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Sample records for labour relations

  1. Onset of labour: women's experiences and midwives' assessments in relation to first stage duration.

    PubMed

    Gross, Mechthild M; Burian, Rosemarie A; Frömke, Cornelia; Hecker, Hartmut; Schippert, Cordula; Hillemanns, Peter

    2009-12-01

    The study aimed to assess the time of labour onset and its symptoms as perceived by women in labour and midwives, and the relationship between these and first stage duration. A longitudinal cohort study of women with a singleton pregnancy in cephalic presentation was performed in 41 maternity units. The sample comprised 1,170 women, 611 nulliparae (np) and 559 multiparae (mp), who answered two standardized questions on the onset of labour and selected the applicable symptoms of labour onset from a list of eight. A multivariate Cox regression model was computed covering further perinatal factors. The median durations of the first stage of labour as assessed by the women themselves were 11 (np) and 6.5 h (mp), and as assessed by the midwives 7 (np) and 4 h (mp). Median time intervals between the start of labour onset symptoms as perceived by the women concerned and the midwives' diagnoses varied greatly: the shortest related to watery fluid loss (np = 1.5 h, mp = 0.0 h), the longest to alterations in sleep patterns (np = 11.5 h, mp = 4.5 h). Irregular pain, watery fluid loss and the time between self-diagnosed and professionally diagnosed onset of labour were just as closely associated with the duration of the first stage of labour as perinatal factors. Significant perinatal factors were induction with oxytocin, herbal remedies and PROM. The perceptions of women in labour are as important as perinatal factors in determining the duration of the first stage of labour and should be taken into account in intrapartum care.

  2. Systemic Modelling for Relating Labour Market to Vocational Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papakitsos, Evangelos C.

    2016-01-01

    The present study introduces a systemic model that demonstrates a description of the relationship between the labour-market and vocational education from the perspective of systemic theory. Based on the application of the relevant methodology, the two open social systems are identified and analyzed. Their key-features are presented and the points…

  3. Women's satisfaction with decision-making related to augmentation of labour.

    PubMed

    Blix-Lindström, Sabine; Christensson, Kyllike; Johansson, Eva

    2004-03-01

    to describe women's experiences of participating in decision-making related to augmentation of labour. a qualitative approach using modified grounded theory technique. Open-ended interviews were conducted 1-3 days after childbirth. the interviews were performed in the postnatal wards in five hospitals (tertiary level) in Stockholm, Sweden. 20 newly delivered women who had received oxytocin infusion for augmentation of labour during childbirth. FINDINGS AND KEY CONCLUSIONS: support and guidance from midwives in combination with knowledge and expectations about the intervention seemed to be important for women's satisfaction with decision-making concerning augmentation of labour. Four patterns of decision-making were found. One group of women participated in the decision-making regarding augmentation of labour while a second group was invited, but refrained from participation. These women were satisfied with the decisions made. A third group of women did not participate, but wanted to and they were dissatisfied with the decisions made. The fourth group did not participate in the decision-making-and did not want to. These women accepted the decisions made. The desire for information exceeded the desire for involvement in decision-making and the majority of women had confidence in the midwives' assessment.

  4. Invisible Labour: Home-School Relations and the Front Office

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Pat; Ellison, Linda; Byrom, Tina; Bulman, Donna

    2007-01-01

    When school front offices are mentioned in research on schools and their relations with the community, it is often to describe how parents/carers and the public are treated officiously and/or inappropriately. In professional development materials, schools are urged to improve communication, and occasionally directed to consider the practices of…

  5. Babies who die from labour-related intrapartum hypoxia: a confidential enquiry in South African public hospitals.

    PubMed

    Buchmann, E J; Pattinson, R C

    2006-01-01

    Seventeen hospitals, from a range of health-care environments, participated in confidential enquiries of perinatal deaths resulting from labour-related intrapartum hypoxia. There were 102 deaths, including 22 stillbirths and 80 neonatal deaths. The mean birthweight was 3021 g. The active phase of the first stage of labour was prolonged beyond 12 h in six cases, and oxytocin was used for induction or augmentation in 10 women. Fetal heart decelerations were detected in 39 (49%) of the babies that went on to die in the neonatal period, and meconium passage was evident in 50 (63%). There were six breech presentations, and seven cases of cord prolapse. The majority of these deaths occurred in low-risk women with apparently uncomplicated labour. There appears to be a failure to detect or respond to evidence of fetal distress. Intrapartum care for all women in labour requires close attention to detail in monitoring fetal health.

  6. The ergonomic evaluation of work-related musculoskeletal disorders among construction labourers working in unorganized sectors in West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Subhashis; Chattopadhyay, Soumen; Basu, Kumkum; Paul, Goutam

    2010-12-01

    The present study aimed at ergonomic evaluation of the prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders among construction labourers working in unorganized sectors in West Bengal, India. A modified Nordic questionnaire was applied to one hundred forty male and ninety female construction labourers to acquire information about musculoskeletal symptoms like pain in different body parts. Work-rest schedules of the labourers in different work activities were studied. Working postures were analyzed by means of the Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA) tool. Body part discomfort (BPD) scale was used to assess the intensity of feeling of discomforts in the different body parts. It was revealed that the labourers performed repetitive, stressful work for a long period of time in a single work-rest cycle and the load lifted and carried by them were more than the NIOSH recommended weight limit. The analyses of working postures revealed that most of their working postures were unsafe and ranked under REBA action level 3 and 4. The results obtained by applying the Nordic questionnaire and BPD scale revealed that the prevalence of pain in various regions of the body, especially low-back pain, was alarmingly high in both male and female labourers. Training for safe lifting of materials, proper work-rest schedule, modifications of some working procedures and the use of ergonomically designed equipment may certainly reduce the work-related musculoskeletal disorders and improve the health status of construction labourers working in unorganized sectors.

  7. The Norwegian Labour Inspectorate's Registry for Work-Related Diseases: data from 2006.

    PubMed

    Samant, Yogindra; Parker, David; Wergeland, Ebba; Wannag, Axel

    2008-01-01

    The Norwegian Labour Inspectorates (NLI's) Registry for Work-Related Diseases was established in 1920. Based on the principle of sentinel health events (SHE), its central purpose is to provide information to the NLI to enable workplace interventions and the prevention of hazardous exposures. Although physicians are required to report work-related diseases to the NLI, only 3% did so in 2006. There were 3392 cases of work-related diseases reported to the NLI by 561 physicians in 2006. Diseases of the ear (noise-induced hearing loss) comprised 59% (n=1987) of the cases, while 12% (n=398) of the cases were attributed to the diseases of the respiratory system and 7% (n =239) were diseases of the skin and subcutaneous tissue. Despite limitations, the registry continues to inform NLI's prevention strategies, supplements data concerning work-environment surveillance, and provides impetus for epidemiological studies.

  8. [Child labour].

    PubMed

    Marsella, L T; Savastano, L; Saracino, V; Del Vecchio, R

    2005-01-01

    The authors emphasize the violation of children's and adolescents' rights as a result of the exploitation of child labour. Besides the legal aspect, they pointed out the medical features related to the delicate growing process of the child in the phases of development and adaptation of the main organs to hard work. Currently the problem is being supervised by those states that recognize the right for minors to be protected against any kind of physical, mental, spiritual and moral risk.

  9. The Pain of Labour

    PubMed Central

    Labor, Simona

    2008-01-01

    Labour is an emotional experience and involves both physiological and psychological mechanisms. The pain of labour is severe but despite this its memory diminishes with time. Labour pain has two components: visceral pain which occurs during the early first stage and the second stage of childbirth, and somatic pain which occurs during the late first stage and the second stage. The pain of labour in the first stage is mediated by T10 to L1 spinal segments, whereas that in the second stage is carried by T12 to L1, and S2 to S4 spinal segments. Pain relief in labour is complex and often challenging without regional analgesia. Effective management of labour pain plays a relatively minor role in a woman's satisfaction with childbirth. PMID:26526404

  10. Developing and Evaluating a Multimodal Course Format: Danish for Knowledge Workers--Labour Market-Related Danish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frederiksen, Karen-Margrete; Laursen, Katja Årosin

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents our reflections on developing the Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) course "Danish for knowledge workers--labour market-related Danish." As defined by Laursen and Frederiksen (2015), knowledge workers are "highly educated people who typically work at universities, at other institutions of higher…

  11. State mediation of conflicts over work refusals: the role of the Ontario Labour Relations Board.

    PubMed

    Walters, V

    1991-01-01

    A key feature of occupational health and safety legislation is that it has sought to compartmentalize health and safety issues by creating structures and processes that depart from "typical" social relations of production. The Ontario Labour Relations Board, in adjudicating disputes concerning work refusals, faces the difficult, if not impossible, task of defining and maintaining a sphere in which workers have an uncommon latitude and power. Analysis of cases before the Board during the 1980s shows how it errs on the side of caution and uses criteria related to "typical" social relations of production to define convincing testimony and assess workers' entitlement to redress. Similarly, employers' interests and the requirements of the labor process are a reference point in the Board's definition of the scope of workers' rights and what constitute legitimate penalties for the "abuse" of these. Yet decisions are not wholly biased toward employers; dissenting opinions reveal important differences and progressive rulings establish precedents that could be a basis for future decisions.

  12. Industrial relations conflict in Irish hospitals: a review of Labour Court cases.

    PubMed

    Cowman, Jennifer; Keating, Mary A

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the nature of industrial relations (IR), and IR conflict in the Irish healthcare sector. The paper is based on a thematic analysis of Labour Court cases concerning hospitals over a ten-year period. The findings of the paper indicate that the nature of IR conflict is changing in healthcare. The paper suggests that alternative manifestations of IR conflict evident in the Irish healthcare sector include: absenteeism as a form of temporary exit; and resistance. The key groups in the sector are discussed in the context of their contrasting disputes. The themes which characterise negotiations are identified as precedent, procedure and partnership. The research was conducted in the healthcare sector, and thus its transferability is limited. Caution is also required as the research pertains to one national setting, which despite sharing some structural similarities with other health and IR systems, is a unique context. The paper highlights the importance of recognising IR conflict in its various forms. It is further suggested that managing the process of IR conflict may be significant in furthering change agendas. The value of the paper centres on the investigation of alternative manifestations of IR conflict in the healthcare sector.

  13. Fathers' feelings related to their partners' childbirth and views on their presence during labour and childbirth: A descriptive quantitative study.

    PubMed

    He, Hong-Gu; Vehviläinen-Julkunen, Katri; Qian, Xiao-Fang; Sapountzi-Krepia, Despina; Gong, Yuhua; Wang, Wenru

    2015-05-01

    This study examined Chinese fathers' feelings about their partners' delivery and views on their presence during labour and birth. A questionnaire survey was conducted with 403 fathers whose partners gave birth in one provincial hospital in China. Data were analysed by descriptive statistics, χ(2)-test and content analysis. The results indicated that more than 80% of fathers experienced feelings of pride related to fatherhood and of love towards their partners and newborns. Significant differences in fathers' feelings were found between subgroups with regard to age, education, employment, presence in the delivery room, method of birth and whether preparatory visits had been made to the hospital. The majority who answered an open-ended question on the meaning of fathers' presence in the delivery room held a positive attitude towards fathers' presence at labour and birth, as their presence could empower their partners and provide psychological support. This study indicates fathers' presence at delivery and birth is important and that younger fathers need more support. It also provides evidence for clinical practice and future interventions to improve fathers' psychological health and experiences. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  14. Legal gaps relating to labour safety and health in the maritime transport sector in Spain.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Julio Louro; Portela, Rosa Mary de la Campa; Carrera, Paula Vazquez

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays the labour sector is experiencing an important increase in the application of risk prevention policies. Although these policies are very significant due to their repercussions in the health of workers, we noticed important legal gaps in maritime sector regulations. Frequently sea workers are legally abandoned, by exclusion or omission, at the moment of claiming for the improvement of their working environment and the reduction of the negative consequences derived from this negligence over their safety and health. In the present paper we try to shed some light on this topic by analysing and examining minutely the Spanish applicable risk prevention legislation for this sector. Moreover, the recommendations of the International Maritime Organization are compared with the current application of the law. At the same time, we present some possible solutions to such problems from an objective point of view.

  15. The hospital and the hospital: Infrastructure, human tissue, labour and the scientific production of relational value.

    PubMed

    Street, Alice

    2016-12-01

    How does science make a home for itself in a public hospital? This article explores how scientists working in 'resource poor' contexts of global health negotiate relationships with their hosts, in this case the doctors, nurses and patients who already inhabit a provincial-level hospital. Taking its lead from recent works on science, ethics and development, this article seeks to 'provincialize the laboratory' by focussing on the scientific tropics as a space of productive encounter and engagement. A view from the hospital reveals the tenuous process of 'setting up' a place for science, in a world that does not immediately recognize its value. The article examines the material exchanges of infrastructure, bodily tissues and labour that enable one young scientist to establish a scientific life for himself. The success of those transactions, it argues, ultimately derives from their objectification of scientific vulnerability and their enactment of relationships of mutual recognition. As opposed to asking how scientific knowledge is produced in the tropics, the view from the hospital challenges us to focus on the establishment of relationships between scientists and their hosts as a productive endeavour in its own right.

  16. Child Labour and Educational Success in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goulart, Pedro; Bedi, Arjun S.

    2008-01-01

    The current debate on child labour focuses on developing countries. However, Portugal is an example of a relatively developed country where child labour is still a matter of concern as between 8% and 12% of Portuguese children may be classified as workers. This paper studies the patterns of child labour in Portugal and assesses the consequences of…

  17. Child Labour and Educational Success in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goulart, Pedro; Bedi, Arjun S.

    2008-01-01

    The current debate on child labour focuses on developing countries. However, Portugal is an example of a relatively developed country where child labour is still a matter of concern as between 8% and 12% of Portuguese children may be classified as workers. This paper studies the patterns of child labour in Portugal and assesses the consequences of…

  18. Does labour market disadvantage help to explain why childhood circumstances are related to quality of life at older ages? Results from SHARE.

    PubMed

    Wahrendorf, Morten; Blane, David

    2015-07-01

    There is robust evidence that childhood circumstances are related to quality of life in older ages, but the role of possible intermediate factors is less explored. In this paper, we examine to what extent associations between deprived childhood circumstances and quality of life at older ages are due to experienced labour market disadvantage during adulthood. Analyses are based on the Survey of Health Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE), with detailed retrospective information on individual life courses collected among 10,272 retired men and women in 13 European countries (2008-2009). Our assumption is that those who have spent their childhood in deprived circumstances may also have had more labour market disadvantage with negative consequences for quality of life beyond working life. Results demonstrate that advantaged circumstances during childhood are associated with lower levels of labour market disadvantage and higher quality of life in older ages. Furthermore, results of multivariate analyses support the idea that part of the association between childhood circumstances and later quality of life is explained by labour market disadvantage during adulthood.

  19. Does labour market disadvantage help to explain why childhood circumstances are related to quality of life at older ages? Results from SHARE

    PubMed Central

    Wahrendorf, Morten; Blane, David

    2015-01-01

    There is robust evidence that childhood circumstances are related to quality of life in older ages, but the role of possible intermediate factors is less explored. In this paper, we examine to what extent associations between deprived childhood circumstances and quality of life at older ages are due to experienced labour market disadvantage during adulthood. Analyses are based on the Survey of Health Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE), with detailed retrospective information on individual life courses collected among 10,272 retired men and women in 13 European countries (2008–2009). Our assumption is that those who have spent their childhood in deprived circumstances may also have had more labour market disadvantage with negative consequences for quality of life beyond working life. Results demonstrate that advantaged circumstances during childhood are associated with lower levels of labour market disadvantage and higher quality of life in older ages. Furthermore, results of multivariate analyses support the idea that part of the association between childhood circumstances and later quality of life is explained by labour market disadvantage during adulthood. PMID:25033373

  20. Social differences in illness and health-related exclusion from the labour market in Denmark from 1987 to 1994.

    PubMed

    Lissau, I; Rasmussen, N K; Hesse, N M; Hesse, U

    2001-01-01

    below good was unchanged. In 1994, there was a remarkable difference in health between employed and non-employed people, indicating a health-related exclusion from the labour market. This may explain why, in 1994, smaller occupational class differences were found in the prevalence of long-standing illness among employed people compared with the findings in 1987, whereas the health differences remained in the different educational groups. Women above 54 years of age with basic education only and long-standing illness have the highest odds ratio of permanent exclusion from the labour market.

  1. Localisation and temporal changes in prostaglandin G/H synthase-1 and -2 content in ovine intrauterine tissues in relation to glucocorticoid-induced and spontaneous labour.

    PubMed

    McLaren, W J; Young, I R; Rice, G E

    2000-05-01

    Parturition in the ewe is preceded by an increase in the synthesis of prostaglandins (PGs) by gestational tissues. To establish the uterine source of these PGs, placental cotyledons, fetal membranes and maternal uterine tissues were collected from ewes (n=6) at spontaneous parturition. Solubilised tissue extracts were prepared and analysed by Western blots using polyclonal antibodies to PG G/H synthase-1 and -2 (PGHS-1 and PGHS-2). PGHS-1 was expressed by all intrauterine tissues at term labour. Densitometric analysis of Western blot autoradiographs showed that the fetal membranes and maternal cervix contained the largest amounts of PGHS-1. PGHS-1 enzyme content of ovine amnion was significantly greater than that of either chorion or allantois (P<0.05). PGHS-1 protein content of myometrial, endometrial and cotyledonary tissue extracts was minimal. Formation of the PGHS-2 isozyme was confined to placental tissue at term labour. PGHS-2 protein levels in sheep placenta were significantly higher than those of PGHS-1 in all intrauterine tissues examined. This result supports the hypothesis that PGHS-2 is a major contributor to PG formation at term labour. To elucidate the developmental changes in PGHS-1 and PGHS-2 relative to labour onset, an experimental paradigm of glucocorticoid-induced delivery was used. Previous characterisation and validation of this labour model demonstrated that direct, transabdominal, intrafetal injection of the synthetic glucocorticoid betamethasone (5.7 mg in 1 ml aqueous vehicle) on day 131 of gestation induced labour onset in 56.6+/-0.8 h (mean+/-s.e.m.). As the latent period to induced-labour was known, the time course of enzyme formation could be ascertained. Sheep (n=20) were killed by barbiturate injection at various time intervals post-injection (0, 14, 28, 42 and 56 h). Tissue extracts collected at post-mortem examination were prepared and analysed by Western blots. PGHS-2 was induced in ovine cotyledon in a time-dependent fashion

  2. Trade, Labour Markets and Health.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Courtney; Labonté, Ronald

    2017-04-01

    Previous analyses indicate that there are a number of potentially serious health risks associated with the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP). The objective of this work is to provide further insight into the potential health impacts of the TPP by investigating labour market pathways. The impact of the TPP on employment and working conditions is a major point of contention in broader public debates. In public health literature, these factors are considered fundamental determinants of health, yet they are rarely addressed in analyses of trade and investment agreements. We therefore undertake a prospective policy analysis of the TPP through a content analysis of the agreement's Labour Chapter. Provisions of the Chapter are analyzed with reference to the health policy triangle and four main areas through which labour markets influence health: power relations, social policies, employment conditions and working conditions. Findings indicate that implementation of the TPP can have important impacts on health through labour market pathways. While the Labour Chapter is being presented by proponents of the agreement as a vehicle for improvement in labour standards, we find little evidence to support this view. Instead, we find several ways the TPP may weaken employment relations to the detriment of health.

  3. Women Who Work: Part I, the Relative Importance of Age, Education and Marital Status for Participation in the Labour Force. Special Labour Force Studies No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allingham, John D.

    This paper is intended to provide a systematic treatment of some hypotheses relating to labor force participation determinants, and an illustration of the relative importance of age, education, and marital status for female participation. Marital status, education, and age have all been shown to affect participation rates. On an impressionistic…

  4. Outcomes of labours augmented with oxytocin.

    PubMed

    Bugg, George J; Stanley, Eleanor; Baker, Philip N; Taggart, Michael J; Johnston, Tracey A

    2006-01-01

    To highlight the differences in mode of delivery between women augmented with intravenous oxytocin because of failure to progress in labour with those who labour without the need for augmentation. An incidence study over a 5-year-period in a tertiary referral hospital comparing 1097 nulliparous women who were augmented in labour with 2745 nulliparous women who did not need augmentation. Only labours of spontaneous onset in the pregnancies of women at term were studied. The incidence of pregnancy outcomes were assessed by presenting estimates of relative risk (RR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI). Only 51.1% of women who received augmentation achieved a normal vaginal delivery compared with 76.5% of women who did not need augmentation (RR 0.67; CI 0.63-0.71). Contributory factors to this disparity included a greater number of Caesarean sections (14.4% versus 6.6%; RR 2.18 CI 1.74-2.67), forcep deliveries (12.8% versus 5.3%; RR 2.41 CI 1.93-3.01) and ventouse deliveries (21.7% versus 11.5%; RR 1.89 CI 1.62-2.21) being performed among augmented labours as compared to normal progressive labours. Significant improvements in the management of labours which fail to progress are needed if normal vaginal delivery rates are to approach those seen in labours which progress without the need for augmentation.

  5. The Mismeasure of Academic Labour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadopoulos, Angelika

    2017-01-01

    In quantifying and qualifying the scope of academic labour, workload models serve multiple ends. They are intended to facilitate equitable and transparent divisions of academic work, to provide academics with a sense of whether their workload is reasonable relative to their colleagues, and universities with a mechanism for rationalising the…

  6. Narratives of neoliberalism: 'clinical labour' in context.

    PubMed

    Parry, Bronwyn

    2015-06-01

    Cross-border reproductive care has been thrust under the international spotlight by a series of recent scandals. These have prompted calls to develop more robust means of assessing the exploitative potential of such practices and the need for overarching and normative forms of national and international regulation. Allied theorisations of the emergence of forms of clinical labour have cast the outsourcing of reproductive services such as gamete donation and gestational surrogacy as artefacts of a wider neoliberalisation of service provision. These accounts share with many other narratives of neoliberalism a number of key assertions that relate to the presumed organisation of labour relations within this paradigm. This article critically engages with four assumptions implicit in these accounts: that clinical labourers constitute a largely homogeneous underclass of workers; that reproductive labour has been contractualised in ways that disembed it from wider social and communal relations; that contractualisation can provide protection for clinical labour lessening the need for formal regulatory oversight; and that the transnationalisation of reproductive service labour is largely unidirectional and characterised by a dynamic of provision in which 'the rest' services 'the West'. Drawing on the first findings of a large-scale ethnographic research project into assisted reproduction in India I provide evidence to refute these assertions. In so doing the article demonstrates that while the outsourcing and contractualisation of reproductive labour may be embedded in a wider neoliberal paradigm these practices cannot be understood nor their impacts be fully assessed in isolation from their social and cultural contexts.

  7. Migration in a segmented labour market.

    PubMed

    Gordon, I

    1995-01-01

    "Current research in migration is moving on from neo-classical and behavioural perspectives to a more structural approach relating to wider processes, issues of power and the particular role of employers. Within this programme a key issue for investigation is the interaction between spatial mobility and the structuring of labour markets. This paper focuses on the significance of labour market segmentation--in terms both of job stability and gender--for migration, both theoretically and through an empirical analysis of data from the UK Labour Force Survey on sponsored and unsponsored moves." excerpt

  8. Labour circulation and the urban labour process.

    PubMed

    Standing, G

    1986-01-01

    The author investigates aspects of labor circulation, which he defines as "temporary movement between geographical areas for work or in search of work....[He attempts to determine] what roles have been played by labour circulation in the development of urban-industrial labour forces in the transition to industrial capitalism." Factors considered include the exploitation and oppression of labor migrants; the industrial-urban labor reserve; urban socioeconomic stratification and discrimination by age, sex, or race; the division of labor; and policy options.

  9. Palestinian labour mobility.

    PubMed

    Shaban, R A

    1993-01-01

    "Following an overview of demographic and migratory trends since the late 1960s, the article examines labour force participation and analyses the distribution of Palestinian workers between the three labour markets in which they participate: the domestic market of the West Bank and Gaza Strip, the Israeli market and the Arab market, consisting chiefly of Jordan and the oil-rich Arab states. Since 1982 there has been a contraction of employment opportunities for Palestinians in the latter two labour markets. Domestic job creation is one of the main tasks confronting the Palestinian administration to be set up under the 1993 Israel/PLO agreement."

  10. Antispasmodics for labour.

    PubMed

    Rohwer, Anke C; Khondowe, Oswell; Young, Taryn

    2012-08-15

    Prolonged labour can lead to increased maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity due to increased risks of maternal exhaustion, postpartum haemorrhage and sepsis, fetal distress and asphyxia and requires early detection and appropriate clinical response. The risks for complications of prolonged labour are much greater in poor resource settings. Active management of labour versus physiological, expectant management, has shown to decrease the occurrence of prolonged labour. Administering antispasmodics during labour could also lead to faster and more effective dilatation of the cervix. Interventions to shorten labour, such as antispasmodics, can be used as a preventative or a treatment strategy in order to decrease the incidence of prolonged labour. As the evidence to support this is still largely anecdotal around the world, there is a need to systematically review the available evidence to obtain a valid answer. To assess the effects of antispasmodics on labour in term pregnancies. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (2 September 2011), the ProQuest dissertation and thesis database, the dissertation database of the University of Stellenbosch (2 September 2011), Google Scholar (2 September 2011) and reference lists of articles. We also contacted pharmaceutical companies and experts in the field. We did not apply language restrictions. Randomised controlled trials comparing antispasmodics with placebo or no medication in women with term pregnancies. Two review authors independently screened abstracts and selected studies for inclusion, assessed risk of bias and extracted data. Data were checked for accuracy. We contacted trial authors when data were missing. Nineteen trials (n = 2798) were included in the review. Fifteen trials (n = 2129) were included in the meta-analysis. Antispasmodics used included valethamate bromide, hyoscine butyl-bromide, drotaverine hydrochloride, rociverine and camylofin dihydrochloride. Most studies

  11. Antispasmodics for labour.

    PubMed

    Rohwer, Anke C; Khondowe, Oswell; Young, Taryn

    2013-06-05

    Prolonged labour can lead to increased maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity due to increased risks of maternal exhaustion, postpartum haemorrhage and sepsis, fetal distress and asphyxia and requires early detection and appropriate clinical response. The risks for complications of prolonged labour are much greater in poor resource settings. Active management of labour versus physiological, expectant management, has shown to decrease the occurrence of prolonged labour. Administering antispasmodics during labour could also lead to faster and more effective dilatation of the cervix. Interventions to shorten labour, such as antispasmodics, can be used as a preventative or a treatment strategy in order to decrease the incidence of prolonged labour. As the evidence to support this is still largely anecdotal around the world, there is a need to systematically review the available evidence to obtain a valid answer. To assess the effects of antispasmodics on labour in term pregnancies. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (28 February 2013), the ProQuest dissertation and thesis database, the dissertation database of the University of Stellenbosch and Google Scholar (28 February 2013) and reference lists of articles. We also contacted pharmaceutical companies and experts in the field. We did not apply language restrictions. Randomised controlled trials comparing antispasmodics with placebo or no medication in women with term pregnancies. Two review authors independently screened abstracts and selected studies for inclusion, assessed risk of bias and extracted data. Data were checked for accuracy. We contacted trial authors when data were missing. Twenty-one trials (n = 3286) were included in the review. Seventeen trials (n = 2617) were included in the meta-analysis. Antispasmodics used included valethamate bromide, hyoscine butyl-bromide, drotaverine hydrochloride, rociverine and camylofin dihydrochloride. Most studies included

  12. Maternal heart rate changes during labour.

    PubMed

    Söhnchen, N; Melzer, K; Tejada, B Martinez de; Jastrow-Meyer, N; Othenin-Girard, V; Irion, O; Boulvain, M; Kayser, B

    2011-10-01

    Labour and delivery represent a considerable effort for pregnant women. Lack of aerobic fitness may limit pushing efforts during childbirth and represents increased cardiovascular strain and risk. Increasing prevalence of sedentary behaviour and lack of aerobic fitness may reduce heart rate reserve during labour. We quantified maternal heart rate reserve (maximum heart rate minus resting heart rate) of 30 healthy pregnant women during labour and delivery and related it to habitual daily physical activity levels quantified during the third pregnancy trimester by the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire. Heart rates during labour reached values similar to those observed during moderate to heavy physical exercise. During active pushing one out of five women reached heart rates more than 90% of their heart rate reserve (188 ± 7 beats per min). Half of the women reached more than 70% of heart rate reserve (172 ± 14 beats per min). Physically inactive women used more of their heart rate reserve as physically more active women (87 ± 20% vs. 65 ± 12%, upper and lower tertile respectively, p<0.05). Use of heart rate reserve for the effort of labour is increased in physically inactive women and may potentially limit the intensity and duration of pushing efforts. Such higher cardiovascular strain in physically less active women may represent increased cardiovascular risk during labour. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. [Introduction of emotional labour into oncology].

    PubMed

    Lazányi, Kornélia; Molnár, Péter; Szluha, Kornélia

    2007-06-03

    Health care professionals do not have emotional labour obligations in their employment contract. However, in everyday work it is often inevitable for them to change their true feelings. This is critically true for professionals treating chronic or cancer patients. The suitable emotional state of the treatment staff does not only influence the practitioner-patient relationship but the process of recovery as well. Depending on the way one might get into the appropriate emotional state, the literature distinguishes between surface, deep and genuine acting. While surface and deep emotional labour has numerous negative psychological consequences genuine acting is usually accompanied by positive side effects. For those working in the field of oncology, emotional labour is a part of the role expectations of the professionals. This is how the appropriate attitude is a fundamental part of the professionals' essence. For the in depth analysis of subjects related to emotional labour, the authors adopted ideas from L. Festinger 's cognitive dissonance theory. The best way to alleviate cognitive dissonance and the negative side effects of emotional labour is to prevent the emergence of them. Oncology professionals should fit their role expectations genuinely, without particular efforts. If this was impossible, or the particular life situations did not allow genuine acting, it is the employer's and the workmates' common duty to help professionals, to ease the load of emotional labour, to diminish the occurring cognitive dissonance with the help of appropriate recompense.

  14. Labour analgesia and obstetric outcomes.

    PubMed

    Cambic, C R; Wong, C A

    2010-12-01

    Neuraxial analgesic techniques are the gold standards for pain relief during labour and delivery. Despite the increased use and known benefits of neuraxial labour analgesia, there has been significant controversy regarding the impact of neuraxial analgesia on labour outcomes. Review of the evidence suggests that effective neuraxial labour analgesia does not increase the rate of Caesarean delivery, even when administered early in the course of labour; however, its use is associated with a prolonged second stage of labour. Effective second-stage analgesia might also be associated with an increased rate of instrumental vaginal delivery.

  15. The socio-economic distribution of health-related occupational stressors among wage-earners in a Post-Fordist labour market

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Unequal exposure to occupational stressors is a central pathway towards socio-economic health inequalities in working populations. This paper assesses the differential exposure of such stressors within the population of Flemish wage-earners. Our focus is on differences in gender, age, skill levels, occupational and social class positions. Method The analyses are based on the "Flemish Quality of Labour Monitor 2004" (Vlaamse Werkbaarheidsmonitor 2004), a cross-sectional representative sample (N = 11,099) of 16- to 65-year-old wage-earners, living in Flanders. The investigated health-related working conditions are: high quantitative, emotional and physical demands, frequent repetitive movements, atypical work schedules, frequent overtime work and schedule changes, low job autonomy, task variation and superior-support, high job insecurity and exposure to bullying. The distribution of the working conditions is assessed by means of standard logistic regression analyses. Also gender specific analyses are performed. Results At least two clusters of health-related occupational stressors can be identified. On the one hand, high physical demands, atypical schedules, low control over the work environment and high job insecurity are more common in manual, unskilled and subordinate workers. On the other hand, high quantitative and emotional demands, as well as schedule unpredictability are characteristic of higher skilled, professional and managerial employees. Conclusion Since little empirical information on the socio-economic distribution of various health-related occupational stressors is available for Flanders, our results are important for obtaining more insight into the pathways linking occupational health risks to socio-economic health inequalities in the Flemish wage-earning population.

  16. [Emotional labour of nursing care: an evolutionary concept analysis].

    PubMed

    Truc, Huynh; Alderson, Marie; Thompson, Mary

    2009-06-01

    Caring is considered as the essence of nursing. Underpinning caring, the internal regulation of emotions or the emotional labour of nurses is invisible. The concept of emotional labour is relatively underdeveloped in nursing. A literature search using keywords 'emotional labour', 'emotional work' and 'emotions' was performed in CINAHL, psycINFO and REPERE from 1990 to January 2008. We analysed 72 papers whose main focus of inquiry was on emotional labour. We followed Rodgers' evolutionary method of concept analysis. Emotional labour is a process whereby nurse adopt a 'work persona' to express their autonomous, surface or deep emotions during patient encounters. Antecedents to this adoption of a work persona are events occurring during patient-nurse encounters, and which consist of three elements : organization (i.e.social norms, social support), nurse (i.e.role identification, professional commitment, work experience and interpersonal skills) and job (i.e.autonomy, task routine, degree of emotional demand, interaction frequency and work complexity). The attributes of emotional labour have two dimensions : nurses' autonomous response and their work persona strategies (i.e. surface or deep acts). The consequences of emotional labour include organizational (i.e.productivity, 'cheerful environment') and nurse aspects (i.e. negative or positive) the concept of emotional labour should be introduced into preregistration programmes. Nurses also need to have time and a supportive environment to reflect, understand and discuss their emotional labour in caring for 'difficult' patients to deflate the dominant discourse about 'problem' patients.

  17. Eat, Drink, and Be Labouring?

    PubMed Central

    Beggs, Jennifer A.; Stainton, M. Colleen

    2002-01-01

    The practice of restricting oral intake during labour has been and remains controversial. Overall, the nutritional needs of labouring women are poorly understood. This literature review reveals that little evidence exists to support the general restriction of oral intake for all labouring women. Education of health professionals and pregnant women regarding intake in labour is required to encourage collaboration in the development and institution of appropriate policies in keeping with the available evidence for best practice. PMID:17273281

  18. Human Capital Linkages to Labour Productivity: Implications from Thai Manufacturers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rukumnuaykit, Pungpond; Pholphirul, Piriya

    2016-01-01

    Human capital investment is a necessary condition for improving labour market outcomes in most countries. Empirical studies to investigate human capital and its linkages on the labour demand side are, however, relatively scarce due to limitations of firm-level data-sets. Using firm-level data from the Thai manufacturing sector, this paper aims to…

  19. Human Capital Linkages to Labour Productivity: Implications from Thai Manufacturers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rukumnuaykit, Pungpond; Pholphirul, Piriya

    2016-01-01

    Human capital investment is a necessary condition for improving labour market outcomes in most countries. Empirical studies to investigate human capital and its linkages on the labour demand side are, however, relatively scarce due to limitations of firm-level data-sets. Using firm-level data from the Thai manufacturing sector, this paper aims to…

  20. Labour Disputes of Gifted Employees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Waal, Ido; Nauta, Noks; Lindhout, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a study on labour disputes of gifted people. Fifty-five gifted people, who have had one or more labour disputes, which resulted in their staying at home and filling out an online survey. Face-to-face interviews were held with seven respondents with more than two labour disputes. In this article, we describe the results of…

  1. Immersion in water in labour and birth

    PubMed Central

    Cluett, Elizabeth R; Burns, Ethel

    2014-01-01

    Background Enthusiasts suggest that labouring in water and waterbirth increase maternal relaxation, reduce analgesia requirements and promote a midwifery model of care. Critics cite the risk of neonatal water inhalation and maternal/neonatal infection. Objectives To assess the evidence from randomised controlled trials about immersion in water during labour and waterbirth on maternal, fetal, neonatal and caregiver outcomes. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (30 June 2011) and reference lists of retrieved studies. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials comparing immersion in any bath tub/pool with no immersion, or other non-pharmacological forms of pain management during labour and/or birth, in women during labour who were considered to be at low risk of complications, as defined by the researchers. Data collection and analysis We assessed trial eligibility and quality and extracted data independently. One review author entered data and the other checked for accuracy. Main results This review includes 12 trials (3243 women): eight related to just the first stage of labour: one to early versus late immersion in the first stage of labour; two to the first and second stages; and another to the second stage only. We identified no trials evaluating different baths/pools, or the management of third stage of labour. Results for the first stage of labour showed there was a significant reduction in the epidural/spinal/paracervical analgesia/anaesthesia rate amongst women allocated to water immersion compared to controls (478/1254 versus 529/1245; risk ratio (RR) 0.90; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.82 to 0.99, six trials). There was also a reduction in duration of the first stage of labour (mean difference −32.4 minutes; 95% CI −58.7 to −6.13). There was no difference in assisted vaginal deliveries (RR 0.86; 95% CI 0.71 to 1.05, seven trials), caesarean sections (RR 1.21; 95% CI 0.87 to 1.68, eight

  2. [The role of emotional labour in oncology].

    PubMed

    Szluha, Kornélia; Lazányi, Kornélia; Molnár, Péter

    2007-01-01

    Oncologists and related health care professionals (HCPs) do not only have to follow professional protocols in their everyday work, but also have to communicate proper attitudes towards patients suffering from malignant diseases. This task is often a heavier load than the implementation of professional activities themselves. The present article is based on a survey on HCP work motivation, employment parameters and correlations with emotional labour. Fifty oncology HCPs at Debrecen University Medical Health Sciences Centre volunteered to participate in this survey containing 20 simple-choice questions. More than 90 percent of HCPs make an effort to hide their emotional state, giving way to possible negative side effects. The survey showed significant differences between the level of emotional labour of those working in the field of oncology longer or shorter than ten years. Surface and deep emotional labour is more frequent among professionals already working in oncology for a longer period of time. This can serve us with explanation to the burn-out syndrome so frequent in this profession. To diminish the load of emotional labour, healthcare institutes have to aim at hiring employees that spontaneously fit the emotional and behavioural norms facing them, and do not need officially prescribed behavioural norms for everyday work. Their constant need for respect and appreciation of their values must be kept in mind, because the capability of genuine emotional labour diminishes parallel to the number of years spent in work.

  3. Learning, Labour and Employability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Malcolm J.

    2009-01-01

    Public policy in the UK has adopted employability to define the relationship of globalisation, work and learning. This article claims that employability serves the interests of capital. It helps capital to exercise its domination/hegemony over labour and employs a redefined vision of learning as its principal vehicle. Employability is a term that…

  4. Embodied labour in music work.

    PubMed

    Pettinger, Lynne

    2015-06-01

    This paper frames the work of performance as embodied labour in order to understand the contingent production of particular music performances. It is an interdisciplinary account that sits at the intersection of the sociology of work, culture and the body. The concept of embodied labour is developed with reference to the complex account of materiality - of bodies and things - present in Tim Ingold's account of skill. This material account of skill is used to inform use to develop already of well established conceptualizations of body labour: craft, emotional and aesthetic labour through a reading of how these dimensions of embodied labour make possible the work of performance.

  5. Preterm and term labour in multiple pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Stock, Sarah; Norman, Jane

    2010-12-01

    The association between multiple pregnancy and preterm labour is well-established, with >50% of multiple births delivering before 37 weeks. However, there remains limited understanding of the factors predisposing to early delivery of twins. Physiological stimuli to the onset of parturition, including stretch, placental corticotrophin-releasing hormone and lung maturity factors, may be stronger in multiple pregnancies due to the increased fetal and placental mass. Pathological processes including infection and cervical insufficiency also have a role. Treatments that prevent preterm birth in singleton pregnancies, such as progesterone and cervical cerclage appear to be ineffective in multiple pregnancies. This article reviews aspects of preterm birth in twins and higher order multiples including epidemiology, prediction and prevention of preterm labour and potential mechanisms controlling onset of parturition. Evidence relating to the management of labour in preterm and term multiples is also discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Precarious Learning and Labour in Financialized Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magnusson, Jamie

    2013-01-01

    Our current globalized economic regimes of financialized capital have systematically altered relations of learning and labour through the dynamics of precarity, debt, and the political economy of new wars. The risks of these regimes are absorbed unevenly across transnational landscapes, creating cartographies of violence and dispossession,…

  7. Minor psychiatric morbidity and labour turnover.

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, R

    1985-01-01

    The relation of minor psychiatric morbidity with labour turnover is examined, using data from a study of young, predominantly middle class, white collar men and women. The results suggest that the presence of psychiatric symptomatology is at least as important as occupational attitudes in identifying individuals who would subsequently leave the organisation. PMID:4016004

  8. Modern neuraxial labour analgesia.

    PubMed

    Sng, Ban L; Kwok, Sarah C; Sia, Alex T H

    2015-06-01

    Neuraxial analgesia is considered the gold standard of labour analgesia as it provides the most effective method of pain relief during childbirth. In this article, we explore the recent advances in the initiation and maintenance of epidural analgesia. Patient-controlled epidural analgesia, computer-integrated patient-controlled epidural analgesia, intermittent epidural bolus (programmed intermittent bolus, automated mandatory bolus) and variable frequency automated mandatory bolus administration are techniques that allow the individualized titration and optimization of labour analgesia. The debate has moved on to finding the optimal settings for epidural bolus dosing, time intervals and frequency for epidural analgesia with the hope of improving safety and efficacy as well as patient satisfaction. We examine these recent developments in pump technology and epidural delivery systems and evaluate how these have enhanced the mothers' birthing experiences.

  9. Labour analgesia: Recent advances

    PubMed Central

    Pandya, Sunil T

    2010-01-01

    Advances in the field of labour analgesia have tread a long journey from the days of ether and chloroform in 1847 to the present day practice of comprehensive programme of labour pain management using evidence-based medicine. Newer advances include introduction of newer techniques like combined spinal epidurals, low-dose epidurals facilitating ambulation, pharmacological advances like introduction of remifentanil for patient-controlled intravenous analgesia, introduction of newer local anaesthetics and adjuvants like ropivacaine, levobupivacaine, sufentanil, clonidine and neostigmine, use of inhalational agents like sevoflourane for patient-controlled inhalational analgesia using special vaporizers, all have revolutionized the practice of pain management in labouring parturients. Technological advances like use of ultrasound to localize epidural space in difficult cases minimizes failed epidurals and introduction of novel drug delivery modalities like patient-controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA) pumps and computer-integrated drug delivery pumps have improved the overall maternal satisfaction rate and have enabled us to customize a suitable analgesic regimen for each parturient. Recent randomized controlled trials and Cochrane studies have concluded that the association of epidurals with increased caesarean section and long-term backache remains only a myth. Studies have also shown that the newer, low-dose regimes do not have a statistically significant impact on the duration of labour and breast feeding and also that these reduce the instrumental delivery rates thus improving maternal and foetal safety. Advances in medical technology like use of ultrasound for localizing epidural space have helped the clinicians to minimize the failure rates, and many novel drug delivery modalities like PCEA and computer-integrated PCEA have contributed to the overall maternal satisfaction and safety. PMID:21189877

  10. Enemas during labour.

    PubMed

    Reveiz, Ludovic; Gaitán, Hernando G; Cuervo, Luis Gabriel

    2013-07-22

    Although the use of enemas during labour usually reflects the preference of the attending healthcare provider, enemas may cause discomfort for women. To assess the effects of enemas applied during the first stage of labour on maternal and neonatal outcomes. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 May 2013), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness (The Cochrane Library 2013, Issue 5), PubMed (1966 to 31 May 2013), LILACS (31 May 2013), the Search Portal of the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (31 May 2013), Health Technology Assessment Program, UK (31 May 2013), Medical Research Council, UK (31 May 2013), The Wellcome Trust, UK (31 May 2013) and reference lists of retrieved articles. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in which an enema was administered during the first stage of labour and which included assessment of possible neonatal or puerperal morbidity or mortality. Two review authors independently assessed studies for inclusion. Four RCTs (1917 women) met the inclusion criteria. One study was judged as having a low risk of bias. In the meta-analysis we conducted of two trials, we found no significant difference in infection rates for puerperal women (two RCTs; 594 women; risk ratio (RR) 0.66, 95% confidence (CI) 0.42 to 1.04). No significant differences were found in neonatal umbilical infection rates (two RCTs; 592 women; RR 3.16, 95% CI 0.50 to 19.82; I(2) 0%. In addition, meta-analysis of two studies found that there were no significant differences in the degree of perineal tear between groups. Finally, meta-analysis of two trials found no significant differences in the mean duration of labour. The evidence provided by the four included RCTs shows that enemas do not have a significant beneficial effect on infection rates such as perineal wound infection or other neonatal infections and women's satisfaction. These findings speak

  11. Enemas during labour.

    PubMed

    Reveiz, Ludovic; Gaitán, Hernando G; Cuervo, Luis Gabriel

    2013-05-31

    Although the use of enemas during labour usually reflects the preference of the attending healthcare provider, enemas may cause discomfort for women. To assess the effects of enemas applied during the first stage of labour on maternal and neonatal outcomes. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (17 May 2012), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 5), PubMed (1966 to 17 May 2012), LILACS (17 May 2012), the Search Portal of the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (17 May 2012), Health Technology Assessment Program, UK (17 May 2012), Medical Research Council, UK (17 May 2012), The Wellcome Trust, UK (17 May 2012) and reference lists of retrieved articles. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in which an enema was administered during the first stage of labour and which included assessment of possible neonatal or puerperal morbidity or mortality. Two review authors independently assessed studies for inclusion.  Four RCTs (1917 women) met the inclusion criteria. One study was judged as having a low risk of bias. In the meta-analysis we conducted of two trials, we found no significant difference in infection rates for puerperal women (two RCTs; 594 women; risk ratio (RR) 0.66, 95% confidence (CI) 0.42 to 1.04). No significant differences were found in neonatal umbilical infection rates (two RCTs; 592 women; RR 3.16, 95% CI 0.50 to 19.82; I² 0%. In addition, meta-analysis of two studies found that there were no significant differences in the degree of perineal tear between groups. Finally, meta-analysis of two trials found no significant differences in the mean duration of labour. The evidence provided by the four included RCTs shows that enemas do not have a significant beneficial effect on infection rates such as perineal wound infection or other neonatal infections and women's satisfaction. These findings speak

  12. The labour market for nursing: a review of the labour supply literature.

    PubMed

    Antonazzo, Emanuela; Scott, Anthony; Skatun, Diane; Elliott, Robert F

    2003-06-01

    The need to ensure adequate numbers of motivated health professionals is at the forefront of the modernisation of the UK NHS. The aim of this paper is to assess current understanding of the labour supply behaviour of nurses, and to propose an agenda for further research. In particular, the paper reviews American and British economics literature that focuses on empirical econometric studies based on the classical static labour supply model. American research could be classified into first generation, second generation and recent empirical evidence. Advances in methods mirror those in the general labour economics literature, and include the use of limited dependent variable models and the treatment of sample selection issues. However, there is considerable variation in results, which depends on the methods used, particularly on the effect of wages. Only one study was found that used UK data, although other studies examined the determinants of turnover, quit rates and job satisfaction. The agenda for further empirical research includes the analysis of discontinuities in the labour supply function, the relative importance of pecuniary and non-pecuniary job characteristics, and the application of dynamic and family labour supply models to nursing research. Such research is crucial to the development of evidence-based policies.

  13. Different methods for the induction of labour in outpatient settings

    PubMed Central

    Dowswell, Therese; Kelly, Anthony J; Livio, Stefania; Norman, Jane E; Alfirevic, Zarko

    2014-01-01

    Background Induction of labour is carried out for a variety of indications and using a range of pharmacological, mechanical and other methods. For women at low risk, some methods of induction of labour may be suitable for use in outpatient settings. Objectives To examine pharmacological and mechanical interventions to induce labour in outpatient settings in terms of feasibility, effectiveness, maternal satisfaction, healthcare costs and, where information is available, safety. The review complements existing reviews on labour induction examining effectiveness and safety. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (December 2009) and reference lists of retrieved studies. Selection criteria We included randomised controlled trials examining outpatient cervical ripening or induction of labour with pharmacological agents or mechanical methods. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently extracted data and assessed eligible papers for risk of bias. We checked all data after entry into review manager software. Main results We included 28 studies with 2616 women examining different methods of induction of labour where women received treatment at home or were sent home after initial treatment and monitoring in hospital. Studies examined vaginal and intracervical PGE2, vaginal and oral misoprostol, isosorbide mononitrate, mifepristone, oestrogens, and acupuncture. Overall, the results demonstrate that outpatient induction of labour is feasible and that important adverse events are rare. There was no strong evidence that agents used to induce labour in outpatient settings had an impact (positive or negative) on maternal or neonatal health. There was some evidence that, compared to placebo or no treatment, induction agents reduced the need for further interventions to induce labour, and shortened the interval from intervention to birth. We were unable to pool results on outcomes relating to progress in labour as

  14. Perinatal water intoxication due to excessive oral intake during labour.

    PubMed

    Johansson, S; Lindow, S; Kapadia, H; Norman, M

    2002-01-01

    The increased body water in pregnant women and the birth-related activation of water-sparing systems contribute to a high risk of perinatal water intoxication if the mother drinks too much water during labour. This study reports on four newborn term infants and one mother presenting with life-threatening symptoms due to hyponatraemia from excessive oral intake during labour. Awareness of this diagnosis in the delivery unit is very important, because the clinical picture may mimic that of pre-eclampsia or dehydration. Guidelines are proposed to prevent and treat perinatal water intoxication due to excessive oral intake during labour.

  15. Labour Productivity Superstatistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoyama, H.; Yoshikawa, H.; Iyetomi, H.; Fujiwara, Y.

    We discuss superstatistics theory of labour productivity.Productivity distribution across workers, firms and industrial sectors are studied empirically and found to obey power-distributions, in sharp contrast to the equilibrium theories of mainstream economics. The Pareto index is found to decrease with the level of aggregation, i.e., from workers to firms and to industrial sectors. In order to explain these phenomenological laws, we propose a superstatistics framework, where the role of the fluctuating temperature is played by the fluctuating demand.

  16. Paracervical Block Anesthesia in Labour

    PubMed Central

    Van Praagh, Ian G. L.; Povey, W. G.

    1966-01-01

    The efficacy and safety of paracervical block anesthesia were studied in 153 patients in the first stage of labour. Transient decrease in uterine activity was noted in 77 patients. There was no acceleration in cervical dilatation following the block. The duration of action of the block in 80 primiparas was 31 to 120 minutes in 69, and over 120 minutes in five. In the 73 multiparas, 53 of the blocks lasted 31 to 90 minutes, eight from 90 to 120 minutes, and two over 120 minutes. The results were good in 66 primiparas and 54 multiparas. The blocks failed in four primiparas and six multiparas. Twenty-six infants had low Apgar scores, but in none could this be related to the paracervical block. There were no significant fetal or maternal complications. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 3 PMID:5903165

  17. Colony size predicts division of labour in attine ants

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson-Gow, Henry; Sumner, Seirian; Bourke, Andrew F. G.; Jones, Kate E.

    2014-01-01

    Division of labour is central to the ecological success of eusocial insects, yet the evolutionary factors driving increases in complexity in division of labour are little known. The size–complexity hypothesis proposes that, as larger colonies evolve, both non-reproductive and reproductive division of labour become more complex as workers and queens act to maximize inclusive fitness. Using a statistically robust phylogenetic comparative analysis of social and environmental traits of species within the ant tribe Attini, we show that colony size is positively related to both non-reproductive (worker size variation) and reproductive (queen–worker dimorphism) division of labour. The results also suggested that colony size acts on non-reproductive and reproductive division of labour in different ways. Environmental factors, including measures of variation in temperature and precipitation, had no significant effects on any division of labour measure or colony size. Overall, these results support the size–complexity hypothesis for the evolution of social complexity and division of labour in eusocial insects. Determining the evolutionary drivers of colony size may help contribute to our understanding of the evolution of social complexity. PMID:25165765

  18. Methods of induction of labour.

    PubMed

    el Refaey, H; Jauniaux, E

    1997-12-01

    Several research groups around the world reported on the use of the drug misoprostol in the medical management of miscarriage, abortion and induction of labour. This review examines the evolution of interest in this drug, with special emphasis on its role in induction of labour.

  19. From Labour Market to Labour Process: Finding a Basis for Curriculum in TVET

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamble, Jeanne

    2016-01-01

    In the sociology of education the relation between education and work is analysed in many ways and, since the rise of neoliberalism, increasingly in market terms. Skills are the dominant labour market currency, described in terms of competence profiles that seek to link educational qualifications directly to work. Contrary to the widespread appeal…

  20. From Labour Market to Labour Process: Finding a Basis for Curriculum in TVET

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamble, Jeanne

    2016-01-01

    In the sociology of education the relation between education and work is analysed in many ways and, since the rise of neoliberalism, increasingly in market terms. Skills are the dominant labour market currency, described in terms of competence profiles that seek to link educational qualifications directly to work. Contrary to the widespread appeal…

  1. Women's perception of the onset of labour and epidural analgesia: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Antje; Penz, Sarah M; Gross, Mechthild M

    2013-04-01

    childbearing women and their midwives differ in their diagnoses of the onset of labour. The symptoms women use to describe the onset of labour are associated with the process of labour. Perinatal factors and women's attitudes may be associated with the administration of epidural analgesia. Our study aimed to assess the correlation between women's perception of the onset of labour and the frequency and timing of epidural analgesia during labour. prospective cohort study. 41 maternity units in Lower Saxony, Germany. 549 nulliparae (as defined in the "Methods" section) and 490 multiparae giving birth between April and October 2005. Women were included after 34 completed weeks of gestation with a singleton in vertex presentation and planned vaginal birth. the association between women's symptoms at the onset of labour and the administration of epidural analgesia - frequency, timing in relation to onset of labour and cervical dilatation - was assessed. The analysis was performed by Kaplan-Meiers estimation, logistic regression and Cox regression. a total of 174 nulliparae and 49 multiparae received epidural analgesia during labour. Nulliparae received it at a median time of 5.47hrs (range: 0.25-51.17hrs) after onset of labour, at a median cervical dilatation of 3.3cm (range: 1.0-10.0cm). In multiparae, epidural analgesia was applied at a median time of 3.79hrs (range: 0.42-28.55hrs) after onset of labour; the median cervical dilatation was 3.0cm (range: 1.0-8.0cm). Women who were admitted with advanced cervical dilatation received epidural analgesia less often. Women who defined their onset of labour earlier than it was diagnosed by their midwives received epidural analgesia earlier. Gastrointestinal symptoms and irregular pain at the onset of labour were associated with later administration of epidural analgesia. Induction of labour was associated with a reduced interval from the onset of labour to epidural analgesia. women's self-diagnosis of the onset of labour and

  2. Hypnosis for induction of labour.

    PubMed

    Nishi, Daisuke; Shirakawa, Miyako N; Ota, Erika; Hanada, Nobutsugu; Mori, Rintaro

    2014-08-14

    Induction of labour using pharmacological and mechanical methods can increase complications. Complementary and alternative medicine methods including hypnosis may have the potential to provide a safe alternative option for the induction of labour. However, the effectiveness of hypnosis for inducing labour has not yet been fully evaluated. To assess the effect of hypnosis for induction of labour compared with no intervention or any other interventions. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 January 2014), handsearched relevant conference proceedings, contacted key personnel and organisations in the field for published and unpublished references. All published and unpublished randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and cluster-RCTs of acceptable quality comparing hypnosis with no intervention or any other interventions, in which the primary outcome is to assess whether labour was induced. Two review authors assessed the one trial report that was identified (but was subsequently excluded). No RCTs or cluster-RCTs were identified from the search strategy. There was no evidence available from RCTs to assess the effect of hypnosis for induction of labour. Evidence from RCTs is required to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of this intervention for labour induction. As hypnosis may delay standard care (in case standard care is withheld during hypnosis), its use in induction of labour should be considered on a case-by-case basis.Future RCTs are required to examine the effectiveness and safety of hypnotic relaxation for induction of labour among pregnant women who have anxiety above a certain level. The length and timing of the intervention, as well as the staff training required, should be taken into consideration. Moreover, the views and experiences of women and staff should also be included in future RCTs.

  3. Pro-labour myometrial gene expression: are preterm labour and term labour the same?

    PubMed

    Tattersall, Mark; Engineer, Neelam; Khanjani, Shirin; Sooranna, Suren R; Roberts, Victoria H; Grigsby, Peta L; Liang, Zhiqing; Myatt, Les; Johnson, Mark R

    2008-04-01

    Preterm labour (PTL) is the most important cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. While some causes have been identified, the mechanisms involved remain elusive. This study investigates whether term labour (TL) is an appropriate model for PTL by examining pro-labour gene expression, using quantitative rtPCR, and protein synthesis, using Western analysis, in preterm and term myometrial samples obtained from the upper and lower uterine segments before and after the onset of labour. In the lower segment, the levels of prostaglandin H synthase type-2 (PGHS-2), interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), IL-6 and IL-8 mRNA expression were significantly higher in TL compared with PTL samples. Compared with non-labour controls, the expression of IL-1beta and IL-8 mRNA was increased in both PTL and TL samples and the expression of PGHS-2 and IL-6 mRNA was increased in TL samples only. In the upper segment, there were no differences between PTL and TL samples and the mRNA expression of PGHS-2 and IL-1beta was increased in TL compared with term no labour samples. No effect of PTL or TL was seen on either oxytocin receptor or connexin-43 mRNA expression or protein levels. The multiple regression analysis and studies in primary cultures of uterine myocytes suggest that the inflammatory cytokines, IL-1beta and tumour necrosis factor-alpha, are the most important regulators of PGHS-2 and IL-8. Our data show that preterm and term labouring myometrium are significantly different and that the most marked labour-induced changes in gene expression are in the lower segment. These changes may occur in response to the release of inflammatory cytokines by the labour-associated inflammatory infiltration.

  4. Labour Market Driven Learning Analytics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobayashi, Vladimer; Mol, Stefan T.; Kismihók, Gábor

    2014-01-01

    This paper briefly outlines a project about integrating labour market information in a learning analytics goal-setting application that provides guidance to students in their transition from education to employment.

  5. Expectations, experiences and satisfaction with labour.

    PubMed

    Slade, P; MacPherson, S A; Hume, A; Maresh, M

    1993-11-01

    Emotional, medical and control aspects of labour were explored in 81 primiparous women. Expectations were assessed antenatally and compared with postnatal reports of experiences. Expectations of positive emotions were significantly greater than experience while negative emotional expectations were paralleled by experience. There was a major discrepancy between expectations and experiences of the occurrence of interventions, with the proportion of women expecting interventions being greatly exceeded by those actually undergoing such experiences. In addition, expectations concerning personal control together with the use and efficacy of breathing and relaxation exercises in labour were elevated in relation to experience. Positive emotional expectations were strong predictors of positive emotional experiences and unrelated to negative emotional expectations. Expectations in general were positively related to experience but the strength of the association was weak. Personal satisfaction (i.e. satisfaction with self) in labour was strongly associated with the ability to control panic and other aspects of personal control. The ability to control panic was mainly influenced by the use of exercises. Attenders and non-attenders at antenatal preparation classes showed no significant differences in their experiences or personal satisfaction levels. Possible explanations for this absence of impact are discussed together with issues concerning the relevance of psychological theory to midwifery practice and the need for greater integration.

