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Sample records for laboratory rearing technique

  1. Communications: Blood chemistry of laboratory-reared Golden trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunn, Joseph B.; Wiedmeyer, Ray H.; Greer, Ivan E.; Grady, Andrew W.

    1992-01-01

    Golden trout Oncorhynchus aguabonita obtained from a wild stock as fertilized eggs were reared in the laboratory for 21 months. The laboratory-reared golden trout in our study reached sexual maturity earlier and grew more rapidly than wild golden trout do (according to the scientific literature). Male fish averaged 35.6 cm in total length and 426 g in weight, and females averaged 36.2 cm and 487 g. All golden trout were sexually mature when used for hematological analysis. The hematological profile (hematocrit, red blood cells, white blood cells, and thrombocytes) of golden trout was similar to that reported elsewhere for other trout species. Male and female golden trout did not have significantly different thrombocyte counts; however, the immobilization treatment used on the fish (anesthesia versus a blow to the head) resulted in significant treatment differences in thrombocyte numbers and interaction effect of sex in treatment for hematocrits. Gravid female golden trout had significantly higher plasma protein and calcium levels than did males. The ionic compositions of plasma (sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, copper, zinc, iron, and chloride) and gallbladder bile (calcium and chloride) were similar to those reported for other salmonids.

  2. Mass rearing history negatively affects mating success of male Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) reared for sterile insect technique programs.

    PubMed

    Rull, Juan; Brunel, Odette; Mendez, Maria Elena

    2005-10-01

    Mating competitiveness and sterility induction into cohorts of wild Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae) was compared among wild and laboratory flies reared for use in the sterile insect technique Mexican program. Laboratory flies stemming from an 11-yr-old bisexual strain were either not irradiated, irradiated at 3 krad (low dose), or irradiated at 8 krad. In 30 by 30 by 30-cm Plexiglas cages, where a cohort of laboratory flies (male and female) irradiated at different doses (0, 3, and 8 krad) was introduced with a cohort of wild flies, males and females of each type mated randomly among themselves. Compared with nonirradiated laboratory and wild males, irradiated males, irrespective of dose (3 or 8 krad), induced shorter refractory periods and greater mating frequency in wild females. Nevertheless, laboratory flies irradiated at a low dose induced greater sterility into cohorts of wild flies than laboratory flies irradiated at a high dose. In a 3 by 3 by 3-m walk-in cage, wild males gained significantly more matings with wild females than nonirradiated and irradiated laboratory males a finding that revealed a strong effect of strain on mating performance. Mating incompatibility of the laboratory strain might have obscured the effect of reduced irradiation doses on male mating performance in the walk-in cage. Our results highlight an urgent need to replace the A. ludens strain currently used by the Mexican fruit fly eradication campaign and at least suggest that reducing irradiation doses result in an increase in sterility induction in wild populations.

  3. Dynamics of genetic variability in Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) during adaptation to laboratory rearing conditions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Anastrepha fraterculus is one of the most important fruit fly plagues in the American continent and only chemical control is applied in the field to diminish its population densities. A better understanding of the genetic variability during the introduction and adaptation of wild A. fraterculus populations to laboratory conditions is required for the development of stable and vigorous experimental colonies and mass-reared strains in support of successful Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) efforts. Methods The present study aims to analyze the dynamics of changes in genetic variability during the first six generations under artificial rearing conditions in two populations: a) a wild population recently introduced to laboratory culture, named TW and, b) a long-established control line, named CL. Results Results showed a declining tendency of genetic variability in TW. In CL, the relatively high values of genetic variability appear to be maintained across generations and could denote an intrinsic capacity to avoid the loss of genetic diversity in time. Discussion The impact of evolutionary forces on this species during the adaptation process as well as the best approach to choose strategies to introduce experimental and mass-reared A. fraterculus strains for SIT programs are discussed. PMID:25471362

  4. Spawning of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) and rearing of veligers under laboratory conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, S. Jerrine; Nalepa, Thomas F.; Schloesser, Donald W.

    1992-01-01

    The spawning cycle of the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, is amenable to laboratory manipulations. Techniques are presented that can be used to initiate spawning and rear veligers from fertilized egg to settlement stage. Spawning can be induced in sexually mature mussels by temperature flucuations or by the addition of ripe gametes. Embryonic survival is excellent until the straight-hinge stage when the first wave of mortality occurs, usually due to improper food. The second critical stage of development occurs just prior to settlement when mortality increases again. Veliger mortality averaged over 90% from egg to settlement. The results indicate that obtaining large numbers of veligers for laboratory experiments to be conducted year-round is difficult.

  5. An inexpensive, versatile mosquito rearing chamber for field, laboratory, and classroom investigations.

    PubMed

    Dees, William H; Figueroa, Aaron P; Schultz, George W

    2011-03-01

    An inexpensive mosquito rearing chamber for field, laboratory, and classroom investigations is described. The rearing chamber is made from plastics recycled from peanut butter jars and room deodorizers. The top of the chamber requires mesh material and gluing. The cost for the rearing chamber is negligible. The design of the chamber allows for direct field collecting of larvae and for easy knock down/cold storage of emerged adults. In addition to its use in field and laboratory investigations, the chamber is an excellent device for classroom study of insect metamorphosis.

  6. Aggression and feeding of hatchery-reared and naturally reared steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fry in a laboratory flume and a comparison with observations in natural streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Riley, S.C.; Tatara, C.P.; Scheurer, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    We quantified the aggression and feeding of naturally reared steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fry stocked into a laboratory flume with naturally reared fry or hatchery-reared fry from conventional and enriched rearing environments at three densities in the presence and absence of predators, and compared the aggression and feeding observed in the flume to that observed in two streams. Steelhead fry attack rate increased with density and was reduced in the presence of predators, but was not affected by rearing treatment. Threat rate appeared to increase with density and was significantly affected by rearing treatment combination, but was not significantly affected by predator presence. Feeding rate was not affected by density or rearing treatment, but was reduced in the presence of predators. The rate of aggression by steelhead fry in two streams was lower than that observed in the laboratory and did not increase with density. Rates of aggression and feeding of hatchery-reared and wild steelhead fry were not significantly different in the streams. Overall, we found no evidence that hatchery rearing environments caused higher aggression in steelhead fry. Laboratory observations of salmonid aggression, particularly at high density, may not reflect aggression levels in the wild. ?? 2005 NRC.

  7. Do laboratory rearing conditions affect auditory and mechanosensory development of zebrafish (Danio rerio)?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poling, Kirsten R.; Jaworski, Eva; Fantetti, Kristen R.; Higgs, Dennis M.

    2005-04-01

    The effect of anthropogenic noise on the fish auditory system has become of increasing concern due to possible detrimental effects of intense sounds on auditory function and structures. This is especially problematic when raising fish in laboratory and aquaculture settings using filtration and aeration, which increase sound levels. To assess the effects of laboratory rearing conditions, one group of zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos (``controls'') were placed into aerated aquaria in a normal laboratory rearing environment. A second set of embryos (``quiet'') were reared in aquaria with no aeration or filtration in a sound-resistant room. The intensity difference between the two sets of tanks was over 30 dB. Preliminary data show that there was no affect of differential rearing environments on saccular hair cell numbers or on hearing ability in fish up to 25 mm total length. However, rearing environment did affect neuromast number. ``Quiet'' fish had higher numbers of both cephalic and trunk superficial neuromasts, relative to controls. This difference was maintained up to 11 mm total length (the size at which canal formation begins). This suggests that acoustic environments normally found in the laboratory do not affect development of hearing in zebrafish, although laboratory acoustics may affect mechanosensory development.

  8. Exposing Laboratory-Reared Fleas to Soil and Wild Flea Feces Increases Transmission of Yersinia pestis

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Ryan T.; Vetter, Sara M.; Gage, Kenneth L.

    2013-01-01

    Laboratory-reared Oropsylla montana were exposed to soil and wild-caught Oropsylla montana feces for 1 week. Fleas from these two treatments and a control group of laboratory-reared fleas were infected with Yersinia pestis, the etiological agent of plague. Fleas exposed to soil transmitted Y. pestis to mice at a significantly greater rate (50.0% of mice were infected) than control fleas (23.3% of mice were infected). Although the concentration of Y. pestis in fleas did not differ among treatments, the minimum transmission efficiency of fleas from the soil and wild flea feces treatments (6.9% and 7.6%, respectively) were more than three times higher than in control fleas (2.2%). Our results suggest that exposing laboratory-reared fleas to diverse microbes alters transmission of Y. pestis. PMID:23939709

  9. Digital Techniques for Laboratory Measurements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dart, S. Leonard

    1975-01-01

    Describes techniques and equipment intended to both improve laboratory measurements and also form a background for more advanced work by introducing the concepts of electronic and digital circuits. (GS)

  10. Rearing and Maintaining Midge Cultures (Chironomus tentans) for Laboratory Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hein, John; Mahadeva, Madhu N.

    1992-01-01

    The life history of the Chironomus tentans can be observed in easily established and maintained laboratory cultures. Projects for the classroom include observing hydration of an egg mass; embryonic development, hatching and larval feeding; larval activity; and mating activity. (MDH)

  11. Augmenting laboratory rearing of stable fly (diptera: muscidae) larvae with ammoniacal salts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stable flies are serious pests of livestock. The immature stages develop in decaying materials which frequently have high ammonium content. We added various ammonium salts to our laboratory stable fly rearing medium and measured their effect on size and survival as well as the physical properties o...

  12. Comparative Studies of Predation Among Feral, Commercially-Purchased, and Laboratory-Reared Predators

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The predatory activities of commercially-purchased Hippodamia convergens Guèrin-Mèneville and two laboratory-reared strains of Geocoris punctipes (Say) were compared with their feral counterparts. In single prey choice feeding tests, commercially-purchased and feral H. convergens were provided copi...

  13. Performance of Wild and Laboratory-Reared Gypsy Moth (Lepidoptera: Erebidae): A Comparison between Foliage and Artificial Diet.

    PubMed

    Grayson, Kristine L; Parry, Dylan; Faske, Trevor M; Hamilton, Audrey; Tobin, Patrick C; Agosta, Salvatore J; Johnson, Derek M

    2015-06-01

    The effects of long-term mass rearing of laboratory insects on ecologically relevant traits is an important consideration when applying research conclusions to wild populations or developing management strategies. Laboratory strains of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), an invasive forest pest in North America, have been continuously reared since 1967. Selection on these strains has enhanced a variety of traits, resulting in faster development, shorter diapause, and greater fecundity. As in many mass-reared insects, laboratory strains of the gypsy moth are also reared exclusively on artificial diets that lack much of the phytochemical and nutritional complexity associated with natural foliage. We tested for differences in growth and development of wild gypsy moth populations from across the invasive range in comparison to laboratory strains when reared on artificial diet and a preferred foliage host species, northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.). Overall, caterpillars reared on foliage had higher survival and faster development rates, with smaller differences among populations. When reared on artificial diet, laboratory strains had the highest performance as expected. The response from the wild populations was mixed, with two populations performing poorly on artificial diet and another performing nearly as well as the laboratory strains. Performance on diet was enhanced when larvae received cubed portions changed regularly, as opposed to filled cups. Understanding these relationships between food source and population performance is important for informing studies that examine population comparisons using wild and laboratory-reared strains.

  14. Laboratory rearing of wild Arctic cod Boreogadus saida from egg to adulthood.

    PubMed

    Kent, D; Drost, H E; Fisher, J; Oyama, T; Farrell, A P

    2016-03-01

    The techniques and protocols used to successfully capture, transport and breed Arctic cod Boreogadus saida, as well as to rear their larvae through to adulthood are summarized. Breeding B. saida will increase the opportunity to study this fish species, which is a critical part of the Arctic food web.

  15. Effect of phloem thickness on heterozygosity in laboratory-reared mountain pine beetles. Forest Service research note

    SciTech Connect

    Amman, G.D.; Stock, M.W.

    1995-02-01

    Mountain pine beetles (Dendrocotonus ponderosae Hopkins) were collected from naturally infested trees of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.) in northern Utah. Bettles were reared in logs through six generations in a laboratory, and heterozygosity measured. Heterozygosity levels initially decreased when individual pairs of beetles were reared. However, when beetles were allowed to selected mates at random, heterozygosity rose to levels higher than those in the starting population. Heterozygosity was higher in bettles reared in thin than those in thick phloem.

  16. Evaluating the use of irradiated caribean fruit fly (Diptera:Tephritidae) larvae for laboratory rearing of Doryctobracon areolatus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mass-rearing and augmentative release of hymenopterous parasitoids has been a component of area-wide management programs for several tephritid fruit flies, including pestiferous species of the genus Anastrepha (Cancino and Montoya, in press). Laboratory rearing of Doryctobracon areolatus (Szeplige...

  17. Techniques for rearing and releasing nonmigratory cranes: Lessons from the Mississippi Sandhill Crane program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, D.H.; Olsen, G.H.; Gee, G.F.; Nicolich, Jane M.; O'Malley, K.E.; Nagendran, Meenakshi; Hereford, Scott G.; Range, P.; Harper, W.T.; Ingram, R.P.; Smith, D.G.

    1992-01-01

    Captive-reared Mississippi sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis pulla) reared at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center (Patuxent) have been released at the Mississippi Sandhill Crane National Wildlife Refuge (MSCNWR) since 1981. Of 131 birds released through December 1990, 103 were reared by foster parents. The remaining 28 were experimentally hand-reared in 1989 and 1990. After refining release procedures, parent-reared birds have integrated into the wild flock, many have survived, and some have bred. Releases of hand-reared cranes elsewhere in the 1970's were largely unsuccessful, at least in part due to the lack of a lengthy acclimation period. A new hand-rearing protocol holds promise in producing release-worthy birds. The technique employs some features first used in the 1960's (e.g., a costume for the human caretaker and model crane heads used to train chicks to feed). In the mid-1980's, the following features were added: (1) the costumed caretaker was given a visor and feathers, (2) a taxidermic crane head or a hand puppet was held or suspended from the ceiling for use in stimulating chicks to feed, (3) a taxidermic mount of a brooding crane supplied warmth, (4) a full-sized live crane was maintained in an adjacent pen and in visual contact with neonatal young to provide an imprinting model, and (5) a small group of adult (or subadult) cranes was penned adjacent to the outdoor chick pens to provide socialization models. Recent releases of Mississippi sandhill cranes hand-reared according to this protocol and released in Mississippi have had high first-year survival rates. The now-operational technique holds promise for producing large numbers of release-worthy birds.

  18. Superparasitism in laboratory rearing of Spalangia cameroni (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), a parasitoid of medfly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Tormos, J; Asís, J; Sabater-Muñoz, B; Baños, L; Gayubo, S F; Beitia, F

    2012-02-01

    The frequency of superparasitism and its effects on the quality of laboratory-reared Spalangia cameroni (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) parasitoids were investigated under laboratory conditions. Numerous variables were measured, such as the number of 'ovip holes' per host as a measure of superparasitism. Adult emergence and sex ratio, as well as female size, emergence ability from soil and longevity were also measured. Finally, an assessment was made of fertility and survival of adult parasitoids emerging from the medfly Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) pupae with different levels of superparasitism. A high frequency and prevalence of superparasitism under laboratory rearing conditions was observed. The number of 'ovip holes' per host ranged from one to 17, with an average (±SD) of 2.8±3.4. Sex ratios became increasingly female-biased with increasing levels of superparasitism, although overall levels of wasp emergence (male, female) declined. Nevertheless, no relationship was discerned between female size and level of superparasitism. The 'emergence ability from the soil' was higher in those parasitoids that emerged from strongly superparasitized hosts, but not related to the type of substrate in which the host pupae were buried. The level of superparasitism did not have a significant effect on the longevity, fertility and survival of female parasitoids. Our results support the hypothesis that superparasitism in S. cameroni might be adaptive, since attributes such as 'emergence ability from the soil', longevity, fertility and survival were not affected by the level of superparasitism or the presumably detrimental effects derived from physical combats among conspecific larvae. Our findings are relevant to recommendations for rearing S. cameroni for biological control releases, as well as shedding light on superparasitism under both laboratory and field conditions.

  19. Larval development of the subantarctic king crabs Lithodes santolla and Paralomis granulosa reared in the laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calcagno, J. A.; Anger, K.; Lovrich, G. A.; Thatje, S.; Kaffenberger, A.

    2004-02-01

    The larval development and survival in the two subantarctic lithodid crabs Lithodes santolla (Jaquinot) and Paralomis granulosa (Molina) from the Argentine Beagle Channel were studied in laboratory cultures. In L. santolla, larval development lasted about 70 days, passing through three zoeal stages and the megalopa stage, with a duration of approximately 4, 7, 11 and 48 days, respectively. The larval development in P. granulosa is more abbreviated, comprising only two zoeal stages and the megalopa stage, with 6, 11 and 43 days' duration, respectively. In both species, we tested for effects of presence versus absence of food (Artemia nauplii) on larval development duration and survival rate. In P. granulosa, we also studied effects of different rearing conditions, such as individual versus mass cultures, as well as aerated versus unaerated cultures. No differences in larval development duration and survival were observed between animals subjected to those different rearing conditions. The lack of response to the presence or absence of potential food confirms, in both species, a complete lecithotrophic mode of larval development. Since lithodid crabs are of high economic importance in the artisanal fishery in the southernmost parts of South America, the knowledge of optimal rearing conditions for lithodid larvae is essential for future attempts at repopulating the collapsing natural stocks off Tierra del Fuego.

  20. Stable isotope markers differentiate between mass-reared and wild Lepidoptera in sterile insect technique programs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this comprehensive study a number of Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) target moth species were identified and the feasibility was assessed of using isotope signatures to distinguish mass reared from wild moth species as a marking tool. Large natural differences in the isotopic signatures of commer...

  1. Aseptic laboratory techniques: plating methods.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Erin R

    2012-05-11

    Microorganisms are present on all inanimate surfaces creating ubiquitous sources of possible contamination in the laboratory. Experimental success relies on the ability of a scientist to sterilize work surfaces and equipment as well as prevent contact of sterile instruments and solutions with non-sterile surfaces. Here we present the steps for several plating methods routinely used in the laboratory to isolate, propagate, or enumerate microorganisms such as bacteria and phage. All five methods incorporate aseptic technique, or procedures that maintain the sterility of experimental materials. Procedures described include (1) streak-plating bacterial cultures to isolate single colonies, (2) pour-plating and (3) spread-plating to enumerate viable bacterial colonies, (4) soft agar overlays to isolate phage and enumerate plaques, and (5) replica-plating to transfer cells from one plate to another in an identical spatial pattern. These procedures can be performed at the laboratory bench, provided they involve non-pathogenic strains of microorganisms (Biosafety Level 1, BSL-1). If working with BSL-2 organisms, then these manipulations must take place in a biosafety cabinet. Consult the most current edition of the Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories (BMBL) as well as Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) for Infectious Substances to determine the biohazard classification as well as the safety precautions and containment facilities required for the microorganism in question. Bacterial strains and phage stocks can be obtained from research investigators, companies, and collections maintained by particular organizations such as the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC). It is recommended that non-pathogenic strains be used when learning the various plating methods. By following the procedures described in this protocol, students should be able to: Perform plating procedures without contaminating media. Isolate single bacterial colonies by the streak

  2. Aseptic Laboratory Techniques: Plating Methods

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Erin R.

    2012-01-01

    Microorganisms are present on all inanimate surfaces creating ubiquitous sources of possible contamination in the laboratory. Experimental success relies on the ability of a scientist to sterilize work surfaces and equipment as well as prevent contact of sterile instruments and solutions with non-sterile surfaces. Here we present the steps for several plating methods routinely used in the laboratory to isolate, propagate, or enumerate microorganisms such as bacteria and phage. All five methods incorporate aseptic technique, or procedures that maintain the sterility of experimental materials. Procedures described include (1) streak-plating bacterial cultures to isolate single colonies, (2) pour-plating and (3) spread-plating to enumerate viable bacterial colonies, (4) soft agar overlays to isolate phage and enumerate plaques, and (5) replica-plating to transfer cells from one plate to another in an identical spatial pattern. These procedures can be performed at the laboratory bench, provided they involve non-pathogenic strains of microorganisms (Biosafety Level 1, BSL-1). If working with BSL-2 organisms, then these manipulations must take place in a biosafety cabinet. Consult the most current edition of the Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories (BMBL) as well as Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) for Infectious Substances to determine the biohazard classification as well as the safety precautions and containment facilities required for the microorganism in question. Bacterial strains and phage stocks can be obtained from research investigators, companies, and collections maintained by particular organizations such as the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC). It is recommended that non-pathogenic strains be used when learning the various plating methods. By following the procedures described in this protocol, students should be able to: ● Perform plating procedures without contaminating media. ● Isolate single bacterial colonies by the

  3. Changes associated with laboratory rearing in antennal sensilla patterns of Triatoma infestans, Rhodnius prolixus, and Rhodnius pallescens (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae).

    PubMed

    Catalá, S S; Maida, D M; Caro-Riaño, H; Jaramillo, N; Moreno, J

    2004-02-01

    We examined changes in the array of antennal sensilla of three species of Triatominae (Triatoma infestans, Rhodnius prolixus, and R. pallescens) following their establishment for different periods in laboratory culture. In each case, the laboratory colonies were compared with conspecific samples taken directly from the field, by quantitative analysis of the sensilla arrays on the three distal segments of the antenna in terms of the densities of three types of chemoreceptors (basiconics and thick and thin walled trichoids) and one type of mechanoreceptor (bristles). Sensilla densities were compared by ANOVA or non-parametric tests, and by multivariate discriminant analysis. Strains of the same species reared in different laboratories showed significant differences in their sensilla arrays, especially when compared to field-collected material from the same geographic origin. A Bolivian strain of T. infestans reared in the laboratory for 15 years and fed at monthly intervals, showed greatest differences from its conspecific wild forms, especially in terms of reductions in the number of chemoreceptors. By contrast, an Argentine strain of T. infestans reared for 25 years in the laboratory and fed weekly, showed a relative increase in the density of mechanoreceptors. A Colombian strain of R. prolixus reared for 20 years and fed weekly or fortnightly, showed only modest differences in the sensilla array when compared to its wild populations from the same area. However, a Colombian strain of R. pallescens reared for 12 years and fed fortnightly, did show highly significant reductions in one form of chemoreceptor compared to its conspecific wild populations. For all populations, multivariate analysis clearly discriminated between laboratory and field collected specimens, suggesting that artificial rearing can lead to modifications in the sensory array. This not only supports the idea of morphological plasticity in these species, but also suggests caution in the use of long

  4. Short report: Exposing laboratory-reared fleas to soil and wild flea feces increases transmission of Yersinia pestis.

    PubMed

    Jones, Ryan T; Vetter, Sara M; Gage, Kenneth L

    2013-10-01

    Laboratory-reared Oropsylla montana were exposed to soil and wild-caught Oropsylla montana feces for 1 week. Fleas from these two treatments and a control group of laboratory-reared fleas were infected with Yersinia pestis, the etiological agent of plague. Fleas exposed to soil transmitted Y. pestis to mice at a significantly greater rate (50.0% of mice were infected) than control fleas (23.3% of mice were infected). Although the concentration of Y. pestis in fleas did not differ among treatments, the minimum transmission efficiency of fleas from the soil and wild flea feces treatments (6.9% and 7.6%, respectively) were more than three times higher than in control fleas (2.2%). Our results suggest that exposing laboratory-reared fleas to diverse microbes alters transmission of Y. pestis.

  5. Growth and reproduction of laboratory-reared neanurid Collembola using a novel slime mould diet

    PubMed Central

    Hoskins, Jessica L.; Janion-Scheepers, Charlene; Chown, Steven L.; Duffy, Grant A.

    2015-01-01

    Although significant progress has been made using insect taxa as model organisms, non-tracheated terrestrial arthropods, such as Collembola, are underrepresented as model species. This underrepresentation reflects the difficulty in maintaining populations of specialist Collembola species in the laboratory. Until now, no species from the family Neanuridae have been successfully reared. Here we use controlled growth experiments to provide explicit evidence that the species Neanura muscorum can be raised under laboratory conditions when its diet is supplemented with slime mould. Significant gains in growth were observed in Collembola given slime mould rather than a standard diet of algae-covered bark. These benefits are further highlighted by the reproductive success of the experimental group and persistence of laboratory breeding stocks of this species and others in the family. The necessity for slime mould in the diet is attributed to the ‘suctorial’ mouthpart morphology characteristic of the Neanuridae. Maintaining laboratory populations of neanurid Collembola species will facilitate their use as model organisms, paving the way for studies that will broaden the current understanding of the environmental physiology of arthropods. PMID:26153104

  6. Growth and reproduction of laboratory-reared neanurid Collembola using a novel slime mould diet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoskins, Jessica L.; Janion-Scheepers, Charlene; Chown, Steven L.; Duffy, Grant A.

    2015-07-01

    Although significant progress has been made using insect taxa as model organisms, non-tracheated terrestrial arthropods, such as Collembola, are underrepresented as model species. This underrepresentation reflects the difficulty in maintaining populations of specialist Collembola species in the laboratory. Until now, no species from the family Neanuridae have been successfully reared. Here we use controlled growth experiments to provide explicit evidence that the species Neanura muscorum can be raised under laboratory conditions when its diet is supplemented with slime mould. Significant gains in growth were observed in Collembola given slime mould rather than a standard diet of algae-covered bark. These benefits are further highlighted by the reproductive success of the experimental group and persistence of laboratory breeding stocks of this species and others in the family. The necessity for slime mould in the diet is attributed to the ‘suctorial’ mouthpart morphology characteristic of the Neanuridae. Maintaining laboratory populations of neanurid Collembola species will facilitate their use as model organisms, paving the way for studies that will broaden the current understanding of the environmental physiology of arthropods.

  7. Viruses in laboratory-reared cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Marti, O.G.; Myers, R.E.; Carpenter, J.E.; Styer, E.L.

    2007-03-15

    The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae: Phycitinae), is a non-native species threatening a variety of native cacti, particularly endangered species of Opuntia (Zimmerman et al. 2001), on the coast of the Gulf of Mexico. Cactoblastis cactorum populations have expanded from Florida northward along the Atlantic coast as far as Charleston, SC, and westward along the Gulf of Mexico to Dauphin Island, south of Mobile, AL. It is feared that further movement to the west will allow C. cactorum to enter the US desert Southwest and Mexico, particularly the latter. Numerous cactus species, especially those of the genera Opuntia and Nopalea, are native to the U.S. and Mexico. Local economies based on agricultural and horticultural uses of cacti could be devastated by C. cactorum (Vigueras and Portillo 2001). A bi-national control program between the US and Mexico is being developed, utilizing the sterile insect technique (SIT). In the SIT program, newly emerged moths are irradiated with a {sup 60}Co source and released to mate with wild individuals. The radiation dose completely sterilizes the females and partially sterilizes the males. When irradiated males mate with wild females, the F1 progeny of these matings are sterile. In order for the SIT program to succeed, large numbers of moths must be reared from egg to adult on artificial diet in a quarantined rearing facility (Carpenter et al. 2001). Irradiated insects must then be released in large numbers at the leading edge of the invasive population and at times which coincide with the presence of wild individuals available for mating. Mortality from disease in the rearing colony disrupts the SIT program by reducing the numbers of insects available for release.

  8. Augmenting Laboratory Rearing of Stable Fly (Diptera: Muscidae) Larvae With Ammoniacal Salts.

    PubMed

    Friesen, Kristina; Berkebile, Dennis R; Zhu, Jerry J; Taylor, David B

    2017-01-01

    Stable flies are blood feeding parasites and serious pests of livestock. The immature stages develop in decaying materials which frequently have high ammonium content. We added various ammonium salts to our laboratory stable fly rearing medium and measured their effect on size and survival as well as the physical properties of the used media. The addition of ammonium hydroxide, ammonium phosphate and ammonium sulfate reduced larval survival. These compounds decreased pH and increased ammonium content of the used media. Ammonium bicarbonate had no effect on pH and marginally increased ammonium while increasing survival twofold. The optimal level of ammonium bicarbonate was 50 g (0.63 mol) per pan. Larval survival decreased when pH was outside the range of 8.5 to 9.0.

  9. Augmenting Laboratory Rearing of Stable Fly (Diptera: Muscidae) Larvae With Ammoniacal Salts

    PubMed Central

    Friesen, Kristina; Berkebile, Dennis R.; Zhu, Jerry J.; Taylor, David B.

    2017-01-01

    Stable flies are blood feeding parasites and serious pests of livestock. The immature stages develop in decaying materials which frequently have high ammonium content. We added various ammonium salts to our laboratory stable fly rearing medium and measured their effect on size and survival as well as the physical properties of the used media. The addition of ammonium hydroxide, ammonium phosphate and ammonium sulfate reduced larval survival. These compounds decreased pH and increased ammonium content of the used media. Ammonium bicarbonate had no effect on pH and marginally increased ammonium while increasing survival twofold. The optimal level of ammonium bicarbonate was 50 g (0.63 mol) per pan. Larval survival decreased when pH was outside the range of 8.5 to 9.0. PMID:28130462

  10. Airborne Synthetic Aperature Radar (AIRSAR) on left rear fuselage of DC-8 Airborne Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    A view of the Airborne Synthetic Aperature Radar (AIRSAR) antenna on the left rear fuselage of the DC-8. The AIRSAR captures images of the ground from the side of the aircraft and can provide precision digital elevation mapping capabilities for a variety of studies. The AIRSAR is one of a number of research systems that have been added to the DC-8. NASA is using a DC-8 aircraft as a flying science laboratory. The platform aircraft, based at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif., collects data for many experiments in support of scientific projects serving the world scientific community. Included in this community are NASA, federal, state, academic and foreign investigators. Data gathered by the DC-8 at flight altitude and by remote sensing have been used for scientific studies in archeology, ecology, geography, hydrology, meteorology, oceanography, volcanology, atmospheric chemistry, soil science and biology.

  11. Laboratory Techniques for the Blind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tombaugh, Dorothy

    1972-01-01

    Describes modifications of laboratory procedures for the BSCS Green Version biology, including dissection, microbiology, animal behavior, physiology, biochemistry, and genetics that make the methods suitable for direct experimentation by blind students. Discusses models as substitutes for microscopy. (AL)

  12. Thermal and substrate color-induced melanization in laboratory reared red-eared sliders (Trachemys scripta elegans).

    PubMed

    Rowe, John W; Clark, David L; Mortensen, Rebecca A; Commissaris, Carolyn V; Wittle, Lawrence W; Tucker, John K

    2016-10-01

    Color and pigmentation patterns of the integument can facilitate crypsis, thermoregulation, and social signaling. According to the "thermal melanism hypothesis", cold environmental temperature should increase the quantity of melanin that is deposited in the integument thereby facilitating radiative warming. We studied the influences of water temperature (26°C or 31°C) and substrate color (black or white) on the degree of melanization in the red-eared slider, Trachemys scripta elegans, under laboratory conditions. Turtles reared on a black substrate, or in 26°C water, for 120 days were darker than those reared on a white substrate or in 31°C water. A potential tradeoff between the fitness benefits of crypsis and the benefits of radiative warming through melanism was detected because turtles reared in 26°C water and on a white substrate were darker than those reared on a white substrate and in 31°C water. Low temperatures limited metabolic processes because turtles reared in 26°C water grew more slowly than those reared in 31°C water. However, histological analyses revealed that melanization was a dynamic process in all treatments confirming that the degree of melanization in the cool water treatment was not influenced by the initial and relatively dark hatchling coloration in individuals that grew relatively slowly.

  13. Alternative Method for the Mass Rearing of Lutzomyia (Lutzomyia) cruzi (Diptera: Psychodidae) in a Laboratory Setting.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, E F; Fernandes, W S; Oshiro, E T; Oliveira, A G; Galati, E A B

    2015-09-01

    The understanding of the transmission dynamics of Leishmania spp. Ross as well as the epidemiology and spread of leishmaniasis is related to parasite-vector-host interactions. These interactions can be studied using specimens of a sand fly population reared in the laboratory, exposing individuals to experimental infection for the investigation of vector competence and parameters of the vectorial capacity of the species. The present study sought to describe an alternative method for the implantation of a Lutzomyia (Lutzomyia) cruzi colony with wild specimens captured in the municipality of Corumbá, Brazil. With Method 1, engorged females were individualized for oviposition. The eggs were transferred to an acrylic petri dish with a layer of plaster on the bottom, on which food was placed after hatching of the first larvae. With Method 2, females were kept in groups for oviposition in containers, in which soil and food were placed on their bottom for the larvae. In addition, the exposure time of the larvae to light was reduced in comparison with Method 1. With Method 2, a significantly greater number of specimens of Lu. cruzi was obtained. The ratio between the number of emerged adults and the females followed for oviposition was 0.42 with Method 1 and 2.75 with Method 2. The optimization of the rearing conditions for Lu. cruzi will enable the establishment of a colony providing a sufficient number of specimens to develop experimental infection by Leishmania as well as vectorial competence and some parameters of the vectorial capacity of this sand fly.

  14. Effect of learning on the oviposition preference of field-collected and laboratory-reared Chilo partellus (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) populations.

    PubMed

    Glas, J J; van den Berg, J; Potting, R P J

    2007-08-01

    Recent studies show that Vetiver grass, (Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash), may have potential as a dead-end trap crop in an overall habitat management strategy for the spotted stem borer, Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae). Vetiver grass is highly preferred for oviposition, in spite of the fact that larval survival is extremely low on this grass. The oviposition behaviour of female Chilo partellus moths was investigated by determining the amount and size of egg batches allocated to maize and Vetiver plants and studying the effect of rearing conditions and oviposition experience on host plant selection. Two-choice preference tests were used to examine the effect of experience of maize (a suitable host plant) and Vetiver plants on the oviposition choice of C. partellus. For both field-collected and laboratory-reared moths, no significant differences were found in the preference distributions between the experienced groups. It is concluded that females do not learn, i.e. that they do not change their preference for Vetiver grass after having experienced oviposition on either maize or this grass, which supports the idea that trap cropping could have potential as a control method for C. partellus. Differences observed between field-collected and laboratory-reared moths in the amount and size of egg batches laid on maize and Vetiver grass indicate that data obtained from experiments with laboratory-reared insects should be treated with caution.

  15. Acoustic tomography. Laboratory technique Implementation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galvis, Jorge; Carvajal, Jenny

    2010-05-01

    From geomechanical tests carried out on rocks it is possible to determine its physico-mechanical properties, which relate the strain and applied stress; even so, conventional tests do not allow to identify how stress is distributed and how it has affected porous media. Today, techniques like acoustic tomography widely used in medicine, geophysics and others sciences, generates images by sections of the interior of a body. Acoustic tomography allows inferring the stress state within porous media; since wave velocities are closely related to media density, if a stress is applied to a rock, it will generate grains compaction and this will be showed by an increase of wave velocity. Implementation was conducted on rock plugs under diverse stress fields, simultaneously recording P-wave velocities (Compressional) on perpendicular planes to sample vertical axis. Transmission and reception of acoustic waves through porous media were done by piezoelectric crystals (PZT) used as sensors. A transmitting crystal excited by a voltage pulse causes a mechanical vibration, which travels across media; this is known as inverse piezoelectric effect. This vibration is recorded by a receiving crystal in which the direct piezoelectric effect appears; which dictates that if a piezoelectric is disturbed mechanically, an electrical signal between its terminals will appear. This electrical signal is used to obtain the wave velocity. Nevertheless, acoustic tomography corresponds to one of those called inverse Problems that arise when from observed data the model parameters must be obtained; in this way, tomography involves iterative reconstruction techniques (ART or SIRT) which are projections of observed data and its later inversion. Obtained results are cross-sectional images of velocity within the rock. In these images it is possible to identify where stress has a greater concentration observing the color map generated; thus, a greater velocity density area corresponding to a greater

  16. Comparison of laboratory and field bioassays of lab-reared Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) quality and field performance.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maximum production and fitness of insect species that are mass-reared for biological control programs such as the sterile insect technique (SIT) have benefitted from the employment of quality control and quality management. With a growing interest in the use of SIT as a tactic for the suppression/e...

  17. Quality control tests of lab-reared Cydia pomonella and Cactoblastis cactorum field performance: Comparison of laboratory and field bioassays.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research, operational, and commercial programs which rely on mass-reared insects of high quality and performance, need accurate methods for monitoring quality degradation during each step of production, handling and release. With continued interest in the use of the sterile insect technique (SIT) a...

  18. Daily blood feeding rhythms of laboratory-reared North American Culex pipiens

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Blood feeding by free-living insect vectors of disease is rhythmic and can be used to predict when infectious bites will occur. These daily rhythms can also be targeted by control measures, as in insecticide-treated nets. Culex pipiens form pipiens and C.p. f. molestus are two members of the Culex pipiens assemblage and vectors of West Nile Virus throughout North America. Although Culex species vector human pathogens and parasites, the daily blood feeding rhythms of C.p. f. molestus, to our knowledge, have not been studied. We described and compared the daily blood feeding rhythms of three laboratory-reared populations of Culex pipiens, one of which has confirmed molestus ancestry. We also examined the plasticity of blood feeding time for these three populations. Results For most (>70%) C.p. f. pipiens and C.p. f. molestus collected from metropolitan Chicago, IL, blood feeding took place during scotophase. Peak blood feeding occurred in mid-scotophase, 3-6 hours after lights off. For C.p. f. pipiens originating from Pennsylvania, most mosquitoes (> 90%) blood fed during late photophase and early scotophase. C.p. f. molestus denied a blood meal during scotophase were less likely to blood feed during early photophase (< 20%) than were C.p. f. pipiens from Chicago (> 50%). C.p. f. pipiens from Pennsylvania were capable of feeding readily at any hour of photo- or scotophase. Conclusions Daily blood feeding rhythms of C.p. f. molestus are similar to those of C.p. f. pipiens, particularly when populations originate from the same geographic region. However, the timing of blood feeding is more flexible for C.p. f. pipiens populations relative to C.p. f. molestus. PMID:24450879

  19. Distribution and occurrence of the insect pathogenic alga Helicosporidium sp. (Chlorophyta: Trebouxiophyceae) in the predator beetle Rhizophagus grandis G: yll. (Coleoptera: Rhizophagidae)-rearing laboratories.

    PubMed

    Yaman, M; Tosun, O; Aydın, C; Ertürk, O

    2011-01-01

    The distribution and occurrence of the insect pathogenic algae Helicosporidium sp. (Chlorophyta: Trebouxiophyceae) in the predator beetle Rhizophagus grandis (Coleoptera: Rhizophagidae)-rearing laboratories were studied and reported here for the first time. The insect pathogenic alga Helicosporidium sp. infection was observed in all R. grandis-rearing laboratories. The infection rate reached more than 20% which is significant among the samples in some R. grandis-rearing laboratories. The infection rates of the examined beetles showed noticeable differences between localities and years. There was no significant difference in the infection levels of male and female beetles. These results showed that Helicosporidium sp. is one of the factors that decrease efficiency of the R. grandis-rearing laboratories.

  20. Genetic and environmental factors associated with laboratory rearing affect survival and assortative mating but not overall mating success in Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto.

    PubMed

    Paton, Doug; Touré, Mahamoudou; Sacko, Adama; Coulibaly, Mamadou B; Traoré, Sékou F; Tripet, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto, the main vector of malaria in Africa, is characterized by its vast geographical range and complex population structure. Assortative mating amongst the reproductively isolated cryptic forms that co-occur in many areas poses unique challenges for programs aiming to decrease malaria incidence via the release of sterile or genetically-modified mosquitoes. Importantly, whether laboratory-rearing affects the ability of An. gambiae individuals of a given cryptic taxa to successfully mate with individuals of their own form in field conditions is still unknown and yet crucial for mosquito-releases. Here, the independent effects of genetic and environmental factors associated with laboratory rearing on male and female survival, mating success and assortative mating were evaluated in the Mopti form of An. gambiae over 2010 and 2011. In semi-field enclosures experiments and despite strong variation between years, the overall survival and mating success of male and female progeny from a laboratory strain was not found to be significantly lower than those of the progeny of field females from the same population. Adult progeny from field-caught females reared at the larval stage in the laboratory and from laboratory females reared outdoors exhibited a significant decrease in survival but not in mating success. Importantly, laboratory individuals reared as larvae indoors were unable to mate assortatively as adults, whilst field progeny reared either outdoors or in the laboratory, as well as laboratory progeny reared outdoors all mated significantly assortatively. These results highlight the importance of genetic and environment interactions for the development of An. gambiae's full mating behavioral repertoire and the challenges this creates for mosquito rearing and release-based control strategies.

  1. MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES FOR THE LANGUAGE LABORATORY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NAJAM, EDWARD W.

    THE PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ANNUAL INDIANA-PURDUE LANGUAGE LABORATORY CONFERENCE ARE ORGANIZED, AFTER INTRODUCTORY STATEMENTS BY NAJAM AND LARSEN ON CONTEMPORARY TRENDS IN LANGUAGE INSTRUCTION, UNDER THREE GENERAL HEADINGS PLUS APPENDIXES. IN THE FIRST SECTION DEVOTED TO MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES ARE ARTICLES BY HYER, GARIMALDI, EDDY, AND SMITH…

  2. Universal Parenthood Training: A Laboratory Approach to Teaching Child-Rearing Skills to Every Parent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Robert P.

    1971-01-01

    Discusses the need ro a program which would leave the responsibility of child rearing with the parents, but take measures to assure that virtually all parents have the necessary skills and knowledge to do the job well." Appended are 16 references. (Author/AA)

  3. Graphing techniques for materials laboratory using Excel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kundu, Nikhil K.

    1994-01-01

    Engineering technology curricula stress hands on training and laboratory practices in most of the technical courses. Laboratory reports should include analytical as well as graphical evaluation of experimental data. Experience shows that many students neither have the mathematical background nor the expertise for graphing. This paper briefly describes the procedure and data obtained from a number of experiments such as spring rate, stress concentration, endurance limit, and column buckling for a variety of materials. Then with a brief introduction to Microsoft Excel the author explains the techniques used for linear regression and logarithmic graphing.

  4. Investigation of Age Polyethism in Food Processing of the Fungus-Growing Termite Odontotermes formosanus (Blattodea: Termitidae) Using a Laboratory Artificial Rearing System.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongjie; Yang, Mengyi; Chen, Yonger; Zhu, Na; Lee, Chow-Yang; Wei, Ji-Qian; Mo, Jianchu

    2015-02-01

    Laboratory rearing systems are useful models for studying Rhinotermitid behavior. Information on the biology of fungus-growing termites, however, is limited because of the difficulty of rearing colonies in the laboratory settings. The physical structure of termite nests makes it impossible to photograph or to observe colonies in the field. In this study, an artificial rearing system for field-collected colonies of the fungus-growing termite Odontotermes formosanus (Shiraki) was developed to facilitate observation in the laboratory. We recorded colony activity within the artificial rearing system and documented a variety of social behaviors that occurred throughout the food processing of the colony. This complex miniature ecosystem was cooperatively organized via division of labor in the foraging and processing of plant materials, and the observed patterns largely resembled the caste and age-based principles present in Macrotermes colonies. This work extends our insights into polyethism in the subfamily Macrotermitinae.

  5. Glomerular lipidosis accompanied by renal tubular oxalosis in wild and laboratory-reared Japanese rock ptarmigans (Lagopus mutus japonicus).

    PubMed

    Murai, Atsuko; Murakami, Mami; Sakai, Hiroki; Shimizu, Hiroaki; Murata, Koichi; Yanai, Tokuma

    2011-12-01

    Glomerular lipidosis is a disease characterized by lipid accumulation in mesangial cells but that has not been fully investigated in avian species. We examined four wild and two laboratory-reared Japanese rock ptarmigans (Lagopus mutus japonicus)--an endangered avian species--presenting vacuolar deposits in the glomeruli. All cases had vacuolar deposits in the glomeruli. In the wild cases, fewer than 30% of all glomeruli were affected, compared with more than 90% in the laboratory-reared cases. In the wild cases, most deposits were mild and restricted to the mesangial areas of glomeruli. In the laboratory-reared cases, nearly all of the deposits covered entire glomeruli. Electron microscopy of mild deposits revealed vacuoles in the cytoplasm of mesangial cells. These vacuoles were positive for Sudan III, Sudan black B, oil red O, Nile blue, periodic acid-Schiff, Schultz test, and digitonin stain and were negative for performaric acid-Schiff stains. Based on these results, we diagnosed the glomerular lesion as glomerular lipidosis caused by uptake of low-density lipoprotein in mesangial cells. Except for one wild case, all cases exhibited renal tubular oxalosis. The severity of tubular oxalosis tended to be related to the severity of glomerular lipidosis: In cases of mild glomerular lipidosis, tubular oxalosis was also mild or absent. We therefore diagnosed the primary lesion as glomerular lipidosis accompanied by tubular oxalosis. The four wild cases came from different zones and therefore had no opportunities to interbreed and no common relatives. We believe these data support the hypothesis that glomerular lipidosis is a disease of the general population ofJapanese rock ptarmigans. This is the first report of glomerular lipidosis accompanied by renal tubular oxalosis in an avian species.

  6. The Effect of Temperature and Laboratory Rearing Conditions on the Development of Dermestes maculatus (Coleoptera: Dermestidae).

    PubMed

    Zanetti, Noelia I; Visciarelli, Elena C; Centeno, Néstor D

    2016-03-01

    Experiments were conducted to study the life cycle of Dermestes maculatus and to establish the total developmental time and the developmental time of immature stages, in relation with six different temperatures. We also analyzed the variations in size, morphology, and other indicators of temporal variation during life cycle of D. maculatus, in relation with temperature. One hundred larvae were selected per experiment, reared individually. The remaining larvae were reared to evaluate and establish temporal variations among the instars (length, cephalic width, and dry weight). In all trials, survivorship was greater than 50% and seven larval instars were found. Data of the average developmental time of immature stages and of the total cycle, at different temperatures, are provided. This is of relevance when estimating particularly, a minimum PMI. No relation between morphometric parameters and temperature was found, suggesting that other random factors may have been involved. Thus, this indicates that the method of isomegalen diagrams could not be used for calculating PMI.

  7. The Rearing and Biology of the Desert Beetle, Microdera punctipennis, Under Laboratory Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Liu, Xiaoning; Zhao, Jia; Rexili, Kelaimu; Ma, Ji

    2011-01-01

    Microdera punctipennis Kasz (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) is a unique species that lives in the desert region of Central Asia and has adopted a nocturnal habit to survive the desert environment. Female adults are larger in size than male adults. The female/male ratio was 1.04:1. A rearing method using reused plastic bottles was used. The rearing conditions were 30 ± 0.5°C, 30 ± 6% relative humidity (RH), and 16:8 L:D photoperiod. Cabbage was provided as food. Cannibalism was avoided by rearing one larva in a bottle. A complete life cycle was obtained under these conditions. The viability of eggs, larvae, prepupae, pupae, and teneral adults was 93.54%, 83.71%, 84.76%, 87.64%, and 93.59%, respectively. Embryogenesis took 7.35 days on average. The larval duration in each instar was 2.25 days. The mean duration of the larvae, prepupae, pupae, and teneral adult was 49.27, 7.05, 9.95, and 10.12 days, respectively. The coloration of each developmental stage gradually changed from creamy white to light brownish or black. Females commenced oviposition when their body color became black. On average, each female produced 568 eggs. PMID:21529250

  8. Quality of mass-reared codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) after long-distance transportation: 1. Logistics of shipping procedures and quality parameters as measured in the laboratory.

