties (gauge covariance instead of gauge invariance). It is known that the conservation of the energy-momentum tensor can be achieved by a redefinition involving another starproduct. Furthermore, for a pure gauge theory it is always possible to define a gauge invariant energy-momentum tensor by means of a Wilson line. We show that the latter two procedures are incompatible with each other if couplings of gaugemore » fields to matter fields (scalars or fermions) are considered: The gauge invariant tensor (constructed via Wilson line) does not allow for a redefinition assuring its conservation, and vice-versa the introduction of another star-product does not allow for gauge invariance by means of a Wilson line.« less
Tunable orbital angular momentum in high-harmonic generation
Gauthier, D.; Ribič, P. Rebernik; Adhikary, G.; Camper, A.; Chappuis, C.; Cucini, R.; DiMauro, L. F.; Dovillaire, G.; Frassetto, F.; Géneaux, R.; Miotti, P.; Poletto, L.; Ressel, B.; Spezzani, C.; Stupar, M.; Ruchon, T.; De Ninno, G.
2017-01-01
Optical vortices are currently one of the most intensively studied topics in optics. These light beams, which carry orbital angular momentum (OAM), have been successfully utilized in the visible and infrared in a wide variety of applications. Moving to shorter wavelengths may open up completely new research directions in the areas of optical physics and material characterization. Here, we report on the generation of extreme-ultraviolet optical vortices with femtosecond duration carrying a controllable amount of OAM. From a basic physics viewpoint, our results help to resolve key questions such as the conservation of angular momentum in highly nonlinear light–matter interactions, and the disentanglement and independent control of the intrinsic and extrinsic components of the photon's angular momentum at short-wavelengths. The methods developed here will allow testing some of the recently proposed concepts such as OAM-induced dichroism, magnetic switching in organic molecules and violation of dipolar selection rules in atoms. PMID:28378741
Double-slit experiment in momentum space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ivanov, I. P.; Seipt, D.; Surzhykov, A.; Fritzsche, S.
2016-08-01
Young's classic double-slit experiment demonstrates the reality of interference when waves and particles travel simultaneously along two different spatial paths. Here, we propose a double-slit experiment in momentum space, realized in the free-space elastic scattering of vortex electrons. We show that this process proceeds along two paths in momentum space, which are well localized and well separated from each other. For such vortex beams, the (plane-wave) amplitudes along the two paths acquire adjustable phase shifts and produce interference fringes in the final angular distribution. We argue that this experiment can be realized with the present-day technology. We show that it gives experimental access to the Coulomb phase, a quantity which plays an important role in all charged particle scattering but which usual scattering experiments are insensitive to.
Angular Momentum and Galaxy Formation Revisited
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Fall, S. Michael
2012-12-01
Motivated by a new wave of kinematical tracers in the outer regions of early-type galaxies (ellipticals and lenticulars), we re-examine the role of angular momentum in galaxies of all types. We present new methods for quantifying the specific angular momentum j, focusing mainly on the more challenging case of early-type galaxies, in order to derive firm empirical relations between stellar j sstarf and mass M sstarf (thus extending earlier work by Fall). We carry out detailed analyses of eight galaxies with kinematical data extending as far out as 10 effective radii, and find that data at two effective radii are generally sufficient to estimate total j sstarf reliably. Our results contravene suggestions that ellipticals could harbor large reservoirs of hidden j sstarf in their outer regions owing to angular momentum transport in major mergers. We then carry out a comprehensive analysis of extended kinematic data from the literature for a sample of ~100 nearby bright galaxies of all types, placing them on a diagram of j sstarf versus M sstarf. The ellipticals and spirals form two parallel j sstarf-M sstarf tracks, with log-slopes of ~0.6, which for the spirals are closely related to the Tully-Fisher relation, but for the ellipticals derives from a remarkable conspiracy between masses, sizes, and rotation velocities. The ellipticals contain less angular momentum on average than spirals of equal mass, with the quantitative disparity depending on the adopted K-band stellar mass-to-light ratios of the galaxies: it is a factor of ~3-4 if mass-to-light ratio variations are neglected for simplicity, and ~7 if they are included. We decompose the spirals into disks and bulges and find that these subcomponents follow j sstarf-M sstarf trends similar to the overall ones for spirals and ellipticals. The lenticulars have an intermediate trend, and we propose that the morphological types of galaxies reflect disk and bulge subcomponents that follow separate, fundamental j sstarf
ANGULAR MOMENTUM AND GALAXY FORMATION REVISITED
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Fall, S. Michael
2012-12-15
Motivated by a new wave of kinematical tracers in the outer regions of early-type galaxies (ellipticals and lenticulars), we re-examine the role of angular momentum in galaxies of all types. We present new methods for quantifying the specific angular momentum j, focusing mainly on the more challenging case of early-type galaxies, in order to derive firm empirical relations between stellar j{sub *} and mass M{sub *} (thus extending earlier work by Fall). We carry out detailed analyses of eight galaxies with kinematical data extending as far out as 10 effective radii, and find that data at two effective radii aremore » generally sufficient to estimate total j{sub *} reliably. Our results contravene suggestions that ellipticals could harbor large reservoirs of hidden j{sub *} in their outer regions owing to angular momentum transport in major mergers. We then carry out a comprehensive analysis of extended kinematic data from the literature for a sample of {approx}100 nearby bright galaxies of all types, placing them on a diagram of j{sub *} versus M{sub *}. The ellipticals and spirals form two parallel j{sub *}-M{sub *} tracks, with log-slopes of {approx}0.6, which for the spirals are closely related to the Tully-Fisher relation, but for the ellipticals derives from a remarkable conspiracy between masses, sizes, and rotation velocities. The ellipticals contain less angular momentum on average than spirals of equal mass, with the quantitative disparity depending on the adopted K-band stellar mass-to-light ratios of the galaxies: it is a factor of {approx}3-4 if mass-to-light ratio variations are neglected for simplicity, and {approx}7 if they are included. We decompose the spirals into disks and bulges and find that these subcomponents follow j{sub *}-M{sub *} trends similar to the overall ones for spirals and ellipticals. The lenticulars have an intermediate trend, and we propose that the morphological types of galaxies reflect disk and bulge subcomponents that
Predictive momentum management for the Space Station
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hatis, P. D.
1986-01-01
Space station control moment gyro momentum management is addressed by posing a deterministic optimization problem with a performance index that includes station external torque loading, gyro control torque demand, and excursions from desired reference attitudes. It is shown that a simple analytic desired attitude solution exists for all axes with pitch prescription decoupled, but roll and yaw coupled. Continuous gyro desaturation is shown to fit neatly into the scheme. Example results for pitch axis control of the NASA power tower Space Station are shown based on predictive attitude prescription. Control effector loading is shown to be reduced by this method when compared to more conventional momentum management techniques.
Teaching about Impulse and Momentum
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Franklin, Bill
2004-01-01
This American Association of Physics Teachers/Physics Teaching Resource Agents (APPT/PTRA) spiral-bound manual features labs and demos physics teachers can use to give students hands-on opportunities to learn about impulse and momentum. "Make-and-take activities" include AAPT Apparatus Contest winners "An Air Impulse Rocket," "A Fan Driven…
Early Attempts to Detect the Neutrino at the Cavendish Laboratory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Navarro, Jaume
2006-03-01
In the 1920s and early 1930s the Cavendish Laboratory in Cambridge was preeminent in experimental research on radioactivity and nuclear physics, with theoretical physics playing a subsidiary role in guiding, but not determining the course of experimental research. Soon after Wolfgang Pauli (1900 1958) proposed his neutrino hypothesis in 1930 to preserve conservation of energy and momentum in beta decay, experiments the first of their kind were carried out in the Cavendish Laboratory to detect Pauli’s elusive particle, but they were abandoned in 1936. I trace these early attempts and suggest reasons for their abandonment, which may contribute to an understanding of the complex way in which theoretical entities are accepted by physicists.
Forming Disc Galaxies In Major Mergers: Radial Density Profiles And Angular Momentum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peschken, Nicolas; Athanassoula, E.; Rodionov, S. A.; Lambert, J. C.
2017-06-01
In Athanassoula et al. (2016), we used high resolution N-body hydrodynamical simulations to model the major merger between two disc galaxies with a hot gaseous halo each, and showed that the remnant is a spiral galaxy. The two discs are destroyed by the collision, but after the merger, accretion from the surrounding gaseous halo allows the building of a new disc in the remnant galaxy. In Peschken et al. (2017), we used these simulations to study the radial surface density profiles of the remnant galaxies with downbending profiles (type II), i.e. composed of an inner and an outer exponential disc separated by a break. We analyzed the effect of angular momentum on these profiles, and found that the inner and outer disc scalelengths, as well as the break radius, all increase linearly with the total angular momentum of the initial merging system. Following the angular momentum redistribution in our simulations, we find that the disc angular momentum is acquired via accretion from the gaseous halo. Furthermore, high angular momentum systems give more angular momentum to their discs, which affects directly their radial density profile.
Low-dimensional organization of angular momentum during walking on a narrow beam.
Chiovetto, Enrico; Huber, Meghan E; Sternad, Dagmar; Giese, Martin A
2018-01-08
Walking on a beam is a challenging motor skill that requires the regulation of upright balance and stability. The difficulty in beam walking results from the reduced base of support compared to that afforded by flat ground. One strategy to maintain stability and hence avoid falling off the beam is to rotate the limb segments to control the body's angular momentum. The aim of this study was to examine the coordination of the angular momentum variations during beam walking. We recorded movement kinematics of participants walking on a narrow beam and computed the angular momentum contributions of the body segments with respect to three different axes. Results showed that, despite considerable variability in the movement kinematics, the angular momentum was characterized by a low-dimensional organization based on a small number of segmental coordination patterns. When the angular momentum was computed with respect to the beam axis, the largest fraction of its variation was accounted for by the trunk segment. This simple organization was robust and invariant across all participants. These findings support the hypothesis that control strategies for complex balancing tasks might be easier to understand by investigating angular momentum instead of the segmental kinematics.
Analysis of angular momentum properties of photons emitted in fundamental atomic processes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zaytsev, V. A.; Surzhykov, A. S.; Shabaev, V. M.; Stöhlker, Th.
2018-04-01
Many atomic processes result in the emission of photons. Analysis of the properties of emitted photons, such as energy and angular distribution as well as polarization, is regarded as a powerful tool for gaining more insight into the physics of corresponding processes. Another characteristic of light is the projection of its angular momentum upon propagation direction. This property has attracted a special attention over the past decades due to studies of twisted (or vortex) light beams. Measurements being sensitive to this projection may provide valuable information about the role of angular momentum in the fundamental atomic processes. Here we describe a simple theoretical method for determination of the angular momentum properties of the photons emitted in various atomic processes. This method is based on the evaluation of expectation value of the total angular momentum projection operator. To illustrate the method, we apply it to the textbook examples of plane-wave, spherical-wave, and Bessel light. Moreover, we investigate the projection of angular momentum for the photons emitted in the process of the radiative recombination with ionic targets. It is found that the recombination photons do carry a nonzero projection of the orbital angular momentum.
Arbitrary spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion of light
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Devlin, Robert C.; Ambrosio, Antonio; Rubin, Noah A.; Mueller, J. P. Balthasar; Capasso, Federico
2017-11-01
Optical elements that convert the spin angular momentum (SAM) of light into vortex beams have found applications in classical and quantum optics. These elements—SAM-to-orbital angular momentum (OAM) converters—are based on the geometric phase and only permit the conversion of left- and right-circular polarizations (spin states) into states with opposite OAM. We present a method for converting arbitrary SAM states into total angular momentum states characterized by a superposition of independent OAM. We designed a metasurface that converts left- and right-circular polarizations into states with independent values of OAM and designed another device that performs this operation for elliptically polarized states. These results illustrate a general material-mediated connection between SAM and OAM of light and may find applications in producing complex structured light and in optical communication.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hehl, Friedrich W.; McCrea, J. Dermott
1986-03-01
Automatic conservation of energy-momentum and angular momentum is guaranteed in a gravitational theory if, via the field equations, the conservation laws for the material currents are reduced to the contracted Bianchi identities. We first execute an irreducible decomposition of the Bianchi identities in a Riemann-Cartan space-time. Then, starting from a Riemannian space-time with or without torsion, we determine those gravitational theories which have automatic conservation: general relativity and the Einstein-Cartan-Sciama-Kibble theory, both with cosmological constant, and the nonviable pseudoscalar model. The Poincaré gauge theory of gravity, like gauge theories of internal groups, has no automatic conservation in the sense defined above. This does not lead to any difficulties in principle. Analogies to 3-dimensional continuum mechanics are stressed throughout the article.
Second order kinetic theory of parallel momentum transport in collisionless drift wave turbulence
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Li, Yang, E-mail: lyang13@mails.tsinghua.edu.cn; Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu 610041; Gao, Zhe
A second order kinetic model for turbulent ion parallel momentum transport is presented. A new nonresonant second order parallel momentum flux term is calculated. The resonant component of the ion parallel electrostatic force is the momentum source, while the nonresonant component of the ion parallel electrostatic force compensates for that of the nonresonant second order parallel momentum flux. The resonant component of the kinetic momentum flux can be divided into three parts, including the pinch term, the diffusive term, and the residual stress. By reassembling the pinch term and the residual stress, the residual stress can be considered as amore » pinch term of parallel wave-particle resonant velocity, and, therefore, may be called as “resonant velocity pinch” term. Considering the resonant component of the ion parallel electrostatic force is the transfer rate between resonant ions and waves (or, equivalently, nonresonant ions), a conservation equation of the parallel momentum of resonant ions and waves is obtained.« less
High-frequency variations in Earth rotation and the planetary momentum budget
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rosen, Richard D.
1995-01-01
The major focus of the subject contract was on helping to resolve one of the more notable discrepancies still existing in the axial momentum budget of the solid Earth-atmosphere system, namely the disappearance of coherence between length-of-day (l.o.d.) and atmospheric angular momentum (AAM) at periods shorter than about a fortnight. Recognizing the importance of identifying the source of the high-frequency momentum budget anomaly, the scientific community organized two special measurement campaigns (SEARCH '92 and CONT '94) to obtain the best possible determinations of l.o.d. and AAM. An additional goal was to analyze newly developed estimates of the torques that transfer momentum between the atmosphere and its underlying surface to determine whether the ocean might be a reservoir of momentum on short time scales. Discrepancies between AAM and l.o.d. at sub-fortnightly periods have been attributed to either measurement errors in these quantities or the need to incorporate oceanic angular momentum into the planetary budget. Results from the SEARCH '92 and CONT '94 campaigns suggest that when special attention is paid to the quality of the measurements, better agreement between l.o.d. and AAM at high frequencies can be obtained. The mechanism most responsible for the high-frequency changes observed in AAM during these campaigns involves a direct coupling to the solid Earth, i.e, the mountain torque, thereby obviating a significant oceanic role.
Uncertainties related to the representation of momentum transport in shallow convection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schlemmer, Linda; Bechtold, Peter; Sandu, Irina; Ahlgrimm, Maike
2017-04-01
The vertical transport of horizontal momentum by convection has an important impact on the general circulation of the atmosphere as well as on the life cycle and track of cyclones. So far convective momentum transport (CMT) has mostly been studied for deep convection, whereas little is known about its characteristics and importance in shallow convection. In this study CMT by shallow convection is investigated by analyzing both data from large-eddy simulations (LES) and simulations performed with the Integrated Forecasting System (IFS) of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). In addition, the central terms underlying the bulk mass-flux parametrization of CMT are evaluated offline. Further, the uncertainties related to the representation of CMT are explored by running the stochastically perturbed parametrizations (SPP) approach of the IFS. The analyzed cases exhibit shallow convective clouds developing within considerable low-level wind shear. Analysis of the momentum fluxes in the LES data reveals significant momentum transport by the convection in both cases, which is directed down-gradient despite substantial organization of the cloud field. A detailed inspection of the convection parametrization reveals a very good representation of the entrainment and detrainment rates and an appropriate representation of the convective mass and momentum fluxes. To determine the correct values of mass-flux and in-cloud momentum at the cloud base in the parametrization yet remains challenging. The spread in convection-related quantities generated by the SPP is reasonable and addresses many of the identified uncertainties.
Spatial distribution of angular momentum inside the nucleon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lorcé, Cédric; Mantovani, Luca; Pasquini, Barbara
2018-01-01
We discuss in detail the spatial distribution of angular momentum inside the nucleon. We show that the discrepancies between different definitions originate from terms that integrate to zero. Even though these terms can safely be dropped at the integrated level, they have to be taken into account when discussing distributions. Using the scalar diquark model, we illustrate our results and, for the first time, check explicitly that the equivalence between kinetic and canonical orbital angular momentum persists at the level of distributions, as expected in a system without gauge degrees of freedom.
Characteristics of sources and sinks of momentum in a turbulent boundary layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fiscaletti, D.; Ganapathisubramani, B.
2018-05-01
In turbulent boundary layers, the wall-normal gradient of the Reynolds shear stress identifies momentum sources and sinks (T =∂ [-u v ]/∂ y ). These motions can be physically interpreted in two ways: (1) as contributors to the turbulence term balancing the mean momentum equation, and (2) as regions of strong local interaction between velocity and vorticity fluctuations. In this paper, the space-time evolution of momentum sources and sinks is investigated in a turbulent boundary layer at the Reynolds number (Reτ) = 2700, with time-resolved planar particle image velocimetry in a plane along the streamwise and wall-normal directions. Wave number-frequency power spectra of T fluctuations reveal that the wave velocities of momentum sources and sinks tend to match the local streamwise velocity in proximity to the wall. However, as the distance from the wall increases, the wave velocities of the T events are slightly lower than the local streamwise velocities of the flow, which is also confirmed from the tracking in time of the intense momentum sources and sinks. This evidences that momentum sources and sinks are preferentially located in low-momentum regions of the flow. The spectral content of the T fluctuations is maximum at the wall, but it decreases monotonically as the distance from the wall grows. The relative spectral contributions of the different wavelengths remains unaltered at varying wall-normal locations. From autocorrelation coefficient maps, the characteristic streamwise and wall-normal extents of the T motions are respectively 60 and 40 wall units, independent of the wall distance. Both statistics and instantaneous visualizations show that momentum sources and sinks have a preferential tendency to be organized in positive-negative pairs in the wall-normal direction.
Short-range correlation in high-momentum antisymmetrized molecular dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Myo, Takayuki
2018-03-01
We propose a new variational method for treating short-range repulsion of bare nuclear force for nuclei in antisymmetrized molecular dynamics (AMD). In AMD, the short-range correlation is described in terms of large imaginary centroids of Gaussian wave packets of nucleon pairs in opposite signs, causing high-momentum components in the nucleon pairs. We superpose these AMD basis states and call this method "high-momentum AMD" (HM-AMD), which is capable of describing the strong tensor correlation [T. Myo et al., Prog. Theor. Exp. Phys., 2017, 111D01 (2017)]. In this letter, we extend HM-AMD by including up to two kinds of nucleon pairs in each AMD basis state utilizing the cluster expansion, which produces many-body correlations involving high-momentum components. We investigate how well HM-AMD describes the short-range correlation by showing the results for ^3H using the Argonne V4^' central potential. It is found that HM-AMD reproduces the results of few-body calculations and also the tensor-optimized AMD. This means that HM-AMD is a powerful approach to describe the short-range correlation in nuclei. In HM-AMD, the momentum directions of nucleon pairs isotropically contribute to the short-range correlation, which is different from the tensor correlation.
Radiation pressure of light pulses and conservation of linear momentum in dispersive media.
Scalora, Michael; D'Aguanno, Giuseppe; Mattiucci, Nadia; Bloemer, Mark J; Centini, Marco; Sibilia, Concita; Haus, Joseph W
2006-05-01
We derive an expression for the Minkowski momentum under conditions of dispersive susceptibility and permeability, and compare it to the Abraham momentum in order to test the principle of conservation of linear momentum when matter is present. We investigate cases when an incident pulse interacts with a variety of structures, including thick substrates, resonant, free-standing, micron-sized multilayer stacks, and negative index materials. In general, we find that for media only a few wavelengths thick the Minkowski and Abraham momentum densities yield similar results. For more extended media, including substrates and Bragg mirrors embedded inside thick dielectric substrates, our calculations show dramatic differences between the Minkowski and Abraham momenta. Without exception, in all cases investigated the instantaneous Lorentz force exerted on the medium is consistent only with the rate of change of the Abraham momentum. As a practical example, we use our model to predict that electromagnetic momentum and energy buildup inside a multilayer stack can lead to widely tunable accelerations that may easily reach and exceed 10(10) m/s(2) for a mass of 10(-5) g. Our results suggest that the physics of the photonic band edge and other similar finite structures may be used as a testing ground for basic electromagnetic phenomena such as momentum transfer to macroscopic media.
Turbulent equipartition pinch of toroidal momentum in spherical torus
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hahm, T. S.; Lee, J.; Wang, W. X.; Diamond, P. H.; Choi, G. J.; Na, D. H.; Na, Y. S.; Chung, K. J.; Hwang, Y. S.
2014-12-01
We present a new analytic expression for turbulent equipartition (TEP) pinch of toroidal angular momentum originating from magnetic field inhomogeneity of spherical torus (ST) plasmas. Starting from a conservative modern nonlinear gyrokinetic equation (Hahm et al 1988 Phys. Fluids 31 2670), we derive an expression for pinch to momentum diffusivity ratio without using a usual tokamak approximation of B ∝ 1/R which has been previously employed for TEP momentum pinch derivation in tokamaks (Hahm et al 2007 Phys. Plasmas 14 072302). Our new formula is evaluated for model equilibria of National Spherical Torus eXperiment (NSTX) (Ono et al 2001 Nucl. Fusion 41 1435) and Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus (VEST) (Chung et al 2013 Plasma Sci. Technol. 15 244) plasmas. Our result predicts stronger inward pinch for both cases, as compared to the prediction based on the tokamak formula.
Arbitrary spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion of light.
Devlin, Robert C; Ambrosio, Antonio; Rubin, Noah A; Mueller, J P Balthasar; Capasso, Federico
2017-11-17
Optical elements that convert the spin angular momentum (SAM) of light into vortex beams have found applications in classical and quantum optics. These elements-SAM-to-orbital angular momentum (OAM) converters-are based on the geometric phase and only permit the conversion of left- and right-circular polarizations (spin states) into states with opposite OAM. We present a method for converting arbitrary SAM states into total angular momentum states characterized by a superposition of independent OAM. We designed a metasurface that converts left- and right-circular polarizations into states with independent values of OAM and designed another device that performs this operation for elliptically polarized states. These results illustrate a general material-mediated connection between SAM and OAM of light and may find applications in producing complex structured light and in optical communication. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
A gravitational energy–momentum and the thermodynamic description of gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Acquaviva, G.; Kofroň, D.; Scholtz, M.
2018-05-01
A proposal for the gravitational energy–momentum tensor, known in the literature as the square root of Bel–Robinson tensor (SQBR), is analyzed in detail. Being constructed exclusively from the Weyl part of the Riemann tensor, such tensor encapsulates the geometric properties of free gravitational fields in terms of optical scalars of null congruences: making use of the general decomposition of any energy–momentum tensor, we explore the thermodynamic interpretation of such geometric quantities. While the matter energy–momentum is identically conserved due to Einstein’s field equations, the SQBR is not necessarily conserved and dissipative terms could arise in its vacuum continuity equation. We discuss the possible physical interpretations of such mathematical properties.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lewis, B. M.
1997-12-01
Gravitational contraction always generates a radially directed momentum flow. A particularly simple example occurs in the electron-degenerate cores of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, which contract steadily under the addition of helium ashes from shell hydrogen burning. The resulting momentum flux is quantified here. And since the cores of AGB stars lack efficient momentum-cancellation mechanisms, they can maintain equilibrium by exporting their excess momentum flux to the stellar envelope, which disposes of much of it in a low velocity wind. Gravitational contraction easily accounts for the momentum flux in the solar wind, as well as the flux required to lift mass into the dust formation zone of every AGB star, whereon radiation pressure continues its ejection as a low-velocity wind. This mechanism explains the dependence of the AGB mass-loss rate on core mass; its generalization to objects with angular momentum and/or strong magnetic fields suggests a novel explanation as to why most planetary nebulae and proto-planetary nebulae exhibit axial symmetry. Quasi-static contraction is inherently biased to the generation of the maximum possible momentum flux. Its formalism is, therefore, readily adapted to providing an upper limit to the momentum flux needed to sustain mass loss when this begins from a semicontinuous rather than an impulsive process.
Perpendicular momentum input of lower hybrid waves and its influence on driving plasma rotation.
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Guan, Xiaoyin
The mechanism of perpendicular momentum input of lower hybrid waves and its influence on plasma rotation are studied. Discussion for parallel momentum input of lower hybrid waves is presented for comparison. It is found out that both toroidal and poloidal projections of perpendicular momentum input of lower hybrid waves are stronger than those of parallel momentum input. The perpendicular momentum input of lower hybrid waves therefore plays a dominant role in forcing the changes of rotation velocity observed during lower hybrid current drive. Lower hybrid waves convert perpendicular momentum carried by the waves into the momentum of dc electromagnetic fieldmore » by inducing a resonant-electron flow across flux surfaces therefore charge separation and a radial dc electric field. The dc field releases its momentum into plasma through the Lorentz force acting on the radial return current driven by the radial electric field. Plasma is spun up by the Lorentz force. An improved quasilinear theory with gyro-phase dependent distribution function is developed to calculate the radial flux of resonant electrons. Rotations are determined by a set of fluid equations for bulk electrons and ions, which are solved numerically by applying a finite-difference method. Analytical expressions for toroidal and poloidal rotations are derived using the same hydrodynamic model.« less
Representational Momentum in Older Adults
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Piotrowski, Andrea S.; Jakobson, Lorna S.
2011-01-01
Humans have a tendency to perceive motion even in static images that simply "imply" movement. This tendency is so strong that our memory for actions depicted in static images is distorted in the direction of implied motion--a phenomenon known as representational momentum (RM). In the present study, we created an RM display depicting a pattern of…
Skab, Ihor; Vlokh, Rostyslav
2012-04-01
Acousto-optic diffraction of light in optically active cubic crystals is analyzed from the viewpoint of conservation of optical angular momentum. It is shown that the availability of angular momentum in the diffracted optical beam can be necessarily inferred from the requirements of angular momentum conservation law. As follows from our analysis, a circularly polarized diffracted wave should bear an orbital angular momentum. The efficiency of the spin-to-orbit momentum conversion is governed by the efficiency of acousto-optic diffraction.
Development of a Simple Positron Age-Momentum Setup
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sheffield, Thomas; Quarles, C. A.
2009-04-01
A positron age-momentum setup that uses NIM Bin electronic modules and a conventional multichannel analyzer (MCA) is described. The essential idea is to accumulate a Doppler broadened spectrum (sensitive to the annihilation electron momentum) using a high purity Germanium detector in coincidence with a BaF2 scintillation counter, which also serves as the stop signal in a conventional positron lifetime setup. The MCA that collects the Doppler spectrum is gated by a selected region of the lifetime spectrum. Thus we can obtain Doppler broadening spectra as a function of positron lifetime: an age-momentum spectrum. The apparatus has been used so far to investigate a ZnO sample where the size of different vacancy trapping sites may affect the positron lifetime and the Doppler broadening spectrum. We are also looking at polymer and rubber carbon-black composite samples where differences in the Doppler spectrum may arise from positron trapping or positronium formation in the samples. Correction for background and contribution from the positron source itself to the Doppler spectrum will be discussed.
Angular momentum transport with twisted exciton wave packets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zang, Xiaoning; Lusk, Mark T.
2017-10-01
A chain of cofacial molecules with CN or CN h symmetry supports excitonic states with a screwlike structure. These can be quantified with the combination of an axial wave number and an azimuthal winding number. Combinations of these states can be used to construct excitonic wave packets that spiral down the chain with well-determined linear and angular momenta. These twisted exciton wave packets can be created and annihilated using laser pulses, and their angular momentum can be optically modified during transit. This allows for the creation of optoexcitonic circuits in which information, encoded in the angular momentum of light, is converted into excitonic wave packets that can be manipulated, transported, and then reemitted. A tight-binding paradigm is used to demonstrate the key ideas. The approach is then extended to quantify the evolution of twisted exciton wave packets in a many-body, multilevel time-domain density functional theory setting. In both settings, numerical methods are developed that allow the site-to-site transfer of angular momentum to be quantified.
Southern Argentina Agile Meteor Radar: Initial assessment of gravity wave momentum fluxes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fritts, D. C.; Janches, D.; Hocking, W. K.
2010-10-01
The Southern Argentina Agile Meteor Radar (SAAMER) was installed on Tierra del Fuego (53.8°S) in May 2008 and has been operational since that time. This paper describes tests of the SAAMER ability to measure gravity wave momentum fluxes and applications of this capability during different seasons. Test results for specified mean, tidal, and gravity wavefields, including tidal amplitudes and gravity wave momentum fluxes varying strongly with altitude and/or time, suggest that the distribution of meteors throughout the diurnal cycle and averaged over a month allows characterization of both monthly mean profiles and diurnal variations of the gravity wave momentum fluxes. Applications of the same methods for real data suggest confidence in the monthly mean profiles and the composite day diurnal variations of gravity wave momentum fluxes at altitudes where meteor counts are sufficient to yield good statistical fits to the data. Monthly mean zonal winds and gravity wave momentum fluxes exhibit anticorrelations consistent with those seen at other midlatitude and high-latitude radars during austral spring and summer, when no strong local gravity wave sources are apparent. When stratospheric variances are significantly enhanced over the Drake Passage “hot spot” during austral winter, however, MLT winds and momentum fluxes over SAAMER exhibit very different correlations that suggest that MLT dynamics are strongly influenced by strong local gravity wave sources within this “hot spot.” SAAMER measurements of mean zonal and meridional winds at these times and their differences from measurements at a conjugate site provide further support for the unusual momentum flux measurements.
Grinter, Roger; Jones, Garth A
2018-02-01
The transfer of angular momentum between a quadrupole emitter and a dipole acceptor is investigated theoretically. Vector spherical harmonics are used to describe the angular part of the field of the mediating photon. Analytical results are presented for predicting angular momentum transfer between the emitter and absorber within a quantum electrodynamical framework. We interpret the allowability of such a process, which appears to violate conservation of angular momentum, in terms of the breakdown of the isotropy of space at the point of photon absorption (detection). That is, collapse of the wavefunction results in loss of all angular momentum information. This is consistent with Noether's Theorem and demystifies some common misconceptions about the nature of the photon. The results have implications for interpreting the detection of photons from multipole sources and offers insight into limits on information that can be extracted from quantum measurements in photonic systems.
Measuring momentum for charged particle tomography
Morris, Christopher; Fraser, Andrew Mcleod; Schultz, Larry Joe; Borozdin, Konstantin N.; Klimenko, Alexei Vasilievich; Sossong, Michael James; Blanpied, Gary
2010-11-23
Methods, apparatus and systems for detecting charged particles and obtaining tomography of a volume by measuring charged particles including measuring the momentum of a charged particle passing through a charged particle detector. Sets of position sensitive detectors measure scattering of the charged particle. The position sensitive detectors having sufficient mass to cause the charged particle passing through the position sensitive detectors to scatter in the position sensitive detectors. A controller can be adapted and arranged to receive scattering measurements of the charged particle from the charged particle detector, determine at least one trajectory of the charged particle from the measured scattering; and determine at least one momentum measurement of the charged particle from the at least one trajectory. The charged particle can be a cosmic ray-produced charged particle, such as a cosmic ray-produced muon. The position sensitive detectors can be drift cells, such as gas-filled drift tubes.
Terahertz orbital angular momentum modes with flexible twisted hollow core antiresonant fiber
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stefani, Alessio; Fleming, Simon C.; Kuhlmey, Boris T.
2018-05-01
THz radiation is a more commonplace in research laboratories as well as in everyday life, with applications ranging from body scanners at airport security to short range wireless communications. In the optical domain, waveguides and other devices to manipulate radiation are well established. This is not yet the case in the THz regime because of the strong interaction of THz radiation with matter, leading to absorption, and the millimeter size of the wavelength and therefore of the required waveguides. We propose the use of a new material, polyurethane, for waveguides that allows high flexibility, overcoming the problem that large sizes otherwise result in rigid structures. With this material, we realize antiresonant hollow-core waveguides and we use the flexibility of the material to mechanically twist the waveguide in a tunable and reversible manner, with twist periods as short as tens of wavelengths. Twisting the waveguide, we demonstrate the generation of modes carrying orbital angular momentum. We use THz time domain spectroscopy to measure and clearly visualize the vortex nature of the mode, which is difficult in the optical domain. The proposed waveguide is a new platform offering new perspectives for THz guidance and particularly mode manipulation. The demonstrated ability to generate modes with an orbital angular momentum within a waveguide, in a controllable manner, will be beneficial to both fundamental, e.g., matter-radiation interaction, and applied, e.g., THz telecommunications, advances of THz research and technology. Moreover, this platform is not limited to the THz domain and could be scaled for other electromagnetic wavelengths.
Transverse momentum correlations of quarks in recursive jet models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Artru, X.; Belghobsi, Z.; Redouane-Salah, E.
2016-08-01
In the symmetric string fragmentation recipe adopted by PYTHIA for jet simulations, the transverse momenta of successive quarks are uncorrelated. This is a simplification but has no theoretical basis. Transverse momentum correlations are naturally expected, for instance, in a covariant multiperipheral model of quark hadronization. We propose a simple recipe of string fragmentation which leads to such correlations. The definition of the jet axis and its relation with the primordial transverse momentum of the quark is also discussed.
Energy acceptance and on momentum aperture optimization for the Sirius project
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dester, P. S.; Sá, F. H.; Liu, L.
2017-07-01
A fast objective function to calculate Touschek lifetime and on momentum aperture is essential to explore the vast search space of strength of quadrupole and sextupole families in Sirius. Touschek lifetime is estimated by using the energy aperture (dynamic and physical), RF system parameters and driving terms. Non-linear induced betatron oscillations are considered to determine the energy aperture. On momentum aperture is estimated by using a chaos indicator and resonance crossing considerations. Touschek lifetime and on momentum aperture constitute the objective function, which was used in a multi-objective genetic algorithm to perform an optimization for Sirius.
Massive star formation by accretion. II. Rotation: how to circumvent the angular momentum barrier?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haemmerlé, L.; Eggenberger, P.; Meynet, G.; Maeder, A.; Charbonnel, C.; Klessen, R. S.
2017-06-01
Context. Rotation plays a key role in the star-formation process, from pre-stellar cores to pre-main-sequence (PMS) objects. Understanding the formation of massive stars requires taking into account the accretion of angular momentum during their PMS phase. Aims: We study the PMS evolution of objects destined to become massive stars by accretion, focusing on the links between the physical conditions of the environment and the rotational properties of young stars. In particular, we look at the physical conditions that allow the production of massive stars by accretion. Methods: We present PMS models computed with a new version of the Geneva Stellar Evolution code self-consistently including accretion and rotation according to various accretion scenarios for mass and angular momentum. We describe the internal distribution of angular momentum in PMS stars accreting at high rates and we show how the various physical conditions impact their internal structures, evolutionary tracks, and rotation velocities during the PMS and the early main sequence. Results: We find that the smooth angular momentum accretion considered in previous studies leads to an angular momentum barrier and does not allow the formation of massive stars by accretion. A braking mechanism is needed in order to circumvent this angular momentum barrier. This mechanism has to be efficient enough to remove more than two thirds of the angular momentum from the inner accretion disc. Due to the weak efficiency of angular momentum transport by shear instability and meridional circulation during the accretion phase, the internal rotation profiles of accreting stars reflect essentially the angular momentum accretion history. As a consequence, careful choice of the angular momentum accretion history allows circumvention of any limitation in mass and velocity, and production of stars of any mass and velocity compatible with structure equations.
Sze, Michelle Wynne C; Sugon, Quirino M; McNamara, Daniel J
2010-11-01
In this paper, we use Clifford (geometric) algebra Cl(3,0) to verify if electromagnetic energy-momentum density is still conserved for oblique superposition of two elliptically polarized plane waves with the same frequency. We show that energy-momentum conservation is valid at any time only for the superposition of two counter-propagating elliptically polarized plane waves. We show that the time-average energy-momentum of the superposition of two circularly polarized waves with opposite handedness is conserved regardless of the propagation directions of the waves. And, we show that the resulting momentum density of the superposed waves generally has a vector component perpendicular to the momentum densities of the individual waves.
Extreme Ultraviolet Fractional Orbital Angular Momentum Beams from High Harmonic Generation
Turpin, Alex; Rego, Laura; Picón, Antonio; San Román, Julio; Hernández-García, Carlos
2017-01-01
We investigate theoretically the generation of extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) beams carrying fractional orbital angular momentum. To this end, we drive high-order harmonic generation with infrared conical refraction (CR) beams. We show that the high-order harmonic beams emitted in the EUV/soft x-ray regime preserve the characteristic signatures of the driving beam, namely ringlike transverse intensity profile and CR-like polarization distribution. As a result, through orbital and spin angular momentum conservation, harmonic beams are emitted with fractional orbital angular momentum, and they can be synthesized into structured attosecond helical beams –or “structured attosecond light springs”– with rotating linear polarization along the azimuth. Our proposal overcomes the state of the art limitations for the generation of light beams far from the visible domain carrying non-integer orbital angular momentum and could be applied in fields such as diffraction imaging, EUV lithography, particle trapping, and super-resolution imaging. PMID:28281655
A Model for Dynamic Simulation and Analysis of Tether Momentum Exchange
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Canfield, Stephen; Johnson, David; Sorensen, Kirk; Welzyn, Ken; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
Momentum-exchange/electrodynamic reboost (MXER) tether systems may enable high-energy missions to the Moon, Mars, and beyond by serving as an 'upper stage in space'. Existing rockets that use an MXER tether station could double their capability to launch communications satellites and help improve US competitiveness. A MXER tether station would boost spacecraft from low Earth orbit to a high-energy orbit quickly, like a high-thrust rocket. Then, using the same principles that make an electric motor work, it would slowly rebuild its orbital momentum by pushing against the Earth's magnetic field-without using any propellant. One of the significant challenges in developing a momentum-exchange/electrodynamic reboost tether systems is in the analysis and design of the capture mechanism and its effects on the overall dynamics of the system. This paper will present a model for a momentum-exchange tether system that can simulate and evaluate the performance and requirements of such a system.
Gaffney, Brecca M; Murray, Amanda M; Christiansen, Cory L; Davidson, Bradley S
2016-03-01
Patients with unilateral dysvascular transtibial amputation (TTA) have a higher risk of developing low back pain than their healthy counterparts, which may be related to movement compensations used in the absence of ankle function. Assessing components of segmental angular momentum provides a unique framework to identify and interpret these movement compensations alongside traditional observational analyses. Angular momentum separation indicates two components of total angular momentum: (1) transfer momentum and (2) rotational momentum. The objective of this investigation was to assess movement compensations in patients with dysvascular TTA, patients with diabetes mellitus (DM), and healthy controls (HC) by examining patterns of generating and arresting trunk and pelvis segmental angular momenta during gait. We hypothesized that all groups would demonstrate similar patterns of generating/arresting total momentum and transfer momentum in the trunk and pelvis in reference to the groups (patients with DM and HC). We also hypothesized that patients with amputation would demonstrate different (larger) patterns of generating/arresting rotational angular momentum in the trunk. Patients with amputation demonstrated differences in trunk and pelvis transfer angular momentum in the sagittal and transverse planes in comparison to the reference groups, which indicates postural compensations adopted during walking. However, patients with amputation demonstrated larger patterns of generating and arresting of trunk and pelvis rotational angular momentum in comparison to the reference groups. These segmental rotational angular momentum patterns correspond with high eccentric muscle demands needed to arrest the angular momentum, and may lead to consequential long-term effects such as low back pain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Heat and momentum transfer for magnetoconvection in a vertical external magnetic field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zürner, Till; Liu, Wenjun; Krasnov, Dmitry; Schumacher, Jörg
2016-11-01
The scaling theory of Grossmann and Lohse for the turbulent heat and momentum transfer is extended to the magnetoconvection case in the presence of a (strong) vertical magnetic field. The comparison with existing laboratory experiments and direct numerical simulations in the quasistatic limit allows to restrict the parameter space to very low Prandtl and magnetic Prandtl numbers and thus to reduce the number of unknown parameters in the model. Also included is the Chandrasekhar limit for which the outer magnetic induction field B is large enough such that convective motion is suppressed and heat is transported by diffusion. Our theory identifies four distinct regimes of magnetoconvection which are distinguished by the strength of the outer magnetic field and the level of turbulence in the flow, respectively. LIMTECH Research Alliance and Research Training Group GK 1567 on Lorentz Force Velocimetry, funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft.
