Thomson, Pat; Ellison, Linda; Byrom, Tina; Bulman, Donna
When school front offices are mentioned in research on schools and their relations with the community, it is often to describe how parents/carers and the public are treated officiously and/or inappropriately. In professional development materials, schools are urged to improve communication, and occasionally directed to consider the practices of…
Buchmann, E J; Pattinson, R C
Seventeen hospitals, from a range of health-care environments, participated in confidential enquiries of perinatal deaths resulting from labour-related intrapartum hypoxia. There were 102 deaths, including 22 stillbirths and 80 neonatal deaths. The mean birthweight was 3021 g. The active phase of the first stage of labour was prolonged beyond 12 h in six cases, and oxytocin was used for induction or augmentation in 10 women. Fetal heart decelerations were detected in 39 (49%) of the babies that went on to die in the neonatal period, and meconium passage was evident in 50 (63%). There were six breech presentations, and seven cases of cord prolapse. The majority of these deaths occurred in low-risk women with apparently uncomplicated labour. There appears to be a failure to detect or respond to evidence of fetal distress. Intrapartum care for all women in labour requires close attention to detail in monitoring fetal health.
Sahu, Subhashis; Chattopadhyay, Soumen; Basu, Kumkum; Paul, Goutam
The present study aimed at ergonomic evaluation of the prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders among construction labourers working in unorganized sectors in West Bengal, India. A modified Nordic questionnaire was applied to one hundred forty male and ninety female construction labourers to acquire information about musculoskeletal symptoms like pain in different body parts. Work-rest schedules of the labourers in different work activities were studied. Working postures were analyzed by means of the Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA) tool. Body part discomfort (BPD) scale was used to assess the intensity of feeling of discomforts in the different body parts. It was revealed that the labourers performed repetitive, stressful work for a long period of time in a single work-rest cycle and the load lifted and carried by them were more than the NIOSH recommended weight limit. The analyses of working postures revealed that most of their working postures were unsafe and ranked under REBA action level 3 and 4. The results obtained by applying the Nordic questionnaire and BPD scale revealed that the prevalence of pain in various regions of the body, especially low-back pain, was alarmingly high in both male and female labourers. Training for safe lifting of materials, proper work-rest schedule, modifications of some working procedures and the use of ergonomically designed equipment may certainly reduce the work-related musculoskeletal disorders and improve the health status of construction labourers working in unorganized sectors.
Samant, Yogindra; Parker, David; Wergeland, Ebba; Wannag, Axel
The Norwegian Labour Inspectorates (NLI's) Registry for Work-Related Diseases was established in 1920. Based on the principle of sentinel health events (SHE), its central purpose is to provide information to the NLI to enable workplace interventions and the prevention of hazardous exposures. Although physicians are required to report work-related diseases to the NLI, only 3% did so in 2006. There were 3392 cases of work-related diseases reported to the NLI by 561 physicians in 2006. Diseases of the ear (noise-induced hearing loss) comprised 59% (n=1987) of the cases, while 12% (n=398) of the cases were attributed to the diseases of the respiratory system and 7% (n =239) were diseases of the skin and subcutaneous tissue. Despite limitations, the registry continues to inform NLI's prevention strategies, supplements data concerning work-environment surveillance, and provides impetus for epidemiological studies.
Marsella, L T; Savastano, L; Saracino, V; Del Vecchio, R
The authors emphasize the violation of children's and adolescents' rights as a result of the exploitation of child labour. Besides the legal aspect, they pointed out the medical features related to the delicate growing process of the child in the phases of development and adaptation of the main organs to hard work. Currently the problem is being supervised by those states that recognize the right for minors to be protected against any kind of physical, mental, spiritual and moral risk.
Frederiksen, Karen-Margrete; Laursen, Katja Årosin
This paper presents our reflections on developing the Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) course "Danish for knowledge workers--labour market-related Danish." As defined by Laursen and Frederiksen (2015), knowledge workers are "highly educated people who typically work at universities, at other institutions of higher…
He, Hong-Gu; Vehviläinen-Julkunen, Katri; Qian, Xiao-Fang; Sapountzi-Krepia, Despina; Gong, Yuhua; Wang, Wenru
This study examined Chinese fathers' feelings about their partners' delivery and views on their presence during labour and birth. A questionnaire survey was conducted with 403 fathers whose partners gave birth in one provincial hospital in China. Data were analysed by descriptive statistics, χ(2)-test and content analysis. The results indicated that more than 80% of fathers experienced feelings of pride related to fatherhood and of love towards their partners and newborns. Significant differences in fathers' feelings were found between subgroups with regard to age, education, employment, presence in the delivery room, method of birth and whether preparatory visits had been made to the hospital. The majority who answered an open-ended question on the meaning of fathers' presence in the delivery room held a positive attitude towards fathers' presence at labour and birth, as their presence could empower their partners and provide psychological support. This study indicates fathers' presence at delivery and birth is important and that younger fathers need more support. It also provides evidence for clinical practice and future interventions to improve fathers' psychological health and experiences.
Rodríguez, Julio Louro; Portela, Rosa Mary de la Campa; Carrera, Paula Vazquez
Nowadays the labour sector is experiencing an important increase in the application of risk prevention policies. Although these policies are very significant due to their repercussions in the health of workers, we noticed important legal gaps in maritime sector regulations. Frequently sea workers are legally abandoned, by exclusion or omission, at the moment of claiming for the improvement of their working environment and the reduction of the negative consequences derived from this negligence over their safety and health. In the present paper we try to shed some light on this topic by analysing and examining minutely the Spanish applicable risk prevention legislation for this sector. Moreover, the recommendations of the International Maritime Organization are compared with the current application of the law. At the same time, we present some possible solutions to such problems from an objective point of view.
Goulart, Pedro; Bedi, Arjun S.
The current debate on child labour focuses on developing countries. However, Portugal is an example of a relatively developed country where child labour is still a matter of concern as between 8% and 12% of Portuguese children may be classified as workers. This paper studies the patterns of child labour in Portugal and assesses the consequences of…
How does science make a home for itself in a public hospital? This article explores how scientists working in 'resource poor' contexts of global health negotiate relationships with their hosts, in this case the doctors, nurses and patients who already inhabit a provincial-level hospital. Taking its lead from recent works on science, ethics and development, this article seeks to 'provincialize the laboratory' by focussing on the scientific tropics as a space of productive encounter and engagement. A view from the hospital reveals the tenuous process of 'setting up' a place for science, in a world that does not immediately recognize its value. The article examines the material exchanges of infrastructure, bodily tissues and labour that enable one young scientist to establish a scientific life for himself. The success of those transactions, it argues, ultimately derives from their objectification of scientific vulnerability and their enactment of relationships of mutual recognition. As opposed to asking how scientific knowledge is produced in the tropics, the view from the hospital challenges us to focus on the establishment of relationships between scientists and their hosts as a productive endeavour in its own right.
Wahrendorf, Morten; Blane, David
There is robust evidence that childhood circumstances are related to quality of life in older ages, but the role of possible intermediate factors is less explored. In this paper, we examine to what extent associations between deprived childhood circumstances and quality of life at older ages are due to experienced labour market disadvantage during adulthood. Analyses are based on the Survey of Health Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE), with detailed retrospective information on individual life courses collected among 10,272 retired men and women in 13 European countries (2008-2009). Our assumption is that those who have spent their childhood in deprived circumstances may also have had more labour market disadvantage with negative consequences for quality of life beyond working life. Results demonstrate that advantaged circumstances during childhood are associated with lower levels of labour market disadvantage and higher quality of life in older ages. Furthermore, results of multivariate analyses support the idea that part of the association between childhood circumstances and later quality of life is explained by labour market disadvantage during adulthood.
McNamara, Courtney; Labonté, Ronald
Previous analyses indicate that there are a number of potentially serious health risks associated with the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP). The objective of this work is to provide further insight into the potential health impacts of the TPP by investigating labour market pathways. The impact of the TPP on employment and working conditions is a major point of contention in broader public debates. In public health literature, these factors are considered fundamental determinants of health, yet they are rarely addressed in analyses of trade and investment agreements. We therefore undertake a prospective policy analysis of the TPP through a content analysis of the agreement's Labour Chapter. Provisions of the Chapter are analyzed with reference to the health policy triangle and four main areas through which labour markets influence health: power relations, social policies, employment conditions and working conditions. Findings indicate that implementation of the TPP can have important impacts on health through labour market pathways. While the Labour Chapter is being presented by proponents of the agreement as a vehicle for improvement in labour standards, we find little evidence to support this view. Instead, we find several ways the TPP may weaken employment relations to the detriment of health.
Cross-border reproductive care has been thrust under the international spotlight by a series of recent scandals. These have prompted calls to develop more robust means of assessing the exploitative potential of such practices and the need for overarching and normative forms of national and international regulation. Allied theorisations of the emergence of forms of clinical labour have cast the outsourcing of reproductive services such as gamete donation and gestational surrogacy as artefacts of a wider neoliberalisation of service provision. These accounts share with many other narratives of neoliberalism a number of key assertions that relate to the presumed organisation of labour relations within this paradigm. This article critically engages with four assumptions implicit in these accounts: that clinical labourers constitute a largely homogeneous underclass of workers; that reproductive labour has been contractualised in ways that disembed it from wider social and communal relations; that contractualisation can provide protection for clinical labour lessening the need for formal regulatory oversight; and that the transnationalisation of reproductive service labour is largely unidirectional and characterised by a dynamic of provision in which 'the rest' services 'the West'. Drawing on the first findings of a large-scale ethnographic research project into assisted reproduction in India I provide evidence to refute these assertions. In so doing the article demonstrates that while the outsourcing and contractualisation of reproductive labour may be embedded in a wider neoliberal paradigm these practices cannot be understood nor their impacts be fully assessed in isolation from their social and cultural contexts.
The author investigates aspects of labor circulation, which he defines as "temporary movement between geographical areas for work or in search of work....[He attempts to determine] what roles have been played by labour circulation in the development of urban-industrial labour forces in the transition to industrial capitalism." Factors considered include the exploitation and oppression of labor migrants; the industrial-urban labor reserve; urban socioeconomic stratification and discrimination by age, sex, or race; the division of labor; and policy options.
Shaban, R A
"Following an overview of demographic and migratory trends since the late 1960s, the article examines labour force participation and analyses the distribution of Palestinian workers between the three labour markets in which they participate: the domestic market of the West Bank and Gaza Strip, the Israeli market and the Arab market, consisting chiefly of Jordan and the oil-rich Arab states. Since 1982 there has been a contraction of employment opportunities for Palestinians in the latter two labour markets. Domestic job creation is one of the main tasks confronting the Palestinian administration to be set up under the 1993 Israel/PLO agreement."
Lazányi, Kornélia; Molnár, Péter; Szluha, Kornélia
Health care professionals do not have emotional labour obligations in their employment contract. However, in everyday work it is often inevitable for them to change their true feelings. This is critically true for professionals treating chronic or cancer patients. The suitable emotional state of the treatment staff does not only influence the practitioner-patient relationship but the process of recovery as well. Depending on the way one might get into the appropriate emotional state, the literature distinguishes between surface, deep and genuine acting. While surface and deep emotional labour has numerous negative psychological consequences genuine acting is usually accompanied by positive side effects. For those working in the field of oncology, emotional labour is a part of the role expectations of the professionals. This is how the appropriate attitude is a fundamental part of the professionals' essence. For the in depth analysis of subjects related to emotional labour, the authors adopted ideas from L. Festinger 's cognitive dissonance theory. The best way to alleviate cognitive dissonance and the negative side effects of emotional labour is to prevent the emergence of them. Oncology professionals should fit their role expectations genuinely, without particular efforts. If this was impossible, or the particular life situations did not allow genuine acting, it is the employer's and the workmates' common duty to help professionals, to ease the load of emotional labour, to diminish the occurring cognitive dissonance with the help of appropriate recompense.
Unequal exposure to occupational stressors is a central pathway towards socio-economic health inequalities in working populations. This paper assesses the differential exposure of such stressors within the population of Flemish wage-earners. Our focus is on differences in gender, age, skill levels, occupational and social class positions. Method The analyses are based on the "Flemish Quality of Labour Monitor 2004" (Vlaamse Werkbaarheidsmonitor 2004), a cross-sectional representative sample (N = 11,099) of 16- to 65-year-old wage-earners, living in Flanders. The investigated health-related working conditions are: high quantitative, emotional and physical demands, frequent repetitive movements, atypical work schedules, frequent overtime work and schedule changes, low job autonomy, task variation and superior-support, high job insecurity and exposure to bullying. The distribution of the working conditions is assessed by means of standard logistic regression analyses. Also gender specific analyses are performed. Results At least two clusters of health-related occupational stressors can be identified. On the one hand, high physical demands, atypical schedules, low control over the work environment and high job insecurity are more common in manual, unskilled and subordinate workers. On the other hand, high quantitative and emotional demands, as well as schedule unpredictability are characteristic of higher skilled, professional and managerial employees. Conclusion Since little empirical information on the socio-economic distribution of various health-related occupational stressors is available for Flanders, our results are important for obtaining more insight into the pathways linking occupational health risks to socio-economic health inequalities in the Flemish wage-earning population.
Rukumnuaykit, Pungpond; Pholphirul, Piriya
Human capital investment is a necessary condition for improving labour market outcomes in most countries. Empirical studies to investigate human capital and its linkages on the labour demand side are, however, relatively scarce due to limitations of firm-level data-sets. Using firm-level data from the Thai manufacturing sector, this paper aims to…
Cluett, Elizabeth R; Burns, Ethel
Background Enthusiasts suggest that labouring in water and waterbirth increase maternal relaxation, reduce analgesia requirements and promote a midwifery model of care. Critics cite the risk of neonatal water inhalation and maternal/neonatal infection. Objectives To assess the evidence from randomised controlled trials about immersion in water during labour and waterbirth on maternal, fetal, neonatal and caregiver outcomes. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (30 June 2011) and reference lists of retrieved studies. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials comparing immersion in any bath tub/pool with no immersion, or other non-pharmacological forms of pain management during labour and/or birth, in women during labour who were considered to be at low risk of complications, as defined by the researchers. Data collection and analysis We assessed trial eligibility and quality and extracted data independently. One review author entered data and the other checked for accuracy. Main results This review includes 12 trials (3243 women): eight related to just the first stage of labour: one to early versus late immersion in the first stage of labour; two to the first and second stages; and another to the second stage only. We identified no trials evaluating different baths/pools, or the management of third stage of labour. Results for the first stage of labour showed there was a significant reduction in the epidural/spinal/paracervical analgesia/anaesthesia rate amongst women allocated to water immersion compared to controls (478/1254 versus 529/1245; risk ratio (RR) 0.90; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.82 to 0.99, six trials). There was also a reduction in duration of the first stage of labour (mean difference −32.4 minutes; 95% CI −58.7 to −6.13). There was no difference in assisted vaginal deliveries (RR 0.86; 95% CI 0.71 to 1.05, seven trials), caesarean sections (RR 1.21; 95% CI 0.87 to 1.68, eight
Ball, Malcolm J.
Public policy in the UK has adopted employability to define the relationship of globalisation, work and learning. This article claims that employability serves the interests of capital. It helps capital to exercise its domination/hegemony over labour and employs a redefined vision of learning as its principal vehicle. Employability is a term that…
This paper frames the work of performance as embodied labour in order to understand the contingent production of particular music performances. It is an interdisciplinary account that sits at the intersection of the sociology of work, culture and the body. The concept of embodied labour is developed with reference to the complex account of materiality - of bodies and things - present in Tim Ingold's account of skill. This material account of skill is used to inform use to develop already of well established conceptualizations of body labour: craft, emotional and aesthetic labour through a reading of how these dimensions of embodied labour make possible the work of performance.
The relation of minor psychiatric morbidity with labour turnover is examined, using data from a study of young, predominantly middle class, white collar men and women. The results suggest that the presence of psychiatric symptomatology is at least as important as occupational attitudes in identifying individuals who would subsequently leave the organisation. PMID:4016004
Our current globalized economic regimes of financialized capital have systematically altered relations of learning and labour through the dynamics of precarity, debt, and the political economy of new wars. The risks of these regimes are absorbed unevenly across transnational landscapes, creating cartographies of violence and dispossession,…
Pandya, Sunil T
Advances in the field of labour analgesia have tread a long journey from the days of ether and chloroform in 1847 to the present day practice of comprehensive programme of labour pain management using evidence-based medicine. Newer advances include introduction of newer techniques like combined spinal epidurals, low-dose epidurals facilitating ambulation, pharmacological advances like introduction of remifentanil for patient-controlled intravenous analgesia, introduction of newer local anaesthetics and adjuvants like ropivacaine, levobupivacaine, sufentanil, clonidine and neostigmine, use of inhalational agents like sevoflourane for patient-controlled inhalational analgesia using special vaporizers, all have revolutionized the practice of pain management in labouring parturients. Technological advances like use of ultrasound to localize epidural space in difficult cases minimizes failed epidurals and introduction of novel drug delivery modalities like patient-controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA) pumps and computer-integrated drug delivery pumps have improved the overall maternal satisfaction rate and have enabled us to customize a suitable analgesic regimen for each parturient. Recent randomized controlled trials and Cochrane studies have concluded that the association of epidurals with increased caesarean section and long-term backache remains only a myth. Studies have also shown that the newer, low-dose regimes do not have a statistically significant impact on the duration of labour and breast feeding and also that these reduce the instrumental delivery rates thus improving maternal and foetal safety. Advances in medical technology like use of ultrasound for localizing epidural space have helped the clinicians to minimize the failure rates, and many novel drug delivery modalities like PCEA and computer-integrated PCEA have contributed to the overall maternal satisfaction and safety.
Antonazzo, Emanuela; Scott, Anthony; Skatun, Diane; Elliott, Robert F
The need to ensure adequate numbers of motivated health professionals is at the forefront of the modernisation of the UK NHS. The aim of this paper is to assess current understanding of the labour supply behaviour of nurses, and to propose an agenda for further research. In particular, the paper reviews American and British economics literature that focuses on empirical econometric studies based on the classical static labour supply model. American research could be classified into first generation, second generation and recent empirical evidence. Advances in methods mirror those in the general labour economics literature, and include the use of limited dependent variable models and the treatment of sample selection issues. However, there is considerable variation in results, which depends on the methods used, particularly on the effect of wages. Only one study was found that used UK data, although other studies examined the determinants of turnover, quit rates and job satisfaction. The agenda for further empirical research includes the analysis of discontinuities in the labour supply function, the relative importance of pecuniary and non-pecuniary job characteristics, and the application of dynamic and family labour supply models to nursing research. Such research is crucial to the development of evidence-based policies.
Aoyama, H.; Yoshikawa, H.; Iyetomi, H.; Fujiwara, Y.
We discuss superstatistics theory of labour productivity.Productivity distribution across workers, firms and industrial sectors are studied empirically and found to obey power-distributions, in sharp contrast to the equilibrium theories of mainstream economics. The Pareto index is found to decrease with the level of aggregation, i.e., from workers to firms and to industrial sectors. In order to explain these phenomenological laws, we propose a superstatistics framework, where the role of the fluctuating temperature is played by the fluctuating demand.
Ferguson-Gow, Henry; Sumner, Seirian; Bourke, Andrew F. G.; Jones, Kate E.
Division of labour is central to the ecological success of eusocial insects, yet the evolutionary factors driving increases in complexity in division of labour are little known. The size–complexity hypothesis proposes that, as larger colonies evolve, both non-reproductive and reproductive division of labour become more complex as workers and queens act to maximize inclusive fitness. Using a statistically robust phylogenetic comparative analysis of social and environmental traits of species within the ant tribe Attini, we show that colony size is positively related to both non-reproductive (worker size variation) and reproductive (queen–worker dimorphism) division of labour. The results also suggested that colony size acts on non-reproductive and reproductive division of labour in different ways. Environmental factors, including measures of variation in temperature and precipitation, had no significant effects on any division of labour measure or colony size. Overall, these results support the size–complexity hypothesis for the evolution of social complexity and division of labour in eusocial insects. Determining the evolutionary drivers of colony size may help contribute to our understanding of the evolution of social complexity. PMID:25165765
In the sociology of education the relation between education and work is analysed in many ways and, since the rise of neoliberalism, increasingly in market terms. Skills are the dominant labour market currency, described in terms of competence profiles that seek to link educational qualifications directly to work. Contrary to the widespread appeal…
Kobayashi, Vladimer; Mol, Stefan T.; Kismihók, Gábor
This paper briefly outlines a project about integrating labour market information in a learning analytics goal-setting application that provides guidance to students in their transition from education to employment.
Lawrence, Annemarie; Lewis, Lucy; Hofmeyr, G Justus; Dowswell, Therese; Styles, Cathy
Background It is more common for women in the developed world, and those in low-income countries giving birth in health facilities, to labour in bed. There is no evidence that this is associated with any advantage for women or babies, although it may be more convenient for staff. Observational studies have suggested that if women lie on their backs during labour this may have adverse effects on uterine contractions and impede progress in labour. Objectives The purpose of the review is to assess the effects of encouraging women to assume different upright positions (including walking, sitting, standing and kneeling) versus recumbent positions (supine, semi-recumbent and lateral) for women in the first stage of labour on length of labour, type of delivery and other important outcomes for mothers and babies. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (November 2008). Selection criteria Randomised and quasi-randomised trials comparing women randomised to upright versus recumbent positions in the first stage of labour. Data collection and analysis We used methods described in the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions for carrying out data collection, assessing study quality and analysing results. A minimum of two review authors independently assessed each study. Main results The review includes 21 studies with a total of 3706 women. Overall, the first stage of labour was approximately one hour shorter for women randomised to upright as opposed to recumbent positions (MD −0.99, 95% CI −1.60 to −0.39). Women randomised to upright positions were less likely to have epidural analgesia (RR 0.83 95% CI 0.72 to 0.96).There were no differences between groups for other outcomes including length of the second stage of labour, mode of delivery, or other outcomes related to the wellbeing of mothers and babies. For women who had epidural analgesia there were no differences between those randomised to upright
Pandey, Jatin; Singh, Manjari
Emotional labour involves management of one's emotions to match the demands of their roles. This emotion display involves just expression (surface-level emotional labour) or experience in addition to expression (deep-level emotional labour) of the desired emotions. Emotional labour is required in the effective, efficient and successful healthcare service delivery. Burnout associated with emotional labour is an important factor that decides how satisfied frontline service providers with their job are. This empirical study investigates the link between surface and deep-level emotional labour, burnout and job satisfaction in women community health workers from India. Our results from the structural equation modelling of 177 accredited social health activists (ASHAs) indicate a negative relation between surface and deep-level emotional labour, clearly demarcating them as two different strategies for performance of emotional labour in community health care setting. Surface-level emotional labour is associated with higher job satisfaction, and burnout partially mediates this relation. Deep-level emotional labour is associated with lower job satisfaction; burnout fully mediates this relation. Qualitative post hoc analysis based on interviews of 10 ASHAs was done to understand the findings of the quantitative study. Surface-level emotional labour was found to be a more desirable strategy for community health care workers for the effective and efficient performance of their work roles. Our results have a significant contribution to design, redesign, and improvement of employment practices in community healthcare. This study brings forth the neglected issues of emotions and their implications for these healthcare workers in low and middle-income countries who are a vital link that delivers healthcare to weaker section of the society. The findings have relevance not merely for the individual providing this service but the beneficiary and the organization that facilitates this
The article deals with analysis of challenges and objectives for higher education in the context of globalization: the forming of international labour market proves the fact that the process of international integration is affecting economy and technology as well as social and labour relations that are becoming more and more global. The…
Cheetham, R W; Rzadkowolski, A
The psychiatric complications occurring during the three stages of labour are described, together with those factors which predispose to delivery-room complications or abnormalities. The predisposing factors include conflicts in relation to feminine identity, repressed traumatic experiences during the early stages of psychosexual development, adverse social, educational and economic situation, and excessive fear and anxiety, particularly in the absence of support from the husband. The triad of fear-tension-pain, the influence of socio-economic and cultural factors, and the methods utilized to reduce both anxiety and fear are discussed. The interrelation between environmental, hormonal and psychological manifestations in the postpartum period is briefly described, with specific emphasis on depression.
This paper is the second part of an edited version of a Keynote Presentation delivered at the 2006 AUA Annual Conference at Queen's University Belfast on 11 April. The first part was published in perspectives 10.3 in July 2006. In the Presentation Sir David commented on three areas of unfinished business with which New Labour has struggled; in the…
Cort, Pia; Thomsen, Rie
In European Union policy, Denmark is often referred to as a model country in terms of its flexicurity model and provision of financial support and access to education and training during periods of unemployment, i.e. during transitional phases in a working life. However, in the research on flexicurity and its implications for labour market…
Wagar, Terry H; Rondeau, Kent V
Many health care workplaces are adopting more cooperative labour-management relations, spurred in part by sweeping changes in the economic environment that have occurred over the last decade. Labour-management cooperation is seen as essential if health care organizations are to achieve their valued performance objectives. Joint labour-management committees (LMCs) have been adopted in many health care workplaces as a means of achieving better industrial relations. Using data from a sample of Canadian union leaders in the health care sector, this paper examines the impact of labour-management forums and labour climate on employee and organizational outcomes. Research results suggest that labour climate is less important in predicting workplace performance (and change in workplace performance) than is the number of LMCs in operation. However, labour climate is found to be at least as important in predicting union member satisfaction (and change in member satisfaction) as is the wide adoption of LMCs in operation. These findings are consistent with the notion that the greater use of LMCs is associated with augmented workplace performance (and a positive change in workplace performance), notwithstanding the contribution of the labour climate in the workplace.
Melzack, R.; Taenzer, P.; Feldman, P.; Kinch, R. A.
Labour pain was measured with the McGill Pain Questionnaire in 87 primiparas and 54 multiparas. The average intensity of labour pain ranked among the most intense pains recorded with the questionnaire. However, the pain scores had a wide range and were influenced by several medical and social variables. They were significantly higher for the primiparas than for the multiparas. Moreover, high pain levels were associated with a history of menstrual difficulties and lower socioeconomic status. The primiparas who had received prepared childbirth training had lower pain scores than those who had received no such training. Nevertheless, the effects of prepared childbirth training were relatively small, and most patients (81%) who received it requested epidural anesthesia. Because many women who received training suffered severe pain during labour, prepared childbirth training and epidural anesthesia should be regarded as compatible, complementary procedures. PMID:7272887
Leduc, Dean; Biringer, Anne; Lee, Lily; Dy, Jessica
Objectif : Analyser la littérature la plus récente afin de formuler des recommandations factuelles à l’intention des fournisseurs de soins obstétricaux au sujet du déclenchement du travail. Options : Mise en œuvre d’un déclenchement du travail dans le cadre d’une grossesse. Issues : Chronologie et méthode appropriées pour ce qui est du déclenchement, mode d’accouchement approprié et issues maternelles et périnatales optimales. Résultats : La littérature publiée a été récupérée par l’intermédiaire de recherches menées dans PubMed, CINAHL et The Cochrane Library en 2010, au moyen d’un vocabulaire contrôlé (p. ex. « labour », « induced », « labour induction », « cervical ripening ») et de mots clés (p. ex. « induce », « induction », « augmentation ») appropriés. Les résultats ont été restreints aux analyses systématiques, aux essais comparatifs randomisés / essais cliniques comparatifs et aux études observationnelles. Aucune restriction n’a été appliquée en matière de date ou de langue. Les recherches ont été mises à jour de façon régulière et intégrées à la directive clinique jusqu’à la fin de 2010. La littérature grise (non publiée) a été identifiée par l’intermédiaire de recherches menées dans les sites Web d’organismes s’intéressant à l’évaluation des technologies dans le domaine de la santé et d’organismes connexes, dans des collections de directives cliniques, dans des registres d’essais cliniques et auprès de sociétés de spécialité médicale nationales et internationales. Valeurs : La qualité des résultats est évaluée au moyen des critères décrits dans le rapport du Groupe d’étude canadien sur les soins de santé préventifs (Tableau 1). Validation : Les données, les déclarations sommaires et les recommandations que contient la présente directive clinique ont été vérifiées en les comparant à celles de directives
Schofield, Deborah J; Callander, Emily J; Shrestha, Rupendra N; Passey, Megan E; Percival, Richard; Kelly, Simon J
There are few studies that have looked at the occurrence of co-morbid conditions amongst patients with back problems. This study assesses the association between of a range of co-morbidities and the labour force participation rates of 45- to 64-year-old Australians with back problems. Logistic regression models were applied to the 2003 Survey of Disability, Ageing and Carers (SDAC) data to look at the relationship between chronic back problems, labour force participation and comorbidities. For some conditions, there is a significant increase in the chance of an individual being out of the labour force, relative to those with back problems alone. For example, an individual with back problems and heart disease is more than 10 times more likely to be out of the labour force than those with back problems alone (OR=10.90, 95% CI=2.91-40.79, P=.0004). Amongst conditions that have a significant impact on labour force participation rates, back problems and multiple co-morbidities are significantly more likely to cause persons with these conditions to be out of the labour force than those with back problems alone or those with no chronic health condition. It is important to consider which co-morbidities an individual has when assessing the impact of back problems on labour force participation, as co-morbid conditions vary in their association with labour force participation.
Gordon McCaffrey, a political scientist and assistant director of the legislation department, Canadian Labour Congress, says technical and vocational educations is as good as far as it goes. He pinpoints what he believes are the shortcomings of education as a whole, examines these in relation to psychological, social and economic factors, and…
Vincent, Carol; Braun, Annette
This paper reports on data drawn from an "Economic and Social Research Council"-funded project investigating the experiences of UK-based students training on level-2 and level-3 childcare courses. We focus on the concept of emotional labour in relation to learning to care for and educate young children and the ways in which the students'…
Picardo, Juan M; López-Fernández, Consuelo; Hervás, María José Abellán
In this article we address concerns raised by Brumit and Glenn (2013) regarding the validity of the Spanish version of the Emotional Labour Scale (ELS). We respond to requests in relation to the translated version of the scale and the eigenvalue series. We also give an explanation of the differences in results between the original version and the Spanish version of the scale.
Mather, Kim; Seifert, Roger
Education management has increasingly been dominated by the norms and requirements of general management ideologies that focus on performance controls and target achievements. Under this regime, solving the labour problem--relatively low productivity--has taken precedence over all other forms of management. In pursuit of this objective senior…
Csapo, A. I.; Pohanka, O.; Kaihola, H. L.
Plasma oestradiol 17β and progesterone levels in 11 patients admitted to hospital for threatened premature labour of unknown aetiology were compared with those of women at similar stages of gestation whose pregnancy was normal. Oestradiol levels in the study group were slightly higher than in the normal controls but their progesterone levels were significantly lower. This progesterone deficiency increased the oestradiol/progesterone ratio in the study group patients, and it increased still more as the progesterone withdrawal continued during premature labour. Since uterine activity during pregnancy is regulated by a balanced action of several factors a deficiency in progesterone, an opponent of uterine activity, creates a regulatory imbalance which, if uncorrected, provokes premature labour. An increase in uterine volume stimulates uterine activity, and the present study reinforced our previous conclusion that the uterine-volume/plasma-progesterone ratio is a more accurate measure of the state of regulatory balance than the progesterone level alone. The cause of the progesterone deficiency in these cases remains unexplained, but we suggest that placental growth and function are contributory factors. We are investigating ways of correcting the resulting imbalance in the regulatory mechanism. PMID:4812406
The question of child labor in Africa is complicated by the failures of the educational system, family relations, traditional forms of apprenticeship, proliferation of the informal economic sector, and continuing existence of a rural economy. Hazardous working conditions prevail. (SK)
Ananda, K; Sane, Mandar Ramchandra; Shreedhar, N C
Spontaneous deliveries into toilet bowls always carry a special forensic significance. Forensic pathologist has to differentiate between a genuine precipitate labour and concealed birth or a neonaticide. Circumstances are challenging when a nullipara claims misapprehended precipitate labour. We report a similar case where a primigravidous unmarried girl delivered in a lavatory pan misjudging labour pains as that of bowel evacuation. Detailed obstetric history, postnatal maternal behaviour and visit to scene of incidence resolved the unnecessary charges of neonaticide on the embarrassed mother.
Lee, Yeonjung; Tang, Fengyan; Kim, Kevin H; Albert, Steven M
This study investigated the reciprocal relationship between parental caregiving and labour force participation to determine whether (1) caregiving related to subsequent employment; (2) employment related to subsequent caregiving; (3) caregiving and labour force participation had a reciprocal relationship across time; and (4) gender differences existed in these relationships. A cross-lagged panel design was applied with structural equation modeling. The study sample included adult children aged 51 or older with living parents or parents-in-law. No reciprocal relationship was found between caregiving and labour force participation, but gender differences were evident. Women caregivers in 2006 were less likely to be working in 2008, whereas employment status was not related to subsequent caregiving. In contrast, men working in 2008 were less likely to be caregiving in 2010, whereas caregiving was not related to subsequent employment status. Findings suggest that gender plays an important role in the relationship between caregiving and labour force participation.
Darmstadt, Gary L; Yakoob, Mohammad Yawar; Haws, Rachel A; Menezes, Esme V; Soomro, Tanya; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A
Background Approximately one million stillbirths occur annually during labour; most of these stillbirths occur in low and middle-income countries and are associated with absent, inadequate, or delayed obstetric care. The low proportion of intrapartum stillbirths in high-income countries suggests that intrapartum stillbirths are largely preventable with quality intrapartum care, including prompt recognition and management of intrapartum complications. The evidence for impact of intrapartum interventions on stillbirth and perinatal mortality outcomes has not yet been systematically examined. Methods We undertook a systematic review of the published literature, searching PubMed and the Cochrane Library, of trials and reviews (N = 230) that reported stillbirth or perinatal mortality outcomes for eight interventions delivered during labour. Where eligible randomised controlled trials had been published after the most recent Cochrane review on any given intervention, we incorporated these new trial findings into a new meta-analysis with the Cochrane included studies. Results We found a paucity of studies reporting statistically significant evidence of impact on perinatal mortality, especially on stillbirths. Available evidence suggests that operative delivery, especially Caesarean section, contributes to decreased stillbirth rates. Induction of labour rather than expectant management in post-term pregnancies showed strong evidence of impact, though there was not enough evidence to suggest superior safety for the fetus of any given drug or drugs for induction of labour. Planned Caesarean section for term breech presentation has been shown in a large randomised trial to reduce stillbirths, but the feasibility and consequences of implementing this intervention routinely in low-/middle-income countries add caveats to recommending its use. Magnesium sulphate for pre-eclampsia and eclampsia is effective in preventing eclamptic seizures, but studies have not demonstrated impact
Isenbarger, Lynn; Zembylas, Michalinos
This article is based on a collaborative action research study between one teacher and a teacher educator and provides an account of the emotional labour in enacting caring teaching in an inclusive classroom. The emotional labour demanded in caring relationships is an area of research that has not received much attention. Results from this case…
van Niekerk, A; van Zyl, L
The aim of this article is to establish whether there is anything intrinsically immoral about surrogacy arrangements from the perspective of the surrogate mother herself. Specific attention is paid to the claim that surrogacy is similar to prostitution in that it reduces women's reproductive labour to a form of alienated and/or dehumanized labour.
Fetuga, Bolanle M; Njokama, Fidelis O; Olowu, Adebiyi O
BACKGROUND: To determine the prevalence, types and demographic features of child labour among school children in Nigeria. METHODS: A cross-sectional interview study of 1675 randomly selected public primary and secondary school pupils aged 5 to less than 18 years was conducted in the Sagamu Local Government Area of Ogun State, Nigeria from October 1998 to September 1999. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of child labour was 64.5%: 68.6% among primary and 50.3% among secondary school pupils. Major economic activities included street trading (43.6%), selling in kiosks and shops (25.4%) and farming (23.6%). No child was involved in bonded labour or prostitution. Girls were more often involved in labour activities than boys (66.8% versus 62.1%, p = 0.048): this difference was most obvious with street trading (p = 0.0004). Most of the children (82.2%) involved in labour activities did so on the instruction of one or both parents in order to contribute to family income. Children of parents with low socio-economic status or of poorly educated parents were significantly involved in labour activities (p = 0.01 and p = 0.001 respectively). Child labour was also significantly associated with increasing number of children in the family size (p = 0.002). A higher prevalence rate of child labour was observed among children living with parents and relations than among those living with unrelated guardians. CONCLUSION: It is concluded that smaller family size, parental education and family economic enhancement would reduce the pressure on parents to engage their children in labour activities.
Thapa, Subash; Bista, Nirmala; Timilsina, Suraj; Buntinx, Frank; Mathei, Catharina
Summary Labour migration has increased the risk of HIV infection among the wives of labour migrants in Nepal. We conducted a matched case-control study to identify the social and behavioural factors for HIV infection among the wives of labour migrants in Nepal. We interviewed 112 wives of labour migrants diagnosed with HIV (cases) and 112 wives of labour migrants testing negative for HIV (controls) and used logistic regression analysis to assess independent factors associated with HIV infection. Literacy status was the only one woman-related social factor associated with HIV infection. Meanwhile literacy status, age when going abroad for the first time and country of migration were the husband-related social factors and alcohol consumption, living alone abroad and having an unpaid partner abroad were the husband-related behavioural factors associated with HIV infection in the wives. Given the husband-related social and behavioural factors are mostly determining the risk of HIV infection in the wives in our study, prevention efforts must incorporate behaviour change approaches targeting specifically to labour migrants and also to their wives.
Hutchinson, James L.; Hibbert, Nanette; Freeman, Tom C.; Saunders, Philippa T. K.; Norman, Jane E.
An incomplete understanding of the molecular mechanisms that initiate normal human labour at term seriously hampers the development of effective ways to predict, prevent and treat disorders such as preterm labour. Appropriate analysis of large microarray experiments that compare gene expression in non-labouring and labouring gestational tissues is necessary to help bridge these gaps in our knowledge. In this work, gene expression in 48 (22 labouring, 26 non-labouring) lower-segment myometrial samples collected at Caesarean section were analysed using Illumina HT-12 v4.0 BeadChips. Normalised data were compared between labouring and non-labouring groups using traditional statistical methods and a novel network graph approach. We sought technical validation with quantitative real-time PCR, and biological replication through inverse variance-weighted meta-analysis with published microarray data. We have extended the list of genes suggested to be associated with labour: Compared to non-labouring samples, labouring samples showed apparent higher expression at 960 probes (949 genes) and apparent lower expression at 801 probes (789 genes) (absolute fold change ≥1.2, rank product percentage of false positive value (RP-PFP) <0.05). Although half of the women in the labouring group had received pharmaceutical treatment to induce or augment labour, sensitivity analysis suggested that this did not confound our results. In agreement with previous studies, functional analysis suggested that labour was characterised by an increase in the expression of inflammatory genes and network analysis suggested a strong neutrophil signature. Our analysis also suggested that labour is characterised by a decrease in the expression of muscle-specific processes, which has not been explicitly discussed previously. We validated these findings through the first formal meta-analysis of raw data from previous experiments and we hypothesise that this represents a change in the composition of
Around 14% of the UK labour force has informal care responsibilities and almost everyone in society will be an informal carer in their lifetime. A well-known fact in the small economic literature on informal care is the apparent negative relation between care responsibilities and labour market participation. Yet, caring and labour market participation may be endogenous. Using an instrumental variable approach and panel data techniques and employing data from the British Household Panel Study from 1991 to 2002, this paper shows that not accommodating for endogeneity in the labour market participation equation may significantly overestimate the impact care exhibits on the employment decision of informal carers. Moreover, it is shown that a negative impact on employment only applies to some care-types. Policy implications are derived.
Salmenniemi, Suvi; Adamson, Maria
In recent years, post-feminism has become an important element of popular media culture and the object of feminist cultural critique. This article explores how post-feminism is domesticated in Russia through popular self-help literature aimed at a female audience. Drawing on a close reading of self-help texts by three best-selling Russian authors, the article examines how post-feminism is made intelligible to the Russian audience and how it articulates with other symbolic frameworks. It identifies labour as a key trope through which post-feminism is domesticated and argues that the texts invite women to invest time and energy in the labour of personality, the labour of femininity and the labour of sexuality in order to become 'valuable subjects'. The article demonstrates that the domestication of post-feminism also involves the domestication of neoliberal capitalism in Russia, and highlights how popular psychology, neoliberal capitalism and post-feminism are symbiotically related.
Pearce, J M; Shepherd, J H; Sims, C D
Vaginal pessaries containing 3 mg of prostaglandin E2 were used to induce labour in 200 patients with variable induction features. Prostaglandin-induced labour was augmented where necessary by synthetic oxytocin. There was on failed induction. Only 23% of patients with favourable induction features and 53% of patients with unfavourable features needed oxytocin. There were no adverse fetal or maternal effects. The prostaglandin E2 pessary was as effective in inducing labour as 350 microgram extra-amniotic prostaglandin E2 in tylose in a comparable group of 200 patients in which there were 4 failed inductions.
Ullman, Roz; Smith, Lesley A; Burns, Ethel; Mori, Rintaro; Dowswell, Therese
did not have sufficient evidence to assess which opioid drug provided the best pain relief with the least adverse effects. Authors’ conclusions Parenteral opioids provide some relief from pain in labour but are associated with adverse effects. Maternal satisfaction with opioid analgesia was largely unreported but appeared moderate at best. This review needs to be examined alongside related Cochrane reviews examining pain management in labour. More research is needed to determine which analgesic intervention is most effective, and provides greatest satisfaction to women with acceptable adverse effects for mothers and their newborn. PMID:20824859
Healthcare professional education is the undergraduate, postgraduate and continuing professional development for doctors, nurses and allied healthcare professionals. Labour economics is the relationship between workers and employers, and the resultant effect on employment and wages. Healthcare professional education ultimately produces a workforce, and that workforce is governed by the rules of labour economics like any other workforce. Despite all of these largely incontrovertible facts, there has been remarkably little interest in the relationship between healthcare professional education and labour economics. This short article attempts to redress this shortcoming by describing some of the factors that can affect healthcare professional education and labour economics, and aims to mention some of the methods in which these two disciplines can interact with each other.
Gulzar, Saleema Aziz; Vertejee, Samina; Pirani, Laila
Child labour is a global practice and has many negative outcomes. According to International Labour Organization, child labour is the important source of child exploitation and child abuse in the world today. The Human Rights Commission of Pakistan has estimated the number of Pakistani working children to be around 11-12 millions, out of which, at least, half the children are under the age of ten years. It portrays the society's attitude towards child care. It is therefore, essential to break this vicious cycle and hence, enable the society to produce healthy citizens. This article analyzes the determinants of child labour in the Pakistani context and its implications for child's life, in specific, and for the nation, in general, utilizing the model developed by Clemen-stone & McGuire (1991). Since this practice has complex web of causation, a multidisciplinary approach is required to combat this issue through proposed recommendations.