  6. Massage reduced severity of pain during labour: a randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Silva Gallo, Rubneide Barreto; Santana, Licia Santos; Jorge Ferreira, Cristine Homsi; Marcolin, Alessandra Cristina; Polineto, Omero Benedicto; Duarte, Geraldo; Quintana, Silvana Maria

    2013-06-01

    Does massage relieve pain in the active phase of labour? Randomised trial with concealed allocation, assessor blinding for some outcomes, and intention-to-treat analysis. 46 women pregnant at ≥ 37 weeks gestation with a single fetus, with spontaneous onset of labour, 4-5cm of cervical dilation, intact ovular membranes, and no use of medication after admission to hospital. Experimental group participants received a 30-min lumbar massage by a physiotherapist during the active phase of labour. A physiotherapist attended control group participants for the same period but only answered questions. Both groups received routine perinatal care. The primary outcome was pain severity measured on a 100mm visual analogue scale. Secondary outcomes included the Short Form McGill Pain Questionnaire, pain location, and time to analgesic medication use. After labour, a blinded researcher also recorded duration of labour, route of delivery, neonatal outcomes, and the participant's satisfaction with the physiotherapist during labour. At the end of the intervention, pain severity was 52mm (SD 20) in the experimental group and 72mm (SD 15) in control group, which was significantly different with a mean difference of 20mm (95% CI 10 to 31). The groups did not differ significantly on the other pain-related outcome measures. Obstetric outcomes were also similar between the groups except the duration of labour, which was 6.8hr (SD 1.6) in the experimental group and 5.7hr (SD 1.5) in the control group, mean difference 1.1hr (95% CI 0.2 to 2.0). Patients in both groups were satisfied with the care provided by the physiotherapist. Massage reduced the severity of pain in labour, despite not changing its characteristics and location. Copyright © 2013 Australian Physiotherapy Association. Published by .. All rights reserved.

  7. Maternal positions and mobility during first stage labour

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Annemarie; Lewis, Lucy; Hofmeyr, G Justus; Dowswell, Therese; Styles, Cathy

    2014-01-01

    Background It is more common for women in the developed world, and those in low-income countries giving birth in health facilities, to labour in bed. There is no evidence that this is associated with any advantage for women or babies, although it may be more convenient for staff. Observational studies have suggested that if women lie on their backs during labour this may have adverse effects on uterine contractions and impede progress in labour. Objectives The purpose of the review is to assess the effects of encouraging women to assume different upright positions (including walking, sitting, standing and kneeling) versus recumbent positions (supine, semi-recumbent and lateral) for women in the first stage of labour on length of labour, type of delivery and other important outcomes for mothers and babies. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (November 2008). Selection criteria Randomised and quasi-randomised trials comparing women randomised to upright versus recumbent positions in the first stage of labour. Data collection and analysis We used methods described in the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions for carrying out data collection, assessing study quality and analysing results. A minimum of two review authors independently assessed each study. Main results The review includes 21 studies with a total of 3706 women. Overall, the first stage of labour was approximately one hour shorter for women randomised to upright as opposed to recumbent positions (MD −0.99, 95% CI −1.60 to −0.39). Women randomised to upright positions were less likely to have epidural analgesia (RR 0.83 95% CI 0.72 to 0.96).There were no differences between groups for other outcomes including length of the second stage of labour, mode of delivery, or other outcomes related to the wellbeing of mothers and babies. For women who had epidural analgesia there were no differences between those randomised to upright

  8. Labour epidural analgesia in Poland in 2009 - a survey.

    PubMed

    Furmanik, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    Labour analgesia in most developed countries is funded by the state, available to every woman in labour, and plays an important role in the everyday activities of most anaesthetists. This paper presents the second part of an Obstetric Anaesthesia Survey which was conducted in 2009. The first part of the Survey, relating to anaesthesia for caesarean sections, was published in 2010. The author sent out 432 questionnaires containing questions about hospital size and location, staffing levels and numbers of deliveries per year. There were also questions regarding regional and other pain relief methods used in labour, ways of administration, drugs used and monitoring of patients. The response rate was 24%. Around 45% of responding hospitals had only 1-3 deliveries per year, which makes it difficult to provide separate obstetric anaesthetic cover. Only ten hospitals (11%) employed an anaesthetist for the labour ward. Epidural analgesia was used in 55% of hospitals but only 20% provided the service for 24 hours per day and free of charge. Entonox was used very occasionally, but the most common means of pain relief was pethidine injection. There were marked differences in the medication used for labour epidurals, with 18% of units using high concentrations of local anaesthetics which could result in motor block. Despite a lack of regulations in Polish law and a lack of proper training in 50% of units, midwives were looking after the patients with established labour epidural which could create medico-legal consequences. There was also a marked variation in the parameters monitored during labour analgesia. Epidural labour analgesia was offered for 24 hours per day and free of charge in only 20% of hospitals. Without public pressure it will be difficult to get more funding from the National Health Fund (NFZ) to enable other hospitals, especially those with small obstetric units, to introduce regional labour analgesia. Although the 2009 guidelines addressed most of the issues

  9. [Differences in cesarean sections between spontaneous and induced labour].

    PubMed

    Hernández Martínez, Antonio; Pascual Pedreño, Ana Isabel; Baño Garnés, Ana Belén; Melero Jiménez, María Rocío; Molina Alarcón, Milagros

    2014-01-01

    The induction of labour (IOL) may be associated with complications for pregnant women. The aim was to assess the differences in the number of caesarean sections between spontaneous or induced labour. Historical groups from 841 women with induced labour and 2,534 women with an spontaneous onset of labour over a three- year period (from 2009 to 2011). They were carried out in "Mancha Centro" Hospital (Alcázar de San Juan). It was used a multivariate analysis through binary logistic regression to control confounding variables. The prevalence of IOL was 22,9%. The most frequent indications were: Premature Rupture of Membranes (22,7%), bad- controlled Diabetes (22,5%). It was reported a relation between induced labour and cesarean section risk due to parity (nulliparous OR= 2.68, IC 95%: 2.15- 3.34 and multiparous OR= 2.10, IC 95%: 1.72- 2.57). Postterm pregnancy (37,1%), pathological monitor (35.3%) and hypertensive diseases of pregnancy (34%) reported the highest risks of cesarean section. The IOL was related to other factors: a long- time length first -stage of labour (OR= 6.00; IC 95%: 4.02- 8.95), use of epidural analgesia (OR= 3.10; IC 95%: 2.24- 4.29) and blood transfusion needs (OR= 3.33; IC 95%: 1.70- 9.67). Independently of parity, The IOL increases the risk to: have a longer duration first- stage, use epidural analgesia, need a blood transfusion and have a cesarean section. This relation is stronger when induction is due to postterm pregnancy, pathological monitor or hypertensive diseases. No relation was found among induced labour and second- stage duration, episiotomy, perineal tears, excessive blood loss or uterine rupture.

  10. Donning the mask: effects of emotional labour strategies on burnout and job satisfaction in community healthcare.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Jatin; Singh, Manjari

    2016-06-01

    Emotional labour involves management of one's emotions to match the demands of their roles. This emotion display involves just expression (surface-level emotional labour) or experience in addition to expression (deep-level emotional labour) of the desired emotions. Emotional labour is required in the effective, efficient and successful healthcare service delivery. Burnout associated with emotional labour is an important factor that decides how satisfied frontline service providers with their job are. This empirical study investigates the link between surface and deep-level emotional labour, burnout and job satisfaction in women community health workers from India. Our results from the structural equation modelling of 177 accredited social health activists (ASHAs) indicate a negative relation between surface and deep-level emotional labour, clearly demarcating them as two different strategies for performance of emotional labour in community health care setting. Surface-level emotional labour is associated with higher job satisfaction, and burnout partially mediates this relation. Deep-level emotional labour is associated with lower job satisfaction; burnout fully mediates this relation. Qualitative post hoc analysis based on interviews of 10 ASHAs was done to understand the findings of the quantitative study. Surface-level emotional labour was found to be a more desirable strategy for community health care workers for the effective and efficient performance of their work roles. Our results have a significant contribution to design, redesign, and improvement of employment practices in community healthcare. This study brings forth the neglected issues of emotions and their implications for these healthcare workers in low and middle-income countries who are a vital link that delivers healthcare to weaker section of the society. The findings have relevance not merely for the individual providing this service but the beneficiary and the organization that facilitates this

  11. Global Character of International Labour Migration: Challenges and Objectives for Higher Education in World Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhuravska, Nina

    2016-01-01

    The article deals with analysis of challenges and objectives for higher education in the context of globalization: the forming of international labour market proves the fact that the process of international integration is affecting economy and technology as well as social and labour relations that are becoming more and more global. The…

  12. Global Character of International Labour Migration: Challenges and Objectives for Higher Education in World Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhuravska, Nina

    2016-01-01

    The article deals with analysis of challenges and objectives for higher education in the context of globalization: the forming of international labour market proves the fact that the process of international integration is affecting economy and technology as well as social and labour relations that are becoming more and more global. The…

  13. Psychiatric aspects of labour and the puerperium.

    PubMed

    Cheetham, R W; Rzadkowolski, A

    1980-11-15

    The psychiatric complications occurring during the three stages of labour are described, together with those factors which predispose to delivery-room complications or abnormalities. The predisposing factors include conflicts in relation to feminine identity, repressed traumatic experiences during the early stages of psychosexual development, adverse social, educational and economic situation, and excessive fear and anxiety, particularly in the absence of support from the husband. The triad of fear-tension-pain, the influence of socio-economic and cultural factors, and the methods utilized to reduce both anxiety and fear are discussed. The interrelation between environmental, hormonal and psychological manifestations in the postpartum period is briefly described, with specific emphasis on depression.

  14. Castor oil for induction of labour: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Neri, Isabella; Dante, Giulia; Pignatti, Lucrezia; Salvioli, Chiara; Facchinetti, Fabio

    2017-06-15

    The aim of this study is to investigate the safety and efficacy of castor oil to induce labour. A retrospective observational case control study was conducted over five years. Castor oil was proposed to women referred to the Birth Centre (Castor Oil group (COG)). They were compared to women who chose to be followed by the traditional doctor-led unit (control group (CG)). Castor oil was administered in a 60 ml single dose in 200 ml of warm water. Inclusion criteria were gestational age between 40 and 41 weeks plus premature rupture of membranes between 12 and 18 hours or amniotic fluid index ≤4 or Bishop Score of ≤4 or absence of spontaneous labour over 41 + 4 weeks. Pharmacological induction of labour was required for 18 women in the COG (45%) and 36 in the CG (90%) (p < .001). The mode of delivery differed significantly between groups: women assuming castor oil showed a higher incidence of vaginal delivery, whereas the incidence of caesarean section was lower in the COG, but no statistical significance was reached. The use of castor oil is related to a higher probability of labour initiation within 24 hours. Castor oil can be considered a safe non-pharmacological method for labour induction.

  15. Women's experiences of labour and birth: an evolutionary concept analysis.

    PubMed

    Larkin, Patricia; Begley, Cecily M; Devane, Declan

    2009-04-01

    the aim of this paper is to identify the core attributes of the experience of labour and birth. a literature search was conducted using a variety of online databases for the years 1990-2005. A thematic analysis of a random sample of 62 of these papers identified the main characteristics of the experience of childbirth. There are multiple methodological challenges in researching the experience of labour and birth, and in developing the existing complexity of evidence. despite agreement across disciplines regarding the significance of the childbirth experience, there is little consensus on a conceptual definition. Four main attributes of the experience were described as individual, complex, process and life event. Through this concept analysis, the experiences of labour and birth is defined as an individual life event, incorporating interrelated subjective psychological and physiological processes, influenced by social, environmental, organisational and policy contexts. identification of the core attributes of the labour and birth experience may provide a framework for future consideration and investigation including further analysis of related concepts such as 'support' and 'control'. practitioners and researchers have already identified the diversity and complexity of women's experiences during labour and birth. The importance of the identified attributes also requires organisational and policy development within the context of a cultural environment that acknowledges this diversity.

  16. Narratives about Labour Market Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cort, Pia; Thomsen, Rie

    2014-01-01

    In European Union policy, Denmark is often referred to as a model country in terms of its flexicurity model and provision of financial support and access to education and training during periods of unemployment, i.e. during transitional phases in a working life. However, in the research on flexicurity and its implications for labour market…

  17. Narratives about Labour Market Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cort, Pia; Thomsen, Rie

    2014-01-01

    In European Union policy, Denmark is often referred to as a model country in terms of its flexicurity model and provision of financial support and access to education and training during periods of unemployment, i.e. during transitional phases in a working life. However, in the research on flexicurity and its implications for labour market…

  18. New Labour and Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, David

    2006-01-01

    This paper is the second part of an edited version of a Keynote Presentation delivered at the 2006 AUA Annual Conference at Queen's University Belfast on 11 April. The first part was published in perspectives 10.3 in July 2006. In the Presentation Sir David commented on three areas of unfinished business with which New Labour has struggled; in the…

  19. Intracervical prostaglandins for induction of labour.

    PubMed

    Boulvain, M; Kelly, A; Irion, O

    2008-01-23

    Prostaglandins have been used for cervical ripening and induction of labour since the 1970s. The goal of the administration of prostaglandins in the process of induction of labour is to achieve cervical ripening before the onset of contractions. One of the routes of administration that was proposed is intracervical. Using this route, prostaglandins are less easy to administer and the need for exposing the cervix may cause discomfort to the woman. To determine the effects of intracervical prostaglandins for third trimester cervical ripening or induction of labour compared with placebo/no treatment and with vaginal prostaglandins (except misoprostol). We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (August 2007) and bibliographies of relevant papers. Clinical trials comparing intracervical prostaglandins used for third trimester cervical ripening or labour induction with placebo/no treatment or other methods listed above it on a predefined list of labour induction methods (vaginal prostaglandins, except misoprostol). A strategy was developed to deal with the large volume and complexity of trial data relating to labour induction. This involved a two-stage method of data extraction. Fifty-six trials (7738 women) are included. INTRACERVICAL PGE2 WITH PLACEBO/NO TREATMENT: 28 TRIALS, 3764 WOMEN: Four studies reported the number of women who did not achieve vaginal delivery within 24 hours, showing a decreased risk with PGE2 (relative risk (RR) 0.61; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.47 to 0.79). There was a small, and statistically non-significant, reduction of the risk of caesarean section when PGE2 was used (RR 0.88; 95% CI 0.77 to 1.00). The finding was statistically significant in a subgroup of women with intact membranes and unfavourable cervix only (RR 0.82; 95% CI 0.68 to 0.98). The risk of hyperstimulation with fetal heart rate (FHR) changes was not significantly increased (RR 1.21; 95% CI 0.72 to 2.05). However, the risk of

  20. Labour is still painful after prepared childbirth training.

    PubMed Central

    Melzack, R.; Taenzer, P.; Feldman, P.; Kinch, R. A.

    1981-01-01

    Labour pain was measured with the McGill Pain Questionnaire in 87 primiparas and 54 multiparas. The average intensity of labour pain ranked among the most intense pains recorded with the questionnaire. However, the pain scores had a wide range and were influenced by several medical and social variables. They were significantly higher for the primiparas than for the multiparas. Moreover, high pain levels were associated with a history of menstrual difficulties and lower socioeconomic status. The primiparas who had received prepared childbirth training had lower pain scores than those who had received no such training. Nevertheless, the effects of prepared childbirth training were relatively small, and most patients (81%) who received it requested epidural anesthesia. Because many women who received training suffered severe pain during labour, prepared childbirth training and epidural anesthesia should be regarded as compatible, complementary procedures. PMID:7272887

  1. International migration and New Zealand labour markets.

    PubMed

    Farmer, R S

    1986-06-01

    "This paper seeks to assess the value of the overseas-born members of the labour force in ensuring a flexible labour supply in New Zealand since the beginning of the 1970s. Three main issues are considered: first, the role of the labour market in New Zealand's immigration policy; second, international migration trends and the labour market; and third, the evidence on migration and labour market segmentation in New Zealand." Data used are from official external migration statistics, quinquennial censuses, and recent research. The author notes that "in New Zealand immigration measures are currently being taken that emphasize that immigration continues to add to the flexibility of the labour market while uncontrolled emigration is a major cause of labour market instability." (SUMMARY IN FRE AND SPA) excerpt

  2. Induction of labour.

    PubMed

    Leduc, Dean; Biringer, Anne; Lee, Lily; Dy, Jessica

    2013-09-01

    Objectif : Analyser la littérature la plus récente afin de formuler des recommandations factuelles à l’intention des fournisseurs de soins obstétricaux au sujet du déclenchement du travail. Options : Mise en œuvre d’un déclenchement du travail dans le cadre d’une grossesse. Issues : Chronologie et méthode appropriées pour ce qui est du déclenchement, mode d’accouchement approprié et issues maternelles et périnatales optimales. Résultats : La littérature publiée a été récupérée par l’intermédiaire de recherches menées dans PubMed, CINAHL et The Cochrane Library en 2010, au moyen d’un vocabulaire contrôlé (p. ex. « labour », « induced », « labour induction », « cervical ripening ») et de mots clés (p. ex. « induce », « induction », « augmentation ») appropriés. Les résultats ont été restreints aux analyses systématiques, aux essais comparatifs randomisés / essais cliniques comparatifs et aux études observationnelles. Aucune restriction n’a été appliquée en matière de date ou de langue. Les recherches ont été mises à jour de façon régulière et intégrées à la directive clinique jusqu’à la fin de 2010. La littérature grise (non publiée) a été identifiée par l’intermédiaire de recherches menées dans les sites Web d’organismes s’intéressant à l’évaluation des technologies dans le domaine de la santé et d’organismes connexes, dans des collections de directives cliniques, dans des registres d’essais cliniques et auprès de sociétés de spécialité médicale nationales et internationales. Valeurs : La qualité des résultats est évaluée au moyen des critères décrits dans le rapport du Groupe d’étude canadien sur les soins de santé préventifs (Tableau 1). Validation : Les données, les déclarations sommaires et les recommandations que contient la présente directive clinique ont été vérifiées en les comparant à celles de directives

  3. Association between co-morbidities and labour force participation amongst persons with back problems.

    PubMed

    Schofield, Deborah J; Callander, Emily J; Shrestha, Rupendra N; Passey, Megan E; Percival, Richard; Kelly, Simon J

    2012-10-01

    There are few studies that have looked at the occurrence of co-morbid conditions amongst patients with back problems. This study assesses the association between of a range of co-morbidities and the labour force participation rates of 45- to 64-year-old Australians with back problems. Logistic regression models were applied to the 2003 Survey of Disability, Ageing and Carers (SDAC) data to look at the relationship between chronic back problems, labour force participation and comorbidities. For some conditions, there is a significant increase in the chance of an individual being out of the labour force, relative to those with back problems alone. For example, an individual with back problems and heart disease is more than 10 times more likely to be out of the labour force than those with back problems alone (OR=10.90, 95% CI=2.91-40.79, P=.0004). Amongst conditions that have a significant impact on labour force participation rates, back problems and multiple co-morbidities are significantly more likely to cause persons with these conditions to be out of the labour force than those with back problems alone or those with no chronic health condition. It is important to consider which co-morbidities an individual has when assessing the impact of back problems on labour force participation, as co-morbid conditions vary in their association with labour force participation.

  4. Bridging the Solitudes and the Challenge of the Labour Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haddad, Jane W.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper the relations established through the work placement component of the Bridging the Solitudes project are viewed as a way of fostering the formation and re-formation of the occupational and civic identities of these marginalized students. Their experiences are examined in the larger context of the youth labour market. (Contains 1…

  5. Teacher, Lecturer or Labourer? Performance Management Issues in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mather, Kim; Seifert, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Education management has increasingly been dominated by the norms and requirements of general management ideologies that focus on performance controls and target achievements. Under this regime, solving the labour problem--relatively low productivity--has taken precedence over all other forms of management. In pursuit of this objective senior…

  6. Being "Fun" at Work: Emotional Labour, Class, Gender and Childcare

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, Carol; Braun, Annette

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on data drawn from an "Economic and Social Research Council"-funded project investigating the experiences of UK-based students training on level-2 and level-3 childcare courses. We focus on the concept of emotional labour in relation to learning to care for and educate young children and the ways in which the students'…

  7. Youth Unemployment and Labour Market Transitions in Hungary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Audas, Rick; Berde, Eva; Dolton, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Unemployment and labour market adjustment have featured prominently in the problems of transitional economies. However, the position of young people and their transitions from school to work in these new market economies has been virtually ignored. This paper examines a new large longitudinal data set relating to young people in Hungary over the…

  8. A Labour View of Technical and Vocational Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCaffrey, Gordon

    1970-01-01

    Gordon McCaffrey, a political scientist and assistant director of the legislation department, Canadian Labour Congress, says technical and vocational educations is as good as far as it goes. He pinpoints what he believes are the shortcomings of education as a whole, examines these in relation to psychological, social and economic factors, and…

  9. Being "Fun" at Work: Emotional Labour, Class, Gender and Childcare

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, Carol; Braun, Annette

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on data drawn from an "Economic and Social Research Council"-funded project investigating the experiences of UK-based students training on level-2 and level-3 childcare courses. We focus on the concept of emotional labour in relation to learning to care for and educate young children and the ways in which the students'…

  10. Complementary and alternative therapies for pain management in labour.

    PubMed

    Smith, C A; Collins, C T; Cyna, A M; Crowther, C A

    2006-10-18

    Many women would like to avoid pharmacological or invasive methods of pain management in labour and this may contribute towards the popularity of complementary methods of pain management. This review examined currently available evidence supporting the use of alternative and complementary therapies for pain management in labour. To examine the effects of complementary and alternative therapies for pain management in labour on maternal and perinatal morbidity. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (February 2006), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library 2006, Issue 1), MEDLINE (1966 to February 2006), EMBASE (1980 to February 2006) and CINAHL (1980 to February 2006). The inclusion criteria included published and unpublished randomised controlled trials comparing complementary and alternative therapies (but not biofeedback) with placebo, no treatment or pharmacological forms of pain management in labour. All women whether primiparous or multiparous, and in spontaneous or induced labour, in the first and second stage of labour were included. Meta-analysis was performed using relative risks for dichotomous outcomes and mean differences for continuous outcomes. The outcome measures were maternal satisfaction, use of pharmacological pain relief and maternal and neonatal adverse outcomes. Fourteen trials were included in the review with data reporting on 1537 women using different modalities of pain management; 1448 women were included in the meta-analysis. Three trials involved acupuncture (n = 496), one audio-analgesia (n = 24), two trials acupressure (n = 172), one aromatherapy (n = 22), five trials hypnosis (n = 729), one trial of massage (n = 60), and relaxation (n = 34). The trials of acupuncture showed a decreased need for pain relief (relative risk (RR) 0.70, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.49 to 1.00, two trials 288 women). Women taught self-hypnosis had decreased requirements for pharmacological

  11. Can labour contract differences in health and work-related attitudes be explained by quality of working life and job insecurity?

    PubMed

    Wagenaar, Alfred F; Kompier, Michiel A J; Houtman, Irene L D; van den Bossche, Seth; Smulders, Peter; Taris, Toon W

    2012-10-01

    We hypothesise that due to a lower quality of working life and higher job insecurity, the health and work-related attitudes of temporary workers may be less positive compared to permanent workers. Therefore, we aimed to (1) examine differences between contract groups (i.e. permanent contract, temporary contract with prospect of permanent work, fixed-term contract, temporary agency contract and on-call contract) in the quality of working life, job insecurity, health and work-related attitudes and (2) investigate whether these latter contract group differences in health and work-related attitudes can be explained by differences in the quality of working life and/or job insecurity. Data were collected from the Netherlands Working Conditions Survey 2008 (N = 21,639), and Hypotheses were tested using analysis of variance and cross-table analysis. Temporary work was associated with fewer task demands and lower autonomy and was more often passive or high-strain work, while permanent work was more often active work. Except for on-call work, temporary work was more insecure and associated with worse health and work-related attitude scores than permanent work. Finally, the quality of working life and job insecurity partly accounted for most contract differences in work-related attitudes but not in health. Especially agency workers have a lower health status and worse work-related attitudes. Job redesign measures regarding their quality of working life and job insecurity are recommended.

  12. Gender relations, the gendered division of labour and health: the case of the women factory workers of Rio Tinto, northeast Brazil, 1924-91.

    PubMed

    Ferreira De Macedo, M B

    1996-01-01

    This article examines gendered work-health relationships among female factory workers in Rio Tinto, a textile factory town in Brazil. The author draws on her own and her parents' experiences as factory workers and as residents of Rio Tinto. In addition, she gathered research during 1982-86 and 1988-93, interviewing 30 female and 12 male workers. Findings from 1924-58 and 1959-91 indicate that the family structure and work process were interlinked. Self-images are construed to be the intersection of social relations of sex and class, psychopathology, and the concept of work positions. Gendered relations are a social construction, and awareness of these relations is based on a hierarchy and form of power based on a gendered division of labor. Gendered relations arise out of a specific historical context. Social practices reflect the relationship between sexual division of labor and gendered social relations, their modalities, shape, and periodization. The work-health relationship is expressed in the gendered technical organization of work, the gendered socialization of work, and domestic labor. The period of 1917-58 reflects the capitalist influences. When women became wage earners, their management of household tasks was changed. Men took over the heavy tasks, and women performed tasks that required skill and patience. Work-related health impacts, such as deformed knees or severed fingers, and accidents varied with the task. Women adapted to work conditions. During the 1940s, female workers refused to join the collective protests of men for better wages and conditions. The dream of progress faded by 1964. After 1959, new gendered relations of production and reproduction emerged. Labor laws were passed; new machines were introduced. During 1965-70, the health issues were headaches, irritability, and anxiety. 1970-91 brought a hollowness of spirit and the search for an explanation for the violence they had experienced.

  13. An audit about labour induction, using prostaglandin, in women with a scarred uterus.

    PubMed

    Cogan, Alexandra; Barlow, Patricia; Benali, Nordine; Murillo, Daniel; Manigart, Yannick; Belhomme, Julie; Rozenberg, Serge

    2012-12-01

    Induction of labour after a previous caesarean section is still controversial. We aim to analyse, in a population of women who have a uterine scar, the maternal, foetal and neonatal complications in relation to the mode of labour and delivery. Retrospective analysis of collected data from all the singleton deliveries of patients with a scarred uterus (N=798), admitted to the hospital between August 2006 and March 2009. maternal and perinatal complications. Among 798 singleton deliveries, 36.1% had a spontaneous labour, 12.6% a prostaglandin-induced labour and 2.9% an ocytocin-induced labour, and 48.4% had an elective caesarean section. The chance of delivering vaginally was respectively 84.4% for those who had a spontaneous labour, 75.2% for those who were induced using prostaglandin, 82.6% after induction using ocytocin. There were eight uterine ruptures, four after spontaneous labour (1.4%), two after prostaglandin induction (2%) and two at the time of an iterative caesarean section (0.5%). There were no differences between groups, except the risk of haemorrhage (17.4% after spontaneously induced labour, 34.8% after ocytocin, 17.8% after prostaglandin and 44.6% after iterative caesarean section; p<0.005) and the neonatal admissions when analysed by intention to treat only (8.3% after spontaneously induced labour, 9.1% after ocytocin, 12% after prostaglandin and 16.8% after iterative caesarean section; p<0.009). Although no increase in maternal or perinatal outcome was observed in relation to prostaglandin-induced labour after caesarean section, this study is too underpowered to exclude an increased risk.

  14. Counting Women’s Labour

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Rachel Sullivan; Lee, Ronald D.; Kramer, Karen L.

    2008-01-01

    The economic contribution of children to their parents’ households has long interested demographers because of its potential to influence fertility levels. Valuing children’s labour in pre-industrial economies, however, is inherently difficult. The same is true of women’s labour, a crucial component to any analysis of net production. Here we use Mead Cain’s seminal (1977) study of children’s economic contributions in a Bangladeshi village to illustrate these points. We combine Cain’s data on landless women’s and men’s hours of work with data on the efficiency per hour of work from other pre-industrial settings (Mueller 1976; Kramer 1998). When women’s labour is incorporated, we find that the Bangladeshi children begin to produce as much as they consume by ages ten (girls) or eleven (boys). Despite these productive contributions, neither women nor men “pay” for their cumulative consumption until their early twenties. We believe these methods could be usefully applied in other contexts. PMID:18278671

  15. Progesterone Deficiency and Premature Labour

    PubMed Central

    Csapo, A. I.; Pohanka, O.; Kaihola, H. L.

    1974-01-01

    Plasma oestradiol 17β and progesterone levels in 11 patients admitted to hospital for threatened premature labour of unknown aetiology were compared with those of women at similar stages of gestation whose pregnancy was normal. Oestradiol levels in the study group were slightly higher than in the normal controls but their progesterone levels were significantly lower. This progesterone deficiency increased the oestradiol/progesterone ratio in the study group patients, and it increased still more as the progesterone withdrawal continued during premature labour. Since uterine activity during pregnancy is regulated by a balanced action of several factors a deficiency in progesterone, an opponent of uterine activity, creates a regulatory imbalance which, if uncorrected, provokes premature labour. An increase in uterine volume stimulates uterine activity, and the present study reinforced our previous conclusion that the uterine-volume/plasma-progesterone ratio is a more accurate measure of the state of regulatory balance than the progesterone level alone. The cause of the progesterone deficiency in these cases remains unexplained, but we suggest that placental growth and function are contributory factors. We are investigating ways of correcting the resulting imbalance in the regulatory mechanism. PMID:4812406

  16. Child Labour in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonnet, Michel

    1993-01-01

    The question of child labor in Africa is complicated by the failures of the educational system, family relations, traditional forms of apprenticeship, proliferation of the informal economic sector, and continuing existence of a rural economy. Hazardous working conditions prevail. (SK)

  17. Ethnic variation between white European women in labour outcomes in a setting in which the management of labour is standardised-a healthy migrant effect?

    PubMed

    Walsh, J; Mahony, R; Armstrong, F; Ryan, G; O'Herlihy, C; Foley, M

    2011-05-01

    To test the hypothesis that women from Eastern European countries have lower caesarean delivery rates and higher spontaneous labour rates relative to Irish women in a setting in which the management of labour is standardised. A retrospective review of prospectively collected data. Tertiary referral centre, Dublin, Ireland. All Irish and Eastern European term nulliparous women who laboured and delivered in 2008. A comparison of labour outcomes between women from Ireland and women from Eastern European countries. The principal outcomes measured were the gestational age at onset of labour, whether labour was spontaneous or induced, the need for oxytocin augmentation, duration of labour, mode of delivery, epidural use and birthweight. Of 2556 Irish (n = 2041) and Eastern European (n = 511) term cephalic singleton labours in the calendar year 2008, women from Eastern Europe were significantly more likely to labour spontaneously (74.6% versus 65.9%, P < 0.001), required less epidural analgesia (68.4% versus 59.7%) and were significantly less likely to require delivery by caesarean section (8.6% versus 15.7%, P < 0.001) than Irish women. This is despite no significant difference between the two groups with regard to mean birthweight (3581 g versus 3569 g, P = 0.6) or macrosomia (birthweight over 4000 g) (18% versus 16%, P = 0.4). There were significant differences in maternal age at delivery (27.2 years versus 29.2 years, P < 0.001) and body mass index (BMI) (24.1 kg/m² versus 25.4 kg/m², P < 0.001) between the two groups. These findings confirm our hypothesis that economic migrants from Eastern European countries exhibit a so-called 'healthy migrant effect' in terms of obstetric outcomes. © 2011 The Authors BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology © 2011 RCOG.

  18. The development of a Simplified, Effective, Labour Monitoring-to-Action (SELMA) tool for Better Outcomes in Labour Difficulty (BOLD): study protocol.

    PubMed

    Souza, João Paulo; Oladapo, Olufemi T; Bohren, Meghan A; Mugerwa, Kidza; Fawole, Bukola; Moscovici, Leonardo; Alves, Domingos; Perdona, Gleici; Oliveira-Ciabati, Livia; Vogel, Joshua P; Tunçalp, Özge; Zhang, Jim; Hofmeyr, Justus; Bahl, Rajiv; Gülmezoglu, A Metin

    2015-05-26

    The partograph is currently the main tool available to support decision-making of health professionals during labour. However, the rate of appropriate use of the partograph is disappointingly low. Apart from limitations that are associated with partograph use, evidence of positive impact on labour-related health outcomes is lacking. The main goal of this study is to develop a Simplified, Effective, Labour Monitoring-to-Action (SELMA) tool. The primary objectives are: to identify the essential elements of intrapartum monitoring that trigger the decision to use interventions aimed at preventing poor labour outcomes; to develop a simplified, monitoring-to-action algorithm for labour management; and to compare the diagnostic performance of SELMA and partograph algorithms as tools to identify women who are likely to develop poor labour-related outcomes. A prospective cohort study will be conducted in eight health facilities in Nigeria and Uganda (four facilities from each country). All women admitted for vaginal birth will comprise the study population (estimated sample size: 7,812 women). Data will be collected on maternal characteristics on admission, labour events and pregnancy outcomes by trained research assistants at the participating health facilities. Prediction models will be developed to identify women at risk of intrapartum-related perinatal death or morbidity (primary outcomes) throughout the course of labour. These predictions models will be used to assemble a decision-support tool that will be able to suggest the best course of action to avert adverse outcomes during the course of labour. To develop this set of prediction models, we will use up-to-date techniques of prognostic research, including identification of important predictors, assigning of relative weights to each predictor, estimation of the predictive performance of the model through calibration and discrimination, and determination of its potential for application using internal validation

  19. Nurses' resilience and the emotional labour of nursing work: An integrative review of empirical literature.

    PubMed

    Delgado, Cynthia; Upton, Dominic; Ranse, Kristen; Furness, Trentham; Foster, Kim

    2017-05-01

    The emotional labour of nursing work involves managing the emotional demands of relating with patients, families and colleagues. Building nurses' resilience is an important strategy in mitigating the stress and burnout that may be caused by ongoing exposure to these demands. Understandings of resilience in the context of emotional labour in nursing, however, are limited. To investigate the state of knowledge on resilience in the context of emotional labour in nursing. Integrative literature review. CINAHL, Medline, Scopus, and PsycINFO electronic databases were searched for abstracts published between 2005 and 2015 and written in English. Reference lists were hand searched. Whittemore and Knafl's integrative review method was used to guide this review. The constant comparative method was used to analyze and synthesize data from 27 peer-reviewed quantitative and qualitative articles. Methodological quality of included studies was assessed using the Mixed Methods Assessment Tool. Emotional labour is a facet of all aspects of nursing work and nurse-patient/family/collegial interactions. Emotional dissonance arising from surface acting in emotional labour can lead to stress and burnout. Resilience can be a protective process for the negative effects of emotional labour. Several resilience interventions have been designed to strengthen nurses' individual resources and reduce the negative effects of workplace stress; however they do not specifically address emotional labour. Inclusion of emotional labour-mitigating strategies is recommended for future resilience interventions. Resilience is a significant intervention that can build nurses' resources and address the effects of emotional dissonance in nursing work. There is a need for further investigation of the relationship between resilience and emotional labour in nursing, and robust evaluation of the impact of resilience interventions that address emotional labour. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Pseudo-precipitate labour: myth or reality.

    PubMed

    Ananda, K; Sane, Mandar Ramchandra; Shreedhar, N C

    2013-01-01

    Spontaneous deliveries into toilet bowls always carry a special forensic significance. Forensic pathologist has to differentiate between a genuine precipitate labour and concealed birth or a neonaticide. Circumstances are challenging when a nullipara claims misapprehended precipitate labour. We report a similar case where a primigravidous unmarried girl delivered in a lavatory pan misjudging labour pains as that of bowel evacuation. Detailed obstetric history, postnatal maternal behaviour and visit to scene of incidence resolved the unnecessary charges of neonaticide on the embarrassed mother.

  1. The onset of labour: an alternative theory.

    PubMed

    Jones, P

    1996-02-01

    This article, based mainly on the theories and discoveries of Wilhelm Reich (1897-1957), puts forward the bio-energetic theory of the onset of labour, which assumes it to be one of many examples of bio-energetic pulsation in the organism. It suggests that chronic muscular tension ('armouring') interferes with this spontaneous pulsation and may account for many of the difficulties experienced by women in labour. A form of psychotherapy ('orgone-therapy') based on these theories may prove helpful in childbirth education, in the non-intrusive induction of labour, and in labour itself. A research project to test this hypothesis is suggested.

  2. Impact of acupressure on onset of labour and labour duration: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Mollart, Lyndall J; Adam, Jon; Foureur, Maralyn

    2015-09-01

    There is worldwide concern with increasing rates of pharmacologically induced labour and operative birth. Many women would like to avoid medical or surgical interventions in childbirth; a desire that may contribute towards the popularity of complementary and alternative medicine/therapies. This systematic review examines the effects of acupressure on labour onset and duration of labour. We searched MEDLINE, CINAHL, AMED, Cochrane Collaboration, and Science Direct from 1999 to 2013 for published randomised controlled trials and controlled trials comparing acupressure with placebo and no treatment. Studies recruited primiparous and/or multiparous women with either spontaneous or induced onset of labour. The outcome measures were labour onset and duration of all stages of labour. Seven trials with data reporting on 748 women using different acupressure points and methods of administration were included in the review. One study examined the initiation of labour and six studies examined labour duration and/or pain levels. The two most studied acupoints were Sanyinjiao/Spleen 6 and Hegu/Large Intestine 4. Results suggest acupressure may reduce the length of labour particularly in the first stage. Further research is required on whether acupressure can shorten labour duration, augment prolonged labour or initiate onset of labour by stimulating uterine contractions. Clinical trials should report the basis for acupressure treatment described in the STRICTA (minus needling) and CONSORT non-pharmaceutical guidelines. Copyright © 2015 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Exploring gender differences in the relationships between eldercare and labour force participation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yeonjung; Tang, Fengyan; Kim, Kevin H; Albert, Steven M

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated the reciprocal relationship between parental caregiving and labour force participation to determine whether (1) caregiving related to subsequent employment; (2) employment related to subsequent caregiving; (3) caregiving and labour force participation had a reciprocal relationship across time; and (4) gender differences existed in these relationships. A cross-lagged panel design was applied with structural equation modeling. The study sample included adult children aged 51 or older with living parents or parents-in-law. No reciprocal relationship was found between caregiving and labour force participation, but gender differences were evident. Women caregivers in 2006 were less likely to be working in 2008, whereas employment status was not related to subsequent caregiving. In contrast, men working in 2008 were less likely to be caregiving in 2010, whereas caregiving was not related to subsequent employment status. Findings suggest that gender plays an important role in the relationship between caregiving and labour force participation.

  4. Loss of functional K+ channels encoded by ether-à-go-go-related genes in mouse myometrium prior to labour onset.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, I A; Yeung, S Y; Tribe, R M; Ohya, S

    2009-05-15

    There is a growing appreciation that ion channels encoded by the ether-à-go-go-related gene family have a functional impact in smooth muscle in addition to their accepted role in cardiac myocytes and neurones. This study aimed to assess the expression of ERG1-3 (KCNH1-3) genes in the murine myometrium (smooth muscle layer of the uterus) and determine the functional impact of the ion channels encoded by these genes in pregnant and non-pregnant animals. Quantitative RT-PCR did not detect message for ERG2 and 3 in whole myometrial tissue extracts. In contrast, message for two isoforms of mERG1 were readily detected with mERG1a more abundant than mERG1b. In isometric tension studies of non-pregnant myometrium, the ERG channel blockers dofetilide (1 microM), E4031 (1 microM) and Be-KM1 (100 nM) increased spontaneous contractility and ERG activators (PD118057 and NS1643) inhibited spontaneous contractility. In contrast, neither ERG blockade nor activation had any effect on the inherent contractility in myometrium from late pregnant (19 days gestation) animals. Moreover, dofetilide-sensitive K(+) currents with distinctive 'hooked' kinetics were considerably smaller in uterine myocytes from late pregnant compared to non-pregnant animals. Expression of mERG1 isoforms did not alter throughout gestation or upon delivery, but the expression of genes encoding auxillary subunits (KCNE) were up-regulated considerably. This study provides the first evidence for a regulation of ERG-encoded K(+) channels as a precursor to late pregnancy physiological activity.

  5. Reducing stillbirths: interventions during labour

    PubMed Central

    Darmstadt, Gary L; Yakoob, Mohammad Yawar; Haws, Rachel A; Menezes, Esme V; Soomro, Tanya; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2009-01-01

    Background Approximately one million stillbirths occur annually during labour; most of these stillbirths occur in low and middle-income countries and are associated with absent, inadequate, or delayed obstetric care. The low proportion of intrapartum stillbirths in high-income countries suggests that intrapartum stillbirths are largely preventable with quality intrapartum care, including prompt recognition and management of intrapartum complications. The evidence for impact of intrapartum interventions on stillbirth and perinatal mortality outcomes has not yet been systematically examined. Methods We undertook a systematic review of the published literature, searching PubMed and the Cochrane Library, of trials and reviews (N = 230) that reported stillbirth or perinatal mortality outcomes for eight interventions delivered during labour. Where eligible randomised controlled trials had been published after the most recent Cochrane review on any given intervention, we incorporated these new trial findings into a new meta-analysis with the Cochrane included studies. Results We found a paucity of studies reporting statistically significant evidence of impact on perinatal mortality, especially on stillbirths. Available evidence suggests that operative delivery, especially Caesarean section, contributes to decreased stillbirth rates. Induction of labour rather than expectant management in post-term pregnancies showed strong evidence of impact, though there was not enough evidence to suggest superior safety for the fetus of any given drug or drugs for induction of labour. Planned Caesarean section for term breech presentation has been shown in a large randomised trial to reduce stillbirths, but the feasibility and consequences of implementing this intervention routinely in low-/middle-income countries add caveats to recommending its use. Magnesium sulphate for pre-eclampsia and eclampsia is effective in preventing eclamptic seizures, but studies have not demonstrated impact

  6. South African labour law and HIV / AIDS.

    PubMed

    Smart, R; Strode, A

    1999-01-01

    This article contains five key pieces of labor legislation in South Africa, including one applying specifically to the mining industry which protect the rights of employees. These laws include: the Employment Equity Act, No. 55 of 1998; the Labour Relations Act, No. 66 of 1995; the Occupational Health and Safety Act, No. 85 of 1993; the Compensation for Occupational Injuries and Diseases Act No. 130 of 1993; the Mines Health and Safety Act, No. 29 of 1996; and the Basic Conditions of Employment Act, No. 75 of 1997. This paper further presents the Medical Schemes Act, No. 131 of 1998 and the protection of the right to privacy and dignity. Although HIV/AIDS was expressly referred to only in the Employment Equity Act, there are provisions in all the other Acts, which have relevance to HIV/AIDS.

  7. Emotional labour, job satisfaction and organizational commitment amongst clinical nurses: a questionnaire survey.

    PubMed

    Yang, Feng-Hua; Chang, Chen-Chieh

    2008-06-01

    According to Hochschild's (1983. The Managed Heart. Berkeley: University of California Press) classification of emotional labour, nursing staff express high emotional labour. This paper investigates how nursing staff influence job satisfaction and organizational commitment when they perform emotional labour. This paper examines the relationship between emotional labour, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment from the perspective of nursing staff. A questionnaire survey was carried out to explore these interrelationships. Teaching hospital in Taiwan. Questionnaires were distributed to 500 nursing staff; 295 valid questionnaires were collected and analysed-a 59% response rate. The questionnaires contained items on emotional labour, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment as well as some basic socio-demographics. In addition, descriptive statistics, correlation and linear structure relation (LISREL) were computed. Emotional display rule (EDR) was significantly and negatively related to job satisfaction. Surface acting (SA) was not significantly related to job satisfaction but demonstrated a significantly negative relationship with organizational commitment. Deep acting (DA) significantly and positively correlated with job satisfaction but demonstrated no significance with organizational commitment. The variety of emotions required (VER) was not significantly related to job satisfaction; frequency and duration of interaction (FDI) and negatively related to job satisfaction; and job satisfaction significantly and positively correlated with organizational commitment. We found that some dimensions of emotional labour significantly relate to job satisfaction. Job satisfaction positively affects organizational commitment and has an intervening effect on DA and organizational commitment.

  8. The ethics of surrogacy: women's reproductive labour.

    PubMed

    van Niekerk, A; van Zyl, L

    1995-12-01

    The aim of this article is to establish whether there is anything intrinsically immoral about surrogacy arrangements from the perspective of the surrogate mother herself. Specific attention is paid to the claim that surrogacy is similar to prostitution in that it reduces women's reproductive labour to a form of alienated and/or dehumanized labour.

  9. The Emotional Labour of Caring in Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isenbarger, Lynn; Zembylas, Michalinos

    2006-01-01

    This article is based on a collaborative action research study between one teacher and a teacher educator and provides an account of the emotional labour in enacting caring teaching in an inclusive classroom. The emotional labour demanded in caring relationships is an area of research that has not received much attention. Results from this case…

  10. The Emotional Labour of Caring in Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isenbarger, Lynn; Zembylas, Michalinos

    2006-01-01

    This article is based on a collaborative action research study between one teacher and a teacher educator and provides an account of the emotional labour in enacting caring teaching in an inclusive classroom. The emotional labour demanded in caring relationships is an area of research that has not received much attention. Results from this case…

  11. Molecular and biochemical mechanisms of preterm labour.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Aarthi R; Loudon, Jenifer A; Bennett, Phillip R

    2004-12-01

    Parturition involves the synchronization of myometrial activity and structural changes of the cervix, leading to regular co-ordinated uterine contractions and cervical dilatation and effacement. The biochemical events involved in parturition resemble an inflammatory reaction, with growing evidence pointing to a crucial role for pro-inflammatory cytokines and prostaglandins in labour. There is accumulating evidence that there are common mediators involved in the regulation of 'labour-associated proteins', and that, in each case, an increase or decrease in gene expression mediates changes in their concentration. It is possible, therefore, that targeting these common mediators may represent newer strategies for the prevention of preterm labour. Our aim is to review the mechanical and biochemical mechanisms that may be involved in the processes of term and preterm labour. Specifically, we will consider the regulation of some of the 'labour-associated proteins', chemotactic cytokines, prostaglandins and enzymes of the prostaglandin biosynthetic pathway and the oxytocin receptor.

  12. Elective induction versus spontaneous labour in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Gláucia Virgínia; Cecatti, José Guilherme; Souza, João Paulo; Faúndes, Aníbal; Morais, Sirlei Siani; Gülmezoglu, Ahmet Metin; Passini, Renato; Parpinelli, Mary Angela; Carroli, Guillermo

    2011-09-01

    To assess the frequency of elective induction of labour and its determinants in selected Latin America countries; quantify success in attaining vaginal delivery, and compare rates of caesarean and adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes after elective induction versus spontaneous labour in low-risk pregnancies. Of 37,444 deliveries in women with low-risk pregnancies, 1847 (4.9%) were electively induced. The factors associated with adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes among cases of spontaneous and induced onset of labour were compared. Odds ratios for factors potentially associated with adverse outcomes were calculated, as were the relative risks of having an adverse maternal or perinatal outcome (both with their 95% confidence intervals). Adjustment using multiple logistic regression models followed these analyses. Of 11,077 cases of induced labour, 1847 (16.7%) were elective. Elective inductions occurred in 4.9% of women with low-risk pregnancies (37,444). Oxytocin was the most common method used (83% of cases), either alone or combined with another. Of induced deliveries, 88.2% were vaginal. The most common maternal adverse events were: (i) a higher postpartum need for uterotonic drugs, (ii) a nearly threefold risk of admission to the intensive care unit; (iii) a fivefold risk of postpartum hysterectomy, and (iv) an increased need for anaesthesia/analgesia. Perinatal outcomes were satisfactory except for a 22% higher risk of delayed breastfeeding (i.e. initiation between 1 hour and 7 days postpartum). Caution is mandatory when indicating elective labour induction because the increased risk of maternal and perinatal adverse outcomes is not outweighed by clear benefits.

  13. Obstructed labour - a preventable entity.

    PubMed

    Chhabra, S; Gandhi, D; Jaiswal, M

    2000-03-01

    We present a clinical study of 204 cases of obstructed labour admitted over a period of 5 years between 1991-92 and 1996-97 in a rural institute in central India. They constituted 1.9% of births. Seventy-one per cent of the cases were from the rural area (similar to the overall patient population in this hospital), 31.4% women were primigravidae. Of the subjects, 64.7% were between 20 and 29 years. Malpresentation was the cause in 53.2%, followed by cephalopelvic disproportion, in 41.1%. Intraoperative incomplete rupture was detected in 5.9% cases. The commonest maternal morbidity was intraoperative extension of uterine incision at the time of caesarean section, mostly lateral (14.0%). Of the women, 12.5% had intrapartum or postpartum sepsis. The perinatal mortality was 160/1000. There was no maternal mortality. Timely diagnosis of malpresentation, pelvic contraction and use of a partogram at all levels could have prevented obstructed labour. In these unfortunate situations, judicious selection of subjects for caesarean section is appropriate, avoiding heroic vaginal procedures even with a dead baby. Infection devitalises tissues and attempts at vaginal delivery may be dangerous.

  14. Prevalence, types and demographic features of child labour among school children in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Fetuga, Bolanle M; Njokama, Fidelis O; Olowu, Adebiyi O

    2005-03-02

    BACKGROUND: To determine the prevalence, types and demographic features of child labour among school children in Nigeria. METHODS: A cross-sectional interview study of 1675 randomly selected public primary and secondary school pupils aged 5 to less than 18 years was conducted in the Sagamu Local Government Area of Ogun State, Nigeria from October 1998 to September 1999. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of child labour was 64.5%: 68.6% among primary and 50.3% among secondary school pupils. Major economic activities included street trading (43.6%), selling in kiosks and shops (25.4%) and farming (23.6%). No child was involved in bonded labour or prostitution. Girls were more often involved in labour activities than boys (66.8% versus 62.1%, p = 0.048): this difference was most obvious with street trading (p = 0.0004). Most of the children (82.2%) involved in labour activities did so on the instruction of one or both parents in order to contribute to family income. Children of parents with low socio-economic status or of poorly educated parents were significantly involved in labour activities (p = 0.01 and p = 0.001 respectively). Child labour was also significantly associated with increasing number of children in the family size (p = 0.002). A higher prevalence rate of child labour was observed among children living with parents and relations than among those living with unrelated guardians. CONCLUSION: It is concluded that smaller family size, parental education and family economic enhancement would reduce the pressure on parents to engage their children in labour activities.

  15. Social and behavioural risk factors for HIV infection among the wives of labour migrants in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Thapa, Subash; Bista, Nirmala; Timilsina, Suraj; Buntinx, Frank; Mathei, Catharina

    2014-10-01

    Summary Labour migration has increased the risk of HIV infection among the wives of labour migrants in Nepal. We conducted a matched case-control study to identify the social and behavioural factors for HIV infection among the wives of labour migrants in Nepal. We interviewed 112 wives of labour migrants diagnosed with HIV (cases) and 112 wives of labour migrants testing negative for HIV (controls) and used logistic regression analysis to assess independent factors associated with HIV infection. Literacy status was the only one woman-related social factor associated with HIV infection. Meanwhile literacy status, age when going abroad for the first time and country of migration were the husband-related social factors and alcohol consumption, living alone abroad and having an unpaid partner abroad were the husband-related behavioural factors associated with HIV infection in the wives. Given the husband-related social and behavioural factors are mostly determining the risk of HIV infection in the wives in our study, prevention efforts must incorporate behaviour change approaches targeting specifically to labour migrants and also to their wives. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  16. Oral misoprostol for induction of labour.

    PubMed

    Alfirevic, Zarko; Aflaifel, Nasreen; Weeks, Andrew

    2014-06-13

    achieved in 24 hours, uterine hyperstimulation with fetal heart rate (FHR) changes, and caesarean section were highly heterogenous - for uterine hyperstimulation with FHR changes this was related to dosage with lower rates in those with lower doses of oral misoprostol. However, there were fewer babies born with a low Apgar score in the oral group (RR 0.60, 95% CI 0.44 to 0.82; 19 trials; 4009 babies) and a decrease in postpartum haemorrhage (RR 0.57, 95% CI 0.34 to 0.95; 10 trials; 1478 women). However, the oral misoprostol group had an increase in meconium-stained liquor (RR 1.22, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.44; 24 trials; 3634 women). Oral misoprostol as an induction agent is effective at achieving vaginal birth. It is more effective than placebo, as effective as vaginal misoprostol and results in fewer caesarean sections than vaginal dinoprostone or oxytocin.Where misoprostol remains unlicensed for the induction of labour, many practitioners will prefer to use a licensed product like dinoprostone. If using oral misoprostol, the evidence suggests that the dose should be 20 to 25 mcg in solution. Given that safety is the primary concern, the evidence supports the use of oral regimens over vaginal regimens. This is especially important in situations where the risk of ascending infection is high and the lack of staff means that women cannot be intensely monitored.

  17. Clinical hypnosis for labour and birth: a consideration.

    PubMed

    Kenyon, Charlotte

    2013-05-01

    Labour pain is one of the most important factors in shaping women's experiences of birth. Choice around pharmacological relief can be complex. Clinical hypnosis is a non-pharmacological option which a number of women have chosen to use, often paying privately to do so. Self hypnosis allows women the opportunity to take control of this technique. Research findings relating to the therapy vary; some trials have found positive effects by way of a reduction in use of pharmacological pain relief, oxytocin use and shortened first stage of labour. Inclusion of the therapy as a means to invoke relaxation and counter the effects of stress and anxiety alone may be valid reasons for consideration of its use. This article outlines the framework used in clinical hypnosis and discusses some of the issues relating to the evidence base for it.

  18. Emotional labour and work engagement among nurses: examining perceived compassion, leadership and work ethic as stress buffers.

    PubMed

    Mauno, Saija; Ruokolainen, Mervi; Kinnunen, Ulla; De Bloom, Jessica

    2016-05-01

    The study examined whether three resources, that is, compassion, transformational leadership and work ethic feasibility, buffer against the negative effects of emotional labour on work engagement. Emotional labour is a common job stressor among nurses, but little is known about whether certain personal and work resources buffer against it in relation to work engagement. Revealing buffers of emotional labour would help organizations to design tailored interventions. Cross-sectional online survey conducted in 2014. Participants were 3466 Finnish nurses. Hypotheses were tested via hierarchical moderated regression analyses. Higher emotional labour related to lower engagement. Two interaction effects were found. First, work ethic feasibility buffered against emotional labour: the nurses who perceived work ethic feasibility as high in a situation of high emotional labour, scored higher on engagement compared with those nurses who in this stress situation perceived work ethic feasibility to be low. Second, high compassion was detrimental to engagement in the presence of high emotional labour. Transformational leadership did not act as a buffer but showed a positive relationship with engagement. Work ethic feasibility (being able to work according to high ethical standards) is an important resource in nursing as it protects an employee against the negative effects of emotional labour and as it also directly promotes engagement. However, compassion may not always be beneficial in nursing, especially if co-occurring with high job stress. Transformational leadership has potential to improve engagement in nursing although it may not operate as a stress buffer. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Validity of the Spanish version of the Emotional Labour Scale.

    PubMed

    Picardo, Juan M; López-Fernández, Consuelo; Hervás, María José Abellán

    2014-06-01

    In this article we address concerns raised by Brumit and Glenn (2013) regarding the validity of the Spanish version of the Emotional Labour Scale (ELS). We respond to requests in relation to the translated version of the scale and the eigenvalue series. We also give an explanation of the differences in results between the original version and the Spanish version of the scale. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Transcription Analysis of the Myometrium of Labouring and Non-Labouring Women

    PubMed Central

    Hutchinson, James L.; Hibbert, Nanette; Freeman, Tom C.; Saunders, Philippa T. K.; Norman, Jane E.

    2016-01-01

    An incomplete understanding of the molecular mechanisms that initiate normal human labour at term seriously hampers the development of effective ways to predict, prevent and treat disorders such as preterm labour. Appropriate analysis of large microarray experiments that compare gene expression in non-labouring and labouring gestational tissues is necessary to help bridge these gaps in our knowledge. In this work, gene expression in 48 (22 labouring, 26 non-labouring) lower-segment myometrial samples collected at Caesarean section were analysed using Illumina HT-12 v4.0 BeadChips. Normalised data were compared between labouring and non-labouring groups using traditional statistical methods and a novel network graph approach. We sought technical validation with quantitative real-time PCR, and biological replication through inverse variance-weighted meta-analysis with published microarray data. We have extended the list of genes suggested to be associated with labour: Compared to non-labouring samples, labouring samples showed apparent higher expression at 960 probes (949 genes) and apparent lower expression at 801 probes (789 genes) (absolute fold change ≥1.2, rank product percentage of false positive value (RP-PFP) <0.05). Although half of the women in the labouring group had received pharmaceutical treatment to induce or augment labour, sensitivity analysis suggested that this did not confound our results. In agreement with previous studies, functional analysis suggested that labour was characterised by an increase in the expression of inflammatory genes and network analysis suggested a strong neutrophil signature. Our analysis also suggested that labour is characterised by a decrease in the expression of muscle-specific processes, which has not been explicitly discussed previously. We validated these findings through the first formal meta-analysis of raw data from previous experiments and we hypothesise that this represents a change in the composition of

  1. New Heroines of Labour: Domesticating Post-feminism and Neoliberal Capitalism in Russia.

    PubMed

    Salmenniemi, Suvi; Adamson, Maria

    2015-02-01

    In recent years, post-feminism has become an important element of popular media culture and the object of feminist cultural critique. This article explores how post-feminism is domesticated in Russia through popular self-help literature aimed at a female audience. Drawing on a close reading of self-help texts by three best-selling Russian authors, the article examines how post-feminism is made intelligible to the Russian audience and how it articulates with other symbolic frameworks. It identifies labour as a key trope through which post-feminism is domesticated and argues that the texts invite women to invest time and energy in the labour of personality, the labour of femininity and the labour of sexuality in order to become 'valuable subjects'. The article demonstrates that the domestication of post-feminism also involves the domestication of neoliberal capitalism in Russia, and highlights how popular psychology, neoliberal capitalism and post-feminism are symbiotically related.

  2. The chicken or the egg? Endogeneity in labour market participation of informal carers in England.

    PubMed

    Heitmueller, Axel

    2007-05-01

    Around 14% of the UK labour force has informal care responsibilities and almost everyone in society will be an informal carer in their lifetime. A well-known fact in the small economic literature on informal care is the apparent negative relation between care responsibilities and labour market participation. Yet, caring and labour market participation may be endogenous. Using an instrumental variable approach and panel data techniques and employing data from the British Household Panel Study from 1991 to 2002, this paper shows that not accommodating for endogeneity in the labour market participation equation may significantly overestimate the impact care exhibits on the employment decision of informal carers. Moreover, it is shown that a negative impact on employment only applies to some care-types. Policy implications are derived.

  3. Prostaglandin E, pessaries for induction of labour.

    PubMed

    Pearce, J M; Shepherd, J H; Sims, C D

    1979-03-17

    Vaginal pessaries containing 3 mg of prostaglandin E2 were used to induce labour in 200 patients with variable induction features. Prostaglandin-induced labour was augmented where necessary by synthetic oxytocin. There was on failed induction. Only 23% of patients with favourable induction features and 53% of patients with unfavourable features needed oxytocin. There were no adverse fetal or maternal effects. The prostaglandin E2 pessary was as effective in inducing labour as 350 microgram extra-amniotic prostaglandin E2 in tylose in a comparable group of 200 patients in which there were 4 failed inductions.