Penrose-like inequality with angular momentum for minimal surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anglada, Pablo
2018-02-01
In axially symmetric spacetimes the Penrose inequality can be strengthened to include angular momentum. We prove a version of this inequality for minimal surfaces, more precisely, a lower bound for the ADM mass in terms of the area of a minimal surface, the angular momentum and a particular measure of the surface size. We consider axially symmetric and asymptotically flat initial data, and use the monotonicity of the Geroch quasi-local energy on 2-surfaces along the inverse mean curvature flow.
A Very Fast and Angular Momentum Conserving Tree Code
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Marcello, Dominic C., E-mail: dmarce504@gmail.com
There are many methods used to compute the classical gravitational field in astrophysical simulation codes. With the exception of the typically impractical method of direct computation, none ensure conservation of angular momentum to machine precision. Under uniform time-stepping, the Cartesian fast multipole method of Dehnen (also known as the very fast tree code) conserves linear momentum to machine precision. We show that it is possible to modify this method in a way that conserves both angular and linear momenta.
Momentum distributions for the quantum delta-kicked rotor with decoherence
Vant; Ball; Christensen
2000-05-01
We report on the momentum distribution line shapes for the quantum delta-kicked rotor in the presence of environment induced decoherence. Experimental and numerical results are presented. In the experiment ultracold cesium atoms are subjected to a pulsed standing wave of near resonant light. Spontaneous scattering of photons destroys dynamical localization. For the scattering rates used in our experiment the momentum distribution shapes remain essentially exponential.
Momentum broadening in unstable quark-gluon plasma
Carrington, M. E.; Mrówczyński, St.; Schenke, B.
2017-02-01
We present that quark-gluon plasma produced at the early stage of ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions is unstable, if weakly coupled, due to the anisotropy of its momentum distribution. Chromomagnetic fields are spontaneously generated and can reach magnitudes much exceeding typical values of the fields in equilibrated plasma. We consider a high-energy test parton traversing an unstable plasma that is populated with strong fields. We study the momentum broadening parametermore » $$ˆ\\atop{q}$$ which determines the radiative energy loss of the test parton. We develop a formalism which gives $$ˆ\\atop{q}$$ as the solution of an initial value problem, and we focus on extremely oblate plasmas which are physically relevant for relativistic heavy-ion collisions. The parameter $$ˆ\\atop{q}$$ is found to be strongly dependent on time. For short times it is of the order of the equilibrium value, but at later times $$ˆ\\atop{q}$$ grows exponentially due to the interaction of the test parton with unstable modes and becomes much bigger than the value in equilibrium. The momentum broadening is also strongly directionally dependent and is largest when the test parton velocity is transverse to the beam axis. Lastly, consequences of our findings for the phenomenology of jet quenching in relativistic heavy-ion collisions are briefly discussed.« less
Alongshore Momentum Balance Over Shoreface-Connected Ridges, Fire Island, NY
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ofsthun, C.; Wu, X.; Voulgaris, G.; Warner, J. C.
2016-12-01
he momentum balance of alongshore flows over straight, uniform shelfs has been analyzed extensively over the last few decades. More recently, the effect of coastline curvature and how this might alter the relative significance of the momentum terms has received additional attention. In this contribution, the alongshore momentum over shelves with straight coastline, but non-uniform bathymetry is examined. Hydrodynamic and hydrographic data collected by the US Geological Survey (Fire Island Coastal Change project) on the inner shelf of Fire Island, NY over a region of shore-face connected ridges (SFCRs) are used to describe wind-induced circulation and the terms of the alongshore momentum balance equation. Analysis of the data revealed a predominantly alongshore circulation, under westward wind forcing, with localized offshore (onshore) current veering over the ridge crests (troughs). Momentum balance analysis hinted that local acceleration, advective acceleration, and bottom stress are balanced by wind stress and regional (>100 km) pressure gradient force. In addition, a numerical model using an idealized SFCR bathymetry, forced by our observed winds, was employed to compare the momentum balance relationships identified by the data and those under steady-state conditions published earlier (Warner et al., 2014). A synthesis of the numerical and experimental data revealed that the true pressure gradient force results from the sum of local pressure gradient force, which maintains a Bernoulli-like relationship with alongshore advective acceleration, and regional pressure gradient force, which maintains a strong, negative relationship with wind stress. The differences between steady-state and realistic conditions is mainly on the contributions of regional scale pressure gradients that develop under realistic conditions, and the reduced contribution of local scale pressure gradients which develop best under steady-state conditions. Our analysis indicates that current
Momentum balance in four solar flares
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Canfield, Richard C.; Metcalf, Thomas R.; Zarro, Dominic M.; Lemen, James R.
1990-01-01
Solar Maximum Mission soft X-ray spectra and National Solar Observatory (Sacramento Peak) H-alpha spectra were combined in a study of high-speed flows during the impulsive phase of four solar flares. In all events, a blue asymmetry (indicative of upflows) was observed in the coronal Ca XIX line during the soft X-ray rise phase. In all events a red asymmetry (indicative of downflows) was observed simultaneously in chromospheric H-alpha. These oppositely directed flows were concurrent with impulsive hard X-ray emission. Combining the velocity data with estimates of the density based on emission measurements and volume estimates, it is shown that for the impulsive phase as a whole the total momentum of upflowing soft X-ray plasma equaled that of the downflowing H-alpha plasma, to within an order of magnitude, in all four events. Only the chromospheric evaporation model predicts equal total momentum in the upflowing soft X-ray-emitting and downflowing H-alphba-emitting materials.
High precision active nutation control for a flexible momentum biased spacecraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Laskin, R. A.; Kopf, E. H.
1984-01-01
The controller design for the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) is presented. SDO is a momentum biased spacecraft with three flexible appendages. Its primary scientific instrument, the solar oscillations imager (SOI), is rigidly attached to the spacecraft bus and has arc-second pointing requirements. Meeting these requirements necessitates the use of an active nutation controller (ANC) which is here mechanized with a small reaction wheel oriented along a bus transverse axis. The ANC does its job by orchestrating the transfer of angular momentum out of the bus transverse axes and into the momentum wheel. A simulation study verifies that the controller provides quick, stable, and accurate response.
The origin of the energy-momentum conservation law
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chubykalo, Andrew E.; Espinoza, Augusto; Kosyakov, B. P.
2017-09-01
The interplay between the action-reaction principle and the energy-momentum conservation law is revealed by the examples of the Maxwell-Lorentz and Yang-Mills-Wong theories, and general relativity. These two statements are shown to be equivalent in the sense that both hold or fail together. Their mutual agreement is demonstrated most clearly in the self-interaction problem by taking account of the rearrangement of degrees of freedom appearing in the action of the Maxwell-Lorentz and Yang-Mills-Wong theories. The failure of energy-momentum conservation in general relativity is attributed to the fact that this theory allows solutions having nontrivial topologies. The total energy and momentum of a system with nontrivial topological content prove to be ambiguous, coordinatization-dependent quantities. For example, the energy of a Schwarzschild black hole may take any positive value greater than, or equal to, the mass of the body whose collapse is responsible for forming this black hole. We draw the analogy to the paradoxial Banach-Tarski theorem; the measure becomes a poorly defined concept if initial three-dimensional bounded sets are rearranged in topologically nontrivial ways through the action of free non-Abelian isometry groups.
Gravity wave momentum flux in the lower stratosphere over convection
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Alexander, M. Joan; Pfister, Leonhard
1995-01-01
This work describes a method for estimating vertical fluxes of horizontal momentum carried by short horizontal scale gravity waves (lambda(sub x) = 10-100 km) using aircraft measured winds in the lower stratosphere. We utilize in situ wind vector and pressure altitude measurements provided by the Meteorological Measurement System (MMS) on board the ER-2 aircraft to compute the momentum flux vectors at the flight level above deep convection during the tropical experiment of the Stratosphere Troposphere Exchange Project (STEP-Tropical). Data from Flight 9 are presented here for illustration. The vertical flux of horizontal momentum these observations points in opposite directions on either side of the location of a strong convective updraft in the cloud shield. This property of internal gravity waves propagating from a central source compares favorably with previously described model results.
The detection of objects in a turbid underwater medium using orbital angular momentum (OAM)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cochenour, Brandon; Rodgers, Lila; Laux, Alan; Mullen, Linda; Morgan, Kaitlyn; Miller, Jerome K.; Johnson, Eric G.
2017-05-01
We present an investigation of the optical property of orbital angular momentum (OAM) for use in the detection of objects obscured by a turbid underwater channel. In our experiment, a target is illuminated by a Gaussian beam. An optical vortex is formed by passing the object-reflected and backscattered light through a diffractive spiral phase plate at the receiver, which allows for the spatial separation of coherent and non-coherent light. This provides a method for discriminating target from environment. Initial laboratory results show that the ballistic target return can be detected 2-3 orders of magnitude below the backscatter clutter level. Furthermore, the detection of this coherent component is accomplished with the use of a complicated optical heterodyning scheme. The results suggest new optical sensing techniques for underwater imaging or LIDAR.
Latitudinal Transport of Angular Momentum by Cellular Flows Observed with MDI
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hathaway, David H.; Gilman, Peter A.; Beck, John G.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
We have analyzed Doppler velocity images from the MDI instrument on SOHO to determine the latitudinal transport of angular momentum by the cellular photospheric flows. Doppler velocity images from 60-days in May to July of 1996 were processed to remove the p-mode oscillations, the convective blue shift, the axisymmetric flows, and any instrumental artifacts. The remaining cellular flows were examined for evidence of latitudinal angular momentum transport. Small cells show no evidence of any such transport. Cells the size of supergranules (30,000 km in diameter) show strong evidence for a poleward transport of angular momentum. This would be expected if supergranules are influenced by the Coriolis force, and if the cells are elongated in an east-west direction. We find good evidence for just such an east-west elongation of the supergranules. This elongation may be the result of differential rotation shearing the cellular structures. Data simulations of this effect support the conclusion that elongated supergranules transport angular momentum from the equator toward the poles, Cells somewhat larger than supergranules do not show evidence for this poleward transport. Further analysis of the data is planned to determine if the direction of angular momentum transport reverses for even larger cellular structures. The Sun's rapidly rotating equator must be maintained by such transport somewhere within the convection zone.
Transverse Momentum-Dependent Parton Distributions from Lattice QCD
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Engelhardt, M.; Musch, B.; Hägler, P.; Negele, J.; Schäfer, A.
Starting from a definition of transverse momentum-dependent parton distributions for semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering and the Drell-Yan process, given in terms of matrix elements of a quark bilocal operator containing a staple-shaped Wilson connection, a scheme to determine such observables in lattice QCD is developed and explored. Parametrizing the aforementioned matrix elements in terms of invariant amplitudes permits a simple transformation of the problem to a Lorentz frame suited for the lattice calculation. Results for the Sivers and Boer-Mulders transverse momentum shifts are presented, focusing in particular on their dependence on the staple extent and the Collins-Soper evolution parameter.
Transverse Momentum-Dependent Parton Distributions From Lattice QCD
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Michael Engelhardt, Bernhard Musch, Philipp Haegler, Andreas Schaefer
Starting from a definition of transverse momentum-dependent parton distributions for semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering and the Drell-Yan process, given in terms of matrix elements of a quark bilocal operator containing a staple-shaped Wilson connection, a scheme to determine such observables in lattice QCD is developed and explored. Parametrizing the aforementioned matrix elements in terms of invariant amplitudes permits a simple transformation of the problem to a Lorentz frame suited for the lattice calculation. Results for the Sivers and Boer-Mulders transverse momentum shifts are presented, focusing in particular on their dependence on the staple extent and the Collins-Soper evolution parameter.
Quantum mechanics of a constrained particle on an ellipsoid: Bein formalism and Geometric momentum
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Panahi, H., E-mail: t-panahi@guilan.ac.ir; Jahangiri, L., E-mail: laleh.jahangiry@yahoo.com
2016-09-15
In this work we apply the Dirac method in order to obtain the classical relations for a particle on an ellipsoid. We also determine the quantum mechanical form of these relations by using Dirac quantization. Then by considering the canonical commutation relations between the position and momentum operators in terms of curved coordinates, we try to propose the suitable representations for momentum operator that satisfy the obtained commutators between position and momentum in Euclidean space. We see that our representations for momentum operators are the same as geometric one.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Troitskaya, Yuliya; Ezhova, Ekaterina; Soustova, Irina
2013-04-01
flow during the life cycle from taking them off the water to fall into the water. Contribution of droplets to the momentum balance of air flow is determined by the total momentum balance of sea sprays. The calculations in the model showed that the momentum exchange with the spray can lead to either a weak (less than 10%) increase of the aerodynamic surface drag or to a weak reduction (within Koga's model [2]). Recommendations for the experiment on investigation of the "life cycle" of spray in the air flow are suggested. This work was supported by RFBR (project 11-05-12047-ofi-m, 13-05-00865-a, 12-05-33070 mol-a-ved, 12-05-31435 mol-a, 12-05-01064_A). References 1. Troitskaya, Y. I., D. A. Sergeev, A. A. Kandaurov, G. A. Baidakov, M. A. Vdovin, and V. I. Kazakov Laboratory and theoretical modeling of air-sea momentum transfer under severe wind conditions J.Geophys. Res., 117, C00J21, doi:10.1029/2011JC007778. 2. Koga M. Direct production of droplets from breaking wind-waves - its observation by a multi-colored overlapping exposure photographing technique // Tellus. 1981. V.33. Issue 6. P. 552-563. 3. Spiel D.E. On the birth of jet drops from bubbles bursting on water surfaces // J. Geophys. Res. 1995. V.100. P. 4995-5006. 4. Andreas E. L., 1998: A new sea spray generation function for wind speeds up to 32 m s21. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 28, 2175-2184.
Carter constant and angular momentum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mukherjee, Sajal; Nayak, K. Rajesh
We investigate the Carter-like constant in the case of a particle moving in a nonrelativistic dipolar potential. This special case is a missing link between the Carter constant in stationary and axially symmetric spacetimes (SASS) such as Kerr solution and its possible Newtonian counterpart. We use this system to carry over the definition of angular momentum from the Newtonian mechanics to the relativistic SASS.
Behavioral Momentum Theory: Equations and Applications
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nevin, John A.; Shahan, Timothy A.
2011-01-01
Behavioral momentum theory provides a quantitative account of how reinforcers experienced within a discriminative stimulus context govern the persistence of behavior that occurs in that context. The theory suggests that all reinforcers obtained in the presence of a discriminative stimulus increase resistance to change, regardless of whether those…
He, Li; Li, Huan; Li, Mo
2016-09-01
Photons carry linear momentum and spin angular momentum when circularly or elliptically polarized. During light-matter interaction, transfer of linear momentum leads to optical forces, whereas transfer of angular momentum induces optical torque. Optical forces including radiation pressure and gradient forces have long been used in optical tweezers and laser cooling. In nanophotonic devices, optical forces can be significantly enhanced, leading to unprecedented optomechanical effects in both classical and quantum regimes. In contrast, to date, the angular momentum of light and the optical torque effect have only been used in optical tweezers but remain unexplored in integrated photonics. We demonstrate the measurement of the spin angular momentum of photons propagating in a birefringent waveguide and the use of optical torque to actuate rotational motion of an optomechanical device. We show that the sign and magnitude of the optical torque are determined by the photon polarization states that are synthesized on the chip. Our study reveals the mechanical effect of photon's polarization degree of freedom and demonstrates its control in integrated photonic devices. Exploiting optical torque and optomechanical interaction with photon angular momentum can lead to torsional cavity optomechanics and optomechanical photon spin-orbit coupling, as well as applications such as optomechanical gyroscopes and torsional magnetometry.
He, Li; Li, Huan; Li, Mo
2016-01-01
Photons carry linear momentum and spin angular momentum when circularly or elliptically polarized. During light-matter interaction, transfer of linear momentum leads to optical forces, whereas transfer of angular momentum induces optical torque. Optical forces including radiation pressure and gradient forces have long been used in optical tweezers and laser cooling. In nanophotonic devices, optical forces can be significantly enhanced, leading to unprecedented optomechanical effects in both classical and quantum regimes. In contrast, to date, the angular momentum of light and the optical torque effect have only been used in optical tweezers but remain unexplored in integrated photonics. We demonstrate the measurement of the spin angular momentum of photons propagating in a birefringent waveguide and the use of optical torque to actuate rotational motion of an optomechanical device. We show that the sign and magnitude of the optical torque are determined by the photon polarization states that are synthesized on the chip. Our study reveals the mechanical effect of photon’s polarization degree of freedom and demonstrates its control in integrated photonic devices. Exploiting optical torque and optomechanical interaction with photon angular momentum can lead to torsional cavity optomechanics and optomechanical photon spin-orbit coupling, as well as applications such as optomechanical gyroscopes and torsional magnetometry. PMID:27626072
Vertical Structure of Heat and Momentum Transport in the Urban Surface Layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hrisko, J.; Ramamurthy, P.
2017-12-01
Vertical transport of heat and momentum during convective periods is investigated in the urban surface layer using eddy covariance measurements at 5 levels. The Obukhov length is used to divide the dataset into distinct stability regimes: weakly unstable, unstable and very unstable. Our preliminary analysis indicates critical differences in the transport of heat and momentum as the instability increases. Particularly, during periods of increased instability the vertical heat flux deviates from surface layer similarity theory. Further analysis of primary quadrant sweeps and ejections also indicate deviations from the theory, alluding that ejections dominate during convective periods for heat transport, but equally contribute with sweeps for momentum transport. The transport efficiencies of momentum at all 5 levels uniformly decreases as the instability increases, in stark contrast the heat transport efficiencies increase non-linearly as the instability increases. Collectively, these results demonstrate the breakdown of similarity theory during convective periods, and reaffirm that revised and improved methods for characterizing heat and momentum transport in urban areas is needed. These implications could ultimately advance weather prediction and estimation of scalar transport for urban areas susceptible to weather hazards and large amounts of pollution.
Violation of unitarity by Hawking radiation does not violate energy-momentum conservation
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Nikolić, Hrvoje
2015-04-02
An argument by Banks, Susskind and Peskin (BSP), according to which violation of unitarity would violate either locality or energy-momentum conservation, is widely believed to be a strong argument against non-unitarity of Hawking radiation. We find that the whole BSP argument rests on the crucial assumption that the Hamiltonian is not highly degenerate, and point out that this assumption is not satisfied for systems with many degrees of freedom. Using Lindblad equation, we show that high degeneracy of the Hamiltonian allows local non-unitary evolution without violating energy-momentum conservation. Moreover, since energy-momentum is the source of gravity, we argue that energy-momentummore » is necessarily conserved for a large class of non-unitary systems with gravity. Finally, we explicitly calculate the Lindblad operators for non-unitary Hawking radiation and show that they conserve energy-momentum.« less
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Khandelwal, Govind S.; Khan, Ferdous
1989-01-01
An optical model description of energy and momentum transfer in relativistic heavy-ion collisions, based upon composite particle multiple scattering theory, is presented. Transverse and longitudinal momentum transfers to the projectile are shown to arise from the real and absorptive part of the optical potential, respectively. Comparisons of fragment momentum distribution observables with experiments are made and trends outlined based on our knowledge of the underlying nucleon-nucleon interaction. Corrections to the above calculations are discussed. Finally, use of the model as a tool for estimating collision impact parameters is indicated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Collins, J.; Gamberg, L.; Prokudin, A.; Rogers, T. C.; Sato, N.; Wang, B.
2016-08-01
We construct an improved implementation for combining transverse-momentum-dependent (TMD) factorization and collinear factorization. TMD factorization is suitable for low transverse momentum physics, while collinear factorization is suitable for high transverse momenta and for a cross section integrated over transverse momentum. The result is a modified version of the standard W +Y prescription traditionally used in the Collins-Soper-Sterman (CSS) formalism and related approaches. We further argue that questions regarding the shape and Q dependence of the cross sections at lower Q are largely governed by the matching to the Y term.
Muscle Contributions to Frontal Plane Angular Momentum during Walking
Neptune, Richard R.; McGowan, Craig P.
2016-01-01
The regulation of whole-body angular momentum is important for maintaining dynamic balance during human walking, which is particularly challenging in the frontal plane. Whole-body angular momentum is actively regulated by individual muscle forces. Thus, understanding which muscles contribute to frontal plane angular momentum will further our understanding of mediolateral balance control and has the potential to help diagnose and treat balance disorders. The purpose of this study was to identify how individual muscles and gravity contribute to whole-body angular momentum in the frontal plane using a muscle-actuated forward dynamics simulation analysis. A three-dimensional simulation was developed that emulated the average walking mechanics of a group of young healthy adults (n=10). The results showed that a finite set of muscles are the primary contributors to frontal plane balance and that these contributions vary throughout the gait cycle. In early stance, the vasti, adductor magnus and gravity acted to rotate the body towards the contralateral leg while the gluteus medius acted to rotate the body towards the ipsilateral leg. In late stance, the gluteus medius continued to rotate the body towards the ipsilateral leg while the soleus and gastrocnemius acted to rotate the body towards the contralateral leg. These results highlight those muscles that are critical to maintaining dynamic balance in the frontal plane during walking and may provide targets for locomotor therapies aimed at treating balance disorders. PMID:27522538
A Universal Angular Momentum Profile for Dark Matter Halos
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liao, Shihong; Chen, Jianxiong; Chu, M.-C.
2017-07-01
The angular momentum distribution in dark matter halos and galaxies is a key ingredient in understanding their formation. Specifically, the internal distribution of angular momenta is closely related to the formation of disk galaxies. In this article, we use halos identified from a high-resolution simulation, the Bolshoi simulation, to study the spatial distribution of specific angular momenta, j(r,θ ). We show that by stacking halos with similar masses to increase the signal-to-noise ratio, the profile can be fitted as a simple function, j{(r,θ )={j}s{\\sin }2{(θ /{θ }s)(r/{r}s)}2/(1+r/{r}s)}4, with three free parameters, {j}s,{r}s, and {θ }s. Specifically, j s correlates with the halo mass M vir as {j}s\\propto {M}{vir}2/3, r s has a weak dependence on the halo mass as {r}s\\propto {M}{vir}0.040, and {θ }s is independent of M vir. This profile agrees with that from a rigid shell model, though its origin is unclear. Our universal specific angular momentum profile j(r,θ ) is useful in modeling the angular momenta of halos. Furthermore, by using an empirical stellar mass-halo mass relation, we can infer the average angular momentum distribution of a dark matter halo. The specific angular momentum-stellar mass relation within a halo computed from our profile is shown to share a similar shape as that from the observed disk galaxies.
Extracting muon momentum scale corrections for hadron collider experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bodek, A.; van Dyne, A.; Han, J. Y.; Sakumoto, W.; Strelnikov, A.
2012-10-01
We present a simple method for the extraction of corrections for bias in the measurement of the momentum of muons in hadron collider experiments. Such bias can originate from a variety of sources such as detector misalignment, software reconstruction bias, and uncertainties in the magnetic field. The two step method uses the mean <1/p^{μ}T rangle for muons from Z→ μμ decays to determine the momentum scale corrections in bins of charge, η and ϕ. In the second step, the corrections are tuned by using the average invariant mass < MZ_{μμ }rangle of Z→ μμ events in the same bins of charge η and ϕ. The forward-backward asymmetry of Z/ γ ∗→ μμ pairs as a function of μ + μ - mass, and the ϕ distribution of Z bosons in the Collins-Soper frame are used to ascertain that the corrections remove the bias in the momentum measurements for positive versus negatively charged muons. By taking the sum and difference of the momentum scale corrections for positive and negative muons, we isolate additive corrections to 1/p^{μ}T that may originate from misalignments and multiplicative corrections that may originate from mis-modeling of the magnetic field (∫ Bṡ d L). This method has recently been used in the CDF experiment at Fermilab and in the CMS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN.
An investigation of the normal momentum transfer for gases on tungsten
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Moskal, E. J.
1971-01-01
The near monoenergetic beam of neutral helium and argon atoms impinged on a single crystal tungsten target, with the (100) face exposed to the beam. The target was mounted on a torsion balance. The rotation of this torsion balance was monitored by an optical lever, and this reading was converted to a measurement of the momentum exchange between the beam and the target. The tungsten target was flashed to a temperature in excess of 2000 C before every clean run, and the vacuum levels in the final chamber were typically between 0.5 and 1 ntorr. The momentum exchange for the helium-tungsten surface and the argon-tungsten surface combination was obtained over approximately a decade of incoming energy (for the argon gas) at angles of incidence of 0, 30, and 41 deg on both clean and dirty (gas covered) surfaces. The results exhibited a significant variation in momentum transfer between the data obtained for the clean and dirty surfaces. The values of normal momentum accommodation coefficient for the clean surface were found to be lower than the values previously reported.
Kim, Jemin; Wilson, Margaret A; Singhal, Kunal; Gamblin, Sarah; Suh, Cha-Young; Kwon, Young-Hoo
2014-09-01
The purpose of this study was to investigate the vertical angular momentum generation strategies used by skilled ballet dancers in pirouette en dehors. Select kinematic parameters of the pirouette preparation (stance depth, vertical center-of-mass motion range, initial shoulder line position, shoulder line angular displacement, and maximum trunk twist angle) along with vertical angular momentum parameters during the turn (maximum momentums of the whole body and body parts, and duration and rate of generation) were obtained from nine skilled collegiate ballet dancers through a three-dimensional motion analysis and compared among three turn conditions (single, double, and triple). A one-way ('turn') multivariate analysis of variance of the kinematic parameters and angular momentum parameters of the whole body and a two-way analysis of variance ('turn' × 'body') of the maximum angular momentums of the body parts were conducted. Significant 'turn' effects were observed in the kinematic/angular momentum parameters (both the preparation and the turn) (p < 0.05). As the number of turns increased, skilled dancers generated larger vertical angular momentums by predominantly increasing the rate of momentum generation using rotation of the upper trunk and arms. The trail (closing) arm showed the largest contribution to whole-body angular momentum followed by the lead arm.
Renormalization in Large Momentum Effective Theory of Parton Physics.
Ji, Xiangdong; Zhang, Jian-Hui; Zhao, Yong
2018-03-16
In the large-momentum effective field theory approach to parton physics, the matrix elements of nonlocal operators of quark and gluon fields, linked by straight Wilson lines in a spatial direction, are calculated in lattice quantum chromodynamics as a function of hadron momentum. Using the heavy-quark effective theory formalism, we show a multiplicative renormalization of these operators at all orders in perturbation theory, both in dimensional and lattice regularizations. The result provides a theoretical basis for extracting parton properties through properly renormalized observables in Monte Carlo simulations.
Momentum dependence in pair production by an external field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Asakawa, M.
1992-08-01
The transverse and the longitudinal momentum dependences of the pair production under an adiabatically exerted uniform abelian external field are calculated with their importance in models for the production of quark-gluon plasma in ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions in mind. The importance of the initial condition is revealed. We show that superposition of acceleration by the external field and barrier penetration is reflected in the longitudinal momentum dependence. The peculiar nature of the boost invariant system which is expected to be approximately realized in ultrarelativistic nuclear collisions is pointed out.
Representational momentum in perception and grasping: translating versus transforming objects.
Brouwer, Anne-Marie; Franz, Volker H; Thornton, Ian M
2004-07-14
Representational momentum is the tendency to misremember the stopping point of a moving object as further forward in the direction of movement. Results of several studies suggest that this effect is typical for changes in position (e.g., translation) and not for changes in object shape (transformation). Additionally, the effect seems to be stronger in motor tasks than in perceptual tasks. Here, participants judged the final distance between two spheres after this distance had been increasing or decreasing. The spheres were two separately translating objects or were connected to form a single transforming object (a dumbbell). Participants also performed a motor task in which they grasped virtual versions of the final objects. We found representational momentum for the visual judgment task for both stimulus types. As predicted, it was stronger for the spheres than for the dumbbells. In contrast, for grasping, only the dumbbells produced representational momentum (larger maximum grip aperture when the dumbbells had been growing compared to when they had been shrinking). Because type of stimulus change had these different effects on representational momentum for perception and action, we conclude that different sources of information are used in the two tasks or that they are governed by different mechanisms.
Hunting the Gluon Orbital Angular Momentum at the Electron-Ion Collider.
Ji, Xiangdong; Yuan, Feng; Zhao, Yong
2017-05-12
Applying the connection between the parton Wigner distribution and orbital angular momentum (OAM), we investigate the probe of the gluon OAM in hard scattering processes at the planned electron-ion collider. We show that the single longitudinal target-spin asymmetry in the hard diffractive dijet production is very sensitive to the gluon OAM distribution. The associated spin asymmetry leads to a characteristic azimuthal angular correlation of sin(ϕ_{q}-ϕ_{Δ}), where ϕ_{Δ} and ϕ_{q} are the azimuthal angles of the proton momentum transfer and the relative transverse momentum between the quark-antiquark pair. This study may motivate a first measurement of the gluon OAM in the proton spin sum rule.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moradi, Gelare; Cardot, Romain; Lane, Stuart; Rennie, Colin
2017-04-01
River confluences are zones where two or more rivers join and form a single channel downstream of their junction. Because of their essential role in the dynamic of fluvial networks, there has been an increase in the attention given to their hydrodynamics and morphodynamics during last three decades. Despite this increased understanding of the complex flow behavior and morphological aspects, few studies has been focused on low momentum ratio river confluences and mixing processes. As among these few studies, most of them have been driven by the mean of laboratory experiments and numerical models, a combination of field data collection and data processing is required to study the effect of low momentum ratio on flow dynamic, rive morphology and rate of mixing in river confluences. In the present poster, the flow discharge and velocity data of two upper Rhône river confluences in Switzerland, which are characterized by low momentum ratio and a varied rate of poorly sorted sediment transport is shown. The data set is mostly collected, using spatial distributed acoustic Doppler current profiling (aDcp) measurements. The morphological changes are studied using a combination of high-resolution aerial imagery data obtained by a phantom drone and acoustic bathymetric surveys. The mixing processes are investigated by measuring the surface water temperature with a thermic camera mounted on an E-bee drone [, whereas sediment pathways can be explored through the use of the 'bottom-tracking' feature of the aDcp device (not sure there will be such results at the conference time)]. These collected data is processed using a matlab code, Pix4D and visualization software. These processed data then can be used to describe the flow behavior, morphological aspects and mixing processes at river confluences characterized by low momentum ratio and to test laboratory derived conceptual models of flow processes at such junctions. The obtained results can be used under a wider range of
There's Little Return for Attentional Momentum
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Snyder, Janice J.; Schmidt, William C.; Kingstone, Alan
2009-01-01
Inhibition of return (IOR) refers to a delay in response time (RT) to targets appearing at a previously cued location. The prevailing view is that IOR reflects visual-motor inhibition. The "attentional momentum" account rejects this idea, and instead proposes that IOR reflects an automatic shift of attention away from the cued location…
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Bouchard, Frédéric; De Leon, Israel; Schulz, Sebastian A.
Orbital angular momentum associated with the helical phase-front of optical beams provides an unbounded “space” for both classical and quantum communications. Among the different approaches to generate and manipulate orbital angular momentum states of light, coupling between spin and orbital angular momentum allows a faster manipulation of orbital angular momentum states because it depends on manipulating the polarisation state of light, which is simpler and generally faster than manipulating conventional orbital angular momentum generators. In this work, we design and fabricate an ultra-thin spin-to-orbital angular momentum converter, based on plasmonic nano-antennas and operating in the visible wavelength range that ismore » capable of converting spin to an arbitrary value of orbital angular momentum ℓ. The nano-antennas are arranged in an array with a well-defined geometry in the transverse plane of the beam, possessing a specific integer or half-integer topological charge q. When a circularly polarised light beam traverses this metasurface, the output beam polarisation switches handedness and the orbital angular momentum changes in value by ℓ=±2qℏ per photon. We experimentally demonstrate ℓ values ranging from ±1 to ±25 with conversion efficiencies of 8.6% ± 0.4%. Our ultra-thin devices are integratable and thus suitable for applications in quantum communications, quantum computations, and nano-scale sensing.« less
Angular momentum role in the hypercritical accretion of binary-driven hypernovae
Becerra, L.; Cipolletta, F.; Fryer, Chris L.; ...
2015-10-12
Here, the induced gravitational collapse paradigm explains a class of energetic,more » $${E}_{{\\rm{iso}}}\\gtrsim {10}^{52}$$ erg, long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) associated with Ic supernovae, recently named binary-driven hypernovae. The progenitor is a tight binary system formed of a carbon–oxygen (CO) core and a neutron star (NS) companion. The supernova ejecta of the exploding CO core trigger a hypercritical accretion process onto the NS, which reaches the critical mass in a few seconds, and gravitationally collapses to a black hole, emitting a GRB. In our previous simulations of this process, we adopted a spherically symmetric approximation to compute the features of the hypercritical accretion process. We here present the first estimates of the angular momentum transported by the supernova ejecta, $${L}_{{\\rm{acc}}},$$ and perform numerical simulations of the angular momentum transfer to the NS during the hyperaccretion process in full general relativity. We show that the NS (1) reaches either the mass-shedding limit or the secular axisymmetric instability in a few seconds depending on its initial mass, (2) reaches a maximum dimensionless angular momentum value, $${[{cJ}/({{GM}}^{2})]}_{{\\rm{max}}}\\approx 0.7$$, and (3) can support less angular momentum than the one transported by supernova ejecta, $${L}_{{\\rm{acc}}}\\gt {J}_{{\\rm{NS,max}}},$$ hence there is an angular momentum excess that necessarily leads to jetted emission.« less
Angular momentum role in the hypercritical accretion of binary-driven hypernovae
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Becerra, L.; Cipolletta, F.; Fryer, Chris L.
Here, the induced gravitational collapse paradigm explains a class of energetic,more » $${E}_{{\\rm{iso}}}\\gtrsim {10}^{52}$$ erg, long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) associated with Ic supernovae, recently named binary-driven hypernovae. The progenitor is a tight binary system formed of a carbon–oxygen (CO) core and a neutron star (NS) companion. The supernova ejecta of the exploding CO core trigger a hypercritical accretion process onto the NS, which reaches the critical mass in a few seconds, and gravitationally collapses to a black hole, emitting a GRB. In our previous simulations of this process, we adopted a spherically symmetric approximation to compute the features of the hypercritical accretion process. We here present the first estimates of the angular momentum transported by the supernova ejecta, $${L}_{{\\rm{acc}}},$$ and perform numerical simulations of the angular momentum transfer to the NS during the hyperaccretion process in full general relativity. We show that the NS (1) reaches either the mass-shedding limit or the secular axisymmetric instability in a few seconds depending on its initial mass, (2) reaches a maximum dimensionless angular momentum value, $${[{cJ}/({{GM}}^{2})]}_{{\\rm{max}}}\\approx 0.7$$, and (3) can support less angular momentum than the one transported by supernova ejecta, $${L}_{{\\rm{acc}}}\\gt {J}_{{\\rm{NS,max}}},$$ hence there is an angular momentum excess that necessarily leads to jetted emission.« less
Canonical angular momentum compression near the Brillouin limit
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jeong, E.; Gilson, E.; Fajans, J.
2000-10-01
Near the Brillouin limit, the angular momentum of a trapped, T=0, pure-electron plasma approaches zero. If the plasma expands axially, its density would appear to drop. However, the plasma's canonical angular momentum is not changed by an axial expansion, so the plasma must stay near the Brillouin limit; thus the plasma's density cannot change when it is expanded. The only way for the plasma density to remain constant as the plasma length increases is for the plasma radius to decrease. Dynamically, this decrease is caused by the polarization drift induced by a small decrease in the density. In this poster we present preliminary experimental evidence demonstrating this radial compression. This work was supported by the ONR.
Quantum orbital angular momentum of elliptically symmetric light
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Plick, William N.; Krenn, Mario; Fickler, Robert; Ramelow, Sven; Zeilinger, Anton
2013-03-01
We present a quantum-mechanical analysis of the orbital angular momentum of a class of recently discovered elliptically symmetric stable light fields—the so-called Ince-Gauss modes. We study, in a fully quantum formalism, how the orbital angular momentum of these beams varies with their ellipticity, and we discover several compelling features, including nonmonotonic behavior, stable beams with real continuous (noninteger) orbital angular momenta, and orthogonal modes with the same orbital angular momenta. We explore, and explain in detail, the reasons for this behavior. These features may have applications in quantum key distribution, atom trapping, and quantum informatics in general—as the ellipticity opens up an alternative way of navigating the spatial photonic Hilbert space.
Okuma, Nobuyuki
2017-09-08
We generalize the concept of the spin-momentum locking to magnonic systems and derive the formula to calculate the spin expectation value for one-magnon states of general two-body spin Hamiltonians. We give no-go conditions for magnon spin to be independent of momentum. As examples of the magnon spin-momentum locking, we analyze a one-dimensional antiferromagnet with the Néel order and two-dimensional kagome lattice antiferromagnets with the 120° structure. We find that the magnon spin depends on its momentum even when the Hamiltonian has the z-axis spin rotational symmetry, which can be explained in the context of a singular band point or a U(1) symmetry breaking. A spin vortex in momentum space generated in a kagome lattice antiferromagnet has the winding number Q=-2, while the typical one observed in topological insulator surface states is characterized by Q=+1. A magnonic analogue of the surface states, the Dirac magnon with Q=+1, is found in another kagome lattice antiferromagnet. We also derive the sum rule for Q by using the Poincaré-Hopf index theorem.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Okuma, Nobuyuki
2017-09-01
We generalize the concept of the spin-momentum locking to magnonic systems and derive the formula to calculate the spin expectation value for one-magnon states of general two-body spin Hamiltonians. We give no-go conditions for magnon spin to be independent of momentum. As examples of the magnon spin-momentum locking, we analyze a one-dimensional antiferromagnet with the Néel order and two-dimensional kagome lattice antiferromagnets with the 120° structure. We find that the magnon spin depends on its momentum even when the Hamiltonian has the z -axis spin rotational symmetry, which can be explained in the context of a singular band point or a U (1 ) symmetry breaking. A spin vortex in momentum space generated in a kagome lattice antiferromagnet has the winding number Q =-2 , while the typical one observed in topological insulator surface states is characterized by Q =+1 . A magnonic analogue of the surface states, the Dirac magnon with Q =+1 , is found in another kagome lattice antiferromagnet. We also derive the sum rule for Q by using the Poincaré-Hopf index theorem.
Two-Nucleon Momentum Distributions Measured in 3He(e,e'pp)n
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Niyazov, R. A.; Weinstein, L. B.; Adams, G.; Ambrozewicz, P.; Anciant, E.; Anghinolfi, M.; Asavapibhop, B.; Asryan, G.; Audit, G.; Auger, T.; Avakian, H.; Bagdasaryan, H.; Ball, J. P.; Barrow, S.; Battaglieri, M.; Beard, K.; Bektasoglu, M.; Bellis, M.; Benmouna, N.; Berman, B. L.; Bertozzi, W.; Bianchi, N.; Biselli, A. S.; Boiarinov, S.; Bonner, B. E.; Bouchigny, S.; Bradford, R.; Branford, D.; Brooks, W. K.; Burkert, V. D.; Butuceanu, C.; Calarco, J. R.; Carman, D. S.; Carnahan, B.; Cetina, C.; Chen, S.; Ciciani, L.; Cole, P. L.; Coleman, A.; Cords, D.; Corvisiero, P.; Crabb, D.; Crannell, H.; Cummings, J. P.; de Sanctis, E.; Dashyan, N.; Devita, R.; Degtyarenko, P. V.; Denizli, H.; Dennis, L.; Dharmawardane, K. V.; Dhuga, K. S.; Djalali, C.; Dodge, G. E.; Doughty, D.; Dragovitsch, P.; Dugger, M.; Dytman, S.; Dzyubak, O. P.; Eckhause, M.; Egiyan, H.; Egiyan, K. S.; Elouadrhiri, L.; Empl, A.; Eugenio, P.; Fatemi, R.; Feuerbach, R. J.; Ficenec, J.; Forest, T. A.; Funsten, H.; Gavalian, G.; Gilad, S.; Gilfoyle, G. P.; Giovanetti, K. L.; Girard, P.; Gordon, C. I.; Gothe, R. W.; Griffioen, K.; Guidal, M.; Guillo, M.; Guo, L.; Gyurjyan, V.; Hadjidakis, C.; Hakobyan, R. S.; Hardie, J.; Heddle, D.; Hersman, F. W.; Hicks, K.; Holtrop, M.; Hu, J.; Hyde-Wright, C. E.; Ilieva, Y.; Ingram, W.; Ito, M. M.; Jenkins, D.; Joo, K.; Juengst, H. G.; Kelley, J. H.; Kellie, J.; Khandaker, M.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, K. Y.; Kim, K.; Kim, M. S.; Kim, W.; Klein, A.; Klein, F. J.; Klimenko, A. V.; Klusman, M.; Kossov, M.; Kramer, L. H.; Kuang, Y.; Kuhn, S. E.; Kuhn, J.; Lachniet, J.; Laget, J. M.; Langheinrich, J.; Lawrence, D.; Li, Ji; Livingston, K.; Lukashin, K.; Manak, J. J.; Marchand, C.; McAleer, S.; McLauchlan, S.; McNabb, J. W.; Mecking, B. A.; Mehrabyan, S.; Melone, J. J.; Mestayer, M. D.; Meyer, C. A.; Mikhailov, K.; Mirazita, M.; Miskimen, R.; Morand, L.; Morrow, S. A.; Muccifora, V.; Mueller, J.; Mutchler, G. S.; Napolitano, J.; Nasseripour, R.; Nelson, S. O.; Niccolai, S.; Niculescu, G.; Niculescu, I.; Niczyporuk, B. B.; Nozar, M.; O'Rielly, G. V.; Osipenko, M.; Park, K.; Pasyuk, E.; Peterson, G.; Philips, S. A.; Pivnyuk, N.; Pocanic, D.; Pogorelko, O.; Polli, E.; Pozdniakov, S.; Preedom, B. M.; Price, J. W.; Prok, Y.; Protopopescu, D.; Qin, L. M.; Raue, B. A.; Riccardi, G.; Ricco, G.; Ripani, M.; Ritchie, B. G.; Ronchetti, F.; Rossi, P.; Rowntree, D.; Rubin, P. D.; Sabatié, F.; Sabourov, K.; Salgado, C.; Santoro, J. P.; Sapunenko, V.; Schumacher, R. A.; Serov, V. S.; Shafi, A.; Sharabian, Y. G.; Shaw, J.; Simionatto, S.; Skabelin, A. V.; Smith, E. S.; Smith, L. C.; Sober, D. I.; Spraker, M.; Stavinsky, A.; Stepanyan, S.; Stoler, P.; Strakovsky, I. I.; Strauch, S.; Taiuti, M.; Taylor, S.; Tedeschi, D. J.; Thoma, U.; Thompson, R.; Todor, L.; Tur, C.; Ungaro, M.; Vineyard, M. F.; Vlassov, A. V.; Wang, K.; Weller, H.; Weygand, D. P.; Whisnant, C. S.; Wolin, E.; Wood, M. H.; Yegneswaran, A.; Yun, J.; Zhang, B.