    PubMed

    Blomefield, T; Carpenter, J E; Vreysen, M J B

    2011-06-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is a proven effective control tactic against lepidopteran pests when applied in an areawide integrated pest management program. The construction of insect mass-rearing facilities requires considerable investment and moth control strategies that include the use of sterile insects could be made more cost-effective through the importation of sterile moths produced in other production centers. For codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), this is an attractive option because mating studies have confirmed the absence of mating barriers between codling moth populations from geographically different areas. To assess the feasibility of long-distance transportation of codling moths, pupae and adult moths were transported in 2004 from Canada to South Africa in four shipments by using normal commercial transport routes. The total transport time remained below 67 h in three of the consignments, but it was 89 h in the fourth consignment. Temperature in the shipping boxes was fairly constant and remained between -0.61 and 0.16 degrees C for 76.8-85.7% of the time. The data presented indicate that transporting codling moths as adults and pupae from Canada to South Africa had little effect on moth emergence, longevity, and ability to mate, as assessed in the laboratory. These results provide support to the suggestion that the STT for codling moth in pome fruit production areas might be evaluated and implemented by the importation of irradiated moths from rearing facilities in a different country or hemisphere.

  9. Whole-Genome Sequences and Classification of Streptococcus agalactiae Strains Isolated from Laboratory-Reared Long-Evans Rats (Rattus norvegicus)

    PubMed Central

    Dzink-Fox, J.; Feng, Y.; Shen, Z.; Bakthavatchalu, V.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT In collaboration with the CDC’s Streptococcus Laboratory, we report here the whole-genome sequences of seven Streptococcus agalactiae bacteria isolated from laboratory-reared Long-Evans rats. Four of the S. agalactiae isolates were associated with morbidity accompanied by endocarditis, metritis, and fatal septicemia, providing an opportunity for comparative genomic analysis of this opportunistic pathogen. PMID:28057750

  10. Behavior of steelhead fry in a laboratory stream is affected by fish density but not rearing environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Riley, Stephen C.; Tatara, Christopher P.; Berejikian, Barry A.; Flagg, Thomas A.

    2009-01-01

    We quantified the aggression, feeding, dominance, position choice, and territory size of naturally reared steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss fry stocked with two types of hatchery-reared fry (from conventional and enriched rearing environments) at two densities in experimental flumes to determine how rearing environment and fish density affect the behavior of steelhead fry. We found that fry density had a significant effect on most response variables but that rearing treatment did not. The rates of threats and attacks were positively correlated with fry density, but the overall feeding rate was negatively correlated. Naturally reared fry were dominant more often at low densities, and hatchery-reared fry were dominant more often at high densities. There were no significant effects of hatchery rearing treatment on aggression, feeding, dominance, or territory size. The only significant effect of rearing treatment was on the position of naturally reared fry, which occupied more upstream positions when stocked with conventional than with enriched hatchery-reared fry. Overall, rearing environment had relatively little influence on the behavior of steelhead fry. Our results indicate that stocking hatchery-reared steelhead fry at low densities may have effects on similar-size wild fish comparable to an equivalent increase in the density of wild fish. We suggest that releasing hatchery-reared steelhead fry as a supplementation strategy may have few direct negative ecological effects on wild fry.

  11. INNOVATIONS IN EQUIPMENT AND TECHNIQUES FOR THE BIOLOGY TEACHING LABORATORY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BARTHELEMY, RICHARD E.; AND OTHERS

    LABORATORY TECHNIQUES AND EQUIPMENT APPROPRIATE FOR TEACHING BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE CURRICULUM STUDY BIOLOGY ARE EMPHASIZED. MAJOR CATEGORIES INCLUDE (1) LABORATORY FACILITIES, (2) EQUIPMENT AND TECHNIQUES FOR CULTURE OF MICRO-ORGANISMS, (3) LABORATORY ANIMALS AND THEIR HOUSING, (4) TECHNIQUES FOR STUDYING PLANT GROWTH, (5) TECHNIQUES FOR STUDYING…

  12. Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Diptera:Tephritidae): Life history and laboratory rearing methods.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), is and agricultural pest established throughout south Florida, where it poses a threat to commercial citrus, guava, and other tropical and subtropical fruit crops. This poster outlines the protocols used at the USDA-ARS laboratory in Miami, FL, fo...

  13. Long-term efficacy of two cricket and two liver diets for rearing laboratory fire ant colonies (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Solenopsis Invicta)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effective diets are necessary for many kinds of laboratory studies of ants. We conducted a year-long study of imported fire ant colonies reared on either chicken liver, beef liver, banded crickets, or domestic crickets all with a sugar water supplement. Fire ant colonies thrived on diets of sugar ...

  14. Using near-infrared spectroscopy to resolve the species, gender, age, and the presence of Wolbachia infection in laboratory-reared Drosophila

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of the study was to determine the accuracy of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in determining species, gender, age and the presence of the common endosymbiont Wolbachia in laboratory reared Drosophila. NIRS measures absorption of light by organic molecules. Initially, a calibration model wa...

  15. Point-contacting by localised dielectric breakdown: Characterisation of a metallisation technique for the rear surface of a solar cell

    SciTech Connect

    Western, Ned J. Perez-Wurfl, Ivan; Wenham, Stuart R.; Bremner, Stephen P.

    2015-07-28

    Characterisation results are presented for ohmic contacts to passivated crystalline silicon, formed using the point-contacting by localised dielectric breakdown technique. Self aligned contact is made between the metal and heavily doped surface regions through an intrinsic a-Si:H passivation layer. Local doping is provided by a laser using a standard technique identical to that for selective emitter formation. Our results for gate metals of Au, Al, and Ti show that the technique does not rely on reactivity between the dielectric and the metal, excluding metal induced crystallisation from the contacting process. Diffusion of the gate metal into the dielectric is observed in transmission electron microscope images suggesting high temperatures are present locally during the breakdown process. The technique is equally applicable to contacting of n and p-type silicon, making it a potential alternative for ohmic contacting to silicon to passivated rear surfaces.

  16. Herpetogramma bipunctalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) biology and techniques for rearing on leaves of the blackberry (Rubus spp., Rosaceae).

    PubMed

    Diez-Rodríguez, G I; Hübner, L K; Antunes, L E C; Nava, D E

    2013-02-01

    The larvae of the southern beet webworm Herpetogramma bipunctalis (Fabricius, 1794) damage the leaves of species in the plant genus Rubus. The present study investigated the biology of H. bipunctalis and developed a protocol for raising H. bipunctalis under laboratory conditions. On the basis of the biological data, we devised a life table. In order to develop the rearing procedures, we determined which oviposition substrate and blackberry cultivar were the most appropriate for larval development. The mean durations of the egg, larval, and pupal stages were 5.59 days, 26.37 days, and 13.37 days, respectively, and the corresponding survival rates were 80.83%, 49.07%, and 83.23%. The mean pupal weight was 0.0491 g for males and 0.0536 g for females. The mean life cycle (egg-to-adult) period was 45.33 days, and overall survival to adulthood was 33.01%. H. bipunctalis females laid a mean of 252.63 eggs over a mean of 13.60 days of oviposition; the mean pre-oviposition period was 2.67 days. Mean female and male life spans were 17.51 and 19.25 days, respectively, and the sex ratio was 0.51. The life-table data indicated that H. bipunctalis can reproduce 57.9 times per generation. Each cage contained one blackberry leaf placed on a paper towel. This method allowed us to obtain the greatest number of eggs. The larval stage was shorter for insects reared on leaves of the Guarani cultivar than for those reared on leaves of the Xavante cultivar (22.63 vs. 26.37 days). These basic data can aid in establishing strategies for the management of H. bipunctalis on blackberry farms.

  17. Dispersal and oviposition of laboratory-reared gravid females of Toxorhynchites moctezuma in an arid urban area of Sonora, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Macías-Duarte, Alberto; Alvarado-Castro, J Andrés; Dórame-Navarro, María E; Félix-Torres, A Amalia

    2009-12-01

    Dengue is a serious public health problem worldwide. Biological control of its vector, Aedes aegypti, remains a feasible option in light of increasing urbanization and insecticide resistance. We studied the dispersal and oviposition activity of Toxorhynchites moctezuma in a dengue-endemic urban area in SSonora, Mexico, to provide information about the potential of Toxorhynchites as a control agent for Ae. aegypti in arid areas. We released 210 and 100 laboratory-reared gravid females of Tx. moctezuma in 2 city blocks during the summer and fall of 1993. We set 3 1-liter containers and 1 car tire as sentinel traps at each of 10 backyards within each city block. Spatial and temporal patterns of dispersal and oviposition activity differed between city blocks and between releases. However, a Cox regression analysis showed no significant difference in the per-day probability of Tx. moctezuma oviposition events in sentinel traps between summer and fall releases. Per-day oviposition probability was nearly 5 times greater for sentineltraps that contained larvae of Ae. aegypti, suggesting a high specificity of the predator for its prey. The proportion of sentinel traps positive for Tx. moctezuma eggs did not increase substantially after the 8th day piost-release, reaching 66% and 23% for sentinel traps with and without Ae. aegypti larvae, respectively.

  18. Quality of mass-reared codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) after long distance transportation 1. Logistics of shipping procedures and quality parameters as measured in the laboratory.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sterile insect technique is a proven effective control tactic against lepidopteran pests when applied in an area-wide integrated pest management programme. The construction of insect mass-rearing facilities requires considerable investment and moth control strategies that include the use of ster...

  19. Projectile Ullage Inspection Technique: Laboratory Demonstration Apparatus.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-01

    inspection of projectiles was feasible. The mercury manometer was used because it was the only gauge readily available in the laboratory that was...pres- sure. It is suggested that the mercury manometer be replaced by a panel-mounted diaphragm or Bourdon tube gauge. The full-scale pressure range of...When the mercury manometer is used, the volume of the pressure indicator changes linearly with pres- sure (it is assumed that the manometer tube

  20. Laboratory Reptile Surgery: Principles and Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Alworth, Leanne C; Hernandez, Sonia M; Divers, Stephen J

    2011-01-01

    Reptiles used for research and instruction may require surgical procedures, including biopsy, coelomic device implantation, ovariectomy, orchidectomy, and esophogostomy tube placement, to accomplish research goals. Providing veterinary care for unanticipated clinical problems may require surgical techniques such as amputation, bone or shell fracture repair, and coeliotomy. Although many principles of surgery are common between mammals and reptiles, important differences in anatomy and physiology exist. Veterinarians who provide care for these species should be aware of these differences. Most reptiles undergoing surgery are small and require specific instrumentation and positioning. In addition, because of the wide variety of unique physiologic and anatomic characteristics among snakes, chelonians, and lizards, different techniques may be necessary for different reptiles. This overview describes many common reptile surgery techniques and their application for research purposes or to provide medical care to research subjects. PMID:21333158

  1. Laboratory reptile surgery: principles and techniques.

    PubMed

    Alworth, Leanne C; Hernandez, Sonia M; Divers, Stephen J

    2011-01-01

    Reptiles used for research and instruction may require surgical procedures, including biopsy, coelomic device implantation, ovariectomy, orchidectomy, and esophogostomy tube placement, to accomplish research goals. Providing veterinary care for unanticipated clinical problems may require surgical techniques such as amputation, bone or shell fracture repair, and coeliotomy. Although many principles of surgery are common between mammals and reptiles, important differences in anatomy and physiology exist. Veterinarians who provide care for these species should be aware of these differences. Most reptiles undergoing surgery are small and require specific instrumentation and positioning. In addition, because of the wide variety of unique physiologic and anatomic characteristics among snakes, chelonians, and lizards, different techniques may be necessary for different reptiles. This overview describes many common reptile surgery techniques and their application for research purposes or to provide medical care to research subjects.

  2. Laboratory Diagnostic Techniques for Entamoeba Species

    PubMed Central

    Fotedar, R.; Stark, D.; Beebe, N.; Marriott, D.; Ellis, J.; Harkness, J.

    2007-01-01

    The genus Entamoeba contains many species, six of which (Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar, Entamoeba moshkovskii, Entamoeba polecki, Entamoeba coli, and Entamoeba hartmanni) reside in the human intestinal lumen. Entamoeba histolytica is the causative agent of amebiasis and is considered a leading parasitic cause of death worldwide in humans. Although recent studies highlight the recovery of E. dispar and E. moshkovskii from patients with gastrointestinal symptoms, there is still no convincing evidence of a causal link between the presence of these two species and the symptoms of the host. New approaches to the identification of E. histolytica are based on detection of E. histolytica-specific antigen and DNA in stool and other clinical samples. Several molecular diagnostic tests, including conventional and real-time PCR, have been developed for the detection and differentiation of E. histolytica, E. dispar, and E. moshkovskii in clinical samples. The purpose of this review is to discuss different methods that exist for the identification of E. histolytica, E. dispar, and E. moshkovskii which are available to the clinical diagnostic laboratory. To address the need for a specific diagnostic test for amebiasis, a substantial amount of work has been carried out over the last decade in different parts of the world. The molecular diagnostic tests are increasingly being used for both clinical and research purposes. In order to minimize undue treatment of individuals infected with other species of Entamoeba such as E. dispar and E. moshkovskii, efforts have been made for specific diagnosis of E. histolytica infection and not to treat based simply on the microscopic examination of Entamoeba species in the stool. The incorporation of many new technologies into the diagnostic laboratory will lead to a better understanding of the public health problem and measures to control the disease. PMID:17630338

  3. Modeling the cost-effectiveness of insect rearing on artificial diets: A test with a tephritid fly used in the sterile insect technique

    PubMed Central

    Birke, Andrea; Williams, Trevor; Aluja, Martín

    2017-01-01

    We modeled the cost-effectiveness of rearing Anastrepha ludens, a major fruit fly pest currently mass reared for sterilization and release in pest control programs implementing the sterile insect technique (SIT). An optimization model was generated by combining response surface models of artificial diet cost savings with models of A. ludens pupation, pupal weight, larval development time and adult emergence as a function of mixtures of yeast, a costly ingredient, with corn flour and corncob fractions in the diet. Our model revealed several yeast-reduced mixtures that could be used to prepare diets that were considerably cheaper than a standard diet used for mass rearing. Models predicted a similar production of insects (pupation and adult emergence), with statistically similar pupal weights and larval development times between yeast-reduced diets and the standard mass rearing diet formulation. Annual savings from using the modified diets could be up to 5.9% of the annual cost of yeast, corn flour and corncob fractions used in the standard diet, representing a potential saving of US $27.45 per ton of diet (US $47,496 in the case of the mean annual production of 1,730.29 tons of artificial diet in the Moscafrut mass rearing facility at Metapa, Chiapas, Mexico). Implementation of the yeast-reduced diet on an experimental scale at mass rearing facilities is still required to confirm the suitability of new mixtures of artificial diet for rearing A. ludens for use in SIT. This should include the examination of critical quality control parameters of flies such as adult flight ability, starvation resistance and male sexual competitiveness across various generations. The method used here could be useful for improving the cost-effectiveness of invertebrate or vertebrate mass rearing diets worldwide. PMID:28257496

  4. Modeling the cost-effectiveness of insect rearing on artificial diets: A test with a tephritid fly used in the sterile insect technique.

    PubMed

    Pascacio-Villafán, Carlos; Birke, Andrea; Williams, Trevor; Aluja, Martín

    2017-01-01

    We modeled the cost-effectiveness of rearing Anastrepha ludens, a major fruit fly pest currently mass reared for sterilization and release in pest control programs implementing the sterile insect technique (SIT). An optimization model was generated by combining response surface models of artificial diet cost savings with models of A. ludens pupation, pupal weight, larval development time and adult emergence as a function of mixtures of yeast, a costly ingredient, with corn flour and corncob fractions in the diet. Our model revealed several yeast-reduced mixtures that could be used to prepare diets that were considerably cheaper than a standard diet used for mass rearing. Models predicted a similar production of insects (pupation and adult emergence), with statistically similar pupal weights and larval development times between yeast-reduced diets and the standard mass rearing diet formulation. Annual savings from using the modified diets could be up to 5.9% of the annual cost of yeast, corn flour and corncob fractions used in the standard diet, representing a potential saving of US $27.45 per ton of diet (US $47,496 in the case of the mean annual production of 1,730.29 tons of artificial diet in the Moscafrut mass rearing facility at Metapa, Chiapas, Mexico). Implementation of the yeast-reduced diet on an experimental scale at mass rearing facilities is still required to confirm the suitability of new mixtures of artificial diet for rearing A. ludens for use in SIT. This should include the examination of critical quality control parameters of flies such as adult flight ability, starvation resistance and male sexual competitiveness across various generations. The method used here could be useful for improving the cost-effectiveness of invertebrate or vertebrate mass rearing diets worldwide.

  5. [The ways of harmonization of clinical laboratory measurement techniques].

    PubMed

    Miller, W G; Myers, G L; Gantzer, M L; Kahn, S E; Schönbrunner, E R; Thienpont, L M; Bunk, D M; Christenson, R H; Eckfeldt, J H; Stanley, G L; Nubling, C M; Sturgeon, C M

    2013-02-01

    The results of implementation of different clinical laboratory techniques are to be equal in clinically significant limits to be optimally applied in diagnostics of diseases and treatment of patients. When the results of laboratory tests are not standardized and harmonized for the very same clinical assay the results can be expressed by unmatched numbers. Unfortunately, in some handbooks the values are presented based on the results of application of specific laboratory techniques without considering possibility or likelihood of differences between various techniques. When this is a case, accumulation of data of diferent clinical research studies and working out of clinical handbooks on this basis will be inconsistent. Inadequate understanding of issue that the results of laboratory tests are not standardized and harmonized can lead to incorrect clinical, financial, managerial or technical decisions. The standardization of clinical laboratory techniques was applied to many measurands related to primary referent techniques (standard specimen of pure substance) or/and developed referent measurement techniques. However, harmonization of clinical laboratory techniques for those measurands which are not related any developed measurement techniques is quite problematic due to inadequate determination of measurand, its inadequate analytical specificity, insufficient attention to commutability of referent materials and poor systematic approach to harmonization. To overcome these issues an infrastructure is to be developed to support systematic approach to identification and prioritization of measurands which are to be harmonized on the basis of clinical importance and technical applicability. The management of technical implementation harmonization process for specific measurands.

  6. Methods for rearing Mesostoma ehrenbergii in the laboratory for cell biology experiments, including identification of factors that influence production of different egg types.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Carina; Ferraro-Gideon, Jessica; Gauthier, Kimberley; Forer, Arthur

    2013-10-01

    Mesostoma ehrenbergii spermatocytes are uniquely useful to study various aspects of cell division. Their chromosomes are large in size and few in number, with only three bivalent and four univalent chromosomes. During prometaphase, bipolar bivalents oscillate regularly to and from the poles for 1-2 hours. The univalents remain at the poles but occasionally move from one pole to the other. In addition, a precocious cleavage furrow forms during prometaphase and remains partially constricted until anaphase. Attempts to rear these animals indefinitely in laboratory conditions, however, have been mostly unsuccessful because of their reproductive strategy. M. ehrenbergii are hermaphroditic flatworms that can produce viviparous offspring (termed S eggs) and/or diapausing eggs (termed D eggs) and they follow either one of two reproductive patterns: (1) they first form S eggs and following the delivery of these eggs produce D eggs, or (2) they only produce D eggs. When only D eggs are formed, which is common under laboratory conditions, the stocks die out until the D eggs hatch, which is irregular and creates unpredictable wait times. Consequently, in order to maintain M. ehrenbergii stocks to study their spermatocytes, we examined various factors that might influence egg-type production. Feeding them daily and keeping them at 25°C favours S egg production. Currently, our cultures have reached the 53rd generation. We herein describe our rearing and dissection methods, and some experiments which led to our present rearing methods.

  7. The North American strain of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus is highly pathogenic for laboratory-reared Pacific herring (Clupea pallasi)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kocan, R.; Bradley, M.; Elder, N.; Meyers, T.; Batts, W.; Winton, J.

    1997-01-01

    Specific-pathogen-free Pacific herring Clupea pallasi were reared in the laboratory from eggs and then challenged at 5, 9, and 13 months of age by waterborne exposure to low (101.5–2.5 plaque-forming units [PFU] per milliliter), medium (103.5–4.5 PFU/mL), or high (105.5–6.5 PFU/mL) levels of a North American isolate of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV). The fish were extremely susceptible to the virus, showing clinical disease, mortality approaching 100%, and only a limited increase in resistance with age. Mortality began 4–6 d after exposure and peaked at approximately day 7 in fish exposed to high levels of virus. Whereas the mean time to death showed a significant dose response (P < 0.001), the percent mortality and virus titers in dead fish were generally high in all groups regardless of initial challenge dose. External signs of disease were usually limited to 1–2-mm hemorrhagic areas on the lower jaw and isthmus and around the eye, but 2 of 130 infected fish exhibited extensive cutaneous hemorrhaging. Histopathologic examination of tissues from moribund fish sampled at 2–8 d after exposure revealed multifocal coagulative necrosis of hepatocytes, diffuse necrosis of interstitial hematopoietic tissues in the kidney, diffuse necrosis of the spleen, epidermis, and subcutis, and occasional necrosis of pancreatic acinar cells. Virus titers in tissues of experimentally infected herring were first detected 48 h after exposure and peaked 6-8 d after exposure at 107.7 PFU/g. Fish began shedding virus at 48 h after exposure with titers in the flow-through aquaria reaching 102.5 PFU/mL at 4–5 d after exposure, just before peak mortality. When the water flow was turned off for 3 h, titers in the water rose to 103.5 PFU/mL, and the amount of virus shed by infected fish (on average, greater than 106.5 PFU/h per fish) appeared sufficient to sustain a natural epizootic among schooling herring. Taken together, these data suggest that VHSV could be a

  8. Thermal dependency of shell growth, microstructure, and stable isotopes in laboratory-reared Scapharca broughtonii (Mollusca: Bivalvia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishida, Kozue; Suzuki, Atsushi; Isono, Ryosuke; Hayashi, Masahiro; Watanabe, Yusuke; Yamamoto, Yuzo; Irie, Takahiro; Nojiri, Yukihiro; Mori, Chiharu; Sato, Mizuho; Sato, Kei; Sasaki, Takenori

    2015-07-01

    We experimentally examined the growth, microstructure, and chemistry of shells of the bloody clam, Scapharca broughtonii (Mollusca: Bivalvia), reared at five temperatures (13, 17, 21, 25, and 29°C) with a constant pCO2 condition (˜450 μatm). In this species, the exterior side of the shell is characterized by a composite prismatic structure; on the interior side, it has a crossed lamellar structure on the interior surface. We previously found a negative correlation between temperature and the relative thickness of the composite prismatic structure in field-collected specimens. In the reared specimens, the relationship curve between temperature and the growth increment of the composite prismatic structure was humped shaped, with a maximum at 17°C, which was compatible with the results obtained in the field-collected specimens. In contrast, the thickness of the crossed lamellar structure was constant over the temperature range tested. These results suggest that the composite prismatic structure principally accounts for the thermal dependency of shell growth, and this inference was supported by the finding that shell growth rates were significantly correlated with the thickness of the composite prismatic structure. We also found a negative relationship between the rearing temperature and δ18O of the shell margin, in close quantitative agreement with previous reports. The findings presented here will contribute to the improved age determination of fossil and recent clams based on seasonal microstructural records.

  9. Bacterial communities associated with the digestive tract of the predatory ground beetle, Poecilus chalcites, and their response to laboratory rearing and antibiotic treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Lehman

    2008-06-01

    Ground beetles such as Poecilus chalcites (Coleoptera: Carabidae) are beneficial insects in agricultural systems where they contribute to the control of insect and weed pests. We assessed the complexity of bacterial communities occurring in the digestive tracts of field-collected P. chalcites using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses of polymerase chain reaction-amplified 16S rRNA genes. Bacterial identification was performed by the construction of 16S rRNA gene clone libraries and sequence analysis. Intestinal bacteria in field-collected beetles were then compared to those from groups of beetles that were reared in the lab on an artificial diet with and without antibiotics. Direct cell counts estimated 1.5 × 10S bacteria per milliliter of gut. The digestive tract of field-collected P. chalcites produced an average of 4.8 terminal restriction fragments (tRF) for each beetle. The most abundant clones were affiliated with the genus Lactobacillus, followed by the taxa Enterobacteriaceae, Clostridia, and Bacteriodetes. The majority of the sequences recovered were closely related to those reported from other insect gastrointestinal tracts. Lab-reared beetles produced fewer tRF, an average of 3.1 per beetle, and a reduced number of taxa with a higher number of clones from the family Enterobacteriaceae compared to the field-collected beetles. Antibiotic treatment significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the number of tRF per beetle and selected for a less diverse set of bacterial taxa. We conclude that the digestive tract of P. chalcites is colonized by a simple community of bacteria that possess autochthonous characteristics. Laboratory-reared beetles harbored the most common bacteria found in field-collected beetles, and these bacterial communities may be manipulated in the laboratory with the addition of antibiotics to the diet to allow study of functional roles.

  10. In Situ Techniques for Monitoring Electrochromism: An Advanced Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saricayir, Hakan; Uce, Musa; Koca, Atif

    2010-01-01

    This experiment employs current technology to enhance and extend existing lab content. The basic principles of spectroscopic and electroanalytical techniques and their use in determining material properties are covered in some detail in many undergraduate chemistry programs. However, there are limited examples of laboratory experiments with in…

  11. Laboratory technique for quantitative thermal emissivity measurements of geological samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathew, George; Nair, Archana; Gundu Rao, T. K.; Pande, Kanchan

    2009-08-01

    Thermal infrared spectroscopy is a powerful technique for the compositional analysis of geological materials. The spectral feature in the mid-IR region is diagnostic of the mineralogy and spectral signatures of mixtures of minerals that add linearly, and therefore, can be used as an important tool to determine the mineralogy of rocks in the laboratory and remotely for planetary exploration. The greatest challenge in the emission measurement lies in the measurement of the weak thermal photons emitted from geological materials in a laboratory setup, and accurately records the temperature of the rock sample. The present work pertains to the details of a new Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) laboratory that has been developed under the ISRO Planetary Science and Exploration (PLANEX) programme, for emission related mineralogical investigations of planetary surfaces. The focus of the paper is on the acquisition and calibration technique for obtaining emissivity, and the deconvolution procedure to obtain the modal abundances of the thermal emission spectra in the range of 6-25 µm using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The basic technique is adopted from the work of Ruff et al (1997). This laboratory at the Department of Earth Sciences, IIT-Bombay is currently developing pure end mineral library of mineral particulates (<65 µm), and adding new end members to the existing ASU spectral library. The paper argues the need for considering Lunar Orbiter Thermal Emission Spectrometer (LOTES) for future Indian Moon mission programme (Chandrayan-II) to determine evidences of varied lithologies on the lunar surface.

  12. Pathogenecity of Ichthyophonus hoferi for laboratory-reared Pacific herring (Clupea pallasi) and its early appearance in wild Puget Sound herring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kocan, R.; Hershberger, P.; Mehl, T.; Elder, N.; Bradley, M.; Wildermuth, D.; Stick, K.

    1999-01-01

    Laboratory-reared pathogen-free Pacific herring were exposed to pure cultures of Ichthyophonus hoferi, and reproduced the disease seen in naturally infected fish--thus fulfilling Koch's Postulates. Pathogen-free herring used in this study were reared from artificially spawned eggs incubated in filtered, UV-sterilized seawater, eliminating the variables associated with multiple infections, which are common in wild herring. Wild free-ranging herring were captured monthly from June through October by dip net from 'herring balls' located in the northern Puget Sound. I. hoferi infections were identified in these fish soon after metamorphoses, about 4 mo post-hatch. The prevalence increased from 5 to 6% in 0-yr fish to 24% in 1-yr-old fish to 50 to 70% in fish over 2 yr old, with no associated increase in mortality. The route of natural transmission to wild herring was not determined, but carnivorous fish became infected and died when they were experimentally fed tissues infected with the organism. In vitro culture of tissues was the most sensitive method for identifying both clinical and subclinical infections.

  13. Pathogenicity of Ichthyophonus hoferi for laboratory-reared Pacific herring Clupea pallasi and its early appearance in wild Puget Sound herring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kocan, R.M.; Hershberger, P.; Mehl, T.; Elder, N.; Bradley, M.; Wildermuth, D.; Stick, K.

    1999-01-01

    Laboratory-reared pathogen-free Pacific herring were exposed to pure cultures of Ichthyophonus hoferi, and reproduced the disease seen in naturally infected fish - thus fulfilling Koch's Postulates. Pathogen-free herring used in this study were reared from artificially spawned eggs incubated in filtered, UV-sterilized seawater, eliminating the variables associated with multiple infections, which are common in wild herring. Wild free-ranging herring were captured monthly from June through October by dip net from 'herring balls' located in the northern Puget Sound. I. hoferi infections were identified in these fish soon after metamorphoses, about 4 mo post-hatch. The prevalence increased from 5 to 6% in 0-yr fish to 24% in 1-yr-old fish to 50 to 70% in fish over 2 yr old, with no associated increase in mortality. The route of natural transmission to wild herring was not determined, but carnivorous fish became infected and died when they were experimentally fed tissues infected with the organism. In vitro culture of tissues was the most sensitive method for identifying both clinical and subclinical infections.

  14. Costly nutritious diets do not necessarily translate into better performance of artificaially reared fruit files (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Protein, lipid, carbohydrate and energy contents of three artificial diets (Xal2, Met1 and Met2) used for laboratory-rearing and mass-rearing the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew), for a sterile insect technique (SIT) program were measured. The larval survival, pupation, pupal weight, adu...

  15. The complete larval development of Pagurus lanuginosus De Haan, 1849 (Decapoda, Anomura, Paguridae) reared in the laboratory, with emphasis on the post-larval stage.

    PubMed

    Sultana, Zakea; Asakura, Akira

    2015-02-03

    The complete larval development of Pagurus lanuginosus is described and illustrated including the first description of the post-larval stage. Specimens were reared in the laboratory at 15°C and 33.5-35.02 PSU. Newly hatched larvae passed through a short prezoeal stage (10 minutes to 2 hours), four zoeal stages (6, 6, 6, 8 days), and one megalopal stage (10 days). We compared the morphological features of each larval stage with those of the preceding two descriptions on the same species, and found many differences in morphology and the duration between zoeal stages. We concluded that significant diagnostic characters separating this species from other congeners in Japanese waters include the presence of two pairs of yellowish chromatophores on the carapace in the zoeal stages, a translucent body flecked with red chromatophores, and two pairs of red chromatophores on the carapace in the megalopal stage. 

  16. An investigative graduate laboratory course for teaching modern DNA techniques.

    PubMed

    de Lencastre, Alexandre; Thomas Torello, A; Keller, Lani C

    2017-02-16

    This graduate-level DNA methods laboratory course is designed to model a discovery-based research project and engages students in both traditional DNA analysis methods and modern recombinant DNA cloning techniques. In the first part of the course, students clone the Drosophila ortholog of a human disease gene of their choosing using Gateway(®) cloning. In the second part of the course, students examine the expression of their gene of interest in human cell lines by reverse transcription PCR and learn how to analyze data from quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) experiments. The adaptability of the Gateway(®) cloning system is ideally suited for students to design and create different types of expression constructs to achieve a particular experimental goal (e.g., protein purification, expression in cell culture, and/or subcellular localization), and the genes chosen can be aligned to the research interests of the instructor and/or ongoing research in a department. Student evaluations indicate that the course fostered a genuine excitement for research and in depth knowledge of both the techniques performed and the theory behind them. Our long-term goal is to incorporate this DNA methods laboratory as the foundation for an integrated laboratory sequence for the Master of Science degree program in Molecular and Cellular Biology at Quinnipiac University, where students use the reagents and concepts they developed in this course in subsequent laboratory courses, including a protein methods and cell culture laboratory. © 2017 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2017.

  17. Infrared band strengths: Laboratory techniques and applications to astronomical observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerakines, P. A.

    2002-09-01

    Whenever an abundance measurement is derived by way of infrared spectroscopy, it will typically make use of a laboratory-obtained conversion factor between the size of an IR absorption feature and the (column) density of the molecule under study. This factor is usually called the "absolute absorption intensity" by a chemist or the "band strength" by a typical IR astronomer. Band strengths have been studied in chemistry since the 1950s, and the commonly quoted "accuracy to with a factor of ten" historically required of astronomical calculations has not required much new input into this area. Today, however, astronomical measurements require much higher precision, and it is time for IR astronomers to ask more of laboratory measurements and to understand when and why to use IR band strengths in a more appropriate manner. The history, interpretation, measurement, and common astrophysical applications of infrared band strengths will be discussed. The "secrets" of the laboratory techniques involved in their measurement are described, and a compilation of results from the literature is given along with some new results. Typical astrophysical applications and appropriate uses will also be discussed. Common misconceptions are confronted and two challenges are presented: (i) to the laboratory astrophysics community to produce and advertise accurate values with caveats when necessary, and (ii) to the observational community to use the most appropriate results for the environment under study.

  18. Complete larval development of Thor amboinensis (De Man, 1888) Decapoda: Thoridae) described from laboratory-reared material
    and identified by DNA barcoding.

    PubMed

    Bartilotti, Cátia; Salabert, Joana; Santos, Antonina Dos

    2016-01-18

    Of the 12 species of Thor described until present date, only three (25%) have their complete larval development known. Present work describes the complete larval development of Thor amboinensis, based on laboratory-reared material. The spent females were identified through the analysis of the partial sequences of the mitochondrial DNA barcode, also used for the reconstruction of the phylogenetic relationships within the recently resurrected and recognized family Thoridae Kingsley, 1879. Eight zoeal stages and one decapodid complete this species larval development. In the genus Thor, the number of zoeal stages varies greatly from two (T. dobkini) to eight (T. amboinensis and T. floridanus). The larvae of T. ambionensis and T. floridanus are readily distinguished from each other by the ornamentation of the ventral margin of the carapace and the pereiopods development. The first zoeal stage of T. amboinensis described by Yang & Okuno (2004) and the one described in present study are very similar. A brief discussion on the morphological characters and on the number of zoeal stages of the genus, as well as of the previous larval descriptions is made. The phylogenetic analysis suggest cryptic speciation for geographical separated populations of T. amboinensis, paraphyly of the genus Eualus, and the reassignment of E. cranchii to a different genus.

  19. Laboratory Detection of Respiratory Viruses by Automated Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Ruiz, Mercedes; Pedrosa-Corral, Irene; Sanbonmatsu-Gámez, Sara; Navarro-Marí, José-María

    2012-01-01

    Advances in clinical virology for detecting respiratory viruses have been focused on nucleic acids amplification techniques, which have converted in the reference method for the diagnosis of acute respiratory infections of viral aetiology. Improvements of current commercial molecular assays to reduce hands-on-time rely on two strategies, a stepwise automation (semi-automation) and the complete automation of the whole procedure. Contributions to the former strategy have been the use of automated nucleic acids extractors, multiplex PCR, real-time PCR and/or DNA arrays for detection of amplicons. Commercial fully-automated molecular systems are now available for the detection of respiratory viruses. Some of them could convert in point-of-care methods substituting antigen tests for detection of respiratory syncytial virus and influenza A and B viruses. This article describes laboratory methods for detection of respiratory viruses. A cost-effective and rational diagnostic algorithm is proposed, considering technical aspects of the available assays, infrastructure possibilities of each laboratory and clinic-epidemiologic factors of the infection PMID:23248735

  20. Determination of meteor parameters using laboratory simulation techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friichtenicht, J. F.; Becker, D. G.

    1973-01-01

    Atmospheric entry of meteoritic bodies is conveniently and accurately simulated in the laboratory by techniques which employ the charging and electrostatic acceleration of macroscopic solid particles. Velocities from below 10 to above 50 km/s are achieved for particle materials which are elemental meteoroid constituents or mineral compounds with characteristics similar to those of meteoritic stone. The velocity, mass, and kinetic energy of each particle are measured nondestructively, after which the particle enters a target gas region. Because of the small particle size, free molecule flow is obtained. At typical operating pressures (0.1 to 0.5 torr), complete particle ablation occurs over distances of 25 to 50 cm; the spatial extent of the atmospheric interaction phenomena is correspondingly small. Procedures have been developed for measuring the spectrum of light from luminous trails and the values of fundamental quantities defined in meteor theory. It is shown that laboratory values for iron are in excellent agreement with those for 9 to 11 km/s artificial meteors produced by rocket injection of iron bodies into the atmosphere.

  1. Aseptic laboratory techniques: volume transfers with serological pipettes and micropipettors.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Erin R

    2012-05-31

    Microorganisms are everywhere - in the air, soil, and human body as well as on inanimate surfaces like laboratory benches and computer keyboards. The ubiquity of microbes creates a copious supply of potential contaminants in a laboratory. To ensure experimental success, the number of contaminants on equipment and work surfaces must be minimized. Common among many experiments in microbiology are techniques involving the measurement and transfer of cultures containing bacterial cells or viral particles. To do so without contacting non-sterile surfaces or contaminating sterile media requires (1) preparing a sterile workspace, (2) precisely setting and accurately reading instruments for aseptic transfer of liquids, and (3) properly manipulating instruments, cultures flasks, bottles and tubes within a sterile field. Learning these procedures calls for training and practice. At first, actions should be slow, deliberate, and controlled with the goal being for aseptic technique to become second nature when working at the bench. Here we present the steps for measuring volumes using serological pipettes and micropipettors within a sterile field created by a Bunsen burner. Volumes range from microliters (μl) to milliliters (ml) depending on the instrument used. Liquids commonly transferred include sterile broth or chemical solutions as well as bacterial cultures and phage stocks. By following these procedures, students should be able to: ·Work within the sterile field created by the Bunsen burner flame. ·Use serological pipettes without compromising instrument sterility. ·Aspirate liquids with serological pipettes, precisely reading calibrated volumes by aligning the meniscus formed by the liquid to the graduation marks on the pipette. ·Keep culture bottles, flasks, tubes and their respective caps sterile during liquid transfers. ·Identify different applications for plastic versus glass serological pipettes. ·State accuracy limitations for micropipettors.

  2. Fine-scale transition to lower bacterial diversity and altered community composition precedes shell disease in laboratory-reared juvenile American lobster.

    PubMed

    Feinman, Sarah G; Unzueta Martínez, Andrea; Bowen, Jennifer L; Tlusty, Michael F

    2017-03-30

    The American lobster Homarus americanus supports a valuable commercial fishery in the Northeastern USA and Maritime Canada; however, stocks in the southern portion of the lobster's range have shown declines, in part due to the emergence of shell disease. Epizootic shell disease is a bacterially induced cuticular erosion that renders even mildly affected lobsters unmarketable because of their appearance, and in more severe cases can cause mortality. Despite the importance of this disease, the associated bacterial communities have not yet been fully characterized. We sampled 2 yr old, laboratory-reared lobsters that displayed signs of shell disease at the site of disease as well as at 0.5, 1, and 1.5 cm away from the site of disease to determine how the bacterial community changed over this fine spatial scale. Illumina sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene revealed a distinct bacterial community at the site of disease, with significant reductions in bacterial diversity and richness compared to more distant sampling locations. The bacterial community composition 0.5 cm from the site of disease was also altered, and there was an observable decrease in bacterial diversity and richness, even though there were no signs of disease at that location. Given the distinctiveness of the bacterial community at the site of disease and 0.5 cm from the site of disease, we refer to these communities as affected and transitionary, and suggest that these bacteria, including the previously proposed causative agent, Aquimarina 'homaria', are important for the initiation and progression of this laboratory model of shell disease.

  3. Development of liquid larval diet with modified rearing system for Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera:Tephritidae) for the application of sterile insect technique

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A liquid larval diet and its rearing system have been developed for mass rearing of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) in Hawaii. Rearing facility in Institute of Food and Radiation Biology, Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Dhaka, Bangladesh, modified protein source from brewer's yeast to a combinat...

  4. A Novel Experimental Technique to Simulate Pillar Burst in Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, M. C.; Zhao, F.; Cai, M.; Du, S.

    2015-09-01

    Pillar burst is one type of rockburst that occurs in underground mines. Simulating the stress change and obtaining insight into the pillar burst phenomenon under laboratory conditions are essential for studying the rock behavior during pillar burst in situ. To study the failure mechanism, a novel experimental technique was proposed and a series of tests were conducted on some granite specimens using a true-triaxial strainburst test system. Acoustic emission (AE) sensors were used to monitor the rock fracturing process. The damage evolution process was investigated using techniques such as macro and micro fracture characteristics observation, AE energy evolution, and b value analysis and fractal dimension analysis of cracks on fragments. The obtained results indicate that stepped loading and unloading simulated the pillar burst phenomenon well. Four deformation stages are divided as initial stress state, unloading step I, unloading step II, and final burst. It is observed that AE energy has a sharp increase at the initial stress state, accumulates slowly at unloading steps I and II, and increases dramatically at peak stress. Meanwhile, the mean b values fluctuate around 3.50 for the first three deformation stages and then decrease to 2.86 at the final stage, indicating the generation of a large amount of macro fractures. Before the test, the fractal dimension values are discrete and mainly vary between 1.10 and 1.25, whereas after failure the values concentrate around 1.25-1.35.

  5. Evaluating the potential of the sterile insect technique for malaria control: relative fitness and mating compatibility between laboratory colonized and a wild population of Anopheles arabiensis from the Kruger National Park, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The successful suppression of a target insect population using the sterile insect technique (SIT) partly depends on the premise that the laboratory insects used for mass rearing are genetically compatible with the target population, that the mating competitiveness of laboratory reared males is at least comparable to that of their wild counterparts, and that mass rearing and sterilization processes do not in themselves compromise male fitness to a degree that precludes them from successfully competing for mates in the wild. This study investigated the fitness and sexual cross-compatibility between samples of field collected and laboratory reared An. arabiensis under laboratory conditions. Results The physiological and reproductive fitness of the MALPAN laboratory strain is not substantially modified with respect to the field population at Malahlapanga. Further, a high degree of mating compatibility between MALPAN and the Malahlapanga population was established based on cross-mating experiments. Lastly, the morphological characteristics of hybrid ovarian polytene chromosomes further support the contention that the MALPAN laboratory colony and the An. arabiensis population at Malahlapanga are genetically homogenous and therefore compatible. Conclusions It is concluded that the presence of a perennial and isolated population of An. arabiensis at Malahlapanga presents a unique opportunity for assessing the feasibility of SIT as a malaria vector control option. The MALPAN laboratory colony has retained sufficient enough measures of reproductive and physiological fitness to present as a suitable candidate for male sterilization, mass rearing and subsequent mass release of sterile males at Malahlapanga in order to further assess the feasibility of SIT in a field setting. PMID:22041133

  6. A Laboratory Method for Rearing Tea Green Leafhopper, Empoasca onukii Matsuda by Using Tea Seedlings as Oviposition Sites and as Food

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosugi, Yukio

    In this study,I have developed a method for rearing tea green leafhopper, Empoasca onukii Matsuda by using tea seedlings. Tea seeds were prepared by incubating tea seeds at 5 ℃ for 30 daysand planted these seeds in agar gel.The germination rate of the seedlings on the 28th postincubation (at 25 ℃) days was 89.5%. When the length of new shoots was 7-8 cm, the seedlings were replanted in a cup containing agar gel. The cups were covered with a plastic cap and used as a rearing case. One adult female was captured from the tea fields and reared on the rearing case. On an average, 34.7 nymphs were found to breed on this rearing case. However, when the number of adult females in the rearing case was increased, the number of nymphs tended to decrease. Rearing of 1-2 adult males and females resulted in the breeding of more than 20 nymphs, ranging from the first to the fifth generation.

  7. Pathfinder Rear Ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Mars Pathfinder's rear rover ramp can be seen successfully unfurled in this image, taken at the end of Sol 2 by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP). This ramp was later used for the deployment of the microrover Sojourner, which occurred at the end of Sol 2. Areas of a lander petal and deflated airbag are visible at left. The image helped Pathfinder scientists determine that the rear ramp was the one to use for rover deployment. At upper right is the rock dubbed 'Barnacle Bill,' which Sojourner will later study.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C.

  8. Manual of Basic Techniques for a Health Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Geneva (Switzerland).

    Described are basic laboratory methods for diagnosing and investigating diseases of importance to developing countries. Intended primarily for the training of technicians who will work in peripheral laboratories, the manual is designed so that student laboratory assistants can be taught to use it with minimal supervision from a teacher. The…

  9. Effects of crude extracts of a saxitoxin-producer strain of the cyanobacterium Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii on the swimming behavior of wild and laboratory reared guppy Poecilia vivipara.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Karina C; Ferrão-Filho, Aloysio da S; Dos Santos, Everton G N; Cunha, Rodolfo A; Santos, Cláudia P

    2017-04-01

    The cyanobacterium Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii is an invasive species in water supply reservoirs worldwide, which can produces cylindrospermopsins and saxitoxins. In the wild, guppy (Poecilia vivipara) can be exposed to cyanotoxins, but those born and reared in laboratory are free of this contact. The aim of this paper was to comparatively measure the locomotor activity of 'wild' and 'lab' P. vivipara before and after exposure to crude extracts of two different cultures of C. raciborskii (CYRF-01), a saxitoxin-procucer strain. The movement of each fish was recorded using an image monitoring system (Videomex V(®)) before and after 48 h exposure to cyanobacterial extracts. Each experiment was performed during 4 h, with 1 h acclimation and 3 h recording period of the parameters Distance performed (DP), Swimming time (SwT), Stereotypic time (StT), Resting time (RT) and Average speed (AS). The quantification of saxitoxin in the solutions was performed by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The weight or the total length did not influence the locomotor activity of fish in any of the experiments. The saxitoxin value was similar for both cultures (Culture 1: 7.3 μg L(-1) and Culture 2: 8.6 μg L(-1)). However, in experiments with Culture 1 an increased activity in most parameters was observed, while in Culture 2, a decreased activity was observed only in 'lab' fish. Wild fish was less affected, showing higher resistance to both cyanobacterial crude extracts. This study showed that different cultures of the same strain of C. raciborskii and with similar contents of saxitoxin are able to change the locomotor activity of P. vivipara, contributing to the validation of the use of behavioral parameters to the evaluation of sublethal effects of toxic cyanobacteria on fish.

  10. Laboratory rearing of bed bugs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The resurgence of bed bugs Cimex lectularius L. in the United States and worldwide has resulted in an increase in research by university, government, and industry scientists directed at the biology and control of this blood-sucking pest. A need has subsequently arisen for producing sufficient biolog...