  4. The emotional journey of labour-women's perspectives of the experience of labour moving towards birth.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Lesley; Skinner, Joan; Foureur, Maralyn

    2014-03-01

    there has been minimal exploration of women's emotional flow during labour and towards birth. This research aimed to capture woman's remembered experiences of this process. a critical feminist standpoint methodology guided this research which used in depth interviews to explore the perspectives of 18 women who had experienced a spontaneous labour and birth. These women all had continuity of care from a known midwife women described labour and birth in terms of their emotions. These emotions flowed from excitement at the beginning, to calm as they waited for the labour to strengthen. This waiting time was variable in length and the women were often able to continue with many aspects of normal life. As the labour intensified women described moving into a 'zone' of timelessness and spacelessness; a time of letting go of control. The external world was shut out. Some women described feeling overwhelmed as the birth approached, others felt intensely tired. During the birth the women returned to a state of alertness. Some described shock or disbelief. They were surprised at how effectively their body had worked and taken them through labour. women described labour as defined by their emotions. The feelings described were linear and consistent and may be an indication of normal labour and birth physiology. These descriptions may be helpful when supporting women during labour and birth. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Regionalization, economic restructuring and labour migration in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Hui, W T

    1997-01-01

    "This paper documents the impact of economic development on changes in employment and labour migration in Singapore. High export-led growth and the relaxation of immigration policies in the late 1960s enabled employment of substantial numbers of unskilled foreign labour in manufacturing, construction and domestic service sectors....Economic development in the 1990s, characterized by the regionalization drive which relocates relatively resource-intensive operations of Singapore-based companies overseas, has led to increased retrenchments and a moderation of demand for foreign workers. The upgrading of remaining production operations in Singapore is expected to increase demand for workers with higher skill levels. Emigration of highly educated and skilled professionals from Singapore became a national concern in the late 1980s. However, with regionalization, the new challenge in the 1990s has become one of encouraging Singaporeans to temporarily take up overseas positions." (SUMMARY IN FRE AND SPA) excerpt

  6. Parenteral opioids for maternal pain management in labour

    PubMed Central

    Ullman, Roz; Smith, Lesley A; Burns, Ethel; Mori, Rintaro; Dowswell, Therese

    2014-01-01

    did not have sufficient evidence to assess which opioid drug provided the best pain relief with the least adverse effects. Authors’ conclusions Parenteral opioids provide some relief from pain in labour but are associated with adverse effects. Maternal satisfaction with opioid analgesia was largely unreported but appeared moderate at best. This review needs to be examined alongside related Cochrane reviews examining pain management in labour. More research is needed to determine which analgesic intervention is most effective, and provides greatest satisfaction to women with acceptable adverse effects for mothers and their newborn. PMID:20824859

  7. Child labour: a public health issue.

    PubMed

    Gulzar, Saleema Aziz; Vertejee, Samina; Pirani, Laila

    2009-11-01

    Child labour is a global practice and has many negative outcomes. According to International Labour Organization, child labour is the important source of child exploitation and child abuse in the world today. The Human Rights Commission of Pakistan has estimated the number of Pakistani working children to be around 11-12 millions, out of which, at least, half the children are under the age of ten years. It portrays the society's attitude towards child care. It is therefore, essential to break this vicious cycle and hence, enable the society to produce healthy citizens. This article analyzes the determinants of child labour in the Pakistani context and its implications for child's life, in specific, and for the nation, in general, utilizing the model developed by Clemen-stone & McGuire (1991). Since this practice has complex web of causation, a multidisciplinary approach is required to combat this issue through proposed recommendations.

  8. Labour economics and healthcare professional education.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Kieran

    2015-01-01

    Healthcare professional education is the undergraduate, postgraduate and continuing professional development for doctors, nurses and allied healthcare professionals. Labour economics is the relationship between workers and employers, and the resultant effect on employment and wages. Healthcare professional education ultimately produces a workforce, and that workforce is governed by the rules of labour economics like any other workforce. Despite all of these largely incontrovertible facts, there has been remarkably little interest in the relationship between healthcare professional education and labour economics. This short article attempts to redress this shortcoming by describing some of the factors that can affect healthcare professional education and labour economics, and aims to mention some of the methods in which these two disciplines can interact with each other.

  9. Special Issue: Labour Rights, Human Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Labour Review, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Includes "Introduction"; "International Labour Standards and Human Rights" (Valticos); "The Origins of Convention No. 87 on Freedom of Association and the Right to Organize" (Dunning); "Human Rights Law and Freedom of Association" (Swepston); "Freedom of Association" (von Potobsky); "The ILO…

  10. Maintaining power: women's experiences from labour onset before admittance to maternity ward.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, Ing-Marie; Ziegert, Kristina; Sahlberg-Blom, Eva; Nissen, Eva

    2012-02-01

    In Sweden pregnant women are encouraged to remain at home until the active phase of labour. Recommendation is based on evidence, that women who seek care and are admitted in the latent phase of labour are subjected to more obstetric interventions and suffer more complications than women who remain at home until the active phase of labour. The aim of this study was to obtain a deeper understanding of how women, who remain at home until the active phase of labour, experience the period from labour onset until admission to labour ward. Interviews were conducted with 19 women after they had given birth to their first child. A Constructivist Grounded theory method was used. 'Maintaining power' was identified as the core category, explaining the women's experience of having enough power, when the labour started. Four related categories: 'to share the experience with another', 'to listen to the rhythm of the body', 'to distract oneself' and 'to be encased in a glass vessel', explained how the women coped and thereby maintained power. The first time mothers in this study, who managed to stay at home during the latent phase of labour, had a sense of power that was expressed as a driving force towards the birth, a bodily and mental strength and the right to decide over their own bodies. This implies that women who maintain power have the ability to make choices during the birth process. The professionals need to be sensitive, supportive and respectful to women's own preferences in the health-care encounter, to promote the existing power throughout the birthing process. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Maternal anthropometric risk factors for caesarean delivery before or after onset of labour.

    PubMed

    Sherrard, A; Platt, R W; Vallerand, D; Usher, R H; Zhang, X; Kramer, M S

    2007-09-01

    To quantify the effects of pre-pregnancy body mass and gestational weight gain, above and beyond their known effects on birthweight, on the risk of primary and repeat caesarean delivery performed before or after the onset of labour. Hospital-based historical cohort study. Canadian university-affiliated hospital. A total of 63 390 singleton term (> or = 37 weeks gestation) infants with cephalic presentation. We studied prospectively archived deliveries at the Royal Victoria Hospital in Montreal, Canada, from 1 January 1978 to 31 March 2001 using multiple logistic regression models to estimate relative odds of caesarean delivery. Caesarean delivery, primary or repeat and before or after the onset of labour. Pregravid obesity (body mass index > or = 30 kg/m2) increased the likelihood of primary caesarean delivery before (OR = 2.01, 95% CI 1.39-2.90) and after (OR = 2.12, 95% CI 1.86-2.42) the onset of labour. High net rate of gestational weight gain (> 0.50 kg/week) increased the risk but only after labour onset (OR = 1.40, 95% CI 1.23-1.60). Among women with a previous caesarean, high weight gain modestly increased risk but only before labour (OR = 1.38, 95% CI 1.04-1.83), whereas obesity increased the risk of caesarean delivery both before (OR = 1.85, 95% CI 1.44-2.37) and after (OR = 1.96, 95% CI 1.11-3.47) labour onset. Increased risks of macrosomia accounted for the association between pregravid adiposity and repeat caesarean delivery performed after but not before the onset of labour. Pregravid obesity increases the risk of caesarean delivery both before and after the onset of labour and both with and without a history of caesarean.

  12. What influences midwives in estimating labour pain?

    PubMed

    Williams, A C de C; Morris, J; Stevens, K; Gessler, S; Cella, M; Baxter, J

    2013-01-01

    Clinicians' estimates of patients' pain are frequently used as a basis for delivering care, and the characteristics of the clinician and of the patient influence this estimate. We studied pain estimation by midwives attending women in uncomplicated labour. Sixty-six practising midwives of varied age, ethnicity and professional experience were asked to complete a trait empathy measure and then to estimate the maximum pain and anxiety experienced by six women whose filmed labour contractions they viewed. Additionally, they rated similarity to the labouring women in ethnicity, and described their beliefs about pain expression according to ethnicity. Midwife estimates of pain and anxiety were highly correlated. Longer professional experience was associated with lower pain estimates, while more births to the midwife herself was associated with higher pain estimates. A multiple regression model identified number of births to the midwife herself, and two components of empathy (perspective taking and identification), to be important in predicting midwife pain estimates for women in labour. Midwives expressed clear beliefs about women's expression of pain during labour according to ethnicity, but these beliefs were not consistent across midwives, even between midwives of similar ethnicity. Midwives' personal characteristics can bias the estimation of pain in woman in labour and therefore influence treatment. © 2012 European Federation of International Association for the Study of Pain Chapters.

  13. The dynamics of the health labour market.

    PubMed

    Vujicic, Marko; Zurn, Pascal

    2006-01-01

    One of the most important components of health care systems is human resources for health (HRH)--the people that deliver the services. One key challenge facing policy makers is to ensure that health care systems have sufficient HRH capacity to deliver services that improve or maintain population health. In a predominantly public system, this involves policy makers assessing the health care needs of the population, deriving the HRH requirements to meet those needs, and putting policies in place that move the current HRH employment level, skill mix, geographic distribution and productivity towards the desired level. This last step relies on understanding the labour market dynamics of the health care sector, specifically the determinants of labour demand and labour supply. We argue that traditional HRH policy in developing countries has focussed on determining the HRH requirements to address population needs and has largely ignored the labour market dynamics aspect. This is one of the reasons that HRH policies often do not achieve their objectives. We argue for the need to incorporate more explicitly the behaviour of those who supply labour--doctors, nurses and other providers--those who demand labour, and how these actors respond to incentives when formulating health workforce policy.

  14. Allocation of labour to somatic and psychiatric specialist care--the effects of earmarked grants.

    PubMed

    Halsteinli, Vidar; Ose, Solveig Osborg; Torvik, Heidi; Hagen, Terje P

    2006-10-01

    Until 2002, counties were responsible for providing both somatic and psychiatric specialized health care services in Norway. The financing arrangement of the counties consisted of fixed local taxes, a general block grant and different types of earmarked grants from the national government. Since 1997, earmarked conditional grants related to DRG-activity have been used for somatic services, whereas earmarked unconditional grants have been used for mental health care services from approximately the same time. This paper analyse the price and revenue effects of grants on the allocation of labour, with special attention to the two types of earmarked grants: conditional and unconditional. Theoretically, labour (as an index of production output) is assumed to be allocated to somatic and psychiatric services dependent upon revenues (taxes, block grants and earmarked unconditional grants), price per labour-year (that among other things are affected by earmarked conditional grants) and the preferences of the local government (which relate to the age structure and population density of the county). We assume that a conditional grant reduces the net price of labour and thereby increases the (relative) demand, whereas an unconditional grant adds to the other revenues of the county and do not affect the relative allocation of labour. Data from a panel of 18 counties for the period 1992-2001 is analysed using OLS with fixed effects. The results show revenue effects and direct price effects as expected. However, the assumption that unconditional grants do not affect relative allocation of labours is not supported. We find a positive effect of the unconditional grant to psychiatric care on the demand for labour in this sector. We interpret this as an effect of hierarchical governance such as supervision and monitoring that were remedies that were used together with the unconditional grant.

  15. Dentist education and labour market in Mexico: elements for policy definition.

    PubMed

    González-Robledo, Luz María; González-Robledo, María Cecilia; Nigenda, Gustavo

    2012-09-13

    Here, the educational and labour market characteristics of Mexican dentists are revised. Dentistry is a health profession that has been scarcely studied in developing countries. This analysis attempts to understand the relationships and gaps between the supply and demand of dentists in the country. Around 5000 new dentists graduate every year looking for a place in the labour market. A cross-sectional study with exploratory, descriptive and correlational scope was carried out between 2006 and 2008. Analyses of quantitative data on dentists from national surveys and occupational statistics were complemented with qualitative information provided by 43 key informants in five Mexican states. The 2008 dentist labour market can be characterized as follows: 75% worked in the private sector, most of them independently; more than two-thirds were women; the proportion of specialists was low (slightly more than 10%); unemployment was more than 20% and labour wastage was nearly 40%, with most wastage corresponding with female dentists. The increase in the number of dentists entering the labour market during the last two decades is more related to the educational market than to the population's health needs and the number of dentists actually required to meet them. The problems identified in the Mexican dentist labour market necessitate urgent intervention on behalf of regulatory bodies in order to balance the tendencies of supply and demand in the number of trained professionals as well as in their incorporation into different market areas. Adequate policies are required to increase the likelihood of achieving this objective.

  16. [Epidural analgesia during labour: maternal, fetal and neonatal aspects].

    PubMed

    Soncini, E; Grignaffini, A; Anfuso, S; Cavicchioni, O

    2003-06-01

    The most effective technique for eliminating labour and childbirth pain is continuous lumbar epidural analgesia. The preoccupation regarding the possible negative effects on the time taken for labour and on dystocias in general represents one of the greatest hindrances in the way of its wider use. The purpose of the present study is to monitor the effects of continuous lumbar epidural analgesia on delivery times, on the state of the fetus, on the incidence of dystocic deliveries and on neonatal outcome. Comparative prospective study. The data relating to the deliveries of 148 nulliparas and 51 pluriparas at term, submitted to epidural analgesia at the Obstetric Clinic of the University of Parma in 1999-2000 were compared with data from 144 nulliparas in labour and 60 pluriparas without epidural analgesia, selected in random fashion out of 4251 women who delivered children in the same period. The anesthetic procedure employed consisted in an injection of 20 mg/10 ml ropivacaine and 50 mg fentanyl in the epidural space at intervals of 1-2 h. The duration of the dilatation period was not influenced by administration of epidural analgesia while the expulsion period was longer in the course of epidural analgesia. There were no significant differences between delivery modalities in the 2 groups either as regards vaginal operative delivery or the number of cesarean sections for dystocia. The cardiotocographic profile was similar in the 2 groups. The neonatal outcome (Apgar index at 1' and 5' and transfer to the intensive care department) did not show significant differences, confirming the absence of noteworthy side-effects even from the neonatal standpoint. The use of low concentrations of ropivacaine (0.2%) associated with fentanyl in the epidural space proved to be a safe and effective technique for controlling labour and delivery pain.

  17. Biofeedback for pain management during labour.

    PubMed

    Barragán Loayza, Irma Marcela; Solà, Ivan; Juandó Prats, Clara

    2011-06-15

    Labour is often associated with pain and discomfort caused by a complex and subjective interaction of multiple factors, and should be understood within a multi-dimensional and multi-disciplinary framework. Within the non-pharmacological approach, biofeedback has focused on the acquisition of control over some physiological responses with the aid of electronic devices, allowing individuals to regulate some physical processes (such as pain) which are not usually under conscious control. The role of this behavioural approach for the management of pain during labour, as an addition to the standard prenatal care, has been never assessed systematically. This review is one in a series of Cochrane reviews examining pain relief in labour, which will contribute to an overview of systematic reviews of pain relief for women in labour (in preparation). To examine the effectiveness of the use of biofeedback in prenatal lessons for managing pain during labour. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 March 2011), CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2011, Issue 1), PubMed (1950 to 20 March 2011), EMBASE (via OVID) (1980 to 24 March 2011), CINAHL (EBSCOhost) (1982 to 24 March 2011), and PsycINFO (via Ovid) (1806 to 24 March 2011). We searched for further studies in the reference lists of identified articles. Randomised controlled trials of any form of prenatal classes which included biofeedback, in any modality, in women with low-risk pregnancies. Two authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. The review included four trials (186 women) that hugely differed in terms of the diversity of the intervention modalities and outcomes measured. Most trials assessed the effects of electromyographic biofeedback in women who were pregnant for the first time. The trials were judged to be at a high risk of bias due to the lack of data describing the sources of bias assessed. There was no significant evidence of a difference between biofeedback

  18. Off-Farm Labour Decision of Canadian Farm Operators: Urbanization Effects and Rural Labour Market Linkages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alasia, Alessandro; Weersink, Alfons; Bollman, Ray D.; Cranfield, John

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the factors affecting off-farm labour decisions of census-farm operators has significant implications for rural development and farm income support policy. We examine the off-farm labour decisions of Canadian farm operators using micro-level data from the 2001 Census of Agriculture combined with community level data from the 2001…

  19. The magnitude of injury problems among child labourers in a rural community of Bangladesh: findings from an injury surveillance system.

    PubMed

    Dalal, Koustuv; Rahman, Fazlur; Gifford, Mervyn; Rahman, Aminur

    2016-01-01

    Child labour is an important topic in contemporary society. In this study we have tried to explore the magnitude of injury problems among child labourers in Bangladesh using an injury surveillance system. An injury surveillance system (ISS) was performed under the Prevention of Child Injuries through Social intervention and Education (PRECISE) project in Bangladesh during 2006-2010 in three sub-districts covering a population of more than 700,000. We used the ISS for assessing child labour. Appropriate epidemiological methods were considered in the study. Considering the reported main occupation of the children, 30% of children from the surveillance households were identified as child labourers. More than two thirds of child labourers were educated to primary or secondary level. The majority of boys worked as unskilled labourers and girls were employed in domestic work. The incidence of injury and deaths among child labourers was estimated as 24 per 100,000 children years. More than 19 injury related illnesses of moderate to severe intensity were found among 1000 child labourers in a year. Fractures, sprains, dislocations, cuts/wounds, animal bites, abrasions or lacerations, burns, head injuries and internal organ injuries are most common among child labourers. Working children are at risk of injury, death and illness in Bangladesh. Child labourers are now even more clearly tied to quantified morbidity and mortality. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Mental illness and its effects on labour market outcomes.

    PubMed

    Cornwell, Katy; Forbes, Catherine; Inder, Brett; Meadows, Graham

    2009-09-01

    Mental illness can impact all stages of labour market engagement: lower rates of participation in the labour market, higher rates of unemployment and employment in low-skill or low-earning occupations relative to qualifications. Systematic mental health surveys provide an opportunity to examine the scale of such impacts. Though usually cross sectional in nature, such surveys commonly include historical data by self report that can be used to construct a retrospective cohort study, within which it is possible to examine temporal sequence of illness and employment experience and thereby explore issues of causality. The 1997 National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing of Adults contains comprehensive questions relating to prevalence and level of disability associated with major mental disorders. Here we employ secondary analyses of the survey data to develop three models capturing workforce participation, unemployment and occupational level. Different versions of these models employ either broad diagnostic classes or numbers of disorders as indicators of mental disorder status. After reporting findings from these models we use them in combination to estimate labour market costs for Australia. Each disorder reduces the chance of participation in the labour market by 1.3 percentage points, an appreciable amount given that most individuals suffering from mental disorders have multiple disorders. There is a strongly significant effect of mental illness on employment and clear evidence of reduced occupational skill level. The impact of mental illness is very strong at every stage of engagement. Limitations include the self report nature of the assessments and lack of specific income data collection within the survey instrument. Other work based on this survey shows poor accessibility of recovery based and rehabilitation orientated services. These are the very services that have a role to play in increasing workforce participation, employment and occupational level. This

  1. Gestational diabetes mellitus: metabolic control during labour.

    PubMed

    Balsells, M; Corcoy, R; Adelantado, J M; García-Patterson, A; Altirriba, O; de Leiva, A

    2000-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess, in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM): 1) metabolic control during labour using a standardised protocol; 2) the influence of therapy during pregnancy in intrapartum metabolic control and insulin requirements; and 3) the impact of maternal glycaemia during labour on neonatal hypoglycaemia. An observational study of 85 women with GDM (54 insulin-treated) was performed. Intrapartum metabolic management included i.v. glucose and insulin infusions, urinary ketone measurement and hourly capillary blood glucose (CBG) monitoring. Mean CBG from arrival to delivery was 4.7 +/- 1.1 mmol/l with 83% of mean CBG values within the target range (2.8-6.9 mmol/l). Mean CBG and insulin requirements were unrelated to therapy during pregnancy, but hypoglycaemia (CBG<2.8 mmol/l) was more frequent in women receiving insulin during pregnancy (40.7 vs 19.4 %, p<0.01). In several logistic regression models, CBG during labour was predictive of neonatal hypoglycaemia. We conclude that in women with GDM, the use of a standardised intrapartum management protocol is associated to fair metabolic control, that insulin requirements during labour are unrelated to therapy during pregnancy and that high CBG during labour increases the risk of neonatal hypoglycaemia.

  2. Epidural labour analgesia using Bupivacaine and Clonidine

    PubMed Central

    Syal, K; Dogra, RK; Ohri, A; Chauhan, G; Goel, A

    2011-01-01

    Background: To compare the effects of addition of Clonidine (60 μg) to Epidural Bupivacaine (0.125%) for labour analgesia, with regard to duration of analgesia, duration of labour, ambulation, incidence of instrumentation and caesarean section, foetal outcome, patient satisfaction and side effects. Patients & Methods: On demand, epidural labour analgesia was given to 50 nulliparous healthy term parturients (cephalic presentation), divided in two groups randomly. Group I received bupivacaine (0.125%) alone, whereas Group II received bupivacaine (0.125%) along with Clonidine (60 μg). 10 ml of 0.125% bupivacaine was injected as first dose and further doses titrated with patient relief (Numerical Rating Scale <3). Top ups were given whenever Numerical Rating Scale went above 5. Results: There was statistically significant prolongation of duration of analgesia in Group II, with no difference in duration of labour, ambulation, incidence of instrumentation and caesarean section or foetal outcome. Also clonidine gave dose sparing effect to bupivacaine and there was better patient satisfaction without any significant side effects in Group II. Conclusion: Clonidine is a useful adjunct to bupivacaine for epidural labour analgesia and can be considered as alternative to opioids. PMID:21804714

  3. Overview. Preterm labour: mechanisms and management

    PubMed Central

    López Bernal, Andrés

    2007-01-01

    Preterm birth remains a major cause of perinatal mortality and long term handicap in surviving infants. This is one of the most important clinical problems in Europe and across the world. While some preterm births are iatrogenic, associated with severe complications of pregnancy (e.g. hypertensive disorders, antepartum haemorrhage, infection), or the result of multiple pregnancies following assisted reproduction, a high proportion of preterm births occur following spontaneous preterm labour of unknown cause. Early intervention in this group of women would have a significant impact on neonatal mortality and morbidity figures. However, the endocrine changes preceding parturition in women remain elusive and this makes it difficult to predict spontaneous labour at term, let alone preterm labour. Moreover our understanding of myometrial physiology remains rudimentary, limiting our options to devise improved pharmacological strategies to control uterine contractility when this is indicated. There is a need for concerted European and international research efforts to improve our knowledge of the mechanism of labour in women, to identify diagnostic markers to predict preterm labour and to develop uterine selective drugs to inhibit uterine contractions in a safe and efficient manner. This aim will be achieved by multidisciplinary research efforts from academics and industry, using traditional laboratory and clinical research methods, as well as novel technologies. PMID:17570162

  4. Women's perspectives of the stages and phases of labour.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Lesley; Skinner, Joan; Foureur, Maralyn

    2013-01-01

    within childbirth there is a common and widely known explanation of labour and birth which describes and defines the birth process as stages and phases. The aim of this research was to determine whether the discourse of labour as stages and phases resonated with women who had experienced spontaneous labour and birth. a critical feminist standpoint methodology was used to explore the perspectives of 18 New Zealand women through in-depth, one to one, interviews. the participants did not talk about their labour as occurring in stages or phases and often considered this description to be an abstract concept. The current descriptions of labour onset and progression did not appear to resonate with these women or provide sufficient clarity for them to understand how far they had progressed in their labour. For women who had previously laboured there was the ability to make comparisons with their previous experiences and therefore experiential knowledge was privileged over other forms of knowledge. Despite this the discourse of measurement of cervical dilatation was dominant and considered as an authoritative means of determining labour and labour progress. women considered labour to be a continuous process. If women are to be able to make sense of their experience of labour, the maternity sector needs to explore and determine descriptions of labour which resonate more fully with the woman's experience of labour and birth. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Panamanian women׳s experience of vaginal examination in labour: A questionnaire validation.

    PubMed

    Bonilla-Escobar, Francisco J; Ortega-Lenis, Delia; Rojas-Mirquez, Johanna C; Ortega-Loubon, Christian

    2016-05-01

    to validate a tool that allows healthcare providers to obtain accurate information regarding Panamanian women׳s thoughts and feelings about vaginal examination during labour that can be used in other Latin-American countries. validation study based on a database from a cross-sectional study carried out in two tertiary care hospitals in Panama City, Panama. Women in the immediate postpartum period who had spontaneous labour onset and uncomplicated deliveries were included in the study from April to August 2008. Researchers used a survey designed by Lewin et al. that included 20 questions related to a patient׳s experience during a vaginal examination. five constructs (factors) related to a patient׳s experience of vaginal examination during labour were identified: Approval (Alpha Cronbach׳s 0.72), Perception (0.67), Rejection (0.40), Consent (0.51), and Stress (0.20). it was demonstrated the validity of the scale and its constructs used to obtain information related to vaginal examination during labour, including patients' experiences with examination and healthcare staff performance. utilisation of the scale will allow institutions to identify items that need improvement and address these areas in order to promote the best care for patients in labour. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Vaginal misoprostol for cervical ripening and induction of labour.

    PubMed

    Hofmeyr, G J; Gülmezoglu, A M

    2003-01-01

    Misoprostol (Cytotec, Searle) is a prostaglandin E1 analogue marketed for use in the prevention and treatment of peptic ulcer disease. It is inexpensive, easily stored at room temperature and has few systemic side effects. It is rapidly absorbed orally and vaginally. Although not registered for such use, misoprostol has been widely used for obstetric and gynaecological indications, such as induction of abortion and of labour. This is one of a series of reviews of methods of cervical ripening and labour induction using standardised methodology. To determine the effects of vaginal misoprostol for third trimester cervical ripening or induction of labour. The Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group trials register (October 2002), the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register (The Cochrane Library, Issue 3, 2002) and bibliographies of relevant papers. The criteria for inclusion included the following: (1) clinical trials comparing vaginal misoprostol used for third trimester cervical ripening or labour induction with placebo/no treatment or other methods listed above it on a predefined list of labour induction methods; (2) random allocation to the treatment or control group; (3) adequate allocation concealment; (4) violations of allocated management not sufficient to materially affect conclusions; (5) clinically meaningful outcome measures reported; (6) data available for analysis according to the random allocation; (7) missing data insufficient to materially affect the conclusions. A strategy was developed to deal with the large volume and complexity of trial data relating to labour induction. This involved a two-stage method of data extraction. The initial data extraction was done centrally, and incorporated into a series of primary reviews arranged by methods of induction of labour, following a standardised methodology. The data will be extracted from the primary reviews into a series of secondary reviews, arranged by category of woman. To avoid duplication of data in the

  7. Marital status, labour force activity and mortality: A study of the United States and 6 European countries

    PubMed Central

    van Hedel, Karen; van Lenthe, Frank J; Avendano, Mauricio; Bopp, Matthias; Esnaola, Santiago; Kovács, Katalin; Martikainen, Pekka; Regidor, Enrique; Mackenbach, Johan P

    2015-01-01

    Aims Labour force activity and marriage share some of the pathways through which they potentially influence health. In this paper, we examine whether marriage and labour force participation interact in the way they influence mortality in the United States and six European countries. Methods We used data from the US National Health Interview Survey linked to the National Death Index, and national mortality registry data for Austria, England/Wales, Finland, Hungary, Norway and Spain (Basque country) during 1999-2007 for men and women aged 30-59 at baseline. Poisson regression was used to estimate both additive (the relative excess risk due to interaction) and multiplicative interactions between marriage and labour force activity on mortality. Results Labour force inactivity was associated with higher mortality, but this association was stronger for unmarried than married individuals. Likewise, being unmarried was associated with higher mortality, but this association was stronger for inactive than for active individuals. To illustrate, among US women out of the labour force, being unmarried was associated with a 3.98 (95%CI:3.28-4.82) times higher risk of dying than being married, whereas the relative risk was 2.49 (95%CI:2.10-2.94) for women active in the labour market. Although this interaction between marriage and labour force activity was only significant for women on a multiplicative scale, there was a significant additive interaction for both men and women. The pattern was similar across all countries. Conclusions Marriage attenuates the increased mortality risk associated with labour force inactivity, while labour force activity attenuates the mortality risk associated with being unmarried. Our study emphasizes the importance of public health and social policies that improve the health and well-being of men and women who are both unmarried and inactive. PMID:25868643

  8. Piracetam for fetal distress in labour.

    PubMed

    Hofmeyr, G Justus; Kulier, Regina

    2012-06-13

    Piracetam is thought to promote the metabolism of brain cells when they are hypoxic. It has been used to prevent adverse effects of fetal distress. The objective of this review was to assess the effects of piracetam for suspected fetal distress in labour on method of delivery and perinatal morbidity. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (15 February 2012). Randomised trials of piracetam compared with placebo or no treatment for suspected fetal distress in labour. Both review authors assessed eligibility and trial quality. One study of 96 women was included. Piracetam compared with placebo was associated with a trend to reduced need for caesarean section (risk ratio 0.57, 95% confidence interval 0.32 to 1.03). There were no statistically significant differences between the piracetam and placebo group for neonatal morbidity (measured by neonatal respiratory distress) or Apgar score. There is not enough evidence to evaluate the use of piracetam for fetal distress in labour.

  9. Labour and non-labour market productivity in Chinese patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Tracy Y; Tam, Lai-Shan; Li, Edmund K

    2012-02-01

    A cross-sectional study was performed to assess the self-reported loss of labour and non-labour market productivity, as well as to characterize the risk factors of loss of productivity in patients with SLE. A consecutive sample of 125 Chinese patients with a diagnosis of SLE and within working age was recruited. Work disability, daily activity limitations and receipt of social help, along with demographic information and health status, were collected from a self-reported questionnaire. Disease characteristics were collected by clinical examination and chart review. Univariate and multivariate logistic analyses were used to describe the relationships between labour/non-labour productivity and demographic/clinical variables. Twenty (16%) patients reported complete work disability as a result of SLE after a median duration of 9 years since disease onset. A total of 46 (36.8%) patients reported difficulty in performing their daily activities, including household work, studying and leisure activities, among which 28% received social help from families or friends. Risk of work disability was strongly predicted by low education level, long disease duration and history of having pleurisy. Patients' global well-being, physical health status and functional status were factors independently associated with impaired non-labour market productivity. SLE has a profound impact on individuals' labour and non-labour market productivity. Vocational education programmes may be useful in lowering the work disability rate in SLE. Preserving patients' physical and mental functioning or improving patients' quality of life may help in restoring both labour and non-labour productivity.

  10. Labour supply in the home care industry: A case study in a Dutch region.

    PubMed

    Breedveld, Elly J; Meijboom, Bert R; de Roo, Aad A

    2006-04-01

    Health organizations have started to become more market-driven. Therefore, it is important for health organizations to analyse the competitive dynamics of their industrial structure. However, relevant theories and models have mainly been developed for organizations acting in the profit sector. In this paper, we adapt Porter's 'five forces model' to the home care industry. In particular, we modify the (determinants of the) bargaining power of labour suppliers. We then apply the modified Porter-model to the home care industry in the Netherlands for the period of 1987-1997 with special attention for labour supply. The new instrument clarifies the complexity of the supply chains and value systems of the home care industry. As can be illustrated by developments in the home care industry in the province of North Brabant during the 1990s, competition between home care providers has influenced labour market relations, but so do other factors as well. Between 1987 and 1997, the bargaining power of labour suppliers was relatively limited. After 1997, however, the demand for home care personnel has increased strongly. In spite of the present economic recession, scarcity on this labour market seems to prevail in the longer term due to a growing demand for home care services.

  11. Fetal electrocardiogram (ECG) for fetal monitoring during labour.

    PubMed

    Neilson, James P

    2015-12-21

    Hypoxaemia during labour can alter the shape of the fetal electrocardiogram (ECG) waveform, notably the relation of the PR to RR intervals, and elevation or depression of the ST segment. Technical systems have therefore been developed to monitor the fetal ECG during labour as an adjunct to continuous electronic fetal heart rate monitoring with the aim of improving fetal outcome and minimising unnecessary obstetric interference. To compare the effects of analysis of fetal ECG waveforms during labour with alternative methods of fetal monitoring. The Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (latest search 23 September 2015) and reference lists of retrieved studies. Randomised trials comparing fetal ECG waveform analysis with alternative methods of fetal monitoring during labour. One review author independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias, extracted data and checked them for accuracy. One review author assessed the quality of the evidence using the GRADE approach. Seven trials (27,403 women) were included: six trials of ST waveform analysis (26,446 women) and one trial of PR interval analysis (957 women). The trials were generally at low risk of bias for most domains and the quality of evidence for ST waveform analysis trials was graded moderate to high. In comparison to continuous electronic fetal heart rate monitoring alone, the use of adjunctive ST waveform analysis made no obvious difference to primary outcomes: births by caesarean section (risk ratio (RR) 1.02, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.96 to 1.08; six trials, 26,446 women; high quality evidence); the number of babies with severe metabolic acidosis at birth (cord arterial pH less than 7.05 and base deficit greater than 12 mmol/L) (average RR 0.72, 95% CI 0.43 to 1.20; six trials, 25,682 babies; moderate quality evidence); or babies with neonatal encephalopathy (RR 0.61, 95% CI 0.30 to 1.22; six trials, 26,410 babies; high quality evidence). There were, however, on average

  12. Labour-Market Orientation and Approaches to Studying--A Study of the First "Bologna Students" at a Swedish Regional University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Anders; Sandberg, Mikael

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated labour-market orientations of students at a Swedish University with a dual/diverse focus on vocational/academic objectives. The aim was to investigate whether and how levels of students' labour-market orientation vary with social background, change during the study period, and are related to approaches to studying and…

  13. Labour Market Outcomes of Higher Education Undertaken Abroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiers-Jenssen, Jannecke; Try, Sverre

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this article is to analyse the transferability of higher education undertaken abroad to a domestic labour market. More specifically, how do Norwegians who have undertaken their education abroad cope on the labour market compared to those who have a corresponding education from Norway? To examine this, we analyse short-term labour market…

  14. Lifelong Learning and the Labour Governments 1997-2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Richard

    2005-01-01

    Lifelong learning has been a key theme of New Labour's education policy agenda since 1997, but is a broad and often amorphous concept. This article analyzes New Labour's ideological perspective in this context, outlines the main developments and difficulties, and evaluates the record over the seven years in office. New Labour's policy on lifelong…

  15. Lifelong Learning and the Labour Governments 1997-2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Richard

    2005-01-01

    Lifelong learning has been a key theme of New Labour's education policy agenda since 1997, but is a broad and often amorphous concept. This article analyzes New Labour's ideological perspective in this context, outlines the main developments and difficulties, and evaluates the record over the seven years in office. New Labour's policy on lifelong…

  16. Combined spinal-epidural versus epidural analgesia in labour.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Scott W; Taghizadeh, Neda; Dennis, Alicia T; Hughes, Damien; Cyna, Allan M

    2012-10-17

    Traditional epidural techniques have been associated with prolonged labour, use of oxytocin augmentation and increased incidence of instrumental vaginal delivery. The combined spinal-epidural (CSE) technique has been introduced in an attempt to reduce these adverse effects. CSE is believed to improve maternal mobility during labour and provide more rapid onset of analgesia than epidural analgesia, which could contribute to increased maternal satisfaction. To assess the relative effects of CSE versus epidural analgesia during labour. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (28 September 2011) and reference lists of retrieved studies. We updated the search on 30 June 2012 and added the results to the awaiting classification section. All published randomised controlled trials (RCTs) involving a comparison of CSE with epidural analgesia initiated for women in the first stage of labour. Cluster-randomised trials were considered for inclusion. Quasi RCTs and cross-over trials were not considered for inclusion in this review. Three review authors independently assessed the trials identified from the searches for inclusion, assessed trial quality and extracted the data. Data were checked for accuracy. Twenty-seven trials involving 3274 women met our inclusion criteria. Twenty-six outcomes in two sets of comparisons involving CSE versus traditional epidurals and CSE versus low-dose epidural techniques were analysed.Of the CSE versus traditional epidural analyses five outcomes showed a significant difference. CSE was more favourable in relation to speed of onset of analgesia from time of injection (mean difference (MD) -2.87 minutes; 95% confidence interval (CI) -5.07 to -0.67; two trials, 129 women); the need for rescue analgesia (risk ratio (RR) 0.31; 95% CI 0.14 to 0.70; one trial, 42 women); urinary retention (RR 0.86; 95% CI 0.79 to 0.95; one trial, 704 women); and rate of instrumental delivery (RR 0.81; 95% CI 0.67 to 0.97; six trials

  17. Eating in labour. A randomised controlled trial assessing the risks and benefits.

    PubMed

    Scrutton, M J; Metcalfe, G A; Lowy, C; Seed, P T; O'Sullivan, G

    1999-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether permitting women in labour to eat a light diet would: (i) alter their metabolic profile, (ii) influence the outcome of labour, and (iii) increase residual gastric volume and consequent risk of pulmonary aspiration. Women were randomised to receive either a light diet (eating group, n = 48) or water only (starved group, n = 46) during labour. The light diet prevented the rise in plasma beta-hydroxybutyrate (p = 2.3 x 10(-5)) and nonesterified fatty acids (p = 9.3 x 10(-7)) seen in the starved group. Plasma glucose (p = 0.003) and insulin (p = 0.017) rose in the eating group but there was no difference in plasma lactate (p = 0.167) between the groups. There were no differences between the groups with respect to duration of first or second stage of labour, oxytocin requirements, mode of delivery, Apgar scores or umbilical artery and venous blood samples. Relative gastric volumes estimated by ultrasound measurement of gastric antral cross-sectional area were larger (p = 0.001) in the eating group. This was supported by the observation that those from this group who vomited, vomited significantly larger volumes than those in the starved group (p = 0.001). We conclude that eating in labour prevents the development of ketosis but significantly increases residual gastric volume.

  18. The effect of low molecular weight heparin (dalteparin) on duration and initiation of labour.

    PubMed

    Isma, Nazim; Svensson, Peter J; Lindblad, Bengt; Lindqvist, Pelle G

    2010-08-01

    It has recently been reported that women treated with low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) during pregnancy had 3 h shorter duration of delivery. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether LMWH (dalteparin) affects labour. From January 1996 to December 2005, 217 consecutive pregnancies, out of 34 216 newborn (prevalence 0.6%) that were given thromboprophylaxis with dalteparin (usually 5,000 IU once daily). These 217 consecutive pregnancies were compared to an unselected control group (n = 1,499) of gravidae. Main outcome was time in first and second stage of labour and gestational age at delivery. Among nulliparous women, there were significantly fewer women with prolonged first stage of labour as compared to controls (4.1% vs. 8.5%, P = 0.047). In addition, the duration of first stage of labour was 1 h shorter among those treated with LMWH (5.2 vs. 6.2 h, P = 0.06). There were no such differences among parous women. The risk of prematurity, profuse blood loss, and postpartum anaemia was almost doubled among those treated with LMWH (11.5% vs. 5.9%, P = 0.002, 10.6% vs. 5.9%, P < 0.001, and 12.9% vs. 8.7%, P = 0.048, respectively). Treatment with a prophylactic dose of LMWH (dalteparin) during pregnancy was related to fewer women with prolonged first stage of labour, but also to an increased risk of prematurity and blood loss complications.

  19. Labour market initiatives: potential settings for improving the health of people who are unemployed.

    PubMed

    Harris, Elizabeth; Rose, Vanessa; Ritchie, Jan; Harris, Neil

    2009-12-01

    Unemployment is detrimental to health. The Unemployment and Health Project in South Western Sydney sought to work with labour market programs to improve the health, particularly, mental health, of unemployed people. This paper describes the experiences of the Project. Phase one commenced in 1995 and involved consultation with the majority of Skillshares (labour market programs under the Labor government) in south-western Sydney to identify potential areas of action. Phase two commenced in 1998 and involved the development of a brief cognitive behaviour therapy intervention that was delivered in Job Network Settings (the next generation of labour market programs under the Liberal government). The cognitive behaviour therapy intervention has been successful in improving mental health in five small scale trials but the intervention has proved difficult to scale up and evaluate comprehensively. Generating more general interest in improving the health of unemployed people through the Job Network has also been difficult. This is related to different understanding and valuing of evidence, a highly volatile context, lack of shared core business by the health and employment sectors, and the changing nature of work in Australia. There are theoretical and practical reasons why it is difficult for labour market programs to be a setting for improving the health of unemployed people. However, the reach of labour market programs into the high risk groups warrants more attention by mental health promotion programs.

  20. Evidence that natural benzodiazepine-like compounds increase during spontaneous labour.

    PubMed

    Facchinetti, Fabio; Avallone, Rossella; Modugno, Giuseppe; Baraldi, Mario

    2006-01-01

    Natural benzodiazepine-like compounds (NBDZ) are present in the blood of normal people free of commercial benzodiazepine medication. In this work, we evaluated the levels of NBDZ in maternal/foetal serum during delivery after spontaneous labour (VD) or caesarean section (CS). For both the VD (n=11) and the CS (n=11) groups (VD+CS=22), three blood samples were collected at three different times: the first was collected three days before labour, the second immediately after delivery or at fetal abdominal extraction and the third one was obtained at second day post-partum. NBDZ were measured by radioreceptor binding assay after HPLC extraction and purification while cortisol was measured through radioimmunoassay. In the VD group, a significant increase of NBDZ levels occurred at labour in comparison with the levels found in pre- and post-partum periods. By the contrary, no differences in NBDZ levels were found in the CS group at the three different times. The levels of cortisol in the VD group were found to be higher at labour than that determined at pre- and post-partum. Again no significant changes were found in the CS group. These findings suggest for the first time that labour is associated with a marked increase of NBDZ which could be envisaged as a stress-related event.

  1. Extreme Forms of Child Labour in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Degirmencioglu, Serdar M.; Acar, Hakan; Acar, Yuksel Baykara

    2008-01-01

    Two little known forms of child labour in Turkey are examined. The process through which these children are made to work has parallels with the experiences of slaves. First, a long-standing practice from Northwestern Turkey of parents hiring children to better-off farmers is examined. Further, a more recent problem is examined where children are…

  2. Higher Education Teachers and Emotional Labour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Constanti, Panikkos; Gibbs, Paul

    2004-01-01

    Service organizations are encouraged to consider the manner in which employees perform at the customer/front-line employee interface, as a means to gain competitive advantage. The employee's behaviour requires "emotional labour" where the front-line employee (academic), has to either conceal or manage actual feelings for the benefit of a…

  3. [Induction of labour: which method to use?].

    PubMed

    Tinelli, A; Tinelli, R; Tinelli, F G

    2003-12-01

    Induction of labour is a common obstetric instrument to employ when the potential risk to continue a pregnancy is higher than to terminate it. The methods of induction can be pharmacological or mechanical; the choice of the method mainly depends by the cervical ripening, as it is significantly able to influence, according to the type of induction, its final issue. The mechanical methods are: stripping and sweeping of the membranes, hand dilatation of cervix, intrauterine pressure catheters, Laminaria Japonicum, transcervical Foley catheter and amniotomy. To pharmacological methods include some agents such as the prostaglandins (PG), the most common approach to induce a labour, and used above all by vaginal way in patients with unripe cervix. They simulate the natural PG effects at the beginning of delivery and show a great efficiency. There are a lot of PG on the market, but except some of them, as Dinoprostone for PGE2 and Misoprostol for PGE1, no one of them shows the same safety in management of labour. Oxytocin, another inductive method, administered by diluted intravenous infusion, is utilized alone or mainly with other methods when the labour is started or with rupture of the membranes, because it begins or maintains the myometrial contraction.

  4. Intimacy and Emotional Labour in Academic Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    The affective dimensions of intimacy and emotional labour in academic development are explored utilising two methodological resources: autoethnography and narrative practice. An excerpt from the author's reflective professional journal infused with affect and emotion is analysed utilising theories of intimacy in modernity, emotion work, and…

  5. Intimacy and Emotional Labour in Academic Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    The affective dimensions of intimacy and emotional labour in academic development are explored utilising two methodological resources: autoethnography and narrative practice. An excerpt from the author's reflective professional journal infused with affect and emotion is analysed utilising theories of intimacy in modernity, emotion work, and…

  6. Profitability of Qualified-Labour-Power Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldino, Roberto Ribeiro; Cabral, Tânia Cristina Baptista

    2015-01-01

    In Baldino and Cabral (2013) we introduced the concept of qualified labour-power as the commodity produced by the school system. In the present article we outline a quantitative model to evaluate the profit rate of educational programmes. We compare a medical school programme with a teacher education programme at a public university in Brazil,…

  7. Race, Ethnicity and Education under New Labour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomlinson, Sally

    2005-01-01

    From 1997 the New Labour government was eager to affirm a commitment to social justice and racial equality, and initially there were moves to address some long-standing educational grievances. But a continuation of Conservative market policies of choice and diversity in schooling and a targeting of 'failing' schools exacerbated school segregation…

  8. Profitability of Qualified-Labour-Power Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldino, Roberto Ribeiro; Cabral, Tânia Cristina Baptista

    2015-01-01

    In Baldino and Cabral (2013) we introduced the concept of qualified labour-power as the commodity produced by the school system. In the present article we outline a quantitative model to evaluate the profit rate of educational programmes. We compare a medical school programme with a teacher education programme at a public university in Brazil,…

  9. New Labour, New Leaders? Gendering Transformational Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Cath

    2007-01-01

    Transformational leadership is widely recognised as being central to the implementation of educational reform. In this paper I draw on selected educational speeches made by New Labour politicians in order to locate shifting discourses of leadership within the broader accountability framework through which the terms of the relationship between…

  10. Education and the Labour Market in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Oliveira, Alberto; Filho, Gilberto Abrantes

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this article is to compare the schooling levels of individuals with the demands of the Brazilian labour market. The results demonstrate the high probability of compatibility between occupation and schooling levels. But high propensities for under-education were identified associated with skin colour and position in family. The results…

  11. Reforming the Labour Market for Australian Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Elizabeth; Wooden, Mark; Marks, Gary

    2006-01-01

    Although there is a general consensus that teachers are important for student learning, there is little discussion of the process by which teachers are employed by schools: the teacher labour market. We argue, based on a mix of a priori and inductive reasoning, that inflexible attitudes about comparative wages have contributed toward chronic…

  12. Education and the Labour Market in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Oliveira, Alberto; Filho, Gilberto Abrantes

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this article is to compare the schooling levels of individuals with the demands of the Brazilian labour market. The results demonstrate the high probability of compatibility between occupation and schooling levels. But high propensities for under-education were identified associated with skin colour and position in family. The results…

  13. Race, Ethnicity and Education under New Labour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomlinson, Sally

    2005-01-01

    From 1997 the New Labour government was eager to affirm a commitment to social justice and racial equality, and initially there were moves to address some long-standing educational grievances. But a continuation of Conservative market policies of choice and diversity in schooling and a targeting of 'failing' schools exacerbated school segregation…

  14. Education and the Labour Market in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Oliveira, Alberto; Filho, Gilberto Abrantes

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article is to compare the schooling levels of individuals with the demands of the Brazilian labour market. The results demonstrate the high probability of compatibility between occupation and schooling levels. But high propensities for under-education were identified associated with the skin colour and position in the family. The…

  15. Education and the Labour Market in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Oliveira, Alberto; Filho, Gilberto Abrantes

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article is to compare the schooling levels of individuals with the demands of the Brazilian labour market. The results demonstrate the high probability of compatibility between occupation and schooling levels. But high propensities for under-education were identified associated with the skin colour and position in the family. The…

  16. A New Direction for Schools and Labour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Audsley, Jamie; O'Connell, Jim

    2011-01-01

    The authors argue that it is time to get radical about the Left's vision for education and develop a direction that communities can really own. The Labour Party being out of government for the first time in 13 years gives us a chance to consider what education means to the Left, and allows us to be innovative in how the Party can approach…

  17. Higher Education Teachers and Emotional Labour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Constanti, Panikkos; Gibbs, Paul

    2004-01-01

    Service organizations are encouraged to consider the manner in which employees perform at the customer/front-line employee interface, as a means to gain competitive advantage. The employee's behaviour requires "emotional labour" where the front-line employee (academic), has to either conceal or manage actual feelings for the benefit of a…

  18. Labour Law in Canadian Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnetson, Bob

    2006-01-01

    The legislative framework for academic and nonacademic unionization and collective bargaining in Canadian public colleges, universities and technical institutes is set out and compared with mainstream labour law. Significant deviations affecting academic staff in the province of Alberta are explored to understand their effect and the factors which…

  19. Husbands’ Labour Migration and Wives’ Autonomy

    PubMed Central

    Yabiku, Scott T.; Agadjanian, Victor; Sevoyan, Arusyak

    2010-01-01

    Labour migration leads to significant changes in origin areas. The separation of migrants from the family unit, whether it is nuclear or extended, has profound implications for family organization and for individual family members. We examined the relationship between men’s labour migration and the decision-making autonomy of women who stay behind. The data for our analyses came from a 2006 survey of 1680 married women from 56 rural villages in southern Mozambique. We find that both men’s cumulative migration history and current migration status are positively associated with women’s autonomy. The results suggest that the impact of men’s labour migration on women’s autonomy may persist even after the man’s return. Three intervening factors — women’s employment outside the home, lower fertility, and residential independence from extended family members—did not fully mediate the effects of men’s labour migration. This is consistent with a “direct” impact of men’s absence on women’s autonomy. PMID:20865630

  20. Extreme Forms of Child Labour in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Degirmencioglu, Serdar M.; Acar, Hakan; Acar, Yuksel Baykara

    2008-01-01

    Two little known forms of child labour in Turkey are examined. The process through which these children are made to work has parallels with the experiences of slaves. First, a long-standing practice from Northwestern Turkey of parents hiring children to better-off farmers is examined. Further, a more recent problem is examined where children are…

  1. Asian labour mobility: new dimensions and implications for development.

    PubMed

    Abella, M I

    1987-01-01

    The author "argues that the rise of organized labour migration has introduced a new structural feature in the international labour market.... This new factor....contributes to making labour supply highly elastic during upswings in demand for expatriate labour....[and] makes for inelasticity during periods of weakening demand because of its 'stockpiling effect' on labour supply." The impacts on migrants' wages and on the labor forces of labor-exporting countries are considered. The focus is on Asian labor migration to the Middle East. Separate comments by M. Irfan and Nadeem A. Burney are included (pp. 378-81).

  2. Role of the prostaglandins in labour and prostaglandin receptor inhibitors in the prevention of preterm labour.

    PubMed

    Olson, David M; Ammann, Christina

    2007-01-01

    Parturition is composed of five separate but integrated physiological events: fetal membrane rupture, cervical dilatation, myometrial contractility, placental separation, and uterine involution. Prostaglandins (PGs) have central roles in each of these events, but the most studied is myometrial contraction. Elevated uterine PGs or the enhanced sensitivity of the myometrium to PGs leads to contractions and labour. The primary regulator of PG synthesis is the mRNA expression of PG H Synthase (PGHS-2 or COX-2). Given the central role of PGs in labour, this enzyme becomes an obvious therapeutic target for the prevention of preterm labour, the major cause of perinatal mortality and morbidity. Unfortunately, even though the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), which inhibit PGHS, are usually successful in suppressing preterm labour or prolonging pregnancy in animal and human studies, the NSAIDS have had adverse effects on fetal physiology and development. Therefore, other means to suppress PG synthesis or action to arrest preterm labour need to be investigated. The PGF2alpha receptor, FP, may prove to be a reasonable target for tocolysis. FP mRNA increases in the mouse uterus at preterm birth, whereas PGF2alpha concentrations do not increase, suggesting elevated uterine sensitivity to contractile agonists is one mechanism for preterm labour initiation. New data shows that administration of a specific FP antagonist, Theratechnologies (THG) 113.31, delays preterm birth in mice and sheep with no observable maternal or fetal side effects. Hence antagonizing PG action offers new hope for delaying preterm birth.

  3. Castor oil, bath and/or enema for cervical priming and induction of labour.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Anthony J; Kavanagh, Josephine; Thomas, Jane

    2013-07-24

    Castor oil, a potent cathartic, is derived from the bean of the castor plant. Anecdotal reports, which date back to ancient Egypt have suggested the use of castor oil to stimulate labour. Castor oil has been widely used as a traditional method of initiating labour in midwifery practice. Its role in the initiation of labour is poorly understood and data examining its efficacy within a clinical trial are limited. This is one of a series of reviews of methods of cervical ripening and labour induction using standardised methodology. To determine the effects of castor oil or enemas for third trimester cervical ripening or induction of labour in comparison with other methods of cervical ripening or induction of labour. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (30 April 2013) and bibliographies of relevant papers. Clinical trials comparing castor oil, bath or enemas used for third trimester cervical ripening or labour induction with placebo/no treatment or other methods listed above it on a predefined list of labour induction methods. A strategy was developed to deal with the large volume and complexity of trial data relating to labour induction. This involved a two-stage method of data extraction. Three trials, involving 233 women, are included. There was no evidence of differences in caesarean section rates between the two interventions in the two trials reporting this outcome (risk ratio (RR) 2.04, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.92 to 4.55). There were no data presented on neonatal or maternal mortality or morbidity.There was no evidence of a difference between castor oil and placebo/no treatment for the rate of instrumental delivery, meconium-stained liquor, or Apgar score less than seven at five minutes. The number of participants was too small to detect all but large differences in outcome. All women who ingested castor oil felt nauseous (RR 59.92, 95% CI 8.46 to 424.52). The three trials included in the review contain small numbers

  4. Why do health labour market forces matter?

    PubMed Central

    McPake, Barbara; Araújo, Edson Correia; Lemiere, Christophe; El Maghraby, Atef; Cometto, Giorgio

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Human resources for health have been recognized as essential to the development of responsive and effective health systems. Low- and middle-income countries seeking to achieve universal health coverage face human resource constraints – whether in the form of health worker shortages, maldistribution of workers or poor worker performance – that seriously undermine their ability to achieve well-functioning health systems. Although much has been written about the human resource crisis in the health sector, labour economic frameworks have seldom been applied to analyse the situation and little is known or understood about the operation of labour markets in low- and middle-income countries. Traditional approaches to addressing human resource constraints have focused on workforce planning: estimating health workforce requirements based on a country’s epidemiological and demographic profile and scaling up education and training capacities to narrow the gap between the “needed” number of health workers and the existing number. However, this approach neglects other important factors that influence human resource capacity, including labour market dynamics and the behavioural responses and preferences of the health workers themselves. This paper describes how labour market analysis can contribute to a better understanding of the factors behind human resource constraints in the health sector and to a more effective design of policies and interventions to address them. The premise is that a better understanding of the impact of health policies on health labour markets, and subsequently on the employment conditions of health workers, would be helpful in identifying an effective strategy towards the progressive attainment of universal health coverage. PMID:24347708

  5. Why do health labour market forces matter?

    PubMed

    McPake, Barbara; Maeda, Akiko; Araújo, Edson Correia; Lemiere, Christophe; El Maghraby, Atef; Cometto, Giorgio

    2013-11-01

    Human resources for health have been recognized as essential to the development of responsive and effective health systems. Low- and middle-income countries seeking to achieve universal health coverage face human resource constraints - whether in the form of health worker shortages, maldistribution of workers or poor worker performance - that seriously undermine their ability to achieve well-functioning health systems. Although much has been written about the human resource crisis in the health sector, labour economic frameworks have seldom been applied to analyse the situation and little is known or understood about the operation of labour markets in low- and middle-income countries. Traditional approaches to addressing human resource constraints have focused on workforce planning: estimating health workforce requirements based on a country's epidemiological and demographic profile and scaling up education and training capacities to narrow the gap between the "needed" number of health workers and the existing number. However, this approach neglects other important factors that influence human resource capacity, including labour market dynamics and the behavioural responses and preferences of the health workers themselves. This paper describes how labour market analysis can contribute to a better understanding of the factors behind human resource constraints in the health sector and to a more effective design of policies and interventions to address them. The premise is that a better understanding of the impact of health policies on health labour markets, and subsequently on the employment conditions of health workers, would be helpful in identifying an effective strategy towards the progressive attainment of universal health coverage.

  6. [Young rehabilitants in vocational training at the transition to the labour market].

    PubMed

    Reims, N; Gruber, S

    2014-12-01

    This study tackles the question, whether and to what extent labour market integration is achieved by young rehabilitants participating in an apprenticeship provided by the Federal Employment Agency. In order to identify salient determinants for the entry into as well as the sustainability of fi rst employment, event history analyses are applied. After a relatively short period, first integrated rehabilitants mostly fi nd unsubsidized employment. The entry into employment is determined by factors similar to those influencing the labour market transition of young adults without disabilities: higher educational achievements, a successfully completed apprenticeship at best within an establishment, high regional mobility and good structural conditions favour labour market integration. Furthermore, physically disabled graduates and those with shorter unemployment and sickness periods stay longer in fi rst employment than graduates showing other disabilities and those with longer periods in unemployment and sickness.

  7. Labour dystocia--risk of recurrence and instrumental delivery in following labour--a population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Sandström, A; Cnattingius, S; Wikström, A K; Stephansson, O

    2012-12-01

    To investigate risk of recurrence of labour dystocia and mode of delivery in second labour after taking first labour and fetal and maternal characteristics into account. A population-based cohort study. The Swedish Medical Birth Register from 1992 to 2006. A total of 239 953 women who gave birth to their first and second singleton infants in cephalic presentation at ≥ 37 weeks of gestation with spontaneous onset of labour. We used logistic regression analysis to estimate crude and adjusted odds ratios. Labour dystocia and mode of delivery in second labour. Overall labour dystocia affected only 12% of women with previous dystocia. Regardless of mode of first delivery, rates of dystocia in the second labour were higher in women with than without previous dystocia, but were more pronounced in women with previous caesarean section (34%). Analyses with risk score groups for dystocia (risk factors were long interpregnancy interval, maternal age ≥ 35 years, obesity, short maternal stature, not cohabiting and post-term pregnancy) showed that risk of instrumental delivery in second labour increased with previous dystocia and increasing risk score. Among women with trial of labour after caesarean section with previous dystocia and a risk score of 3 or more, 66% had a vaginal instrumental or caesarean delivery (17 and 49%, respectively). In women with trial of labour after caesarean section without previous dystocia and a risk score of 0, corresponding risk was 32% (14 and 18%, respectively). Previous labour dystocia increases the risk of dystocia in subsequent delivery. Taking first labour and fetal and maternal characteristics into account is important in the risk assessments for dystocia and instrumental delivery in second labour. © 2012 The Authors BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology © 2012 RCOG.