2004-02-01
We have measured the 3He(e,e'pp)n reaction at 2.2GeV over a wide kinematic range. The kinetic energy distribution for “fast” nucleons (p>250 MeV/c) peaks where two nucleons each have 20% or less, and the third nucleon has most of the transferred energy. These fast pp and pn pairs are back to back with little momentum along the three-momentum transfer, indicating that they are spectators. Calculations by Sargsian and by Laget also indicate that we have measured distorted two-nucleon momentum distributions by striking one nucleon and detecting the spectator correlated pair.
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Collins, J.; Gamberg, L.; Prokudin, A.
We construct an improved implementation for combining TMD factorization transverse- momentum-dependent (TMD) factorization and collinear factorization. TMD factorization is suit- able for low transverse momentum physics, while collinear factorization is suitable for high transverse momenta and for a cross section integrated over transverse momentum. The result is a modified version of the standard W + Y prescription traditionally used in the Collins-Soper-Sterman (CSS) formalism and related approaches. As a result, we further argue that questions regarding the shape and Q- dependence of the cross sections at lower Q are largely governed by the matching to the Y -term.
Collins, J.; Gamberg, L.; Prokudin, A.; ...
2016-08-08
We construct an improved implementation for combining TMD factorization transverse- momentum-dependent (TMD) factorization and collinear factorization. TMD factorization is suit- able for low transverse momentum physics, while collinear factorization is suitable for high transverse momenta and for a cross section integrated over transverse momentum. The result is a modified version of the standard W + Y prescription traditionally used in the Collins-Soper-Sterman (CSS) formalism and related approaches. As a result, we further argue that questions regarding the shape and Q- dependence of the cross sections at lower Q are largely governed by the matching to the Y -term.
Nucleon Spin and Momentum Decomposition Using Lattice QCD Simulations.
Alexandrou, C; Constantinou, M; Hadjiyiannakou, K; Jansen, K; Kallidonis, C; Koutsou, G; Avilés-Casco, A Vaquero; Wiese, C
2017-10-06
We determine within lattice QCD the nucleon spin carried by valence and sea quarks and gluons. The calculation is performed using an ensemble of gauge configurations with two degenerate light quarks with mass fixed to approximately reproduce the physical pion mass. We find that the total angular momentum carried by the quarks in the nucleon is J_{u+d+s}=0.408(61)_{stat}(48)_{syst} and the gluon contribution is J_{g}=0.133(11)_{stat}(14)_{syst}, giving a total of J_{N}=0.54(6)_{stat}(5)_{syst} that is consistent with the spin sum. For the quark intrinsic spin contribution, we obtain 1/2ΔΣ_{u+d+s}=0.201(17)_{stat}(5)_{syst}. All quantities are given in the modified minimal subtraction scheme at 2 GeV. The quark and gluon momentum fractions are also computed and add up to ⟨x⟩_{u+d+s}+⟨x⟩_{g}=0.804(121)_{stat}(95)_{syst}+0.267(12)_{stat}(10)_{syst}=1.07(12)_{stat}(10)_{syst}, thus satisfying the momentum sum.
Atom-optics knife-edge: Measuring sub-nanokelvin momentum distributions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ramos, Ramon; Spierings, David; Steinberg, Aephraim
2017-04-01
Temperatures below 1 nanokelvin have been achieved in the recent years, enabling new classes of experiments which benefit from the resulting long coherence times. This achievement comes hand in hand with the challenge of measuring such low temperatures. By employing the equivalent of a knife-edge measurement for matter-waves, we have been able to characterize ultra-low momentum widths. We measured a momentum width corresponding to an effective temperature of 900 +/- 200 pK, only limited by our cooling performance. We show that this technique compares favourably with more traditional methods, which would require expansion times of 100's of ms or frequency stability of 10's of Hz. Finally, we show that the effective knife-edge, created by a potential barrier, begins to become ''blunt'' due to tunneling for thin barriers, and we obtain quantitative agreement with a theoretical model. This method is a useful tool for atomic interferometry and other areas in ultracold atoms where a robust and precise technique for characterizing the momentum distribution is required.
Dynamic interaction of rotating momentum wheels with spacecraft elements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shankar Narayan, S.; Nair, P. S.; Ghosal, Ashitava
2008-09-01
In modern spacecraft with the requirement of increased accuracy of payloads, the on-orbit structural dynamic behavior of spacecraft is increasingly influencing the design and performance of spacecraft. During the integrated spacecraft testing of one of the satellites, a strong coupling between rotating momentum wheels and an earth sensor was detected. This resulted in corruption of the earth sensor data at certain wheel speeds. This paper deals with the dynamic coupling problem of a rotating momentum wheel with its support brackets affecting other subsystems of spacecraft. As part of this investigation, extensive modal tests and vibration tests were carried out on the momentum wheel bracket assembly with wheels in stationary and rotating conditions. It was found that the effects of gyroscopic forces arising out of rotating wheels are significant and this aspect needs to be taken into account while designing the mounting brackets. Results of analysis and tests were used to redesign the bracket leading to a significant reduction in the interaction and associated problems. A procedure for design of a support structure using a low-order mathematical model is also shown.
Momentum and Kinetic Energy Before the Tackle in Rugby Union
Hendricks, Sharief; Karpul, David; Lambert, Mike
2014-01-01
Understanding the physical demands of a tackle in match situations is important for safe and effective training, developing equipment and research. Physical components such as momentum and kinetic energy, and it relationship to tackle outcome is not known. The aim of this study was to compare momenta between ball-carrier and tackler, level of play (elite, university and junior) and position (forwards vs. backs), and describe the relationship between ball-carrier and tackler mass, velocity and momentum and the tackle outcome. Also, report on the ball-carrier and tackler kinetic energy before contact and the estimated magnitude of impact (energy distributed between ball-carrier and tackler upon contact). Velocity over 0.5 seconds before contact was determined using a 2-dimensional scaled version of the field generated from a computer alogorithm. Body masses of players were obtained from their player profiles. Momentum and kinetic energy were subsequently calculated for 60 tackle events. Ball-carriers were heavier than the tacklers (ball-carrier 100 ± 14 kg vs. tackler 93 ± 11 kg, d = 0.52, p = 0.0041, n = 60). Ball-carriers as forwards had a significantly higher momentum than backs (forwards 563 ± 226 Kg.m.s-1 n = 31 vs. backs 438 ± 135 Kg.m.s-1, d = 0.63, p = 0.0012, n = 29). Tacklers dominated 57% of tackles and ball-carriers dominated 43% of tackles. Despite the ball-carrier having a mass advantage before contact more frequently than the tackler, momentum advantage and tackle dominance between the ball-carrier and tackler was proportionally similar. These findings may reflect a characteristic of the modern game of rugby where efficiently heavier players (particularly forwards) are tactically predetermined to carry the ball in contact. Key Points First study to quantify momentum, kinetic energy, and magnitude of impact in rugby tackles across different levels in matches without a device attached to a player. Physical components alone, of either ball-carrier or
Momentum and kinetic energy before the tackle in rugby union.
Hendricks, Sharief; Karpul, David; Lambert, Mike
2014-09-01
Understanding the physical demands of a tackle in match situations is important for safe and effective training, developing equipment and research. Physical components such as momentum and kinetic energy, and it relationship to tackle outcome is not known. The aim of this study was to compare momenta between ball-carrier and tackler, level of play (elite, university and junior) and position (forwards vs. backs), and describe the relationship between ball-carrier and tackler mass, velocity and momentum and the tackle outcome. Also, report on the ball-carrier and tackler kinetic energy before contact and the estimated magnitude of impact (energy distributed between ball-carrier and tackler upon contact). Velocity over 0.5 seconds before contact was determined using a 2-dimensional scaled version of the field generated from a computer alogorithm. Body masses of players were obtained from their player profiles. Momentum and kinetic energy were subsequently calculated for 60 tackle events. Ball-carriers were heavier than the tacklers (ball-carrier 100 ± 14 kg vs. tackler 93 ± 11 kg, d = 0.52, p = 0.0041, n = 60). Ball-carriers as forwards had a significantly higher momentum than backs (forwards 563 ± 226 Kg(.)m(.)s(-1) n = 31 vs. backs 438 ± 135 Kg(.)m(.)s(-1), d = 0.63, p = 0.0012, n = 29). Tacklers dominated 57% of tackles and ball-carriers dominated 43% of tackles. Despite the ball-carrier having a mass advantage before contact more frequently than the tackler, momentum advantage and tackle dominance between the ball-carrier and tackler was proportionally similar. These findings may reflect a characteristic of the modern game of rugby where efficiently heavier players (particularly forwards) are tactically predetermined to carry the ball in contact. Key PointsFirst study to quantify momentum, kinetic energy, and magnitude of impact in rugby tackles across different levels in matches without a device attached to a player.Physical components alone, of either ball
Whole-body angular momentum during stair walking using passive and powered lower-limb prostheses.
Pickle, Nathaniel T; Wilken, Jason M; Aldridge, Jennifer M; Neptune, Richard R; Silverman, Anne K
2014-10-17
Individuals with a unilateral transtibial amputation have a greater risk of falling compared to able-bodied individuals, and falling on stairs can lead to serious injuries. Individuals with transtibial amputations have lost ankle plantarflexor muscle function, which is critical for regulating whole-body angular momentum to maintain dynamic balance. Recently, powered prostheses have been designed to provide active ankle power generation with the goal of restoring biological ankle function. However, the effects of using a powered prosthesis on the regulation of whole-body angular momentum are unknown. The purpose of this study was to use angular momentum to evaluate dynamic balance in individuals with a transtibial amputation using powered and passive prostheses relative to able-bodied individuals during stair ascent and descent. Ground reaction forces, external moment arms, and joint powers were also investigated to interpret the angular momentum results. A key result was that individuals with an amputation had a larger range of sagittal-plane angular momentum during prosthetic limb stance compared to able-bodied individuals during stair ascent. There were no significant differences in the frontal, transverse, or sagittal-plane ranges of angular momentum or maximum magnitude of the angular momentum vector between the passive and powered prostheses during stair ascent or descent. These results indicate that individuals with an amputation have altered angular momentum trajectories during stair walking compared to able-bodied individuals, which may contribute to an increased fall risk. The results also suggest that a powered prosthesis provides no distinct advantage over a passive prosthesis in maintaining dynamic balance during stair walking. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
On geodynamo integrations conserving momentum flux
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, C.; Roberts, P. H.
2012-12-01
The equations governing the geodynamo are most often integrated by representing the magnetic field and fluid velocity by toroidal and poloidal scalars (for example, MAG code [1]). This procedure does not automatically conserve the momentum flux. The results can, particularly for flows with large shear, introduce significant errors, unless the viscosity is artificially increased. We describe a method that evades this difficulty, by solving the momentum equation directly while properly conserving momentum. It finds pressure by FFT and cyclic reduction, and integrates the governing equations on overlapping grids so avoiding the pole problem. The number of operations per time step is proportional to N3 where N is proportional to the number of grid points in each direction. This contrasts with the order N4 operations of standard spectral transform methods. The method is easily parallelized. It can also be easily adapted to schemes such as the Weighted Essentially Non-Oscillatory (WENO) method [2], a flux based procedure based on upwinding that is numerically stable even for zero explicit viscosity. The method has been successfully used to investigate the generation of magnetic fields by flows confined to spheroidal containers and driven by precessional and librational forcing [3, 4]. For spherical systems it satisfies dynamo benchmarks [5]. [1] MAG, http://www.geodynamics.org/cig/software/mag [2] Liu, XD, Osher, S and Chan, T, Weighted Essentially Nonoscillatory Schemes, J. Computational Physics, 115, 200-212, 1994. [3] Wu, CC and Roberts, PH, On a dynamo driven by topographic precession, Geophysical & Astrophysical Fluid Dynamics, 103, 467-501, (DOI: 10.1080/03091920903311788), 2009. [4] Wu, CC and Roberts, PH, On a dynamo driven topographically by longitudinal libration, Geophysical & Astrophysical Fluid Dynamics, DOI:10.1080/03091929.2012.682990, 2012. [5] Christensen, U, et al., A numerical dynamo benchmark, Phys. Earth Planet Int., 128, 25-34, 2001.
Momentum and velocity of the ablated material in laser machining of carbon fiber preforms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mucha, P.; Speker, N.; Weber, R.; Graf, T.
2013-11-01
The automation in fabrication of CFRP (carbon-fiber-reinforced plastics) parts demands efficient and low-cost machining technologies. In conventional cutting technologies, tool-wear and low process speeds are some of the reasons for high costs. Thus, the use of lasers is an attractive option for cutting CF-preforms. A typical effect degrading the quality in laser cutting CF-preform is a bulged cutting edge. This effect is assumed to be caused by interaction of the fibers with the ablated material, which leaves the kerf at high velocity. Hence, a method for measuring the momentum and the velocity of the vapor is presented in this article. To measure the momentum of the ablated material, the CF-preform is mounted on a precision scale while cutting it with a laser. The direction of the momentum was determined by measuring the momentum parallel and orthogonal to the CF-preform surface. A change of the direction of the momentum with different cutting-speeds is assessed at constant laser-power. Averaged velocities of the ablation products of up to 300 m/s were determined by measuring the ablated mass and the momentum.
Inclusion of angular momentum in FREYA
Randrup, Jørgen; Vogt, Ramona
2015-05-18
The event-by-event fission model FREYA generates large samples of complete fission events from which any observable can extracted, including fluctuations of the observables and the correlations between them. We describe here how FREYA was recently refined to include angular momentum throughout. Subsequently we present some recent results for both neutron and photon observables.
Obama Team's Advocacy Boosts Charter Momentum
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Maxwell, Lesli A.
2009-01-01
President Barack Obama and U.S. Secretary of Education Arne Duncan have been championing charter schools for months, creating what some advocates believe is the most forceful national momentum to expand the largely independent public schools since the first charter opened nearly 20 years ago. That high-profile advocacy is being matched, moreover,…
Observation of plasma toroidal-momentum dissipation by neoclassical toroidal viscosity.
Zhu, W; Sabbagh, S A; Bell, R E; Bialek, J M; Bell, M G; LeBlanc, B P; Kaye, S M; Levinton, F M; Menard, J E; Shaing, K C; Sontag, A C; Yuh, H
2006-06-09
Dissipation of plasma toroidal angular momentum is observed in the National Spherical Torus Experiment due to applied nonaxisymmetric magnetic fields and their plasma-induced increase by resonant field amplification and resistive wall mode destabilization. The measured decrease of the plasma toroidal angular momentum profile is compared to calculations of nonresonant drag torque based on the theory of neoclassical toroidal viscosity. Quantitative agreement between experiment and theory is found when the effect of toroidally trapped particles is included.
Study on Conversion Between Momentum and Contrarian Based on Fractal Game
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Xu; Song, Guanghui; Deng, Yan; Xu, Lin
2015-06-01
Based on the fractal game which is performed by the majority and the minority, the fractal market theory (FMT) is employed to describe the features of investors' decision-making. Accordingly, the process of fractal games is formed in order to analyze the statistical features of conversion between momentum and contrarian. The result shows that among three fractal game mechanisms, the statistical feature of simulated return rate series is much more similar to log returns on actual series. In addition, the conversion between momentum and contrarian is also extremely similar to real situation, which can reflect the effectiveness of using fractal game in analyzing the conversion between momentum and contrarian. Moreover, it also provides decision-making reference which helps investors develop effective investment strategy.
Topological Triply Degenerate Points Induced by Spin-Tensor-Momentum Couplings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Haiping; Hou, Junpeng; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Chuanwei
2018-06-01
The recent discovery of triply degenerate points (TDPs) in topological materials has opened a new perspective toward the realization of novel quasiparticles without counterparts in quantum field theory. The emergence of such protected nodes is often attributed to spin-vector-momentum couplings. We show that the interplay between spin-tensor- and spin-vector-momentum couplings can induce three types of TDPs, classified by different monopole charges (C =±2 , ±1 , 0). A Zeeman field can lift them into Weyl points with distinct numbers and charges. Different TDPs of the same type are connected by intriguing Fermi arcs at surfaces, and transitions between different types are accompanied by level crossings along high-symmetry lines. We further propose an experimental scheme to realize such TDPs in cold-atom optical lattices. Our results provide a framework for studying spin-tensor-momentum coupling-induced TDPs and other exotic quasiparticles.
Large momentum transfer atomic interferometric gyroscope
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Compton, Robert; Dorr, Joshua; Nelson, Karl; Parker, Richard; Estey, Brian; Müller, Holger
2017-04-01
Atom interferometry holds out significant promise as the basis for compact, low cost, high performance inertial sensing. Some light pulse atom interferometers are based on an atomic beam-splitter in which the interferometer paths separate at the velocity imparted by a two-photon (Raman) recoil event, resulting in narrow path separation and a corresponding high aspect ratio between the length and width of the interferometer. In contrast, proposals for large momentum transfer (LMT) offer paths to larger separation between interferometer arms, and aspect ratios approaching 1. Here, we demonstrate an LMT gyroscope based on a combination of Bragg and Bloch atomic transitions adding up to a total of 8 photons of momentum transfer. We discuss prospects for scalability to larger photon numbers where angular random walk (ARW) can be better than navigation-grade. This research was developed with funding from DARPA. The views, opinions, and/or findings contained herein are those of the presenters and should not be interpreted as representing the official views or policies of the DoD or the US Government.
A January angular momentum balance in the OSU two-level atmospheric general circulation model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kim, J.-W.; Grady, W.
1982-01-01
The present investigation is concerned with an analysis of the atmospheric angular momentum balance, based on the simulation data of the Oregon State University two-level atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM). An attempt is also made to gain an understanding of the involved processes. Preliminary results on the angular momentum and mass balance in the AGCM are shown. The basic equations are examined, and questions of turbulent momentum transfer are investigated. The methods of analysis are discussed, taking into account time-averaged balance equations, time and longitude-averaged balance equations, mean meridional circulation, the mean meridional balance of relative angular momentum, and standing and transient components of motion.
Momentum Transfer in a Spinning Fuel Tank Filled with Xenon
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Peugeot, John W.; Dorney, Daniel J.
2006-01-01
Transient spin-up and spin-down flows inside of spacecraft fuel tanks need to be analyzed in order to properly design spacecraft control systems. Knowledge of the characteristics of angular momentum transfer to and from the fuel is used to size the de-spin mechanism that places the spacecraft in a controllable in-orbit state. In previous studies, several analytical models of the spin-up process were developed. However, none have accurately predicted all of the flow dynamics. Several studies have also been conducted using Navier-Stokes based methods. These approaches have been much more successful at simulating the dynamic processes in a cylindrical container, but have not addressed the issue of momentum transfer. In the current study, the spin-up and spin-down of a fuel tank filled with gaseous xenon has been investigated using a three-dimensional unsteady Navier-Stokes code. Primary interests have been concentrated on the spin-up/spin-down time constants and the initial torque imparted on the system. Additional focus was given to the relationship between the dominant flow dynamics and the trends in momentum transfer. Through the simulation of both a cylindrical and a spherical tank, it was revealed that the transfer of angular momentum is nonlinear at early times and tends toward a linear pattern at later times. Further investigation suggests that the nonlinear spin up is controlled by the turbulent transport of momentum, while the linear phase is controlled by a Coriolis driven (Ekman) flow along the outer wall. These results indicate that the spinup and spin-down processes occur more quickly in tanks with curved surfaces than those with defined top, bottom, and side walls. The results also provide insights for the design of spacecraft de-spin mechanisms.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stepinski, T. F.; Levy, E. H.
1990-01-01
Magnetic torques can produce angular momentum redistribution in protostellar nebulas. Dynamo magnetic fields can be generated in differentially rotating and turbulent nebulas and can be the source of magnetic torques that transfer angular momentum from a protostar to a disk, as well as redistribute angular momentum within a disk. A magnetic field strength of 100-1000 G is needed to transport the major part of a protostar's angular momentum into a surrounding disk in a time characteristic of star formation, thus allowing formation of a solar-system size protoplanetary nebula in the usual 'minimum-mass' model of the protosolar nebula. This paper examines the possibility that a dynamo magnetic field could have induced the needed angular momentum transport from the proto-Sun to the protoplanetary nebula.
Momentum space topology of QCD
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zubkov, M. A.
2018-06-01
We discuss the possibility to consider quark matter as the topological material. We consider hadronic phase (HP), the quark-gluon plasma phase (QGP), and the hypothetical color-flavor locking (CFL) phase. In those phases we identify the relevant topological invariants in momentum space. The formalism is developed, which relates those invariants and massless fermions that reside on vortices and at the interphases. This formalism is illustrated by the example of vortices in the CFL phase.
Nonperturbative Transverse Momentum Effects in p +p and p +A Collisions at PHENIX
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Skoby, Michael; Phenix Collaboration
2017-09-01
Due to the non-Abelian nature of QCD, there is a prediction that quarks can become correlated across colliding protons in hadron production processes sensitive to nonperturbative transverse momentum effects. Measuring the evolution of nonperturbative transverse momentum widths as a function of the hard interaction scale can help distinguish these effects from other possibilities. Collins-Soper-Sterman evolution comes directly from the proof of transverse-momentum-dependent (TMD) factorization for processes such as Drell-Yan, semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering, and e +e- annihilation and predicts nonperturbative momentum widths to increase with hard scale. Experimental results from proton-proton and proton-nucleus collisions, in which TMD factorization is predicted to be broken, will be presented. The results show that these widths decrease with hard scale, suggesting possible effects from TMD factorization breaking.
Functional phases and angular momentum characteristics of Tkatchev and Kovacs.
Irwin, Gareth; Exell, Timothy A; Manning, Michelle L; Kerwin, David G
2017-03-01
Understanding the technical requirements and underlying biomechanics of complex release and re-grasp skills on high bar allows coaches and scientists to develop safe and effective training programmes. The aim of this study was to examine the differences in the functional phases between the Tkatchev and Kovacs skills and to explain how the angular momentum demands are addressed. Images of 18 gymnasts performing 10 Tkatchevs and 8 Kovacs at the Olympic Games were recorded (50 Hz), digitised and reconstructed (3D Direct Linear Transformation). Orientation of the functional phase action, defined by the rapid flexion to extension of the shoulders and extension to flexion of the hips as the performer passed through the lower vertical, along with shoulder and hip angular kinematics, angular momentum and key release parameters (body angle, mass centre velocity and angular momentum about the mass centre and bar) were compared between skills. Expected differences in the release parameters of angle, angular momentum and velocity were observed and the specific mechanical requirement of each skill were highlighted. Whilst there were no differences in joint kinematics, hip and shoulder functional phase were significantly earlier in the circle for the Tkatchev. These findings highlight the importance of the orientation of the functional phase in the preceding giant swing and provide coaches with further understanding of the critical timing in this key phase.
Quasi-linear gyrokinetic predictions of the Coriolis momentum pinch in NSTX
Guttenfelder, W. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Kaye, S. M. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Ren, Y. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Solomon, W. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Bell, R. E. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Candy, J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Gerhardt, S. P. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); LeBlanc, B. P. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Yuh, H. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States)
2016-04-01
This paper presents quasi-linear gyrokinetic predictions of the Coriolis momentum pinch for low aspect-ratio NSTX H-modes where previous experimental measurements were focused. Local, linear calculations predict that in the region of interest (just outside the mid-radius) of these relatively high-beta plasmas, profiles are most unstable to microtearing modes that are only effective in transporting electron energy. However, sub-dominant electromagnetic and electrostatic ballooning modes are also unstable, which are effective at transporting energy, particles and momentum. The quasi-linear prediction of transport from these weaker ballooning modes, assuming they contribute transport in addition to that from microtearing modes in a nonlinear turbulent state, leads to a very small or outward convection of momentum, inconsistent with the experimentally measured inward pinch, and opposite to predictions in conventional aspect ratio tokamaks. Additional predictions of a low beta L-mode plasma, unstable to more traditional electrostatic ion temperature gradient-trapped electron mode instability, show that the Coriolis pinch is inward but remains relatively weak and insensitive to many parameter variations. The weak or outward pinch predicted in NSTX plasmas appears to be at least partially correlated to changes in the parallel mode structure that occur at finite beta and low aspect ratio, as discussed in previous theories. The only conditions identified where a stronger inward pinch is predicted occur either in the purely electrostatic limit or if the aspect ratio is increased. As the Coriolis pinch cannot explain the measured momentum pinch, additional theoretical momentum transport mechanisms are discussed that may be potentially important.
Representational momentum, centripetal force, and curvilinear impetus.
Hubbard, T L
1996-07-01
In 3 experiments, observers witnessed a target moving along a circular orbit and indicated the location at which the target vanished. The judged vanishing point was displaced forward in the direction of implied momentum and inward in the direction of implied centripetal force. In general, increases in either the angular velocity of the target or the radius length of the orbit increased the magnitude of forward displacement. If both angular velocity and radius length were varied, then increases in either angular velocity or radius length also increased the magnitude of inward displacement. The displacement patterns were consistent with hypotheses that analogues of momentum and centripetal force were incorporated into the representational system. A framework is proposed that accounts for (a) the forward and inward displacements and (b) naive-physics data on the spiral tube problem previously interpreted as suggesting a belief in a naive curvilinear-impetus principle.
Nongrayness Effects in Wolf-Rayet Wind Momentum Deposition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Onifer, A. J.; Gayley, K. G.
2004-05-01
Wolf-Rayet winds are characterized by their large momentum fluxes and optically thick winds. A simple analytic approach that helps to understand the most critical processes is the effecively gray approximation, but this has not been generalized to more realistic nongray opacities. We have developed a simplified theory for describing the interaction of the stellar flux with nongray wind opacity. We replace the detailed line list with a set of statistical parameters that are sensitive to the line strengths as well as the wavelength distribution of lines. We determine these statistical parameters for several real line lists, exploring the effects of temperature and density changes on the efficiency of momentum driving relative to gray opacity. We wish to acknowledge NSF grant AST-0098155.
`Surface-Layer' momentum fluxes in nocturnal slope flows over steep terrain
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oldroyd, H. J.; Pardyjak, E.; Higgins, C. W.; Parlange, M. B.
2017-12-01
A common working definition for the `surface layer' is the lowest 10% of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) where the turbulent fluxes are essentially constant. The latter part of this definition is a critical assumption that must hold for accurate flux estimations from land-surface models, wall models, similarity theory, flux-gradient relations and bulk transfer methods. We present cases from observed momentum fluxes in nocturnal slope flows over steep (35.5 degree), alpine terrain in Val Ferret, Switzerland that satisfy the classical definitions of the surface layer and other cases where no traditional surface layer is observed. These cases broadly fall into two distinct flow regimes occurring under clear-sky conditions: (1) buoyancy-driven, `katabatic flow', characterized by an elevated velocity maximum (katabatic jet peak) and (2) `downslope winds', for which larger-scale forcing prevents formation of a katabatic jet. Velocity profiles in downslope wind cases are quite similar to logarithmic profiles typically observed over horizontal and homogeneous terrain, and the corresponding momentum fluxes roughly resemble a constant-flux surface-layer. Contrastingly, velocity profiles in the katabatic regime exhibit a jet-like shape. This jet strongly modulates the corresponding momentum fluxes, which exhibit strong gradients over the shallow katabatic layer and usually change sign near the jet peak, where the velocity gradients also change sign. However, a counter-gradient momentum flux is frequently observed near the jet peak (and sometimes at higher levels), suggesting strong non-local turbulent transport within the katabatic jet layer. We compare our observations with katabatic flow theories and observational studies over shallow-angle slopes and use co-spectral analyses to better identify and understand the non-local transport dynamics. Finally, we show that because of the counter-gradient momentum fluxes, surface layer stability and even local stability can be
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bialke, Bill
1992-05-01
In order to satisfy the stringent cost and power requirements of small satellites, an advanced SCANWHEEL was designed, built, and qualified by ITHACO, Inc. The T-SCANWHEEL is a modular momentum/reaction wheel with an integral conical Earth scanner. The momentum wheel provides momentum bias and control torques about the pitch axis of a spacecraft. An angled scan mirror coupled to the rotating shaft of the momentum wheel provides a conical scan of the field-of-view of an infrared sensor to provide pitch-and-roll attitude information. By using the same motor and bearings for the momentum wheel and Earth scanner, the overall power consumption is reduced and the system reliability is enhanced. The evolution of the T-SCANWHEEL is presented, including design ground rules, tradeoff analyses, and performance results.
Seamless service: maintaining momentum.
Grinstead, N; Timoney, R
1994-01-01
Describes the process used by the Mater Infirmorum Hospital in Belfast in 1992-1994 to achieve high quality care (Seamless Service), motivate staff to deliver and measure performance. Aims of the project include focusing the organization on the customer, improving teamwork and motivation at all levels. After comprehensive data collection from GPs, patients and staff management forums developed a full TQM strategy to gain support and maintain momentum including innovative staff events (every staff member was given the opportunity to attend) where multilevel, multidisciplinary workshops enabled staff to design customer care standards, develop teams and lead customer-driven change.
Momentum Flux Determination Using the Multi-beam Poker Flat Incoherent Scatter Radar
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nicolls, M. J.; Fritts, D. C.; Janches, Diego; Heinselman, C. J.
2012-01-01
In this paper, we develop an estimator for the vertical flux of horizontal momentum with arbitrary beam pointing, applicable to the case of arbitrary but fixed beam pointing with systems such as the Poker Flat Incoherent Scatter Radar (PFISR). This method uses information from all available beams to resolve the variances of the wind field in addition to the vertical flux of both meridional and zonal momentum, targeted for high-frequency wave motions. The estimator utilises the full covariance of the distributed measurements, which provides a significant reduction in errors over the direct extension of previously developed techniques and allows for the calculation of an error covariance matrix of the estimated quantities. We find that for the PFISR experiment, we can construct an unbiased and robust estimator of the momentum flux if sufficient and proper beam orientations are chosen, which can in the future be optimized for the expected frequency distribution of momentum-containing scales. However, there is a potential trade-off between biases and standard errors introduced with the new approach, which must be taken into account when assessing the momentum fluxes. We apply the estimator to PFISR measurements on 23 April 2008 and 21 December 2007, from 60-85 km altitude, and show expected results as compared to mean winds and in relation to the measured vertical velocity variances.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, S. M.; Na, Yong-Su; Na, D. H.; Park, J.-K.; Shi, Y. J.; Ko, W. H.; Lee, S. G.; Hahm, T. S.
2018-06-01
Perturbative experiments have been carried out using tangential neutral beam injection (NBI) and non-resonant magnetic perturbation (NRMP) to analyze the momentum transport properties in KSTAR H-modes. Diffusive and non-diffusive terms of momentum transport are evaluated from the transient analysis. Although the operating conditions and methodologies applied in the two cases are similar, the momentum transport properties obtained show clear differences. The estimated momentum diffusivity and pinch obtained in the NBI modulation experiments is larger than that in the NRMP modulation experiments. We found that this discrepancy could be a result of uncertainties in the assumption for the analysis. By introducing time varying momentum transport coefficients depending on the temperature gradient, the linearized equation shows that if the temperature perturbation exists, the evolution of toroidal rotation perturbation could be faster than the transport rate of mean quantity, since the evolution of toroidal rotation perturbation is related to , a momentum diffusivity from perturbative analysis. This could explain the estimated higher momentum diffusivity using time independent transport coefficients in NBI experiments with higher ion temperature perturbation compared to that in NRMP modulation experiments. The differences in the momentum transport coefficient with NRMP and NBI are much reduced by considering time varying momentum transport coefficients in the time dependent transport simulation.
Constructing Nucleon Operators on a Lattice for Form Factors with High Momentum Transfer
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Syritsyn, Sergey; Gambhir, Arjun S.; Musch, Bernhard U.
We present preliminary results of computing nucleon form factor at high momentum transfer using the 'boosted' or 'momentum' smearing. We use gauge configurations generated with N f = 2 + 1dynamical Wilson-clover fermions and study the connected as well as disconnected contributions to the nucleon form factors. Our initial results indicate that boosted smearing helps to improve the signal for nucleon correlators at high momentum. However, we also find evidence for large excited state contributions, which will likely require variational analysis to isolate the boosted nucleon ground state.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Winney, Alexander H.; Lin, Yun Fei; Lee, Suk Kyoung; Adhikari, Pradip; Li, Wen
2016-03-01
We report state-resolved electron-momentum correlation measurement of strong-field nonsequential double ionization in benzene. With a novel coincidence detection apparatus, highly efficient triple coincidence (electron-electron dication) and quadruple coincidence (electron-electron-cation-cation) are used to resolve the final ionic states and to characterize three-dimensional (3D) electron-momentum correlation. The primary states associated with dissociative and nondissociative dications are assigned. A 3D momentum anticorrelation is observed for the electrons in coincidence with dissociative benzene dication states whereas such a correlation is absent for nondissociative dication states.
Momentum rate probe for use with two-phase flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bush, S. G.; Bennett, J. B.; Sojka, P. E.; Panchagnula, M. V.; Plesniak, M. W.
1996-05-01
An instrument for measuring the momentum rate of two-phase flows is described, and design and construction details are provided. The device utilizes a conelike body to turn the flow from the axial to the radial direction. The force resulting from the change in momentum rate of the turning flow is measured using a strain-gage-instrumented cantilevered beam. The instrument is applicable to a wide range of flows including nuclear reactor coolant streams, refrigerants in heating-ventilating air-conditioning equipment, impingement cooling of small scale electronic hardware (computer chips are one example), supercritical fuel injection (in Diesel engines, for instance), and consumer product sprays (such as hair-care product sprays produced using effervescent atomizers). The latter application is discussed here. Features of the instrument include sensitivity to a wide range of forces and the ability to damp oscillations of the deflection cone. Instrument sensitivity allows measurement of momentum rates considerably lower (below 0.01 N) than those that could be obtained using previous devices. This feature is a direct result of our use of precision strain gages, capable of sensing strains below 20 μm/m, and the damping of oscillations which can overwhelm the force measurements. Oscillation damping results from a viscous fluid damper whose resistance is easily varied by changing fluids. Data used to calibrate the instrument are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the technique. As an example of the instrument's utility, momentum rate data obtained using it will be valuable in efforts to explain entrainment of surrounding air into effervescent atomizer-produced sprays and also to model the effervescent atomization process.
Transverse-momentum-dependent gluon distributions from JIMWLK evolution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marquet, C.; Petreska, E.; Roiesnel, C.
2016-10-01
Transverse-momentum-dependent (TMD) gluon distributions have different operator definitions, depending on the process under consideration. We study that aspect of TMD factorization in the small- x limit, for the various unpolarized TMD gluon distributions encountered in the literature. To do this, we consider di-jet production in hadronic collisions, since this process allows to be exhaustive with respect to the possible operator definitions, and is suitable to be investigated at small x. Indeed, for forward and nearly back-to-back jets, one can apply both the TMD factorization and Color Glass Condensate (CGC) approaches to compute the di-jet cross-section, and compare the results. Doing so, we show that both descriptions coincide, and we show how to express the various TMD gluon distributions in terms of CGC correlators of Wilson lines, while keeping N c finite. We then proceed to evaluate them by solving the JIMWLK equation numerically. We obtain that at large transverse momentum, the process dependence essentially disappears, while at small transverse momentum, non-linear saturation effects impact the various TMD gluon distributions in very different ways. We notice the presence of a geometric scaling regime for all the TMD gluon distributions studied: the "dipole" one, the Weizsäcker-Williams one, and the six others involved in forward di-jet production.
Mechanical pressure and momentum conservation in dry active matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fily, Y.; Kafri, Y.; Solon, A. P.; Tailleur, J.; Turner, A.
2018-01-01
We relate the breakdown of equations of states (EOS) for the mechanical pressure of generic dry active systems to the lack of momentum conservation in such systems. We show how net sources and sinks of momentum arise generically close to confining walls. These typically depend on the interactions of the container with the particles, which makes the mechanical pressure a container-dependent quantity. We show that an EOS is recovered if the dynamics of the propulsive forces of the particles are decoupled from other degrees of freedom and lead to an apolar bulk steady-state. This recovery of an EOS stems from the mean steady-state active force density being the divergence of the flux of ‘active impulse’, an observable which measures the mean momentum particles will receive from the substrate in the future. ), which features invited work from the best early-career researchers working within the scope of J. Phys. A. This project is part of the Journal of Physics series’ 50th anniversary celebrations in 2017. Julien Tailleur was selected by the Editorial Board of J. Phys. A as an Emerging Talent.