International Labour Review, 1998
Includes "Introduction"; "International Labour Standards and Human Rights" (Valticos); "The Origins of Convention No. 87 on Freedom of Association and the Right to Organize" (Dunning); "Human Rights Law and Freedom of Association" (Swepston); "Freedom of Association" (von Potobsky); "The ILO…
Halsteinli, Vidar; Ose, Solveig Osborg; Torvik, Heidi; Hagen, Terje P
Until 2002, counties were responsible for providing both somatic and psychiatric specialized health care services in Norway. The financing arrangement of the counties consisted of fixed local taxes, a general block grant and different types of earmarked grants from the national government. Since 1997, earmarked conditional grants related to DRG-activity have been used for somatic services, whereas earmarked unconditional grants have been used for mental health care services from approximately the same time. This paper analyse the price and revenue effects of grants on the allocation of labour, with special attention to the two types of earmarked grants: conditional and unconditional. Theoretically, labour (as an index of production output) is assumed to be allocated to somatic and psychiatric services dependent upon revenues (taxes, block grants and earmarked unconditional grants), price per labour-year (that among other things are affected by earmarked conditional grants) and the preferences of the local government (which relate to the age structure and population density of the county). We assume that a conditional grant reduces the net price of labour and thereby increases the (relative) demand, whereas an unconditional grant adds to the other revenues of the county and do not affect the relative allocation of labour. Data from a panel of 18 counties for the period 1992-2001 is analysed using OLS with fixed effects. The results show revenue effects and direct price effects as expected. However, the assumption that unconditional grants do not affect relative allocation of labours is not supported. We find a positive effect of the unconditional grant to psychiatric care on the demand for labour in this sector. We interpret this as an effect of hierarchical governance such as supervision and monitoring that were remedies that were used together with the unconditional grant.
Alasia, Alessandro; Weersink, Alfons; Bollman, Ray D.; Cranfield, John
Understanding the factors affecting off-farm labour decisions of census-farm operators has significant implications for rural development and farm income support policy. We examine the off-farm labour decisions of Canadian farm operators using micro-level data from the 2001 Census of Agriculture combined with community level data from the 2001…
Syal, K; Dogra, RK; Ohri, A; Chauhan, G; Goel, A
Background: To compare the effects of addition of Clonidine (60 μg) to Epidural Bupivacaine (0.125%) for labour analgesia, with regard to duration of analgesia, duration of labour, ambulation, incidence of instrumentation and caesarean section, foetal outcome, patient satisfaction and side effects. Patients & Methods: On demand, epidural labour analgesia was given to 50 nulliparous healthy term parturients (cephalic presentation), divided in two groups randomly. Group I received bupivacaine (0.125%) alone, whereas Group II received bupivacaine (0.125%) along with Clonidine (60 μg). 10 ml of 0.125% bupivacaine was injected as first dose and further doses titrated with patient relief (Numerical Rating Scale <3). Top ups were given whenever Numerical Rating Scale went above 5. Results: There was statistically significant prolongation of duration of analgesia in Group II, with no difference in duration of labour, ambulation, incidence of instrumentation and caesarean section or foetal outcome. Also clonidine gave dose sparing effect to bupivacaine and there was better patient satisfaction without any significant side effects in Group II. Conclusion: Clonidine is a useful adjunct to bupivacaine for epidural labour analgesia and can be considered as alternative to opioids. PMID:21804714
Lifelong learning has been a key theme of New Labour's education policy agenda since 1997, but is a broad and often amorphous concept. This article analyzes New Labour's ideological perspective in this context, outlines the main developments and difficulties, and evaluates the record over the seven years in office. New Labour's policy on lifelong…
Facchinetti, Fabio; Avallone, Rossella; Modugno, Giuseppe; Baraldi, Mario
Natural benzodiazepine-like compounds (NBDZ) are present in the blood of normal people free of commercial benzodiazepine medication. In this work, we evaluated the levels of NBDZ in maternal/foetal serum during delivery after spontaneous labour (VD) or caesarean section (CS). For both the VD (n=11) and the CS (n=11) groups (VD+CS=22), three blood samples were collected at three different times: the first was collected three days before labour, the second immediately after delivery or at fetal abdominal extraction and the third one was obtained at second day post-partum. NBDZ were measured by radioreceptor binding assay after HPLC extraction and purification while cortisol was measured through radioimmunoassay. In the VD group, a significant increase of NBDZ levels occurred at labour in comparison with the levels found in pre- and post-partum periods. By the contrary, no differences in NBDZ levels were found in the CS group at the three different times. The levels of cortisol in the VD group were found to be higher at labour than that determined at pre- and post-partum. Again no significant changes were found in the CS group. These findings suggest for the first time that labour is associated with a marked increase of NBDZ which could be envisaged as a stress-related event.
de Oliveira, Alberto; Filho, Gilberto Abrantes
The aim of this article is to compare the schooling levels of individuals with the demands of the Brazilian labour market. The results demonstrate the high probability of compatibility between occupation and schooling levels. But high propensities for under-education were identified associated with the skin colour and position in the family. The…
Audsley, Jamie; O'Connell, Jim
The authors argue that it is time to get radical about the Left's vision for education and develop a direction that communities can really own. The Labour Party being out of government for the first time in 13 years gives us a chance to consider what education means to the Left, and allows us to be innovative in how the Party can approach…
de Oliveira, Alberto; Filho, Gilberto Abrantes
The aim of this article is to compare the schooling levels of individuals with the demands of the Brazilian labour market. The results demonstrate the high probability of compatibility between occupation and schooling levels. But high propensities for under-education were identified associated with skin colour and position in family. The results…
Webster, Elizabeth; Wooden, Mark; Marks, Gary
Although there is a general consensus that teachers are important for student learning, there is little discussion of the process by which teachers are employed by schools: the teacher labour market. We argue, based on a mix of a priori and inductive reasoning, that inflexible attitudes about comparative wages have contributed toward chronic…
From 1997 the New Labour government was eager to affirm a commitment to social justice and racial equality, and initially there were moves to address some long-standing educational grievances. But a continuation of Conservative market policies of choice and diversity in schooling and a targeting of 'failing' schools exacerbated school segregation…
Constanti, Panikkos; Gibbs, Paul
Service organizations are encouraged to consider the manner in which employees perform at the customer/front-line employee interface, as a means to gain competitive advantage. The employee's behaviour requires "emotional labour" where the front-line employee (academic), has to either conceal or manage actual feelings for the benefit of a…
Transformational leadership is widely recognised as being central to the implementation of educational reform. In this paper I draw on selected educational speeches made by New Labour politicians in order to locate shifting discourses of leadership within the broader accountability framework through which the terms of the relationship between…
Degirmencioglu, Serdar M.; Acar, Hakan; Acar, Yuksel Baykara
Two little known forms of child labour in Turkey are examined. The process through which these children are made to work has parallels with the experiences of slaves. First, a long-standing practice from Northwestern Turkey of parents hiring children to better-off farmers is examined. Further, a more recent problem is examined where children are…
The affective dimensions of intimacy and emotional labour in academic development are explored utilising two methodological resources: autoethnography and narrative practice. An excerpt from the author's reflective professional journal infused with affect and emotion is analysed utilising theories of intimacy in modernity, emotion work, and…
The legislative framework for academic and nonacademic unionization and collective bargaining in Canadian public colleges, universities and technical institutes is set out and compared with mainstream labour law. Significant deviations affecting academic staff in the province of Alberta are explored to understand their effect and the factors which…
Yabiku, Scott T.; Agadjanian, Victor; Sevoyan, Arusyak
Labour migration leads to significant changes in origin areas. The separation of migrants from the family unit, whether it is nuclear or extended, has profound implications for family organization and for individual family members. We examined the relationship between men’s labour migration and the decision-making autonomy of women who stay behind. The data for our analyses came from a 2006 survey of 1680 married women from 56 rural villages in southern Mozambique. We find that both men’s cumulative migration history and current migration status are positively associated with women’s autonomy. The results suggest that the impact of men’s labour migration on women’s autonomy may persist even after the man’s return. Three intervening factors — women’s employment outside the home, lower fertility, and residential independence from extended family members—did not fully mediate the effects of men’s labour migration. This is consistent with a “direct” impact of men’s absence on women’s autonomy. PMID:20865630
Baldino, Roberto Ribeiro; Cabral, Tânia Cristina Baptista
In Baldino and Cabral (2013) we introduced the concept of qualified labour-power as the commodity produced by the school system. In the present article we outline a quantitative model to evaluate the profit rate of educational programmes. We compare a medical school programme with a teacher education programme at a public university in Brazil,…
Abella, M I
The author "argues that the rise of organized labour migration has introduced a new structural feature in the international labour market.... This new factor....contributes to making labour supply highly elastic during upswings in demand for expatriate labour....[and] makes for inelasticity during periods of weakening demand because of its 'stockpiling effect' on labour supply." The impacts on migrants' wages and on the labor forces of labor-exporting countries are considered. The focus is on Asian labor migration to the Middle East. Separate comments by M. Irfan and Nadeem A. Burney are included (pp. 378-81).
McPake, Barbara; Maeda, Akiko; Araújo, Edson Correia; Lemiere, Christophe; El Maghraby, Atef; Cometto, Giorgio
Human resources for health have been recognized as essential to the development of responsive and effective health systems. Low- and middle-income countries seeking to achieve universal health coverage face human resource constraints - whether in the form of health worker shortages, maldistribution of workers or poor worker performance - that seriously undermine their ability to achieve well-functioning health systems. Although much has been written about the human resource crisis in the health sector, labour economic frameworks have seldom been applied to analyse the situation and little is known or understood about the operation of labour markets in low- and middle-income countries. Traditional approaches to addressing human resource constraints have focused on workforce planning: estimating health workforce requirements based on a country's epidemiological and demographic profile and scaling up education and training capacities to narrow the gap between the "needed" number of health workers and the existing number. However, this approach neglects other important factors that influence human resource capacity, including labour market dynamics and the behavioural responses and preferences of the health workers themselves. This paper describes how labour market analysis can contribute to a better understanding of the factors behind human resource constraints in the health sector and to a more effective design of policies and interventions to address them. The premise is that a better understanding of the impact of health policies on health labour markets, and subsequently on the employment conditions of health workers, would be helpful in identifying an effective strategy towards the progressive attainment of universal health coverage.
Wheelahan, Leesa; Buchanan, John; Yu, Serena
This is the final report in the three-year program of research "Vocations: The Link between Post-Compulsory Education and the Labour Market," which investigated the educational and occupational paths people take and how their study relates to their work. This report synthesises the findings of the three different strands: pathways from…
This article compares key features of the labour markets for teachers across Botswana and South Africa in order to seek possible explanations for the apparently larger teacher shortages in South Africa. It is argued that South African teachers earn relatively lower wages when compared to professionals with comparable qualifications; they have also…
The paper considers whether letting children combine work and school is a valid and effective approach in Cambodia. Policy makers' suggestions that child labour should be allowed to some extent due to household poverty appear ungrounded as no significant relation between children's work and household poverty is found while arranging school…
Raju, T N
This study assesses the relationship between literacy and labour rates among the adults and children in 17 Indian states. Among children aged 5-14 years, 53.9% were literate and 3.74% were working for wages; these figures, however varied markedly among the states. Kerala, a state with the best overall adult literacy, also recorded the highest child literacy rate, and the lowest child employment rate. The states with high adult literacy also tended to have high child literacy (Spearman's coefficient of rank correlation, Rho 1 = 0.95, P less than 0.001), and low child labour (Rho = 0.56, P less than 0.02). Child labour rates did not correlate with adult labour rates. However, change in adult literacy and labour rates over a 7-year period correlated significantly both with the change in child literacy and labour rates: The states with a greater increase in adult literacy also observed a greater rise in child literacy, and a greater fall in child labour rates. But the states with a greater increase in adult labour had a greater rise in child labour rates; for each ten additional adults working, two more children also worked for wages, suggesting that increasing job opportunities drew both adults and children into the labour force. The findings, and their implications for pediatric care are discussed.
Background Here, the educational and labour market characteristics of Mexican dentists are revised. Dentistry is a health profession that has been scarcely studied in developing countries. This analysis attempts to understand the relationships and gaps between the supply and demand of dentists in the country. Around 5000 new dentists graduate every year looking for a place in the labour market. Methods A cross-sectional study with exploratory, descriptive and correlational scope was carried out between 2006 and 2008. Analyses of quantitative data on dentists from national surveys and occupational statistics were complemented with qualitative information provided by 43 key informants in five Mexican states. Results The 2008 dentist labour market can be characterized as follows: 75% worked in the private sector, most of them independently; more than two-thirds were women; the proportion of specialists was low (slightly more than 10%); unemployment was more than 20% and labour wastage was nearly 40%, with most wastage corresponding with female dentists. The increase in the number of dentists entering the labour market during the last two decades is more related to the educational market than to the population’s health needs and the number of dentists actually required to meet them. Conclusions The problems identified in the Mexican dentist labour market necessitate urgent intervention on behalf of regulatory bodies in order to balance the tendencies of supply and demand in the number of trained professionals as well as in their incorporation into different market areas. Adequate policies are required to increase the likelihood of achieving this objective. PMID:22974344
The Humanoid Robotics Project of the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry of Japan realized that biped humanoid robots can perform manual labour. The project developed humanoid robot platforms, consisting of humanoid robot hardware and a package of fundamental software, and explored applications of humanoid robots on them. The applications include maintenance tasks of industrial plants, teleoperation of industrial vehicles, cooperative tasks with a human, guarding the home and office and the care of patients in beds.
This is the first in a two-part series on emotional labour, a trained and individualised response to help manage the emotions of patients. It reviews relevant literature to define and explore this concept in nursing, and considers examples of emotional labour and makes recommendations for future policy and research. Part 2 of this research, to be published in next week's issue, examines routine aspects of emotional labour in nursing and the barriers to recognising this aspect of work.
Lewis, J R
"International labour migration involves 20 million workers from 'middle income' and 'Third World' countries. The article reviews both theoretical propositions and empirical evidence on its effects on regional disparities in labour exporting countries. It shows the variety of ways in which the departure of emigrants affects the uneven development of rural and urban areas there by changing the volume and nature of production as well as welfare conditions. Regional patterns of production and welfare are further modified by the impact of emigrants' remittances and their eventual return."
Lindley, R M
the 1975-85 decade. After the adjustment of the recession, European manufacturing industry is relatively more competitive and overall will experience a slower employment decline. Further, the growth of services will be limited by the effects of restrictive budgetary policies upon the development of public services. In all 5 countries, the main projected areas of employment growth are business and related services, tourism and leisure activities, and health care. Those occupations most likely to expand are the more highly qualified groups associated with the growth sectors. The main changes in the location of functions within the economic structure are likely to be the continuing contracting out of service functions within production industries to the service sector; and the growth of small relative to large enterprises.
Women recognise that labour represents a mind-altering event that may affect their ability to make and communicate decisions and choices. For this reason, birth plans and other pre-labour directives can represent a form of Ulysses contract: an attempt to make binding choices before the sometimes overwhelming circumstances of labour. These choices need to be respected during labour, but despite the reduced decisional and communicative capacity of a labouring woman, her choices, when clear, should supersede decisions made before labour.
Andersen, Robert; van de Werfhorst, Herman G
This article explores the role of national institutional factors--more specifically, the level of skill transparency of the education system and labour market coordination--in accounting for cross-national differences in the relationship between education and occupational status. Consistent with previous research, our findings suggest that skill transparency is the primary moderator. Countries with a highly transparent educational system (i.e., extensive tracking, strong vocational orientation, limited tertiary enrolment) tend to be characterized by a strong relationship between education and occupational status. These findings hold even after controlling for the level of labour market coordination. Nevertheless, we also find that labour market coordination plays an independent role by dampening the effect of education on occupational status. Taken together, these results suggest two quite different policy implications: (1) strengthening the skill transparency of the education system by increasing secondary and tertiary-level differentiation may strengthen the relationship between education and occupation, regardless of the level of coordination, and (2) increasing labour market coordination could lead to improved social inclusion and a reduction in inequalities related to educational attainment.
Hoang, Lan Anh; Yeoh, Brenda S.A.; Wattie, Anna Marie
Recent increases in female labour migration in and from Asia have triggered a surge of interest in how the absence of the mother and wife for extended periods of time affects the left-behind family, particularly children, in labour-sending countries. While migration studies in the region have shown that the extended family, especially female relatives, is often called on for support in childcare during the mother’s absence it is not yet clear how childcare arrangements are made. Drawing on in-depth interviews with non-parent carers of left-behind children in Indonesia and Vietnam, the paper aims to unveil complexities and nuances around care in the context of transnational labour migration. In so doing it draws attention to the enduring influence of social norms on the organisation of family life when women are increasingly drawn into the global labour market. By contrasting a predominantly patrilineal East Asian family structure in Vietnam with what is often understood as a bilateral South-East Asian family structure in Indonesia, the paper seeks to provide interesting comparative insights into the adaptive strategies that the transnational family pursues in order to cope with the reproductive vacuum left behind by the migrant mother. PMID:22984293
Lavrijsen, Jeroen; Nicaise, Ides
An important issue in the design of secondary-level education is the balance between conveying general and occupation-specific (vocational) skills. On the one hand, vocationally oriented programmes, providing occupation-specific skills with immediate labour market relevance, have repeatedly been shown to secure safe pathways into employment. On the other hand, these programmes tend to put less emphasis on developing general knowledge, skills and competencies, including numeracy and literacy, which are foundational to lifelong learning. Hence, when the needs of the labour market change, employees who opted for a vocational track when they were at secondary school risk being less flexible in adapting to such changes later in their career. The authors of this article examine whether this results in a trade-off between short-term gains and long-term losses by considering differences in the labour market careers of vocationally and generally educated respondents in the 2012 Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC). Their results suggest that early labour market benefits of vocational specialisation decrease over time; the authors relate this to its lower ability to equip secondary school students - future employees - with skills for lifelong learning.
Salmenniemi, Suvi; Adamson, Maria
In recent years, post-feminism has become an important element of popular media culture and the object of feminist cultural critique. This article explores how post-feminism is domesticated in Russia through popular self-help literature aimed at a female audience. Drawing on a close reading of self-help texts by three best-selling Russian authors, the article examines how post-feminism is made intelligible to the Russian audience and how it articulates with other symbolic frameworks. It identifies labour as a key trope through which post-feminism is domesticated and argues that the texts invite women to invest time and energy in the labour of personality, the labour of femininity and the labour of sexuality in order to become ‘valuable subjects’. The article demonstrates that the domestication of post-feminism also involves the domestication of neoliberal capitalism in Russia, and highlights how popular psychology, neoliberal capitalism and post-feminism are symbiotically related. PMID:26663947
Richardson, Lindsey; Small, Will; Kerr, Thomas
People affected by substance use disorders often experience sub-optimal employment outcomes. The role of drug use in processes that produce and entrench labour market precarity among people who inject drugs (PWID) have not, however, been fully described. We recruited 22 PWID from ongoing prospective cohort studies in Vancouver, Canada, with whom we conducted semi-structured retrospective interviews and then employed a thematic analysis that drew on concepts from life course theory to explore the mechanisms and pathways linking drug use and labour market trajectories. The participants' narratives identified processes corresponding to causation, whereby suboptimal employment outcomes led to harmful drug use; direct selection, where impairment, health complications or drug-seeking activities selected individuals out of employment; and indirect selection, where external factors, such as catastrophic events, marked the initiation or intensification of substance use concurrent with sudden changes in capacities for employment. Catastrophic events linking negative transitions in both drug use and labour market trajectories were of primary importance, demarcating critical initiation and transitional events in individual risk trajectories. These results challenge conventional assumptions about the primacy of drug use in determining employment outcomes among PWID and suggest the importance of multidimensional support to mitigate the initiation, accumulation and entrenchment of labour market and drug-related disadvantage.
Richardson, Lindsey; Small, Will; Kerr, Thomas
People affected by substance use disorders often experience sub-optimal employment outcomes. The role of drug use in processes that produce and entrench labour market precarity among people who inject drugs (PWID) have not, however, been fully described. We recruited 22 PWID from ongoing prospective cohort studies in Vancouver, Canada and conducted semi-structured retrospective interviews and employed a thematic analysis that draws on concepts from life course theory to explore mechanisms and pathways linking drug use and labour market trajectories. Narratives identified processes corresponding to: causation, whereby suboptimal employment outcomes led to harmful drug use; direct selection, where impairment, health complications or drug seeking activities selected individuals out of employment; and indirect selection, where external factors, such as catastrophic events, marked the initiation or intensification of substance use concurrent with sudden changes in capacities for employment. Catastrophic events linking negative transitions in both drug use and labour market trajectories were of primary importance, demarcating critical initiation and transitional events in individual risk trajectories. These results challenge conventional assumptions about the primacy of drug use in determining employment outcomes among PWID, and suggest the importance of multi-dimensional supports to mitigate the initiation, accumulation and entrenchment of labour market and drug-related disadvantage. PMID:26358407
Dimeglio, Isabelle; Janmaat, Jan Germen; Mehaut, Philippe
The aim of this paper is to test the connections between the indicators used in the literature on social cohesion, which usually reflect "general" values or behaviours, and indicators specific to a particular space, namely the labour market. A key question is the stability of the social cohesion's indicators when moving from a societal…
Mahomed, K; Chin, D; Drew, A
Women obtain information on epidural analgesia from various sources. For epidural for pain relief in labour this is provided by the anaesthetist as part of the consenting process. There is much discussion about the inadequacy of this consenting process; we report on women's knowledge, experience and recall of this process at a regional hospital with a 24-h epidural service. Fifty-four women were interviewed within 72 h of a vaginal birth. 91% of the women had acquired information from friends, relatives and antenatal classes. Lack of recall of benefits of epidural analgesia accounted for 26 (38%) and 25 (26%) of the responses, respectively. Similarly in terms of amount of pain relief they could expect, 13 (21%) could not remember and 13 (21%) thought that it may not work. We suggest use of varying methods of disseminating information and wider utilisation of anaesthetists in the antenatal educational programmes.
This article looks at the theme of "performing labour" in Look Left Look Right's "Above and Beyond" (2013). In this performance, individual audience members participate as a generic staff member in a fully functioning five star hotel in London. I consider three modes of performing labour in "Above and Beyond":…
This article looks at the evidence concerning performance and progress in the primary school over the lifetime of New Labour's tenure in government since 1997. It examines the claims made by New Labour that the Literacy and Numeracy Strategies have been an outstanding success and have changed the ways that teachers teach. On the evidence of the…
Haasler, Simone R.
Women play an increasingly important role in the labour market and as wage earners. Moreover, in many countries, young women have outperformed men in terms of educational attainment and qualification. Still, women's human capital investment does not pay off as it does for men as they are still significantly disadvantaged on the labour market.…
Shah, Chandra; Cooney, Richard; Long, Michael; Burke, Gerald
This report investigates the future supply of and demand for certain types of skilled labour at the trades and sub-trades levels that will be required for these projects up to 2010. In particular, it focuses on skilled labour in the mechanical, fabrication and electrical trades and mobile plant operators and construction workers in the sub-trades.…
Cai, Lixin; Kalb, Guyonne
This paper examines the effect of health on labour force participation using the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) Survey. The potential endogeneity of health, especially self-assessed health, in the labour force participation equation is addressed by estimating the health equation and the labour force participation equation simultaneously. Taking into account the correlation between the error terms in the two equations, the estimation is conducted separately for males aged 15-49, males aged 50-64, females aged 15-49 and females aged 50-60. The results indicate that better health increases the probability of labour force participation for all four groups. However, the effect is larger for the older groups and for women. As for the feedback effect, it is found that labour force participation has a significant positive impact on older females' health, and a significant negative effect on younger males' health. For younger females and older males, the impact of labour force participation on health is not significant. The null-hypothesis of exogeneity of health to labour force participation is rejected for all groups.
Sharp, G C; Saunders, P T K; Norman, J E
Improving our understanding of the initiation of labour is a major aim of modern obstetric research, in order to better diagnose and treat pregnant women in which the process occurs abnormally. In particular, increased knowledge will help us identify the mechanisms responsible for preterm labour, the single biggest cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Attempts to improve our understanding of the initiation of labour have been restricted by the inaccessibility of gestational tissues to study during pregnancy and at labour, and by the lack of fully informative animal models. However, computer modelling provides an exciting new approach to overcome these restrictions and offers new insights into uterine activation during term and preterm labour. Such models could be used to test hypotheses about drugs to treat or prevent preterm labour. With further development, an effective computer model could be used by healthcare practitioners to develop personalized medicine for patients on a pregnancy-by-pregnancy basis. Very promising work is already underway to build computer models of the physiology of uterine activation and contraction. These models aim to predict changes and patterns in uterine electrical excitation during term labour. There have been far fewer attempts to build computer models of the molecular pathways driving uterine activation and there is certainly scope for further work in this area. The integration of computer models of the physiological and molecular mechanisms that initiate labour will be particularly useful.
Jensen, P; Nielsen, H S
"In this paper we investigate what affects school attendance and child labour in an LDC, using data for Zambia.... The empirical analysis suggests that both economic and sociological variables are important determinants for the choice between school attendance and child labour. In particular, we find some support for the hypothesis that poverty forces households to keep their children away from school."
Gunter, Helen M.; Forrester, Gillian
The paper draws on data and theorising from the Knowledge Production in Educational Leadership (KPEL) Project where we have investigated New Labour's education policy and investment in headteachers as school leaders in England. New Labour took up office in May 1997 with a modernisation agenda and the leadership of schools is central to this…
Thomas, Albert; And Others
Contains 18 articles published in International Labour Review from 1921-1975 that discuss the International Labour Organisation, international labor movement and law, economics and the labor market, family security, full employment, population growth, industrial welfare, trade policy and employment growth, and income expectations and rural-urban…
Sykes, Lynne; MacIntyre, David A; Teoh, Tiong Ghee; Bennett, Phillip R
Preterm birth occurs in 10-12% of pregnancies and is the primary cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity. Tocolytic therapies have long been the focus for the prevention of preterm labour, yet they do not significantly improve neonatal outcome. A direct causal link exists between infection-induced inflammation and preterm labour. As inflammation and infection are independent risk factors for poor neonatal outcome, recent research focus has been shifted towards exploring the potential for anti-inflammatory strategies. Nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) is a transcription factor that controls the expression of many labour-associated genes including PTGS2 (COX2), prostaglandins (PGs) and the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) as well as key inflammatory genes. Targeting the inhibition of NFκB is therefore an attractive therapeutic approach for both the prevention of preterm labour and for reducing neonatal exposure to inflammation. While PGs are considered to be pro-labour and pro-inflammatory, the cyclopentenone PG 15-deoxy-Δ(12,14)PGJ2 (15d-PGJ2) exhibits anti-inflammatory properties via the inhibition of NFκB in human amniocytes, myocytes and peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro. 15d-PGJ2 also delays inflammation-induced preterm labour in the mouse and significantly increases pup survival. This review examines the current understanding of inflammation in the context of labour and discusses how anti-inflammatory PGs may hold promise for the prevention of preterm labour and improved neonatal outcome.
Tsukamoto, Erika; Abe, Takeru; Ono, Michikazu
Emotional labour increases among long-term care workers because providing care and services to impaired elders causes conflicting interpersonal emotions. Thus, we investigated the associations between emotional labour, general health and job satisfaction among long-term care workers. We conducted a cross-sectional study among 132 established, private day care centres in Tokyo using a mail survey. The outcome variables included two health-related variables and four job satisfaction variables: physical and psychological health, satisfaction with wages, interpersonal relationships, work environment and job satisfaction. We performed multiple regression analyses to identify significant factors. Directors from 36 facilities agreed to participate. A total of 123 responses from long-term care workers were analysed. Greater emotional dissonance was associated with better physical and psychological health and worse work environment satisfaction (partial regression coefficient: -2.93, p = .0389; -3.32, p = .0299; -1.92, p = .0314, respectively). Fewer negative emotions were associated with more job satisfaction (partial regression coefficient: -1.87, p = .0163). We found that emotional labour was significantly inversely associated with health and job satisfaction. Our findings indicated that the emotional labour of long-term care workers has a negative and positive influence on health and workplace satisfaction, and suggests that care quality and stable employment among long-term care workers might affect their emotional labour. Therefore, we think a programme to support emotional labour among long-term care workers in an organized manner and a self-care programme to educate workers regarding emotional labour would be beneficial.
Fröhlich, S; Tan, T; Walsh, A; Carey, M
Epidural analgesia has become increasingly popular as a form of labour analgesia in Ireland. However obtaining true inform consent has always been difficult. Our study recruited 100 parturients who had undergone epidural analgesia for labour, aimed to determine the information they received prior to regional analgesia, and to ascertain their preferences regarding informed consent. Only 65 (65%) of patients planned to have an epidural. Knowledge of potential complications was variable and inaccurate, with less than 30 (30%) of women aware of the most common complications. Most women 79 (79%) believed that discomfort during labour affected their ability to provide informed consent, and believe consent should be taken prior to onset of labour (96, 96%). The results of this study helps define the standards of consent Irish patients expect for epidural analgesia during labour.
Because TENS is applied inconsistently and not always in line with optimal TENS application theory, this may explain why TENS for labour pain appears to be effective in some individuals and not in others. This article reviews TENS theory, advises upon optimal TENS application for labour pain and discusses some of the limitations of TENS research on labour pain. TENS application for labour pain may include TENS applied to either side of the lower spine, set to 200 mus pulse duration and 100 pulses per second. As pain increases, TENS intensity should be increased and as pain decreases, TENS intensity should be reduced to maintain a strong but pain free intensity of stimulation. This application may particularly reduce back pain during labour.
Berglund, S; Pettersson, H; Cnattingius, S; Grunewald, C
Please cite this paper as: Berglund S, Pettersson H, Cnattingius S, Grunewald C. How often is a low Apgar score the result of substandard care during labour? BJOG 2010;117:968-978. Objective To increase our knowledge of the occurrence of substandard care during labour. Design A population-based case-control study. Setting Stockholm County. Population Infants born in the period 2004-2006 in Stockholm County. Methods Cases and controls were identified from the Swedish Medical Birth Register, had a gestational age of >/=33 complete weeks, had planned for a vaginal delivery, and had a normal cardiotocographic (CTG) recording on admission. We compared 313 infants with an Apgar score of <7 at 5 minutes of age with 313 randomly selected controls with a full Apgar score, matched for year of birth. Main outcome measure Substandard care during labour. Results We found that 62% of cases and 36% of controls were subject to some form of substandard care during labour. In half of the cases and in 12% of the controls, CTG was abnormal for >/=45 minutes before birth. Fetal blood sampling was not performed in 79% of both cases and controls, when indicated. Oxytocin was provided without signs of uterine inertia in 20% of both cases and controls. Uterine contractions were hyperstimulated by oxytocin in 29% of cases and in 9% of controls, and the dose of oxytocin was increased despite abnormal CTG in 19% and 6% of cases and controls, respectively. Assuming that substandard care is a risk factor for low Apgar score, we estimate that up to 42% of the cases could be prevented by avoiding substandard care. Conclusions There was substandard care during labour of two-thirds of infants with a low Apgar score. The main reasons for substandard care were related to misinterpretation of CTG, not acting on an abnormal CTG in a timely fashion and incautious use of oxytocin.
Kanchana, S.; Sivaprakash, P.; Joseph, Sebastian
Construction industry has accomplished extensive growth worldwide particularly in past few decades. For a construction project to be successful, safety of the structures as well as that of the personnel is of utmost importance. The safety issues are to be considered right from the design stage till the completion and handing over of the structure. Construction industry employs skilled and unskilled labourers subject to construction site accidents and health risks. A proper coordination between contractors, clients, and workforce is needed for safe work conditions which are very much lacking in Indian construction companies. Though labour safety laws are available, the numerous accidents taking place at construction sites are continuing. Management commitment towards health and safety of the workers is also lagging. A detailed literature study was carried out to understand the causes of accidents, preventive measures, and development of safe work environment. This paper presents the results of a questionnaire survey, which was distributed among various categories of construction workers in Kerala region. The paper examines and discusses in detail the total working hours, work shifts, nativity of the workers, number of accidents, and type of injuries taking place in small and large construction sites. PMID:26839916
Kinman, Gail; Leggetter, Sandra
Although compassionate care has wide-ranging benefits for patients, it can be emotionally demanding for healthcare staff. This may be a particular problem for those with little experience in a caring role. This study utilises the job demands-resources model to examine links between “emotional labour” and emotional exhaustion in student nurses. In line with the triple-match principle—whereby interactive effects are more likely when job demands, resources, and outcomes are within the same qualitative domain—the protective role of emotional support and emotion-focused coping (i.e., emotional venting) in the relationship between emotional labour and exhaustion is also explored. An online questionnaire was completed by 351 student nurses with experience working in healthcare settings. A strong positive relationship was found between emotional labour and emotional exhaustion, and some support was found for the moderating effects of emotional support and emotion-focused coping. Ways to help student and qualified nurses develop the emotional resilience required to protect their wellbeing, while providing high-quality compassionate care to patients are considered. PMID:27916880
Kanchana, S; Sivaprakash, P; Joseph, Sebastian
Construction industry has accomplished extensive growth worldwide particularly in past few decades. For a construction project to be successful, safety of the structures as well as that of the personnel is of utmost importance. The safety issues are to be considered right from the design stage till the completion and handing over of the structure. Construction industry employs skilled and unskilled labourers subject to construction site accidents and health risks. A proper coordination between contractors, clients, and workforce is needed for safe work conditions which are very much lacking in Indian construction companies. Though labour safety laws are available, the numerous accidents taking place at construction sites are continuing. Management commitment towards health and safety of the workers is also lagging. A detailed literature study was carried out to understand the causes of accidents, preventive measures, and development of safe work environment. This paper presents the results of a questionnaire survey, which was distributed among various categories of construction workers in Kerala region. The paper examines and discusses in detail the total working hours, work shifts, nativity of the workers, number of accidents, and type of injuries taking place in small and large construction sites.
Mays, Nicholas; Tan, Stefanie
Starting in 2002, the UK Labour government of 1997-2010 introduced a series of changes to the National Health Service (NHS) in England designed to increase individual NHS patient choice of place of elective hospital care and competition among public and private providers of elective hospital services for NHS-funded patients. In 2006, the Department of Health initiated the Health Reform Evaluation Programme (HREP) to assess the impact of the changes. The changes broadly had the effects that proponents had predicted but the effects were mostly modest. Most of the undesirable impacts feared by critics appeared not to have materialized to any discernible extent, at least by early in 2010. Labour's market appeared to have generated stronger incentives for quality and efficiency than its 1990 s predecessor with no obvious detriment to equity of access. However, this high level conclusion conceals a far more nuanced and complex picture of both the process of implementation and the impact of the changes, as the papers in this supplement drawn from the HREP show.
Otañez, M G; Muggli, M E; Hurt, R D; Glantz, S A
Objectives To examine British American Tobacco and other tobacco industry support of the Eliminating Child Labour in Tobacco Growing Foundation. Design Analyses of internal tobacco industry documents and ethnographic data. Results British American Tobacco co‐founded the Eliminating Child Labour in Tobacco Growing Foundation (ECLT) in October 2000 and launched its pilot project in Malawi. ECLT's initial projects were budgeted at US$2.3 million over four years. Labour unions and leaf dealers, through ECLT funds, have undertook modest efforts such as building schools, planting trees, and constructing shallow wells to address the use of child labour in tobacco farming. In stark contrast, the tobacco companies receive nearly US$40 million over four years in economic benefit through the use of unpaid child labour in Malawi during the same time. BAT's efforts to combat child labour in Malawi through ECLT was developed to support the company's “corporate social responsibility agenda” rather than accepting responsibility for taking meaningful steps to eradicate child labour in the Malawi tobacco sector. Conclusion In Malawi, transnational tobacco companies are using child labour projects to enhance corporate reputations and distract public attention from how they profit from low wages and cheap tobacco. PMID:16728754
Alegre, Miquel Àngel; Casado, David; Sanz, Jordi; Todeschini, Federico A.
Background: The literature has shown that the way active labour market policies (ALMP) aimed at youth are designed and implemented can influence the labour and educational prospects of youngsters. The evaluation of the Catalan PQPIs (initial vocational qualification programmes) presented here seeks to provide new evidence on the effectiveness of…
Akerman, Nicholas; Dresner, Martin
There is a long history of attempts to alleviate the pain of childbirth, particularly in Asian and Middle Eastern civilisations. In the UK, it was the administration of chloroform to Queen Victoria by John Snow in 1853 that is widely credited with popularizing the idea that labour pain should and could be treated. Medical analgesia is now well established around the globe with a wealth of research evidence describing methods, efficacy and complications. In this article, we define 'primary breakthrough pain' as the moment when a woman first requests analgesia during labour. The management of this can include simple emotional support, inhaled analgesics, parenteral opioids and epidural analgesia. 'Secondary breakthrough pain' can be defined as the moment when previously used analgesia becomes ineffective. We concentrate our discussion of this phenomenon on the situation when epidural analgesia begins to fail. Only epidural analgesia offers the potential for complete analgesia, so when this effect is lost the recipient can experience significant distress and dissatisfaction. The best strategy to avert this problem is prevention by using the best techniques for epidural catheterisation and the most effective drug combinations. Even then, epidurals can lose their efficacy for a variety of reasons, and management is hampered by the fact that each rescue manoeuvre takes about 30 minutes to be effective. If the rescue protocol is too cautious, analgesia may not be successfully restored before delivery, leading to patient dissatisfaction. We therefore propose an aggressive response to epidural breakthrough pain using appropriate drug supplementation and, if necessary, the placement of a new epidural catheter. Combined spinal epidural techniques offer several advantages in this situation. The goal is to re-establish analgesia within 1 hour. The primary aim of pain management during labour and delivery is to provide the level of comfort determined as acceptable to each
Tribe, R M
If we are to develop new strategies for the treatment and management of preterm and dysfunctional term labour, it is imperative that we improve current understanding of the control of human uterine activity. Despite many studies of animal pregnancy, there is a paucity of knowledge relating to the complex control of human myometrium during pregnancy. It is hypothesized that human myometrium is relatively quiescent during the majority of pregnancy and that as term approaches there is cascade of molecular events that prepare the uterus for labour. This review will consider the cellular mechanisms involved in the regulation of human myometrial activity and the modulation of these by hormonal and mechanical signals. In particular, the contribution of calcium homeostatic pathways to the control of human myometrial contractility during gestation will be discussed. Experimental Physiology (2001) 86.2, 247-254.
Fellows, E J; Hazzard, T M; Kutzler, M A
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A, VEGF-A receptor (Flt-1) and KiSS-1 receptor (KiSS-1R) all play a role in trophoblast invasion in a number of mammalian species. However, mRNA expression of factors regulating trophoblast invasion has not been studied in dogs. Abnormal expression of these factors at the end of canine gestation may contribute to placental retention and/or subinvolution of placental sites. Therefore, we sought to determine the relative mRNA expression of these factors in canine chorioallantois tissue at 61 ± 1 day past the LH surge (pre-term; n = 4), following elective c-section at 64 ± 1 day past the LH surge prior to first-stage labour (pre-labour; n = 4) and following natural delivery (parturient; n = 3). Total RNA was isolated, real-time RT-PCR was performed, and relative expression was calculated using the relative quantitation (2-ΔΔCT) method. MMP-9 mRNA expression was significantly higher in pre-term samples compared to pre-labour and parturient samples. The results showed no significant difference between MMP-2, TIMP-2, VEGF-A and Flt-1 mRNA expression among the three groups. KiSS-1R mRNA was not expressed in any tissues studied. Gene expression of MMP-9 may be related to the onset of labour, whereas MMP-2, VEGF-A, Flt-1, TIMP-2 and KiSS-1R mRNA do not appear to play a role at the end of gestation in the dog.
Background The occipito-posterior (OP) fetal head position during the first stage of labour occurs in 10-34% of cephalic presentations. Most will spontaneous rotate in anterior position before delivery, but 5-8% of all births will persist in OP position for the third stage of labour. Previous observations have shown that this can lead to an increase of complications, such as an abnormally long labour, maternal and fetal exhaustion, instrumental delivery, severe perineal tears, and emergency caesarean section. Usual care in the case of diagnosis of OP position is an expectant management. However, maternal postural techniques have been reported to promote the anterior position of the fetal head for delivery. A Cochrane review reported that these maternal positions are well accepted by women and reduce back pain. However, the low sample size of included studies did not allow concluding on their efficacy on delivery outcomes, particularly those related to persistent OP position. Our objective is to evaluate the efficacy of maternal position in the management of OP position during the first stage of labour. Methods/design A randomised clinical trial is ongoing in the maternity unit of the Geneva University Hospitals, Geneva, Switzerland. The unit is the largest in Switzerland with 4,000 births/year. The trial will involve 438 women with a fetus in OP position, confirmed by sonography, during the first stage of the labour. The main outcome measure is the position of the fetal head, diagnosed by ultrasound one hour after randomisation. Discussion It is important to evaluate the efficacy of maternal position to correct fetal OP position during the first stage of the labour. Although these positions seem to be well accepted by women and appear easy to implement in the delivery room, the sample size of the last randomised clinical trial published in 2005 to evaluate this intervention had insufficient power to demonstrate clear evidence of effectiveness. If the technique
Attention is given to a background idea that is often invoked in discussions about reasonable partiality: the idea of a moral division of labour. It is not only a right, but also a duty for professionals to attend (almost) exclusively to the interests of their own clients, because their partial activities are part of an impartial scheme providing for an allocation of professional help to all clients. To clarify that idea, a difference is made between two kinds of division of labour, a technical one and a social one. In order to assess the applicability of the idea of a moral division of labour to professional ethics, journalism is contrasted with other professions.
Daly, Tamara; Armstrong, Pat
Using feminist political economy, this article argues that companions hired privately by families to care for residents in publicly funded long-term care facilities (nursing homes) are a liminal and invisible labour force. A care gap, created by public sector austerity, has resulted in insufficient staff to meet residents’ health and social care needs. Families pay to fill this care gap in public funding with companion care, which limits demands on the state to collectively bear the costs of care for older adults. We assess companions’ work in light of Vosko’s (2015) and Rodgers and Rodgers’ (1989) dimensions for precariousness. We discuss how to classify paid care work that overlaps with paid formal and unpaid informal care. Our findings illuminate how companions’ labour is simultaneously autonomous and precarious; it fills a care gap and creates one, and can be relational compared with staffs’ task-oriented work. PMID:27840453
Alonso, M. P.; Beamonte, M. A.; Gargallo, P.; Salvador, M. J.
In this study, we measure jointly the labour and the residential accessibility of a basic spatial unit using a Bayesian Poisson gravity model with spatial effects. The accessibility measures are broken down into two components: the attractiveness component, which is related to its socio-economic and demographic characteristics, and the impedance component, which reflects the ease of communication within and between basic spatial units. For illustration purposes, the methodology is applied to a data set containing information about commuters from the Spanish region of Aragón. We identify the areas with better labour and residential accessibility, and we also analyse the attractiveness and the impedance components of a set of chosen localities which allows us to better understand their mobility patterns.
Daly, Tamara; Armstrong, Pat
Using feminist political economy, this article argues that companions hired privately by families to care for residents in publicly funded long-term care facilities (nursing homes) are a liminal and invisible labour force. A care gap, created by public sector austerity, has resulted in insufficient staff to meet residents' health and social care needs. Families pay to fill this care gap in public funding with companion care, which limits demands on the state to collectively bear the costs of care for older adults. We assess companions' work in light of Vosko's (2015) and Rodgers and Rodgers' (1989) dimensions for precariousness. We discuss how to classify paid care work that overlaps with paid formal and unpaid informal care. Our findings illuminate how companions' labour is simultaneously autonomous and precarious; it fills a care gap and creates one, and can be relational compared with staffs' task-oriented work.
KIKKAWA, Naotaka; ITOH, Kazuya; HORI, Tomohito; TOYOSAWA, Yasuo; ORENSE, Rolando P.