  8. Is Combining Child Labour and School Education the Right Approach? Investigating the Cambodian Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Chae-Young

    2009-01-01

    The paper considers whether letting children combine work and school is a valid and effective approach in Cambodia. Policy makers' suggestions that child labour should be allowed to some extent due to household poverty appear ungrounded as no significant relation between children's work and household poverty is found while arranging school…

  9. Teacher Labour Markets in South Africa and Botswana: A Comparative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irving, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    This article compares key features of the labour markets for teachers across Botswana and South Africa in order to seek possible explanations for the apparently larger teacher shortages in South Africa. It is argued that South African teachers earn relatively lower wages when compared to professionals with comparable qualifications; they have also…

  10. Struggles over Labour Power: The Case of Fort McMurray

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Alison; McGray, Robert; Watt-Malcolm, Bonnie

    2007-01-01

    This article argues that partnerships for vocational education and training (VET) reflect contradictions within capitalism and labour power, and therefore should be analysed within the broader context of industrial and workplace relations. Therefore, in contrast to a consensual model, we posit an understanding of social partnerships as sites of…

  11. Linking Qualifications and the Labour Market through Capabilities and Vocational Streams. Synthesis Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheelahan, Leesa; Buchanan, John; Yu, Serena

    2015-01-01

    This is the final report in the three-year program of research "Vocations: The Link between Post-Compulsory Education and the Labour Market," which investigated the educational and occupational paths people take and how their study relates to their work. This report synthesises the findings of the three different strands: pathways from…

  12. Teacher Labour Markets in South Africa and Botswana: A Comparative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irving, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    This article compares key features of the labour markets for teachers across Botswana and South Africa in order to seek possible explanations for the apparently larger teacher shortages in South Africa. It is argued that South African teachers earn relatively lower wages when compared to professionals with comparable qualifications; they have also…

  13. British Labour Party Policy on Educational Selection 1996-8: A Sociological Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, David; Parsons, Ken

    1999-01-01

    Analyzes British Labour Party policy on educational selection in secondary schools, drawing on Mills's sociological imagination. Education selection figures prominently in distributional processes that (re)produce social relations within society. Achieving egalitarian ends is difficult while retaining consumerist spheres of influence stratified by…

  14. Is Combining Child Labour and School Education the Right Approach? Investigating the Cambodian Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Chae-Young

    2009-01-01

    The paper considers whether letting children combine work and school is a valid and effective approach in Cambodia. Policy makers' suggestions that child labour should be allowed to some extent due to household poverty appear ungrounded as no significant relation between children's work and household poverty is found while arranging school…

  15. Epidural analgesia during labour, routinely or on request: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Bonouvrié, Kimberley; van den Bosch, Anouk; Roumen, Frans J M E; van Kuijk, Sander M; Nijhuis, Jan G; Evers, Silvia M A A; Wassen, Martine M L H

    2016-12-01

    To assess the cost-effectiveness of routine labour epidural analgesia (EA), from a societal perspective, as compared with labour analgesia on request. Women delivering of a singleton in cephalic presentation beyond 36+0 weeks' gestation were randomly allocated to routine labour EA or analgesia on request in one university and one non-university teaching hospital in the Netherlands. Costs included all medical, non-medical and indirect costs from randomisation to 6 weeks postpartum. Effectiveness was defined as a non-operative, spontaneous vaginal delivery without EA-related maternal adverse effects. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was defined as the ratio of the difference in costs and the difference in effectiveness between both groups. Data were analysed according to intention to treat and divided into a base case analysis and a sensitivity analysis. Total delivery costs in the routine EA group (n=233) were higher than in the labour on request group (n=255) (difference -€ 322, 95% CI -€ 60 to € 355) due to more medication costs (including EA), a longer stay in the labour ward, and more operations including caesarean sections. Total postpartum hospital costs in the routine EA group were lower (difference -€ 344, 95% CI -€ 1338 to € 621) mainly due to less neonatal admissions (difference -€ 472, 95% CI -€ 1297 to € 331), whereas total postpartum home and others costs were comparable (difference -€ 20, 95% CI -€ 267 to € 248, and -€ 1, 95% CI -€ 67 to € 284, respectively). As a result, the overall mean costs per woman were comparable between the routine EA group and the analgesia on request group (€ 8.708 and € 8.710, respectively, mean difference -€ 2, 95% CI -€ 1.012 to € 916). Routine labour EA resulted in more deliveries with maternal adverse effects, nevertheless the ICER remained low (€ 8; bootstrap 95% CI -€ 6.120 to € 8.659). The cost-effectiveness acceptability curve indicated a low probability that

  16. Child labour, adult literacy and employment rates in India.

    PubMed

    Raju, T N

    1989-01-01

    This study assesses the relationship between literacy and labour rates among the adults and children in 17 Indian states. Among children aged 5-14 years, 53.9% were literate and 3.74% were working for wages; these figures, however varied markedly among the states. Kerala, a state with the best overall adult literacy, also recorded the highest child literacy rate, and the lowest child employment rate. The states with high adult literacy also tended to have high child literacy (Spearman's coefficient of rank correlation, Rho 1 = 0.95, P less than 0.001), and low child labour (Rho = 0.56, P less than 0.02). Child labour rates did not correlate with adult labour rates. However, change in adult literacy and labour rates over a 7-year period correlated significantly both with the change in child literacy and labour rates: The states with a greater increase in adult literacy also observed a greater rise in child literacy, and a greater fall in child labour rates. But the states with a greater increase in adult labour had a greater rise in child labour rates; for each ten additional adults working, two more children also worked for wages, suggesting that increasing job opportunities drew both adults and children into the labour force. The findings, and their implications for pediatric care are discussed.

  17. Dentist education and labour market in Mexico: elements for policy definition

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Here, the educational and labour market characteristics of Mexican dentists are revised. Dentistry is a health profession that has been scarcely studied in developing countries. This analysis attempts to understand the relationships and gaps between the supply and demand of dentists in the country. Around 5000 new dentists graduate every year looking for a place in the labour market. Methods A cross-sectional study with exploratory, descriptive and correlational scope was carried out between 2006 and 2008. Analyses of quantitative data on dentists from national surveys and occupational statistics were complemented with qualitative information provided by 43 key informants in five Mexican states. Results The 2008 dentist labour market can be characterized as follows: 75% worked in the private sector, most of them independently; more than two-thirds were women; the proportion of specialists was low (slightly more than 10%); unemployment was more than 20% and labour wastage was nearly 40%, with most wastage corresponding with female dentists. The increase in the number of dentists entering the labour market during the last two decades is more related to the educational market than to the population’s health needs and the number of dentists actually required to meet them. Conclusions The problems identified in the Mexican dentist labour market necessitate urgent intervention on behalf of regulatory bodies in order to balance the tendencies of supply and demand in the number of trained professionals as well as in their incorporation into different market areas. Adequate policies are required to increase the likelihood of achieving this objective. PMID:22974344

  18. Practices of skilled birth attendants during labour, birth and the immediate postpartum period in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Ith, Ponndara; Dawson, Angela; Homer, Caroline S E; Klinken Whelan, Anna

    2013-04-01

    maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality rates in Cambodia are high. The provision of quality care by skilled birth attendants (SBAs) in a supportive working environment is an important strategy to reduce morbidity and mortality. There has been little emphasis on examining this issue in Cambodia. The objective of this study was to establish SBA reported practices during labour, birth and the immediate postpartum periods and the factors affecting this. a descriptive qualitative design was employed using in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with midwives, nurses and doctors with midwifery skills in two health centres and three referral hospitals in one province of Cambodia. Data were analysed using a thematic framework. SBA practice is not always consistent with evidence-based standards known to reduce morbidity and mortality. Ten inter-related themes emerged, which described patterns of SBA practice, were identified. These were: skills in the care of labouring women; provision of support in labour; interventions in the second stage of labour; management of the third stage of labour; cleanliness during birth; immediate care of the newborn infant and immediate postnatal care; lack of policy and authority; fear of litigation; workload and lack of human resources; and financial incentives and socio-economic influences. a gap exists between evidence-based standards and current SBA practice during labour, birth and the immediate postpartum care. This is largely driven by the lack of a supportive working environment. the findings of this research provide maternal health services, workforce planners and policy makers with valuable information to contribute to the continuous quality improvement of maternity care. The findings highlight implications for practice that may improve the quality of maternal health care. Recommendations for decision makers were made and further research is needed in order to develop theories and recommendations to improve SBA

  19. Review of vaginal birth after primary caesarean section without prostaglandin induction and or syntocinon augmentation in labour.

    PubMed

    Ogbonmwan, S E O; Miller, V; Ogbonmwan, D E; Akinsola, A A

    2010-04-01

    To show the results of vaginal birth after primary caesarean (VBAC) without using prostaglandin for induction and/or syntocinon augmentation are comparable when induction is done with these agents but without the added risks of uterine rupture. A review of the obstetric records of 16,498 parturient from 1 January 2001 to 31 December 2006 was carried out. The 229 cases of women who wanted VBAC were subjected to further analysis to determine the number of successful vaginal delivery after spontaneous onset of labour or membrane sweep. The instrumental vaginal delivery rate, analgesia commonly used and the complication rate were analysed. The result showed that 34.49% had spontaneous onset of labour, 27.07% laboured after membrane sweep and 38.42% had repeat urgent caesarean section as they failed to go into spontaneous labour. Of those who went into labour spontaneously or after membrane sweep, 67% had vaginal delivery, a further 13.97% had instrumental vaginal delivery and 16% had emergency caesarean section. There was no case of uterine rupture. VBAC can end successfully in a high proportion of cases without the use of prostaglandin or syntocinon for induction of labour and or syntocinon for augmentation in these women because of their associated increased relative risk of uterine rupture.

  20. Nurse characteristics, leadership, safety climate, emotional labour and intention to stay for nurses: a structural equation modelling approach.

    PubMed

    Liang, Hui-Yu; Tang, Fu-In; Wang, Tze-Fang; Lin, Kai-Ching; Yu, Shu

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to propose a theoretical model and apply it to examine the structural relationships among nurse characteristics, leadership characteristics, safety climate, emotional labour and intention to stay for hospital nurses. Global nursing shortages negatively affect the quality of care. The shortages can be reduced by retaining nurses. Few studies have independently examined the relationships among leadership, safety climate, emotional labour and nurses' intention to stay; more comprehensive theoretical foundations for examining nurses' intention to stay and its related factors are lacking. Cross-sectional. A purposive sample of 414 full-time nurses was recruited from two regional hospitals in Taiwan. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data from November 2013-June 2014. Structural equation modelling was employed to test the theoretical models of the relationships among the constructs. Our data supported the theoretical model. Intention to stay was positively correlated with age and the safety climate, whereas working hours per week and emotional labour were negatively correlated. The nursing position and transformational leadership indirectly affected intention to stay; this effect was mediated separately by emotional labour and the safety climate. Our data supported the model fit. Our findings provide practical implications for healthcare organizations and administrators to increase nurses' intent to stay. Strategies including a safer climate, appropriate working hours and lower emotional labour can directly increase nurses' intent to stay. Transformational leadership did not directly influence nurses' intention to stay; however, it reduced emotional labour, thereby increasing intention to stay. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. The influence of the birthplace and models of care on midwifery practice for the management of women in labour.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Lesa M; Adair, Vivienne; Timperley, Helen; West, Sandra H

    2006-12-01

    This paper will examine how the settings in which midwives practice (the birthplace) and models of care affect midwives' decision making during the management of labour. One-hundred-and-four independent, team and hospital based midwives and 100 low obstetric risk nulliparous women to whom labour care was provided were surveyed. These midwives and women resided in the Auckland metropolitan area of New Zealand. The majority of midwives who participated worked in models of care which provided women with continuity of carer and care, however, this was not found to influence the way the midwives provided labour care. Instead, practice was found to be relatively homogenous regardless of whether the midwives worked in independent, team, or hospital-based practice. The birthplace setting in which the labour care took place did influence midwifery practice. The majority of midwives provided labour care in large obstetric hospitals and identified practices dominated by the medical model of care. Practice was described as being influenced by intervention and the need for technology, however, this did not prevent the majority of women from perceiving they were actively involved in the decision making process and that they worked in partnership with their midwives. Closer examination of the midwives' decision making processes whilst providing the labour care revealed that the midwives' individual decisions were influenced by the needs of the women rather than the hospital protocols. What became evident was that the midwives in this study had adopted a humanistic approach to care whereby technology was used alongside relationship-centred care.

  2. Women's expectations and experiences with labour pain in medical and midwifery models of birth in the United States.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Erica

    2014-09-01

    This research focuses on how women understand and experience labour as related to two competing views of childbirth pain. The biomedical view is that labour pain is abnormal and anaesthesia/analgesia use is encouraged to relieve the pain. The midwifery view is that pain is a normal part of labour that should be worked with instead of against. To determine differences in the preparation for and experiences with labour pain by women choosing midwives versus obstetricians. Prenatal and postpartum in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with a convenience sample of 80 women in Florida (United States): 40 who had chosen an obstetrician and 40 who had chosen a licensed midwife as their birth practitioner. Women in both groups were concerned with the pain of childbirth before and after their labour experiences. Women choosing midwives discussed preparing for pain through various non-pharmaceutical coping methods, while women choosing physicians discussed pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical pain relief. Equal numbers of women expressed concerns with childbirth pain during the prenatal interviews, while more women choosing doctors spoke about pain after their births. Women had negative experiences when their planned pain relief method, either natural or medical, did not occur. The quandary facing women when it comes to labour pain relief is not choosing what they desire, but rather preparing themselves for the possibility that they may have to accept alternatives to their original preferences. Copyright © 2014 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Walking biped humanoids that perform manual labour.

    PubMed

    Hirukawa, Hirohisa

    2007-01-15

    The Humanoid Robotics Project of the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry of Japan realized that biped humanoid robots can perform manual labour. The project developed humanoid robot platforms, consisting of humanoid robot hardware and a package of fundamental software, and explored applications of humanoid robots on them. The applications include maintenance tasks of industrial plants, teleoperation of industrial vehicles, cooperative tasks with a human, guarding the home and office and the care of patients in beds.

  4. [Maternal postures and epidural analgesia during labour].

    PubMed

    Ducloy-Bouthors, A-S; De Gasquet, B; Davette, M; Cuisse, M

    2006-06-01

    The evolution of birth is of interest for obstetricians and midwives. Postures with asymmetric stretching and balance, kneeling, or sitting have been claimed to be able to help foetal head rotation. Although walking during labour have no influence on the outcome of labour, hip-flexed postures enlarging the pelvic diameter are yet evaluated to improve the obstetric course of labour. In a prospective randomised study including 93 parturients, we compared the supine 30 degrees lateral tilt (control group) to three hip-flexed postures: sitting (S), right hip-flexed left lateral position (L) and left hip-flexed right lateral position (R). Epidural analgesia with 12 ml ropivacaine 0.1% and sufentanil 0.5 microg/ml was administered over a period of six minutes. The total epidural spread was 15+/-0.3 dermatomes and the upper level of thermo-analgesic blockade reached T7-T8 (T5 to T10) in each group. There were no differences between groups for the left and right total spread and upper level of epidural blockade, for the time to maximal block and pain relief. There was no motor block and no maternal or foetal side effects. We conclude that, for the three hip-flexed postures tested, position does not influence local anesthetic spread or symmetry of analgesia after induction of obstetric epidural anaesthesia.

  5. The role of nuclear factor kappa B in human labour.

    PubMed

    Lindström, Tamsin M; Bennett, Phillip R

    2005-11-01

    Preterm birth remains the leading cause of perinatal mortality and morbidity, largely as a result of a poor understanding of the precise mechanisms controlling labour onset in humans. Inflammation has long been recognised as a key feature of both preterm and term labour, with an influx of inflammatory cells into the uterus and elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines observed during parturition. Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) is a transcription factor family classically associated with inflammation. Accumulating evidence points to a role for NF-kappaB in the physiology and pathophysiology of labour. NF-kappaB activity increases with labour onset and is central to multiple prolabour pathways. Premature or aberrant activation of NF-kappaB may thus contribute to preterm labour. The current understanding of NF-kappaB in the context of human labour is discussed here.

  6. Maternal and fetal zidovudine pharmacokinetics during pregnancy and labour: too high dose infused at labour?

    PubMed

    Fauchet, Floris; Treluyer, Jean-Marc; Valade, Elodie; Benaboud, Sihem; Pannier, Emmanuelle; Firtion, Ghislaine; Foissac, Frantz; Bouazza, Naim; Urien, Saik; Hirt, Déborah

    2014-12-01

    The main goal of the study was to describe the pharmacokinetics of maternal zidovudine (ZDV) administration during pregnancy and labour and to evaluate their impact on fetal concentrations and exposures. A total of 195 HIV-infected pregnant and non-pregnant women aged 16-59 years were included and 273 maternal and 79 cord blood ZDV concentrations were collected. A population pharmacokinetic model was developed to describe ZDV concentrations as a function of time in the mother and the fetus. Fetal exposures resulting from maternal oral administration and infusion were estimated and compared with therapeutic exposures (3-5 mg l(-1)  h) and to exposure providing higher risk of toxicity (>8.4 mg l(-1)  h). Different protocols for ZDV administration during labour were simulated. The median fetal exposure and the percentage of children with values above 8.4 mg l(-1)  h were 3.20 mg l(-1)  h and 0% after maternal oral administration, respectively, and 9.71 mg l(-1)  h and 51% after maternal infusion during labour. Two options were considered to reduce fetal exposure during labour: (i) maternal infusion rates could be 1 mg kg(-1)  h(-1) during 1 h followed by 0.5 mg kg(-1)  h(-1) and (ii) the mother could only take oral ZDV every 5 h from start of labour until delivery with her neonate having their first ZDV dose as soon as possible after birth. Zidovudine exposures are very important during labour and during the first days of a neonate's life. Maternal ZDV dose should be reduced in addition to the neonate doses reduction already proposed. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  7. Maternal and fetal zidovudine pharmacokinetics during pregnancy and labour: too high dose infused at labour?

    PubMed Central

    Fauchet, Floris; Treluyer, Jean-Marc; Valade, Elodie; Benaboud, Sihem; Pannier, Emmanuelle; Firtion, Ghislaine; Foissac, Frantz; Bouazza, Naim; Urien, Saik; Hirt, Déborah

    2014-01-01

    Aims The main goal of the study was to describe the pharmacokinetics of maternal zidovudine (ZDV) administration during pregnancy and labour and to evaluate their impact on fetal concentrations and exposures. Methods A total of 195 HIV-infected pregnant and non-pregnant women aged 16–59 years were included and 273 maternal and 79 cord blood ZDV concentrations were collected. A population pharmacokinetic model was developed to describe ZDV concentrations as a function of time in the mother and the fetus. Fetal exposures resulting from maternal oral administration and infusion were estimated and compared with therapeutic exposures (3–5 mg l−1 h) and to exposure providing higher risk of toxicity (>8.4 mg l−1 h). Different protocols for ZDV administration during labour were simulated. Results The median fetal exposure and the percentage of children with values above 8.4 mg l−1 h were 3.20 mg l−1 h and 0% after maternal oral administration, respectively, and 9.71 mg l−1 h and 51% after maternal infusion during labour. Two options were considered to reduce fetal exposure during labour: (i) maternal infusion rates could be 1 mg kg−1 h−1 during 1 h followed by 0.5 mg kg−1 h−1 and (ii) the mother could only take oral ZDV every 5 h from start of labour until delivery with her neonate having their first ZDV dose as soon as possible after birth. Conclusions Zidovudine exposures are very important during labour and during the first days of a neonate's life. Maternal ZDV dose should be reduced in addition to the neonate doses reduction already proposed. PMID:25040510

  8. Slit2 is decreased after spontaneous labour in myometrium and regulates pro-labour mediators.

    PubMed

    Lim, Ratana; Liong, Stella; Barker, Gillian; Lappas, Martha

    2014-12-01

    Preterm birth, a global healthcare problem, is commonly associated with inflammation. As Slit2 plays an emerging role in inflammation, the purpose of this study was to determine the effect of Slit2 on labour mediators in human gestational tissues. Slit2 mRNA and protein expression were assessed using qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry in foetal membranes and myometrium obtained before and after labour. Slit2 silencing was achieved using siRNA in primary myometrial cells. Pro-inflammatory and pro-labour mediators were evaluated by qRT-PCR, ELISA and gelatin zymography. Slit2 mRNA and protein expression were found to be significantly lower in myometrium after labour onset. There was no effect of term or preterm labour on Slit2 expression in foetal membranes. Slit2 mRNA expression was decreased in myometrium treated with LPS and IL-1β. Slit2 siRNA in myometrial cells increased IL-1β-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine gene expression and release (IL-6 and IL-8), COX-2 expression and prostaglandin PGE2 and PGF2α release, and MMP-9 gene expression and pro MMP-9 release. There was no effect of Slit2 siRNA on IL-1β-induced NF-κB transcriptional activity. Our results demonstrate that Slit2 is decreased in human myometrium after labour and our knock-down studies describe an anti-inflammatory effect of Slit2 in myometrial cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Prevention of cerebral palsy during labour: role of foetal lactate.

    PubMed

    Borruto, Franco; Comparetto, Ciro; Treisser, Alain

    2008-07-01

    Intrapartum foetal monitoring goal is to prevent foetal asphyxia and its most severe consequence: cerebral palsy (CP). In this paper we describe the detection methods and the criteria needed to assess asphyxia during labour for preventing CP. Foetal cerebral damage assessment is considered from the medical-legal point of view. CP represents the most frequent pathology of childhood related to pregnancy and childbirth with an incidence of 0.2% in children born alive. It is clinically regarded as the result of a spectrum of diseases due to damage or to faded development of the nervous system which generally appears at the time of the first stage of intra-uterine growth or depends on problems arising at birth. The goal of our analysis is to recall the various moments in which this event can take place and, if possible, the moment and the degree of the event of asphyxia and its effect on foetal conditions, in order to control and treat it. One hundred and eighty-eight fetuses were evaluated by means of Apgar score, intrapartum cardiotocography, observation of the presence of meconium stained amniotic fluid, and clinical features of distress at birth. Lactate concentrations were measured during labour and at delivery in blood samples obtained from the foetal presenting part (foetal scalp) and from the umbilical cord with the use of a rapid electrochemical technique. Evidence of clinical foetal distress was not related to the severity of asphyxia. An increased lactate level was found in asphyctic infants and a clear correlation between lactic acidosis and foetal distress was documented. Low Apgar scores were observed in infants with moderate or severe asphyxia at delivery. Scalp lactate correlated significantly with umbilical artery lactate (P = 0.49, 0.01), but with neither Apgar score at 1 min (R = -0.21, ns) nor at 5 min (R = -0.11, ns). Lactate concentration was higher in case of instrumental delivery compared to spontaneous delivery (P = 0.0001). No perfect

  10. The emotional labour of nursing 1: exploring the concept.

    PubMed

    Gray, Benjamin

    This is the first in a two-part series on emotional labour, a trained and individualised response to help manage the emotions of patients. It reviews relevant literature to define and explore this concept in nursing, and considers examples of emotional labour and makes recommendations for future policy and research. Part 2 of this research, to be published in next week's issue, examines routine aspects of emotional labour in nursing and the barriers to recognising this aspect of work.

  11. Hypnosis for pain management during labour and childbirth.

    PubMed

    Madden, Kelly; Middleton, Philippa; Cyna, Allan M; Matthewson, Mandy; Jones, Leanne

    2016-05-19

    evidence that fewer women in the hypnosis group stayed in hospital for more than two days after the birth but this finding was based on one small study (RR 0.11, 95% CI 0.02 to 0.83). No clear differences between women in the hypnosis group and the control groups were found for the other secondary outcomes where data were available.In the comparisons of hypnosis with specific types of control conditions: standard care, supportive counselling and relaxation training, there were no clear differences found between women in the hypnosis group and those in the standard care control groups or the relaxation control groups for the primary outcomes. Compared with the women in the supportive counselling control group, women in the hypnosis group were less likely to use pharmacological analgesia (average RR 0.48, 95% CI 0.32 to 0.73, two studies, 562 women). They were also more likely to have a spontaneous vaginal birth (RR 2.42, 95% CI 1.43 to 4.07), although this finding was based on the results of one small study. Overall these new comparisons displayed much less statistical heterogeneity than the comparison including all control groups. There are still only a relatively small number of studies assessing the use of hypnosis for labour and childbirth. Hypnosis may reduce the overall use of analgesia during labour, but not epidural use. No clear differences were found between women in the hypnosis group and those in the control groups for satisfaction with pain relief, sense of coping with labour or spontaneous vaginal birth. Not enough evidence currently exists regarding satisfaction with pain relief or sense of coping with labour and we would encourage any future research to prioritise the measurement of these outcomes. The evidence for the main comparison was assessed using GRADE as being of low quality for all the primary outcomes with downgrading decisions due to concerns regarding inconsistency of the evidence, limitations in design and imprecision. Further research is needed

  12. International labour migration and uneven regional development in labour exporting countries.

    PubMed

    Lewis, J R

    1986-01-01

    "International labour migration involves 20 million workers from 'middle income' and 'Third World' countries. The article reviews both theoretical propositions and empirical evidence on its effects on regional disparities in labour exporting countries. It shows the variety of ways in which the departure of emigrants affects the uneven development of rural and urban areas there by changing the volume and nature of production as well as welfare conditions. Regional patterns of production and welfare are further modified by the impact of emigrants' remittances and their eventual return."

  13. Altered gene expression in human placenta after suspected preterm labour.

    PubMed

    Oros, D; Strunk, M; Breton, P; Paules, C; Benito, R; Moreno, E; Garcés, M; Godino, J; Schoorlemmer, J

    2017-07-01

    Suspected preterm labour occurs in around 9% of pregnancies. However, almost two-thirds of women admitted for threatened preterm labour ultimately deliver at term and are considered risk-free for fetal development. We examined placental and umbilical cord blood samples from preterm or term deliveries after threatened preterm labour as well as term deliveries without threatened preterm labour. We quantitatively analysed the mRNA expression of inflammatory markers (IL6, IFNγ, and TNFα) and modulators of angiogenesis (FGF2, PGF, VEGFA, VEGFB, and VEGFR1). A total of 132 deliveries were analysed. Preterm delivery and term delivery after suspected preterm labour groups showed similar increases in TNFα expression compared with the term delivery control group in umbilical cord blood samples. Placental samples from preterm and term deliveries after suspected preterm labour exhibited significantly increased expression of TNFα and IL6 and decreased expression of IFNγ. Suspected preterm labour was also associated with altered expression of angiogenic factors, although not all differences reached statistical significance. We found gene expression patterns indicative of inflammation in human placentas after suspected preterm labour regardless of whether the deliveries occurred preterm or at term. Similarly, a trend towards altered expression of angiogeneic factors was not limited to preterm birth. These findings suggest that the biological mechanisms underlying threatened preterm labour affect pregnancies independently of gestational age at birth. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Prospects for European labour demand.

    PubMed

    Lindley, R M

    1988-07-01

    the 1975-85 decade. After the adjustment of the recession, European manufacturing industry is relatively more competitive and overall will experience a slower employment decline. Further, the growth of services will be limited by the effects of restrictive budgetary policies upon the development of public services. In all 5 countries, the main projected areas of employment growth are business and related services, tourism and leisure activities, and health care. Those occupations most likely to expand are the more highly qualified groups associated with the growth sectors. The main changes in the location of functions within the economic structure are likely to be the continuing contracting out of service functions within production industries to the service sector; and the growth of small relative to large enterprises.

  15. The Ulysses contract in obstetrics: a woman's choices before and during labour.

    PubMed

    Burcher, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Women recognise that labour represents a mind-altering event that may affect their ability to make and communicate decisions and choices. For this reason, birth plans and other pre-labour directives can represent a form of Ulysses contract: an attempt to make binding choices before the sometimes overwhelming circumstances of labour. These choices need to be respected during labour, but despite the reduced decisional and communicative capacity of a labouring woman, her choices, when clear, should supersede decisions made before labour.

  16. Returns on vocational education over the life cycle: Between immediate labour market preparation and lifelong employability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavrijsen, Jeroen; Nicaise, Ides

    2017-03-01

    An important issue in the design of secondary-level education is the balance between conveying general and occupation-specific (vocational) skills. On the one hand, vocationally oriented programmes, providing occupation-specific skills with immediate labour market relevance, have repeatedly been shown to secure safe pathways into employment. On the other hand, these programmes tend to put less emphasis on developing general knowledge, skills and competencies, including numeracy and literacy, which are foundational to lifelong learning. Hence, when the needs of the labour market change, employees who opted for a vocational track when they were at secondary school risk being less flexible in adapting to such changes later in their career. The authors of this article examine whether this results in a trade-off between short-term gains and long-term losses by considering differences in the labour market careers of vocationally and generally educated respondents in the 2012 Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC). Their results suggest that early labour market benefits of vocational specialisation decrease over time; the authors relate this to its lower ability to equip secondary school students - future employees - with skills for lifelong learning.

  17. Pathways linking drug use and labour market trajectories: the role of catastrophic events.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Lindsey; Small, Will; Kerr, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    People affected by substance use disorders often experience sub-optimal employment outcomes. The role of drug use in processes that produce and entrench labour market precarity among people who inject drugs (PWID) have not, however, been fully described. We recruited 22 PWID from ongoing prospective cohort studies in Vancouver, Canada, with whom we conducted semi-structured retrospective interviews and then employed a thematic analysis that drew on concepts from life course theory to explore the mechanisms and pathways linking drug use and labour market trajectories. The participants' narratives identified processes corresponding to causation, whereby suboptimal employment outcomes led to harmful drug use; direct selection, where impairment, health complications or drug-seeking activities selected individuals out of employment; and indirect selection, where external factors, such as catastrophic events, marked the initiation or intensification of substance use concurrent with sudden changes in capacities for employment. Catastrophic events linking negative transitions in both drug use and labour market trajectories were of primary importance, demarcating critical initiation and transitional events in individual risk trajectories. These results challenge conventional assumptions about the primacy of drug use in determining employment outcomes among PWID and suggest the importance of multidimensional support to mitigate the initiation, accumulation and entrenchment of labour market and drug-related disadvantage.

  18. New Heroines of Labour: Domesticating Post-feminism and Neoliberal Capitalism in Russia

    PubMed Central

    Salmenniemi, Suvi; Adamson, Maria

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, post-feminism has become an important element of popular media culture and the object of feminist cultural critique. This article explores how post-feminism is domesticated in Russia through popular self-help literature aimed at a female audience. Drawing on a close reading of self-help texts by three best-selling Russian authors, the article examines how post-feminism is made intelligible to the Russian audience and how it articulates with other symbolic frameworks. It identifies labour as a key trope through which post-feminism is domesticated and argues that the texts invite women to invest time and energy in the labour of personality, the labour of femininity and the labour of sexuality in order to become ‘valuable subjects’. The article demonstrates that the domestication of post-feminism also involves the domestication of neoliberal capitalism in Russia, and highlights how popular psychology, neoliberal capitalism and post-feminism are symbiotically related. PMID:26663947

  19. Transnational labour migration and the politics of care in the Southeast Asian family

    PubMed Central

    Hoang, Lan Anh; Yeoh, Brenda S.A.; Wattie, Anna Marie

    2012-01-01

    Recent increases in female labour migration in and from Asia have triggered a surge of interest in how the absence of the mother and wife for extended periods of time affects the left-behind family, particularly children, in labour-sending countries. While migration studies in the region have shown that the extended family, especially female relatives, is often called on for support in childcare during the mother’s absence it is not yet clear how childcare arrangements are made. Drawing on in-depth interviews with non-parent carers of left-behind children in Indonesia and Vietnam, the paper aims to unveil complexities and nuances around care in the context of transnational labour migration. In so doing it draws attention to the enduring influence of social norms on the organisation of family life when women are increasingly drawn into the global labour market. By contrasting a predominantly patrilineal East Asian family structure in Vietnam with what is often understood as a bilateral South-East Asian family structure in Indonesia, the paper seeks to provide interesting comparative insights into the adaptive strategies that the transnational family pursues in order to cope with the reproductive vacuum left behind by the migrant mother. PMID:22984293

  20. Returns on vocational education over the life cycle: Between immediate labour market preparation and lifelong employability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavrijsen, Jeroen; Nicaise, Ides

    2017-04-01

    An important issue in the design of secondary-level education is the balance between conveying general and occupation-specific (vocational) skills. On the one hand, vocationally oriented programmes, providing occupation-specific skills with immediate labour market relevance, have repeatedly been shown to secure safe pathways into employment. On the other hand, these programmes tend to put less emphasis on developing general knowledge, skills and competencies, including numeracy and literacy, which are foundational to lifelong learning. Hence, when the needs of the labour market change, employees who opted for a vocational track when they were at secondary school risk being less flexible in adapting to such changes later in their career. The authors of this article examine whether this results in a trade-off between short-term gains and long-term losses by considering differences in the labour market careers of vocationally and generally educated respondents in the 2012 Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC). Their results suggest that early labour market benefits of vocational specialisation decrease over time; the authors relate this to its lower ability to equip secondary school students - future employees - with skills for lifelong learning.

  1. Education and occupational status in 14 countries: the role of educational institutions and labour market coordination.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Robert; van de Werfhorst, Herman G

    2010-06-01

    This article explores the role of national institutional factors--more specifically, the level of skill transparency of the education system and labour market coordination--in accounting for cross-national differences in the relationship between education and occupational status. Consistent with previous research, our findings suggest that skill transparency is the primary moderator. Countries with a highly transparent educational system (i.e., extensive tracking, strong vocational orientation, limited tertiary enrolment) tend to be characterized by a strong relationship between education and occupational status. These findings hold even after controlling for the level of labour market coordination. Nevertheless, we also find that labour market coordination plays an independent role by dampening the effect of education on occupational status. Taken together, these results suggest two quite different policy implications: (1) strengthening the skill transparency of the education system by increasing secondary and tertiary-level differentiation may strengthen the relationship between education and occupation, regardless of the level of coordination, and (2) increasing labour market coordination could lead to improved social inclusion and a reduction in inequalities related to educational attainment.

  2. Pathways linking drug use and labour market trajectories: the role of catastrophic events

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Lindsey; Small, Will; Kerr, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    People affected by substance use disorders often experience sub-optimal employment outcomes. The role of drug use in processes that produce and entrench labour market precarity among people who inject drugs (PWID) have not, however, been fully described. We recruited 22 PWID from ongoing prospective cohort studies in Vancouver, Canada and conducted semi-structured retrospective interviews and employed a thematic analysis that draws on concepts from life course theory to explore mechanisms and pathways linking drug use and labour market trajectories. Narratives identified processes corresponding to: causation, whereby suboptimal employment outcomes led to harmful drug use; direct selection, where impairment, health complications or drug seeking activities selected individuals out of employment; and indirect selection, where external factors, such as catastrophic events, marked the initiation or intensification of substance use concurrent with sudden changes in capacities for employment. Catastrophic events linking negative transitions in both drug use and labour market trajectories were of primary importance, demarcating critical initiation and transitional events in individual risk trajectories. These results challenge conventional assumptions about the primacy of drug use in determining employment outcomes among PWID, and suggest the importance of multi-dimensional supports to mitigate the initiation, accumulation and entrenchment of labour market and drug-related disadvantage. PMID:26358407

  3. Relaxation techniques for pain management in labour.

    PubMed

    Smith, Caroline A; Levett, Kate M; Collins, Carmel T; Crowther, Caroline A

    2011-12-07

    Many women would like to avoid pharmacological or invasive methods of pain management in labour and this may contribute towards the popularity of complementary methods of pain management. This review examined currently available evidence supporting the use of relaxation therapies for pain management in labour. To examine the effects of relaxation methods for pain management in labour on maternal and perinatal morbidity. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (30 November 2010), The Cochrane Complementary Medicine Field's Trials Register (November 2011), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library 2010, Issue 4), MEDLINE (1966 to 30 November 2010), CINAHL (1980 to 30 November 2010), the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry (30 November 2010), Chinese Clinical Trial Register (30 November 2010), Current Controlled Trials (30 November 2010), ClinicalTrials.gov, (30 November 2010) ISRCTN Register (30 November 2010), National Centre for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) (30 November 2010) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (30 November 2010). Randomised controlled trials comparing relaxation methods with standard care, no treatment, other non-pharmacological forms of pain management in labour or placebo. Three review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and extracted data. Data were checked for accuracy. Two review authors independently assessed trial quality. We attempted to contact study authors for additional information. We included 11 studies (1374 women) in the review. Relaxation was associated with a reduction in pain intensity during the latent phase (mean difference (MD) -1.25, 95% confidence interval (CI) -1.97 to -0.53, one trial, 40 women) and active phase of labour (MD -2.48, 95% CI -3.13 to 0.83, two trials, 74 women). There was evidence of improved outcomes from relaxation instruction with increased satisfaction with pain

  4. Aromatherapy for pain management in labour.

    PubMed

    Smith, Caroline A; Collins, Carmel T; Crowther, Caroline A

    2011-07-06

    Many women would like to avoid pharmacological or invasive methods of pain management in labour and this may contribute towards the popularity of complementary methods of pain management. This review examined currently available evidence supporting the use of aromatherapy for pain management in labour. To examine the effects of aromatherapy for pain management in labour on maternal and perinatal morbidity. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 October 2010), The Cochrane Complementary Medicine Field's Trials Register (October 2010), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library 2010, Issue 4), MEDLINE (1966 to 31 October 2010), CINAHL (1980 to 31 October 2010), the Australian and New Zealand Trials Registry (31 October 2010), Chinese Clinical Trial Register (31 October 2010), Current Controlled Trials (31 October 2010), ClinicalTrials.gov (31 October 2010), ISRCTN Register (31 October 2010), National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) (31 October 2010) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (31 October 2010). Randomised controlled trials comparing aromatherapy with placebo, no treatment or other non-pharmacological forms of pain management in labour. Two authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. We contacted study authors for additional information. We included two trials (535 women) in the review. The trials found no difference between groups for the primary outcomes of pain intensity, assisted vaginal birth (risk ratio (RR) 1.04, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.48 to 2.28, one trial, 513 women; RR 0.83, 95% CI 0.06 to 11.70, one trial, 22 women), and caesarean section (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.49 to 1.94, one trial, 513 women; RR 2.54, 95% CI 0.11 to 56.25, one trial, 22 women); there were more babies admitted to neonatal intensive care in the control group of one trial (RR 0.08, 95% CI 0.00 to 1.42, one trial, 513 women) but this

  5. Crisis, suicide and labour productivity losses in Spain.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Berta; Casal, Bruno; Currais, Luis

    2017-01-01

    Suicide became the first cause of death between the ages of 15 and 44 in Spain in the year 2013. Moreover, the suicide rate in Spain went up by more than 9 % with respect to the previous year. This increase could be related to the serious economic recession that Spain has been experiencing in recent years. In this sense, there is a lack of evidence to help assess to what extent these suicides have a social cost in terms of losses in human capital. Firstly, this article examines the relationship between the variables related to the economic cycle and the suicide rates in the 17 Spanish regions. Secondly, an estimate is made of the losses in labour productivity owing to these suicides. In this article, panel data models are used to consider different variables related to the economic cycle. Demographic variables and the suicide rates for regions across Spain from 2002 to 2013 also come into play. The present and future production costs owing to premature death from suicide are calculated using a human capital model. These costs are valued from the gross salary that an individual no longer receives in the future at the very moment he or she leaves the labour market. The results provide a strong indication that a decrease in economic growth and an increase in unemployment negatively affect suicide rates. Due to suicide, 38,038 potential years of working life were lost in 2013. This has an estimated cost of over 565 million euros. The economic crisis endured by Spain in recent years has played a role in the higher suicide rates one can observe from the data in official statistics. From a social perspective, suicide is a public health problem with far-reaching consequences.

  6. Efficacy of birth ball exercises on labour pain management.

    PubMed

    Leung, R W C; Li, J F P; Leung, M K M; Fung, B K Y; Fung, L C W; Tai, S M; Sing, C; Leung, W C

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of a birth ball exercise programme conducted by physiotherapists on pain relief, psychological care, and facilitation of the labour process at a labour ward in a regional hospital. Case series with before-after comparisons. Kwong Wah Hospital, Hong Kong. Chinese women admitted to the labour ward for spontaneous vaginal delivery between April and August 2012 were recruited. Physiotherapists taught birth ball exercises in groups or individually for 30 minutes. Labour pain intensity, back pain intensity, frequency of labour pain, stress and anxiety levels, and subjective pressure level over the lower abdomen were captured before and after birth ball exercises. Most of the parameters were measured using self-reported visual analogue scales. After the exercise session, physiotherapists measured the women's satisfaction level. Midwives recorded pethidine usage. A total of 203 pregnant women participated in this programme; 181 were in the latent phase group, whereas 22 were categorised into the no-labour-pain group. In both groups, there were statistically and clinically significant differences in back pain level, stress and anxiety levels, as well as pressure level over the lower abdomen before and after the exercise (P<0.05). In the latent phase group, significant decreases in labour pain and frequency of labour pain were demonstrated. Mean satisfaction scores were high, with visual analogue scale scores higher than 8.2 in both groups. Pethidine usage showed a further decreasing trend (6.4%) compared with the past 2 years. Birth ball exercise could be an alternative means of relieving back pain and labour pain in the labour ward, and could decrease pethidine consumption in labouring women.

  7. Social Cohesion and the Labour Market: Societal Regimes of Civic Attitudes and Labour Market Regimes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimeglio, Isabelle; Janmaat, Jan Germen; Mehaut, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to test the connections between the indicators used in the literature on social cohesion, which usually reflect "general" values or behaviours, and indicators specific to a particular space, namely the labour market. A key question is the stability of the social cohesion's indicators when moving from a societal…

  8. Social Cohesion and the Labour Market: Societal Regimes of Civic Attitudes and Labour Market Regimes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimeglio, Isabelle; Janmaat, Jan Germen; Mehaut, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to test the connections between the indicators used in the literature on social cohesion, which usually reflect "general" values or behaviours, and indicators specific to a particular space, namely the labour market. A key question is the stability of the social cohesion's indicators when moving from a societal…

  9. RAF1 is increased in labouring myometrium and modulates inflammation-induced pro-labour mediators.

    PubMed

    Lappas, Martha

    2016-04-01

    Inflammation plays a central role in the terminal process of human labour and delivery, including myometrial contractions. RAF1 proto-oncogene serine/threonine-protein kinase (RAF1) can activate ERK (official gene symbol MAPK1) and/or nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) to regulate genes involved in inflammation. There are, however, no studies on the role of RAF1 in the processes of human labour and delivery. Thus, the aims of this study were to determine the effect of i) human labour and pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin 1 beta (IL1B) and tumour necrosis factor (TNF) alpha on RAF1 protein expression in myometrium and ii) siRNA knockdown of RAF1 on pro-inflammatory and pro-labour mediators in human myometrial primary cells. Term labour was associated with an increase in RAF1 protein expression. Furthermore, RAF1 protein expression was increased in myometrial cells treated with IL1B and TNF, two likely factors contributing to preterm birth. Knockdown of RAF1 by siRNA in primary myometrial cells significantly decreased IL1B- and TNF-induced IL1A, IL1B, IL6, (C-X-C motif) ligand 8 (CXCL8)and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) mRNA abundance and IL6, IL8 and CCL2; prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2) mRNA levels and prostaglandin PGF2 α release; and NF-κB activation. Furthermore, RAF1 knockdown was associated with decreased activation of ERK in the presence of IL1B but not TNF. Concordantly, the ERK inhibitor U0126 significantly decreased IL1B-induced IL6, CXCL8, CCL2 and PTGS2 mRNA abundance; IL6, CXCL8, CCL2 and PGF2 α release; and NF-κB activation. In conclusion, IL1B induces the expression and secretion of pro-labour mediators through the RAF1-MAPK1-NF-κB signalling pathway. TNF, on the other hand, regulates pro-labour mediators through the RAF1-NF-κB signalling pathway via an MAPK1-independent mechanism. © 2016 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  10. Epidural analgesia during labour - maternal understanding and experience - informed consent.

    PubMed

    Mahomed, K; Chin, D; Drew, A

    2015-01-01

    Women obtain information on epidural analgesia from various sources. For epidural for pain relief in labour this is provided by the anaesthetist as part of the consenting process. There is much discussion about the inadequacy of this consenting process; we report on women's knowledge, experience and recall of this process at a regional hospital with a 24-h epidural service. Fifty-four women were interviewed within 72 h of a vaginal birth. 91% of the women had acquired information from friends, relatives and antenatal classes. Lack of recall of benefits of epidural analgesia accounted for 26 (38%) and 25 (26%) of the responses, respectively. Similarly in terms of amount of pain relief they could expect, 13 (21%) could not remember and 13 (21%) thought that it may not work. We suggest use of varying methods of disseminating information and wider utilisation of anaesthetists in the antenatal educational programmes.

  11. Child labour or school attendance? Evidence from Zambia.

    PubMed

    Jensen, P; Nielsen, H S

    1997-01-01

    "In this paper we investigate what affects school attendance and child labour in an LDC, using data for Zambia.... The empirical analysis suggests that both economic and sociological variables are important determinants for the choice between school attendance and child labour. In particular, we find some support for the hypothesis that poverty forces households to keep their children away from school."

  12. New Labour and the Logic of Practice in Educational Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunter, Helen M.; Forrester, Gillian

    2010-01-01

    The paper draws on data and theorising from the Knowledge Production in Educational Leadership (KPEL) Project where we have investigated New Labour's education policy and investment in headteachers as school leaders in England. New Labour took up office in May 1997 with a modernisation agenda and the leadership of schools is central to this…

  13. Computer models to study uterine activation at labour.

    PubMed

    Sharp, G C; Saunders, P T K; Norman, J E

    2013-11-01

    Improving our understanding of the initiation of labour is a major aim of modern obstetric research, in order to better diagnose and treat pregnant women in which the process occurs abnormally. In particular, increased knowledge will help us identify the mechanisms responsible for preterm labour, the single biggest cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Attempts to improve our understanding of the initiation of labour have been restricted by the inaccessibility of gestational tissues to study during pregnancy and at labour, and by the lack of fully informative animal models. However, computer modelling provides an exciting new approach to overcome these restrictions and offers new insights into uterine activation during term and preterm labour. Such models could be used to test hypotheses about drugs to treat or prevent preterm labour. With further development, an effective computer model could be used by healthcare practitioners to develop personalized medicine for patients on a pregnancy-by-pregnancy basis. Very promising work is already underway to build computer models of the physiology of uterine activation and contraction. These models aim to predict changes and patterns in uterine electrical excitation during term labour. There have been far fewer attempts to build computer models of the molecular pathways driving uterine activation and there is certainly scope for further work in this area. The integration of computer models of the physiological and molecular mechanisms that initiate labour will be particularly useful.

  14. Health status and labour force participation: evidence from Australia.

    PubMed

    Cai, Lixin; Kalb, Guyonne

    2006-03-01

    This paper examines the effect of health on labour force participation using the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) Survey. The potential endogeneity of health, especially self-assessed health, in the labour force participation equation is addressed by estimating the health equation and the labour force participation equation simultaneously. Taking into account the correlation between the error terms in the two equations, the estimation is conducted separately for males aged 15-49, males aged 50-64, females aged 15-49 and females aged 50-60. The results indicate that better health increases the probability of labour force participation for all four groups. However, the effect is larger for the older groups and for women. As for the feedback effect, it is found that labour force participation has a significant positive impact on older females' health, and a significant negative effect on younger males' health. For younger females and older males, the impact of labour force participation on health is not significant. The null-hypothesis of exogeneity of health to labour force participation is rejected for all groups.

  15. Availability of Skilled Labour in Selected Occupations in Western Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Chandra; Cooney, Richard; Long, Michael; Burke, Gerald

    2005-01-01

    This report investigates the future supply of and demand for certain types of skilled labour at the trades and sub-trades levels that will be required for these projects up to 2010. In particular, it focuses on skilled labour in the mechanical, fabrication and electrical trades and mobile plant operators and construction workers in the sub-trades.…

  16. Norwegian midwives' perception of the labour admission test.

    PubMed

    Blix, Ellen; Ohlund, Lennart S

    2007-03-01

    To explore what information and knowledge the labour admission test is perceived to provide and what meaning the test carries in the daily work of practising midwives. In-depth interviews transcribed verbatim and analysed using the grounded theory technique. Four different labour wards in Norway. A theoretical sample of 12 practising midwives. The core category "experiencing contradictions" was identified during the analyses, indicating that the midwives found conflicting interests within themselves, or between themselves and others when using the labour admission test. They experienced contradictions between professional identity and the increasing use of technology, between feeling safe and feeling unsafe and between having power and being powerless. The labour admission traces could be difficult to interpret, especially for newly qualified midwives. Some midwives thought that a labour admission trace could protect them in case of litigation. The hierarchy of power in the labour ward influences the use and interpretation of the labour admission test. Some midwives felt their professional identity threatened and that midwives in general are losing their traditional skills because of the increasing use of obstetric technology. The findings of the present study should be taken into consideration when changing practice to not routinely perform the labour admission test. There is also a need for further research on what effect the increasing use of obstetric technology has on traditional midwifery skills.

  17. Computing Careers and Irish Higher Education: A Labour Market Anomaly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Simon; O'Donnell, David; McCusker, Paul

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores the impact of developments in the Irish economy and labour market on computing course development in the higher education (HE) sector. Extant computing courses change, or new courses are introduced, in attempts to match labour market demands. The conclusion reached here, however, is that Irish HE is producing insufficient…

  18. 75 Years of the International Labour Review: A Retrospective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Albert; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Contains 18 articles published in International Labour Review from 1921-1975 that discuss the International Labour Organisation, international labor movement and law, economics and the labor market, family security, full employment, population growth, industrial welfare, trade policy and employment growth, and income expectations and rural-urban…

  19. The Impact of Learning on Women's Labour Market Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haasler, Simone R.

    2014-01-01

    Women play an increasingly important role in the labour market and as wage earners. Moreover, in many countries, young women have outperformed men in terms of educational attainment and qualification. Still, women's human capital investment does not pay off as it does for men as they are still significantly disadvantaged on the labour market.…

  20. New Labour and Education: An Evidence-Based Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galton, Maurice

    2007-01-01

    This article looks at the evidence concerning performance and progress in the primary school over the lifetime of New Labour's tenure in government since 1997. It examines the claims made by New Labour that the Literacy and Numeracy Strategies have been an outstanding success and have changed the ways that teachers teach. On the evidence of the…

  1. Gove's Offensive and the Failure of Labour's Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatcher, Richard

    2012-01-01

    In this article the author examines the response of the Labour leadership to the Conservative-led Government's policies for restructuring and re-agenting the school system. His focus is on the role of local authorities and local democracy. He identifies two contradictory dynamics in Labour's current thinking. One promises to enhance local…

  2. Performing Labour in Look Left Look Right's "Above and Beyond"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alston, Adam

    2015-01-01

    This article looks at the theme of "performing labour" in Look Left Look Right's "Above and Beyond" (2013). In this performance, individual audience members participate as a generic staff member in a fully functioning five star hotel in London. I consider three modes of performing labour in "Above and Beyond":…

  3. The Impact of Learning on Women's Labour Market Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haasler, Simone R.

    2014-01-01

    Women play an increasingly important role in the labour market and as wage earners. Moreover, in many countries, young women have outperformed men in terms of educational attainment and qualification. Still, women's human capital investment does not pay off as it does for men as they are still significantly disadvantaged on the labour market.…

  4. Anti-inflammatory prostaglandins for the prevention of preterm labour.

    PubMed

    Sykes, Lynne; MacIntyre, David A; Teoh, Tiong Ghee; Bennett, Phillip R

    2014-08-01

    Preterm birth occurs in 10-12% of pregnancies and is the primary cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity. Tocolytic therapies have long been the focus for the prevention of preterm labour, yet they do not significantly improve neonatal outcome. A direct causal link exists between infection-induced inflammation and preterm labour. As inflammation and infection are independent risk factors for poor neonatal outcome, recent research focus has been shifted towards exploring the potential for anti-inflammatory strategies. Nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) is a transcription factor that controls the expression of many labour-associated genes including PTGS2 (COX2), prostaglandins (PGs) and the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) as well as key inflammatory genes. Targeting the inhibition of NFκB is therefore an attractive therapeutic approach for both the prevention of preterm labour and for reducing neonatal exposure to inflammation. While PGs are considered to be pro-labour and pro-inflammatory, the cyclopentenone PG 15-deoxy-Δ(12,14)PGJ2 (15d-PGJ2) exhibits anti-inflammatory properties via the inhibition of NFκB in human amniocytes, myocytes and peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro. 15d-PGJ2 also delays inflammation-induced preterm labour in the mouse and significantly increases pup survival. This review examines the current understanding of inflammation in the context of labour and discusses how anti-inflammatory PGs may hold promise for the prevention of preterm labour and improved neonatal outcome.

  5. 75 Years of the International Labour Review: A Retrospective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Albert; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Contains 18 articles published in International Labour Review from 1921-1975 that discuss the International Labour Organisation, international labor movement and law, economics and the labor market, family security, full employment, population growth, industrial welfare, trade policy and employment growth, and income expectations and rural-urban…

  6. Incoherence in the South African Labour Market for Intermediate Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraak, Andre

    2008-01-01

    This article is concerned with the production and employment of technically skilled labour at the intermediate level in South Africa. Three differing labour market pathways to intermediate skilling are identified. These are: the traditional apprenticeship route, the new "Learnerships" pathway (similar to the "modern…

  7. Performing Labour in Look Left Look Right's "Above and Beyond"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alston, Adam

    2015-01-01

    This article looks at the theme of "performing labour" in Look Left Look Right's "Above and Beyond" (2013). In this performance, individual audience members participate as a generic staff member in a fully functioning five star hotel in London. I consider three modes of performing labour in "Above and Beyond":…

  8. New Labour and Education: An Evidence-Based Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galton, Maurice

    2007-01-01

    This article looks at the evidence concerning performance and progress in the primary school over the lifetime of New Labour's tenure in government since 1997. It examines the claims made by New Labour that the Literacy and Numeracy Strategies have been an outstanding success and have changed the ways that teachers teach. On the evidence of the…

  9. Inverse roles of emotional labour on health and job satisfaction among long-term care workers in Japan.

    PubMed

    Tsukamoto, Erika; Abe, Takeru; Ono, Michikazu

    2015-01-01

    Emotional labour increases among long-term care workers because providing care and services to impaired elders causes conflicting interpersonal emotions. Thus, we investigated the associations between emotional labour, general health and job satisfaction among long-term care workers. We conducted a cross-sectional study among 132 established, private day care centres in Tokyo using a mail survey. The outcome variables included two health-related variables and four job satisfaction variables: physical and psychological health, satisfaction with wages, interpersonal relationships, work environment and job satisfaction. We performed multiple regression analyses to identify significant factors. Directors from 36 facilities agreed to participate. A total of 123 responses from long-term care workers were analysed. Greater emotional dissonance was associated with better physical and psychological health and worse work environment satisfaction (partial regression coefficient: -2.93, p = .0389; -3.32, p = .0299; -1.92, p = .0314, respectively). Fewer negative emotions were associated with more job satisfaction (partial regression coefficient: -1.87, p = .0163). We found that emotional labour was significantly inversely associated with health and job satisfaction. Our findings indicated that the emotional labour of long-term care workers has a negative and positive influence on health and workplace satisfaction, and suggests that care quality and stable employment among long-term care workers might affect their emotional labour. Therefore, we think a programme to support emotional labour among long-term care workers in an organized manner and a self-care programme to educate workers regarding emotional labour would be beneficial.

  10. Epidural analgesia for labour: maternal knowledge, preferences and informed consent.

    PubMed

    Fröhlich, S; Tan, T; Walsh, A; Carey, M

    2011-01-01

    Epidural analgesia has become increasingly popular as a form of labour analgesia in Ireland. However obtaining true inform consent has always been difficult. Our study recruited 100 parturients who had undergone epidural analgesia for labour, aimed to determine the information they received prior to regional analgesia, and to ascertain their preferences regarding informed consent. Only 65 (65%) of patients planned to have an epidural. Knowledge of potential complications was variable and inaccurate, with less than 30 (30%) of women aware of the most common complications. Most women 79 (79%) believed that discomfort during labour affected their ability to provide informed consent, and believe consent should be taken prior to onset of labour (96, 96%). The results of this study helps define the standards of consent Irish patients expect for epidural analgesia during labour.

  11. TENS (transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation) for labour pain.

    PubMed

    Francis, Richard

    2012-05-01

    Because TENS is applied inconsistently and not always in line with optimal TENS application theory, this may explain why TENS for labour pain appears to be effective in some individuals and not in others. This article reviews TENS theory, advises upon optimal TENS application for labour pain and discusses some of the limitations of TENS research on labour pain. TENS application for labour pain may include TENS applied to either side of the lower spine, set to 200 mus pulse duration and 100 pulses per second. As pain increases, TENS intensity should be increased and as pain decreases, TENS intensity should be reduced to maintain a strong but pain free intensity of stimulation. This application may particularly reduce back pain during labour.

  12. Reduced expression of CRH receptor type 1 in upper segment human myometrium during labour

    PubMed Central

    Cong, Binhai; Zhang, Lanmei; Gao, Lu; Ni, Xin

    2009-01-01

    Background Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and CRH-related peptide are shown to modulate uterine contractility through two CRH receptor subtype, CRH-R1 and CRH-R2 during pregnancy. Through different signaling pathways, CRH-R1 maintains myometrial quiescence whereas CRH-R2 promotes smooth muscle contractility. We hypothesized that the expression of CRH receptors in myometrium might be changed during pregnancy and labour. Method Immunohistochemistry, Western blot and RT-PCR were used to quantify the cellular localization, the protein levels and the mRNA variants of both CRH-R1 and CRH-R2 in upper segment (US) and lower segment (LS) myometrium from nonpregnant and pregnant women at term before or after labour. Results CRH-R1 and CRH-R2 were predominately localized to myometrial smooth muscle cells in US and LS. The protein level of CRH-R1 in US was significantly down-regulated in pregnancy, with a further decrease at the onset of labour. However, the expression of CRH-R1 in LS remained unchanged during pregnancy and labour. No significant changes in CRH-R2 expression were observed in US or LS. Six variants of CRH-R1, CRH-R1alpha,-R1beta,-R1c, -R1e,-R1f and -R1g, were identified in nonpregnant and pregnant myometrium. CRH-R2alpha was identified in pregnant myometrium, whereas CRH-R2beta was identified in nonpregnant myometrium Conclusion CRH-R1 and CRH-R2 are expressed in nonpregnant and pregnant US and LS myometrium. Changed expression of CRH receptors during labour may underlie the initiation of uterine contractility during parturition. PMID:19432998

  13. How often is a low Apgar score the result of substandard care during labour?

    PubMed

    Berglund, S; Pettersson, H; Cnattingius, S; Grunewald, C

    2010-07-01

    Please cite this paper as: Berglund S, Pettersson H, Cnattingius S, Grunewald C. How often is a low Apgar score the result of substandard care during labour? BJOG 2010;117:968-978. Objective To increase our knowledge of the occurrence of substandard care during labour. Design A population-based case-control study. Setting Stockholm County. Population Infants born in the period 2004-2006 in Stockholm County. Methods Cases and controls were identified from the Swedish Medical Birth Register, had a gestational age of >/=33 complete weeks, had planned for a vaginal delivery, and had a normal cardiotocographic (CTG) recording on admission. We compared 313 infants with an Apgar score of <7 at 5 minutes of age with 313 randomly selected controls with a full Apgar score, matched for year of birth. Main outcome measure Substandard care during labour. Results We found that 62% of cases and 36% of controls were subject to some form of substandard care during labour. In half of the cases and in 12% of the controls, CTG was abnormal for >/=45 minutes before birth. Fetal blood sampling was not performed in 79% of both cases and controls, when indicated. Oxytocin was provided without signs of uterine inertia in 20% of both cases and controls. Uterine contractions were hyperstimulated by oxytocin in 29% of cases and in 9% of controls, and the dose of oxytocin was increased despite abnormal CTG in 19% and 6% of cases and controls, respectively. Assuming that substandard care is a risk factor for low Apgar score, we estimate that up to 42% of the cases could be prevented by avoiding substandard care. Conclusions There was substandard care during labour of two-thirds of infants with a low Apgar score. The main reasons for substandard care were related to misinterpretation of CTG, not acting on an abnormal CTG in a timely fashion and incautious use of oxytocin.

  14. Studies on Labour Safety in Construction Sites.

    PubMed

    Kanchana, S; Sivaprakash, P; Joseph, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Construction industry has accomplished extensive growth worldwide particularly in past few decades. For a construction project to be successful, safety of the structures as well as that of the personnel is of utmost importance. The safety issues are to be considered right from the design stage till the completion and handing over of the structure. Construction industry employs skilled and unskilled labourers subject to construction site accidents and health risks. A proper coordination between contractors, clients, and workforce is needed for safe work conditions which are very much lacking in Indian construction companies. Though labour safety laws are available, the numerous accidents taking place at construction sites are continuing. Management commitment towards health and safety of the workers is also lagging. A detailed literature study was carried out to understand the causes of accidents, preventive measures, and development of safe work environment. This paper presents the results of a questionnaire survey, which was distributed among various categories of construction workers in Kerala region. The paper examines and discusses in detail the total working hours, work shifts, nativity of the workers, number of accidents, and type of injuries taking place in small and large construction sites.