  11. EM techniques for archaeological laboratory experiments: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capozzoli, Luigi; De Martino, Gregory; Giampaolo, Valeria; Raffaele, Luongo; Perciante, Felice; Rizzo, Enzo

    2015-04-01

    The electromagnetic techniques (EM) are based on the investigation of subsoil geophysical parameters and in the archaeological framework they involve in studying contrasts between the buried cultural structures and the surrounding materials. Unfortunately, the geophysical contrast between archaeological features and surrounding soils sometimes are difficult to define due to problems of sensitivity and resolution both related on the characteristic of the subsoil and the geophysical methods. For this reason an experimental activity has been performed in the Hydrogeosite laboratory addressed on the assessment of the capability of geophysical techniques to detect archeological remains placed in the humid/saturated subsoil. At Hydrogeosite Laboratory of CNR-IMAA, a large scale sand-box is located, consisting on a pool shape structures of 230m3 where archaeological remains have been installed . The remains are relative to a living environment and burial of Roman times (walls, tombs, roads, harbour, etc.) covered by sediments. In order to simulate lacustrine and wetland condition and to simulate extreme events (for example underwater landslide, fast natural erosion coast, etc.) the phreatic level was varied and various acquisitions for the different scenarios were performed. In order to analyze the EM behavior of the buried small archaeological framework, ground penetrating radar (GPR) and electrical resistivity tomographies were performed. With GPR, analysis in time domain and frequency domain were performed and coupled to information obtained through resistivity analysis with the support of numerical simulations used to compare the real data with those modeled. A dense grid was adopted for 400 and 900 MHz e-m acquisitions in both the directions, the maximum depth of investigation was limited and less than 3 meters. The same approach was used for ERT acquisition where different array are employed, in particular 3D configuration was used to carry out a 3D resistivity

  12. Rearing conditions and domestication background determine regulation of hippocampal cell proliferation and survival in adulthood-laboratory CD1 and C57Bl/6 mice versus wild house mice.

    PubMed

    Schaefers, A T U

    2013-01-03

    Brain development is sensitive to an individual's interaction with its environment. Deprivation of natural environmental stimulation especially in the phase after weaning has long-lasting consequences on neuroplasticity. However, previous findings concerning the effects of rearing environment on adult hippocampal cell proliferation and neurogenesis in rodents remain contradictory. To address the question, whether the variability of hippocampal plasticity in response to environmental conditions is a unique feature at least in mice, the present study examined the effects of social and physical deprivation during brain development on hippocampal cell production and survival in adults of three mouse strains (Mus musculus) with different domestication background: outbred CD1, inbred C57Bl/6 and the F2-descendants of wild-caught house mice. Wheel running increased cell proliferation rates in the dentate gyrus of CD1 and C57Bl/6 mice reared under socially and physically deprived conditions, but not from enriched conditions. In wild house mice, neither the rearing conditions nor the wheel-running challenge did affect proliferative activity. This indicates, on the one hand, that wild house mice are more robust in their regulation of hippocampal cell proliferation against environmental influences and, on the other hand, that domestication and rearing background of laboratory animals impact neuroplastic potentials and responsiveness to external stimuli in adulthood.

  13. Near surface geophysical techniques on subsoil contamination: laboratory experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capozzoli, Luigi; Giampaolo, Valeria; Rizzo, Enzo

    2016-04-01

    Hydrocarbons contamination of soil and groundwater has become a serious environmental problem, because of the increasing number of accidental spills caused by human activities. The starting point of any studies is the reconstruction of the conceptual site model. To make valid predictions about the flow pathways following by hydrocarbons compound is necessary to make a correct reconstruction of their characteristics and the environment in which they move. Near-surface geophysical methods, based on the study of electrical and electromagnetic properties, are proved to be very useful in mapping spatial distribution of the organic contaminants in the subsurface. It is well known, in fact, that electrical properties of the porous media are significantly influenced by hydrocarbons because, when contaminants enter the rock matrix, surface reaction occur between the contaminant and the soil grain surface. The main aim of this work is to investigate the capability of near-surface geophysical methods in mapping and monitoring spatial distribution of contaminants in a controlled setting. A laboratory experiment has been performed at the Hydrogeosite Laboratory of CNR-IMAA (Marsico Nuovo, PZ) where a box-sand has been contaminated by diesel. The used contaminant is a LNAPL, added to the sand through a drilled pipe. Contaminant behaviour and its migration paths have been monitored for one year by Electrical Resistivity measurements. In details, a Cross Borehole Electrical Resistivity Tomography techniques were used to characterize the contamination dynamics after a controlled hydrocarbon spillage occurring in the vadose zone. The approach with cross-borehole resistivity imaging provide a great advantage compared to more conventional surface electrical resistivity tomography, due to the high resolution at high depth (obviously depending on the depth of the well instrumented for the acquisition). This method has been shown to provide good information on the distribution of

  14. Laboratory techniques in plant molecular biology taught with UniformMu insertion alleles of maize

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An undergraduate course - Laboratory Techniques in Plant Molecular Biology - was organized around our research application of UniformMu insertion alleles to investigate mitochondrial functions in plant reproduction. The course objectives were to develop students’ laboratory, record keeping, bioinfor...

  15. Optimization of Methodology for Rearing Spodoptera albula on Artificial Diet.

    PubMed

    Di Bello, M M; Souza, B H S; Nogueira, L; Ribeiro, Z A; Eduardo, W I; Boiça Júnior, A L

    2017-03-08

    Advances in techniques for rearing insects on artificial diets are fundamental to solving issues of basic and applied entomology. In this study, we evaluated the development of Spodoptera albula (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on three artificial diets used for other species of Lepidoptera, at three larval densities, and two densities of adult couples housed in oviposition cages of two sizes, with the aim of optimizing methodology for rearing S. albula in the laboratory. Biological parameters were recorded from S. albula, and a fitness index was calculated based on the larval survival and duration and weight of pupae. The total and daily oviposition was recorded using 5 or 10 adult couples of S. albula housed in two cage sizes. Concentrations of total nitrogen and protein in the tested diets were determined. Development of S. albula was completed in all artificial diets; however, the diet used for rearing Anticarsia gemmatalis (Hübner) larvae was the most suitable for S. albula, yielding intermediate development time and higher survival relative to the other diets. Individualization of larvae favored S. albula development by producing overall greater weights of larvae and pupae, higher survival rates, and longer adult longevity. Cage size and number of couples per cage did not influence S. albula fecundity in the experiment conditions. Spodoptera albula can be satisfactorily reared on the artificial diet used for A. gemmatalis, using one larva per tube, and either density of adults at any cage size. Additional amendments are needed in the rearing methodology to achieve optimal conditions for larval development to adulthood.

  16. Effect of Parasitoid: Host Ratio and Parasitoid and Host Group Size on Fitness of Spathius galinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a Parasitoid of Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae): Implications for Mass-Rearing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Producing insect natural enemies in laboratories or insectaries for biological pest control is often expensive, and developing cost-effective rearing techniques is a goal of many biological control programs. Spathius galinae Belokobylskij and Strazenac (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a recently described...

  17. Biology, life history and laboratory rearing of Spathius galinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a larval parasitoid of the invasive Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spathius galinae Belokobylskij & Strazajac is a recently described parasitoid of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus plannipennis Fairmaire, in the Russian Far East, and is currently being considered for biocontrol introduction in the US. Using A. planipennis larvae reared with freshly cut ash (Fraxinus ...

  18. Impacts of extended laboratory rearing on female fitness in Florida colonies of the parasitoid spalangia cameroni (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) with an analysis of wolbachia strains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spalangia cameroni is used as a biological control agent of filth flies. These parasitoids are reared commercially, but little is known about the impact of colony age on host-seeking and life history parameters. Host-seeking in equine shavings and manure was analyzed with two colony ages established...

  19. Diets, equipment, and techniques for maintaining crawfish in the laboratory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tarshis, I.B.; Avault, James W.

    1978-01-01

    One commercial and 4 laboratory prepared extruded, water-stable diets were fed 3 times a week in 1-g portions to juvenile male and female White River crawfish, Procambarus acutus acutus (Girard), for 10 weeks. The. binding material in the laboratory preparation was alginate (Kelgin), whereas that in the commercial preparation was starch. No statistically significant weight differences developed between the groups of crawfish at the end of the 10-week period; all 5 diets were found satisfactory for feeding and maintaining P. acutus acutus in the laboratory, and all test crawfish survived throughout the experimental period. Weight gains were highest in a diet containing 50.5% protein; intermediate in those fed a diet with 46.0% protein; and lowest in those fed diets with 31.7 or 36.3% protein. Crawfish fed the commercial preparation of one of the 46.0% protein diets showed a slightly but not significantly higher weight gain than those fed the laboratory preparation of the diet. In an evaluation of the water stability of 5 commercially prepared animal chow diets and the commercial extruded diet, 2 of the commercial diets disintegrated after one hour exposure in water and the other 3 became bloated after one hour and remained on the surface throughout the 24-hour test. The commercial extruded diet maintained its water stability for the full 24 hours. The commercial preparation of the 46.0% protein diet was successfully used under laboratory conditions for feeding and maintaining the following crawfishes: Cambarellus shufeldtii (Faxon), Cambarus acuminatus Faxon, Orconectes limosus (Rafinesque), O. virilis (Hagen), Procambarus clarkii (Girard), and P. spiculifer (Le conte). In longevity experiments Cambarus diogenes diogenes Girard and Procambarus hinei (Ortmann) now have survived for 8 months on this diet in the laboratory.

  20. View of south rear and east sides, facing northnorthwest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of south rear and east sides, facing north-northwest - International Longshoremen's & Warehousemen's Union Hall, Naval Civil Engineering Laboratory, Port Hueneme Road, Port Hueneme, Ventura County, CA

  1. Remote sensing and laboratory techniques for monitoring ocean dumping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohlhorst, C. W.; Johnson, R. W.; Meyer, E. R.

    1977-01-01

    Results of field experiments conducted in the Atlantic Coastal Zone indicate that plumes resulting from ocean dumping of acid waste and sewage sludge have distinguishable spectral characteristics when the radiance of the pollutant is normalized (ratioed to) background ocean water. Acid waste spectra peak between 550-650 nm while sewage sludge spectra have peak values at wavelengths of about 700 nm or greater. Results indicate that identification of acid waste and sewage sludge plumes may be independent of geographical location in the Atlantic Coastal Zone. Radiance ratio curves obtained in the laboratory qualitatively agree with those obtained from field experiments. Results from the July 25, 1977, Galveston Deep Ocean Dump Site experiment show the radiance ratio curve of the biodigested industrial waste to be fairly flat and similar to the radiance ratio curves of sewage sludge line dumps and sewage sludge spot dumps that have been in the water for several hours.

  2. Novel Monitoring Techniques for Characterizing Frictional Interfaces in the Laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Selvadurai, Paul A.; Glaser, Steven D.

    2015-01-01

    A pressure-sensitive film was used to characterize the asperity contacts along a polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) interface in the laboratory. The film has structural health monitoring (SHM) applications for flanges and other precision fittings and train rail condition monitoring. To calibrate the film, simple spherical indentation tests were performed and validated against a finite element model (FEM) to compare normal stress profiles. Experimental measurements of the normal stress profiles were within −7.7% to 6.6% of the numerical calculations between 12 and 50 MPa asperity normal stress. The film also possessed the capability of quantifying surface roughness, an important parameter when examining wear and attrition in SHM applications. A high definition video camera supplied data for photometric analysis (i.e., the measure of visible light) of asperities along the PMMA-PMMA interface in a direct shear configuration, taking advantage of the transparent nature of the sample material. Normal stress over individual asperities, calculated with the pressure-sensitive film, was compared to the light intensity transmitted through the interface. We found that the luminous intensity transmitted through individual asperities linearly increased 0.05643 ± 0.0012 candelas for an increase of 1 MPa in normal stress between normal stresses ranging from 23 to 33 MPa. PMID:25923930

  3. Synchrotron and laboratory studies utilizing a new powder diffraction technique

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, G.S.; Beno, M.A.; Jennings, G.; Engbretson, M.; Ramanathan, M.

    1992-10-01

    We have developed a new type of powder diffractometer that is much more efficient than existing methods. The diffractometer has the potential of both high count rates and very high resolution when used at a synchrotron source. The laboratory based instrument has an order of magnitude improvement in count rate over existing methods. The method uses a focusing diffracted beam monochromator in combination with a multichannel detector. The incident x-rays fall on a flat plate or capillary sample and are intercepted by a bent focusing monochromator which has the focus of the bend at the sample surface. The powder diffraction lines emerging from the bent crystal monochromator are detected by a linear or 2-dimensional detector. This allows us to eliminate the background from fluorescence or other scattering and to take data over a range of 3[degrees] to 4[degrees] instead of one angle at a time thereby providing a large improvement over conventional diffractometers. Results are presented for fluorapatite Fe[sub 2]O[sub 3], and a high-TC superconductor.

  4. Synchrotron and laboratory studies utilizing a new powder diffraction technique

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, G.S.; Beno, M.A.; Jennings, G.; Engbretson, M.; Ramanathan, M.

    1992-10-01

    We have developed a new type of powder diffractometer that is much more efficient than existing methods. The diffractometer has the potential of both high count rates and very high resolution when used at a synchrotron source. The laboratory based instrument has an order of magnitude improvement in count rate over existing methods. The method uses a focusing diffracted beam monochromator in combination with a multichannel detector. The incident x-rays fall on a flat plate or capillary sample and are intercepted by a bent focusing monochromator which has the focus of the bend at the sample surface. The powder diffraction lines emerging from the bent crystal monochromator are detected by a linear or 2-dimensional detector. This allows us to eliminate the background from fluorescence or other scattering and to take data over a range of 3{degrees} to 4{degrees} instead of one angle at a time thereby providing a large improvement over conventional diffractometers. Results are presented for fluorapatite Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and a high-TC superconductor.

  5. Laboratory prototype of cochlear implant: design and techniques.

    PubMed

    Ali, Hussnain; Ahmad, Talha J; Ajaz, Asim; Khan, Shoab A

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents design overview of a low cost prototype of Cochlear Implant developed from commercial off-the-shelf components. Design scope includes speech processing module implemented on a commercial digital signal processor, transcutaneous data and power transceiver developed from a single pair of inductive coils and finally a stimulator circuitry for cochlear stimulation. Different speech processing strategies such as CIS, SMSP and F0/F1 have been implemented and tested using a novel, indigenously developed speech processing research module which evaluates the performance of speech processing strategies in software, hardware and practical scenarios. Design overview, simulations and practical results of an optimized inductive link using Class E Power Amplifier are presented. Link was designed at a carrier frequency of 2.5MHz for 100mW output power. Receiver logic design and stimulator circuitry was implemented using a PIC microcontroller and off-the-shelf electronic components. Results indicate 40% link efficiency with 128kbps data transfer rate. This low cost prototype can be used for undertaking cochlear implant research in laboratories.

  6. Maintenance of a laboratory colony of Cimex lectularius (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) using an artificial feeding technique.

    PubMed

    Montes, C; Cuadrillero, C; Vilella, D

    2002-07-01

    The in vitro maintenance technique described in this article has been used successfully to rear Cimex lectularius (L.) by feeding for >2 yr all nymphal stages and adults through parafilm "M" sealing film on different types of blood. Using this feeding technique, the subsequent egg production of female bedbugs was remarkably high. The blood was maintained at 37 degrees C to enhance the attachment of the bugs. The effect of anticoagulation methods for the blood meal was investigated, and heparinized blood was found the most suitable for feeding bugs. All stages of the bugs fed weekly on blood in the artificial feeding system remained attached for up to 0.5-1.0 h, until completion of their blood meals, and all reached engorged weights. More than 90% of the bugs fed artificially on whole blood, and they molted or laid eggs successfully.

  7. Techniques to obtain orbital debris encounter speeds in the laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Chhabildas, L.C.

    1996-06-01

    Understanding high-pressure material behavior is crucial to address the physical processes in hypervelocity impact events related to space sciences such as orbital-debris impact on a debris shield. At very high impact velocities, material properties will be dominated by phase changes, such as melting or vaporization, which cannot be achieved at lower impact velocities. Development of well-controlled, repeatable hypervelocity launch capabilities is the first step necessary to improve understanding of material behavior at extreme pressures and temperatures not currently available using conventional two-stage light-gas guns. In this paper, techniques used to extend the launch capabilities of a two-stage light gas gun to 16 km/s are described. It is anticipated that this technology will be useful in testing, evaluating, and design of various debris shields proposed for many different spacecrafts.

  8. Demonstrations of Extraterrestrial Life Detection Techniques in the High School Biology Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saltinski, Ronald

    1969-01-01

    Discusses the experimental procedures and equipment for exobiology projects at the high school level. An interdisciplinary approach involving electronic equipment and micro-biological laboratory techniques is used. Photographs and diagrams of equipment are included. Bibliography. (LC)

  9. Basic Laboratory Techniques for Students of Biology and Small Animal Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoen, Jerome; Berman, Paul

    This document provides descriptions of lessons, activities, and laboratory experiments to be used in a course on basic laboratory techniques for students in biology and small animal care. These learning experiences are designed to be completed during one class period daily for approximately 70 days per semester. (It is assumed that this would…

  10. A Survey of the Practices, Procedures, and Techniques in Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Teaching Laboratories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Christopher B.; Schmidt, Monica; Soniat, Michael

    2011-01-01

    A survey was conducted of four-year institutions that teach undergraduate organic chemistry laboratories in the United States. The data include results from over 130 schools, describes the current practices at these institutions, and discusses the statistical results such as the scale of the laboratories performed, the chemical techniques applied,…

  11. Picosecond lidar techniques in laboratory and field diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goulard, R.

    1984-12-01

    The availability of picosecond laser systems opens a new potential in the field of diagnostics. It is now possible to observe chemical events over time intervals as short as 10 to the minus 9th power sec (e.g., fluorescence, bond-selective chemistry,...) without overlap with the much shorter 10 to the minus 12th power sec triggering signal. In addition, two specific effects are of special interest to real industrial flame diagnostics. One is the elimination of background noise, since the picosecond time-gating of the detector will collect the whole signal of interest but only a tiny fraction of the time-spread noise background (e.g., soot, walls,...). The other is related to the very short length of these pulses (similar to mm): it is the possibility to use the lidar/radar principle to convert the time history of the measured back scattered signals into a millimeter-resolved space distribution along the beam. In this fashion, Raman and other techniques can yield a detailed map of concentrations and temperatures in three-dimensional space, even in sooty combustors background, with the need of only one single porthole.

  12. The Effectiveness of Active and Traditional Teaching Techniques in the Orthopedic Assessment Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nottingham, Sara; Verscheure, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Active learning is a teaching methodology with a focus on student-centered learning that engages students in the educational process. This study implemented active learning techniques in an orthopedic assessment laboratory, and the effects of these teaching techniques. Mean scores from written exams, practical exams, and final course evaluations…

  13. PROJECT SUCCESS: Marine Science. (Introductory Packet, Basic Marine Science Laboratory Techniques, Oceanographic Instruments, Individual Projects, Bibliography).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demaray, Bryan

    Five packets comprise the marine science component of an enrichment program for gifted elementary students. Considered in the introductory section are identification (pre/post measure) procedures. Remaining packets address the following topics (subtopics in parentheses): basic marine science laboratory techniques (microscope techniques and metric…

  14. Routine application of the in situ soil analysis technique by the Yankee Atomic Environmental Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, J.C.; McCurdy, D.E.; Laurenzo, E.L.

    1989-01-01

    Using a technique developed by the Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML) for field spectrometry, the Yankee Atomic Environmental Laboratory (YAEL) has routinely performed in situ soil measurements in the vicinity of five nuclear power stations for more than a decade. As a special research endeavor, several locations at the FURNAS Angra 1 site in Brazil having high natural backgrounds were also measured in 1987. The technical basis of the technique, a comparison of soil radionuclide concentrations predicted by the in situ technique to soil radionuclide concentrations predicted by the in situ technique to soil analyses from the same sites, the advantages and disadvantages of the in situ methodology, and the evolution of the portable equipment utilized at YAEL for the field measurements are presented in this paper.

  15. Crack-Arrest Techniques in Reinforced Concrete Structural Elements. Report 1. Laboratory Tests

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-11-01

    Control Charac-teristics of Various Types of Bar in Reinforced Concrete Beams," Research Report 18, Part 1, Dec 1966, Cement and Concrete Associa- tion...AD/A-002 661 CRACK-ARREST TECHNIQUES IN REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS. REPORT 1. LABORATORY TESTS Frank B. Cox Army Engineer Waterways...ACCESSION NO. 3. FECIPI§NT’S CATALOG NUMBER 4. TITLE (and Subtitle) S. TYPE OF REPORT &-PERIOD COVERED CRACK-ARREST TECHNIQUES IN REINFORCED CONCRETE

  16. Spawning and rearing Atlantic menhaden

    SciTech Connect

    Hettler, W.F.

    1981-04-01

    Two-year-old Atlantic menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus) held in the laboratory at ambient temperatures and salinities for more than 1 year, were induced to spawn by injecting first human chorionic gonadotropin and then carp pituitary powder. Spawning took place at temperatures of 16 to 20/sup 0/C in a 2100-L indoor tank modified to recover the buoyant fertilized eggs. Larvae were reared to the juvenile stage on a diet of cultured rotifers (Brachionus plicatilus), sieved wild zooplankton (64 to 500 ..mu..m), brine shrimp (Artemia salina) nauplii, and powdered trout food.

  17. An Enzymatic Clinical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment Incorporating an Introduction to Mathematical Method Comparison Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duxbury, Mark

    2004-01-01

    An enzymatic laboratory experiment based on the analysis of serum is described that is suitable for students of clinical chemistry. The experiment incorporates an introduction to mathematical method-comparison techniques in which three different clinical glucose analysis methods are compared using linear regression and Bland-Altman difference…

  18. Application of the One-Minute Preceptor Technique by Novice Teachers in the Gross Anatomy Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Lap Ki; Yang, Jian; Irby, David M.

    2015-01-01

    The one-minute preceptor (OMP) was originally developed in the ambulatory care setting as a time-efficient teaching technique for learner-centered clinical training. There are also possible advantages of using the OMP in the gross anatomy laboratory. However, in a previous study it was found that providing training to experienced gross anatomy…

  19. TECHNIQUES OF TAPE PREPARATION AND DUPLICATION, WITH SUGGESTIONS FOR A LANGUAGE LABORATORY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansas State Dept. of Public Instruction, Topeka.

    PART ONE OF THIS BULLETIN PROVIDES HELP IN THE TWO CRITICAL AREAS OF MASTER TAPE PREPARATION AND DUPLICATION. SUPPLEMENTED BY NUMEROUS PHOTOGRAPHS AND DIAGRAMS OF EQUIPMENT AND DUPLICATION TECHNIQUES, THE BULLETIN DESCRIBES MASTER PROGRAM DUPLICATION USING LANGUAGE LABORATORY EQUIPMENT, A PROFESSIONAL MASS DUPLICATOR, A TAPE RECORDER, A RECORD…

  20. Costly Nutritious Diets do not Necessarily Translate into Better Performance of Artificially Reared Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Pascacio-Villafán, C.; Williams, T.; Sivinski, J.; Birke, A.; Aluja, M.

    2015-01-01

    Protein, lipid, carbohydrate, and energy contents of three artificial diets (Xal2, Met1, and Met2) used for laboratory-rearing and mass-rearing the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew), for a sterile insect technique program were measured. The larval survival, pupation, pupal weight, adult emergence, sex ratio, and flight capacity of the flies reared on each of these diets were also quantified. The diet with the highest nutrient and energy content was Xal2 followed by Met2 and Met1, but larval recovery and percent pupation was significantly higher in flies reared on either the Met1 or Met2 diets. A. ludens reared on Xal2 exhibited the highest proportion of adults capable of flight. No other response variable differed significantly among the three diets tested. This suggests that a high content of nutrients and multiple sources of protein (dried yeast and wheat germ in the case of the Xal2 diet) do not necessarily improve overall performance or fly quality. We conclude that nutritious diets for A. ludens can be modified to reduce their cost without compromising the performance of artificially reared flies. PMID:26470103

  1. Costly Nutritious Diets do not Necessarily Translate into Better Performance of Artificially Reared Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Pascacio-Villafán, C; Williams, T; Sivinski, J; Birke, A; Aluja, M

    2015-02-01

    Protein, lipid, carbohydrate, and energy contents of three artificial diets (Xal2, Met1, and Met2) used for laboratory-rearing and mass-rearing the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew), for a sterile insect technique program were measured. The larval survival, pupation, pupal weight, adult emergence, sex ratio, and flight capacity of the flies reared on each of these diets were also quantified. The diet with the highest nutrient and energy content was Xal2 followed by Met2 and Met1, but larval recovery and percent pupation was significantly higher in flies reared on either the Met1 or Met2 diets. A. ludens reared on Xal2 exhibited the highest proportion of adults capable of flight. No other response variable differed significantly among the three diets tested. This suggests that a high content of nutrients and multiple sources of protein (dried yeast and wheat germ in the case of the Xal2 diet) do not necessarily improve overall performance or fly quality. We conclude that nutritious diets for A. ludens can be modified to reduce their cost without compromising the performance of artificially reared flies.

  2. 2. VIEW TO SOUTH, REAR AND SIDE. Vanadium Corporation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW TO SOUTH, REAR AND SIDE. - Vanadium Corporation of America (VCA) Naturita Mill, Laboratory, 3 miles Northwest of Naturita, between Highway 141 & San Miguel River, Naturita, Montrose County, CO

  3. 22. DETAIL, TWO LIGHTING TYPES AT REAR OF TEST STAND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. DETAIL, TWO LIGHTING TYPES AT REAR OF TEST STAND 1-A. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  4. NORTH REAR AND WEST SIDE, Looking southeast down Saturn Boulevard. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NORTH REAR AND WEST SIDE, Looking southeast down Saturn Boulevard. February, 1998 - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Electrical Substation, Test Area 1-115, northwest end of Saturn Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  5. Southeast (side) and northeast (rear) elevations, view to northwest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Southeast (side) and northeast (rear) elevations, view to northwest - Bureau of Mines Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Original Building, Date Street north of U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  6. Northeast (rear) and northwest (side) elevations, view to southwest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Northeast (rear) and northwest (side) elevations, view to southwest - Bureau of Mines Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Original Building, Date Street north of U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  7. 22. LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM RECEIVING PLATFORM AT THE REAR (EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM RECEIVING PLATFORM AT THE REAR (EAST SIDE) OF BUILDING, SHOWING SOUTH SIDE OF NORTH WING AND SOUTH SIDE OF FOOD PRESERVATION AND SANITATION LABORATORY (Harms) - Dairy Industry Building, Iowa State University campus, Ames, Story County, IA

  8. 14. REAR (EAST SIDE) OF BUILDING SHOWING RECEIVING COURT AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. REAR (EAST SIDE) OF BUILDING SHOWING RECEIVING COURT AND SOUTH SIDE OF FOOD PRESERVATION AND SANITATION LABORATORY, LOOKING WEST-NORTHWEST (Harms) - Dairy Industry Building, Iowa State University campus, Ames, Story County, IA

  9. 8. SOUTH REAR, SUPERSTRUCTURE. Looking north from deck. Edwards ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. SOUTH REAR, SUPERSTRUCTURE. Looking north from deck. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  10. Applications of nuclear techniques for in vivo body composition studies at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Cohn, S.H.; Ellis, K.J.; Vartsky, D.; Vaswani, A.N.; Wielopolski, L.

    1981-01-01

    A series of technical developments and their clinical applications in various nuclear technologies at Brookhaven National Laboratory is described. These include the development of a portable neutron activation facility for measuring cadmium in vivo in kidney and liver, a technique for the measurement of body iron utilizing nuclear resonant scattering of gamma rays, a non-invasive measure of the skeletal levels of lead by an x-ray fluorescence technique, and the development of a pulsed Van de Graaff generator as a source of pulsed neutrons for the measurement of lung silicon. (ACR)

  11. Effects of implant angulation, material selection, and impression technique on impression accuracy: a preliminary laboratory study.

    PubMed

    Rutkunas, Vygandas; Sveikata, Kestutis; Savickas, Raimondas

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this preliminary laboratory study was to evaluate the effects of 5- and 25-degree implant angulations in simulated clinical casts on an impression's accuracy when using different impression materials and tray selections. A convenience sample of each implant angulation group was selected for both open and closed trays in combination with one polyether and two polyvinyl siloxane impression materials. The influence of material and technique appeared to be significant for both 5- and 25-degree angulations (P < .05), and increased angulation tended to decrease impression accuracy. The open-tray technique was more accurate with highly nonaxially oriented implants for the small sample size investigated.

  12. CONSUMPTIONS RATES OF SUMMER FLOUNDER LARVAE ON ROTIFER AND BRINE SHRIMP PREY DURING LARVAL REARING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Larval summer flounder Paralichthys dentatus were hatched and reared through metamorphosis in the laboratory. At several points in the rearing cycle, larvae were removed from their rearing chambers and placed in small bowls, where they were fed known quantities of the rotifer Bra...

  13. Relevance of nucleic acid amplification techniques for diagnosis of respiratory tract infections in the clinical laboratory.

    PubMed Central

    Ieven, M; Goossens, H

    1997-01-01

    Clinical laboratories are increasingly receiving requests to perform nucleic acid amplification tests for the detection of a wide variety of infectious agents. In this paper, the efficiency of nucleic acid amplification techniques for the diagnosis of respiratory tract infections is reviewed. In general, these techniques should be applied only for the detection of microorganisms for which available diagnostic techniques are markedly insensitive or nonexistent or when turnaround times for existing tests (e.g., viral culture) are much longer than those expected with amplification. This is the case for rhinoviruses, coronaviruses, and hantaviruses causing a pulmonary syndrome, Bordetella pertussis, Chlamydia pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and Coxiella burnetii. For Legionella spp. and fungi, contamination originating from the environment is a limiting factor in interpretation of results, as is the difficulty in differentiating colonization and infection. Detection of these agents in urine or blood by amplification techniques remains to be evaluated. In the clinical setting, there is no need for molecular diagnostic tests for the diagnosis of Pneumocystis carinii. At present, amplification methods for Mycobacterium tuberculosis cannot replace the classical diagnostic techniques, due to their lack of sensitivity and the absence of specific internal controls for the detection of inhibitors of the reaction. Also, the results of interlaboratory comparisons are unsatisfactory. Furthermore, isolates are needed for susceptibility studies. Additional work remains to be done on sample preparation methods, comparison between different amplification methods, and analysis of results. The techniques can be useful for the rapid identification of M. tuberculosis in particular circumstances, as well as the rapid detection of most rifampin-resistant isolates. The introduction of diagnostic amplification techniques into a clinical laboratory implies a level of proficiency for

  14. Mass Rearing History and Irradiation Affect Mating Performance of the Male Fruit Fly, Anastrepha obliqua

    PubMed Central

    Rull, Juan; Encarnación, Nery; Birke, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    As an initial step to improve the efficiency of the sterile insect technique applied to eradicate, suppress, and control wild Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in mango producing areas of Mexico, the effect of radiation dose and mass rearing history on male mating performance was examined. Field cage tests in which both male and female laboratory flies were irradiated at different doses (0, 40, and 80 Gy) were released with cohorts of wild flies of both sexes, revealing that both mass rearing history and irradiation affected male mating performance. Laboratory males were accepted for copulation by wild females less frequently than wild males. Copulations involving laboratory males were shorter than those involving wild males. Irradiated males mated less frequently with wild females than wild males, and irradiated females appeared to be less able to reject courting males of both origins. High levels of fertility for untreated laboratory females crossed with males irradiated at different doses may reflect problems in mass rearing affecting homogeneity of pupal age before irradiation, and possibly masked a dose effect. Proposed remedial measures to improve male mating performance are discussed. PMID:22957485

  15. Hamilton's Store, rear view, with storage building in rear, restaurant ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Hamilton's Store, rear view, with storage building in rear, restaurant to left, officer's row in distance, view southeast - Mammoth Hot Springs-Fort Yellowstone, Grand Loop Road, Mammoth, Park County, WY

  16. FACILITY 710, NORTHWEST AND REAR SIDES, SHOWING WINGS IN REAR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FACILITY 710, NORTHWEST AND REAR SIDES, SHOWING WINGS IN REAR, OBLIQUE VIEW FACING EAST-NORTHEAST. - Schofield Barracks Military Reservation, Corner-Entry Single-Family Housing Type, Between Bragg & Grime Streets near Williston Avenue, Wahiawa, Honolulu County, HI

  17. Comparison of five parasitological techniques for laboratory diagnosis of Balantidium coli cysts.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Alynne da Silva; Bastos, Otilio Machado Pereira; Uchôa, Claudia Maria Antunes; Pissinatti, Alcides; Bastos, Augusto César Machado Pereira; Souza, Igo Vieira de; Dib, Laís Verdan; Azevedo, Eduarda Peixoto; Siqueira, Mayara Perlingeiro de; Cardozo, Matheus Lessa; Amendoeira, Maria Regina Reis

    2016-01-01

    Balantidium coli is a protozoon that can cause dysentery in humans, pigs and nonhuman primates, with zoonotic potential. In the literature, there is still little information on the effectiveness of different laboratory techniques for diagnosing this disease. This study compared and evaluated the performance of the Lutz, modified Ritchie, Faust, modified Sheather and direct examination techniques for detecting cysts of this protozoon. Between 2012 and 2014, 1905 fecal samples were collected from captive animals in the state of Rio de Janeiro. Of these, 790 were obtained from the rectum of pigs and 1115 from enclosures occupied by nonhuman primates. B. coli cysts were most evident through direct examination (22.4% of the samples) and the Lutz technique (21%). Fair agreement (Kappa = 0.41; p < 0.05) was observed only between direct examination and Lutz. The flotation techniques (Faust and modified Sheather) did not show good recovery of cysts. A statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) in the frequency of cysts between pigs and nonhuman primates could only be observed through direct examination and the Lutz technique. The most efficient method for diagnosing this parasitosis was seen to an association between direct examination and the spontaneous sedimentation technique.

  18. Laboratory analyses of micron-sized solid grains: Experimental techniques and recent results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colangeli, L.; Bussoletti, E.; Blanco, A.; Borghesi, A.; Fonti, S.; Orofino, V.; Schwehm, G.

    1989-01-01

    Morphological and spectrophotometric investigations have been extensively applied in the past years to various kinds of micron and/or submicron-sized grains formed by materials which are candidate to be present in space. The samples are produced in the laboratory and then characterized in their physio-chemical properties. Some of the most recent results obtained on various kinds of carbonaceous materials are reported. Main attention is devoted to spectroscopic results in the VUV and IR wavelength ranges, where many of the analyzed samples show typical fingerprints which can be identified also in astrophysical and cometary materials. The laboratory methodologies used so far are also critically discussed in order to point out capabilities and present limitations, in the view of possible application to returned comet samples. Suggestions are given to develop new techniques which should overcome some of the problems faced in the manipulation and analysis of micron solid samples.

  19. A Laboratory Course for Teaching Laboratory Techniques, Experimental Design, Statistical Analysis, and Peer Review Process to Undergraduate Science Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gliddon, C. M.; Rosengren, R. J.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a 13-week laboratory course called Human Toxicology taught at the University of Otago, New Zealand. This course used a guided inquiry based laboratory coupled with formative assessment and collaborative learning to develop in undergraduate students the skills of problem solving/critical thinking, data interpretation and…

  20. Complementary and Emerging Techniques for Astrophysical Ices Processed in the Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allodi, M. A.; Baragiola, R. A.; Baratta, G. A.; Barucci, M. A.; Blake, G. A.; Boduch, P.; Brucato, J. R.; Contreras, C.; Cuylle, S. H.; Fulvio, D.; Gudipati, M. S.; Ioppolo, S.; Kaňuchová, Z.; Lignell, A.; Linnartz, H.; Palumbo, M. E.; Raut, U.; Rothard, H.; Salama, F.; Savchenko, E. V.; Sciamma-O'Brien, E.; Strazzulla, G.

    2013-12-01

    grain formation and processing as well as ice mantle chemistry under astronomical conditions and in full control of the relevant parameters; ice morphology (i.e., structure), composition, temperature, UV and particle fluxes, etc., yielding parameters that can be used for astrochemical modeling and for comparison with the observations. This is the topic of the present manuscript. Laboratory experiments simulating the conditions in space are conducted for decades all over the world, but particularly in recent years new techniques have made it possible to study reactions involving inter- and circumstellar dust and ice analogues at an unprecedented level of detail. Whereas in the past "top-down scenarios" allowed to conclude on the importance of the solid state for the chemical enrichment of space, presently "bottom-up approaches" make it possible to fully quantify the involved reactions, and to provide information on processes at the molecular level. The recent progress in the field of "solid state laboratory astrophysics" is a consequence of the use of ultra high vacuum systems, of new radiation sources, such as synchrotrons and laser systems that allow extensions to wavelength domains that long have not been accessible, including the THz domain, and the use of highly sensitive gas phase detection techniques, explicitly applied to characterize the solid state such as fluorescence, luminescence, cavity ring-down spectroscopy and sophisticated mass spectrometric techniques. This paper presents an overview of the techniques being used in astrochemical laboratories worldwide, but it is incomplete in the sense that it summarizes the outcome of a 3-day workshop of the authors in November 2012 (at the Observatoire de Meudon in France), with several laboratories represented, but not all. The paper references earlier work, but it is incomplete with regard to latest developments of techniques used in laboratories not represented at the workshop.

  1. Murillo's paintings revealed by spectroscopic techniques and dedicated laboratory-made micro X-ray diffraction.

    PubMed

    Duran, A; Siguenza, M B; Franquelo, M L; Jimenez de Haro, M C; Justo, A; Perez-Rodriguez, J L

    2010-06-25

    This paper describes one of the first case studies using micro-diffraction laboratory-made systems to analyse painting cross-sections. Pigments, such as lead white, vermilion, red ochre, red lac, lapis lazuli, smalt, lead tin yellow type I, massicot, ivory black, lamp black and malachite, were detected in cross-sections prepared from six Bartolomé Esteban Murillo paintings by micro-Raman and micro-XRD combined with complementary techniques (optical microscopy, SEM-EDS, and FT-IR). The use of micro-XRD was necessary due to the poor results obtained with conventional XRD. In some cases, pigment identification was only possible by combining results from the different analytical techniques utilised in this study.

  2. Evaluation of Various Pulse-Decay Laboratory Permeability Measurement Techniques for Highly Stressed Coals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Ruimin; Harpalani, Satya; Pandey, Rohit

    2017-02-01

    The transient technique for laboratory permeability measurement, proposed by Brace et al. (J Geophys Res 73:2225-2236, 1968) and widely used for conventional gas reservoir rocks, is the preferred method when testing low-permeability rocks in the laboratory. However, Brace et al.'s solution leads to considerable errors since it does not take into account compressive storage and sorption effect when applied to sorptive rocks, such as, coals and shales. To verify the applicability of this solution when used to characterize fluid flow behavior of coal, an in-depth investigation of permeability evolution for flow of helium and methane depletion was conducted for San Juan coals using the pressure pulse-decay method under best replicated in situ conditions. Three permeability solutions, Brace et al.'s (1968), Dicker and Smits's (International meeting on petroleum engineering, Society of Petroleum Engineers, 1988) and Cui et al.'s (Geofluids 9:208-223, 2009), were utilized to establish the permeability trends. Both helium and methane permeability results exhibited very small difference between the Brace et al.'s solution and Dicker and Smits's solution, indicating that the effect of compressive storage is negligible. However, methane permeability enhancement at low pressures due to coal matrix shrinkage resulting from gas desorption can be significant and this was observed in pressure response plots and the estimated permeability values using Cui et al.'s solution only. Therefore, it is recommended that Cui et al.'s solution be employed to correctly include the sorption effect when testing coal permeability using the transient technique. A series of experiments were also carried out to establish the stress-dependent permeability trend under constant effective stress condition, and then quantify the sole contribution of the sorption effect on permeability variation. By comparison with the laboratory data obtained under in situ stress/strain condition, it was verified that

  3. Effects of rearing density of survival, growth, and development of the ladybird Coleomegilla maculata in Culture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our research focuses on developing cost- and space-efficient techniques to rear ladybird beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). We evaluated the effects of rearing density on survival, growth and development of Coleomegilla maculata. The hypothesis that survival decreases as rearing density increases ...

  4. New developments of X-ray fluorescence imaging techniques in laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuji, Kouichi; Matsuno, Tsuyoshi; Takimoto, Yuki; Yamanashi, Masaki; Kometani, Noritsugu; Sasaki, Yuji C.; Hasegawa, Takeshi; Kato, Shuichi; Yamada, Takashi; Shoji, Takashi; Kawahara, Naoki

    2015-11-01

    X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis is a well-established analytical technique with a long research history. Many applications have been reported in various fields, such as in the environmental, archeological, biological, and forensic sciences as well as in industry. This is because XRF has a unique advantage of being a nondestructive analytical tool with good precision for quantitative analysis. Recent advances in XRF analysis have been realized by the development of new x-ray optics and x-ray detectors. Advanced x-ray focusing optics enables the making of a micro x-ray beam, leading to micro-XRF analysis and XRF imaging. A confocal micro-XRF technique has been applied for the visualization of elemental distributions inside the samples. This technique was applied for liquid samples and for monitoring chemical reactions such as the metal corrosion of steel samples in the NaCl solutions. In addition, a principal component analysis was applied for reducing the background intensity in XRF spectra obtained during XRF mapping, leading to improved spatial resolution of confocal micro-XRF images. In parallel, the authors have proposed a wavelength dispersive XRF (WD-XRF) imaging spectrometer for a fast elemental imaging. A new two dimensional x-ray detector, the Pilatus detector was applied for WD-XRF imaging. Fast XRF imaging in 1 s or even less was demonstrated for Euro coins and industrial samples. In this review paper, these recent advances in laboratory-based XRF imaging, especially in a laboratory setting, will be introduced.

  5. Confirmation of the absence of tetrodotoxin and its analogues in the juveniles of the Japanese fire-bellied newt, Cynops pyrrhogaster, captive-reared from eggs in the laboratory using HILIC-LC-MS.

    PubMed

    Kudo, Yuta; Chiba, Chikafumi; Konoki, Keiichi; Cho, Yuko; Yotsu-Yamashita, Mari

    2015-07-01

    The tetrodotoxin (TTX) contents of the Japanese fire-bellied newt, Cynops pyrrhogaster, captive-reared from eggs to metamorphosed juveniles with a non-toxic diet for 70 weeks, as well as wild-caught juvenile newts, were investigated using a high-resolution hydrophilic interaction chromatography-LC-MS. TTX was detected in 0- to 22-week-old captive-reared juvenile newts but was not detected (<15 ng/g) in the 36- to 70-week-old newts, while significant levels of TTX (1.3-14 μg/g) were detected in the wild-caught juveniles.

  6. Investigation of Phototriangulation Accuracy with Using of Various Techniques Laboratory and Field Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chibunichev, A. G.; Kurkov, V. M.; Smirnov, A. V.; Govorov, A. V.; Mikhalin, V. A.

    2016-10-01

    Nowadays, aerial survey technology using aerial systems based on unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) becomes more popular. UAVs physically can not carry professional aerocameras. Consumer digital cameras are used instead. Such cameras usually have rolling, lamellar or global shutter. Quite often manufacturers and users of such aerial systems do not use camera calibration. In this case self-calibration techniques are used. However such approach is not confirmed by extensive theoretical and practical research. In this paper we compare results of phototriangulation based on laboratory, test-field or self-calibration. For investigations we use Zaoksky test area as an experimental field provided dense network of target and natural control points. Racurs PHOTOMOD and Agisoft PhotoScan software were used in evaluation. The results of investigations, conclusions and practical recommendations are presented in this article.

  7. Laboratory demonstration model: Active cleaning technique device. [for removal of contaminants from an optical surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shannon, R. L.; Gillette, R. B.

    1974-01-01

    The technique which utilizes exposure to a plasma to remove contaminants from a surface was incorporated into a laboratory model which demonstrates active cleaning by both plasma cleaning and ion sputtering modes of operation. The development phase is reported and includes discussion of the plasma tube configuration, device design, and performance tests. A general description of the active cleaning device is provided which includes information on the main power/plasma discharge sensors, and the power, gas supply, and ion accelerator systems. Development of the active cleaning species at high vacuum conditions is described and results indicate that plasma cleaning occurs in the region of a visible plume which extends from the end of the plasma tube. Recommendations are made for research to determine the plasma cleaning mechanism and the plasma species responsible for the cleaning, as well limitations on the type of contaminants that can be removed.

  8. Rearing methods for the black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae).

    PubMed

    Sheppard, D Craig; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Joyce, John A; Kiser, Barbara C; Sumner, Sonya M

    2002-07-01

    The black soldier fly, Heretia illucens (L.), is a nonpest tropical and warm-temperate region insect that is useful for managing large concentrations of animal manure and other biosolids. Manure management relying on wild fly oviposition has been successful in several studies. However, confidence in this robust natural system was low and biological studies were hampered by the lack of a dependable source of eggs and larvae. Larvae had been reared easily by earlier investigators, but achieving mating had been problematic. We achieved mating reliably in a 2 by 2 by 4-m screen cage in a 7 by 9 by 5-m greenhouse where sunlight and adequate space for aerial mating were available. Mating occurred during the shortest days of winter if the sun was not obscured by clouds. Adults were provided with water, but no food was required. Techniques for egg collection and larval rearing are given. Larvae were fed a moist mixture of wheat bran, corn meal, and alfalfa meal. This culture has been maintained for 3 yr. Maintainance of a black soldier fly laboratory colony will allow for development of manure management systems in fully enclosed animal housing and in colder regions.

  9. 3. GENERAL VIEW OF REAR SIDE OF THE COMPLEX, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. GENERAL VIEW OF REAR SIDE OF THE COMPLEX, LOOKING NORTH FROM GRAND AVENUE. A LATER, ONE-STORY ADDITION TO THE UNDERWRITERS' LABORATORIES COMPLEX IS SHOWN AT EXTREME RIGHT - Underwriters' Laboratories, 207-231 East Ohio Street, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  10. A Molecular Method to Discriminate between Mass-Reared Sterile and Wild Tsetse Flies during Eradication Programmes That Have a Sterile Insect Technique Component

    PubMed Central

    Pagabeleguem, Soumaïla; Gimonneau, Geoffrey; Seck, Momar Talla; Vreysen, Marc J. B.; Sall, Baba; Rayaissé, Jean-Baptiste; Sidibé, Issa; Bouyer, Jérémy; Ravel, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    Background The Government of Senegal has embarked several years ago on a project that aims to eradicate Glossina palpalis gambiensis from the Niayes area. The removal of the animal trypanosomosis would allow the development more efficient livestock production systems. The project was implemented using an area-wide integrated pest management strategy including a sterile insect technique (SIT) component. The released sterile male flies originated from a colony from Burkina Faso. Methodology/Principal Findings Monitoring the efficacy of the sterile male releases requires the discrimination between wild and sterile male G. p. gambiensis that are sampled in monitoring traps. Before being released, sterile male flies were marked with a fluorescent dye powder. The marking was however not infallible with some sterile flies only slightly marked or some wild flies contaminated with a few dye particles in the monitoring traps. Trapped flies can also be damaged due to predation by ants, making it difficult to discriminate between wild and sterile males using a fluorescence camera and / or a fluorescence microscope. We developed a molecular technique based on the determination of cytochrome oxidase haplotypes of G. p. gambiensis to discriminate between wild and sterile males. DNA was isolated from the head of flies and a portion of the 5’ end of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase I was amplified to be finally sequenced. Our results indicated that all the sterile males from the Burkina Faso colony displayed the same haplotype and systematically differed from wild male flies trapped in Senegal and Burkina Faso. This allowed 100% discrimination between sterile and wild male G. p. gambiensis. Conclusions/Significance This tool might be useful for other tsetse control campaigns with a SIT component in the framework of the Pan-African Tsetse and Trypanosomosis Eradication Campaign (PATTEC) and, more generally, for other vector or insect pest control programs. PMID:26901049

  11. Artificially reared mice exhibit anxiety-like behavior in adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Yasuda, Hidemi; Harauma, Akiko; Kato, Maki; Ootomo, Yuki; Hatanaka, Erisa; Moriguchi, Toru

    2016-01-01

    It is important to establish experimental animal techniques that are applicable to the newborn and infant phases for nutrition and pharmacological studies. Breeding technology using the artificial suckling method without breast milk is very effective for the study of newborn nutrition. Using this method, we separated newborn mice from dams within 48 h of birth and provided them with artificial milk. We evaluated mouse anxiety levels after early postnatal maternal separation. Artificially reared mice were subjected to elevated plus-maze tests to assess emotional behavior at 9 weeks of age. Artificially reared mice showed a significantly lower frequency of entries and dipping into the open arms of the maze compared with dam-reared mice. This result indicates that the anxiety level of artificially reared mice was higher than that of dam-reared mice. Moreover, the concentration of monoamines in the brain was determined after the behavioral experiment. The hippocampal norepinephrine, serotonin, and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid levels in the artificially reared mice were significantly higher than those of the dam-reared mice. These results suggest that maternal-offspring interactions are extremely important for the emotional development of newborn infants during the lactation period. In future studies, it is necessary to consider the environmental factors and conditions that minimize the influence of artificial rearing on emotional behavior. PMID:26948536

  12. Laboratory insights into the detection of surface biosignatures by remote-sensing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poch, O.; Pommerol, A.; Jost, B.; Roditi, I.; Frey, J.; Thomas, N.