At present, almost all mountain tunnels in Japan are excavated and constructed utilizing the New Austrian Tunneling Method (NATM), which was advocated by Prof. Rabcewicz of Austria in 1964. In Japan, this method has been applied to tunnel construction since around 1978, after which there has been a subsequent decrease in the number of casualties during tunnel construction. However, there is still a relatively high incidence of labour accidents during tunnel construction when compared to incidence rates in the construction industry in general. During tunnel construction, rock fall events at the cutting face are a particularly characteristic of the type of accident that occurs. In this study, we analysed labour accidents that possess the characteristics of a rock fall event at a work site. We also introduced accident prevention measures against rock fall events. PMID:26027707
This paper is a theoretical examination of three major empirical trends that affect many people: globalisation, increasingly close relations between higher education (HE) and labour markets, and increasing social inequality. Its aim is to identify key theoretical resources and their contribution to the development of a comparative theoretical…
Kim, Wook; Levy, Stuart B.; Foster, Kevin R.
The division of labour is a central feature of the most sophisticated biological systems, including genomes, multicellular organisms and societies, which took millions of years to evolve. Here we show that a well-organized and robust division of labour can evolve in a matter of days. Mutants emerge within bacterial colonies and work with the parent strain to gain new territory. The two strains self-organize in space: one provides a wetting polymer at the colony edge, whereas the other sits behind and pushes them both along. The emergence of the interaction is repeatable, bidirectional and only requires a single mutation to alter production of the intracellular messenger, cyclic-di-GMP. Our work demonstrates the power of the division of labour to rapidly solve biological problems without the need for long-term evolution or derived sociality. We predict that the division of labour will evolve frequently in microbial populations, where rapid genetic diversification is common. PMID:26852925
This article critically examines the Labour Party's policies for local school systems, focusing on its proposals for regional Directors of School Standards, for academies and free schools, and for local democracy, and offers an alternative approach.
ABSTRACT This paper focuses on older Turkish labour migrants and their spouses, who mostly came to Vienna as young adults in the 1960s and thereafter. They are now entering retirement age and constitute a significant part of Vienna’s older population. I analyse their understandings of transnational ageing, their social ties and feelings of social embeddedness. For those still mobile, active participation in one of Vienna’s Turkish cultural/religious/political associations is identified as a particular source of social embeddedness. I argue that these voluntary associations provide an important place for older migrants to strengthen social ties and are relatively easy to access, including in old age. Nevertheless, I demonstrate that older Turkish labour migrants are exposed to several forms of discrimination, some of which are felt especially strongly in old age, including a lack of adequate institutionalised late life care. In the discussion of the paper, I critically revisit the debate on ethnicity as a resource versus ethnicity as a vulnerability factor in old age. I argue that this debate is misleading since it camouflages other central social categories and relations. I conclude by suggesting closer attention be paid to the specific but multiple generational experiences of older labour migrants and their spouses.
Shah, N M
"The objectives set for this paper are to: provide an analysis of volume and trends in labour migration within the Arab region; discuss the major characteristics of the migrants, including demographic features, types of economic activity, wage levels and duration of stay in host countries; [and] outline and discuss the major issues in labour migration both from the sending and receiving countries. The time period covered by the study is from the mid 1970s to the present." (SUMMARY IN FRE AND SPA)
Estacio, Emee Vida; Marks, David F
'Child labour' is a worldwide problem that has caused detrimental effects to children's health and well-being. The ILO Convention 182 aims to address this issue by immediately eliminating its worst forms. This article provides a discourse analysis of this Convention. The analysis suggests that using an organizational discourse, the Convention promotes the maintenance of existing hierarchies of power, primarily through emphasis on legislative structures and consultation with the Organization of Employers and Workers. It has been recommended that the Convention be revised in light of the insights generated by the analysis and that the children be given a more active role in the process.
Biomedicine is increasingly shaped by the speculative economical values of neoliberal capitalism. A key feature of this new bioeconomical regime is the patenting and circulation of organisms and tissue samples, allowing rapid commercialisation of bacterial, animal and human biomedical materials. When thinking about this trend towards commercialisation, we must consider the ways by which biomedicine has been shaped by economics to better address these exploitative relationships between medical researchers and subjects. These fraught questions of agency and exploitation can be addressed through the concept of clinical labour, a term Melinda Cooper and Catherine Waldby coined to discuss embodied forms of labour, including surrogacy, clinical trials and tissue economies, that dominate the post-Fordist biomedical economy. As a genre that extrapolates from contemporary technoscientific practices, science fiction is uniquely positioned to explore the ethics of biomedical research in this neoliberal speculative economy. Science fiction can give human-like agency and affect to microbial, animal and alien life, allowing modified organisms to speak and interact with their creators. Creating these dialogues between commercialised organisms and biomedical researchers makes clear the connections between contemporary clinical practice and exploitative labour relations, illuminating the more troubling aspects of the new bioeconomy and imagining alternatives to this system.
The notion of the 'enabling state' gained currency in the UK during the 1990s as an alternative to the 'providing' or the welfare state. It reflected the process of contracting out in the NHS and compulsory competitive tendering (CCT) in local government during the 1980s, but was also associated with developments during the 1990s in health, social care and education in particular. The creation of an internal market in the NHS and the associated purchaser-provider split appeared to transfer 'ownership' of services increasingly to the providers - hospitals, General Practitioners (GPs) and schools. The mixed economy of care that was stimulated by the 1990 NHS and Community Care Act appeared to offer local authorities the opportunity to enable non state providers to offer care services in the community. The new service charters were part of the enablement process because they offered users more opportunity to influence provision. This article examines how far service providers were enabled and assesses the extent to which new Labour's policies enhance or reject the 'enabling state' in favour of more direct provision.
Functional specialization, or division of labour (DOL), of parts within organisms and colonies is common in most multi-cellular, colonial and social organisms, but it is far from ubiquitous. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain the evolutionary origins of DOL; the basic feature common to all of them is that functional differences can arise easily. These mechanisms cannot explain the many groups of colonial and social animals that exhibit no DOL despite up to 500 million years of evolution. Here, I propose a new hypothesis, based on a multi-level selection theory, which predicts that a reproductive DOL is required to evolve prior to subsequent functional specialization. I test this hypothesis using a dataset consisting of the type of DOL for living and extinct colonial and social animals. The frequency distribution of DOL and the sequence of its acquisition confirm that reproductive specialization evolves prior to functional specialization. A corollary of this hypothesis is observed in colonial, social and also within multi-cellular organisms; those species without a reproductive DOL have a smaller range of internal variation, in terms of the number of polymorphs or cell types, than species with a reproductive DOL. PMID:21561969
Lurie, S; Baider, C; Boaz, M; Sulema, V; Golan, A; Sadan, O
This retrospective observational study examined whether fasting (the 'Yom Kippur effect') precipitates labour. Birth rates of Yom Kippur (a fasting festival) were compared with those of other festivals that are observed (Tisha B'Av) and not observed (1st day of Passover) by fasting during a 4-year period. Compared with the mean birth rate, the number of births that occurred 1 day after Yom Kippur was increased (p = 0.023). A significant decrease in the number of births during Tisha B'Av (p = 0.044) and a significant increase in the number of births 2 days after Tisha B'Av (p = 0.009) was observed. Two days prior to the 1st day of Passover, a significant decrease in the number of births was also observed (p = 0.034). Contrary to previous reports, the present study does not confirm an association between a 1-day long fast and increased birth rate in the 24-h period after breaking of the fast.
The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect on ergonomic conditions by Labour Inspectorate intervention at the work place and to follow health and employment among occupationally injured. 195 reports on occupational musculo-skeletal injury (accidents and diseases) from men and women with different occupations were collected consecutively at three Labour Inspectorate offices. Fifteen Labour Inspectors volunteered to investigate half of the reports by work place visits within three months. The other half was kept for control. The inspectors were trained in ergonomics and also got complementary training in ergonomic work place assessment. A check-list was designed for the purpose and tested for validity and reliability. Eighteen months after the time of the injury reports, all work places were visited by ergonomists to evaluate possible improvements in ergonomic conditions. Due to turnover and prolonged sick-leaves, evaluations were performed for only 92 of the injured. At 160 work places other employees had performed similar tasks as the injured at the time of the injury report. Evaluations of possible improvements in ergonomic conditions were performed also for these employees. As regards changes at the work place there were no differences between the injured in the study and control groups. The inspectors had delivered 11 inspection notices to the employers demanding improvements for the injured and 14 notices regarding the conditions of work-mates. For this latter group there was a significant association between delivered notices and improved ergonomic conditions eighteen months after the reports. Three years after the time of the reports a postal questionnaire on health, psychological well-being and employment was distributed to the injured. The response rate was 93%. Questionnaire answers were compared to results from other studies, where identical questions were used. There was a significantly higher prevalence of musculo-skeletal and
Ambadekar, N N; Wahab, S N; Zodpey, S P; Khandait, D W
This community based group comparison study was undertaken to assess the effect of child labour on the growth of children. The study subjects were 223 child labourers aged between 8-15 y who were matched by age to an equal number of controls and pair matched for gender. The mean weight of the male child labourers and the controls increased from 23.8 (+/-5.9) to 41.2 (+/-9.7) kg and 23.9 (+/-4.8) to 44.4 (+/-10.3) kg respectively, while mean height increased from 121.5 (+/-12.6) to 151.9 (+/-10.6) cm and 122.0 (+/-8.4) to 154.8 (+/-10.8) cm respectively from 8-15 y. At older ages (12 y and above for weight and 14 y and above for height) the difference was statistically significant. The same was not observed for the female study subjects. Similarly standard deviation (s.d.) scores for weight for age and height for age of male comparison subjects was significantly (P<0.01) nearer to National Centre for Health Statistics (NCHS) standard than that of the child labourers. Body mass index (BMI) below normal value, that is, 18.5 was observed in significantly (P=0.0261) more child labourers 180 (80.7%) than controls 160 (71.1%). With increasing duration of employment BMI decreased from 18.1 (+/-3.5) to 17.3 (+/-2.2). Genital development was observed to be delayed significantly in male child labourers. Therefore, it can be concluded that labouring at a young age has a deleterious effect on the growth of the child.
Bolbol-Haghighi, Nahid; Masoumi, Seyedeh Zahra
Introduction Childbirth experience is a process throughout women’s life and the most important consequence of labour. Support is the key factor to have a positive experience of childbirth. In order to improve and reduce the stress and anxiety levels in women during labour and cope with the childbirth pain, the emotional, physical and educational support of doulas can be used. Aim This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of continued support of midwifery students in labour on the childbirth and labour consequences. Materials and Methods The present study was conducted using a randomized controlled clinical trial design on 100 pregnant women referred to the maternity ward at Fatemieh Hospital, Shahroud, Iran. The participants were assigned to the supportive or non-supportive group based on allocation sequence using a randomized block design and table of computer-generated random numbers prior to beginning the study. Supportive care was provided by the trained midwifery students. Childbirth and labour consequences were analysed by chi-square test, Fisher-exact test, independent t-test, Mann-Whitney U-test using SPSS-21 software. Results The results showed a significantly lower duration of the first stage of labour in the supportive group, as compared to that in the non-supportive group (p <0.001). Moreover, Apgar scores in the supportive group, compared to those in the non-supportive group, significantly increased at minutes 1 and 5 (p <0.001 and p = 0.04, respectively). Conclusion The findings of this study showed that the supportive care provided by the midwifery students shortens duration of the first stage of labour and improves the Apgar scores in the first and fifth minutes. PMID:27790526
Edward, Karen-Leigh; Hercelinskyj, Gylo; Giandinoto, Jo-Ann
Emotional labour is the effort consumed by suppressing one's own emotions to care for others effectively while also caring for oneself. Mental health nurses are required to engage in effective therapeutic interactions in emotionally-intense situations. The aim of the present integrative systematic review was to investigate the emotional labour of mental health work and how this manifested, the impacts, and the ways to mitigate these impacts. In June 2016, using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses methodology, a systematic search of the bibliographic databases was undertaken to identify relevant literature. Screening, data extraction, and synthesis were performed by three reviewers. The inclusion criteria included any original research that investigated the emotional work of mental health nurses. We identified a total of 20 papers to be included in this review. Thematic synthesis of the findings revealed three emergent themes: emotional labour and caring, emotional exhaustion, and self-protection (expressed as emotional intelligence). Emotional labour, emotional exhaustion, and emotional intelligence were considered to be intrinsically linked, where they were both the influencing factor for burnout and a contributor to attrition. The results highlighted that emotional labour could inspire the development and personal growth of emotional intelligence in mental health nurses. In light of these findings, recommendations for clinical practice were considered; they included supportive work environments, involving nurses in shared decision-making, and the provision of ongoing professional development opportunities that facilitate the development of emotional intelligence and resilience.
Dalal, K; Rahman, F; Jansson, B
We explored the causes and circumstances of violent behaviour among a group of child labourers in the Indian unorganized sectors. From 14 categories of occupations, a total of 1,400 child labourers were interviewed in both urban and rural areas. The average family size of these mostly illiterate child labourers is seven, and average family income is 3,200 INR per month. In the short term child labourers become violent, aggressive, and criminal, following a pyramid of violent behaviour, including socio-economic pressure, cultural deviance, and psychological pressure. When considering family history it seems that the problem is part of a vicious cycle of violence, which persists through generations and evolves with financial crisis, early marriage, and violence in the family and workplace. Our study demonstrates that the most vulnerable groups of child labourers belong to the following workplaces: dhabas, food stalls, rail/bus stations, rail-floor cleaning, and rag picking. Giving high priority to capacity building within the community, including support for locally-generated solutions, is warranted.
Dunne, John P.; Stouffer, Ronald J.; John, Jasmin G.
A fundamental aspect of greenhouse-gas-induced warming is a global-scale increase in absolute humidity. Under continued warming, this response has been shown to pose increasingly severe limitations on human activity in tropical and mid-latitudes during peak months of heat stress. One heat-stress metric with broad occupational health applications is wet-bulb globe temperature. We combine wet-bulb globe temperatures from global climate historical reanalysis and Earth System Model (ESM2M) projections with industrial and military guidelines for an acclimated individual's occupational capacity to safely perform sustained labour under environmental heat stress (labour capacity)--here defined as a global population-weighted metric temporally fixed at the 2010 distribution. We estimate that environmental heat stress has reduced labour capacity to 90% in peak months over the past few decades. ESM2M projects labour capacity reduction to 80% in peak months by 2050. Under the highest scenario considered (Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5), ESM2M projects labour capacity reduction to less than 40% by 2200 in peak months, with most tropical and mid-latitudes experiencing extreme climatological heat stress. Uncertainties and caveats associated with these projections include climate sensitivity, climate warming patterns, CO2 emissions, future population distributions, and technological and societal change.
Bina, I; Parveen, T; Khanom, A; Shamsunnahar, P A
This study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of oral nifedipine to reduce labour pain in patient with preterm labour, to complete the doses of steroids in lung maturity and in utero transfer to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) and to evaluate the maternal adverse effects and neonatal outcome. Diagnosed cases of preterm labour (between 24 to 34 weeks gestation) were randomly selected. Among them 50 patients were given oral nifedipine (n=50) and 50 patients were observed with no treatment (n=50). There were no statistically significant differences in age, race, parity, preterm delivery risk factor between the groups. At first the labour pain were observed through Continuous CTG in first hour, then intermittent CTG. The patient in the Nifedipine group can prolong the pregnancy time 36.0±3.2 wks than 30.6±3.1 wks in the control group (p<0.05) with reduced neonatal complications and admission to NICU. Oral nifedipine in patients with preterm labour pain as Tocolytic therapy has significantly prolonged pregnancy with lesser neonatal problems and fewer maternal adverse effects.
Atis, A; Oruc, O; Aydin, Y; Cetincelik, U; Goker, N
We investigated the effect of polymorphism at +813 locus of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene on predisposition to preterm labour and pre-eclampsia (PE). We examined polymorphism of the VEGF +813 gene of foetuses from umbilical cord blood in 31 cases of preterm labour, 34 pre-eclamptic and 58 healthy term labour. VEGF +813 gene polymorphisms were studied using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. In preterm group, foetal CC genotype was found at 80.6%, and CT genotype was seen at 19.4%. No any TT genotype was detected in preterm group. CC genotype of VEGF 813 gene was significantly more frequent than CT genotype (P = 0.04). Foetuses with CC genotype VEGF+813 gene have an increased risk for preterm labour. C allele frequency was 90.3 and 76.7% in preterm and control groups, respectively. T allele frequency was 9.7 and 23.3% in preterm and control groups, respectively. C allele was significantly associated with preterm labour (P = 0.02). OR of C and T alleles for preterm labour was 2.8 (CI: 1.1-7.2). In PE group, foetal CC genotype of +813 locus was found in 67.6%, and CT genotype was seen in 29.4%. Only one TT genotype was detected in 2.9% of PE group. There was no association between PE and VEGF gene genotypes and alleles at +813 locus. These results suggest that foetal VEGF gene polymorphism of +813 CC seems to be highly associated with preterm labour, whereas in PE, foetal VEGF gene polymorphism at +813 locus is not related. Especially, C allele was significantly associated with preterm labour. Carriage of the +813C allele of the VEGF gene has been found 2.8 times increased susceptibility to the development of preterm labour in Turkish women and may be an independent risk factor for prematurity. There was no association between PE and VEGF gene genotypes and alleles at +813 locus. We suggest to search for foetal aetiologies or genetic susceptibility in preterm labour, whereas in PE, not
The impact of chronic conditions of care recipients on the labour force participation of informal carers in Australia: which conditions are associated with higher rates of non-participation in the labour force?
Background Little is known about the effects of personal and other characteristics of care recipients on the behaviour of carers. The aim of this study is to examine the association between the main chronic (disabling) condition of care recipients and the likelihood of their (matched) primary carers aged 15–64 years being out of the labour force. Methods We conducted a retrospective analysis of cross-sectional data from the Australian Bureau of Statistics 2009 Survey of Disability, Ageing and Carers (SDAC) for people aged 15–64 years. We estimated the rates of exit from the labour force for primary carers and non-carers; rates of chronic disease occurrence for care recipients living with their main carers; odds ratios of primary carers being out of the labour force associated with the main chronic condition of their care recipient who lives with them. Results From the 2009 SDAC, we identified 1,268 out of 37,186 eligible participants who were primary carers of a care recipient who lived with them. Of these, 628 (49.5%) were out of the labour force. Most common diseases of care recipients were: back problems (12%); arthritis and related disorders (10%); diseases of the nervous system (such as multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, cerebral palsy) (7.4%); and conditions originating in the perinatal period or congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities (5.1%). When adjusted for age, sex, education and whether have a long term chronic condition of informal carers, the five conditions of care recipients associated with the highest odds of their carers being out of the labour force were: head injury/acquired brain damage; neoplasms, blood diseases, disorders of the immune system; leg/knee/foot/hip damage from injury/accident; dementia, Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease; and diseases of the musculoskeletal system and connective tissue (osteoporosis). Conclusions This study identifies the type of conditions that have the greatest impact on
Bloom, D E; Grenier, G; Gunderson, M
"This paper uses pooled 1971, 1981, and 1986 Canadian census data to evaluate the extent to which (1) the earnings of Canadian immigrants at the time of immigration fall short of the earnings of comparable Canadian-born individuals, and (2) immigrants' earnings grow more rapidly over time than those of the Canadian born. Variations in the labour market assimilation of immigrants according to their gender and country of origin are also analysed. The results suggest that recent immigrant cohorts have had more difficulty being assimilated into the Canadian labour market than earlier ones, an apparent consequence of recent changes in Canadian immigration policy, labour market discrimination against visible minorities, and the prolonged recession of the early 1980s." (SUMMARY IN FRE)
The author examines circular labor migration in Fiji. "This paper is organized into five sections. The first section provides a brief discussion of two major perspectives of labour circulation in developing countries. The second section presents the state of the Fijian village in the context of the current pattern of uneven development in Fiji. The practice of labour circulation by Fijian villagers is dealt with in the third section. In the last two sections, issues concerning the maintenance of the polarized pattern and the preservation of the village mode of production are discussed."
Southern shipyards, like Hobcaw and Mars Bluff, were established at locations chosen primarily for convenient access to transportation networks, building materials, clientele and labour. The historical record reveals a home front role played by local plantation owners and slaves as shipyard labour. Women served as project fundraisers, shipyard dilettantes, shipwright’s wives and possibly slave mistresses with a paucity of material culture to confirm their presence in the archaeological record. Archaeological investigations on land and underwater yield evidence of artefacts associated with diet, shipbuilding, warfare and ethnicity.
Elliott, Robert F; Ma, Ada H Y; Scott, Anthony; Bell, David; Roberts, Elizabeth
This novel application of spatial wage theory to health service labour markets analyses the competitiveness of nurse's pay and how this differs between local labour markets in Britain. A switching regression model is estimated to derive standardised spatial wage differentials (SSWDs) for nurses and their comparators. An SSWD gap is constructed and its relationship to vacancies estimated. A reduction in the gap in a local area is shown to result in an increase in the long-term vacancy rate for National Health Service (NHS) nurses. The competitiveness of nursing pay is shown to have a strong effect on the ability of the NHS to attract and retain nurses.
El-Gilany, A H; Khalil, I A H; El-Wehady, A
To determine the prevalence of student labour, underlying causes and impacts, we carried out a cross-sectional study on 1293 students enrolled in government secondary schools in Mansoura. Year-round work was reported by 8.6% of students and summer work by 27.5%. The majority worked for > or =6 hours/day. Lower social status, attending vocational school, male sex, large family size and rural residence were significant predictors of student labour. Hazards at the workplace, injuries and corporal punishment were prevalent among working students. Work adversely affected education and social life. Contribution to family income was the main reason for working.
Duncan, Norman; Bowman, Brett
Despite the widespread condemnation of the practice of child labour, it remains a pervasive phenomenon in developing countries. In such contexts, labour and education often represent competing activities for children. Drawing on a study of child labour located within the critical social science tradition, this article explores insider accounts of…
Semeijn, Judith H.; van der Velden, Rolf; Heijke, Hans; van der Vleuten, Cees; Boshuizen, Henny P. A.
In this study, the effects of several educational and non-educational indicators of competence on short-term labour market outcomes for university graduates are estimated. The research question is: to what extent do indications of specific and generic competence during the educational program predict labour market outcomes? Labour market outcomes…
This paper explores challenges higher education institutions face while ensuring one of the quality assurance criteria--meeting the demands of labour market. The relationship between labour market and higher education institutions becomes even more complicated during the periods of rapid changes in labour market caused by economic collisions. In…
Haider, Syed Zubair; Qureshi, Ayesha
The present study investigates the causative factors of child labour in selected districts of South Punjab, Pakistan. As a member of the International Labour Organization (ILO) Pakistan has a responsibility to stamp out child labour from its regions. Our sample was selected from seven working environments (workshops, hotels, tea stalls,…
Rae, K; Hollebone, K; Chetty, V; Clausen, D; McFarlane, J
Follistatin has been isolated from human placenta and has been identified in human foetal membranes and fluids. Serum follistatin levels in women rise during pregnancy particularly near term. In this study, we examined the effect of induction and stage of labour on maternal plasma concentrations of follistatin. Women who gave birth after a normal pregnancy were retrospectively divided into three groups: those who went in labour spontaneously (n = 33), needed induction by amniotomy and IV oxytocin (n = 18) or underwent planned caesarean section (n = 10). Serum was collected at 38-40 weeks of gestation, periodically through labour with a vaginal examination and once within 36 h postpartum and assayed for oestradiol, progesterone, prolactin and C-reactive protein. Follistatin was measured using a rabbit antiserum (#204) raised against purified 35 kDa bovine follistatin. Human recombinant follistatin was used as both standard and tracer. Concentrations of follistatin at 38-40 weeks of gestation were significantly different between groups. Those who had a spontaneous labour had concentrations higher than those who were induced. Similarly, those who were induced had concentrations higher than those who underwent a caesarean. In the spontaneous group, follistatin rose during labour, peaking at 57.9 +/- 5.48 ng/ml at > 3 cm of cervical dilation, and after delivery follistatin decreased to 26.16 +/- 3.4 ng/ml at 24 h post-delivery. In induced patients follistatin continued increasing to peak following delivery at 26.9 +/- 3.0 ng/ml and decreased at > 3 h post-delivery. Follistatin concentrations in caesarean section patients at 24 h post-surgery (18.53 +/- 3.74 ng/ml) were not different from that before the surgery and were comparable with the other two groups. Follistatin is clearly implicated in the onset of labour; however, further studies with a larger cohort of women are necessary to determine the nature of its role.
Kyvik, Svein; Olsen, Terje Bruen
This study examines the relevance of doctoral training (thesis, coursework and generic skills) for a career in three types of labour market: academia, applied research institutes and industrial laboratories, and non-research workplaces. Data are drawn from a mail survey among PhD holders in Norway. In total, more than 40% of the respondents had…
This paper considers how the issue of child labour is located in Cambodian education policy debates and how it is affected by the major constraints surrounding the Cambodian education sector. In particular, it asks why Cambodian policy makers have not sought to address the issue explicitly despite its considerable, and adverse, impact on…
Apple, Michael W.
I want to use this essay -- basically a commentary -- as a context for some political reflections on what is happening to the governance and the labour processes at universities internationally. In the process, in addition to my critical reflections on the neoliberal impulses affecting universities, I want to do two other things. First, I shall…
Steinnes, Gerd Sylvi
This article compares the division of labour between kindergarten teachers and assistants in Norwegian kindergartens and discusses the two groups' perceptions of what kind of knowledge is important in order to carry out their tasks. This study is based on a survey representing kindergartens from all over Norway, and is part of a national research…
European Training Foundation, Turin (Italy).
This publication contains workshop papers which discuss the link between the labor market and vocational training. Part I provides an overview of the workshop--its objectives, issues, and conclusions. Part II consists of seven country papers. "Labour Market Information (LMI) and Vocational Training Decision-Making in Hungary" (Lazar)…
Purpose: The aim of this paper is to analyse critically the youth labour market (YLM) and the YLM policies in Portugal. The analysis covers essentially the period after 1986, when Portugal entered the European Union. Design/methodology/approach: The paper consists of three main sections. In the first the main players dealt with (government,…
Sullivan, Alice; Joshi, Heather; Leonard, Diana
One quarter of the 1958 British Birth cohort attended single-sex secondary schools. This paper asks whether sex-segregated schooling had any impact on the experience of gender differences in the labour market in mid-life. We examine outcomes at age 42, allowing for socio-economic origins and abilities measured in childhood. We find no net impact…
This article notes that the attempt to include all young people in education, an aim of Labour governments over the years, still relies on an expanded and expensive special educational needs "industry". How to include all lower attainers and those with disabilities in the education system and the economy is a political issue for a Labour…
Hyslop-Margison, Emery J.; Welsh, Benjamin H.
Asserts that it is a questionable claim that a widespread knowledge and skill shortage is causing current labour market supply problems, unemployment, or increased social stratification. Adds that the percentage of new jobs requiring high levels of knowledge and skill is limited when compared to low-skilled service industry occupations. Questions…
Miller, Hugh; Goetzl, Laura; Wing, Deborah A.; Powers, Barbara; Rugarn, Olof
Abstract Objective: To determine induction start time(s) that would maximise daytime deliveries when using prostaglandin vaginal inserts. Methods: Women enrolled into the Phase III trial, EXPEDITE (clinical trial registration: NCT01127581), had labour induced with either a misoprostol or dinoprostone vaginal insert (MVI or DVI). A secondary analysis was conducted to determine the optimal start times for induction by identifying the 12-h period with the highest proportion of deliveries by parity and treatment. Results: Optimal start times for achieving daytime deliveries when using MVI appear to be 19:00 in nulliparae and 23:00 in multiparae. Applying these start times, the median time of onset of active labour would be approximately 08:30 for both parities and the median time of delivery would be the following day at approximately 16:30 for nulliparae and 12:00 (midday) for multiparae. Optimal start times when using DVI appear to be 07:00 for nulliparae and 23:00 for multiparae. Using these start times, the median time of onset of active labour would be the following day at approximately 04:00 and 11:50, and the median time of delivery would be approximately 13:40 and 16:10, respectively. Conclusions: When optimising daytime deliveries, different times to initiate induction of labour may be appropriate depending on parity and the type of retrievable prostaglandin vaginal insert used. PMID:25758619
Grasmane, Daina; Grasmane, Sanita
To confront rising unemployment, skills of the labour force must be improved. With the aim to find out how foreign language skills impact employability, a study was carried out, in which 61 undergraduates, 33 master's students and 33 doctoral students from the Latvian University of Agriculture participated. The findings testify that 38% of the…
van den Ban, Anne
In order to profit from the economic growth in their society farmers can (1) increase the yields of their crops and animals, (2) switch to the production of high value products for which there is an increasing demand in the market, (3) increase the labour productivity on their farm, (4) find non-farm sources of income for some or all of their…
Morgan, Kathleen G
Multiple mechanisms have been shown to regulate the onset of labour in a co-operative and complex manner. One factor, myometrial stretch and associated increases in wall tension, has been implicated clinically in the initiation of labour and especially the aetiology of preterm labour. Recent work on the mechanisms involved has led to the finding that the intracellular Ca(2+) requirement for activation of the myometrial contractile filaments increases during gestation. The decreased Ca(2+) sensitivity correlates with an increase in the expression of caldesmon, an actin-binding protein and inhibitor of myosin activation, during pregnancy. In late pregnancy, an increase in extracellular signal-regulated kinase-mediated caldesmon phosphorylation occurs, which appears to reverse the inhibitory action of caldesmon during labour. Force generated by the myometrial contractile filaments is communicated across the plasmalemma to the uterine wall through focal adhesions. Phospho-tyrosine screening and mass spectrometry of stretched myometrial samples identified several stretch-activated focal adhesion proteins. This Src-mediated focal adhesion signalling appears to provide a tunable, i.e. regulated, tension sensor and force transmitter in the myometrial cell. In other parallel studies, biophysical measurements of smooth muscle compliance at both the cellular and tissue levels suggest that decreases in cellular compliance due to changing interactions of the actin cytoskeleton with the focal adhesions may also promote increases in uterine wall tension. These results, taken together, suggest that focal adhesion proteins and their interaction with the cytoskeleton may present a new mode of regulation of uterine contractility.
In the US, the value of liberal arts is in question as neo-liberal reformers push for a more instrumentalist form of higher education. Older traditions of worker education, however, along with more recent university-based labour studies programs, offer a compelling counter-narrative concerning the social and political purpose of higher education.…
Davies, Peter; Mangan, Jean; Hughes, Amanda; Slack, Kim
Labour market outcomes of undergraduates' choice of subject are important for public policy and for students. Policy interest is indicated by the prominence of "employability" in public discourse and in proposals to concentrate government funding in England in supporting STEM subjects (science, technology, engineering and mathematics).…
Vivas, Amparo Jimenez
The aim of the research behind this article is to identify the relationships that must exist between university training and the social and occupational environment. One of the many functions that derive from the university-society relationship is to train students to carry out certain professions. as a result, the analysis of the labour market…
Power, Sally; Whitty, Geoff
Drawing on Giddens' outline of first-, second-, and third-way politics, examines a range of New Labour's education policies, questioning whether they embody a distinctively different approach. The British government's strategies are largely extensions of second-way "neoliberalism." Education action zones may represent a third (feasible)…
Brown, Alan; Bimrose, Jenny
The study, upon which this special issue focuses, used narrative interviews to investigate how learning can support workers' transitions in the labour market in five European countries (Denmark, France, Germany, Italy and Spain). The five countries were chosen to represent very different contexts in the way learning can support career and labour…
Mondejar-Jimenez, Jose; Vargas-Vargas, Manuel; Meseguer-Santamaria, Maria-Leticia; Mondejar-Jimenez, Juan-Antonio
Disabled women suffer from a double labour discrimination due to their gender and their disability. In rural areas, in addition, they also suffer from a lack of specific services, the isolation of the disabled associations, problems with public transport, the dispersion of population centres, and a limited access to information that could improve…
The 2006 Education Act provided an entitlement for all 14 year-olds to take a specialist diploma from 2013. Despite concerns of many educationalists and politicians, the first diplomas will begin in September 2008. New Labour claims that the diplomas are innovative and challenging; however, this article argues that they exhibit many of the…
Lindblad, A; Bernow, J; Marsál, K
Fetal aortic blood flow was studied in 50 women during labour, using a method combining real-time ultrasonography and a pulsed Doppler technique. Eleven women had no analgesia, 24 women received 75-100 mg pethidine intramuscularly, 12 epidural analgesia with 0.25% bupivacaine and three paracervical block with 0.125% bupivacaine. Fetal aortic blood flow increased during labour from 200 to 245 ml/min/kg in the group without analgesia (P less than 0.05) and from 211 to 236 ml/min/kg in the group with epidural analgesia (P less than 0.05) but decreased insignificantly from 216 to 204 ml/min/kg after pethidine. After paracervical block the aortic blood flow fell in two out of three fetuses. Not only is epidural analgesia the most effective means of pain relief during labour, it is also the type of obstetric analgesia that interferes least with the physiological response to labour in terms of its effect on the fetal blood flow.
Oliver, Esther; Tellado, Itxaso; De Botton, Lena
This article centres on the importance given by individuals to the process of education in labour market transitions and how they manage to overcome obstacles to achieve their goals. Many of the stories in the Spanish research were transformative and innovative despite the context of high levels of unemployment in Spain due to the global economic…
Nasrin, S; Islam, S; Shahida, S M; Begum, R A; Haque, N
This was a hospital based prospective clinical study conducted among women having prolonged pregnancy to assess the outcome of induction of labour in prolonged pregnancy cases. One hundred and thirty nine women having uncomplicated prolonged pregnancy were studied. The study was carried out in Sir Salimullah Medical College & Mitford Hospital, Dhaka from 01 July 2010 to 30 March 2011. In this study 66% of the respondents had vaginal delivery on routine induction of labour and in 34% cases induction failed. Ninety three percent (93%) of the multigravida had vaginal delivery and in primigravida their vaginal delivery rate was 47.5%. Regarding cervical condition for delivery, 75% of the respondents having favourable cervix had vaginal delivery and in case of unfavourable cervix respondents, they had 55% cases of vaginal delivery. About the foetal outcome it was evidenced from this study that the perinatal adverse outcome increases with the increasing age of gestation beyond 40 completed weeks of gestation. This study showed that the use of prostaglandins for cervical ripening and by confirming the diagnosis of prolonged pregnancy, the delivery outcome in prolonged pregnancy can be improved. The study also showed that induction of labour is not associated with any major complications and the routine induction of labour in prolonged pregnancy is beneficial for both mother and the baby.
Since the election of 1997 New Labour's education policy has been subject to variety of forms of critique--in this journal and others. One of the sources for such critique has been a barrage of letters unleashed for over a decade by Colin Richards in the "Times Educational Supplement". Here are reproduced a self-edited selection of his…
Eley, V A; Callaway, L; van Zundert, A A
Since the introduction of chloroform for labour analgesia in 1847, different methods and medications have been used to relieve the pain of labour. The use of heavy sedative medication in the early 1900s was encouraged by enthusiastic doctors and by women empowered by the women's suffrage movement in America. Nitrous oxide by inhalation has been used in Australia since the 1950s and improved methods of administration have made this method of analgesia safe and practical. Caudal epidural analgesia and lumbar epidural analgesia were first made popular in America and by the 1970s these techniques were more widely available in Australia. In 1847, physicians and the public were unsure whether relieving labour pains was the 'right' thing to do. However, many medical and social changes have occurred thanks to the clinical connection between Australia and the United Kingdom and those first settlers to land on Australian shores. Thanks to this historical connection, in today's Australia there is no question that women should use analgesia as a pain relief if they wish. Currently, the majority of women worldwide use some form of analgesia during labour and different methods are widely available. This paper discusses the four milestones of the development of obstetric analgesia and how they were introduced into patient care in Australia.
This article provides a global scene for the scope of child domestic labour and explores the inter-woven relationship between the practice and slavery, as well as the consequences for this uniquely vulnerable group of child workers. In doing so, it seeks to dispel the myths that child domestic work is a safe form of employment for girls…
This article reviews the International Labour Organisation's standard-setting activities to combat or regulate child labor (fixing of a minimum age for employment or work, establishment of the conditions under which children may work); discusses the means of enforcing standards; and describes the situation in practice. (CT)
Bhat, Bilal Ahmad
In all societies, boys and girls are assigned different societal roles and experience different perspectives of life as a result of their being male or female. Such differences have a gigantic impact on their lives. The importance of gender perspective is very important in understanding the convolution of child labour. Gender, as opposed to sex,…
This paper develops a new analysis of homework by building on feminist scholarship which documents the invisible labour done by women in support of their children's education. While numerous studies have examined the relationship between homework and achievement, little attention has been paid to the largely gendered and potentially stressful…
de Hoyos, Maria; Green, Anne
This paper aims to provide insights into the recruitment and retention issues faced by employers in rural areas. To this end, information gathered through interviews with employers and labour market intermediaries in the predominantly rural county of Lincolnshire, UK was used as a source of data and focal point to discuss the demand side of the…
Purpose: What happens when computer software is designed to replace the teacher and the human role is to service the relationship between the software and the learner? Specifically, this paper aims to consider whether or not emotional labour is performed in contexts mediated by technology in the private sector. Design/methodology/approach: The…
Andrew, Yarrow; Newman, Brian
Despite increasing attention being paid to early childhood services as the foundation for lifelong learning, one issue seems to be consistently ignored--staff wages. The authors argue that this constitutes ongoing exploitation of childcare staff, and that this exploitation is a result of gendered and classed discourses around caring labour. As…
Yu, Serena; Bretherton, Tanya; Schutz, Hanna
This is a report of the first year of a three-year project entitled "Vocations: the link between post-compulsory education and the labour market." The project's aim is to research how pathways can be improved within education, within work, and between education and work. There are three strands in the project; the first strand is…
Beduwe, Catherine; Giret, Jean-Francois
This study explores individual effects of educational mismatch on wages, job satisfaction and on-the-job-search on French labour market. We distinguish between horizontal matches (job matches with field of studies) and vertical matches (job matches the level of qualification) on the one hand and skills matches (worker's assessment) on the other…
de Valk, Harold W; Visser, Gerard H A
subcutaneous insulin administration (CSII (insulin pump)) over intensive insulin injection therapy (multiple-dose insulin (MDI)) on any maternal or foeto-neonatal end point. However, group sizes were far too small to allow assessment of superiority and issues such as manageability of the disease and quality of life were never assessed. These two issues are of major importance to patients. The first trimester is often the period of most hypoglycaemic events, and insulin therapy should be especially closely monitored and adjusted in this period. After midterm, insulin requirements increase. Continuous glucose monitoring can offer better insights into the glycaemic profile than self-monitoring of blood glucose levels by the patients but the place of these new monitoring techniques has yet to be established more clearly. Insulin therapy during labour means short-acting insulin adjusted to achieve glucose levels between 4 and 8 mmol l(-1) to prevent neonatal hypoglycaemia as much as possible. After delivery, glycaemic control must be relaxed to prevent hypoglycaemia, especially in women who breastfeed.
Halder, Ajay; Agarwal, Rachana
Objective Parenteral opioids can be administered with ease at a very low cost with high efficacy as labour analgesia. However, there are insufficient data available to accept the benefits of parenteral opioids over other proven methods of labour analgesia. Butorphanol, a new synthetic opioid, has emerged as a promising agent in terms of efficacy and a better safety profile. This study investigates the effect of butorphanol as a labour analgesia to gather further evidence of its safety and efficacy to pave the way for its widespread use in low resource settings. Material and Methods One hundred low risk term consenting pregnant women were recruited to take part in a prospective cohort study. Intramuscular injections of butorphanol tartrate 1 mg (Butrum 1/2mg, Aristo, Mumbai, India) were given in the active phase of labour and repeated two hourly. Pain relief was noted on a 10-point visual pain analogue scale (VPAS). Obstetric and neonatal outcome measures were mode of delivery, duration of labour, Apgar scores at 1 and 5 minutes and Neonatal Intensive Care Unit admissions. Collected data were analysed for statistically significant pain relief between pre- and post-administration VPAS scores and also for the incidence of adverse outcomes. Results Pain started to decrease significantly within 15 minutes of administration and reached the nadir (3.08 SD0.51) at the end of two hours. The pain remained below four on the VPAS until the end of six hours and was still significantly low after eight hours. The incidence of adverse outcomes was low in the present study. Conclusion Butorphanol is an effective parenteral opioid analgesic which can be administered with reasonable safety for the mother and the neonate. The study has the drawback of lack of control and small sample size. PMID:24592110
Wickboldt, Nadine; Savoldelli, Georges; Rehberg-Klug, Benno
BACKGROUND: Assessment of dynamic changes in painful experiences, such as labour, using conventional rating scales (eg, numerical rating scale [NRS]) has limitations. An alternative for continuous pain evaluation could be a signal generated by voluntary action of the parturient. Remifentanil administration for obstetric analgesia could be improved by these dynamic measures of labour pain. In the present study, handgrip force was measured by a dynamometer to signal labour pain. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate: whether continuous monitoring of labour pain using handgrip force allows for determination of pain measurement during contractions; and the correlation between handgrip force and pain intensity on NRS. METHODS: The present observational, single-centre study included 43 parturients. After calibration of the dynamometer for individual hand muscle strength, pain was recorded during early and late labour using a dynamometer and an NRS. The primary end point was the correlation coefficient between NRS ratings and peak intensity recorded by the dynamometer. RESULTS: All dynamometer-registered readings were also registered by the external tocogram. All contractions recorded by external tocogram were also registered by the dynamometer. Handgrip force was moderately correlated with pain scores on the NRS. Mean handgrip force during contractions had the highest correlation coefficient (Pearson’s r=0.67) compared with peak handgrip force (r=0.56) and area under the curve of handgrip force (r=0.55). CONCLUSIONS: Pain intensity and duration can be assessed continuously using handgrip force measured via a dynamometer. The feedback of intensity and duration of pain could optimize patient-controlled remifentantil application for obstetric analgesia and other situations of highly variable pain intensity. PMID:25996768
Khaskheli, Meharun-Nissa; Baloch, Shahla; Sheeba, Aneela; Baloch, Sarmad; Khan, Fahad
Objective: To observe the fetomaternal morbidity and mortality with induction of labour in pregnant women with gestational hypertension. Methods: The subjected study population included was 138 pregnant women with gestational hypertension. These pregnant women were between 34-40 weeks of gestational period in whom labour was induced, while the pregnant women who had labour induction for other reasons were excluded. These women were registered on the predesigned proforma. The data was collected and analyzed on SPSS version 21. Result: Out of the 138 cases, mean age of the women was 25.93±5.037, prim gravid women were 78(56.5%), gestational period in majority of these women 71(51.4%) varied between 35-38 weeks. The common presenting symptoms were oedema 119(86.23%), headache 90(65.21%). Labour induction in majority of the cases 81(58.7%) was carried with prosten pessary. The Caesarean section was needed in 39(28.3%) women in emergency due to maternal and fetal reasons or due to failed induction. Maternal complications were uncontrolled hypertension 23(16.7%), intensive care unit admission 21(15.2%), fits 15(10.9%), post partum haemorrhage 13(9.4%). Fetal complications were birth asphyxia 49(35.5%), neonatal intensive care unit admission 17(12.3%), neonatal death 14(10.1%). Conclusion: The emergency Caesarean section rate was quite high with induction of labour in pregnant women with gestational diabetes. The maternal morbidity as well as fetal morbidity and mortality rate was also high.