  15. Emotional Labour and Wellbeing: What Protects Nurses?

    PubMed Central

    Kinman, Gail; Leggetter, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Although compassionate care has wide-ranging benefits for patients, it can be emotionally demanding for healthcare staff. This may be a particular problem for those with little experience in a caring role. This study utilises the job demands-resources model to examine links between “emotional labour” and emotional exhaustion in student nurses. In line with the triple-match principle—whereby interactive effects are more likely when job demands, resources, and outcomes are within the same qualitative domain—the protective role of emotional support and emotion-focused coping (i.e., emotional venting) in the relationship between emotional labour and exhaustion is also explored. An online questionnaire was completed by 351 student nurses with experience working in healthcare settings. A strong positive relationship was found between emotional labour and emotional exhaustion, and some support was found for the moderating effects of emotional support and emotion-focused coping. Ways to help student and qualified nurses develop the emotional resilience required to protect their wellbeing, while providing high-quality compassionate care to patients are considered. PMID:27916880

  16. [Labour market, occupational health and immigration].

    PubMed

    Parra, A; Fernández Baraibar, J; García López, V; Ayestarán, J R; Extremiana, E

    2006-01-01

    The process of economic and social change that Navarra has undergone in recent decades has been associated with the arrival of a growing flow of immigrants since the start of the new century. They have had a decisive influence as a factor of economic change in terms of production increase and internal demand. A new Navarra is being built thanks to the phenomenon of migration. In the first place, we analyse their impact on demographic growth. Their influence on the labour market, with its highlights and shadows, is evaluated. Foreigners already are about 10% of the active population and their presence in some productive sectors is decisive for their viability. The dysfunctions and problems of the labour market are reviewed, especially the question of accidents. Finally, the behaviour of the indicators of temporary disability of this collective are set out. Although this phenomenon has brought an imbalance in some spheres of social policy (education, housing, health), it can be said that the model of integration in Navarra is based on a generous welfare system, a social climate that is in general tolerant, and sustained economic growth.

  17. Evaluating Labour's market reforms, 2002-10.

    PubMed

    Mays, Nicholas; Tan, Stefanie

    2012-01-01

    Starting in 2002, the UK Labour government of 1997-2010 introduced a series of changes to the National Health Service (NHS) in England designed to increase individual NHS patient choice of place of elective hospital care and competition among public and private providers of elective hospital services for NHS-funded patients. In 2006, the Department of Health initiated the Health Reform Evaluation Programme (HREP) to assess the impact of the changes. The changes broadly had the effects that proponents had predicted but the effects were mostly modest. Most of the undesirable impacts feared by critics appeared not to have materialized to any discernible extent, at least by early in 2010. Labour's market appeared to have generated stronger incentives for quality and efficiency than its 1990 s predecessor with no obvious detriment to equity of access. However, this high level conclusion conceals a far more nuanced and complex picture of both the process of implementation and the impact of the changes, as the papers in this supplement drawn from the HREP show.

  18. Studies on Labour Safety in Construction Sites

    PubMed Central

    Kanchana, S.; Sivaprakash, P.; Joseph, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Construction industry has accomplished extensive growth worldwide particularly in past few decades. For a construction project to be successful, safety of the structures as well as that of the personnel is of utmost importance. The safety issues are to be considered right from the design stage till the completion and handing over of the structure. Construction industry employs skilled and unskilled labourers subject to construction site accidents and health risks. A proper coordination between contractors, clients, and workforce is needed for safe work conditions which are very much lacking in Indian construction companies. Though labour safety laws are available, the numerous accidents taking place at construction sites are continuing. Management commitment towards health and safety of the workers is also lagging. A detailed literature study was carried out to understand the causes of accidents, preventive measures, and development of safe work environment. This paper presents the results of a questionnaire survey, which was distributed among various categories of construction workers in Kerala region. The paper examines and discusses in detail the total working hours, work shifts, nativity of the workers, number of accidents, and type of injuries taking place in small and large construction sites. PMID:26839916

  19. Delivery outcomes after day and night onset of labour.

    PubMed

    Kanwar, Sandeep; Rabindran, Ranjit; Lindow, Stephen W

    2015-11-01

    To describe the outcome of night onset of labour as compared with the day onset of labour to investigate if labour that begins at night is more efficient. Retrospective review of labour and delivery data. A large United Kingdom maternity service. Over the period of 10 years, there were 30,022 deliveries, of which 19,842 were studied. A United Kingdom maternity department database was used to identify deliveries over a 10-year period, and the delivery outcomes were retrieved from these records. The 19,842 labours were divided into two categories: night onset (22.00-06.00 h) and day onset (10.00-18.00 h). Rates of operative intervention, augmentation, epidural usage and labour duration. A significant difference in delivery outcome was noted (P=0.004) with the night-onset labours having more normal deliveries (83.6% vs. 82.5%), fewer caesarean sections (8.7% vs. 10.1%), fewer labour augmentations with syntocinon (14.9% vs. 19.5%, P<0.001), fewer artificial rupture of membranes (14.1% vs. 15.6% P<0.001) and a significantly shorter mean first stage duration (4 h 58 min vs. 5 h 7 min, P<0.05). The proportion of women from each group who delivered between 09.00 and 17.00 h was 3660 (31.1%) in the night-onset group and 2414 (30%) in the day-onset group (χ2=1.3, P=NS) Conclusions: Labours that start at night appear to be more efficient than labours that start during the day.

  20. Eliminating child labour in Malawi: a British American Tobacco corporate responsibility project to sidestep tobacco labour exploitation

    PubMed Central

    Otañez, M G; Muggli, M E; Hurt, R D; Glantz, S A

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To examine British American Tobacco and other tobacco industry support of the Eliminating Child Labour in Tobacco Growing Foundation. Design Analyses of internal tobacco industry documents and ethnographic data. Results British American Tobacco co‐founded the Eliminating Child Labour in Tobacco Growing Foundation (ECLT) in October 2000 and launched its pilot project in Malawi. ECLT's initial projects were budgeted at US$2.3 million over four years. Labour unions and leaf dealers, through ECLT funds, have undertook modest efforts such as building schools, planting trees, and constructing shallow wells to address the use of child labour in tobacco farming. In stark contrast, the tobacco companies receive nearly US$40 million over four years in economic benefit through the use of unpaid child labour in Malawi during the same time. BAT's efforts to combat child labour in Malawi through ECLT was developed to support the company's “corporate social responsibility agenda” rather than accepting responsibility for taking meaningful steps to eradicate child labour in the Malawi tobacco sector. Conclusion In Malawi, transnational tobacco companies are using child labour projects to enhance corporate reputations and distract public attention from how they profit from low wages and cheap tobacco. PMID:16728754

  1. The Impact of Training-Intensive Labour Market Policies on Labour and Educational Prospects of NEETS: Evidence from Catalonia (Spain)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alegre, Miquel Àngel; Casado, David; Sanz, Jordi; Todeschini, Federico A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The literature has shown that the way active labour market policies (ALMP) aimed at youth are designed and implemented can influence the labour and educational prospects of youngsters. The evaluation of the Catalan PQPIs (initial vocational qualification programmes) presented here seeks to provide new evidence on the effectiveness of…

  2. The Impact of Training-Intensive Labour Market Policies on Labour and Educational Prospects of NEETS: Evidence from Catalonia (Spain)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alegre, Miquel Àngel; Casado, David; Sanz, Jordi; Todeschini, Federico A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The literature has shown that the way active labour market policies (ALMP) aimed at youth are designed and implemented can influence the labour and educational prospects of youngsters. The evaluation of the Catalan PQPIs (initial vocational qualification programmes) presented here seeks to provide new evidence on the effectiveness of…

  3. 'Being a Chameleon': labour processes of male nurses performing bodywork.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Murray J

    2009-12-01

    This paper is a report of a study examining the labour processes of male nurses in the conduct of bodywork, and is part of a broader study of social practices that configure masculinity through the lives of male nurses. Bodywork is defined as the direct work on others' bodies, and involves interactions of bodies and the control of emotions. As the body is an arena in which social practice occurs then bodywork is a form of social engagement. Bodywork is inextricably intertwined with gender where bodywork is socially structured and culturally accepted as women's work. Life history method was used in this study. Twenty-one life stories from male registered nurses were gathered in 2003-2004 using semi-structured interviews. Each life story underwent structural analysis, using a four-dimension structural model of gender relations. The ability of male nurses to do bodywork and provide care is dependent on the way they 'do' gender, that is, they have to be perceived to be performing the masculine identity that best represents the individual patient's ideology of what it is to be a man, which is set in a particular location and time. In addition, they have to counter the representations of the male nurse, whether it is homosexual, paedophile or heterosexual deviant. Respondents develop labour processes and workplace strategies to overcome the effects of gender stereotypes that may hinder their nursing work. Nursing procedures, policies and texts should reflect the complexity and multiplicity in the conduct of bodywork in nursing and refrain from representing essentialist ways (reinforcing nursing as feminine) of doing nursing.

  4. Identification of chemokines associated with the recruitment of decidual leukocytes in human labour: potential novel targets for preterm labour.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Sarah A; Tower, Clare L; Jones, Rebecca L

    2013-01-01

    Current therapies for preterm labour (PTL) focus on arresting myometrial contractions but are largely ineffective, thus alternative therapeutic targets need to be identified. Leukocytes infiltrate the uterus around the time of labour, and are in particularly abundant in decidua (maternal-fetal interface). Moreover, decidual inflammation precedes labour in rat pregnancies and thus may contribute to initiation of labour. We hypothesized that chemokines mediate decidual leukocyte trafficking during preterm labour (PTL) and term labour (TL), thus representing potential targets for preventing PTL. Women were recruited into 4 groups: TL, term not in labour (TNL), idiopathic PTL and PTL with infection (PTLI). Choriodecidual RNA was subjected to a pathway-specific PCR array for chemokines. Differential expression of 12 candidate chemokines was validated by real time RT-PCR and Bioplex assay, with immunohistochemistry to confirm cellular origin. 25 chemokines were upregulated in choriodecidua from TL compared to TNL. A similar pattern was detected in PTL, however a distinct profile was observed in PTLI consistent with differences in leukocyte infiltration. Upregulation of CCL2, CCL4, CCL5, CXCL8 and CXCL10 mRNA and protein was confirmed in TL, with CCL8 upregulated in PTL. Significant correlations were detected between these chemokines and decidual leukocyte abundance previously assessed by immunohistochemical and image analysis. Chemokines were primarily expressed by decidual stromal cells. In addition, CXCL8 and CCL5 were significantly elevated in maternal plasma during labour, suggesting chemokines contribute to peripheral inflammatory events during labour. Differences in chemokine expression patterns between TL and idiopathic PTL may be attributable to suppression of chemokine expression by betamethasone administered to women in PTL; this was supported by in vitro evidence of chemokine downregulation by clinically relevant concentrations of the steroid. The current

  5. Identification of Chemokines Associated with the Recruitment of Decidual Leukocytes in Human Labour: Potential Novel Targets for Preterm Labour

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Sarah A.; Tower, Clare L.; Jones, Rebecca L.

    2013-01-01

    Current therapies for preterm labour (PTL) focus on arresting myometrial contractions but are largely ineffective, thus alternative therapeutic targets need to be identified. Leukocytes infiltrate the uterus around the time of labour, and are in particularly abundant in decidua (maternal-fetal interface). Moreover, decidual inflammation precedes labour in rat pregnancies and thus may contribute to initiation of labour. We hypothesized that chemokines mediate decidual leukocyte trafficking during preterm labour (PTL) and term labour (TL), thus representing potential targets for preventing PTL. Women were recruited into 4 groups: TL, term not in labour (TNL), idiopathic PTL and PTL with infection (PTLI). Choriodecidual RNA was subjected to a pathway-specific PCR array for chemokines. Differential expression of 12 candidate chemokines was validated by real time RT-PCR and Bioplex assay, with immunohistochemistry to confirm cellular origin. 25 chemokines were upregulated in choriodecidua from TL compared to TNL. A similar pattern was detected in PTL, however a distinct profile was observed in PTLI consistent with differences in leukocyte infiltration. Upregulation of CCL2, CCL4, CCL5, CXCL8 and CXCL10 mRNA and protein was confirmed in TL, with CCL8 upregulated in PTL. Significant correlations were detected between these chemokines and decidual leukocyte abundance previously assessed by immunohistochemical and image analysis. Chemokines were primarily expressed by decidual stromal cells. In addition, CXCL8 and CCL5 were significantly elevated in maternal plasma during labour, suggesting chemokines contribute to peripheral inflammatory events during labour. Differences in chemokine expression patterns between TL and idiopathic PTL may be attributable to suppression of chemokine expression by betamethasone administered to women in PTL; this was supported by in vitro evidence of chemokine downregulation by clinically relevant concentrations of the steroid. The current

  6. Increased oxidative stress in human fetal membranes overlying the cervix from term non-labouring and post labour deliveries.

    PubMed

    Chai, M; Barker, G; Menon, R; Lappas, M

    2012-08-01

    Enzymatic breakdown of the collagen-rich extracellular matrix (ECM) that connects the amnion and chorion layers of the fetal membranes is one of the key events leading to rupture of membranes. Oxidant stress caused by increased formation of reactive oxygen species and/or reduced antioxidant capacity may predispose to membrane rupture, a major cause of preterm birth. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of human labour and supracervical (SC) apposition on antioxidant enzymes and 8-isoprostane (a marker of lipid peroxidation). To determine the effect of human labour on oxidative stress status, fetal membranes from the SC site (SCS) were collected from women at term Caesarean section (no labour), and from the site of membrane rupture (SOR) after spontaneous labour onset and delivery (post labour). To determine the effect of SC apposition on oxidative stress status, amnion was collected from the SCS and a distal site (DS) in women at term Caesarean section in the absence of labour. The release of 8-isoprostane was significantly higher in amnion from the SCS compared to DS, and in fetal membranes from the SOR compared to the SCS. Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were lower in amnion from the SC compared to DS. SOD gene expression and enzyme activity were lower in fetal membranes after labour. There was no difference in expression or activity in catalase, GPx and glutathione reductase (GSR) between no labour and post labour fetal membranes. In primary amnion cells, SOD supplementation significantly augmented IL-1β induced MMP-9 expression and activity. In summary, non-labouring SC fetal membranes are characterised by reduced antioxidant enzyme activity when compared to distal membranes, and, as such, may be more susceptible to oxidative damage and thus membrane rupture. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The management of breakthrough pain during labour.

    PubMed

    Akerman, Nicholas; Dresner, Martin

    2009-08-01

    There is a long history of attempts to alleviate the pain of childbirth, particularly in Asian and Middle Eastern civilisations. In the UK, it was the administration of chloroform to Queen Victoria by John Snow in 1853 that is widely credited with popularizing the idea that labour pain should and could be treated. Medical analgesia is now well established around the globe with a wealth of research evidence describing methods, efficacy and complications. In this article, we define 'primary breakthrough pain' as the moment when a woman first requests analgesia during labour. The management of this can include simple emotional support, inhaled analgesics, parenteral opioids and epidural analgesia. 'Secondary breakthrough pain' can be defined as the moment when previously used analgesia becomes ineffective. We concentrate our discussion of this phenomenon on the situation when epidural analgesia begins to fail. Only epidural analgesia offers the potential for complete analgesia, so when this effect is lost the recipient can experience significant distress and dissatisfaction. The best strategy to avert this problem is prevention by using the best techniques for epidural catheterisation and the most effective drug combinations. Even then, epidurals can lose their efficacy for a variety of reasons, and management is hampered by the fact that each rescue manoeuvre takes about 30 minutes to be effective. If the rescue protocol is too cautious, analgesia may not be successfully restored before delivery, leading to patient dissatisfaction. We therefore propose an aggressive response to epidural breakthrough pain using appropriate drug supplementation and, if necessary, the placement of a new epidural catheter. Combined spinal epidural techniques offer several advantages in this situation. The goal is to re-establish analgesia within 1 hour. The primary aim of pain management during labour and delivery is to provide the level of comfort determined as acceptable to each

  8. Caesarean section following induction of labour in uncomplicated first births- a population-based cross-sectional analysis of 42,950 births.

    PubMed

    Davey, Mary-Ann; King, James

    2016-04-27

    The impact of elective induction of labour at term on the increasing caesarean section (CS) rate is unclear. A Cochrane Systematic Review that concluded that elective induction was associated with a reduction in CS was based on trials that mostly reflect outdated obstetric care, or were flawed. The findings of other studies vary widely in the magnitude and direction of the relationship between elective induction and CS. This inconsistency may be due to the heterogeneity in the methods used to induce or augment labour, such that the relationship with CS is not constant across methods. Using validated, routinely-collected data on all births in Victoria in 2000-2005, all singleton, cephalic, first births following uncomplicated pregnancies at 37-40 completed weeks' gestation ('standard primiparae') were identified (n = 42,950). As well as comparing induced with non-induced labour, method of birth was compared between those women experiencing spontaneous labour without augmentation, and women undergoing each method of augmentation or induction using adjusted multinomial logistic regression. Proportions, chi-square tests, adjusted Relative Risk Ratios (aRRR) and 95% confidence intervals are presented. Ten percent of "standard primiparae" had labour induced for no apparent medical indication. Women whose labour was induced were significantly more likely than those who laboured spontaneously to have a CS (26.5 and 12.5% respectively (OR 2.54, 95% CI 2.4, 2.7, p < 0.001). After adjustment for maternal age, epidural analgesia, birthweight, gestation, and public/private admission status, each method of induction or augmentation remained associated with a significant increase in the risk of CS (adjusted ORs range 1.48 to 4.13, p-values all <0.0001). Perinatal death did not differ by onset of labour. Induction of labour in medically uncomplicated nulliparous women at term carries a more than doubling of risk of emergency CS, compared with spontaneous labour, with no impact on

  9. Occupational Skills and Labour Market Progression of Married Immigrant Women in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Adserà, Alícia; Ferrer, Ana

    2016-01-01

    We use the confidential files of the 1991-2006 Canadian Census, combined with information from O*NET on the skill requirements of jobs, to explore whether immigrant women behave as secondary workers, remaining marginally attached to the labour market and experiencing little career progression over time. Our results show that the current labour market patterns of female immigrants to Canada do not fit this profile, as previous studies found, but rather conform to patterns recently exhibited by married native women elsewhere, with rising participation and wage progression. At best, only relatively uneducated immigrant women in unskilled occupations may fit the profile of secondary workers, with slow skill mobility and low-status job-traps. Educated immigrant women, on the other hand, experience skill assimilation over time: a reduction in physical strength and an increase in analytical skills required in their jobs relative to those of natives. PMID:27217617

  10. Regulation of human myometrial contractility during pregnancy and labour: are calcium homeostatic pathways important?

    PubMed

    Tribe, R M

    2001-03-01

    If we are to develop new strategies for the treatment and management of preterm and dysfunctional term labour, it is imperative that we improve current understanding of the control of human uterine activity. Despite many studies of animal pregnancy, there is a paucity of knowledge relating to the complex control of human myometrium during pregnancy. It is hypothesized that human myometrium is relatively quiescent during the majority of pregnancy and that as term approaches there is cascade of molecular events that prepare the uterus for labour. This review will consider the cellular mechanisms involved in the regulation of human myometrial activity and the modulation of these by hormonal and mechanical signals. In particular, the contribution of calcium homeostatic pathways to the control of human myometrial contractility during gestation will be discussed. Experimental Physiology (2001) 86.2, 247-254.

  11. Changes in uterine innervation in pregnancy and during labour.

    PubMed

    Tingåker, Berith K; Irestedt, Lars

    2010-06-01

    The present review highlights recent findings focusing on effects on the cervical innervation exerted by term pregnancy and labour. The corpus uteri is almost denervated in term pregnancy, as demonstrated in both humans and rodents, whereas the cervical innervation remains dense throughout pregnancy and labour. In rats, fewer connections between sensory subdivisions in spinal cord segments and the cervix have been observed in late pregnancy as compared with the nonpregnant state. In term pregnancy an increased excitability of mechanosensitive afferents innervating the cervix has been demonstrated. The reasons for these seemingly contradictory findings may be clarified in further studies. Transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor, a key molecule in nociception, has been identified in the human cervix uteri in the nonpregnant state and during pregnancy and labour as opposed to the corpus, in which transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor disappears during pregnancy. These findings add evidence to the hypothesis that the uterine cervix is the main site from where labour pain propagates. The conservation of the cervical innervation in term pregnancy and labour, in contrast to the corpus, and the large number of mediators involved in cervical ripening clearly indicate that the cervix plays a crucial role in pregnancy maintenance, labour initiation, labour pain and parturition.

  12. Is vitamin D binding protein a novel predictor of labour?

    PubMed

    Liong, Stella; Di Quinzio, Megan K W; Fleming, Gabrielle; Permezel, Michael; Georgiou, Harry M

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D binding protein (VDBP) has previously been identified in the amniotic fluid and cervicovaginal fluid (CVF) of pregnant women. The biological functions of VDBP include acting as a carrier protein for vitamin D metabolites, the clearance of actin that is released during tissue injury and the augmentation of the pro-inflammatory response. This longitudinal observational study was conducted on 221 healthy pregnant women who spontaneously laboured and delivered either at term or preterm. Serial CVF samples were collected and VDBP was measured by ELISA. Binary logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the utility of VDBP as a predictor of labour. VDBP in the CVF did not change between 20 and 35 weeks' gestation. VDBP measured in-labour was significantly increased 4.2 to 7.4-fold compared to 4-7, 8-14 and 15-28 days before labour (P<0.05). VDBP concentration was 4.3-fold significantly higher at 0-3 days compared to 15-28 days pre-labour (P<0.05). The efficacy of VDBP to predict spontaneous labour onset within 3 days provided a positive and negative predictive value of 82.8% and 95.3% respectively (area under receiver operator characteristic curve  = 0.974). This longitudinal study of pregnant women suggests that VDBP in the CVF may be a useful predictor of labour.

  13. Transcriptional regulation of the processes of human labour and delivery.

    PubMed

    Lappas, M; Rice, G E

    2009-03-01

    Preterm birth is the most important complication contributing to poor pregnancy and neonatal outcome. A critical issue that must be resolved is how spontaneous onset labour is initiated both at term and preterm. Over the past decade, we and others have provided evidence in support of the hypothesis that labour onset is regulated by specific nuclear regulatory factor (NR) pathways, involving an interplay between transcription factors (TFs) and nuclear hormone receptors, that control the expression of many of the effector pathways requisite for labour and delivery. There is now compelling evidence implicating NRs, including the nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) family of nuclear TFs, the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily of peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs), and the steroid receptors for progesterone (PRA, PRB and PRC), as candidate upstream regulators of labour-associated processes. Based on these studies and recent data obtained in our laboratory, we provide a new model of how the multiple pathways involved in spontaneous onset labour and delivery are coordinated at a nuclear level. We propose that spontaneous onset labour and delivery are consequent upon withdrawal of the repressive effect of nuclear receptors (PPAR and PR) on pro-labour TF pathways (NF-kappaB). The withdrawal of NR-mediated repression is affected by competition between TFs and NRs for a limited pool of nuclear cofactors. We also propose that coordination of these different pathways is achieved by competition for common cofactors that control the activity of NRs in human gestational tissues.

  14. A qualitative thematic review: emotional labour in healthcare settings.

    PubMed

    Riley, Ruth; Weiss, Marjorie C

    2016-01-01

    To identify the range of emotional labour employed by healthcare professionals in a healthcare setting and implications of this for staff and organisations. In a healthcare setting, emotional labour is the act or skill involved in the caring role, in recognizing the emotions of others and in managing our own. A thematic synthesis of qualitative studies which included emotion work theory in their design, employed qualitative methods and were situated in a healthcare setting. The reporting of the review was informed by the ENTREQ framework. 6 databases were searched between 1979-2014. Studies were included if they were qualitative, employed emotion work theory and were written in English. Papers were appraised and themes identified. Thirteen papers were included. The reviewed studies identified four key themes: (1) The professionalization of emotion and gendered aspects of emotional labour; (2) Intrapersonal aspects of emotional labour - how healthcare workers manage their own emotions in the workplace; (3) Collegial and organisational sources of emotional labour; (4) Support and training needs of professionals This review identified gendered, personal, organisational, collegial and socio-cultural sources of and barriers to emotional labour in healthcare settings. The review highlights the importance of ensuring emotional labour is recognized and valued, ensuring support and supervision is in place to enable staff to cope with the varied emotional demands of their work. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. [Nursing as discipline, profession, and labour].

    PubMed

    Pires, Denise

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this essay is to articulate theoretical-conceptual aspects of nursing as a profession, a scientific discipline, and labour contributing to reflection concerning nursing knowledge and professional practice exercised in the context of collective work in health care. It reviews concepts from sociological theory and epistemology in order to analyze nursing in the context of scientific community, and the sociology of professions, and the work process theories in health care. This paper argues that nursing has the attributes of a profession as well as a scientific discipline, and that the limits of nursing practice need to be historically and socially contextualized. It concludes that as a social practice and discipline, nursing faces scientific and political challenges which demand a permanent process of construction.

  16. Gene expression in pre-term, pre-labour and parturient canine placenta.

    PubMed

    Fellows, E J; Hazzard, T M; Kutzler, M A

    2012-12-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A, VEGF-A receptor (Flt-1) and KiSS-1 receptor (KiSS-1R) all play a role in trophoblast invasion in a number of mammalian species. However, mRNA expression of factors regulating trophoblast invasion has not been studied in dogs. Abnormal expression of these factors at the end of canine gestation may contribute to placental retention and/or subinvolution of placental sites. Therefore, we sought to determine the relative mRNA expression of these factors in canine chorioallantois tissue at 61 ± 1 day past the LH surge (pre-term; n = 4), following elective c-section at 64 ± 1 day past the LH surge prior to first-stage labour (pre-labour; n = 4) and following natural delivery (parturient; n = 3). Total RNA was isolated, real-time RT-PCR was performed, and relative expression was calculated using the relative quantitation (2-ΔΔCT) method. MMP-9 mRNA expression was significantly higher in pre-term samples compared to pre-labour and parturient samples. The results showed no significant difference between MMP-2, TIMP-2, VEGF-A and Flt-1 mRNA expression among the three groups. KiSS-1R mRNA was not expressed in any tissues studied. Gene expression of MMP-9 may be related to the onset of labour, whereas MMP-2, VEGF-A, Flt-1, TIMP-2 and KiSS-1R mRNA do not appear to play a role at the end of gestation in the dog.

  17. Local and global bifurcations in an economic growth model with endogenous labour supply and multiplicative external habits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gori, Luca; Sodini, Mauro

    2014-03-01

    This paper analyses the mathematical properties of an economic growth model with overlapping generations, endogenous labour supply, and multiplicative external habits. The dynamics of the economy is characterised by a two-dimensional map describing the time evolution of capital and labour supply. We show that if the relative importance of external habits in the utility function is sufficiently high, multiple (determinate or indeterminate) fixed points and poverty traps can exist. In addition, periodic or quasiperiodic behaviour and/or coexistence of attractors may occur.

  18. Maternal positioning to correct occipito-posterior fetal position in labour: a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The occipito-posterior (OP) fetal head position during the first stage of labour occurs in 10-34% of cephalic presentations. Most will spontaneous rotate in anterior position before delivery, but 5-8% of all births will persist in OP position for the third stage of labour. Previous observations have shown that this can lead to an increase of complications, such as an abnormally long labour, maternal and fetal exhaustion, instrumental delivery, severe perineal tears, and emergency caesarean section. Usual care in the case of diagnosis of OP position is an expectant management. However, maternal postural techniques have been reported to promote the anterior position of the fetal head for delivery. A Cochrane review reported that these maternal positions are well accepted by women and reduce back pain. However, the low sample size of included studies did not allow concluding on their efficacy on delivery outcomes, particularly those related to persistent OP position. Our objective is to evaluate the efficacy of maternal position in the management of OP position during the first stage of labour. Methods/design A randomised clinical trial is ongoing in the maternity unit of the Geneva University Hospitals, Geneva, Switzerland. The unit is the largest in Switzerland with 4,000 births/year. The trial will involve 438 women with a fetus in OP position, confirmed by sonography, during the first stage of the labour. The main outcome measure is the position of the fetal head, diagnosed by ultrasound one hour after randomisation. Discussion It is important to evaluate the efficacy of maternal position to correct fetal OP position during the first stage of the labour. Although these positions seem to be well accepted by women and appear easy to implement in the delivery room, the sample size of the last randomised clinical trial published in 2005 to evaluate this intervention had insufficient power to demonstrate clear evidence of effectiveness. If the technique

  19. Reasonable partiality in professional ethics: the moral division of labour.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Frans

    2005-04-01

    Attention is given to a background idea that is often invoked in discussions about reasonable partiality: the idea of a moral division of labour. It is not only a right, but also a duty for professionals to attend (almost) exclusively to the interests of their own clients, because their partial activities are part of an impartial scheme providing for an allocation of professional help to all clients. To clarify that idea, a difference is made between two kinds of division of labour, a technical one and a social one. In order to assess the applicability of the idea of a moral division of labour to professional ethics, journalism is contrasted with other professions.

  20. Spatiotemporal patterning of uterine excitation patterns in human labour.

    PubMed

    Pervolaraki, Eleftheria; Holden, Arun V

    2013-05-01

    The mechanisms leading to the initiation of normal, premature or dysfunctional human labour are poorly understood, as animal models are inappropriate, and experimental studies are limited. Computational modelling provides a means of linking non-invasive clinical data with the results of in vitro cell and tissue physiology. Nonlinear wave processes - propagation in an excitable medium - provides a quantitatively testable description of mechanisms of premature and full term labour, and a view of changes in uterine electrophysiology during gestation as a trajectory in excitation and intercellular coupling parameter space. Propagation phenomena can account for both premature and full term labour. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Vaginal prostaglandin (PGE2 and PGF2a) for induction of labour at term.

    PubMed

    Kelly, A J; Kavanagh, J; Thomas, J

    2001-01-01

    Prostaglandins have been used for induction of labour since the 1960s. Initial work focused on prostaglandin F2a as prostaglandin E2 was considered unsuitable for a number of reasons. With the development of alternative routes of administration, comparisons were made between various formulations of vaginal prostaglandins. This is one of a series of reviews of methods of cervical ripening and labour induction using standardised methodology. To determine the effects of vaginal prostaglandins E2 and F2a for third trimester cervical ripening or induction of labour in comparison with placebo/no treatment or other vaginal prostaglandins (except Misoprostol). The Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group trials register, the Cochrane Controlled trials register and bibliographies of relevant papers. Last searched: November 2000. The criteria for inclusion included the following: (1) clinical trials comparing vaginal prostaglandins used for third trimester cervical ripening or labour induction with placebo/no treatment or other methods listed above it on a predefined list of labour induction methods; (2) random allocation to the treatment or control group; (3) adequate allocation concealment; (4) violations of allocated management not sufficient to materially affect conclusions; (5) clinically meaningful outcome measures reported; (6) data available for analysis according to the random allocation; (7) missing data insufficient to materially affect the conclusions. A strategy has been developed to deal with the large volume and complexity of trial data relating to labour induction. This involved a two-stage method of data extraction. The initial data extraction was done centrally, and incorporated into a series of primary reviews arranged by methods of induction of labour, following a standardised methodology. The data was then extracted from the primary reviews into a series of secondary reviews, arranged by category of woman. To avoid duplication of data in the primary

  2. Division of labour in colony defence against vertebrate predators by the social wasp Polistes fuscatus.

    PubMed

    Judd

    2000-07-01

    In this study I examined how the paper wasp, Polistes fuscatus, defends a colony when faced with a vertebrate attack. I looked for a division of labour in defensive behaviour within a colony and examined whether this behaviour changes over the colony cycle. The colonies were presented with a model of an adult red-winged blackbird, Agelaius phoeniceus, and a speaker that vibrated the comb. There was a pronounced division of labour in the defence against vertebrate predators within a colony. The queen was consistently the most aggressive individual in the colony. The subordinate foundresses and workers both became more aggressive towards a vertebrate predator as they aged. Gynes and males did not participate in colony defence. The level of aggression in colony members of P. fuscatus appears to be related to the reproductive investment of the colony. Copyright 2000 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  3. Liminal and invisible long-term care labour: Precarity in the face of austerity.

    PubMed

    Daly, Tamara; Armstrong, Pat

    2016-09-01

    Using feminist political economy, this article argues that companions hired privately by families to care for residents in publicly funded long-term care facilities (nursing homes) are a liminal and invisible labour force. A care gap, created by public sector austerity, has resulted in insufficient staff to meet residents' health and social care needs. Families pay to fill this care gap in public funding with companion care, which limits demands on the state to collectively bear the costs of care for older adults. We assess companions' work in light of Vosko's (2015) and Rodgers and Rodgers' (1989) dimensions for precariousness. We discuss how to classify paid care work that overlaps with paid formal and unpaid informal care. Our findings illuminate how companions' labour is simultaneously autonomous and precarious; it fills a care gap and creates one, and can be relational compared with staffs' task-oriented work.

  4. Liminal and invisible long-term care labour: Precarity in the face of austerity

    PubMed Central

    Daly, Tamara; Armstrong, Pat

    2016-01-01

    Using feminist political economy, this article argues that companions hired privately by families to care for residents in publicly funded long-term care facilities (nursing homes) are a liminal and invisible labour force. A care gap, created by public sector austerity, has resulted in insufficient staff to meet residents’ health and social care needs. Families pay to fill this care gap in public funding with companion care, which limits demands on the state to collectively bear the costs of care for older adults. We assess companions’ work in light of Vosko’s (2015) and Rodgers and Rodgers’ (1989) dimensions for precariousness. We discuss how to classify paid care work that overlaps with paid formal and unpaid informal care. Our findings illuminate how companions’ labour is simultaneously autonomous and precarious; it fills a care gap and creates one, and can be relational compared with staffs’ task-oriented work. PMID:27840453

  5. Labour and residential accessibility: a Bayesian analysis based on Poisson gravity models with spatial effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso, M. P.; Beamonte, M. A.; Gargallo, P.; Salvador, M. J.

    2014-10-01

    In this study, we measure jointly the labour and the residential accessibility of a basic spatial unit using a Bayesian Poisson gravity model with spatial effects. The accessibility measures are broken down into two components: the attractiveness component, which is related to its socio-economic and demographic characteristics, and the impedance component, which reflects the ease of communication within and between basic spatial units. For illustration purposes, the methodology is applied to a data set containing information about commuters from the Spanish region of Aragón. We identify the areas with better labour and residential accessibility, and we also analyse the attractiveness and the impedance components of a set of chosen localities which allows us to better understand their mobility patterns.

  6. Analysis of labour accidents in tunnel construction and introduction of prevention measures.

    PubMed

    Kikkawa, Naotaka; Itoh, Kazuya; Hori, Tomohito; Toyosawa, Yasuo; Orense, Rolando P

    2015-01-01

    At present, almost all mountain tunnels in Japan are excavated and constructed utilizing the New Austrian Tunneling Method (NATM), which was advocated by Prof. Rabcewicz of Austria in 1964. In Japan, this method has been applied to tunnel construction since around 1978, after which there has been a subsequent decrease in the number of casualties during tunnel construction. However, there is still a relatively high incidence of labour accidents during tunnel construction when compared to incidence rates in the construction industry in general. During tunnel construction, rock fall events at the cutting face are a particularly characteristic of the type of accident that occurs. In this study, we analysed labour accidents that possess the characteristics of a rock fall event at a work site. We also introduced accident prevention measures against rock fall events.

  7. Analysis of labour accidents in tunnel construction and introduction of prevention measures

    PubMed Central

    KIKKAWA, Naotaka; ITOH, Kazuya; HORI, Tomohito; TOYOSAWA, Yasuo; ORENSE, Rolando P.

    2015-01-01

    At present, almost all mountain tunnels in Japan are excavated and constructed utilizing the New Austrian Tunneling Method (NATM), which was advocated by Prof. Rabcewicz of Austria in 1964. In Japan, this method has been applied to tunnel construction since around 1978, after which there has been a subsequent decrease in the number of casualties during tunnel construction. However, there is still a relatively high incidence of labour accidents during tunnel construction when compared to incidence rates in the construction industry in general. During tunnel construction, rock fall events at the cutting face are a particularly characteristic of the type of accident that occurs. In this study, we analysed labour accidents that possess the characteristics of a rock fall event at a work site. We also introduced accident prevention measures against rock fall events. PMID:26027707

  8. Towards a Theoretical Framework for the Comparative Understanding of Globalisation, Higher Education, the Labour Market and Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kupfer, Antonia

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a theoretical examination of three major empirical trends that affect many people: globalisation, increasingly close relations between higher education (HE) and labour markets, and increasing social inequality. Its aim is to identify key theoretical resources and their contribution to the development of a comparative theoretical…

  9. Towards a Theoretical Framework for the Comparative Understanding of Globalisation, Higher Education, the Labour Market and Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kupfer, Antonia

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a theoretical examination of three major empirical trends that affect many people: globalisation, increasingly close relations between higher education (HE) and labour markets, and increasing social inequality. Its aim is to identify key theoretical resources and their contribution to the development of a comparative theoretical…

  10. A Reconstruction of the Gender Agenda: The Contradictory Gender Dimensions in New Labour's Educational and Economic Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnot, Madeleine; Miles, Philip

    2005-01-01

    This article reviews current interpretations of Labour's education policy in relation to gender. Such interpretations see the marginalisation of gender equality in mainstream educational policy as a result of the discursive shift from egalitarianism to that of performativity. Performativity in the school context is shown to have contradictory…

  11. Prevention of preterm labour via the modulation of inflammatory pathways.

    PubMed

    MacIntyre, David A; Sykes, Lynne; Teoh, Tiong Ghee; Bennett, Phillip R

    2012-04-01

    Pregnancy is characterized by a complex interplay of inflammatory events regulated by both the innate and acquired immune systems. Similarly, parturition can be viewed as the activation of "pro-labour" inflammatory pathways, which drive cervical ripening and myometrial activation. Premature activation of these pathways, for example, by infection, can lead to preterm labour and birth. Nuclear factor κβ is a key modulator of these pathways and functions by regulating the expression of prostaglandins, chemokines and pro-inflammatory cytokines involved in both term and preterm labour. Future design of therapeutics that target key mediators of inflammation and immune activation would therefore be a rational approach for preventing preterm labour and immune-mediated neonatal brain damage.

  12. Labour's New Education Policy Document: Tensions, Ambivalences and Silences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatcher, Richard

    2015-01-01

    This article critically examines the Labour Party's policies for local school systems, focusing on its proposals for regional Directors of School Standards, for academies and free schools, and for local democracy, and offers an alternative approach.

  13. Labour's New Education Policy Document: Tensions, Ambivalences and Silences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatcher, Richard

    2015-01-01

    This article critically examines the Labour Party's policies for local school systems, focusing on its proposals for regional Directors of School Standards, for academies and free schools, and for local democracy, and offers an alternative approach.

  14. Rapid radiation in bacteria leads to a division of labour

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Wook; Levy, Stuart B.; Foster, Kevin R.

    2016-01-01

    The division of labour is a central feature of the most sophisticated biological systems, including genomes, multicellular organisms and societies, which took millions of years to evolve. Here we show that a well-organized and robust division of labour can evolve in a matter of days. Mutants emerge within bacterial colonies and work with the parent strain to gain new territory. The two strains self-organize in space: one provides a wetting polymer at the colony edge, whereas the other sits behind and pushes them both along. The emergence of the interaction is repeatable, bidirectional and only requires a single mutation to alter production of the intracellular messenger, cyclic-di-GMP. Our work demonstrates the power of the division of labour to rapidly solve biological problems without the need for long-term evolution or derived sociality. We predict that the division of labour will evolve frequently in microbial populations, where rapid genetic diversification is common. PMID:26852925

  15. Health labour market requirements of health professional education in Yemen.

    PubMed

    Almahbashi, Taha; Aljunid, Syed Mohamed; Ismail, Aniza

    2017-08-20

    It is important to link health professional education to the health service needs of the private and public labour market so as to meet the plans of the health sector. Thus, the main focus of this study was to identify the present labour market requirements for the outcomes of health training institutes. A qualitative study was carried out among mixed healthcare professionals and various stakeholders in Sana'a City, Yemen. Six focus group discussions were formed for 42 graduates and 20 in-depth interviews were undertaken with health development partners and public and private employers. Outcomes of the health training institutes were still below the expectations of the health labour market, and did not fill the existing gaps in English-language proficiency and clinical skills. The survival of health professional education depends on future development to meet labour market demands through collaboration between key stakeholders, regular updating of the curriculum, and constant professional development of the teaching staff.

  16. Social ties and embeddedness in old age: older Turkish labour migrants in Vienna

    PubMed Central

    Palmberger, Monika

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT This paper focuses on older Turkish labour migrants and their spouses, who mostly came to Vienna as young adults in the 1960s and thereafter. They are now entering retirement age and constitute a significant part of Vienna’s older population. I analyse their understandings of transnational ageing, their social ties and feelings of social embeddedness. For those still mobile, active participation in one of Vienna’s Turkish cultural/religious/political associations is identified as a particular source of social embeddedness. I argue that these voluntary associations provide an important place for older migrants to strengthen social ties and are relatively easy to access, including in old age. Nevertheless, I demonstrate that older Turkish labour migrants are exposed to several forms of discrimination, some of which are felt especially strongly in old age, including a lack of adequate institutionalised late life care. In the discussion of the paper, I critically revisit the debate on ethnicity as a resource versus ethnicity as a vulnerability factor in old age. I argue that this debate is misleading since it camouflages other central social categories and relations. I conclude by suggesting closer attention be paid to the specific but multiple generational experiences of older labour migrants and their spouses. PMID:28392746

  17. Mechanical methods for induction of labour.

    PubMed

    Jozwiak, Marta; Bloemenkamp, Kitty W M; Kelly, Anthony J; Mol, Ben Willem J; Irion, Olivier; Boulvain, Michel

    2012-03-14

    Mechanical methods were the first methods developed to ripen the cervix and induce labour. During recent decades they have been substituted by pharmacological methods. Potential advantages of mechanical methods, compared with pharmacological methods, may include simplicity of preservation, lower cost and reduction of the side effects. To determine the effects of mechanical methods for third trimester cervical ripening or induction of labour in comparison with placebo/no treatment, prostaglandins (vaginal and intracervical prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), misoprostol) and oxytocin. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (30 April 2011) and bibliographies of relevant papers. We updated this search on 16 January 2012 and added the results to the awaiting classification section of the review. Clinical trials comparing mechanical methods used for third trimester cervical ripening or labour induction with methods listed above it on a predefined list of methods of labour. A comparison with amniotomy will be added, should this comparison be made in future trials.Different types of intervention have been considered as mechanical methods: (1) introduction of laminaria tents, or their synthetic equivalent (Dilapan), into the cervical canal; (2) the introduction of a catheter through the cervix into the extra-amniotic space, with or without traction; (3) use of a catheter to inject fluidsin the extra-amniotic spaceIn addition, we made other comparisons: (1) specific mechanical methods (balloon catheter and laminaria tents) compared with any prostaglandins or with oxytocin; (2) addition of prostaglandins or oxytocin to mechanical methods compared with prostaglandins alone. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and assessed risk of bias. Two review authors independently extracted data. For this update we have included a further 27 studies. The review includes 71 randomised controlled trials (total of 9722 women), ranging from

  18. Nitric oxide donors for cervical ripening and induction of labour.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Anthony J; Munson, Christopher; Minden, Lucy

    2011-06-15

    Sometimes it is necessary to bring on labour artificially because of safety concerns for the mother or baby. This review is one of a series of reviews of methods of labour induction using a standardised protocol.Induction of labour occurs in approximately 20% of pregnancies in the UK. The ideal agent for induction of labour would induce cervical ripening without causing uterine contractions. Currently most commonly used cervical ripening or induction agents result in uterine activity or contractions, or both. Cervical ripening without uterine contractility could occur safely in an outpatient setting and it may be expected that this would result in greater maternal satisfaction and lower costs. To determine the effects of nitric oxide (NO) donors for third trimester cervical ripening or induction of labour, in comparison with placebo or no treatment or other treatments from a predefined hierarchy. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 December 2010) and the reference lists of trial reports and reviews. Clinical trials comparing NO donors for cervical ripening or labour induction to other methods listed above it on a predefined list of methods of labour induction. The trials include some form of random allocation to either group; and report one or more of the prestated outcomes. NO donors (isosorbide mononitrate, nitroglycerin and sodium nitroprusside) are compared to other methods listed above it on a predefined list of methods of labour induction. This review is part of a series of reviews focusing on methods of induction of labour. Three review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion, assessed risk of bias and extracted data. We considered 19 trials; we included 10 (including a total of 1889 women) trials, excluded eight trials and one trial report is awaiting classification. Included studies compared NO donors to placebo, vaginal prostaglandin E2, intracervical PGE2 and vaginal misoprostol. All included studies

  19. Fetal blood sampling in early labour: is there an increased risk of operative delivery and fetal morbidity?

    PubMed

    Heazell, A E P; Riches, J; Hopkins, L; Myers, J E

    2011-06-01

    To determine whether the rate of caesarean section was increased in women undergoing fetal blood sampling (FBS) in early labour. Retrospective study. Secondary and tertiary obstetric units in the UK. A cohort of 381 women undergoing FBS. Data relating to demographics, labour and delivery characteristics, and neonatal outcomes were collected on women undergoing FBS in labour. Odds ratios (ORs) for caesarean section compared with vaginal delivery for women who had their first FBS in early labour (≤ 3 cm cervical dilatation) and for women who required multiple samples were calculated. Mode of delivery. Forty-eight percent of women who required their first FBS at a cervical dilatation of ≤ 3 cm achieved a vaginal delivery; these women were at modestly increased risk of caesarean section (adjusted OR 1.80; 95% CI 1.04-3.13) compared with women who had their first FBS at a cervical dilatation of ≥ 4 cm. The odds ratio for caesarean section in women who required two or more FBS was 1.71 (95% CI 1.37-2.13) compared with those requiring a single sample. There were no differences in instrumental delivery. Infants undergoing three or more FBS were more likely to be admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU; OR 2.69; 95% CI 1.09-6.64), although this was not associated with increased acidaemia. Women who require FBS in early labour or multiple FBS are at a modestly increased risk of caesarean section compared with those in established labour. When contemplating FBS at ≤ 3-cm cervical dilatation, practitioners should not be put off by the perceived low chance of vaginal delivery, but repeating FBS on more than three occasions should be considered carefully. © 2011 The Authors BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology © 2011 RCOG.

  20. Arab labour migration: a review of trends and issues.

    PubMed

    Shah, N M

    1994-01-01

    "The objectives set for this paper are to: provide an analysis of volume and trends in labour migration within the Arab region; discuss the major characteristics of the migrants, including demographic features, types of economic activity, wage levels and duration of stay in host countries; [and] outline and discuss the major issues in labour migration both from the sending and receiving countries. The time period covered by the study is from the mid 1970s to the present." (SUMMARY IN FRE AND SPA)

  1. Coitus to expedite the onset of labour: a randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Omar, N S; Tan, P C; Sabir, N; Yusop, E S; Omar, S Z

    2013-02-01

    To evaluate the effect of suggesting coitus as a safe and effective means to expedite labour on pregnancy duration and requirement for labour induction. A randomised trial. Antenatal clinic in a university hospital in Malaysia. Women from 35 weeks of gestation with an uncomplicated singleton pregnancy. The advise-coitus arm was counselled that coitus at term is a safe, natural and effective means to initiate labour and to avoid labour induction. The control arm was told coitus was safe. Both arms were asked to record coital activity. Pregnancy duration and labour induction. The intervention to delivery interval (mean ± SD) was 3.2 ± 1.4 versus 3.3 ± 1.3 weeks (P = 0.417), with a gestational age at delivery of 39.4 ± 1.2 versus 39.5 ± 1.2 weeks (P = 0.112), and with labour induction rates of 126/574 (22.0%) versus 120/576 (20.8%) (P = 0.666) for the advise-coitus and control arms, respectively, with no statistical difference between the groups. Coitus prior to delivery was more often reported in the advise-coitus arm compared with the control arm: 481/574 (85.3%) versus 458/576 (79.9%) (RR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1-2.0, P = 0.019). Also, the median (interquartile range) reported number of coital acts of 3 (2-5) versus 2 (1-4) (P = 0.006) was higher for the advise-coitus arm. Other pregnancy and neonatal outcomes did not differ between the groups. Labour onset and labour induction did not differ in the advise-coitus arm. © 2012 The Authors BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology © 2012 RCOG.

  2. Myometrial cytokines and their role in the onset of labour.

    PubMed

    Sivarajasingam, S P; Imami, N; Johnson, M R

    2016-12-01

    Human labour is an inflammatory event, physiologically driven by an interaction between hormonal and mechanical factors and pathologically associated with infection, bleeding and excessive uterine stretch. The initiation and communicators of inflammation is still not completely understood; however, a key role for cytokines has been implicated. We summarise the current understanding of the nature and role of cytokines, chemokines and hormones and their involvement in signalling within the myometrium particularly during labour. © 2016 Society for Endocrinology.

  3. Epidural analgesia in labour and risk of caesarean delivery.

    PubMed

    Bannister-Tyrrell, Melanie; Ford, Jane B; Morris, Jonathan M; Roberts, Christine L

    2014-09-01

    A Cochrane Systematic Review of randomised controlled trials of epidural analgesia compared with other or no analgesia in labour reported no overall increased risk of caesarean delivery. However, many trials were affected by substantial non-compliance, and there are concerns about the external validity of some trials for contemporary maternity populations. We aimed to explore the association between epidural analgesia in labour and caesarean delivery in clinical practice and compare with findings from randomised controlled trials. Population-based cohort of pregnant women (n = 210 708) without major obstetrical complications who delivered a singleton live infant in hospitals in New South Wales, Australia, 2007-10. Data were obtained from linked, validated population-based data collections. Propensity score matching was used to examine the association between epidural analgesia in labour and caesarean delivery. Epidural analgesia in labour was used by a third (31.5%, n = 66 317) of the women, and 9.8% (n = 20 531) had a caesarean delivery. Epidural analgesia in labour was associated with increased risk of caesarean delivery {risk ratio [RR] 2.5, [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.5, 2.6]}. The association with epidural analgesia in labour was higher for caesarean delivery for failure to progress {RR 3.0, [95% CI 2.9, 3.0]} than for caesarean delivery for fetal distress {RR 1.9, [95% CI 1.8, 2.0]}. Epidural analgesia in labour is associated with caesarean delivery in a large maternity population. Population-based studies contribute important data about obstetrical care, when research settings and participants may not represent the clinical settings or broader population in which obstetrical interventions in labour are applied. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. The transcription factor Nrf2 is decreased after spontaneous term labour in human fetal membranes where it exerts anti-inflammatory properties.

    PubMed

    Lim, R; Barker, G; Lappas, M

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation plays a central role in the terminal processes of human labour and delivery, including the rupture of fetal membranes. Recent studies show a role for the transcription factor Nrf2 (NF-E2-related factor 2) in regulating inflammation. The aims of this study were to determine the effect of human spontaneous term and preterm labour on Nrf2 expression in fetal membranes; and Nrf2 siRNA knockdown on pro-inflammatory cytokines. Fetal membranes, from term and preterm, were obtained from non-labouring and labouring women. Primary amnion cells were used to determine the effect of Nrf2 siRNA knockdown on pro-inflammatory cytokines in the presence of inflammation or infection. Nrf2 mRNA expression and nuclear protein expression were significantly decreased after spontaneous term labour and delivery. There was, however, no effect of spontaneous preterm labour and delivery on Nrf2 mRNA expression and nuclear protein expression. On the other hand, Nrf2 gene expression was significantly lower in fetal membranes obtained from women at preterm with histologic chorioamnionitis compared to fetal membranes obtained from women at preterm without histologic chorioamnionitis. Nrf2 silencing by siRNA in primary amnion cells was associated with a significant increase in IL-6 and IL-8 mRNA expression and release induced by IL-1β, TNF-α, flagellin and poly(I:C). Nrf2 has an anti-inflammatory effect in human fetal membranes. It is decreased with term labour and preterm chorioamnionitis; and Nrf2 silencing increases inflammation- and infection-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines. Further studies are required to determine if agents that can increase Nrf2 expression may be a potential therapeutic strategy in the treatment and management of infection-induced preterm labour. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A midwifery practice dichotomy on oral intake in labour.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Myra

    2004-03-01

    to assess the views and practices of midwives regarding oral intake in labour for women with low-risk pregnancies. an exploratory survey design including open- and closed-ended questions. four hospitals in Sydney, Australia. 89 practising midwives who provided care for labouring women. midwives were divided on the issue of what and when labouring women should, or should not, be allowed to eat and drink. The views and practices of these midwives were influenced by the accepted practice in the hospital in which they were employed and the types of midwifery models in which they have practised. there is insufficient conclusive research evidence to support any stance on oral intake for labouring women. Most information purported by supporters of oral intake is based on anecdotal evidence and assumptions based on the physiology of the body. 'Nil by mouth' policies have never been researched while clear fluid policies are based on research performed with non-obstetric patients. without reliable research evidence for the management of oral intake for labouring women no hospital practice or policy is valid. This leaves midwives with the responsibility of deciding what they believe is the best management for the oral intake of labouring women in their care.

  6. Experiences and perceptions of Ghanaian midwives on labour pain and religious beliefs and practices influencing their care of women in labour.

    PubMed

    Aziato, Lydia; Ohemeng, Hannah Antwi; Omenyo, Cephas N

    2016-11-14

    Beliefs surrounding pain during childbirth has biblical foundations that contribute to labour pain being viewed as a natural phenomenon. Contemporary health care promotes evidence-based labour pain management but the faith of the midwife may influence her midwifery practice regarding labour pain management. Therefore this study sought to gain in-depth insight into the experiences and perceptions of midwives regarding labour pain and the religious beliefs and practices influencing their care of women in labour in Ghana. The design of the study was an interpretive phenomenology using individual in-depth interviews. The study participants were 27 Ghanaian female midwives of various religious backgrounds. Interviews were conducted in English, audio-taped and transcribed verbatim. Colaizzi's qualitative analysis procedures were employed concurrently with data collection. Three major themes were generated: religious beliefs about labour pain, religious practices in labour and religious artefacts used in labour. The midwives' faith and their experiences during their midwifery practice were inter-connected. The midwives believed labour pain was natural and religious practices are important to prevent complications. Religious artefacts used in labour included anointing oil and water, necklaces, rubber bands, bracelets, stickers and beads. It is important that midwives provide an enabling environment for women in labour to practice their faith and they should employ context-appropriate strategies to effectively manage labour pain that takes into account the religious beliefs and practices of women.

  7. Morning versus evening induction of labour for improving outcomes.

    PubMed

    Bakker, Jannet J H; van der Goes, Birgit Y; Pel, Maria; Mol, Ben Willem J; van der Post, Joris A M

    2013-02-28

    Induction of labour is a common intervention in obstetric practice. Traditionally, in most hospitals induction of labour with medication starts early in the morning, with the start of the working day for the day shift. In human and animal studies spontaneous onset of labour is proven to have a circadian rhythm with a preference for start of labour in the evening. Moreover, when spontaneous labour starts in the evening, the total duration of labour and delivery shortens and fewer obstetric interventions are needed. Based on these observations one might assume that starting induction of labour in the evening, in harmony with the circadian rhythm of natural birth, is more beneficial for both mother and child. To assess whether induction of labour starting in the evening, coinciding with the endogenous circadian rhythm, improves the outcome of labour compared with induction of labour starting in the early morning, organised to coincide with office hours. We contacted the Trials Search Co-ordinator to search the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (28 February 2012). In addition, we searched MEDLINE (1966 to 16 February 2012) and EMBASE (1980 to 16 February 2012). We included all published and unpublished randomised controlled trials. We excluded trials that employed quasi-random methods of treatment allocation. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias. Two review authors independently extracted data. Data were checked for accuracy. Where necessary, we contacted study authors for additional information. The search resulted in 2693 articles that we screened on title and abstract for eligibility.Thirteen studies were selected for full text assessment. We included three randomised trials involving 1150 women. Two trials compared the administration of prostaglandins in the morning versus the evening in women with an unfavourable cervix, and one trial compared induction of labour in the morning versus the evening

  8. Routine labour epidural analgesia versus labour analgesia on request: a randomised non-inferiority trial.

    PubMed

    Wassen, M M L H; Smits, L J M; Scheepers, H C J; Marcus, M A E; Van Neer, J; Nijhuis, J G; Roumen, F J M E

    2015-02-01

    To assess the effect on mode of delivery of the routine use of labour epidural analgesia (EA) compared with analgesia on request. Randomised non-inferiority trial. One university and one non-university teaching hospital in The Netherlands. Women with a singleton pregnancy in cephalic presentation beyond 36 + 0 weeks' gestation. Participants were randomly allocated to receive either routine EA or analgesia on request. Intention-to-treat (ITT) and per-protocol (PP) analyses were performed, with confidence intervals (CI) calculated for the differences in percentages or means. Rate of operative delivery (instrumental vaginal or caesarean), labour characteristics, and adverse labour and neonatal outcomes. A total of 488 women were randomly allocated to the routine EA (n = 233) or analgesia on request group (n = 255). In the routine EA group, 89.3% (208/233) received EA. According to ITT analysis, 34.8% (81/233) women in the routine EA group had an operative delivery, compared with 26.7% (68/255) in the analgesia on request group (difference 8.1%, 95% CI -0.1 to 16.3). The difference in rate of operative deliveries according to the PP analysis was statistically significant (difference 8.9%, 95% CI 0.4 to 17.4). Inferiority of EA could not be rejected, as in both analyses the upper bound of the confidence interval exceeded the pre-specified inferiority criterion of +10%. Women in the routine EA group had more adverse effects, including hypotension (difference 9.5%, 95% CI 4.2 to 14.9), and motor blockade (difference 6.8%, 95% CI 1.1 to 12.5). Non-inferiority of routine EA could not be demonstrated in this trial. Routine EA use is likely to lead to more operative deliveries and more maternal adverse effects. The results of our study do not justify routine use of EA. © 2014 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  9. Maternal obesity and labour complications following induction of labour in prolonged pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Arrowsmith, S; Wray, S; Quenby, S

    2011-04-01

    To investigate the effect of maternal obesity on mode of delivery following induction of labour (IOL) for prolonged pregnancy and subsequent intrapartum and neonatal complications. Retrospective (historical) cohort study. Liverpool Women's Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, UK. A total of 29, 224 women with singleton pregnancies between 2004 and 2008 of whom 3076 had a prolonged pregnancy (defined as ≥290 days or 41(+3) weeks of gestation) and received IOL. Kruskal-Wallis test, chi-square test and multivariable logistic regression. Mode of delivery and risk of delivery and neonatal complications in obese verses non-obese women following IOL. Obese women had a significantly higher rate of IOL ending in caesarean section compared with women of normal weight following IOL (38.7% versus 23.8% primiparous; 9.9% versus 7.9% multiparous women, respectively); however, length of labour, incidence of postpartum haemorrhage and third-degree tear, rate of low cord blood pH, low Apgar scores and shoulder dystocia were similar in all body mass index categories. Complications included a higher incidence of fetal macrosomia and second-degree, but not third-degree, tear in primiparous women. Higher maternal body mass index at booking is associated with an increased risk of prolonged pregnancy and increased rate of IOL. Despite this, more than 60% of obese primiparous and 90% of multiparous women with prolonged pregnancies who were induced achieved vaginal delivery and labour complications in the obese women with prolonged pregnancies were largely comparable to those of normal weight women with prolonged pregnancies. Our data suggest that IOL for prolonged pregnancy in obese women is a reasonable and safe management option. © 2011 The Authors Journal compilation © RCOG 2011 BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology.