    2014-03-01

    With the progress of direct imaging techniques, it will be possible in the short or long-term future to retrieve more efficiently the information on the physical properties of the light reflected by rocky exoplanets (Traub et al., 2010). The search for visible-infrared absorption bands of peculiar gases (O2, CH4 etc.) in this light could give clues for the presence of life (Kaltenegger and Selsis, 2007). Even more uplifting would be the direct detection of life itself, on the surface of an exoplanet. Considering this latter possibility, what is the potential of optical remote-sensing methods to detect surface biosignatures? Reflected light from the surface of the Earth exhibits a strong surface biosignature in the form of an abrupt change of reflectance between the visible and infrared range of the spectrum (Seager et al., 2005). This spectral feature called "vegetation red-edge" is possibly the consequence of biological evolution selecting the right chemical structures enabling the plants to absorb the visible energy, while preventing them from overheating by reflecting more efficiently the infrared. Such red-edge is also found in primitive photosynthetic bacteria, cyanobacteria, that colonized the surface of the Earth ocean and continents billions of years before multicellular plants (Knacke, 2003). If life ever arose on an Earth-like exoplanet, one could hypothesize that some form of its surface-life evolves into similar photo-active organisms, also exhibiting a red-edge. In this paper, we will present our plan and preliminary results of a laboratory study aiming at precising the potentiality of remote sensing techniques in detecting such surface biosignatures. Using equipment that has been developed in our team for surface photometry studies (Pommerol 2011, Jost 2013, Pommerol 2013), we will investigate the reflectance spectra and bidirectional reflectance function of soils containing bacteria such as cyanobacteria, in various environmental conditions. We will

  13. A laboratory course for teaching laboratory techniques, experimental design, statistical analysis, and peer review process to undergraduate science students.

    PubMed

    Gliddon, C M; J Rosengren, R

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a 13-week laboratory course called Human Toxicology taught at the University of Otago, New Zealand. This course used a guided inquiry based laboratory coupled with formative assessment and collaborative learning to develop in undergraduate students the skills of problem solving/critical thinking, data interpretation and written discussion of results. The laboratory practices were a guided inquiry based around retinol's ability to potentiate acetaminophen-mediated hepatotoxicity. To induce critical thinking, students were given a choice as to which assay they could use to determine how retinol affected acetaminophen hepatotoxicity. Short summaries were handed in following each assay and formed the bases of the formative assessment. To complete the feedback loop, a summative assessment that consisted of all the graphs and concepts from the short summaries were combined into a manuscript. To give the students exposure to science communication, the manuscript had to be written in accordance to the submission guidelines for Toxicological Sciences. Evaluation of this course was determined by a student questionnaire using a Likert scale and students' responses were very favorable. While the subject matter was toxicological centric, the content could be easily modified to suit another subject matter in biochemistry and molecular biology.

  14. VIEW OF SHADED REAR YARDS AND TERRACING, SHOWING REAR OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF SHADED REAR YARDS AND TERRACING, SHOWING REAR OF 527 BIRCH CIRCLE ON LEFT. VIEW FACING NORTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  15. 37. WEST REAR OF POWERHOUSE AND CAR BARN: West rear ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. WEST REAR OF POWERHOUSE AND CAR BARN: West rear of powerhouse and car barn, showing the turntable and tracks used to move cars in and out of the building's repair and storage area. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  16. Visualization of DNA in agarose gels as migrating colored bands: Applications to laboratory techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Adkins, S.; Burmeister, M.

    1994-09-01

    We have developed a method to visualize DNA without the use of ethidium bromide and UV radiation. Anionic dyes (colored anion) have long been used in the detection of pharmaceutical amines via ion pairing, here we show that cationic dyes may be used to detect DNA. In gel electrophoresis in which DNA is traveling toward the positive electrode and a cationic dye is traveling toward the negative electrode, we expect ion pairing of the DNA and the dye as they meet in the gel. The dye should bind to the anionic DNA. If the DNA is not completely neutralized by the dye, it should continue to migrate. Ethidium bromide, which is believed to stain DNA primarily by intercalation between bases, exhibits the fluorescence through its cation and also may bind to DNA, to some extent, through ionic pairing. We observed that DNA forms colored bands during electrophoresis in standard agarose gels when a cationic dye is present in the gel and running buffer. DNA in amounts equal to or greater than 80 ng is seen as a discrete migrating colored band in ambient room lighting. Colored bands may be transferred to nitrocellulose by vacuum transfer in room temperature gel dryer, Xeroxed, fixed with NaOH and dye removed with dilute detergent. Also, isolation of DNA bands from preparative gels may be accomplished without the typical use of ethidium bromide and UV radiation which are known to alter DNA and pose hazards to laboratory personnel. We are presently investigating the general utility of using dyes to visualize DNA for various laboratory techniques.

  17. Integrating Novel Field, Laboratory and Modelling Techniques to Upscale Estimates of Soil Erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wainwright, John; Parsons, Anthony; Cooper, James; Long, Edward; Hargrave, Graham; Kitchener, Ben; Hewett, Caspar; Onda, Yuichi; Furukawa, Tomomi; Obana, Eiichiro; Hayashi, Hirofumi; Noguchi, Takehiro

    2013-04-01

    Erosion is a particle-based phenomenon, yet most of current understanding and modelling of this process is based on bulk measurements rather than the movement of individual particles. Difficulties with measuring particle motions in dynamically changing conditions are being overcome with the application of two new technologies - particle imaging velocimetry (PIV) and radio frequency identification (RFID). It is thus possible to evaluate the entrainment, transport and deposition of individual particles and these data can be used to parameterize and to test particle-based modelling of the particle-based process. Both PIV and RFID tagging have been used in laboratory experiments to evaluate the detachment process by raindrops on bare surfaces and in shallow flows using rainfall simulation. The results suggest that the processes are more complex than hitherto thought with multiple detachment and transfer mechanisms. Because both mechanisms affect travel distance, they affect the ways in which estimates of soil erosion can be scaled from plot to hillslope and catchment scales. To evaluate movements at larger scales, we have also used RFID-tagged particles in field settings to look at sediment transfers following the Fukushima accident in Japan, 2011. A marker-in-cell model (MAHLERAN-MiC) has been developed to enable the laboratory results to be upscaled and tested in a field setting. Markers (representing sediment particles), containing sediment-property information, are initially distributed on a cellular grid. A cellular model is used to set up the boundary conditions and determine the hydrology and hydraulics on the hillslope. The markers are then moved through the grid according to these properties. This technique combines the advantages of Eulerian and Lagrangian methods while avoiding the shortcomings of each (computational efficiency vs. accuracy). The model simulates all the processes of detachment and transport; raindrop detachment and transport, interrill

  18. Laboratory and Field Application of River Depth Estimation Techniques Using Remotely Sensed Data: Annual Report Year 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    Estimation Techniques Using Remotely Sensed Data: Annual Report Year 1 Jonathan M. Nelson US Geological Survey National Research Program Geomorphology ...NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) US Geological Survey National Research Program, Geomorphology and Sediment Transport Laboratory...Survey Geomorphology and Sediment Transport Laboratory (GSTL). The IR camera was mounted on a rack ~1m above the surface of the flow and oriented so that

  19. Current updates on laboratory techniques for the diagnosis of male reproductive failure

    PubMed Central

    Sikka, Suresh C; Hellstrom, Wayne JG

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of male reproductive failure leading to infertility, whether due to delayed parenthood, environmental issues, genetic factors, drugs, etc., is increasing throughout the world. The diagnosis and prognosis of male subfertility have become a challenge. While the basic semen assessment has been performed for many years, a number of studies question the value of the traditional semen characteristics. This is partly due to inadequate methods and standardization, limited knowledge of technical requirements for quality assurance, and an incomplete understanding of what clinical information a semen assessment can provide. Laboratories currently performing semen and endocrine assessment show great variability. The World Health Organization (WHO) manual for the evaluation of semen has been the core of andrology and fertility evaluation that has helped in further development of this field over many years. These include the physical appearance of the ejaculate, assessments of sperm count, motility, vitality, morphology, and functional aspects of the sperm and semen sample. These tests also include male endocrine profile, biochemical evaluation of the semen, detection of antisperm antibodies in serum, the use of computer-aided sperm analysis (CASA), sperm DNA integrity, and its damage due to oxidative stress. Assisted reproductive techniques (e.g., IVF, ICSI) have shown great success but are too expensive. Further development in this field with newer techniques and extensive training/instructions can improve accuracy and reduce variability, thus maintaining the quality and standards of such an evaluation. There is an urgent need to have standardized training centers and increased awareness in this area of men's health for reproductive success. PMID:27056346

  20. Clinical laboratory comparison of lysis-centrifugation and BACTEC radiometric blood culture techniques.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, J C; Hamilton, P; Scholes, J V; Bartlett, R C

    1983-11-01

    The lysis-centrifugation technique (ISOLATOR; E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co., Wilmington, Del.) and the radiometric blood culture technique (BACTEC; Johnston Laboratories, Inc., Cockeysville, Md.) were compared on 1,000 blood cultures. A total of 16 ml of blood was distributed: 8 ml into an ISOLATOR 7.5 microbial tube and 4 ml each into BACTEC 7C and 8B bottles. The concentrate from the ISOLATOR tubes was inoculated under a laminar-flow hood onto two sheep blood agar plates (one incubated in CO2 and one incubated anaerobically), one chocolate agar plate, and one brain heart infusion agar plate. Of 91 blood specimens obtained that yielded clinically significant organisms, 52 were positive by both systems, 27 were positive by the ISOLATOR system only, and 12 were positive by the BACTEC system only. From the positive blood specimens, 97 clinically significant organisms were isolated: 57 by both systems, 27 by the ISOLATOR system only, and 13 by the BACTEC system only. Of the 57 organisms detected by both systems, 28 were detected simultaneously, 13 were detected earlier by the ISOLATOR system, and 16 were detected earlier by the BACTEC system. Isolated colonies were obtained earlier by the ISOLATOR system in 40 cases and by the BACTEC system in 5 cases. Organisms determined to be contaminants by thorough chart review were isolated from 138 ISOLATOR tubes. In 98 instances, these were represented by one colony of Staphylococcus epidermidis, alpha-hemolytic streptococci, or diphtheroids. The ability to determine CFU per milliliter with the ISOLATOR system did not help differentiate clinically significant organisms from contaminants.

  1. ESRF metrology laboratory: overview of instrumentation, measurement techniques, and data analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rommeveaux, Amparo Vivo; Lantelme, Benjamin; Barrett, Raymond

    2010-08-01

    The ESRF has initiated an ambitious ten-year upgrade program involving the construction of eight new beamlines and significant refurbishment of existing instruments. The availability of high-precision X-ray optical elements will be a key factor in ensuring the successful implementation of these beamline projects. Particular challenges are to ensure the necessary optical quality for X-ray beam coherence preservation and high numerical-aperture high focusing systems. Surface optical metrology is a key tool, not only for the quality control, but also in improving the manufacturing processes of such components. Amongst the most demanding tasks is the characterisation of the surface topography of highly aspheric surfaces for reflective nanofocusing technologies which typically require measurement of shape errors in the nm range. In order to satisfy these new demands, the ESRF metrology laboratory has recently been equipped with two new instruments: a Fizeau interferometer and a micro-interferometer. In parallel the long trace profiler has been continuously developed to increase both stability and accuracy. In this paper we will present the new instrumentation and associated techniques like micro-stitching interferometry used to measure typical high quality X-ray mirrors. We will also focus on the parameters that can affect repeatability and accuracy of the radius of curvature assessment of flat optical surfaces, in particular when measuring with the long trace profiler. Finally an example of the power spectral density function based on our instrument measurements of a typical high quality x-ray mirror will be shown.

  2. 29. NORTH SIDE AND WEST REAR OF CAR BARN DURING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. NORTH SIDE AND WEST REAR OF CAR BARN DURING RECONSTRUCTION: Photocopy of May 1908 photograph showing the north side and west rear of powerhouse and car barn. The windows on the north wall of the building were later bricked up. Note the wooden roof trusses of the main building, and the different construction techniques used in rebuilding the 'annex,' closest to the viewer. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  3. Laboratory investigation of the erosion of cohesive sediments under oscillatory flows using a synchronized imaging technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sou, I.; Calantoni, J.; Reed, A. H.; Furukawa, Y.

    2012-12-01

    A synchronized dual stereo particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurement technique is used to examine the erosion process of a cohesive sediment core in the Small Oscillatory Flow Tunnel (S-OFT) in the Sediment Dynamics Laboratory at the Naval Research Laboratory, Stennis Space Center, MS. The PIV system uses four cameras and a dual cavity Nd:YAG laser. The system allows for a pair of stereo PIV windows of about 10 cm by 10 cm each to be arbitrarily located within a single light sheet. Image pairs were acquired with all four cameras at 50 Hz for 50 consecutive seconds for each flow condition. The stereo PIV windows were positioned on either side of sediment cores inserted along the centerline of the S-OFT allowing for a total measurement window of about 20 cm long by 10 cm high with sub-millimeter spacing on resolved velocity vectors. The oscillatory flows are generated by two types of driving mechanism (scotch yoke and crank lever) for converting the rotational motion of the flywheel into the linear motion of a piston. The period of oscillation ranged from 2.86 to 6.12 seconds with constant semi-excursion amplitude in the test section of 9 cm. Two kinds of inorganic sediment samples were examined. One was a mixture of 50% kaolinite and 50% 500-micron sand under flows driven by the crank lever mechanism. Another sediment core was a mixture of 50% mud collected in Galveston Bay, TX, and 50% 250-micron sand under flows driven by the scotch-yoke mechanism. During the erosion process, Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities were observed as the flow accelerated in each direction and eventually were broken down when the flow reversed. An example of the instantaneous velocity field superimposed on the raw image is shown in Figure 1. The relative concentration of suspended sediments under different flow conditions was estimated using the intensity of light scattered from the sediment particles in suspension. By subtracting the initial light scattered from the mud core, the residual

  4. Effects of rearing treatment on the behavior of captive whooping cranes (Grus americana)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kreger, M.D.; Estevez, I.; Hatfield, J.S.; Gee, G.F.

    2004-01-01

    Small founder populations of whooping cranes are managed to maximize egg production for the purpose of reintroducing young to the wild. This results in an excessive number of hatched chicks that cannot be naturally reared by parents. Hand-rearing techniques have been developed to raise the additional hatches. However, hand rearing may affect the behavior of the birds and their chances of survival later in life. The objectives of this study were to determine the impact of rearing practices on the behavior of whooping crane chicks. The birds were reared under three commonly used rearing techniques: parent reared (PR), hand reared (HR), and hand reared with exercise (HRE). Fifty-six whooping crane chicks were observed by focal animal sampling from hatch to 20 weeks of age. During these observations, occurrences of comfort behavior, aggression, foraging, nonvigilance, sleep, vigilance, and other types of behavior were collected. Data were analyzed using mixed models repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). Behavior was affected by rearing treatment, age, and time of day. PR birds spent more time being vigilant than HR and HRE birds. An inverse correlation was found between percentage of time foraging and vigilant (r = -0.686, P < 0.0001). However, there were no differences in the behavior of birds reared in HR or HRE programs.

  5. Physics Laboratory Investigation of Vocational High School Field Stone and Concrete Construction Techniques in the Central Java Province (Indonesia)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purwandari, Ristiana Dyah

    2015-01-01

    The investigation aims in this study were to uncover the observations of infrastructures and physics laboratory in vocational high school for Stone and Concrete Construction Techniques Expertise Field or Teknik Konstruksi Batu dan Beton (TKBB)'s in Purwokerto Central Java Province, mapping the Vocational High School or Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan…

  6. Effectiveness of Student-Generated Video as a Teaching Tool for an Instrumental Technique in the Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Jeremy T.; Box, Melinda C.; Eguren, Kristen E.; Parker, Thomas A.; Saraldi-Gallardo, Victoria M.; Wolfe, Michael I.; Gallardo-Williams, Maria T.

    2016-01-01

    Multimedia instruction has been shown to serve as an effective learning aid for chemistry students. In this study, the viability of student-generated video instruction for organic chemistry laboratory techniques and procedure was examined and its effectiveness compared to instruction provided by a teaching assistant (TA) was evaluated. After…

  7. Drug Monitoring Techniques for the Biological Chemistry Laboratory: Determination of Drug Concentrations by Chromatographic and Immunochemical Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corkill, Jeffrey A.

    1988-01-01

    Proposes a series of experiments that integrate analytical techniques in order that students are able to compare, based on their laboratory results, the relative reliabilities of the most common therapeutic drug monitoring methods. Discusses materials, procedures, and results of three experiments on the determination of drug concentration by…

  8. Solution-Phase Synthesis of Dipeptides: A Capstone Project That Employs Key Techniques in an Organic Laboratory Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchetti, Louis; DeBoef, Brenton

    2015-01-01

    A contemporary approach to the synthesis and purification of several UV-active dipeptides has been developed for the second-year organic laboratory. This experiment exposes students to the important technique of solution-phase peptide synthesis and allows an instructor to highlight the parallel between what they are accomplishing in the laboratory…

  9. Basic Laboratory Techniques for the National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonnette, A. K., Jr.; And Others

    This manual contains 24 self-study modules for basic laboratory procedures for the National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) laboratory analyses. Areas of study include safety, identification of equipment, handling solids and liquids, use of balances, and care and use of equipment. Evaluation tests and answers are provided for each…

  10. Radial line method for rear-view mirror distortion detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmah, Fitri; Kusumawardhani, Apriani; Setijono, Heru; Hatta, Agus M.; Irwansyah, .

    2015-01-01

    An image of the object can be distorted due to a defect in a mirror. A rear-view mirror is an important component for the vehicle safety. One of standard parameters of the rear-view mirror is a distortion factor. This paper presents a radial line method for distortion detection of the rear-view mirror. The rear-view mirror was tested for the distortion detection by using a system consisting of a webcam sensor and an image-processing unit. In the image-processing unit, the captured image from the webcam were pre-processed by using smoothing and sharpening techniques and then a radial line method was used to define the distortion factor. It was demonstrated successfully that the radial line method could be used to define the distortion factor. This detection system is useful to be implemented such as in Indonesian's automotive component industry while the manual inspection still be used.

  11. 3. SOUTHWEST REAR, WITH RAILROAD LINE AT RIGHT. HIGH PRESSURE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. SOUTHWEST REAR, WITH RAILROAD LINE AT RIGHT. HIGH PRESSURE HELIUM STORAGE TANKS AT LEFT. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Helium Compression Plant, Test Area 1-115, intersection of Altair & Saturn Boulevards, Boron, Kern County, CA

  12. An Artificial Diet for Rearing Cochliomyia macellaria (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Larvae of the secondary screwworm, Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius), feed on carrion and may sometimes cause animal myiasis. They have been reared in the laboratory on various animal tissues to study their growth and development because of their importance in forensic science. We use the secondary...

  13. 2. SOUTH REAR. TEST STAND 15 DECK AT LEFT; COVERED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. SOUTH REAR. TEST STAND 1-5 DECK AT LEFT; COVERED TANKS (BUILDING 8649) AT RIGHT. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Shop Building for Test Stand 1-5, Test Area 1-115, northwest end of Saturn Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  14. 2. SOUTHEAST SIDE AND NORTHEAST REAR. SHOP BUILDING IN DISTANCE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. SOUTHEAST SIDE AND NORTHEAST REAR. SHOP BUILDING IN DISTANCE. NOTE CONCRETE PROTECTION SLAB FOR UNDERGROUND CONTROL ROOM AND ESCAPE HATCH ON GROUND AT RIGHT MIDDLE DISTANCE. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Firing Control Building, Test Area 1-100, northeast end of Test Area 1-100 Road, Boron, Kern County, CA

  15. 9. BUILDING 8769, EAST REAR AND NORTH SIDE, TEST STAND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. BUILDING 8769, EAST REAR AND NORTH SIDE, TEST STAND AT RIGHT. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Observation Bunkers for Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  16. 5. BUILDING 8768, SOUTH SIDE AND EAST REAR. TEST STAND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. BUILDING 8768, SOUTH SIDE AND EAST REAR. TEST STAND 1A AT LEFT. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Observation Bunkers for Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  17. 3. NORTHEAST REAR, SHOWING CONCRETE ENCASEMENT FOR STAIRWAY LEADING FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. NORTHEAST REAR, SHOWING CONCRETE ENCASEMENT FOR STAIRWAY LEADING FROM INSTRUMENT ROOM TO UNDERGROUND FIRING CONTROL ROOM. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Firing Control Building, Test Area 1-100, northeast end of Test Area 1-100 Road, Boron, Kern County, CA

  18. 3. BUILDING 8814, WEST SIDE AND SOUTH REAR, SHOWING BLAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. BUILDING 8814, WEST SIDE AND SOUTH REAR, SHOWING BLAST DOOR. BUILDING 8826 IS IN BACKGROUND. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Observation Bunker 1-D-3, Test Area 1-125, northwest end of Altair Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  19. 11. OBSERVATION POST NO. 3, NORTH SIDE AND WEST REAR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. OBSERVATION POST NO. 3, NORTH SIDE AND WEST REAR, TEST STAND AT RIGHT. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Observation Bunkers for Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  20. 3. BUILDING 8767, NORTH REAR AND WEST SIDE, TEST STAND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. BUILDING 8767, NORTH REAR AND WEST SIDE, TEST STAND 1-A AT FAR RIGHT. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Observation Bunkers for Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  1. 5. View northeast of rear of filtration bed building. Note ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. View northeast of rear of filtration bed building. Note monitor roof with clerestory windows over central corridor between filtration beds at center right of photograph. Laboratory building is at extreme center right of photograph. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  2. 6. Detail view northeast of rear of filtration bed building. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Detail view northeast of rear of filtration bed building. Note monitor roof with clerestory windows over central corridor between filtration beds at center right of photograph. Laboratory building is at center right of photograph. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  3. 7. SOUTH REAR. Looking northwest from corner of the Instrumentation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. SOUTH REAR. Looking northwest from corner of the Instrumentation and Control Building (Building 8762). - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  4. IET contextual view. facing south. rear of coupling station at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    IET contextual view. facing south. rear of coupling station at right of view. control building (TAN-620) to its left. exhaust stack and duct have been removed. INEEL negative no. HD-21-9-2 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  5. Sexual behavior and male volatile compounds in wild and mass-reared strains of the Mexican fruit fly Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) held under different colony management regimes.

    PubMed

    Bosa, Carlos Felipe; Cruz-López, Leopoldo; Zepeda-Cisneros, Cristina Silvia; Valle-Mora, Javier; Guillén-Navarro, Karina; Liedo, Pablo

    2016-02-01

    We compared the calling and mating behavior and volatile release of wild males Anastrepha ludens (Loew) with males from 4 mass-reared strains: (i) a standard mass-reared colony (control), (ii) a genetic sexing strain (Tap-7), (iii) a colony started from males selected on their survival and mating competitiveness abilities (selected), and (iv) a hybrid colony started by crossing wild males with control females. Selected and wild males were more competitive, achieving more matings under field cage conditions. Mass-reared strains showed higher percentages of pheromone calling males under field conditions except for Tap-7 males, which showed the highest percentages of pheromone calling males under laboratory cage conditions. For mature males of all strains, field-cage calling behavior increased during the last hour before sunset, with almost a 2 fold increase exhibited by wild males during the last half hour. The highest peak mating activity of the 4 mass-reared strains occurred 30 min earlier than for wild males. By means of solid phase microextraction (SPME) plus gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), the composition of volatiles released by males was analyzed and quantified. Wild males emitted significantly less amounts of (E,E)-α-farnesene but emitted significantly more amounts of (E,E)-suspensolide as they aged than mass-reared males. Within the 4 mass-reared strains, Tap-7 released significantly more amounts of (E,E)-α-farnesene and hybrid more of (E,E)-suspensolide. Differences in chemical composition could be explained by the intrinsic characteristics of the strains and the colony management regimes. Characterization of calling behavior and age changes of volatile composition between wild and mass-reared strains could explain the differences in mating competitiveness and may be useful for optimizing the sterile insect technique in A. ludens.

  6. Insect thermotolerance comparing host infestation methods: Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) reared in grapefruit or diet.

    PubMed

    Hallman, Guy J

    2014-08-01

    Research on insect control should be conducted in a manner that mimics as closely as is feasible its commercial application in all of its practicably conceivable forms. When significant deviations from commercial application are used in research, the effect of the deviations on efficacy should be evaluated. Pest control techniques are sometimes based on research that used untested assumptions about variables that might affect efficacy. For example, some phytosanitary treatments are based on research done with diet-reared larvae inserted into holes bored in fruits, although the effect of this manipulation has not been evaluated. This research compares this type of infestation of grapefruit with Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew), third instars with a more natural infestation technique whereby females were allowed to oviposit on picked grapefruit in laboratory cages and third instars were reared inside the fruit. Although the results did not show statistically significant differences between infestation techniques, tendencies in the data caution against researchers making assumptions about efficacy without testing them when experimental techniques stray from more natural situations for which the research is designed.

  7. Standardisation of elemental analytical techniques applied to provenance studies of archaeological ceramics: an inter laboratory calibration study.

    PubMed

    Hein, A; Tsolakidou, A; Iliopoulos, I; Mommsen, H; Buxeda i Garrigós, J; Montana, G; Kilikoglou, V

    2002-04-01

    Chemical analysis is a well-established procedure for the provenancing of archaeological ceramics. Various analytical techniques are routinely used and large amounts of data have been accumulated so far in data banks. However, in order to exchange results obtained by different laboratories, the respective analytical procedures need to be tested in terms of their inter-comparability. In this study, the schemes of analysis used in four laboratories that are involved in archaeological pottery studies on a routine basis were compared. The techniques investigated were neutron activation analysis (NAA), X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF), inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). For this comparison series of measurements on different geological standard reference materials (SRM) were carried out and the results were statistically evaluated. An attempt was also made towards the establishment of calibration factors between pairs of analytical setups in order to smooth the systematic differences among the results.

  8. Sensitivity analysis of laboratory based mine overburden analytical techniques for the prediction of acidic mine drainage. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bradham, W.S.; Caruccio, F.T.

    1995-09-01

    A three part sensitivity analysis was conducted to evaluate commonly used mine overburden analytical techniques. The primary objectives of the study were: identify and evaluate the effects of variability in mine overburden geochemistry, as measured by pyrite weight percent and neutralization potential (NP), on variability of contaminant production; determine which acid/base accounting interpretation technique best predicts both qualitative and quantitative leachate quality in laboratory analytical testing; and identify the predominant factors of weathering cells, soxhlet extraction, and column leaching tests, and evaluate variability of contaminant production due to variations in; storage conditions, leachant temperature, particle size, particle sorting efficiency, and leaching interval.

  9. Viruses of insects reared for food and feed.

    PubMed

    Maciel-Vergara, Gabriela; Ros, Vera I D

    2017-02-09

    The use of insects as food for humans or as feed for animals is an alternative for the increasing high demand for meat and has various environmental and social advantages over the traditional intensive production of livestock. Mass rearing of insects, under insect farming conditions or even in industrial settings, can be the key for a change in the way natural resources are utilized in order to produce meat, animal protein and a list of other valuable animal products. However, because insect mass rearing technology is relatively new, little is known about the different factors that determine the quality and yield of the production process. Obtaining such knowledge is crucial for the success of insect-based product development. One of the issues that is likely to compromise the success of insect rearing is the outbreak of insect diseases. In particular, viral diseases can be devastating for the productivity and the quality of mass rearing systems. Prevention and management of viral diseases imply the understanding of the different factors that interact in insect mass rearing. This publication provides an overview of the known viruses in insects most commonly reared for food and feed. Nowadays with large-scale sequencing techniques, new viruses are rapidly being discovered. We discuss factors affecting the emergence of viruses in mass rearing systems, along with virus transmission routes. Finally we provide an overview of the wide range of measures available to prevent and manage virus outbreaks in mass rearing systems, ranging from simple sanitation methods to highly sophisticated methods including RNAi and transgenics.

  10. Teaching Laboratory Rodent Research Techniques under the Tenets of Situated Learning Improves Student Confidence and Promotes Collaboration

    PubMed Central

    Whitcomb, Tiffany L; Taylor, Edward W

    2014-01-01

    A targeted needs assessment at our institution revealed that the online system used to train researchers on performing techniques with animals did not provide opportunities to practice skills, introduce learners to animal care staff, nor satisfactorily support researchers’ needs to become comfortable with laboratory animal species. To correct these deficiencies, a series of hands-on training sessions, framed theoretically in situated learning, was developed. This theoretical framework asserts that learning for everyday living (in this case, performing laboratory animal techniques) happens when people interact within the community while using the ‘tools at hand’ (that is, the instruments and jargon of the field). From this perspective, the students work alongside the instructor as apprentices. The instructor creates increasingly challenging learning opportunities as students work toward independently performing techniques. To test our hypothesis that teaching from this perspective improves comfort levels with laboratory animals and promotes collaborative relationships between animal care and research personnel, a mixed-method design involving online surveys (first survey, n = 45; second survey, n = 35) and semistructured interviews (n = 10) was used. Quantitative results revealed that students became more comfortable with laboratory animals and were more likely to contact animal care personnel due to participating in the training program. The qualitative arm of the study identified specific features of the training program that improved comfort levels for students (seeing then doing, working in small groups, learning within a comfortable environment, and building collegial relationships). These results support teaching rodent research techniques from the practical and theoretical approach of situated learning. PMID:25199092

  11. Laboratory demonstration of an effective range sidelobe suppression technique for spaceborne rain radars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Im, E.; Tanner, A.; Wilson, W.; Denning, R.; Durden, S.; Li, F.

    A 13.8 GHz linear frequency-modulated pulse compression radar electronics system for spaceborne and airborne radar rain mapping applications has been built and tested. Preliminary test results indicate that the far range sidelobes can be suppressed to the desired -60 B level in the laboratory environment.

  12. Laboratory demonstration of an effective range sidelobe suppression technique for spaceborne rain radars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Im, E.; Tanner, A.; Wilson, W.; Denning, R.; Durden, S.; Li, F.

    1991-01-01

    A 13.8 GHz linear frequency-modulated pulse compression radar electronics system for spaceborne and airborne radar rain mapping applications has been built and tested. Preliminary test results indicate that the far range sidelobes can be suppressed to the desired -60 B level in the laboratory environment.

  13. Teaching Discrete and Programmable Logic Design Techniques Using a Single Laboratory Board

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Debiec, P.; Byczuk, M.

    2011-01-01

    Programmable logic devices (PLDs) are used at many universities in introductory digital logic laboratories, where kits containing a single high-capacity PLD replace "standard" sets containing breadboards, wires, and small- or medium-scale integration (SSI/MSI) chips. From the pedagogical point of view, two problems arise in these…

  14. Teaching Protein Purification and Characterization Techniques: A Student-Initiated, Project-Oriented Biochemistry Laboratory Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Gina

    2008-01-01

    This report describes a biochemistry laboratory that is completely project-oriented. Upper-level biology and chemistry majors work in teams to purify a protein of their choice. After the student groups have completed literature searches, ordered reagents, and made buffers they continue to learn basic protein purification and biochemical techniques…

  15. A Framework for Laboratory Pre-Work Based on the Concepts, Tools and Techniques Questioning Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huntula, J.; Sharma, M. D.; Johnston, I.; Chitaree, R.

    2011-01-01

    Learning in the laboratory is different from learning in other contexts because students have to engage with various aspects of the practice of science. They have to use many skills and knowledge in parallel--not only to understand the concepts of physics but also to use the tools and analyse the data. The question arises, how to best guide…

  16. A Laboratory Comparison of Field Techniques for Measurement of the Liquid Water Fraction of Snow

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-02-01

    Tiuri and A. Sihvola (1984) A comparative study of instruments for measuring the liquid water content of snow. Journal of Applied Phyisics , 56:2154...meaningful comparison. Applying the same statistical tests as for the laboratory data consistently showed a bias in the compar- isons. We attribute the

  17. "Audibilization" in the Chemistry Laboratory: An Introduction to Correlation Techniques for Data Extraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hovick, James W.; Murphy, Michael; Poler, J. C.

    2007-01-01

    The study describes the development and advantages of various correlation techniques that are used for data extraction and are integral to all modern instrumentation. The "Audibilization" of the electronic signals in such cases is found to be very essential for the technique.

  18. Computational Predictions of Rear Surface Velocities for Metal Plates under Ballistic Impact

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    ARL-TR-7327•JUNE 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Computational Predictions of Rear Surface Velocities for Metal Plates under Ballistic Impact by...originator. ARL-TR-7327•JUNE 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Computational Predictions of Rear Surface Velocities for Metal Plates under Ballistic...Velocities for Metal Plates under Ballistic Impact Robert Doney and Joel Stewart ARL-TR-7327 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. January

  19. Data analysis techniques used at the Oak Ridge Y-12 plant flywheel evaluation laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steels, R. S., Jr.; Babelay, E. F., Jr.

    1980-07-01

    Some of the more advanced data analysis techniques applied to the problem of experimentally evaluating the performance of high performance composite flywheels are presented. Real time applications include polar plots of runout with interruptions relating to balance and relative motions between parts, radial growth measurements, and temperature of the spinning part. The technique used to measure torque applied to a containment housing during flywheel failure is also presented. The discussion of pre and post test analysis techniques includes resonant frequency determination with modal analysis, waterfall charts, and runout signals at failure.

  20. Laboratory Facilities and Measurement Techniques for Beamed-Energy-Propulsion Experiments in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira, Antonio Carlos; Chanes Júnior, José Brosler; Cordeiro Marcos, Thiago Victor; Pinto, David Romanelli; Santos Vilela, Renan Guilherme; Barros Galvão, Victor Alves; Mantovani, Arthur Freire; da Costa, Felipe Jean; dos Santos Assenção, José Adeildo; dos Santos, Alberto Monteiro; de Paula Toro, Paulo Gilberto; Sala Minucci, Marco Antonio; da Silveira Rêgo, Israel; Salvador, Israel Irone; Myrabo, Leik N.

    2011-11-01

    Laser propulsion is an innovative concept of accessing the space easier and cheaper where the propulsive energy is beamed to the aerospace vehicle in flight from ground—or even satellite-based high-power laser sources. In order to be realistic about laser propulsion, the Institute for Advanced Studies of the Brazilian Air Force in cooperation with the United States Air Force and the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute are seriously investigating its basic physics mechanisms and engineering aspects at the Henry T. Hamamatsu Laboratory of Hypersonic and Aerothermodynamics in São José dos Campos, Brazil. This paper describes in details the existing facilities and measuring systems such as high-power laser devices, pulsed-hypersonic wind tunnels and high-speed flow visualization system currently utilized in the laboratory for experimentation on laser propulsion.

  1. Computer Modeling of Microbiological Experiments in the Teaching Laboratory: Animation Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tritz, Gerald J.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the use of computer assisted instruction in the medical education program of the Kirksville College of Osteopathic Medicine (Missouri). Describes the animation techniques used in a series of simulations for microbiology. (TW)

  2. Personnel techniques necessary to maximize bio-barrier integrity at a Martian receiving laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michaelson, G. S.; Mahoney, T. A.

    1975-01-01

    The planning of biological isolation measures for the Mars Surface Sample Return Mission is discussed in terms of personnel and organizational management. Deficiencies in past operation of the Lunar Receiving Laborator are analyzed. It was found that the failure to clearly define relationship among the government agencies involved and to effectively integrate their objectives and responsibilities was a major cause of Laboratory deficiencies. Possible solutions to these problems are presented for application to future missions.

  3. GSFC Space Simulation Laboratory Contamination Philosophy: Efficient Space Simulation Chamber Cleaning Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roman, Juan A.; Stitt, George F.; Roman, Felix R.

    1997-01-01

    This paper will provide a general overview of the molecular contamination philosophy of the Space Simulation Test Engineering Section and how the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) space simulation laboratory controls and maintains the cleanliness of all its facilities, thereby, minimizing down time between tests. It will also briefly cover the proper selection and safety precautions needed when using some chemical solvents for wiping, washing, or spraying thermal shrouds when molecular contaminants increase to unacceptable background levels.

  4. Machismo in two cultures: relation to punitive child-rearing practices.

    PubMed

    Deyoung, Y; Zigler, E F

    1994-07-01

    The relationship of culture, personality traits, and punitive child-rearing practices to machismo was examined in 40 Guyanese and 40 Caucasian parents with children aged four to 12 years. Guyanese parents were found to adhere more strongly to machista attitudes and beliefs and to employ controlling, authoritarian, and punitive child-rearing techniques more often than did Caucasian parents.

  5. Experience with Formal Methods techniques at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory from a quality assurance perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, John C.; Covington, Rick

    1993-01-01

    Recent experience with Formal Methods (FM) in the Software Quality Assurance Section at the Jet Propulsion Lab is presented. An integrated Formal Method process is presented to show how related existing requirements analysis and FM techniques complement one another. Example application of FM techniques such as formal specifications and specification animators are presented. The authors suggest that the quality assurance organization is a natural home for the Formal Methods specialist, whose expertise can then be used to best advantage across a range of projects.

  6. Traditional Korean Child Rearing Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Myunghee; Washington, Ernest D.

    This study describes traditional Korean child rearing and its relation to personality, social development, and their implications for education. Topics addressed include the family structure, traditional value orientation, the prenatal period, patterns of interaction in infancy, the baby as a vulnerable being, the baby as a spiritual being, the…

  7. The "Rear View Mirror" Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nord, James R.

    1987-01-01

    The new interactive videodisk systems with augmented audio capabilities have great potential for improving the teaching of foreign languages. At present that potential is unfulfilled because the profession is following a "rear view mirror" approach to media use: first, to fixate current practice; second, to distribute it broadly; and last, to…

  8. A Practical Introduction to Separation and Purification Techniques for the Beginning Organic Chemistry Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Jack E.

    1981-01-01

    Describes a sequence of experiments developed at Texas A&M University for use in one-semester and two-semester (nonmajors) organic chemistry courses to teach a maximum number of separation and purification techniques such as distillations, recrystallization, liquid-liquid extraction, and chromatography. (SK)

  9. Dynamic Imaging of Strain and Stress Evolution in Laboratory Earthquakes with the Ultra-High-Speed Digital Image Correlation Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubino, V.; Rosakis, A.; Lapusta, N.

    2015-12-01

    Dynamic imaging of strain and stress during rupture enables unprecedented observations of key rupture features as well as decoding the nature of friction. We present the dynamic evolution of strains and stresses in our dynamic rupture experiments. We employ a laboratory earthquake setup to study dynamic ruptures in a highly instrumented setting, where we produce both supershear and sub-Rayleigh events. Earthquakes are mimicked in the laboratory by dynamic rupture propagating along the inclined frictional interface of two quadrilateral Homalite plates prestressed in compression and shear. The diagnostics previously employed in this setup include temporally accurate but spatially sparse laser velocimetry measurements as well as a sequence of full-field photoelastic images. These measurements have been successfully employed to capture important rupture features but they do not give enough information to characterize the full-field strains and stresses. In this study, we obtain the experimental sequences of full-field displacements, velocities, strains and stresses produced under a wide range of slip rates by our newly developed technique of ultra high-speed digital image correlation (DIC). This is the first technique capable of imaging spatial and temporal variations in strains and stresses during spontaneously developing experimental dynamic rupture. This technique combines pattern-matching algorithms with ultra-high-speed photography and highly tailored analysis to obtain full-field time histories. We have verified the accuracy of the measurements by comparing the velocity time-histories at selected locations with the measurements using the well-developed technique of laser velocimetry. The newly developed ultra-high-speed full-field imaging technique can also be used to obtain unprecedented measurements of evolving dynamic friction during dynamic rupture, and we will report on our initial results on the dynamic friction evolution.

  10. Jamaican Child-Rearing Practices: The Role of Corporal Punishment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Delores E.; Mosby, Gail

    2003-01-01

    Examines child-rearing techniques of Jamaican adults and their assumed effects on child outcomes. Also examines the plausibility of the assumption that harsh physical punishment meted out to children is partially responsible for current social problems of that nation. Recommends approaches to tackle the broad goals of addressing familial and…

  11. Paraffin immunofluorescence in the renal pathology laboratory: more than a salvage technique.

    PubMed

    Messias, Nidia C; Walker, Patrick D; Larsen, Christopher P

    2015-06-01

    Immunofluorescence studies on paraffin-embedded tissue after Pronase digestion (paraffin immunofluorescence) is used as a salvage technique in renal pathology, when frozen tissue for routine immunofluorescence is inadequate. We have recently found that it is also useful in rare cases in which the immune deposits are 'masked' on routine immunofluorescence, giving false-negative staining by routine immunofluorescence and positive staining by paraffin immunofluorescence. This study aims to evaluate the role of paraffin immunofluorescence in clinical practice with emphasis on its utility to avoid misdiagnosis of cases with masked immune complex deposits. Paraffin immunofluorescence was used in 304 (6.1%) of 4969 native biopsies reviewed from our files. In 207 (68.1%) cases, paraffin immunofluorescence was used as a salvage technique. It was necessary for diagnosis in 24 (11.6%) and had a significant contribution in 63 (30.4%) of these cases. Paraffin immunofluorescence was used to evaluate masked deposits in 97 (31.9%) cases. In 61 (62.9%) of these cases it was used to evaluate masked immune complex glomerular deposits, and in 36 cases (37.1%) it was used to evaluate masked paraproteins. Of the cases where immune complex deposits were sought, paraffin immunofluorescence was necessary for diagnosis in 16 (26.2%) cases and had a significant contribution in 4 (6.6%) cases. Fourteen of the 20 cases with masked deposits had C3 dominant stain by routine immunofluorescence, which could have been misdiagnosed as C3 glomerulopathy. Overall, paraffin immunofluorescence was necessary or had a significant contribution to diagnosis in >1/3 of the cases and is a valuable technique in renal pathology.

  12. Assessment of body fatness in childhood obesity: evaluation of laboratory and anthropometric techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Bandini, L.G.; Dietz, W.H. Jr.

    1987-10-01

    The identification of obesity as a pathological diagnosis depends on an accurate assessment of body fatness and a correlation of fatness with pathological consequences. Because total body fat varies with body weight, the proportion of body weight that is fat is probably a more reliable indicator of risk. Among obese children and adolescents, several problems have hindered the development of accurate clinical measures of percent body fat and total body fat. First, the use of direct methods to measure body composition is limited by expense and labor. Second, the relationship between anthropometric indexes and body composition in obese children and adolescents has not been intensively studied. Third, sample sizes of normal weight children have been too small to permit the development of diagnostic criteria. Fourth, the triceps skinfold is less reproducible in overweight subjects. Increases in lean body mass in obese adolescents may confound the use of the body mass index as a measure of adiposity. Current laboratory methods for the measurement of body composition include: (1) underwater weighing, (2) 40K counting, (3) isotopic dilution measures, (4) neutron activation, and (5) electrical impedance. This article examines relationships between those methods and anthropometry in the measurement of fatness in children and adolescents, as well as the difficulties in measuring body fatness and the importance of body fat distribution and its relationship to morbidity in children. Current evidence suggests an association of morbidity and upper segment obesity in adults. Corresponding studies in children and adolescents are yet to be carried out.

  13. Using Elearning techniques to support problem based learning within a clinical simulation laboratory.

    PubMed

    Docherty, Charles; Hoy, Derek; Topp, Helena; Trinder, Kathryn

    2004-01-01

    This paper details the results of the first phase of a project that used eLearning to support students' learning within a simulated environment. The locus was a purpose built Clinical Simulation Laboratory (CSL) where the School's newly adopted philosophy of Problem Based Learning (PBL) was challenged through lecturers reverting to traditional teaching methods. The solution, a student-centred, problem-based approach to the acquisition of clinical skills was developed using learning objects embedded within web pages that substituted for lecturers providing instruction and demonstration. This allowed lecturers to retain their facilitator role, and encouraged students to explore, analyse and make decisions within the safety of a clinical simulation. Learning was enhanced through network communications and reflection on video performances of self and others. Evaluations were positive, students demonstrating increased satisfaction with PBL, improved performance in exams, and increased self-efficacy in the performance of nursing activities. These results indicate that an elearning approach can support PBL in delivering a student centred learning experience.

  14. Technique for the comparison of light spectra from natural and laboratory generated lightning current arcs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchard, D.; Clark, D.; Carr, D.; Haddad, A.

    2016-08-01

    A technique was developed for the comparison of observed emission spectra from lightning current arcs generated through self-breakdown in air and the use of two types of initiation wire, aluminum bronze and nichrome, against previously published spectra of natural lightning events. A spectrograph system was used in which the wavelength of light emitted by the lightning arc was analyzed to derive elemental interactions. A lightning impulse of up to 100 kA was applied to a two hemispherical tungsten electrode configuration which allowed the effect of the lightning current and lightning arc length to be investigated. A natural lightning reference spectrum was reconstructed from literature, and generated lightning spectra were obtained from self-breakdown across a 14.0 mm air gap and triggered along initiation wires of length up to 72.4 mm. A comparison of the spectra showed that the generated lightning arc induced via self-breakdown produced a very similar spectrum to that of natural lightning, with the addition of only a few lines from the tungsten electrodes. A comparison of the results from the aluminum bronze initiation wire showed several more lines, whereas results from the nichrome initiation wire differed greatly across large parts of the spectrum. This work highlights the potential use for spectrographic techniques in the study of lightning interactions with surrounding media and materials, and in natural phenomena such as recently observed ball lightning.

  15. Laboratory Techniques in Geology: Embedding Analytical Methods into the Undergraduate Curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baedke, S. J.; Johnson, E. A.; Kearns, L. E.; Mazza, S. E.; Gazel, E.