Zachariah, Mathew; Hoffman, Arlene
Mahatma Gandhi's views on relating the world of formal education to the world of work were developed first in his experimental `Tolstoy Farm' in South Africa. On his return to India, Gandhi insisted that a required manual labour component in the curriculum would help regenerate India's village economy, develop in India's children a deeper understanding of India's cultural roots, motivate children to relate `book learning' to life in society, and destroy invidious caste distinctions. The major proposals and suggestions in Gandhi's writing will be discussed in the context of his hopes for using schooling as an agent of progress in India. Mao Ze-Dong's views, on the other hand, were developed in the context of his Yenan experience in the 1930s, i.e. the decision to consolidate a power base in the interior of China before waging a class war against the landlords and capitalists of China. Mao's views were also, to some extent, rooted in the Chinese reality of stagnant, poverty-stricken rural areas. But, Mao's writings indicate that Marxist hopes to relate theory and practice (as understood in dialectical materialism) and to ensure that everyone participated in mental as well as manual labour in a socialist society had led him to formulate his proposals. Both Gandhi's and Mao's views and proposals have been more or less abandoned in India and China respectively. The similar and dissimilar reasons which led to such a fate are examined in this retrospective analysis.
Fleischmann, Fenella; Höhne, Jutta
Despite substantial differences in labour market attainment according to gender and migration status, gender and ethnic differences in labour market behaviour are most often studied separately. In contrast, this study describes and analyses interactions between gender, ethnic background and immigrant generation with regard to labour market participation, part-time work, and occupational status. The double comparison aims to reveal whether gender gaps in these labour market outcomes among the majority population generalise to ethnic minorities. Moreover, we ask whether variation in gender gaps in labour market behaviour follows the patterns in migrants' origin countries, and whether gender gaps show signs of intergenerational assimilation. Our heterogeneous choice and OLS regressions of 2009 German Microcensus data reveal considerable variation in gender gaps in labour market behaviour between East and West Germany, across ethnic groups and across generations. Intergenerational comparisons show that most ethnic minorities assimilate towards German patterns of gendered labour market attainment.
Cedefop - European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, 2013
This report focuses on the outcomes of vocational education and, in particular, on the transition from education to work in the current employment situation for young adults in the European Union. Using anonymised microdata from the EU labour force survey 2009 ad hoc module, this is one of the first studies to undertake a large cross-country…
Wells, Jonathan C K
The "obstetrical dilemma" refers to the tight fit between maternal pelvic dimensions and neonatal size at delivery. Most interest traditionally focused on its generic significance for humans, for example our neonatal altriciality and our complex and lengthy birth process. Across contemporary populations, however, the obstetrical dilemma manifests substantial variability, illustrated by differences in the incidence of cephalo-pelvic disproportion, obstructed labour and cesarean section. Beyond accounting for 12% of maternal mortality worldwide, obstructed labour also imposes a huge burden of maternal morbidity, in particular through debilitating birth injuries. This article explores how the double burden of malnutrition and the global obesity epidemic may be reshaping the obstetrical dilemma. First, short maternal stature increases the risk of obstructed labour, while early age at marriage also risks pregnancy before pelvic growth is completed. Second, maternal obesity increases the risk of macrosomic offspring. In some populations, short maternal stature may also promote the risk of gestational diabetes, another risk factor for macrosomic offspring. These nutritional influences are furthermore sensitive to social values relating to issues such as maternal and child nutrition, gender inequality and age at marriage. Secular trends in maternal obesity are substantially greater than those in adult stature, especially in low- and middle-income countries. The association between the dual burden of malnutrition and the obstetrical dilemma is therefore expected to increase, because the obesity epidemic is emerging faster than stunting is being resolved. However, we currently lack objective population-specific data on the association between maternal obesity and birth injuries. Anat Rec, 300:716-731, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Noweir, M H; Oman, H A; Abbas, F I; Abou-Taleb, A M; Mansour, T A
The present study comprised 1000 child and young workers in small and medium-size industries in Alexandria, as well as 250 control subjects. Almost all young workers work for more than 40 hours/week and suffer from fatigue. Workers' family needs rather than the lack of family care is the responsible factor for sending the child to work, and the economic problems seem to be the underlying factor for all other problems of child labour. Work improves labourers' socio-economic status and smoking habit, and provides a chance for their personal contacts and interactions, which are reflected on their level of intellectual capabilities; however, it has some impact on their food habits affecting their achievement of balanced diet; and no drug addiction exists among all the studied subjects. Noise and dust represent the main occupational exposures (84.4% and 55.8% respectively), followed by exposure to heat (25.3%), vapors and gases (10.4%) and biological materials (9.0%), and nearly 2/3 of the workers have combined exposures. Work injuries occurred to 18.4% of the workers and 7.4% had more than one injury during employment; however, nearly 1/3 of the injuries required absenteeism off work and/or hospitalization. The injuries have been typically related to industrial operations, occurring mostly to hands and fingers (80.4%), and are mainly attributed to lack of training (63.0%). The health services presented to the workers are very poor. The study has been concluded by recommending making the work safe, free from hazards, and ergonomically fit to children, providing educational and training services, covering young workers by social security, and revising legislation of child labour.
Dodd, Jodie M; Crowther, Caroline A; Robinson, Jeffrey S
Objective To compare oral misoprostol solution with vaginal prostaglandin gel (dinoprostone) for induction of labour at term to determine whether misoprostol is superior. Design Randomised double blind placebo controlled trial. Setting Maternity departments in three hospitals in Australia. Population Pregnant women with a singleton cephalic presentation at ≥ 36+6 weeks' gestation, with an indication for prostaglandin induction of labour. Interventions 20 μg oral misoprostol solution at ourly intervals and placebo vaginal gel or vaginal dinoprostone gel at six hourly intervals and placebo oral solution. Main outcome measures Vaginal birth within 24 hours; uterine hyperstimulation with associated changes in fetal heart rate; caesarean section (all); and caesarean section for fetal distress. Results 741 women were randomised, 365 to the misoprostol group and 376 to the vaginal dinoprostone group. There were no significant differences between the two treatment groups in the primary outcomes: vaginal birth not achieved in 24 hours (misoprostol 168/365 (46.0%) v dinoprostone 155/376 (41.2%); relative risk 1.12, 95% confidence interval 0.95 to 1.32; P = 0.134), caesarean section (83/365 (22.7%) v 100/376 (26.6%); 0.82, 0.64 to 1.06; P = 0.127), caesarean section for fetal distress (32/365 (8.8%) v 35/376 (9.3%); 0.91, 0.57 to 1.44; P = 0.679), or uterine hyperstimulation with changes in fetal heart rate (3/365 (0.8%) v 6/376 (1.6%); 0.55, 0.14 to 2.21; P = 0.401). Although there were differences in the process of labour induction, there were no significant differences in adverse maternal or neonatal outcomes. Conclusions This trial shows no evidence that oral misoprostol is superior to vaginal dinoprostone for induction of labour. However, it does not lead to poorer health outcomes for women or their infants, and oral treatment is preferred by women. Trial registration National Health and Medical Research Council, Perinatal Trials, PT0361. PMID:16455695
This paper critically examines current concerns regarding professional issues in labour force development for teachers with children up to two years of age (UtoT). The concerns in New Zealand (NZ) relate to whether initial teacher-education (ITE) qualifications prepare teachers to work with children UtoT, involving synergy between ITE and the…
This article elaborates a model of social democratic and conservative discourses in relation to access, financing, management, and results of higher education. The model is contrasted with the position of the Conservative Party and the Labour Party in the United Kingdom from the late 1970s to 2010 as expressed in their electoral manifestos. The…
This paper notes the prominence of self-help groups (SHGs) within current anti-poverty policy in India, and analyses the impacts of government- and NGO-backed SHGs in rural North Karnataka. It argues that self-help groups represent a partial neoliberalisation of civil society in that they address poverty through low-cost methods that do not challenge the existing distribution of power and resources between the dominant class and the labouring class poor. It finds that intra-group savings and loans and external loans/subsidies can provide marginal economic and political gains for members of the dominant class and those members of the labouring classes whose insecure employment patterns currently provide above poverty line consumption levels, but provide neither material nor political gains for the labouring class poor. Target-oriented SHG catalysts are inattentive to how the social relations of production reproduce poverty and tend to overlook class relations and socio-economic and political differentiation within and outside of groups, which are subject to interference by dominant class local politicians and landowners.
Murphy, A J; Jalland, M; Pepperell, R J; Quinn, M A
Tylose gel containing either 1.5 mg, 3.0 mg or 10.0 mg of prostaglandin F2 alpha was inserted into the posterior vaginal fornix of 165 patients on the evening before induction of labour. A control group of 100 patients received the gel alone. There was a significant reduction in the induction-delivery interval in nulliparae receiving at least 3.0 mg of prostaglandin, whereas, in multiparae all doses achieved this effect. There was also a significant reduction in the incidence of forceps delivery in nulliparae who received 3.0 mg or more of the prostaglandin gel; however, there was no difference in the incidence of spontneous labour, epidural anaesthesia or Caesarean section between the patients who received prostaglandin or those receiving gel alone.
Kyriakides, Christopher; Virdee, Satnam
This study explores the dynamics of racism, specifically its generation and reproduction as an ideology, and its role in affecting the reception and occupational location of migrant medical labour in Britain. It is argued that the treatment of 'overseas doctors' in Britain draws on a complex interplay between racism and nationalism underpinned by the historical construction of 'welfarism' as a moral legitimator of 'Britishness'. Through an exploration of internal and external immigration controls introduced with the aim of regulating migrant labour, we demonstrate how British social policy and elite discourses of 'race' combine to construct moral prescriptions of threat such that migrants and British-born 'non-whites' entering the British medical profession are forced to negotiate 'saviour/pariah' ascriptions indicative of discriminatory but contradictory processes specific to the operation of the British National Health Service as a normative institution.
García Gómez, Pilar; López Nicolás, Angel
This paper investigates the relationship between health shocks and labour outcomes in the Spanish population using the European Community Household Panel. In order to control for the non-experimental nature of the data we use difference in difference and matching techniques. Our results suggest that there is a significant effect running from health to the probability of employment and to labour income. Moreover, while we cannot investigate the influence of childhood events and other phenomena that trigger long run causal pathways from socio-economic status to health, we are able to find a significant reduction in the probability of reporting good health in individuals who transit out of employment in comparison with individuals who are otherwise identical in terms of reported health status at the time of the transition.
Huber, Martin; Lechner, Michael; Wunsch, Conny
This paper investigates the average effects of firm-provided workplace health promotion measures on labour market outcomes of the firms' employees. Exploiting linked employer-employee panel data that consist of rich survey-based and administrative information on firms, workers and regions, we apply a flexible propensity score matching approach that controls for selection on observables and time-constant unobserved factors. While the effects of analysing sickness absenteeism appear to be rather limited, our results suggest that health circles/courses increase tenure and job stability across various age groups. A key finding is that health circles/courses strengthen the labour force attachment of elderly employees (51-60), implying potential cost savings for public transfer schemes such as unemployment insurance or early retirement schemes.
Maternal labour pain and stress are associated with progressive fetal metabolic acidosis. Systemic opioid analgesia does little to mitigate this stress, but opioids readily cross the placenta and cause fetal-neonatal depression and impair breast feeding. Pethidine remains the most widely used, but alternatives, with the possible exception of remifentanil, have little more to offer. Inhalational analgesia using Entonox is more effective and, being rapidly exhaled by the newborn, is less likely to produce lasting depression. Neuraxial analgesia has maternal physiological and biochemical effects, some of which are potentially detrimental and some favourable to the fetus. Actual neonatal outcome, however, suggests that benefits outweigh detrimental influences. Meta-analysis demonstrates that Apgar score is better after epidural than systemic opioid analgesia, while neonatal acid-base balance is improved by epidural compared to systemic analgesia and even compared to no analgesia. Successful breast feeding is dependent on many factors, therefore randomized trials are required to elucidate the effect of labour analgesia.
In recent years, British science policy has seen a significant shift 'from deficit to dialogue' in conceptualizing the relationship between science and the public. Academics in the interdisciplinary field of Science and Technology Studies (STS) have been influential as advocates of the new public engagement agenda. However, this participatory agenda has deeper roots in the political ideology of the Third Way. A framing of participation as a politics suited to post-Fordist conditions was put forward in the magazine Marxism Today in the late 1980s, developed in the Demos thinktank in the 1990s, and influenced policy of the New Labour government. The encouragement of public participation and deliberation in relation to science and technology has been part of a broader implementation of participatory mechanisms under New Labour. This participatory program has been explicitly oriented toward producing forms of social consciousness and activity seen as essential to a viable knowledge economy and consumer society. STS arguments for public engagement in science have gained influence insofar as they have intersected with the Third Way politics of post-Fordism.
Hooper, Paul L.; Demps, Kathryn; Gurven, Michael; Gerkey, Drew; Kaplan, Hillard S.
In foraging and other productive activities, individuals make choices regarding whether and with whom to cooperate, and in what capacities. The size and composition of cooperative groups can be understood as a self-organized outcome of these choices, which are made under local ecological and social constraints. This article describes a theoretical framework for explaining the size and composition of foraging groups based on three principles: (i) the sexual division of labour; (ii) the intergenerational division of labour; and (iii) economies of scale in production. We test predictions from the theory with data from two field contexts: Tsimane' game hunters of lowland Bolivia, and Jenu Kuruba honey collectors of South India. In each case, we estimate the impacts of group size and individual group members' effort on group success. We characterize differences in the skill requirements of different foraging activities and show that individuals participate more frequently in activities in which they are more efficient. We evaluate returns to scale across different resource types and observe higher returns at larger group sizes in foraging activities (such as hunting large game) that benefit from coordinated and complementary roles. These results inform us that the foraging group size and composition are guided by the motivated choice of individuals on the basis of relative efficiency, benefits of cooperation, opportunity costs and other social considerations. PMID:26503681
Weil, Tobias; Rehli, Michael; Korb, Judith
Background Polyphenism, the expression of different phenotypes with the same genetic background, is well known for social insects. The substantial physiological and morphological differences among the castes generally are the result of differential gene expression. In lower termites, workers are developmentally flexible to become neotenic replacement reproductives via a single moult after the death of the founding reproductives. Thus, both castes (neotenics and workers) are expected to differ mainly in the expression of genes linked to reproductive division of labour, which constitutes the fundamental basis of insect societies. Results Representational difference analysis of cDNAs was used to study differential gene expression between neotenics and workers in the drywood termite Cryptotermes secundus (Kalotermitidae). We identified and, at least partially cloned five novel genes that were highly expressed in female neotenics. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of all five genes in different castes (neotenics, founding reproductives, winged sexuals and workers of both sexes) confirmed the differential expression patterns. In addition, the relative expression of these genes was determined in three body parts of female neotenics (head, thorax, and abdomen) using quantitative real-time PCR. Conclusion The identified genes could be involved in the control and regulation of reproductive division of labour. Interestingly, this study revealed an expression pattern partly similar to social Hymenoptera indicating both common and species-specific regulatory mechanisms in hemimetabolous and holometabolous social insects. PMID:17598892
Ozener, B; Duyar, I
Although the effect of labour and physical stress on the height and weight of growing children is relatively well known, rather limited information concerning the influences of the work environment on the physique of working children and adolescents is available. The purpose of this study was to increase our knowledge of the effects of mechanical stress on the human physique via somatotype during the adolescent growth period. Anthropometric measurements of 509 male apprentices aged 13.50-18.49 years and measurements of 451 nonworking youth (control group) of the same age group were taken. The members of both groups were from the lower socioeconomic strata and had similar living conditions. The apprentices were working an average of 11h per day in vocations requiring intense physical effort. The subjects were somatotyped using the Heath-Carter anthropometric protocol. The overall mean somatotypes were 2.3-4.4-3.3 for working adolescents, and 2.5-3.9-3.6 for the nonworking controls. A one-way multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) indicated significant differences between the groups. Working adolescents were more mesomorphic and less ectomorphic than their nonworking peers. In both groups, endomorphy decreased with age up to age 15; then remained stable for the labourers but increased for the nonworking peers. In both groups, mesomorphy was stable, but decreased with ectomorphy. These results indicate that physical stress not only causes retardation in linear growth, but also produces changes in human physique during the growth period.
In recent years, British science policy has seen a significant shift ‘from deficit to dialogue’ in conceptualizing the relationship between science and the public. Academics in the interdisciplinary field of Science and Technology Studies (STS) have been influential as advocates of the new public engagement agenda. However, this participatory agenda has deeper roots in the political ideology of the Third Way. A framing of participation as a politics suited to post-Fordist conditions was put forward in the magazine Marxism Today in the late 1980s, developed in the Demos thinktank in the 1990s, and influenced policy of the New Labour government. The encouragement of public participation and deliberation in relation to science and technology has been part of a broader implementation of participatory mechanisms under New Labour. This participatory program has been explicitly oriented toward producing forms of social consciousness and activity seen as essential to a viable knowledge economy and consumer society. STS arguments for public engagement in science have gained influence insofar as they have intersected with the Third Way politics of post-Fordism. PMID:21258426
Marcelli, E A; Heer, D M
"By analysing how unauthorized Mexicans compare with seven other ethno-racial groups in Los Angeles County, separately and collectively, by educational attainment and time spent in the U.S., we find that unauthorized Mexicans had relatively fewer years of formal education (either in the U.S. or in Mexico) and had been in the U.S. a relatively fewer number of years than in-migrants of other ethno-racial backgrounds in 1990. These findings are then used as proxies to compare the human capital endowments of different ethno-racial groups. We next estimate the number of unauthorized Mexicans by occupation, industry and class of worker, and compare these distributions with the total labour force and with the other ethno-racial groups in Los Angeles County.... Results show that amounts of human capital are positively related to the kinds of occupations filled." (SUMMARY IN FRE AND SPA)
Laguardia, Juan; Rubio, Emilio; Garcia, Ana; Garcia-Foncillas, Rafael
Labour risk prevention is an activity integrated within Safety and Hygiene at Work in Spain. In 2003, the Electronic Declaration for Accidents at Work, Delt@ (DELTA) was introduced. The industrial aerospace sector is subject to various risks. Our objective is to analyse the Spanish Industrial Aerospace Sector (SIAS) using the ACSOM methodology to assess its labour risks and to prioritise preventive actions. The SIAS and the Services Subsector (SS) were created and the relevant accident rate data were obtained. The ACSOM method was applied through double contrast (deviation and translocation) of the SIAS or SS risk polygon with the considered pattern, accidents from all sectors (ACSOM G) or the SIAS. A list of risks was obtained, ordered by action phases. In the SIAS vs. ACSOM G analysis, radiation risks were the worst, followed by overstrains. Accidents caused by living beings were also significant in the SS vs. SIAE, which will be able to be used to improve Risk Prevention. Radiation is the most significant risk in the SIAS and the SS. Preventive actions will be primary and secondary. ACSOM has shown itself to be a valid tool for the analysis of labour risks.
Munene, Ishmael I.; Ruto, Sara J.
Since 1948, various UN conventions have recognised basic education as a human right. Yet this right continues to be denied to many child labourers across the world. This articles draws on the results of a study examining how children in domestic labour in Kenya access and participate in education. Three issues were explored: (1) the correlates of child domestic labourers; (2) their working conditions and contexts; and (3) the right to education. Interviews and group discussions held in one city and two rural districts elicited data from 91 child domestic labourers and 84 adults. The results indicated that child labour was both poverty-induced and adult-initiated, and that children worked in hazardous environments characterised by economic exploitation. Most did not attend school; those who did had to contend with a rigid school structure and an authoritarian class environment. Children in domestic labour often skipped school, and their participation in classes was low.
Aittomäki, Akseli; Martikainen, Pekka; Laaksonen, Mikko; Lahelma, Eero; Rahkonen, Ossi
Our aim was to find out whether the associations between health and both individual and household economic position reflected a causal effect on health of household affluence and consumption potential. We attempted to separate this effect from health-selection effects, in other words the potential effect of health on economic position, and from various effects related to occupational position and prestige that might correlate with the economic indicators. We made a distinction between individual labour-market advantage and household economic resources in order to reflect these theoretical definitions. Our aim was to test and compare two hypotheses: 1) low household economic resources lead to an increase in health problems later on, and 2) health problems are disadvantageous on the labour market, and consequently decrease the level of economic resources. We used prospective register data obtained from the databases of Statistics Finland and constituting an 11-per-cent random sample of the Finnish population in 1993-2006. Health problems were measured in terms of sickness allowance paid by the Finnish Social Insurance Institution, household economic resources in terms of household-equivalent disposable income and taxable wealth, and labour-market advantage in terms of individual taxable income and months of unemployment. We used structural equation models (n = 211,639) to examine the hypothesised causal pathways. Low household economic resources predicted future health problems, and health problems predicted future deterioration in labour-market advantage. The effect of economic resources on health problems was somewhat stronger. These results suggest that accumulated exposure to low economic resources leads to increasing health problems, and that this causal mechanism is a more significant source of persistent health inequalities than health problems that bring about a permanent decrease in economic resources.
Aluwihare-Samaranayake, Dilmi; Paul, Pauline
The paper reveals that historically various socio-political factors, including gender, class, ethnicity, race, waves of colonization, decolonization, the civil and ethnic wars, the women's and labour movements, have influenced the development of nursing in Sri Lanka. However, literature presenting the development of nursing in Sri Lanka is sparse. All relevant journals and books published in the English and Sinhalese languages on nursing in Sri Lanka between the years 1878-2011 were examined. Because there are no nursing journals currently produced in Sri Lanka, CINAHL and Medline databases were accessed and relevant literature published in the English language on Sri Lanka was examined. Government, nurses' union and association reports, other unpublished reports and websites such as Google were also searched to access information related to the influence of gender, race, class, ethnicity, women's and labour movements in Sri Lanka. Poor pay, shortages of resources, failure in recruitment and retention and limited opportunity for career progression have acted as deterrents to persons entering and remaining in the nursing profession. Being non-British was a key issue in terms of race. Further, the shift from a colonized state to a welfare state resulted in a class shift from upper middle class to middle and lower class persons entering into nursing. Although there is a paucity of information available in the nursing literature, this analysis offers an intriguing insight into an angle that may be used to examine the influence of gender, ethnicity, class, race and the women's and labour movements in other contextual situations.
Omokhodion, F O; Omokhodion, S I
This cross sectional study was designed to compare the characteristics of working and non-working school children. Two hundred and thirty one working and 236 non-working children were interviewed. The socio economic factors associated with child labour were trading as mother's occupation, father's educational status, religion, family type (monogamous vs polygamous) and type of residence. Family type (OR = 0.562, 95% C.I. 0.353-0.897, p = 0.016), religion (OR = 0.559, 95% C.I. 0.361-0.867, p = 0.009) and trading as mother's occupation (O.R = 2.49, 95% CI 1.68-3.68, p = 0.000) were sustained on logistic regression analysis. With regard to attitude to child work, 186 (40%) of all respondents thought that children should be allowed to work. The majority of those who held this opinion 150, were child workers. Ten percent of working children had themselves chosen to work without any parental influence to do so. Seventy five respondents had ever repeated a class. Forty nine of these were working children a prevalence of 21% of repeaters compared to 26 non working children, (11%.) p = 0.004. Sixty eight percent of children aspiring to careers in artisan trades were child workers. Road traffic accidents and poor school performance were the commonest adverse effects of child labour indicated by school children. Parents should be educated about the adverse effects of child labour on child development. As poverty is one of the major root causes of child labour, free and compulsory primary education may help to reduce the notion of child work as an option for survival in poor families.
labour, monitoring continuously a visual recording of the fetus heart signal and uterine contractions and they also take under consideration other...Caesarean section. The developing system for managing labour delivery will combine evaluation of cardiotocographic signal with other physiological data...Caesarean section or natural labour. It must be mentioned that considerable expertise is required to interpret the changes of fetal’s heart signal seen
Green, Francis; Henseke, Golo; Vignoles, Anna
Though a relative small part of the school sector, private schools have an important role in British society, and there are policy concerns about their negative effect on social mobility. Other studies show that individuals who have attended a private school go on to have higher levels of educational achievement, are more likely to secure a…
Summarizes the theoretical and practical issues related to the under-estimation of women's work in the labor force and national accounting statistics. Responds to the continuing criticism that women's efforts make no useful impact, unpaid work should not be treated the same as paid work, and efforts are misguided. (JOW)
Nath, S R; Hadi, A
This paper explores the hypothesis that the level of education of children and their parents plays a major role in reducing child labour. Data were generated from a sample survey of 3809 children aged 10-14 years living in 150 villages in two rural districts of Bangladesh. A significant inverse relationship was found between child labour and years of schooling. Age and education of children, parental education, land ownership of household and fathers' occupation were the determinants of child labour force participation. Child's years of schooling is the variable that has most influence on the probability of participation in the labour force, followed by father's and mother's education.
Ekelin, Maria; Svensson, Judith; Evehammar, Susanne; Kvist, Linda J
The use of intravenous artificial oxytocin for augmentation of labour is very common in midwifery care in Sweden. Studies have shown that oxytocin is often administered to women in labour who have no signs of labour dystocia. It was the aim of this study to examine Swedish midwives' views on and experiences of labour augmentation in the context of normal labour. Individual interviews were carried out with 15 midwives from southern Sweden. The material was analysed using qualitative content analysis, which resulted in one theme: sense and sensibility and four main categories: permissible situations, motivating the decision, intervening in the birth process and iatrogenic awareness. The results showed that midwives expressed ambiguity about augmentation of labour. They were of the opinion that oxytocin was used very often and sometimes unnecessarily. There is awareness that interventions to augment labour can result in undesirable effects on the birth process. Despite this, deeper discussion of this problem was avoided in the interviews. Further research should focus on the process involved when midwives weigh pros and cons when deciding to augment labour. More knowledge is also needed about the barriers for optimal care in labour that are inherent in health-care systems.
This article examines masculinity in an area suffering from sustained high unemployment and unremitting hardship during the 1930s: the South Wales coalfield had some of the highest rates of male unemployment and the lowest participation rates of married women in paid employment in Britain. Particular attention is drawn to power relations between husband and wife by looking at the domestic division of labour and whether male unemployment affected the split in domestic responsibilities. Personal testimonies are used to assess how men filled their time whilst unemployed and the meanings they attached to their activities and relationships. It will be shown that some unemployed men engaged more in the home and that many men were able to maintain existing power relations with their wives by finding or creating alternative manual work and maintaining an elastic relationship with the home by continuing to spend the majority of their time in the company of other men.
Levett, Kate M; Smith, C A; Bensoussan, A; Dahlen, H G
Objective To evaluate the effect of an antenatal integrative medicine education programme in addition to usual care for nulliparous women on intrapartum epidural use. Design Open-label, assessor blind, randomised controlled trial. Setting 2 public hospitals in Sydney, Australia. Population 176 nulliparous women with low-risk pregnancies, attending hospital-based antenatal clinics. Methods and intervention The Complementary Therapies for Labour and Birth protocol, based on the She Births and acupressure for labour and birth courses, incorporated 6 evidence-based complementary medicine techniques: acupressure, visualisation and relaxation, breathing, massage, yoga techniques, and facilitated partner support. Randomisation occurred at 24–36 weeks’ gestation, and participants attended a 2-day antenatal education programme plus standard care, or standard care alone. Main outcome measures Rate of analgesic epidural use. Secondary: onset of labour, augmentation, mode of birth, newborn outcomes. Results There was a significant difference in epidural use between the 2 groups: study group (23.9%) standard care (68.7%; risk ratio (RR) 0.37 (95% CI 0.25 to 0.55), p≤0.001). The study group participants reported a reduced rate of augmentation (RR=0.54 (95% CI 0.38 to 0.77), p<0.0001); caesarean section (RR=0.52 (95% CI 0.31 to 0.87), p=0.017); length of second stage (mean difference=−0.32 (95% CI −0.64 to 0.002), p=0.05); any perineal trauma (0.88 (95% CI 0.78 to 0.98), p=0.02) and resuscitation of the newborn (RR=0.47 (95% CI 0.25 to 0.87), p≤0.015). There were no statistically significant differences found in spontaneous onset of labour, pethidine use, rate of postpartum haemorrhage, major perineal trauma (third and fourth degree tears/episiotomy), or admission to special care nursery/neonatal intensive care unit (p=0.25). Conclusions The Complementary Therapies for Labour and Birth study protocol significantly reduced epidural use and caesarean section. This
Background Rates of labour induction are increasing. We conducted this systematic review to assess the evidence supporting use of each method of labour induction. Methods We listed methods of labour induction then reviewed the evidence supporting each. We searched MEDLINE and the Cochrane Library between 1980 and November 2010 using multiple terms and combinations, including labor, induced/or induction of labor, prostaglandin or prostaglandins, misoprostol, Cytotec, 16,16,-dimethylprostaglandin E2 or E2, dinoprostone; Prepidil, Cervidil, Dinoprost, Carboprost or hemabate; prostin, oxytocin, misoprostol, membrane sweeping or membrane stripping, amniotomy, balloon catheter or Foley catheter, hygroscopic dilators, laminaria, dilapan, saline injection, nipple stimulation, intercourse, acupuncture, castor oil, herbs. We performed a best evidence review of the literature supporting each method. We identified 2048 abstracts and reviewed 283 full text articles. We preferentially included high quality systematic reviews or large randomised trials. Where no such studies existed, we included the best evidence available from smaller randomised or quasi-randomised trials. Results We included 46 full text articles. We assigned a quality rating to each included article and a strength of evidence rating to each body of literature. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and vaginal misoprostol were more effective than oxytocin in bringing about vaginal delivery within 24 hours but were associated with more uterine hyperstimulation. Mechanical methods reduced uterine hyperstimulation compared with PGE2 and misoprostol, but increased maternal and neonatal infectious morbidity compared with other methods. Membrane sweeping reduced post-term gestations. Most included studies were too small to evaluate risk for rare adverse outcomes. Conclusions Research is needed to determine benefits and harms of many induction methods. PMID:22032440
"Among the effects produced in the Sierra of Ecuador by the programme of land reforms launched in 1964 was a reduction in the incomes from small-scale farming. At the same time, the growth of productive employment in urban areas was insufficient to provide round-the-year work to the fast growing army of jobseekers. Analysis of the agrarian structure and migration patterns before and after 1964 suggests that it was primarily this combination of circumstances that produced a pronounced shift towards short-term rather than permanent migration, thereby providing industry and services with the labour they needed while avoiding the disadvantages of severe urban overpopulation."
Dickenson, D L
There is an urgent need for reconstructing models of property to make them more women-friendly. However, we need not start from scratch: both 'canonical' and feminist authors can sometimes provide concepts which we can refine and apply towards women's propertylessness. This paper looks in particular at women's alienation from their reproductive labour, building on Marx and Delphy. Developing an economic and political rather than a psychological reading of alienation, it then considers how the refined and revised concept can be applied to concrete examples in global justice for women: in particular, the commercialisation of embryonic and fetal tissue in the new stem cell technologies.
Dennis, A T; Gerstman, M D
Supraventricular tachycardia is uncommon in pregnancy. It is defined as intermittent pathological and usually narrow complex tachycardia >120 beats/min which originates above the ventricle, excluding atrial fibrillation, flutter and multifocal atrial tachycardia. It is usually self-limiting or relatively easily treated with most cases responding to physical or pharmacological therapies. We describe a case of a woman in the third trimester of pregnancy who developed treatment-resistant supraventricular tachycardia and required induction of labour and delivery to stop the arrhythmia. A multidisciplinary team approach with a critical care trained nurse and a midwife, continuous arterial blood pressure monitoring, transthoracic echocardiography, and neuraxial analgesia facilitated safe birth in the delivery suite and termination of the arrhythmia.
In this review, the author discusses how pastoralism, and its many constituent components, is increasingly being recognised as in tune with the changing political and ecological nature of rangelands. He describes ways in which the literature reflects this changing attitude, outlines how rangelands respond to changes in climate and explores the evolving use of livestock resources. In addition, he describes the growing recognition of factors other than livestock density that affect rangeland vegetation (i.e. density-independent relationships). The author explains how terms such as 'carrying capacity', 'overgrazing' and 'desertification' are often taken out of their social and political context when describing rangeland pastoralism. Next, he describes the growing recognition by the development community of the importance of the mobility model, particularly in relation to changing ecologies and politics. Finally, he outlines how labour, a central focus of pastoral herd management, is a fluid component of pastoral systems in response to changing political and ecological circumstances.
The German labour market has seen substantial structural changes, especially over the past decades: there has been a major shift in labour market policy, the service industry is booming and skills requirements have changed dramatically. This article discusses these trends, offering an empirical analysis of the extent to which the German dual VET…
It is argued that the creation of something called "New Labour" in the mid-1990s marked the death of the comprehensive school in England--or, rather, the end of any attempt to create a nationwide system of comprehensive schools. The election of Tony Blair as Labour Party Leader in July 1994 can be viewed as THE defining year in post-war…
Cedefop - European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, 2014
This report analyses how learning supports labour market transitions and career changes of adult workers across five countries (Denmark, Germany, Spain, France and Italy). To make the most of career and labour market opportunities, individuals have to rely on their own resources and their agency but also know how to navigate the institutional…
Panaingvait, Poj; Chakpitak, Nopasit; Yodmongkol, Pitipong; Sureephong, Paradorn; Nimmonrat, Acrapol
Thailand, a developing country, had labours migrating from the agriculture into the industrial due to higher pay in the past. However the economic force has made the government policy to focus on creativity and developing technology towards automatic production. Unskilled Thai labours are facing a big challenge after retirement, which is called…
This article deals with the question of how different resources affect the labour market integration of the young unemployed. Previous research has often focused on the effects of unemployment compensation benefits on labour market outcomes. However, for young unemployed people additional parental resources may be even more important. The article…
Chakrabarty, Sayan; Grote, Ulrike; Luchters, Guido
This paper explores the determinants of child labour vis-a-vis child schooling. It further examines the influence of non-governmental organisations (NGOs) which are engaged in social labelling, on the incidence of child labour and schooling trade-off. The empirical results show that the probability of child schooling increases as well as child…
The aim of this contribution is to shed light on the following questions: to what extent are labour market policy measures accessible for women and men with ID (intellectual disabilities)? What is the reality of transition to employment for this target group? What is the success rate of women and men with ID accessing labour market policy measures…
OECD Publishing, 2016
More and more adults are earning a tertiary qualification, but not all tertiary degrees have the same value on the labour market. In general, postgraduate degrees such as master's and doctoral degrees are associated with higher employment rates and earnings than bachelor's degrees. Labour market outcomes also vary by field of education. Some…
Ministry of Advanced Education and Labour Market Development, 2009
The Ministry of Advanced Education and Labour Market Development's overarching purpose is to position British Columbia to meet the competitive challenges of the twenty-first century through better aligning labour market supply and demand. In the six months since the Ministry issued its February 2009 service plan and the subsequent re-election of…
Burger, Rulof; Woolard, Ingrid
While the political transition to democratic rule in South Africa was smooth and rapid, the economic transition has been slow and difficult. Nowhere is this more apparent than in the labour market. Job creation has not matched growing labour supply and the unemployment rate continues to rise. This article attempts to document and identify the key…
In Canada, non-permanent faculty are no longer simply a reserve, flexible labour pool available for administrators to draw on when needed (e.g. during times of fluctuating enrollments); rather, they represent a strategy utilized by universities to reduce overall labour costs. In this article I bring together Women's Studies, feminism, contingent…
Kunz, Jean Lock
Youth represent one of the most culturally diverse groups in Canada. It has been shown that labour market participation among immigrant youth, especially those who are members of a visible minority, has been lower than the Canadian-born. Using the 1996 Census, this paper provides an overview of labour market attachment of immigrant and visible…
Cites the text of resolutions adopted at the International Labour Conference, focusing on (1) homelessness, (2) the anniversary of the Freedom of Association and Protection of the Right to Organise Convention, and (3) measures against substance abuse in working and social life. Outlines the International Labour Office's recent efforts to improve…
Andrews, Martyn; Bradley, Steve; Stott, Dave
In this article we calculate the magnitude of occupational segregation pre- and post-labour market entry for young people using the Karmel and Maclachlan IP index. Our data refer to 22,280 males and 17,678 females who entered the labour market during the period 1988-91. Our results show that the magnitude of segregation is substantial, and is…
Pillay, Hitendra; Kelly, Kathy; Tones, Megan
Early labour force exit is a significant challenge associated with the ageing workforce in Australia and many other developed countries. A reduction and increased flexibility of work hours has been suggested to improve labour force participation of the mature aged cohort. However, little is known about mature aged workers' aspirations for…
Australia has had a long history of using migrants to fill skill gaps and labour shortages, and continues to target skilled foreign workers for permanent and temporary migration. The purpose of this report is to investigate the role of qualifications in the labour mobility of these foreign workers, especially as those who do not have employer…
The high level of graduate unemployment, even though it is acknowledged as one of the most distinctive characteristics of the Greek labour market, it has not attracted enough attention in the academic literature. This paper utilizes micro-data from the Labour Force Survey in order to investigate how the employment situation of young (aged 35 and…
The author argues that when the Labour Party has analysed its values emotional development has been neglected. He shows the importance of emotional literacy and uses education as a vehicle to show how Labour when in power reinforced right-wing ideology. Ways of changing education policy are indicated. It is hoped that this article will promote a…
The transition into a post-industrial economy changed the nature of the Australian labour market extinguishing jobs in traditional industries and creating jobs in new industries. Workers displaced from the manufacturing sector and women seeking to re-enter the labour market after taking time out for family reasons need to retrain in order to…
Across higher education in the United Kingdom, the procurement and deployment of educational technology increasingly impacts the practices of academic labour, in terms of administration, teaching and research. Moreover the relationships between academic labour and educational technology are increasingly framed inside the practices of neoliberal,…
Imarengiaye, C O
Labour and delivery result in severe pain for most women. Attention to comfort and analgesia for women in labour is important for physiological reasons and out of compassion. A review of common methods of pain relief of labour was done. Inhalation method as well as intravenous administration of opioids for pain relief in labour is fast giving way to lumbar epidural analgesia. The use of local anaesthetic in labour offers superior pain relief, is effective and safe. The inhalation and parenteral routes seem reserved for patients with contraindication to insertion of epidural. The administration of high volume dilute concentration of local anaesthetic plus lipid soluble opioids, with some level of patient's control, appears to be the current trend in the management of labour pains. There is a body of evidence indicating that Nigerian women may want pain relief in labour. However, there is no organised labour analgesia service in Nigeria. An organised obstetric analgesia service can be developed within the limits of available manpower and technology in an emerging country like Nigeria. This article therefore, focuses on trends in obstetric analgesia and its implications on the development of organised obstetric analgesia services in Nigeria. Key words: obstetric analgesia, obstetric analgesia service, Nigeria.
World of Work, 1996
An International Labour Organization study refutes one of the most common arguments of apologists for child labor in the hand-woven carpet industry--the so-called nimble fingers argument. Excerpts from presentations at an International Labour Organization meeting highlight the commitment to eradicating child labor. (JOW)
Munene, Ishmael I.; Ruto, Sara J.
Since 1948, various UN conventions have recognised basic education as a human right. Yet this right continues to be denied to many child labourers across the world. This articles draws on the results of a study examining how children in domestic labour in Kenya access and participate in education. Three issues were explored: (1) the correlates of…
The author is a long-time advocate inside the Labour Party for ending selective education and the 11-plus. She outlines how Labour Party frontbenchers routinely ignore or deflect calls from Party members to stand up for comprehensive education in both word and deed. As UKIP, whose policy is to extend selective education more widely, rises in the…
... Maritime Labour Convention, 2006 AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of availability . SUMMARY: The... voluntary compliance with the Maritime Labour Convention, 2006 (MLC or Convention). The Convention enters... the Docket Management Facility in Room W12-140 on the ground floor of the Department of...
Moreno da Fonseca, Pedro
Europe faces an increase in the age of its natural population and a reduction in available labour force. The retirement of a highly qualified workforce, alongside a rise in demand for medium- and high-skilled workers, will likely result in labour shortages in several sectors and countries. The movement of qualified, third-country immigrants into…
... Maritime Labour Convention, 2006 AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of availability and request for.... vessels for voluntary compliance with the Maritime Labour Convention, 2006 (Convention), which enters into... http://www.regulations.gov on or before March 13, 2013 or reach the Docket Management Facility by...
Gao, Wenshu; Smyth, Russell
This article uses data from the China Urban Labour Survey administered across 12 cities in 2005 to estimate the economic returns to speaking standard Mandarin among internal migrants in China's urban labour market. The article builds on studies that estimate the economic returns to international immigrants of being fluent in the major language of…
ElObeidy, Ahmed A.
Labour productivity in Arab countries is low by international standards and this problem occurs in Arab countries both inside and outside Africa. There are 10 Arab countries in Africa: Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, Mauritania, Sudan, Somalia, Djibouti and Comoros. Enhancing labour productivity is a major challenge for Arab countries.…
Purcell, Kate; Wilton, Nick; Elias, Peter
The expansion of the higher education system and widening access to undergraduate study has led to growing diversity within the graduate labour supply, including increasing numbers who studied for their degrees as mature students. Analysis of graduates entering the labour market prior to the major expansion in the early 1990s indicated that those…
Niederkrotenthaler, Thomas; Tinghög, Petter; Goldman-Mellor, Sidra; Wilcox, Holly C.; Gould, Madelyn; Mittendorfer-Rutz, Ellenor
Background Individuals with a history of suicide attempt have a high risk for subsequent labour market marginalization. This study aimed at assessing the effect of individual and parental factors on different measures of marginalization. Methods Prospective cohort study based on register linkage of 5 649 individuals who in 1994 were 16–30 years old, lived in Sweden and were treated in inpatient care for suicide attempt during 1992–1994. Hazard ratios (HRs) for labour market marginalization defined as long-term unemployment (>180 days), sickness absence (>90 days), or disability pension in 1995–2010 were calculated with Cox regression. Results Medical risk factors, particularly any earlier diagnosed specific mental disorders (e.g., schizophrenia: HR 5.4 (95% CI: 4.2, 7.0), personality disorders: HR 3.9, 95% CI: 3.1, 4.9), repetitive suicide attempts (HR 1.6, 95% CI: 1.4, 1.9) were associated with a higher relative risk of disability pension. Individual medical factors were of smaller importance for long-term sickness absence, and of only marginal relevance to long-term unemployment. Country of birth outside Europe had an opposite effect on disability pension (HR 0.6, 95% CI: 0.4, 0.8) and long-term unemployment (HR 1.5, 95% CI: 1.3, 1.8). Female sex was positively correlated with long-term sickness absence (HR 1.6, 95% CI: 1.4, 1.7), and negatively associated with long-term unemployment (HR: 0.8, 95% CI: 0.7, 0.9). Conclusions As compared to disability pension, long-term sickness absence and unemployment was more strongly related to socio-economic variables. Marginalization pathways seemed to vary with migration status and sex. These findings may contribute to the development of intervention strategies which take the individual risk for marginalization into account. PMID:26784886
Weiner, Renay; Ronsmans, Carine; Dorman, Ed; Jilo, Hilton; Muhoro, Anne; Shulman, Caroline
OBJECTIVES: To identify and quantify risk factors for perinatal mortality in a Kenyan district hospital and to assess the proportion of perinatal deaths attributable to labour complications, maternal undernutrition, malaria, anaemia and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 910 births was conducted between January 1996 and July 1997 and risk factors for perinatal mortality were analysed. FINDINGS: The perinatal mortality rate was 118 per 1000 births. Complications of labour such as haemorrhage, premature rupture of membranes/premature labour, and obstructed labour/ malpresentation increased the risk of death between 8- and 62-fold, and 53% of all perinatal deaths were attributable to labour complications. Placental malaria and maternal HIV, on the other hand, were not associated with perinatal mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Greater attention needs to be given to the quality of obstetric care provided in the rural district-hospital setting. PMID:14576887
Ndongko, W A
The author examines the experience of various economic groupings of African countries with regard to unrestricted migration among member countries. After an introduction, Section II "examines the nature of labour mobility (migration) during the colonial period. Section III is devoted to an analysis of the provisions for free labour movement/mobility within some African regional economic groupings. The nature and pattern of labour migration is looked at in section IV. In section V, the effects or impact of labour migration on national and regional economies are examined. Section VI attempts an analysis of the socio-economic problems which arise from labour mobility. In section VII, some substantial issues are examined. The final section attempts to formulate some policy recommendations."