Measurement of charged particle transverse momentum spectra in deep inelastic scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adloff, C.; Aid, S.; Anderson, M.; Andreev, V.; Andrieu, B.; Babaev, A.; Bähr, J.; Bán, J.; Ban, Y.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Barschke, R.; Bartel, W.; Barth, M.; Bassler, U.; Beck, H. P.; Beck, M.; Behrend, H.-J.; Belousov, A.; Berger, Ch.; Bernardi, G.; Bertrand-Coremans, G.; Besançon, M.; Beyer, R.; Biddulph, P.; Bispham, P.; Bizot, J. C.; Blobel, V.; Borras, K.; Botterweck, F.; Boudry, V.; Braemer, A.; Braunschweig, W.; Brisson, V.; Brückner, W.; Bruel, P.; Bruncko, D.; Brune, C.; Buchholz, R.; Büngener, L.; Bürger, J.; Büsser, F. W.; Buniatian, A.; Burke, S.; Burton, M. J.; Calvet, D.; Campbell, A. T.; Carli, T.; Charlet, M.; Clarke, D.; Clegg, A. B.; Clerbaux, B.; Cocks, S.; Contreras, J. G.; Cormack, C.; Coughlan, J. A.; Courau, A.; Cousinou, M.-C.; Cozzika, G.; Criegee, L.; Cussans, D. G.; Cvach, J.; Dagoret, S.; Dainton, J. B.; Dau, W. D.; Daum, K.; David, M.; Davis, C. L.; Delcourt, B.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E. A.; Dirkmann, M.; Dixon, P.; Di Nezza, P.; Dlugosz, W.; Dollfus, C.; Donovan, K. T.; Dowell, J. D.; Dreis, H. B.; Droutskoi, A.; Dünger, O.; Duhm, H.; Ebert, J.; Ebert, T. R.; Eckerlin, G.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Eisenhandler, E.; Elsen, E.; Erdmann, M.; Erdmann, W.; Fahr, A. B.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Ferrarotto, F.; Flamm, K.; Fleischer, M.; Flieser, M.; Flügge, G.; Fomenko, A.; Formánek, J.; Foster, J. M.; Franke, G.; Fretwurst, E.; Gabathuler, E.; Gabathuler, K.; Gaede, F.; Garvey, J.; Gayler, J.; Gebauer, M.; Genzel, H.; Gerhards, R.; Glazov, A.; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Goldberg, M.; Goldner, D.; Golec-Biernat, K.; Gonzalez-Pineiro, B.; Gorelov, I.; Grab, C.; Grässler, H.; Greenshaw, T.; Griffiths, R. K.; Grindhammer, G.; Gruber, A.; Gruber, C.; Hadig, T.; Haidt, D.; Hajduk, L.; Haller, T.; Hampel, M.; Haynes, W. J.; Heinemann, B.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henderson, R. C. W.; Henschel, H.; Herynek, I.; Hess, M. F.; Hewitt, K.; Hildesheim, W.; Hiller, K. H.; Hilton, C. D.; Hladký, J.; Höppner, M.; Hoffmann, D.; Holtom, T.; Horisberger, R.; Hudgson, V. L.; Hütte, M.; Ibbotson, M.; Itterbeck, H.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jacobsson, C.; Jaffre, M.; Janoth, J.; Jansen, D. M.; Jansen, T.; Jönson, L.; Johnson, D. P.; Jung, H.; Kalmus, P. I. P.; Kander, M.; Kant, D.; Kaschowitz, R.; Kathage, U.; Katzy, J.; Kaufmann, H. H.; Kaufmann, O.; Kausch, M.; Kazarian, S.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kermiche, S.; Keuker, C.; Kiesling, C.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Knies, G.; Köhler, T.; Köhne, J. H.; Kolanoski, H.; Kolya, S. D.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Kotelnikov, S. K.; Krämerkämper, T.; Krasny, M. W.; Krehbiel, H.; Krücker, D.; Küster, H.; Kuhlen, M.; Kurča, T.; Kurzhöfer, J.; Lacour, D.; Laforge, B.; Landon, M. P. J.; Lange, W.; Langenegger, U.; Lebedev, A.; Lehner, F.; Levonian, S.; Lindström, G.; Lindstroem, M.; Linsel, F.; Lipinski, J.; List, B.; Lobo, G.; Loch, P.; Lomas, J. W.; Lopez, G. C.; Lubimov, V.; Liike, D.; Lytkin, L.; Magnussen, N.; Malinovski, E.; Maraček, R.; Marage, P.; Marks, J.; Marshall, R.; Martens, J.; Martin, G.; Martin, R.; Martyn, H.-U.; Martyniak, J.; Mavroidis, T.; Maxfield, S. J.; McMahon, S. J.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Metlica, F.; Meyer, A.; Meyer, A.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Meyer, P.-O.; Migliori, A.; Mikocki, S.; Milstead, D.; Moeck, J.; Moreau, F.; Morris, J. V.; Mroczko, E.; Müller, D.; Müller, G.; Müller, K.; Murín, P.; Nagovizin, V.; Nahnhauer, R.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, Th.; Négri, I.; Newman, P. R.; Newton, D.; Nguyen, H. K.; Nicholls, T. C.; Niebergall, F.; Niebuhr, C.; Niedzballa, Ch.; Niggli, H.; Nowak, G.; Noyes, G. W.; Nunnemann, T.; Nyberg-Werther, M.; Oakden, M.; Oberlack, H.; Olsson, J. E.; Ozerov, D.; Palmen, P.; Panaro, E.; Panitch, A.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G. D.; Pawletta, H.; Peppel, E.; Perez, E.; Phillips, J. P.; Pieuchot, A.; Pitzl, D.; Pope, G.; Povh, B.; Prell, S.; Rabbertz, K.; Rädel, G.; Reimer, P.; Reinshagen, S.; Rick, H.; Riepenhausen, F.; Riess, S.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roloff, P. H. E.; Roosen, R.; Rosenbauer, K.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rouse, F.; Royon, C.; Rüter, K.; Rusakov, S.; Rybicki, K.; Sankey, D. P. C.; Schacht, P.; Schiek, S.; Schleif, S.; Schleper, P.; von Schlippe, W.; Schmidt, D.; Schmidt, G.; Schoeffel, L.; Schöning, A.; Schröder, V.; Schuhmann, E.; Schwab, B.; Sefkow, F.; Sell, R.; Semenovy, A.; Shekelyan, V.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L. N.; Siegmon, G.; Siewert, U.; Sirois, Y.; Skillicorni, I. O.; Smirnov, F.; Solochenko, V.; Soloviev, Y.; Specka, A.; Spiekermann, J.; Spielman, S.; Spitzer, H.; Squinabol, F.; Steffen, F.; Steinberg, F.; Steiner, H.; Steinhart, J.; Stella, B.; Stellbergr, A.; Stier, P. J.; Stiewe, J.; Stöβlein, U.; Stolze, K.; Straumann, U.; Struczinski, W.; Sutton, J. P.; Tapprogge, S.; Tagevˇský, M.; Tchernyshov, V.; Tchetchelnitski, S.; Theissen, J.; Thiebaux, C.; Thompson, G.; Tobien, N.; Todenhagen, R.; Truöl, P.; Tsipolitis, G.; Turnau, J.; Tutas, J.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Uelkes, P.; Usik, A.; Valkár, S.; Valkárová, A.; Vallée, C.; Vandenplas, D.; Van Esch, P.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vazdik, Y.; Verrecchia, P.; Villet, G.; Wacker, K.; Wagener, A.; Wagener, M.; Waugh, B.; Weber, G.; Weber, M.; Wegener, D.; Wenger, A.; Wengler, T.; Werner, M.; West, L. R.; Wilksen, T.; Willard, S.; Winde, M.; Winter, G.-G.; Wittek, C.; Wobisch, M.; Wünsch, E.; Žáček, J.; Zarbock, D.; Zhang, Z.; Zhokin, A.; Zini, P.; Zomer, F.; Zsembery, J.; Zuber, K.; zurNedden, M.; Hl Collaboration
1997-02-01
Transverse momentum spectra of charged particles produced in deep inelastic scattering are measured as a function of the kinematic variables x and Q using the H1 detector at the epcollider HERA. The data are compared to different parton emission models, either with or without ordering of the emissions in transverse momentum. The data provide evidence for a relatively large amount of parton radiation between the current and the remnant systems.
Momentum-imaging apparatus for the study of dissociative electron attachment dynamics
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Moradmand, A.; Williams, J. B.; Landers, A. L.
An ion-momentum spectrometer is used to study the dissociative dynamics of electron attachment to molecules. A skimmed, supersonic gas jet is crossed with a pulsed beam of low-energy electrons, and the resulting negative ions are extracted toward a time- and position-sensitive detector. Calculations of the momentum in three dimensions may be used to determine the angular dependence of dissociative attachment as well as the energetics of the reaction.
There are many ways to spin a photon: Half-quantization of a total optical angular momentum
Ballantine, Kyle E.; Donegan, John F.; Eastham, Paul R.
2016-01-01
The angular momentum of light plays an important role in many areas, from optical trapping to quantum information. In the usual three-dimensional setting, the angular momentum quantum numbers of the photon are integers, in units of the Planck constant ħ. We show that, in reduced dimensions, photons can have a half-integer total angular momentum. We identify a new form of total angular momentum, carried by beams of light, comprising an unequal mixture of spin and orbital contributions. We demonstrate the half-integer quantization of this total angular momentum using noise measurements. We conclude that for light, as is known for electrons, reduced dimensionality allows new forms of quantization. PMID:28861467
Creating high-purity angular-momentum-state Rydberg atoms by a pair of unipolar laser pulses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xin, PeiPei; Cheng, Hong; Zhang, ShanShan; Wang, HanMu; Xu, ZiShan; Liu, HongPing
2018-04-01
We propose a method of producing high-purity angular-momentum-state Rydberg atoms by a pair of unipolar laser pulses. The first positive-polarity optical half-cycle pulse is used to prepare an excited-state wave packet while the second one is less intense, but with opposite polarity and time delayed, and is employed to drag back the escaping free electron and clip the shape of the bound Rydberg wave packet, selectively increasing or decreasing a fraction of the angular-momentum components. An intelligent choice of laser parameters such as phase and amplitude helps us to control the orbital-angular-momentum composition of an electron wave packet with more facility; thus, a specified angular-momentum state with high purity can be achieved. This scheme of producing high-purity angular-momentum-state Rydberg atoms has significant application in quantum-information processing.
Operational momentum in large-number addition and subtraction by 9-month-olds.
McCrink, Koleen; Wynn, Karen
2009-08-01
Recent studies on nonsymbolic arithmetic have illustrated that under conditions that prevent exact calculation, adults display a systematic tendency to overestimate the answers to addition problems and underestimate the answers to subtraction problems. It has been suggested that this operational momentum results from exposure to a culture-specific practice of representing numbers spatially; alternatively, the mind may represent numbers in spatial terms from early in development. In the current study, we asked whether operational momentum is present during infancy, prior to exposure to culture-specific representations of numbers. Infants (9-month-olds) were shown videos of events involving the addition or subtraction of objects with three different types of outcomes: numerically correct, too large, and too small. Infants looked significantly longer only at those incorrect outcomes that violated the momentum of the arithmetic operation (i.e., at too-large outcomes in subtraction events and too-small outcomes in addition events). The presence of operational momentum during infancy indicates developmental continuity in the underlying mechanisms used when operating over numerical representations.
Quasi-normal modes of holographic system with Weyl correction and momentum dissipation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Jian-Pin; Liu, Peng
2018-05-01
We study the charge response in complex frequency plane and the quasi-normal modes (QNMs) of the boundary quantum field theory with momentum dissipation dual to a probe generalized Maxwell system with Weyl correction. When the strength of the momentum dissipation α ˆ is small, the pole structure of the conductivity is similar to the case without the momentum dissipation. The qualitative correspondence between the poles of the real part of the conductivity of the original theory and the ones of its electromagnetic (EM) dual theory approximately holds when γ → - γ with γ being the Weyl coupling parameter. While the strong momentum dissipation alters the pole structure such that most of the poles locate at the purely imaginary axis. At this moment, the correspondence between the poles of the original theory and its EM dual one is violated when γ → - γ. In addition, for the dominant pole, the EM duality almost holds when γ → - γ for all α ˆ except for a small region of α ˆ .
Hubbard, T L
1995-09-01
Memory for the final position of a moving target is often shifted or displaced from the true final position of that target. Early studies of this memory shift focused on parallels between the momentum of the target and the momentum of the representation of the target and called this displacementrepresentational momentum, but many factors other than momentum contribute to the memory shift. A consideration of the empirical literature on representational momentum and related types of displacement suggests there are at least four different types of factors influencing the direction and magnitude of such memory shifts: stimulus characteristics (e.g., target direction, target velocity), implied dynamics and environmental invariants (e.g., implied momentum, gravity, friction, centripetal force), memory averaging of target and nontarget context (e.g., biases toward previous target locations or nontarget context), and observers' expectations (both tacit and conscious) regarding future target motion and target/context interactions. Several theories purporting to account for representational momentum and related types of displacement are also considered.
Higgs-boson production at small transverse momentum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Becher, Thomas; Neubert, Matthias; Wilhelm, Daniel
2013-05-01
Using methods from effective field theory, we have recently developed a novel, systematic framework for the calculation of the cross sections for electroweak gauge-boson production at small and very small transverse momentum q T , in which large logarithms of the scale ratio m V / q T are resummed to all orders. This formalism is applied to the production of Higgs bosons in gluon fusion at the LHC. The production cross section receives logarithmically enhanced corrections from two sources: the running of the hard matching coefficient and the collinear factorization anomaly. The anomaly leads to the dynamical generation of a non-perturbative scale {q_{*}}tilde{mkern6mu} {m_H}{e^{{{{{-const}} / {{{α_s}( {{m_H}} )}} .}}}}≈ 8 GeV, which protects the process from receiving large long-distance hadronic contributions. We present numerical predictions for the transverse-momentum spectrum of Higgs bosons produced at the LHC, finding that it is quite insensitive to hadronic effects.
Momentum-Space Entanglement and Loschmidt Echo in Luttinger Liquids after a Quantum Quench.
Dóra, Balázs; Lundgren, Rex; Selover, Mark; Pollmann, Frank
2016-07-01
Luttinger liquids (LLs) arise by coupling left- and right-moving particles through interactions in one dimension. This most natural partitioning of LLs is investigated by the momentum-space entanglement after a quantum quench using analytical and numerical methods. We show that the momentum-space entanglement spectrum of a LL possesses many universal features both in equilibrium and after a quantum quench. The largest entanglement eigenvalue is identical to the Loschmidt echo, i.e., the overlap of the disentangled and final wave functions of the system. The second largest eigenvalue is the overlap of the first excited state of the disentangled system with zero total momentum and the final wave function. The entanglement gap is universal both in equilibrium and after a quantum quench. The momentum-space entanglement entropy is always extensive and saturates fast to a time independent value after the quench, in sharp contrast to a spatial bipartitioning.
Disordered topological wires in a momentum-space lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meier, Eric; An, Fangzhao; Gadway, Bryce
2017-04-01
One of the most interesting aspects of topological systems is the presence of boundary modes which remain robust in the presence of weak disorder. We explore this feature in the context of one-dimensional (1D) topological wires where staggered tunneling strengths lead to the creation of a mid-gap state in the lattice band structure. Using Bose-condensed 87Rb atoms in a 1D momentum-space lattice, we probe the robust topological character of this model when subjected to both site energy and tunneling disorder. We observe a transition to a topologically trivial phase when tailored disorder is applied, which we detect through both charge-pumping and Hamiltonian-quenching protocols. In addition, we report on efforts to probe the influence of interactions in topological momentum-space lattices.
Position-Momentum Duality and Fractional Quantum Hall Effect in Chern Insulators
Claassen, Martin; Lee, Ching-Hua; Thomale, Ronny; ...
2015-06-11
We develop a first quantization description of fractional Chern insulators that is the dual of the conventional fractional quantum Hall (FQH) problem, with the roles of position and momentum interchanged. In this picture, FQH states are described by anisotropic FQH liquids forming in momentum-space Landau levels in a fluctuating magnetic field. The fundamental quantum geometry of the problem emerges from the interplay of single-body and interaction metrics, both of which act as momentum-space duals of the geometrical picture of the anisotropic FQH effect. We then present a novel broad class of ideal Chern insulator lattice models that act as dualsmore » of the isotropic FQH effect. The interacting problem is well-captured by Haldane pseudopotentials and affords a detailed microscopic understanding of the interplay of interactions and non-trivial quantum geometry.« less
Angular momentum projection for a Nilsson mean-field plus pairing model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Yin; Pan, Feng; Launey, Kristina D.; Luo, Yan-An; Draayer, J. P.
2016-06-01
The angular momentum projection for the axially deformed Nilsson mean-field plus a modified standard pairing (MSP) or the nearest-level pairing (NLP) model is proposed. Both the exact projection, in which all intrinsic states are taken into consideration, and the approximate projection, in which only intrinsic states with K = 0 are taken in the projection, are considered. The analysis shows that the approximate projection with only K = 0 intrinsic states seems reasonable, of which the configuration subspace considered is greatly reduced. As simple examples for the model application, low-lying spectra and electromagnetic properties of 18O and 18Ne are described by using both the exact and approximate angular momentum projection of the MSP or the NLP, while those of 20Ne and 24Mg are described by using the approximate angular momentum projection of the MSP or NLP.
The evolution of angular momentum among zero-age main-sequence solar-type stars
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Soderblom, David R.; Stauffer, John R.; Macgregor, Keith B.; Jones, Burton F.
1993-01-01
We consider a survey of rotation among F, G, and K dwarfs of the Pleiades in the context of other young clusters (Alpha Persei and the Hyades) and pre-main-sequence (PMS) stars (in Taurus-Auriga and Orion) in order to examine how the angular momentum of a star like the sun evolves during its early life on the main sequence. The rotation of PMS stars can be evolved into distributions like those seen in the young clusters if there is only modest, rotation-independent angular momentum loss prior to the ZAMS. Even then, the ultrafast rotators (UFRs, or ZAMS G and K dwarfs with v sin i equal to or greater than 30 km/s) must owe their extra angular momentum to their conditions of formation and to different angular momentum loss rates above a threshold velocity, for it is unlikely that these stars had angular momentum added as they neared the ZAMS, nor can a spread in ages within a cluster account for the range of rotation seen. Only a fraction of solar-type stars are thus capable of becoming UFRs, and it is not a phase that all stars experience. Simple scaling relations (like the Skumanich relation) applied to the observed surface rotation rates of young solar-type stars cannot reproduce the way in which the Pleiades evolve into the Hyades. We argue that invoking internal differential rotation in these ZAMS stars can explain several aspects of the observations and thus can provide a consistent picture of ZAMS angular momentum evolution.
GOES-R STATIONKEEPING AND MOMENTUM MANAGEMENT
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chu, Donald; Chen, Sam; Early, Derrick; Freesland, Doug; Krimchansky, Alexander; Naasz, Bo; Reth, Alan; Tadikonda, Kumar; Tsui, John; Walsh, Tim
2006-01-01
The NOAA Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) fire thrusters to remain within a 1deg longitude-latitude box and to dump accumulated angular momentum. In the past, maneuvers have disrupted GOES imaging due to attitude transients and the loss of orbit knowledge. If the R-series of spacecraft to be launched starting in 2012 were to follow current practice, maneuvers would still fail to meet Image Navigation and Registration (INR) specifications during and after thruster firings. Although maneuvers and recovery take only one percent of spacecraft lifetime, they sometimes come at inopportune times, such as hurricane season, when coverage is critical. To alleviate this problem, thruster firings small enough not to affect imaging are being considered. Eliminating post-maneuver recovery periods increases availability and facilitates autonomous operation. Frequent maneuvers also reduce 1ongitudeAatitude variation and allow satellite co-location. Improved orbit observations come from a high-altitude GPS receiver, and improved attitude control comes from thruster torque compensation. This paper reviews the effects of thruster firings on position knowledge and pointing control and suggests that low-thrust burns plus GPS and feedforward control offer a less disruptive approach to GOES-R stationkeeping and momentum management.
Orbital-angular-momentum transfer to optically levitated microparticles in vacuum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mazilu, Michael; Arita, Yoshihiko; Vettenburg, Tom; Auñón, Juan M.; Wright, Ewan M.; Dholakia, Kishan
2016-11-01
We demonstrate the transfer of orbital angular momentum to an optically levitated microparticle in vacuum. The microparticle is placed within a Laguerre-Gaussian beam and orbits the annular beam profile with increasing angular velocity as the air drag coefficient is reduced. We explore the particle dynamics as a function of the topological charge of the levitating beam. Our results reveal that there is a fundamental limit to the orbital angular momentum that may be transferred to a trapped particle, dependent upon the beam parameters and inertial forces present.
Chirality and angular momentum in optical radiation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coles, Matt M.; Andrews, David L.
2012-06-01
This paper develops, in precise quantum electrodynamic terms, photonic attributes of the “optical chirality density,” one of several measures long known to be conserved quantities for a vacuum electromagnetic field. The analysis lends insights into some recent interpretations of chiroptical experiments, in which this measure, and an associated chirality flux, have been treated as representing physically distinctive “superchiral” phenomena. In the fully quantized formalism the chirality density is promoted to operator status, whose exploration with reference to an arbitrary polarization basis reveals relationships to optical angular momentum and helicity operators. Analyzing multimode beams with complex wave-front structures, notably Laguerre-Gaussian modes, affords a deeper understanding of the interplay between optical chirality and optical angular momentum. By developing theory with due cognizance of the photonic character of light, it emerges that only the spin-angular momentum of light is engaged in such observations. Furthermore, it is shown that these prominent measures of the helicity of chiral electromagnetic radiation have a common basis in differences between the populations of optical modes associated with angular momenta of opposite sign. Using a calculation of the rate of circular dichroism as an example, with coherent states to model the electromagnetic field, it is discovered that two terms contribute to the differential effect. The primary contribution relates to the difference in left- and right-handed photon populations; the only other contribution, which displays a sinusoidal distance dependence corresponding to the claim of nodal enhancements, is connected with the quantum photon number-phase uncertainty relation. From the full analysis, it appears that the term “superchiral” can be considered redundant.
Electroencephalographic field influence on calcium momentum waves.
Ingber, Lester; Pappalepore, Marco; Stesiak, Ronald R
2014-02-21
Macroscopic electroencephalographic (EEG) fields can be an explicit top-down neocortical mechanism that directly drives bottom-up processes that describe memory, attention, and other neuronal processes. The top-down mechanism considered is macrocolumnar EEG firings in neocortex, as described by a statistical mechanics of neocortical interactions (SMNI), developed as a magnetic vector potential A. The bottom-up process considered is Ca(2+) waves prominent in synaptic and extracellular processes that are considered to greatly influence neuronal firings. Here, the complimentary effects are considered, i.e., the influence of A on Ca(2+) momentum, p. The canonical momentum of a charged particle in an electromagnetic field, Π=p+qA (SI units), is calculated, where the charge of Ca(2+) is q=-2e, e is the magnitude of the charge of an electron. Calculations demonstrate that macroscopic EEG A can be quite influential on the momentum p of Ca(2+) ions, in both classical and quantum mechanics. Molecular scales of Ca(2+) wave dynamics are coupled with A fields developed at macroscopic regional scales measured by coherent neuronal firing activity measured by scalp EEG. The project has three main aspects: fitting A models to EEG data as reported here, building tripartite models to develop A models, and studying long coherence times of Ca(2+) waves in the presence of A due to coherent neuronal firings measured by scalp EEG. The SMNI model supports a mechanism wherein the p+qA interaction at tripartite synapses, via a dynamic centering mechanism (DCM) to control background synaptic activity, acts to maintain short-term memory (STM) during states of selective attention. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Photon mass drag and the momentum of light in a medium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Partanen, Mikko; Häyrynen, Teppo; Oksanen, Jani; Tulkki, Jukka
2017-06-01
Conventional theories of electromagnetic waves in a medium assume that the energy propagating with the light pulse in the medium is entirely carried by the field. Thus, the possibility that the optical force field of the light pulse would drive forward an atomic mass density wave (MDW) and the related kinetic and elastic energies is neglected. In this work, we present foundations of a covariant theory of light propagation in a medium by considering a light wave simultaneously with the dynamics of the medium atoms driven by optoelastic forces between the induced dipoles and the electromagnetic field. We show that a light pulse having a total electromagnetic energy ℏ ω propagating in a nondispersive medium transfers a mass equal to δ m =(n2-1 ) ℏ ω /c2 , where n is the refractive index. MDW, which carries this mass, consists of atoms, which are more densely spaced inside the light pulse as a result of the field-dipole interaction. We also prove that the transfer of mass with the light pulse, the photon mass drag effect, gives an essential contribution to the total momentum of the light pulse, which becomes equal to the Minkowski momentum pM=n ℏ ω /c . The field's share of the momentum is the Abraham momentum pA=ℏ ω /(n c ) , while the difference pM-pA is carried by MDW. Due to the coupling of the field and matter, only the total momentum of the light pulse and the transferred mass δ m can be directly measured. Thus, our theory gives an unambiguous physical meaning to the Abraham and Minkowski momenta. We also show that to solve the centenary Abraham-Minkowski controversy of the momentum of light in a nondispersive medium in a way that is consistent with Newton's first law, one must account for the mass transfer effect. We derive the photon mass drag effect using two independent but complementary covariant models. In the mass-polariton (MP) quasiparticle approach, we consider the light pulse as a coupled state between the photon and matter, isolated from
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Man, Fung Fun
2016-01-01
Technology-enhanced learning (TEL) is fast gaining momentum among educational institutions all over the world. The usual way in which laboratory instructional videos are filmed takes the third-person view. However, such videos are not as realistic and sensorial. With the advent of Google Glass and GoPro cameras, a more personal and effective way…
A Comparison of Kinetic Energy and Momentum in Special Relativity and Classical Mechanics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Riggs, Peter J.
2016-01-01
Kinetic energy and momentum are indispensable dynamical quantities in both the special theory of relativity and in classical mechanics. Although momentum and kinetic energy are central to understanding dynamics, the differences between their relativistic and classical notions have not always received adequate treatment in undergraduate teaching.…
Momentum and energy transport by waves in the solar atmosphere and solar wind
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jacques, S. A.
1977-01-01
The fluid equations for the solar wind are presented in a form which includes the momentum and energy flux of waves in a general and consistent way. The concept of conservation of wave action is introduced and is used to derive expressions for the wave energy density as a function of heliocentric distance. The explicit form of the terms due to waves in both the momentum and energy equations are given for radially propagating acoustic, Alfven, and fast mode waves. The effect of waves as a source of momentum is explored by examining the critical points of the momentum equation for isothermal spherically symmetric flow. We find that the principal effect of waves on the solutions is to bring the critical point closer to the sun's surface and to increase the Mach number at the critical point. When a simple model of dissipation is included for acoustic waves, in some cases there are multiple critical points.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Engelhardt, M.
2017-05-01
Given a Wigner distribution simultaneously characterizing quark transverse positions and momenta in a proton, one can directly evaluate their cross product, i.e., quark orbital angular momentum. The aforementioned distribution can be obtained by generalizing the proton matrix elements of quark bilocal operators which define transverse momentum-dependent parton distributions (TMDs); the transverse momentum information is supplemented with transverse position information by introducing an additional nonzero momentum transfer. A gauge connection between the quarks must be specified in the quark bilocal operators; the staple-shaped gauge link path used in TMD calculations yields the Jaffe-Manohar definition of orbital angular momentum, whereas a straight path yields the Ji definition. An exploratory lattice calculation, performed at the pion mass mπ=518 MeV , is presented which quasicontinuously interpolates between the two definitions and demonstrates that their difference can be clearly resolved. The resulting Ji orbital angular momentum is confronted with traditional evaluations based on Ji's sum rule. Jaffe-Manohar orbital angular momentum is enhanced in magnitude compared to its Ji counterpart.
Shocks in the relativistic transonic accretion with low angular momentum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suková, P.; Charzyński, S.; Janiuk, A.
2017-12-01
We perform 1D/2D/3D relativistic hydrodynamical simulations of accretion flows with low angular momentum, filling the gap between spherically symmetric Bondi accretion and disc-like accretion flows. Scenarios with different directional distributions of angular momentum of falling matter and varying values of key parameters such as spin of central black hole, energy and angular momentum of matter are considered. In some of the scenarios the shock front is formed. We identify ranges of parameters for which the shock after formation moves towards or outwards the central black hole or the long-lasting oscillating shock is observed. The frequencies of oscillations of shock positions which can cause flaring in mass accretion rate are extracted. The results are scalable with mass of central black hole and can be compared to the quasi-periodic oscillations of selected microquasars (such as GRS 1915+105, XTE J1550-564 or IGR J17091-3624), as well as to the supermassive black holes in the centres of weakly active galaxies, such as Sgr A*.
Position-momentum uncertainty relations in the presence of quantum memory
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Furrer, Fabian, E-mail: furrer@eve.phys.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Berta, Mario; Institute for Theoretical Physics, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Str. 27, 8093 Zürich
2014-12-15
A prominent formulation of the uncertainty principle identifies the fundamental quantum feature that no particle may be prepared with certain outcomes for both position and momentum measurements. Often the statistical uncertainties are thereby measured in terms of entropies providing a clear operational interpretation in information theory and cryptography. Recently, entropic uncertainty relations have been used to show that the uncertainty can be reduced in the presence of entanglement and to prove security of quantum cryptographic tasks. However, much of this recent progress has been focused on observables with only a finite number of outcomes not including Heisenberg’s original setting ofmore » position and momentum observables. Here, we show entropic uncertainty relations for general observables with discrete but infinite or continuous spectrum that take into account the power of an entangled observer. As an illustration, we evaluate the uncertainty relations for position and momentum measurements, which is operationally significant in that it implies security of a quantum key distribution scheme based on homodyne detection of squeezed Gaussian states.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chakravarthula, Kiran
In a collision experiment involving highly energetic particles such as hadrons, processes at high momentum transfers can provide information useful for many studies involving Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). One way of analyzing these interactions is through angular distributions. In hadron-hadron collisions, the angular distribution between the two leading jets with the largest transverse momentum (pT) is affected by the production of additional jets. While soft radiation causes small differences in the azimuthal angular distribution of the two leading jets produced in a collision event, additional hard jets produced in the event have more pronounced influence on the distribution of the two leading jets produced in the collision. Thus, the dijet azimuthal angular distribution can serve as a variable that can be used to study the transition from soft to hard QCD processes in a collision event. This dissertation presents a triple-differential study involving the azimuthal angular distribution and the jet transverse momenta, and jet rapidities of the first two leading jets. The data used for this research are obtained from proton-antiproton (pp¯) collisions occurring at a center of mass energy of 1.96 TeV, using the DØ detector in Run II of the Tevatron Collider at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL) in Illinois, USA. Comparisons are made to perturbative QCD (pQCD) predictions at next-to-leading order (NLO).
Confining potential in momentum space
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Norbury, John W.; Kahana, David E.; Maung, Khin Maung
1992-01-01
A method is presented for the solution in momentum space of the bound state problem with a linear potential in r space. The potential is unbounded at large r leading to a singularity at small q. The singularity is integrable, when regulated by exponentially screening the r-space potential, and is removed by a subtraction technique. The limit of zero screening is taken analytically, and the numerical solution of the subtracted integral equation gives eigenvalues and wave functions in good agreement with position space calculations.
Attitude stabilization of a rigid spacecraft using two momentum wheel actuators
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Krishnan, Hariharan; Mcclamroch, N. Harris; Reyhanoglu, Mahmut
1993-01-01
It is well known that three momentum wheel actuators can be used to control the attitude of a rigid spacecraft and that arbitrary reorientation maneuvers of the spacecraft can be accomplished using smooth feedback. If failure of one of the momentum wheel actuators occurs, it is demonstrated that two momentum wheel actuators can be used to control the attitude of a rigid spacecraft and that arbitrary reorientation maneuvers of the spacecraft can be accomplished. Although the complete spacecraft equations are not controllable, the spacecraft equations are small time locally controllable in a reduced nonlinear sense. The reduced spacecraft dynamics cannot be asymptotically stabilized to any equilibrium attitude using a time-variant continuous feedback control law, but discontinuous feedback control strategies are constructed which stabilize any equilibrium attitude of the spacecraft in finite time. Consequently, reorientation of the spacecraft can be accomplished using discontinuous feedback control.
The Earth, the Moon and Conservation of Momentum
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brunt, Marjorie; Brunt, Geoff
2013-01-01
We consider the application of both conservation of momentum and Newton's laws to the Moon in an assumed circular orbit about the Earth. The inadequacy of some texts in applying Newton's laws is considered.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Herbert, F.; Davis, D. R.
1984-01-01
Preliminary experiments show that heliocentric planetesimals passing through the Earth environment possess significant angular momentum. However it also appears that these same planetesimals impacting a circularized circumterrestrial planetesimal swarm would likely remove angular momentum (though possibly increasing mean kinetic energy), presumably promoting both swarm infall upon the Earth and escape to heliocentric space. Only a distribution of highly eccentric satellite orbits with mean tangential velocities of a few tens of percent of local circular velocity would be immune against angular momentum loss to passing heliocentric planetesimals.
Apoyo a Estudios Geodinamicos con GPS en Guatemala
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Robles, V. R.
2013-05-01
El Instituto Geografico Nacional de Guatemala implemento 17 estaciones GNSS en el año 2009, como un proyecto de credito mixto de donacion de equipamiento del Gobierno de Suiza, el cual, este equipamiento de estaciones CORS GNSS es un sistema de recepción y transmisión de datos crudos GPS RInex que utiliza la tecnologia Spider Web de Leica, asi mismo este sistema esta sirviendo para el espablecimiento de un marco geodesico nacional de coordenadas geodesicas oficiales, el cual se calculan u obtienen las velocidades en tiempos temporales programados de las 17 Estaciones CORS. La infraestructura del marco geodesico de Guatemala esta sirviendo de base para las aplicaciones de estudios geodinamicos como el monitoreo de del desplazamiento de las placas tectonicas por medio de un estudio que se inicio en el año de 1999, llamado medicion con GPS el sistema de Fallas de los rios Polochic Motagua de Guatemala, tambien para un estudio que se implemento para deformación de corteza terrestre local en un Volcan Activo de Guatemala llamado Pacaya. Para el estudio de medicion con GPS en el sistema de falla de los Rios del polochic Motagua se implementaron 16 puntos para medir con GPS de dos frecuencias en el año de 1999, el cual, tres puntos son estaciones geodesicas CORS IGS llamados GUAT, ELEN y HUEH, despues en el año de 2003 se hizo otra medicion en un total de 20 puntos, que permitió calcular las velocidades de desplazamieinto de los puntos en mención, usando como referencia el modelo NUVEL 1A de DeMets de la placa de Norteamerica. Este estudio fue en cooperación internacional por la universidad de Nice de Francia y el IGNde Francia. Para el estudio del monitoreo con GPS del volcan activo de Guatemala, se implementaron cuatro puntos al rededor del volcan, el cual, se realizan cuatro mediciones al año, que permiten determinar axialmente la distancias entre los puntos, y rebisar estadisticamente cual es el comportamiento de las distancias en funcion del tiempo, si
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oesch, Denis W.; Sanchez, Darryl J.
2014-07-01
Context. Each attempt by the Atmospheric Simulation and Adaptive-optics Laboratory Testbed (ASALT) research group to detect turbulence-induced photonic orbital angular momentum (POAM) has been successful, spanning laboratory, simulation and field experiments, with the possible exception of the 2011 Starfire Optical Range (SOR) astronomical observations, a search for POAM induced by astronomical sources. Aims: The purposes of this work are to discuss how POAM from astronomical turbulent assemblages of molecules or atoms (TAMA) would appear in observations and then to reanalyze the data from the 2011 SOR observations using a more refined technique as a demonstration of POAM in starlight. Methods: This work uses the method of projections used previously in analysis of terrestrial data. Results: Using the method of projections, the noise floor of the system was reevaluated and is found to be no greater than 1%. Reevaluation of the 2011 SOR observations reveals that a POAM signal is evident in all of the data. Conclusions: POAM signals have been found in every instance of extended propagation through turbulence conducted by the ASALT research group, including the 2011 SOR observations. POAM is an inevitable result of the propagation of optical waves through turbulence. We express our gratitude to the Air Force Office of Scientific Research for their support of this research.
Separating local topography from snow effects on momentum roughness in mountain regions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Diebold, M.; Katul, G. G.; Calaf, M.; Lehning, M.; Parlange, M. B.
2013-12-01
Parametrization of momentum surface roughness length in mountainous regions continues to be an active research topic given its application to improved weather forecasting and sub-grid scale representation of mountainous regions in climate models. A field campaign was conducted in the Val Ferret watershed (Swiss Alps) to assess the role of topographic variability and snow cover on momentum roughness. To this end, turbulence measurements in a mountainous region with and without snow cover have been analyzed. A meteorological mast with four sonic anemometers together with temperature and humidity sensors was installed at an elevation of 2500 m and data were obtained from October 2011 until May 2012. Because of the long-term nature of these experiments, natural variability in mean wind direction allowed a wide range of terrain slopes and snow depths to be sampled. A theoretical framework that accounted only for topographically induced pressure perturbations in the mean momentum balance was used to diagnose the role of topography on the effective momentum roughness height as inferred from the log-law. Surface roughness depended systematically on wind direction but was not significantly influenced by the presence of snow depth variation. Moreover, the wind direction and so the surface roughness influenced the normalized turbulent kinetic energy, which in theory should not depend on these factors in the near-neutral atmospheric surface layer. The implications of those findings to modeling momentum roughness heights and turbulent kinetic energy (e.g. in conventional K-epsilon closure) in complex terrain are briefly discussed.
Nonlinear management of the angular momentum of soliton clusters: Theory and experiment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fratalocchi, Andrea; Piccardi, Armando; Peccianti, Marco; Assanto, Gaetano
2007-06-01
We demonstrate, both theoretically and experimentally, how to acquire nonlinear control over the angular momentum of a cluster of solitary waves. Our results, stemming from a universal theoretical model, show that the angular momentum can be adjusted by acting on the global energy input in the system. The phenomenon is experimentally ascertained in nematic liquid crystals by observing a power-dependent rotation of a two-soliton ensemble.
The importance of momentum transfer in collision-induced breakups in low Earth orbit
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reynolds, Robert C.; Lillie, Brian J.
1991-01-01
Although there is adequate information on larger objects in low Earth orbit, specifically those objects larger than about 10 cm in diameter, there is little direct information on objects from this size down to 1 mm. Yet, this is the sized regime where objects acting as projectiles represent the ability to seriously damage or destroy a functioning spacecraft if they collide with it. The observed consequences of known collisional breakups in orbit indicates no significant momentum transfer in the resulting debris cloud. The position taken in this paper is that this is an observational selection effect: what is seen in these events is an explosion-like breakup of the target structure arising from shock waves introduced into the structure by the collision, but one that occurs significantly after the collision processes are completed; the collision cloud, in which there is momentum transfer, consists of small, unobserved fragments. Preliminary computations of the contribution of one known collisional breakup, Solwind at 500 km in 1985, and Cosmos 1275 in 1981, assume no momentum transfer on breakup and indicate that these two events are the dominant contributors to the current millimeter and centimeter population. A different story would emerge if momentum transfer was taken into account. The topics covered include: (1) observation of on-orbit collisional breakups; (2) a model for momentum transfer; and (3) velocity space representation of breakup clouds.
Employing a Modified Diffuser Momentum Model to Simulate Ventilation of the Orion CEV (DRAFT)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Straus, John; Ball, Tyler; OHara, William; Barido, Richard
2011-01-01
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is used to model the flow field in the Orion CEV cabin. The CFD model employs a momentum model used to account for the effect of supply grilles on the supply flow. The momentum model is modified to account for non-uniform velocity profiles at the approach of the supply grille. The modified momentum model is validated against a detailed vane-resolved model before inclusion into the Orion CEV cabin model. Results for this comparison, as well as that of a single ventilation configuration are presented.
Dashti, Pedram Z; Alhassen, Fares; Lee, Henry P
2006-02-03
Acousto-optic interaction in optical fiber is examined from the perspective of copropagating optical and acoustic vortex modes. Calculation of the acousto-optic coupling coefficient between different optical modes leads to independent conservation of spin and orbital angular momentum of the interacting photons and phonons. We show that the orbital angular momentum of the acoustic vortex can be transferred to a circularly polarized fundamental optical mode to form a stable optical vortex in the fiber carrying orbital angular momentum. The technique provides a useful way of generating stable optical vortices in the fiber medium.
Momentum-transport studies in high E x B shear plasmas in the National Spherical Torus Experiment.
Solomon, W M; Kaye, S M; Bell, R E; Leblanc, B P; Menard, J E; Rewoldt, G; Wang, W; Levinton, F M; Yuh, H; Sabbagh, S A
2008-08-08
Experiments have been conducted at the National Sperical Torus Experiment (NSTX) to study both steady state and perturbative momentum transport. These studies are unique in their parameter space under investigation, where the low aspect ratio of NSTX results in rapid plasma rotation with ExB shearing rates high enough to suppress low-k turbulence. In some cases, the ratio of momentum to energy confinement time is found to exceed five. Momentum pinch velocities of order 10-40 m/s are inferred from the measured angular momentum flux evolution after nonresonant magnetic perturbations are applied to brake the plasma.
Parasitic momentum flux in the tokamak core
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stoltzfus-Dueck, T.
2017-10-01
Tokamak plasmas rotate spontaneously without applied torque. This intrinsic rotation is important for future low-torque devices such as ITER, since rotation stabilizes certain instabilities. In the mid-radius `gradient region,' which reaches from the sawtooth inversion radius out to the pedestal top, intrinsic rotation profiles may be either flat or hollow, and can transition suddenly between these two states, an unexplained phenomenon referred to as rotation reversal. Theoretical efforts to explain the mid-radius rotation shear have largely focused on quasilinear models, in which the phase relationships of some selected instability result in a nondiffusive momentum flux (``residual stress''). In contrast, the present work demonstrates the existence of a robust, fully nonlinear symmetry-breaking momentum flux that follows from the free-energy flow in phase space and does not depend on any assumed linear eigenmode structure. The physical origin is an often-neglected portion of the radial ExB drift, which is shown to drive a symmetry-breaking outward flux of co-current momentum whenever free energy is transferred from the electrostatic potential to ion parallel flows. The fully nonlinear derivation relies only on conservation properties and symmetry, thus retaining the important contribution of damped modes. The resulting rotation peaking is counter-current and scales as temperature over plasma current. As first demonstrated by Landau, this free-energy transfer (thus also the corresponding residual stress) becomes inactive when frequencies are much higher than the ion transit frequency, which allows sudden transitions between hollow and flat profiles. Simple estimates suggest that this mechanism may be consistent with experimental observations. This work was funded in part by the Max-Planck/Princeton Center for Plasma Physics and in part by the U.S. Dept. of Energy, Office of Science, Contract No. DE-AC02-09CH11466.
Properties of the Mean Momentum Balance in Polymer Drag Reduced Channel Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
White, Christopher; Dubief, Yves; Klewicki, Joseph
2014-11-01
The redistribution of mean momentum and the underlying mechanisms of the redistribution process in polymer drag reduced channel flow are investigated by employing a mean momentum equation based analysis. The work is motivated by recent studies that showed (contrary to long-held views) that polymers modify the von Karman coefficient, κ, at low drag reduction, and at some relatively high drag reduction eradicate the inertially dominated logarithmic region. Since κ is a manifestation of the underlying dynamical behaviors of wall-bounded flow, understanding how polymers modify κ is inherently important to understanding the dynamics of polymer drag reduced flow, and, consequently, the phenomenon of polymer drag reduction. The goal of the present study is to explore and quantify these effects within the framework of a mean momentum based analysis.