    2014-12-01

    Paid summer REU experiences successfully engage undergraduate students in research and encourage them to continue to graduate school and scientific careers. However these programs only accommodate a limited number of students due to funding constraints, faculty time commitments, and limited access to needed instrumentation. At JMU, the Department of Geology and Environmental Science has embedded undergraduate research into the curriculum. Each student fulfilling a BS in Geology or a BA in Earth Science completes 3 credits of research, including a 1-credit course on scientific communication, 2 credits of research or internship, followed by a presentation of that research. Our department has successfully acquired many analytical instruments and now has an XRD, SEM/EDS, FTIR, handheld Raman, AA, ion chromatograph, and an IRMS. To give as many students as possible an overview to the scientific uses and operation methods for these instruments, we revived a laboratory methods course that includes theory and practical use of instrumentation at JMU, plus XRF sample preparation and analysis training at Virginia Tech during a 1-day field trip. In addition to practical training, projects included analytical concepts such as evaluating analytical vs. natural uncertainty, determining error on multiple measurements, signal-to-noise ratio, and evaluating data quality. State funding through the 4-VA program helped pay for analytical supplies and support for students to complete research projects over the summer or during the next academic year using instrumentation from the course. This course exemplifies an alternative path to broadening participation in undergraduate research and creating stronger partnerships between PUI's and research universities.

  16. Interlenticular opacification in piggyback AcrySof intraocular lenses: explantation technique and laboratory investigations

    PubMed Central

    Eleftheriadis, H.; Marcantonio, J.; Duncan, G.; Liu, C.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS—Interlenticular opacification (ILO) is a recognised complication of piggyback intraocular lenses (IOLs). The aetiology, histopathology, and treatment are not clearly defined, however.
METHODS—Two pairs of AcrySof IOLs were explanted from a patient with bilateral ILO. The explantation technique and surgical challenges of IOL exchanges are described. The explanted IOL complexes and a sample of the anterior capsule were examined by phase, polarising, and immunofluorescence microscopy.
RESULTS—A 50 year old man developed ILO bilaterally after piggyback AcrySof IOL implantation. A central contact zone was surrounded by a homogeneous paracentral opacity possibly consisting of extracellular matrix previously laid down by proliferating lens epithelial cells (LECs). These opacities were in turn surrounded by interlenticular Elschnig pearl-type opacities contiguous with the same material filling the periphery of the capsular bag. The IOL complexes were very adherent to the capsular bag and they had to be separated with the help of high viscosity viscoelastic before a single one piece PMMA IOL implantation via large limbal incisions. The sample of anterior capsule showed a ridge configuration from the piling of LECs in the site of apposition with the anterior capsule and cells showing different characteristics on either side of the ridge.
CONCLUSION—Cellular proliferation, deposition of ECM from proliferating LECs, and capsular changes induced by cell metaplasia may lead to ILO formation in piggyback AcrySof IOLs. Careful separation of the AcrySof IOL complex from the capsule, meticulous clean up of the proliferating material, and implantation of single or dual in the bag PMMA IOLs through a large incision with capsulorrhexis enlargement may help in the prevention of recurrence of interface opacification.

 PMID:11423458

  17. Laboratory two-dimensional X-ray microdiffraction technique: a support for authentication of an unknown Ghirlandaio painting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bontempi, E.; Benedetti, D.; Massardi, A.; Zacco, A.; Borgese, L.; Depero, L. E.

    2008-07-01

    Europe has a very rich and diversified cultural heritage of art works, including buildings, monuments and objects of all sizes, involving a great variety of materials. The continuous discovery of new art works opens the problem of their authentication. Advanced analytical techniques can be fundamental to understand the way of life, the culture and the technical and intellectual know-how of the artists. Indeed, the authentication of an art work involves the identification of the used materials, their production techniques and procedures used for the work realization. It is possible to know the origin and provenance of materials, including the location of the natural sources. Advanced analytical techniques also help one to understand degradation processes, corrosion, weathering, and preservation-conservation protocols. In this paper we present a painting attributed to Domenico Ghirlandaio. Ghirlandaio is a well-known artist of fifteenth century who contributes to the apprenticeship of Michelangelo Buonarroti. The study of the pigments used in this painting, which belongs to a private collection, has been supported mainly by means of laboratory two-dimensional X-ray microdiffraction (μXRD2). The possibility to obtain information about not only the phase, but also microstructure allows one to extract interesting consideration and to obtain evidence of the painter’s style and intention.

  18. Development of a Natural Rearing System to Improve Supplemental Fish Quality, 1999-2003 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Maynard, Desmond J.

    2003-02-25

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) has been conducting Natural Rearing Enhancement System (NATURES) research since the early 1990s. NATURES studies have looked at a variety of mechanisms to enhance production of wild-like salmonids from hatcheries. The goal of NATURES research is to develop fish culture techniques that enable hatcheries to produce salmon with more wild-like characteristics and increased postrelease survival. The development of such techniques is called for in the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. This document is the draft report for the Supplemental Fish Quality Contract DE-AI79-91BP20651 Over the history of the project, the effects of seminatural raceway habitats, automated underwater feeders, exercise current velocities, live food diets, and predator avoidance training have been investigated. The findings of these studies are reported in an earlier contract report (Maynard et al. 1996a). The current report focuses on research that has been conducted between 1999 and 2002. This includes studies on the effect of exercise on salmon and steelhead trout, effects of predator avoid training, integration of NATUES protocols into production hatcheries, and the study of social behavior of steelhead grown in enriched and conventional environments. Traditionally, salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) are reared in barren concrete raceways that lack natural substrate, in-stream structure, or overhead cover. The fish are fed in an unnatural manner with artificial feeds mechanically or hand broadcast across the water surface. This traditional approach has increased the egg-to-smolt survival of hatchery-reared fish by an order of magnitude over that experienced by wild-reared salmon. However, once hatchery-reared fish are released into the wild their smolt-to-adult survival is usually much lower than wild-reared salmon. The reduced postrelease survival of hatchery-reared fish may stem from differences in their behavior and morphology compared to wild-reared

  19. Effects of training experienced teachers in the use of the one-minute preceptor technique in the gross anatomy laboratory.

    PubMed

    Chan, Lap Ki; Sharma, Neel

    2014-01-01

    The one-minute preceptor (OMP) is a time-efficient, learner-centered teaching method used in a busy ambulatory care setting. This project evaluated the effects of training experienced anatomy teachers in the use of the OMP in the gross anatomy laboratory on students' perceived learning. Second-year medical students from a five-year, undergraduate-entry, system- and problem-based medical program were divided randomly into two groups of 76 students each. The groups took part in the same gross anatomy laboratory session on different dates, supervised by the same two teachers (both with over 25 years of teaching experience). The teachers attended a workshop on the use of the OMP between the two sessions. Students were given a questionnaire at the end of the two sessions to indicate their agreements to statements regarding their learning experiences. Semistructured interviews were conducted with the two teachers after the second session. Results showed that training experienced anatomy teachers in the use of the OMP did not result in improvement of student learning perception in the gross anatomy laboratory. The experienced teachers have developed their own approaches with elements similar to those in the OMP: being learner centered and adaptable to individual student's needs, providing feedback, and enhancing teacher immediacy. They do not have an explicit structure such as the OMP, and are thus flexible and adaptive. Confining the teachers' teaching behaviors to the OMP structure could limit their performance. Although there are theoretical advantages for novice teachers in adopting the OMP technique, these advantages still need to be supported by further studies.

  20. Prosthetic Rehabilitation of Lower Limb with RTV Silicone Using Prosthodontic Clinical and Laboratory Techniques - A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, T. Mohan; Ravindran, Smitha; Nair, K. Chandrasekharan; Kumar, Aswini

    2016-01-01

    Amputation of all or part of a limb may be due to systemic disease, vascular disease, infection, local injury or trauma. Partially amputated lower limbs present a variety of unique clinical and prosthetic challenges, because of distinctly different amputation levels of the lower limb. A female patient with history of Partial Foot Amputation (PFA) surgery at metatarsophalangeal joint level, due to crush injury reported for prosthetic rehabilitation. This case was successfully rehabilitated using Room Temperature Vulcanizing (RTV) medical grade silicone for fabrication of foot prosthesis. Though limited in its function, it amply proves that the clinical and laboratory techniques used in fabrication of maxillofacial prosthesis can be effectively adapted for the fabrication of body prosthesis like toes and feet to enhance the quality of life of the patients. The patient was reviewed every year for three years. PMID:27656585

  1. Application of the Ta liner technique to produce Ca beams at INFN-Legnaro National Laboratories (INFN-LNL)

    SciTech Connect

    Galatà, A. Sattin, M.; Manzolaro, M.; Martini, D.; Facco, A.; Tinschert, K.; Spaedtke, P.; Lang, R.; Kulevoy, T.

    2014-02-15

    The ECR ion sources are able to produce a wide variety of highly charged metallic ion beams thanks to the development of different techniques (ovens, sputtering, direct insertion, metal ions from volatile compounds (MIVOC)). In the case of the ovens, the sticking of the hot vapors on the surface of the plasma chamber leads to high material consumption rates. For elements like Ca, a tantalum liner inserted inside the chamber can be used to limit this phenomenon. The modeling of temperature distribution inside the chamber with and without the liner was carried out with COMSOL-multiphysics code. Results of simulation and the comparison with experiments performed at INFN-Legnaro National Laboratories with Ca beams are discussed.

  2. Application of the Ta liner technique to produce Ca beams at INFN-Legnaro National Laboratories (INFN-LNL).

    PubMed

    Galatà, A; Sattin, M; Manzolaro, M; Martini, D; Facco, A; Tinschert, K; Spaedtke, P; Lang, R; Kulevoy, T

    2014-02-01

    The ECR ion sources are able to produce a wide variety of highly charged metallic ion beams thanks to the development of different techniques (ovens, sputtering, direct insertion, metal ions from volatile compounds (MIVOC)). In the case of the ovens, the sticking of the hot vapors on the surface of the plasma chamber leads to high material consumption rates. For elements like Ca, a tantalum liner inserted inside the chamber can be used to limit this phenomenon. The modeling of temperature distribution inside the chamber with and without the liner was carried out with COMSOL-multiphysics code. Results of simulation and the comparison with experiments performed at INFN-Legnaro National Laboratories with Ca beams are discussed.

  3. The use of positive reinforcement training techniques to enhance the care, management, and welfare of primates in the laboratory.

    PubMed

    Laule, Gail E; Bloomsmith, Mollie A; Schapiro, Steven J

    2003-01-01

    Handled frequently and subjected to a wide range of medical procedures that may be particularly invasive, nonhuman animals in a laboratory setting have unique needs. To produce the most reliable research results and to protect and enhance the well-being of the animals, it is desirable to perform these procedures with as little stress for the animals as possible. Positive reinforcement training can use targeted activities and procedures to achieve the voluntary cooperation of nonhuman primates. The benefits of such work include diminished stress on the animals, enhanced flexibility and reliability in data collection, and a reduction in the use of anesthesia. Training also provides the means to mitigate social problems, aid in introductions, reduce abnormal behavior, enhance enrichment programs, and increase the safety of attending personnel. This article describes the application of operant conditioning techniques to animal management.

  4. Towards a green analytical laboratory: microextraction techniques as a useful tool for the monitoring of polluted soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez-Garcia, Ignacio; Viñas, Pilar; Campillo, Natalia; Hernandez Cordoba, Manuel; Perez Sirvent, Carmen

    2016-04-01

    Microextraction techniques are a valuable tool at the analytical laboratory since they allow sensitive measurements of pollutants to be carried out by means of easily available instrumentation. There is a large number of such procedures involving miniaturized liquid-liquid or liquid-solid extractions with the common denominator of using very low amounts (only a few microliters) or even none of organic solvents. Since minimal amounts of reagents are involved, and the generation of residues is consequently minimized, the approach falls within the concept of Green Analytical Chemistry. This general methodology is useful both for inorganic and organic pollutants. Thus, low amounts of metallic ions can be measured without the need of using ICP-MS since this instrument can be replaced by a simple AAS spectrometer which is commonly present in any laboratory and involves low acquisition and maintenance costs. When dealing with organic pollutants, the microextracts obtained can be introduced into liquid or gas chromatographs equipped with common detectors and there is no need for the most sophisticated and expensive mass spectrometers. This communication reports an overview of the advantages of such a methodology, and gives examples for the determination of some particular contaminants in soil and water samples The authors are grateful to the Comunidad Autonóma de la Región de Murcia , Spain (Fundación Séneca, 19888/GERM/15) for financial support

  5. Development of a low-cost SOM laboratory prototype with line illumination: evaluation of deconvolution techniques on its axial resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macedo, Milton P.; Barata, Antonio J.; Fernandes, Ana G.; Correia, Carlos M.

    2003-10-01

    The aim of this work is to establish a laboratory system, that embraces different areas such as optics, electronics, signal processing and software, to make possible the application of a linear sensor as detector in a scanning optical microscope (SOM) and to evaluate the application of different signal processing techniques on axial and lateral resolution. Thus a low-cost SOM laboratory prototype with reflection epi-illuminated configuration was assembled and a stage scanning type was selected to minimize the aberrations because low-cost optical components were employed. The line illumination was achieved using a low-cost anamorphic optical lens. In this paper a discription of the optical arrangement is presented. Also the acquisition system is reported regarding the circuitry developed with a microcontroller from PIC family to readout data from a linear sensor. A brief discription of the acquisition and visualization software running in microcontroller and personal computer (PC), respectively, is also included. The preliminary results presented in this paper were attained using plane mirror object mounted in a translation stage. A Matlab program was developed to implement different routines to estimate the axial resolution and evaluate its validity for the achievement of better depth discrimination.

  6. Evaluation of a technique for in vivo internal monitoring of (18)F within a Brazilian laboratory network.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Cássio Miri; Lima, Fabiana Farias; de Oliveira, Mércia Liane; da Silva, Tânia Valéria; Dantas, Ana Letícia; Dantas, Bernardo Maranhão; Alonso, Thêssa C; da Silva, Teógenes Augusto

    2013-01-01

    (18)FDG, an analogue of glucose labelled with the radionuclide (18)F, is the most widely used radiopharmaceutical in positron emission tomography/computed tomography technique. In Brazil, there are currently eight (18)FDG plants in operation and other facilities are expected to start their production in the near future. The growth in the production and clinical use of (18)FDG represents an increasing risk of worker exposures. According to national regulations and international recommendations, internal exposures should be effectively controlled in order to keep doses as low as possible. The implementation of a routine monitoring programme towards the estimation of internal doses related to the incorporation of (18)F is difficult, mainly due to its short physical half-life, the cost of a bioassay laboratory and the need of a monitoring service promptly available near the production plant. This paper describes the implementation and evaluation of a methodology for in vivo brain monitoring of (18)F to be applied in cases of suspected incorporation of (18)FDG. The technique presented a minimum detectable effective dose in the order of nanoSieverts, which allows its application for occupational monitoring purposes.

  7. Observational and laboratory studies of optical properties of black and brown carbon particles in the atmosphere using spectroscopic techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakayama, Tomoki; Matsumi, Yutaka

    2015-04-01

    Light absorption and scattering by aerosols are as an important contributor to radiation balance in the atmosphere. Black carbon (BC) is considered to be the most potent light absorbing material in the visible region of the spectrum, although light absorbing organic carbon (brown carbon or BrC) and mineral dust may also act as sources of significant absorption, especially in the ultraviolet (UV) and shorter visible wavelength regions. The optical properties of such particles depend on wavelength, particle size and shape, morphology, coating, and complex refractive index (or chemical composition), and therefore accurate in situ measurements of the wavelength dependence of the optical properties of particles are needed. Recently, cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) and photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) have been used for the direct measurements of extinction and absorption coefficients of particles suspended in air. We have applied these techniques to the observational studies of optical properties of BC and BrC in an urban site in Japan and to the laboratory studies of optical properties of secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) generated from a variety of biogenic and anthropogenic volatile organic compounds and those of diesel exhaust particles (DEPs). In the presentation, the basic principles of these techniques and the results obtained in our studies and in the recent literatures will be overviewed. References Guo, X. et al., Measurement of the light absorbing properties of diesel exhaust particles using a three-wavelength photoacoustic spectrometer, Atmos. Environ., 94, 428-437 (2014). Nakayama, T. et al., Measurements of aerosol optical properties in central Tokyo during summertime using cavity ring-down spectroscopy: Comparison with conventional techniques, Atmos. Environ., 44, 3034-3042 (2010). Nakayama, T. et al., Laboratory studies on optical properties of secondary organic aerosols generated during the photooxidation of toluene and the ozonolysis of alpha

  8. Advanced x-ray spectrometric techniques for characterization of nuclear materials: An overview of recent laboratory activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, N. L.

    2014-11-01

    Advancements in x-ray spectrometric techniques at different stages have made this technique suitable for characterization of nuclear materials with respect to trace/major element determinations and compositional uniformity studies. The two important features of total reflection x-ray fluorescence spectrometry: 1) requirement of very small amount of sample in ng level 2) multielement analytical capability, in addition to other features, make this technique very much suitable to nuclear materials characterization as most of the nuclear materials are radioactive and the radioactive waste generated and radiation hazards to the operator are minimum when such low amount of sample is used. Similarly advanced features of energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence e.g. better geometry for high flux, reduction in background due to application of radiation filters have made the measurements of samples sealed inside thin alkathene/PVC covers possible with good sensitivity. This approach avoids putting the instrument inside a glove box for measuring radioactive samples and makes the operation/maintenance of the instrument and analysis of the samples possible in easy and fast manner. This approach has been used for major element determinations in mixed uranium-plutonium samples. Similarly μ-XRF with brilliant and micro-focused excitation sources can be used for compositional uniformity study of reactor fuel pellets. A μ-XRF study using synchrotron light source has been made to assess the compositional uniformity of mixed uranium-thorium oxide pellets produced by different processes. This approach is simple as it does not involve any sample preparation and is non-destructive. A brief summary of such activities carried out in our laboratory in past as well as ongoing and planned for the future have been discussed in the present manuscript.

  9. 75 FR 68663 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Rear Impact Guards; Rear Impact Protection; Technical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-08

    ...; Rear Impact Protection; Technical Report, on the Effectiveness of Underride Guards for Heavy Trailers...: Request for comments on technical report. SUMMARY: This notice announces NHTSA's publication of a Technical Report, its existing Safety Standard 223, Rear Impact Guards and Safety Standard 224, Rear...

  10. 5. View West. West side and rear elevations of c. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. View West. West side and rear elevations of c. 1890 first rear addition; partial north rear elevation of c. 1900 side ell addition; and north rear and west side elevation of final rear addition of c. 1940. - Vaughn Chevrolet Building, 101-109 East Main Street, Monongahela, Washington County, PA

  11. Health evaluation of free-ranging and hand-reared macaws (Ara spp.) in Peru.

    PubMed

    Karesh, W B; del Campo, A; Braselton, W E; Puche, H; Cook, R A

    1997-12-01

    As part of ongoing ecological studies and reproduction enhancement efforts for macaws in southwestern Peru, a health survey of parent- and hand-reared scarlet macaws (Ara macao) and blue and gold macaws (Ara ararauna) was conducted in 1994. Thirty-three birds were examined during handling procedures, and blood samples were collected from 27 (9 parent reared, 18 hand reared) for laboratory analysis. All but one bird appeared to be in good condition, with no abnormality noted during physical examination. Hematology, plasma chemistries, and plasma vitamin and mineral levels were studied and correlated with the results of bacterial and viral serology. Positive antibody titers for Salmonella and psittacine herpesvirus were found. These diseases have the potential to affect wildlife population dynamics, and Salmonella may have public health significance. Serological tests for avian influenza, infectious laryngotracheitis, paramyxovirus-1, -2, -3, polyoma virus, chlamydiosis, and aspergillosis were negative. Differences in disease prevalence were found between rearing situations.

  12. Child-Rearing Practices: Symposium I C.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phisalaphong, Wanpen; And Others

    Studies of child-rearing practices among Thai, Indonesian, and Indian families are reported in two abstracts and one full paper. The Indonesian study (by Siti Rahayu Haditono) explored achievement motivation, parents' educational level, and child-rearing practices among members of four Javanese occupational groups: farmers, traders, civil…

  13. Rear-facing car seat (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A rear-facing car seat position is recommended for a child who is very young. Extreme injury can occur in an accident because ... child. In a frontal crash a rear-facing car seat is best, because it cradles the head, ...

  14. Job Analysis Techniques for Restructuring Health Manpower Education and Training in the Navy Medical Department. Attachment 9. Laboratory QPCB Task Sort for Medical Laboratory Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technomics, Inc., McLean, VA.

    This publication is Attachment 9 of a set of 16 computer listed QPCB task sorts, by career level, for the entire Hospital Corps and Dental Technician fields. Statistical data are presented in tabular form for a detailed listing of job duties in medical laboratory technology. (BT)

  15. Hand rearing affects emotional responses but not basic cognitive performance in European starlings☆

    PubMed Central

    Feenders, Gesa; Bateson, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    Hand rearing is a common procedure in behavioural research on birds. While likely to produce tamer experimental animals, there is a risk that it could induce pathological changes in brain and behaviour similar to those seen in mammals that have experienced maternal separation. We explored the effects of hand rearing on the cognitive and behavioural development of European starlings, Sturnus vulgaris, to assess the generality of results obtained from hand-reared animals. Two groups of age-matched birds were created from the same wild population: one hand-reared from 10 days posthatch and one brought into the laboratory as independent juveniles. These groups were compared on a battery of neuropsychological tasks designed to probe different aspects of cognitive function including learning, perseverative cognition, interval timing, neophobia and impulsivity. There was no evidence for cognitive impairment in the hand-reared birds. They did not have reduced learning speed, impairments in accuracy or precision of interval timing or pathological perseverative cognition compared to the wild-caught birds. Additionally, there was no evidence that birds that developed stereotypies in laboratory cages (predominantly the wild-caught birds) had any cognitive impairments, although this may be because no birds had severe, crystallized stereotypies. There was some evidence that hand-reared birds were less neophobic and less impulsive than wild-caught birds, suggesting that hand rearing might alter emotionally mediated decision making in a direction usually associated with reduced developmental stress in mammals. This study therefore supports the use of hand rearing as an experimental procedure in behavioural research on passerine birds. PMID:23888084

  16. Faculty perspectives of the undergraduate laboratory: A survey of faculty goals for the laboratory and comparative analysis of responses using statistical techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruck, Aaron D.

    Qualitative research methods were used in a previous study to discover the goals of faculty members teaching undergraduate laboratories. Assertions about the goals and the unique characteristics of innovative lab programs were developed from categories that emerged from the interviews. The purpose of the present research was to create a survey instrument to measure the prevalence of these themes and faculty goals for undergraduate laboratories with a national sample. This was achieved through a two-stage process that utilized a pilot survey to determine the factor structure and reduce the number of survey items to a manageable size. Once the number of survey questions was reduced, the full survey was given to a national sample of undergraduate laboratory faculty. The 312 responses to the survey were then analyzed using factor analysis. Comparative analyses were conducted using analysis of variance (ANOVA). This dissertation focuses on the processes involved in the creation of this survey and the subsequent analyses of the data the survey produced. The results of these analyses and the implications of this research will also be discussed.

  17. How to set up a microsurgical laboratory on small animal models: organization, techniques, and impact on residency training.

    PubMed

    Pichierri, A; Frati, A; Santoro, A; Lenzi, J; Delfini, R; Pannarale, L; Gaudio, E; D'Andrea, G; Cantore, G P

    2009-01-01

    Microsurgical training is mandatory for the optimal education of modern neurosurgeons. Even though this is a widely acknowledged statement and a lot of institutions around the world practice training in laboratory, the recent literature lacks tip and tricks on how to start a laboratory from scratch, what would be a convenient anesthesia, and what kind of exercises are appropriate. We present our experience in 16 microsurgical training courses settled up at our institutions. Two hundred eleven rodents were dissected. We will describe the organization of the laboratory and of the training courses and we will discuss its practical impact on the residency program.

  18. Production and quality assurance in the SIT Africa Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) rearing facility in South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, B.; Rosenberg, S.; Arnolds, L.; Johnson, J.

    2007-03-15

    A mass-rearing facility for Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) was commissioned in Stellenbosch in 1999 to produce sterile male fruit flies for a sterile insect technique (SIT) project in commercial fruit orchards and vineyards in the Western Cape province of South Africa. The mass-rearing procedure was largely based on systems developed by the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory, Seibersdorf, Austria. A number of genetic sexing strains were used to produce only males for release. Initial cramped rearing and quality management conditions were alleviated in 2001 with the construction of a new adult rearing room and quality control laboratory. In 2002 a comprehensive Quality Management System was implemented, and in 2003 an improved genetic sexing strain, VIENNA 8, was supplied by the FAO/IAEA Laboratory in Seibersdorf. For most of the first 3 years the facility was unable to supply the required number of sterile male Mediterranean fruit flies for the SIT program without importing sterile male pupae from another facility. From mid-2002, after the quality management system was implemented, both production and quality improved but remained below optimum. After the introduction of the VIENNA 8 genetic sexing strain, and together with an improvement in the climate control equipment, production stability, and quality assurance parameters improved substantially. The critical factors influencing production and quality were an inadequate rearing infrastructure, problems with the quality of the larval diet, and the initial absence of a quality management system. The results highlight the importance of effective quality management, the value of a stable and productive genetic sexing strain, and the necessity for a sound funding base for the mass-rearing facility. (author) [Spanish] La facilidad para criar en masa la mosca mediterranea de la fruta, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) fue comisionada en Stellenbosch en 1999 para producir machos

  19. A comparison of rearing Creontiades signatus distant on green bean pods or pea plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A laboratory procedure for mass rearing Creontiades signatus Distant, a relatively new plant bug pest of south Texas cotton, was compared using green bean pods versus whole cowpea plants to determine which would provide for the easiest most efficient method for producing the insect in culture. The n...

  20. Long-Term Cognitive Deficits in Chimpanzees Associated with Early Impoverished Rearing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davenport, Richard K.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    According to transfer index testing, chimpanzees who had been reared in restricted laboratory environments for the first two years of life were inferior in cognitive skills to wild born control subjects. Findings are discussed in terms of the role of early experience in cognitive development. (DP)

  1. TV Spots and Supportive Printed Materials on Child-Rearing Practices. Work Unit III. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southwest Educational Development Lab., Austin, TX.

    This is the 1976-1977 final report of Work Unit III of Southwest Educational Development Laboratory's Early Childhood Program. The Unit was funded to develop media products, mass media delivery strategies, television spot announcements and supportive booklets designed to increase awareness of certain child-rearing skills and practices among low…

  2. Managing Ammonia Emissions From Screwworm Larval Rearing Media.

    PubMed

    Sagel, Agustin; Phillips, Pamela; Chaudhury, Muhammad; Skoda, Steven

    2016-02-01

    Mass production, sterilization, and release of screwworms (Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel)) that were competitive in the field significantly contributed to the successful application of the sterile insect technique for eradication of screwworms from continental North America. Metabolic byproducts resulting from protein-rich diets required for larval screwworms lead to ammonia liberation, sometimes at high levels, within the mass rearing facility. Until recently a sodium polyacrylate gel bulking agent was used for the larval media and adsorbed much of the ammonia. A need to replace the gel with an environmentally "friendly" bulking agent, while not increasing ammonia levels in the rearing facility, led to a series of experiments with the objective of developing procedures to reduce ammonia emissions from the larval media bulked with cellulose fiber. Additives of ammonia-converting bacteria, potassium permanganate, and Yucca schidigera Roezl ex Otrgies powder extract, previously reported to reduce ammonia levels in organic environments, were evaluated. Ammonia-converting bacteria did not have a positive effect. Addition of Y. schidigera powder extract (∼1% of total volume), potassium permanganate (∼250 ppm), and a combination of these two additives (at these same concentrations) kept ammonia at equivalent levels as when larval media was bulked with gel. Potassium permanganate also had sufficient antimicrobial properties that the use of formaldehyde in the diet was not necessary. Further testing is needed, at a mass rearing level, before full implementation into the screwworm eradication program.

  3. In vitro rearing of Perkinsiella saccharicida and the use of leaf segments to assay Fiji disease virus transmission.

    PubMed

    Hughes, G L; Allsopp, P G; Brumbley, S M; Johnson, K N; O'Neill, S L

    2008-07-01

    Fiji leaf gall (FLG) is caused by the Reovirus, Fiji disease virus (FDV), which is transmitted to sugarcane by planthoppers of the genus Perkinsiella. Low vector transmission rates and slow disease symptom development make experimentation within the FDV-Perkinsiella-sugarcane system inherently difficult. A laboratory-based technique was devised to rear the vector using sugarcane leaves as a food source. Planthoppers were reared on sugarcane leaf segments embedded in agarose enclosed within plastic containers. To provide a nondestructive assay for determination of the inoculation potential of planthoppers, FDV was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in newly infected sugarcane leaf segments following exposure to viruliferous planthoppers. Leaf segment inoculation correlated with development of FLG symptoms in whole plants that were fed on by the same planthoppers. Analysis of FDV RNAs within the planthopper, measured by quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR), indicated that FDV RNA concentration was associated with successful inoculation of the leaf segment, transmission of FDV to sugarcane and subsequent development of FLG in plants. Quantification of FDV RNA within planthoppers provided an additional measure to assess vector competence in individuals.

  4. Inbreeding Effects in Families of Ostrinia nubilalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae): Larval Development in Laboratory Bioassays

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inbreeding depression of laboratory-reared insects has the potential to affect their larval performance and reproductive output. Two studies of laboratory-reared colonies of Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) were conducted to assess whether inbreeding affected a laboratory bioass...

  5. Experimental Studies of Surface-Driven Capillary Flow in PMMA Microfluidic Devices Prepared by Direct Bonding Technique and Passive Separation of Microparticles in Microfluidic Laboratory-On Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Subhadeep; Banerjee, J. P.; Mathur, Ashish; Tweedie, M.; McLaughlin, J. A.; Roy, Susanta Sinha

    2015-05-01

    Proper bonding technique is investigated to achieve leakage-free surface-driven capillary flow in polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) microfluidic devices. SU-8-based silicon stamp is fabricated by maskless lithography. This stamp is used to produce PMMA microchannel structure by hot embossing lithography. A direct bonding technique is mainly employed for leakage-free sealing inside PMMA microfluidic devices. The effect of surface wettability on surface-driven capillary flow is also investigated in PMMA microfluidic devices. The separation of polystyrene microparticles in PMMA laboratory-on-a-chip systems is investigated with the reduction of separation time by air dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma processing of channel surfaces. This study is useful to fabricate the microfluidic laboratory-on-a-chip systems and to understand the surface-driven capillary flow.

  6. Persistence of free-living protozoan communities across rearing cycles in commercial poultry houses.

    PubMed

    Baré, Julie; Houf, Kurt; Verstraete, Tine; Vaerewijck, Mario; Sabbe, Koen

    2011-03-01

    The introduction and survival of zoonotic bacterial pathogens in poultry farming have been linked to bacterial association with free-living protozoa. To date, however, no information is available on the persistence of protozoan communities in these environments across consecutive rearing cycles and how it is affected by farm- and habitat-specific characteristics and management strategies. We therefore investigated the spatial and temporal dynamics of free-living protozoa in three habitats (pipeline, water, and miscellaneous samples) in three commercial poultry houses across three rearing cycles by using the molecular fingerprinting technique denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Our study provides strong evidence for the long-term (ca. 6-month) persistence of protozoa in broiler houses across consecutive rearing cycles. Various free-living protozoa (flagellates, ciliates, and amoebae), including known vectors of bacterial pathogens, were observed during the down periods in between rearing cycles. In addition, multivariate analysis and variation partitioning showed that the protozoan community structure in the broiler houses showed almost no change across rearing cycles and remained highly habitat and farm specific. Unlike in natural environments, protozoan communities inside broiler houses are therefore not seasonal. Our results imply that currently used biosecurity measures (cleaning and disinfection) applied during the down periods are not effective against many protozoans and therefore cannot prevent potential cross-contamination of bacterial pathogens via free-living protozoa between rearing cycles.

  7. Persistence of Free-Living Protozoan Communities across Rearing Cycles in Commercial Poultry Houses ▿

    PubMed Central

    Baré, Julie; Houf, Kurt; Verstraete, Tine; Vaerewijck, Mario; Sabbe, Koen

    2011-01-01

    The introduction and survival of zoonotic bacterial pathogens in poultry farming have been linked to bacterial association with free-living protozoa. To date, however, no information is available on the persistence of protozoan communities in these environments across consecutive rearing cycles and how it is affected by farm- and habitat-specific characteristics and management strategies. We therefore investigated the spatial and temporal dynamics of free-living protozoa in three habitats (pipeline, water, and miscellaneous samples) in three commercial poultry houses across three rearing cycles by using the molecular fingerprinting technique denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Our study provides strong evidence for the long-term (ca. 6-month) persistence of protozoa in broiler houses across consecutive rearing cycles. Various free-living protozoa (flagellates, ciliates, and amoebae), including known vectors of bacterial pathogens, were observed during the down periods in between rearing cycles. In addition, multivariate analysis and variation partitioning showed that the protozoan community structure in the broiler houses showed almost no change across rearing cycles and remained highly habitat and farm specific. Unlike in natural environments, protozoan communities inside broiler houses are therefore not seasonal. Our results imply that currently used biosecurity measures (cleaning and disinfection) applied during the down periods are not effective against many protozoans and therefore cannot prevent potential cross-contamination of bacterial pathogens via free-living protozoa between rearing cycles. PMID:21239551

  8. Effects of Rearing Density on Survival, Growth, and Development of the Ladybird Coleomegilla maculata in Culture.

    PubMed

    Riddick, Eric W; Wu, Zhixin

    2015-10-09

    Our research focuses on developing techniques to rear ladybird beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). We evaluated the effects of rearing density on survival, growth, and development of Coleomegilla maculata. The hypothesis that a low to moderate rearing density has limited or no effects on survival and development was tested. C. maculata first instars were reared to pupae at a density of 1, 5, 10, 15, or 20 individuals per arena (2.5 cm high, 9.0 cm diameter, and 159 cm3 volume) and fed powdered brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) eggs. More larvae survived at the 1 and 5 densities, but no differences were detected between the 10, 15, or 20 densities. Median survival rate was at least 90% for larvae and 100% for pupae at the 10, 15, and 20 densities. Development time, body weight, and sex ratio were unaffected by rearing density. Overall, this study suggests that C. maculata larvae can be reared successfully at a density of 20 larvae/159 cm3 (≈ 0.126 larvae/cm3) in containers provisioned with powdered A. franciscana eggs. Scaling-up the size of containers, and C. maculata density in these containers, should be possible.

  9. 49 CFR 393.86 - Rear impact guards and rear end protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... longitudinal vertical planes that are tangent to the side extremities of the vehicle. (4) Guard rear surface... or after January 26, 1998. Each trailer and semitrailer with a gross vehicle weight rating of 4,536... rear impact guard that meets the requirements of Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 223 (49...

  10. Effects of Training Experienced Teachers in the Use of the One-Minute Preceptor Technique in the Gross Anatomy Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Lap Ki; Sharma, Neel

    2014-01-01

    The one-minute preceptor (OMP) is a time-efficient, learner-centered teaching method used in a busy ambulatory care setting. This project evaluated the effects of training experienced anatomy teachers in the use of the OMP in the gross anatomy laboratory on students' perceived learning. Second-year medical students from a five-year,…

  11. Multivariate head injury threshold measures for various sized children seated behind vehicle seats in rear impacts.

    PubMed

    Saczalski, Kenneth; Sances, Anthony; Kumaresan, Srirangam; Pozzi, Mark; Saczalski, Todd; Burton, J L; Lewis, P

    2004-01-01

    Government recommendations to place children into the rear areas of motor vehicles to avoid airbag induced injuries have been complicated by the fact that most adult occupied front seats will collapse into the rear area during rear-impacts, and thus pose another potentially serious injury hazard to rear-seated children. Many variables affect whether or not a front seat occupant will collapse into the rear child, and whether that interaction could be injurious to the child. For instance, the severity of rear impact, coupled with front and rear occupant sizes (mass and stature), and the level of front seat strength, all interrelate to influence whether or not a rear seated child is likely to be impacted and possibly injured. The most common types of child injuries in these instances are head and chest injuries. In this study, a "high-low" experimental method was employed with a multi-level "factorial analysis" technique to study "multivariate" biomechanics of child head injury potential determined from rear-seated 3 and 6 year-old child surrogates in different types of vehicle bodies mounted to a sled system. The sled-buck systems were towed rearward into crushable barriers that matched the crash pulses of the vehicle types being tested. Various sizes of adult surrogates (i.e. 50 kg up to 110 kg), seated in both the "typical" low strength "single recliner" collapsing type front seat (i.e. 3.2 kN) and a much stronger "belt-integrated" seat design (i.e. up to 14.5 kN), were tested in the two different "sled body-buck" set-ups at various impact levels (i.e. 22.5 to 50 kph). One set-up used a popular minivan vehicle body with "built-in booster" seats for the 3 year-old. The other used a 4-door family sedan vehicle body with the 6 year-old in a standard rear bench seat. The parameters of the tests enabled the experimental data to be combined into polynomial "head injury" functions of the independent variables so the "likelihood" of rear child head-injury potential could

  12. Growth and social behavior in a cichlid fish are affected by social rearing environment and kinship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hesse, Saskia; Thünken, Timo

    2014-04-01

    Living in groups is a widespread phenomenon in many animal taxa. The reduction of predation risk is thought to be an important cause for the formation of groups. Consequently, grouping behavior is particularly pronounced during vulnerable life stages, i.e., as juveniles. However, group living does not only provide benefits but also imposes costs on group members, e.g., increased competition for food. Thus, benefits of grouping behavior might not be evident when predation risk is absent. The adaptive significance of living and also developing in a group independent from predation risk has received relatively little attention although this might have important implications on the evolution and maintenance of group living. The first aim of the present study was to examine whether the social environment affects juvenile performance in the cichlid fish Pelvicachromis taeniatus and, secondly, whether kinship affects social behavior. Kin selection theory predicts benefits from grouping with kin. Here, we demonstrate that juveniles reared in a group grow on average faster compared to juveniles reared in isolation under standardized laboratory conditions without predation risk. Furthermore, we found significant differences in social behavior between juveniles reared in a group and reared in isolation. Fish reared in isolation were significantly more aggressive and less willing to shoal than group-reared fish. As expected, genetic relatedness influenced social behavior in group-reared fish as well: dyads of juveniles consisting of kin showed increased group cohesiveness compared to non-kin dyads. We discuss the potential benefits of group living in general and living with kin in particular.

  13. Growth and social behavior in a cichlid fish are affected by social rearing environment and kinship.

    PubMed

    Hesse, Saskia; Thünken, Timo

    2014-04-01

    Living in groups is a widespread phenomenon in many animal taxa. The reduction of predation risk is thought to be an important cause for the formation of groups. Consequently, grouping behavior is particularly pronounced during vulnerable life stages, i.e., as juveniles. However, group living does not only provide benefits but also imposes costs on group members, e.g., increased competition for food. Thus, benefits of grouping behavior might not be evident when predation risk is absent. The adaptive significance of living and also developing in a group independent from predation risk has received relatively little attention although this might have important implications on the evolution and maintenance of group living. The first aim of the present study was to examine whether the social environment affects juvenile performance in the cichlid fish Pelvicachromis taeniatus and, secondly, whether kinship affects social behavior. Kin selection theory predicts benefits from grouping with kin. Here, we demonstrate that juveniles reared in a group grow on average faster compared to juveniles reared in isolation under standardized laboratory conditions without predation risk. Furthermore, we found significant differences in social behavior between juveniles reared in a group and reared in isolation. Fish reared in isolation were significantly more aggressive and less willing to shoal than group-reared fish. As expected, genetic relatedness influenced social behavior in group-reared fish as well: dyads of juveniles consisting of kin showed increased group cohesiveness compared to non-kin dyads. We discuss the potential benefits of group living in general and living with kin in particular.

  14. Composition of the Spruce Budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana) Midgut Microbiota as Affected by Rearing Conditions.

    PubMed

    Landry, Mathieu; Comeau, André M; Derome, Nicolas; Cusson, Michel; Levesque, Roger C

    2015-01-01

    The eastern spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana) is one of the most destructive forest insect pests in Canada. Little is known about its intestinal microbiota, which could play a role in digestion, immune protection, communication and/or development. The present study was designed to provide a first characterization of the effects of rearing conditions on the taxonomic diversity and structure of the C. fumiferana midgut microbiota, using a culture-independent approach. Three diets and insect sources were examined: larvae from a laboratory colony reared on a synthetic diet and field-collected larvae reared on balsam fir or black spruce foliage. Bacterial DNA from the larval midguts was extracted to amplify and sequence the V6-V8 region of the 16S rRNA gene, using the Roche 454 GS-FLX technology. Our results showed a dominance of Proteobacteria, mainly Pseudomonas spp., in the spruce budworm midgut, irrespective of treatment group. Taxonomic diversity of the midgut microbiota was greater for larvae reared on synthetic diet than for those collected and reared on host plants, a difference that is likely accounted for by several factors. A greater proportion of bacteria from the phylum Bacteroidetes in insects fed artificial diet constituted the main difference between this group and those reared on foliage; within the phylum Proteobacteria, the presence of the genus Bradyrhizobium was also unique to insects reared on artificial diet. Strikingly, a Bray-Curtis analysis showed important differences in microbial diversity among the treatment groups, pointing to the importance of diet and environment in defining the spruce budworm midgut microbiota.

  15. Composition of the Spruce Budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana) Midgut Microbiota as Affected by Rearing Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Landry, Mathieu; Comeau, André M.; Derome, Nicolas; Cusson, Michel; Levesque, Roger C.

    2015-01-01

    The eastern spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana) is one of the most destructive forest insect pests in Canada. Little is known about its intestinal microbiota, which could play a role in digestion, immune protection, communication and/or development. The present study was designed to provide a first characterization of the effects of rearing conditions on the taxonomic diversity and structure of the C. fumiferana midgut microbiota, using a culture-independent approach. Three diets and insect sources were examined: larvae from a laboratory colony reared on a synthetic diet and field-collected larvae reared on balsam fir or black spruce foliage. Bacterial DNA from the larval midguts was extracted to amplify and sequence the V6-V8 region of the 16S rRNA gene, using the Roche 454 GS-FLX technology. Our results showed a dominance of Proteobacteria, mainly Pseudomonas spp., in the spruce budworm midgut, irrespective of treatment group. Taxonomic diversity of the midgut microbiota was greater for larvae reared on synthetic diet than for those collected and reared on host plants, a difference that is likely accounted for by several factors. A greater proportion of bacteria from the phylum Bacteroidetes in insects fed artificial diet constituted the main difference between this group and those reared on foliage; within the phylum Proteobacteria, the presence of the genus Bradyrhizobium was also unique to insects reared on artificial diet. Strikingly, a Bray-Curtis analysis showed important differences in microbial diversity among the treatment groups, pointing to the importance of diet and environment in defining the spruce budworm midgut microbiota. PMID:26636571

  16. The static examination of children and young adults with cerebral palsy in the gait analysis laboratory: technique and observer agreement.

    PubMed

    Keenan, W Nigel; Rodda, Jill; Wolfe, Rory; Roberts, Sam; Borton, David C; Graham, H Kerr

    2004-01-01

    The assessment of ambulant children with spastic cerebral palsy frequently includes an evaluation in the motion analysis laboratory, consisting of a standardized physical examination and instrumented gait analysis. We therefore designed a repeatability study to evaluate observer agreement of five joint range of motion parameters, in 20 patients with cerebral palsy aged 5-25 years. These five parameters are some of the most important measurements made during the static examination in the gait laboratory. Intra-observer agreement was high (concordance correlation coefficient range, 0.67 -0.96), and using Bland and Altman analysis it was clinically acceptable with 95% limits of agreement of all parameters close to within +/- 10degrees. The level of inter-observer agreement was less satisfactory, particularly in hip flexion deformity.

  17. Reliability of clinical diagnosis and laboratory testing techniques currently used for identification of canine parvovirus enteritis in clinical settings.

    PubMed

    Faz, Mirna; Martínez, José Simón; Quijano-Hernández, Israel; Fajardo, Raúl

    2017-01-24

    Canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) is the main etiological agent of viral enteritis in dogs. Actually in literature, CPV-2 has been reported with clinical signs that vary from the classical disease, and immunochromatography test and PCR technique have been introduced to veterinary hospitals to confirm CPV-2 diagnosis and other infections. However, the reliability of these techniques has been poorly analyzed. In this study, we evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of veterinary clinical diagnosis, immunochromatography test and PCR technique. Our data indicate that variations in the clinical signs of CPV-2 complicate the gathering of an appropriate diagnosis; and immunochromatography test and PCR technique do not have adequate sensitivity to diagnose positive cases.

  18. Reliability of clinical diagnosis and laboratory testing techniques currently used for identification of canine parvovirus enteritis in clinical settings

    PubMed Central

    FAZ, Mirna; MARTÍNEZ, José Simón; QUIJANO-HERNÁNDEZ, Israel; FAJARDO, Raúl

    2016-01-01

    Canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) is the main etiological agent of viral enteritis in dogs. Actually in literature, CPV-2 has been reported with clinical signs that vary from the classical disease, and immunochromatography test and PCR technique have been introduced to veterinary hospitals to confirm CPV-2 diagnosis and other infections. However, the reliability of these techniques has been poorly analyzed. In this study, we evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of veterinary clinical diagnosis, immunochromatography test and PCR technique. Our data indicate that variations in the clinical signs of CPV-2 complicate the gathering of an appropriate diagnosis; and immunochromatography test and PCR technique do not have adequate sensitivity to diagnose positive cases. PMID:27818461

  19. Final report, Ames Mobile Laboratory Project: The development and operation of instrumentation in a mobile laboratory for in situ, real-time screening and characterization of soils using the laser ablation sampling technique

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, M.S.; Braymen, S.D.

    1995-01-27

    The main focus of the Ames Laboratory`s Technology Integration Program, TIP, from May 1991 through December 1994 was the development, fabrication, and demonstration of a mobile instrumentation laboratory incorporating rapid in situ sampling systems for safe, rapid, and cost effective soil screening/characterization. The Mobile Demonstration Laboratory for Environmental Screening Technologies, MDLEST, containing the analysis instrumentation, along with surface and subsurface sampling probe prototypes employing the laser ablation sampling technique were chosen to satisfy the particular surface and subsurface soil characterization needs of the various Department of Energy facilities for determining the extent of heavy metal and radionuclide contamination. The MDLEST, a 44 foot long 5th wheel trailer, is easily configured for the analysis instrumentation and sampling system required for the particular site work. This mobile laboratory contains all of the utilities needed to satisfy the operating requirements of the various instrumentation installed. These utilities include, an electric generator, a chilled water system, process gases, a heating/air conditioning system, and computer monitoring and automatic operating systems. Once the MDLEST arrives at the job site, the instrumentation is aligned and calibration is completed, sampling and analysis operations begin. The sample is acquired, analyzed and the results reported in as little as 10 minutes. The surface sampling probe is used in two modes to acquire samples for analysis. It is either set directly on the ground over the site to be sampled, in situ sampling, or in a special fixture used for calibrating the sampling analysis system with standard soil samples, having the samples brought to the MDLEST. The surface sampling probe was used to in situ sample a flat concrete surface (nondestructively) with the ablated sample being analyzed by the instrumentation in the MDLEST.

  20. [Application of liquid chromatography in substitution of the radioimmunoassay technique in order to reduce residues generated in health services in research laboratory].