Beaverstock, J V
"Highly skilled professional and managerial labour migration has become an important facet of the contemporary world economy. The operations of transnational corporations have created more opportunities for skilled migrants to work abroad.... There is a growing interest amongst economic geographers to examine this form of migration through an appreciation of global economic restructuring, labour market change and world cities. Consequently, this paper introduces a new conceptual framework...[which] is based on the rationale that world cities, and the patterns of labour market demand that exist within them, are of paramount importance in influencing highly skilled professional and managerial labour migration within the world economy. The author uses an example of highly skilled labour migration within the transnational banking sector [in London] to illustrate this new conceptual framework."
Wang, Xiaogang; Durosier, L Daniel; Ross, Michael G; Richardson, Bryan S; Frasch, Martin G
Severe fetal acidemia during labour can result in life-lasting neurological deficits, but the timely detection of this condition is often not possible. This is because the positive predictive value (PPV) of fetal heart rate (FHR) monitoring, the mainstay of fetal health surveillance during labour, to detect concerning fetal acidemia is around 50%. In fetal sheep model of human labour, we reported that severe fetal acidemia (pH<7.00) during repetitive umbilical cord occlusions (UCOs) is preceded ∼60 minutes by the synchronization of electroencephalogram (EEG) and FHR. However, EEG and FHR are cyclic and noisy, and although the synchronization might be visually evident, it is challenging to detect automatically, a necessary condition for bedside utility. Here we present and validate a novel non-parametric statistical method to detect fetal acidemia during labour by using EEG and FHR. The underlying algorithm handles non-stationary and noisy data by recording number of abnormal episodes in both EEG and FHR. A logistic regression is then deployed to test whether these episodes are significantly related to each other. We then apply the method in a prospective study of human labour using fetal sheep model (n = 20). Our results render a PPV of 68% for detecting impending severe fetal acidemia ∼60 min prior to pH drop to less than 7.00 with 100% negative predictive value. We conclude that this method has a great potential to improve PPV for detection of fetal acidemia when it is implemented at the bedside. We outline directions for further refinement of the algorithm that will be achieved by analyzing larger data sets acquired in prospective human pilot studies.
Zander, Kerstin K.; Botzen, Wouter J. W.; Oppermann, Elspeth; Kjellstrom, Tord; Garnett, Stephen T.
Heat stress at the workplace is an occupational health hazard that reduces labour productivity. Assessment of productivity loss resulting from climate change has so far been based on physiological models of heat exposure. These models suggest productivity may decrease by 11-27% by 2080 in hot regions such as Asia and the Caribbean, and globally by up to 20% in hot months by 2050. Using an approach derived from health economics, we describe self-reported estimates of work absenteeism and reductions in work performance caused by heat in Australia during 2013/2014. We found that the annual costs were US$655 per person across a representative sample of 1,726 employed Australians. This represents an annual economic burden of around US$6.2 billion (95% CI: 5.2-7.3 billion) for the Australian workforce. This amounts to 0.33 to 0.47% of Australia’s GDP. Although this was a period when many Australians experienced what is at present considered exceptional heat, our results suggest that adaptation measures to reduce heat effects should be adopted widely if severe economic impacts from labour productivity loss are to be avoided if heat waves become as frequent as predicted.
Orlowski, Johannes; Wicker, Pamela; Breuer, Christoph
Previous research examining labour migration in sport focused on athletes in professional team sports. The purpose of this study is to analyse the factors influencing the migration probability of elite sport coaches in Germany (i.e. national coaches, state coaches, and coaches at Olympic training bases). From a theoretical perspective, labour migration of athletes is affected by economic, social, political, competitive, geographic and cultural factors. This study examines whether these factors can be applied to coaches. Primary data were collected using an online survey of elite sport coaches in Germany. Applying a conjoint design, respondents were presented with 10 migration scenarios leading to a sample size of n = 1860 for the empirical analysis. In the scenarios, the coaching position openings abroad differed in terms of income level, contract length, weekly workload, responsibility for personnel, reputation of coaching job, career perspectives, sporting performance of athletes, distance from Germany, and predominant job language. Coaches were asked for their migration probability contingent on the specific scenario. On average, migration probability was 24.2%. The results of regression analysis showed that higher income, contracts of longer duration, responsibility for personnel and speaking the respective language significantly increased the migration probability, while distances of nine flight hours and more, lower reputation and career perspectives reduced it. The findings have implications for policy-makers: they indicate in what areas the situation of coaches needs improvement to increase the likelihood of retaining elite sport coaches in the German sport system.
Callander, Emily J; Lindsay, Daniel B
Parental employment is a significant factor in ensuring financial ability to access care for children with autism spectrum disorder. This article aimed to identify the influence of autism spectrum disorder on parental employment and whether childcare access may effect labour force participation using the Longitudinal Survey of Australian Children, with 12 years of follow-up data (2004-2015). Parental employment when the child was aged between 0 and 11 years was assessed. A significantly larger percentage of parents whose children had autism spectrum disorder were not in the labour force when their child was aged between 2-3 and 10-11 years. However, between the ages of 2 and 5 years, these differences were not significant after accounting for maternal and paternal age, education attainment, marital status and mother labour force status prior to birth. Childcare access did not moderate the relationship between autism spectrum disorder and maternal labour force participation. Once children were of schooling age, mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder had up to two times the odds of being not in the labour force compared to other mothers, after adjusting for confounders. Evaluations of new interventions for children with autism spectrum disorder should consider how the proposed service impacts on the labour force participation of parents of children with autism spectrum disorder, particularly when the children are of schooling age.
The International Labour Organisation (ILO) report (2007) highlights that labour productivity, education and migration play important roles in shaping competitiveness, growth and development in Southeast Asia. The statistics also reveal interesting aspects of labour mobility. Thirteen and a half million migrants originate from countries in the…
Jean, Sebastien; Causa, Orsetta; Jimenez, Miguel; Wanner, Isabelle
Immigration pressures are increasing in most OECD countries. This paper investigates the consequences of immigration for natives' labour market outcomes, as well as issues linked to immigrants' integration in the host country labour market. Changes in the share of immigrants in the labour force may have a distributive impact on natives' wages, and…
Ekouevi, Didier K; Kariyiare, Benjamin G; Coffie, Patrick A; Jutand, Marthe-Aline; Akpadza, Koffi; Lawson-Evi, Annette; Tatagan, Albert; Dabis, François; Sibe, Mathieu; Pitche, Vincent P; Becquet, Renaud; David, Mireille
Background HIV screening in a labour ward is the last opportunity to initiate an antiretroviral prophylaxis among pregnant women living with HIV to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission. Little is known about the feasibility and acceptability of HIV screening during labour in West Africa. Findings A cross-sectional survey was conducted in the labour ward at the Tokoin Teaching Hospital in Lomé (Togo) between May and August 2010. Pregnant women admitted for labour were randomly selected to enter the study and were interviewed on the knowledge of their HIV status. Clinical and biological data were collected from the individual maternal health chart. HIV testing or re-testing was systematically proposed to all pregnant women. Among 1530 pregnant women admitted for labour, 508 (32.2%) were included in the study. Information on HIV screening was available in the charts of 359 women (71%). Overall, 467 women accepted HIV testing in the labour ward (92%). The HIV prevalence was 8.8% (95% confidence interval: 6.4 to 11.7%). Among the 41 women diagnosed as living with HIV during labour, 34% had not been tested for HIV during pregnancy and were missed opportunities. Antiretroviral prophylaxis had been initiated antenatally for 24 women living with HIV and 17 in the labour room. Conclusions This study is the first to show in West Africa that HIV testing in a labour room is feasible and well accepted by pregnant women. HIV screening in labour rooms needs to be routinely implemented to reduce missed opportunities for intervention aimed at HIV care and prevention, especially PMTCT. PMID:22905362
Woodcock, Kathryn; Pole, Jason D
Communication is essential to both educational attainment and labour force participation. Deafness--both the disability and the culture--creates a communication barrier. The objective of this study is to profile the educational attainment, labour force status and injury profile of deaf and hard-of-hearing Canadians in relation to the population as a whole. Using data from the Canada Community Health Survey 1.1, a cross-sectional survey conducted by Statistics Canada with a total of 131,535 respondents, a series of logistic regression models were fitted to estimate the odds of reporting the presence of educational attainment, labour force status and injury, and being classified as having a hearing problem. For each odds ratio, 95% confidence intervals are provided. All analyses were adjusted for age and sex with some analyses being restricted to appropriate age ranges or having further adjustments made, depending on the outcome. Approximately 4% of the respondents were considered to have a hearing problem. The prevalence of hearing problems increases with age and men have a slightly higher prevalence of hearing problems compared with women (4.52 vs. 3.53%). Respondents classified as having a hearing problem, whether hearing loss or deafness, were more likely to have achieved less education, less likely to be working and experience higher rates of injury and work-related injury compared with hearing respondents. These results underscore the need to equalize access to education and employment and assure the accessibility to workplace safety and wellness for this minority group.
The British Labour Party claims that its policies are based on a "third way," new and distinct from both the old left and the new right. This article critically examines this claim with respect to health policy. After examining the Conservative legacy in the National Health Service and the evolution of Labour's health policy, the author introduces the concept of the "third way" and discusses the extent to which Labour's health policy can be seen in these terms, using the themes of spending, competition, accountability, and public health. There are many differences between the health policies of New and Old Labour, and some differences between those of New Labour and the Conservatives. Indeed, to a large extent Labour's health policy is built on the legacy of the Conservatives and is characterized by evolution. It is difficult to find any "big idea" or coherent philosophy behind the third way. Rather than being a new and distinctive approach rejecting both the old left and the new right, it seems to be a pragmatic pick and mix, attempting to combine the best from the market approach of the Conservatives and the hierarchical approach of Old Labour.
Evans, M D; Saraiva, H U
We address several key hypotheses about the effects of socioeconomic development on women's labour force participation during the transition from agriculture to industrialism. To this end, we explore differences in women's labour force participation in Brazil by education, marital status, age, and urban or rural residence. We also show how socioeconomic development affects the overall level of women's participation and the differentials by education, etc. Our data are drawn from a large 1973 PNAD (Pequisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicilos) survey conducted by the Brazilian census bureau. Socioeconomic development in different parts of Brazil ranges from pre-industrial agriculture to heavy industry. Using logistic regression, we show that the general level of women's labour force participation does not change with the level of development. Highly educated women are much more likely than the less educated to be in the labour force (net of other influences); this difference is substantially greater than in post-industrial societies. Somewhat surprisingly, the influence of education is the same across the range of development levels in Brazil. Single women are more likely to be in the labour force than married women, and the difference grows during development. Age has a curvilinear relationship to labour force participation, and the old are much less likely to participate in more developed places. Rural women are slightly more likely to be in the labour force at all levels of development.
With this year's Global Report on Child Labour, the International Labour Organization (ILO) adopts a stance of victory. With confidence and pride, it announces that "the worldwide movement against child labour" led by the ILO itself has brought "the end of child labour--within reach". However, no convincing proof is given for this surprising…
Kamhi, J. Frances; Nunn, Kelley; Robson, Simon K. A.; Traniello, James F. A.
Complex social structure in eusocial insects can involve worker morphological and behavioural differentiation. Neuroanatomical variation may underscore worker division of labour, but the regulatory mechanisms of size-based task specialization in polymorphic species are unknown. The Australian weaver ant, Oecophylla smaragdina, exhibits worker polyphenism: larger major workers aggressively defend arboreal territories, whereas smaller minors nurse brood. Here, we demonstrate that octopamine (OA) modulates worker size-related aggression in O. smaragdina. We found that the brains of majors had significantly higher titres of OA than those of minors and that OA was positively and specifically correlated with the frequency of aggressive responses to non-nestmates, a key component of territorial defence. Pharmacological manipulations that effectively switched OA action in major and minor worker brains reversed levels of aggression characteristic of each worker size class. Results suggest that altering OA action is sufficient to produce differences in aggression characteristic of size-related social roles. Neuromodulators therefore may generate variation in responsiveness to task-related stimuli associated with worker size differentiation and collateral behavioural specializations, a significant component of division of labour in complex social systems. PMID:26136448
This piece describes involvement and reflections by Dave Bennett in three areas: 1) union education at the Canadian Labour Congress (CLC) from the late 1970s onwards; 2) insights regarding how the CLC moved into health and safety education in the early 1980s; and 3) further thoughts on how the CLC moved from health and safety into environmental protection education in the early 1990s, and consequent changes in the perspective adopted by health and safety courses. There are two types of critical comment on these educational processes, one which examines the educational dilemmas at the time, with an evaluation of the decisions reached, and the other a retrospective view of the educational process as a result of reflective hindsight.
Yli, Branka M; Kjellmer, Ingemar
A foetus exposed to oxygenation compromise is capable of several adaptive responses, which can be categorised into those affecting metabolism and those affecting oxygen transport. However, both the extent and duration of the impairment in oxygenation will have a bearing on these adaptive responses. Although intrapartum events may account for no more than one-third of cases with an adverse neurological outcome, they are important because they can be influenced successfully. This review describes the mechanisms underlying foetal hypoxia during labour, acid-base balance and gas exchange, and the current scientific understanding of the role of intrauterine asphyxia in the pathophysiology of neonatal encephalopathy and cerebral palsy. Although the mechanisms involved include similar initiating events, principally ischaemia and excitotoxicity, and similar final common pathways to cell death, there are certain unique maturational factors that influence the type and pattern of cellular injury.
Alfirevic, Zarko; Kelly, Anthony J; Dowswell, Therese
Background Oxytocin is the commonest induction agent used worldwide. It has been used alone, in combination with amniotomy or following cervical ripening with other pharmacological or non-pharmacological methods. Objectives To determine the effects of oxytocin alone for third trimester cervical ripening and induction of labour in comparison with other methods of induction of labour or placebo/no treatment. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (January 2009) and bibliographies of relevant papers. Selection criteria Randomised and quasi-randomised trials comparing intravenous oxytocin with placebo or no treatment, or with prostaglandins (vaginal or intracervical) for third trimester cervical ripening or labour induction. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed eligibility and carried out data extraction. Main results Sixty-one trials (12,819 women) are included. When oxytocin inductions were compared with expectant management, fewer women failed to deliver vaginally within 24 hours (8.4% versus 53.8%, risk ratio (RR) 0.16, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.10 to 0.25). There was a significant increase in the number of women requiring epidural analgesia (RR 1.10, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.17). Fewer women were dissatisfied with oxytocin induction in the one trial reporting this outcome (5.9% versus 13.7%, RR 0.43, 95% CI 0.33 to 0.56). Compared with vaginal prostaglandins, oxytocin increased unsuccessful vaginal delivery within 24 hours in the two trials reporting this outcome (70% versus 21%, RR 3.33, 95% CI 1.61 to 6.89). There was a small increase in epidurals when oxytocin alone was used (RR 1.09, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.17). Most of the studies included women with ruptured membranes, and there was some evidence that vaginal prostaglandin increased infection in mothers (chorioamnionitis RR 0.66, 95% CI 0.47 to 0.92) and babies (use of antibiotics RR 0.68, 95% CI 0.53 to 0.87). These data should be
Abebe, Tatek; Bessell, Sharon
Drawing on the relevant literature, this article explores key debates and controversies on child labour in the context of Africa and Asia. It first identifies and analyses three dominant discourses on child labour: 1) the work-free childhoods perspective; 2) the socio-cultural perspective; and 3) the political economy perspective. Against the backdrop of these discourses, the article goes on to critically examine aspects of child labour that are underrepresented in the literature and in international policy circles. It concludes by highlighting the importance of grounding children's gendered work within the complex material social practices of interconnected histories and geographies in which their livelihoods unfold.
Iavazzo, Christos; Trompoukis, Constantinos; Sardi, Thalia; Falagas, Matthew E
Pregnancy and labour are holy moments in a woman's life. Even in Greek mythology we can find descriptions of them. We searched in the Greek myths to find descriptions of labours of ancient heroes and gods. We identified descriptions of extracorporeal fertilization, superfecundation, ectopic pregnancy, preterm labour, prolonged pregnancy and Caesarean section. The use of imagination could help the reader to find similarities in present or future developments in the field of obstetrics. It could be concluded that various aspects of modern obstetrical practice are described in Greek mythology.
"The purpose of this paper is to review policy initiatives [concerning migrant remittances] in six major labour-exporting countries in Asia--Bangladesh, India, Korea, the Philippines, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, and Thailand. Where relevant, the experience of these countries will be compared and contrasted with those of labour-exporting countries in other parts of the world....[The author concludes that] the imposition of mandatory remittance requirements on migrant workers is unlikely to enhance remittance inflows unless the government of the labour-exporting country effectively controls the migration process." (SUMMARY IN FRE AND SPA)
First concentration camps came into being as Soviet labour camps in captured by Bolsheviks Russia. The labour camps performed repressive and exterminatory functions besides they were the reservoir of oppression and relentless exploitation of man power. They were characterized by extreme death-rate of prisoners and lasting for hours exhausting work. Ones died mainly due to psychophysical weakness, contagious diseases, hypertension, heart and kidney diseases and accidents at work. A number of Soviet labour camps victims is estimated at several millions of human beings.
Introduction There is increasing evidence of a gender-related phenomenon where the presence of a male fetus may have an adverse effect on the outcome of pregnancy. Aim The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of fetal gender on the delivery outcome in primigravidae women with induced labours. Materials and Methods This was an observational cohort study of primigravidae women who had Induction Of Labour (IOL) for all indications during a two-year period. Women with breech vaginal deliveries, stillbirths, multiple pregnancies and elective Caesarean Section (CS) were excluded. Results Of the 936 eligible patients identified, 493(52.6%) gave birth to male neonates and 443(47.4%) to female neonates. Age, ethnicity, Body Mass Index (BMI) and smoking were similar between women that delivered male and female neonates. More than half of all women were induced for post-date pregnancies. In women who gave birth to male neonates, the CS delivery rate was higher than in those with female neonates (23.7% vs 17.8%; p=0.029). Though emergency admission rates to the neonatal Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and arterial/venous pH from umbilical cord sampling immediately after birth were similar between male and female neonates, nevertheless male neonates had lower Apgar scores of <7 at 1 minute after birth (p=0.02). Conclusions This study has shown that, male gender fetuses have a higher CS delivery rate in primigravidae women undergoing IOL and may be more vulnerable to fetal compromise when in labour. PMID:28208944
Bayoglu Tekin, Y; Mete Ural, U; Kerimoglu, O Secilmis; Balik, G; Kir Sahin, F; Guvendag Guven, E S
This retrospective study compared maternal and fetal outcomes after labour induction, using a dinoprostone vaginal pessary (Propess(®)) in midwife-led and obstetrician-led labour management. Labour induction outcomes, delivery mode and rates of admission to the neonatal intensive care unit were compared. A total of 405 women, 40.5% (n = 164) from midwife-led units and 59.5% (n = 241) from an obstetrician-led unit, participated. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups in caesarean section rate or neonatal intensive care unit admission rates (p = 0.789 and 0.769, respectively). Non-reassuring fetal non-stress test and uterine hyperstimulation risks were higher in the obstetrician-led unit (p = 0.003 and 0.001, respectively, and odds ratio (OR) 0.165, 95% CI: 0.117-0.232 and OR 0.218, 95% CI: 0.078-0.611, respectively). Postpartum blood transfusion rate was higher in the midwife-led units (p = 0.002, OR 8.082, 95% CI: 1.879-39.292). Labour induction with Propess(®) is safe during both midwife-led and obstetrician-led labour management.
Blyton, Paul; Goodman, John, Eds.
Includes "Canadian Industrial Relations: An Introductory Overview" (Blyton, Goodman); "Overview of Canadian Labour Law" (Miller); "Industrial Conflict and Resolution in Canada and Britain" (Haiven); "Collective Bargaining in the Public Sector in Canada" (Calvert); "Canadian Automobile Industry: Work…
Pocock, Nicola S.; Kiss, Ligia; Oram, Sian; Zimmerman, Cathy
Background Men comprise nearly two-thirds of trafficked and forced labourers in common low-skilled labour sectors including fishing, agriculture and factory work. Yet, most evidence on human trafficking has focused on women and girls trafficked for sex work, with scant research on trafficked men and boys. Methods We analyse survey data from the largest systematic consecutive sample of trafficked people collected to date to describe the prevalence of violence, occupational health risks and injuries and associated factors. Participants were labour-trafficked men and boys using post-trafficking support services in Thailand, Cambodia and Vietnam. Findings Data are presented on 446 males aged 10–58. Men and boys were mainly trafficked for fishing (61.7%), manufacturing (19.1%) and begging (5.2%). Fishermen worked extensive hours (mean 18.8 hours/day, SD 5.9) and factory workers worked on average 11.9 hours/day (SD 2.9). 35.5% of male survivors had been injured while trafficked; 29.4% received no personal protective equipment (e.g. gloves). The most commonly reported injuries among all males were deep cuts (61.8%) and skin injuries (36.7%), injuries for which fewer than one-quarter reported receiving medical care. Six fishermen lost body parts, none of whom received medical care. Most males (80.5%) had no or very few rest breaks. One-third (37.8%) experienced severe violence. Work-related injuries were associated with severe violence (AOR 3.44, CI:1.63–7.26), being in the fishing sector, (AOR 4.12, CI:2.39–7.09) and threats (AOR 2.77, CI:1.62–4.75). Experiencing any violence was associated with threats (AOR 26.86, CI:14.0–51.23), being in the fishing sector (AOR 18.53, CI:8.74–39.28) and fluency in language of destination country (AOR 0.39, CI:0.20–0.75). Conclusion This study highlights the abuse and extreme occupational hazards suffered by trafficked men and boys. Occupational health and safety interventions are urgently needed to protect male migrant
Gardosi, J; Hutson, N; B-Lynch, C
A new obstetric aid, the 'Birth Cushion' allows the parturient to sink into a supported squatting posture for the second stage of labour and delivery; it fits onto conventional delivery beds. A prospective, controlled trial of 427 primiparae compared the outcome of labour in women randomly allocated to squatting (218) or conventional semirecumbent (209) management. The squatting group had significantly fewer forceps deliveries (9% vs 16%) and significantly shorter second stages (median length of pushing 31 vs 45 min) than the semirecumbent group. There were fewer perineal tears, but more labial tears, in the squatting group. Apgar scores, blood loss, and post-partum vulvar oedema were similar in both groups. 82% of the women in the squatting group maintained upright positions for most of the second stage, and reported great satisfaction with the supported squatting position. The traditional birth posture of squatting can be easily adapted for modern labour management and has advantages for women in their first labour.
This article focuses on the under-researched temporary agency employment in Greece. It shows that the development of the temporary employment agency sector has gone hand in hand with the flow of undocumented and exploitable migrant labour in Greece over the past 25 years, reflecting the segmentation of the Greek labour market along ethnic lines. Using empirical research evidence on the operation of temporary employment agencies in the Greek hospitality and health care sectors, the article highlights the precarious or even illicit nature of agency employment in a context in which labour outsourcing and flexible employment are promoted by policy-makers. Last but not least, it suggests that the segmented landscape of the Greek labour market has become more complex during the economic crisis, with more and more Greeks drawn to agency-mediated precarious employment. PMID:27499601
World of Work, 1997
A conference on child labor sponsored by the International Labour Organization and UNICEF identified strategies for eliminating child labor and developing cooperative programs to assess the effects of child labor. (JOW)
The paper examines the relationships between population and household change, on the one hand, and labour market/employment change, on the other, and considers how these relationships have contributed to the growth of inequality. The perspective of the paper is sociological, although much of the work done in these areas has been carried out by demographers and economists. Areas where sociological research remains to be done are highlighted. Developments in patterns of fertility and in households are linked to the growth of individualism and to changes in the labour market, and shown to be implicated jointly in the marked growth of inequality in Britain. The paper argues that future research must link households and labour markets, and work towards understanding emerging new relationships between working and private lives, between living arrangements and labour supply, and between individual freedom and social integration.
This article focuses on the under-researched temporary agency employment in Greece. It shows that the development of the temporary employment agency sector has gone hand in hand with the flow of undocumented and exploitable migrant labour in Greece over the past 25 years, reflecting the segmentation of the Greek labour market along ethnic lines. Using empirical research evidence on the operation of temporary employment agencies in the Greek hospitality and health care sectors, the article highlights the precarious or even illicit nature of agency employment in a context in which labour outsourcing and flexible employment are promoted by policy-makers. Last but not least, it suggests that the segmented landscape of the Greek labour market has become more complex during the economic crisis, with more and more Greeks drawn to agency-mediated precarious employment.
Pajntar, M; Rudel, D
The influence of spasmoanalgetic Dolantin on electrical activity of the smooth musculature of the cervix during labour was studied in 50 primiparous women after induction of labour. The highest electrical activity was measured at the time of uterine contraction (AC) and between contractions (BC). The basic pattern of Dolantin-produced changes in muscular contractions in the cervix observed via EMG activity is that of the EMG activity diminishing with contractions of the uterine corpus and even more so in the period between contractions. Dolantin administered during the latent phase of induced labour did not accelerate cervical dilatation either in the latent or in the active phase of amniotomy- and Oxytocin-induced labour.
Ordóñez, Juan Thomas
This paper addresses the structural vulnerability of Latin American undocumented day labourers in Northern California, as it is expressed in conversations on street corners where they wait for work. The intimate aspects of migrant experience become exemplified in jokes about the Sancho - a hypothetical character who has moved in on a day labourer's family and who enjoys the money he sends home. Joking turns to more serious topics of nostalgia and tensions with family far away, elements that come together with the fears and threats of labour on the corner and affect the way day labourers see themselves. Sexuality is rearticulated in the absence of women and masculinity becomes enmeshed in the contingencies of unregulated work and long-term separation from the people the men support. Together, these elements result in the articulation of threat to the immigrant body itself, which is exemplified by anxieties over homosexual propositions on the corner.
In the debates over the politics of National Health Service foundation, there has been little investigation of the attitudes of the inter-war labour movement to a state-run hospital system. In particular, there has been limited assessment of views outside parliament in provincial Labour parties and trade unions. Drawing on a case study of Middlesbrough, Leeds and Sheffield, this article examines the politics of hospital provision prior to the National Health Service (NHS). It focuses on the involvement of the labour movement in hospital provision within localities and on the extent to which the dominant form of labour politics—labourist or socialist—shaped hospital policy. It suggests that, in the heavy industrial towns of Middlesbrough and Sheffield, close involvement with voluntary hospitals through workers contributory schemes dampened the enthusiasm for a state system. However, such a policy was heavily promoted by socialists in more economically diverse Leeds.
Lopez, R; Schiff, M
"The purpose of this paper is to shed some light on the conditions under which trade liberalization in the developing countries is likely to cause an increase or a decrease in out-migration. We also examine the impact of trade liberalization on the skill composition of migration and of the labour force. For this purpose, we explicitly incorporate four additional features in the Heckscher-Ohlin model: heterogeneity of labour skills, international migration, migration costs, and constraints on financing migration." (EXCERPT)
This study was part of a broader three year research project at London's Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, "A Study of the Effect of the Visual and Performing Arts in Healthcare", exploring whether visual and performing arts have any measurable effect on physiological, psychological and biological outcomes of clinical significance on patient recovery, and providing a potential cost saving benefit to the NHS. In this specific study of women in labour, two measurements were identified as having clinical significance for achieving optimal outcomes during labour and delivery: length of labour and frequency of requirement for analgesia. A screen was designed to hide emergency equipment with the joint aim of reducing women's anxieties and (through visual art) acting as a focal point of attention and distraction during labour, thus diminishing requirements for analgesia. Results demonstrated, in the presence of the screen, a statistically significant shortening of the duration of labour by 2.1h with frequency of requests for epidural analgesia 7% lower in the study group than in the control group. The significant clinical outcomes of this research provide the evidence of the value of integrating visual art into the environment of a labour and delivery room, improving the quality of the maternity service and potentially delivering real cost savings benefits to Hospitals.
Aksoy, Huseyin; Yücel, Burak; Aksoy, Ulku; Acmaz, Gokhan; Aydin, Turgut; Babayigit, Mustafa Alparslan
The present study was aimed to assess the relationship between pain expectation before labour, labour pain and pain perception after the labour. Pregnant women were asked to rate their pain level on a standard continuous visual analogue scale at various time points. Pain expectancy (PE), labour pain (LP) and postpartum pain perception (PPP) scores were calculated. The final study group was composed of 230 pregnant women after exclusions. Mean age of pregnant women was 26.2 ± 5.79. The mean PE, LP, and PPP scores were 70.11 ± 18.82, 75.72 ± 19.2 and 65.84 ± 19.56, respectively. The difference among pain scores was statistically significant (p < 0.001). There was a positive correlation between PE and LP or PE and PPP scores (p = 0.27 and p = 0.21). The correlations were statistically significant (p = 0.01 or p = 0.01). In addition, there was a positive correlation between LP and PPP scores (p = 0.87) and the correlation was statistically significant (p = 0.01). This study showed that, if pregnant women had lower expectations of pain before the labour, they indeed experienced lower amount of pain during the labour.
Nafees, Asaad Ahmed; Khan, Kausar Saeed; Fatmi, Zafar; Aslam, Mubashir
In Karachi, large employment opportunities, burgeoning population and the availability of cheap labour might be the contributing factors for the increasing prevalence of child labour. A literature review was conducted in 2007 that included published and unpublished literature since 2000. Various organizations working in the field were also covered, while the perception of the child labourers was covered through three focus group discussions. Common health issues among the child labourers in Karachi included respiratory illnesses, fever and generalised pains, as well as drug and sexual abuse. Organisations working for child labour could be broadly categorised into those working for legal advice and advocacy; those generating statistics; and those that are providing interventions. Discussion with children showed that irrespective of the immediate cause, the underlying determinant for child labour was poverty. The best practices identified included evening schools and drop-in centers for working children with provision for skill-based education and basic health facilities. There is need to have more such centres.
Supriadi, Y. N.
This research is investigating the discrepancy fulfilment of the right to social security and decent wages to increase labour productivity in the perspective of labour organizations, in which the company provides social security, and wages have not been able to meet the needs of workers, on the other hand, the workers are always required to increase productivity. Therefore, this study aims to identify the social security and wages that affect labour productivity. So this research will provide input to the company to undertake effective measures and efficient for the company’s sustainability. This research was conducted using a survey method approach and quantitative data analysis techniques that are causal comparative sample of 223 respondents from 504 study population includes all labour organization’s District and municipal in Banten Province. The results showed the significant influence of social security and wages to increase labour productivity. Therefore, companies are required to act strategically in maintaining prohibitionists labour through re-design of the work environment, increase workers’ participation, intervention, and satisfy the needs of workers whose impact will be realized understanding between workers and companies in maintaining the company’s business.
Broadway, Barbara; Kalb, Guyonne; Li, Jinhu; Scott, Anthony
This paper analyses doctors' supply of after-hours care (AHC), and how it is affected by personal and family circumstances as well as the earnings structure. We use detailed survey data from a large sample of Australian General Practitioners (GPs) to estimate a structural, discrete choice model of labour supply and AHC. This allows us to jointly model GPs' decisions on the number of daytime-weekday working hours and the probability of providing AHC. We simulate GPs' labour supply responses to an increase in hourly earnings, both in a daytime-weekday setting and for AHC. GPs increase their daytime-weekday working hours if their hourly earnings in this setting increase, but only to a very small extent. GPs are somewhat more likely to provide AHC if their hourly earnings in that setting increase, but again, the effect is very small and only evident in some subgroups. Moreover, higher earnings in weekday-daytime practice reduce the probability of providing AHC, particularly for men. Increasing GPs' earnings appears to be at best relatively ineffective in encouraging increased provision of AHC and may even prove harmful if incentives are not well targeted. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Preterm birth (PTB) is the leading cause of perinatal mortality and long-term morbidity, which results in significant health and economic problems. The early detection of PTB has great significance for its prevention. The electrohysterogram (EHG) related to uterine contraction is a noninvasive, real-time, and automatic novel technology which can be used to detect, diagnose, or predict PTB. This paper presents a method for feature extraction and classification of EHG between pregnancy and labour group, based on Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) and extreme learning machine (ELM). For each sample, each channel was decomposed into a set of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) using empirical mode decomposition (EMD). Then, the Hilbert transform was applied to IMF to obtain analytic function. The maximum amplitude of analytic function was extracted as feature. The identification model was constructed based on ELM. Experimental results reveal that the best classification performance of the proposed method can reach an accuracy of 88.00%, a sensitivity of 91.30%, and a specificity of 85.19%. The area under receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve is 0.88. Finally, experimental results indicate that the method developed in this work could be effective in the classification of EHG between pregnancy and labour group. PMID:28316639
Chen, Lili; Hao, Yaru
Preterm birth (PTB) is the leading cause of perinatal mortality and long-term morbidity, which results in significant health and economic problems. The early detection of PTB has great significance for its prevention. The electrohysterogram (EHG) related to uterine contraction is a noninvasive, real-time, and automatic novel technology which can be used to detect, diagnose, or predict PTB. This paper presents a method for feature extraction and classification of EHG between pregnancy and labour group, based on Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) and extreme learning machine (ELM). For each sample, each channel was decomposed into a set of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) using empirical mode decomposition (EMD). Then, the Hilbert transform was applied to IMF to obtain analytic function. The maximum amplitude of analytic function was extracted as feature. The identification model was constructed based on ELM. Experimental results reveal that the best classification performance of the proposed method can reach an accuracy of 88.00%, a sensitivity of 91.30%, and a specificity of 85.19%. The area under receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve is 0.88. Finally, experimental results indicate that the method developed in this work could be effective in the classification of EHG between pregnancy and labour group.
Deng, Chao; Slamti, Leyla; Raymond, Ben; Liu, Guiming; Lemy, Christelle; Gominet, Myriam; Yang, Jingni; Wang, Hengliang; Peng, Qi; Zhang, Jie; Lereclus, Didier; Song, Fuping
A major challenge in bacterial developmental biology has been to understand the mechanisms underlying cell fate decisions. Some differentiated cell types display cooperative behaviour. Cooperation is one of the greatest mysteries of evolutionary biology and microbes have been considered as an excellent system for experimentally testing evolution theories. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is a spore-forming bacterium, which is genetically closely related to B. anthracis, the agent of anthrax, and to B. cereus, an opportunistic human pathogen. The defining feature that distinguishes Bt from its relatives is its ability to produce crystal inclusions in the sporulating cells. These toxins are solubilized after ingestion and are cooperative public goods in insect hosts. In this study, we describe a Bt strain LM1212 that presents the unique ability to terminally differentiate into crystal producers and spore formers. Transcriptional analysis based on lacZ and gfp reporter genes suggested that this phenotype is the consequence of a new type of cell differentiation associated with a novel regulation mode of cry gene expression. The differentiating crystal-producer phenotype has higher spore productivity than a typical Bt strain and is better able to compete with Cry toxin null 'cheaters'. Potentially, this division of labour provides additional fitness benefits in terms of spore viability or durability of Cry toxin.
Cantor, David; Lynam, Pamela; Kaur, Gurpreet; Rawlins, Barbara; Ricca, Jim; Tripathi, Vandana; Rosen, Heather E
Abstract Objective To assess the quality of facility-based active management of the third stage of labour in Ethiopia, Kenya, Madagascar, Mozambique, Rwanda and the United Republic of Tanzania. Methods Between 2009 and 2012, using a cross-sectional design, 2317 women in 390 health facilities were directly observed during the third stage of labour. Observers recorded the use of uterotonic medicines, controlled cord traction and uterine massage. Facility infrastructure and supplies needed for active management were audited and relevant guidelines reviewed. Findings Most (94%; 2173) of the women observed were given oxytocin (2043) or another uterotonic (130). The frequencies of controlled cord traction and uterine massage and the timing of uterotonic administration showed considerable between-country variation. Of the women given a uterotonic, 1640 (76%) received it within three minutes of the birth. Uterotonics and related supplies were generally available onsite. Although all of the study countries had national policies and/or guidelines that supported the active management of the third stage of labour, the presence of guidelines in facilities varied across countries and only 377 (36%) of 1037 investigated providers had received relevant training in the previous three years. Conclusion In the study countries, quality and coverage of the active management of the third stage of labour were high. However, to improve active management, there needs to be more research on optimizing the timing of uterotonic administration. Training on the use of new clinical guidelines and implementation research on the best methods to update such training are also needed. PMID:26549903
Van Huy, Nguyen; P Dunne, Michael; Debattista, Joseph
HIV risk in vulnerable groups such as itinerant male street labourers is often examined via a focus on individual determinants. This study provides a test of a modified Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) model to predict condom use behaviour among male street workers in urban Vietnam. In a cross-sectional survey using a social mapping technique, 450 male street labourers from 13 districts of Hanoi, Vietnam were recruited and interviewed. Collected data were first examined for completeness; structural equation modelling was then employed to test the model fit. Condoms were used inconsistently by many of these men, and usage varied in relation to a number of factors. A modified IMB model had a better fit than the original IMB model in predicting condom use behaviour. This modified model accounted for 49% of the variance, versus 10% by the original version. In the modified model, the influence of psychosocial factors was moderately high, whilst the influence of HIV prevention information, motivation and perceived behavioural skills was moderately low, explaining in part the limited level of condom use behaviour. This study provides insights into social factors that should be taken into account in public health planning to promote safer sexual behaviour among Asian male street labourers.
Gesthuizen, Maurice; Huijts, Tim; Kraaykamp, Gerbert
Several studies have shown ample cross-national variation in the risk that lower educated people run to be in poor health. However, explanations for this cross-national variation are still scarce. In this article we aim at filling this lacuna by investigating to what extent cross-national variation in the health gap between the lower and higher educated in Europe is explained by governmental health expenditure, namely, how much governments contribute to a country's total healthcare costs, and labour market conditions, that is, unemployment rates and modernisation of the labour market. We used information from the European Social Survey (ESS) 2002-2008 on more than 90,000 individuals in 32 European nations, and estimated hierarchical models with cross-level interactions to test our expectations. Our results show that the relative risk of being in poor health of lower educated individuals is smaller in countries where the government spends much on healthcare and with a highly modernised labour market.
Berardi, Mario; Martinez-Romero, Oscar; Elías-Zúñiga, Alex; Rodríguez, Mauricio; Ceretti, Elisabetta; Fiorentino, Antonio; Donzella, Giorgio; Avanzini, Andrea
A very important medical problem for females is urinary incontinence, sometimes associated with faecal incontinence and pelvic organ prolapse. One of the most common reasons these issues are increasing is clearly the muscle damage during childbirth. This article focusses on understanding the complex behaviour of the levator ani muscles involved in the second stage of labour. A geometrical model obtained from a 23-year-old nulliparous woman was used to simulate childbirth. Several assumptions were introduced in order to simplify the problem without significantly affecting the global response of the system. An anisotropic hyperelastic model was used to characterize the material behaviour; the muscle fibres were assumed to be mostly orientated circumferentially. In addition, particular attention was also put to the boundary conditions of the model. The introduction of the constraints imposed by the coccyx bone in the central area of the levator ani group represents one the most important improvement compared to previous computational models. The maximum deformation and stress were found in the pubococcygeus muscle of the levator ani group. A stretch value close to 2.2 was determined by considering different material parameters. The results seem convincing with respect to medical observation and previous analysis. However, there are still some limitations concerning the material definition and the geometry and trajectory of the head that can be further improved.
The sexist division of labour, particularly in the occupational sector, which is believed to be more eminent in developing countries than in the developed ones, is reinforced by school textbooks. This state of affairs is hampering sex-role equality on the way to emancipation. Various Syrian school textbooks have been scrutinized and proved to be malebiased in content and language. Despite quantitative growth of education, the emancipatory quality of the school textbooks leaves much to be desired. The government has had the chance since 1963 to produce textbooks conductive to its promise of sex-role equality in education. The textbooks portray males for a bustling world of decision making, while conditioning the females to seek fulfilment in the background where servitude and support are the only requirement. Females are derogated and victimized. These contents, which are internalized at school and reproduced in society, certainly do not serve development. The exclusion of one-half of the population from contributing to the tasks of development is a waste of human talent which no society can afford. Furthermore, the sexist portrayal of females in Syrian textbooks is a pale reflection of Arab women in Arab history and literature.
Velayutham, C. Muthu; Palanivel, R. V.; Anbarasan, R.; Sinthuja, M.
The Indian match industry in the southern state of Tamil Nadu has been characterized by child labour and a stagnant technology for over half a century. We investigate the technological changes and industrial restructuring, catalyzed by the changing duty structure that has moved the match industry towards greater mechanization. Our examination indicates that increased mechanization in the production processes has implied greater demand for skilled labour and a decline in child labour.
Sohaib, Muhammad; Ismail, Samina
Background and Aims: Obstetricians play a major role in the decision making for provision of analgesia for the woman in labour. As epidural analgesia (EA) is the most preferred technique, it is important to know obstetricians' perception regarding its effect on progress of labour and associated complications. Methods: The 6 months cross-sectional study included 114 obstetricians from teaching hospitals. After informed consent, obstetricians were asked to fill a predesigned questionnaire containing 13 close ended questions regarding their perception on the effect of EA on progress of labour, EA complications and whether they would recommend EA to their patients or not. Other variables included age, gender, training in EA, practice type and hospital settings (private or public sector). Results: Majority of the obstetricians had the perception of EA prolonging the first stage (89.5%) and second stage (98.2%) of labour, increasing the rate of caesarean section (87.7%), instrumental delivery (58.8%) and increasing the incidence of backache (85.5%). None of the obstetricians received any formal training in EA. Majority (84.2%) were not sure if they would recommend EA to their patients. When these responses were compared between public and private sector, a statistically higher percentage (P < 0.001) of public sector obstetricians had negative perception of EA. Conclusion: Perception of obstetrician regarding EA is contrary to the current evidence. There is a need to introduce formal curriculum on EA in obstetric training program and conduct regular refresher courses. PMID:26903670
Marque, Catherine K; Terrien, Jérémy; Rihana, Sandy; Germain, Guy
Background The electrical activity of the uterine muscle is representative of uterine contractility. Its characterization may be used to detect a potential risk of preterm delivery in women, even at an early gestational stage. Methods We have investigated the effect of the recording electrode position on the spectral content of the signal by using a mathematical model of the women's abdomen. We have then compared the simulated results to actual recordings. On signals with noise reduced with a dedicated algorithm, we have characterized the main frequency components of the signal spectrum in order to compute parameters indicative of different situations: preterm contractions resulting nonetheless in term delivery (i.e. normal contractions) and preterm contractions leading to preterm delivery (i.e. high-risk contractions). A diagnosis system permitted us to discriminate between these different categories of contractions. As the position of the placenta seems to affect the frequency content of electrical activity, we have also investigated in monkeys, with internal electrodes attached on the uterus, the effect of the placenta on the spectral content of the electrical signals. Results In women, the best electrode position was the median vertical axis of the abdomen. The discrimination between high risk and normal contractions showed that it was possible to detect a risk of preterm labour as early as at the 27th week of pregnancy (Misclassification Rate range: 11–19.5%). Placental influence on electrical signals was evidenced in animal recordings, with higher energy content in high frequency bands, for signals recorded away from the placenta when compared to signals recorded above the placental insertion. However, we noticed, from pregnancy to labour, a similar evolution of the frequency content of the signal towards high frequencies, whatever the relative position of electrodes and placenta. Conclusion On human recordings, this study has proved that it is possible to
Black, J D B; Cyna, A M
Anaesthetists are legally obliged to obtain consent and inform patients of material risks prior to administering regional analgesia in labour. We surveyed consultant members of the Australian and New Zealand College of Anaesthetists with a special interest in obstetric anaesthesia, in order to identify and compare which risks of regional analgesia they report discussing with women prior to and during labour. We also asked about obstetric anaesthetists' beliefs about informed consent, the type of consent obtained and its documentation. Of 542 questionnaires distributed, 291 responses (54%) were suitable for analysis. The five most commonly discussed risks were post dural puncture headache, block failure, permanent neurological injury, temporary leg weakness and hypotension. Obstetric anaesthetists reported discussing a mean of 8.0 (SD 3.8) and 10 (SD 3.8) risks in the labour and antenatal settings respectively. Nearly 20% of respondents did not rank post dural puncture headache among their top five most important risks for discussion. Seventy percent of respondents indicated that they believe active labour inhibits a woman's ability to give 'fully informed consent'. Over 80% of respondents obtain verbal consent and 57 (20%) have no record of the consent or its discussion. Obstetric anaesthetists reported making a considerable effort to inform patients of risks prior to the provision of regional analgesia in labour. Verbal consent may be appropriate for labouring women, using standardized forms that serve as a reminder of the risks, and a record of the discussion. Consensus is required as to what are the levels of risk from regional analgesia in labour.