Chiral resolution of spin angular momentum in linearly polarized and unpolarized light
Hernández, R. J.; Mazzulla, A.; Provenzano, C.; Pagliusi, P.; Cipparrone, G.
2015-01-01
Linearly polarized (LP) and unpolarized (UP) light are racemic entities since they can be described as superposition of opposite circularly polarized (CP) components of equal amplitude. As a consequence they do not carry spin angular momentum. Chiral resolution of a racemate, i.e. separation of their chiral components, is usually performed via asymmetric interaction with a chiral entity. In this paper we provide an experimental evidence of the chiral resolution of linearly polarized and unpolarized Gaussian beams through the transfer of spin angular momentum to chiral microparticles. Due to the interplay between linear and angular momentum exchange, basic manipulation tasks, as trapping, spinning or orbiting of micro-objects, can be performed by light with zero helicity. The results might broaden the perspectives for development of miniaturized and cost-effective devices. PMID:26585284
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Belyaev, Mikhail A.; Rafikov, Roman R.; Stone, James M., E-mail: rrr@astro.princeton.edu
The nature of angular momentum transport in the boundary layers of accretion disks has been one of the central and long-standing issues of accretion disk theory. In this work we demonstrate that acoustic waves excited by supersonic shear in the boundary layer serve as an efficient mechanism of mass, momentum, and energy transport at the interface between the disk and the accreting object. We develop the theory of angular momentum transport by acoustic modes in the boundary layer, and support our findings with three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations, using an isothermal equation of state. Our first major result is the identification ofmore » three types of global modes in the boundary layer. We derive dispersion relations for each of these modes that accurately capture the pattern speeds observed in simulations to within a few percent. Second, we show that angular momentum transport in the boundary layer is intrinsically nonlocal, and is driven by radiation of angular momentum away from the boundary layer into both the star and the disk. The picture of angular momentum transport in the boundary layer by waves that can travel large distances before dissipating and redistributing angular momentum and energy to the disk and star is incompatible with the conventional notion of local transport by turbulent stresses. Our results have important implications for semianalytical models that describe the spectral emission from boundary layers.« less
Finite-Momentum Dimer Bound State in Spin-Orbit Coupled Fermi Gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dong, Lin; Jiang, Lei; Hu, Hui; Pu, Han
2013-03-01
We investigate the two-body properties of a spin-1/2 Fermi gas subject to a spin-orbit coupling induced by laser fields. When attractive s-wave interaction between unlike spins is present, the system may form a dimer bound state. Surprisingly, under proper conditions, the bound state obtains finite center-of-mass momentum, whereas under the same condition but in the absence of the two-body interaction, the system has zero total momentum. This unusual result can be regarded as a consequence of the broken Galilean invariance by the spin-orbit coupling. Such a finite-momentum bound state will have profound effects on the many-body properties of the system. HP is supported by the NSF, the Welch Foundation (Grant No. C-1669), and DARPA. HH is supported by the ARC Discovery Projects (Grant No. DP0984522) and the National Basic Research Program of China (NFRP-China, Grant No. 2011CB921502).
Photon momentum transfer plane for asteroid, meteoroid, and comet orbit shaping
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Campbell, Jonathan W. (Inventor)
2004-01-01
A spacecraft docks with a spinning and/or rotating asteroid, meteoroid, comet, or other space object, utilizing a tether shaped in a loop and utilizing subvehicles appropriately to control loop instabilities. The loop is positioned about a portion of the asteroid and retracted thereby docking the spacecraft to the asteroid, meteoroid, comet, or other space object. A deployable rigidized, photon momentum transfer plane of sufficient thickness may then be inflated and filled with foam. This plane has a reflective surface that assists in generating a larger momentum from impinging photons. This plane may also be moved relative to the spacecraft to alter the forces acting on it, and thus on the asteroid, meteoroid, comet, or other space object to which it is attached. In general, these forces may be utilized, over time, to alter the orbits of asteroids, meteoroids, comets, or other space objects. Sensors and communication equipment may be utilized to allow remote operation of the rigidized, photon momentum transfer plane and tether.
Anharmonic Thermal Oscillations of the Electron Momentum Distribution in Lithium Fluoride
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Erba, A.; Maul, J.; Itou, M.; Dovesi, R.; Sakurai, Y.
2015-09-01
Anharmonic thermal effects on the electron momentum distribution of a lithium fluoride single crystal are experimentally measured through high-resolution Compton scattering and theoretically modeled with ab initio simulations, beyond the harmonic approximation to the lattice potential, explicitly accounting for thermal expansion. Directional Compton profiles are measured at two different temperatures, 10 and 300 K, with a high momentum space resolution (0.10 a.u. in full width at half maximum), using synchrotron radiation. The effect of temperature on measured directional Compton profiles is clearly revealed by oscillations extending almost up to |p |=4 a .u . , which perfectly match those predicted from quantum-mechanical simulations. The wave-function-based Hartree-Fock method and three classes of the Kohn-Sham density functional theory (local-density, generalized-gradient, and hybrid approximations) are adopted. The lattice thermal expansion, as described with the quasiharmonic approach, is found to entirely account for the effect of temperature on the electron momentum density within the experimental accuracy.
Momentum Advection on a Staggered Mesh
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Benson, David J.
1992-05-01
Eulerian and ALE (arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian) hydrodynamics programs usually split a timestep into two parts. The first part is a Lagrangian step, which calculates the incremental motion of the material. The second part is referred to as the Eulerian step, the advection step, or the remap step, and it accounts for the transport of material between cells. In most finite difference and finite element formulations, all the solution variables except the velocities are cell-centered while the velocities are edge- or vertex-centered. As a result, the advection algorithm for the momentum is, by necessity, different than the algorithm used for the other variables. This paper reviews three momentum advection methods and proposes a new one. One method, pioneered in YAQUI, creates a new staggered mesh, while the other two, used in SALE and SHALE, are cell-centered. The new method is cell-centered and its relationship to the other methods is discussed. Both pure advection and strong shock calculations are presented to substantiate the mathematical analysis. From the standpoint of numerical accuracy, both the staggered mesh and the cell-centered algorithms can give good results, while the computational costs are highly dependent on the overall architecture of a code.
Resilience of hybrid optical angular momentum qubits to turbulence
Farías, Osvaldo Jiménez; D'Ambrosio, Vincenzo; Taballione, Caterina; Bisesto, Fabrizio; Slussarenko, Sergei; Aolita, Leandro; Marrucci, Lorenzo; Walborn, Stephen P.; Sciarrino, Fabio
2015-01-01
Recent schemes to encode quantum information into the total angular momentum of light, defining rotation-invariant hybrid qubits composed of the polarization and orbital angular momentum degrees of freedom, present interesting applications for quantum information technology. However, there remains the question as to how detrimental effects such as random spatial perturbations affect these encodings. Here, we demonstrate that alignment-free quantum communication through a turbulent channel based on hybrid qubits can be achieved with unit transmission fidelity. In our experiment, alignment-free qubits are produced with q-plates and sent through a homemade turbulence chamber. The decoding procedure, also realized with q-plates, relies on both degrees of freedom and renders an intrinsic error-filtering mechanism that maps errors into losses. PMID:25672667
Non-Colinearity of Angular Velocity and Angular Momentum
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Burr, A. F.
1974-01-01
Discusses the principles, construction, and operation of an apparatus which serves to demonstrate the non-colinearity of the angular velocity and momentum vectors as well as the inertial tensors. Applications of the apparatus to teaching of advanced undergraduate mechanics courses are recommended. (CC)
Understanding the Fundamental Roles of Momentum and Vorticity Injections in Flow Control
2016-09-02
production by pitched and skewed jets in a turbulent boundary layer . AIAA Journal 30, 640–647. DISTRIBUTION A: Distribution approved for public release...adverse pressure gradient along the suction surface, which ultimately results in a separated boundary layer . Such behavior of the boundary layer can... boundary layer either directly or by utilizing free stream momentum to energize the boundary layer (Gad-el-Hak, 2000a). Directly adding momentum to the
Positive feedback and momentum growth during debris-flow entrainment of wet bed sediment
Iverson, R.M.; Reid, M.E.; Logan, M.; LaHusen, R.G.; Godt, J.W.; Griswold, J.P.
2011-01-01
Debris flows typically occur when intense rainfall or snowmelt triggers landslides or extensive erosion on steep, debris-mantled slopes. The flows can then grow dramatically in size and speed as they entrain material from their beds and banks, but the mechanism of this growth is unclear. Indeed, momentum conservation implies that entrainment of static material should retard the motion of the flows if friction remains unchanged. Here we use data from large-scale experiments to assess the entrainment of bed material by debris flows. We find that entrainment is accompanied by increased flow momentum and speed only if large positive pore pressures develop in wet bed sediments as the sediments are overridden by debris flows. The increased pore pressure facilitates progressive scour of the bed, reduces basal friction and instigates positive feedback that causes flow speed, mass and momentum to increase. If dryer bed sediment is entrained, however, the feedback becomes negative and flow momentum declines. We infer that analogous feedbacks could operate in other types of gravity-driven mass flow that interact with erodible beds. ?? 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Zeibel, J. G.; Jones, R. R.
2003-08-01
Picosecond ''half-cycle'' pulses (HCPs) have been used to produce electronic wave packets by recombining photoelectrons with their parent ions. The time-dependent momentum distributions of the bound wave packets are probed using a second HCP and the impulsive momentum retrieval (IMR) method. For a given delay between the initial photoionization event and the HCP recombination, classical trajectory simulations predict pronounced periodic wave packet motion for a restricted range of recombining HCP amplitudes. This motion is characterized by the repeated formation and collapse of a highly localized spike in the three-dimensional electron probability density at a large distance from the nucleus. Ourmore » experiments confirm that oscillatory wave packet motion occurs only for certain recombination ''kick'' strengths. Moreover, the measured time-dependent momentum distributions are consistent with the predicted formation of a highly localized electron packet. We demonstrate a variation of the IMR in which amplitude modulation of the HCP probe field is employed to suppress noise and allow for a more direct recovery of electron momentum from experimental ionization data.« less
Momentum conserving defects in affine Toda field theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bristow, Rebecca; Bowcock, Peter
2017-05-01
Type II integrable defects with more than one degree of freedom at the defect are investigated. A condition on the form of the Lagrangian for such defects is found which ensures the existence of a conserved momentum in the presence of the defect. In addition it is shown that for any Lagrangian satisfying this condition, the defect equations of motion, when taken to hold everywhere, can be extended to give a Bäcklund transformation between the bulk theories on either side of the defect. This strongly suggests that such systems are integrable. Momentum conserving defects and Bäcklund transformations for affine Toda field theories based on the A n , B n , C n and D n series of Lie algebras are found. The defect associated with the D 4 affine Toda field theory is examined in more detail. In particular classical time delays for solitons passing through the defect are calculated.
Effects of Spatial Cueing on Representational Momentum
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hubbard, Timothy L.; Kumar, Anuradha Mohan; Carp, Charlotte L.
2009-01-01
Effects of a spatial cue on representational momentum were examined. If a cue was present during or after target motion and indicated the location at which the target would vanish or had vanished, forward displacement of that target decreased. The decrease in forward displacement was larger when cues were present after target motion than when cues…
Modeling of electrical and mesoscopic circuits at quantum nanoscale from heat momentum operator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
El-Nabulsi, Rami Ahmad
2018-04-01
We develop a new method to study electrical circuits at quantum nanoscale by introducing a heat momentum operator which reproduces quantum effects similar to those obtained in Suykens's nonlocal-in-time kinetic energy approach for the case of reversible motion. The series expansion of the heat momentum operator is similar to the momentum operator obtained in the framework of minimal length phenomenologies characterized by the deformation of Heisenberg algebra. The quantization of both LC and mesoscopic circuits revealed a number of motivating features like the emergence of a generalized uncertainty relation and a minimal charge similar to those obtained in the framework of minimal length theories. Additional features were obtained and discussed accordingly.
Our Theme for 2016: Sustaining Momentum
2016-03-01
of design architectures and interfaces to make both open sys- tems and modularity a reality. This is “owning the technical baseline,” and the devil... write this year, although we will be implementing the changes required in the Fiscal Year (FY) 2016 National Defense Au- thorization Act. We still...Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics on the momentum we have gained as we get ready for a new administration next year. Promote Technical
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
English, Ian; Curet, Oscar
2016-11-01
Lighthill and Blake's 1990 momentum enhancement theory suggests there is a multiplicative propulsive effect linked to the ratio of body and fin heights in Gymnotiform and Balistiform swimmers, which propel themselves using multi-rayed undulating fins while keeping their bodies mostly rigid. Proof of such a momentum enhancement could have a profound effect on unmanned underwater vehicle design and shed light on the evolutionary advantage to body-fin ratios found in nature, shown as optimal for momentum enhancement in Lighthill and Blake's theory. A robotic ribbon fin with twelve independent fin rays, elastic fin membrane, and a body of adjustable height was developed specifically to experimentally test momentum enhancement. Thrust tests for various body heights were conducted in a recirculating flow tank at different flow speeds and fin flapping frequencies. When comparing thrust at different body heights, flow speeds, and frequencies to a 'no-body' thrust test case at each frequency and flow speed, data indicate there is no momentum enhancement factor due to the presence of a body on top of an undulating fin. This suggests that if there is a benefit to a specific ratio between body and fin height, it is not due to momentum enhancement.
Force law in material media, hidden momentum and quantum phases
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Kholmetskii, Alexander L., E-mail: alkholmetskii@gmail.com; Missevitch, Oleg V.; Yarman, T.
We address to the force law in classical electrodynamics of material media, paying attention on the force term due to time variation of hidden momentum of magnetic dipoles. We highlight that the emergence of this force component is required by the general theorem, deriving zero total momentum for any static configuration of charges/currents. At the same time, we disclose the impossibility to add this force term covariantly to the Lorentz force law in material media. We further show that the adoption of the Einstein–Laub force law does not resolve the issue, because for a small electric/magnetic dipole, the density ofmore » Einstein–Laub force integrates exactly to the same equation, like the Lorentz force with the inclusion of hidden momentum contribution. Thus, none of the available expressions for the force on a moving dipole is compatible with the relativistic transformation of force, and we support this statement with a number of particular examples. In this respect, we suggest applying the Lagrangian approach to the derivation of the force law in a magnetized/polarized medium. In the framework of this approach we obtain the novel expression for the force on a small electric/magnetic dipole, with the novel expression for its generalized momentum. The latter expression implies two novel quantum effects with non-topological phases, when an electric dipole is moving in an electric field, and when a magnetic dipole is moving in a magnetic field. These phases, in general, are not related to dynamical effects, because they are not equal to zero, when the classical force on a dipole is vanishing. The implications of the obtained results are discussed.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Belaga, V. V.; Gerasimov, S. G.; Dronov, V. A.; Peresadko, N. G.; Pisetskaya, A. V.; Rusakova, V. V.; Fetisov, V. N.; Kharlamov, S. P.; Shesterkina, L. N.
2017-07-01
A two-particle channel in which an unbound nucleus of 8Be in the ground state (8Beg.s.) was one of the fragments was selected among events where 12C nuclei of momentum 4.5 GeV/c per nucleon undergo coherent dissociation into three alpha particles. The events in question were detected in a track nuclear photoemulsion containing lead nuclei, which was irradiated at the synchrophasotron of the Laboratory of High Energies at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR, Dubna). The average transverse momentum of alpha particles produced upon the decay of 8Beg.s. nuclei was 87±6 MeV/ c, while that for "single" alpha (αs) particles was 123±15 MeV/ c. The average value of the transverse-momentum transfer in the reaction being considered, Pt(12C), was 223 ± 20 MeV/ c. The average value of the cross section for this channel involving Ag and Br target nuclei was 13 ± 4 mb, while the cross section for the reaction on the Pb nucleus was 40 ± 15 mb. The Coulomb dissociation contribution evaluated on the basis of the number of events where the momentum P t(12C) did not exceed 0.1 GeV/c saturated about 20%. In nine events, the measured total transverse energy of the fragments in the reference frame comoving with the decaying carbon nucleus did not exceed 0.45 MeV, which did not contradict the excitation of the participant 12C nucleus to the level at 7.65 MeV. The average value of the transverse momentum in those events was 234 ± 25 MeV/ c.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arneodo, M.; Arvidson, A.; Aubert, J. J.; Beaufays, J.; Becks, K. H.; Bee, C.; Benchouk, C.; Bird, I.; Blum, D.; Böhm, E.; de Bouard, X.; Brasse, F. W.; Braun, H.; Broll, C.; Brown, S.; Brück, H.; Calen, H.; Callebaut, D.; Carr, J.; Chima, J. S.; Clifft, R.; Cobb, J. H.; Coignet, G.; Combley, F.; Coughlan, J.; Court, G. R.; D'Agostini, G.; Dahlgren, S.; Davies, J. K.; Dengler, F.; Derado, I.; Dosselli, U.; Dreyer, T.; Drees, J.; Dumont, J. J.; Düren, M.; Eckardt, V.; Edwards, A.; Edwards, M.; Ernst, T.; Eszes, G.; Favier, J.; Ferrero, M. I.; Figiel, J.; Flauger, W.; Foster, J.; Gabathuler, E.; Gamet, R.; Gayler, J.; Geddes, N.; Giubellino, P.; Gössling, C.; Grafström, P.; Grard, F.; Gustafsson, L.; Haas, J.; Hagberg, E.; Hasert, F. J.; Hayman, P.; Heusse, P.; Hoppe, C.; Jaffré, M.; Jacholkowska, A.; Janata, F.; Jancso, G.; Johnson, A. S.; Kabuss, E. M.; Kellner, G.; Korbel, V.; Krüger, J.; Kullander, S.; Landgraf, U.; Lanske, D.; Loken, J.; Long, K.; Maire, M.; Manz, A.; Mohr, W.; Montanet, F.; Montgomery, H. E.; Mount, R. P.; Nagy, E.; Nassalski, J.; Norton, P. R.; Oakham, F. G.; Osborne, A. M.; Pascaud, C.; Paul, L.; Pawlik, B.; Payre, P.; Peroni, C.; Pessard, H.; Pettingale, J.; Pietrzyk, B.; Pötsch, M.; Preissner, H.; Renton, P.; Ribarics, P.; Rith, K.; Rondio, E.; Schlagböhmer, A.; Schmitz, N.; Schneegans, M.; Schröder, T.; Schultze, K.; Shiers, J.; Sloan, T.; Stier, H. E.; Stockhausen, W.; Studt, M.; Taylor, G. N.; Thénard, J. M.; Thompson, J. C.; de La Torre, A.; Toth, J.; Urban, L.; Wahlen, H.; Wallucks, W.; Whalley, M.; Wheeler, S.; Williams, W. S. C.; Wimpenny, S.; Windmolders, R.; Wolf, G.
1984-12-01
Results are presented on the transverse momentum distributions of charged hadrons in 280 GeV muon-proton deep inelastic interactions. The transverse momenta are defined relative to the accurately measured virtual photon direction and the experiment has almost complete angular acceptance for the final state hadrons. Significantly larger values of the average transverse momentum squared are found for the forward going hadrons than for the target remnants. This result, combined with a study of the rapidity region over which the transverse momentum is compensated, can be explained by a significant contribution from soft gluon radiation, but not by a large value of the primordial transverse momentum of the struck quark.
A Practical Example Aiding Understanding Momentum in 1D: The Water Gun Experiment
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
MacLeod, Katarin
2007-01-01
The law of conservation of momentum is one that students often have difficulties understanding. This experiment allows students to use childhood toys to examine and calculate the muzzle velocity of their favourite water gun by using an air track, a spark timer or data logger and the law of conservation of momentum in a one-dimensional case, a…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gupta, T.; Baidya Roy, S.; Miller, L.
2017-12-01
With rapid increase in the installed wind capacity around the globe, it is important and interesting to understand the processes involved in wind farm-atmospheric boundary layer interactions. A wind turbine extracts energy from the mean flow and converts it into electrical energy, thereby reducing the mean kinetic energy available. The corresponding reduction in momentum triggers vertical mixing that transports high-momentum air from aloft to the wind turbine layer thereby replenishing the lost momentum, at least partially. This study investigates the phenomenon of vertical replenishment and quantifies its contribution in the momentum recovery as a function of various factors including installed capacity (MW/km2), depth of the wind farm (km) and climatology of the area. Numerical experiments are conducted using the WRF mesoscale model to simulate wind turbine-boundary layer interactions in a hypothetical large off-shore wind farm located deep in the Arabian Sea off the western coast of India. WRF is equipped with a wind turbine parameterization and is capable of simulating both the momentum reduction and vertical replenishment phenomena. It is found that the downward turbulent flux is able to replenish about 66% of momentum lost because of wind turbines. Additionally, the feedback leads to an average increase of 1.5% in generated power capacity in the wind farm. These results indicate that when the momentum deficit occurs, the vertical replenishment in form of turbulent flux tries to dampen the momentum loss, hence, acting as a negative feedback in the wind farm.
Conservation laws and stress-energy-momentum tensors for systems with background fields
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Gratus, Jonathan, E-mail: j.gratus@lancaster.ac.uk; The Cockcroft Institute, Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington WA4 4AD; Obukhov, Yuri N., E-mail: yo@thp.uni-koeln.de
2012-10-15
This article attempts to delineate the roles played by non-dynamical background structures and Killing symmetries in the construction of stress-energy-momentum tensors generated from a diffeomorphism invariant action density. An intrinsic coordinate independent approach puts into perspective a number of spurious arguments that have historically lead to the main contenders, viz the Belinfante-Rosenfeld stress-energy-momentum tensor derived from a Noether current and the Einstein-Hilbert stress-energy-momentum tensor derived in the context of Einstein's theory of general relativity. Emphasis is placed on the role played by non-dynamical background (phenomenological) structures that discriminate between properties of these tensors particularly in the context of electrodynamics inmore » media. These tensors are used to construct conservation laws in the presence of Killing Lie-symmetric background fields. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The role of background fields in diffeomorphism invariant actions is demonstrated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Interrelations between different stress-energy-momentum tensors are emphasised. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Abraham and Minkowski electromagnetic tensors are discussed in this context. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conservation laws in the presence of nondynamic background fields are formulated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The discussion is facilitated by the development of a new variational calculus.« less
Transverse momentum dependent (TMD) parton distribution functions: Status and prospects*
Angeles-Martinez, R.; Bacchetta, A.; Balitsky, Ian I.; ...
2015-01-01
In this study, we review transverse momentum dependent (TMD) parton distribution functions, their application to topical issues in high-energy physics phenomenology, and their theoretical connections with QCD resummation, evolution and factorization theorems. We illustrate the use of TMDs via examples of multi-scale problems in hadronic collisions. These include transverse momentum q T spectra of Higgs and vector bosons for low q T, and azimuthal correlations in the production of multiple jets associated with heavy bosons at large jet masses. We discuss computational tools for TMDs, and present the application of a new tool, TMD LIB, to parton density fits andmore » parameterizations.« less
Transverse spin and transverse momentum in scattering of plane waves.
Saha, Sudipta; Singh, Ankit K; Ray, Subir K; Banerjee, Ayan; Gupta, Subhasish Dutta; Ghosh, Nirmalya
2016-10-01
We study the near field to the far field evolution of spin angular momentum (SAM) density and the Poynting vector of the scattered waves from spherical scatterers. The results show that at the near field, the SAM density and the Poynting vector are dominated by their transverse components. While the former (transverse SAM) is independent of the helicity of the incident circular polarization state, the latter (transverse Poynting vector) depends upon the polarization state. It is further demonstrated that the interference of the transverse electric and transverse magnetic scattering modes enhances both the magnitudes and the spatial extent of the transverse SAM and the transverse momentum components.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kang, In-Sik; Kim, Daehyun; Kug, Jong-Seong
2010-12-01
This study demonstrates that the momentum transport by cumulus convection plays a significant role in the organization and northward propagation of intraseasonal (ISO) convection anomalies over the Indian and western Pacific regions during boreal summer. A version of Seoul National University's atmosphere-ocean coupled general circulation model simulates northward propagation when convective momentum transport (CMT) is implemented; the northward propagation disappears when CMT is disabled. An axially symmetric shallow water model with a parameterized CMT is used to understand the role of CMT in the northward propagation of ISO. The basic mechanism of northward propagation is the lower-level convergence to the north of convection, which is induced by the secondary meridional circulation associated with large momentum mixing by convection in the region of large mean vertical shear. A large mean vertical shear exists in South Asian region during boreal summer.
Uncertainty relations for angular momentum eigenstates in two and three spatial dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bracher, Christian
2011-03-01
I reexamine Heisenberg's uncertainty relation for two- and three-dimensional wave packets with fixed angular momentum quantum numbers m or ℓ. A simple proof shows that the product of the average extent Δr and Δp of a two-dimensional wave packet in position and momentum space is bounded from below by ΔrΔp ≥ℏ(|m|+1). The minimum uncertainty is attained by modified Gaussian wave packets that are special eigenstates of the two-dimensional isotropic harmonic oscillator, which include the ground states of electrons in a uniform magnetic field. Similarly, the inequality ΔrΔp ≥ℏ(ℓ +3/2) holds for three-dimensional wave packets with fixed total angular momentum ℓ and the equality holds for a Gaussian radial profile. I also discuss some applications of these uncertainty relations.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Davis, D. R.; Greenberg, R.; Hebert, F.
1985-01-01
Models of lunar origin in which the Moon accretes in orbit about the Earth from material approaching the Earth from heliocentric orbits must overcome a fundamental problem: the approach orbits of such material would be, in the simplest approximation, equally likely to be prograde or retrograde about the Earth, with the result that accretion of such material adds mass but not angular momentum to circumterrestrial satellites. Satellite orbits would then decay due to the resulting drag, ultimately impacting onto the Earth. One possibility for adding both material and angular momentum to Earth orbit is investigated: imbalance in the delivered angular momentum between pro and retrograde Earth passing orbits which arises from the three body dynamics of planetesimals approaching the Earth from heliocentric space. In order to study angular momentum delivery to circumterrestrial satellites, the near Earth velocities were numerically computed as a function of distance from the Earth for a large array of orbits systematically spanning heliocentric phase space.
Electroexcitation of the Δ +(1232) at low momentum transfer
Blomberg, A.; Anez, D.; Sparveris, N.; ...
2016-07-05
We report on new pmore » $$(e,e^\\prime p)\\pi^\\circ$$ measurements at the $$\\Delta^{+}(1232)$$ resonance at the low momentum transfer region. The mesonic cloud dynamics is predicted to be dominant and rapidly changing in this kinematic region offering a test bed for chiral effective field theory calculations. The new data explore the low $Q^2$ dependence of the resonant quadrupole amplitudes while extending the measurements of the Coulomb quadrupole amplitude to the lowest momentum transfer ever reached. The results disagree with predictions of constituent quark models and are in reasonable agreement with dynamical calculations that include pion cloud effects, chiral effective field theory and lattice calculations. The reported measurements suggest that improvement is required to the theoretical calculations and provide valuable input that will allow their refinements.« less
Rapidity and transverse momentum distributions of heavy quarks produced by double pomeron exchange
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bialas, A.; Janik, R.
1994-09-01
Rapidity and transverse momentum distributions of heavy quarks produced by double exchange of Donnachie-Landshoff pomeron are presented and discussed. In the limit of small transverse momentum of the pair, the cross-section is almost independent of the sum of q andbar q rapidities, but does depend on the rapidity difference and (rather strongly) on the transverse momenta of the produced quarks.
Angular Momentum Transport in Convectively Unstable Shear Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Käpylä, Petri J.; Brandenburg, Axel; Korpi, Maarit J.; Snellman, Jan E.; Narayan, Ramesh
2010-08-01
Angular momentum transport due to hydrodynamic turbulent convection is studied using local three-dimensional numerical simulations employing the shearing box approximation. We determine the turbulent viscosity from non-rotating runs over a range of values of the shear parameter and use a simple analytical model in order to extract the non-diffusive contribution (Λ-effect) to the stress in runs where rotation is included. Our results suggest that the turbulent viscosity is on the order of the mixing length estimate and weakly affected by rotation. The Λ-effect is non-zero and a factor of 2-4 smaller than the turbulent viscosity in the slow rotation regime. We demonstrate that for Keplerian shear, the angular momentum transport can change sign and be outward when the rotation period is greater than the turnover time, i.e., when the Coriolis number is below unity. This result seems to be relatively independent of the value of the Rayleigh number.
Scale-dependence of transverse momentum correlations in PbAu collisions at 158A GeV/c
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ceres Collaboration; Adamová, D.; Agakichiev, G.; Antończyk, D.; Appelshäuser, H.; Belaga, V.; Bielcikova, S.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Busch, O.; Cherlin, A.; Damjanović, S.; Dietel, T.; Dietrich, L.; Drees, A.; Dubitzky, W.; Esumi, S. I.; Filimonov, K.; Fomenko, K.; Fraenkel, Z.; Garabatos, C.; Glässel, P.; Holeczek, J.; Kushpil, V.; Maas, A.; Marín, A.; Milošević, J.; Milov, A.; Miśkowiec, D.; Panebrattsev, Yu.; Petchenova, O.; Petráček, V.; Pfeiffer, A.; Płoskoń, M.; Radomski, S.; Rak, J.; Ravinovich, I.; Rehak, P.; Sako, H.; Schmitz, W.; Sedykh, S.; Shimansky, S.; Stachel, J.; Šumbera, M.; Tilsner, H.; Tserruya, I.; Tsiledakis, G.; Wessels, J. P.; Wienold, T.; Wurm, J. P.; Xie, W.; Yurevich, S.; Yurevich, V.
2008-10-01
We present results on transverse momentum correlations of charged particle pairs produced in PbAu collisions at 158A GeV/c at the Super Proton Synchrotron. The transverse momentum correlations have been studied as a function of collision centrality, angular separation of the particle pairs, transverse momentum and charge sign. We demonstrate that the results are in agreement with previous findings in scale-independent analyses at the same beam energy. Employing the two-particle momentum correlator <Δp,Δp> and the cumulative p variable x(p), we identify, using the scale-dependent approach presented in this paper, different sources contributing to the measured correlations, such as quantum and Coulomb correlations, elliptic flow and mini-jet fragmentation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Penta Rao, Tamarba; Rajendra Prasad, P.
2018-04-01
Entry region swirl promoters gain importance in industry because of its effectiveness in augmentation of mass and heat transfer augmentation. Design of equipment needs momentum transfer data along with mass or heat transfer data. Hence an experimental investigation was carried out with coaxially placed entry region spiral coil as turbulence promoters on momentum transfer in forced convection flow of electrolyte in circular conduits. Aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide and 0.01 M equimolal Ferri-ferro cyanide system was chosen for the study. The study covered parameters like effect of pitch of the coil, effect of length of the coil, diameter of the coil, diameter of the coil wire, diameter of the annular rod. The promoter is measured by limiting current technique using diffusion controlled electrochemical reactions. The study comprises of evaluation of momentum transfer rates at the outer wall of the electrochemical cell. Pressure drop measurements were also made to obtain the energy consumption pattern. Within the range of variables covered. The results are correlated by the momentum transfer similarity function. Momentum transfer coefficients were evaluated from measured limiting currents. Effect of each parameter was studied in terms of friction factor. A model was developed for momentum transfer. The experimental data on momentum transfer was modeled in terms of momentum transfer function and Reynolds number, geometric parameters.
Conservation law of angular momentum in helicity-dependent Raman and Rayleigh scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tatsumi, Yuki; Kaneko, Tomoaki; Saito, Riichiro
2018-05-01
In first-order Raman scattering, helicity of circularly polarized incident light is either conserved or changed depending on the Raman modes. When the helicity of incident light changes in the scattered light, the angular momentum of a photon is transferred to the material. Here, we present the conservation law of pseudoangular momentum in the helicity-dependent Raman scattering for a N -fold (N =1 -4 ,6 ) rotational symmetry of a crystal. Furthermore, the conservation law of electron-phonon interaction is discussed by considering the vibration direction of a phonon that has the same or lower symmetry than the symmetry of the crystal, which is essential to allow the helicity change in Raman scattering in a highly symmetric material, such as graphene. We also discuss the conservation law of pseudoangular momentum in Rayleigh scattering and show that the helicity change is allowed only in the crystal with one- or twofold rotational symmetry.
Molecular Momentum Transport at Fluid-Solid Interfaces in MEMS/NEMS: A Review
Cao, Bing-Yang; Sun, Jun; Chen, Min; Guo, Zeng-Yuan
2009-01-01
This review is focused on molecular momentum transport at fluid-solid interfaces mainly related to microfluidics and nanofluidics in micro-/nano-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS/NEMS). This broad subject covers molecular dynamics behaviors, boundary conditions, molecular momentum accommodations, theoretical and phenomenological models in terms of gas-solid and liquid-solid interfaces affected by various physical factors, such as fluid and solid species, surface roughness, surface patterns, wettability, temperature, pressure, fluid viscosity and polarity. This review offers an overview of the major achievements, including experiments, theories and molecular dynamics simulations, in the field with particular emphasis on the effects on microfluidics and nanofluidics in nanoscience and nanotechnology. In Section 1 we present a brief introduction on the backgrounds, history and concepts. Sections 2 and 3 are focused on molecular momentum transport at gas-solid and liquid-solid interfaces, respectively. Summary and conclusions are finally presented in Section 4. PMID:20087458
Angular Momentum Transfer and Fractional Moment of Inertia in Pulsar Glitches
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eya, I. O.; Urama, J. O.; Chukwude, A. E.
2017-05-01
We use the Jodrell Bank Observatory glitch database containing 472 glitches from 165 pulsars to investigate the angular momentum transfer during rotational glitches in pulsars. Our emphasis is on pulsars with at least five glitches, of which there are 26 that exhibit 261 glitches in total. This paper identifies four pulsars in which the angular momentum transfer, after many glitches, is almost linear with time. The Lilliefore test on the cumulative distribution of glitch spin-up sizes in these glitching pulsars shows that glitch sizes in 12 pulsars are normally distributed, suggesting that their glitches originate from the same momentum reservoir. In addition, the distribution of the fractional moment of inertia (I.e., the ratio of the moment of inertia of neutron star components that are involved in the glitch process) have a single mode, unlike the distribution of fractional glitch size (Δν/ν), which is usually bimodal. The mean fractional moment of inertia in the glitching pulsars we sampled has a very weak correlation with the pulsar spin properties, thereby supporting a neutron star interior mechanism for the glitch phenomenon.
Mass and momentum turbulent transport experiments with confined swirling coaxial jets
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Roback, R.; Johnson, B. V.
1983-01-01
Swirling coaxial jets mixing downstream, discharging into an expanded duct was conducted to obtain data for the evaluation and improvement of turbulent transport models currently used in a variety of computational procedures throughout the combustion community. A combination of laser velocimeter (LV) and laser induced fluorescence (LIF) techniques was employed to obtain mean and fluctuating velocity and concentration distributions which were used to derive mass and momentum turbulent transport parameters currently incorporated into various combustor flow models. Flow visualization techniques were also employed to determine qualitatively the time dependent characteristics of the flow and the scale of turbulence. The results of these measurements indicated that the largest momentum turbulent transport was in the r-z plane. Peak momentum turbulent transport rates were approximately the same as those for the nonswirling flow condition. The mass turbulent transport process for swirling flow was complicated. Mixing occurred in several steps of axial and radial mass transport and was coupled with a large radial mean convective flux. Mixing for swirling flow was completed in one-third the length required for nonswirling flow.
Effect of particle momentum transfer on an oblique-shock-wave/laminar-boundary-layer interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Teh, E.-J.; Johansen, C. T.
2016-11-01
Numerical simulations of solid particles seeded into a supersonic flow containing an oblique shock wave reflection were performed. The momentum transfer mechanism between solid and gas phases in the shock-wave/boundary-layer interaction was studied by varying the particle size and mass loading. It was discovered that solid particles were capable of significant modulation of the flow field, including suppression of flow separation. The particle size controlled the rate of momentum transfer while the particle mass loading controlled the magnitude of momentum transfer. The seeding of micro- and nano-sized particles upstream of a supersonic/hypersonic air-breathing propulsion system is proposed as a flow control concept.
Mechanical evidence of the orbital angular momentum to energy ratio of vortex beams.
Demore, Christine E M; Yang, Zhengyi; Volovick, Alexander; Cochran, Sandy; MacDonald, Michael P; Spalding, Gabriel C
2012-05-11
We measure, in a single experiment, both the radiation pressure and the torque due to a wide variety of propagating acoustic vortex beams. The results validate, for the first time directly, the theoretically predicted ratio of the orbital angular momentum to linear momentum in a propagating beam. We experimentally determine this ratio using simultaneous measurements of both the levitation force and the torque on an acoustic absorber exerted by a broad range of helical ultrasonic beams produced by a 1000-element matrix transducer array. In general, beams with helical phase fronts have been shown to contain orbital angular momentum as the result of the azimuthal component of the Poynting vector around the propagation axis. Theory predicts that for both optical and acoustic helical beams the ratio of the angular momentum current of the beam to the power should be given by the ratio of the beam's topological charge to its angular frequency. This direct experimental observation that the ratio of the torque to power does convincingly match the expected value (given by the topological charge to angular frequency ratio of the beam) is a fundamental result.
Kinetic energy and angular momentum of free particles in the gyratonic pp-waves space-times
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maluf, J. W.; da Rocha-Neto, J. F.; Ulhoa, S. C.; Carneiro, F. L.
2018-06-01
Gyratonic pp-waves are exact solutions of Einstein’s equations that represent non-linear gravitational waves endowed with angular momentum. We consider gyratonic pp-waves that travel in the z direction and whose time dependence on the variable is given by Gaussians, so that the waves represent short bursts of gravitational radiation propagating in the z direction. We evaluate numerically the geodesics and velocities of free particles in the space-time of these waves, and find that after the passage of the waves both the kinetic energy and the angular momentum per unit mass of the particles are changed. Therefore there is a transfer of energy and angular momentum between the gravitational field and the free particles, so that the final values of the energy and angular momentum of the free particles may be smaller or larger in magnitude than the initial values.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dega, Bekele Gashe; Govender, Nadaraj
2016-01-01
This study compares the scientific and alternative conceptions of energy and momentum of university first-year science students in Ethiopia and the US. Written data were collected using the Energy and Momentum Conceptual Survey developed by Singh and Rosengrant. The Concentration Analysis statistical method was used for analysing the Ethiopian…
Direct solution of the H(1s)-H + long-range interaction problem in momentum space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koga, Toshikatsu
1985-02-01
Perturbation equations for the H(1s)-H+ long-range interaction are solved directly in momentum space up to the fourth order with respect to the reciprocal of the internuclear distance. As in the hydrogen atom problem, the Fock transformation is used which projects the momentum vector of an electron from the three-dimensional hyperplane onto the four-dimensional hypersphere. Solutions are given as linear combinations of several four-dimensional spherical harmonics. The present results add an example to the momentum-space solution of the nonspherical potential problem.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martineau, Patrick; Son, Seok-Woo; Taguchi, Masakazu; Butler, Amy H.
2018-05-01
The agreement between reanalysis datasets, in terms of the zonal-mean momentum budget, is evaluated during sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) events. It is revealed that there is a good agreement among datasets in the lower stratosphere and troposphere concerning zonal-mean zonal wind, but less so in the upper stratosphere. Forcing terms of the momentum equation are also relatively similar in the lower atmosphere, but their uncertainties are typically larger than uncertainties of the zonal-wind tendency. Similar to zonal-wind tendency, the agreement among forcing terms is degraded in the upper stratosphere. Discrepancies among reanalyses increase during the onset of SSW events, a period characterized by unusually large fluxes of planetary-scale waves from the troposphere to the stratosphere, and decrease substantially after the onset. While the largest uncertainties in the resolved terms of the momentum budget are found in the Coriolis torque, momentum flux convergence also presents a non-negligible spread among the reanalyses. Such a spread is reduced in the latest reanalysis products, decreasing the uncertainty of the momentum budget. It is also found that the uncertainties in the Coriolis torque depend on the strength of SSW events: the SSW events that exhibit the most intense deceleration of zonal-mean zonal wind are subject to larger discrepancies among reanalyses. These uncertainties in stratospheric circulation, however, are not communicated to the troposphere.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hablani, Hari B.
1993-01-01
This paper has a two-fold objective: determination of yearly momentum accumulation due to solar radiation pressure, and optimum reaction wheel sizing. The first objective is confronted while determining propellant consumption by the attitude control system over a spacecraft's lifetime. This, however, cannot be obtained from the daily momentum accumulation and treating that constant throughout the year, because the orientation of the solar arrays relative to the spacecraft changes over a wide range in a year, particularly if the spacecraft has two arrays, one normal and the other off-normal to different extent at different times to the sun rays. The paper first develops commands for the arrays for tracking the sun, the arrays articulated to earth-pointing spacecraft with two rotational degrees of freedom, and spacecraft in an arbitrary circular orbit. After developing expressions for solar radiation torque due to one or both arrays, arranged symmetrically or asymmetrically relative to the spacecraft bus, momentum accumulation over an orbit and then over a year are determined. The remainder of the paper is concerned with designing reaction wheel configurations. Four-, six-, and three-wheel configurations are considered, and for given torque and momentum requirements, their cant angles with the roll/yaw plane are optimized for minimum power consumption. Finally, their momentum and torque capacities are determined for one-wheel failure scenario, and six configurations are compared and contrasted.