    PubMed

    Ribeiro Neto, Luciane M; Sugawara, Eduardo K; Verreschi, Ieda T N

    2008-10-01

    Designing a Health Care Service Waste Management Plan, according to the RDC 306 rules, is a responsibility of all those who produce such waste. Since radioimmunoassay (RIA) is one of the most employed techniques, we studied the impact of replacing this technique by liquid chromatography (HPLC) with regard to the reduction of the radioactive residues routinely produced by the Unifesp steroid laboratory. The residues produced by the determination of serum cortisol and 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone were classified, and those belonging to groups B and C were evaluated. We observed that, when RIA is used, chemical residues (group B) and radioactive waste (group C) are produced, whereas HPLC generates only chemical residues. Adequation of these techniques showed to be advantageous, by significantly reducing the time of analysis and mainly by eliminating and/or reducing the generation of radioactive waste, encouraging its application to other methodologies, as well as its adoption by other research units.

  1. Interaction of rearing environment and reproductive tactic on gene expression profiles in Atlantic salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aubin-Horth, N.; Letcher, B.H.; Hofmann, H.A.

    2005-01-01

    Organisms that share the same genotype can develop into divergent phenotypes, depending on environmental conditions. In Atlantic salmon, young males of the same age can be found either as sneakers or immature males that are future anadromous fish. Just as the organism-level phenotype varies between divergent male developmental trajectories, brain gene expression is expected to vary as well. We hypothesized that rearing environment can also have an important effect on gene expression in the brain and possibly interact with the reproductive tactic adopted. We tested this hypothesis by comparing brain gene expression profiles of the two male tactics in fish from the same population that were reared in either a natural stream or under laboratory conditions. We found that expression of certain genes was affected by rearing environment only, while others varied between male reproductive tactics independent of rearing environment. Finally, more than half of all genes that showed variable expression varied between the two male tactics only in one environment. Thus, in these fish, very different molecular pathways can give rise to similar macro-phenotypes depending on rearing environment. This result gives important insights into the molecular underpinnings of developmental plasticity in relationship to the environment. ?? 2005 The American Genetic Association.

  2. Interaction of rearing environment and reproductive tactic on gene expression profiles in Atlantic salmon.

    PubMed

    Aubin-Horth, N; Letcher, B H; Hofmann, H A

    2005-01-01

    Organisms that share the same genotype can develop into divergent phenotypes, depending on environmental conditions. In Atlantic salmon, young males of the same age can be found either as sneakers or immature males that are future anadromous fish. Just as the organism-level phenotype varies between divergent male developmental trajectories, brain gene expression is expected to vary as well. We hypothesized that rearing environment can also have an important effect on gene expression in the brain and possibly interact with the reproductive tactic adopted. We tested this hypothesis by comparing brain gene expression profiles of the two male tactics in fish from the same population that were reared in either a natural stream or under laboratory conditions. We found that expression of certain genes was affected by rearing environment only, while others varied between male reproductive tactics independent of rearing environment. Finally, more than half of all genes that showed variable expression varied between the two male tactics only in one environment. Thus, in these fish, very different molecular pathways can give rise to similar macro-phenotypes depending on rearing environment. This result gives important insights into the molecular underpinnings of developmental plasticity in relationship to the environment.

  3. The role of socio-communicative rearing environments in the development of social and physical cognition in apes.

    PubMed

    Russell, Jamie L; Lyn, Heidi; Schaeffer, Jennifer A; Hopkins, William D

    2011-11-01

    The cultural intelligence hypothesis (CIH) claims that humans' advanced cognition is a direct result of human culture and that children are uniquely specialized to absorb and utilize this cultural experience (Tomasello, 2000). Comparative data demonstrating that 2.5-year-old human children outperform apes on measures of social cognition but not on measures of physical cognition support this claim (Herrmann et al., 2007). However, the previous study failed to control for rearing when comparing these two species. Specifically, the human children were raised in a human culture whereas the apes were raised in standard sanctuary settings. To further explore the CIH, here we compared the performance on multiple measures of social and physical cognition in a group of standard reared apes raised in conditions typical of zoo and biomedical laboratory settings to that of apes reared in an enculturated socio-communicatively rich environment. Overall, the enculturated apes significantly outperformed their standard reared counterparts on the cognitive tasks and this was particularly true for measures of communication. Furthermore, the performance of the enculturated apes was very similar to previously reported data from 2.5-year-old children. We conclude that apes who are reared in a human-like socio-communicatively rich environment develop superior communicative abilities compared to apes reared in standard laboratory settings, which supports some assumptions of the cultural intelligence hypothesis.

  4. Low-level measuring techniques for neutrons: High accuracy neutron source strength determination and fluence rate measurement at an underground laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Zimbal, Andreas; Reginatto, Marcel; Schuhmacher, Helmut; Wiegel, Burkhard; Degering, Detlev; Zuber, Kai

    2013-08-08

    We report on measuring techniques for neutrons that have been developed at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), the German National Metrology Institute. PTB has characterized radioactive sources used in the BOREXINO and XENON100 experiments. For the BOREXINO experiment, a {sup 228}Th gamma radiation source was required which would not emit more than 10 neutrons per second. The determination of the neutron emission rate of this specially designed {sup 228}Th source was challenging due to the low neutron emission rate and because the ratio of neutron to gamma radiation was expected to be extremely low, of the order of 10{sup −6}. For the XENON100 detector, PTB carried out a high accuracy measurement of the neutron emission rate of an AmBe source. PTB has also done measurements in underground laboratories. A two month measurement campaign with a set of {sup 3}He-filled proportional counters was carried out in PTB's former UDO underground laboratory at the Asse salt mine. The aim of the campaign was to determine the intrinsic background of detectors, which is needed for the analysis of data taken in lowintensity neutron fields. At a later time, PTB did a preliminary measurement of the neutron fluence rate at the underground laboratory Felsenkeller operated by VKTA. By taking into account data from UDO, Felsenkeller, and detector calibrations made at the PTB facility, it was possible to estimate the neutron fluence rate at the Felsenkeller underground laboratory.

  5. Mass rearing of Lucilia sericata Meigen (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

    PubMed Central

    Firoozfar, F; Moosa-Kazemi, H; Baniardalani, M; Abolhassani, M; Khoobdel, M; Rafinejd, J

    2011-01-01

    Objective To carry out an experimental study with the main objective of mass rearing of sheep flies (Lucilia sericata). Methods Hand collection and beef- or cattle liver-baited net traps were used for field fly sampling from April, 2010 to November, 2010. The samples collected from different places were placed in properly labeled tubes and sent to the Entomology Laboratory. Since maggot identification is important in inducing mortality, they were kept under insectary condition to develop to adult stage and identified using systematic keys. Results A total of 218 flies were collected in three rounds of sampling from the field of Tehran and Karaj Counties. In the first generation, 433 flies including 135 (31.17%) male, and 298 (68.82%) female were yielded. The female/male of parent ratio was calculated as 1.72 in Tehran and in Karaj areas, whereas it was 2.20% and 1.81%, respectively in F1 and F2 generations, respectively. Conclusions During this study, the mass rearing of sheep blow fly has been established at the School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences and can be used for producing flies for maggot therapy. PMID:23569725

  6. Colonization of a hybrid strain to restore male Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) mating competitiveness for sterile insect technique programs.

    PubMed

    Rull, Juan; Barreda-Landa, Abraham

    2007-06-01

    To restore male mating competitiveness of Mexican fruit flies, Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), reared for sterile insect releases by the Mexican Fruit fly Eradication Campaign, two strain replacement techniques were evaluated. Field cage male competitiveness tests revealed that laboratory males of the Metapa strain mated 3 times less often with wild females than field-collected wild males. A strain developed from the cross of wild males and laboratory females (hybrid strain) was similar to a strain developed from the cross of laboratory males and females (laboratory strain) in that its females produced similar amounts of eggs and the eggs displayed similar levels of hatch and egg-to-pupa transformation in artificial diet. By contrast, a strain developed from the cross of wild males and females (wild strain), forced into artificial rearing, experienced a series of bottlenecks involving reduced egg laying and extremely poor development in diet. The male F1 progeny of the hybrid strain and field-collected wild males outcompeted Fl laboratory males in field cage tests for matings with field-collected wild females. In conclusion, we found that strains developed from the cross of wild males and laboratory females allowed us to restore male mating competitiveness of F1 Mexican fruit flies without compromising mass-rearing production.

  7. Contexts of Child Rearing: Problems and Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bronfenbrenner, Urie

    1979-01-01

    Synthesizes existing knowledge regarding interpersonal contexts of human development with emerging concepts and data that point to trans-contextual parameters of child-rearing environments. Proposes properties of the environment that foster development: primary and secondary development contexts; the impact of third parties; and interconnections…

  8. The "Rear-View Mirror" Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nord, James

    1987-01-01

    The "rear-view mirror" approach referred to by McLuhan refers to new media being used with the methods of older, different media. A Sens-it (SENtence- SENtence- SITuation) cell model is suggested as an effective use of interactive videodisk systems in contrast to the communicative competence approach. (Author/LMO)

  9. PARENT ATTITUDES IN REARING MENTALLY RETARDED CHILDREN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LEICHMAN, NATHAN S.; WILLENBERG, ERNEST P.

    POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE ASPECTS OF REARING MENTAL RETARDATES WERE IDENTIFIED AND MEASURED DURING THIS STUDY BY EXAMINATIONS OF PARENTAL ATTITUDES AND HOW THESE ATTITUDES OFTEN AFFECT THE DAILY BEHAVIOR AND LEARNING READINESS OF CHILDREN WHILE IN SCHOOL. BEHAVIORAL FACTORS OF THE INDIVIDUAL CHILD WERE ANALYZED AND COMPARED WITH STATISTICS COVERING…

  10. A new technique for measuring the bed surface texture during flow and application to a degradational sand-gravel laboratory experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orrú, Clara; Blom, Astrid; Chavarrías, Victor; Ferrara, Velia; Stecca, Guglielmo

    2016-09-01

    We present a new image analysis technique for measuring the grain size distribution (texture) of the bed surface during flow in a laboratory experiment. A camera and a floating device are connected to a carriage used to take images of the bed surface over the entire flume length. The image analysis technique, which is based on color segmentation, provides detailed data on spatial and temporal changes of the areal fraction content of each grain size at the bed surface. The technique was applied in a laboratory experiment conducted to examine a degradational reach composed of a well sorted two-fraction mixture of sand and gravel. The initial bed consisted of an upstream reach that was characterized by an imposed stepwise fining pattern (the bimodal reach) and a downstream sand reach. A lack of sediment supply and partial transport conditions led to the formation of a static armor in the bimodal reach, which resulted in a more abrupt spatial transition in the bed surface mean grain size. The associated spatial transition in slope led to a backwater effect over the bimodal reach, a streamwise reduction in sand mobility, and so a static armor that was governed by a downstream fining pattern. Although a morphodynamic equilibrium state under steady flow is generally characterized by normal flow, here the partial transport regime prevented the bed from adjusting toward normal flow conditions and the morphodynamic steady state was governed by a backwater. We applied a numerical morphodynamic sand-gravel model to reproduce the laboratory experiment. The numerical model captured the hydrodynamic and morphodynamic adjustment and the static armor well, yet the armoring occurred too slowly. Although the final configuration of the experiment shows features of a gravel-sand transition (i.e., a sudden transition in slope and mean grain size), we are hesitant to claim similarities between our results and the physical mechanisms governing a gravel-sand transition in the field.

  11. Identification of volatiles from waste larval rearing media that attract gravid screwworm flies to oviposit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The waste product of the artificial larval rearing media of the primary screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax, attracts gravid female screwworm flies to oviposit. The volatile component of this waste product was collected using solid phase microextraction techniques and subjected to gas chromatography-...

  12. NOVEL ASPECTS OF SPOTTED WING DROSOPHILA BIOLOGY AND IMPROVED METHODS OF REARING

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drosophila suzukii (Mats.) or the spotted wing Drosophila (SWD), is a global pest of soft fruits that can now be reared on a standard Drosophila diet containing the fly's own natural food: soft-skinned berries. The techniques tested here can thwart bacterial and fungal disease that can destroy more ...

  13. Mid Columbia sturgeon incubation and rearing study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsley, Michael J.; Kofoot, Eric; Blubaugh, J

    2011-01-01

    This report describes the results from the second year of a three-year investigation on the effects of different thermal regimes on incubation and rearing early life stages of white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus. The Columbia River has been significantly altered by the construction of dams resulting in annual flows and water temperatures that differ from historical levels. White sturgeon have been demonstrated to spawn in two very distinct sections of the Columbia River in British Columbia, Canada, which are both located immediately downstream of hydropower facilities. The thermal regimes differ substantially between these two areas. The general approach of this study was to incubate and rear white sturgeon early life stages under two thermal regimes; one mimicking the current, cool water regime of the Columbia River downstream from Revelstoke Dam, and one mimicking a warmer regime similar to conditions found on the Columbia River at the international border. Second-year results suggest that thermal regimes during incubation influence rate of egg development and size at hatch. Eggs incubated under the warm thermal regime hatched sooner than those incubated under the cool thermal regime. Mean length of free embryos at hatch was significantly different between thermal regimes with free embryos from the warm thermal regime being longer at hatch. However, free embryos from the cool thermal regime had a significantly higher mean weight at hatch. This is in contrast with results obtained during 2009. The rearing trials revealed that growth of fish reared in the cool thermal regime was substantially less than growth of fish reared in the warm thermal regime. The magnitude of mortality was greatest in the warm thermal regime prior to initiation of exogenous feeding, but chronic low levels of mortality in the cool thermal regime were higher throughout the period. The starvation trials showed that the fish in the warm thermal regime exhausted their yolk reserves faster

  14. BOILING HOUSE, GROUND FLOOR. WAREHOUSE TO LEFT REAR, MASSECUITTE HEATERS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BOILING HOUSE, GROUND FLOOR. WAREHOUSE TO LEFT REAR, MASSECUITTE HEATERS ABOVE RIGHT, LOW GRADE CENTRIFUGALS BELOW. CRYSTALLIZER HOT WATER TANK TO REAR. VIEW FROM NORTHEAST - Lihue Plantation Company, Sugar Mill Building, Haleko Road, Lihue, Kauai County, HI

  15. TRACES OF ORIGINAL PARTITIONS AT JUNCTURE OF FRONT ROOM, REAR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    TRACES OF ORIGINAL PARTITIONS AT JUNCTURE OF FRONT ROOM, REAR ROOM AND HALL, SECOND FLOOR. ALSO SHOWS ORIGINAL STUCCO CORNICE OF FRONT AND REAR ROOMS (LEFT) AND HALL (RIGHT) - Kid-Chandler House, 323 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  16. 53. REAR OF MOTOR AND REDUCTION GEAR NO. 2: View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. REAR OF MOTOR AND REDUCTION GEAR NO. 2: View towards northwest showing rear of Motor and Reduction Gear No. 2, installed in 1926. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  17. 31. REAR OF CAR BARN DURING RECONSTRUCTION: Photocopy of July ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. REAR OF CAR BARN DURING RECONSTRUCTION: Photocopy of July 1908 photograph showing west rear of powerhouse and car barn. View from the north. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  18. LDRD ER Final Report: Recreating Planetary Cores in the Laboratory: New Techniques to Extremely High Density States

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, G; Celliers, P; Hicks, D; Cauble, R; Bradley, D; MacKinnon, A; Moon, S; Young, D; Chau, R; Eggert, J; Willi, P; Pasley, J; Jeanloz, R; Lee, K; Bennedetti, R; Koenig, M; Benuzzi-Mounaix, A; Batani, D; Loubeyre, P; Hubbard, W

    2003-02-07

    An accurate equation of state (EOS) for planetary constituents at extreme conditions is the key to any credible model of planets or low mass stars. However, very few materials have their high pressure (>few Mbar) EOS experimentally validated, and even then, only on the principal Hugoniot. For planetary and stellar interiors, compression occurs from gravitational force so that material states follow a line of isotropic compression (ignoring phase separation) to ultra-high densities. An example of the hydrogen phase space composing Jupiter and one particular Brown Dwarf is shown. At extreme densities, material states are predicted to have quite unearthly properties such as high temperature superconductivity and low temperature fusion. High density experiments on Earth are achieved with either static compression techniques (i.e. diamond anvil cells) or dynamic compression techniques using large laser facilities, gas guns, or explosives. The ultimate goal of this multi-directorate and multi-institutional proposal was to develop techniques that will enable us to understand material states that previously only existed at the core of giant planets, stars, or speculative theories. Our effort was a complete success, meeting all of the objectives set out in our proposals. First we focused on developing accurate Hugoniot techniques to be used for constraining the equation of state at high pressure/temperature. We mapped out an accurate water EOS and measured that the ionic->electronic conduction transition occurs at lower pressures than models predict. These data and their impact are fully described in the first enclosed paper ''The Equation of State and Optical Properties of Water Compressed by Strong Shock Waves.'' Currently models used to construct planetary isentropes are constrained by only the planet radius, outer atmospheric spectroscopy, and space probe gravitational moment and magnetic field data. Thus these data, which provide rigid constraints to these models, will

  19. GARAGE EXTERIOR EAST SIDE AND REAR SHOWING PIER SUPPORTS UNDER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GARAGE EXTERIOR EAST SIDE AND REAR SHOWING PIER SUPPORTS UNDER SHED-ROOFED REAR STORAGE COMPARTMENT, ASBESTOS SIDING OVER ORIGINAL WOOD SIDING, AND SINGLE CASEMENT WINDOW OVER REAR STORAGE COMPARTMENT. VIEW TO NORTHWEST - Big Creek Hydroelectric System, Big Creek Town, Operator House Garage, Orchard Avenue south of Huntington Lake Road, Big Creek, Fresno County, CA

  20. 24. REAR ELEVATION, HULETT ORE UNLOADERS. TRACKS CARRYING THE FRONT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. REAR ELEVATION, HULETT ORE UNLOADERS. TRACKS CARRYING THE FRONT END AND REAR LEGS OF THE HULETT UNLOADERS ARE LAID ON THE DOCK AND REAR WALLS, RESPECTIVELY; BOTH WALLS ARE MADE OF REINFORCED CONCRETE SUPPORTED ON CONCRETE PILES. - Pennsylvania Railway Ore Dock, Lake Erie at Whiskey Island, approximately 1.5 miles west of Public Square, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  1. 49 CFR 393.80 - Rear-vision mirrors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Rear-vision mirrors. 393.80 Section 393.80... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Miscellaneous Parts and Accessories § 393.80 Rear-vision mirrors. (a) Every bus, truck, and truck tractor shall be equipped with two rear-vision mirrors, one at each side,...

  2. 49 CFR 393.80 - Rear-vision mirrors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Rear-vision mirrors. 393.80 Section 393.80... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Miscellaneous Parts and Accessories § 393.80 Rear-vision mirrors. (a) Every bus, truck, and truck tractor shall be equipped with two rear-vision mirrors, one at each side,...

  3. 49 CFR 393.80 - Rear-vision mirrors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rear-vision mirrors. 393.80 Section 393.80... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Miscellaneous Parts and Accessories § 393.80 Rear-vision mirrors. (a) Every bus, truck, and truck tractor shall be equipped with two rear-vision mirrors, one at each side,...

  4. 49 CFR 393.80 - Rear-vision mirrors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Rear-vision mirrors. 393.80 Section 393.80... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Miscellaneous Parts and Accessories § 393.80 Rear-vision mirrors. (a) Every bus, truck, and truck tractor shall be equipped with two rear-vision mirrors, one at each side,...

  5. 49 CFR 393.80 - Rear-vision mirrors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Rear-vision mirrors. 393.80 Section 393.80... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Miscellaneous Parts and Accessories § 393.80 Rear-vision mirrors. (a) Every bus, truck, and truck tractor shall be equipped with two rear-vision mirrors, one at each side,...

  6. Salting-out assisted liquid/liquid extraction with acetonitrile: a new high throughput sample preparation technique for good laboratory practice bioanalysis using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun; Wu, Huaiqin; Kim, Elaine; El-Shourbagy, Tawakol A

    2009-04-01

    Acetonitrile, an organic solvent miscible with aqueous phase, has seen thousands of publications in the literature as an efficient deproteinization reagent. The use of acetonitrile for liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), however, has seen very limited application due to its miscibility with aqueous phase. The interest in LLE with acetonitrile has been pursued and reported in the literature by significantly lowering the temperature of the mixture or increasing the salt concentration in the mixture of acetonitrile and aqueous phase, resulting in the separation of the acetonitrile phase from aqueous phase, as observed in conventional LLE. However, very limited application of these methods has been reported. The throughput was limited. In this report, we report a new sample preparation technique, salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction with acetonitrile, for high-throughput good laboratory practice sample analysis using LCMS, Two compounds from an approved drug, Kaletra, were used to demonstrate the extractability of drugs from human plasma matrix. Magnesium sulfate was used as the salting-out reagent. Extracts were diluted and then injected into a reversed phase LC-MS/MS system directly. One 96-well plate was extracted with this new approach to evaluate multiple parameters of a good laboratory practice analytical method. Results indicate that the method is rapid, reliable and suitable for regulated bioanalysis. With minimal modification, this approach has been used for high-throughput good laboratory practice analysis of a number of compounds under development at Abbott.

  7. IMPROVED WELL PLUGGING EQUIPMENT AND WASTE MANGEMENT TECHNIQUES EXCEED ALARA GOALS AT THE OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteside, R.; Pawlowicz, R.; Whitehead, L.; Arnseth, R.

    2002-02-25

    In 2000, Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC) contracted Tetra Tech NUS, Inc. (TtNUS) and their sub-contractor, Texas World Operations, Inc. (TWO), to plug and abandon (P&A) 111 wells located in the Melton Valley area of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). One hundred and seven of those wells were used to monitor fluid movement and subsurface containment of the low level radioactive liquid waste/grout slurry that was injected into the Pumpkin Valley Shale Formation, underlying ORNL. Four wells were used as hydrofracture injection wells to emplace the waste in the shale formation. Although the practice of hydrofracturing was and is considered by many to pose no threat to human health or the environment, the practice was halted in 1982 after the Federal Underground Injection Control regulations were enacted by United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) making it necessary to properly close the wells. The work is being performed for the United States Department of Energy Oak Ridge Operations (DOE ORO). The project team is using the philosophy of minimum waste generation and the principles of ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) as key project goals to minimize personnel and equipment exposure, waste generation, and project costs. Achievement of these goals was demonstrated by the introduction of several new pieces of custom designed well plugging and abandonment equipment that were tested and used effectively during field operations. Highlights of the work performed and the equipment used are presented.

  8. Simulation of aromatic polycyclic hydrocarbons remobilization from a river sediment using laboratory experiments supported by passive sampling techniques.

    PubMed

    Belles, Angel; Mamindy-Pajany, Yannick; Alary, Claire

    2016-02-01

    Resuspension of bedded sediments was simulated under laboratory-controlled conditions in order to assess the amount of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) remobilized in the dissolved fraction during one short and vigorous mixing. The desorbed amount of PAH was compared to the exchangeable fraction, the total amount of PAH sorbed on the sediment particles, and the dissolved PAH amount contained in the interstitial pore waters in order to evaluate the contribution of each fraction to the total amount of PAH released. To monitor the desorption of PAH and measure low trace level concentrations, passive samplers were used in an experimental open flow through exposure simulator. Results show that for the selected sediment, a substantial fraction of sorbed PAH (69 % of the total amount) is not available for remobilization in a depleted medium. Obtained data pinpoint that over 9 days, only 0.007 % of PAH are desorbed by passive diffusion through a water-sediment interface area of 415 cm(2) and that an intense resuspension event of 15 min induces desorption of 0.015 % of PAH during the following 9 days. Results also highlight that during resuspension simulation, modifications of the sediment and the water body occurred since partitioning constants of some pollutants between sediment and water have significantly decreased.

  9. Particle Imaging Velocimetry Technique Development for Laboratory Measurement of Fracture Flow Inside a Pressure Vessel Using Neutron Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Polsky, Yarom; Bingham, Philip R; Bilheux, Hassina Z; Carmichael, Justin R

    2015-01-01

    This paper will describe recent progress made in developing neutron imaging based particle imaging velocimetry techniques for visualizing and quantifying flow structure through a high pressure flow cell with high temperature capability (up to 350 degrees C). This experimental capability has great potential for improving the understanding of flow through fractured systems in applications such as enhanced geothermal systems (EGS). For example, flow structure measurement can be used to develop and validate single phase flow models used for simulation, experimentally identify critical transition regions and their dependence on fracture features such as surface roughness, and study multiphase fluid behavior within fractured systems. The developed method involves the controlled injection of a high contrast fluid into a water flow stream to produce droplets that can be tracked using neutron radiography. A description of the experimental setup will be provided along with an overview of the algorithms used to automatically track droplets and relate them to the velocity gradient in the flow stream. Experimental results will be reported along with volume of fluids based simulation techniques used to model observed flow.

  10. Early rearing interacts with temperament and housing to influence the risk for motor stereotypy in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Vandeleest, Jessica J.; McCowan, Brenda; Capitanio, John P.

    2011-01-01

    Laboratory and zoo housed non-human primates sometimes exhibit abnormal behaviors that are thought to reflect reduced wellbeing. Previous research attempted to identify risk factors to aid in the prevention and treatment of these behaviors, and focused on demographic (e.g. sex or age) and experience-related (e.g. single housing or nursery rearing) factors. However, not all animals that display abnormal behavior possess these risk factors and some individuals that possess a risk factor do not show behavioral abnormalities. We hypothesized that other aspects of early experience and individual characteristics might identify animals that were more likely to display one specific abnormal behavior, motor stereotypy (MS). Using logistic regression we explored the influence of early rearing (involving four different types of rearing conditions), and variation in temperament, on likelihood of displaying MS while controlling for previously identified risk factors. Analyses indicated that having a greater proportion of life lived indoors, a greater proportion of life-indoors singly-housed, and a greater number of anesthesias and blood draws significantly increased the risk of displaying MS (P < 0.001). Rearing condition failed to independently predict the display of MS; however significant interactions indicated that single housing had a greater impact on risk for indoor-reared animals versus outdoor-reared animals, and for indoor mother-reared animals versus nursery-reared animals. There were no main effects of temperament, although interactions with rearing were evident: scoring high on Gentle or Nervous was a risk factor for indoor-reared animals but not outdoor-reared animals. The final model accounted for approximately 69.3 % of the variance in the display of MS, and correctly classified 90.6% of animals. These results indicate that previously identified risk factors may impact animals differently depending on the individual’s early rearing condition. These results are

  11. Rearing Chrysoperla externa Larvae on Artificial Diets.

    PubMed

    Bezerra, C E S; Amaral, B B; Souza, B

    2017-02-01

    We tested three artificial diets for rearing larvae of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), aiming at reducing the production costs of this predator. Two of the diets come from studies with other species of lacewings, and the third is a modification described in this paper. All diets were based on animal protein and were supplied to 2nd and 3rd instar larvae, whereas 1st instar larvae received eggs of Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). We evaluated the preimaginal duration and survival, adult size, longevity and fecundity, egg hatchability, and predatory capacity of larvae produced. The performance of the diets was followed for seven generations. The diet we describe showed to be the best among the artificial diets tested. Our results show that C. externa can be successfully reared on artificial diets during second and third instars, reducing in 90% the dependency on eggs of A. kuehniella.

  12. Slow Progress in Dune (Left Rear Wheel)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The left rear wheel of NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity makes slow but steady progress through soft dune material in this movie clip of frames taken by the rover's rear hazard identification camera over a period of several days. The sequence starts on Opportunity's 460th martian day, or sol (May 10, 2005) and ends 11 days later. In eight drives during that period, Opportunity advanced a total of 26 centimeters (10 inches) while spinning its wheels enough to have driven 46 meters (151 feet) if there were no slippage. The motion appears to speed up near the end of the clip, but that is an artifact of individual frames being taken less frequently.

  13. Slow Progress in Dune (Right Rear Wheel)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The right rear wheel of NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity makes slow but steady progress through soft dune material in this movie clip of frames taken by the rover's rear hazard identification camera over a period of several days. The wheel is largely hidden by a cable bundle. The sequence starts on Opportunity's 460th martian day, or sol (May 10, 2005) and ends 11 days later. In eight drives during that period, Opportunity advanced a total of 26 centimeters (10 inches) while spinning its wheels enough to have driven 46 meters (151 feet) if there were no slippage. The motion appears to speed up near the end of the clip, but that is an artifact of individual frames being taken less frequently.

  14. The Fundamentals of Flying: Simple and Inexpensive Strategies for Employing Drosophila Genetics in Neuroscience Teaching Laboratories

    PubMed Central

    Pulver, Stefan R.; Berni, Jimena

    2012-01-01

    Drosophila researchers have developed a powerful suite of genetic techniques for studying the neural basis of animal behavior. Many of these tools can be exported to neuroscience teaching laboratories (Berni et al., 2010; Pulver et al., 2011a,b), but often neuroscience educators lack the basic knowledge and resources to obtain, generate and rear transgenic fruit flies on their own. Fly researchers in turn may take for granted resources that are readily available in research laboratories, but out of reach for educators. Our goal is to provide a primer for neuroscience educators who want to incorporate Drosophila genetics into their teaching, but have limited knowledge of fruit fly genetics, and/or small budgets. First we review the available methods for manipulating gene expression in Drosophila. Then we provide educators with blueprints for obtaining transgenic animals tailored for specific types of teaching modules. We outline simple techniques for rearing transgenic Drosophila, performing genetic crosses, and preparing a teaching laboratory without the use of expensive animal-care facilities. Overall, we try to break down the practical barriers educators may face when integrating modern neurogenetic experiments into teaching laboratories. PMID:23493248

  15. Movements and wetland selection by brood-rearing black ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ringelman, J.K.; Longcore, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    Movements and wetland selection by brood-rearing black ducks (Anas rubripes) were studied in Maine during 1977-80. Eight radio-marked hens moved their broods an average of 1.2 km from the nest to rearing pond, but only 1 hen initiated secondary brood movements. Half of the 85 broods reared in the study area used only 3 wetlands, and most rearing ponds contained active beaver (Castor canadensis) colonies. Brood-rearing hens preferred Emergent ponds over lakes and Evergreen Scrub-Shrub wetlands, and did not occupy Dead Scrub-Shrub, Unconsolidated Bottom, or Aquatic Bed wetlands. Rearing ponds were large and possessed extensive areas of flooded mountain alder (Alnus incana), willow (Salix spp.), and herbaceous vegetation. Wetlands avoided by brood-rearing hens were those with large areas of open water, submergent aquatics, or ericaceous shrub vegetation.

  16. Multicenter long-term validation of a minicourse in radiation-reducing techniques in the catheterization laboratory.

    PubMed

    Kuon, Eberhard; Weitmann, Kerstin; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Dörr, Marcus; Hummel, Astrid; Riad, Alexander; Busch, Mathias C; Felix, Stephan B; Empen, Klaus

    2015-02-01

    Patient radiation exposure in invasive cardiology is considerable. We aimed to investigate, in a multicenter field study, the long-term efficacy of an educational 90-minute workshop in cardiac invasive techniques with reduced irradiation. Before and at a median period of 2.5 months and 2.0 years after the minicourse (periods I, II, and III, respectively) at 5 German cardiac centers, 18 interventionalists documented various radiation parameters for 10 coronary angiographies. The median patient dose area product (DAP) for periods I, II, and III amounted to 26.6, 12.2, and 9.6 Gy × cm(2), respectively. The short-term and long-term effects were related to shorter median fluoroscopy times (180, 138, and 114 seconds), fewer radiographic frames (745, 553, and 417) because of fewer (11, 11, and 10) and shorter (64, 52, and 44 frames/run) runs, consistent collimation, and restriction to an adequate image quality; both radiographic DAP/frame (27.7, 17.3, and 18.4 mGy × cm(2)) and fluoroscopic DAP/second (26.6, 12.9, and 14.9 mGy × cm(2)) decreased significantly. Multivariate analysis over time indicated increasing efficacy of the minicourse itself (-55% and -64%) and minor influence of interventionist experience (-4% and -3% per 1,000 coronary angiographies, performed lifelong until the minicourse and until period III). In conclusion, autonomous self-surveillance of various dose parameters and feedback on individual radiation safety efforts supported the efficacy of a 90-minute course program toward long-lasting and ongoing patient dose reduction.

  17. Non-destructive elemental quantification of polymer-embedded thin films using laboratory based X-ray techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordes, Nikolaus L.; Havrilla, George J.; Usov, Igor O.; Obrey, Kimberly A.; Patterson, Brian M.

    2014-11-01

    Thin coatings are important for a variety of industries including energy (e.g., solar cells, batteries), consumer electronics (e.g., LCD displays, computer chips), and medical devices (e.g., implants). These coatings are typically highly uniform layers with thicknesses ranging from a monolayer up to several micrometers. Characterizing these highly uniform coatings for their thickness, elemental composition, and uniformity are all paramount, but obtaining these measurements can be more difficult when the layers are subsurface and must be interrogated non-destructively. The coupling of confocal micro-X-ray fluorescence (confocal MXRF) and nano-scale X-ray computed tomography (nano-CT) together can make these measurements while meeting these sensitivity and resolution specifications necessary for characterizing thin films. Elemental composition, atomic percent, placement, and uniformity can be measured in three dimensions with this integrated approach. Confocal MXRF uses a pair of polycapillary optics to focus and collect X-rays from a material from a 3D spatially restricted confocal volume. Because of the spatial definition, individual layers (of differing composition) can be characterized based upon the elementally characteristic X-ray fluorescence collected for each element. Nano-scale X-ray computed tomography, in comparison, can image the layers at very high resolution (down to 50 nm) to precisely measure the embedded layer thickness. These two techniques must be used together if both the thickness and atomic density of a layer are unknown. This manuscript will demonstrate that it is possible to measure both the atomic percent of an embedded thin film layer and confirm its manufacturing quality. As a proof of principle, a 1.5 atomic percent, 2 μm-thick Ge layer embedded within polymer capsules, used for laser plasma experiments at the Omega Laser Facility and National Ignition Facility, are measured.

  18. Performance of Psyttalia humilis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) reared from irradiated host on olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The parasitoid Psytallia humilis (Silvestri) was reared on Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), larvae irradiated at different doses from 0-70 Gy at the USDA, APHIS, PPQ, Moscamed biological control laboratory in San Miguel Petapa, Guatemala and shipped to the USDA, ARS, Parlier,...

  19. Procedures to mititgate the impact of Solenopsis invicta Virus 3 in fire ant (Hymenoptera:Formicidae) rearing facilities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During the initial characterization of Solenopsis invicta virus 3 (SINV-3), virus-infected fire ant colonies were retrieved from the field and maintained in the laboratory rearing facility at the USDA, Gainesville, FL. During this time, all S. invicta colonies housed in the facility contracted SINV...

  20. Lyophilized artificial diet for rearing the Neotropical Euschistus heros (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae).

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Agustín C; da Rocha, Aline C P; Parra, José R P

    2016-01-01

    An artificial diet to mass-rear Euschistus heros (F. 1798) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) was developed in the laboratory. Biological studies were conducted under controlled conditions of temperature (25 ± 2 °C), RH: 60 ± 10%, and photoperiod of 14:10 (L:D) h. Out of 13 diets tested, 2 diets (D9 and D11) were the most suitable. The artificial diets selected had the same composition (green beans, peanuts, sucrose, water, Nipagin, and sorbic acid) except for different antimicrobial agents (D11 has tetracycline, and D9 doesn't). The 68% viability for the egg-adult period of insects reared on these lyophilized artificial diets (LAD) was almost twice as high as the 38% viability obtained with the natural diet. Although adults reared on LAD weighed 17% less than those reared on the natural diet, mean fecundity was higher than on the natural diet (282 eggs/female), reaching 430 eggs/female. The net reproductive rate (Ro) increased over the generations for the diets with lyophilized material and antimicrobial agents. The opposite occurred with the diet of lyophilized material without antimicrobial agents, showing that the insects either adapted or degenerated through generations. Lyophilized diets supported the production of E. heros through at least 10 generations, with no degeneration.

  1. Lyophilized artificial diet for rearing the Neotropical Euschistus heros (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza, Agustín C.; da Rocha, Aline C. P.

    2016-01-01

    An artificial diet to mass-rear Euschistus heros (F. 1798) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) was developed in the laboratory. Biological studies were conducted under controlled conditions of temperature (25 ± 2°C), RH: 60 ± 10%, and photoperiod of 14:10 (L:D) h. Out of 13 diets tested, 2 diets (D9 and D11) were the most suitable. The artificial diets selected had the same composition (green beans, peanuts, sucrose, water, Nipagin, and sorbic acid) except for different antimicrobial agents (D11 has tetracycline, and D9 doesn’t). The 68% viability for the egg–adult period of insects reared on these lyophilized artificial diets (LAD) was almost twice as high as the 38% viability obtained with the natural diet. Although adults reared on LAD weighed 17% less than those reared on the natural diet, mean fecundity was higher than on the natural diet (282 eggs/female), reaching 430 eggs/female. The net reproductive rate (Ro) increased over the generations for the diets with lyophilized material and antimicrobial agents. The opposite occurred with the diet of lyophilized material without antimicrobial agents, showing that the insects either adapted or degenerated through generations. Lyophilized diets supported the production of E. heros through at least 10 generations, with no degeneration. PMID:27126964

  2. Development of a Natural Rearing System to Improve Supplemental Fish Quality, 1991-1995 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Maynard, Desmond J.; Flagg, Thomas A.; Mahnken, Conrad V.W.

    1996-08-01

    In this report, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), in collaboration with the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), the Washington State Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW), and the US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), presents research findings and guidelines for development and evaluation of innovative culture techniques to increase postrelease survival of hatchery fish. The Natural Rearing Enhancement System (NATURES) described in this report is a collection of experimental approaches designed to produce hatchery-reared chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) that exhibit wild-like behavior, physiology, and morphology. The NATURES culture research for salmonids included multiple tests to develop techniques such as: raceways equipped with cover, structure, and natural substrates to promote development of proper body camouflage coloration; feed-delivery systems that condition fish to orient to the bottom rather than the surface of the rearing vessel; predator conditioning of fish to train them to avoid predators; and supplementing diets with natural live foods to improve foraging ability. The underlying assumptions are that NATURES will: (1) promote the development of natural cryptic coloration and antipredator behavior; (2) increase postrelease foraging efficiency; (3) improve fish health and condition by alleviating chronic, artificial rearing habitat-induced stress; and (4) reduce potential genetic selection pressures induced by the conventional salmon culture environment. A goal in using NATURES is to provide quality fish for rebuilding depleted natural runs.

  3. Morphometric Identification of Queens, Workers and Intermediates in In Vitro Reared Honey Bees (Apis mellifera).

    PubMed

    De Souza, Daiana A; Wang, Ying; Kaftanoglu, Osman; De Jong, David; Amdam, Gro V; Gonçalves, Lionel S; Francoy, Tiago M

    2015-01-01

    In vitro rearing is an important and useful tool for honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) studies. However, it often results in intercastes between queens and workers, which are normally are not seen in hive-reared bees, except when larvae older than three days are grafted for queen rearing. Morphological classification (queen versus worker or intercastes) of bees produced by this method can be subjective and generally depends on size differences. Here, we propose an alternative method for caste classification of female honey bees reared in vitro, based on weight at emergence, ovariole number, spermatheca size and size and shape, and features of the head, mandible and basitarsus. Morphological measurements were made with both traditional morphometric and geometric morphometrics techniques. The classifications were performed by principal component analysis, using naturally developed queens and workers as controls. First, the analysis included all the characters. Subsequently, a new analysis was made without the information about ovariole number and spermatheca size. Geometric morphometrics was less dependent on ovariole number and spermatheca information for caste and intercaste identification. This is useful, since acquiring information concerning these reproductive structures requires time-consuming dissection and they are not accessible when abdomens have been removed for molecular assays or in dried specimens. Additionally, geometric morphometrics divided intercastes into more discrete phenotype subsets. We conclude that morphometric geometrics are superior to traditional morphometrics techniques for identification and classification of honey bee castes and intermediates.

  4. Morphometric Identification of Queens, Workers and Intermediates in In Vitro Reared Honey Bees (Apis mellifera)

    PubMed Central

    A. De Souza, Daiana; Wang, Ying; Kaftanoglu, Osman; De Jong, David; V. Amdam, Gro; S. Gonçalves, Lionel; M. Francoy, Tiago

    2015-01-01

    In vitro rearing is an important and useful tool for honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) studies. However, it often results in intercastes between queens and workers, which are normally are not seen in hive-reared bees, except when larvae older than three days are grafted for queen rearing. Morphological classification (queen versus worker or intercastes) of bees produced by this method can be subjective and generally depends on size differences. Here, we propose an alternative method for caste classification of female honey bees reared in vitro, based on weight at emergence, ovariole number, spermatheca size and size and shape, and features of the head, mandible and basitarsus. Morphological measurements were made with both traditional morphometric and geometric morphometrics techniques. The classifications were performed by principal component analysis, using naturally developed queens and workers as controls. First, the analysis included all the characters. Subsequently, a new analysis was made without the information about ovariole number and spermatheca size. Geometric morphometrics was less dependent on ovariole number and spermatheca information for caste and intercaste identification. This is useful, since acquiring information concerning these reproductive structures requires time-consuming dissection and they are not accessible when abdomens have been removed for molecular assays or in dried specimens. Additionally, geometric morphometrics divided intercastes into more discrete phenotype subsets. We conclude that morphometric geometrics are superior to traditional morphometrics techniques for identification and classification of honey bee castes and intermediates. PMID:25894528

  5. Understanding Biological Roles of Venoms Among the Caenophidia: The Importance of Rear-Fanged Snakes.

    PubMed

    Mackessy, Stephen P; Saviola, Anthony J

    2016-11-01

    Snake venoms represent an adaptive trophic response to the challenges confronting a limbless predator for overcoming combative prey, and this chemical means of subduing prey shows several dominant phenotypes. Many front-fanged snakes, particularly vipers, feed on various vertebrate and invertebrate prey species, and some of their venom components (e.g., metalloproteinases, cobratoxin) appear to have been selected for "broad-brush" incapacitation of different prey taxa. Using proteomic and genomic techniques, the compositional diversity of front-fanged snakes is becoming well characterized; however, this is not the case for most rear-fanged colubroid snakes. Because these species consume a high diversity of prey, and because venoms are primarily a trophic adaptation, important clues for understanding specific selective pressures favoring venom component composition will be found among rear-fanged snake venoms. Rear-fanged snakes typically (but not always) produce venoms with lower complexity than front-fanged snakes, and there are even fewer dominant (and, arguably, biologically most relevant) venom protein families. We have demonstrated taxon-specific toxic effects, where lizards and birds show high susceptibility while mammals are largely unaffected, for both Old World and New World rear-fanged snakes, strongly indicating a causal link between toxin evolution and prey preference. New data are presented on myotoxin a, showing that the extremely rapid paralysis induced by this rattlesnake toxin is specific for rodents, and that myotoxin a is ineffectual against lizards. Relatively few rear-fanged snake venoms have been characterized, and basic natural history data are largely lacking, but directed sampling of specialized species indicates that novel compounds are likely among these specialists, particularly among those species feeding on invertebrate prey such as scorpions and centipedes. Because many of the more than 2200 species of colubroid snakes are rear

  6. Metamorphosis inhibition: an alternative rearing protocol for the newt, Cynops pyrrhogaster.

    PubMed

    Chiba, Chikafumi; Yamada, Shouta; Tanaka, Hibiki; Inae-Chiba, Maiko; Miura, Tomoya; Casco-Robles, Martin Miguel; Yoshikawa, Taro; Inami, Wataru; Mizuno, Aki; Islam, Md Rafiqul; Han, Wenje; Yasumuro, Hirofumi; Matsumoto, Mikiko; Takayanagi, Miyako

    2012-05-01

    The newt is an indispensable model animal, of particular utility for regeneration studies. Recently, a high-throughput transgenic protocol was established for the Japanese common newt, Cynops pyrrhogaster. For studies of regeneration, metamorphosed animals may be favorable; however, for this species, there is no efficient protocol for maintaining juveniles after metamorphosis in the laboratory. In these animals, survival drops drastically after metamorphosis as their foraging behaviour changes to adapt to a terrestrial habitat, making feeding in the laboratory with live or moving foods more difficult. To elevate the efficiency of laboratory rearing of this species, we examined metamorphosis inhibition (Ml) protocols to bypass the period (four months to two years after hatching) in which the animal feeds exclusively on moving foods. We found that approximately 30% of animals survived after 2-year Ml, and that the survivors continuously grew, only with static food while maintaining their larval form and foraging behaviour in 0.02% thiourea (TU) aqueous solution, then metamorphosed when returned to a standard rearing solution even after 2-year-MI. The morphology and foraging behavior (feeding on static foods in water) of these metamorphosed newts resembled that of normally developed adult newts. Furthermore, they were able to fully regenerate amputated limbs, suggesting regenerative capacity is preserved in these animals. Thus, controlling metamorphosis with TU allows newts to be reared with the same static food under aqueous conditions, providing an alternative rearing protocol that offers the advantage of bypassing the critical period and obtaining animals that have grown sufficiently for use in regeneration studies.

  7. An Electronics "Unit Laboratory"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, E. R.; Penton, S. J.

    1976-01-01

    Describes a laboratory teaching technique in which a single topic (in this case, bipolar junction transistors) is studied over a period of weeks under the supervision of one staff member, who also designs the laboratory work. (MLH)

  8. Diel behavior of rearing fall Chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Kock, Tobias J.; Skalicky, Joseph J.

    2010-01-01

    In fisheries science, habitat use is often inferred when fish are sampled or observed in a particular location. Physical habitat is typically measured where fish are found, and thus deemed important to habitat use. Although less common, a more informative approach is to measure or observe fish behavior within given habitats to more thoroughly assess their use of those locations. While this approach better reflects how fish use habitat, fish behavior can be difficult to quantify, particularly at night. For example, Tiffan and others (2002, 2006) were able to quantify habitat availability and characteristics that were important for rearing juvenile fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River. The authors, however, could only speculate as to how juvenile salmon use habitat and respond to changes in water level fluctuations. Conversely, in this study we provide data on the diel activities of rearing juvenile wild fall Chinook Salmon which provides a better understanding of how fish “use” these rearing habitats. Diel behavior patterns are important because fish in the Hanford Reach are often stranded on shorelines when the water level rapidly recedes because of hydroelectric power generation at upriver dams (Nugent and others 2002; Anglin and others 2006). We hypothesize that juvenile salmon are at greater risk of stranding at night because they are less active and occupy habitat differently than during the day. We used underwater videography to collect behavioral information during the day and night to determine if juvenile fall Chinook Salmon are more susceptible to stranding when water level fluctuations occur at night.