Ryan, Denis; Couglan, Dermot
In an effort to understand the factors that impinge on labour mobility in the health- and social-care sector in Ireland, an exploratory study was undertaken. This study involved key organizational stakeholders and individual practitioners in the health- and social-care environment. A qualitative design using purposive sampling was employed, involving face-to-face and telephone, semi-structured interviews. Four interviews were undertaken with representatives from the Irish Nurses' Organization, the Health Services Executive, the Department of Health and Children, and the Association of Social Workers. Interviews were also undertaken with five health-care professionals who had relocated to Ireland. Notes were taken during all the interviews, and respondents were then sent copies of the transcripts to verify accuracy. Data analysis was guided by Burnard's (1991) framework. The data were analysed according to emerging categories and subcategories. Data emerged in relation to reasons for work mobility, the factors that support mobility and the factors that inhibit it. The reasons for moving to Ireland were mostly personal, professional or economic. In addition, factors facilitating movement included having established contacts in the country, organizational support and the attractiveness of educational structures. Challenges included the recruitment process itself, organizational support structures, professional recognition, language barriers and social integration. The findings are discussed in terms of health and social policy.
Hurlock-Chorostecki, Christina; Forchuk, Cheryl; Orchard, Carole; van Soeren, Mary; Reeves, Scott
Nurse practitioners (NP) are employed within hospital interprofessional (IP) teams in several countries worldwide. There have been some efforts to describe the nature of the NP role within IP teams largely focussing on how the role may augment care processes. Here, using a constructivist grounded theory approach, the perceptions of NPs about their role were compared and integrated into a previously published team perspective as the second phase of a larger study. Seventeen hospital-based (HB) NPs across Ontario, Canada, participated in group and individual interviews. The NP perspective substantiated and expanded the previously reported team perspective, resulting in an IP perspective. The three practice foci illustrating role value meaning of this perspective became: evolve NP role and advance the specialty, focus on team working, and hold patient care together. The IP perspective, juxtaposed with an existing contingency approach, revealed that NPs were promoting IP work, predominantly at the collaboration and teamwork levels, and aiding IP team transitions to appropriate forms of IP work. The practice, "focus on team working"' was strongly related to promoting IP work. The findings were consistent with HB NPs enacting a role in building IP team cohesiveness rather than merely acting as a labour saver. This is the first study to align NP and team understanding of HB NP role value using an IP framework.
Background The care and protection of the estimated 143,000,000 orphaned and abandoned children (OAC) worldwide is of great importance to global policy makers and child service providers in low and middle income countries (LMICs), yet little is known about rates of child labour among OAC, what child and caregiver characteristics predict child engagement in work and labour, or when such work infers with schooling. This study examines rates and correlates of child labour among OAC and associations of child labour with schooling in a cohort of OAC in 5 LMICs. Methods The Positive Outcomes for Orphans (POFO) study employed a two-stage random sampling survey methodology to identify 1480 single and double orphans and children abandoned by both parents ages 6-12 living in family settings in five LMICs: Cambodia, Ethiopia, India, Kenya, and Tanzania. Regression models examined child and caregiver associations with: any work versus no work; and with working <21, 21-27, and 28+ hours during the past week, and child labour (UNICEF definition). Results The majority of OAC (60.7%) engaged in work during the past week, and of those who worked, 17.8% (10.5% of the total sample) worked 28 or more hours. More than one-fifth (21.9%; 13% of the total sample) met UNICEF's child labour definition. Female OAC and those in good health had increased odds of working. OAC living in rural areas, lower household wealth and caregivers not earning an income were associated with increased child labour. Child labour, but not working fewer than 28 hours per week, was associated with decreased school attendance. Conclusions One in seven OAC in this study were reported to be engaged in child labour. Policy makers and social service providers need to pay close attention to the demands being placed on female OAC, particularly in rural areas and poor households with limited income sources. Programs to promote OAC school attendance may need to focus on the needs of families as well as the OAC. PMID
Hong, Eunyoung; Lee, Young Sook
This study was designed to construct and test the structural equation modelling on nurses' turnover intention including emotional labour, job stress, emotional intelligence and burnout in order to identify the mediating effect of emotional intelligence between those variables. Emotional labour, job stress and burnout increase turnover intention of nurses. However, emotional intelligence is negatively correlated with emotional labour and reduces job stress, burnout and turnover intention. Structural equation modelling was used to analyse the goodness of fit of the hypothetical model of nurses' turnover intention. Research data were collected via questionnaires from 4 to 22 August 2014 and analysed using SPSS version 18.0 and AMOS version 20.0. The model fit indices for the hypothetical model were suitable for recommended. Emotional intelligence has decreasing effect on turnover intention through burnout, although its direct effect on turnover intention is not significant. Emotional intelligence has mediation effect between emotional labour and burnout. This study's results suggest that increasing emotional intelligence might critically decrease nurses' turnover intention by reducing the effect of emotional labour on burnout.
Hetzel, C; Streibelt, M
Background: Studies about the impact of the labour market on return to work (RTW) after vocational retraining are contradictory. We examined if (1) RTW after vocational retraining depends on regional labour markets and if (2) the regional labour markets variance affects the influence of personal characteristics on RTW. Methods: The data consisted of the scientific use file (completed rehabilitation in the course of health insurance 2002-2009) of the German Federal Pension Insurance (51 626 persons of 7 year cohorts) and regional economic data (412 districts). Multilevel logistic regression models were used. Results: At the context level the logarithmic unemployment rate was the most relevant predictor. The RTW rate decreased with increasing unemployment rate, saturating at an unemployment rate of around 15%. Significant differences between the intervention types (integration, 1-year and 2-year vocational retraining programs) were observed. The effects of individual predictors were clearer with higher unemployment, e. g. education, individual unemployment, income and further vocational interventions prior to vocational retraining. Conclusion: We demonstrate that the success of vocational retraining depends on the regional labour market. Furthermore individual predictors show stronger effects on success with the context of "poor" labour markets. In addition to the existing evidence the regional unemployment rate should be taken into consideration in effectiveness research studies and benchmarking processes in quality assurance.
Cohen, Rachel Lara
With 'efficiency savings' the watchword for health and social care services, reorganisation and labour rationalisation are the order of the day. This article examines the difficulties involved in (re)organising work which takes bodies as its object, or material of production. It shows that working on bodies ('body work') systematically delimits possibilities for labour process rationalisation which, in turn, constrains reorganisation of the health and social care sector. It does this in three main ways. First: rigidity in the ratio of workers to bodies-worked-upon limits the potential to increase capital-labour ratios or cut labour. Secondly: the requirement for co-presence and temporal unpredictability in demand for body work diminish the spatial and temporal malleability of the labour process. Thirdly: the nature of bodies as a material of production--complex, unitary and responsive--makes it difficult to standardise, reorganise or rationalise work. A wide-ranging analysis of body work in health and social care, as well as other sectors, fleshes out these three constraints and shows that attempts to overcome them and reorganise the sector in pursuit of cost savings or 'efficiency', generate problems for workers and the patients, whose bodies they work upon.
It is of philosophical and epistemological interest to examine how Darwin conceived the process of division of labour within Natural History. Darwin observed the advantages brought by division of labour to the human economy, and considered that the principle of divergence within nature, which is, according to him, one of the two 'keystones' of his theory, gave comparable advantages. This led him to re-examine Milne-Edwards' view on the notion of division of physiological labour, and to introduce this with modifications into his naturalist writings. After a short review of the Darwinian historiography dealing with this issue, I first show the conceptual confusion into which Darwin plunges, when using a so-called economic argument to defend his thesis of the maximization of beings in a given territory due to division of labour. Following this I propose several hypotheses to explain these shifts, recurring in Darwin's texts, from one conception and from one application to another, of the division of labour.
Fortuna, G; Boccuni, F; Petyx, C; Iavicoli, S; Petyx, M
The main aim of the ISPESL project "Child Labour: to know in order to take action" is to introduce the subject of the problem of child labour in primary schools. This is done through pedagogical tools and communication methods, using the child's curiosity and point of view as a starting point and giving support to the child as he/she expresses his feelings, messages and emotions and at the same time, develops his own reaction to the problem. This project has been developed within the activities of ISPESL as WHO Collaborating Center and addressed to all the reference figures interacting with school such as teachers, educators and headmaster, but also families and local Institutions who promote understanding and awareness on child labour. The project aims at giving a general picture of the phenomenon, by focusing on the multiple and complex causes affecting the physical and psychosocial well-being of children and on fostering the increase of awareness among children on child labour issues. Observation and investigation tools will be developed and used in specific training modules suited to the cultural and geographic framework of each field of teaching, in order to allow the children to acknowledge and express their better awareness on child labour.
Li, Mingjun; Wang, Zhenhong
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between teachers' public service motivation (PSM) and their job satisfaction levels and to investigate the mediating effects of surface acting (SA) and deep acting (DA) on that relationship. The teacher PSM scale, as well as emotional labour strategies and intrinsic satisfaction (IS) and extrinsic satisfaction (ES) scales, were administered to 317 primary and middle school teachers. Results indicated that PSM among Chinese teachers was significantly and positively related to both IS and ES. Furthermore, structural equation modelling analysis showed that SA and DA played mediating roles in the PSM-IS and PSM-ES relationships, respectively. These findings provide a new perspective that explains the mechanism underlying the association between PSM among teachers and their job satisfaction levels. Finally, the possible explanations and implications are discussed.
MacKinnon, Karen; McIntyre, Marjorie
With the recent introduction of preterm birth prevention programs there has been a shift in our understanding of what the presence of contractions during pregnancy means and a reconstituting of risk in ways that position increasing numbers of women at risk for preterm birth. This paper highlights the findings of a study exploring the influences of risk discourses on women's experiences of preterm labour. The primary goals of this institutional ethnographic study were to describe the effects of societal discourses, institutional structures, and nursing work processes on the everyday lives of childbearing women experiencing preterm labour. The findings suggest that risk discourses exert social control over pregnant women and result in fear, guilt, feelings of being judged or punished, and an overwhelming sense of personal responsibility for preventing preterm birth. The study also exposes ways in which biomedical constructions of risk and preterm labour affect the organization of health services, including nursing practice.
Semeijn, Judith; van der Velden, Rolf; Heijke, Hans; van der Vleuten, Cees; Boshuizen, Henny
In this study, we explore the role of education in explaining the labour market outcomes for a sample of graduates in medicine. More specifically, the following research question is answered: To what extent are labour market outcomes of physicians explained by the skills acquired in education, as indicated in the theory of human capital, or by…
Storen, Liv Anne; Opheim, Vibeke; Helland, Havard
The paper analyses the labour market situation among youth with low or medium levels of formal education. The analyses focus on studying the effects of level of competence, grades and immigrant background. Which factors contribute to labour market success among this group of youth? And which factors may increase the risk of not getting into the…
Cedefop - European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, 2013
A strong VET system is increasingly seen as essential to overcoming the current economic crisis in Europe. VET is seen as a powerful tool to assist in balancing labour market inefficiencies, increasing youth employment possibilities, and reducing skills mismatch. Its inherent flexibility and closeness to the labour market place VET in a good…
Movahedi, Reza; Saadi, Heshmatollah; Farani, Ahmad Yaghoubi
Employment of agriculture graduates in Iran is a major problem that needs to be addressed. There are three main issues: lack of robust strategies for linking agricultural higher education and the labour market, the lack of relevance of agricultural curricula to the real needs of the labour market, and diminishing levels of government services for…
Findlay, Allan; McCollum, David
Migrant labour has been particularly significant in the British rural agribusiness sector, where employers often struggle to source labour regardless of economic conditions. While most research on East-Central European migration has focused on the experiences of members of the migrant community, this paper is one of a small number of studies that…
The primary purpose of the report is to explore the impact of PISA reading scores on the early labour market outcomes of young Canadians of the Youth in Transition Survey. This inquiry is complicated by two facts. First, family and school characteristics that are positively correlated with PISA scores are also correlated with labour market…
Shah, Sayyed Farooq; Ghazi, S. R.; Khan, Muhammad Saqib; Irfanullah
Child labour has emerged as a serious, widespread and rapid growing problem in many parts of the world. Child labour is a socio-economic issue, which not only wrecks the social growth but also damages the moral fabrics of our society. The on hand paper not only highlights this very issue but also have a close look at its major inverse affect on…
Nordman, Christophe J.; Pasquier-Doumer, Laure
Young people in Africa encounter many difficulties in entering the labour market and in searching for decent and productive jobs. Research on the links between formal education and vocational training and their economic returns are especially crucial in understanding the inadequate demand for their labour. This article presents evidence based on…
The paper addresses national and global questions concerned with neoliberalism, social democracy and social justice. It explores a number of themes that arise from the British Labour Party's policy review and its rebranding as One Nation Labour (ONL). In particular it addresses ONL's approach to the economy, localism and vocational education and…
Kunz, Jean Lock
Youth represent one of the most culturally diverse groups in Canada. It has been shown that labour market participation among immigrant youth, especially those who are members of a visible minority, has been lower than the Canadian-born. Using the 1996 Census, this paper provides an overview of labour market attachment of immigrant and visible…
Schofield, Deborah J; Callander, Emily J; Shrestha, Rupendra N; Percival, Richard; Kelly, Simon J; Passey, Megan E
The objective of this study was to quantify the impact that having arthritis has on income poverty status and accumulated wealth in Australia. Cross-sectional analysis of Health&WealthMOD, a microsimulation model built on data from the Australian Bureau of Statistics' Survey of Disability, Ageing and Carers and STINMOD, an income and savings microsimulation model. Across all categories of labour force participation status (employed full time, part time or not in the labour force at all), those with arthritis were significantly more likely to be in poverty. Those employed full time with no health condition had 0.82 times the odds of being in income poverty (95 % CI 0.80-0.84) compared with those employed full time with arthritis. Those not in the labour force with no chronic health conditions had 0.36 times the odds of being in income poverty compared with those not in the labour force due to arthritis (95 % CI 0.36-0.37). For people not in the labour force with no long-term health condition, the total value of their wealth was 211 % higher (95 % CI 38-618 %) than the amount of wealth accumulated by those not in the labour force due to arthritis. Similarly, those employed part time with no chronic health condition had 50 % more wealth than those employed part time with arthritis (95 % CI 3-116 %). Arthritis has a profound impact upon the economic circumstances of individuals, which adds a further dimension to the detrimental living standards of older individuals suffering from the condition.
Spiby, H; Henderson, B; Slade, P; Escott, D; Fraser, R B
There is little evidence to associate attendance at antenatal classes with a reduction in psychological distress or increased satisfaction with the experience of labour. There may be several reasons for this, including failure to implement coping strategies. A within-subjects research design explored the use in labour of coping strategies taught in antenatal classes and the role of practice. Women's views about using these strategies and their expectations of their midwives and birth companions were also identified. Following Ethics Committee approval and providing informed consent, 121 nulliparous women completed a questionnaire at their final antenatal class. This included questions on confidence and the amount of effort required to use coping strategies, the involvement hoped for from birth companions and midwives in using coping strategies in labour and satisfaction with the amount of practice of coping strategies. Within 72 hours of delivery, women were interviewed to obtain a narrative of the events of labour and their use of the coping strategies (sighing-out-slowly breathing, Laura Mitchell relaxation and postural change). A questionnaire obtained information on the involvement of the midwife and birth companion. Women used the three coping strategies to different extents. Midwives were not involved to the extent that women had hoped for antenatally. Birth companions achieved a level of involvement closer to women's hopes than that achieved by midwives. A significant proportion of women expressed dissatisfaction with the amount of practice of coping strategies during antenatal classes. The findings of this study of a group of well-prepared women raise questions about the correct components of antenatal classes and how midwives and birth companions can be involved optimally in this aspect of a woman's labour. Further research is required to determine how women can best be helped to cope with the experience of labour.
Preface; Notation; Part I. Special Relativity: 1. Introduction: inertial systems and Galilei invariance of classical mechanics; 2. Light propagation in moving coordinate systems and Lorentz transformations; 3. Our world as a Minkowski space; 4. Mechanics of special relativity; 5. Optics of plane waves; 6. Four-dimensional vectors and tensors; 7. Electrodynamics in vacuo; 8. Transformation properties of electromagnetic fields: examples; 9. Null vectors and the algebraic properties of electromagnetic field tensors; 10. Charged point particles and their field; 11. Pole-dipole particles and their field; 12. Electrodynamics in media; 13. Perfect fluids and other physical theories; Part II. Riemannian Geometry: 14. Introduction: the force-free motion of particles in Newtonian mechanics; 15. Why Riemannian geometry?; 16. Riemannian space; 17. Tensor algebra; 18. The covariant derivative and parallel transport; 19. The curvature tensor; 20. Differential operators, integrals and integral laws; 21. Fundamental laws of physics in Riemannian spaces; Part III. Foundations of Einstein's Theory of Gravitation: 22. The fundamental equations of Einstein's theory of gravitation; 23. The Schwarzschild solution; 24. Experiments to verify the Schwarzschild metric; 25. Gravitational lenses; 26. The interior Schwarzschild solution; Part IV. Linearized Theory of Gravitation, Far Fields and Gravitational Waves: 27. The linearized Einstein theory of gravity; 28. Far fields due to arbitrary matter distributions and balance equations for momentum and angular momentum; 29. Gravitational waves; 30. The Cauchy problem for the Einstein field equations; Part V. Invariant Characterization of Exact Solutions: 31. Preferred vector fields and their properties; 32. The Petrov classification; 33. Killing vectors and groups of motion; 34. A survey of some selected classes of exact solutions; Part VI. Gravitational Collapse and Black Holes: 35. The Schwarzschild singularity; 36. Gravitational collapse
Background Good outcomes during pregnancy and childbirth are related to availability, utilisation and effective implementation of essential interventions for labour and childbirth. The majority of the estimated 289,000 maternal deaths, 2.8 million neonatal deaths and 2.6 million stillbirths every year could be prevented by improving access to and scaling up quality care during labour and birth. Methods The bottleneck analysis tool was applied in 12 countries in Africa and Asia as part of the Every Newborn Action Plan process. Country workshops engaged technical experts to complete the survey tool, which is designed to synthesise and grade health system "bottlenecks", factors that hinder the scale up, of maternal-newborn intervention packages. We used quantitative and qualitative methods to analyse the bottleneck data, combined with literature review, to present priority bottlenecks and actions relevant to different health system building blocks for skilled birth attendance and basic and comprehensive emergency obstetric care. Results Across 12 countries the most critical bottlenecks identified by workshop participants for skilled birth attendance were health financing (10 out of 12 countries) and health workforce (9 out of 12 countries). Health service delivery bottlenecks were found to be the most critical for both basic and comprehensive emergency obstetric care (9 out of 12 countries); health financing was identified as having critical bottlenecks for comprehensive emergency obstetric care (9 out of 12 countries). Solutions to address health financing bottlenecks included strengthening national financing mechanisms and removing financial barriers to care seeking. For addressing health workforce bottlenecks, improved human resource planning is needed, including task shifting and improving training quality. For health service delivery, proposed solutions included improving quality of care and establishing public private partnerships. Conclusions Progress towards
Collis, R E; Harding, S A; Morgan, B M
Two hundred and twenty-nine nulliparous women who requested regional analgesia during labour were given a combined spinal-epidural block. They were randomly allocated to stay in bed or spend at least 20 min of every hour out of bed. There was no significant difference in duration of labour, analgesia requirements, mode of delivery or condition of the baby between the groups. Ambulation appeared to be safe for the mother and baby. Maternal satisfaction with the low-dose combined spinal-epidural was high in both groups.
Oberai, A S; Manmohan Singh, H K
"Fears are often expressed that migration to the towns is a cause of surplus labour, increased unemployment, and the general decline in the quality of life in urban areas. In a detailed study of the interaction between migration and the urban labour market in an Indian city, the authors investigate these questions and show how the migrants fare as compared with the urban natives. They find no evidence that migrants are confined to marginal employment or contribute disproportionately to urban underemployment. Policy-makers are cautioned against adopting measures to curb migration, which is part of the process of economic growth and social advance, without first making a detailed assessment of its effects."
Gregoir, Stéphane; Maury, Tristan-Pierre
Disability may impact on employment through entitlement to social housing. Estimates of an original dynamic panel data model of disability, labour market and housing tenure transitions in England indicate that up to one-quarter of the lower employment probability of the disabled can be attributed to the effect of qualifying for social housing. Short-lived disabilities can result in long spells in social housing that reduce incentives to participate in the labour market. This suggests that authorities should reform the welfare system and the allocation of social housing to limit the persistent and unfavourable consequences of allocating social housing to the disabled.
Background An important contribution of the social determinants of health perspective has been to inquire about non-medical determinants of population health. Among these, labour market regulations are of vital significance. In this study, we investigate the labour market regulations among low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) and propose a labour market taxonomy to further understand population health in a global context. Methods Using Gross National Product per capita, we classify 113 countries into either low-income (n = 71) or middle-income (n = 42) strata. Principal component analysis of three standardized indicators of labour market inequality and poverty is used to construct 2 factor scores. Factor score reliability is evaluated with Cronbach's alpha. Using these scores, we conduct a hierarchical cluster analysis to produce a labour market taxonomy, conduct zero-order correlations, and create box plots to test their associations with adult mortality, healthy life expectancy, infant mortality, maternal mortality, neonatal mortality, under-5 mortality, and years of life lost to communicable and non-communicable diseases. Labour market and health data are retrieved from the International Labour Organization's Key Indicators of Labour Markets and World Health Organization's Statistical Information System. Results Six labour market clusters emerged: Residual (n = 16), Emerging (n = 16), Informal (n = 10), Post-Communist (n = 18), Less Successful Informal (n = 22), and Insecure (n = 31). Primary findings indicate: (i) labour market poverty and population health is correlated in both LMICs; (ii) association between labour market inequality and health indicators is significant only in low-income countries; (iii) Emerging (e.g., East Asian and Eastern European countries) and Insecure (e.g., sub-Saharan African nations) clusters are the most advantaged and disadvantaged, respectively, with the remaining clusters experiencing levels of population health consistent
Bohning, W R
International labor standards take the form of Conventions and Recommendations that embody the agreements reached by a 2/3 majority of the representatives of Governments, Employers, and Workers of International Labour Office (ILO) member states. Originally designed to guard against the danger that 1 country or other would keep down wages and working conditions to gain competitive advantage and thereby undermine advances elsewhere, international labor standards have also been inspired by humanitarian concerns--the visible plight of workers and the physical dangers of industrialization and by the notion of social justice, which embraces wellbeing and dignity, security, and equality as well as a measure of participation in economic and social matters. ILO standards apply to workers generally and therefore also to migrant workers, irrespective of the fact that the general standards are complemented by standards especially for migrant workers. The social security protection of migrant workers has been dealt with in ILO instruments primarily from the angle of equality of treatment but also from that of the maintenance of acquired rights and rights in course of acquisition, including the payment of benefits to entitled persons resident abroad. The ILO Conventions on migrant workers and the Recommendations which supplement them deal with practically all aspects of the work and life of non-nationals such as recruitment matters, information to be made available, contract conditions, medical examination and attention, customs, exemption for personal effects, assistance in settling into their new environment, vocational training, promotion at work, job security and alternative employment, liberty of movement, participation in the cultural life of the state as well as maintenance of their own culture, transfer of earnings and savings, family reunification and visits, appeal against unjustified termination of employment or expulsion, and return assistance. ILO's supervisory
Worthington, Catherine; O'Brien, Kelly; Zack, Elisse; McKee, Eileen; Oliver, Brent
Labour force participation has been identified as a critical social and health issue facing people living with HIV/AIDS (PHAs). We conducted a scoping study (a form of literature synthesis that summarizes research findings, research activity, and identifies literature strengths and gaps) on labour force participation for PHAs, guided by a community advisory committee. We summarized information from 243 peer-reviewed articles and 42 reports from the grey literature, and synthesized the evidence into a preliminary conceptual framework with five components: (1) the meaning of work, (2) key factors (barriers and facilitators) influencing labour force participation, (3) factors affecting vulnerable populations, (4) strategies and supports for returning to or sustaining work, and (5) outcomes (benefits and risks) of labour force participation for individuals and employers. The framework supports the development of labour force initiatives requiring collaborative efforts in multiple domains (health, employment, community) by PHAs, rehabilitation professionals, employers, insurers, and policy makers.
Hetzel, C; Flach, T; Schmidt, C
This paper is aimed at identifying labour market factors impacting vocational retraining centre participants' return to work on Employment Agencies level and at comparing results to unemployed people's return to work (Social Code Book III). Databases are regional return to work rates of 2006 graduates, selected labour market indicators 2007, and the 2007 labour market classification of the Institute for Employment Research (IAB). The n = 75 Employment Agency districts where 74.5 % of the participants followed-up lived were analyzed using analyses of variance and multiple loglinear regression. Compared to the unemployment context (Social Code Book III), the impact of the labour market is much lower and less complex. In the multiple model, the regional unemployment rate and the regional tertiarization rate (size of the service sector) are found to be significant and superior to the IAB-classification. Hence, participants' return to work is less dependent on labour market conditions than unemployed people's return to work (Social Code Book III).
Buribayev, Yermek A.; Oryntayev, Zhambyl K.; Bekbossynov, Yermek; Mazhinbekov, Saken; Yessenbekova, Patima; Blasheva, Manshuk
Background/Objectives: The research topicality is conditioned by the fact that the labour secure of the social and labour human rights is realized not only by the national law but also by the international law that is usually more progressive and establishes the generally accepted standards and norms of human rights in the social-labour sphere.…
Roca, A; Oluwalana, C; Bojang, A; Camara, B; Kampmann, B; Bailey, R; Demba, A; Bottomley, C; D'Alessandro, U
Bacterial sepsis remains a leading cause of death among neonates with Staphylococcus aureus, group B streptococcus (GBS) and Streptococcus pneumoniae identified as the most common causative pathogens in Africa. Asymptomatic bacterial colonization is an intermediate step towards sepsis. We conducted a phase III, double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial to determine the impact of giving one oral dose of azithromycin to Gambian women in labour on the nasopharyngeal carriage of S. aureus, GBS or S. pneumoniae in the newborn at day 6 postpartum. Study participants were recruited in a health facility in western Gambia. They were followed for 8 weeks and samples were collected during the first 4 weeks. Between April 2013 and April 2014 we recruited 829 women who delivered 843 babies, including 13 stillbirths. Sixteen babies died during the follow-up period. No maternal deaths were observed. No serious adverse events related to the intervention were reported. According to the intent-to-treat analysis, prevalence of nasopharyngeal carriage of the bacteria of interest in the newborns at day 6 was lower in the intervention arm (28.3% versus 65.1% prevalence ratio 0.43; 95% CI 0.36-0.52, p <0.001). At the same time-point, prevalence of any bacteria in the mother was also lower in the azithromycin group (nasopharynx, 9.3% versus 40.0%, p <0.001; breast milk, 7.9% versus 21.6%, p <0.001; and the vaginal tract, 13.2% versus 24.2%, p <0.001). Differences between arms lasted for at least 4 weeks. Oral azithromycin given to women in labour decreased the carriage of bacteria of interest in mothers and newborns and may lower the risk of neonatal sepsis. Trial registrationClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT01800942.
This paper seeks to map out some of the conceptual territory that will be explored through an international study into the impact of the "knowledge economy" on contemporary forms of learning and life story telling within communities of labour located in different world cities. The paper begins with a brief critical overview of the main…
Zhiwen, Guo; van der Heijden, Beatrice I. J. M.
Purpose: The purpose of this article is to provide an assessment of business educational reform requirements in China, in the light of current employability needs. Design/methodology/approach: After introducing the problem the paper discusses labour market demands for business graduates. The paper continues with a thorough conceptualisation of the…
Vocational education is supposed to improve work and employment skills, but many of the vocational courses developed in schools and colleges after the collapse of industrial apprenticeships in the 1970s have not offered real opportunities for young people in the labour market. Instead, a succession of new qualifications was introduced, which…
Collectivist values such as social trust and reciprocity are usually associated with positive health outcomes. Few studies have explored how collectivism influences individual and community capacity to engage health promotion practices. This paper explores how collectivism excludes people who do not conform to societal expectations and negatively affects individuals and communities as they practise health promotion. Data were collected through interviews with day labourers in Japan. Using critical ethnography, participants' accounts were examined focusing on the normative claims, which were principally about what behaviours are proper, appropriate and conventional among day labourers in order to understand the cultural norms and values that influence their behaviours. Findings show that day labourers are often denied public support and their social disadvantages are ignored when they seek support. Day labourers often accept their exclusions as inevitable because they accept the dominant social norms. These findings indicate that collectivist norms prevent individuals and communities from developing their capacities for health promotion practices. Individual needs tend to be obscured when prioritizing collective interests, which are also used as a tool for justifying inadequate social programmes. In a collectivist society, burdens that should be shared equally by all may not be equitably distributed, falling disproportionately on the disadvantaged. An uncritical adoption of a collectivist ethos in examining health promotion is not warranted and more investigation is needed to determine when collectivism is helpful and when harmful.
Dolton, Peter J.; Silles, Mary A.
This paper uses a new survey of graduates from one large civil university in the UK to examine the determinants of over-education and its subsequent impact on labour market earnings. Multiple measurements of over-education were collected to assess the effect of measurement error on the estimated pay penalty associated with over-education. Panel…
Brankovic, Nina; Oruc, Nermin
This article analyses the differences between expected and actual wages of VET students and graduates. It uses a survey of VET students enrolled in schools in Bosnia and Herzegovina, and data about employed VET graduates from the Labour Force Survey. The model of determinants of wages, expected or actual, estimated separately on each dataset,…
Festin, Mario R.; Lumbiganon, Pisake; Tolosa, Jorge E.; Finney, Kathryn A.; Ba-Thike, Katherine; Chipato, Tsungai; Gaitán, Hernando; Xu, Liangzhi; Limpongsanurak, Sompop; Mittal, Suneeta; Peedicayil, Abraham; Pramono, Noor; Purwar, Manorama; Shenoy, Sheela; Daly, Sean
OBJECTIVE: To determine the use of the active management of the third stage of labour in 15 university-based obstetric centres in ten developing and developed countries and to determine whether evidence-based practices were being used. METHODS: From March 1999 to December 1999, the Global Network for Perinatal and Reproductive Health (GNPRH) conducted an observational, cross-sectional survey to assess the use of the practice and its components. Prospective data on patient characteristics and the interventions used in the management of the third stage of labour were collected using standardized methods. Data on approximately 30 consecutive vaginal deliveries in each centre (452 in total) were included. FINDINGS: Significant intracountry and intercountry variation in the practice of the active management of the third stage of labour was found (111/452 deliveries used active management), which confirmed the existence of a large gap between knowledge and practice. CONCLUSION: Areas identified for improvement are the urgent implementation of the evidence-based clinical management practice defined as the active management of the third stage of labour; increased accessibility to systematic reviews in developing countries; and the conduction of clinical trials that assess the impact of this intervention in other settings. PMID:12764495
Day, A; MacLennan, A; Green, R
A prospective randomized controlled trial of 202 patients was set up to examine the efficiency and safety of 40 mg of intravaginal prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha) in a tylose gel to stimulate labour after artificial or spontaneous membrane rupture. The control group received a standard intravenous oxytocin regimen. The PGF2 alpha treated group had a significantly shorter length of labour (6.2 +/- 3.6 hours) compared to the oxytocin group (7.5 +/- 4.3 hours) (p less than 0.05). The analgesic requirements were significantly reduced in the PGF2 alpha treated patients. In PGF2 alpha treated patients 46 of 105 required no analgesia whereas 17 of 97 oxytocin treated patients required no analgesia (p less than 0.001). There were similar reductions for epidural (p less than 0.005) and pethidine requirements (p less than 0.005). No differences were found between groups with regards mode of delivery. There were no adverse maternal side-effects associated with PGF2 alpha usage. A significant reduction (p less than 0.05) in the incidence of neonatal jaundice requiring phototherapy occurred in the PGF2 alpha group. Prostaglandin F2 alpha appears to be a safe, efficient and better alternative to intravenous oxytocin to stimulate labour in the presence of ruptured membranes, allowing ambulation, a reduction in length of labour and less need for analgesia and intravenous therapy.
This article focuses on adult learning in labour-market projects targeting unemployed migrants in Sweden. Drawing on a Foucauldian analysis of governmentality, the results of the study problematize the ways that such projects produce individualizing discourses--targeting individuals, constructing them as responsible for their position as…
This paper provides an overview of vocational education and training (VET) system in India, and discusses various challenges and difficulties in the Indian VET system. The paper also examines labour market outcomes of vocational graduates and compares these with those of general secondary graduates using a large-scale nationally representative…
Kinman, Gail; Wray, Siobhan; Strange, Calista
Although teaching has been described as a profoundly emotional activity, little is known about the emotional demands faced by teachers or how this impacts on their well-being. This study examined relationships between "emotional labour", burnout (emotional exhaustion, depersonalisation and personal accomplishment) and job satisfaction in…
Acker, Sandra; Dillabough, Jo-Anne
This article reflects an interest in exposing links between women's academic work and the gender codes which organize and shape working life in the university context, both now and in the recent past, as a contribution to the sociology of women's work. Our specific focus is the gendered division of labour in teacher education in universities in…
Krapp, Max-Christopher; Pannowitsch, Sylvia
Following an interpretative approach this paper investigates the role of knowledge orders, understood as settings which attribute relevance to specific expertise. The changing patterns of incorporation of expertise in policy formulation as well as public justification are analysed for German and British labour market policy. From a comparative…
Shan, Hongxia; Guo, Shibao
The last few decades have witnessed both an expansion and a transformation of immigration flows, which pose significant challenges with respect to how people work with differences across culture and space. Against this background, this paper explores how some Chinese immigrant engineers respond to differences in the Canadian labour market. It not…
Fernandes, Pedro Afonso
The process for recognising, validating and certifying (RVC) non-formally or informally acquired lifelong learning, launched in 2000, is now part of mainstream education and training policies in Portugal. This article aims to determine how much the labour-market behaviour of the RVC-certified unemployed differs from that of other unemployed…
This paper reflects on Arlie Hochschild's concept of "Emotional Labour" to investigate the emotion work undertaken by artists facilitating participatory arts in urban community settings. The discussion seeks to capture the emotional cost of "managing" feelings to understand the resilient practitioner in wider political…
OECD Publishing, 2016
Significant variations in educational attainment and labour market outcomes exist not only across OECD countries but also within them. Some regions concentrate the human capital of a country. In particular, many countries' capital regions stand out for their high share of tertiary-educated people. However, overall employment prospects are often…
Higgins, Jane; Nairn, Karen; Sligo, Judith
This paper explores the concepts of vocational imagination and labour market literacy, arguing that these are important elements in the crafting of effective education-employment linkages. Evidence of truncated understandings of both is found in the talk of 93 young New Zealanders in transition from secondary school to their post-school lives. We…
Opini, Bathseba M.
This paper presents a review of the challenges that disabled people experience in participating in the Kenyan labour market. It draws on existing literature and on a narrative of the experiences of one disabled academic in a Kenyan university to highlight some of the forms of discrimination that disabled people have to cope with in their…
The British New Labour Party's resocialization project is based on certain desirable middle-class attributes: active consumerism, school monitoring, transmission of cultural capital at home, and possession of social capital. Problems will continue to arise, since only a limited number of schools and jobs are deemed "excellent." (Contains…
Purpose: This paper aims to explore the contrast between stable and dynamic labour markets in academe in light of career theories that were originally developed for business environments. Design/methodology/approach: A conceptual design, offering the eco-system as a framework. Findings: It evaluates their relevance and applicability to dynamic and…
New Labour has placed inclusion at the centre of its educational agenda. Its policies have been characterised by an attempt to include disabled children, together with others identified as having "special educational needs", within the ordinary school system and the shifting of responsibility for meeting their needs to teachers in the…
Mason, Geoff; Williams, Gareth; Cranmer, Sue
The present paper makes use of detailed information gathered at university department level, combined with graduate survey data, to assess the impact of different kinds of employability skills initiative on graduate labour market performance. We find that structured work experience and employer involvement in degree course design and delivery have…
Bockerman, Petri; Hamalainen, Ulla; Uusitalo, Roope
This paper evaluates the labour market effects of the introduction of the polytechnic education system in Finland. The polytechnic reform gradually transformed former vocational colleges into polytechnics. Since the timing of the reform differed across schools, we can compare the performance of polytechnic graduates to the performance of…
Campos, Francisco Eduardo; Albuquerque, Eduardo da Motta e
Background This paper combines the literature on public health, on economics of health and on economics of technological innovation to discuss the peculiarities of labour in the health care sector. Method and framework The starting point is the investigation of the economic peculiarities of medical care. Results and discussions This investigation leads to the identification of the prevalence of non-market forms of medical care in the countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Furthermore, the health care system has a distinctive characteristic from other economic sectors: it is the intersection between social welfare and innovation systems. The relationship between technological innovation and cost in the health care sector is surveyed. Finally, the Brazilian case is discussed as an example of a developing country. Conclusion The peculiarities of labour in the health care sector suggest the need to recognize the worth of sectoral labour and to cease to treat it separately. This process should take into account the rapid development of the health innovation system and one important consequence: the obsolescence of the acquired knowledge. One way to dignify labour is to implement continued education and training of health professions personnel. PMID:16109174
Selwyn, Neil; Fitz, John
The costly National Grid for Learning initiative embodies the fast-growing influence of both market and technological forces in UK education. An initial study reveals that the NGFL does not represent a radical shift toward business-dominated educational policy-making, but reflects New Labour's "healthy pragmatism" toward policy…
Ajayi, A. O.; Torimiro, D. O.
This article focuses on the global and African postures on the issues of child abuse and child labour. The global ethical ideals of the issues are characterized within their various theoretical perspectives while the African cultural realities are explored through the use of focus group discussion sessions, which were organized in six rural…
Organista, Kurt C.; Worby, Paula A.; Quesada, James; Arreola, Sonya G.; Kral, Alex H.; Khoury, Sahar
The purpose of this paper is to explore the context of the sexual health of Latino migrant day labourers in the U.S.A., challenges to sexual health and ways of coping, with attention to conditions of structural vulnerability permeating the lives of this unique Latino population. Given the limited information about this topic and population, ethnographic research employing in-depth semi-structured interviews with 51 labourers, recruited through purposive sampling in the San Francisco Bay Area, was utilised. The sexual health aspirations of the men are deeply embedded in the core value and practice of Latino familismo or, in this case, the central goal of securing a family headed by men as providers and present husbands/fathers. However, such goals are frequently thwarted by the poverty engendering work and prolonged separations from home that characterise predominantly undocumented day labour in the U.S.A. Resulting goal frustration, combined with pent up sexual urges, often lead to sexual risk in spite of efforts to cope with challenges to sexual health. Unless community, state, and national level interventions are developed to mitigate the pronounced structural vulnerability of migrant day labourers, individual level interventions to promote sexual health, and decrease risk and distress, are likely to have diminishing returns. PMID:23140484
Reflecting on the experience of being a participant in the Work of Teacher Education (WoTE) research, and drawing on conceptualisations of teacher education as "domestic labour," I argue that teacher educators' closeness to classroom practice acts as a determining factor in their symbolic annihilation, a concept usually applied to study…
Li, Ian W.; Miller, Paul W.
This study explores the effects on earnings of overeducation, required education, and undereducation (ORU) in the Australian graduate labour market, using data from the 1999-2009 Graduate Destination Surveys. The Vahey [2000. "The Great Canadian Training Robbery: Evidence on the Returns to Educational Mismatch." "Economics of…
This paper seeks to draw out the continuities and ruptures in current English education policy. In particular it considers the relationship between Coalition policy rhetoric and that of the Labour Party. Although the paper is concerned with the British and more specifically English context, it examines a range of questions that move beyond that…
Elegbeleye, O. S.; Olasupo, M. O.
This study investigated the relationship between parental socio-economic status and child labour practices in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The study employed survey method to gather data from 200 parents which constituted the study population. Pearson Product Moment Correlation and t-test statistics were used for the data analyses. The outcome of the study…
Laczik, Andrea; Mayhew, Ken
This chapter discusses the relationship between the labour market and vocational education and training in England. For decades British governments have emphasised the need for more people to stay longer in the formal education system and at the same time have attempted to improve work-based training. They have also emphasised the centrality of…
Fischer, Deborah P; Hutchinson, Jonathon A; Farrar, Diane; O'Donovan, Peter J; Woodward, David F; Marshall, Kay M
Prostaglandins (PG) E2, PGF2alpha and thromboxane (TX) mediate uterine contractility by targeting prostonoid EP, FP and TP receptors respectively. The aim of this study was to elucidate the function of these receptors in isolated human myometrium taken at term gestation prior to and following labour onset. Lower segment myometrial strips were immersed in organ baths in oxygenated Krebs' solution at 37 degrees C and connected to isometric force transducers. After equilibration, spontaneous activity and concentration responses to PGE2, PGF2alpha and U46619 (a stable TX mimetic) were measured as area under the curve and expressed as a percentage of the final contraction induced by hypotonic shock. Results were expressed as arithmetic means+/-s.e.m. and analysed using two-way ANOVA with Bonferroni's post hoc test. Myometrium excised at late gestation displayed the greatest spontaneous activity compared with the tissues taken during labour (P<0.001). Excitation evoked by PGF2alpha (P<0.01) and PGE2 at 10(-5) mol/l were attenuated after labour onset. U46619 consistently stimulated concentration-dependent contractions (P<0.001) and selective antagonists confirmed TP-mediated effects. The maintained responses to TX indicate crucial roles for TP receptors in the muscular tonus of the parturient uterus. This receptor and its secondary messenger system represent effective myometrial targets for tocolytic agents in both pregnancy and labour-associated disorders.