Quantum interference of position and momentum: A particle propagation paradox
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hofmann, Holger F.
2017-08-01
Optimal simultaneous control of position and momentum can be achieved by maximizing the probabilities of finding their experimentally observed values within two well-defined intervals. The assumption that particles move along straight lines in free space can then be tested by deriving a lower limit for the probability of finding the particle in a corresponding spatial interval at any intermediate time t . Here, it is shown that this lower limit can be violated by quantum superpositions of states confined within the respective position and momentum intervals. These violations of the particle propagation inequality show that quantum mechanics changes the laws of motion at a fundamental level, providing a different perspective on causality relations and time evolution in quantum mechanics.
Chen, Yunjie; Roux, Benoît
2014-09-21
Hybrid schemes combining the strength of molecular dynamics (MD) and Metropolis Monte Carlo (MC) offer a promising avenue to improve the sampling efficiency of computer simulations of complex systems. A number of recently proposed hybrid methods consider new configurations generated by driving the system via a non-equilibrium MD (neMD) trajectory, which are subsequently treated as putative candidates for Metropolis MC acceptance or rejection. To obey microscopic detailed balance, it is necessary to alter the momentum of the system at the beginning and/or the end of the neMD trajectory. This strict rule then guarantees that the random walk in configurational space generated by such hybrid neMD-MC algorithm will yield the proper equilibrium Boltzmann distribution. While a number of different constructs are possible, the most commonly used prescription has been to simply reverse the momenta of all the particles at the end of the neMD trajectory ("one-end momentum reversal"). Surprisingly, it is shown here that the choice of momentum reversal prescription can have a considerable effect on the rate of convergence of the hybrid neMD-MC algorithm, with the simple one-end momentum reversal encountering particularly acute problems. In these neMD-MC simulations, different regions of configurational space end up being essentially isolated from one another due to a very small transition rate between regions. In the worst-case scenario, it is almost as if the configurational space does not constitute a single communicating class that can be sampled efficiently by the algorithm, and extremely long neMD-MC simulations are needed to obtain proper equilibrium probability distributions. To address this issue, a novel momentum reversal prescription, symmetrized with respect to both the beginning and the end of the neMD trajectory ("symmetric two-ends momentum reversal"), is introduced. Illustrative simulations demonstrate that the hybrid neMD-MC algorithm robustly yields a correct
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Yunjie; Roux, Benoît
2014-09-01
Hybrid schemes combining the strength of molecular dynamics (MD) and Metropolis Monte Carlo (MC) offer a promising avenue to improve the sampling efficiency of computer simulations of complex systems. A number of recently proposed hybrid methods consider new configurations generated by driving the system via a non-equilibrium MD (neMD) trajectory, which are subsequently treated as putative candidates for Metropolis MC acceptance or rejection. To obey microscopic detailed balance, it is necessary to alter the momentum of the system at the beginning and/or the end of the neMD trajectory. This strict rule then guarantees that the random walk in configurational space generated by such hybrid neMD-MC algorithm will yield the proper equilibrium Boltzmann distribution. While a number of different constructs are possible, the most commonly used prescription has been to simply reverse the momenta of all the particles at the end of the neMD trajectory ("one-end momentum reversal"). Surprisingly, it is shown here that the choice of momentum reversal prescription can have a considerable effect on the rate of convergence of the hybrid neMD-MC algorithm, with the simple one-end momentum reversal encountering particularly acute problems. In these neMD-MC simulations, different regions of configurational space end up being essentially isolated from one another due to a very small transition rate between regions. In the worst-case scenario, it is almost as if the configurational space does not constitute a single communicating class that can be sampled efficiently by the algorithm, and extremely long neMD-MC simulations are needed to obtain proper equilibrium probability distributions. To address this issue, a novel momentum reversal prescription, symmetrized with respect to both the beginning and the end of the neMD trajectory ("symmetric two-ends momentum reversal"), is introduced. Illustrative simulations demonstrate that the hybrid neMD-MC algorithm robustly yields a correct
Mesospheric gravity wave momentum flux estimation using hybrid Doppler interferometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Spargo, Andrew J.; Reid, Iain M.; MacKinnon, Andrew D.; Holdsworth, David A.
2017-06-01
Mesospheric gravity wave (GW) momentum flux estimates using data from multibeam Buckland Park MF radar (34.6° S, 138.5° E) experiments (conducted from July 1997 to June 1998) are presented. On transmission, five Doppler beams were symmetrically steered about the zenith (one zenith beam and four off-zenith beams in the cardinal directions). The received beams were analysed with hybrid Doppler interferometry (HDI) (Holdsworth and Reid, 1998), principally to determine the radial velocities of the effective scattering centres illuminated by the radar. The methodology of Thorsen et al. (1997), later re-introduced by Hocking (2005) and since extensively applied to meteor radar returns, was used to estimate components of Reynolds stress due to propagating GWs and/or turbulence in the radar resolution volume. Physically reasonable momentum flux estimates are derived from the Reynolds stress components, which are also verified using a simple radar model incorporating GW-induced wind perturbations. On the basis of these results, we recommend the intercomparison of momentum flux estimates between co-located meteor radars and vertical-beam interferometric MF radars. It is envisaged that such intercomparisons will assist with the clarification of recent concerns (e.g. Vincent et al., 2010) of the accuracy of the meteor radar technique.
Virtuality and transverse momentum dependence of the pion distribution amplitude
Radyushkin, Anatoly V.
2016-03-08
We describe basics of a new approach to transverse momentum dependence in hard exclusive processes. We develop it in application to the transition process γ*γ → π 0 at the handbag level. Our starting point is coordinate representation for matrix elements of operators (in the simplest case, bilocal O (0,z)) describing a hadron with momentum p. Treated as functions of (pz) and z 2, they are parametrized through virtuality distribution amplitudes (VDA) Φ(x,σ), with x being Fourier-conjugate to (pz) and σ Laplace-conjugate to z 2. For intervals with z + = 0, we introduce the transverse momentum distribution amplitude (TMDA)more » ψ(x, k), and write it in terms of VDA Φ(x,σ). The results of covariant calculations, written in terms of Φ(x, σ) are converted into expressions involving ψ(x, k). Starting with scalar toy models, we extend the analysis onto the case of spin-1/2 quarks and QCD. We propose simple models for soft VDAs/TMDAs, and use them for comparison of handbag results with experimental (BaBar and BELLE) data on the pion transition form factor. Furthermore, we discuss how one can generate high-k tails from primordial soft distributions.« less
RADIUS-DEPENDENT ANGULAR MOMENTUM EVOLUTION IN LOW-MASS STARS. I
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Reiners, Ansgar; Mohanty, Subhanjoy, E-mail: Ansgar.Reiners@phys.uni-goettingen.de
2012-02-10
Angular momentum evolution in low-mass stars is determined by initial conditions during star formation, stellar structure evolution, and the behavior of stellar magnetic fields. Here we show that the empirical picture of angular momentum evolution arises naturally if rotation is related to magnetic field strength instead of to magnetic flux and formulate a corrected braking law based on this. Angular momentum evolution then becomes a strong function of stellar radius, explaining the main trends observed in open clusters and field stars at a few Gyr: the steep transition in rotation at the boundary to full convection arises primarily from themore » large change in radius across this boundary and does not require changes in dynamo mode or field topology. Additionally, the data suggest transient core-envelope decoupling among solar-type stars and field saturation at longer periods in very low mass stars. For solar-type stars, our model is also in good agreement with the empirical Skumanich law. Finally, in further support of the theory, we show that the predicted age at which low-mass stars spin down from the saturated to unsaturated field regimes in our model corresponds remarkably well to the observed lifetime of magnetic activity in these stars.« less
Creating optical near-field orbital angular momentum in a gold metasurface.
Chen, Ching-Fu; Ku, Chen-Ta; Tai, Yi-Hsin; Wei, Pei-Kuen; Lin, Heh-Nan; Huang, Chen-Bin
2015-04-08
Nanocavities inscribed in a gold thin film are optimized and designed to form a metasurface. We demonstrate both numerically and experimentally the creation of surface plasmon (SP) vortex carrying orbital angular momentum in the metasurface under linearly polarized optical excitation that carries no optical angular momentum. Moreover, depending on the orientation of the exciting linearly polarized light, we show that the metasurface is capable of providing dynamic switching between SP vortex formation or SP subwavelength focusing. The resulting SP intensities are experimentally measured using a near-field scanning optical microscope and are found in excellent quantitative agreements as compared to the numerical results.
Orbital angular momentum (OAM) spectrum correction in free space optical communication.
Liu, Yi-Dong; Gao, Chunqing; Qi, Xiaoqing; Weber, Horst
2008-05-12
Orbital angular momentum (OAM) of laser beams has potential application in free space optical communication, but it is sensitive against pointing instabilities of the beam, i.e. shift (lateral displacement) and tilt (deflection of the beam). This work proposes a method to correct the distorted OAM spectrum by using the mean square value of the orbital angular momentum as an indicator. Qualitative analysis is given, and the numerical simulation is carried out for demonstration. The results show that the mean square value can be used to determine the beam axis of the superimposed helical beams. The initial OAM spectrum can be recovered.
Solving the Quantum Many-Body Problem via Correlations Measured with a Momentum Microscope
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hodgman, S. S.; Khakimov, R. I.; Lewis-Swan, R. J.; Truscott, A. G.; Kheruntsyan, K. V.
2017-06-01
In quantum many-body theory, all physical observables are described in terms of correlation functions between particle creation or annihilation operators. Measurement of such correlation functions can therefore be regarded as an operational solution to the quantum many-body problem. Here, we demonstrate this paradigm by measuring multiparticle momentum correlations up to third order between ultracold helium atoms in an s -wave scattering halo of colliding Bose-Einstein condensates, using a quantum many-body momentum microscope. Our measurements allow us to extract a key building block of all higher-order correlations in this system—the pairing field amplitude. In addition, we demonstrate a record violation of the classical Cauchy-Schwarz inequality for correlated atom pairs and triples. Measuring multiparticle momentum correlations could provide new insights into effects such as unconventional superconductivity and many-body localization.
Final Report for the Center for Momentum Transport and Flow Organization (CMTFO)
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Tynan, George R.
The Center for Momentum Transport and Flow Organization (CMTFO) was established in 2009 as a multi-institutional U.S. DOE Plasma Science Center, with a focus on the fundamental physics mechanisms that lead to the transport of momentum within fusion and astrophysical plasma systems, and the subsequent formation of ordered behavior in such systems. It was funded in two tranches; this report covers the activities supported by the second period of funding which ran from May 2012 through May 2016.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Ambrogi, F.; Asilar, E.; Bergauer, T.; Brandstetter, J.; Brondolin, E.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Escalante Del Valle, A.; Flechl, M.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Grossmann, J.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; König, A.; Krammer, N.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Madlener, T.; Mikulec, I.; Pree, E.; Rad, N.; Rohringer, H.; Schieck, J.; Schöfbeck, R.; Spanring, M.; Spitzbart, D.; Taurok, A.; Waltenberger, W.; Wittmann, J.; Wulz, C.-E.; Zarucki, M.; Chekhovsky, V.; Mossolov, V.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; De Wolf, E. A.; Di Croce, D.; Janssen, X.; Lauwers, J.; Pieters, M.; Van De Klundert, M.; Van Haevermaet, H.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Abu Zeid, S.; Blekman, F.; D'Hondt, J.; De Bruyn, I.; De Clercq, J.; Deroover, K.; Flouris, G.; Lontkovskyi, D.; Lowette, S.; Marchesini, I.; Moortgat, S.; Moreels, L.; Python, Q.; Skovpen, K.; Tavernier, S.; Van Doninck, W.; Van Mulders, P.; Van Parijs, I.; Beghin, D.; Bilin, B.; Brun, H.; Clerbaux, B.; De Lentdecker, G.; Delannoy, H.; Dorney, B.; Fasanella, G.; Favart, L.; Goldouzian, R.; Grebenyuk, A.; Kalsi, A. K.; Lenzi, T.; Luetic, J.; Seva, T.; Starling, E.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Vannerom, D.; Yonamine, R.; Cornelis, T.; Dobur, D.; Fagot, A.; Gul, M.; Khvastunov, I.; Poyraz, D.; Roskas, C.; Trocino, D.; Tytgat, M.; Verbeke, W.; Vit, M.; Zaganidis, N.; Bakhshiansohi, H.; Bondu, O.; Brochet, S.; Bruno, G.; Caputo, C.; Caudron, A.; David, P.; De Visscher, S.; Delaere, C.; Delcourt, M.; Francois, B.; Giammanco, A.; Krintiras, G.; Lemaitre, V.; Magitteri, A.; Mertens, A.; Musich, M.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Quertenmont, L.; Saggio, A.; Vidal Marono, M.; Wertz, S.; Zobec, J.; Aldá Júnior, W. L.; Alves, F. L.; Alves, G. A.; Brito, L.; Correia Silva, G.; Hensel, C.; Moraes, A.; Pol, M. E.; Rebello Teles, P.; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, E.; Carvalho, W.; Chinellato, J.; Coelho, E.; Da Costa, E. M.; Da Silveira, G. G.; De Jesus Damiao, D.; Fonseca De Souza, S.; Huertas Guativa, L. M.; Malbouisson, H.; Medina Jaime, M.; Melo De Almeida, M.; Mora Herrera, C.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Sanchez Rosas, L. J.; Santoro, A.; Sznajder, A.; Thiel, M.; Tonelli Manganote, E. J.; Torres Da Silva De Araujo, F.; Vilela Pereira, A.; Ahuja, S.; Bernardes, C. A.; Tomei, T. R. Fernandez Perez; Gregores, E. M.; Mercadante, P. G.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Romero Abad, D.; Ruiz Vargas, J. C.; Aleksandrov, A.; Hadjiiska, R.; Iaydjiev, P.; Marinov, A.; Misheva, M.; Rodozov, M.; Shopova, M.; Sultanov, G.; Dimitrov, A.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Fang, W.; Gao, X.; Yuan, L.; Ahmad, M.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, M.; Chen, Y.; Jiang, C. H.; Leggat, D.; Liao, H.; Liu, Z.; Romeo, F.; Shaheen, S. M.; Spiezia, A.; Tao, J.; Wang, C.; Wang, Z.; Yazgan, E.; Zhang, H.; Zhao, J.; Ban, Y.; Chen, G.; Li, J.; Li, Q.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Wang, D.; Xu, Z.; Wang, Y.; Avila, C.; Cabrera, A.; Carrillo Montoya, C. A.; Chaparro Sierra, L. F.; Florez, C.; González Hernández, C. F.; Ruiz Alvarez, J. D.; Segura Delgado, M. A.; Courbon, B.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Puljak, I.; Ribeiro Cipriano, P. M.; Sculac, T.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Ferencek, D.; Kadija, K.; Mesic, B.; Starodumov, A.; Susa, T.; Ather, M. W.; Attikis, A.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Rykaczewski, H.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Carrera Jarrin, E.; Abdelalim, A. A.; Elgammal, S.; Khalil, S.; Bhowmik, S.; Dewanjee, R. K.; Kadastik, M.; Perrini, L.; Raidal, M.; Veelken, C.; Eerola, P.; Kirschenmann, H.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Havukainen, J.; Heikkilä, J. K.; Järvinen, T.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Laurila, S.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Siikonen, H.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Couderc, F.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Faure, J. L.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Ghosh, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Leloup, C.; Locci, E.; Machet, M.; Malcles, J.; Negro, G.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Sahin, M. Ö.; Titov, M.; Abdulsalam, A.; Amendola, C.; Antropov, I.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Busson, P.; Cadamuro, L.; Charlot, C.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Jo, M.; Kucher, I.; Lisniak, S.; Lobanov, A.; Martin Blanco, J.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Ortona, G.; Paganini, P.; Pigard, P.; Salerno, R.; Sauvan, J. B.; Sirois, Y.; Stahl Leiton, A. G.; Yilmaz, Y.; Zabi, A.; Zghiche, A.; Agram, J.-L.; Andrea, J.; Bloch, D.; Brom, J.-M.; Buttignol, M.; Chabert, E. 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S.; Lee, J.; Lee, S.; Lee, S. W.; Moon, C. S.; Oh, Y. D.; Sekmen, S.; Son, D. C.; Yang, Y. C.; Kim, H.; Moon, D. H.; Oh, G.; Brochero Cifuentes, J. A.; Goh, J.; Kim, T. J.; Cho, S.; Choi, S.; Go, Y.; Gyun, D.; Ha, S.; Hong, B.; Jo, Y.; Kim, Y.; Lee, K.; Lee, K. S.; Lee, S.; Lim, J.; Park, S. K.; Roh, Y.; Almond, J.; Kim, J.; Kim, J. S.; Lee, H.; Lee, K.; Nam, K.; Oh, S. B.; Radburn-Smith, B. C.; Seo, S. h.; Yang, U. K.; Yoo, H. D.; Yu, G. B.; Kim, H.; Kim, J. H.; Lee, J. S. H.; Park, I. C.; Choi, Y.; Hwang, C.; Lee, J.; Yu, I.; Dudenas, V.; Juodagalvis, A.; Vaitkus, J.; Ahmed, I.; Ibrahim, Z. A.; Md Ali, M. A. B.; Mohamad Idris, F.; Wan Abdullah, W. A. T.; Yusli, M. N.; Zolkapli, Z.; Reyes-Almanza, R.; Ramirez-Sanchez, G.; Duran-Osuna, M. C.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; De La Cruz-Burelo, E.; Heredia-De La Cruz, I.; Rabadan-Trejo, R. 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V.; Terkulov, A.; Baskakov, A.; Belyaev, A.; Boos, E.; Bunichev, V.; Dubinin, M.; Dudko, L.; Ershov, A.; Gribushin, A.; Klyukhin, V.; Kodolova, O.; Lokhtin, I.; Miagkov, I.; Obraztsov, S.; Petrushanko, S.; Savrin, V.; Blinov, V.; Shtol, D.; Skovpen, Y.; Azhgirey, I.; Bayshev, I.; Bitioukov, S.; Elumakhov, D.; Godizov, A.; Kachanov, V.; Kalinin, A.; Konstantinov, D.; Mandrik, P.; Petrov, V.; Ryutin, R.; Sobol, A.; Troshin, S.; Tyurin, N.; Uzunian, A.; Volkov, A.; Babaev, A.; Adzic, P.; Cirkovic, P.; Devetak, D.; Dordevic, M.; Milosevic, J.; Alcaraz Maestre, J.; Bachiller, I.; Barrio Luna, M.; Cerrada, M.; Colino, N.; De La Cruz, B.; Delgado Peris, A.; Fernandez Bedoya, C.; Fernández Ramos, J. P.; Flix, J.; Fouz, M. C.; Gonzalez Lopez, O.; Goy Lopez, S.; Hernandez, J. M.; Josa, M. I.; Moran, D.; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A.; Puerta Pelayo, J.; Redondo, I.; Romero, L.; Soares, M. S.; Triossi, A.; Álvarez Fernández, A.; Albajar, C.; de Trocóniz, J. 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M.; Rabady, D.; Racz, A.; Reis, T.; Rolandi, G.; Rovere, M.; Sakulin, H.; Schäfer, C.; Schwick, C.; Seidel, M.; Selvaggi, M.; Sharma, A.; Silva, P.; Sphicas, P.; Stakia, A.; Steggemann, J.; Stoye, M.; Tosi, M.; Treille, D.; Tsirou, A.; Veckalns, V.; Verweij, M.; Zeuner, W. D.; Bertl, W.; Caminada, L.; Deiters, K.; Erdmann, W.; Horisberger, R.; Ingram, Q.; Kaestli, H. C.; Kotlinski, D.; Langenegger, U.; Rohe, T.; Wiederkehr, S. A.; Backhaus, M.; Bäni, L.; Berger, P.; Casal, B.; Dissertori, G.; Dittmar, M.; Donegà, M.; Dorfer, C.; Grab, C.; Heidegger, C.; Hits, D.; Hoss, J.; Klijnsma, T.; Lustermann, W.; Marionneau, M.; Meinhard, M. T.; Meister, D.; Micheli, F.; Musella, P.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Pata, J.; Pauss, F.; Perrin, G.; Perrozzi, L.; Quittnat, M.; Reichmann, M.; Sanz Becerra, D. A.; Schönenberger, M.; Shchutska, L.; Tavolaro, V. R.; Theofilatos, K.; Vesterbacka Olsson, M. L.; Wallny, R.; Zhu, D. H.; Aarrestad, T. K.; Amsler, C.; Brzhechko, D.; Canelli, M. F.; De Cosa, A.; Del Burgo, R.; Donato, S.; Galloni, C.; Hreus, T.; Kilminster, B.; Neutelings, I.; Pinna, D.; Rauco, G.; Robmann, P.; Salerno, D.; Schweiger, K.; Seitz, C.; Takahashi, Y.; Zucchetta, A.; Candelise, V.; Chang, Y. H.; Cheng, K. y.; Doan, T. H.; Jain, Sh.; Khurana, R.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W.; Pozdnyakov, A.; Yu, S. S.; Kumar, Arun; Chang, P.; Chao, Y.; Chen, K. F.; Chen, P. H.; Fiori, F.; Hou, W.-S.; Hsiung, Y.; Liu, Y. F.; Lu, R.-S.; Paganis, E.; Psallidas, A.; Steen, A.; Tsai, J. f.; Asavapibhop, B.; Kovitanggoon, K.; Singh, G.; Srimanobhas, N.; Bat, A.; Boran, F.; Cerci, S.; Damarseckin, S.; Demiroglu, Z. S.; Dozen, C.; Dumanoglu, I.; Girgis, S.; Gokbulut, G.; Guler, Y.; Hos, I.; Kangal, E. E.; Kara, O.; Kayis Topaksu, A.; Kiminsu, U.; Oglakci, M.; Onengut, G.; Ozdemir, K.; Sunar Cerci, D.; Tali, B.; Tok, U. G.; Turkcapar, S.; Zorbakir, I. S.; Zorbilmez, C.; Karapinar, G.; Ocalan, K.; Yalvac, M.; Zeyrek, M.; Gülmez, E.; Kaya, M.; Kaya, O.; Tekten, S.; Yetkin, E. A.; Agaras, M. N.; Atay, S.; Cakir, A.; Cankocak, K.; Komurcu, Y.; Grynyov, B.; Levchuk, L.; Ball, F.; Beck, L.; Brooke, J. J.; Burns, D.; Clement, E.; Cussans, D.; Davignon, O.; Flacher, H.; Goldstein, J.; Heath, G. P.; Heath, H. F.; Kreczko, L.; Newbold, D. M.; Paramesvaran, S.; Sakuma, T.; Seif El Nasr-storey, S.; Smith, D.; Smith, V. J.; Bell, K. W.; Belyaev, A.; Brew, C.; Brown, R. M.; Calligaris, L.; Cieri, D.; Cockerill, D. J. A.; Coughlan, J. A.; Harder, K.; Harper, S.; Linacre, J.; Olaiya, E.; Petyt, D.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C. H.; Thea, A.; Tomalin, I. R.; Williams, T.; Womersley, W. J.; Auzinger, G.; Bainbridge, R.; Bloch, P.; Borg, J.; Breeze, S.; Buchmuller, O.; Bundock, A.; Casasso, S.; Colling, D.; Corpe, L.; Dauncey, P.; Davies, G.; Della Negra, M.; Di Maria, R.; Elwood, A.; Haddad, Y.; Hall, G.; Iles, G.; James, T.; Komm, M.; Lane, R.; Laner, C.; Lyons, L.; Magnan, A.-M.; Malik, S.; Mastrolorenzo, L.; Matsushita, T.; Nash, J.; Nikitenko, A.; Palladino, V.; Pesaresi, M.; Richards, A.; Rose, A.; Scott, E.; Seez, C.; Shtipliyski, A.; Strebler, T.; Summers, S.; Tapper, A.; Uchida, K.; Vazquez Acosta, M.; Virdee, T.; Wardle, N.; Winterbottom, D.; Wright, J.; Zenz, S. C.; Cole, J. E.; Hobson, P. R.; Khan, A.; Kyberd, P.; Morton, A.; Reid, I. D.; Teodorescu, L.; Zahid, S.; Borzou, A.; Call, K.; Dittmann, J.; Hatakeyama, K.; Liu, H.; Pastika, N.; Smith, C.; Bartek, R.; Dominguez, A.; Buccilli, A.; Cooper, S. I.; Henderson, C.; Rumerio, P.; West, C.; Arcaro, D.; Avetisyan, A.; Bose, T.; Gastler, D.; Rankin, D.; Richardson, C.; Rohlf, J.; Sulak, L.; Zou, D.; Benelli, G.; Cutts, D.; Hadley, M.; Hakala, J.; Heintz, U.; Hogan, J. M.; Kwok, K. H. M.; Laird, E.; Landsberg, G.; Lee, J.; Mao, Z.; Narain, M.; Pazzini, J.; Piperov, S.; Sagir, S.; Syarif, R.; Yu, D.; Band, R.; Brainerd, C.; Breedon, R.; Burns, D.; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, M.; Chertok, M.; Conway, J.; Conway, R.; Cox, P. T.; Erbacher, R.; Flores, C.; Funk, G.; Ko, W.; Lander, R.; Mclean, C.; Mulhearn, M.; Pellett, D.; Pilot, J.; Shalhout, S.; Shi, M.; Smith, J.; Stolp, D.; Taylor, D.; Tos, K.; Tripathi, M.; Wang, Z.; Zhang, F.; Bachtis, M.; Bravo, C.; Cousins, R.; Dasgupta, A.; Florent, A.; Hauser, J.; Ignatenko, M.; Mccoll, N.; Regnard, S.; Saltzberg, D.; Schnaible, C.; Valuev, V.; Bouvier, E.; Burt, K.; Clare, R.; Ellison, J.; Gary, J. W.; Ghiasi Shirazi, S. M. A.; Hanson, G.; Karapostoli, G.; Kennedy, E.; Lacroix, F.; Long, O. R.; Olmedo Negrete, M.; Paneva, M. I.; Si, W.; Wang, L.; Wei, H.; Wimpenny, S.; Yates, B. R.; Branson, J. G.; Cittolin, S.; Derdzinski, M.; Gerosa, R.; Gilbert, D.; Hashemi, B.; Holzner, A.; Klein, D.; Kole, G.; Krutelyov, V.; Letts, J.; Masciovecchio, M.; Olivito, D.; Padhi, S.; Pieri, M.; Sani, M.; Sharma, V.; Simon, S.; Tadel, M.; Vartak, A.; Wasserbaech, S.; Wood, J.; Würthwein, F.; Yagil, A.; Zevi Della Porta, G.; Amin, N.; Bhandari, R.; Bradmiller-Feld, J.; Campagnari, C.; Citron, M.; Dishaw, A.; Dutta, V.; Franco Sevilla, M.; Gouskos, L.; Heller, R.; Incandela, J.; Ovcharova, A.; Qu, H.; Richman, J.; Stuart, D.; Suarez, I.; Yoo, J.; Anderson, D.; Bornheim, A.; Bunn, J.; Lawhorn, J. M.; Newman, H. B.; Nguyen, T. Q.; Pena, C.; Spiropulu, M.; Vlimant, J. R.; Wilkinson, R.; Xie, S.; Zhang, Z.; Zhu, R. Y.; Andrews, M. B.; Ferguson, T.; Mudholkar, T.; Paulini, M.; Russ, J.; Sun, M.; Vogel, H.; Vorobiev, I.; Weinberg, M.; Cumalat, J. P.; Ford, W. T.; Jensen, F.; Johnson, A.; Krohn, M.; Leontsinis, S.; Macdonald, E.; Mulholland, T.; Stenson, K.; Ulmer, K. A.; Wagner, S. R.; Alexander, J.; Chaves, J.; Cheng, Y.; Chu, J.; Datta, A.; Mcdermott, K.; Mirman, N.; Patterson, J. R.; Quach, D.; Rinkevicius, A.; Ryd, A.; Skinnari, L.; Soffi, L.; Tan, S. M.; Tao, Z.; Thom, J.; Tucker, J.; Wittich, P.; Zientek, M.; Abdullin, S.; Albrow, M.; Alyari, M.; Apollinari, G.; Apresyan, A.; Apyan, A.; Banerjee, S.; Bauerdick, L. A. T.; Beretvas, A.; Berryhill, J.; Bhat, P. C.; Bolla, G.; Burkett, K.; Butler, J. N.; Canepa, A.; Cerati, G. B.; Cheung, H. W. K.; Chlebana, F.; Cremonesi, M.; Duarte, J.; Elvira, V. D.; Freeman, J.; Gecse, Z.; Gottschalk, E.; Gray, L.; Green, D.; Grünendahl, S.; Gutsche, O.; Hanlon, J.; Harris, R. M.; Hasegawa, S.; Hirschauer, J.; Hu, Z.; Jayatilaka, B.; Jindariani, S.; Johnson, M.; Joshi, U.; Klima, B.; Kortelainen, M. J.; Kreis, B.; Lammel, S.; Lincoln, D.; Lipton, R.; Liu, M.; Liu, T.; Lopes De Sá, R.; Lykken, J.; Maeshima, K.; Magini, N.; Marraffino, J. M.; Mason, D.; McBride, P.; Merkel, P.; Mrenna, S.; Nahn, S.; O'Dell, V.; Pedro, K.; Prokofyev, O.; Rakness, G.; Ristori, L.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Schneider, B.; Sexton-Kennedy, E.; Soha, A.; Spalding, W. J.; Spiegel, L.; Stoynev, S.; Strait, J.; Strobbe, N.; Taylor, L.; Tkaczyk, S.; Tran, N. V.; Uplegger, L.; Vaandering, E. W.; Vernieri, C.; Verzocchi, M.; Vidal, R.; Wang, M.; Weber, H. A.; Whitbeck, A.; Wu, W.; Acosta, D.; Avery, P.; Bortignon, P.; Bourilkov, D.; Brinkerhoff, A.; Carnes, A.; Carver, M.; Curry, D.; Field, R. D.; Furic, I. K.; Gleyzer, S. V.; Joshi, B. M.; Konigsberg, J.; Korytov, A.; Kotov, K.; Ma, P.; Matchev, K.; Mei, H.; Mitselmakher, G.; Shi, K.; Sperka, D.; Terentyev, N.; Thomas, L.; Wang, J.; Wang, S.; Yelton, J.; Joshi, Y. R.; Linn, S.; Markowitz, P.; Rodriguez, J. L.; Ackert, A.; Adams, T.; Askew, A.; Hagopian, S.; Hagopian, V.; Johnson, K. F.; Kolberg, T.; Martinez, G.; Perry, T.; Prosper, H.; Saha, A.; Santra, A.; Sharma, V.; Yohay, R.; Baarmand, M. M.; Bhopatkar, V.; Colafranceschi, S.; Hohlmann, M.; Noonan, D.; Roy, T.; Yumiceva, F.; Adams, M. R.; Apanasevich, L.; Berry, D.; Betts, R. R.; Cavanaugh, R.; Chen, X.; Dittmer, S.; Evdokimov, O.; Gerber, C. E.; Hangal, D. A.; Hofman, D. J.; Jung, K.; Kamin, J.; Sandoval Gonzalez, I. D.; Tonjes, M. B.; Varelas, N.; Wang, H.; Wu, Z.; Zhang, J.; Bilki, B.; Clarida, W.; Dilsiz, K.; Durgut, S.; Gandrajula, R. P.; Haytmyradov, M.; Khristenko, V.; Merlo, J.-P.; Mermerkaya, H.; Mestvirishvili, A.; Moeller, A.; Nachtman, J.; Ogul, H.; Onel, Y.; Ozok, F.; Penzo, A.; Snyder, C.; Tiras, E.; Wetzel, J.; Yi, K.; Blumenfeld, B.; Cocoros, A.; Eminizer, N.; Fehling, D.; Feng, L.; Gritsan, A. V.; Maksimovic, P.; Roskes, J.; Sarica, U.; Swartz, M.; Xiao, M.; You, C.; Al-bataineh, A.; Baringer, P.; Bean, A.; Boren, S.; Bowen, J.; Castle, J.; Khalil, S.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Majumder, D.; Mcbrayer, W.; Murray, M.; Rogan, C.; Royon, C.; Sanders, S.; Schmitz, E.; Tapia Takaki, J. D.; Wang, Q.; Ivanov, A.; Kaadze, K.; Maravin, Y.; Modak, A.; Mohammadi, A.; Saini, L. K.; Skhirtladze, N.; Rebassoo, F.; Wright, D.; Baden, A.; Baron, O.; Belloni, A.; Eno, S. C.; Feng, Y.; Ferraioli, C.; Hadley, N. J.; Jabeen, S.; Jeng, G. Y.; Kellogg, R. G.; Kunkle, J.; Mignerey, A. C.; Ricci-Tam, F.; Shin, Y. H.; Skuja, A.; Tonwar, S. C.; Abercrombie, D.; Allen, B.; Azzolini, V.; Barbieri, R.; Baty, A.; Bauer, G.; Bi, R.; Brandt, S.; Busza, W.; Cali, I. A.; D'Alfonso, M.; Demiragli, Z.; Gomez Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; Harris, P.; Hsu, D.; Hu, M.; Iiyama, Y.; Innocenti, G. M.; Klute, M.; Kovalskyi, D.; Lee, Y.-J.; Levin, A.; Luckey, P. D.; Maier, B.; Marini, A. C.; Mcginn, C.; Mironov, C.; Narayanan, S.; Niu, X.; Paus, C.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Sumorok, K.; Tatar, K.; Velicanu, D.; Wang, J.; Wang, T. W.; Wyslouch, B.; Zhaozhong, S.; Benvenuti, A. C.; Chatterjee, R. M.; Evans, A.; Hansen, P.; Kalafut, S.; Kubota, Y.; Lesko, Z.; Mans, J.; Nourbakhsh, S.; Ruckstuhl, N.; Rusack, R.; Turkewitz, J.; Wadud, M. A.; Acosta, J. G.; Oliveros, S.; Avdeeva, E.; Bloom, K.; Claes, D. R.; Fangmeier, C.; Golf, F.; Gonzalez Suarez, R.; Kamalieddin, R.; Kravchenko, I.; Monroy, J.; Siado, J. E.; Snow, G. R.; Stieger, B.; Dolen, J.; Godshalk, A.; Harrington, C.; Iashvili, I.; Nguyen, D.; Parker, A.; Rappoccio, S.; Roozbahani, B.; Alverson, G.; Barberis, E.; Freer, C.; Hortiangtham, A.; Massironi, A.; Morse, D. M.; Orimoto, T.; Teixeira De Lima, R.; Wamorkar, T.; Wang, B.; Wisecarver, A.; Wood, D.; Bhattacharya, S.; Charaf, O.; Hahn, K. A.; Mucia, N.; Odell, N.; Schmitt, M. H.; Sung, K.; Trovato, M.; Velasco, M.; Bucci, R.; Dev, N.; Hildreth, M.; Hurtado Anampa, K.; Jessop, C.; Karmgard, D. J.; Kellams, N.; Lannon, K.; Li, W.; Loukas, N.; Marinelli, N.; Meng, F.; Mueller, C.; Musienko, Y.; Planer, M.; Reinsvold, A.; Ruchti, R.; Siddireddy, P.; Smith, G.; Taroni, S.; Wayne, M.; Wightman, A.; Wolf, M.; Woodard, A.; Alimena, J.; Antonelli, L.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L. S.; Flowers, S.; Francis, B.; Hart, A.; Hill, C.; Ji, W.; Ling, T. Y.; Luo, W.; Winer, B. L.; Wulsin, H. W.; Cooperstein, S.; Driga, O.; Elmer, P.; Hardenbrook, J.; Hebda, P.; Higginbotham, S.; Kalogeropoulos, A.; Lange, D.; Luo, J.; Marlow, D.; Mei, K.; Ojalvo, I.; Olsen, J.; Palmer, C.; Piroué, P.; Salfeld-Nebgen, J.; Stickland, D.; Tully, C.; Malik, S.; Norberg, S.; Barker, A.; Barnes, V. E.; Das, S.; Gutay, L.; Jones, M.; Jung, A. W.; Khatiwada, A.; Miller, D. H.; Neumeister, N.; Peng, C. C.; Qiu, H.; Schulte, J. F.; Sun, J.; Wang, F.; Xiao, R.; Xie, W.; Cheng, T.; Parashar, N.; Chen, Z.; Ecklund, K. M.; Freed, S.; Geurts, F. J. M.; Guilbaud, M.; Kilpatrick, M.; Li, W.; Michlin, B.; Padley, B. P.; Roberts, J.; Rorie, J.; Shi, W.; Tu, Z.; Zabel, J.; Zhang, A.; Bodek, A.; de Barbaro, P.; Demina, R.; Duh, Y. t.; Ferbel, T.; Galanti, M.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Han, J.; Hindrichs, O.; Khukhunaishvili, A.; Lo, K. H.; Tan, P.; Verzetti, M.; Ciesielski, R.; Goulianos, K.; Mesropian, C.; Agapitos, A.; Chou, J. P.; Gershtein, Y.; Gómez Espinosa, T. A.; Halkiadakis, E.; Heindl, M.; Hughes, E.; Kaplan, S.; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, R.; Kyriacou, S.; Lath, A.; Montalvo, R.; Nash, K.; Osherson, M.; Saka, H.; Salur, S.; Schnetzer, S.; Sheffield, D.; Somalwar, S.; Stone, R.; Thomas, S.; Thomassen, P.; Walker, M.; Delannoy, A. G.; Heideman, J.; Riley, G.; Rose, K.; Spanier, S.; Thapa, K.; Bouhali, O.; Castaneda Hernandez, A.; Celik, A.; Dalchenko, M.; De Mattia, M.; Delgado, A.; Dildick, S.; Eusebi, R.; Gilmore, J.; Huang, T.; Kamon, T.; Mueller, R.; Pakhotin, Y.; Patel, R.; Perloff, A.; Perniè, L.; Rathjens, D.; Safonov, A.; Tatarinov, A.; Akchurin, N.; Damgov, J.; De Guio, F.; Dudero, P. R.; Faulkner, J.; Gurpinar, E.; Kunori, S.; Lamichhane, K.; Lee, S. W.; Mengke, T.; Muthumuni, S.; Peltola, T.; Undleeb, S.; Volobouev, I.; Wang, Z.; Greene, S.; Gurrola, A.; Janjam, R.; Johns, W.; Maguire, C.; Melo, A.; Ni, H.; Padeken, K.; Sheldon, P.; Tuo, S.; Velkovska, J.; Xu, Q.; Arenton, M. W.; Barria, P.; Cox, B.; Hirosky, R.; Joyce, M.; Ledovskoy, A.; Li, H.; Neu, C.; Sinthuprasith, T.; Wang, Y.; Wolfe, E.; Xia, F.; Harr, R.; Karchin, P. E.; Poudyal, N.; Sturdy, J.; Thapa, P.; Zaleski, S.; Brodski, M.; Buchanan, J.; Caillol, C.; Carlsmith, D.; Dasu, S.; Dodd, L.; Duric, S.; Gomber, B.; Grothe, M.; Herndon, M.; Hervé, A.; Hussain, U.; Klabbers, P.; Lanaro, A.; Levine, A.; Long, K.; Loveless, R.; Rekovic, V.; Ruggles, T.; Savin, A.; Smith, N.; Smith, W. H.; Woods, N.; CMS Collaboration
2018-06-01
A search for physics beyond the standard model in events with one or more high-momentum Higgs bosons, H , decaying to pairs of b quarks in association with missing transverse momentum is presented. The data, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 35.9 fb-1, were collected with the CMS detector at the LHC in proton-proton collisions at the center-of-mass energy √{s }=13 TeV . The analysis utilizes a new b quark tagging technique based on jet substructure to identify jets from H →b b ¯ . Events are categorized by the multiplicity of H -tagged jets, jet mass, and the missing transverse momentum. No significant deviation from standard model expectations is observed. In the context of supersymmetry (SUSY), limits on the cross sections of pair-produced gluinos are set, assuming that gluinos decay to quark pairs, H (or Z ), and the lightest SUSY particle, LSP, through an intermediate next-to-lightest SUSY particle, NLSP. With large mass splitting between the NLSP and LSP, and 100% NLSP branching fraction to H , the lower limit on the gluino mass is found to be 2010 GeV.
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Sirunyan, Albert M; et al.