  10. Maternal obesity and labour complications following induction of labour in prolonged pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Arrowsmith, S; Wray, S; Quenby, S

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of maternal obesity on mode of delivery following induction of labour (IOL) for prolonged pregnancy and subsequent intrapartum and neonatal complications. Design Retrospective (historical) cohort study. Setting Liverpool Women's Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, UK. Population A total of 29 224 women with singleton pregnancies between 2004 and 2008 of whom 3076 had a prolonged pregnancy (defined as ≥290 days or 41+3 weeks of gestation) and received IOL. Methods Kruskal–Wallis test, chi-square test and multivariable logistic regression. Main outcome measures Mode of delivery and risk of delivery and neonatal complications in obese verses non-obese women following IOL. Results Obese women had a significantly higher rate of IOL ending in caesarean section compared with women of normal weight following IOL (38.7% versus 23.8% primiparous; 9.9% versus 7.9% multiparous women, respectively); however, length of labour, incidence of postpartum haemorrhage and third-degree tear, rate of low cord blood pH, low Apgar scores and shoulder dystocia were similar in all body mass index categories. Complications included a higher incidence of fetal macrosomia and second-degree, but not third-degree, tear in primiparous women. Conclusions Higher maternal body mass index at booking is associated with an increased risk of prolonged pregnancy and increased rate of IOL. Despite this, more than 60% of obese primiparous and 90% of multiparous women with prolonged pregnancies who were induced achieved vaginal delivery and labour complications in the obese women with prolonged pregnancies were largely comparable to those of normal weight women with prolonged pregnancies. Our data suggest that IOL for prolonged pregnancy in obese women is a reasonable and safe management option. PMID:21265999

  11. Child labour and the International Labour Organization's Convention 182: a critical perspective.

    PubMed

    Estacio, Emee Vida; Marks, David F

    2005-05-01

    'Child labour' is a worldwide problem that has caused detrimental effects to children's health and well-being. The ILO Convention 182 aims to address this issue by immediately eliminating its worst forms. This article provides a discourse analysis of this Convention. The analysis suggests that using an organizational discourse, the Convention promotes the maintenance of existing hierarchies of power, primarily through emphasis on legislative structures and consultation with the Organization of Employers and Workers. It has been recommended that the Convention be revised in light of the insights generated by the analysis and that the children be given a more active role in the process.

  12. Thematic analysis of US stakeholder views on the influence of labour nurses' care on birth outcomes.

    PubMed

    Lyndon, Audrey; Simpson, Kathleen Rice; Spetz, Joanne

    2017-10-01

    Childbirth is a leading reason for hospital admission in the USA, and most labour care is provided by registered nurses under physician or midwife supervision in a nurse-managed care model. Yet, there are no validated nurse-sensitive quality measures for maternity care. We aimed to engage primary stakeholders of maternity care in identifying the aspects of nursing care during labour and birth they believe influence birth outcomes, and how these aspects of care might be measured. This qualitative study used 15 focus groups to explore perceptions of 73 nurses, 23 new mothers and 9 physicians regarding important aspects of care. Transcripts were analysed thematically. Participants in the final six focus groups were also asked whether or not they thought each of five existing perinatal quality measures were nurse-sensitive. Nurses, new mothers and physicians identified nurses' support of and advocacy for women as important to birth outcomes. Support and advocacy actions included keeping women and their family members informed, being present with women, setting the emotional tone, knowing and advocating for women's wishes and avoiding caesarean birth. Mothers and nurses took technical aspects of care for granted, whereas physicians discussed this more explicitly, noting that nurses were their 'eyes and ears' during labour. Participants endorsed caesarean rates and breastfeeding rates as likely to be nurse-sensitive. Stakeholder values support inclusion of maternity nursing care quality measures related to emotional support and providing information in addition to physical support and clinical aspects of care. Care models that ensure labour nurses have sufficient time and resources to engage in the supportive relationships that women value might contribute to better health outcomes and improved patient experience. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  13. The development and testing of an algorithm for diagnosis of active labour in primiparous women.

    PubMed

    Cheyne, Helen; Dowding, Dawn; Hundley, Vanora; Aucott, Lorna; Styles, Maggie; Mollison, Jill; Greer, Ian; Niven, Catherine

    2008-06-01

    to describe the development and testing of an algorithm for diagnosis of active labour in primiparous women. qualitative and quantitative methods were used. A literature review was first conducted to identify the key cues for inclusion in the algorithm. Focus groups of midwives were then conducted to assess content validity, finally a vignette study assessed the inter-rater reliability of the algorithm. midwives from two study sites were invited to participate. Data were collected during 2002 and 2003. midwives from the first site took part in the focus groups (n=13), completed vignettes (n=19), or both. Midwives from the second site then completed vignettes (n=17). an algorithm, developed from the key informational cues reported in the literature, was validated in relation to content validity by the findings from the focus groups. Inter-rater reliability was tested using vignettes of admission case histories and was found to be moderate in the first test (K=0.45). However, after modifying the algorithm the kappa score was 0.86, indicating a high level of agreement. diagnosis of labour may be straightforward on paper but is frequently problematic in practice. This may be because the diagnosis of labour is made in a high pressured environment where conflicting pressures of workload, limited resources and emotional pressures add to the complexity of the judgement. we offer a valid and reliable decision-support tool as an aid for diagnosis of labour. The evaluation of the implementation of this tool is under way and will determine whether it is effective in reducing unnecessary admissions and improving clinical outcomes for women.

  14. Titrated oral misoprostol for augmenting labour to improve maternal and neonatal outcomes.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Joshua P; West, Helen M; Dowswell, Therese

    2013-09-23

    total dose of 1600 mcg), while the second study gave women 75 mcg doses (repeated after four hours provided there were no adverse effects observed).Neither trial reported maternal death, severe maternal morbidity, or fetal/neonatal mortality outcomes, and only a few fetal/neonatal morbidity outcomes were considered, none of which were significantly different between groups. For several outcomes (such as maternal side-effects, instrumental birth, maternal blood transfusion for hypovolaemia and epidural analgesia), the number of events was generally too low for sufficient statistical power to be achieved. Maternal satisfaction was not reported in either trial. One trial reported a slight reduction in the median duration of labour from the start of augmentation to vaginal delivery in the oxytocin group.Neither trial reported significantly higher rates of caesarean section (CS) in the oral misoprostol group. Rates of vaginal delivery within 12 and 24 hours of commencing augmentation were not significantly different in the trial using a 20 mcg misoprostol dose. Neither trial had significantly higher rates of uterine hyperstimulation with fetal heart rate changes in the titrated oral misoprostol group. However, the rates of this outcome varied so greatly between the two studies as to suggest that other factors were at play. The only significant differences between groups related to uterine hyperstimulation (without fetal heart rate changes), and results were not consistent in the two trials. In the trial examining the higher dose of misoprostol, more women in the misoprostol group experienced hyperstimulation of labour measured over a 10-minute period compared with those receiving oxytocin (risk ratio (RR) 1.17, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02 to 1.35, 350 women). In the study examining the lower titrated dose of misoprostol, there was a lower incidence of tachysystole when labour was augmented with titrated oral misoprostol than with oxytocin (RR 0.39, 95% CI 0.17 to 0

  15. Excluding parental grief: A critical discourse analysis of bereavement accommodation in Canadian labour standards.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, Mary Ellen; Kennedy, Kimberly; Moll, Sandra; Pineda, Carolina; Mitchell, Lisa M; Stephenson, Peter H; Cadell, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Grief following child loss is profoundly destabilizing with serious long-term repercussions for bereaved parents. Employed parents may need time away from work to deal with this loss. The purpose of this study was to reflect upon the ways labour policies and practices respond to parental bereavement. Critical discourse analysis was used to examine labour policies and practices related to employment leave for bereaved parents in Canada. Results were compared to international labour standards. Universally, employment policies provide only for the practical issues of bereavement. Commonly, leave is three days, unpaid, and meant to enable ceremonial obligations. Policies do not acknowledge the long-term suffering caused by grief or the variable intensity of different kinds of loss. Managerial, moral, normative and neoliberal values embedded in these policies efface the intensely personal experience of grief, thereby leaving employees at risk for serious health and workplace safety issues. Bereavement leave currently understands grief as a generic, time-limited state with instrumental tasks and ceremonial obligations. In contrast, research characterizes responses to child loss as intense, highly personal experiences for which healing and recovery can take years. This disconnect is especially problematic when viewed through the lens of employee wellbeing, reintegration and workplace productivity.

  16. The safety and acceptability of intravenous fentanyl versus intramuscular pethidine for pain relief during labour.

    PubMed

    Rezk, M; El-Shamy, E S; Massod, A; Dawood, R; Habeeb, R

    2015-01-01

    This trial aimed to ascertain the relative efficacy, adverse effects, and acceptability of fentanyl versus pethidine for pain relief during labour. Parturients (n=80) in the active phase who requested analgesia were randomly assigned to receive either intravenous fentanyl (n=40) or intramuscular pethidine (n=40). Pain scores hourly, maternal and fetal adverse effects, neonatal outcome, and maternal acceptability were assessed. Pain scores decreased in both groups, the decrease varying from mild to moderate, average pain scores remaining above 3.5 in both groups. Pain scores returned towards baseline over time; three hours after the initiation of treatment in the fentanyl group. Pethidine was associated with more maternal nausea and vomiting (p < 0.05) while fentanyl was associated with more neonates with low Apgar scores at one minute and more need for neonatal resuscitation and naloxone administration when compared to pethidine (p < 0.05). Both drugs were acceptable for pain relief during labour. Fentanyl is comparable to pethidine for pain relief during labour regarding efficacy and acceptability, but with more neonates with low Apgar scores at one minute and higher need for neonatal resuscitation and naloxone administration. Further larger trials are needed to confirm its safety.

  17. Zombie tapeworms in late capitalism: accelerating clinical and reproductive labour in Mira Grant's Parasitology Trilogy.

    PubMed

    Attebery, Stina

    2016-12-01

    Biomedicine is increasingly shaped by the speculative economical values of neoliberal capitalism. A key feature of this new bioeconomical regime is the patenting and circulation of organisms and tissue samples, allowing rapid commercialisation of bacterial, animal and human biomedical materials. When thinking about this trend towards commercialisation, we must consider the ways by which biomedicine has been shaped by economics to better address these exploitative relationships between medical researchers and subjects. These fraught questions of agency and exploitation can be addressed through the concept of clinical labour, a term Melinda Cooper and Catherine Waldby coined to discuss embodied forms of labour, including surrogacy, clinical trials and tissue economies, that dominate the post-Fordist biomedical economy. As a genre that extrapolates from contemporary technoscientific practices, science fiction is uniquely positioned to explore the ethics of biomedical research in this neoliberal speculative economy. Science fiction can give human-like agency and affect to microbial, animal and alien life, allowing modified organisms to speak and interact with their creators. Creating these dialogues between commercialised organisms and biomedical researchers makes clear the connections between contemporary clinical practice and exploitative labour relations, illuminating the more troubling aspects of the new bioeconomy and imagining alternatives to this system. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  18. The relationship between duration of labour, time of delivery, and puerperal psychosis.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Verinder; Smith, Angela; Khan, Mustaq

    2004-12-01

    Puerperal psychosis is the most serious psychiatric disorder after childbirth. Despite the ongoing debate regarding its diagnostic status, there is increasing evidence that it is related to bipolar or schizoaffective disorder. Although a well-recognized precipitant of mania, the role of sleep loss has not been systematically studied in the onset of puerperal psychosis. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that sleep disruption resulting from longer labour or nighttime delivery would be associated with the onset of puerperal psychosis. Data on duration of labour and time of delivery were compared between a group of patients who were hospitalized with a diagnosis of puerperal psychosis and a group of controls from the same hospitals that were matched on age, parity, and on year of admission to the hospital. The most common DSM-IV diagnoses were bipolar disorder or schizoaffective disorder. The women in the puerperal psychosis group had a longer duration of labour and were more likely to have a nighttime delivery compared to women in the control group. Insomnia was the most frequent and usually the earliest symptom. Small sample size, chart review, no direct measure of sleep, and use of a normal control rather than a comparison group of at-risk women. These preliminary findings provide indirect evidence that sleep loss may be a precipitant of puerperal psychosis in women who are biologically predisposed to this illness. This research was supported by the Ontario Mental Health Foundation.

  19. Peripheral labour market position and risk of disability pension: a prospective population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Gustafsson, Klas; Aronsson, Gunnar; Marklund, Staffan; Wikman, Anders; Floderus, Birgitta

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate what impact individuals’ position in a labour market core–periphery structure may have on their risk of disability pension (DP) in general and specifically on their risk of DP based on mental or musculoskeletal diagnoses. Methods The study comprised 45 567 individuals who had been interviewed for the annual Swedish Surveys of Living Conditions (1992–2007). The medical DP diagnoses were obtained from the Swedish Social Insurance Agency (1993–2011). The assumed predictors were studied in relation to DP by Cox's proportional hazards regression. The analyses were stratified on sex and age, controlling for social background and self-reported long-standing illness at baseline. Results All three indicators underlying the categorisation of the core–periphery structure: employment income, work hours and unemployment, increased the risk of DP in all strata. The risk of DP tended to increase gradually the more peripheral the labour market position was. The risk estimates for DP in general and for DP based on mental diagnoses were particularly high among men aged 20–39 years. Conclusions The core–periphery position of individuals, representing their labour market attachment, was found to be a predictor of future DP. The association was most evident among individuals below 40 years of age with regard to DP based on mental diagnoses. This highlights the need for preventative measures that increase the participation of young people in working life. PMID:25142263

  20. Fasting does not precipitate onset of labour.

    PubMed

    Lurie, S; Baider, C; Boaz, M; Sulema, V; Golan, A; Sadan, O

    2010-01-01

    This retrospective observational study examined whether fasting (the 'Yom Kippur effect') precipitates labour. Birth rates of Yom Kippur (a fasting festival) were compared with those of other festivals that are observed (Tisha B'Av) and not observed (1st day of Passover) by fasting during a 4-year period. Compared with the mean birth rate, the number of births that occurred 1 day after Yom Kippur was increased (p = 0.023). A significant decrease in the number of births during Tisha B'Av (p = 0.044) and a significant increase in the number of births 2 days after Tisha B'Av (p = 0.009) was observed. Two days prior to the 1st day of Passover, a significant decrease in the number of births was also observed (p = 0.034). Contrary to previous reports, the present study does not confirm an association between a 1-day long fast and increased birth rate in the 24-h period after breaking of the fast.

  1. New Labour and the enabling state.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Ian

    2000-11-01

    The notion of the 'enabling state' gained currency in the UK during the 1990s as an alternative to the 'providing' or the welfare state. It reflected the process of contracting out in the NHS and compulsory competitive tendering (CCT) in local government during the 1980s, but was also associated with developments during the 1990s in health, social care and education in particular. The creation of an internal market in the NHS and the associated purchaser-provider split appeared to transfer 'ownership' of services increasingly to the providers - hospitals, General Practitioners (GPs) and schools. The mixed economy of care that was stimulated by the 1990 NHS and Community Care Act appeared to offer local authorities the opportunity to enable non state providers to offer care services in the community. The new service charters were part of the enablement process because they offered users more opportunity to influence provision. This article examines how far service providers were enabled and assesses the extent to which new Labour's policies enhance or reject the 'enabling state' in favour of more direct provision.

  2. The evolutionary history of division of labour

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Carl

    2012-01-01

    Functional specialization, or division of labour (DOL), of parts within organisms and colonies is common in most multi-cellular, colonial and social organisms, but it is far from ubiquitous. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain the evolutionary origins of DOL; the basic feature common to all of them is that functional differences can arise easily. These mechanisms cannot explain the many groups of colonial and social animals that exhibit no DOL despite up to 500 million years of evolution. Here, I propose a new hypothesis, based on a multi-level selection theory, which predicts that a reproductive DOL is required to evolve prior to subsequent functional specialization. I test this hypothesis using a dataset consisting of the type of DOL for living and extinct colonial and social animals. The frequency distribution of DOL and the sequence of its acquisition confirm that reproductive specialization evolves prior to functional specialization. A corollary of this hypothesis is observed in colonial, social and also within multi-cellular organisms; those species without a reproductive DOL have a smaller range of internal variation, in terms of the number of polymorphs or cell types, than species with a reproductive DOL. PMID:21561969

  3. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) for pain management in labour

    PubMed Central

    Dowswell, Therese; Bedwell, Carol; Lavender, Tina; Neilson, James P

    2014-01-01

    Background Transcutaneous nerve stimulation (TENS) has been proposed as a means of reducing pain in labour. The TENS unit emits low-voltage electrical impulses which vary in frequency and intensity. During labour, TENS electrodes are generally placed on the lower back, although TENS may be used to stimulate acupuncture points or other parts of the body. The physiological mechanisms whereby TENS relieves pain are uncertain. TENS machines are frequently operated by women, which may increase a sense of control in labour. Objectives To assess the effects of TENS on pain in labour. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (30 April 2011) and reference lists of retrieved papers. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials comparing women receiving TENS for pain management in labour versus routine care, alternative non-pharmacological methods of pain relief, or placebo devices. We included all types of TENS machines. Data collection and analysis Two review authors assessed for inclusion all trials identified by the search strategy, carried out data extraction and assessed risk of bias. We have recorded reasons for excluding studies. Main results Seventeen trials with 1466 women contribute data to the review. Thirteen examined TENS applied to the back, two to acupuncture points, and two to the cranium. Overall, there was little difference in pain ratings between TENS and control groups, although women receiving TENS to acupuncture points were less likely to report severe pain (average risk ratio 0.41, 95% confidence interval 0.31 to 0.54; measured in two studies). The majority of women using TENS said they would be willing to use it again in a future labour. Where TENS was used as an adjunct to epidural analgesia there was no evidence that it reduced pain. There was no consistent evidence that TENS had any impact on interventions and outcomes in labour. There was little information on outcomes for mothers and babies. No

  4. Formative research and development of innovative tools for "Better Outcomes in Labour Difficulty" (BOLD): study protocol.

    PubMed

    Bohren, Meghan A; Oladapo, Olufemi T; Tunçalp, Özge; Wendland, Melanie; Vogel, Joshua P; Tikkanen, Mari; Fawole, Bukola; Mugerwa, Kidza; Souza, João Paulo; Bahl, Rajiv; Gülmezoglu, A Metin

    2015-05-26

    Most complications during labour and childbirth could be averted with timely interventions by skilled healthcare providers. Yet, the quality and outcomes of childbirth care remains suboptimal in many health facilities in low-resource settings. To accelerate the reduction of childbirth-related maternal, fetal and newborn mortality and morbidity, the World Health Organization has initiated the "Better Outcomes in Labour Difficulty" (BOLD) project to address weaknesses in labour care processes and better connect health systems and communities. The project seeks to develop a "Simplified, Effective, Labour Monitoring-to-Action" tool (SELMA) to assist healthcare providers to monitor labour and take decisive actions more efficiently; and by developing an innovative set of service prototypes and/or tools termed "Passport to Safer Birth", designed with communities and healthcare providers, to promote access to quality care for women during childbirth. This protocol describes the formative research activities to support the development of these tools. We will employ qualitative research and service design methodologies in eight health facilities and their catchment communities in Nigeria and Uganda. In the health facilities, focus group discussions (FGD) and in-depth interviews (IDI) will be conducted among different cadres of healthcare providers and facility administrators. In the communities, FGDs and IDIs will be conducted among women who have delivered in a health facility. We will use service design methods to explore women's journey to access and receive childbirth care in order to innovate and design services around the needs and expectations of women, within the context of the health system. This formative research will serve several roles. First, it will provide an in-depth understanding of healthcare providers and health system issues to be accounted for in the final design and implementation of SELMA. Second, it will help to identify key moments ("touch points

  5. Prevention of occupational musculo-skeletal injuries. Labour Inspectorate investigation.

    PubMed

    Kemmlert, K

    1996-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect on ergonomic conditions by Labour Inspectorate intervention at the work place and to follow health and employment among occupationally injured. 195 reports on occupational musculo-skeletal injury (accidents and diseases) from men and women with different occupations were collected consecutively at three Labour Inspectorate offices. Fifteen Labour Inspectors volunteered to investigate half of the reports by work place visits within three months. The other half was kept for control. The inspectors were trained in ergonomics and also got complementary training in ergonomic work place assessment. A check-list was designed for the purpose and tested for validity and reliability. Eighteen months after the time of the injury reports, all work places were visited by ergonomists to evaluate possible improvements in ergonomic conditions. Due to turnover and prolonged sick-leaves, evaluations were performed for only 92 of the injured. At 160 work places other employees had performed similar tasks as the injured at the time of the injury report. Evaluations of possible improvements in ergonomic conditions were performed also for these employees. As regards changes at the work place there were no differences between the injured in the study and control groups. The inspectors had delivered 11 inspection notices to the employers demanding improvements for the injured and 14 notices regarding the conditions of work-mates. For this latter group there was a significant association between delivered notices and improved ergonomic conditions eighteen months after the reports. Three years after the time of the reports a postal questionnaire on health, psychological well-being and employment was distributed to the injured. The response rate was 93%. Questionnaire answers were compared to results from other studies, where identical questions were used. There was a significantly higher prevalence of musculo-skeletal and

  6. Effect of child labour on growth of children.

    PubMed

    Ambadekar, N N; Wahab, S N; Zodpey, S P; Khandait, D W

    1999-11-01

    This community based group comparison study was undertaken to assess the effect of child labour on the growth of children. The study subjects were 223 child labourers aged between 8-15 y who were matched by age to an equal number of controls and pair matched for gender. The mean weight of the male child labourers and the controls increased from 23.8 (+/-5.9) to 41.2 (+/-9.7) kg and 23.9 (+/-4.8) to 44.4 (+/-10.3) kg respectively, while mean height increased from 121.5 (+/-12.6) to 151.9 (+/-10.6) cm and 122.0 (+/-8.4) to 154.8 (+/-10.8) cm respectively from 8-15 y. At older ages (12 y and above for weight and 14 y and above for height) the difference was statistically significant. The same was not observed for the female study subjects. Similarly standard deviation (s.d.) scores for weight for age and height for age of male comparison subjects was significantly (P<0.01) nearer to National Centre for Health Statistics (NCHS) standard than that of the child labourers. Body mass index (BMI) below normal value, that is, 18.5 was observed in significantly (P=0.0261) more child labourers 180 (80.7%) than controls 160 (71.1%). With increasing duration of employment BMI decreased from 18.1 (+/-3.5) to 17.3 (+/-2.2). Genital development was observed to be delayed significantly in male child labourers. Therefore, it can be concluded that labouring at a young age has a deleterious effect on the growth of the child.

  7. Fundal pressure during the second stage of labour.

    PubMed

    Hofmeyr, G Justus; Vogel, Joshua P; Cuthbert, Anna; Singata, Mandisa

    2017-03-07

    Fundal pressure during the second stage of labour (also known as the 'Kristeller manoeuvre') involves application of manual pressure to the uppermost part of the uterus directed towards the birth canal, in an attempt to assist spontaneous vaginal birth and avoid prolonged second stage or the need for operative birth. Fundal pressure has also been applied using an inflatable belt. Fundal pressure is widely used, however methods of its use vary widely. Despite strongly held opinions in favour of and against the use of fundal pressure, there is limited evidence regarding its maternal and neonatal benefits and harms. There is a need for objective evaluation of the effectiveness and safety of fundal pressure in the second stage of labour. To determine if fundal pressure is effective in achieving spontaneous vaginal birth, and preventing prolonged second stage or the need for operative birth, and to explore maternal and neonatal adverse effects related to fundal pressure. We searched Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth's Trials Register (30 November 2016) and reference lists of retrieved studies. Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials of fundal pressure (manual or by inflatable belt) versus no fundal pressure in women in the second stage of labour with singleton cephalic presentation. Two or more review authors independently assessed potential studies for inclusion and quality. We extracted data using a pre-designed form. We entered data into Review Manager 5 software and checked for accuracy. Nine trials are included in this updated review. Five trials (3057 women) compared manual fundal pressure versus no fundal pressure. Four trials (891 women) compared fundal pressure by means of an inflatable belt versus no fundal pressure. It was not possible to blind women and staff to this intervention. We assessed two trials as being at high risk of attrition bias and another at high risk of reporting bias. All other trials were low or unclear for other risk of bias

  8. Intravenous fluids for reducing the duration of labour in low risk nulliparous women.

    PubMed

    Dawood, Feroza; Dowswell, Therese; Quenby, Siobhan

    2013-06-18

    Several factors may influence the progression of normal labour. It has been postulated that the routine administration of intravenous fluids to keep women adequately hydrated during labour may reduce the period of contraction and relaxation of the uterine muscle, and may ultimately reduce the duration of the labour. It has also been suggested that intravenous fluids may reduce caesarean sections (CS) for prolonged labour. However, the routine administration of intravenous fluids to labouring women has not been adequately elucidated although it is a widely-adopted policy, and there is no consensus on the type or volume of fluids that are required, or indeed, whether intravenous fluids are at all necessary. Women may be able to adequately hydrate themselves if they were allowed oral fluids during labour.Furthermore, excessive volumes of intravenous fluids may pose risks to both the mother and her newborn and different fluids are associated with different risks. To evaluate whether the routine administration of intravenous fluids to low-risk nulliparous labouring women reduces the duration of labour and to evaluate the safety of intravenous fluids on maternal and neonatal health. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (13 February 2013). Randomised controlled trials of intravenous fluid administration to spontaneously labouring low-risk nulliparous women. The review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion, trial quality and extracted data. We included nine randomised trials with 1781 women. Three trials had more than two treatment arms and were included in more than one comparison.Two trials compared women randomised to receive up to 250 mL/hour of Ringer's lactate solution as well as oral intake versus oral intake only. For women delivering vaginally, there was a reduction in the duration of labour in the Ringer's lactate group (mean difference (MD) -28.86 minutes, 95% confidence interval (CI) -47.41 to -10.30). There

  9. Effect of Continued Support of Midwifery Students in Labour on the Childbirth and Labour Consequences: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Bolbol-Haghighi, Nahid; Masoumi, Seyedeh Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Childbirth experience is a process throughout women’s life and the most important consequence of labour. Support is the key factor to have a positive experience of childbirth. In order to improve and reduce the stress and anxiety levels in women during labour and cope with the childbirth pain, the emotional, physical and educational support of doulas can be used. Aim This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of continued support of midwifery students in labour on the childbirth and labour consequences. Materials and Methods The present study was conducted using a randomized controlled clinical trial design on 100 pregnant women referred to the maternity ward at Fatemieh Hospital, Shahroud, Iran. The participants were assigned to the supportive or non-supportive group based on allocation sequence using a randomized block design and table of computer-generated random numbers prior to beginning the study. Supportive care was provided by the trained midwifery students. Childbirth and labour consequences were analysed by chi-square test, Fisher-exact test, independent t-test, Mann-Whitney U-test using SPSS-21 software. Results The results showed a significantly lower duration of the first stage of labour in the supportive group, as compared to that in the non-supportive group (p <0.001). Moreover, Apgar scores in the supportive group, compared to those in the non-supportive group, significantly increased at minutes 1 and 5 (p <0.001 and p = 0.04, respectively). Conclusion The findings of this study showed that the supportive care provided by the midwifery students shortens duration of the first stage of labour and improves the Apgar scores in the first and fifth minutes. PMID:27790526

  10. The tocolytic role of nifedipine in preventing preterm labour pain.

    PubMed

    Bina, I; Parveen, T; Khanom, A; Shamsunnahar, P A

    2012-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of oral nifedipine to reduce labour pain in patient with preterm labour, to complete the doses of steroids in lung maturity and in utero transfer to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) and to evaluate the maternal adverse effects and neonatal outcome. Diagnosed cases of preterm labour (between 24 to 34 weeks gestation) were randomly selected. Among them 50 patients were given oral nifedipine (n=50) and 50 patients were observed with no treatment (n=50). There were no statistically significant differences in age, race, parity, preterm delivery risk factor between the groups. At first the labour pain were observed through Continuous CTG in first hour, then intermittent CTG. The patient in the Nifedipine group can prolong the pregnancy time 36.0±3.2 wks than 30.6±3.1 wks in the control group (p<0.05) with reduced neonatal complications and admission to NICU. Oral nifedipine in patients with preterm labour pain as Tocolytic therapy has significantly prolonged pregnancy with lesser neonatal problems and fewer maternal adverse effects.

  11. The origin of violent behaviour among child labourers in India.

    PubMed

    Dalal, K; Rahman, F; Jansson, B

    2008-01-01

    We explored the causes and circumstances of violent behaviour among a group of child labourers in the Indian unorganized sectors. From 14 categories of occupations, a total of 1,400 child labourers were interviewed in both urban and rural areas. The average family size of these mostly illiterate child labourers is seven, and average family income is 3,200 INR per month. In the short term child labourers become violent, aggressive, and criminal, following a pyramid of violent behaviour, including socio-economic pressure, cultural deviance, and psychological pressure. When considering family history it seems that the problem is part of a vicious cycle of violence, which persists through generations and evolves with financial crisis, early marriage, and violence in the family and workplace. Our study demonstrates that the most vulnerable groups of child labourers belong to the following workplaces: dhabas, food stalls, rail/bus stations, rail-floor cleaning, and rag picking. Giving high priority to capacity building within the community, including support for locally-generated solutions, is warranted.

  12. Emotional labour in mental health nursing: An integrative systematic review.

    PubMed

    Edward, Karen-Leigh; Hercelinskyj, Gylo; Giandinoto, Jo-Ann

    2017-06-01

    Emotional labour is the effort consumed by suppressing one's own emotions to care for others effectively while also caring for oneself. Mental health nurses are required to engage in effective therapeutic interactions in emotionally-intense situations. The aim of the present integrative systematic review was to investigate the emotional labour of mental health work and how this manifested, the impacts, and the ways to mitigate these impacts. In June 2016, using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses methodology, a systematic search of the bibliographic databases was undertaken to identify relevant literature. Screening, data extraction, and synthesis were performed by three reviewers. The inclusion criteria included any original research that investigated the emotional work of mental health nurses. We identified a total of 20 papers to be included in this review. Thematic synthesis of the findings revealed three emergent themes: emotional labour and caring, emotional exhaustion, and self-protection (expressed as emotional intelligence). Emotional labour, emotional exhaustion, and emotional intelligence were considered to be intrinsically linked, where they were both the influencing factor for burnout and a contributor to attrition. The results highlighted that emotional labour could inspire the development and personal growth of emotional intelligence in mental health nurses. In light of these findings, recommendations for clinical practice were considered; they included supportive work environments, involving nurses in shared decision-making, and the provision of ongoing professional development opportunities that facilitate the development of emotional intelligence and resilience. © 2017 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  13. The ethics of obtaining consent in labour for research.

    PubMed

    Reid, Rachel; Susic, Daniella; Pathirana, Shanthi; Tracy, Sally; Welsh, Alec W

    2011-12-01

      It is widely acknowledged that the pregnant population is a vulnerable and potentially disadvantaged one with regard to research. We sought to evaluate compliance with this concept by examining current Australian practices of obtaining consent for research during labour through the published literature and from Australian Human Research Ethics Committees (HRECs) as well as reviewing the relevant literature.   We surveyed Australian HRECs requesting information about their opinions and/or practices surrounding the ethics of research consent during labour or birth. In addition, a literature search was performed to find randomised controlled trials (RCTs) involving interventions during labour in Australia in the last five years.   Of the HREC respondents, 75% believed it to be ethical to obtain consent for research in labour, 87% would require additional expert assistance to approve, 57% felt the partner should be involved and all proposed research scenarios were thought to require protocol changes. Recent local RCTs reflected a variety of consent strategies, each having their limitations.   An under-used but potentially useful strategy may be staged recruitment and consent. Despite the evidence supporting labour as a time requiring increased acuity for informed consent, there is little to suggest that this knowledge is being applied to current Australian HREC and RCT practices. We suggest that further practical guidelines be devised to aid researchers and human ethics committees. © 2011 The Authors. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology © 2011 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  14. Obesity in pregnancy: altered onset and progression of labour.

    PubMed

    Bogaerts, Annick; Witters, Ingrid; Van den Bergh, Bea R H; Jans, Goele; Devlieger, Roland

    2013-12-01

    the incidence of obesity increases in all developed countries to frightful percentages, also in women of reproductive age. Maternal obesity is associated with important obstetrical complications; and this group also exhibits a higher incidence of prolonged pregnancies and labours. to review the literature on the pathophysiology of onset and progression of labour in obese woman and translate this knowledge into practical recommendations for clinical management. a literature review, in particular a critical summary of research, in order to determine associations, gaps or inconsistencies in this specific but limited body of research. the combination of a higher incidence of post-term childbirths and increased inadequate contraction pattern during the first stage of labour suggests an influence of obesity on myometrial activity. A pathophysiologic pathway for altered onset and progression of labour in obese pregnant women is proposed. analysis of the literature shows that obesity is associated with an increased duration of pregnancy and prolonged duration of first stage of labour. an adapted clinical approach is suggested in these patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Reductions in labour capacity from heat stress under climate warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunne, John P.; Stouffer, Ronald J.; John, Jasmin G.

    2013-06-01

    A fundamental aspect of greenhouse-gas-induced warming is a global-scale increase in absolute humidity. Under continued warming, this response has been shown to pose increasingly severe limitations on human activity in tropical and mid-latitudes during peak months of heat stress. One heat-stress metric with broad occupational health applications is wet-bulb globe temperature. We combine wet-bulb globe temperatures from global climate historical reanalysis and Earth System Model (ESM2M) projections with industrial and military guidelines for an acclimated individual's occupational capacity to safely perform sustained labour under environmental heat stress (labour capacity)--here defined as a global population-weighted metric temporally fixed at the 2010 distribution. We estimate that environmental heat stress has reduced labour capacity to 90% in peak months over the past few decades. ESM2M projects labour capacity reduction to 80% in peak months by 2050. Under the highest scenario considered (Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5), ESM2M projects labour capacity reduction to less than 40% by 2200 in peak months, with most tropical and mid-latitudes experiencing extreme climatological heat stress. Uncertainties and caveats associated with these projections include climate sensitivity, climate warming patterns, CO2 emissions, future population distributions, and technological and societal change.

  16. Chronic diseases as predictors of labour market attachment after participation in subsidised re-employment programme: a 6-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Nwaru, Chioma A; Peutere, Laura; Kivimäki, Mika; Pentti, Jaana; Vahtera, Jussi; Virtanen, Pekka J

    2017-09-19

    Little is known about the work patterns of re-employed people. We investigated the labour market attachment trajectories of re-employed people and assessed the influence of chronic diseases on these trajectories. The study was based on register data of 18 944 people (aged 18-60 years) who participated in a subsidised re-employment programme in Finland. Latent class growth analysis with zero-inflated Poisson was used to model the labour market attachment trajectories over a 6-year follow-up time. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the associations between chronic diseases and labour market attachment trajectories, adjusting for age, gender, educational level, size of town and calendar year in subsidised re-employment programme. We identified four distinct labour market attachment trajectories, namely: strengthening (a relatively stable attachment throughout the follow-up time; 77%), delayed (initial weak attachment increasing later; 6%), leavers (attachment declined with time; 10%) and none-attached (weak attachment throughout the study period; 7%). We found that severe mental problems strongly increased the likelihood of belonging in the leavers (OR 3.61; 95% CI 2.23 to 5.37) and none-attached (OR 3.41; 95% CI 1.91 to 6.10) trajectories, while chronic hypertension was associated with none-attached (OR 1.37; 95% CI 1.06 to 1.77) trajectory. The associations between other chronic diseases (diabetes, heart disease, asthma and arthritics) and labour market attachment trajectories were less evident. Re-employed people appear to follow distinct labour market attachment trajectories over time. Having chronic diseases, especially mental disorders appear to increase the risk for relatively poor labour market attachment. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. Managing the pain of labour: factors associated with the use of labour pain management for pregnant Australian women.

    PubMed

    Steel, Amie; Adams, Jon; Sibbritt, David; Broom, Alex; Gallois, Cindy; Frawley, Jane

    2015-10-01

    Despite high rates of women's use of intrapartum pain management techniques, little is known about the factors that influence such use. Examine the determinants associated with women's use of labour pain management. Cross-sectional survey of a substudy of women from the 'young' cohort of the Australian Longitudinal Study of Women's Health (ALSWH). Women aged 31-35 years who identified as being pregnant or recently given birth in the 2009 ALSWH survey (n = 2445) were recruited for the substudy. The substudy survey was completed by 1835 women (RR = 79.2%). Determinants examined included pregnancy health and maternity care [including complementary and alternative medicine (CAM)] for their most recent pregnancy and any previous pregnancies. Participants' attitudes and beliefs related to both CAM and maternity care were also included in the analysis. The outcome measures examined were the use of both pharmacological and non-pharmacological pain management techniques (NPMT). Differences were seen in the effects of demographics, health service utilization, health status, use of CAM, and attitudes and beliefs upon use of intrapartum pain management techniques across all categories. The only variable that was identified as a determinant for use of all types of pain management techniques was a previous caesarean section (CS). The effect of key determinants on women's use of pain management techniques differs significantly, and, other than CS, no one determinant is clearly influential in the use of all pain management options. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Vascular endothelial growth factor gene +813CC polymorphism of foetus is associated with preterm labour but not with pre-eclampsia in Turkish pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Atis, A; Oruc, O; Aydin, Y; Cetincelik, U; Goker, N

    2012-06-01

    We investigated the effect of polymorphism at +813 locus of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene on predisposition to preterm labour and pre-eclampsia (PE). We examined polymorphism of the VEGF +813 gene of foetuses from umbilical cord blood in 31 cases of preterm labour, 34 pre-eclamptic and 58 healthy term labour. VEGF +813 gene polymorphisms were studied using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. In preterm group, foetal CC genotype was found at 80.6%, and CT genotype was seen at 19.4%. No any TT genotype was detected in preterm group. CC genotype of VEGF 813 gene was significantly more frequent than CT genotype (P = 0.04). Foetuses with CC genotype VEGF+813 gene have an increased risk for preterm labour. C allele frequency was 90.3 and 76.7% in preterm and control groups, respectively. T allele frequency was 9.7 and 23.3% in preterm and control groups, respectively. C allele was significantly associated with preterm labour (P = 0.02). OR of C and T alleles for preterm labour was 2.8 (CI: 1.1-7.2). In PE group, foetal CC genotype of +813 locus was found in 67.6%, and CT genotype was seen in 29.4%. Only one TT genotype was detected in 2.9% of PE group. There was no association between PE and VEGF gene genotypes and alleles at +813 locus. These results suggest that foetal VEGF gene polymorphism of +813 CC seems to be highly associated with preterm labour, whereas in PE, foetal VEGF gene polymorphism at +813 locus is not related. Especially, C allele was significantly associated with preterm labour. Carriage of the +813C allele of the VEGF gene has been found 2.8 times increased susceptibility to the development of preterm labour in Turkish women and may be an independent risk factor for prematurity. There was no association between PE and VEGF gene genotypes and alleles at +813 locus. We suggest to search for foetal aetiologies or genetic susceptibility in preterm labour, whereas in PE, not

  19. Vaginal prostaglandin (PGE2 and PGF2a) for induction of labour at term.

    PubMed

    Kelly, A J; Kavanagh, J; Thomas, J

    2003-01-01

    Prostaglandins have been used for induction of labour since the 1960s. Initial work focused on prostaglandin F2a as prostaglandin E2 was considered unsuitable for a number of reasons. With the development of alternative routes of administration, comparisons were made between various formulations of vaginal prostaglandins. This is one of a series of reviews of methods of cervical ripening and labour induction using standardised methodology. To determine the effects of vaginal prostaglandins E2 and F2a for third trimester cervical ripening or induction of labour in comparison with placebo/no treatment or other vaginal prostaglandins (except misoprostol). The Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group trials register (May 2003) and bibliographies of relevant papers. Clinical trials comparing vaginal prostaglandins used for third trimester cervical ripening or labour induction with placebo/no treatment or other methods listed above it on a predefined list of labour induction methods. A strategy was developed to deal with the large volume and complexity of trial data relating to labour induction. This involved a two-stage method of data extraction. In total, 101 studies were considered: 43 excluded and 57 (10,039 women) included. One study is awaiting assessment. Vaginal prostaglandin E2 compared with placebo or no treatment reduced the likelihood of vaginal delivery not being achieved within 24 hours (18% versus 99%, relative risk (RR) 0.19, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.14 to 0.25, 2 trials, 384 women), there was no evidence of a difference between caesarean section rates although the risk of uterine hyperstimulation with fetal heart rate changes was increased (4.6% versus 0.51%, RR 4.14, 95% CI 1.93 to 8.90, 13 trials, 1203 women). Comparison of vaginal prostaglandin F2a with placebo showed similar caesarean section rates but the cervical score was more likely to be improved (15% versus 60%, RR 0.25, 95% CI 0.13 to 0.49, 5 trials, 467 women), and the risk of oxytocin

  20. The impact of chronic conditions of care recipients on the labour force participation of informal carers in Australia: which conditions are associated with higher rates of non-participation in the labour force?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Little is known about the effects of personal and other characteristics of care recipients on the behaviour of carers. The aim of this study is to examine the association between the main chronic (disabling) condition of care recipients and the likelihood of their (matched) primary carers aged 15–64 years being out of the labour force. Methods We conducted a retrospective analysis of cross-sectional data from the Australian Bureau of Statistics 2009 Survey of Disability, Ageing and Carers (SDAC) for people aged 15–64 years. We estimated the rates of exit from the labour force for primary carers and non-carers; rates of chronic disease occurrence for care recipients living with their main carers; odds ratios of primary carers being out of the labour force associated with the main chronic condition of their care recipient who lives with them. Results From the 2009 SDAC, we identified 1,268 out of 37,186 eligible participants who were primary carers of a care recipient who lived with them. Of these, 628 (49.5%) were out of the labour force. Most common diseases of care recipients were: back problems (12%); arthritis and related disorders (10%); diseases of the nervous system (such as multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, cerebral palsy) (7.4%); and conditions originating in the perinatal period or congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities (5.1%). When adjusted for age, sex, education and whether have a long term chronic condition of informal carers, the five conditions of care recipients associated with the highest odds of their carers being out of the labour force were: head injury/acquired brain damage; neoplasms, blood diseases, disorders of the immune system; leg/knee/foot/hip damage from injury/accident; dementia, Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease; and diseases of the musculoskeletal system and connective tissue (osteoporosis). Conclusions This study identifies the type of conditions that have the greatest impact on

  1. Preterm labour. Biochemical and endocrinological preparation for parturition.

    PubMed

    Terzidou, Vasso

    2007-10-01

    Preterm delivery is a common obstetric problem occurring in about 1 in 10 of all births. Preterm babies have a high risk of morbidity and mortality. Such births account for 75% of all major neonatal problems. At the other end of the spectrum, prolonged pregnancy is also a subject of concern because it too is associated with increased fetal morbidity and mortality. Despite extensive research, the mechanisms that control the length of human pregnancy and signal the onset of labour have not been fully determined. This chapter will discuss basic principles in the biology of parturition and the regulation of contraction-associated proteins including the oxytocin receptor. The major pathways regulating contractions and the transcriptional regulation of the main genes that are known to be involved in the onset of labour and parturition will be examined. Some new potentially therapeutic strategies for the biochemical management of preterm labour will be discussed.

  2. The changing labour market position of Canadian immigrants.

    PubMed

    Bloom, D E; Grenier, G; Gunderson, M

    1995-11-01

    "This paper uses pooled 1971, 1981, and 1986 Canadian census data to evaluate the extent to which (1) the earnings of Canadian immigrants at the time of immigration fall short of the earnings of comparable Canadian-born individuals, and (2) immigrants' earnings grow more rapidly over time than those of the Canadian born. Variations in the labour market assimilation of immigrants according to their gender and country of origin are also analysed. The results suggest that recent immigrant cohorts have had more difficulty being assimilated into the Canadian labour market than earlier ones, an apparent consequence of recent changes in Canadian immigration policy, labour market discrimination against visible minorities, and the prolonged recession of the early 1980s." (SUMMARY IN FRE)

  3. Chronic diseases and labour force participation in Australia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaohui; Zhao, Xueyan; Harris, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    We examine the impact of several chronic diseases on the probability of labour force participation using data from the Australian National Health Surveys. An endogenous multivariate probit model is used to account for the potential endogeneity of the incidence of chronic conditions such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and mental illnesses. The cross-equation correlations are significant, rejecting the exogeneity of the chronic illnesses. Marginal effects of exogenous socio-demographic and lifestyle variables are estimated through their direct effects on labour market participation and indirect effects via the chronic diseases. The treatment effects of chronic diseases on labour force participation are estimated via conditional probabilities using five-dimensional normal distributions. The estimated effects differ by gender and age groups. Although computationally more demanding, these treatment effects are compared with results from a univariate model treating the chronic conditions exogenous and the structural effects from the multivariate probit model; both significantly overestimate the effects.

  4. Husbands' labour migration and wives' autonomy, Mozambique 2000-2006.

    PubMed

    Yabiku, Scott T; Agadjanian, Victor; Sevoyan, Arusyak

    2010-11-01

    The separation of migrants from the family unit, as a result of labour migration, can have profound effects on family organization and the lives of family members. Using data from a 2006 survey of 1,680 married women from 56 villages in southern Mozambique, we examined the relationship between men's labour migration and the decision-making autonomy of women who stayed behind. The results show that both men's cumulative migration history and current migration status are positively associated with women's autonomy, and that the effects on autonomy may persist even after the man's return. Three intervening factors-women's employment outside the home, lower fertility, and residential independence from extended family members-did not fully mediate the effects of men's labour migration. This is consistent with the assumption that the migrant's absence has a 'direct' effect on his wife's autonomy.

  5. Castor oil for induction of labour: not harmful, not helpful.

    PubMed

    Boel, Machteld Elisabeth; Lee, Sue Jean; Rijken, Marcus Johannes; Paw, Moo Koo; Pimanpanarak, Mupawjay; Tan, Saw Oo; Singhasivanon, Pratap; Nosten, François; McGready, Rose

    2009-10-01

    Castor oil is one of the most popular drugs for induction of labour in a non-medical setting; however, published data on safety and effectiveness of this compound to induce labour remain sparse. To assess the safety and effectiveness of castor oil for induction of labour in pregnancies with an ultrasound estimated gestational at birth of more than 40 weeks. Data were extracted from hospital-based records of all pregnant women who attended antenatal clinics on the Thai-Burmese border and who were more than 40 weeks pregnant. The effectiveness of castor oil to induce labour was expressed as time to birth and analysed with a Cox proportional hazards regression model. Measures associated with safety were fetal distress, meconium-stained amniotic fluid, tachysystole of the uterus, uterine rupture, abnormal maternal blood pressure during labour, Apgar scores, neonatal resuscitation, stillbirth, post-partum haemorrhage, severe diarrhoea and maternal death. Proportions were compared using Fisher's exact test. Of 612 women with a gestation of more than 40 weeks, 205 received castor oil for induction and 407 did not. The time to birth was not significantly different between the two groups (hazard ratio 0.99 (95% confidence interval: 0.81 to 1.20; n = 509)). Castor oil use was not associated with any harmful effects on the mother or fetus. Castor oil for induction of labour had no effect on time to birth nor were there any harmful effects observed in this large series. Our findings leave no justification for recommending castor oil for this purpose.

  6. Completion of the modified World Health Organization (WHO) partograph during labour in public health institutions of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends using the partograph to follow labour and delivery, with the objective to improve health care and reduce maternal and foetal morbidity and death. The partograph consists of a graphic representation of labour and is an excellent visual resource to analyze cervix, uterine contraction and foetal presentation in relation to time. However, poor utilization of the partograph was found in the public health institutions which reflect poor monitoring of mothers in labour and/or poor pregnancy outcome. Methods A retrospective document review was undertaken to assess the completion of the modified WHO partograph during labour in public health institutions of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A total of 420 of the modified WHO partographs used to monitor mothers in labour from five public health institutions that provide maternity care were reviewed. A structured checklist was used to gather the required data. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS version 16.0. Frequency distributions, cross-tabulations and a graph were used to describe the results of the study. Results All facilities were using the modified WHO partograph. The correct completion of the partograph was very low. From 420 partographs reviewed across all the five health facilities, foetal heart rate was recorded into the recommended standard in 129(30.7%) of the partographs, while 138 (32.9%) of cervical dilatation and 87 (20.70%) of uterine contractions were recorded to the recommended standard. The study did not document descent of the presenting part in 353 (84%). Moulding in 364 (86.7%) of the partographs reviewed was not recorded. Documentation of state of the liquor was 113(26.9%), while the maternal blood pressure was recorded to standard only in 78(18.6%) of the partographs reviewed. Conclusions This study showed a poor completion of the modified WHO partographs during labour in public health institutions of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The findings may

  7. Geographically differentiated pay in the labour market for nurses.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Robert F; Ma, Ada H Y; Scott, Anthony; Bell, David; Roberts, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    This novel application of spatial wage theory to health service labour markets analyses the competitiveness of nurse's pay and how this differs between local labour markets in Britain. A switching regression model is estimated to derive standardised spatial wage differentials (SSWDs) for nurses and their comparators. An SSWD gap is constructed and its relationship to vacancies estimated. A reduction in the gap in a local area is shown to result in an increase in the long-term vacancy rate for National Health Service (NHS) nurses. The competitiveness of nursing pay is shown to have a strong effect on the ability of the NHS to attract and retain nurses.

  8. Epidemiology and hazards of student labour in Mansoura, Egypt.

    PubMed

    El-Gilany, A H; Khalil, I A H; El-Wehady, A

    2007-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of student labour, underlying causes and impacts, we carried out a cross-sectional study on 1293 students enrolled in government secondary schools in Mansoura. Year-round work was reported by 8.6% of students and summer work by 27.5%. The majority worked for > or =6 hours/day. Lower social status, attending vocational school, male sex, large family size and rural residence were significant predictors of student labour. Hazards at the workplace, injuries and corporal punishment were prevalent among working students. Work adversely affected education and social life. Contribution to family income was the main reason for working.

  9. Labour circulation and the village economy in Fiji.

    PubMed

    Sofer, M

    1992-12-01

    The author examines circular labor migration in Fiji. "This paper is organized into five sections. The first section provides a brief discussion of two major perspectives of labour circulation in developing countries. The second section presents the state of the Fijian village in the context of the current pattern of uneven development in Fiji. The practice of labour circulation by Fijian villagers is dealt with in the third section. In the last two sections, issues concerning the maintenance of the polarized pattern and the preservation of the village mode of production are discussed."

  10. South Carolina Shipyards: Labour, Logistics, Lumber and Ladies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Lynn

    2010-10-01

    Southern shipyards, like Hobcaw and Mars Bluff, were established at locations chosen primarily for convenient access to transportation networks, building materials, clientele and labour. The historical record reveals a home front role played by local plantation owners and slaves as shipyard labour. Women served as project fundraisers, shipyard dilettantes, shipwright’s wives and possibly slave mistresses with a paucity of material culture to confirm their presence in the archaeological record. Archaeological investigations on land and underwater yield evidence of artefacts associated with diet, shipbuilding, warfare and ethnicity.

  11. Outcome of misoprostol and oxytocin in induction of labour.

    PubMed

    Acharya, Trishna; Devkota, Ramesh; Bhattarai, Bimbishar; Acharya, Radha

    2017-01-01

    Induction of labour is the process of initiating the labour by artificial means from 24 weeks of gestation. The main aim of this study is to find out the maternal and foetal outcomes after induction of labour with misoprostol and oxytocin beyond 37 weeks of gestation. This was a hospital-based observational study carried out at Paropakar Maternity and Women's Hospital, Nepal. Misoprostol of 25 µg was inserted in posterior fornix of vagina or oxytocin infusion was started from 2.5 units on whom induction was decided. Maternal and foetal/neonatal outcomes were observed. Collected data were analysed using SPSS and MS Excel. General induction rate was found to be 7.2%. In this study, post-term pregnancy was found to be the most common reason for induction of labour. Analysis of onset of labour led to the finding that mean onset of labour was much rapid in oxytocin (6.6 h) than misoprostol (13.6 h). However, there is similarity in induction-delivery interval in both groups. Overall, the rate of normal delivery and caesarean section was found to be 64.9% and 33.2%, respectively. Similarly, normal delivery within 12 h was seen in 18.4% of the patients given with misoprostol and 43.5% in oxytocin group. Foetal distress was found as the most common reason for caesarean section. The overall occurrence of maternal complication was found to be similar in misoprostol and oxytocin groups, nausea/vomiting being the most common (36.7%) complication followed by fever (24.1%). Besides this, the most common neonatal complication found in overall cases was meconium stained liquor (49.2%). It was found that misoprostol was used most frequently for induction of labour compared to oxytocin. The onset of labour was found to be rapid in oxytocin than misoprostol. However, the occurrence of side effects was found to be similar in both misoprostol and oxytocin groups.

  12. Restricting oral fluid and food intake during labour

    PubMed Central

    Singata, Mandisa; Tranmer, Joan; Gyte, Gillian ML

    2014-01-01

    Background Restricting fluids and foods during labour is common practice across many birth settings with some women only being allowed sips of water or ice chips. Restriction of oral intake may be unpleasant for some women, and may adversely influence their experience of labour. Objectives To determine the benefits and harms of oral fluid or food restriction during labour. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (April 2009). Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs of restricting fluids and food for women in labour compared with women free to eat and drink. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently assessed the studies for inclusion, assessed risk of bias and carried out data extraction. Main results We identified five studies (3130 women). All studies looked at women in active labour and at low risk of potentially requiring a general anaesthetic. One study looked at complete restriction versus giving women the freedom to eat and drink at will; two studies looked at water only versus giving women specific fluids and foods and two studies looked at water only versus giving women carbohydrate drinks. When comparing any restriction of fluids and food versus women given some nutrition in labour, the meta-analysis was dominated by one study undertaken in a highly medicalised environment. There were no statistically significant differences identified in: caesarean section (average risk ratio (RR) 0.89, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.63 to 1.25, five studies, 3103 women), operative vaginal births (average RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.88 to 1.10, five studies, 3103 women) and Apgar scores less than seven at five minutes (average RR 1.43, 95% CI 0.77 to 2.68, three studies, 2574 infants), nor in any of the other outcomes assessed. Women’s views were not assessed. The pooled data were insufficient to assess the incidence of Mendelson’s syndrome, an extremely rare outcome. Other comparisons

  13. Restricting oral fluid and food intake during labour.

    PubMed

    Singata, Mandisa; Tranmer, Joan; Gyte, Gillian Ml

    2010-01-20

    Restricting fluids and foods during labour is common practice across many birth settings with some women only being allowed sips of water or ice chips. Restriction of oral intake may be unpleasant for some women, and may adversely influence their experience of labour. To determine the benefits and harms of oral fluid or food restriction during labour. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (April 2009). Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs of restricting fluids and food for women in labour compared with women free to eat and drink. Two authors independently assessed the studies for inclusion, assessed risk of bias and carried out data extraction. We identified five studies (3130 women). All studies looked at women in active labour and at low risk of potentially requiring a general anaesthetic. One study looked at complete restriction versus giving women the freedom to eat and drink at will; two studies looked at water only versus giving women specific fluids and foods and two studies looked at water only versus giving women carbohydrate drinks.When comparing any restriction of fluids and food versus women given some nutrition in labour, the meta-analysis was dominated by one study undertaken in a highly medicalised environment. There were no statistically significant differences identified in: caesarean section (average risk ratio (RR) 0.89, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.63 to 1.25, five studies, 3103 women), operative vaginal births (average RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.88 to 1.10, five studies, 3103 women) and Apgar scores less than seven at five minutes (average RR 1.43, 95% CI 0.77 to 2.68, three studies, 2574 infants), nor in any of the other outcomes assessed. Women's views were not assessed. The pooled data were insufficient to assess the incidence of Mendelson's syndrome, an extremely rare outcome. Other comparisons showed similar findings, except one study did report a significant increase in caesarean sections for

  14. 78 FR 47716 - Final Guidance Regarding Voluntary Inspection of Vessels for Compliance With the Maritime Labour...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-06

    ... Maritime Labour Convention, 2006 AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of availability . SUMMARY: The... voluntary compliance with the Maritime Labour Convention, 2006 (MLC or Convention). The Convention enters... International Labour Conference (Geneva, February 2006) adopted the MLC, a new international agreement...

  15. Educational Aspirations, Child Labour Imperatives and Structural Inequality in the South African Agricultural Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Norman; Bowman, Brett

    2008-01-01

    Despite the widespread condemnation of the practice of child labour, it remains a pervasive phenomenon in developing countries. In such contexts, labour and education often represent competing activities for children. Drawing on a study of child labour located within the critical social science tradition, this article explores insider accounts of…

  16. The Interaction between Higher Education and Labour Market in Changing Economic Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gravite, Aija

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores challenges higher education institutions face while ensuring one of the quality assurance criteria--meeting the demands of labour market. The relationship between labour market and higher education institutions becomes even more complicated during the periods of rapid changes in labour market caused by economic collisions. In…

  17. Labour Market Intermediaries: A Corrective to the Human Capital Paradigm (Mis)matching Skills and Jobs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobbins, Tony; Plows, Alexandra

    2017-01-01

    The orthodox supply-side human capital theory (HCT) paradigm is inadequate for understanding and adjusting to labour market volatility in UK regional economies like Wales. This article explores the role of regional labour market intermediaries (LMIs) in matching supply (skills) and demand (job opportunities) in regional labour markets. Some LMIs…

  18. Competence Indicators in Academic Education and Early Labour Market Success of Graduates in Health Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semeijn, Judith H.; van der Velden, Rolf; Heijke, Hans; van der Vleuten, Cees; Boshuizen, Henny P. A.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the effects of several educational and non-educational indicators of competence on short-term labour market outcomes for university graduates are estimated. The research question is: to what extent do indications of specific and generic competence during the educational program predict labour market outcomes? Labour market outcomes…

  19. Are All Children Equal? Causative Factors of Child Labour in Selected Districts of South Punjab, Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haider, Syed Zubair; Qureshi, Ayesha

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigates the causative factors of child labour in selected districts of South Punjab, Pakistan. As a member of the International Labour Organization (ILO) Pakistan has a responsibility to stamp out child labour from its regions. Our sample was selected from seven working environments (workshops, hotels, tea stalls,…

  20. Educational Aspirations, Child Labour Imperatives and Structural Inequality in the South African Agricultural Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Norman; Bowman, Brett

    2008-01-01

    Despite the widespread condemnation of the practice of child labour, it remains a pervasive phenomenon in developing countries. In such contexts, labour and education often represent competing activities for children. Drawing on a study of child labour located within the critical social science tradition, this article explores insider accounts of…

  1. Follistatin serum concentrations during full-term labour in women--significant differences between spontaneous and induced labour.

    PubMed

    Rae, K; Hollebone, K; Chetty, V; Clausen, D; McFarlane, J

    2007-11-01

    Follistatin has been isolated from human placenta and has been identified in human foetal membranes and fluids. Serum follistatin levels in women rise during pregnancy particularly near term. In this study, we examined the effect of induction and stage of labour on maternal plasma concentrations of follistatin. Women who gave birth after a normal pregnancy were retrospectively divided into three groups: those who went in labour spontaneously (n = 33), needed induction by amniotomy and IV oxytocin (n = 18) or underwent planned caesarean section (n = 10). Serum was collected at 38-40 weeks of gestation, periodically through labour with a vaginal examination and once within 36 h postpartum and assayed for oestradiol, progesterone, prolactin and C-reactive protein. Follistatin was measured using a rabbit antiserum (#204) raised against purified 35 kDa bovine follistatin. Human recombinant follistatin was used as both standard and tracer. Concentrations of follistatin at 38-40 weeks of gestation were significantly different between groups. Those who had a spontaneous labour had concentrations higher than those who were induced. Similarly, those who were induced had concentrations higher than those who underwent a caesarean. In the spontaneous group, follistatin rose during labour, peaking at 57.9 +/- 5.48 ng/ml at > 3 cm of cervical dilation, and after delivery follistatin decreased to 26.16 +/- 3.4 ng/ml at 24 h post-delivery. In induced patients follistatin continued increasing to peak following delivery at 26.9 +/- 3.0 ng/ml and decreased at > 3 h post-delivery. Follistatin concentrations in caesarean section patients at 24 h post-surgery (18.53 +/- 3.74 ng/ml) were not different from that before the surgery and were comparable with the other two groups. Follistatin is clearly implicated in the onset of labour; however, further studies with a larger cohort of women are necessary to determine the nature of its role.