EL-Sakran, Tharwat M.; Awad, Asmaa
This study reports on engineering graduates' labour market requisite communication competences and skills in the work environment in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Its main purpose was to investigate whether internationally required engineering graduates' communication competences were the same in third world countries or different. It used a…
Pukelis, Kestutis; Pileicikiene, Nora
Higher education provides graduates with both monetary and non-monetary benefits. Globalization and technological developments foster utilitarian approach, therefore the transmission of competences that are relevant in labour market is an important target for higher education institutions. The paper presents findings of research on the match of…
I used data from the 1995 cohort of the Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth to investigate the factors associated with the attainment of Australian university degrees and estimate their domestic labour market benefits. I considered vertical and horizontal stratification in education and examined monetary and non-monetary benefits. The…
Webb, Rosemary; Vulliamy, Graham
The article examines the impact of New Labour policies--particularly the National Literacy and Numeracy Strategies and the subsequent Primary National Strategy--on classroom practice at Key Stage 2 in England. Evidence is drawn from fieldwork conducted in 2003-2005 from a sample of 50 schools, replicating a study conducted a decade previously in…
Purpose: This article aims to offer a perspective on issues pertaining to higher education, the graduate and the labour market. It is one of several similar perspectives on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the publication of the journal "Education + Training." Design/methodology/approach: The approach adopted has been to provide…
This paper aims at identifying the characteristics acquired by the university under the regime of academic capitalism. It also attempts to put forward their antinomic relationship to the essential properties of academic activity, perceived in the light of the concept of "universal labour" introduced by Karl Marx. (Contains 1 note.)
Hodgkins, Andrew P.
This article examines a vocational education and training partnership occurring in the Canadian oil sands mining industry. The case study involves a corporate-sponsored pre-apprenticeship training programme designed to procure aboriginal labour in the province of Alberta. Interviews with members of key partner groups and stakeholders occurred…
This article provides a narrative response to a precariousness labour situation. The question it attempts to answer is: how does one cope with the precariousness and injustices of contemporary employment without becoming pessimistic or hopeless? The piece, based on the author's personal experience, argues that we can tell and write our career…
Wadsworth, John; George, Rosalyn
Early Years provision in England has historically been fragmented and under-funded. In seeking to address this situation, New Labour has developed a range of Early Years initiatives with the principal aim of tackling poverty and disadvantage. This article traces the recent history of Early Years provision and critically explores the extent to…
Chan, Sheng-Ju; Lin, Jing-Wen
To address the changing needs of the labour market better, higher education institutions have increasingly aimed to enhance their teaching quality and the learning experiences of their students. Therefore, a key concept of the missions of contemporary educational institutions is to improve students' employability after graduation. Although…
This article examines the emergence and evolution of New Labour's landmark educational policy; namely that of inclusion. The author, Alan Hodkinson, associate professor at the Centre for Cultural and Disability Studies at Liverpool Hope University, illuminates his conceptual difficulties in attempting to define what inclusion was and what…
Adodo, S. O.; Adewole, Timothy
This study investigated acquired and required competencies in interactive computer technology (ICT) in labour data were collected from employers' and employees'. The study is a descriptive research of the survey type. The population of the study consisted of unemployed graduates, employed graduates and various parastatal where graduates seek for…
Delgado-Granados, Patricia; Ramírez-Macías, Gonzalo
This paper explores the role of physical education in Labour Universities (1955-1978) during Franco's regime as an instrument of indoctrination and declassing of the working class. The conclusions obtained after the study and the analysis of various primary sources indicate that, initially, physical education was used as an instrument of…
We consider the philosophical and pedagogical aspects of "man-labour" system and justify its interdisciplinarity. On the basis of results of scientific researches the need for an objective systematization and specialization in pedagogy is emphasized. Four areas of education sciences systematization, proposed by Z. Vyatrovsky are…
Research investigating the learning and career transitions of those disadvantaged in the labour market has resulted in the development of a four-component model to enable disadvantaged groups to navigate learning and career transitions. The four components of the model include: the self-concept; learning and recognition; career and life planning;…
McGuinness, Seamus; Sloane, Peter J.
There is much disagreement in the literature over the extent to which graduates are mismatched in the labour market and the reasons for this. In this paper we utilise the Flexible Professional in the Knowledge Society (REFLEX) data set to cast light on these issues, based on data for UK graduates. We find substantial pay penalties for…
Alabi, Goski; Alabi, Joshua; Mohammed, Ibrahim
The paper undertook a snapshot of the demand for various academic programmes on the labour market and compared this with national policy norms for enrolment in public universities in Ghana. The objective was to ascertain whether national higher education enrolments are responsive to the national policy target of 60:40 (Sciences : Humanities) or…
In this paper, using the "2005-2006 National Family Health Survey" dataset from India, we study the likelihood of a school-age child working, combining work with schooling or being idle, rather than attending school full time. Our analysis finds that with the inclusion of household chores in the child labour definition, boys are…
This article argues that New Labour's third term education policies are riddled with internal contradictions. The author explores key tension points and suggests that fractures might be opened up where the government is most vulnerable to critical scrutiny and interventions by grassroots resistance.
Mukherjee, Diganta; Das, Saswati
This paper uses household level data from National Sample Survey Organization (NSSO) of India, the 55th (1999-2000) and the 61st (2004-05) rounds, to show that even with a significant wage incentive for schooling of urban children, the school drop out rate and child labour incidence are not small over this period. The parents' level of education…
Denes, Christian Andrew
The Bolsa Escola program in Brazil presents a clear break from the economic growth models and supply-side based strategies of the past. Founded on the assumption that the supplemental income generated by child labour outweighs the potential benefits of primary education, Bolsa Escola attempts to address the demand-side component of high dropout…
Haile, Getinet; Haile, Beliyou
We examine work participation and schooling for children aged 7-15 using survey data from rural Ethiopia. Bivariate probit and age-adjusted educational attainment equations have been estimated. Male children are found to be more likely to attend school than their female counterparts. "Specialization" in child labour is also found, with…
Gates, Gordon S.; Vesneske, Staci S.
Labour conflict in school districts is a largely neglected area of educational research. This study examines the perceptions, actions, and decisions of union and district leaders using social movement theory to describe, analyze, and interpret contentious contract negotiations in three school districts in the Pacific Northwest region of the US.…
Applies international labor standards to results of the International Labour Office's special public works programs to discover whether program intentions have been met. Finds that while productive employment has been pursued, popular participation is not occurring and such issues as (1) forced labor, (2) child employment, and (3) inequality of…
Williams, Gareth Mark; Williams, Dean
Utilising the labour ideas of Adam Smith and Emile Durkheim as a theoretical basis, the main objective of this study was to investigate the perception that Heads of Physical Education (HoPE) face unique management and leadership challenges. Results showed that HoPE believe that they are overburdened with tasks primarily involving the delegation of…
Fatouh, Entesar; Ramadan, Sabah
The paperless partogram refers to monitoring progress of labour and arriving at an accurate decision for intervention to ensure safe delivery. It needs no graph paper, no extra time to do it and uses the routine that the nurses are already used to. The study aimed to evaluate effect of using paperless partogram on the management and outcome of…
The increasing dominance of an economic ideology of higher education, that its principal role is to contribute to national competitiveness, has increased focus on the employability of graduates and their transition into the labour market. Drawing on a major study of the early career paths of 1995 graduates from 38 UK higher education institutions,…
Drawing on Derrida this paper considers how inclusive education in England was defined and operationalised within New Labour's educational policy and by those teachers who reconstructed this policy within the confines of schools and individual classrooms. The paper has two critical ambitions. First it argues that the epistemology of inclusion was…
Henley, Dick; Young, Jon
Canada's provincial and territorial governments are committed to implement the Labour Mobility chapter of the "Agreement on Internal Trade" (AIT) in 2009. This article examines the implications of this agreement for teacher certification and teacher education programs. It argues that the full impact of AIT will not be immediately…
In Europe, academic mobility has a long tradition which began with the birth of the European universities in the middle ages. Recently, European policies were strongly oriented towards the promotion of student and academic mobility and the creation of research networks and projects within Europe. Nevertheless, academic labour markets in Europe…
Shah, Chandra; Long, Michael; Windle, Joel
A skilled and flexible workforce is increasingly identified by governments as key to economic development. With the emergence of a global market in both educational services and labour, agreements on mutual recognition and transparency of skills and qualifications have become important elements of international co-operation. They are often…
IN THE 18 MONTHS SINCE THE INDUSTRIAL TRAINING ACT BECAME LAW, NINE INDUSTRIAL TRAINING BOARDS HAVE BEEN SET UP BY THE MINISTRY OF LABOUR TO COVER PARTICULAR INDUSTRIES. THE BOARDS WILL COMPILE A REGISTER OF FIRMS WITHIN EACH INDUSTRY, PREPARE RECOMMENDATIONS FOR TYPE AND LENGTH OF TRAINING, AND IMPLEMENT A GRANT AND LEVY SYSTEM TO COVER TRAINING…
This revised report was prepared for the Canadian Literacy and Learning Network (CLLN) and the thirteen-member provincial and territorial literacy coalitions. The purpose of the report is: (1) To provide background information on the labour market transfers from the Federal Government to the provincial and territorial governments; (2) To outline…
van Alphen, Stan
Previous research suggests that the ongoing educational expansion is a negative development for early school leavers (ESLrs) in the European labour market, since it increases the level and educational attainment of their competition, and in the worst case creates credential inflation. Findings from the 2005 cross-sectional EU-SILC data show,…
Das, Saswati; Mukherjee, Diganta
This paper uses household level data from National Sample Survey Organization (NSSO) of India, the 55th round (1999-2000), to show that for urban male children there exists significant wage incentive for schooling, though school dropout rate and child labour incidence are not so small. The parents' level of education plays an important role in…
Lewis, Phil; Corliss, Michael
As Australia's economy recovers from the economic downturn, attention is turning once again to skills shortages. To gain insights into the labour market for tradespeople, this report investigates changes in supply, demand and how adjustment occurred through the varied economic conditions of the past 20 years. It concludes that there was no overall…
Aslam, Monazza; Kingdon, Geeta
This paper investigates some of the economic outcomes of education in Pakistan with a view to understanding if education can act as a vehicle for labour market success. Data from a purpose-designed survey of more than 1000 households in Pakistan are utilised. Earnings functions are estimated for agricultural workers, the self-employed and wage…
Mok, Ka Ho; Wu, Alfred M.
This article attempts to investigate the relationship between the massification of higher education, labour market and social mobility in contemporary China. Though only a short period of time has elapsed from elite to mass education, China's higher education has been characterised as a wide, pervasive massification process. Similar to other East…
Westerlund, Hugo; Bergström, Anna; Theorell, Töres
Thirty-two female participants in a mobilising labour market programme offering temporary, alternative employment in Sweden were followed longitudinally for one year, including a six month post participation follow-up period. It can be hypothesised that an important aspect of the physiological effects of unemployment is a change in the balance between anabolic and catabolic activities in the body and that re-employment should lead to a shift towards anabolism. An earlier study of a smaller subset of the data, however, including both men and women, showed increased prolactin and decreased dehydroepiadrosterone sulphate (DHEA-s) levels, contrary to the initial hypothesis. In the present analysis, intended to elucidate these results, psychophysiological data were summarised in two indices, one connected with anabolism (made up of testosterone and DHEA-s) and one with catabolism (prolactin, gamma-glutamyl transferase, aspartate amino transferase, alpha levuline amino transferase, and body mass index). In addition, self-rated anxiety, depression, hopelessness and personal control were analysed. The results indicate that the effect of 'better' activities within the programme was a temporary increase in anabolism, possibly indicating lower stress levels, and the effect of 'worse' activities, on the one hand, a temporary decrease in the catabolic index, probably reflecting repressed alcohol consumption, and, on the other hand, impaired anabolism. There was also a general but transient decrease in depressiveness measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. The results seem to imply that it is difficult to achieve lasting effects through a relatively short participation in a mobilising programme.
Groenewold, W G F George; de Beer, J A A Joop; de Valk, H A G Helga
Gaining control over refugee flows and undocumented migrants currently dominate the media and political arenas in Europe. Underlying driving and enduring forces, such as employment-related migration pressure, tend to be relegated to the background. In this article, we explore migration pressure prospects up to 2035 in four countries with a tradition of emigration to Europe: Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia and Turkey. More specifically, we first derive a simple decomposition model based on the relationship between working-age population (WAP) growth and growth of gross domestic production (GDP) and worker productivity (GDP/W). From this model, we derive an indicator of migration pressure: size of the non-employed population in a country. This model is then used as framework for deriving storylines for three different scenarios of economic and demographic change up to 2035. Subsequently, storylines are operationalized, leading to scenario estimates of migration pressure up to 2035. The implications of the results are then discussed. Time series of macro-level economic and demographic data are used to underpin scenario assumptions. Scenario results suggest that in all countries employment ratios are expected to increase, but only in Tunisia is the size of the non-employed population-our indicator of migration pressure-expected to decline, irrespective of the scenario. Depending on the scenario, migration pressure remains high in Turkey and Morocco and may even become somewhat higher. The general conclusion is that in the long term, after 2035, labour migration pressure can be expected to decrease because the growth and size of the working-age population is decreasing while employment ratios are rising.
Chakravorty, Rajib; Rawlinson, David; Zhang, Alan; Markham, John; Dowling, Mark R.; Wellard, Cameron; Zhou, Jie H. S.; Hodgkin, Philip D.
Interest in cell heterogeneity and differentiation has recently led to increased use of time-lapse microscopy. Previous studies have shown that cell fate may be determined well in advance of the event. We used a mixture of automation and manual review of time-lapse live cell imaging to track the positions, contours, divisions, deaths and lineage of 44 B-lymphocyte founders and their 631 progeny in vitro over a period of 108 hours. Using this data to train a Support Vector Machine classifier, we were retrospectively able to predict the fates of individual lymphocytes with more than 90% accuracy, using only time-lapse imaging captured prior to mitosis or death of 90% of all cells. The motivation for this paper is to explore the impact of labour-efficient assistive software tools that allow larger and more ambitious live-cell time-lapse microscopy studies. After training on this data, we show that machine learning methods can be used for realtime prediction of individual cell fates. These techniques could lead to realtime cell culture segregation for purposes such as phenotype screening. We were able to produce a large volume of data with less effort than previously reported, due to the image processing, computer vision, tracking and human-computer interaction tools used. We describe the workflow of the software-assisted experiments and the graphical interfaces that were needed. To validate our results we used our methods to reproduce a variety of published data about lymphocyte populations and behaviour. We also make all our data publicly available, including a large quantity of lymphocyte spatio-temporal dynamics and related lineage information. PMID:24404133
Sykes, Lynne; Herbert, Bronwen R; MacIntyre, David A; Hunte, Emma; Ponnampalam, Sathana; Johnson, Mark R; Teoh, Tiong G; Bennett, Phillip R
We have previously demonstrated that the anti-inflammatory prostaglandin 15-deoxy-Δ 12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15dPGJ2) delays inflammation-induced preterm labour in the mouse and improves pup survival through the inhibition of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) by a mechanism yet to be elucidated. 15dPGJ2 is an agonist of the second prostaglandin D2 receptor, chemoattractant receptor homologous to the T helper 2 cell (CRTH2). In human T helper cells CRTH2 agonists induce the production of the anti-inflammatory interleukins IL-10 and IL-4. We hypothesized that CRTH2 is involved in the protective effect of 15dPGJ2 in inflammation-induced preterm labour in the murine model. We therefore studied the effects of a specific small molecule CRTH2 agonist on preterm labour and pup survival. An intrauterine injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was administered to CD1 mice at embryonic day 16, ± CRTH2 agonist/vehicle controls. Mice were killed at 4.5 hr to assess fetal wellbeing and to harvest myometrium and pup brain for analysis of NF-κB, and T helper type 1/2 interleukins. To examine the effects of the CRTH2 agonist on LPS-induced preterm labour, mice were allowed to labour spontaneously. Direct effects of the CRTH2 agonist on uterine contractility were examined ex vivo on contracting myometrial strips. The CRTH2 agonist increased fetal survival from 20 to 100% in LPS-treated mice, and inhibited circular muscle contractility ex vivo. However, it augmented LPS-induced labour and significantly increased myometrial NF-κB, IL-1β, KC-GRO, interferon-γ and tumour necrosis factor-α. This suggests that the action of 15dPGJ2 is not via CRTH2 and therefore small molecule CRTH2 agonists are not likely to be beneficial for the prevention of inflammation-induced preterm labour. PMID:23374103
Rezaie, Masomeh; Farhadifar, Fariba; Nayebi, Morteza
Introduction Considering maternal complications, it is preferred to induce labour after 40 weeks. Labour induction is a procedure used to stimulate uterine contractions during pregnancy before the beginning of the labour. Aim The aim of this study was to compare oral misoprostol with vaginal misoprostol for induction of labour in post-term pregnancies. Materials and Methods This double blind clinical-trial study was performed on 180 post-term pregnant women who were admitted to the labour ward of Besat Hospital Sanandaj, Iran in 2013-2014. Participants were equally divided into three groups using block randomization method. The induction was performed for the first group with 100 μg of oral misoprostol, for the second group with 50 μg of oral misoprostol, and for the third group with 25 μg of vaginal misoprostol. Vaginal examination and FHR was done before repeating each dose to determine Bishop Score. Induction time with misoprostol to the start of uterine contractions, induction time to delivery, and mode of delivery, systolic tachycardia, hyper stimulation and fetal outcomes were studied as well. Results First minute Apgar scores and medication dosage of the study groups were significantly different (p=0.0001). But labour induction, induction frequency, mode of delivery, complications, and 5 minutes Apgar score in the groups had no significant difference (p>0.05). The risk of fetal distress and neonatal hospitalization of the groups were statistically significant (p=0. 02). There was no significant difference between the three groups in terms of mean time interval from the administration of misoprostol to the start of uterine contractions (labour induction), the time interval from the start of uterine contractions to delivery and taking misoprostol to delivery. From the administration of misoprostol to start of the uterine contractions the mean difference between time intervals in the three groups were not statistically significant. Conclusion Based on our
Dammer, U; Weiss, C; Raabe, E; Heimrich, J; Koch, M C; Winkler, M; Faschingbauer, F; Beckmann, M W; Kehl, S
Aim: Effective pain management during labour is important because pain affects the birth experience. Epidural analgesia is effective but often it may not be possible; however, inhaled analgesia offers another option. Use of inhaled nitrous oxide and oxygen for pain management in labour is well established in obstetrics but is still not used much in Germany. This study aimed to investigate the acceptance of the inhaled analgesia of inhaled nitrous oxide and oxygen by midwives and pregnant women during labour. Material and Methods: In this observational study carried out between April and September 2013, a total of 66 pregnant women received inhaled nitrous oxide and oxygen during labour on request and after prior assessment of suitability. After the birth, all of the women and the responsible midwives were interviewed about their experience and satisfaction with the inhaled analgesia. Results: A statistically significant reduction of pain was achieved with nitrous oxide and oxygen. The inhaled analgesia was mostly used by women who refused epidural analgesia. The likelihood of using inhaled nitrous oxide and oxygen again was reported as higher for patients who tolerated it well (p = 0.0129) and used it in the second stage of labour (p = 0.0003) and when bearing down (p = 0.0008). Conclusion: Inhaled nitrous oxide and oxygen is an effective method for pain management during labour and is accepted well by women in labour and by midwives.
Yap, Lorraine; Reekie, Joanne; Liu, Wei; Chen, Yi; Wu, Zunyou; Li, Jianghong; Zhang, Lei; Wand, Handan; Donovan, Basil; Butler, Tony
Objective HIV testing is mandatory in re-education-through-labour camps (laojiaosuo) in China yet no studies have reported on the process. Methods The survey response rate was 100% although 29 detainees were excluded because they were under 18 years of age. A cross-sectional face-to-face survey was conducted in three labour camps in Guangxi, located in the south-western region of China. Results Of the 755 detainees surveyed, 725 (96%) reported having a blood test in the labour camps of whom 493 (68%) thought this included an HIV test. 61 detainees self-reported they were HIV infected, their status confirmed by medical records, if available. Of these, 53 (87%) recalled receiving post-test HIV education, and 15 (25%) were currently receiving HIV antiretroviral therapy. Pretest education on HIV was provided to 233/725 (32%) detainees. The study further reports on detainees’ reactions and feelings towards non-disclosure and disclosure of their HIV test results in the labour camps. Conclusions Mandatory testing is almost universal in the labour camps although a proportion of detainees were unaware that this included an HIV test. HIV test results should be disclosed to all labour camp detainees to reduce their distress of not knowing and prevent misconceptions about their HIV status. Labour camps provide another opportunity to implement universal treatment (‘Test and Treat’) to prevent the spread of HIV. PMID:25739879
Samanta, Sukhen; Jain, Kajal; Bhardwaj, Neerja; Jain, Vanita; Samanta, Sujay; Saha, Rini
Background and Aims: Low concentration local anaesthetic improves uteroplacental blood flow in antenatal period and during labour in preeclampsia. We compared neonatal outcome after epidural ropivacaine plus fentanyl with intramuscular tramadol analgesia during labour in high-risk parturients with intrauterine growth restriction of mixed aetiology. Methods: Forty-eight parturients with sonographic evidence of foetal weight <1.5 kg were enrolled in this non-randomized, double-blinded prospective study. The epidural (E) group received 0.15% ropivacaine 10 ml with 30 μg fentanyl incremental bolus followed by 7–15 ml 0.1% ropivacaine with 2 μg/ml fentanyl in continuous infusion titrated until visual analogue scale was three. Tramadol (T) group received intramuscular tramadol 1 mg/kg as bolus as well as maintenance 4–6 hourly. Neonatal outcomes were measured with cord blood base deficit, pH, ionised calcium, sugar and Apgar score after delivery. Maternal satisfaction was also assessed by four point subjective score. Results: Baseline maternal demographics and neonatal birth weight were comparable. Neonatal cord blood pH, base deficit, sugar, and ionised calcium levels were significantly improved in the epidural group in comparison to the tramadol group. Maternal satisfaction (P = 0.0001) regarding labour analgesia in epidural group was expressed as excellent by 48%, good by 52% whereas it was fair in 75% and poor in 25% in the tramadol group. Better haemodynamic and pain scores were reported in the epidural group. Conclusion: Epidural labour analgesia with low concentration local anaesthetic is associated with less neonatal cord blood acidaemia, better sugar and ionised calcium levels. The analgesic efficacy and maternal satisfaction are also better with epidural labour analgesia. PMID:27013750
Weber, Sabrina; Das, Gürbüz; Waldmann, Karl-Heinz; Gauly, Matthias
Isoflurane-anaesthesia combined with an analgesic represents a welfare-friendly method of pain mitigation for castration of piglets. However, it requires an inhaler device, which is uneconomic for small farms. Sharing a device among farms may be an economical option if the shared use does not increase labour time and the resulting costs. This study aimed to investigate the amount and components of labour time required for piglet castration with isoflurane anaesthesia performed with stationary and shared devices. Piglets (N = 1579) were anaesthetised with isoflurane (using either stationary or shared devices) and castrated.The stationary devices were used in a group (n = 5) of larger farms (84 sows/farm on an average), whereas smaller farms (n = 7; 32 sows/farm on an average) shared one device. Each farm was visited four times and labour time for each process-step was recorded. The complete process included machine set-up, anaesthesia and castration by a practitioner, and preparation, collection and transport of piglets by a farmer. Labour time of the complete process was increased (P = 0.012) on farms sharing a device (266 s/piglet) compared to farms using stationary devices (177 s/ piglet), due to increased time for preparation (P = 0.055), castration (P = 0.026) and packing (P = 0.010) when sharing a device. However, components of the time budget of farms using stationary or shared devices did not differ significantly (P > 0.05). Cost arising from time spent by farmers did not differ considerably between the use of stationary (0.28 Euro per piglet) and shared (0.26 Euro) devices. It is concluded that costs arising from the increased labour time due to sharing a device can be considered marginal, since the high expenses originating from purchasing an inhaler device are shared among several farms.
Ikenwilo, Divine; Scott, Anthony
There is little evidence about the responsiveness of doctors' labour supply to changes in pay. Given substantial increases in NHS expenditure, new national contracts for hospital doctors and general practitioners that involve increases in pay, and the gradual imposition of a ceiling on hours worked through the European Working Time Directive, knowledge of the size of labour supply elasticities is crucial in examining the effects of these major changes. This paper estimates a modified labour supply model for hospital consultants, using data from a survey of consultants in Scotland. Rigidities in wage setting within the NHS mean that the usual specification of the labour supply model is extended by the inclusion of job quality (job satisfaction) in the equation explaining the optimal number of hours worked. Generalised Method of Moments estimation is used to account for the endogeneity of both earnings and job quality. Our results confirm the importance of pay and non-pay factors on the supply of labour by consultants. The results are sensitive to the exclusion of job quality and show a slight underestimation of the uncompensated earnings elasticity (of 0.09) without controlling for the effect of job quality, and 0.12 when we controlled for job quality. Pay increases in the new contract for consultants will only result in small increases in hours worked. Small and non-significant elasticity estimates at higher quantiles in the distribution of hours suggest that any increases in hours worked are more likely for consultants who work part time. Those currently working above the median number of hours are much less responsive to changes in earnings.
Kjaergaard, Hanne; Foldgast, Anne Maria; Dykes, Anna-Karin
Background Non-progressive labour is the most common complication in nulliparas and is primarily treated by augmentation. Augmented labour is often terminated by instrumental delivery. Little qualitative research has addressed experiences of non-progressive and augmented deliveries. The aim of this study was to gain a deeper understanding of the experience of non-progressive and augmented labour among nulliparas and their experience of the care they received. Methods A qualitative study was conducted using individual interviews. Data was collected and analysed according to the Grounded Theory method. The participants were a purposive sample of ten women. The interviews were conducted 4–15 weeks after delivery. Results The women had contrasting experiences during the birth process. During labour there was a conflict between the expectation of having a natural delivery and actually having a medical delivery. The women experienced a feeling of separation between mind and body. Interacting with the midwife had a major influence on feelings of losing and regaining control. Reconciliation between the contrasting feelings during labour was achieved. The core category was named Dialectical Birth Process and comprised three categories: Balancing natural and medical delivery, Interacting, Losing and regaining control. Conclusion A dialectical process was identified in these women's experiences of non-progressive labour. The process is susceptible to interaction with the midwife; especially her support to the woman's feeling of being in control. Midwives should secure that the woman's recognition of the fact that the labour is non-progressive and augmentation is required is handled with respect for the dialectical process. Augmentation of labour should be managed as close to the course of natural labour and delivery as possible. PMID:17662152
Shaw, Richard J.; Benzeval, Michaela; Popham, Frank
Introduction Nordic countries do not have the smallest health inequalities despite egalitarian social policies. A possible explanation for this is that drivers of class differences in health such as financial strain and labour force status remain socially patterned in Nordic countries. Methods Our analyses used data for working age (25–59) men (n = 48,249) and women (n = 52,654) for 20 countries from five rounds (2002–2010) of the European Social Survey. The outcome was self-rated health in 5 categories. Stratified by gender we used fixed effects linear regression models and marginal standardisation to instigate how countries varied in the degree to which class inequalities were attenuated by financial strain and labour force status. Results and Discussion Before adjustment, Nordic countries had large inequalities in self-rated health relative to other European countries. For example the regression coefficient for the difference in health between working class and professional men living in Norway was 0.34 (95% CI 0.26 to 0.42), while the comparable figure for Spain was 0.15 (95% CI 0.08 to 0.22). Adjusting for financial strain and labour force status led to attenuation of health inequalities in all countries. However, unlike some countries such as Spain, where after adjustment the regression coefficient for working class men was only 0.02 (95% CI −0.05 to 0.10), health inequalities persisted after adjustment for Nordic countries. For Norway the adjusted coefficient was 0.17 (95% CI 0.10 to 0.25). Results for women and men were similar. However, in comparison to men, class inequalities tended to be stronger for women and more persistent after adjustment. Conclusions Adjusting for financial security and labour force status attenuates a high proportion of health inequalities in some counties, particularly Southern European countries, but attenuation in Nordic countries was modest and did not improve their relative position. PMID:25313462
Davey, D A; Dommisse, J; MacNab, M
Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) 4,5 mg in the form of either 0,5 mg oral tablets or tylose gel, was inserted intravaginally to induce labour in 11 pairs of patients with an unripe cervix. Labour commenced spontaneously in 68% of the patients and there was no difference in efficacy or complications between the tablets and the gel. PGE2 in tylose gel was originally introduced as the optimal preparation, but is not readily available. PGE2 oral tablets, inserted vaginally, although not ideal, are available and are as effective. The use of intravaginal PGE2 for induction of labour is a significant advance in obstetric practice.
Valente, A.; Frassanito, L.; Natale, L.; Draisci, G.
Neuraxial techniques of anaesthesia and analgesia are the current choice in obstetrics for efficacy and general low risk of major complications. Concern exists about neuraxial anaesthesia in patients with occult neural tube defects, regarding both labour analgesia and anaesthesia for Caesarean section. Recently, remifentanil infusion has been proposed as an analgesic technique alternative to lumbar epidural, especially when epidural analgesia appears to be contraindicated. Here, we discuss the case of a pregnant woman attending at our institution with occult, symptomatic spinal dysraphism who requested labour analgesia. She was selected for remifentanil intravenous infusion for labour pain and then underwent urgent operative delivery with spinal anaesthesia with no complications. PMID:22844625
Taguas, E. V.; Redel, M. D.; Pérez, R.; Peña, A.
The Bologna process is reaching its final stages and is causing controversy among students. The adaptation of European universities to the European Higher Education Area (EHEA) entails not only the modification of curricular programmes and the nomenclature and duration of degrees, but also the incorporation of new teaching strategies aimed at ensuring that students acquire transversal skills and aptitudes and at increasing student participation in the teaching-learning process. A number of surveys have been carried out during the last few courses among students doing degrees in engineering (Industrial Engineering, Agronomy Engineering and Forestry Engineering). These surveys include questions on their knowledge of Bologna process, its advantages and drawbacks, their opinion about optional masters or doctorate degrees, what perspectives their degrees have on the labour market and suggestions for improvement. Although the different degrees showed notable differences, the content of EHEA is well-known by less than 30% of students, while 40% of them state they know about their perspectives on the labour market. The main advantages of EHEA were related to the improvement of practical knowledge in the subjects, the recognition of degrees in Europe and wider working opportunities. The main drawbacks pointed out were worse and shorter training periods, higher costs and fiercer competition between different degrees. In addition, they suggested that the new degrees are better adjusted to the demands of the labour market. 60% and 40% of them, respectively, approved of Masters degrees and PhDs. These features should be taken into account to organize and improve the contents of the degrees as well as to involve the students in the future of University education.
Shynlova, Oksana; Tsui, Prudence; Jaffer, Shabana; Lye, Stephen J
In this review, we describe a new model to explain the regulation of myometrial function during pregnancy and labour. We propose that the myometrium undergoes dramatic changes in phenotype from early pregnancy until the onset of labour, characterized by an early proliferative phase, an intermediate phase of cellular hypertrophy and matrix elaboration, a third phase in which the cells assume a contractile phenotype and the final phase in which cells become highly active and committed to labour. The last phase of myometrial differentiation is postpartum uterine involution, completing the reproductive cycle following pregnancy and labour by returning the uterus to its non-pregnant receptive state. We further propose that phenotypic modulation of the uterine myocytes is the result of integration of endocrine signals and mechanical stimulation of the uterus by the growing fetus. Our previous studies have shown that these signals are important in regulating the onset of labour and we now have indications that they regulate earlier myometrial smooth muscle differentiation. We show that the high rate of myometrial cell proliferation in early pregnancy which reflects important aspects of many smooth muscle populations during development. The proliferative phenotype was associated with dramatic changes in the expression of IGF family proteins and coincided with an up-regulation of the anti-apoptotic pathway. Preliminary evidence suggests that myometrial hyperplasia was controlled by the PI3K-Akt-mTOR signaling pathway. The modulation of the mTOR pathway by rapamycin blocked the proliferative activity of the uterine myocytes. The growth and remodeling of the myometrium during pregnancy was associated with increased synthesis of extra cellular matrix (ECM) proteins and their corresponding integrin receptors. Our results show a decrease in expression of fibrillar collagens and a coordinated temporal increase in expression of components of the basement membrane near term
Nicolescu, Luminita; Paun, Cristian
The paper takes into discussion the issue of quality of higher education services, from the perspective of graduates and employers as main beneficiaries of higher education services, by putting face to face expectations of students at graduation with employers' requirements. In the two surveys conducted in 2006 in Romania, both graduates and…
Barasinski, Chloé; Vendittelli, Françoise
Introduction The scientific data currently available do not allow any definitive conclusion to be reached about what type of pushing should be recommended to women during the second stage of labour. The objective of this trial is to assess and compare the effectiveness of directed open-glottis pushing versus directed closed-glottis pushing. Secondary objectives are to assess, according to the type of pushing: immediate maternal and neonatal morbidity, intermediate-term maternal pelvic floor morbidity, uncomplicated birth, and women's satisfaction at 4 weeks post partum. Methods and analysis This multicentre randomised clinical trial compares directed closed-glottis pushing (Valsalva) versus directed open-glottis pushing during the second stage of labour in 4 hospitals of France. The study population includes pregnant women who received instruction in both types of pushing, have no previous caesarean delivery, are at term and have a vaginal delivery planned. Randomisation takes place during labour once cervical dilation ≥7 cm. The principal end point is assessed by a composite criterion: spontaneous delivery without perineal lesion (no episiotomy or spontaneous second-degree, third-degree or fourth-degree lacerations). We will need to recruit 125 women per group. The primary analysis will be by intention-to-treat analysis, with the principal results reported as crude relative risks (RRs) with their 95% CIs. A multivariate analysis will be performed to take prognostic and confounding factors into account to obtain adjusted RRs. Ethics and dissemination This study was approved by a French Institutional Review Board (Comité de Protection des Personnes Sud Est 6:N°AU1168). Results will be reported in peer-reviewed journals and at scientific meetings. This study will make it possible to assess the effectiveness of 2 types of directed pushing used in French practice and to assess their potential maternal, fetal and neonatal effects. Findings from the study will be
Background Pain relief during labour is a topic of major interest in the Netherlands. Epidural analgesia is considered to be the most effective method of pain relief and recommended as first choice. However its uptake by pregnant women is limited compared to other western countries, partly as a result of non-availability due to logistic problems. Remifentanil, a synthetic opioid, is very suitable for patient controlled analgesia. Recent studies show that epidural analgesia is superior to remifentanil patient controlled analgesia in terms of pain intensity score; however there was no difference in satisfaction with pain relief between both treatments. Methods/design The proposed study is a multicentre randomized controlled study that assesses the cost-effectiveness of remifentanil patient controlled analgesia compared to epidural analgesia. We hypothesize that remifentanil patient controlled analgesia is as effective in improving pain appreciation scores as epidural analgesia, with lower costs and easier achievement of 24 hours availability of pain relief for women in labour and efficient pain relief for those with a contraindication for epidural analgesia. Eligible women will be informed about the study and randomized before active labour has started. Women will be randomly allocated to a strategy based on epidural analgesia or on remifentanil patient controlled analgesia when they request pain relief during labour. Primary outcome is the pain appreciation score, i.e. satisfaction with pain relief. Secondary outcome parameters are costs, patient satisfaction, pain scores (pain-intensity), mode of delivery and maternal and neonatal side effects. The economic analysis will be performed from a short-term healthcare perspective. For both strategies the cost of perinatal care for mother and child, starting at the onset of labour and ending ten days after delivery, will be registered and compared. Discussion This study, considering cost effectiveness of remifentanil as
Li, Jinjing; Sologon, Denisa Maria
This paper advances a structural inter-temporal model of labour supply that is able to simulate the dynamics of labour supply in a continuous setting and addresses two main drawbacks of most existing models. The first limitation is the inability to incorporate individual heterogeneity as every agent is sharing the same parameters of the utility function. The second one is the strong assumption that individuals make decisions in a world of perfect certainty. Essentially, this paper offers an extension of marginal-utility-of-wealth-constant labour supply functions known as "Frisch functions" under certainty and uncertainty with homogenous and heterogeneous preferences. The lifetime models based on the fixed effect vector decomposition yield the most stable simulation results, under both certain and uncertain future wage assumptions. Due to its improved accuracy and stability, this lifetime labour supply model is particularly suitable for enhancing the performance of the life cycle simulation models, thus providing a better reference for policymaking.
Haghighi, L; Homam, H; Raoofi, Z; Najmi, Z
In this randomised double-blind controlled trial, 130 healthy pregnant women with term pregnancy who scheduled for labour induction with Bishop's score < 5, were recruited. They were assigned randomly to vaginal administration of isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN) (40 mg) or misoprostol (25 μg), which were repeated after 4 h as needed. The efficacies of medications were evaluated by predetermined primary and secondary outcome variables for cervical ripening and induction of labour and delivery. There was no significant difference in Bishop's score 8 h after drug administration between the ISDN and misoprostol groups. However, in the ISDN group, labour induction was needed more frequently and the time from start of medication to the beginning of active phase of labour was significantly longer.
Vujicic, Marko; Onate, Kanecy; Laporte, Audrey; Deber, Raisa
This paper examines trends in the nursing labour market in Canada over a period of dramatic fluctuations in hospital expenditures. We add to previous analysis that covered the period 1991-1996 and use Census data from 2001 to examine the relationship between hospital expenditure and nurse labour force participation. We find that shifts in labour force participation over the period 1991-2001 had a significant impact on the nursing supply in Canada. Individuals who were trained in nursing but were working outside the profession in 1996 because of budgetary reductions and layoffs in hospitals had largely been reabsorbed back into nursing jobs by 2001. Our analysis provides further empirical evidence that the labour force participation among individuals trained in nursing is driven to a large extent by demand-side factors.
Background Early labour is the very first phase of the labour process and is considered to be a period of time when no professional attendance is needed. However there is a high frequency of women who seek care at the delivery wards during this phase. When a woman is admitted to the delivery ward, one role for midwives is to determine whether the woman is in established labour or not. If the woman is assessed as being in early labour she will probably then be advised to return home. This recommendation is made due to past research that found that the longer a woman is in hospital the higher the risk for complications for her and her child. Women have described how this situation leaves them in a vulnerable situation where their preferences are not always met and where they are not always included in the decision-making process. Aim The aim of this study was to generate a theory based on where a woman chooses to be during the early labour process and to increase our understanding about how experiences can differ from place to place. Methods The method was a secondary analysis with grounded theory. The data used in the analysis was from two qualitative interview studies and 37 transcripts. Conclusion The findings revealed a substantive theory that women needed to be in a safe and thus secure place during early labour. This theory also describes the interplay between how women ascribed their meaning of childbirth as either a natural live event or a medical one, how this influenced where they wanted to be during early labour, and how that chosen place influenced their experiences of labour and birth.
Posadas-Domínguez, Rodolfo Rogelio; Arriaga-Jordán, Carlos Manuel; Martínez-Castañeda, Francisco Ernesto
The objective of this work was to determine the effect of family labour on the profitability and competitiveness of small-scale dairy farms in the highlands of Central Mexico. Economic data from 37 farms were analysed from a stratified statistical sampling with a Neyman assignment. Three strata were defined taking herd size as criterion. Stratum 1: herds from 3 to 9 cows plus replacements, Stratum 2: herds from 10 to 19 cows and Stratum 3: herds from 20 to 30 cows. The policy analysis matrix was used as the method to determine profitability and competitiveness. The coefficient of private profitability (CPP) when the economic cost of family labour is included in the cost structure was 8.0 %, 31.0 % and 46.0 %. When the economic cost of family labour is not included, CPP increase to 47.0 %, 57.0 % and 66.0 % for each strata, respectively. The private cost ratio (PCR) when family labour is included was 0.79, 0.51 and 0.42 for strata 1, 2 and 3, respectively. When family labour is not included, the PCR was 0.07, 0.25 and 0.26. Net profit per litre of milk including family labour was US$0.03 l(-1) for Stratum 1, US$0.09 for Stratum 2 and US$0.12 l(-1) for Stratum 3; but increased to $0.12, 0.14 and 0.15, respectively, when the economic cost of family labour is not included. It is concluded that family labour is a crucial factor in the profitability and competitiveness of small-scale dairy production.
Background Early labour is the very first phase of the labour process and is considered to be a period of time when no professional attendance is needed. However there is a high frequency of women who seek care at the delivery wards during this phase. When a woman is admitted to the delivery ward, one role for midwives is to determine whether the woman is in established labour or not. If the woman is assessed as being in early labour she will probably then be advised to return home. This recommendation is made due to past research that found that the longer a woman is in hospital the higher the risk for complications for her and her child. Women have described how this situation leaves them in a vulnerable situation where their preferences are not always met and where they are not always included in the decision-making process. Aim The aim of this study was to generate a theory based on where a woman chooses to be during the early labour process and to increase our understanding about how experiences can differ from place to place. Methods The method was a secondary analysis with grounded theory. The data used in the analysis was from two qualitative interview studies and 37 transcripts. Conclusion The findings revealed a substantive theory that women needed to be in a safe and thus secure place during early labour. This theory also describes the interplay between how women ascribed their meaning of childbirth as either a natural live event or a medical one, how this influenced where they wanted to be during early labour, and how that chosen place influenced their experiences of labour and birth. PMID:27172510
Elhorst, J. Paul
This study investigates the causes of variation in age-specific male and female labour force participation rates using annual data from 154 regions across ten European Union member states for the period 1983-1997. Regional participation rates appear to be strongly correlated in time, weakly correlated in space and to parallel their national counterparts. An econometric model is designed consistent with these empirical findings. To control for potential endogeneity of the explanatory variables, we use an instrumental variables estimation scheme based on a matrix exponential spatial specification of the error terms. Many empirical studies of aggregate labour force behaviour have ignored population distribution effects, relying instead on the representative-agent paradigm. In order for representative-agent models to accurately describe aggregate behaviour, all marginal reactions of individuals to changes in aggregate variables must be identical. It turns out that this condition cannot apply to individuals across different sex/age groups.
Canada’s nursing homes have become increasingly dependent on immigrant health care aides. More than any other ethnic group, Filipino women are over-represented among health care aides in the Canadian health care system. This qualitative study explored the employment experiences of Filipino health care aides in nursing homes from their own perspectives as well as those of policy stakeholders. Fourteen in-depth interviews were conducted with Filipino health care aides and long-term-care policy stakeholders in Winnipeg, Manitoba. The results indicated that migrant social networks act as pathways linking immigrant women with employment opportunities in nursing homes. The composition of the labour force is also shaped by management strategies and labour market accommodations that respond to, and reinforce, these social networks. These findings have implications for workforce planning and the quality of care provision in nursing homes.