A search for physics beyond the standard model in events with one or more high-momentum Higgs bosons, H, decaying to pairs of b quarks in association with missing transverse momentum is presented. The data, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 35.9 fbmore » $$^{-1}$$, were collected with the CMS detector at the LHC in proton-proton collisions at the center-of-mass energy $$\\sqrt{s}=$$ 13 TeV. The analysis utilizes a new b quark tagging technique based on jet substructure to identify jets from H$$\\to$$bb. Events are categorized by the multiplicity of H-tagged jets, jet mass, and the missing transverse momentum. No significant deviation from standard model expectations is observed. In the context of supersymmetry (SUSY), limits on the cross sections of pair-produced gluinos are set, assuming that gluinos decay to quark pairs, H (or Z), and the lightest SUSY particle, LSP, through an intermediate next-to-lightest SUSY particle, NLSP. With large mass splitting between the NLSP and LSP, and 100% NLSP branching fraction to H, the lower limit on the gluino mass is found to be 2010 GeV.« less
Transverse momentum-dependent parton distribution functions from lattice QCD
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Michael Engelhardt, Philipp Haegler, Bernhard Musch, John Negele, Andreas Schaefer
Transverse momentum-dependent parton distributions (TMDs) relevant for semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering (SIDIS) and the Drell-Yan process can be defined in terms of matrix elements of a quark bilocal operator containing a staple-shaped Wilson connection. Starting from such a definition, a scheme to determine TMDs in lattice QCD is developed and explored. Parametrizing the aforementioned matrix elements in terms of invariant amplitudes permits a simple transformation of the problem to a Lorentz frame suited for the lattice calculation. Results for the Sivers and Boer-Mulders transverse momentum shifts are obtained using ensembles at the pion masses 369MeV and 518MeV, focusing in particularmore » on the dependence of these shifts on the staple extent and a Collins-Soper-type evolution parameter quantifying proximity of the staples to the light cone.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abratenko, P.; Acciarri, R.; Adams, C.; An, R.; Anthony, J.; Asaadi, J.; Auger, M.; Bagby, L.; Balasubramanian, S.; Baller, B.; Barnes, C.; Barr, G.; Bass, M.; Bay, F.; Bishai, M.; Blake, A.; Bolton, T.; Bugel, L.; Camilleri, L.; Caratelli, D.; Carls, B.; Castillo Fernandez, R.; Cavanna, F.; Chen, H.; Church, E.; Cianci, D.; Cohen, E.; Collin, G. H.; Conrad, J. M.; Convery, M.; Crespo-Anadón, J. I.; Del Tutto, M.; Devitt, D.; Dytman, S.; Eberly, B.; Ereditato, A.; Escudero Sanchez, L.; Esquivel, J.; Fleming, B. T.; Foreman, W.; Furmanski, A. P.; Garcia-Gamez, D.; Garvey, G. T.; Genty, V.; Goeldi, D.; Gollapinni, S.; Graf, N.; Gramellini, E.; Greenlee, H.; Grosso, R.; Guenette, R.; Hackenburg, A.; Hamilton, P.; Hen, O.; Hewes, J.; Hill, C.; Ho, J.; Horton-Smith, G.; Huang, E.-C.; James, C.; de Vries, J. Jan; Jen, C.-M.; Jiang, L.; Johnson, R. A.; Joshi, J.; Jostlein, H.; Kaleko, D.; Kalousis, L. N.; Karagiorgi, G.; Ketchum, W.; Kirby, B.; Kirby, M.; Kobilarcik, T.; Kreslo, I.; Laube, A.; Li, Y.; Lister, A.; Littlejohn, B. R.; Lockwitz, S.; Lorca, D.; Louis, W. C.; Luethi, M.; Lundberg, B.; Luo, X.; Marchionni, A.; Mariani, C.; Marshall, J.; Martinez Caicedo, D. A.; Meddage, V.; Miceli, T.; Mills, G. B.; Moon, J.; Mooney, M.; Moore, C. D.; Mousseau, J.; Murrells, R.; Naples, D.; Nienaber, P.; Nowak, J.; Palamara, O.; Paolone, V.; Papavassiliou, V.; Pate, S. F.; Pavlovic, Z.; Piasetzky, E.; Porzio, D.; Pulliam, G.; Qian, X.; Raaf, J. L.; Rafique, A.; Rochester, L.; von Rohr, C. Rudolf; Russell, B.; Schmitz, D. W.; Schukraft, A.; Seligman, W.; Shaevitz, M. H.; Sinclair, J.; Snider, E. L.; Soderberg, M.; Söldner-Rembold, S.; Soleti, S. R.; Spentzouris, P.; Spitz, J.; St. John, J.; Strauss, T.; Szelc, A. M.; Tagg, N.; Terao, K.; Thomson, M.; Toups, M.; Tsai, Y.-T.; Tufanli, S.; Usher, T.; Van de Water, R. G.; Viren, B.; Weber, M.; Wickremasinghe, D. A.; Wolbers, S.; Wongjirad, T.; Woodruff, K.; Yang, T.; Yates, L.; Zeller, G. P.; Zennamo, J.; Zhang, C.
2017-10-01
We discuss a technique for measuring a charged particle's momentum by means of multiple Coulomb scattering (MCS) in the MicroBooNE liquid argon time projection chamber (LArTPC). This method does not require the full particle ionization track to be contained inside of the detector volume as other track momentum reconstruction methods do (range-based momentum reconstruction and calorimetric momentum reconstruction). We motivate use of this technique, describe a tuning of the underlying phenomenological formula, quantify its performance on fully contained beam-neutrino-induced muon tracks both in simulation and in data, and quantify its performance on exiting muon tracks in simulation. Using simulation, we have shown that the standard Highland formula should be re-tuned specifically for scattering in liquid argon, which significantly improves the bias and resolution of the momentum measurement. With the tuned formula, we find agreement between data and simulation for contained tracks, with a small bias in the momentum reconstruction and with resolutions that vary as a function of track length, improving from about 10% for the shortest (one meter long) tracks to 5% for longer (several meter) tracks. For simulated exiting muons with at least one meter of track contained, we find a similarly small bias, and a resolution which is less than 15% for muons with momentum below 2 GeV/c. Above 2 GeV/c, results are given as a first estimate of the MCS momentum measurement capabilities of MicroBooNE for high momentum exiting tracks.
Orbit-induced localized spin angular momentum in strong focusing of optical vectorial vortex beams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Manman; Cai, Yanan; Yan, Shaohui; Liang, Yansheng; Zhang, Peng; Yao, Baoli
2018-05-01
Light beams may carry optical spin or orbital angular momentum, or both. The spin and orbital parts manifest themselves by the ellipticity of the state of polarization and the vortex structure of phase of light beams, separately. Optical spin and orbit interaction, arising from the interaction between the polarization and the spatial structure of light beams, has attracted enormous interest recently. The optical spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion under strong focusing is well known, while the converse process, orbital-to-spin conversion, has not been reported so far. In this paper, we predict in theory that the orbital angular momentum can induce a localized spin angular momentum in strong focusing of a spin-free azimuthal polarization vortex beam. This localized longitudinal spin of the focused field can drive the trapped particle to spin around its own axis. This investigation provides a new degree of freedom for spinning particles by using a vortex phase, which may have considerable potentials in optical spin and orbit interaction, light-beam shaping, or optical manipulation.
Sjoberg, Jeremiah P.; Birner, Thomas; Johnson, Richard H.
2017-07-26
Observational estimates of Kelvin wave momentum fluxes in the tropical lower stratosphere remain challenging. Here we extend a method based on linear wave theory to estimate daily time series of these momentum fluxes from high-resolution radiosonde data. Daily time series are produced for sounding sites operated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and from the recent Dynamics of the Madden–Julian Oscillation (DYNAMO) field campaign. Our momentum flux estimates are found to be robust to different data sources and processing and in quantitative agreement with estimates from prior studies. Testing the sensitivity to vertical resolution, our estimated momentum fluxes aremore » found to be most sensitive to vertical resolution greater than 1 km, largely due to overestimation of the vertical wavelength. Climatological analysis is performed over a selected 11-year span of data from DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) radiosonde sites. Analyses of this 11-year span of data reveal the expected seasonal cycle of momentum flux maxima in boreal winter and minima in boreal summer, and variability associated with the quasi-biennial oscillation of maxima during easterly phase and minima during westerly phase. Comparison between periods with active convection that is either strongly or weakly associated with the Madden–Julian Oscillation (MJO) suggests that the MJO provides a nontrivial increase in the lowermost stratospheric momentum fluxes.« less
Renyi Entropy of the Ideal Gas in Finite Momentum Intervals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bialas, A.; Czyz, W.
2003-06-01
Coincidence probabilities of multiparticle events, as measured in finite momentum intervals for Bose and Fermi ideal gas, are calculated and compared with the exact expressions given in statistical physics.
On Whether Angular Momentum in Electric and Magnetic Fields Radiates to Infinity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Canning, Francis X.; Knudsen, Steven
2006-01-01
The Feynman Disk experiment and a related thought experiment with a static magnetic field and capacitor are studied. The mechanical torque integrated over time (angular impulse) is related to the angular momentum in the electric/magnetic field. This is not called an electromagnetic field since quasi-static as well as electromagnetic effects are included. The angular momentum in the electric/magnetic field is examined to determine its static and radiative components. This comparison was then examined to see if it clarified the Abraham-Minkowski paradox.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Corni, Federico; Fuchs, Hans U.; Savino, Giovanni
2018-02-01
This is a description of the conceptual foundations used for designing a novel learning environment for mechanics implemented as an Industrial Educational Laboratory - called Fisica in Moto (FiM) - at the Ducati Foundation in Bologna. In this paper, we will describe the motivation for and design of the conceptual approach to mechanics used in the lab - as such, the paper is theoretical in nature. The goal of FiM is to provide an approach to the teaching of mechanics based upon imaginative structures found in continuum physics suitable to engineering and science. We show how continuum physics creates models of mechanical phenomena by using momentum and angular momentum as primitive quantities. We analyse this approach in terms of cognitive linguistic concepts such as conceptual metaphor and narrative framing of macroscopic physical phenomena. The model discussed here has been used in the didactical design of the actual lab and raises questions for an investigation of student learning of mechanics in a narrative setting.
Galaxy spin as a formation probe: the stellar-to-halo specific angular momentum relation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Posti, Lorenzo; Pezzulli, Gabriele; Fraternali, Filippo; Di Teodoro, Enrico M.
2018-03-01
We derive the stellar-to-halo specific angular momentum relation (SHSAMR) of galaxies at z = 0 by combining (i) the standard Λcold dark matter tidal torque theory, (ii) the observed relation between stellar mass and specific angular momentum (the Fall relation), and (iii) various determinations of the stellar-to-halo mass relation (SHMR). We find that the ratio fj = j*/jh of the specific angular momentum of stars to that of the dark matter (i) varies with mass as a double power law, (ii) always has a peak in the mass range explored and iii) is three to five times larger for spirals than for ellipticals. The results have some dependence on the adopted SHMR and we provide fitting formulae in each case. For any choice of the SHMR, the peak of fj occurs at the same mass where the stellar-to-halo mass ratio f* = M*/Mh has a maximum. This is mostly driven by the straightness and tightness of the Fall relation, which requires fj and f* to be correlated with each other roughly as f_j∝ f_\\ast ^{2/3}, as expected if the outer and more angular momentum rich parts of a halo failed to accrete on to the central galaxy and form stars (biased collapse). We also confirm that the difference in the angular momentum of spirals and ellipticals at a given mass is too large to be ascribed only to different spins of the parent dark-matter haloes (spin bias).
Young, Meggie N; Bleiholder, Christian
2017-04-01
Structure elucidation by ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry methods is based on the comparison of an experimentally measured momentum transfer cross-section to cross-sections calculated for model structures. Thus, it is imperative that the calculated cross-section must be accurate. However, it is not fully understood how important it is to accurately model the charge distribution of an analyte ion when calculating momentum transfer cross-sections. Here, we calculate and compare momentum transfer cross-sections for carbon clusters that differ in mass, charge state, and mode of charge distribution, and vary temperature and polarizability of the buffer gas. Our data indicate that the detailed distribution of the ion charge density is intimately linked to the contribution of glancing collisions to the momentum transfer cross-section. The data suggest that analyte ions with molecular mass ~3 kDa or momentum transfer cross-section 400-500 Å 2 would be significantly influenced by the charge distribution in nitrogen buffer gas. Our data further suggest that accurate structure elucidation on the basis of IMS-MS data measured in nitrogen buffer gas must account for the molecular charge distribution even for systems as large as C 960 (~12 kDa) when localized charges are present and/or measurements are conducted under cryogenic temperatures. Finally, our data underscore that accurate structure elucidation is unlikely if ion mobility data recorded in one buffer gas is converted into other buffer gases when electronic properties of the buffer gases differ. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.
Ion-momentum imaging of dissociative attachment of electrons to molecules
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Slaughter, D. S.; Belkacem, A.; McCurdy, C. W.
Here, we present an overview of experiments and theory relevant to dissociative electron attachment studied by momentum imaging. We describe several key examples of characteristic transient anion dynamics in the form of small polyatomic electron-molecule systems. In each of these examples the so-called axial recoil approximation is found to break down due to correlation of the electronic and nuclear degrees of freedom of the transient anion. Guided by anion fragment momentum measurements and predictions of the electron scattering attachment probability in the molecular frame, we demonstrate that accurate predictions of the dissociation dynamics can be achieved without a detailed investigationmore » of the surface topology of the relevant electronic states or the fragment trajectories on those surfaces.« less
Ion-momentum imaging of dissociative attachment of electrons to molecules
Slaughter, D. S.; Belkacem, A.; McCurdy, C. W.; ...
2016-10-24
Here, we present an overview of experiments and theory relevant to dissociative electron attachment studied by momentum imaging. We describe several key examples of characteristic transient anion dynamics in the form of small polyatomic electron-molecule systems. In each of these examples the so-called axial recoil approximation is found to break down due to correlation of the electronic and nuclear degrees of freedom of the transient anion. Guided by anion fragment momentum measurements and predictions of the electron scattering attachment probability in the molecular frame, we demonstrate that accurate predictions of the dissociation dynamics can be achieved without a detailed investigationmore » of the surface topology of the relevant electronic states or the fragment trajectories on those surfaces.« less
Momentum and particle transport in a nonhomogenous canopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gould, Andrew W.
Turbulent particle transport through the air plays an important role in the life cycle of many plant pathogens. In this study, data from a field experiment was analyzed to explore momentum and particle transport within a grape vineyard. The overall goal of these experiments was to understand how the architecture of a sparse agricultural canopy interacts with turbulent flow and ultimately determines the dispersion of airborne fungal plant pathogens. Turbulence in the vineyard canopy was measured using an array of four sonic anemometers deployed at heights z/H 0.4, 0.9, 1.45, and 1.95 where z is the height of the each sonic and H is the canopy height. In addition to turbulence measurements from the sonic anemometers, particle dispersion was measured using inert particles with the approximate size and density of powdery mildew spores and a roto-rod impaction trap array. Measurements from the sonic anemometers demonstrate that first and second order statistics of the wind field are dependent on wind direction orientation with respect to vineyard row direction. This dependence is a result of wind channeling which transfers energy between the velocity components when the wind direction is not aligned with the rows. Although the winds have a strong directional dependence, spectra analysis indicates that the structure of the turbulent flow is not fundamentally altered by the interaction between wind direction and row direction. Examination of a limited number of particle release events indicates that the wind turning and channeling observed in the momentum field impacts particle dispersion. For row-aligned flow, particle dispersion in the direction normal to the flow is decreased relative to the plume spread predicted by a standard Gaussian plume model. For flow that is not aligned with the row direction, the plume is found to rotate in the same manner as the momentum field.
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Abratenko, P.
Here, we discuss a technique for measuring a charged particle's momentum by means of multiple Coulomb scattering (MCS) in the MicroBooNE liquid argon time projection chamber (LArTPC). This method does not require the full particle ionization track to be contained inside of the detector volume as other track momentum reconstruction methods do (range-based momentum reconstruction and calorimetric momentum reconstruction). We motivate use of this technique, describe a tuning of the underlying phenomenological formula, quantify its performance on fully contained beam-neutrino-induced muon tracks both in simulation and in data, and quantify its performance on exiting muon tracks in simulation. Using simulation,more » we have shown that the standard Highland formula should be re-tuned specifically for scattering in liquid argon, which significantly improves the bias and resolution of the momentum measurement. With the tuned formula, we find agreement between data and simulation for contained tracks, with a small bias in the momentum reconstruction and with resolutions that vary as a function of track length, improving from about 10% for the shortest (one meter long) tracks to 5% for longer (several meter) tracks. For simulated exiting muons with at least one meter of track contained, we find a similarly small bias, and a resolution which is less than 15% for muons with momentum below 2 GeV/c. Above 2 GeV/c, results are given as a first estimate of the MCS momentum measurement capabilities of MicroBooNE for high momentum exiting tracks.« less
Abratenko, P.
2017-10-18
Here, we discuss a technique for measuring a charged particle's momentum by means of multiple Coulomb scattering (MCS) in the MicroBooNE liquid argon time projection chamber (LArTPC). This method does not require the full particle ionization track to be contained inside of the detector volume as other track momentum reconstruction methods do (range-based momentum reconstruction and calorimetric momentum reconstruction). We motivate use of this technique, describe a tuning of the underlying phenomenological formula, quantify its performance on fully contained beam-neutrino-induced muon tracks both in simulation and in data, and quantify its performance on exiting muon tracks in simulation. Using simulation,more » we have shown that the standard Highland formula should be re-tuned specifically for scattering in liquid argon, which significantly improves the bias and resolution of the momentum measurement. With the tuned formula, we find agreement between data and simulation for contained tracks, with a small bias in the momentum reconstruction and with resolutions that vary as a function of track length, improving from about 10% for the shortest (one meter long) tracks to 5% for longer (several meter) tracks. For simulated exiting muons with at least one meter of track contained, we find a similarly small bias, and a resolution which is less than 15% for muons with momentum below 2 GeV/c. Above 2 GeV/c, results are given as a first estimate of the MCS momentum measurement capabilities of MicroBooNE for high momentum exiting tracks.« less
Transverse momentum resummation in soft collinear effective theory
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Gao Yang; Li Chongsheng; Liu Jianjun
We present a universal formalism for transverse momentum resummation in the view of soft-collinear effective theory (SCET), and establish the relation between our SCET formula and the well known Collins-Soper-Sterman's pQCD formula at the next-to-leading logarithmic order (NLLO). We also briefly discuss the reformulation of joint resummation in SCET.
Spin-up of a rapidly rotating star by angular momentum loss - Effects of general relativity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cook, Gregory B.; Shapiro, Stuart L.; Teukolsky, Saul A.
1992-01-01
It has recently been shown that a rapidly rotating Newtonian star can spin up by radiating angular momentum. Extremely fast pulsars losing energy and angular momentum by magnetic dipole radiation or gravitational radiation may exhibit this behavior. Here, we show that this phenomenon is more widespread for rapidly rotating stars in general relativity. We construct and tabulate polytropic sequences of fully relativistic rotating stars of constant rest mass and entropy. We find that the range of adiabatic indices allowing spin-up extends somewhat above 4/3 because of the nonlinear effects of relativistic gravity. In addition, there is a new class of 'supramassive' stars which will inevitably spin up by losing angular momentum regardless of their equation of state. A supramassive star, spinning up via angular momentum loss, will ultimately evolve until it becomes unstable to catastrophic collapse to a black hole. Spin-up in a rapidly rotating star may thus be an observational precursor to such collapse.
Scale-dependence of transverse momentum correlations in Pb sbnd Au collisions at 158A GeV/c
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adamová, D.; Agakichiev, G.; Antończyk, D.; Appelshäuser, H.; Belaga, V.; Bielcikova, S.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Busch, O.; Cherlin, A.; Damjanović, S.; Dietel, T.; Dietrich, L.; Drees, A.; Dubitzky, W.; Esumi, S. I.; Filimonov, K.; Fomenko, K.; Fraenkel, Z.; Garabatos, C.; Glässel, P.; Holeczek, J.; Kushpil, V.; Maas, A.; Marín, A.; Milošević, J.; Milov, A.; Miśkowiec, D.; Panebrattsev, Yu.; Petchenova, O.; Petráček, V.; Pfeiffer, A.; Płoskoń, M.; Radomski, S.; Rak, J.; Ravinovich, I.; Rehak, P.; Sako, H.; Schmitz, W.; Sedykh, S.; Shimansky, S.; Stachel, J.; Šumbera, M.; Tilsner, H.; Tserruya, I.; Tsiledakis, G.; Wessels, J. P.; Wienold, T.; Wurm, J. P.; Xie, W.; Yurevich, S.; Yurevich, V.; Ceres Collaboration
2008-10-01
We present results on transverse momentum correlations of charged particle pairs produced in Pb sbnd Au collisions at 158A GeV/c at the Super Proton Synchrotron. The transverse momentum correlations have been studied as a function of collision centrality, angular separation of the particle pairs, transverse momentum and charge sign. We demonstrate that the results are in agreement with previous findings in scale-independent analyses at the same beam energy. Employing the two-particle momentum correlator <Δp,Δp> and the cumulative p variable x(p), we identify, using the scale-dependent approach presented in this paper, different sources contributing to the measured correlations, such as quantum and Coulomb correlations, elliptic flow and mini-jet fragmentation.
Wind-driven angular momentum loss in binary systems. I - Ballistic case
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brookshaw, Leigh; Tavani, Marco
1993-01-01
We study numerically the average loss of specific angular momentum from binary systems due to mass outflow from one of the two stars for a variety of initial injection geometries and wind velocities. We present results of ballistic calculations in three dimensions for initial mass ratios q of the mass-losing star to primary star in the range q between 10 exp -5 and 10. We consider injection surfaces close to the Roche lobe equipotential surface of the mass-losing star, and also cases with the mass-losing star underfilling its Roche lobe. We obtain that the orbital period is expected to have a negative time derivative for wind-driven secular evolution of binaries with q greater than about 3 and with the mass-losing star near filling its Roche lobe. We also study the effect of the presence of an absorbing surface approximating an accretion disk on the average final value of the specific angular momentum loss. We find that the effect of an accretion disk is to increase the wind-driven angular momentum loss. Our results are relevant for evolutionary models of high-mass binaries and low-mass X-ray binaries.
Angular Momentum Transfer and Fractional Moment of Inertia in Pulsar Glitches
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Eya, I. O.; Urama, J. O.; Chukwude, A. E., E-mail: innocent.eya@unn.edu.ng, E-mail: innocent.eya@gmail.com
We use the Jodrell Bank Observatory glitch database containing 472 glitches from 165 pulsars to investigate the angular momentum transfer during rotational glitches in pulsars. Our emphasis is on pulsars with at least five glitches, of which there are 26 that exhibit 261 glitches in total. This paper identifies four pulsars in which the angular momentum transfer, after many glitches, is almost linear with time. The Lilliefore test on the cumulative distribution of glitch spin-up sizes in these glitching pulsars shows that glitch sizes in 12 pulsars are normally distributed, suggesting that their glitches originate from the same momentum reservoir.more » In addition, the distribution of the fractional moment of inertia (i.e., the ratio of the moment of inertia of neutron star components that are involved in the glitch process) have a single mode, unlike the distribution of fractional glitch size (Δ ν / ν ), which is usually bimodal. The mean fractional moment of inertia in the glitching pulsars we sampled has a very weak correlation with the pulsar spin properties, thereby supporting a neutron star interior mechanism for the glitch phenomenon.« less
Development of a Novel Method for Determination of Momentum Transport Parameters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peters, Michael J.; Guttenfelder, Walter; Scotti, Filippo; Kaye, Stanley M.; Solomon, Wayne M.
2015-11-01
The toroidal momentum pinch velocity Vφ and diffusivity χφ in NSTX were previously determined from the transient response of the toroidal rotation Ω following applied n =3 magnetic perturbations that brake the plasma. Assuming Π = nmR2(-χϕ ∇Ω + Vϕ Ω), where the momentum flux Π is determined using TRANSP, these local analyses used fits to Ω and ∇Ω to obtain χϕ and Vϕ one flux surface at a time. This work attempts to improve the accuracy of the inferred χϕ(r) and Vϕ(r) profiles by utilizing many flux surfaces simultaneously. We employ nonlinear least-squares minimization that compares the entire perturbed rotation profile evolution Ω(r,t) against the profile evolution generated by solving the momentum transport equation. We compare the local and integrated approaches and discuss their limitations. We also apply the integrated approach to determine whether an additional residual stress contribution (independent of Ω or ∇Ω) can be inferred given experimental uncertainties. This work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy SULI program and contract DE-AC02-09/CH11466, as well as the LLNL contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.
Partonic quasidistributions of the proton and pion from transverse-momentum distributions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Broniowski, Wojciech; Arriola, Enrique Ruiz
2018-02-01
The parton quasidistribution functions (QDFs) of Ji have been found by Radyushkin to be directly related to the transverse momentum distributions (TMDs), to the pseudodistributions, and to the Ioffe-time distributions (ITDs). This makes the QDF results at finite longitudinal momentum of the hadron interesting in their own right. Moreover, the QDF-TMD relation provides a gateway to the pertinent QCD evolution, with respect to the resolution scale Q , for the QDFs. Using the Kwieciński evolution equations and well established parametrizations at a low initial scale, we analyze the QCD evolution of quark and gluon QDF components of the proton and the pion. We discuss the resulting breaking of the longitudinal-transverse factorization and show that it has little impact on QDFs at the relatively low scales presently accessible on the lattice, but the effect is visible in reduced ITDs at sufficiently large values of the Ioffe time. Sum rules involving derivatives of ITDs and moments of the parton distribution functions (PDFs) are applied to the European Twisted Mass Collaboration lattice data. This allows us for a lattice determination of the transverse-momentum width of the TMDs from QDF studies.
Design of a unidirectional composite momentum wheel rim
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shogrin, Bradley; Jones, William R., Jr.; Prahl, Joseph M.
1995-05-01
A preliminary study comparing twelve unidirectional-fiber composite systems to five metal materials conventionally used in momentum wheels is presented. Six different fibers are considered in the study: E-Glass, S-Glass, Boron, AS, T300, and Kevlar. Because of the possibility of high momentum requirements, and thus high stresses, only two matrix materials are considered: a high-modulus (HM) and a intermediate-modulus-high-strength (IMHS) matrix. Each of the six fibers are coupled with each of the two matrix materials. In an effort to optimize the composite system, each composite is considered while varying the fiber volume ratio from 0.0 to 0.7 in increments of 0.1. For fiber volume ratios above 0.2, all twelve unidirectional-fiber composite systems meet the study's requirements with higher factors of safety and less mass than the five conventional isotropic (metal) materials. For example, at a fiber volume ratio of 0.6, the Kevlar/IMHS composite system has a safety factor 4.5 times greater than that of a steel (maraging) system and an approximately 10 percent reduction in weight.
Design and development of an optical scanning mechanism (OSMA) with minimum momentum transfer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sainz, L. B. F.; Herrera, E.; Bajo, J. M.; Mallard, H. J.
1981-01-01
The development model for an optical scanning mechanism assembly is described as being two equal inertial masses which collide with each other to minimize the momentum transfer to the satellite and other mounted instruments. The design criteria for the mirror, the compensating inertia structure and other components are given. The details of the design are discussed and related test results are presented, which show the validity of the design concept for momentum compensation.
Cesar, Guilherme M; Sigward, Susan M
2016-08-01
Reported differences between children and adults with respect to COM horizontal and vertical position to maintain dynamic stability during running deceleration suggest that this relationship may not be as important in children. This study challenged the current dynamic stability paradigm by determining the features of whole body posture that predicted forward velocity and momentum of running gait termination in adults and children. Sixteen adults and 15 children ran as fast as possible and stopped at pre-determined location. Separate regression analyses determined whether COM posterior and vertical positions and functional limb length (distance between COM and stance foot) predicted velocity and momentum for adults and children. COM posterior position was the strongest predictor of forward velocity and momentum in both groups supporting the previously established relationship during slower tasks. COM vertical position also predicted momentum in children, not adults. Higher COM position in children was related to greater momentum; consistent with previously reported differences between children and adults in COM position across running deceleration. COM vertical position was related to momentum but not velocity in children suggesting that strategies used to terminate running may be driven by demands imposed not just by velocity, but also the mass being decelerated. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sugimura, Kazuyuki; Hosokawa, Takashi; Yajima, Hidenobu; Inayoshi, Kohei; Omukai, Kazuyuki
2018-05-01
Accretion on to seed black holes (BHs) is believed to play a crucial role in formation of supermassive BHs observed at high-redshift (z > 6). Here, we investigate the combined effect of gas angular momentum and radiation feedback on the accretion flow, by performing 2D axially symmetric radiation hydrodynamics simulations that solve the flow structure across the Bondi radius and the outer part of the accretion disc simultaneously. The accreting gas with finite angular momentum forms a rotationally-supported disc inside the Bondi radius, where the accretion proceeds by the angular momentum transport due to assumed α-type viscosity. We find that the interplay of radiation and angular momentum significantly suppresses accretion even if the radiative feedback is weakened in an equatorial shadowing region. The accretion rate is O(α) ˜ O(0.01 - 0.1) times the Bondi value, where α is the viscosity parameter. By developing an analytical model, we show that such a great reduction of the accretion rate persists unless the angular momentum is so small that the corresponding centrifugal radius is ≲ 0.04 times the Bondi radius. We argue that BHs are hard to grow quickly via rapid mass accretion considering the angular momentum barrier presented in this paper.
Quantifying the momentum correlation between two light beams by detecting one
Hochrainer, Armin; Lahiri, Mayukh; Lapkiewicz, Radek; Lemos, Gabriela Barreto; Zeilinger, Anton
2017-01-01
We report a measurement of the transverse momentum correlation between two photons by detecting only one of them. Our method uses two identical sources in an arrangement in which the phenomenon of induced coherence without induced emission is observed. In this way, we produce an interference pattern in the superposition of one beam from each source. We quantify the transverse momentum correlation by analyzing the visibility of this pattern. Our approach might be useful for the characterization of correlated photon pair sources and may lead to an experimental measure of continuous variable entanglement, which relies on the detection of only one of two entangled particles. PMID:28143940
Quantifying the momentum correlation between two light beams by detecting one.
Hochrainer, Armin; Lahiri, Mayukh; Lapkiewicz, Radek; Lemos, Gabriela Barreto; Zeilinger, Anton
2017-02-14
We report a measurement of the transverse momentum correlation between two photons by detecting only one of them. Our method uses two identical sources in an arrangement in which the phenomenon of induced coherence without induced emission is observed. In this way, we produce an interference pattern in the superposition of one beam from each source. We quantify the transverse momentum correlation by analyzing the visibility of this pattern. Our approach might be useful for the characterization of correlated photon pair sources and may lead to an experimental measure of continuous variable entanglement, which relies on the detection of only one of two entangled particles.
Gravity Shifting Due to Distribution of Momentum in Black Hole and its Relation with Time Flux
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gholibeigian, Hassan; Gholibeygian, Mohammad Hossein
2017-04-01
There are many local convection systems of heat and mass in black holes. These large scale coupled systems including planets and molten masses which generate momentum in black hole and consequently generate coupled gravitational and electromagnetic waves. Therefore black hole's gravity is shifting due to distribution of masses/momentum in its convection systems. Two massive black holes which merged at a distance of 1.3 billion light years far from the Earth, produced different momentum and energy before, during, and after the event in different locations of the black hole. This energy and momentum produced gravitational waves which radiated away and recorded on September 14, 2015 by two detectors of the Laser Interferometry Gravitational Observatories (LIGO) in USA. On the other hand, the nature of time is wavy-like motion of the matter and nature of space is jerky-like motion of the matter. These two natures of space-time can be matched on wave-particle duality in quantum mechanics. And also magnitude of the time for an atom is momentum of its involved fundamental particles [Gholibeigian, adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS.APR.D1032G]. ∑ ⃗R(mv, σ,τ ) = (pnucleons + pelectrons) In which ⃗Ris time flux, σ&τare space and time coordinates on the string world sheet and p is momentum. Therefore, gravitational waves which travel from black hole to us including different fluxes of time which accompaniment propagated gravitational waves of momentum. As an observable factor, we can look at the 7 milliseconds difference of recorded at the time of arrival of the signals on September 14, 2015 by detector in Livingston before detector in Hanford. This difference of recorded time of signal GW150914 by LIGO cannot be due to warped space-time, because 3002 kilometers distance between two detectors with respect to the 1.3 billion light years (distance of black hole to detectors) is like zero! So, this 7 milliseconds difference between two time's fluxes can be due to
The Mass and Angular Momentum Balance of the Zonally-Averaged Global Circulation.
1981-01-01
2 2SFSf F SO~ ABSTRACT (0m-l n oerse~e side Ht moeoeei md fdeutly’ by Week now"*ee Li ATTACHED hO u 47 EDI TIo OP 1 NOV6 Ies OBSOLETE UNCLASS 82 09 28...eddies, and transient circulat.@ns, respec tively. rigeree 12 and 13 displa the vertical sad meridional distribution of relat’.ve angular momentum trass...the transient component is the dominant mode of angular momentum transport in January. It is poleward at virtually all latitudes in each hemisphere
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.