  9. Experimental injury study of children seated behind collapsing front seats in rear impacts.

    PubMed

    Saczalski, Kenneth J; Sances, Anthony; Kumaresan, Srirangam; Burton, Joseph L; Lewis, Paul R

    2003-01-01

    In the mid 1990's the U.S. Department of Transportation made recommendations to place children and infants into the rear seating areas of motor vehicles to avoid front seat airbag induced injuries and fatalities. In most rear-impacts, however, the adult occupied front seats will collapse into the rear occupant area and pose another potentially serious injury hazard to the rear-seated children. Since rear-impacts involve a wide range of speeds, impact severity, and various sizes of adults in collapsing front seats, a multi-variable experimental method was employed in conjunction with a multi-level "factorial analysis" technique to study injury potential of rear-seated children. Various sizes of Hybrid III adult surrogates, seated in a "typical" average strength collapsing type of front seat, and a three-year-old Hybrid III child surrogate, seated on a built-in booster seat located directly behind the front adult occupant, were tested at various impact severity levels in a popular "minivan" sled-buck test set up. A total of five test configurations were utilized in this study. Three levels of velocity changes ranging from 22.5 to 42.5 kph were used. The average of peak accelerations on the sled-buck tests ranged from approximately 8.2 G's up to about 11.1 G's, with absolute peak values of just over 14 G's at the higher velocity change. The parameters of the test configuration enabled the experimental data to be combined into a polynomial "injury" function of the two primary independent variables (i.e. front seat adult occupant weight and velocity change) so that the "likelihood" of rear child "injury potential" could be determined over a wide range of the key parameters. The experimentally derived head injury data was used to obtain a preliminary HIC (Head Injury Criteria) polynomial fit at the 900 level for the rear-seated child. Several actual accident cases were compared with the preliminary polynomial fit. This study provides a test efficient, multi

  10. Relationships between a clinical-visual scoring system and two histological techniques: a laboratory study on occlusal and approximal carious lesions.

    PubMed

    Kidd, E A M; Banerjee, A; Ferrier, S; Longbottom, C; Nugent, Z

    2003-01-01

    One aim of the present laboratory study was to determine whether a visual scoring system (ERK) developed for occlusal caries could be applied to approximal lesions. A new histological technique (autofluorescence, AF) recognises dentine that is soft and would be removed with an excavator during operative treatment. A second aim was to investigate the relationship between the visual scoring system (ERK) and AF of dentine both occlusally and approximally. The sample comprised 93 extracted teeth chosen to represent the range of visual scores on approximal and occlusal surfaces. After sectioning through the investigation site, the cut faces were examined in a stereomicroscope and the depth of demineralization was scored. Autofluorescence was viewed with a confocal laser scanning microscope. Results showed reasonable correlation between the visual scores and the stereomicroscope histological evaluations for occlusal surfaces and non-cavitated approximal surfaces. However, cavitated approximal surface lesions were less advanced histologically than cavitated occlusal carious lesions. The AF technique indicated that several lesions with intact surfaces would have had soft, excavatable dentine, whereas several with microcavities would not.

  11. Investigation of the Degradation Mechanisms of a Variety of Organic Photovoltaic Devices by Combination of Imaging Techniques - The ISOS-3 Inter-Laboratory Collaboration

    SciTech Connect

    Rosch, R.; Tanenbaum, D. M.; Jrgensen, M.; Seeland, M.; Barenklau, M.; Hermenau, M.; Voroshazi, E.; Lloyd, M. T.; Galagan, Y.; Zimmermann, B.; Wurfel, U.; Hosel, M.; Dam, H. F.; Gevorgyan, S. A.; Kudret, S.; Maes, W.; Lutsen, L.; Vanderzande, D.; Andriessen, R.; Teran-Escobar, G.

    2012-04-01

    The investigation of degradation of seven distinct sets (with a number of individual cells of n {>=} 12) of state of the art organic photovoltaic devices prepared by leading research laboratories with a combination of imaging methods is reported. All devices have been shipped to and degraded at Riso DTU up to 1830 hours in accordance with established ISOS-3 protocols under defined illumination conditions. Imaging of device function at different stages of degradation was performed by laser-beam induced current (LBIC) scanning; luminescence imaging, specifically photoluminescence (PLI) and electroluminescence (ELI); as well as by lock-in thermography (LIT). Each of the imaging techniques exhibits its specific advantages with respect to sensing certain degradation features, which will be compared and discussed here in detail. As a consequence, a combination of several imaging techniques yields very conclusive information about the degradation processes controlling device function. The large variety of device architectures in turn enables valuable progress in the proper interpretation of imaging results -- hence revealing the benefits of this large scale cooperation in making a step forward in the understanding of organic solar cell aging and its interpretation by state-of-the-art imaging methods.

  12. Fitness and field performance of a mass-reared biological control agent, Rhinoncomimus latipes (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Hough-Goldstein, J; Stout, A R; Schoenstein, J A

    2014-08-01

    Rhinoncomimus latipes Korotyaev (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), a biological control agent of mile-a-minute weed, Persicaria perfoliata (L.) H. Gross, has been mass reared with no infusion of new genetic material for 8-9 yr (at least 24-36 generations), while insects from the same genetic stock have been subject to field conditions in North America for that same period of time. Our main objective was to compare the laboratory population with the field population (and in 1 yr with a Chinese field population) to determine whether genetic changes had occurred, especially ones that may reduce the effectiveness of the laboratory population when released in the field. The laboratory insects laid more eggs and had reduced survival compared with field weevils in several comparisons, and had reduced responsiveness to cues that induce reproductive diapause. Exposure to older plants had the greatest effect on induction of reproductive diapause in both laboratory and field weevils, with effects of daylength and temperature less pronounced. At least a portion of the laboratory weevil population overwintered successfully. Results suggest that it is not necessary to add wild-type genetic material to the rearing colony at this time.

  13. An Optimized Protocol for Rearing Fopius arisanus, a Parasitoid of Tephritid Fruit Flies

    PubMed Central

    Manoukis, Nicholas; Geib, Scott; Seo, Danny; McKenney, Michael; Vargas, Roger; Jang, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Fopius arisanus (Sonan) is an important parasitoid of Tephritid fruit flies for at least two reasons. First, it is the one of only three opiine parasitoids known to infect the host during the egg stage1. Second, it has a wide range of potential fruit fly hosts. Perhaps due to its life history, F. arisanus has been a successfully used for biological control of fruit flies in multiple tropical regions2-4. One impediment to the wide use of F. arisanus for fruit fly control is that it is difficult to establish a stable laboratory colony5-9. Despite this difficulty, in the 1990s USDA researchers developed a reliable method to maintain laboratory populations of F. arisanus10-12. There is significant interest in F. arisanus biology13,14, especially regarding its ability to colonize a wide variety of Tephritid hosts14-17; interest is especially driven by the alarming spread of Bactrocera fruit fly pests to new continents in the last decade18. Further research on F. arisanus and additional deployments of this species as a biological control agent will benefit from optimizations and improvements of rearing methods. In this protocol and associated video article we describe an optimized method for rearing F. arisanus based on a previously described approach12. The method we describe here allows rearing of F. arisanus in a small scale without the use of fruit, using materials available in tropical regions around the world and with relatively low manual labor requirements. PMID:21750493

  14. GARAGE, SOUTH (REAR) AND EAST SIDE, LOOKING NORTHWEST Irvine ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GARAGE, SOUTH (REAR) AND EAST SIDE, LOOKING NORTHWEST - Irvine Ranch Agricultural Headquarters, Carillo Tenant House, Southwest of Intersection of San Diego & Santa Ana Freeways, Irvine, Orange County, CA

  15. 7. INTERIOR, VIEW FROM ENTRANCE TOWARD ENCLOSED STAIRS AND REAR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. INTERIOR, VIEW FROM ENTRANCE TOWARD ENCLOSED STAIRS AND REAR DOOR - Mulliken-Spragins Tenant House, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  16. BLDG 1 REAR (EAST) AND NORTH END Naval Magazine ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BLDG 1 REAR (EAST) AND NORTH END - Naval Magazine Lualualei, Headquarters Branch, Administration Building, Between Constitution & Constellation Streets, east side of main quad, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  17. Gnotobiotic pigs-derivation and rearing.

    PubMed Central

    Miniats, O P; Jol, D

    1978-01-01

    The procurement, rearing, nutrition and microbiological monitoring of gnotobiotic pigs and a method for conditioning of primary, colostrum-deprived, specific pathogen free pigs is described. As compared to the established hysterectomy and closed hysterotomy methods for the derivation of gnotobiotic piglets an alternative approach, open caesarian section with the sow maintained under general halothane-nitrous oxide anaesthesia and the introduction of each fetus into the sterile isolator via a liquid germicidal trap, was found to be more efficient and equally successful in providing viable and microbiologically sterile piglets. Two sterile commercially available milk diets, a special formula for orphan animals and condensed cow's milk, when the latter was supplemented with injectable vitamin E, selenium and iron, proved adequate for satisfactory health of the animals. Two types of pelleted starter rations, sterilized by 4.5 megarads of gamma irradiation, provided adequately for the nutritional needs of older gnotobiotic pigs. Results of microbiological monitoring indicated that the surgical and rearing methods employed were capable of preventing contamination of the animals with bacteria, mycoplasma, yeasts, molds, protozoa and helminths but probably could not exclude occasional vertically transmitted viral infections. Exposure of the animals for four weeks to selected strains of lactobacilli, fecal streptococci and Escherichia coli did not result in visible disease while they were maintained in isolators and conditioned them for transfer into a conventional microbial environment. PMID:154359

  18. A Solution on Identification and Rearing Files Insmallhold Pig Farming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Benhai; Fu, Runting; Lin, Zhaohui; Luo, Qingyao; Yang, Liang

    In order to meet government supervision of pork production safety as well as consumeŕs right to know what they buy, this study adopts animal identification, mobile PDA reader, GPRS and other information technologies, and put forward a data collection method to set up rearing files of pig in smallhold pig farming, and designs related metadata structures and its mobile database, and develops a mobile PDA embedded system to collect individual information of pig and uploading into the remote central database, and finally realizes mobile links to the a specific website. The embedded PDA can identify both a special pig bar ear tag appointed by the Ministry of Agricultural and a general data matrix bar ear tag designed by this study by mobile reader, and can record all kinds of inputs data including bacterins, feed additives, animal drugs and even some forbidden medicines and submitted them to the center database through GPRS. At the same time, the remote center database can be maintained by mobile PDA and GPRS, and finally reached pork tracking from its origin to consumption and its tracing through turn-over direction. This study has suggested a feasible technology solution how to set up network pig electronic rearing files involved smallhold pig farming based on farmer and the solution is proved practical through its application in the Tianjińs pork quality traceability system construction. Although some individual techniques have some adverse effects on the system running such as GPRS transmitting speed now, these will be resolved with the development of communication technology. The full implementation of the solution around China will supply technical supports in guaranteeing the quality and safety of pork production supervision and meet consumer demand.

  19. Rearing in Seawater Mesocosms Improves the Spawning Performance of Growth Hormone Transgenic and Wild-Type Coho Salmon

    PubMed Central

    Leggatt, Rosalind A.; Hollo, Tanya; Vandersteen, Wendy E.; McFarlane, Kassandra; Goh, Benjamin; Prevost, Joelle; Devlin, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) transgenes can significantly accelerate growth rates in fish and cause associated alterations to their physiology and behaviour. Concern exists regarding potential environmental risks of GH transgenic fish, should they enter natural ecosystems. In particular, whether they can reproduce and generate viable offspring under natural conditions is poorly understood. In previous studies, GH transgenic salmon grown under contained culture conditions had lower spawning behaviour and reproductive success relative to wild-type fish reared in nature. However, wild-type salmon cultured in equal conditions also had limited reproductive success. As such, whether decreased reproductive success of GH transgenic salmon is due to the action of the transgene or to secondary effects of culture (or a combination) has not been fully ascertained. Hence, salmon were reared in large (350,000 L), semi-natural, seawater tanks (termed mesocosms) designed to minimize effects of standard laboratory culture conditions, and the reproductive success of wild-type and GH transgenic coho salmon from mesocosms were compared with that of wild-type fish from nature. Mesocosm rearing partially restored spawning behaviour and success of wild-type fish relative to culture rearing, but remained lower overall than those reared in nature. GH transgenic salmon reared in the mesocosm had similar spawning behaviour and success as wild-type fish reared in the mesocosm when in full competition and without competition, but had lower success in male-only competition experiments. There was evidence of genotype×environmental interactions on spawning success, so that spawning success of transgenic fish, should they escape to natural systems in early life, cannot be predicted with low uncertainty. Under the present conditions, we found no evidence to support enhanced mating capabilities of GH transgenic coho salmon compared to wild-type salmon. However, it is clear that GH transgenic salmon are

  20. Rearing in seawater mesocosms improves the spawning performance of growth hormone transgenic and wild-type coho salmon.

    PubMed

    Leggatt, Rosalind A; Hollo, Tanya; Vandersteen, Wendy E; McFarlane, Kassandra; Goh, Benjamin; Prevost, Joelle; Devlin, Robert H

    2014-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) transgenes can significantly accelerate growth rates in fish and cause associated alterations to their physiology and behaviour. Concern exists regarding potential environmental risks of GH transgenic fish, should they enter natural ecosystems. In particular, whether they can reproduce and generate viable offspring under natural conditions is poorly understood. In previous studies, GH transgenic salmon grown under contained culture conditions had lower spawning behaviour and reproductive success relative to wild-type fish reared in nature. However, wild-type salmon cultured in equal conditions also had limited reproductive success. As such, whether decreased reproductive success of GH transgenic salmon is due to the action of the transgene or to secondary effects of culture (or a combination) has not been fully ascertained. Hence, salmon were reared in large (350,000 L), semi-natural, seawater tanks (termed mesocosms) designed to minimize effects of standard laboratory culture conditions, and the reproductive success of wild-type and GH transgenic coho salmon from mesocosms were compared with that of wild-type fish from nature. Mesocosm rearing partially restored spawning behaviour and success of wild-type fish relative to culture rearing, but remained lower overall than those reared in nature. GH transgenic salmon reared in the mesocosm had similar spawning behaviour and success as wild-type fish reared in the mesocosm when in full competition and without competition, but had lower success in male-only competition experiments. There was evidence of genotype×environmental interactions on spawning success, so that spawning success of transgenic fish, should they escape to natural systems in early life, cannot be predicted with low uncertainty. Under the present conditions, we found no evidence to support enhanced mating capabilities of GH transgenic coho salmon compared to wild-type salmon. However, it is clear that GH transgenic salmon are

  1. Comparing growth of pork- and venison-reared Phormia regina (Diptera: Calliphoridae) for the application of forensic entomology to wildlife poaching.

    PubMed

    Wilson, J M; Lafon, N W; Kreitlow, K L; Brewster, C C; Fell, R D

    2014-09-01

    Laboratory rearing of Phormia regina Meigen larvae on pork and venison was conducted as part of a study to determine whether forensic entomology approaches can be used in wildlife poaching investigations. Larvae were reared at 30 degrees C, 75% relative humidity, and a photoperiod of 14:10 (L:D) h on pork or venison diets, and samples were collected every 8 h until >90% of the maggots reached the third-instar wandering or prepupal stage. Significant differences were found in the distribution of lengths of the third instar and combined instars for maggots reared on the two different meat sources. Maggots reared on venison reached the prepupal wandering stage significantly faster (approximately 6 h) compared with maggots on the pork diet. Mean adult weight and wing length of venison-reared flies were significantly greater than for flies reared on pork. The lower crude fat content of venison appears to make this meat source a more suitable medium than pork for larvae of P. regina. The difference in growth rate could introduce error into PMImin estimations from third-instar maggots in deer poaching cases if estimates are based on data from studies in which maggots were reared on pork.

  2. A comprehensive laboratory study on the immersion freezing behavior of illite NX particles: a comparison of seventeen ice nucleation measurement techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiranuma, N.; Augustin-Bauditz, S.; Bingemer, H.; Budke, C.; Curtius, J.; Danielczok, A.; Diehl, K.; Dreischmeier, K.; Ebert, M.; Frank, F.; Hoffmann, N.; Kandler, K.; Kiselev, A.; Koop, T.; Leisner, T.; Möhler, O.; Nillius, B.; Peckhaus, A.; Rose, D.; Weinbruch, S.; Wex, H.; Boose, Y.; DeMott, P. J.; Hader, J. D.; Hill, T. C. J.; Kanji, Z. A.; Kulkarni, G.; Levin, E. J. T.; McCluskey, C. S.; Murakami, M.; Murray, B. J.; Niedermeier, D.; Petters, M. D.; O'Sullivan, D.; Saito, A.; Schill, G. P.; Tajiri, T.; Tolbert, M. A.; Welti, A.; Whale, T. F.; Wright, T. P.; Yamashita, K.

    2014-08-01

    Immersion freezing is the most relevant heterogeneous ice nucleation mechanism through which ice crystals are formed in mixed-phase clouds. In recent years, an increasing number of laboratory experiments utilizing a variety of instruments have examined immersion freezing activity of atmospherically relevant ice nucleating particles (INPs). However, an inter-comparison of these laboratory results is a difficult task because investigators have used different ice nucleation (IN) measurement methods to produce these results. A remaining challenge is to explore the sensitivity and accuracy of these techniques and to understand how the IN results are potentially influenced or biased by experimental parameters associated with these techniques. Within the framework of INUIT (Ice Nucleation research UnIT), we distributed an illite rich sample (illite NX) as a representative surrogate for atmospheric mineral dust particles to investigators to perform immersion freezing experiments using different IN measurement methods and to obtain IN data as a function of particle concentration, temperature (T), cooling rate and nucleation time. Seventeen measurement methods were involved in the data inter-comparison. Experiments with seven instruments started with the test sample pre-suspended in water before cooling, while ten other instruments employed water vapor condensation onto dry-dispersed particles followed by immersion freezing. The resulting comprehensive immersion freezing dataset was evaluated using the ice nucleation active surface-site density (ns) to develop a representative ns(T) spectrum that spans a wide temperature range (-37 °C < T < -11 °C) and covers nine orders of magnitude in ns. Our inter-comparison results revealed a discrepancy between suspension and dry-dispersed particle measurements for this mineral dust. While the agreement was good below ~ -26 °C, the ice nucleation activity, expressed in ns, was smaller for the wet suspended samples and higher for the

  3. Effect of experimental technique on the determination of strontium distribution coefficients of a surficial sediment from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hemming, C.H.; Bunde, R.L.; Liszewski, M.J.; Rosentreter, J.J.; Welhan, J.

    1997-01-01

    The effect of experimental technique on strontium distribution coefficients (K(d)'s) was determined as part of an investigation of strontium geochemical transport properties of surficial sediment from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho. The investigation was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey and Idaho State University, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy. Batch experiments were conducted to quantify the effect of different experimental techniques on experimentally derived strontium K(d)'s at a fixed pH of 8.0. Combinations of three variables were investigated: method of sample agitation (rotating-mixer and shaker table), ratio of the mass-of-sediment to the volume-of-reaction-solution (1:2 and 1:20), and method of sediment preparation (crushed and non-crushed). Strontium K(d)'s ranged from 11 to 23 mlg-1 among all three experimental variables examined. Strontium K(d)'s were bimodally grouped around 12 and 21 mlg-1. Among the three experimental variables examined, the mass-to-volume ratio appeared to be the only one that could account for this bimodal distribution. The bimodal distribution of the derived strontium K(d)'s may occur because the two different mass-to-volume ratios represent different natural systems. The high mass-to-volume ratio of 1:2 models a natural system, such as an aquifer, in which there is an abundance of favorable sorption sites relative to the amount of strontium in solution. The low mass-to-volume ratio of 1:20 models a natural system, such as a stream, in which the relative amount of strontium in solution exceeds the favorable surface sorption site concentration. Except for low mass-to-volume ratios of non-crushed sediment using a rotating mixer, the method of agitation and sediment preparation appears to have little influence on derived strontium K(d)'s.The effect of experimental technique on strontium distribution coefficients (Kd's) was determined as part of an investigation of strontium geochemical

  4. An easy, reproducible and cost-effective method for andrologists to improve the laboratory diagnosis of non-obstructive azoospermia: a novel microcentrifugation technique

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, Rosa Alice Casemiro; Pariz, Juliana Risso; Pieri, Patrícia de Campos; Hallak, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study describes a new method of microcentrifugation as an improved, viable, cost-effective option to the classical Cytospin apparatus to confirm azoospermia. Azoospermic semen samples were evaluated for cryptozoospermia by a centrifugation method similar to that of World Health Organization guidelines (2010; entire specimen centrifuged at 3000g for 15 min, and aliquots of the pellet examined). Then, if no sperm were detected, the pellet from that procedure was resuspended in culture medium, centrifuged (2000g for 15 min), and the entire pellet spread on a 4 X 6mm area of a slide and stained using the Christmas tree method (Nuclear-Fast solution and picric acid). The entire stained area was examined for the presence or absence of sperm. A total of 148 azoospermic samples (after standard WHO diagnosis) were included in the study and 21 samples (14.2%) were identified as sperm-positive. In all microcentrifugation slides, intact spermatozoa could be easily visualized against a clear background, with no cellular debris. This novel microcentrifugation technique is clearly a simple and effective method, with lower cost, increasing both sensitivity and specificity in confirming the absence or presence of spermatozoa in the ejaculate. It may represent a step forward of prognostic value to be introduced by andrology laboratories in the routine evaluation of patients with azoospermia in the initial semen analysis. PMID:27136479

  5. An easy, reproducible and cost-effective method for andrologists to improve the laboratory diagnosis of nonobstructive azoospermia: a novel microcentrifugation technique.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Rosa Alice Casemiro; Pariz, Juliana Risso; Pieri, Patricia de Campos; Hallak, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    This study describes a new method of microcentrifugation as an improved, viable, cost-effective option to the classical Cytospin apparatus to confirm azoospermia. Azoospermic semen samples were evaluated for cryptozoospermia by a centrifugation method similar to that of World Health Organization guidelines (2010; entire specimen centrifuged at 3000g for 15 min, and aliquots of the pellet examined). Then, if no sperm were detected, the pellet from that procedure was resuspended in culture medium, centrifuged (2000g for 15 min), and the entire pellet spread on a 4 X 6mm area of a slide and stained using the Christmas tree method (Nuclear-Fast solution and picric acid). The entire stained area was examined for the presence or absence of sperm. A total of 148 azoospermic samples (after standard WHO diagnosis) were included in the study and 21 samples (14.2%) were identified as sperm-positive. In all microcentrifugation slides, intact spermatozoa could be easily visualized against a clear background, with no cellular debris. This novel microcentrifugation technique is clearly a simple and effective method, with lower cost, increasing both sensitivity and specificity in confirming the absence or presence of spermatozoa in the ejaculate. It may represent a step forward of prognostic value to be introduced by andrology laboratories in the routine evaluation of patients with azoospermia in the initial semen analysis.

  6. Application of the mechanical perturbation produced by traffic as a new approach of nonlinear acoustic technique for detecting microcracks in the concrete: A laboratory simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moradi-Marani, F.; Kodjo, S. A.; Rivard, P.; Lamarche, C. P.

    2012-05-01

    Very few nonlinear acoustics techniques are currently applied on real structures because their large scale implementation is difficult. Recently, a new method based on nonlinear acoustics has been proposed at the Université de Sherbrooke for the characterization of the damage associated with Alkali-Silica Reaction (ASR). This method consists in quantifying the influence of an external mechanical disturbance on the propagation of a continual ultrasonic wave that probes the material. In this method, the mechanical perturbation produced by an impact causes sudden opening of microcracks and, consequently, the velocity of the probe ultrasonic wave is suddenly reduced. Then it slowly and gradually returns to its initial level as the microcracks are closing. The objective of this study is: using waves generated by traffics in infrastructures in order to monitor microdefects due to damage mechanisms like ASR. This type of mechanical disturbance (by traffic loadings) is used as a source of low frequency-high amplitude waves for opening/closing of the microdefects in the bulk of concrete. This paper presents a laboratory set-up made of three large deep concrete slabs used to study the nonlinear behavior of concrete using the disturbance caused by simulated traffic. The traffic is simulated with a controlled high accuracy jack to produce a wave similar to that produced by traffic. Results obtained from this study will be used in the future to design an in-situ protocol for assessing ASR-affected structures.

  7. Rear Area Security In The Field Army Service Area.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    his ma.jor subordinate Commanders, the arm support brigade commander. Rear are? ecurity doctrine requires the area coriander to coordin- ate unit...field army service area. Response The army support brigade coriander conducts phase I rear area security operations within the limits of current

  8. 2. VIEW LOOKING NORTH OF GUARDLOCK (LEFT REAR), DUNDEE DAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW LOOKING NORTH OF GUARDLOCK (LEFT REAR), DUNDEE DAM (RIGHT-CENTER REAR), AND REMOVED SITE OF TOWPATH (FOREGROUND) DURING HYDROPOWER FACILITY INSTALLATION - Dundee Canal, Headgates, Guardlock & Uppermost Section, 250 feet northeast of Randolph Avenue, opposite & in line with East Clifton Avenue, Clifton, Passaic County, NJ

  9. North rear, oblique view to the southeast, showing the east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North rear, oblique view to the southeast, showing the east wing and rear wall construction. Note the outline of the former windows beneath the current small aluminum-frame windows - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Building No. 16 A-B (Duplex), 30652 & 30654 Wellton-Mohawk Drive, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  10. Rear semicircular section of the highlift pumping station basement with ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Rear semi-circular section of the high-lift pumping station basement with remnants of the piping systems and suction wells at rear wall. - Robert B. Morse Water Filtration Plant, 10700 and 10701 Columbia Pike, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

  11. A comprehensive laboratory study on the immersion freezing behavior of illite NX particles: a comparison of 17 ice nucleation measurement techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiranuma, N.; Augustin-Bauditz, S.; Bingemer, H.; Budke, C.; Curtius, J.; Danielczok, A.; Diehl, K.; Dreischmeier, K.; Ebert, M.; Frank, F.; Hoffmann, N.; Kandler, K.; Kiselev, A.; Koop, T.; Leisner, T.; Möhler, O.; Nillius, B.; Peckhaus, A.; Rose, D.; Weinbruch, S.; Wex, H.; Boose, Y.; DeMott, P. J.; Hader, J. D.; Hill, T. C. J.; Kanji, Z. A.; Kulkarni, G.; Levin, E. J. T.; McCluskey, C. S.; Murakami, M.; Murray, B. J.; Niedermeier, D.; Petters, M. D.; O'Sullivan, D.; Saito, A.; Schill, G. P.; Tajiri, T.; Tolbert, M. A.; Welti, A.; Whale, T. F.; Wright, T. P.; Yamashita, K.

    2015-03-01

    Immersion freezing is the most relevant heterogeneous ice nucleation mechanism through which ice crystals are formed in mixed-phase clouds. In recent years, an increasing number of laboratory experiments utilizing a variety of instruments have examined immersion freezing activity of atmospherically relevant ice-nucleating particles. However, an intercomparison of these laboratory results is a difficult task because investigators have used different ice nucleation (IN) measurement methods to produce these results. A remaining challenge is to explore the sensitivity and accuracy of these techniques and to understand how the IN results are potentially influenced or biased by experimental parameters associated with these techniques. Within the framework of INUIT (Ice Nuclei Research Unit), we distributed an illite-rich sample (illite NX) as a representative surrogate for atmospheric mineral dust particles to investigators to perform immersion freezing experiments using different IN measurement methods and to obtain IN data as a function of particle concentration, temperature (T), cooling rate and nucleation time. A total of 17 measurement methods were involved in the data intercomparison. Experiments with seven instruments started with the test sample pre-suspended in water before cooling, while 10 other instruments employed water vapor condensation onto dry-dispersed particles followed by immersion freezing. The resulting comprehensive immersion freezing data set was evaluated using the ice nucleation active surface-site density, ns, to develop a representative ns(T) spectrum that spans a wide temperature range (-37 °C < T < -11 °C) and covers 9 orders of magnitude in ns. In general, the 17 immersion freezing measurement techniques deviate, within a range of about 8 °C in terms of temperature, by 3 orders of magnitude with respect to ns. In addition, we show evidence that the immersion freezing efficiency expressed in ns of illite NX particles is relatively

  12. Magma Differentiation Processes That Develop an "Enriched" Signature in the Izu Bonin Rear Arc: Evidence from Drilling at IODP Site U1437

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heywood, L. J.; DeBari, S. M.; Schindlbeck, J. C.; Escobar-Burciaga, R. D.

    2015-12-01

    The Izu Bonin rear arc represents a unique laboratory to study the development of continental crust precursors at an intraoceanic subduction zone., Volcanic output in the Izu Bonin rear arc is compositionally distinct from the Izu Bonin main volcanic front, with med- to high-K and LREE-enrichment similar to the average composition of the continental crust. Drilling at IODP Expedition 350 Site U1437 in the Izu Bonin rear arc obtained volcaniclastic material that was deposited from at least 13.5 Ma to present. IODP Expedition 350 represents the first drilling mission in the Izu Bonin rear arc region. This study presents fresh glass and mineral compositions (obtained via EMP and LA-ICP-MS) from unaltered tephra layers in mud/mudstone (Lithostratigraphic Unit I) and lapillistone (Lithostratigraphic Unit II) <4.5 Ma to examine the geochemical signature of Izu Bonin rear arc magmas. Unit II samples are coarse-grained tephras that are mainly rhyolitic in composition (72.1-77.5 wt. % SiO2, 3.2-3.9 wt. % K2O and average Mg# 24) and LREE-enriched. These rear-arc rhyolites have an average La/Sm of 2.6 with flat HREEs, average Th/La of 0.15, and Zr/Y of 4.86. Rear-arc rhyolite trace element signature is distinct from felsic eruptive products from the Izu Bonin main volcanic front, which have lower La/Sm and Th/La as well as significantly lower incompatible element concentrations. Rear arc rhyolites have similar trace element ratios to rhyolites from the adjacent but younger backarc knolls and actively-extending rift regions, but the latter is typified by lower K2O, as well as a smaller degree of enrichment in incompatible elements. Given these unique characteristics, we explore models for felsic magma formation and intracrustal differentiation in the Izu Bonin rear arc.

  13. A genomic perspective towards assessing quality of mass-reared SIT flies used in Mediterranean fruit fly eradication in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Temperature sensitive lethal (tsl) mutants of the tephritid C. capitata, are extensively used in control programmes involving sterile insect technique. These flies are artificially reared and treated with ionizing radiation to render males sterile for further release into the field to compete with w...

  14. Genetic and environmental influences on eating behavior - a study of twin pairs reared apart or reared together

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined the relative influence of genetic versus environmental factors on specific aspects of eating behavior. Adult monozygotic twins (22 pairs and 3 singleton reared apart, 38 pairs and 9 singleton reared together, age 18-76 years, BMI 17-43 kg/m2) completed the Three Factor Eating Que...

  15. Autonomy, Educational Plans, and Self-Esteem in Institution-Reared and Home-Reared Teenagers in Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tulviste, Tiia

    2011-01-01

    The study examines autonomy, self-esteem, and educational plans for the future of 109 institution-reared and 106 home-reared teenagers (15-19 years). Teenagers were asked to complete the Teen Timetable Scale (Feldman & Rosenthal), two Emotional Autonomy Scales (Steinberg & Silverberg), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and answer questions…

  16. Sexual performance of mass reared and wild Mediterranean fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) from various origins of the Madeira Islands

    SciTech Connect

    Pereira, R.; Silva, N.; Quintal, C.; Abreu, R.; Andrade, J.; Dantas, L.

    2007-03-15

    The success of Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) control programs integrating the sterile insect technique (SIT) is based on the capacity of released the sterile males to compete in the field for mates. The Islands of Madeira are composed of 2 populated islands (Madeira and Porto Santo) where the medfly is present. To evaluate the compatibility and sexual performance of sterile flies we conducted a series of field cage tests. At same time, the process of laboratory domestication was evaluated. 3 wild populations, one semi-wild strain, and 1 mass reared strain were evaluated: the wild populations of (1) Madeira Island (north coast), (2) Madeira Island (south coast), and (3) Porto Santo Island; (4) the semi-wild population after 7 to 10 generations of domestication in the laboratory (respectively, for first and second experiment); and (5) the genetic sexing strain in use at Madeira medfly facility (VIENNA 7mix2000). Field cage experiments showed that populations of all origins are mostly compatible. There were no significant differences among wild populations in sexual competitiveness. Semi-wild and mass-reared males performed significantly poorer in both experiments than wild males in achieving matings with wild females. The study indicates that there is no significant isolation among strains tested, although mating performance is reduced in mass-reared and semi-wild flies after 7 to 10 generations in the laboratory. (author) [Spanish] El exito de los programas de control de la mosca mediterranea de la fruta (Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) que integran la tecnica del insecto esteril (TIE) esta basado en la capacidad de machos esteriles para competir en el campo por sus parejas. Las Islas de Madeira consisten de 2 islas pobladas (Madeira y Porto Santo) donde la mosca mediterranea de la fruta esta presente. Para evaluar la compatibilidad y el funcionamiento sexual de moscas esteriles nosotros realizamos una serie de pruebas de jaula en el

  17. Effects of laboratory colonization on Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera, Tephritidae) mating behaviour: ‘what a difference a year makes’

    PubMed Central

    Schutze, Mark K.; Dammalage, Thilak; Jessup, Andrew; Vreysen, Marc J.B.; Wornoayporn, Viwat; Clarke, Anthony R.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Laboratory-reared insects are widely known to have significantly reduced genetic diversity in comparison to wild populations; however, subtle behavioural changes between laboratory-adapted and wild or ‘wildish’ (i.e., within one or very few generations of field collected material) populations are less well understood. Quantifying alterations in behaviour, particularly sexual, in laboratory-adapted insects is important for mass-reared insects for use in pest management strategies, especially those that have a sterile insect technique component. We report subtle changes in sexual behaviour between ‘wildish’ Bactrocera dorsalis flies (F1 and F2) from central and southern Thailand and the same colonies 12 months later when at six generations from wild. Mating compatibility tests were undertaken under standardised semi-natural conditions, with number of homo/heterotypic couples and mating location in field cages analysed via compatibility indices. Central and southern populations of Bactrocera dorsalis displayed positive assortative mating in the 2010 trials but mated randomly in the 2011 trials. ‘Wildish’ southern Thailand males mated significantly earlier than central Thailand males in 2010; this difference was considerably reduced in 2011, yet homotypic couples from southern Thailand still formed significantly earlier than all other couple combinations. There was no significant difference in couple location in 2010; however, couple location significantly differed among pair types in 2011 with those involving southern Thailand females occurring significantly more often on the tree relative to those with central Thailand females. Relative participation also changed with time, with more southern Thailand females forming couples relative to central Thailand females in 2010; this difference was considerably decreased by 2011. These results reveal how subtle changes in sexual behaviour, as driven by laboratory rearing conditions, may significantly

  18. Captive Rearing Initiative for Salmon River Chinook Salmon, 1999 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hassemer, Peter F.

    2001-04-01

    During 1999, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) continued developing techniques for the captive rearing of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. Techniques under development included protocols for rearing juveniles in freshwater and saltwater hatchery environments, and fieldwork to collect brood year 1998 and 1999 juveniles and eggs and to investigate the ability of these fish to spawn naturally. Fish collected as juveniles were held for a short time at the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery and later transferred to the Eagle Fish Hatchery for rearing. Eyed-eggs were transferred immediately to the Eagle Fish Hatchery where they were disinfected and reared by family groups. When fish from either collection method reached approximately 60 mm, they were PIT tagged and reared separately by brood year and source stream. Sixteen different groups were in culture at IDFG facilities in 1999. Hatchery spawning activities of captive-reared chinook salmon produced eyed-eggs for outplanting in streamside incubation chambers in the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=2,297) and the East Fork Salmon River (N=1,038). Additionally, a number of these eggs were maintained at the Eagle Fish Hatchery to ensure adequate brood year 1999 representation from these systems, and produced 279 and 87 juveniles from the West Fork Yankee Fork and East Fork Salmon River, respectively. Eyed-eggs were not collected from the West Fork Yankee Fork due to low adult escapement. Brood year 1998 juveniles were collected from the Lemhi River (N=191), West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=229), and East Fork Salmon River (N=185). Additionally, brood year 1999 eyed-eggs were collected from the Lemhi River (N=264) and East Fork Salmon River (N=143). Sixty-two and seven maturing adults were released into Bear Valley Creek (Lemhi River system) and the East Fork Salmon River, respectively, for spawning evaluation in 1999. Nine female carcasses from Bear Valley Creek were examined for egg retention, and of

  19. Captive Rearing Initiative for Salmon River Chinook Salmon, 1998-1999 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hassemer, Peter F.

    2001-04-01

    During 1999, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) continued developing techniques for the captive rearing of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. Techniques under development included protocols for rearing juveniles in freshwater and saltwater hatchery environments, and fieldwork to collect brood year 1998 and 1999 juveniles and eggs and to investigate the ability of these fish to spawn naturally. Fish collected as juveniles were held for a short time at the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery and later transferred to the Eagle Fish Hatchery for rearing. Eyed-eggs were transferred immediately to the Eagle Fish Hatchery where they were disinfected and reared by family groups. When fish from either collection method reached approximately 60 mm, they were PIT tagged and reared separately by brood year and source stream. Sixteen different groups were in culture at IDFG facilities in 1999. Hatchery spawning activities of captive-reared chinook salmon produced eyed-eggs for outplanting in streamside incubation chambers in the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=2,297) and the East Fork Salmon River (N=1,038). Additionally, a number of these eggs were maintained at the Eagle Fish Hatchery to ensure adequate brood year 1999 representation from these systems, and produced 279 and 87 juveniles from the West Fork Yankee Fork and East Fork Salmon River, respectively. Eyed-eggs were not collected from the West Fork Yankee Fork due to low adult escapement. Brood year 1998 juveniles were collected from the Lemhi River (N=191), West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=229), and East Fork Salmon River (N=185). Additionally, brood year 1999 eyed-eggs were collected from the Lemhi River (N=264) and East Fork Salmon River (N=143). Sixty-two and seven maturing adults were released into Bear Valley Creek (Lemhi River system) and the East Fork Salmon River, respectively, for spawning evaluation in 1999. Nine female carcasses from Bear Valley Creek were examined for egg retention, and of

  20. Analytical techniques: A compilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A compilation, containing articles on a number of analytical techniques for quality control engineers and laboratory workers, is presented. Data cover techniques for testing electronic, mechanical, and optical systems, nondestructive testing techniques, and gas analysis techniques.

  1. Hand-rearing, growth, and development of common loon (Gavia immer) chicks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kenow, Kevin P.; Meier, Melissa S.; McColl, Laurie E.; Hines, Randy K.; Pichner, Jimmy; Johnson, Laura; Lyon, James E.; Scharold, Kellie Kroc; Meyer, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Common loon chicks were reared in captivity in association with studies to evaluate the effects of radiotransmitter implants and to assess the ecological risk of dietary methylmercury. Here we report on hatching and rearing methods used to successfully raise chicks to 105 days of age. We experienced a 91.5% hatch rate, and 89.6% of loon chicks survived to the end of the study at 105 days. Baseline information on observed rates of fish consumption, behavioral development, and growth patterns are provided. Husbandry techniques are provided that should prove valuable to wildlife rehabilitators caring for abandoned or injured loons, and biologists contemplating methods for restoring loons to areas within their former breeding range.

  2. Foster dams rear fighters: strain-specific effects of within-strain fostering on aggressive behavior in male mice.

    PubMed

    Cox, Kimberly H; So, Nina L T; Rissman, Emilie F

    2013-01-01

    It is well known that genes and environment interact to produce behavioral phenotypes. One environmental factor with long-term effects on gene transcription and behavior is maternal care. A classic paradigm for examining maternal care and genetic interactions is to foster pups of one genetic strain to dams of a different strain ("between-strain fostering"). In addition, fostering to a dam of the same strain ("within-strain fostering") is used to reduce indirect effects, via behavioral changes in the dams, of gestation treatments on offspring. Using within-and between-strain fostering we examined the contributions of genetics/prenatal environment, maternal care, and the effects of fostering per se, on adult aggressive behavior in two inbred mouse strains, C57BL/6J (B6) and DBA/2J (DBA). We hypothesized that males reared by dams of the more aggressive DBA strain would attack intruders faster than those reared by B6 dams. Surprisingly, we found that both methods of fostering enhanced aggressive behavior, but only in B6 mice. Since all the B6 offspring are genetically identical, we asked if maternal behavior of B6 dams was affected by the relatedness of their pups. In fact, B6 dams caring for foster B6 pups displayed significantly reduced maternal behaviors. Finally, we measured vasopressin and corticotrophin releasing hormone mRNA in the amygdalae of adult B6 males reared by foster or biological dams. Both genes correlated with aggressive behavior in within-strain fostered B6 mice, but not in mice reared by their biological dams. In sum, we have demonstrated in inbred laboratory mice, that dams behave differently when rearing their own newborn pups versus pups from another dam of the same strain. These differences in maternal care affect aggression in the male offspring and transcription of Avp and Crh in the brain. It is likely that rearing by foster dams has additional effects and implications for other species.

  3. Using HeLa Cell Stress Response to Introduce First Year Students to the Scientific Method, Laboratory Techniques, Primary Literature, and Scientific Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resendes, Karen K.