  2. Optimising daytime deliveries when inducing labour using prostaglandin vaginal inserts.

    PubMed

    Miller, Hugh; Goetzl, Laura; Wing, Deborah A; Powers, Barbara; Rugarn, Olof

    2016-01-01

    To determine induction start time(s) that would maximise daytime deliveries when using prostaglandin vaginal inserts. Women enrolled into the Phase III trial, EXPEDITE (clinical trial registration: NCT01127581), had labour induced with either a misoprostol or dinoprostone vaginal insert (MVI or DVI). A secondary analysis was conducted to determine the optimal start times for induction by identifying the 12-h period with the highest proportion of deliveries by parity and treatment. Optimal start times for achieving daytime deliveries when using MVI appear to be 19:00 in nulliparae and 23:00 in multiparae. Applying these start times, the median time of onset of active labour would be approximately 08:30 for both parities and the median time of delivery would be the following day at approximately 16:30 for nulliparae and 12:00 (midday) for multiparae. Optimal start times when using DVI appear to be 07:00 for nulliparae and 23:00 for multiparae. Using these start times, the median time of onset of active labour would be the following day at approximately 04:00 and 11:50, and the median time of delivery would be approximately 13:40 and 16:10, respectively. When optimising daytime deliveries, different times to initiate induction of labour may be appropriate depending on parity and the type of retrievable prostaglandin vaginal insert used.

  3. From Learning to Labour to Learning for Precarity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dovemark, Marianne; Beach, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    A demand on national economies in the 1970s was that they should begin to increase their labour market flexibility, which came to mean transferring risks and insecurity onto workers. Education was one way to prepare future workers for this new situation. The present article examines this preparation of learning for precarity some 40 years on. It…

  4. Child Labour: Its Regulation by ILO Standards and National Legislation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swepston, Lee

    1982-01-01

    This article reviews the International Labour Organisation's standard-setting activities to combat or regulate child labor (fixing of a minimum age for employment or work, establishment of the conditions under which children may work); discusses the means of enforcing standards; and describes the situation in practice. (CT)

  5. Child Domestic Labour: A Modern Form of Slavery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blagbrough, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    This article provides a global scene for the scope of child domestic labour and explores the inter-woven relationship between the practice and slavery, as well as the consequences for this uniquely vulnerable group of child workers. In doing so, it seeks to dispel the myths that child domestic work is a safe form of employment for girls…

  6. The Relevance of Doctoral Training in Different Labour Markets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyvik, Svein; Olsen, Terje Bruen

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the relevance of doctoral training (thesis, coursework and generic skills) for a career in three types of labour market: academia, applied research institutes and industrial laboratories, and non-research workplaces. Data are drawn from a mail survey among PhD holders in Norway. In total, more than 40% of the respondents had…

  7. Online Tutoring and Emotional Labour in the Private Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Sue

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: What happens when computer software is designed to replace the teacher and the human role is to service the relationship between the software and the learner? Specifically, this paper aims to consider whether or not emotional labour is performed in contexts mediated by technology in the private sector. Design/methodology/approach: The…

  8. The Value of Childcare: Class, Gender and Caring Labour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrew, Yarrow; Newman, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Despite increasing attention being paid to early childhood services as the foundation for lifelong learning, one issue seems to be consistently ignored--staff wages. The authors argue that this constitutes ongoing exploitation of childcare staff, and that this exploitation is a result of gendered and classed discourses around caring labour. As…

  9. Recruitment and Retention Issues in Rural Labour Markets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Hoyos, Maria; Green, Anne

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to provide insights into the recruitment and retention issues faced by employers in rural areas. To this end, information gathered through interviews with employers and labour market intermediaries in the predominantly rural county of Lincolnshire, UK was used as a source of data and focal point to discuss the demand side of the…

  10. Learning about the Importance of Education for Labour Market Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Esther; Tellado, Itxaso; De Botton, Lena

    2014-01-01

    This article centres on the importance given by individuals to the process of education in labour market transitions and how they manage to overcome obstacles to achieve their goals. Many of the stories in the Spanish research were transformative and innovative despite the context of high levels of unemployment in Spain due to the global economic…

  11. Outcome of Induction of Labour in Prolonged Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Nasrin, S; Islam, S; Shahida, S M; Begum, R A; Haque, N

    2015-10-01

    This was a hospital based prospective clinical study conducted among women having prolonged pregnancy to assess the outcome of induction of labour in prolonged pregnancy cases. One hundred and thirty nine women having uncomplicated prolonged pregnancy were studied. The study was carried out in Sir Salimullah Medical College & Mitford Hospital, Dhaka from 01 July 2010 to 30 March 2011. In this study 66% of the respondents had vaginal delivery on routine induction of labour and in 34% cases induction failed. Ninety three percent (93%) of the multigravida had vaginal delivery and in primigravida their vaginal delivery rate was 47.5%. Regarding cervical condition for delivery, 75% of the respondents having favourable cervix had vaginal delivery and in case of unfavourable cervix respondents, they had 55% cases of vaginal delivery. About the foetal outcome it was evidenced from this study that the perinatal adverse outcome increases with the increasing age of gestation beyond 40 completed weeks of gestation. This study showed that the use of prostaglandins for cervical ripening and by confirming the diagnosis of prolonged pregnancy, the delivery outcome in prolonged pregnancy can be improved. The study also showed that induction of labour is not associated with any major complications and the routine induction of labour in prolonged pregnancy is beneficial for both mother and the baby.

  12. Labour Policy for Lower Achievers, Special Needs and Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomlinson, Sally

    2015-01-01

    This article notes that the attempt to include all young people in education, an aim of Labour governments over the years, still relies on an expanded and expensive special educational needs "industry". How to include all lower attainers and those with disabilities in the education system and the economy is a political issue for a Labour…

  13. Labour Market Outcomes of National Qualifications Frameworks in Six Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allais, Stephanie

    2017-01-01

    This article presents the major findings of an international study that attempted to investigate the labour market outcomes of qualifications frameworks in six countries--Belize, France, Ireland, Jamaica, Sri Lanka, and Tunisia, as well as the regional framework in the Caribbean. It finds limited evidence of success, but fairly strong support for…

  14. Foreign Language Skills for Employability in the EU Labour Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grasmane, Daina; Grasmane, Sanita

    2011-01-01

    To confront rising unemployment, skills of the labour force must be improved. With the aim to find out how foreign language skills impact employability, a study was carried out, in which 61 undergraduates, 33 master's students and 33 doctoral students from the Latvian University of Agriculture participated. The findings testify that 38% of the…

  15. Increasing Labour Productivity in Agriculture and Its Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van den Ban, Anne

    2011-01-01

    In order to profit from the economic growth in their society farmers can (1) increase the yields of their crops and animals, (2) switch to the production of high value products for which there is an increasing demand in the market, (3) increase the labour productivity on their farm, (4) find non-farm sources of income for some or all of their…

  16. The importance of the smooth muscle cytoskeleton to preterm labour.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Kathleen G

    2014-03-01

    Multiple mechanisms have been shown to regulate the onset of labour in a co-operative and complex manner. One factor, myometrial stretch and associated increases in wall tension, has been implicated clinically in the initiation of labour and especially the aetiology of preterm labour. Recent work on the mechanisms involved has led to the finding that the intracellular Ca(2+) requirement for activation of the myometrial contractile filaments increases during gestation. The decreased Ca(2+) sensitivity correlates with an increase in the expression of caldesmon, an actin-binding protein and inhibitor of myosin activation, during pregnancy. In late pregnancy, an increase in extracellular signal-regulated kinase-mediated caldesmon phosphorylation occurs, which appears to reverse the inhibitory action of caldesmon during labour. Force generated by the myometrial contractile filaments is communicated across the plasmalemma to the uterine wall through focal adhesions. Phospho-tyrosine screening and mass spectrometry of stretched myometrial samples identified several stretch-activated focal adhesion proteins. This Src-mediated focal adhesion signalling appears to provide a tunable, i.e. regulated, tension sensor and force transmitter in the myometrial cell. In other parallel studies, biophysical measurements of smooth muscle compliance at both the cellular and tissue levels suggest that decreases in cellular compliance due to changing interactions of the actin cytoskeleton with the focal adhesions may also promote increases in uterine wall tension. These results, taken together, suggest that focal adhesion proteins and their interaction with the cytoskeleton may present a new mode of regulation of uterine contractility.

  17. Labour Studies, the Liberal Arts, and the Sociological Imagination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Richard

    2013-01-01

    In the US, the value of liberal arts is in question as neo-liberal reformers push for a more instrumentalist form of higher education. Older traditions of worker education, however, along with more recent university-based labour studies programs, offer a compelling counter-narrative concerning the social and political purpose of higher education.…

  18. Labour Studies, the Liberal Arts, and the Sociological Imagination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Richard

    2013-01-01

    In the US, the value of liberal arts is in question as neo-liberal reformers push for a more instrumentalist form of higher education. Older traditions of worker education, however, along with more recent university-based labour studies programs, offer a compelling counter-narrative concerning the social and political purpose of higher education.…

  19. A Labour of Love: Mothers, Emotional Capital and Homework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchison, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    This paper develops a new analysis of homework by building on feminist scholarship which documents the invisible labour done by women in support of their children's education. While numerous studies have examined the relationship between homework and achievement, little attention has been paid to the largely gendered and potentially stressful…

  20. Impact of Social Factors on Labour Discrimination of Disabled Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mondejar-Jimenez, Jose; Vargas-Vargas, Manuel; Meseguer-Santamaria, Maria-Leticia; Mondejar-Jimenez, Juan-Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Disabled women suffer from a double labour discrimination due to their gender and their disability. In rural areas, in addition, they also suffer from a lack of specific services, the isolation of the disabled associations, problems with public transport, the dispersion of population centres, and a limited access to information that could improve…

  1. The Labour Party's Blunkett Review: A Comprehensive Disappointment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichman, Keith

    2014-01-01

    David Blunkett's "Review of Education Structures" for the Labour Party recognises that there is a chaotic and unsatisfactory situation in the English education system but its response is ambiguous and self-contradictory. Its proposals seek to normalise and regulate rather than remedy a system in which lack of democratic accountability,…

  2. Foreign Language Skills for Employability in the EU Labour Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grasmane, Daina; Grasmane, Sanita

    2011-01-01

    To confront rising unemployment, skills of the labour force must be improved. With the aim to find out how foreign language skills impact employability, a study was carried out, in which 61 undergraduates, 33 master's students and 33 doctoral students from the Latvian University of Agriculture participated. The findings testify that 38% of the…

  3. Audit Cultures, Labour, and Conservative Movements in the Global University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apple, Michael W.

    2013-01-01

    I want to use this essay -- basically a commentary -- as a context for some political reflections on what is happening to the governance and the labour processes at universities internationally. In the process, in addition to my critical reflections on the neoliberal impulses affecting universities, I want to do two other things. First, I shall…

  4. Labour Market Motivation and Undergraduates' Choice of Degree Subject

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Peter; Mangan, Jean; Hughes, Amanda; Slack, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Labour market outcomes of undergraduates' choice of subject are important for public policy and for students. Policy interest is indicated by the prominence of "employability" in public discourse and in proposals to concentrate government funding in England in supporting STEM subjects (science, technology, engineering and mathematics).…

  5. Training and Labour Market Integration of Education Science Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vivas, Amparo Jimenez

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the research behind this article is to identify the relationships that must exist between university training and the social and occupational environment. One of the many functions that derive from the university-society relationship is to train students to carry out certain professions. as a result, the analysis of the labour market…

  6. Gender, Education and Child Labour: A Sociological Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhat, Bilal Ahmad

    2010-01-01

    In all societies, boys and girls are assigned different societal roles and experience different perspectives of life as a result of their being male or female. Such differences have a gigantic impact on their lives. The importance of gender perspective is very important in understanding the convolution of child labour. Gender, as opposed to sex,…

  7. Obstetric analgesia and fetal aortic blood flow during labour.

    PubMed

    Lindblad, A; Bernow, J; Marsál, K

    1987-04-01

    Fetal aortic blood flow was studied in 50 women during labour, using a method combining real-time ultrasonography and a pulsed Doppler technique. Eleven women had no analgesia, 24 women received 75-100 mg pethidine intramuscularly, 12 epidural analgesia with 0.25% bupivacaine and three paracervical block with 0.125% bupivacaine. Fetal aortic blood flow increased during labour from 200 to 245 ml/min/kg in the group without analgesia (P less than 0.05) and from 211 to 236 ml/min/kg in the group with epidural analgesia (P less than 0.05) but decreased insignificantly from 216 to 204 ml/min/kg after pethidine. After paracervical block the aortic blood flow fell in two out of three fetuses. Not only is epidural analgesia the most effective means of pain relief during labour, it is also the type of obstetric analgesia that interferes least with the physiological response to labour in terms of its effect on the fetal blood flow.

  8. Single-Sex Schooling and Labour Market Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Alice; Joshi, Heather; Leonard, Diana

    2011-01-01

    One quarter of the 1958 British Birth cohort attended single-sex secondary schools. This paper asks whether sex-segregated schooling had any impact on the experience of gender differences in the labour market in mid-life. We examine outcomes at age 42, allowing for socio-economic origins and abilities measured in childhood. We find no net impact…

  9. Higher Education and the Graduate Labour Market: The "Class Factor"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenbank, Paul

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on the experiences of working-class students at different stages of the student life cycle. It examines the factors influencing their participation rates in higher education (HE), their ability to adapt to university life, and their success in the graduate labour market. The article argues that without radical…

  10. Child Labour, Education Policy and Governance in Cambodia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Chae-Young

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers how the issue of child labour is located in Cambodian education policy debates and how it is affected by the major constraints surrounding the Cambodian education sector. In particular, it asks why Cambodian policy makers have not sought to address the issue explicitly despite its considerable, and adverse, impact on…

  11. The Portuguese Youth Labour Market: A Critical Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tome, Eduardo

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to analyse critically the youth labour market (YLM) and the YLM policies in Portugal. The analysis covers essentially the period after 1986, when Portugal entered the European Union. Design/methodology/approach: The paper consists of three main sections. In the first the main players dealt with (government,…

  12. Developments in labour analgesia and their use in Australia.

    PubMed

    Eley, V A; Callaway, L; van Zundert, A A

    2015-07-01

    Since the introduction of chloroform for labour analgesia in 1847, different methods and medications have been used to relieve the pain of labour. The use of heavy sedative medication in the early 1900s was encouraged by enthusiastic doctors and by women empowered by the women's suffrage movement in America. Nitrous oxide by inhalation has been used in Australia since the 1950s and improved methods of administration have made this method of analgesia safe and practical. Caudal epidural analgesia and lumbar epidural analgesia were first made popular in America and by the 1970s these techniques were more widely available in Australia. In 1847, physicians and the public were unsure whether relieving labour pains was the 'right' thing to do. However, many medical and social changes have occurred thanks to the clinical connection between Australia and the United Kingdom and those first settlers to land on Australian shores. Thanks to this historical connection, in today's Australia there is no question that women should use analgesia as a pain relief if they wish. Currently, the majority of women worldwide use some form of analgesia during labour and different methods are widely available. This paper discusses the four milestones of the development of obstetric analgesia and how they were introduced into patient care in Australia.

  13. Common Sense or Professional Qualifications? Division of Labour in Kindergartens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinnes, Gerd Sylvi

    2014-01-01

    This article compares the division of labour between kindergarten teachers and assistants in Norwegian kindergartens and discusses the two groups' perceptions of what kind of knowledge is important in order to carry out their tasks. This study is based on a survey representing kindergartens from all over Norway, and is part of a national research…

  14. Online Tutoring and Emotional Labour in the Private Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Sue

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: What happens when computer software is designed to replace the teacher and the human role is to service the relationship between the software and the learner? Specifically, this paper aims to consider whether or not emotional labour is performed in contexts mediated by technology in the private sector. Design/methodology/approach: The…

  15. Predicting Preterm Labour: Current Status and Future Prospects

    PubMed Central

    Georgiou, Harry M.; Di Quinzio, Megan K. W.; Permezel, Michael; Brennecke, Shaun P.

    2015-01-01

    Preterm labour and birth are a major cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Despite modern advances in obstetric and neonatal management, the rate of preterm birth in the developed world is increasing. Yet even though numerous risk factors associated with preterm birth have been identified, the ability to accurately predict when labour will occur remains elusive, whether it is at a term or preterm gestation. In the latter case, this is likely due to the multifactorial aetiology of preterm labour wherein women may display different clinical presentations that lead to preterm birth. The discovery of novel biomarkers that could reliably identify women who will subsequently deliver preterm may allow for timely medical intervention and targeted therapeutic treatments aimed at improving maternal and fetal outcomes. Various body fluids including amniotic fluid, urine, saliva, blood (serum/plasma), and cervicovaginal fluid all provide a rich protein source of putative biochemical markers that may be causative or reflective of the various pathophysiological disorders of pregnancy, including preterm labour. This short review will highlight recent advances in the field of biomarker discovery and the utility of single and multiple biomarkers for the prediction of preterm birth in the absence of intra-amniotic infection. PMID:26160993

  16. Education Policy and Practice "under" New Labour: An Epistolary Critique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Colin

    2010-01-01

    Since the election of 1997 New Labour's education policy has been subject to variety of forms of critique--in this journal and others. One of the sources for such critique has been a barrage of letters unleashed for over a decade by Colin Richards in the "Times Educational Supplement". Here are reproduced a self-edited selection of his…

  17. Career Education and Labour Market Conditions: The Skills Gap Myth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyslop-Margison, Emery J.; Welsh, Benjamin H.

    2003-01-01

    Asserts that it is a questionable claim that a widespread knowledge and skill shortage is causing current labour market supply problems, unemployment, or increased social stratification. Adds that the percentage of new jobs requiring high levels of knowledge and skill is limited when compared to low-skilled service industry occupations. Questions…

  18. Labour Policy for Lower Achievers, Special Needs and Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomlinson, Sally

    2015-01-01

    This article notes that the attempt to include all young people in education, an aim of Labour governments over the years, still relies on an expanded and expensive special educational needs "industry". How to include all lower attainers and those with disabilities in the education system and the economy is a political issue for a Labour…

  19. A Labour of Love: Mothers, Emotional Capital and Homework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchison, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    This paper develops a new analysis of homework by building on feminist scholarship which documents the invisible labour done by women in support of their children's education. While numerous studies have examined the relationship between homework and achievement, little attention has been paid to the largely gendered and potentially stressful…

  20. Labour Market Motivation and Undergraduates' Choice of Degree Subject

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Peter; Mangan, Jean; Hughes, Amanda; Slack, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Labour market outcomes of undergraduates' choice of subject are important for public policy and for students. Policy interest is indicated by the prominence of "employability" in public discourse and in proposals to concentrate government funding in England in supporting STEM subjects (science, technology, engineering and mathematics).…

  1. Impact of Social Factors on Labour Discrimination of Disabled Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mondejar-Jimenez, Jose; Vargas-Vargas, Manuel; Meseguer-Santamaria, Maria-Leticia; Mondejar-Jimenez, Juan-Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Disabled women suffer from a double labour discrimination due to their gender and their disability. In rural areas, in addition, they also suffer from a lack of specific services, the isolation of the disabled associations, problems with public transport, the dispersion of population centres, and a limited access to information that could improve…

  2. Learning for Labour: Specialist Diplomas and 14-19 Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Martin

    2007-01-01

    The 2006 Education Act provided an entitlement for all 14 year-olds to take a specialist diploma from 2013. Despite concerns of many educationalists and politicians, the first diplomas will begin in September 2008. New Labour claims that the diplomas are innovative and challenging; however, this article argues that they exhibit many of the…

  3. Vocational Trajectories within the Australian Labour Market. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Serena; Bretherton, Tanya; Schutz, Hanna

    2012-01-01

    This is a report of the first year of a three-year project entitled "Vocations: the link between post-compulsory education and the labour market." The project's aim is to research how pathways can be improved within education, within work, and between education and work. There are three strands in the project; the first strand is…

  4. Model of Learning for Career and Labour Market Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Alan; Bimrose, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    The study, upon which this special issue focuses, used narrative interviews to investigate how learning can support workers' transitions in the labour market in five European countries (Denmark, France, Germany, Italy and Spain). The five countries were chosen to represent very different contexts in the way learning can support career and labour…

  5. New Labour's Education Policy: First, Second, Or Third Way?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Power, Sally; Whitty, Geoff

    1999-01-01

    Drawing on Giddens' outline of first-, second-, and third-way politics, examines a range of New Labour's education policies, questioning whether they embody a distinctively different approach. The British government's strategies are largely extensions of second-way "neoliberalism." Education action zones may represent a third (feasible)…

  6. Single-Sex Schooling and Labour Market Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Alice; Joshi, Heather; Leonard, Diana

    2011-01-01

    One quarter of the 1958 British Birth cohort attended single-sex secondary schools. This paper asks whether sex-segregated schooling had any impact on the experience of gender differences in the labour market in mid-life. We examine outcomes at age 42, allowing for socio-economic origins and abilities measured in childhood. We find no net impact…

  7. Increasing Labour Productivity in Agriculture and Its Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van den Ban, Anne

    2011-01-01

    In order to profit from the economic growth in their society farmers can (1) increase the yields of their crops and animals, (2) switch to the production of high value products for which there is an increasing demand in the market, (3) increase the labour productivity on their farm, (4) find non-farm sources of income for some or all of their…

  8. Skill Needs: Linking Labour Market Analysis and Vocational Training. Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Training Foundation, Turin (Italy).

    This publication contains workshop papers which discuss the link between the labor market and vocational training. Part I provides an overview of the workshop--its objectives, issues, and conclusions. Part II consists of seven country papers. "Labour Market Information (LMI) and Vocational Training Decision-Making in Hungary" (Lazar)…

  9. Common Sense or Professional Qualifications? Division of Labour in Kindergartens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinnes, Gerd Sylvi

    2014-01-01

    This article compares the division of labour between kindergarten teachers and assistants in Norwegian kindergartens and discusses the two groups' perceptions of what kind of knowledge is important in order to carry out their tasks. This study is based on a survey representing kindergartens from all over Norway, and is part of a national research…

  10. Mismatch of Vocational Graduates: What Penalty on French Labour Market?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beduwe, Catherine; Giret, Jean-Francois

    2011-01-01

    This study explores individual effects of educational mismatch on wages, job satisfaction and on-the-job-search on French labour market. We distinguish between horizontal matches (job matches with field of studies) and vertical matches (job matches the level of qualification) on the one hand and skills matches (worker's assessment) on the other…

  11. Optimising daytime deliveries when inducing labour using prostaglandin vaginal inserts

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Hugh; Goetzl, Laura; Wing, Deborah A.; Powers, Barbara; Rugarn, Olof

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To determine induction start time(s) that would maximise daytime deliveries when using prostaglandin vaginal inserts. Methods: Women enrolled into the Phase III trial, EXPEDITE (clinical trial registration: NCT01127581), had labour induced with either a misoprostol or dinoprostone vaginal insert (MVI or DVI). A secondary analysis was conducted to determine the optimal start times for induction by identifying the 12-h period with the highest proportion of deliveries by parity and treatment. Results: Optimal start times for achieving daytime deliveries when using MVI appear to be 19:00 in nulliparae and 23:00 in multiparae. Applying these start times, the median time of onset of active labour would be approximately 08:30 for both parities and the median time of delivery would be the following day at approximately 16:30 for nulliparae and 12:00 (midday) for multiparae. Optimal start times when using DVI appear to be 07:00 for nulliparae and 23:00 for multiparae. Using these start times, the median time of onset of active labour would be the following day at approximately 04:00 and 11:50, and the median time of delivery would be approximately 13:40 and 16:10, respectively. Conclusions: When optimising daytime deliveries, different times to initiate induction of labour may be appropriate depending on parity and the type of retrievable prostaglandin vaginal insert used. PMID:25758619

  12. Education Policy and Practice "under" New Labour: An Epistolary Critique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Colin

    2010-01-01

    Since the election of 1997 New Labour's education policy has been subject to variety of forms of critique--in this journal and others. One of the sources for such critique has been a barrage of letters unleashed for over a decade by Colin Richards in the "Times Educational Supplement". Here are reproduced a self-edited selection of his…

  13. The Relevance of Doctoral Training in Different Labour Markets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyvik, Svein; Olsen, Terje Bruen

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the relevance of doctoral training (thesis, coursework and generic skills) for a career in three types of labour market: academia, applied research institutes and industrial laboratories, and non-research workplaces. Data are drawn from a mail survey among PhD holders in Norway. In total, more than 40% of the respondents had…

  14. Gender, Education and Child Labour: A Sociological Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhat, Bilal Ahmad

    2010-01-01

    In all societies, boys and girls are assigned different societal roles and experience different perspectives of life as a result of their being male or female. Such differences have a gigantic impact on their lives. The importance of gender perspective is very important in understanding the convolution of child labour. Gender, as opposed to sex,…

  15. The Portuguese Youth Labour Market: A Critical Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tome, Eduardo

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to analyse critically the youth labour market (YLM) and the YLM policies in Portugal. The analysis covers essentially the period after 1986, when Portugal entered the European Union. Design/methodology/approach: The paper consists of three main sections. In the first the main players dealt with (government,…

  16. Prophylactic versus therapeutic amnioinfusion for oligohydramnios in labour.

    PubMed

    Novikova, Natalia; Hofmeyr, G Justus; Essilfie-Appiah, George

    2012-09-12

    Amnioinfusion aims to relieve umbilical cord compression during labour by infusing a liquid into the uterine cavity. The objective of this review was to assess the effects of prophylactic amnioinfusion for women in labour with oligohydramnios, but not fetal heart deceleration, compared with therapeutic amnioinfusion only if fetal heart rate decelerations or thick meconium-staining of the liquor occur. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (28 February 2012). Randomised trials comparing prophylactic amnioinfusion in women in labour with oligohydramnios but not fetal heart rate deceleration in labour with therapeutic amnioinfusion. The authors assessed trial quality and extracted data. One randomized trial of 116 women was included. No differences were found in the rate of caesarean section (risk ratio 1.29, 95% confidence interval 0.60 to 2.74). There were no differences in cord arterial pH, oxytocin augmentation, neonatal pneumonia or postpartum endometritis. Prophylactic amnioinfusion was associated with increased intrapartum fever (risk ratio 3.48, 95% confidence interval 1.21 to 10.05). There appears to be no advantage of prophylactic amnioinfusion over therapeutic amnioinfusion carried out only when fetal heart rate decelerations or thick meconium-staining of the liquor occur.

  17. Vocational Education and Training in India: A Labour Market Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agrawal, Tushar; Agrawal, Ankush

    2017-01-01

    Skill development has been a major policy agenda in several countries and there is a lot of emphasis on the promotion of vocational education and training (VET) programmes. This paper investigates the labour market outcomes of the vocationally trained population in India using the data from a nationally representative survey on employment and…

  18. Child Labour, Education Policy and Governance in Cambodia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Chae-Young

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers how the issue of child labour is located in Cambodian education policy debates and how it is affected by the major constraints surrounding the Cambodian education sector. In particular, it asks why Cambodian policy makers have not sought to address the issue explicitly despite its considerable, and adverse, impact on…

  19. The Value of Childcare: Class, Gender and Caring Labour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrew, Yarrow; Newman, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Despite increasing attention being paid to early childhood services as the foundation for lifelong learning, one issue seems to be consistently ignored--staff wages. The authors argue that this constitutes ongoing exploitation of childcare staff, and that this exploitation is a result of gendered and classed discourses around caring labour. As…

  20. Child Domestic Labour: A Modern Form of Slavery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blagbrough, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    This article provides a global scene for the scope of child domestic labour and explores the inter-woven relationship between the practice and slavery, as well as the consequences for this uniquely vulnerable group of child workers. In doing so, it seeks to dispel the myths that child domestic work is a safe form of employment for girls…

  1. Mismatch of Vocational Graduates: What Penalty on French Labour Market?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beduwe, Catherine; Giret, Jean-Francois

    2011-01-01

    This study explores individual effects of educational mismatch on wages, job satisfaction and on-the-job-search on French labour market. We distinguish between horizontal matches (job matches with field of studies) and vertical matches (job matches the level of qualification) on the one hand and skills matches (worker's assessment) on the other…

  2. Insulin during pregnancy, labour and delivery.

    PubMed

    de Valk, Harold W; Visser, Gerard H A

    2011-02-01

    subcutaneous insulin administration (CSII (insulin pump)) over intensive insulin injection therapy (multiple-dose insulin (MDI)) on any maternal or foeto-neonatal end point. However, group sizes were far too small to allow assessment of superiority and issues such as manageability of the disease and quality of life were never assessed. These two issues are of major importance to patients. The first trimester is often the period of most hypoglycaemic events, and insulin therapy should be especially closely monitored and adjusted in this period. After midterm, insulin requirements increase. Continuous glucose monitoring can offer better insights into the glycaemic profile than self-monitoring of blood glucose levels by the patients but the place of these new monitoring techniques has yet to be established more clearly. Insulin therapy during labour means short-acting insulin adjusted to achieve glucose levels between 4 and 8 mmol l(-1) to prevent neonatal hypoglycaemia as much as possible. After delivery, glycaemic control must be relaxed to prevent hypoglycaemia, especially in women who breastfeed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Role of stress peptides during human pregnancy and labour.

    PubMed

    Hillhouse, Edward W; Grammatopoulos, Dimitris K

    2002-09-01

    Premature birth is the major source of perinatal death and disability. Furthermore, the intrauterine health of the baby is important for preventing certain adult diseases. However, the molecular mechanisms driving the onset of human labour remain uncertain, although several key players have been identified. It is becoming clear that there are many pathways to parturition in humans. Stress peptides, in particular placental corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH) and possibly the related peptide urocortin, appear to play important roles throughout pregnancy. Plasma CRH is a predictor of the duration of human gestation. During most of pregnancy, CRH, acting via specific CRH receptor subtypes, plays a 'protective' role by promoting myometrial quiescence via the generation of cAMP and cGMP, and upregulation of nitric oxide synthase expression. At term, myometrial contractility is enhanced by a complex series of molecular switches, involving the upregulation of oxytocin receptor expression and crosstalk between the oxytocin and CRH receptors. This results in protein kinase C-induced phosphorylation of specific CRH receptor subtypes, with subsequent desensitization and a shift in the intracellular microenvironment to enhance contractility. CRH/urocortin, via specific receptor isoforms, is now able to activate Gq and potentially enhance the oxytocin-driven generation of inositol triphosphate. In addition, CRH/urocortin, via specific CRH receptor subtypes, may generate prostaglandins from the fetal membranes and decidua, play a role in placental vasodilatation and participate in fetal adrenal function and organ maturation. These peptides and receptors are phylogenetically ancient and well preserved across species. They may have evolved as a mechanism to protect against the 'stress' of premature birth.

  4. Does antenatal pelvic floor muscle training affect the outcome of labour? A randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Agur, Wael; Steggles, Pippin; Waterfield, Malcolm; Freeman, Robert

    2008-01-01

    It is thought that antenatal pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) might produce a strong pelvic floor resulting in prolonged labour, whilst some believe it produces well-controlled muscles that facilitate rotation of the foetal head and shortens the duration of labour. This secondary analysis (of a previously published randomised controlled trial) assesses the labour and delivery details of 268 primigravidae who were originally randomised at approximately 20 weeks gestation to supervised PFMT or a control group. Between the two groups, there was no difference in the duration of the second stage of labour or in the need for instrumental delivery. PFMT does not appear to facilitate or obstruct labour.

  5. Standard- or high-dose oxytocin for nulliparous women with confirmed delay in labour: quantitative and qualitative results from a pilot randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Kenyon, S; Armstrong, N; Johnston, T; Walkinshaw, S; Petrou, S; Howman, A; Cheed, V; Markham, C; McNicol, S; Willars, J; Waugh, J

    2013-10-01

    Evidence suggests that a high dose of oxytocin for nulliparous women at 37-42 weeks of gestation with confirmed delay in labour increases spontaneous vaginal birth. We undertook a pilot study to test the feasibility of this treatment. Pilot double-blind randomised controlled trial. Three teaching hospitals in the UK. A total of 94 consenting nulliparous women at term with confirmed delay in labour were recruited, and 18 were interviewed. Women were assigned to either a standard (2 mU/min, increasing every 30 minutes to 32 mU/minute) or a high-dose regimen (4 mU/minute, increasing every 30 minutes to 64 mU/minutes) oxytocin by computer-generated randomisation. Simple descriptive statistics were used, as the sample size was insufficient to evaluate clinical outcomes. The constant comparative method was used to analyse the interviews. The main outcome measures: number of women eligible; maternal and neonatal birth; safety; maternal psychological outcomes and experiences; health-related quality of life outcomes using validated tools and data on health service resource use; incidence of suspected delay of labour (cervical dilatation of <2 cm after 4 hours, once labour is established); and incidence of confirmed delay of labour (progress of <1 cm on repeat vaginal examination after a period of 2 hours). We successfully developed systems to recruit eligible women in labour and to collect data. Rates of spontaneous vaginal birth (10/47 versus 12/47, RR 1.2, 95% CI 0.6-2.5) and caesarean section (15/47 versus 17/47, RR 1.1, 95% CI 0.6-2.0) were increased, and rates of instrumental birth were reduced (21/47 versus 17/47, RR 0.8, 95% CI 0.5-1.3). No evidence of increased harm for either mother or baby was found. The incidences of suspected delay (14%) and confirmed delay (11%) in labour were less than anticipated. Of those who did not go on to have delayed labour confirmed, all except one woman gave birth vaginally. A pilot trial assessing the efficacy of high-dose oxytocin

  6. Labour induction at term: clinical, biophysical and molecular predictive factors.

    PubMed

    Riboni, Francesca; Garofalo, Greta; Pascoli, Irene; Vitulo, Anna; Dell'avanzo, Marinella; Battagliarin, Giuseppe; Paternoster, Delia

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this multicentric study is to compare clinical, biophysical and molecular parameters in the prediction of the success of labour induction with prostaglandins. We included 115 women, who underwent to labour induction at term with vaginal prostaglandin gel. We evaluated the diagnostic efficiency of endocervical phosphorylated insulin-like growth factor-binding protein (phIGFBP-1), cervicovaginal interleukins 6 (IL-6) and 8 (IL-8). We analyzed the transvaginal sonographic measurement of cervical length. A receiver-operating characteristics (ROC) curve was used to determine the most useful cut-off point. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to analyze the combination of significant predictive variables following univariate analysis. We analyzed all the data searching for the parameters that best predict the beginning of the active phase of labour within 12 h. 36.5 % of the patients delivered within 12 h. The Bishop score was >4 in the 43 % of patients with an active phase. The best cut-off values at ROC curves for cervical length, IL-6 and IL-8 were respectively 22 mm, 5 mg/dl and 20,237 mg/dl. At univariate analysis, all predictors of success, with the exception of IL-6, were significantly associated with the beginning of the active phase. Multivariate analysis of the Bishop score (OR 2.3), phIGFBP-1 test (OR 11.2) and IL-8 (OR 6.6) showed that the variables were independent and therefore useful in combination to predict the success of labour induction. The phIGFBP-1 test is a fast and easy test that can be used with Bishop score and IL-8 to reach an high positive predictive value in the prediction of the success of labour induction with prostaglandins.

  7. Butorphanol in labour analgesia: A prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Halder, Ajay; Agarwal, Rachana

    2013-01-01

    Objective Parenteral opioids can be administered with ease at a very low cost with high efficacy as labour analgesia. However, there are insufficient data available to accept the benefits of parenteral opioids over other proven methods of labour analgesia. Butorphanol, a new synthetic opioid, has emerged as a promising agent in terms of efficacy and a better safety profile. This study investigates the effect of butorphanol as a labour analgesia to gather further evidence of its safety and efficacy to pave the way for its widespread use in low resource settings. Material and Methods One hundred low risk term consenting pregnant women were recruited to take part in a prospective cohort study. Intramuscular injections of butorphanol tartrate 1 mg (Butrum 1/2mg, Aristo, Mumbai, India) were given in the active phase of labour and repeated two hourly. Pain relief was noted on a 10-point visual pain analogue scale (VPAS). Obstetric and neonatal outcome measures were mode of delivery, duration of labour, Apgar scores at 1 and 5 minutes and Neonatal Intensive Care Unit admissions. Collected data were analysed for statistically significant pain relief between pre- and post-administration VPAS scores and also for the incidence of adverse outcomes. Results Pain started to decrease significantly within 15 minutes of administration and reached the nadir (3.08 SD0.51) at the end of two hours. The pain remained below four on the VPAS until the end of six hours and was still significantly low after eight hours. The incidence of adverse outcomes was low in the present study. Conclusion Butorphanol is an effective parenteral opioid analgesic which can be administered with reasonable safety for the mother and the neonate. The study has the drawback of lack of control and small sample size. PMID:24592110

  8. Labour induction with gestational hypertension: A great obstetric challenge

    PubMed Central

    Khaskheli, Meharun-Nissa; Baloch, Shahla; Sheeba, Aneela; Baloch, Sarmad; Khan, Fahad

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To observe the fetomaternal morbidity and mortality with induction of labour in pregnant women with gestational hypertension. Methods: The subjected study population included was 138 pregnant women with gestational hypertension. These pregnant women were between 34-40 weeks of gestational period in whom labour was induced, while the pregnant women who had labour induction for other reasons were excluded. These women were registered on the predesigned proforma. The data was collected and analyzed on SPSS version 21. Result: Out of the 138 cases, mean age of the women was 25.93±5.037, prim gravid women were 78(56.5%), gestational period in majority of these women 71(51.4%) varied between 35-38 weeks. The common presenting symptoms were oedema 119(86.23%), headache 90(65.21%). Labour induction in majority of the cases 81(58.7%) was carried with prosten pessary. The Caesarean section was needed in 39(28.3%) women in emergency due to maternal and fetal reasons or due to failed induction. Maternal complications were uncontrolled hypertension 23(16.7%), intensive care unit admission 21(15.2%), fits 15(10.9%), post partum haemorrhage 13(9.4%). Fetal complications were birth asphyxia 49(35.5%), neonatal intensive care unit admission 17(12.3%), neonatal death 14(10.1%). Conclusion: The emergency Caesarean section rate was quite high with induction of labour in pregnant women with gestational diabetes. The maternal morbidity as well as fetal morbidity and mortality rate was also high.

  9. Continuous assessment of labour pain using handgrip force

    PubMed Central

    Wickboldt, Nadine; Savoldelli, Georges; Rehberg-Klug, Benno

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Assessment of dynamic changes in painful experiences, such as labour, using conventional rating scales (eg, numerical rating scale [NRS]) has limitations. An alternative for continuous pain evaluation could be a signal generated by voluntary action of the parturient. Remifentanil administration for obstetric analgesia could be improved by these dynamic measures of labour pain. In the present study, handgrip force was measured by a dynamometer to signal labour pain. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate: whether continuous monitoring of labour pain using handgrip force allows for determination of pain measurement during contractions; and the correlation between handgrip force and pain intensity on NRS. METHODS: The present observational, single-centre study included 43 parturients. After calibration of the dynamometer for individual hand muscle strength, pain was recorded during early and late labour using a dynamometer and an NRS. The primary end point was the correlation coefficient between NRS ratings and peak intensity recorded by the dynamometer. RESULTS: All dynamometer-registered readings were also registered by the external tocogram. All contractions recorded by external tocogram were also registered by the dynamometer. Handgrip force was moderately correlated with pain scores on the NRS. Mean handgrip force during contractions had the highest correlation coefficient (Pearson’s r=0.67) compared with peak handgrip force (r=0.56) and area under the curve of handgrip force (r=0.55). CONCLUSIONS: Pain intensity and duration can be assessed continuously using handgrip force measured via a dynamometer. The feedback of intensity and duration of pain could optimize patient-controlled remifentantil application for obstetric analgesia and other situations of highly variable pain intensity. PMID:25996768

  10. The dynamics of epidural and opioid analgesia during labour.

    PubMed

    Zondag, Dirkje C; Gross, Mechthild M; Grylka-Baeschlin, Susanne; Poat, Angela; Petersen, Antje

    2016-11-01

    To investigate the association of analgesia, opioids or epidural, or the combination of both with labour duration and spontaneous birth in nulliparous women. A secondary data analysis of an existing cohort study was performed and included nulliparous women (n = 2074). Durations of total labour and first and second labour stage were calculated with Kaplan-Meier estimation for the four different study groups: no analgesia (n = 620), opioid analgesia (n = 743), epidural analgesia (n = 482), and combined application (n = 229). Labour duration was compared by Cox regression while adjusting for confounders and censoring for operative births. Logistic regression was used to investigate the association between the administration of different types of analgesia and mode of birth. Most women in the combined application group were first to receive opioid analgesia. Women with no analgesia had the shortest duration of labour (log rank p < 0.001) and highest chance of a spontaneous birth (p < 0.001). If analgesia was administered, women with opioids had a shorter first stage (p = 0.018), compared to women with epidural (p < 0.001) or women with combined application (p < 0.001). Women with opioids had an increased chance to reach full cervical dilatation (p = 0.006). Women with epidural analgesia (p < 0.001) and women with combined application (p < 0.001) had a prolonged second stage and decreased chance of spontaneous birth compared to women without analgesia. Women with opioids had a prolonged first stage, but increased chance to reach full cervical dilatation. Women with epidural analgesia and women with both opioid and epidural analgesia had a prolonged first and second stage and a decreased chance of a spontaneous birth.

  11. Efficacy of transdermal nitroglycerine in idiopathic pre-term labour.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Shahida; Shaikh, Abdul Hameed; Akhter, Saleem; Isran, Basma

    2012-01-01

    To determine the efficacy of transdermal Nitroglycerine patch in idiopathic pre-term labour and foetomaternal outcome. This quasi-experimental study was conducted at the Obstetrics Unit-II of Shaikh Zayed Hospital for Women, Chandka Medical College, Shaheed Mohtarma Benazir Bhutto Medical University, Larkana, from Jan 1 to June 30, 2010. Sixtyfive pregnant women at 28-34 weeks of gestation were recruited after they met the selection criteria based on non-probability consecutive sampling. Initially, 73 patients were selected, but 65 of them completed the treatment, while 8 patients refused to continue. Patients diagnosed with pre-term labour were given glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) 5 mg/12 hours transdermal patch which was applied on the anterior abdominal wall. The second patch of same dose was given after 12 hours. Arrest of labour, prolongation of pregnancy in days or weeks along with side effects of the agent were monitored. Patients were followed till delivery to know the foeto-maternal outcome. Dramatic effects were seen in around 60 (92.3%), of the total patients who had felt relief from premature labour pains within the first hour and only 5 (7.6%) patients could not go beyond 24 hours, as among them 3 (4.61%) had previous uterine scar and 2 (3.07%) developed ruptured membranes after 12 hours of admission and their babies also could not survive. Mean pregnancy prolongation was 15.35 +/- 9.45 days (min: 4 max: 35), so delivery was deferred up to 48 hours, 3 to 7 days and more than 7 days in 4 (6.15%), 6 (9.23%) and 50 (76.92%) respectively. Glyceryl trinitrate, trans dermal patch is effective and safe tocolytic in idiopathic preterm labour. By prolonging pregnancy it improves neonatal outcome.

  12. A realist review of the partograph: when and how does it work for labour monitoring?

    PubMed

    Bedwell, Carol; Levin, Karen; Pett, Celia; Lavender, Dame Tina

    2017-01-13

    The partograph (or partogram) is recommended by the World Health Organisation (WHO), for monitoring labour wellbeing and progress. Concerns about limitations in the way the partograph is used in the clinical context and the potential impact on its effectiveness have led to this realist systematic review of partograph use. This review aimed to answer two key questions, 1) What is it about the partograph that works (or does not work); for whom does it work; and in what circumstances? 2) What are the essential inputs required for the partograph to work? A comprehensive search strategy encompassed key databases; including papers of varying methodologies. Papers were selected for inclusion if the focus of the paper was the partograph and related to context, mechanism or outcome. Ninety five papers were included for data synthesis. Two authors completed data extraction and synthesis. The evidence synthesis relates the evidence to identified theories of health worker acceptability, health system support, effective referral systems, human resources and health worker competence, highlighting barriers and facilitators. This first comprehensive realist synthesis of the partograph, provides the international community of maternity clinicians with a picture of potential issues and solutions related to successful labour recording and management, which is also translatable to other monitoring approaches.

  13. Gandhi and Mao on manual labour in the school: A retrospective analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zachariah, Mathew; Hoffman, Arlene

    1985-12-01

    Mahatma Gandhi's views on relating the world of formal education to the world of work were developed first in his experimental `Tolstoy Farm' in South Africa. On his return to India, Gandhi insisted that a required manual labour component in the curriculum would help regenerate India's village economy, develop in India's children a deeper understanding of India's cultural roots, motivate children to relate `book learning' to life in society, and destroy invidious caste distinctions. The major proposals and suggestions in Gandhi's writing will be discussed in the context of his hopes for using schooling as an agent of progress in India. Mao Ze-Dong's views, on the other hand, were developed in the context of his Yenan experience in the 1930s, i.e. the decision to consolidate a power base in the interior of China before waging a class war against the landlords and capitalists of China. Mao's views were also, to some extent, rooted in the Chinese reality of stagnant, poverty-stricken rural areas. But, Mao's writings indicate that Marxist hopes to relate theory and practice (as understood in dialectical materialism) and to ensure that everyone participated in mental as well as manual labour in a socialist society had led him to formulate his proposals. Both Gandhi's and Mao's views and proposals have been more or less abandoned in India and China respectively. The similar and dissimilar reasons which led to such a fate are examined in this retrospective analysis.

  14. Gender and migration on the labour market: Additive or interacting disadvantages in Germany?

    PubMed

    Fleischmann, Fenella; Höhne, Jutta

    2013-09-01

    Despite substantial differences in labour market attainment according to gender and migration status, gender and ethnic differences in labour market behaviour are most often studied separately. In contrast, this study describes and analyses interactions between gender, ethnic background and immigrant generation with regard to labour market participation, part-time work, and occupational status. The double comparison aims to reveal whether gender gaps in these labour market outcomes among the majority population generalise to ethnic minorities. Moreover, we ask whether variation in gender gaps in labour market behaviour follows the patterns in migrants' origin countries, and whether gender gaps show signs of intergenerational assimilation. Our heterogeneous choice and OLS regressions of 2009 German Microcensus data reveal considerable variation in gender gaps in labour market behaviour between East and West Germany, across ethnic groups and across generations. Intergenerational comparisons show that most ethnic minorities assimilate towards German patterns of gendered labour market attainment.

  15. Labour Market Outcomes of Vocational Education in Europe: Evidence from the European Union Labour Force Survey. Research Paper No 32

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cedefop - European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This report focuses on the outcomes of vocational education and, in particular, on the transition from education to work in the current employment situation for young adults in the European Union. Using anonymised microdata from the EU labour force survey 2009 ad hoc module, this is one of the first studies to undertake a large cross-country…

  16. Child labour in Egypt. I. Occupational and socio-economic aspects.

    PubMed

    Noweir, M H; Oman, H A; Abbas, F I; Abou-Taleb, A M; Mansour, T A

    1993-01-01

    The present study comprised 1000 child and young workers in small and medium-size industries in Alexandria, as well as 250 control subjects. Almost all young workers work for more than 40 hours/week and suffer from fatigue. Workers' family needs rather than the lack of family care is the responsible factor for sending the child to work, and the economic problems seem to be the underlying factor for all other problems of child labour. Work improves labourers' socio-economic status and smoking habit, and provides a chance for their personal contacts and interactions, which are reflected on their level of intellectual capabilities; however, it has some impact on their food habits affecting their achievement of balanced diet; and no drug addiction exists among all the studied subjects. Noise and dust represent the main occupational exposures (84.4% and 55.8% respectively), followed by exposure to heat (25.3%), vapors and gases (10.4%) and biological materials (9.0%), and nearly 2/3 of the workers have combined exposures. Work injuries occurred to 18.4% of the workers and 7.4% had more than one injury during employment; however, nearly 1/3 of the injuries required absenteeism off work and/or hospitalization. The injuries have been typically related to industrial operations, occurring mostly to hands and fingers (80.4%), and are mainly attributed to lack of training (63.0%). The health services presented to the workers are very poor. The study has been concluded by recommending making the work safe, free from hazards, and ergonomically fit to children, providing educational and training services, covering young workers by social security, and revising legislation of child labour.

  17. Management of third stage labour following vaginal birth in Iran: a survey of current policies.

    PubMed

    Afshari, Poorandokht; Medforth, Janet; Aarabi, Mohsen; Abedi, Parvin; Soltani, Hora

    2014-01-01

    this study was aimed to provide information on policies for the practice of managing the third stage of labour in Iran, including discussion of related systematic evidence. this survey used a standard questionnaire to obtain information about prevention and early treatment of postpartum haemorrhage from all geographical areas in Iran, in 2010. the survey included maternity units from 23 provinces, covering 129 out of a total of 560 maternity units in Iran. at least one public hospital, one private hospital and one rural birth facility unit were included from each province. Questionnaires were completed by the unit's senior midwife with support from the unit's lead obstetrician. all the units who were approached responded to the study including 69 public hospitals, 32 private hospitals and 28 rural birth facility units. The rate of active management of the third stage of labour was 57 per cent, although answers to individual components of management indicated a higher rate for active interventions than expectant management. Ninety-four per cent of the responding centres indicated oxytocin administration, 71 per cent apply early cord clamping and 65 per cent apply controlled cord traction. A lack of standard definition for postpartum haemorrhage was reported in 18 per cent of units. a high rate of active management was reported in Iran with variation in its different components which is in line with the international findings. These policies were mainly congruent with the existing systematic evidence except for timing of cord clamping. there is a need for improvement in locally sensitive policy development, continuing education, establishing accurate auditing systems and ensuring access to facilities such as blood banks and products in rural units. Efforts to reduce maternal mortality and morbidity and investigations into their causes should be extended to factors beyond the third stage of labour care clinical components. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by

  18. The New "Obstetrical Dilemma": Stunting, Obesity and the Risk of Obstructed Labour.

    PubMed

    Wells, Jonathan C K

    2017-04-01

    The "obstetrical dilemma" refers to the tight fit between maternal pelvic dimensions and neonatal size at delivery. Most interest traditionally focused on its generic significance for humans, for example our neonatal altriciality and our complex and lengthy birth process. Across contemporary populations, however, the obstetrical dilemma manifests substantial variability, illustrated by differences in the incidence of cephalo-pelvic disproportion, obstructed labour and cesarean section. Beyond accounting for 12% of maternal mortality worldwide, obstructed labour also imposes a huge burden of maternal morbidity, in particular through debilitating birth injuries. This article explores how the double burden of malnutrition and the global obesity epidemic may be reshaping the obstetrical dilemma. First, short maternal stature increases the risk of obstructed labour, while early age at marriage also risks pregnancy before pelvic growth is completed. Second, maternal obesity increases the risk of macrosomic offspring. In some populations, short maternal stature may also promote the risk of gestational diabetes, another risk factor for macrosomic offspring. These nutritional influences are furthermore sensitive to social values relating to issues such as maternal and child nutrition, gender inequality and age at marriage. Secular trends in maternal obesity are substantially greater than those in adult stature, especially in low- and middle-income countries. The association between the dual burden of malnutrition and the obstetrical dilemma is therefore expected to increase, because the obesity epidemic is emerging faster than stunting is being resolved. However, we currently lack objective population-specific data on the association between maternal obesity and birth injuries. Anat Rec, 300:716-731, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Trends and outcomes of induction of labour among nullipara at term.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Jillian A; Roberts, Christine L; Ford, Jane B; Morris, Jonathan M

    2011-12-01

      To determine induction trends and delivery, maternal and neonatal health outcomes by gestational age following induction at term for women having a first baby.   Linked birth and hospital data were used to examine the rates of adverse maternal and neonatal health outcomes for the period 2001-2007, among the 212,389 nullipara with singleton cephalic-presenting fetuses delivering between 37(0) and 41(6) weeks of gestation. Rates of caesarean delivery, neonatal transfers and overall severe neonatal and maternal adverse outcomes were determined by gestational age.   Between 1990 and 2008, nulliparous term inductions as a proportion of all births increased from 5518 (6.8%) to 11,166 (12.5%). More than 60% of these inductions are performed before 41 weeks. Among induced nullipara, 30.4% delivered by caesarean section. Adverse neonatal outcomes and transfer rates were lowest at 39-40 weeks (overall 2.1 and 0.5%, respectively), regardless of labour onset. Maternal morbidity increased at 40 weeks (from 1.1 to 1.3%) for women in spontaneous labour, was relatively stable in those undergoing induction of labour between 37 and 40 weeks (1.8%) and decreased with gestational age until 40 weeks in those undergoing a prelabour caesarean delivery (from 3.1 to 0.8%).   NSW has high rates of both induction and caesarean section following induction. This study highlights the changes to clinical practice that may help reduce the rate of caesarean births in nullipara. © 2011 The Authors. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology © 2011 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  20. Peripheral labour market position and risk of disability pension: a prospective population-based study.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, Klas; Aronsson, Gunnar; Marklund, Staffan; Wikman, Anders; Floderus, Birgitta

    2014-08-20

    To investigate what impact individuals' position in a labour market core-periphery structure may have on their risk of disability pension (DP) in general and specifically on their risk of DP based on mental or musculoskeletal diagnoses. The study comprised 45,567 individuals who had been interviewed for the annual Swedish Surveys of Living Conditions (1992-2007). The medical DP diagnoses were obtained from the Swedish Social Insurance Agency (1993-2011). The assumed predictors were studied in relation to DP by Cox's proportional hazards regression. The analyses were stratified on sex and age, controlling for social background and self-reported long-standing illness at baseline. All three indicators underlying the categorisation of the core-periphery structure: employment income, work hours and unemployment, increased the risk of DP in all strata. The risk of DP tended to increase gradually the more peripheral the labour market position was. The risk estimates for DP in general and for DP based on mental diagnoses were particularly high among men aged 20-39 years. The core-periphery position of individuals, representing their labour market attachment, was found to be a predictor of future DP. The association was most evident among individuals below 40 years of age with regard to DP based on mental diagnoses. This highlights the need for preventative measures that increase the participation of young people in working life. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. Effect of psychiatric illness and labour market status on suicide: a healthy worker effect?

    PubMed

    Agerbo, Esben

    2005-07-01

    To describe the association between labour market status and death by suicide with focus on admission with a psychiatric disorder. Nested case-control study. Data from routine registers. Entire Danish population. 9011 people aged 25-60 years who committed suicide during 1982-1997 and 180 220 matched controls. In the general population, not being fully employed is associated with a twofold to threefold increased relative risk of death by suicide, compared with being fully employed. In contrast, fully employed people who have been first admitted to a psychiatric hospital within the past year are at increased suicide risk. Patients who are unemployed, social benefits recipients, disability pensioners, or otherwise marginalised on the labour market have a suicide risk of 0.60 (95% CI: 0.46 to 0.78), 0.41 (0.23 to 0.74), 0.70 (0.45 to 1.08), and 0.86 (0.53 to 1.41), respectively. Although a similar risk decrease is found in women, men, people younger than 30 years, people older than 45 years, and in people who become unemployed, the reversed effect attenuates with time since admission, and little association is seen when a marginal structural model is applied. Although the results show an increased suicide mortality associated with unemployment and labour market marginalisation in the general population, the results suggest little or an inverse association between unemployment and suicide in people with psychiatric illness. The associations seen suggest the need to consider healthy worker selection effects when studying the causal pathway from unemployment and psychiatric illness to suicide.

  2. Work stress and depressive symptoms in older employees: impact of national labour and social policies.

    PubMed

    Lunau, Thorsten; Wahrendorf, Morten; Dragano, Nico; Siegrist, Johannes

    2013-11-21

    Maintaining health and work ability among older employees is a primary target of national labour and social policies (NLSP) in Europe. Depression makes a significant contribution to early retirement, and chronic work-related stress is associated with elevated risks of depression. We test this latter association among older employees and explore to what extent indicators of distinct NLSP modify the association between work stress and depressive symptoms. We choose six indicators, classified in three categories: (1) investment in active labour market policies, (2) employment protection, (3) level of distributive justice. We use data from three longitudinal ageing studies (SHARE, HRS, ELSA) including 5650 men and women in 13 countries. Information on work stress (effort-reward imbalance, low work control) and depressive symptoms (CES-D, EURO-D) was obtained. Six NLSP indicators were selected from OECD databases. Associations of work stress (2004) with depressive symptoms (2006) and their modification by policy indicators were analysed using logistic multilevel models. Risk of depressive symptoms at follow-up is higher among those experiencing effort-reward imbalance (OR: 1.55 95% CI 1.27-1.89) and low control (OR: 1.46 95% CI 1.19-1.79) at work. Interaction terms indicate a modifying effect of a majority of protective NLSP indicators on the strength of associations of effort - reward imbalance with depressive symptoms. Work stress is associated with elevated risk of prospective depressive symptoms among older employees from 13 European countries. Protective labour and social policies modify the strength of these associations. If further supported findings may have important policy implications.

  3. Higher effort–reward imbalance and lower job control predict exit from the labour market at the age of 61 years or younger: evidence from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing

    PubMed Central

    Hintsa, T; Kouvonen, A; McCann, M; Jokela, M; Elovainio, M; Demakakos, P

    2015-01-01

    Background We examined whether higher effort–reward imbalance (ERI) and lower job control are associated with exit from the labour market. Methods There were 1263 participants aged 50–74 years from the English Longitudinal Study on Ageing with data on working status and work-related psychosocial factors at baseline (wave 2; 2004–2005), and working status at follow-up (wave 5; 2010–2011). Psychosocial factors at work were assessed using a short validated version of ERI and job control. An allostatic load index was formed using 13 biological parameters. Depressive symptoms were measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Exit from the labour market was defined as not working in the labour market when 61 years old or younger in 2010–2011. Results Higher ERI OR=1.62 (95% CI 1.01 to 2.61, p=0.048) predicted exit from the labour market independent of age, sex, education, occupational class, allostatic load and depression. Job control OR=0.60 (95% CI 0.42 to 0.85, p=0.004) was associated with exit from the labour market independent of age, sex, education, occupation and depression. The association of higher effort OR=1.32 (95% CI 1.01 to 1.73, p=0.045) with exit from the labour market was independent of age, sex and depression but attenuated to non-significance when additionally controlling for socioeconomic measures. Reward was not related to exit from the labour market. Conclusions Stressful work conditions can be a risk for exiting the labour market before the age of 61 years. Neither socioeconomic position nor allostatic load and depressive symptoms seem to explain this association. PMID:25631860

  4. Higher effort-reward imbalance and lower job control predict exit from the labour market at the age of 61 years or younger: evidence from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing.