Here, a search for physics beyond the standard model in events with one or more high-momentum Higgs bosons, H, decaying to pairs of b quarks in association with missing transverse momentum is presented. The data, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 35.9 fb -1, were collected with the CMS detector at the LHC in proton-proton collisions at the center-of-mass energy √s = 13 TeV. The analysis utilizes a new b quark tagging technique based on jet substructure to identify jets from H → bb¯. Events are categorized by the multiplicity of H-tagged jets, jet mass, and the missing transverse momentum.more » No significant deviation from standard model expectations is observed. In the context of supersymmetry (SUSY), limits on the cross sections of pair-produced gluinos are set, assuming that gluinos decay to quark pairs, H (or Z), and the lightest SUSY particle, LSP, through an intermediate next-to-lightest SUSY particle, NLSP. With large mass splitting between the NLSP and LSP, and 100% NLSP branching fraction to H, the lower limit on the gluino mass is found to be 2010 GeV.« less
Sirunyan, A M; Tumasyan, A; Adam, W; Ambrogi, F; Asilar, E; Bergauer, T; Brandstetter, J; Brondolin, E; Dragicevic, M; Erö, J; Escalante Del Valle, A; Flechl, M; Friedl, M; Frühwirth, R; Ghete, V M; Grossmann, J; Hrubec, J; Jeitler, M; König, A; Krammer, N; Krätschmer, I; Liko, D; Madlener, T; Mikulec, I; Pree, E; Rad, N; Rohringer, H; Schieck, J; Schöfbeck, R; Spanring, M; Spitzbart, D; Taurok, A; Waltenberger, W; Wittmann, J; Wulz, C-E; Zarucki, M; Chekhovsky, V; Mossolov, V; Suarez Gonzalez, J; De Wolf, E A; Di Croce, D; Janssen, X; Lauwers, J; Pieters, M; Van De Klundert, M; Van Haevermaet, H; Van Mechelen, P; Van Remortel, N; Abu Zeid, S; Blekman, F; D'Hondt, J; De Bruyn, I; De Clercq, J; Deroover, K; Flouris, G; Lontkovskyi, D; Lowette, S; Marchesini, I; Moortgat, S; Moreels, L; Python, Q; Skovpen, K; Tavernier, S; Van Doninck, W; Van Mulders, P; Van Parijs, I; Beghin, D; Bilin, B; Brun, H; Clerbaux, B; De Lentdecker, G; Delannoy, H; Dorney, B; Fasanella, G; Favart, L; Goldouzian, R; Grebenyuk, A; Kalsi, A K; Lenzi, T; Luetic, J; Seva, T; Starling, E; Vander Velde, C; Vanlaer, P; Vannerom, D; Yonamine, R; Cornelis, T; Dobur, D; Fagot, A; Gul, M; Khvastunov, I; Poyraz, D; Roskas, C; Trocino, D; Tytgat, M; Verbeke, W; Vit, M; Zaganidis, N; Bakhshiansohi, H; Bondu, O; Brochet, S; Bruno, G; Caputo, C; Caudron, A; David, P; De Visscher, S; Delaere, C; Delcourt, M; Francois, B; Giammanco, A; Krintiras, G; Lemaitre, V; Magitteri, A; Mertens, A; Musich, M; Piotrzkowski, K; Quertenmont, L; Saggio, A; Vidal Marono, M; Wertz, S; Zobec, J; Aldá Júnior, W L; Alves, F L; Alves, G A; Brito, L; Correia Silva, G; Hensel, C; Moraes, A; Pol, M E; Rebello Teles, P; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, E; Carvalho, W; Chinellato, J; Coelho, E; Da Costa, E M; Da Silveira, G G; De Jesus Damiao, D; Fonseca De Souza, S; Huertas Guativa, L M; Malbouisson, H; Medina Jaime, M; Melo De Almeida, M; Mora Herrera, C; Mundim, L; Nogima, H; Sanchez Rosas, L J; Santoro, A; Sznajder, A; Thiel, M; Tonelli Manganote, E J; Torres Da Silva De Araujo, F; Vilela Pereira, A; Ahuja, S; Bernardes, C A; Tomei, T R Fernandez Perez; Gregores, E M; Mercadante, P G; Novaes, S F; Padula, Sandra S; Romero Abad, D; Ruiz Vargas, J C; Aleksandrov, A; Hadjiiska, R; Iaydjiev, P; Marinov, A; Misheva, M; Rodozov, M; Shopova, M; Sultanov, G; Dimitrov, A; Litov, L; Pavlov, B; Petkov, P; Fang, W; Gao, X; Yuan, L; Ahmad, M; Bian, J G; Chen, G M; Chen, H S; Chen, M; Chen, Y; Jiang, C H; Leggat, D; Liao, H; Liu, Z; Romeo, F; Shaheen, S M; Spiezia, A; Tao, J; Wang, C; Wang, Z; Yazgan, E; Zhang, H; Zhao, J; Ban, Y; Chen, G; Li, J; Li, Q; Liu, S; Mao, Y; Qian, S J; Wang, D; Xu, Z; Wang, Y; Avila, C; Cabrera, A; Carrillo Montoya, C A; Chaparro Sierra, L F; Florez, C; González Hernández, C F; Ruiz Alvarez, J D; Segura Delgado, M A; Courbon, B; Godinovic, N; Lelas, D; Puljak, I; Ribeiro Cipriano, P M; Sculac, T; Antunovic, Z; Kovac, M; Brigljevic, V; Ferencek, D; Kadija, K; Mesic, B; Starodumov, A; Susa, T; Ather, M W; Attikis, A; Mavromanolakis, G; 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Bat, A; Boran, F; Cerci, S; Damarseckin, S; Demiroglu, Z S; Dozen, C; Dumanoglu, I; Girgis, S; Gokbulut, G; Guler, Y; Hos, I; Kangal, E E; Kara, O; Kayis Topaksu, A; Kiminsu, U; Oglakci, M; Onengut, G; Ozdemir, K; Sunar Cerci, D; Tali, B; Tok, U G; Turkcapar, S; Zorbakir, I S; Zorbilmez, C; Karapinar, G; Ocalan, K; Yalvac, M; Zeyrek, M; Gülmez, E; Kaya, M; Kaya, O; Tekten, S; Yetkin, E A; Agaras, M N; Atay, S; Cakir, A; Cankocak, K; Komurcu, Y; Grynyov, B; Levchuk, L; Ball, F; Beck, L; Brooke, J J; Burns, D; Clement, E; Cussans, D; Davignon, O; Flacher, H; Goldstein, J; Heath, G P; Heath, H F; Kreczko, L; Newbold, D M; Paramesvaran, S; Sakuma, T; Seif El Nasr-Storey, S; Smith, D; Smith, V J; Bell, K W; Belyaev, A; Brew, C; Brown, R M; Calligaris, L; Cieri, D; Cockerill, D J A; Coughlan, J A; Harder, K; Harper, S; Linacre, J; Olaiya, E; Petyt, D; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C H; Thea, A; Tomalin, I R; Williams, T; Womersley, W J; Auzinger, G; Bainbridge, R; Bloch, P; Borg, J; Breeze, S; Buchmuller, O; Bundock, A; Casasso, S; Colling, D; Corpe, L; Dauncey, P; Davies, G; Della Negra, M; Di Maria, R; Elwood, A; Haddad, Y; Hall, G; Iles, G; James, T; Komm, M; Lane, R; Laner, C; Lyons, L; Magnan, A-M; Malik, S; Mastrolorenzo, L; Matsushita, T; Nash, J; Nikitenko, A; Palladino, V; Pesaresi, M; Richards, A; Rose, A; Scott, E; Seez, C; Shtipliyski, A; Strebler, T; Summers, S; Tapper, A; Uchida, K; Vazquez Acosta, M; Virdee, T; Wardle, N; Winterbottom, D; Wright, J; Zenz, S C; Cole, J E; Hobson, P R; Khan, A; Kyberd, P; Morton, A; Reid, I D; Teodorescu, L; Zahid, S; Borzou, A; Call, K; Dittmann, J; Hatakeyama, K; Liu, H; Pastika, N; Smith, C; Bartek, R; Dominguez, A; Buccilli, A; Cooper, S I; Henderson, C; Rumerio, P; West, C; Arcaro, D; Avetisyan, A; Bose, T; Gastler, D; Rankin, D; Richardson, C; Rohlf, J; Sulak, L; Zou, D; Benelli, G; Cutts, D; Hadley, M; Hakala, J; Heintz, U; Hogan, J M; Kwok, K H M; Laird, E; Landsberg, G; Lee, J; Mao, Z; Narain, M; Pazzini, J; Piperov, S; Sagir, S; Syarif, R; Yu, D; Band, R; Brainerd, C; Breedon, R; Burns, D; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, M; Chertok, M; Conway, J; Conway, R; Cox, P T; Erbacher, R; Flores, C; Funk, G; Ko, W; Lander, R; Mclean, C; Mulhearn, M; Pellett, D; Pilot, J; Shalhout, S; Shi, M; Smith, J; Stolp, D; Taylor, D; Tos, K; Tripathi, M; Wang, Z; Zhang, F; Bachtis, M; Bravo, C; Cousins, R; Dasgupta, A; Florent, A; Hauser, J; Ignatenko, M; Mccoll, N; Regnard, S; Saltzberg, D; Schnaible, C; Valuev, V; Bouvier, E; Burt, K; Clare, R; Ellison, J; Gary, J W; Ghiasi Shirazi, S M A; Hanson, G; Karapostoli, G; Kennedy, E; Lacroix, F; Long, O R; Olmedo Negrete, M; Paneva, M I; Si, W; Wang, L; Wei, H; Wimpenny, S; Yates, B R; Branson, J G; Cittolin, S; Derdzinski, M; Gerosa, R; Gilbert, D; Hashemi, B; Holzner, A; Klein, D; Kole, G; Krutelyov, V; Letts, J; Masciovecchio, M; Olivito, D; Padhi, S; Pieri, M; Sani, M; Sharma, V; Simon, S; Tadel, M; Vartak, A; Wasserbaech, S; Wood, J; Würthwein, F; Yagil, A; Zevi Della Porta, G; Amin, N; Bhandari, R; 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Chlebana, F; Cremonesi, M; Duarte, J; Elvira, V D; Freeman, J; Gecse, Z; Gottschalk, E; Gray, L; Green, D; Grünendahl, S; Gutsche, O; Hanlon, J; Harris, R M; Hasegawa, S; Hirschauer, J; Hu, Z; Jayatilaka, B; Jindariani, S; Johnson, M; Joshi, U; Klima, B; Kortelainen, M J; Kreis, B; Lammel, S; Lincoln, D; Lipton, R; Liu, M; Liu, T; Lopes De Sá, R; Lykken, J; Maeshima, K; Magini, N; Marraffino, J M; Mason, D; McBride, P; Merkel, P; Mrenna, S; Nahn, S; O'Dell, V; Pedro, K; Prokofyev, O; Rakness, G; Ristori, L; Savoy-Navarro, A; Schneider, B; Sexton-Kennedy, E; Soha, A; Spalding, W J; Spiegel, L; Stoynev, S; Strait, J; Strobbe, N; Taylor, L; Tkaczyk, S; Tran, N V; Uplegger, L; Vaandering, E W; Vernieri, C; Verzocchi, M; Vidal, R; Wang, M; Weber, H A; Whitbeck, A; Wu, W; Acosta, D; Avery, P; Bortignon, P; Bourilkov, D; Brinkerhoff, A; Carnes, A; Carver, M; Curry, D; Field, R D; Furic, I K; Gleyzer, S V; Joshi, B M; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Kotov, K; Ma, P; Matchev, K; Mei, H; Mitselmakher, G; Shi, K; Sperka, D; Terentyev, N; Thomas, L; Wang, J; Wang, S; Yelton, J; Joshi, Y R; Linn, S; Markowitz, P; Rodriguez, J L; Ackert, A; Adams, T; Askew, A; Hagopian, S; Hagopian, V; Johnson, K F; Kolberg, T; Martinez, G; Perry, T; Prosper, H; Saha, A; Santra, A; Sharma, V; Yohay, R; Baarmand, M M; Bhopatkar, V; Colafranceschi, S; Hohlmann, M; Noonan, D; Roy, T; Yumiceva, F; Adams, M R; Apanasevich, L; Berry, D; Betts, R R; Cavanaugh, R; Chen, X; Dittmer, S; Evdokimov, O; Gerber, C E; Hangal, D A; Hofman, D J; Jung, K; Kamin, J; Sandoval Gonzalez, I D; Tonjes, M B; Varelas, N; Wang, H; Wu, Z; Zhang, J; Bilki, B; Clarida, W; Dilsiz, K; Durgut, S; Gandrajula, R P; Haytmyradov, M; Khristenko, V; Merlo, J-P; Mermerkaya, H; Mestvirishvili, A; Moeller, A; Nachtman, J; Ogul, H; Onel, Y; Ozok, F; Penzo, A; Snyder, C; Tiras, E; Wetzel, J; Yi, K; Blumenfeld, B; Cocoros, A; Eminizer, N; Fehling, D; Feng, L; Gritsan, A V; Maksimovic, P; Roskes, J; Sarica, U; Swartz, M; Xiao, M; You, C; Al-Bataineh, A; Baringer, P; Bean, A; Boren, S; Bowen, J; Castle, J; Khalil, S; Kropivnitskaya, A; Majumder, D; Mcbrayer, W; Murray, M; Rogan, C; Royon, C; Sanders, S; Schmitz, E; Tapia Takaki, J D; Wang, Q; Ivanov, A; Kaadze, K; Maravin, Y; Modak, A; Mohammadi, A; Saini, L K; Skhirtladze, N; Rebassoo, F; Wright, D; Baden, A; Baron, O; Belloni, A; Eno, S C; Feng, Y; Ferraioli, C; Hadley, N J; Jabeen, S; Jeng, G Y; Kellogg, R G; Kunkle, J; Mignerey, A C; Ricci-Tam, F; Shin, Y H; Skuja, A; Tonwar, S C; Abercrombie, D; Allen, B; Azzolini, V; Barbieri, R; Baty, A; Bauer, G; Bi, R; Brandt, S; Busza, W; Cali, I A; D'Alfonso, M; Demiragli, Z; Gomez Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; Harris, P; Hsu, D; Hu, M; Iiyama, Y; Innocenti, G M; Klute, M; Kovalskyi, D; Lee, Y-J; Levin, A; Luckey, P D; Maier, B; Marini, A C; Mcginn, C; Mironov, C; Narayanan, S; Niu, X; Paus, C; Roland, C; Roland, G; Stephans, G S F; Sumorok, K; Tatar, K; Velicanu, D; Wang, J; Wang, T W; Wyslouch, B; Zhaozhong, S; Benvenuti, A C; Chatterjee, R M; Evans, A; Hansen, P; Kalafut, S; Kubota, Y; Lesko, Z; Mans, J; Nourbakhsh, S; Ruckstuhl, N; Rusack, R; Turkewitz, J; Wadud, M A; Acosta, J G; Oliveros, S; Avdeeva, E; Bloom, K; Claes, D R; Fangmeier, C; Golf, F; Gonzalez Suarez, R; Kamalieddin, R; Kravchenko, I; Monroy, J; Siado, J E; Snow, G R; Stieger, B; Dolen, J; Godshalk, A; Harrington, C; Iashvili, I; Nguyen, D; Parker, A; Rappoccio, S; Roozbahani, B; Alverson, G; Barberis, E; Freer, C; Hortiangtham, A; Massironi, A; Morse, D M; Orimoto, T; Teixeira De Lima, R; Wamorkar, T; Wang, B; Wisecarver, A; Wood, D; Bhattacharya, S; Charaf, O; Hahn, K A; Mucia, N; Odell, N; Schmitt, M H; Sung, K; Trovato, M; Velasco, M; Bucci, R; Dev, N; Hildreth, M; Hurtado Anampa, K; Jessop, C; Karmgard, D J; Kellams, N; Lannon, K; Li, W; Loukas, N; Marinelli, N; Meng, F; Mueller, C; Musienko, Y; Planer, M; Reinsvold, A; Ruchti, R; Siddireddy, P; Smith, G; Taroni, S; Wayne, M; Wightman, A; Wolf, M; Woodard, A; Alimena, J; Antonelli, L; Bylsma, B; Durkin, L S; 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Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, R; Kyriacou, S; Lath, A; Montalvo, R; Nash, K; Osherson, M; Saka, H; Salur, S; Schnetzer, S; Sheffield, D; Somalwar, S; Stone, R; Thomas, S; Thomassen, P; Walker, M; Delannoy, A G; Heideman, J; Riley, G; Rose, K; Spanier, S; Thapa, K; Bouhali, O; Castaneda Hernandez, A; Celik, A; Dalchenko, M; De Mattia, M; Delgado, A; Dildick, S; Eusebi, R; Gilmore, J; Huang, T; Kamon, T; Mueller, R; Pakhotin, Y; Patel, R; Perloff, A; Perniè, L; Rathjens, D; Safonov, A; Tatarinov, A; Akchurin, N; Damgov, J; De Guio, F; Dudero, P R; Faulkner, J; Gurpinar, E; Kunori, S; Lamichhane, K; Lee, S W; Mengke, T; Muthumuni, S; Peltola, T; Undleeb, S; Volobouev, I; Wang, Z; Greene, S; Gurrola, A; Janjam, R; Johns, W; Maguire, C; Melo, A; Ni, H; Padeken, K; Sheldon, P; Tuo, S; Velkovska, J; Xu, Q; Arenton, M W; Barria, P; Cox, B; Hirosky, R; Joyce, M; Ledovskoy, A; Li, H; Neu, C; Sinthuprasith, T; Wang, Y; Wolfe, E; Xia, F; Harr, R; Karchin, P E; Poudyal, N; Sturdy, J; Thapa, P; Zaleski, S; Brodski, M; Buchanan, J; Caillol, C; Carlsmith, D; Dasu, S; Dodd, L; Duric, S; Gomber, B; Grothe, M; Herndon, M; Hervé, A; Hussain, U; Klabbers, P; Lanaro, A; Levine, A; Long, K; Loveless, R; Rekovic, V; Ruggles, T; Savin, A; Smith, N; Smith, W H; Woods, N
2018-06-15
A search for physics beyond the standard model in events with one or more high-momentum Higgs bosons, H, decaying to pairs of b quarks in association with missing transverse momentum is presented. The data, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 35.9 fb^{-1}, were collected with the CMS detector at the LHC in proton-proton collisions at the center-of-mass energy sqrt[s]=13 TeV. The analysis utilizes a new b quark tagging technique based on jet substructure to identify jets from H→bb[over ¯]. Events are categorized by the multiplicity of H-tagged jets, jet mass, and the missing transverse momentum. No significant deviation from standard model expectations is observed. In the context of supersymmetry (SUSY), limits on the cross sections of pair-produced gluinos are set, assuming that gluinos decay to quark pairs, H (or Z), and the lightest SUSY particle, LSP, through an intermediate next-to-lightest SUSY particle, NLSP. With large mass splitting between the NLSP and LSP, and 100% NLSP branching fraction to H, the lower limit on the gluino mass is found to be 2010 GeV.
Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; ...
2018-06-11
Here, a search for physics beyond the standard model in events with one or more high-momentum Higgs bosons, H, decaying to pairs of b quarks in association with missing transverse momentum is presented. The data, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 35.9 fb -1, were collected with the CMS detector at the LHC in proton-proton collisions at the center-of-mass energy √s = 13 TeV. The analysis utilizes a new b quark tagging technique based on jet substructure to identify jets from H → bb¯. Events are categorized by the multiplicity of H-tagged jets, jet mass, and the missing transverse momentum.more » No significant deviation from standard model expectations is observed. In the context of supersymmetry (SUSY), limits on the cross sections of pair-produced gluinos are set, assuming that gluinos decay to quark pairs, H (or Z), and the lightest SUSY particle, LSP, through an intermediate next-to-lightest SUSY particle, NLSP. With large mass splitting between the NLSP and LSP, and 100% NLSP branching fraction to H, the lower limit on the gluino mass is found to be 2010 GeV.« less
The Singing Cymbal: Is It Really Photon Momentum?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Collin, Samantha; Etchenique, Nikki; Moore, Thomas R.
2016-01-01
A simple demonstration that is occasionally used in the classroom to show that light carries momentum involves making an orchestral cymbal audibly ring using light from a common photoflash. A metal plate or a piece of foil can also be used; however, it appears that many people use a cymbal because the sound is easily heard at a reasonable…
A new type of magnetic gimballed momentum wheel and its application to attitude control in space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Murakami, C.; Ohkami, Y.; Okamoto, O.; Nakajima, A.; Inoue, M.; Tsuchiya, J.; Yabu-uchi, K.; Akishita, S.; Kida, T.
A new type of magnetically suspended gimbal momentum wheel utilizing permanent magnets is described. The bearing was composed of four independent thrust actuators which control the rotor thrust position and gimbal angles cooperatively, so that the bearing comes to have a simple mechanism with high reliability and light weight. The high speed instability problem due to the internal damping was easily overcome by introducing anisotropic radial stiffness. A momentum flywheel with the 3-axis controlled magnetic bearing displays good performance for attitude control of satellite with biased momentum.
High energy density soft X-ray momentum coupling to comet analogs for NEO mitigation
Remo, J. L.; Lawrence, R. J.; Jacobsen, S. B.; ...
2016-09-27
Here, we applied MBBAY high fluence pulsed radiation intensity driven momentum transfer analysis to calculate X-ray momentum coupling coefficients C M=(Pa s)/(J/m 2) for two simplified comet analog materials: i) water ice, and ii) 70% water ice and 30% distributed olivine grains. The momentum coupling coefficients (C M) max of 50×10 –5 s/m, are about an order of magnitude greater than experimentally determined and computed MBBAY values for meteoritic materials that are analogs for asteroids. From the values for comet analog materials we infer applied energies (via momentum transfer) required to deflect an Earth crossing comet from impacting Earth bymore » a sufficient amount (~1 cm/s) to avert collision ~a year in advance. Comet model calculations indicate for C M = 5 × 10 –4 s/m the deflection of a 2 km comet with a density 600 kg/m 3 by 1 cm/s requires an applied energy on the target surface of 5 × 10 13 J, the equivalent of 12 kT of TNT. Depending on the geometrical configuration of the interaction the explosive yield required could be an order of magnitude higher.« less
Seismic evidence for the loss of stellar angular momentum before the white-dwarf stage.
Charpinet, S; Fontaine, G; Brassard, P
2009-09-24
White-dwarf stars represent the final products of the evolution of some 95% of all stars. If stars were to keep their angular momentum throughout their evolution, their white-dwarf descendants, owing to their compact nature, should all rotate relatively rapidly, with typical periods of the order of a few seconds. Observations of their photospheres show, in contrast, that they rotate much more slowly, with periods ranging from hours to tens of years. It is not known, however, whether a white dwarf could 'hide' some of its original angular momentum below the superficial layers, perhaps spinning much more rapidly inside than at its surface. Here we report a determination of the internal rotation profile of a white dwarf using a method based on asteroseismology. We show that the pulsating white dwarf PG 1159-035 rotates as a solid body (encompassing more than 97.5% of its mass) with the relatively long period of 33.61 +/- 0.59 h. This implies that it has lost essentially all of its angular momentum, thus favouring theories which suggest important angular momentum transfer and loss in evolutionary phases before the white-dwarf stage.
Novel Detection of Optical Orbital Angular Momentum
2014-11-16
spin-orbit coupling at single- photon entanglement and quantum transfer as well as their combinations. Some studies exist on hybrid entanglement . 3.1... Entanglement of the orbital angular momentum states of photons ,” Nature, 412, 313-316 (2001). [9]. D. J. Sanchez and D. W. Oesch, “Orbital angular... photon with no change in its OAM states among traveling inside the atmosphere. Both studies assume only a phase distortion causes by the atmospheric
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hautmann, F.; Jung, H.; Krämer, M.; Mulders, P. J.; Nocera, E. R.; Rogers, T. C.; Signori, A.
2014-12-01
Transverse-momentum-dependent distributions (TMDs) are extensions of collinear parton distributions and are important in high-energy physics from both theoretical and phenomenological points of view. In this manual we introduce the library , a tool to collect transverse-momentum-dependent parton distribution functions (TMD PDFs) and fragmentation functions (TMD FFs) together with an online plotting tool, TMDplotter. We provide a description of the program components and of the different physical frameworks the user can access via the available parameterisations.
On the small-x behavior of the orbital angular momentum distributions in QCD
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hatta, Yoshitaka; Yang, Dong-Jing
2018-06-01
We present the numerical solution of the leading order QCD evolution equation for the orbital angular momentum distributions of quarks and gluons and discuss its implications for the nucleon spin sum rule. We observe that at small-x, the gluon helicity and orbital angular momentum distributions are roughly of the same magnitude but with opposite signs, indicating a significant cancellation between them. A similar cancellation occurs also in the quark sector. We explain analytically the reason for this cancellation.
Spin angular momentum induced by optical quasi-phonons activated in birefringent uniaxial crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mohamadou, B.; Maïmounatou, B.; Erasmus, R. M.
2017-09-01
The present report formally establishes the expression of the angular momentum of the quasi-phonons induced by linearly polarized light. The transferred mechanical torque due to phonons is then determined from the spin angular momentum and is shown to be measurable from Raman scattering experiments. To investigate this, the electric field due the excited dipoles and the associated macroscopic dielectric polarization vectors were first calculated using a lattice dynamical model in order to derive in a second step the analytical expression of the angular momentum density arising from the inelastic light scattering by quasi-phonons. The numerical results of the calculated angle dependent mode electric fields and the induced spin angular moments as well as the transferred torques were analyzed with regard to some typical behaviors of the interacting modes and it is shown that the fluctuations of the effective charges is their main origin.
Circular heat and momentum flux radiated by magneto-optical nanoparticles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ott, A.; Ben-Abdallah, P.; Biehs, S.-A.
2018-05-01
In the present article we investigate the heat and momentum fluxes radiated by a hot magneto-optical nanoparticle in its surroundings under the action of an external magnetic field. We show that the flux lines circulate in a confined region at a nanometric distance from the particle around the axis of the magnetic field in a vortexlike configuration. Moreover we prove that the spatial orientation of these vortices (clockwise or counterclockwise) is associated with the contribution of optical resonances with topological charges m =+1 or m =-1 to the thermal emission. This work paves the way for a geometric description of heat and momentum transport in lattices of magneto-optical particles. Moreover it could have important applications in the field of energy storage as well as in thermal management at nanoscale.
On a Lagrange-Hamilton formalism describing position and momentum uncertainties
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schuch, Dieter
1993-01-01
According to Heisenberg's uncertainty relation, in quantum mechanics it is not possible to determine, simultaneously, exact values for the position and the momentum of a material system. Calculating the mean value of the Hamiltonian operator with the aid of exact analytic Gaussian wave packet solutions, these uncertainties cause an energy contribution additional to the classical energy of the system. For the harmonic oscillator, e.g., this nonclassical energy represents the ground state energy. It will be shown that this additional energy contribution can be considered as a Hamiltonian function, if it is written in appropriate variables. With the help of the usual Lagrange-Hamilton formalism known from classical particle mechanics, but now considering this new Hamiltonian function, it is possible to obtain the equations of motion for position and momentum uncertainties.
The azimuthal component of Poynting's vector and the angular momentum of light
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cameron, Robert P.; Speirits, Fiona C.; Gilson, Claire R.; Allen, L.; Barnett, Stephen M.
2015-12-01
The usual description in basic electromagnetic theory of the linear and angular momenta of light is centred upon the identification of Poynting's vector as the linear momentum density and its cross product with position, or azimuthal component, as the angular momentum density. This seemingly reasonable approach brings with it peculiarities, however, in particular with regards to the separation of angular momentum into orbital and spin contributions, which has sometimes been regarded as contrived. In the present paper, we observe that densities are not unique, which leads us to ask whether the usual description is, in fact, the most natural choice. To answer this, we adopt a fundamental rather than heuristic approach by first identifying appropriate symmetries of Maxwell's equations and subsequently applying Noether's theorem to obtain associated conservation laws. We do not arrive at the usual description. Rather, an equally acceptable one in which the relationship between linear and angular momenta is nevertheless more subtle and in which orbital and spin contributions emerge separately and with transparent forms.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Changyi; Chao, Benjamin F.
2015-02-01
We raise attention to the issue of consistency between the reference frame with respect to which the seismological model calculations of displacement are made on one hand, and that to which the geodetic measurements of crustal deformation refer (e.g. the ITRF) on the other. This issue is critical in principle if the seismologically calculated displacement (or gravity change) is to be compared or used in joint inversion with geodetic measurements. A necessary set of conditions to be satisfied by inertial frames is the conservations of linear and angular momentums: no net change in them can be induced by a seismic source indigenous to the Earth. We show that the momentums are embodied in the degree-1 terms of the vector spherical-harmonic expansion of the displacement field. Using three largest recent earthquakes as case examples we find that the algorithms of seismological dislocation modelling in the literature do not conserve the momentums. However, quantitatively this inconsistency amounts to two orders of magnitude smaller than the current precision in the definition of the ITRF, hence insignificant in practice. Some caveats are raised.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hay, James G.; Wilson, Barry D.
The angular momentum of a human body derived from both the angular velocity and angular displacement, utilizing cinematographic records has not been adequately assessed, prior to this study. Miller (1970) obtained the angular momentum but only during the airborne phase of activity. The method used by Ramey (1973) involved a force platform, but…
National laboratory policies and plans in sub-Saharan African countries: gaps and opportunities
van der Broek, Ankie; Jansen, Christel; de Bruijn, Hilde; Schultsz, Constance
2017-01-01
Background The 2008 Maputo Declaration calls for the development of dedicated national laboratory policies and strategic plans supporting the enhancement of laboratory services in response to the long-lasting relegation of medical laboratory systems in sub-Saharan Africa. Objectives This study describes the extent to which laboratories are addressed in the national health policies and plans created directly following the 2008 momentum for laboratory strengthening. Method National health policies and plans from 39 sub-Saharan African countries, valid throughout and beyond 31 December 2010 were collected in March 2012 and analysed during 2013. Results Laboratories were addressed by all countries. Human resources were the most addressed topic (38/39) and finances and budget were the least addressed (< 5/39). Countries lagging behind in national laboratory strategic planning at the end of 2013 (17/39) were more likely to be francophone countries located in West-Central Africa (13/17) and have historically low HIV prevalence. The most common gaps anticipated to compromise the implementation of the policies and plans were the disconnect between policies and plans, under-developed finance sections and monitoring and evaluating frameworks, absence of points of reference to define gaps and shortages, and inappropriate governance structure. Conclusion The availability of laboratory policy and plan implementation can be improved by strictly applying a more standardised methodology for policy development, using harmonised norms to set targets for improvement and intensifying the establishment of directorates of laboratory services directly under the authority of Ministries of Health. Horizontal programmes such as the Global Health Security Agenda could provide the necessary impulse to take the least advanced countries on board. PMID:28879152
The Origin of Nonradiative Heating/momentum in Hot Stars
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Underhill, A. B. (Editor); Michalitsianos, A. G. (Editor)
1985-01-01
The origin of nonradiative heating and momentum in the atmospheres of stars is studied. The similarities and differences between what occurs in the hot stars and what occurs in cool stars are emphasized. Key points in the theory are reviewed. Areas requiring new study are indicated.
Critical gravitational collapse with angular momentum. II. Soft equations of state
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gundlach, Carsten; Baumgarte, Thomas W.
2018-03-01
We study critical phenomena in the collapse of rotating ultrarelativistic perfect fluids, in which the pressure P is related to the total energy density ρ by P =κ ρ , where κ is a constant. We generalize earlier results for radiation fluids with κ =1 /3 to other values of κ , focusing on κ <1 /9 . For 1 /9 <κ ≲0.49 , the critical solution has only one unstable, growing mode, which is spherically symmetric. For supercritical data it controls the black-hole mass, while for subcritical data it controls the maximum density. For κ <1 /9 , an additional axial l =1 mode becomes unstable. This controls either the black-hole angular momentum, or the maximum angular velocity. In theory, the additional unstable l =1 mode changes the nature of the black-hole threshold completely: at sufficiently large initial rotation rates Ω and sufficient fine-tuning of the initial data to the black-hole threshold we expect to observe nontrivial universal scaling functions (familiar from critical phase transitions in thermodynamics) governing the black-hole mass and angular momentum, and, with further fine-tuning, eventually a finite black-hole mass almost everywhere on the threshold. In practice, however, the second unstable mode grows so slowly that we do not observe this breakdown of scaling at the level of fine-tuning we can achieve, nor systematic deviations from the leading-order power-law scalings of the black-hole mass. We do see systematic effects in the black-hole angular momentum, but it is not clear yet if these are due to the predicted nontrivial scaling functions, or to nonlinear effects at sufficiently large initial angular momentum (which we do not account for in our theoretical model).
A fast and accurate method for perturbative resummation of transverse momentum-dependent observables
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kang, Daekyoung; Lee, Christopher; Vaidya, Varun
2018-04-01
We propose a novel strategy for the perturbative resummation of transverse momentum-dependent (TMD) observables, using the q T spectra of gauge bosons ( γ ∗, Higgs) in pp collisions in the regime of low (but perturbative) transverse momentum q T as a specific example. First we introduce a scheme to choose the factorization scale for virtuality in momentum space instead of in impact parameter space, allowing us to avoid integrating over (or cutting off) a Landau pole in the inverse Fourier transform of the latter to the former. The factorization scale for rapidity is still chosen as a function of impact parameter b, but in such a way designed to obtain a Gaussian form (in ln b) for the exponentiated rapidity evolution kernel, guaranteeing convergence of the b integral. We then apply this scheme to obtain the q T spectra for Drell-Yan and Higgs production at NNLL accuracy. In addition, using this scheme we are able to obtain a fast semi-analytic formula for the perturbative resummed cross sections in momentum space: analytic in its dependence on all physical variables at each order of logarithmic accuracy, up to a numerical expansion for the pure mathematical Bessel function in the inverse Fourier transform that needs to be performed just once for all observables and kinematics, to any desired accuracy.
A fast and accurate method for perturbative resummation of transverse momentum-dependent observables
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Kang, Daekyoung; Lee, Christopher; Vaidya, Varun
Here, we propose a novel strategy for the perturbative resummation of transverse momentum-dependent (TMD) observables, using the q T spectra of gauge bosons (γ*, Higgs) in pp collisions in the regime of low (but perturbative) transverse momentum q T as a specific example. First we introduce a scheme to choose the factorization scale for virtuality in momentum space instead of in impact parameter space, allowing us to avoid integrating over (or cutting off) a Landau pole in the inverse Fourier transform of the latter to the former. The factorization scale for rapidity is still chosen as a function of impactmore » parameter b, but in such a way designed to obtain a Gaussian form (in ln b) for the exponentiated rapidity evolution kernel, guaranteeing convergence of the b integral. We then apply this scheme to obtain the q T spectra for Drell-Yan and Higgs production at NNLL accuracy. In addition, using this scheme we are able to obtain a fast semi-analytic formula for the perturbative resummed cross sections in momentum space: analytic in its dependence on all physical variables at each order of logarithmic accuracy, up to a numerical expansion for the pure mathematical Bessel function in the inverse Fourier transform that needs to be performed just once for all observables and kinematics, to any desired accuracy.« less
High Angular Momentum Halo Gas: A Feedback and Code-independent Prediction of LCDM
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Stewart, Kyle R.; Maller, Ariyeh H.; Oñorbe, Jose
We investigate angular momentum acquisition in Milky Way-sized galaxies by comparing five high resolution zoom-in simulations, each implementing identical cosmological initial conditions but utilizing different hydrodynamic codes: Enzo, Art, Ramses, Arepo, and Gizmo-PSPH. Each code implements a distinct set of feedback and star formation prescriptions. We find that while many galaxy and halo properties vary between the different codes (and feedback prescriptions), there is qualitative agreement on the process of angular momentum acquisition in the galaxy’s halo. In all simulations, cold filamentary gas accretion to the halo results in ∼4 times more specific angular momentum in cold halo gas (more » λ {sub cold} ≳ 0.1) than in the dark matter halo. At z > 1, this inflow takes the form of inspiraling cold streams that are co-directional in the halo of the galaxy and are fueled, aligned, and kinematically connected to filamentary gas infall along the cosmic web. Due to the qualitative agreement among disparate simulations, we conclude that the buildup of high angular momentum halo gas and the presence of these inspiraling cold streams are robust predictions of Lambda Cold Dark Matter galaxy formation, though the detailed morphology of these streams is significantly less certain. A growing body of observational evidence suggests that this process is borne out in the real universe.« less
A fast and accurate method for perturbative resummation of transverse momentum-dependent observables
Kang, Daekyoung; Lee, Christopher; Vaidya, Varun
2018-04-27
Here, we propose a novel strategy for the perturbative resummation of transverse momentum-dependent (TMD) observables, using the q T spectra of gauge bosons (γ*, Higgs) in pp collisions in the regime of low (but perturbative) transverse momentum q T as a specific example. First we introduce a scheme to choose the factorization scale for virtuality in momentum space instead of in impact parameter space, allowing us to avoid integrating over (or cutting off) a Landau pole in the inverse Fourier transform of the latter to the former. The factorization scale for rapidity is still chosen as a function of impactmore » parameter b, but in such a way designed to obtain a Gaussian form (in ln b) for the exponentiated rapidity evolution kernel, guaranteeing convergence of the b integral. We then apply this scheme to obtain the q T spectra for Drell-Yan and Higgs production at NNLL accuracy. In addition, using this scheme we are able to obtain a fast semi-analytic formula for the perturbative resummed cross sections in momentum space: analytic in its dependence on all physical variables at each order of logarithmic accuracy, up to a numerical expansion for the pure mathematical Bessel function in the inverse Fourier transform that needs to be performed just once for all observables and kinematics, to any desired accuracy.« less
High Angular Momentum Halo Gas: A Feedback and Code-independent Prediction of LCDM
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stewart, Kyle R.; Maller, Ariyeh H.; Oñorbe, Jose; Bullock, James S.; Joung, M. Ryan; Devriendt, Julien; Ceverino, Daniel; Kereš, Dušan; Hopkins, Philip F.; Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André
2017-07-01
We investigate angular momentum acquisition in Milky Way-sized galaxies by comparing five high resolution zoom-in simulations, each implementing identical cosmological initial conditions but utilizing different hydrodynamic codes: Enzo, Art, Ramses, Arepo, and Gizmo-PSPH. Each code implements a distinct set of feedback and star formation prescriptions. We find that while many galaxy and halo properties vary between the different codes (and feedback prescriptions), there is qualitative agreement on the process of angular momentum acquisition in the galaxy’s halo. In all simulations, cold filamentary gas accretion to the halo results in ˜4 times more specific angular momentum in cold halo gas (λ cold ≳ 0.1) than in the dark matter halo. At z > 1, this inflow takes the form of inspiraling cold streams that are co-directional in the halo of the galaxy and are fueled, aligned, and kinematically connected to filamentary gas infall along the cosmic web. Due to the qualitative agreement among disparate simulations, we conclude that the buildup of high angular momentum halo gas and the presence of these inspiraling cold streams are robust predictions of Lambda Cold Dark Matter galaxy formation, though the detailed morphology of these streams is significantly less certain. A growing body of observational evidence suggests that this process is borne out in the real universe.
Origins and demonstrations of electrons with orbital angular momentum
Agrawal, Amit; Ercius, Peter A.; Grillo, Vincenzo; Herzing, Andrew A.; Harvey, Tyler R.; Linck, Martin; Pierce, Jordan S.
2017-01-01
The surprising message of Allen et al. (Allen et al. 1992 Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185 (doi:10.1103/PhysRevA.45.8185)) was that photons could possess orbital angular momentum in free space, which subsequently launched advancements in optical manipulation, microscopy, quantum optics, communications, many more fields. It has recently been shown that this result also applies to quantum mechanical wave functions describing massive particles (matter waves). This article discusses how electron wave functions can be imprinted with quantized phase vortices in analogous ways to twisted light, demonstrating that charged particles with non-zero rest mass can possess orbital angular momentum in free space. With Allen et al. as a bridge, connections are made between this recent work in electron vortex wave functions and much earlier works, extending a 175 year old tradition in matter wave vortices. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Optical orbital angular momentum’. PMID:28069765
Higgs bosons with large transverse momentum at the LHC
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kudashkin, Kirill; Lindert, Jonas M.; Melnikov, Kirill; Wever, Christopher
2018-07-01
We compute the next-to-leading order QCD corrections to the production of Higgs bosons with large transverse momentum p⊥ ≫ 2mt at the LHC. To accomplish this, we combine the two-loop amplitudes for processes gg → Hg, qg → Hq and q q bar → Hg, recently computed in the approximation of nearly massless top quarks, with the numerical calculation of the squared one-loop amplitudes for gg → Hgg, qg → Hqg and q q bar → Hgg processes. The latter computation is performed with OpenLoops. We find that the QCD corrections to the Higgs transverse momentum distribution at very high p⊥ are large but quite similar to the QCD corrections obtained for point-like Hgg coupling. Our result removes one of the largest sources of theoretical uncertainty in the description of high-p⊥ Higgs boson production and opens a way to use the high-p⊥ region to search for physics beyond the Standard Model.
Matching the quasiparton distribution in a momentum subtraction scheme
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stewart, Iain W.; Zhao, Yong
2018-03-01
The quasiparton distribution is a spatial correlation of quarks or gluons along the z direction in a moving nucleon which enables direct lattice calculations of parton distribution functions. It can be defined with a nonperturbative renormalization in a regularization independent momentum subtraction scheme (RI/MOM), which can then be perturbatively related to the collinear parton distribution in the MS ¯ scheme. Here we carry out a direct matching from the RI/MOM scheme for the quasi-PDF to the MS ¯ PDF, determining the non-singlet quark matching coefficient at next-to-leading order in perturbation theory. We find that the RI/MOM matching coefficient is insensitive to the ultraviolet region of convolution integral, exhibits improved perturbative convergence when converting between the quasi-PDF and PDF, and is consistent with a quasi-PDF that vanishes in the unphysical region as the proton momentum Pz→∞ , unlike other schemes. This direct approach therefore has the potential to improve the accuracy for converting quasidistribution lattice calculations to collinear distributions.
Topological superfluids with finite-momentum pairing and Majorana fermions.
Qu, Chunlei; Zheng, Zhen; Gong, Ming; Xu, Yong; Mao, Li; Zou, Xubo; Guo, Guangcan; Zhang, Chuanwei
2013-01-01
Majorana fermions (MFs), quantum particles that are their own antiparticles, are not only of fundamental importance in elementary particle physics and dark matter, but also building blocks for fault-tolerant quantum computation. Recently MFs have been intensively studied in solid state and cold atomic systems. These studies are generally based on superconducting pairing with zero total momentum. On the other hand, finite total momentum Cooper pairings, known as Fulde-Ferrell (FF) Larkin-Ovchinnikov (LO) states, were widely studied in many branches of physics. However, whether FF and LO superconductors can support MFs has not been explored. Here we show that MFs can exist in certain types of gapped FF states, yielding a new quantum matter: topological FF superfluids/superconductors. We demonstrate the existence of such topological FF superfluids and the associated MFs using spin-orbit-coupled degenerate Fermi gases and derive their parameter regions. The implementation of topological FF superconductors in semiconductor/superconductor heterostructures is also discussed.
Energy transfer, orbital angular momentum, and discrete current in a double-ring fiber array
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Alexeyev, C. N.; Volyar, A. V.; Yavorsky, M. A.
We study energy transfer and orbital angular momentum of supermodes in a double-ring array of evanescently coupled monomode optical fibers. The structure of supermodes and the spectra of their propagation constants are obtained. The geometrical parameters of the array, at which the energy is mostly confined within the layers, are determined. The developed method for finding the supermodes of concentric arrays is generalized for the case of multiring arrays. The orbital angular momentum carried by a supermode of a double-ring array is calculated. The discrete lattice current is introduced. It is shown that the sum of discrete currents over themore » array is a conserved quantity. The connection of the total discrete current with orbital angular momentum of discrete optical vortices is made.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hepkema, Tjebbe M.; de Swart, Huib E.; Zagaris, Antonios; Duran–Matute, Matias
2018-05-01
In a tidal channel with adjacent tidal flats, along-channel momentum is dissipated on the flats during rising tides. This leads to a sink of along-channel momentum. Using a perturbative method, it is shown that the momentum sink slightly reduces the M2 amplitude of both the sea surface elevation and current velocity and favours flood dominant tides. These changes in tidal characteristics (phase and amplitude of sea surface elevations and currents) are noticeable if widths of tidal flats are at least of the same order as the channel width, and amplitudes and gradients of along-channel velocity are large. The M2 amplitudes are reduced because stagnant water flows from the flats into the channel, thereby slowing down the current. The M4 amplitudes and phases change because the momentum sink acts as an advective term during the fall of the tide, such a term generates flood dominant currents. For a prototype embayment that resembles the Marsdiep-Vlie double-inlet system of the Western Wadden Sea, it is found that for both the sea surface elevation and current velocity, including the momentum sink, lead to a decrease of approximately 2 % in M2 amplitudes and an increase of approximately 25 % in M4 amplitudes. As a result, the net import of coarse sediment is increased by approximately 35 %, while the transport of fine sediment is hardly influenced by the momentum sink. For the Marsdiep-Vlie system, the M2 sea surface amplitude obtained from the idealised model is similar to that computed with a realistic three-dimensional numerical model whilst the comparison with regard to M4 improves if momentum sink is accounted for.
Inequality between size and angular momentum for bodies.
Dain, Sergio
2014-01-31
A universal inequality that bounds the angular momentum of a body by the square of its size is presented and heuristic physical arguments are given to support it. We prove a version of this inequality, as consequence of the Einstein equations, for the case of rotating axially symmetric, constant density, bodies. Finally, the physical relevance of this result is discussed.
Effect of a magnetic field on molecule-solvent angular momentum transfer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rzadkowski, Wojciech; Lemeshko, Mikhail
2018-03-01
Recently it was shown that a molecule rotating in a quantum solvent can be described in terms of the "angulon" quasiparticle [M. Lemeshko, Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 095301 (2017)]. Here we extend the angulon theory to the case of molecules possessing an additional spin-1/2 degree of freedom and study the behavior of the system in the presence of a static magnetic field. We show that exchange of angular momentum between the molecule and the solvent can be altered by the field, even though the solvent itself is non-magnetic. In particular, we demonstrate a possibility to control resonant emission of phonons with a given angular momentum using a magnetic field.
Displaced path integral formulation for the momentum distribution of quantum particles.
Lin, Lin; Morrone, Joseph A; Car, Roberto; Parrinello, Michele
2010-09-10
The proton momentum distribution, accessible by deep inelastic neutron scattering, is a very sensitive probe of the potential of mean force experienced by the protons in hydrogen-bonded systems. In this work we introduce a novel estimator for the end-to-end distribution of the Feynman paths, i.e., the Fourier transform of the momentum distribution. In this formulation, free particle and environmental contributions factorize. Moreover, the environmental contribution has a natural analogy to a free energy surface in statistical mechanics, facilitating the interpretation of experiments. The new formulation is not only conceptually but also computationally advantageous. We illustrate the method with applications to an empirical water model, ab initio ice, and one dimensional model systems.
Hautmann, F; Jung, H; Krämer, M; Mulders, P J; Nocera, E R; Rogers, T C; Signori, A
Transverse-momentum-dependent distributions (TMDs) are extensions of collinear parton distributions and are important in high-energy physics from both theoretical and phenomenological points of view. In this manual we introduce the library [Formula: see text], a tool to collect transverse-momentum-dependent parton distribution functions (TMD PDFs) and fragmentation functions (TMD FFs) together with an online plotting tool, TMDplotter. We provide a description of the program components and of the different physical frameworks the user can access via the available parameterisations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhong, Li-Xin; Xu, Wen-Juan; Chen, Rong-Da; Zhong, Chen-Yang; Qiu, Tian; Ren, Fei; He, Yun-Xing
2018-03-01
By incorporating market impact and momentum traders into an agent-based model, we investigate the conditions for the occurrence of self-reinforcing feedback loops and the coevolutionary mechanism of prices and strategies. For low market impact, the price fluctuations are originally large. The existence of momentum traders has little impact on the change of price fluctuations but destroys the equilibrium between the trend-following and trend-rejecting strategies. The trend-following herd behaviors become dominant. A self-reinforcing feedback loop exists. For high market impact, the existence of momentum traders leads to an increase in price fluctuations. The trend-following strategies of rational individuals are suppressed while the trend-following strategies of momentum traders are promoted. The crowd-anticrowd behaviors become dominant. A negative feedback loop exists. A theoretical analysis indicates that, for low market impact, the majority effect is beneficial for the trend-followers to earn more, which in turn promotes the trend-following strategies. For high market impact, the minority effect causes the trend-followers to suffer great losses, which in turn suppresses the trend-following strategies.