    2015-01-01

    Incorporating scientific literacy into inquiry driven research is one of the most effective mechanisms for developing an undergraduate student's strength in writing. Additionally, discovery-based laboratories help develop students who approach science as critical thinkers. Thus, a three-week laboratory module for an introductory cell and molecular…

  4. A comprehensive laboratory study on the immersion freezing behavior of illite NX particles: a comparison of 17 ice nucleation measurement techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Hiranuma, Naruki; Augustin-Bauditz, Stefanie; Bingemer, Heinz; Budke, Carsten; Curtius, J.; Danielczok, Anja; Diehl, K.; Dreischmeier, Katharina; Ebert, Martin; Frank, F.; Hoffmann, Nadine; Kandler, Kondrad; Kiselev, Alexei; Koop, Thomas; Leisner, Thomas; Mohler, Ottmar; Nillius, Bjorn; Peckhaus, Andreas; Rose, Diana; Weinbruch, Stephan; Wex, Heike; Boose, Yvonne; DeMott, Paul J.; Hader, John D.; Hill, Thomas; Kanji, Zamin; Kulkarni, Gourihar R.; Levin, Ezra; McCluskey, Christina; Murakami, Masataka; Murray, Benjamin J.; Niedermeier, Dennis; Petters, Markus D.; O'Sullivan, Daniel; Saito, Atsushi; Schill, Gregory; Tajiri, Takuya; Tolbert, Margaret A.; Welti, Andre; Whale, Thomas; Wright, Timothy; Yamashita, Katsuya

    2015-01-01

    Immersion freezing is the most relevant heterogeneous ice nucleation mechanism 3 through which ice crystals are formed in mixed-phase clouds. In recent years, an increasing 4 number of laboratory experiments utilizing a variety of instruments have examined immersion 5 freezing activity of atmospherically relevant ice nucleating particles (INPs). However, an 6 inter-comparison of these laboratory results is a difficult task because investigators have used 7 different ice nucleation (IN) measurement methods to produce these results. A remaining 8 challenge is to explore the sensitivity and accuracy of these techniques and to understand how 9 the IN results are potentially influenced or biased by experimental parameters associated with 10 these techniques. 11 Within the framework of INUIT (Ice Nucleation research UnIT), we distributed an 12 illite rich sample (illite NX) as a representative surrogate for atmospheric mineral dust 13 particles to investigators to perform immersion freezing experiments using different IN 14 measurement methods and to obtain IN data as a function of particle concentration, 15 temperature (T), cooling rate and nucleation time. Seventeen measurement methods were 16 involved in the data inter-comparison. Experiments with seven instruments started with the 17 test sample pre-suspended in water before cooling, while ten other instruments employed 18 water vapor condensation onto dry-dispersed particles followed by immersion freezing. The 19 resulting comprehensive immersion freezing dataset was evaluated using the ice nucleation 20 active surface-site density (ns) to develop a representative ns(T) spectrum that spans a wide 21 temperature range (-37 °C < T < -11 °C) and covers nine orders of magnitude in ns. 22 Our inter-comparison results revealed a discrepancy between suspension and dry-23 dispersed particle measurements for this mineral dust. While the agreement was good below ~-24 26 °C, the ice nucleation activity, expressed in ns, was

  5. 2. WATER TREATMENT PUMPING AND STORAGE BUILDING, REAR AND RIGHT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. WATER TREATMENT PUMPING AND STORAGE BUILDING, REAR AND RIGHT SIDES, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Water Treatment & Storage Building, Southern portion of launch area, southeast of Ready Building, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  6. 26. STATIC TEST TOWER CONTROL PANELS AT REAR OF TOWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. STATIC TEST TOWER CONTROL PANELS AT REAR OF TOWER UNDERNEATH SHED ROOF. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Saturn Propulsion & Structural Test Facility, East Test Area, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  7. 5. Oblique view of rear (southeast) and right side (southwest) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Oblique view of rear (southeast) and right side (southwest) elevations, looking north. - Downtown Short Pump Grocery, West Broad Street (State Route 250) & Three Chopt Road, Short Pump, Henrico County, VA

  8. 6. EXTERIOR OF REAR (EAST END) AND NORTH SIDE SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. EXTERIOR OF REAR (EAST END) AND NORTH SIDE SHOWING ASBESTOS SIDING, BACKYARD LAWN, AND CLOTHESLINE. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  9. 27. Threequarter view of rear of building 153, water pump ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. Three-quarter view of rear of building 153, water pump house, showing edge of water storage mound on far right, looking northwest - Nike Missile Battery MS-40, County Road No. 260, Farmington, Dakota County, MN

  10. 11. SOUTH (REAR) ELEVATION OF THE PHILADELPHIA SAVING FUND SOCIETY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. SOUTH (REAR) ELEVATION OF THE PHILADELPHIA SAVING FUND SOCIETY (PSFS) BUILDING WITH MEETING HOUSE CORNICE IN FOREGROUND. - Twelfth Street Meeting House, 20 South Twelfth Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  11. 2. View facing east showing the south elevation (rear) of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. View facing east showing the south elevation (rear) of the garage, loading docks and rail spur, with Providence Fruit & Produce Building beyond. - Armour & Company Building, 100 Harris Avenue, Providence, Providence County, RI

  12. Contextual view including south (rear) of building 925, exercise in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view including south (rear) of building 925, exercise in foreground, and modern buildings in background. Facing northwest. - Travis Air Force Base, Building No. 925, W Street, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  13. 14. VEHICLE STORAGE BUILDING NORTHWEST SIDE AND NORTHEAST REAR. VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. VEHICLE STORAGE BUILDING NORTHWEST SIDE AND NORTHEAST REAR. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Minuteman III ICBM Launch Control Facility November-1, 1.5 miles North of New Raymer & State Highway 14, New Raymer, Weld County, CO

  14. 44. Launch Control Equipment Room, taken from rear of room. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. Launch Control Equipment Room, taken from rear of room. Lyon - Whiteman Air Force Base, Oscar O-1 Minuteman Missile Alert Facility, Southeast corner of Twelfth & Vendenberg Avenues, Knob Noster, Johnson County, MO

  15. 42. Launch Control Equipment Room, rear of room. Lyon ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. Launch Control Equipment Room, rear of room. Lyon - Whiteman Air Force Base, Oscar O-1 Minuteman Missile Alert Facility, Southeast corner of Twelfth & Vendenberg Avenues, Knob Noster, Johnson County, MO

  16. 4. LAUNCH CONTROL SUPPORT BUILDING NORTH SIDE AND EAST REAR. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. LAUNCH CONTROL SUPPORT BUILDING NORTH SIDE AND EAST REAR. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Minuteman III ICBM Launch Control Facility November-1, 1.5 miles North of New Raymer & State Highway 14, New Raymer, Weld County, CO

  17. 4. West rear and south side of building. View to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. West rear and south side of building. View to northeast. - U.S. Customs Service Port of Roosville, Immigration & Naturalization Service Residence, 45 feet southwest of Main Port Building, Eureka, Lincoln County, MT

  18. 16. View of middle bay of N (rear) elevation looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. View of middle bay of N (rear) elevation looking SE. - Hacienda Azurarera Santa Elena, Sugar Mill Ruins, 1.44 miles North of PR Route 2 Bridge Over Rio De La Plata, Toa Baja, Toa Baja Municipio, PR

  19. 3. Southeast end and part of rear wall of main ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Southeast end and part of rear wall of main section of roundhouse. View to northwest. - Duluth & Iron Range Rail Road Company Shops, Roundhouse, Southwest of downtown Two Harbors, northwest of Agate Bay, Two Harbors, Lake County, MN

  20. 4. Northeast portion of rear wall of main section of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Northeast portion of rear wall of main section of roundhouse. View to southwest. - Duluth & Iron Range Rail Road Company Shops, Roundhouse, Southwest of downtown Two Harbors, northwest of Agate Bay, Two Harbors, Lake County, MN

  1. Everett Weinreb, Photographer, April 1989 GARAGE BEHIND HOUSE, WEST (REAR), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Everett Weinreb, Photographer, April 1989 GARAGE BEHIND HOUSE, WEST (REAR), LOOKING NORTHEAST - Irvine Ranch Agricultural Headquarters, Boyd Tenant House, Southeast of Intersection of San Diego & Santa Ana Freeways, Irvine, Orange County, CA

  2. CHICKEN COOP BEHIND FENCED YARD AND (REAR) OF BARBEQUE PIT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CHICKEN COOP BEHIND FENCED YARD AND (REAR) OF BARBEQUE PIT, LOOKING NORTH - Irvine Ranch Agricultural Headquarters, Carillo Tenant House, Southwest of Intersection of San Diego & Santa Ana Freeways, Irvine, Orange County, CA

  3. BARBEQUE PIT AND PLAYHOUSE IN (REAR) YARD, LOOKING SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BARBEQUE PIT AND PLAYHOUSE IN (REAR) YARD, LOOKING SOUTH - Irvine Ranch Agricultural Headquarters, Carillo Tenant House, Southwest of Intersection of San Diego & Santa Ana Freeways, Irvine, Orange County, CA

  4. 19. Oblique, typical cell (south cells) from rear of cell; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Oblique, typical cell (south cells) from rear of cell; view to north, 65mm lens with electronic flash illumination. - Tule Lake Project Jail, Post Mile 44.85, State Route 139, Newell, Modoc County, CA

  5. 5. CLUBHOUSE. REAR (NORTHWEST) SIDE. VIEW TO SOUTHSOUTHWEST. Rainbow ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. CLUBHOUSE. REAR (NORTHWEST) SIDE. VIEW TO SOUTH-SOUTHWEST. - Rainbow Hydroelectric Facility, Clubhouse, On north bank of Missouri River 2 miles Northeast of Great Falls, & end of Rainbow Dam Road, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  6. 1. Northwest end and southwest rear. View to east. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Northwest end and southwest rear. View to east. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Squadron Operations Building, At southwestern-most boundary of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  7. 3. General view showing rear of looking glass aircraft. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. General view showing rear of looking glass aircraft. View to north. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  8. 11. Interior view of communications compartment. View toward rear of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Interior view of communications compartment. View toward rear of aircraft. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  9. 75. SACRED HEART SCHOOL, 1324 ELLIS STREET SOUTH (REAR ELEVATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    75. SACRED HEART SCHOOL, 1324 ELLIS STREET SOUTH (REAR ELEVATION FROM GREENE STREET 56/61A - Greene Street Historic District, Greene Street, Gordon Highway to Augusta Canal Bridge, Augusta, Richmond County, GA

  10. 2. EAST REAR AND NORTH SIDE OF FIRE STATION. VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. EAST REAR AND NORTH SIDE OF FIRE STATION. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Fire Station, 80 feet North of December Seventh Avenue; 120 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  11. 5. CLOSE UP OF FLAME DEFLECTOR, COUNTERFORT VISIBLE AT REAR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. CLOSE UP OF FLAME DEFLECTOR, COUNTERFORT VISIBLE AT REAR, VIEW TOWARDS SOUTHEAST. - Glenn L. Martin Company, Titan Missile Test Facilities, Captive Test Stand D-1, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  12. DETAIL OF THE CONCRETE PAVING BLOCKS AT THE REAR OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF THE CONCRETE PAVING BLOCKS AT THE REAR OF THE BUILDING. SHOWING THE PIVOTING METAL LOOP RECESSED INTO THE CONCRETE. VIEW FACING EAST. - Hickam Field, Officers' Housing Type A, 601 Boquet Boulevard, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  13. 3. NORTH (REAR) AND EAST SIDE ELEVATIONS, LOOKING SOUTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. NORTH (REAR) AND EAST SIDE ELEVATIONS, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - Hunting Island Lighthouse, Cottage HI-65, Hunting Island State Park, US Route 21, 16 miles East of Beaufort, Beaufort, Beaufort County, SC

  14. 1. SOUTHEAST REAR WALL AND NORTHEAST SIDE WALL OF CABINS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. SOUTHEAST REAR WALL AND NORTHEAST SIDE WALL OF CABINS FORGEMAN'S HOUSE NO. 1 AT RIGHT - Mount Etna Iron Works, Forgeman's House No. 1, Legislative Route 07020 between junctions of T.R. 461 & 463, Williamsburg, Blair County, PA

  15. NORTHEAST (SIDE) AND NORTHWEST (REAR) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NORTHEAST (SIDE) AND NORTHWEST (REAR) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. VIEW TO SOUTH - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Industrial Wastewater Treatment & Disposal Facility, Off LeMay Road, outside SAC Alert Area, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  16. EXTERIOR VIEW OF THE REAR AND SOUTHEAST SIDE OF BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EXTERIOR VIEW OF THE REAR AND SOUTHEAST SIDE OF BUILDING 471 FACING NORTHEAST - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Waterfront Transit Shed, Corner of Northampton Avenue & Simms Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  17. EXTERIOR VIEW OF THE REAR AND SOUTH SIDE OF BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EXTERIOR VIEW OF THE REAR AND SOUTH SIDE OF BUILDING 477 FACING NORTH - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Waterfront Transit Shed, Corner of Astoria Avenue & Gaffney Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  18. VIEW OF THE REAR OF WATERSIDE MALL Southwest Washington, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF THE REAR OF WATERSIDE MALL - Southwest Washington, Urban Renewal Area, Bounded by Independence Avenue, Washington Avenue, South Capitol Street, Canal Street, P Street, Maine Avenue & Washington Channel, Fourteenth Street, D Street, & Twelfth Street, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  19. View of rear of Childs Powerhosue. Rockwork on east end ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of rear of Childs Powerhosue. Rockwork on east end was recently replaced following a flood. Looking south-southwest - Childs-Irving Hydroelectric Project, Childs System, Childs Powerhouse, Forest Service Road 708/502, Camp Verde, Yavapai County, AZ

  20. VIEW OF ONESTAMP MILL WITH RANCH HOUSE AT REAR (See ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF ONE-STAMP MILL WITH RANCH HOUSE AT REAR (See HABS No. CA-2347, DESERT QUEEN RANCH, for further documentation) - Desert Queen Ranch, One Stamp Gold Mill, Twentynine Palms, San Bernardino County, CA

  1. 2. REAR AND SOUTH SIDE VIEW OF BUILDING NO. 1 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. REAR AND SOUTH SIDE VIEW OF BUILDING NO. 1 FACING NORTHEAST. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Ordinance Operations Building, West Loch, First Street near Whiskey Wharves W1 & W2, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  2. CONTEXT VIEW OF REAR OF HULETTS IN FRONT OF MODERN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CONTEXT VIEW OF REAR OF HULETTS IN FRONT OF MODERN SELF-UNLOADING BOOM. LOOKING NORTH. - Pennsylvania Railway Ore Dock, Lake Erie at Whiskey Island, approximately 1.5 miles west of Public Square, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  3. 6. MISSILE TEST AND ASSEMBLY BUILDING, REAR AND LEFT SIDES, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. MISSILE TEST AND ASSEMBLY BUILDING, REAR AND LEFT SIDES, LOOKING NORTHWEST. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Missile Test & Assembly Building, South end of launch area, northeast of Generator Building No. 3, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  4. 3. MISSILE TEST AND ASSEMBLY BUILDING, REAR SIDE, LOOKING NORTH. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. MISSILE TEST AND ASSEMBLY BUILDING, REAR SIDE, LOOKING NORTH. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Missile Test & Assembly Building, South end of launch area, northeast of Generator Building No. 3, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  5. Environmental assessment, K Pool fish rearing, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has a need to respond to a request to lease facilities at the Hanford Site 100-KE and 100-KW filter plant pools (K Pools) for fish rearing activities. These fish rearing activities would be: (1) business ventures with public and private funds and (2) long-term enhancement and supplementation programs for game fish populations in the Columbia River Basin. The proposed action is to enter into a use permit or lease agreement with the YIN or other parties who would rear fish in the 100-K Area Pools. The proposed action would include necessary piping, pump, and electrical upgrades of the facility; cleaning and preparation of the pools; water withdrawal from the Columbia River, and any necessary water or wastewater treatment; and introduction, rearing and release of fish. Future commercial operations may be included.

  6. 12. EAST REAR OF OFFICE BUILDING (RIGHT FOREGROUND) AND WAREHOUSE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. EAST REAR OF OFFICE BUILDING (RIGHT FOREGROUND) AND WAREHOUSE (LEFT BACKGROUND). VIEW TO SOUTH. - Commercial & Industrial Buildings, International Harvester Company Showroom, Office & Warehouse, 10 South Main Street, Dubuque, Dubuque County, IA

  7. 2. BUILDING 0521, SOUTH REAR AND EAST SIDE. Looking to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. BUILDING 0521, SOUTH REAR AND EAST SIDE. Looking to northwest from access road. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Earth Covered Bunker Types, North of Sled Track, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  8. 24. HOUSES READY TO BE MOVED, WEST REAR, GENERAL VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. HOUSES READY TO BE MOVED, WEST REAR, GENERAL VIEW FROM ACROSS STREET - Lenthall Houses, 612-614 Nineteenth Street Northwest-moved to 606-610 Twenty-first Street, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  9. 3. Northwest side and southwest rear of addition. View to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Northwest side and southwest rear of addition. View to east. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Aerospace Ground Equipment (AGE) Storage Facility, Far Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  10. 6. Interior, rear offices: operations assistant office looking north toward ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Interior, rear offices: operations assistant office looking north toward security operations officer's office. - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Rushmore Air Force Station, Security Central Control Building, Quesada Drive, Blackhawk, Meade County, SD

  11. 5. View looking northwest, showing rear (south) elevation of blacksmith ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. View looking northwest, showing rear (south) elevation of blacksmith shop/garage, residential garage and house - Lamprey Blacksmith Shop, South side of Dover Road, 0.05 miles east of Goboro Road, Epsom, Merrimack County, NH

  12. Oblique view of blacksmith shop, showing north and west (rear) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of blacksmith shop, showing north and west (rear) elevations; camera facing southeast - Lemmon-Anderson-Hixson Ranch, Blacksmith Shop, 11220 North Virginia Street, Reno, Washoe County, NV

  13. 4. View looking northwest, showing rear (south) elevation of blacksmith ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. View looking northwest, showing rear (south) elevation of blacksmith shop/garage, lower level, and porches - Lamprey Blacksmith Shop, South side of Dover Road, 0.05 miles east of Goboro Road, Epsom, Merrimack County, NH

  14. 7. DETAIL INTERIOR VIEW TO SOUTHWEST OF REAR ORIGINAL SECOND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. DETAIL INTERIOR VIEW TO SOUTHWEST OF REAR ORIGINAL SECOND FLOOR, WITH PASSAGEWAY LEADING TO c1944-1950 POST-U.S. RADIUM ADDITION - United States Radium Corporation, Paint Application Building, 422 Alden Street, Orange, Essex County, NJ

  15. 4. REAR ELEVATION OF CHAPEL. SOUTH (LEFT) AND EAST (RIGHT) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. REAR ELEVATION OF CHAPEL. SOUTH (LEFT) AND EAST (RIGHT) SIDES. THE STRUCTURE AT THE EXTREME RIGHT IS THE ACADEMY BUILDING - Ursuline Academy, Chapel, 300 Augusta Street, San Antonio, Bexar County, TX

  16. 12. INTERIOR DETAIL OF REAR OF FIRST FLOOR CONTROL PANEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. INTERIOR DETAIL OF REAR OF FIRST FLOOR CONTROL PANEL IN BUILDING 1501. VIEW TO WEST - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Sarin Manufacturing Building, 3350 feet South of Ninth Avenue; 250 feet East of Road NS-4, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  17. 2. VIEW TO WEST, REAR AND SIDE. Vanadium Corporation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW TO WEST, REAR AND SIDE. - Vanadium Corporation of America (VCA) Naturita Mill, Mechanic Shed, 3 miles Northwest of Naturita, between Highway 141 & San Miguel River, Naturita, Montrose County, CO

  18. 14. Detail, crack evidencing structural failure, northeast rear, view to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Detail, crack evidencing structural failure, northeast rear, view to southwest, 90mm lens. Note failure of sandstone lintel above window. - Benicia Arsenal, Powder Magazine No. 5, Junction of Interstate Highways 680 & 780, Benicia, Solano County, CA

  19. 13. Detail, typical window with fireproof shutters closed, northeast rear, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Detail, typical window with fireproof shutters closed, northeast rear, view to southwest, 135mm lens. Note cracks evidencing structural failure. - Benicia Arsenal, Powder Magazine No. 5, Junction of Interstate Highways 680 & 780, Benicia, Solano County, CA

  20. 12. Detail, typical window with fireproof shutters open, northeast rear, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Detail, typical window with fireproof shutters open, northeast rear, view to southwest, 135mm lens. Note cracks evidencing structural failure. - Benicia Arsenal, Powder Magazine No. 5, Junction of Interstate Highways 680 & 780, Benicia, Solano County, CA

  1. 15. Detail, cracks evidencing structural failure, northeast rear, view to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Detail, cracks evidencing structural failure, northeast rear, view to southwest, 90mm lens. - Benicia Arsenal, Powder Magazine No. 5, Junction of Interstate Highways 680 & 780, Benicia, Solano County, CA

  2. 20. Historic American Buildings Survey L. C. Durette, Photographer REAR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Historic American Buildings Survey L. C. Durette, Photographer REAR STAIRS 1st. TO 2nd. FLOOR SHOWING POST OF CHIMNEY GIRT & OVERHANG - Doe Garrison, Lamprey River & Great Bay, Newmarket, Rockingham County, NH

  3. 19. Historic American Buildings Survey L. C. Durette, Photographer REAR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Historic American Buildings Survey L. C. Durette, Photographer REAR STAIRS 1st. & 2nd. FLOOR SHOWING POST OF CHIMNEY GIRT - Doe Garrison, Lamprey River & Great Bay, Newmarket, Rockingham County, NH

  4. 6. West rear and north side of building. View to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. West rear and north side of building. View to southeast.' - U.S. Customs Service Port of Roosville, Main Port Building, U.S. Highway 93, immediately south of U.S.-Canadian border, Eureka, Lincoln County, MT

  5. 7. West rear and south side of building. View to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. West rear and south side of building. View to east. - U.S. Customs Service Port of Roosville, Main Port Building, U.S. Highway 93, immediately south of U.S.-Canadian border, Eureka, Lincoln County, MT

  6. OBLIQUE VIEW OF REAR ELEVATION OF MARINE BARRACKS, LOOKING WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF REAR ELEVATION OF MARINE BARRACKS, LOOKING WEST NORTHWEST. - Naval Computer & Telecommunications Area Master Station, Eastern Pacific, Radio Transmitter Facility Lualualei, Marine Barracks, Intersection of Tower Drive & Morse Street, Makaha, Honolulu County, HI

  7. SERVICE AREA AT THE REAR OF RESIDENCES, BETWEEN NINTH AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SERVICE AREA AT THE REAR OF RESIDENCES, BETWEEN NINTH AND TENTH STREETS. NOTE THE WATER TOWER JUST VISIBLE ABOVE THE TREES AT LEFT CENTER. VIEW FACING WEST NORTHWEST. - Hickam Field, Hickam Historic Housing, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  8. Oblique view of rear and south east sides, view towards ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of rear and south east sides, view towards the southwest, with scale - Fort McClellan Ammunition Storage Area, Building No. 4408, Second Avenue (Magazine Road), Anniston, Calhoun County, AL

  9. Planar view of rear (northeast) side, view towards the southwest, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Planar view of rear (northeast) side, view towards the southwest, without scale - Fort McClellan Ammunition Storage Area, Building No. 4408, Second Avenue (Magazine Road), Anniston, Calhoun County, AL

  10. Oblique view of rear and south east sides, view towards ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of rear and south east sides, view towards the southwest, without scale - Fort McClellan Ammunition Storage Area, Building No. 4408, Second Avenue (Magazine Road), Anniston, Calhoun County, AL

  11. Oblique view of rear and south sides of ammunition storage ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of rear and south sides of ammunition storage buildings 4403 and 4404, view towards the north without scale - Fort McClellan Ammunition Storage Area, Building No. 4403, Second Avenue (Magazine Road), Anniston, Calhoun County, AL

  12. Oblique view of rear and south sides of ammunition storage ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of rear and south sides of ammunition storage buildings 4404 and 4405, view towards the north without scale - Fort McClellan Ammunition Storage Area, Building No. 4404, Second Avenue (Magazine Road), Anniston, Calhoun County, AL

  13. Oblique view of rear and south sides of ammunition storage ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of rear and south sides of ammunition storage buildings 4404 and 4405, view towards the north with scale - Fort McClellan Ammunition Storage Area, Building No. 4404, Second Avenue (Magazine Road), Anniston, Calhoun County, AL

  14. Planar view of rear (northeast) side, view towards the southwest, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Planar view of rear (northeast) side, view towards the southwest, without scale - Fort McClellan Ammunition Storage Area, Building No. 4409, Second Avenue (Magazine Road), Anniston, Calhoun County, AL

  15. Interior planar view of doors to railroad platform at rear ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior planar view of doors to railroad platform at rear of ammunition storage building 4403, view towards the west westside with scale - Fort McClellan Ammunition Storage Area, Building No. 4403, Second Avenue (Magazine Road), Anniston, Calhoun County, AL

  16. 17. Rear (west) side of incinerator. Incinerator control panel on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Rear (west) side of incinerator. Incinerator control panel on the right. Looking south towards scrubber cell. - Plutonium Finishing Plant, Waste Incinerator Facility, 200 West Area, Richland, Benton County, WA

  17. 16. Rear (west) side of incinerator. Glove boxes to the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Rear (west) side of incinerator. Glove boxes to the left. Metal catwalk in the middle. Incinerator control panel to the right. Looking south towards scrubber cell. - Plutonium Finishing Plant, Waste Incinerator Facility, 200 West Area, Richland, Benton County, WA

  18. South (side) and east (rear) elevations, view to northwest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    South (side) and east (rear) elevations, view to northwest - Bureau of Mines Boulder City Experimental Station, Titanium Development Plant, Date Street north of U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  19. 3. South (side) and east (rear) elevations, view to northwest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. South (side) and east (rear) elevations, view to northwest - Bureau of Mines Boulder City Experimental Station, Titanium Research Building, Date Street north of U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  20. 22. DRAWING #8 OF 15, FRONT AND REAR ELEVATIONS, CANOPY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. DRAWING #8 OF 15, FRONT AND REAR ELEVATIONS, CANOPY ROOF PLAN AND CANOPY DETAIL, AND ELEVATIONS OF NEW TOILETS - U. S. Post Office, Custom House & Courthouse, 401 Center Street, Fernandina Beach, Nassau County, FL

  1. FACILITY 814, SOUTHEAST SIDE AND REAR, SHOWING COURTYARD BETWEEN WINGS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FACILITY 814, SOUTHEAST SIDE AND REAR, SHOWING COURTYARD BETWEEN WINGS, OBLIQUE VIEW FACING WEST. - Schofield Barracks Military Reservation, Bachelor Officers' Quarters Type, Between Grimes & Tidball Streets near Ayres Avenue, Wahiawa, Honolulu County, HI

  2. FACILITY 810, REAR OF DUPLEX SHOWING COURTYARD BETWEEN WINGS, OBLIQUE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FACILITY 810, REAR OF DUPLEX SHOWING COURTYARD BETWEEN WINGS, OBLIQUE VIEW FACING EAST. - Schofield Barracks Military Reservation, Duplex Housing Type with Corner Entries, Between Hamilton & Tidball Streets near Williston Avenue, Wahiawa, Honolulu County, HI

  3. OBLIQUE VIEW OF NORTHEAST SIDE. SHOWING THE TWO REAR WINGS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF NORTHEAST SIDE. SHOWING THE TWO REAR WINGS OF THE BUILDING. VIEW FACING SOUTHWEST. - Hickam Field, Fort Kamehameha Officers' Housing Type Y, 27 Worchester Avenue, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  4. View east, showing Northwest Wing (Wing 5) and rear elevations ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View east, showing Northwest Wing (Wing 5) and rear elevations of facade and tis flaking wings (Wings 1 and 2) - Hospital for Sick Children, 1731 Bunker Hill Road, Northeast, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  5. 68. VIEW SHOWING SOUTHWEST REAR OF NEPTUNE'S LOCK (LEFT) AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    68. VIEW SHOWING SOUTHWEST REAR OF NEPTUNE'S LOCK (LEFT) AND CAPTAIN'S GALLEY (RIGHT), LOOKING NORTHEAST - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  6. 63. DETAIL VIEW OF REAR DOOR, BUTTRESSES, AND PARAPETED GABLE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    63. DETAIL VIEW OF REAR DOOR, BUTTRESSES, AND PARAPETED GABLE, NEPTUNE'S LOCKER, SOUTHEAST SIDE, LOOKING NORTHWEST - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  7. Life sciences building, north rear, also showing north hall to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Life sciences building, north rear, also showing north hall to the right, and the library in the center distance. - San Bernardino Valley College, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  8. North rear, east part. Ramp leads to basement utility rooms ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North rear, east part. Ramp leads to basement utility rooms and specimen preparation rooms. - San Bernardino Valley College, Life Science Building, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  9. North rear, west part. Administration building is visible at far ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North rear, west part. Administration building is visible at far right. - San Bernardino Valley College, Life Science Building, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  10. Perspective view of north rear and west side, also showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view of north rear and west side, also showing north hall at far left. - San Bernardino Valley College, Life Science Building, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  11. 48. DETAIL OF REAR OF DEMULTIPLEX PANEL 5 SHOWING COMPONENTS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. DETAIL OF REAR OF DEMULTIPLEX PANEL 5 SHOWING COMPONENTS OF VACUUM-TUBE OSCILLOSCOPE - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Operations Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  12. FACILITY 809, HALLWAY LOOKING TOWARD REAR OF HOUSE, VIEW FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FACILITY 809, HALLWAY LOOKING TOWARD REAR OF HOUSE, VIEW FACING SOUTHWEST. - Schofield Barracks Military Reservation, Corner-Entry Single-Family Housing Type, Between Hamilton & Tidball Streets, & between Williston & Ayres Avenues, Wahiawa, Honolulu County, HI

  13. FACILITY 805, REAR AND SOUTHEAST SIDES, OBLIQUE VIEW FACING NORTHNORTHWEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FACILITY 805, REAR AND SOUTHEAST SIDES, OBLIQUE VIEW FACING NORTH-NORTHWEST. - Schofield Barracks Military Reservation, Corner-Entry Single-Family Housing Type, Between Hamilton & Tidball Streets, & between Williston & Ayres Avenues, Wahiawa, Honolulu County, HI

  14. FACILITY 713, REAR AND SOUTHEAST SIDES, OBLIQUE VIEW FACING EASTNORTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FACILITY 713, REAR AND SOUTHEAST SIDES, OBLIQUE VIEW FACING EAST-NORTHEAST. - Schofield Barracks Military Reservation, Central-Entry Single-Family Housing Type, Between Bragg & Grime Streets near Ayres Avenue, Wahiawa, Honolulu County, HI

  15. FACILITY 710, REAR COURTYARD BETWEEN WINGS, VIEW FACING NORTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FACILITY 710, REAR COURTYARD BETWEEN WINGS, VIEW FACING NORTHEAST. - Schofield Barracks Military Reservation, Corner-Entry Single-Family Housing Type, Between Bragg & Grime Streets near Williston Avenue, Wahiawa, Honolulu County, HI

  16. 5. VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING REAR WALL, CLEAT AND SINGLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING REAR WALL, CLEAT AND SINGLE BIT ON STERN DECK OF VESSEL 37 Edward Larrabee, photographer, December 1984 - Shooters Island, Ships Graveyard, Vessel No. 37, Newark Bay, Staten Island (subdivision), Richmond County, NY

  17. 7. VIEW, LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING REAR TBRACE. Photocopy of photograph. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW, LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING REAR T-BRACE. Photocopy of photograph. Susan Kardas, photographer, December 1984 - Shooters Island, Ships Graveyard, Vessel No. 37, Newark Bay, Staten Island (subdivision), Richmond County, NY

  18. 2. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING TOP, SIDE, AND REAR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING TOP, SIDE, AND REAR VIEW OF VESSEL 37 SUPERSTRUCTURE Charles Wisniewski, photographer, January 1985 - Shooters Island, Ships Graveyard, Vessel No. 37, Newark Bay, Staten Island (subdivision), Richmond County, NY

  19. 21. INTERIOR OF SOUTHEAST REAR BEDROOM SHOWING ALUMINUMFRAME SLIDING GLASS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. INTERIOR OF SOUTHEAST REAR BEDROOM SHOWING ALUMINUM-FRAME SLIDING GLASS WINDOWS. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  20. 19. INTERIOR OF NORTHEAST REAR BEDROOM SHOWING ALUMINUMFRAME SLIDING GLASS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. INTERIOR OF NORTHEAST REAR BEDROOM SHOWING ALUMINUM-FRAME SLIDING GLASS WINDOWS. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  1. FIRST FLOOR REAR ROOM. SECOND FLOOR HAS BEEN REMOVED NOTE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FIRST FLOOR REAR ROOM. SECOND FLOOR HAS BEEN REMOVED-- NOTE PRESENCE OF SECOND FLOOR WINDOWS AT LEFT. See also PA-1436 B-6 - Kid-Physick House, 325 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  2. FIRST FLOOR REAR ROOM. SECOND FLOOR HAS BEEN REMOVED NOTE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FIRST FLOOR REAR ROOM. SECOND FLOOR HAS BEEN REMOVED-- NOTE PRESENCE OF SECOND FLOOR WINDOWS AT LEFT. See also PA-1436 B-13 - Kid-Physick House, 325 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  3. View of the rear of the electrical department & boiler ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the rear of the electrical department & boiler house, behind the upper shops - Johnson Steel Street Rail Company, Electrical Department & Boiler House, 525 Central Avenue, Johnstown, Cambria County, PA

  4. Oblique view of the northwest end of the rear facade ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of the northwest end of the rear facade showing structural glue-laminated beams, view facing southeast - Pearl Harbor Memorial Community Church, 20 Bougainville Drive, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  5. 20. Mill River and rear of the 1860 armory building, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Mill River and rear of the 1860 armory building, c. 1930. Photocopied from a print of a film negative, NHCHSL. View from the south. - Eli Whitney Armory, West of Whitney Avenue, Armory Street Vicinity, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  6. SOUTH (REAR) AND EAST (SIDE) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SOUTH (REAR) AND EAST (SIDE) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Small Arms Range System, Off Perimeter Road in Firearms Training Area, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  7. WEST (SIDE) AND SOUTH (REAR) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WEST (SIDE) AND SOUTH (REAR) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Combined Arms Training Maintenance Building, Off Perimeter Road in Firearms Training Area, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  8. SOUTH (REAR) AND EAST (SIDE) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SOUTH (REAR) AND EAST (SIDE) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Combined Arms Training Maintenance Building, Off Perimeter Road in Firearms Training Area, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  9. Pool area with mezzanine at rear Fitzsimons General Hospital, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Pool area with mezzanine at rear - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Swimming Pool, Southeast corner of East Nineteenth Place (formerly East McAfee Avenue) & Wheeling Street (formerly South Van Valzah Street), Aurora, Adams County, CO

  10. Rear (east) side Fitzsimons General Hospital, Swimming Pool, Southeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Rear (east) side - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Swimming Pool, Southeast corner of East Nineteenth Place (formerly East McAfee Avenue) & Wheeling Street (formerly South Van Valzah Street), Aurora, Adams County, CO

  11. WEST (REAR) AND NORTH (SIDE) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. view TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WEST (REAR) AND NORTH (SIDE) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. view TO SOUTHEAST - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Airmen Dining Hall, Connecticut Road, between Illinois Drive & Idaho Avenue, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  12. 6. WARHEADING BUILDING, REAR AND LEFT SIDES, CENTER OF BERM, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. WARHEADING BUILDING, REAR AND LEFT SIDES, CENTER OF BERM, NO LONGER IN EXISTENCE, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Warheading Building, South end of launch area, west of Generator Building No. 3, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  13. 3. WARHEADING BUILDING, REAR SIDE, CENTER OF BERM, NO LONGER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. WARHEADING BUILDING, REAR SIDE, CENTER OF BERM, NO LONGER IN EXISTENCE, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Warheading Building, South end of launch area, west of Generator Building No. 3, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  14. 4. REAR VIEW OF BUILDING NO. 93 FACING SOUTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. REAR VIEW OF BUILDING NO. 93 FACING SOUTHWEST - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Alcohol Rehabilitation Center, Nimitz Spur between Sixth Street & Naval Station North Road, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  15. Detail, rear door types, building 242, oblique view to southwest, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail, rear door types, building 242, oblique view to southwest, 90 mm lens. - Travis Air Force Base, Nuclear Weapons Assembly Building, W Street, Armed Forces Special Weapons Project Q Area, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  16. 4. WEST REAR ELEVATION OF BUILDING 260 (STORAGE STRUCTURE A) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. WEST REAR ELEVATION OF BUILDING 260 (STORAGE STRUCTURE A) IN STORAGE AREA. - Loring Air Force Base, Weapons Storage Area, Northeastern corner of base at northern end of Maine Road, Limestone, Aroostook County, ME

  17. Looking Southwest to Dry and Wet Exterior Scrubbers at Rear ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking Southwest to Dry and Wet Exterior Scrubbers at Rear of Oxide Building - Hematite Fuel Fabrication Facility, Oxide Building & Oxide Loading Dock, 3300 State Road P, Festus, Jefferson County, MO

  18. 4. WASHBURN POINT VISTA AREA. HALF DOME AT CENTER REAR. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. WASHBURN POINT VISTA AREA. HALF DOME AT CENTER REAR. LOOKING NE. GIS: N-37 43 13.7 / W-119 34 23.0 - Glacier Point Road, Between Chinquapin Flat & Glacier Point, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  19. EAST (REAR) AND NORTH (SIDE) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. view TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EAST (REAR) AND NORTH (SIDE) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. view TO SOUTHWEST. - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Spares Inert Storage Building, Off Perimeter Road in Weapons Storage Area, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  20. J SERIES MAGAZINE. J 107 NORTH END AND REAR (EAST). ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    J SERIES MAGAZINE. J 107 NORTH END AND REAR (EAST). J 106-103 IN BACKGROUND. - Naval Magazine Lualualei, Headquarters Branch, Inert Storehouse Type, Twelfth Street between Kwajulein & New Mexico Streets, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  1. Looking West From rear (East) End of Office Building Including ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking West From rear (East) End of Office Building Including Recycle Storage Area, Loading Docks, and Decontamination Zone - Hematite Fuel Fabrication Facility, Office, 3300 State Road P, Festus, Jefferson County, MO

  2. 3. EXTERIOR VIEW OF THE REAR AND NORTHEAST SIDE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. EXTERIOR VIEW OF THE REAR AND NORTHEAST SIDE OF BUILDING 651 FACING WEST. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Shore Intermediate-Maintenance Facility, Corner of Morton & Craig Streets, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  3. 3. EXTERIOR VIEW OF THE REAR AND NORTHWEST SIDE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. EXTERIOR VIEW OF THE REAR AND NORTHWEST SIDE OF BUILDING 660 FACING EAST. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Ship Repair Shop, Morton Street between Coe & Craig Streets, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  4. 2. EXTERIOR VIEW OF THE REAR AND SOUTH SIDE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. EXTERIOR VIEW OF THE REAR AND SOUTH SIDE OF BUILDING 676 FACING NORTHEAST. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Applied Instruction Building, Corner of Morton & Moore Streets, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  5. 3. EXTERIOR VIEW OF THE REAR AND NORTH SIDE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. EXTERIOR VIEW OF THE REAR AND NORTH SIDE OF BUILDING 676 FACING SOUTHEAST. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Applied Instruction Building, Corner of Morton & Moore Streets, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  6. 2. EXTERIOR VIEW OF THE REAR AND SOUTHEAST SIDE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. EXTERIOR VIEW OF THE REAR AND SOUTHEAST SIDE OF BUILDING 660 FACING NORTH. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Ship Repair Shop, Morton Street between Coe & Craig Streets, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  7. 3. EXTERIOR VIEW OF THE REAR AND NORTHEAST SIDE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. EXTERIOR VIEW OF THE REAR AND NORTHEAST SIDE OF BUILDING 681 FACING SOUTHWEST. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Administration Building, Nimitz Street near Morton Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  8. 4. EXTERIOR VIEW OF THE REAR AND SOUTHWEST SIDE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. EXTERIOR VIEW OF THE REAR AND SOUTHWEST SIDE OF BUILDING 681 FACING NORTH. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Administration Building, Nimitz Street near Morton Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  9. 3. EXTERIOR VIEW OF THE REAR (PARTIAL) AND WEST SIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. EXTERIOR VIEW OF THE REAR (PARTIAL) AND WEST SIDE OF BUILDING 680 FACING NORTHEAST. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Fire Station, Nimitz Street between Moore & Morton Streets, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  10. 2. EXTERIOR VIEW OF THE REAR (PARTIAL) AND EAST SIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. EXTERIOR VIEW OF THE REAR (PARTIAL) AND EAST SIDE OF BUILDING 680 FACING NORTHWEST. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Fire Station, Nimitz Street between Moore & Morton Streets, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  11. 4. View south of rear of filtration bed building. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. View south of rear of filtration bed building. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  12. 54. POWDER MAGAZINE, VENTILATION PASSAGE ALONG REAR. NOTE STONE RUBBLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    54. POWDER MAGAZINE, VENTILATION PASSAGE ALONG REAR. NOTE STONE RUBBLE CONSTRUCTION TO LEFT (SOUTHWEST); ENTRANCE TO A MAGAZINE TO THE RIGHT. VIEW IS NORTHWEST TO SOUTHEAST. - Fort Monroe, Fortress, Hampton, Hampton, VA

  13. Ejection of a rear facing, golf cart passenger.

    PubMed

    Schau, Kyle; Masory, Oren

    2013-10-01

    The following report details the findings of a series of experiments and simulations performed on a commercially available, shuttle style golf cart during several maneuvers involving rapid accelerations of the vehicle. It is determined that the current set of passive restraints on these types of golf carts are not adequate in preventing ejection of a rear facing passenger during rapid accelerations in the forward and lateral directions. Experimental data and simulations show that a hip restraint must be a minimum of 13 in. above the seat in order to secure a rear facing passenger during sharp turns, compared to the current restraint height of 5 in. Furthermore, it is determined that a restraint directly in front of the rear facing passenger is necessary to prevent ejection. In addressing these issues, golf cart manufacturers could greatly reduce the likelihood of injury due to ejection of a rear facing, golf cart passenger.

  14. WEST (REAR) AND NORTH (SIDE) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WEST (REAR) AND NORTH (SIDE) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. VIEW TO EAST. - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Target Intelligence Training Building-Combat Center, Off Connecticut Road, east of Idaho Avenue, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  15. SOUTH (SIDE) AND WEST (REAR) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. view TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SOUTH (SIDE) AND WEST (REAR) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. view TO NORTH. - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Target Intelligence Training Building-Combat Center, Off Connecticut Road, east of Idaho Avenue, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  16. 3. Rear (north) and east elevations of converted chicken house, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Rear (north) and east elevations of converted chicken house, with smokehouse, cooling (well) house, and residence in background - Henry E. Williams Farmstead, Converted Chicken House, East of Residence & Smokehouse, Cedar Point, Chase County, KS

  17. 28. Rear lot of the Adelman Block. The collapsed truss ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. Rear lot of the Adelman Block. The collapsed truss roof (ca. 1932) originally sheltered an automobile sales garage - Lockport Historic District, Bounded by Eighth, Hamilton & Eleventh Streets & Illinois & Michigan Canal, Lockport, Will County, IL

  18. VIEW OF NORTH REAR, BUILDING 13 TO RIGHT, FACING SOUTHWEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF NORTH REAR, BUILDING 13 TO RIGHT, FACING SOUTHWEST. - Douglas Aircraft Company Long Beach Plant, Aircraft Wing & Fuselage Assembly Building, 3855 Lakewood Boulevard, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  19. VIEW OF EAST SIDE AND NORTH REAR, FACING SOUTHWEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF EAST SIDE AND NORTH REAR, FACING SOUTHWEST. - Douglas Aircraft Company Long Beach Plant, Aircraft Wing & Fuselage Assembly Building, 3855 Lakewood Boulevard, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  20. 3. REAR VIEW, AUTOMATIC BLOCK SIGNAL, EASTBOUND ON CATENARY BRIDGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. REAR VIEW, AUTOMATIC BLOCK SIGNAL, EASTBOUND ON CATENARY BRIDGE 486 - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  1. SOUTHWEST REAR, SHOWING CLOSED ENTRY HATCH, BUILDING 1934. Looking north ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SOUTHWEST REAR, SHOWING CLOSED ENTRY HATCH, BUILDING 1934. Looking north - Edwards Air Force Base, X-15 Engine Test Complex, Observation Bunker Types, Rogers Dry Lake, east of runway between North Base & South Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  2. View of east and south (rear) walls, water wheels and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of east and south (rear) walls, water wheels and generators, interior of Childs Powerhouse. Looking southeast - Childs-Irving Hydroelectric Project, Childs System, Childs Powerhouse, Forest Service Road 708/502, Camp Verde, Yavapai County, AZ

  3. 5. Interior, third floor rear of 10 East State Street ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Interior, third floor rear of 10 East State Street showing original surviving 6/6 sash window and moldings. - 8-10 East State Street (Commercial Building), 8-10 East State Street, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

  4. 4. EXTERIOR REAR (EAST) END OF BUILDING 122 SHOWING HIPPEDROOF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. EXTERIOR REAR (EAST) END OF BUILDING 122 SHOWING HIPPED-ROOF COVER AND CONCRETE STEPS TO SOUTH SIDE DOOR. VIEW TO WEST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  5. 6. INTERIOR OF REAR SECTION OF BUILDING 431. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. INTERIOR OF REAR SECTION OF BUILDING 431. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Ethylene Dryer-Compressor Refrigeration Building, December Seventh Avenue & D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  6. EXTERIOR VIEW OF THE REAR AND NORTH SIDE OF BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EXTERIOR VIEW OF THE REAR AND NORTH SIDE OF BUILDING 89 FACING SOUTHEAST. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Theater, Hornet Avenue between Enterprise & Pokomoke Streets, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  7. EXTERIOR VIEW OF THE REAR AND SOUTH SIDE OF BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EXTERIOR VIEW OF THE REAR AND SOUTH SIDE OF BUILDING 89 FACING NORTHEAST. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Theater, Hornet Avenue between Enterprise & Pokomoke Streets, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  8. EXTERIOR VIEW OF THE REAR AND NORTHEAST SIDE OF BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EXTERIOR VIEW OF THE REAR AND NORTHEAST SIDE OF BUILDING 190 FACING SOUTH. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Warehouse & Cold Storage Building, North corner of Pokomoke Street & Hornet Avenue, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  9. EXTERIOR VIEW OF THE REAR AND SOUTHWEST SIDE OF BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EXTERIOR VIEW OF THE REAR AND SOUTHWEST SIDE OF BUILDING 190 FACING EAST. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Warehouse & Cold Storage Building, North corner of Pokomoke Street & Hornet Avenue, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  10. EXTERIOR VIEW OF THE REAR AND SOUTHEAST SIDE OF BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EXTERIOR VIEW OF THE REAR AND SOUTHEAST SIDE OF BUILDING Q14 FACING NORTH. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Boat Repair Shop, Hornet Avenue northeast of Ferry slip S371, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  11. 6. VIEW SHOWING NORTHEAST END OF WHARF REAR FROM LANDSLIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW SHOWING NORTHEAST END OF WHARF REAR FROM LANDSLIDE - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Berthing Wharf S378, Beckoning Point, Southeast of Cowpens Street, Ford Island, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  12. COUNTERWEIGHT, CONNECTED TO HYDRAULIC BRAKE SYSTEM, IN REAR OF VAULT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    COUNTERWEIGHT, CONNECTED TO HYDRAULIC BRAKE SYSTEM, IN REAR OF VAULT MOTOR ROOM, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - Mad River Glen, Single Chair Ski Lift, 62 Mad River Glen Resort Road, Fayston, Washington County, VT

  13. 9. Interior view of electronics compartment. View toward rear of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Interior view of electronics compartment. View toward rear of aircraft. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  14. 6. OUTER BLAST DOOR, WEST REAR. Edwards Air Force ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. OUTER BLAST DOOR, WEST REAR. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Firing & Control Blockhouse for 10,000-foot Track, South of Sled Track at midpoint of 20,000-foot track, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  15. 5. NORTH SIDE AND WEST REAR. Edwards Air Force ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. NORTH SIDE AND WEST REAR. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Firing & Control Blockhouse for 10,000-foot Track, South of Sled Track at midpoint of 20,000-foot track, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  16. 5. View of southeast (rear) elevation, showing property in setting; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. View of southeast (rear) elevation, showing property in setting; palms are street trees shown in CA-2211-1; view to northwest. - T.J. Young Cottage, 208 Palm Avenue, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara County, CA

  17. 1. VIEW NORTHWEST, EAST (REAR) ELEVATION OF 305 CHURCH STREET ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW NORTHWEST, EAST (REAR) ELEVATION OF 305 CHURCH STREET WITH 313 and 317 CHURCH STREET IN BACKGROUND - Putnam Manufacturing Company Workers' Houses, 305 Church Street (House), Putnam, Windham County, CT

  18. Effects of rapid eye movement sleep deprivation on the feeding behavior in the laboratory rat with a description of the cuff pedestal technique.

    PubMed

    Elomaa, E

    1985-01-01

    The cuff pedestal technique, with which it is possible to use the test animal as its own control both before and after REMs deprivation, was described. The validity of this modified procedure for REMs deprivation was tested with reference to the electrophysiological sleep correlates using 6 adult rats deprived of REMs for 3 days. The stress effects of the cuff pedestal treatment were assessed in terms of adrenal weights in 12 rats. The duration of REMs deprivation in this experiment was 5 days. The effects of REMs deprivation on locomotor activity and food intake were studied in 8 juvenile rats exposed to REMs deprivation by lowering the cuffs for 6 days after 3 baseline days with the cuffs raised. 24 h recordings of meal pattern data were obtained from 8 adult rats during one baseline day, during the first and sixth day of REMs deprivation and during the second day after termination of REMs deprivation. The main results were as follows: The procedure of placing experimentally naive rats on small pedestals surrounded by water inhibited normal food intake for several days. Concomitant weight losses were of the same order as have been reported to occur in control rats on large pedestals. This finding suggests that both the large and small pedestals should be equipped with movable cuffs and that actual deprivation should be started by lowering the cuffs only when the animals have exceeded their original weights. The electrophysiological sleep/waking cycle of rats adapted to living on the pedestal with the cuff raised was similar to that reported in rats under ordinary laboratory conditions. Lowering of the cuffs for 3 days resulted in an almost total disappearance of REMs. A prominent rebound increase of REMs occurred after raising of the cuffs. Rats kept for fourteen days on pedestals with the cuffs raised displayed an increase of about 20% in the weights of the adrenal bodies. A quite similar adrenal hypertrophy, however, also occurs in rats living under enriched

  19. Rearing Temperature Influences Adult Response to Changes in Mating Status.

    PubMed

    Westerman, Erica; Monteiro, Antónia

    2016-01-01

    Rearing environment can have an impact on adult behavior, but it is less clear how rearing environment influences adult behavior plasticity. Here we explore the effect of rearing temperature on adult mating behavior plasticity in the butterfly Bicyclus anynana, a species that has evolved two seasonal forms in response to seasonal changes in temperature. These seasonal forms differ in both morphology and behavior. Females are the choosy sex in cohorts reared at warm temperatures (WS butterflies), and males are the choosy sex in cohorts reared at cooler temperatures (DS butterflies). Rearing temperature also influences mating benefits and costs. In DS butterflies, mated females live longer than virgin females, and mated males live shorter than virgin males. No such benefits or costs to mating are present in WS butterflies. Given that choosiness and mating costs are rearing temperature dependent in B. anynana, we hypothesized that temperature may also impact male and female incentives to remate in the event that benefits and costs of second matings are similar to those of first matings. We first examined whether lifespan was affected by number of matings. We found that two matings did not significantly increase lifespan for either WS or DS butterflies relative to single matings. However, both sexes of WS but not DS butterflies experienced decreased longevity when mated to a non-virgin relative to a virgin. We next observed pairs of WS and DS butterflies and documented changes in mating behavior in response to changes in the mating status of their partner. WS but not DS butterflies changed their mating behavior in response to the mating status of their partner. These results suggest that rearing temperature influences adult mating behavior plasticity in B. anynana. This developmentally controlled behavioral plasticity may be adaptive, as lifespan depends on the partner's mating status in one seasonal form, but not in the other.

  20. Rearing Temperature Influences Adult Response to Changes in Mating Status

    PubMed Central

    Westerman, Erica; Monteiro, Antónia

    2016-01-01

    Rearing environment can have an impact on adult behavior, but it is less clear how rearing environment influences adult behavior plasticity. Here we explore the effect of rearing temperature on adult mating behavior plasticity in the butterfly Bicyclus anynana, a species that has evolved two seasonal forms in response to seasonal changes in temperature. These seasonal forms differ in both morphology and behavior. Females are the choosy sex in cohorts reared at warm temperatures (WS butterflies), and males are the choosy sex in cohorts reared at cooler temperatures (DS butterflies). Rearing temperature also influences mating benefits and costs. In DS butterflies, mated females live longer than virgin females, and mated males live shorter than virgin males. No such benefits or costs to mating are present in WS butterflies. Given that choosiness and mating costs are rearing temperature dependent in B. anynana, we hypothesized that temperature may also impact male and female incentives to remate in the event that benefits and costs of second matings are similar to those of first matings. We first examined whether lifespan was affected by number of matings. We found that two matings did not significantly increase lifespan for either WS or DS butterflies relative to single matings. However, both sexes of WS but not DS butterflies experienced decreased longevity when mated to a non-virgin relative to a virgin. We next observed pairs of WS and DS butterflies and documented changes in mating behavior in response to changes in the mating status of their partner. WS but not DS butterflies changed their mating behavior in response to the mating status of their partner. These results suggest that rearing temperature influences adult mating behavior plasticity in B. anynana. This developmentally controlled behavioral plasticity may be adaptive, as lifespan depends on the partner’s mating status in one seasonal form, but not in the other. PMID:26863319