    PubMed

    Hintsa, T; Kouvonen, A; McCann, M; Jokela, M; Elovainio, M; Demakakos, P

    2015-06-01

    We examined whether higher effort-reward imbalance (ERI) and lower job control are associated with exit from the labour market. There were 1263 participants aged 50-74 years from the English Longitudinal Study on Ageing with data on working status and work-related psychosocial factors at baseline (wave 2; 2004-2005), and working status at follow-up (wave 5; 2010-2011). Psychosocial factors at work were assessed using a short validated version of ERI and job control. An allostatic load index was formed using 13 biological parameters. Depressive symptoms were measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Exit from the labour market was defined as not working in the labour market when 61 years old or younger in 2010-2011. Higher ERI OR=1.62 (95% CI 1.01 to 2.61, p=0.048) predicted exit from the labour market independent of age, sex, education, occupational class, allostatic load and depression. Job control OR=0.60 (95% CI 0.42 to 0.85, p=0.004) was associated with exit from the labour market independent of age, sex, education, occupation and depression. The association of higher effort OR=1.32 (95% CI 1.01 to 1.73, p=0.045) with exit from the labour market was independent of age, sex and depression but attenuated to non-significance when additionally controlling for socioeconomic measures. Reward was not related to exit from the labour market. Stressful work conditions can be a risk for exiting the labour market before the age of 61 years. Neither socioeconomic position nor allostatic load and depressive symptoms seem to explain this association. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. Oral misoprostol for induction of labour at term: randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Dodd, Jodie M; Crowther, Caroline A; Robinson, Jeffrey S

    2006-01-01

    Objective To compare oral misoprostol solution with vaginal prostaglandin gel (dinoprostone) for induction of labour at term to determine whether misoprostol is superior. Design Randomised double blind placebo controlled trial. Setting Maternity departments in three hospitals in Australia. Population Pregnant women with a singleton cephalic presentation at ≥ 36+6 weeks' gestation, with an indication for prostaglandin induction of labour. Interventions 20 μg oral misoprostol solution at ourly intervals and placebo vaginal gel or vaginal dinoprostone gel at six hourly intervals and placebo oral solution. Main outcome measures Vaginal birth within 24 hours; uterine hyperstimulation with associated changes in fetal heart rate; caesarean section (all); and caesarean section for fetal distress. Results 741 women were randomised, 365 to the misoprostol group and 376 to the vaginal dinoprostone group. There were no significant differences between the two treatment groups in the primary outcomes: vaginal birth not achieved in 24 hours (misoprostol 168/365 (46.0%) v dinoprostone 155/376 (41.2%); relative risk 1.12, 95% confidence interval 0.95 to 1.32; P = 0.134), caesarean section (83/365 (22.7%) v 100/376 (26.6%); 0.82, 0.64 to 1.06; P = 0.127), caesarean section for fetal distress (32/365 (8.8%) v 35/376 (9.3%); 0.91, 0.57 to 1.44; P = 0.679), or uterine hyperstimulation with changes in fetal heart rate (3/365 (0.8%) v 6/376 (1.6%); 0.55, 0.14 to 2.21; P = 0.401). Although there were differences in the process of labour induction, there were no significant differences in adverse maternal or neonatal outcomes. Conclusions This trial shows no evidence that oral misoprostol is superior to vaginal dinoprostone for induction of labour. However, it does not lead to poorer health outcomes for women or their infants, and oral treatment is preferred by women. Trial registration National Health and Medical Research Council, Perinatal Trials, PT0361. PMID:16455695

  6. Making Higher Education Work: A Comparison of Discourses in the United Kingdom's Conservative and Labour Parties' General Election Manifestos between 1979 and 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Souto-Otero, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    This article elaborates a model of social democratic and conservative discourses in relation to access, financing, management, and results of higher education. The model is contrasted with the position of the Conservative Party and the Labour Party in the United Kingdom from the late 1970s to 2010 as expressed in their electoral manifestos. The…

  7. Critical Professional Issues in Labour Force Development for Teachers with Children up to Two Years of Age: A New Zealand Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockel, Jean

    2014-01-01

    This paper critically examines current concerns regarding professional issues in labour force development for teachers with children up to two years of age (UtoT). The concerns in New Zealand (NZ) relate to whether initial teacher-education (ITE) qualifications prepare teachers to work with children UtoT, involving synergy between ITE and the…

  8. Are There Economic Incentives for Non-Traditional Students to Enter HE? The Labour Market as a Barrier to Widening Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adnett, Nick; Slack, Kim

    2007-01-01

    The expansion of higher education (HE) in the UK has disproportionately benefited young people from relatively rich families: the gap between rich and poor in terms of participation in HE having widened since the 1970s. We explore a neglected possible cause of this class difference: that the labour market fails to provide sufficient incentives for…

  9. Critical Professional Issues in Labour Force Development for Teachers with Children up to Two Years of Age: A New Zealand Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockel, Jean

    2014-01-01

    This paper critically examines current concerns regarding professional issues in labour force development for teachers with children up to two years of age (UtoT). The concerns in New Zealand (NZ) relate to whether initial teacher-education (ITE) qualifications prepare teachers to work with children UtoT, involving synergy between ITE and the…

  10. A neoliberalisation of civil society? Self-help groups and the labouring class poor in rural South India.

    PubMed

    Pattenden, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    This paper notes the prominence of self-help groups (SHGs) within current anti-poverty policy in India, and analyses the impacts of government- and NGO-backed SHGs in rural North Karnataka. It argues that self-help groups represent a partial neoliberalisation of civil society in that they address poverty through low-cost methods that do not challenge the existing distribution of power and resources between the dominant class and the labouring class poor. It finds that intra-group savings and loans and external loans/subsidies can provide marginal economic and political gains for members of the dominant class and those members of the labouring classes whose insecure employment patterns currently provide above poverty line consumption levels, but provide neither material nor political gains for the labouring class poor. Target-oriented SHG catalysts are inattentive to how the social relations of production reproduce poverty and tend to overlook class relations and socio-economic and political differentiation within and outside of groups, which are subject to interference by dominant class local politicians and landowners.

  11. Effects of a relaxation training programme on immediate and prolonged stress responses in women with preterm labour.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Li-Lan; Lin, Li-Chan; Cheng, Po-Jen; Chen, Chung-Hey; Wu, Shiao-Chi; Chang, Chuan-Lin

    2012-01-01

    This paper is a report of an experimental study of the effects of relaxation-training programme on immediate and prolonged stress responses in women with preterm labour. Hospitalized pregnant women with preterm labour experience developmental and situational stress. However, few studies have been performed on stress management in such women. An experimental pretest and repeated post-test design was used to compare the outcomes for two groups in northern Taiwan from December 2008, to May 2010. A total of 129 women were randomly assigned to an experimental (n = 68) or control (n = 61) group. The experimental group participants were instructed to listen daily to a 13-minute relaxation programme. Measurements involved the stress visual analogue scale, finger temperatures, State Trait Anxiety Inventory, Perceived Stress Scale and Pregnancy-related Anxiety. Two-way analysis of variance and hierarchical linear modelling were used to analyse the group differences. Compared with those in the control group, participants in the experimental group showed immediate improvements in the stress visual analogue scale scores and finger temperatures. The State Trait Anxiety Inventory-State subscale score for the experimental group was significantly lower than that for the control group (P = 0·03). However, no statistically significant differences for the Perceived Stress Scale and Pregnancy-related Anxiety scores were found between the experimental group and the control group. The relaxation-training programme could improve the stress responses of women with preterm labour. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Double-balloon catheter versus prostaglandin E2 for cervical ripening and labour induction: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Du, Y M; Zhu, L Y; Cui, L N; Jin, B H; Ou, J L

    2017-05-01

    Induction of labour has become an increasingly common procedure. Ripening methods, including mechanical devices and pharmacological agents, improve the success rate of labour induction. To compare the efficacy and safety of the double-balloon catheter with prostaglandin E2 agents used for labour induction. We searched electronic sources from MEDLINE, Embase and Web of Science, the Cochrane Library Database of Systematic Reviews, and ClinicalTrials.gov website. Only randomised controlled trials comparing the PGE2 agents with the double-balloon catheter for cervical ripening and labour induction in women with unfavourable cervices were included in the analysis. The main outcomes included the vaginal delivery rate within 24 hours and risk of caesarean section. We calculated relative risks and mean differences using fixed- and random-effects models. Nine studies (1866 patients) were included in this systematic review. Both the double-balloon catheter and PGE2 agents were comparable with regard to rate of caesarean section (RR 0.92; 95% CI 0.79, 1.07), vaginal delivery within 24 hours (RR 0.95; 95% CI 0.78, 1.16) and maternal adverse events, but the risk of excessive uterine activity (RR 10.02; 95% CI 3.99, 25.17) and need for neonatal intensive care unit admissions (RR 1.31; 95% CI 1.01, 1.69) were significantly increased in women who received PGE2 agents. The double-balloon catheter demonstrated greater safety and cost-effectiveness than PGE2 agents for cervical ripening and labour induction. The efficacy profiles of both methods were similar. Double-balloon catheter versus prostaglandin E2 for cervical ripening and labour induction. © 2016 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  13. Induction of labour for suspected macrosomia at term in non-diabetic women: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Magro-Malosso, E R; Saccone, G; Chen, M; Navathe, R; Di Tommaso, M; Berghella, V

    2017-02-01

    Several randomized controlled trials (RCTs) compared induction of labour with expectant management in non-diabetic women with suspected fetal macrosomia. To evaluate the effects of labour induction for suspected fetal macrosomia. Literature search in electronic databases. We included all RCTs of suspected fetal macrosomia comparing labour induction with expectant management in term pregnancy. The primary outcome was the incidence of caesarean delivery. Four RCTs, including 1190 non-diabetic women with suspected fetal macrosomia at term, were analysed. Pooled data did not show a significant difference in incidence of caesarean delivery [relative risk (RR) 0.91, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.76-1.09], operative and spontaneous vaginal delivery, shoulder dystocia, intracranial haemorrhage, brachial plexus palsy, Apgar score <7 at 5 min, cord blood pH <7, and mean birth weight comparing women who received induction of labour with those who were managed expectantly. The induction group had a significantly lower time to delivery (mean difference -7.55 days, 95% CI -8.20 to -6.89), lower rate of birth weight ≥4000 g (RR 0.50, 95% CI 0.42-0.59) and ≥4500 g (RR 0.21, 95% CI 0.11-0.39), and lower incidence of fetal fractures (RR 0.17, 95% CI 0.03-0.79) compared with expectant management group. Induction of labour ≥38 weeks for suspected fetal macrosomia is associated with a significant decrease in fetal fractures, and therefore can be considered as a reasonable option. TWEETABLE ABSTRACT: #Induction of labour for #macrosomia improves neonatal outcome. © 2016 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  14. Continuous Flow in Labour-Intensive Manufacturing Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacheco Eng., Jhonny; Carbajal MSc., Eduardo; Stoll-Ing., Cesar, Dr.

    2017-06-01

    A continuous-flow manufacturing represents the peak of standard production, and usually it means high production in a strict line production. Furthermore, low-tech industry demands high labour-intensive, in this context the efficient of the line production is tied at the job shop organization. Labour-intensive manufacturing processes are a common characteristic for developing countries. This research aims to propose a methodology for production planning in order to fulfilment a variable monthly production quota. The main idea is to use a clock as orchestra director in order to synchronize the rate time (takt time) of customer demand with the manufacturing time. In this way, the study is able to propose a stark reduction of stock in process, over-processing, and unnecessary variability.

  15. Induction of labour and intrapartum care in obese women.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Namiko; Lim, Boon H

    2015-04-01

    The rising incidence of obesity in pregnancy has a significant impact on the provision of health services around the world. Due to the pathophysiological processes associated with the condition, the obese pregnant woman is at increased risks of induction of labour, caesarean section, post-partum haemorrhage, infection, longer hospital stay, macrosomia and higher perinatal morbidity and mortality. Labour is more likely to be prolonged and dysfunctional, leading to the requirements for higher doses of oxytocin and increased risks of operative deliveries and morbidity. A multidisciplinary approach to the planning of antenatal, intrapartum and postnatal care is vital to ensure a safe outcome for the obese pregnant woman and her baby. The need for supervision and attendance by senior obstetric staff is increased, emphasising the need to identify the appropriate place of birth for this high-risk group of women, placing a significant strain on the resources of health-care providers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Health shocks, employment and income in the Spanish labour market.

    PubMed

    García Gómez, Pilar; López Nicolás, Angel

    2006-09-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between health shocks and labour outcomes in the Spanish population using the European Community Household Panel. In order to control for the non-experimental nature of the data we use difference in difference and matching techniques. Our results suggest that there is a significant effect running from health to the probability of employment and to labour income. Moreover, while we cannot investigate the influence of childhood events and other phenomena that trigger long run causal pathways from socio-economic status to health, we are able to find a significant reduction in the probability of reporting good health in individuals who transit out of employment in comparison with individuals who are otherwise identical in terms of reported health status at the time of the transition.

  17. The practice of toning in pregnancy and labour: participant experiences.

    PubMed

    Pierce, B

    1998-04-01

    Women, primarily from the author's childbirth education classes, were taught the practice of toning, i.e. voicing the exhalation of breath on a single pitch, using a vowel sound or a hum. Women were encouraged to explore toning during pregnancy and use it as a resource for labour. Postpartum, 22 women described their experiences with tone, pointing to a variety of effects such as increased ability to cope with pain, useful forms of focus, feelings of connection with nature, bodily vibration, relaxation, emotional release, diminished anxiety and a greater sense of power. Holistic aspects of breath and tone are described, as are specific applications of toning for pregnancy and labour. Carers who wish to use tone with clients are encouraged to develop a personal toning practice.

  18. Childhood Sporting Activities and Adult Labour-Market Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Cabane, Charlotte; Clark, Andrew E.

    2017-01-01

    We here ask whether childhood sport participation is positively correlated with adult labour-market outcomes. There are many potential channels for this effect, although, as usual, identifying a causal relationship is difficult. We appeal to two widely-separated waves of Add Health data to map out the correlation between childhood sports and a number of adult labour-market outcomes. We show that different types of childhood sports are associated with both managerial responsibilities and autonomy at work when adult. We take the endogeneity of sport seriously, and appeal to a variety of techniques, including the use of data on siblings, in order to obtain estimates that are as close to unbiased as possible. Last, we compare the effect of sporting activities to that of other leisure activities.* PMID:28798886

  19. Migrant labour, racism and the British National Health Service.

    PubMed

    Kyriakides, Christopher; Virdee, Satnam

    2003-11-01

    This study explores the dynamics of racism, specifically its generation and reproduction as an ideology, and its role in affecting the reception and occupational location of migrant medical labour in Britain. It is argued that the treatment of 'overseas doctors' in Britain draws on a complex interplay between racism and nationalism underpinned by the historical construction of 'welfarism' as a moral legitimator of 'Britishness'. Through an exploration of internal and external immigration controls introduced with the aim of regulating migrant labour, we demonstrate how British social policy and elite discourses of 'race' combine to construct moral prescriptions of threat such that migrants and British-born 'non-whites' entering the British medical profession are forced to negotiate 'saviour/pariah' ascriptions indicative of discriminatory but contradictory processes specific to the operation of the British National Health Service as a normative institution.

  20. Workplace health promotion and labour market performance of employees.

    PubMed

    Huber, Martin; Lechner, Michael; Wunsch, Conny

    2015-09-01

    This paper investigates the average effects of firm-provided workplace health promotion measures on labour market outcomes of the firms' employees. Exploiting linked employer-employee panel data that consist of rich survey-based and administrative information on firms, workers and regions, we apply a flexible propensity score matching approach that controls for selection on observables and time-constant unobserved factors. While the effects of analysing sickness absenteeism appear to be rather limited, our results suggest that health circles/courses increase tenure and job stability across various age groups. A key finding is that health circles/courses strengthen the labour force attachment of elderly employees (51-60), implying potential cost savings for public transfer schemes such as unemployment insurance or early retirement schemes.

  1. Entry into labour: The experience of young adults in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, Candido A.

    1990-12-01

    This study focuses on the experience of young adults employed in the tertiary sector in Brasília. The results show that young people are prepared for work by on-the-job training and nonformal education; schooling is mainly an indicator of trainability. Entry into the labour force reinforces social differences in family background and schooling. The results tend to support the moderate version of classical theory with regard to the nature of school/work relationships. In the context of the conflict paradigm, the data run contrary to both reproductionism and the radical critique of this view. From the comparative standpoint youth is an underprivileged group in the labour market, regardless of sex, socioeconomic status and country of residence. Despite these variations, societies are stratified by age groups.

  2. Restricting oral fluid and food intake during labour.

    PubMed

    Singata, Mandisa; Tranmer, Joan; Gyte, Gillian M L

    2013-08-22

    Restricting fluids and foods during labour is common practice across many birth settings with some women only being allowed sips of water or ice chips. Restriction of oral intake may be unpleasant for some women, and may adversely influence their experience of labour. To determine the benefits and harms of oral fluid or food restriction during labour. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (30 June 2013) and reference lists of retrieved studies. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs of restricting fluids and food for women in labour compared with women free to eat and drink. Two review authors independently assessed the studies for inclusion, assessed risk of bias and carried out data extraction. We identified 19 studies of which we included five, involving 3130 women. We excluded eight studies, one awaits classification and five are ongoing studies. All the included studies looked at women in active labour and at low risk of potentially requiring a general anaesthetic. One study looked at complete restriction versus giving women the freedom to eat and drink at will; two studies looked at water only versus giving women specific fluids and foods and two studies looked at water only versus giving women carbohydrate drinks.When comparing any restriction of fluids and food versus women given some nutrition in labour, the meta-analysis was dominated by one study undertaken in a highly medicalised environment. There were no statistically significant differences identified in: caesarean section (average risk ratio (RR) 0.89, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.63 to 1.25, five studies, 3103 women), operative vaginal births (average RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.88 to 1.10, five studies, 3103 women) and Apgar scores less than seven at five minutes (average RR 1.43, 95% CI 0.77 to 2.68, four studies, 2902 infants), nor in any of the other outcomes assessed. Women's views were not assessed. The pooled data were insufficient to assess the

  3. Use of vaginal prostaglandin gel before induction of labour.

    PubMed

    Murphy, A J; Jalland, M; Pepperell, R J; Quinn, M A

    1980-05-01

    Tylose gel containing either 1.5 mg, 3.0 mg or 10.0 mg of prostaglandin F2 alpha was inserted into the posterior vaginal fornix of 165 patients on the evening before induction of labour. A control group of 100 patients received the gel alone. There was a significant reduction in the induction-delivery interval in nulliparae receiving at least 3.0 mg of prostaglandin, whereas, in multiparae all doses achieved this effect. There was also a significant reduction in the incidence of forceps delivery in nulliparae who received 3.0 mg or more of the prostaglandin gel; however, there was no difference in the incidence of spontneous labour, epidural anaesthesia or Caesarean section between the patients who received prostaglandin or those receiving gel alone.

  4. The effects of maternal labour analgesia on the fetus.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Felicity

    2010-06-01

    Maternal labour pain and stress are associated with progressive fetal metabolic acidosis. Systemic opioid analgesia does little to mitigate this stress, but opioids readily cross the placenta and cause fetal-neonatal depression and impair breast feeding. Pethidine remains the most widely used, but alternatives, with the possible exception of remifentanil, have little more to offer. Inhalational analgesia using Entonox is more effective and, being rapidly exhaled by the newborn, is less likely to produce lasting depression. Neuraxial analgesia has maternal physiological and biochemical effects, some of which are potentially detrimental and some favourable to the fetus. Actual neonatal outcome, however, suggests that benefits outweigh detrimental influences. Meta-analysis demonstrates that Apgar score is better after epidural than systemic opioid analgesia, while neonatal acid-base balance is improved by epidural compared to systemic analgesia and even compared to no analgesia. Successful breast feeding is dependent on many factors, therefore randomized trials are required to elucidate the effect of labour analgesia.

  5. Stress, pre-term labour and birth outcomes.

    PubMed

    MacKey, M C; Williams, C A; Tiller, C M

    2000-09-01

    Stress, pre-term labour and birth outcomes Preliminary studies have suggested that stress may be associated with the onset, treatment and outcomes of pre-term labour; however, a systematic comparison of the stress of women with and without pre-term labour has not been reported. Therefore, the purpose of this exploratory study was to compare the stress (daily hassles and mood states) and birth outcomes of black and white women who experienced pre-term labour (PTL) during pregnancy with those who did not. The convenience sample consisted of 35 pregnant women hospitalized in 1996-1997 for the treatment of PTL (24-35 weeks gestation) and 35 controls matched on age, race, parity, gestational age and method of hospital payment. Women in the PTL group had significantly higher tension-anxiety and depression-dejection on the Profile of Mood States (POMS), lower mean birthweight and mean gestational age, and a higher percentage of babies born <37 weeks and weighing 2500 g or less. Black women in the PTL group and white women in the control group had significantly higher scores on the fatigue sub-scale of the POMS and the work and future security sub-scales of the Daily Hassles Scale. Women in the PTL group whose babies weighed 2500 g or less had significantly higher scores on the health, inner concern and financial responsibility sub-scales of the Daily Hassles Scale. The findings from this study indicate the need for further exploration of the interaction of race and stress in understanding and preventing PTL and low birthweight and the need to examine the role of social support in preventing pre-term birth after an episode of PTL.

  6. Unauthorized Mexican workers in the 1990 Los Angeles County labour force.

    PubMed

    Marcelli, E A; Heer, D M

    1997-01-01

    "By analysing how unauthorized Mexicans compare with seven other ethno-racial groups in Los Angeles County, separately and collectively, by educational attainment and time spent in the U.S., we find that unauthorized Mexicans had relatively fewer years of formal education (either in the U.S. or in Mexico) and had been in the U.S. a relatively fewer number of years than in-migrants of other ethno-racial backgrounds in 1990. These findings are then used as proxies to compare the human capital endowments of different ethno-racial groups. We next estimate the number of unauthorized Mexicans by occupation, industry and class of worker, and compare these distributions with the total labour force and with the other ethno-racial groups in Los Angeles County.... Results show that amounts of human capital are positively related to the kinds of occupations filled." (SUMMARY IN FRE AND SPA)

  7. Skills, division of labour and economies of scale among Amazonian hunters and South Indian honey collectors.

    PubMed

    Hooper, Paul L; Demps, Kathryn; Gurven, Michael; Gerkey, Drew; Kaplan, Hillard S

    2015-12-05

    In foraging and other productive activities, individuals make choices regarding whether and with whom to cooperate, and in what capacities. The size and composition of cooperative groups can be understood as a self-organized outcome of these choices, which are made under local ecological and social constraints. This article describes a theoretical framework for explaining the size and composition of foraging groups based on three principles: (i) the sexual division of labour; (ii) the intergenerational division of labour; and (iii) economies of scale in production. We test predictions from the theory with data from two field contexts: Tsimane' game hunters of lowland Bolivia, and Jenu Kuruba honey collectors of South India. In each case, we estimate the impacts of group size and individual group members' effort on group success. We characterize differences in the skill requirements of different foraging activities and show that individuals participate more frequently in activities in which they are more efficient. We evaluate returns to scale across different resource types and observe higher returns at larger group sizes in foraging activities (such as hunting large game) that benefit from coordinated and complementary roles. These results inform us that the foraging group size and composition are guided by the motivated choice of individuals on the basis of relative efficiency, benefits of cooperation, opportunity costs and other social considerations. © 2015 The Author(s).

  8. The effect of labour on somatotype of males during the adolescent growth period.

    PubMed

    Ozener, B; Duyar, I

    2008-01-01

    Although the effect of labour and physical stress on the height and weight of growing children is relatively well known, rather limited information concerning the influences of the work environment on the physique of working children and adolescents is available. The purpose of this study was to increase our knowledge of the effects of mechanical stress on the human physique via somatotype during the adolescent growth period. Anthropometric measurements of 509 male apprentices aged 13.50-18.49 years and measurements of 451 nonworking youth (control group) of the same age group were taken. The members of both groups were from the lower socioeconomic strata and had similar living conditions. The apprentices were working an average of 11h per day in vocations requiring intense physical effort. The subjects were somatotyped using the Heath-Carter anthropometric protocol. The overall mean somatotypes were 2.3-4.4-3.3 for working adolescents, and 2.5-3.9-3.6 for the nonworking controls. A one-way multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) indicated significant differences between the groups. Working adolescents were more mesomorphic and less ectomorphic than their nonworking peers. In both groups, endomorphy decreased with age up to age 15; then remained stable for the labourers but increased for the nonworking peers. In both groups, mesomorphy was stable, but decreased with ectomorphy. These results indicate that physical stress not only causes retardation in linear growth, but also produces changes in human physique during the growth period.

  9. Participation as Post-Fordist Politics: Demos, New Labour, and Science Policy.

    PubMed

    Thorpe, Charles

    2010-12-01

    In recent years, British science policy has seen a significant shift 'from deficit to dialogue' in conceptualizing the relationship between science and the public. Academics in the interdisciplinary field of Science and Technology Studies (STS) have been influential as advocates of the new public engagement agenda. However, this participatory agenda has deeper roots in the political ideology of the Third Way. A framing of participation as a politics suited to post-Fordist conditions was put forward in the magazine Marxism Today in the late 1980s, developed in the Demos thinktank in the 1990s, and influenced policy of the New Labour government. The encouragement of public participation and deliberation in relation to science and technology has been part of a broader implementation of participatory mechanisms under New Labour. This participatory program has been explicitly oriented toward producing forms of social consciousness and activity seen as essential to a viable knowledge economy and consumer society. STS arguments for public engagement in science have gained influence insofar as they have intersected with the Third Way politics of post-Fordism.

  10. Molecular basis for the reproductive division of labour in a lower termite

    PubMed Central

    Weil, Tobias; Rehli, Michael; Korb, Judith

    2007-01-01

    Background Polyphenism, the expression of different phenotypes with the same genetic background, is well known for social insects. The substantial physiological and morphological differences among the castes generally are the result of differential gene expression. In lower termites, workers are developmentally flexible to become neotenic replacement reproductives via a single moult after the death of the founding reproductives. Thus, both castes (neotenics and workers) are expected to differ mainly in the expression of genes linked to reproductive division of labour, which constitutes the fundamental basis of insect societies. Results Representational difference analysis of cDNAs was used to study differential gene expression between neotenics and workers in the drywood termite Cryptotermes secundus (Kalotermitidae). We identified and, at least partially cloned five novel genes that were highly expressed in female neotenics. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of all five genes in different castes (neotenics, founding reproductives, winged sexuals and workers of both sexes) confirmed the differential expression patterns. In addition, the relative expression of these genes was determined in three body parts of female neotenics (head, thorax, and abdomen) using quantitative real-time PCR. Conclusion The identified genes could be involved in the control and regulation of reproductive division of labour. Interestingly, this study revealed an expression pattern partly similar to social Hymenoptera indicating both common and species-specific regulatory mechanisms in hemimetabolous and holometabolous social insects. PMID:17598892

  11. Skills, division of labour and economies of scale among Amazonian hunters and South Indian honey collectors

    PubMed Central

    Hooper, Paul L.; Demps, Kathryn; Gurven, Michael; Gerkey, Drew; Kaplan, Hillard S.

    2015-01-01

    In foraging and other productive activities, individuals make choices regarding whether and with whom to cooperate, and in what capacities. The size and composition of cooperative groups can be understood as a self-organized outcome of these choices, which are made under local ecological and social constraints. This article describes a theoretical framework for explaining the size and composition of foraging groups based on three principles: (i) the sexual division of labour; (ii) the intergenerational division of labour; and (iii) economies of scale in production. We test predictions from the theory with data from two field contexts: Tsimane' game hunters of lowland Bolivia, and Jenu Kuruba honey collectors of South India. In each case, we estimate the impacts of group size and individual group members' effort on group success. We characterize differences in the skill requirements of different foraging activities and show that individuals participate more frequently in activities in which they are more efficient. We evaluate returns to scale across different resource types and observe higher returns at larger group sizes in foraging activities (such as hunting large game) that benefit from coordinated and complementary roles. These results inform us that the foraging group size and composition are guided by the motivated choice of individuals on the basis of relative efficiency, benefits of cooperation, opportunity costs and other social considerations. PMID:26503681

  12. Participation as Post-Fordist Politics: Demos, New Labour, and Science Policy

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, British science policy has seen a significant shift ‘from deficit to dialogue’ in conceptualizing the relationship between science and the public. Academics in the interdisciplinary field of Science and Technology Studies (STS) have been influential as advocates of the new public engagement agenda. However, this participatory agenda has deeper roots in the political ideology of the Third Way. A framing of participation as a politics suited to post-Fordist conditions was put forward in the magazine Marxism Today in the late 1980s, developed in the Demos thinktank in the 1990s, and influenced policy of the New Labour government. The encouragement of public participation and deliberation in relation to science and technology has been part of a broader implementation of participatory mechanisms under New Labour. This participatory program has been explicitly oriented toward producing forms of social consciousness and activity seen as essential to a viable knowledge economy and consumer society. STS arguments for public engagement in science have gained influence insofar as they have intersected with the Third Way politics of post-Fordism. PMID:21258426

  13. Obstetric management of moderate and late preterm labour.

    PubMed

    McParland, P C

    2012-06-01

    Moderate and late preterm births account for the majority of preterm babies. The common perception that birth at 32-36 weeks' gestation carries few risks is now being challenged, as these babies have increased risk of neonatal mortality and morbidity. However, spontaneous labour at this gestation frequently has no specific, easily identifiable precursor, although preterm birth per se has a number of epidemiological and clinical associations. Prediction and prevention of preterm birth is currently largely aimed at identifying women at high risk such as those with previous preterm birth, and targeting intervention at this group. Both cervical length assessment and fibronectin testing permit some modification of the likelihood of preterm birth in this group. Progesterone treatment for the prevention of preterm birth is currently being researched widely, and appears a potentially promising strategy. Babies born at 32-36 weeks' gestation need careful monitoring in labour, with modification of intervention in labour due to their prematurity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Evolving the division of labour: generalists, specialists and task allocation.

    PubMed

    Wahl, L M

    2002-12-07

    The evolutionary dynamics of specialization, in the context of the division of labour, are investigated. Individuals associate in groups in which benefits are shared and costs borne individually; each individual is either a generalist who can perform all the necessary tasks, a specialist who performs a sub-set of the necessary tasks, or a parasite who contributes nothing to the group. The implications of the model are explored analytically and through both numerical and Monte Carlo methods. These methods demonstrate the evolution of populations towards stable arrangements of specialists and generalists. The fittest populations are those that divide tasks fairly and associate in large, highly specialized groups. Generalists have a distinct advantage in small groups, but the presence of generalists, ironically, lowers group fitness. Parasites are able to invade both specialized and non-specialized populations. A basic model for the continuous division of labour is also presented, demonstrating a tendency for populations to evolve increasingly unfair divisions of labour. This last result implies that an evolutionary ratchet favours disparity between the workload of specialist populations.

  15. Analysis of labour risks in the Spanish industrial aerospace sector.

    PubMed

    Laguardia, Juan; Rubio, Emilio; Garcia, Ana; Garcia-Foncillas, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Labour risk prevention is an activity integrated within Safety and Hygiene at Work in Spain. In 2003, the Electronic Declaration for Accidents at Work, Delt@ (DELTA) was introduced. The industrial aerospace sector is subject to various risks. Our objective is to analyse the Spanish Industrial Aerospace Sector (SIAS) using the ACSOM methodology to assess its labour risks and to prioritise preventive actions. The SIAS and the Services Subsector (SS) were created and the relevant accident rate data were obtained. The ACSOM method was applied through double contrast (deviation and translocation) of the SIAS or SS risk polygon with the considered pattern, accidents from all sectors (ACSOM G) or the SIAS. A list of risks was obtained, ordered by action phases. In the SIAS vs. ACSOM G analysis, radiation risks were the worst, followed by overstrains. Accidents caused by living beings were also significant in the SS vs. SIAE, which will be able to be used to improve Risk Prevention. Radiation is the most significant risk in the SIAS and the SS. Preventive actions will be primary and secondary. ACSOM has shown itself to be a valid tool for the analysis of labour risks.

  16. Cost implications in the management of induction of labour.

    PubMed

    Taylor, S J; Armour, C L

    1997-11-01

    For many years the standard treatment of induction of labour has been amniotomy followed by intravenous oxytocin. More recently prostaglandin E2 (PGE2; dinoprostone), in various preparations, has been used to both ripen the cervix before amniotomy and administration of oxytocin, and to induce labour on its own. Since the acquisition cost of PGE2 is approximately 15 times that of oxytocin, it is important to justify the use of PGE2. In this paper, literature from 1970 to 1996 has been reviewed and outcomes following the use of PGE2, plus amniotomy and oxytocin if necessary, have been compared with outcomes following the use of amniotomy plus oxytocin alone. No significant differences in the mode of delivery and no serious adverse effects in mothers or babies were detected. Three economic analyses of these approaches to induction of labour have been reviewed. While under certain conditions there may be some cost savings associated with the use of PGE2, neither of the studies reviewed showed substantial, reliable cost savings. Further research is required to identify the patients who would gain most benefit from the use of PGE2.

  17. Diverse definitions of prolonged labour and its consequences with sometimes subsequent inappropriate treatment.

    PubMed

    Nystedt, Astrid; Hildingsson, Ingegerd

    2014-07-16

    Prolonged labour very often causes suffering from difficulties that may have lifelong implications. This study aimed to explore the prevalence and treatment of prolonged labour and to compare birth outcome and women's experiences of prolonged and normal labour. Women with spontaneous onset of labour, living in a Swedish county, were recruited two months after birth, to a cross-sectional study. Women (n = 829) completed a questionnaire that investigated socio-demographic and obstetric background, birth outcome and women's feelings and experiences of birth. The prevalence of prolonged labour, as defined by a documented ICD-code and inspection of partogram was calculated. Four groups were identified; women with prolonged labour as identified by documented ICD-codes or by partogram inspection but no ICD-code; women with normal labour augmented with oxytocin or not. Every fifth woman experienced a prolonged labour. The prevalence with the documented ICD-code was (13%) and without ICD-code but positive partogram was (8%). Seven percent of women with prolonged labour were not treated with oxytocin. Approximately one in three women (28%) received oxytocin augmentation despite having no evidence of prolonged labour. The length of labour differed between the four groups of women, from 7 to 23 hours.Women with a prolonged labour had a negative birth experience more often (13%) than did women who had a normal labour (3%) (P <0.00). The factors that contributed most strongly to a negative birth experience in women with prolonged labour were emergency Caesarean section (OR 9.0, 95% CI 1.2-3.0) and to strongly agree with the following statement 'My birth experience made me decide not to have any more children' (OR 41.3, 95% CI 4.9-349.6). The factors that contributed most strongly to a negative birth experience in women with normal labour were less agreement with the statement 'It was exiting to give birth' (OR 0.13, 95% CI 0.34-0.5). There is need for increased clinical skill in

  18. Diverse definitions of prolonged labour and its consequences with sometimes subsequent inappropriate treatment

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Prolonged labour very often causes suffering from difficulties that may have lifelong implications. This study aimed to explore the prevalence and treatment of prolonged labour and to compare birth outcome and women’s experiences of prolonged and normal labour. Method Women with spontaneous onset of labour, living in a Swedish county, were recruited two months after birth, to a cross-sectional study. Women (n = 829) completed a questionnaire that investigated socio-demographic and obstetric background, birth outcome and women’s feelings and experiences of birth. The prevalence of prolonged labour, as defined by a documented ICD-code and inspection of partogram was calculated. Four groups were identified; women with prolonged labour as identified by documented ICD-codes or by partogram inspection but no ICD-code; women with normal labour augmented with oxytocin or not. Results Every fifth woman experienced a prolonged labour. The prevalence with the documented ICD-code was (13%) and without ICD-code but positive partogram was (8%). Seven percent of women with prolonged labour were not treated with oxytocin. Approximately one in three women (28%) received oxytocin augmentation despite having no evidence of prolonged labour. The length of labour differed between the four groups of women, from 7 to 23 hours. Women with a prolonged labour had a negative birth experience more often (13%) than did women who had a normal labour (3%) (P <0.00). The factors that contributed most strongly to a negative birth experience in women with prolonged labour were emergency Caesarean section (OR 9.0, 95% CI 1.2-3.0) and to strongly agree with the following statement ‘My birth experience made me decide not to have any more children’ (OR 41.3, 95% CI 4.9-349.6). The factors that contributed most strongly to a negative birth experience in women with normal labour were less agreement with the statement ‘It was exiting to give birth’ (OR 0.13, 95% CI 0

  19. Digital labour and development: impacts of global digital labour platforms and the gig economy on worker livelihoods.

    PubMed

    Graham, Mark; Hjorth, Isis; Lehdonvirta, Vili

    2017-05-01

    As ever more policy-makers, governments and organisations turn to the gig economy and digital labour as an economic development strategy to bring jobs to places that need them, it becomes important to understand better how this might influence the livelihoods of workers. Drawing on a multi-year study with digital workers in Sub-Saharan Africa and South-east Asia, this article highlights four key concerns for workers: bargaining power, economic inclusion, intermediated value chains, and upgrading. The article shows that although there are important and tangible benefits for a range of workers, there are also a range of risks and costs that unduly affect the livelihoods of digital workers. Building on those concerns, it then concludes with a reflection on four broad strategies - certification schemes, organising digital workers, regulatory strategies and democratic control of online labour platforms - that could be employed to improve conditions and livelihoods for digital workers.

  20. Digital labour and development: impacts of global digital labour platforms and the gig economy on worker livelihoods

    PubMed Central

    Hjorth, Isis; Lehdonvirta, Vili

    2017-01-01

    As ever more policy-makers, governments and organisations turn to the gig economy and digital labour as an economic development strategy to bring jobs to places that need them, it becomes important to understand better how this might influence the livelihoods of workers. Drawing on a multi-year study with digital workers in Sub-Saharan Africa and South-east Asia, this article highlights four key concerns for workers: bargaining power, economic inclusion, intermediated value chains, and upgrading. The article shows that although there are important and tangible benefits for a range of workers, there are also a range of risks and costs that unduly affect the livelihoods of digital workers. Building on those concerns, it then concludes with a reflection on four broad strategies – certification schemes, organising digital workers, regulatory strategies and democratic control of online labour platforms – that could be employed to improve conditions and livelihoods for digital workers. PMID:28781494

  1. Assessment and support during early labour for improving birth outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Shinobu; Hanada, Nobutsugu; Matsuzaki, Masayo; Takehara, Kenji; Ota, Erika; Sasaki, Hatoko; Nagata, Chie; Mori, Rintaro

    2017-04-20

    The progress of labour in the early or latent phase is usually slow and may include painful uterine contractions. Women may feel distressed and lose their confidence during this phase. Support and assessment interventions have been assessed in two previous Cochrane Reviews. This review updates and replaces these two reviews, which have become out of date. To investigate the effectiveness of assessment and support interventions for women during early labour.In order to measure the effectiveness of the interventions, we compared the duration of labour, the rate of obstetrical interventions, and the rate of other maternal or neonatal outcomes. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register, ClinicalTrials.gov, the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (31 October 2016) and reference lists of retrieved studies. Randomised controlled trials of any assessment or support intervention in the latent phase of labour. We planned to include cluster-randomised trials if they were eligible. We did not include quasi-randomised trials. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias, extracted data and checked them for accuracy. We resolved any disagreement by discussion or by involving a third assessor. The quality of the evidence was assessed using the GRADE approach. We included five trials with a total of 10,421 pregnant women in this review update. The trials were conducted in the UK, Canada and America. The trials compared interventions in early labour versus usual care. We examined three comparisons: early labour assessment versus immediate admission to hospital; home visits by midwives versus usual care (telephone triage); and one-to-one structured midwifery care versus usual care. These trials were at moderate- risk of bias mainly because blinding women and staff to these interventions is not generally feasible. For important outcomes we assessed evidence using

  2. [The Meaning of the Latent Phase of Labour - A Historical Analysis].

    PubMed

    Krahl, A; Schnepp, W; Zu Sayn-Wittgenstein, F

    2016-08-01

    The division of the first stage of labour into the latent phase and active labour is based on the work of the Boston gynaecologist Emanuel A. Friedman in the 1950s. Since then international research and clinical practice have normally differentiated between the two. However, these concepts are not generally accepted in Germany, even though the basis for Friedman's work is to be found in the German speaking area. In an analysis of selected current and historical sources covering five centuries, the characteristics of the phases and the course of labour are described. Dividing the first stage of labour into a latent and active phase allows midwives and obstetricians to create a more specific labour management and care of women in labour. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. The Right to Education for Children in Domestic Labour: Empirical Evidence from Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munene, Ishmael I.; Ruto, Sara J.

    2010-02-01

    Since 1948, various UN conventions have recognised basic education as a human right. Yet this right continues to be denied to many child labourers across the world. This articles draws on the results of a study examining how children in domestic labour in Kenya access and participate in education. Three issues were explored: (1) the correlates of child domestic labourers; (2) their working conditions and contexts; and (3) the right to education. Interviews and group discussions held in one city and two rural districts elicited data from 91 child domestic labourers and 84 adults. The results indicated that child labour was both poverty-induced and adult-initiated, and that children worked in hazardous environments characterised by economic exploitation. Most did not attend school; those who did had to contend with a rigid school structure and an authoritarian class environment. Children in domestic labour often skipped school, and their participation in classes was low.

  4. Nuclear factor-κB mediates placental growth factor induced pro-labour mediators in human placenta.

    PubMed

    Lappas, Martha

    2012-07-01

    Prostaglandins, pro-inflammatory cytokines, extracellular matrix remodelling enzymes and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) are involved in the mechanisms of term and preterm parturition. Recent studies have reported an increase in angiogenesis-related genes during term and preterm labour, including placental growth factor (PLGF). In non-gestational tissues, PLGF induces inflammation via NF-κB. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of PLGF on the gene expression and release of pro-labour mediators in human placenta. Samples were obtained from normal pregnancies at the time of Caesarean section. Human placenta was incubated in the absence (basal control) or presence of a 10 ng/ml PLGF for 24 h. Inflammatory gene expression was analysed by quantitative RT-PCR, concentration of pro-inflammatory cytokines and prostaglandins was quantified by ELISA, and secretory matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) activity by zymography. NF-κB DNA-binding activity and IκB-α (inhibitor of NF-κB) protein degradation were analysed by ELISA and Western blotting, respectively. PLGF significantly increased interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 gene expression and secretion, cyclooxygenase-2 expression and resultant prostaglandin (PG) E(2) and PGF(2α) release, and MMP-9 gene expression and enzyme production. PLGF induced the degradation of IκB-α whilst increasing NF-κB p65 DNA-binding activity. The PLGF-induced pro-labour responses were abrogated by co-treatment with the NF-κB inhibitor BAY 11-7082. In summary, the pro-inflammatory and pro-labour effects of PLGF in human placenta are mediated by NF-κB.

  5. Household economic resources, labour-market advantage and health problems - a study on causal relationships using prospective register data.

    PubMed

    Aittomäki, Akseli; Martikainen, Pekka; Laaksonen, Mikko; Lahelma, Eero; Rahkonen, Ossi

    2012-10-01

    Our aim was to find out whether the associations between health and both individual and household economic position reflected a causal effect on health of household affluence and consumption potential. We attempted to separate this effect from health-selection effects, in other words the potential effect of health on economic position, and from various effects related to occupational position and prestige that might correlate with the economic indicators. We made a distinction between individual labour-market advantage and household economic resources in order to reflect these theoretical definitions. Our aim was to test and compare two hypotheses: 1) low household economic resources lead to an increase in health problems later on, and 2) health problems are disadvantageous on the labour market, and consequently decrease the level of economic resources. We used prospective register data obtained from the databases of Statistics Finland and constituting an 11-per-cent random sample of the Finnish population in 1993-2006. Health problems were measured in terms of sickness allowance paid by the Finnish Social Insurance Institution, household economic resources in terms of household-equivalent disposable income and taxable wealth, and labour-market advantage in terms of individual taxable income and months of unemployment. We used structural equation models (n = 211,639) to examine the hypothesised causal pathways. Low household economic resources predicted future health problems, and health problems predicted future deterioration in labour-market advantage. The effect of economic resources on health problems was somewhat stronger. These results suggest that accumulated exposure to low economic resources leads to increasing health problems, and that this causal mechanism is a more significant source of persistent health inequalities than health problems that bring about a permanent decrease in economic resources.

  6. The influence of gender, ethnicity, class, race, the women's and labour movements on the development of nursing in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Aluwihare-Samaranayake, Dilmi; Paul, Pauline

    2013-06-01

    The paper reveals that historically various socio-political factors, including gender, class, ethnicity, race, waves of colonization, decolonization, the civil and ethnic wars, the women's and labour movements, have influenced the development of nursing in Sri Lanka. However, literature presenting the development of nursing in Sri Lanka is sparse. All relevant journals and books published in the English and Sinhalese languages on nursing in Sri Lanka between the years 1878-2011 were examined. Because there are no nursing journals currently produced in Sri Lanka, CINAHL and Medline databases were accessed and relevant literature published in the English language on Sri Lanka was examined. Government, nurses' union and association reports, other unpublished reports and websites such as Google were also searched to access information related to the influence of gender, race, class, ethnicity, women's and labour movements in Sri Lanka. Poor pay, shortages of resources, failure in recruitment and retention and limited opportunity for career progression have acted as deterrents to persons entering and remaining in the nursing profession. Being non-British was a key issue in terms of race. Further, the shift from a colonized state to a welfare state resulted in a class shift from upper middle class to middle and lower class persons entering into nursing. Although there is a paucity of information available in the nursing literature, this analysis offers an intriguing insight into an angle that may be used to examine the influence of gender, ethnicity, class, race and the women's and labour movements in other contextual situations.

  7. Glancing beyond or being confined to routines: labour ward midwives' responses to change as a result of action research.

    PubMed

    Nyman, Viola; Bondas, Terese; Downe, Soo; Berg, Marie

    2013-06-01

    to examine midwives' responses to a changed approach in the initial encounters with women and their partners in the labour ward. as part of a local project to improve hospital based childbirth care, Action Research (AR) was undertaken with midwives. To establish their beliefs, practices, and responses to change during the first cycle, 37 out of 57 midwives were interviewed. Data analysis was guided by interpretative description. a labour ward in western Sweden. two themes emerged: 'Glancing beyond routines' describes how the changed care approach enabled 'valuing the idea' and 'acquiring extended space to create a lingering presence'. The theme 'being confined to inherent routines' expresses 'resistance to the need for change' and a 'feeling of pressure to change'. the AR study design enabled the midwives to reflect on their routines and to transform tacit use-in-action to reflection-in-action. Midwives who persisted in being confined to inherent routines felt pressured by the change process. Others felt that the AR process granted them official licence to create chronological and emotional space in which they could 'be' and not just 'do'. to a greater or lesser extent, midwives in this setting had integrated relatively impersonal system-wide technocratic norms of childbirth into their belief systems and behaviours. The data suggest that a whole-system shift is necessary to enable caring, behaviours based on the formation of positive relationships to become the key driver of the first encounter on the labour ward. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Socio-economic determinants of child labour and attitudes to child labour among school children in Ibadan.

    PubMed

    Omokhodion, F O; Omokhodion, S I

    2004-12-01

    This cross sectional study was designed to compare the characteristics of working and non-working school children. Two hundred and thirty one working and 236 non-working children were interviewed. The socio economic factors associated with child labour were trading as mother's occupation, father's educational status, religion, family type (monogamous vs polygamous) and type of residence. Family type (OR = 0.562, 95% C.I. 0.353-0.897, p = 0.016), religion (OR = 0.559, 95% C.I. 0.361-0.867, p = 0.009) and trading as mother's occupation (O.R = 2.49, 95% CI 1.68-3.68, p = 0.000) were sustained on logistic regression analysis. With regard to attitude to child work, 186 (40%) of all respondents thought that children should be allowed to work. The majority of those who held this opinion 150, were child workers. Ten percent of working children had themselves chosen to work without any parental influence to do so. Seventy five respondents had ever repeated a class. Forty nine of these were working children a prevalence of 21% of repeaters compared to 26 non working children, (11%.) p = 0.004. Sixty eight percent of children aspiring to careers in artisan trades were child workers. Road traffic accidents and poor school performance were the commonest adverse effects of child labour indicated by school children. Parents should be educated about the adverse effects of child labour on child development. As poverty is one of the major root causes of child labour, free and compulsory primary education may help to reduce the notion of child work as an option for survival in poor families.

  9. Active versus expectant management in the third stage of labour.

    PubMed

    Prendiville, W J; Elbourne, D; McDonald, S

    2000-01-01

    Expectant management of the third stage of labour involves allowing the placenta to deliver spontaneously or aiding by gravity or nipple stimulation. Active management involves administration of a prophylactic oxytocic after delivery, early cord clamping and cutting, and controlled cord traction of the umbilical cord. The objective of this review was to assess the effects of active versus expectant management on blood loss, post partum haemorrhage and other maternal and perinatal complications of the third stage of labour. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group trials register. Randomised trials comparing active and expectant management of the third stage of labour in women with singleton pregnancies whose babies were presenting head first and who were expecting a vaginal delivery. Trial quality was assessed and data were extracted independently by the reviewers. Four studies were included. Three of the trials were of good quality. Compared to expectant management, active management (in the setting of a maternity hospital) was associated with the following reduced risks: maternal blood loss (weighted mean difference -79.33 millilitres, 95% confidence interval -94.29 to -64. 37); post partum haemorrhage of more than 500 millilitres (odds ratio 0.34, 95% confidence interval 0.28 to 0.41); prolonged third stage of labour (weighted mean difference -3.40 minutes, 95% confidence interval -4.66 to -2.13). Active management was associated with an increased risk of maternal nausea (odds ratio 1. 95, 95% confidence interval 1.58 to 2.42), vomiting and raised blood pressure (probably due to the use of ergometrine). No advantages or disadvantages were apparent for the baby. Routine 'active management' is superior to 'expectant management' in terms of blood loss, post partum haemorrhage and other serious complications of the third stage of labour. Active managment is, however, associated with an increased risk of unpleasant side effects (eg nausea and vomiting

  10. Preliminary risk-benefit analysis of ropivacaine in labour and following surgery.

    PubMed

    Cederholm, I

    1997-06-01

    Ropivacaine is a new, long-acting local anaesthetic, prepared as a single enantiomer (the S form). Ropivacaine has a pKa of 8.07, a protein binding of approximately 94%, but a lower lipid solubility than bupivacaine. Extensive animal toxicological studies have shown a lower propensity for cardiotoxicity with ropivacaine than with bupivacaine. Studies in sheep have shown that the systemic toxicity of ropivacaine is not enhanced by gestation. Studies in human male volunteers have shown that ropivacaine is associated with at least 25% less CNS and cardiovascular adverse effects than bupivacaine following use of intravenous infusions of either drug at a rate of 10 mg/min, to a maximum dose of 150 to 250 mg. With its lower toxicity, especially cardiovascular toxicity, and less intense motor blockade, ropivacaine may have advantages over bupivacaine in epidural pain relief during labour. In general, comparative studies have shown ropivacaine and bupivacaine to have similar efficacy, but ropivacaine has a greater degree of separation between motor and sensory blockade than bupivacaine when it given epidurally for epidural pain relief during labour (as intermittent doses or continuous infusion) or for caesarean section. A significantly lower rate of instrumental deliveries and significantly higher neurological and adaptive capacity scores in neonates at 24 hours were noted for following epidural relief during labour with ropivacaine in a meta-analysis of 6 studies comparing this agent with bupivacaine. Ropivacaine is also of great interest when used as an epidural infusion for postoperative analgesia. There are a few studies evaluating epidural infusions of ropivacaine 0.1%, 0.2% or 0.3% (10 ml/h for 21 hours) after upper or lower abdominal or orthopaedic surgery, and epidural infusion of ropivacaine 0.2% (6 to 14 ml/h) after orthopaedic surgery. The studies show that ropivacaine provides postoperative pain relief in a dose-related manner with minimal or a low degree of

  11. The experience of labour: using ethnography to explore the irresistible nature of the bio-medical metaphor during labour.

    PubMed

    Machin, D; Scamell, M

    1997-06-01

    taking evidence provided by an ethnographic study based on women's experiences of pregnancy and childbirth, and using ritual theory in the analysis of the relationship between the medical metaphor, inherent in contemporary birth settings, and the views and expectations of childbirth which the women bring with them to that setting. small scale qualitative study using ethnographic research techniques. GP surgeries, two consultant-led, hospital-based antenatal units, labour suites and postnatal wards, plus the homes of the women involved from the north east of England. 40 primigravid women providing two sample groups. Half of the women were actively involved in antenatal class programmes run by the National Childbirth Trust and the NHS and the other half did not attend any antenatal classes. within the sample there was a clear cultural diversity which carried significant implications on how the women assembled their understanding of pregnancy and birth antenatally. However, this division lost clarity at the onset of labour, rendering delivery experiences more similar than might have been expected. Ritual theory offers significant insight into this phenomenon, analysing birth as a rite of passage provided a necessary tool to explain why this pattern emerged in the data. cultural diversity suggests an element of caution should be used when advocating the notion of 'informed choice' across the board, sensitivity to existing cultural values is imperative. Despite an emphasis on informed choice, midwifery practice continues to offer the medical metaphor as the dominant cultural prop in the labour ward.

  12. The role and regulation of the nuclear factor kappa B signalling pathway in human labour.

    PubMed

    Lappas, M; Rice, G E

    2007-01-01

    Within the discipline of reproductive biology, our understanding of one of the most fundamental biological processes is lacking--the cellular and molecular mechanisms that govern birth. This lack of understanding limits our ability to reduce the incidence of labour complications. The incidence of labour complications including: preterm labour; cervical incompetence; and post-date pregnancies has not diminished in decades. The key to improving the management of human labour and delivery is an understanding of how the multiple processes that are requisite for a successful labour and delivery are coordinated to achieve a timely birth. Processes of human labour include the formation of: contraction associated proteins; inflammatory mediators (e.g. cytokines); uterotonic phospholipid metabolites (e.g. prostaglandins); and the induction of extracellular matrix (ECM) remodelling. Increasingly, it is becoming evident that labour onset and birth are the result of cross-talk between multiple components of an integrated network. This hypothesis is supported by recent data implicating various upstream regulatory pathways in the control of key labour-associated processes, including the activity of enzymes involved in the formation of prostaglandins and extracellular matrix remodelling, and mediators of inflammation. Clearly, the biochemical pathways involved in the formation of these mediators represent potential sites for intervention that may translate to therapeutic interventions to delay or prevent preterm labour and delivery. Available data strongly implicate the nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) family as candidate upstream regulators of multiple labour-associated processes. Not only do these data warrant further detailed analysis of the involvement of these pathways in the process of human labour but also promise new insights into the key mechanisms that trigger birth and the identification of new therapeutic interventions that will improve the management of labour.

  13. Appearance of Prostaglandin F2α in Human Blood during Labour*

    PubMed Central

    Karim, S. M. M.

    1968-01-01

    Blood samples from over 70 pregnant women have been examined for the presence of four prostaglandins. Samples obtained from women not in labour at different gestation periods and at term contained no detectable amounts of prostaglandins. Prostaglandin F2α was present in samples of blood obtained during normal spontaneous labour. The appearance of this substance in the blood preceded the uterine contraction. Whether prostaglandins play a part in the process of normal labour is still conjectural. PMID:5723366

  14. An introduction to Toll-like receptors and their possible role in the initiation of labour.

    PubMed

    Patni, S; Flynn, P; Wynen, L P; Seager, A L; Morgan, G; White, J O; Thornton, C A

    2007-11-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLR) have emerged as key upstream mediators of inflammation at many tissue sites in humans. Inflammatory processes are involved in the process of parturition suggesting that TLR activity within gestation-associated tissues might have an important role in the initiation and/or maintenance of normal term labour and in various pathological states of pregnancy such as infection-associated preterm labour. Either TLRs or their signalling molecules might be excellent therapeutic targets for prevention of preterm labour.

  15. Sociodemographic differences in women's experience of early labour care: a mixed methods study.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Jane; Redshaw, Maggie

    2017-07-13

    To explore women's experiences of early labour care focusing on sociodemographic differences, and to examine the effect of antenatal education, using mixed methods. England, 2014. Women who completed postal questionnaires about their experience of maternity care, including questions about antenatal education, early labour and sociodemographic factors, included space for free-text comments. Worries about labour, contact with midwives in early labour and subsequent care. This study was based on secondary analysis of a national maternity survey carried out in England in 2014. Quantitative data were analysed using descriptive statistics and binary logistic regression; qualitative data were analysed using a thematic content analytic approach. Completed questionnaires were received from 4578 women (47% response rate). There were significant differences by sociodemographic factors, particularly ethnicity, in women's worries about early labour. Compared with white women, women from black or minority ethnic groups had an adjusted OR of 1.93 (95% CI 1.56 to 2.39) of feeling worried about not knowing when labour would start. Among women who contacted a midwife at the start of labour, 84% perceived their advice as appropriate, more in older and multiparous women. Overall, 64% of women were asked to come to the hospital at this time, more in multiparous women (adjusted OR 1.63, 95% CI 1.35 to 1.96). Those who did not have access to antenatal education experienced greater worry about early labour. Five themes emerged from the qualitative analysis: 'Differentiating between early and active labour', 'Staff attitudes', 'Not being allowed…', 'Previous labours' and 'Perceived consequences for women'. These findings reinforce the importance of providing reassurance to women in early labour, taking care that women do not feel neglected or dismissed. In particular, primiparous and ethnic minority women reported greater worry about early labour and require additional reassurance.

  16. Labour crunch, foreign workers and policy responses: the experience of Japan.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, R A

    1996-01-01

    "Japan has experienced labour shortages since the late 1960s....The present study is an attempt to analyse the Japanese government's response to circumvent labour shortages. It focuses on two aspects: perception of Japanese society towards the increasing presence of foreign workers in Japan and associated problems; and measures taken by the government to overcome labour crunch. These aspects are examined within the [framework of an] increasing flow of foreigners to Japan during the past decades." (SUMMARY IN FRE AND SPA) excerpt

  17. Hypnosis for pain management during labour and childbirth.

    PubMed

    Madden, Kelly; Middleton, Philippa; Cyna, Allan M; Matthewson, Mandy; Jones, Leanne

    2012-11-14

    This review is one in a series of Cochrane Reviews investigating pain management for childbirth. These reviews all contribute to an overview of systematic reviews of pain management for women in labour, and share a generic protocol. We examined the current evidence regarding the use of hypnosis for pain management during labour and childbirth. This review updates the findings regarding hypnosis from an earlier review of complementary and alternative therapies for pain management in labour into a stand-alone review. To examine the effectiveness and safety of hypnosis for pain management during labour and childbirth. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (11 January 2012) and the reference lists of primary studies and review articles. Randomised controlled trials and quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing preparation for labour using hypnosis and/or use of hypnosis during labour, with or without concurrent use of pharmacological or non-pharmacological pain relief methods versus placebo, no treatment or any analgesic drug or technique. Two assessors independently extracted data and assessed trial quality. Where possible we contacted study authors seeking additional information about data and methodology. We included seven trials randomising a total of 1213 women. All but one of the trials were at moderate to high risk of bias. Although six of the seven trials assessed antenatal hypnotherapy, there were considerable differences between these trials in timing and technique. One trial provided hypnotherapy during labour. No significant differences between women in the hypnosis group and those in the control group were found for the primary outcomes: use of pharmacological pain relief (average risk ratio (RR) 0.63, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.39 to 1.01, six studies, 1032 women), spontaneous vaginal birth (average RR 1.35, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.96, four studies, 472 women) or satisfaction with pain relief (RR 1.06, 95% CI 0.94 to 1

  18. Private Schooling and Labour Market Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Francis; Henseke, Golo; Vignoles, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Though a relative small part of the school sector, private schools have an important role in British society, and there are policy concerns about their negative effect on social mobility. Other studies show that individuals who have attended a private school go on to have higher levels of educational achievement, are more likely to secure a…

  19. The Enduring Debate over Unpaid Labour.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beneria, Lourdes

    1999-01-01

    Summarizes the theoretical and practical issues related to the under-estimation of women's work in the labor force and national accounting statistics. Responds to the continuing criticism that women's efforts make no useful impact, unpaid work should not be treated the same as paid work, and efforts are misguided. (JOW)

  20. Private Schooling and Labour Market Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Francis; Henseke, Golo; Vignoles, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Though a relative small part of the school sector, private schools have an important role in British society, and there are policy concerns about their negative effect on social mobility. Other studies show that individuals who have attended a private school go on to have higher levels of educational achievement, are more likely to secure a…