Asfaw, Solomon; Davis, Benjamin; Dewbre, Josh; Handa, Sudhanshu; Winters, Paul
This paper reports analysis of the impact of Kenya’s Cash Transfer for Orphans and Vulnerable Children Programme on the household decisions on productive activities using data from a randomized experimental design. Results show that the programme had a positive and significant impact on food consumption coming from home production, accumulation of productive assets, especially on the ownership of small livestock and on formation of nonfarm enterprise, especially for females. The programme has provided more flexibility to families in terms of labour allocation decisions, particularly for those who are geographically isolated. The programme was also found to have reduced child labour, an important objective of the programme. However we find very little impact of the programme on direct indicators of crop production. PMID:25663712
Gerdprasert, Sailom; Pruksacheva, Tassanee; Panijpan, Bhinyo; Ruenwongsa, Pintip
This study aimed to develop a web-based learning media on the process and mechanism of labour for the third-year university nursing and midwifery students. This media was developed based on integrating principles of the mechanism of labour with the 5Es inquiry cycle and interactive features of information technology. In this study, the web-based learning unit was used to supplement the conventional lecture as in the traditional teaching. Students' achievements were assessed by using the pre- and post-test on factual knowledge and semi-structured interviews on attitude to the unit. Supplementation with this learning unit made learning significantly more effective than the traditional lecture by itself. The students also showed positive attitude toward the learning unit.
Fullerton, Judith T; Frick, Kevin D; Fogarty, Linda A; Fishel, Joy D; Vivio, Donna M
This study calculated the net benefit of using active management of the third stage of labour (AMTSL) rather than expectant management of the third stage of labour (EMTSL) for mothers in Guatemala and Zambia. Probabilities of events were derived from opinions of experts, publicly available data, and published literature. Costs of clinical events were calculated based on national price lists, observation of resources used in AMTSL and EMTSL, and expert estimates of resources used in managing postpartum haemorrhage and its complications, including transfusion. A decision tree was used for modelling expected costs associated with AMTSL or EMTSL. The base case analysis suggested a positive net benefit from AMTSL, with a net cost-saving of US $18,000 in Guatemala (with 100 lives saved) and US $145,000 in Zambia (with 467 lives saved) for 100,000 births. Facilities have strong economic incentives to adopt AMTSL if uterotonics are available.
Hanel, Barbara; Kalb, Guyonne; Scott, Anthony
We estimate a multi-sector model of nursing qualification holders' labour supply in different occupations. A structural approach allows us to model the labour force participation decision, the occupational and shift-type choice, and the decision about hours worked as a joint outcome following from maximising a utility function. Disutility from work is allowed to vary by occupation and also by shift type in the utility function. Our results suggest that average wage elasticities might be higher than previous research has found. This is mainly due to the effect of wages on the decision to enter or exit the profession, which was not included in the previous literature, rather than from its effect on increased working hours for those who already work in the profession.
Asfaw, Solomon; Davis, Benjamin; Dewbre, Josh; Handa, Sudhanshu; Winters, Paul
This paper reports analysis of the impact of Kenya's Cash Transfer for Orphans and Vulnerable Children Programme on the household decisions on productive activities using data from a randomized experimental design. Results show that the programme had a positive and significant impact on food consumption coming from home production, accumulation of productive assets, especially on the ownership of small livestock and on formation of nonfarm enterprise, especially for females. The programme has provided more flexibility to families in terms of labour allocation decisions, particularly for those who are geographically isolated. The programme was also found to have reduced child labour, an important objective of the programme. However we find very little impact of the programme on direct indicators of crop production.
Hall, R J; Young, C; Sutton, G C; Cambell, S
A 29-year-old woman sustained an acute massive pulmonary embolism in the 32nd week of pregnancy. Rapid clinical improvement followed the use of streptokinase. Treatment was continued for 41 hours, including labour and the first three hours after delivery. There was slow but severe postpartum haemorrhage. Partial uterine atony occurred, and may have been due, at least in part, to fibrin degradation products arising from thrombolysis. No adverse effects were noted in the baby.Our experience suggests that streptokinase may be given during labour but that an oxytocic agent may be needed; and that reversal of fibrinolysis before delivery is best achieved by the use of aprotinin (Trasylol) rather than aminocaproic acid.
Casparis, A. Wesselius-De; Thiery, M.; Le Sian, A. Yo; Baumgarten, K.; Brosens, I.; Gamisans, O.; Stolk, J. G.; Vivier, W.
A double-blind placebo-controlled multicentre study with ritodrine, a β-mimetic uterine relaxant, has been performed in 91 patients in premature labour. All patients were treated according to a fixed dosage scheme consisting of an intravenous infusion followed by oral tablets for a total of seven days. Ritodrine arrested premature labour in 80%, the placebo in 48% of the patients (P=0·02). This short treatment, however, was usually not sufficient to prolong gestation till term. Apart from a slight to moderate rise in maternal heart rate and a slight rise in systolic blood pressure, ritodrine did not give rise to any maternal or fetal side effects. The problems of patient selection and of evaluation of the results are discussed. Imagesp147-a PMID:4397654
Middle, J V; Wee, M Y K
Anaesthetists are legally obliged to obtain informed consent before performing regional analgesia in labour. A postal survey of consultant-led UK anaesthetic units was performed in September 2007 to assess practice regarding obtaining informed consent before inserting an epidural, and documentation of the risks discussed. The response rate was 72% (161/223). There was great variation between units regarding which risks women were informed about and the likely incidence of that risk. One hundred and twenty-three respondents out of 157 providing an epidural service (78%) supported a national standardised information card endorsed by the Obstetric Anaesthetists' Association, with all the benefits and risks stated, to be shown to all women before consenting to an epidural in labour.
Lannelongue, Gustavo; Gonzalez-Benito, Javier; Quiroz, Idaisa
Recent years have seen firms improve their environmental practices, although the question still remains as to whether or not investing in such practices is or is not beneficial or simply a matter of image. This study focuses on labour productivity as a measure of performance, and we argue that the impact of greater environmental performance on that productivity is moderated by capital intensity. A sample of 2823 plants provides empirical evidence to support our approach. Specifically, the analyses, making use of estimates based on multiple regression models, reveal that environmental management has a positive impact on labour productivity in organisations with low capital intensity, although that impact becomes negative in cases of high capital intensity.
Komala, Kambhampati; Reddy, Meherlatha; Quadri, Iqbal Jehan; B., Suneetha; V., Ramya
Background: Misoprostol is a new promising agent for cervical ripening and induction of labour .The ideal dose, route and frequency of administration of misoprostol are still under investigation. Although, vaginal application of misoprostol has been validated as a reasonable mean of induction, there is a patient resistance to digital examination and there is a risk of ascending infection. For this reason, oral administration of misoprostol for cervical ripening and labour induction has been tried. Aims and Objectives: To compare 50μg of oral misoprostol versus 25μg of intravaginal misoprostol for induction of labour at term and maternal, foetal outcomes. Methods: Two hundred women who were at term, with indication for induction of labour and Bishop scores of ≤5 were randomly assigned to receive misoprostol 50μg or 25μg intravaginal, every 4-6 hours, for a maximum of 5 doses. In either group, pregnant females with inadequate uterine contractions despite being given maximum 5 doses of misoprostol, were augmented using oxytocin. The primary outcome measure was time-interval from induction to vaginal delivery and vaginal delivery rate within 24 hours. Results: The median induction to vaginal delivery time in oral group (12.92h) and vaginal group (14.04 h) was not significant. Oral misoprostol resulted in more number of vaginal deliveries as compared to vaginal misoprostol (94% as compared to 86%), which was not significant. There was a significantly higher incidence of uterine tachysystole in the vaginal group, as compared to oral group. There were no significant differences between the groups with respect to oxytocin augmentation, caesarean section rate, analgesic requirement and neonatal outcome. Conclusion: Oral misoprostol is as efficacious as vaginal misoprostol because of shorter induction delivery interval, lower caesarean section rates, and lower incidence of failed induction rates. Lower incidence of foetal distress and easy intake are observed if the
Rath, W; Kehl, S
Due to rising rates of labour induction in industrialised countries, safe and effective methods of induction have once again become a focus of interest and research. Prostaglandins are effective for cervical ripening and induction of uterine contractions. They do, however, cause overstimulation of the uterus in up to 20 % of cases, sometimes causing changes in fetal heart rate. Transcervical balloon catheters provide an alternative to prostaglandins for labour induction and have been used for this purpose for almost 50 years. This induction method has experienced a recent renaissance in clinical practice that is reflected in an annually rising number of publications on its use. Balloon catheters allow gentle ripening of the cervix without causing uterine overstimulation. The two catheters available are the Foley catheter (off-label use) and the double balloon catheter, which is licensed for use in induction of labour. Both are as effective as prostaglandins, and do not increase the risk of infection to mother or child. Catheter induction also requires less monitoring compared to prostaglandins resulting in improved patient satisfaction. Balloon catheters provide a useful and promising option to achieve vaginal delivery despite failed prostaglandin induction. Intravenous oxytocin is nevertheless required in up to 85 % of cases for adequate induction/augmentation of contractions. Balloon catheters, vaginal PGE2 and misoprostol are equally effective in the context of an unripe/unfavourable cervix, the rate of uterine hyperstimulation being significantly lower, and the need for oxytocin significantly higher for catheters. Balloon catheters are increasingly being used in combination or sequentially with oral/vaginal misoprostol, although there is currently inadequate published data on the subject. International guidelines recommend the use of balloon catheters for labour induction with an unripe cervix (also following previous caesarean section) as an alternative to
Duvekot, J. J.; Roos-Hesselink, J. W.; Gonzalez Candel, A.; van der Marel, C. D.; Adriaens, V. F. R.
SCN5A gene mutations can lead to ion channel defects which can cause cardiac conduction disturbances. In the presence of specific ECG characteristics, this mutation is called Brugada syndrome. Many drugs are associated with adverse events, making anesthesia in patients with SCN5A gene mutations or Brugada syndrome challenging. In this case report, we describe a pregnant patient with this mutation who received epidural analgesia using low dose ropivacaine and sufentanil during labour. PMID:27668095
Do you use instruments produced by companies using child labour? Approximately 7,700 child workers help to produce surgical instruments in Sialkot, Pakistan. These instruments end up in the hands of nurses and doctors in thousands of hospitals and clinics around the world. Paul Germanotta of Public Services International reports on the problem and what nurses and nursing organisations can do to help end exploitation of child workers.
Lindved, Birgitte Freilev; Kierkegaard, Ole; Anhøj, Jacob
A retrospective sample of 180 records from four regional hospitals and five university hospitals in Denmark was collected and the documentation for use of oxytocin in augmentation of labour and ventouse deliveries according to the national guidelines was registered. Only approximately half of the elements in the national guidelines were documented. This shows that there is a potential for improvement in the ongoing Danish national quality improvement project Safe Deliveries (Sikre Fødsler).
Kelly, Sherrie L; Shattock, Andrew J; Kerr, Cliff C; Stuart, Robyn M; Papoyan, Arshak; Grigoryan, Trdat; Hovhannisyan, Ruben; Grigoryan, Samvel; Benedikt, Clemens; Wilson, David P
Introduction HIV prevalence is declining in key populations in Armenia including in people who inject drugs (PWID), men who have sex with men, prison inmates, and female sex workers (FSWs); however, prevalence is increasing among Armenians who seasonally migrate to work in countries with higher HIV prevalence, primarily to the Russian Federation. Methods We conducted a modelling study using the Optima model to assess the optimal resource allocation to meet targets from the 2013 to 2016 national strategic plan to minimize HIV incidence and AIDS-related deaths by 2020. Demographic, epidemiological, behavioural, and programme cost data from 2000 through 2014 were used to inform the model. The levels of coverage that could be attained among targeted populations with different investments, as well as their expected outcomes, were determined. In the absence of evidence of the efficacy of HIV programmes targeted at seasonal labour migrants, we conducted a sensitivity analysis to determine the cost-effective funding threshold for the seasonal labour migrant programme. Results The optimization analysis revealed that shifts in funding allocations could further minimize incidence and deaths by 2020 within the available resource envelope. The largest emphasis should be on antiretroviral therapy (ART), with the optimal investment to increase treatment coverage by 40%. Optimal investments also involve increases in opiate substitution therapy and FSW programmes, as well as maintenance of other prevention programmes for PWID and prevention of mother-to-child transmission. Additional funding for these increases should come from budgets for general population programmes. This is projected to avert 17% of new infections and 29% of AIDS-related deaths by 2020 compared to a baseline scenario of maintaining 2013 spending. Our sensitivity analysis demonstrated that, at current spending, coverage of annual testing among migrants of at least 43% should be achieved to warrant continuation
Rath, W.; Tsikouras, P.
Misoprostol in oral or vaginal form is an established method of labour induction worldwide. Its use after previous caesarean section is associated with a high rate of uterine rupture; according to international guidelines it is therefore contraindicated in this setting. However the evidence base for this recommendation comprises case reports, one randomised trial that was discontinued prematurely, and numerous low quality retrospective data analyses published between 1997 and 2004. New insights into e.g. resorption kinetics, dosage and application intervals, dose dependant uterine hyperstimulation rates, as well as increasing clinical experience with misoprostol have lead to a critical reappraisal of these “historical” studies. Accordingly the evidence supporting a ban on vaginal and particularly oral misoprostol for labour induction in the context of a scarred uterus is currently insufficient for a convincing guideline recommendation. In view of the clear advantages of misoprostol over prostaglandin E2 (cheaper, more effective) a retrospective review of registry data should be conducted to determine the incidence of uterine rupture following misoprostol and the circumstances in which it occurs. A prospective, randomised trial could then be conducted on the basis of these findings (e.g. oral misoprostol vs. vaginal prostaglandin E2); known risk factors for uterine rupture including the type of uterine scar would need to be taken into account when selecting patients for vaginal delivery. Until new data from well-designed studies are available, misoprostol will continue to be contraindicated in clinical guidelines for use in labour induction after previous caesarean section. PMID:26719597
Brik, Maia; Mateos, Silvia; Fernandez-Buhigas, Irene; Garbayo, Paloma; Costa, Gloria; Santacruz, Belen
Predictive markers of failure of induction of labour in term pregnancy were evaluated. A prospective study including 245 women attending induction of labour was performed. The inclusion criteria were singleton pregnancies, gestational age 37-42 weeks and the main outcomes were failure of induction, induction to delivery interval and mode of delivery. Women with a longer cervical length prior to induction (CLpi) had a higher rate of failure of induction (30.9 ± 6.8 vs. 23.9 ± 9.3, p < .001). BMI was higher and maternal height was lower in the group of caesarean section compared to vaginal delivery (33.1 ± 8 vs. 29.3 ± 4.6, 160 ± 5 vs. 164 ± 5, p < .001, respectively). A shorter CLpi correlated with a shorter induction to delivery interval (R Pearson .237, p < .001). In the regression analysis, for failure of induction the only independent predictor was the CL prior to induction. Therefore, the CLpi is an independent factor for prediction of failure of induction of labour.
Larose, Samantha L; Kpelitse, Koffi A; Campbell, M Karen; Zaric, Gregory S; Sarma, Sisira
Although a negative association between obesity and labour market outcomes is commonly reported in many studies, the causal nature of this relationship remains unclear. Using nationally representative longitudinal data from the last six confidential master files (2000/2001-2010/2011) of the National Population Health Survey, we examine the association between obesity and employment participation and earnings among working-age adults in Canada. After controlling for demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, lifestyle factors and time-invariant individual heterogeneity, our results show that obesity is not significantly associated with employment participation but is associated with reduced hourly wage rate and annual income among women by about 4% and 4.5%, respectively. The corresponding results for men show that obesity is associated with about 2% reduction in wage rate and income, but significant at 10% level. However, after controlling for the potential reverse causality bias using the lagged measure of obesity, the effect of obesity on wage rate and income became positive or statistically non-significant. Our findings suggest that obesity is not causally associated with negative labour market outcomes among working-age men in Canada. For working-age women, we find limited evidence of negative labour market outcomes.
Barden-O'Fallon, Janine; Angeles, Gustavo; Tsui, Amy
Accurate knowledge of the characteristics of the health labour force that can affect health care production is of critical importance to health planners and policymakers. This study uses health facility survey data to examine characteristics of the primary health care labour force in Nicaragua, Tanzania and Bangladesh. The characteristics examined are those that are likely to affect service provision, including urban/rural distribution, demographic characteristics, and experience and in-service training, for three types of providers (physicians, nurses and auxiliary nurses). The profiles suggest a pattern of urban/rural imbalances in Nicaragua and Tanzania. The Bangladesh facility survey did not include hospitals, thereby making concrete conclusions on the supply and distribution of providers difficult to make. Multivariate logistic regressions are used to assess the relationship between the urban/rural placement of providers by health need, population demand and facility characteristics. Health need, as measured by child mortality rates, does not have a significant association with the placement of providers in either country, unlike population size and annual growth rates. The mean number of years providers have worked at a facility is significantly associated with a decreased likelihood of rural placement for the three types of providers in Nicaragua. The mean age and percentage of female providers at each facility has a negative association with the placement of rural providers in Tanzania. The use of health facility data to profile the health care labour force is also discussed.
Hunter, Billie; Segrott, Jeremy
This article presents findings from a study of a clinical pathway for normal labour (Normal Labour Pathway) implemented in Wales, UK. The study was conducted between 2004 and 2006. The pathway aimed to support normal childbirth and reduce unnecessary childbirth interventions by promoting midwife-led care. This article focuses on how the pathway influenced the inter-professional relationships and boundaries between midwives and doctors. Data are drawn from semi-participant observation, focus groups and semi-structured interviews with 41 midwives, and semi-structured interviews with five midwifery managers and six doctors, working in two research sites. Whereas some studies have shown how clinical pathways may act as ‘boundary objects’, dissolving professional boundaries, promoting interdisciplinary care and de-differentiating professional identities, the ‘normal labour pathway’ was employed by midwives as an object of demarcation, which legitimised a midwifery model of care, clarified professional boundaries and accentuated differences in professional identities and approaches to childbirth. The pathway represented key characteristics of a professional project: achieving occupational autonomy and closure. Stricter delineation of the boundary between midwifery and obstetric work increased the confidence and professional visibility of midwives but left doctors feeling excluded and undervalued, and paradoxically reduced the scope of midwifery practice through redefining what counted as normal. PMID:24640992
Giri, Birendra Raj
This article highlights that in Nepal, the promise of education seems to have become a magnet of child bondedness. After some government intervention in 2000, the haliya and kamaiya bonded labour practices have become a socially stigmatising matter for adults, and a legal hurdle for kisan (landlord) employers, but the practices continue. Both parties to these bonded labour practices seem to have found the idea of education as a safe meeting point. While parents send their children to work with the hope of obtaining education for them, besides other material benefits, employers seek to pay as little as possible and will often not give sufficient time to their young workers to study. Though most children have little or no say during the contract, they, too, are initially attracted by the promise of education. Based on detailed fieldwork, this article explores to what extent the largely unfulfilled educational aspirations for Musahar and Tharu working children can be seen as a restrained form of empowerment or a continuing system of bonded labour in Nepal.
Hunter, Billie; Segrott, Jeremy
This article presents findings from a study of a clinical pathway for normal labour (Normal Labour Pathway) implemented in Wales, UK. The study was conducted between 2004 and 2006. The pathway aimed to support normal childbirth and reduce unnecessary childbirth interventions by promoting midwife-led care. This article focuses on how the pathway influenced the inter-professional relationships and boundaries between midwives and doctors. Data are drawn from semi-participant observation, focus groups and semi-structured interviews with 41 midwives, and semi-structured interviews with five midwifery managers and six doctors, working in two research sites. Whereas some studies have shown how clinical pathways may act as 'boundary objects', dissolving professional boundaries, promoting interdisciplinary care and de-differentiating professional identities, the 'normal labour pathway' was employed by midwives as an object of demarcation, which legitimised a midwifery model of care, clarified professional boundaries and accentuated differences in professional identities and approaches to childbirth. The pathway represented key characteristics of a professional project: achieving occupational autonomy and closure. Stricter delineation of the boundary between midwifery and obstetric work increased the confidence and professional visibility of midwives but left doctors feeling excluded and undervalued, and paradoxically reduced the scope of midwifery practice through redefining what counted as normal.
Al-Gamal, Ekhlas; Hamdan-Mansour, Ayman M; Matrouk, Reema; Al Nawaiseh, Maram
The purpose of this study was to identify the psychosocial impact of child labour in Jordan, distinguishing between the impact on working school children, nonworking school children and working and nonschooled children. More than 351 million children across the world work. Emotional, behavioral and psychiatric problems in working children are a considerable public health problem in developing countries. A descriptive, comparative, cross-sectional design was used in this study. All data were collected in 2010. A total of 4008 children aged six to 16 years were interviewed. Of these, 2093 (52.2%) were nonworking school children, 896 (22.4%) working school children, and 1019 (25.4%) working and nonschooled children. Working school children reported psychosocial problems more often than working and nonschooled children. Child labour has a negative impact on children's psychosocial health and development. These findings indicate that psychoeducational support and problem-solving programs help children to cope better with the consequences of their work and study. More effort is needed to reduce children's involvement in labour. Understanding the impact of work on child mental and social health is essential to inform policy and future research as well as to improve the lives of children.
Knape, N; Schnepp, W; Krahl, A; Zu Sayn-Wittgenstein, F
Today, the way and the intensity of labour support differ internationally because of traditions, cultural background, legislation and finance issues. Moreover, the aspects of -labour support have changed in industrialized countries due to the transition from home birth to hospital birth. Technical aspects and surveillance have become more important. The increasing workload in hospitals (IQWIG 2006) as well as increasing Cesarean section rates and epidural rates are well documented (AQUA 2011). One reason for these changes might be a lack of support during childbirth. International studies emphasise the importance for continuous support in labour (Hodnett et al. 2011). This paper adds a German perspective on one-to-one-care and discusses how the results from international studies can be transferred into the German midwifery context.A literature search was conducted in 12/2012.One-to-one care seems to be effective for decreasing intervention rates. Results of international studies demonstrate differences in settings, supporting persons and defining one-to-one care and impede that the right conclusions can be drawn for the German context. -Especially the effect of midwifery presence in the German context isn't conducted sufficiently.Professional care and trusting emotional support incorporated by one person seems to be the best way to deliver one-to-one care and to avoid fragmentation of care. Organisational barriers should be dismantled to realize this aim.National Research is needed to evaluate the effects of one-to-one care by midwives.
Siepmann, Martin; Hennig, Una-Dorothea; Siepmann, Timo; Nitzsche, Katharina; Mück-Weymann, Michael; Petrowski, Katja; Weidner, Kerstin
Preterm birth is a highly prevalent phenomenon that was shown to be associated with mental stress during pregnancy (Rich-Edwards and Grizzard in Am J Obstet Gynecol 192(5 Suppl):S30-S35, 2005). We aimed to assess the effects of heart rate variability (HRV)-biofeedback in patients with preterm labour. Therefore, we conducted a controlled randomized parallel group study in 48 female patients aged 19-38 years (median = 29) with preterm labour at gestational week 24th-32nd (median = 29th). In this study, one group (n = 24) attended six sessions of HRV-biofeedback over 2 weeks whereas patients of the other group (n = 24) were assigned to control sessions. In the HRV-biofeedback treated group, perception of chronic stress was decreased 4 weeks after completion of training compared to baseline (p < 0.05) but there was no change in the control group. In the HRV-biofeedback group, preterm birth was seen in 3 patients (13 %) whereas in the control group, preterm delivery occurred in 8 patients (33 %, p = n.s.). There was no difference in birth weight between groups and HRV remained unchanged. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that HRV-biofeedback can reduce chronic stress in patients with preterm labour when administered as an adjunct to routine care. However, it remains unclear whether stress reduction through HRV-biofeedback has a beneficial effect on preterm birth.
Lange, A P; Secher, N J; Westergaard, J G; Skovgård, I
In a prospective study of neonatal jaundice 739 infants, delivered vaginally, in the vertex presentation, and without major complications, were examined. Labour was induced or stimulated after random allocation of the mothers to one of three oxytocics (prostaglandin E2 orally, oxytocin intravenously, or demoxytocin buccally). Oxytocics were unnecessary after primary amniotomy in 91 women. A linear logistic statistical analysis showed that gestational age has a highly significant influence on the risk of jaundice (defined by maximum serum level of bilirubin greater than or equal to 205 mumol/l). An apparent influence of birthweight could be explained by the correlation between birthweight and gestational age. The influence of the three oxytocic agents was not significant, although they may have had a slight effect; however, any such effect could be a consequence of the infants of mothers given oxytocics being less mature than those whom mothers did not receive oxytocics. The duration of labour and the mother's age also had no effect on risk of jaundice. Thus, neonatal jaundice after induced and stimulated labour seems to be primarily associated with fetal maturity; the pharmacological side-effect, if any, of oxytocics is of no importance.
Rakovski, Carter C; Price-Glynn, Kim
Caring labour in long-term care settings is increasingly important as the US population ages. Ethnographic research on nursing assistants (NAs) portrays nursing home care as routine and fast paced in facilities that emphasise life maintenance more than care. Recent interview-based and small quantitative studies describe a mix of positive and negative aspects of NA work, including the rewards of caring, despite shortcomings in working conditions and pay. The current study continues this research but, for the first time, using national data. The 2004 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Nursing Assistant Study (NNAS) provides survey data from 3,017 NAs working in long-term care facilities across the US. The NNAS results confirm the importance and centrality of caring to NAs' work. NAs motivated by caring for others were significantly more satisfied with their jobs than those motivated by other reasons, such as convenience or salary. Overall, NAs report surprisingly high job satisfaction, particularly with learning new skills, doing challenging work, and organisational support for caring labour. Areas of dissatisfaction were salary, time for reproductive labour, and turnover. Intersectional analysis revealed race and citizenship played a stronger role than gender in worker satisfaction.
International Labour Review, 1993
Summarizes recent judicial decisions in various countries concerning application of general legal principles to labor law, access to employment, conditions of employment, occupational safety and health, social security, and labor relations. (Author/SK)
Hogg, Christine; Warne, Tony
Many attempts to reduce the stigmatization of people with mental illness have often been predicated, based on the desire to persuade the public that people with mental illness are 'ill' in the same way as people with medical conditions. This paper presents one aspect from the findings of a study that examined the ways in which lay people perceived mental health and illness. Data are drawn from the discussion of the roles and experiences of different non-mental health professionals who cared for and about people they met in their everyday employment. In this paper, we argue that central to these roles is the importance of listening to people in an arena which is non-statutory and without judgment. We demonstrate that people use popular sectors when they are unsure of the problem they have, or they are reluctant to refer themselves to the professional sector. The paper presents narrative extracts illustrating the emotional labour operating in each participant's role and the extent to which they provide support for their client's emotional and psychological well-being. The implications for mental health nursing are discussed in relation to working with and alongside people experiencing mental distress, in relation to 'ordinary human qualities'.
Lilly, Meredith B; Laporte, Audrey; Coyte, Peter C
The recent growth of the home care sector combined with societal and demographic changes have given rise to concerns about the adequacy of the supply of family and friend caregivers. Potential caregivers face competing time pressures that pull them in the direction of the labour market on one hand, and towards unpaid caregiving duties on the other. This paper examines the influence of unpaid caregiving on the labour supply of a cohort of working-aged caregivers in Canada, with particular emphasis on caregiving intensity. Results suggest that caregivers are heterogeneous in both their caregiving inputs and associated labour market responses, thereby underscoring the importance of controlling for caregiving intensity when measuring labour supply. The negative influence of primary caregiving on labour supply appears to be at the level of labour force participation, rather than on hours of work or wages.
Gupta, Neeru; Diallo, Khassoum; Zurn, Pascal; Dal Poz, Mario R
Background Human resources are an essential element of a health system's inputs, and yet there is a huge disparity among countries in how human resource policies and strategies are developed and implemented. The analysis of the impacts of services on population health and well-being attracts more interest than analysis of the situation of the workforce in this area. This article presents an international comparison of the health workforce in terms of skill mix, sociodemographics and other labour force characteristics, in order to establish an evidence base for monitoring and evaluation of human resources for health. Methods Profiles of the health workforce are drawn for 18 countries with developed market and transitional economies, using data from labour force and income surveys compiled by the Luxembourg Income Study between 1989 and 1997. Further descriptive analyses of the health workforce are conducted for selected countries for which more detailed occupational information was available. Results Considerable cross-national variations were observed in terms of the share of the health workforce in the total labour market, with little discernible pattern by geographical region or type of economy. Increases in the share were found among most countries for which time-trend data were available. Large gender imbalances were often seen in terms of occupational distribution and earnings. In some cases, health professionals, especially physicians, were overrepresented among the foreign-born compared to the total labour force. Conclusions While differences across countries in the profile of the health workforce can be linked to the history and role of the health sector, at the same time some common patterns emerge, notably a growing trend of health occupations in the labour market. The evidence also suggests that gender inequity in the workforce remains an important shortcoming of many health systems. Certain unexpected patterns of occupational distribution and
Petersen, Alexander M; Puliga, Michelangelo
The extent to which international high-skilled mobility channels are forming is a question of great importance in an increasingly global knowledge-based economy. One factor facilitating the growth of high-skilled labour markets is the standardization of certifiable degrees meriting international recognition. Within this context, we analysed an extensive high-skilled mobility database comprising roughly 382 000 individuals from five broad profession groups (Medical, Education, Technical, Science & Engineering and Business & Legal) over the period 1997-2014, using the 13-country expansion of the European Union (EU) to provide insight into labour market integration. We compare the periods before and after the 2004 enlargement, showing the emergence of a new east-west migration channel between the 13 mostly eastern EU entrants (E) and the rest of the western European countries (W). Indeed, we observe a net directional loss of human capital from E → W, representing 29% of the total mobility after 2004. Nevertheless, the counter-migration from W → E is 7% of the total mobility over the same period, signalling the emergence of brain circulation within the EU. Our analysis of the country-country mobility networks and the country-profession bipartite networks provides timely quantitative evidence for the convergent integration of the EU, and highlights the central role of the UK and Germany as high-skilled labour hubs. We conclude with two data-driven models to explore the structural dynamics of the mobility networks. First, we develop a reconfiguration model to explore the potential ramifications of Brexit and the degree to which redirection of high-skilled labourers away from the UK may impact the integration of the rest of the European mobility network. Second, we use a panel regression model to explain empirical high-skilled mobility rates in terms of various economic 'push-pull' factors, the results of which show that government expenditure on education, per capita
Suicide mortality of young, middle-aged and elderly males and females in Japan for the years 1953-96: time series analysis for the effects of unemployment, female labour force, young and aged population, primary industry and population density.
Yamasaki, Akiko; Araki, Shunichi; Sakai, Ryoji; Yokoyama, Kazuhito; Voorhees, A Scott
Effects of nine social life indicators on age-adjusted and age-specific annual suicide mortality of male and female Japanese population in the years 1953-96 were investigated by multiple regression analysis on time series data. Unemployment rate was significantly related to the age-adjusted mortality in both males and females. Also, female labour force participation was positively related to the male mortality; persons and 65 and above was inversely related to the male mortality. Results on the age-specific mortality indicated that: during the 44 yr, (1) unemployment significantly related with the mortality of young, middle-aged and elderly males and young females; (2) female labour force participation significantly related with the mortality of young and elderly males and young females; aged population significantly related with the mortality of middle-aged and elderly males; (4) young population significantly related with the mortality of young and middle-aged males and females; (5) divorce significantly related with the mortality of middle-aged and elderly males and young males and females; (6) persons employed in primary industries significantly related with the mortality in middle-aged males and young males and females; and (7) population density significantly related with the mortality of middle-aged males and young females.
A study examined the interrelationships between sexuality, family, and the labor market in Great Britain. First, a range of analyses of women's role in the labor market, including analyses from feminist and sociological perspectives, were reviewed to determine how sexual as opposed to gender relations operate in the labor market. Next, the role of…
Drawing heavily on my MA dissertation but influenced by subsequent transcription experience, I relate how a technical problem in the recording of an interview necessitated deliberations on the nature and purpose of transcription that continue to have repercussions for my transcription practice and, furthermore, for my understanding of research as…
Brunello, Giorgio; Cappellari, Lorenzo
We use data from a nationally representative survey of Italian graduates to study whether "Alma Mater" matters for employment and earnings 3 years after graduation. We find that the attended college matters, and that there are important college-related differences, both among and within regions of the country. These differences, however,…
Mechanisms that allow the strengthening of market and patriarchal forces in higher education, especially as they relate to the academic labor market, are illustrated. The Dawkins paper, "Higher Education, a Policy Statement" (the White Paper), represents an attempt to implement major restructuring in Australia. (MLW)
Challenges of a changing Europe for education and training are new technology and organizational patterns, youth unemployment, professional mobility, and migration. Developments in Italy that exemplify change include literacy for immigrants, work-related education for women, "Green Universities," and transferable skills. (SK)
Sanyal, Bikas C.
This 1971-76 study of the employment markets in Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Sri Lanka reveals that, except in the Philippines, unemployment is increasing at a very fast rate relative to the level of education per person. In the Philippines and in India, enrollment ratios for higher education have been substantially higher…
Li, Ian W; Awofeso, Niyi
Little information is available on the public health workforce. This study contributes to the gap in the literature and examines the demographic characteristics, career destinations and earnings of Masters in Public Health (MPH) graduates in Australia, using data from the 1999-2009 waves of the Graduate Destination Survey. It was found that public health graduates had a high amount of female representation and very low proportions of indigenous representation. Public health graduates experienced a relatively low unemployment rate and 85% were employed within 120 days of graduation. However, close to half of the graduates did not work in the health industry or in health-related roles. The mean salaries of public health graduates working in public health roles were relatively low compared to those in other occupations, but they had a range comparable to that observed for public health professionals in the USA and were higher than those of other Masters graduates in some other health fields. The results indicate strong demand and positive employment prospects for public health graduates in Australia. Strategies to target recruitment and/or retention of female or indigenous graduates in the public health workforce should be a priority. Mapping of public health graduate destinations and employment prospects should might be prioritised, given its strong potential to facilitate workforce planning and provide potential public health workers with more comprehensive career trajectories.
Waenerlund, Anna-Karin; Gustafsson, Per E; Hammarström, Anne; Virtanen, Pekka
Objective The present study aims at using trajectory analysis to measure labour market attachment (LMA) over 12 years and at examining whether labour market tracks relate to perceived health status. Design Data were retrieved from a 26-year prospective cohort study, the Northern Swedish Cohort. Setting and participants All ninth grade students (n=1083) within the municipality of Luleå in northern Sweden were included in the baseline investigation in 1981. The vast majority (94%) of the original cohort participated at the fourth follow-up. In this study, 969 participants were included. Measures Perceived health status (psychological distress and non-optimal self-rated health) at age 42 and the data obtained from questionnaires. Results We have identified four tracks in relation to LMA across the 12-year period: ‘permanent’, ‘high level’, ‘strengthening’ and ‘poor level’ of attachment. LMA history relates to psychological distress. High level (OR 1.55 (95% CI 1.06 to 2.27)), strengthening (OR 1.95 (95% CI 1.29 to 2.93)) and poor attachment (OR 3.14 (95% CI 2.10 to 4.70) involve higher OR for psychological distress compared with permanent attachment. The overall p value remained significant in the final model (p=0.001). Analyses regarding non-optimal self-rated health displayed a similar pattern but this was not significant in the final model. Conclusions Our results suggest that health status in mid-life, particularly psychological distress, is related to patterns of LMA history, to a large part independently of other social risk factors and previous health. Consideration of heterogeneity and time in LMA might be important when analysing associations with perceived health. PMID:24531448
Rodríguez, Julio Louro; Portela, Rosa Mary de la Campa; Pardo, Guadalupe Martín
The work activity developed on board is of great importance in our nearby environment, and it has a series of peculiarities that determine the service rendering of sea workers. On the other hand, work at sea is developed on an international basis. Nowadays such work becomes a completely globalised industrial sector in relation to the elements that make up the ship's operation, including manpower. For that reason several relevant international organisations have paid attention to this industrial sector and have adopted a broad regulation on this matter. In the case of the European Union, the Community procedure emphasises enormous interest in providing specific and comprehensive training to seafarers, as well as in regulating working time on board with the aim of minimising the safety problems caused by fatigue. In the present article a schematic presentation of regulations on workers' health and occupational safety protection derived from the European Union, the International Maritime Organisation, and the International Labour Organisation has been done. Also it shows what parts of these regulations are not applicable to the work on board, and it reveals how the workers of fishing and maritime transport sectors are under-protected with regard to the guarantee of their health and occupational safety compared to workers in other sectors.
Neumann, P; Härtel, S; Kryger, P; Crewe, R M; Moritz, R F A
Determining the extent and causes of barriers to gene flow is essential for understanding sympatric speciation, but the practical difficulties of quantifying reproductive isolation remain an obstacle to analysing this process. Social parasites are common in eusocial insects and tend to be close phylogenetic relatives of their hosts (= Emery's rule). Sympatric speciation caused by reproductive isolation between host and parasite is a possible evolutionary pathway. Socially parasitic workers of the Cape honeybee, Apis mellifera capensis, produce female clonal offspring parthenogenetically and invade colonies of the neighbouring subspecies A. m. scutellata. In the host colony, socially parasitic workers can become pseudoqueens, an intermediate caste with queenlike pheromone secretion. Here, we show that over an area of approximately 275.000 km², all parasitic workers bear the genetic signature of a clone founded by a single ancestral worker genotype. Any gene flow from the host to the parasite is impossible because honeybee workers cannot mate. Gene flow from the parasite to the host is possible, as parasitic larvae can develop into queens. However, we show that despite sympatric coexistence for more than a decade, gene flow between host and social parasite (F(st) = 0.32) and hybridizations (0.71%) are rare, resulting in reproductive isolation. Our data suggest a new barrier to gene flow in sympatry, which is not based on assortative matings but on thelytoky and reproductive division of labour in eusocial insects, thereby suggesting a new potential pathway to Emery's rule.
On average, unemployed U.S. citizens remain jobless for much less time than their European counterparts do. The relatively low level of unemployment in the United States is attributable to two factors: a social protection system that offers far less protection than those in Western Europe do and a broad range of job openings. The fact that…
O'Dwyer, Sabrina; Raniolo, Caterina; Roper, Janice; Gupta, Manish
Induction of labour (IOL) in maternity care is often not an area of priority in maternity services, which often results in protracted delays, a poor patient experience, and patient complaints. Caesarean section (CS) rates among women undergoing IOL at this inner city district general hospital were noted to be higher than other units nationwide. We collected pre and post-intervention data of the following outcome measures: time taken to administer prostaglandin after arrival, time taken to achieve established labour, mode of delivery, and user satisfaction scores. Our introduction of a dedicated IOL Suite, promotion of out-patient IOL, use of a single administration prostaglandin (as opposed to traditional six hourly prostaglandin), widespread staff engagement and rolling audit has resulted in positive change in the maternity unit. CS rates for women undergoing IOL have been reduced from 29% to 22% (p=0.05), time taken to administer the induction medication has decreased from 6.3h to 2.7h (p=0.0001), and out-patient induction rates have increased from 3% to 33% (p=0.001). We have achieved a reduction in the overall length of in-patient stay. We have also received positive feedback from both staff and patients. We used a bottom-up approach, engaging frontline staff in problem identification and pathway design. Our staff engagement questionnaire showed other benefits such as increased staff morale as a result. Collection of simple performance data and sharing of this in real time with staff acts as a valuable tool for acceptance of change and continuous improvement. Communicating plans to a large body of people is important in ensuring the success of an intervention. Staff showing disengagement may require specific detailed information to allay their concerns. Following initial successes, ongoing vigilance, and collection of audit data is key to sustaining any improvement. PMID:26734422
Jantjes, L; Strümpher, J; Kotzé, W J
This research has focused on the birthing experience of first-time mothers who received the narcotic analgesic combination of Pethidine and Hydroxyzine during the first stage of labour. A qualitative research methodology was used to collect data. Unstructured interviews were held with first-time mothers to obtain accounts of their experience of childbirth. These narrations were audio-taped while the participants were still being cared for in the postnatal ward of the hospital where delivery took place. Nine interviews were conducted with first-time mothers who gave birth normally vaginally after a normal pregnancy and who received a narcotic analgesic in the first stage of labour. The transcribed interviews were analyzed using Tesch's method of descriptive analysis (in Creswell, 1994:115). Four themes with sub-themes emerged from the analysis. The participants reported on the physical experience of labour and described experiencing a lot of pain for which analgesics were given. They also described how these drugs dulled the pain but made them sleepy and unable to cooperate with the midwives. They described their emotional experiences, which included joy and happiness as well as anxiety, anger and despondence. They also reported that they were not sufficiently informed about labour and child-birth. In the last theme they described the methods they used to help them cope with labour including distracting techniques, leaning on a supportive person or praying. Guidelines to help midwives overcome these problems were developed.
Nguyen, Huong Ngoc; Hardesty, Melissa; Hong, Khuat Thu
Having emerged only recently due to fast urbanisation and globalisation, pendulum migrant labourers in Vietnam are economically, culturally and socially difficult to locate - though they are estimated to number in their millions. Defined by their frequent migration between village and city, pendulum migrant labourers occupy an extended period of liminality. Are they traditional villagers or liberal city people when it comes to sex? Does city life radically change their views on sexuality? Starting with the premise that living environments play a key role in structuring the practical and symbolic realities of sex, this paper explores how extended periods of circular migration between the village and city - living environments that differ markedly in terms of socioeconomic and cultural conditions - affect the sexual views and perspectives of Vietnamese pendulum migrant labourers. Analysis from in-depth interviews with 23 married pendulum migrant labourers revealed that even though they had been living the pendulum life for several years, they continued to identify themselves, sexually, as traditional villagers. Among labourers the link between sexuality and living environment was a matter of pragmatism - matching 'suitable' sexual behaviour to social, even if imagined, location - and of privilege or 'leagues' - matching behaviour and comportment to social pedigree.
Khan, H; Hameed, A; Afridi, A K
To determine the characteristics of children working in car workshops in Peshawar, a descriptive survey was conducted from June to November 2005 of 200 boys (6-15 years) randomly selected from 32 workshops. A questionnaire was used to collect socioeconomic and work-related data. The majority of the boys had no or little education, had started work before the age of 10 years and earned <700 rupees/month. Most of their fathers had little education and were in poorly paid jobs, unemployed or deceased. About 40% of the boys were engaged in mechanical work. Watery eyes (31%), chronic cough (29%) and diarrhoea (22%) were the commonest symptoms reported by the boys and 38% had had a major injury.
Hodnett, Ellen D; Stremler, Robyn; Halpern, Stephen H; Weston, Julie; Windrim, Rory
Background. Caesarean birth rates in North America continue to rise, in the absence of benefit for mothers and babies. One reason may be that hospitalized labouring women spend most of their labours in recumbent or semi-recumbent positions. Although hands-and-knees position has theoretical advantages, efforts to encourage its adoption in practice are severely hampered by the lack of compelling evidence that it is beneficial. Before a definitive, large scale trial, with spontaneous vaginal birth as the primary outcome, could be justified in terms of time, effort, and expense, several feasibility and acceptability questions had to be addressed. We aimed to enrol 60 women in a pilot study to assess feasibility and acceptability of the trial protocol, and to obtain estimates of treatment effects on method of birth and persistent back pain. Methods. We conducted a pilot study at two North American hospitals. In ten months of recruitment, 30 nulliparous women in labour at term were randomly allocated to either usual care (use of any position during labour except hands-and-knees) or to try hands-and-knees for 15 min every hour during labour. Data were collected about compliance, acceptability, persistent back pain, intrapartum interventions, and women's views of their experiences. Results. Although mean length of time from randomization to delivery was over 12 hours, only 9 of the 16 women allocated to repeated hands-and-knees used it more than twice. Two of the 14 in the usual care group used hands-and-knees once. Twenty-seven women had regional analgesia (15 in the hands-and-knees group and 12 in the usual care group). Eleven in the hands-and-knees group and 14 in the usual care group had spontaneous vaginal births. One woman (in the hands-and-knees group) had a vacuum extraction. Four women in the hands-and-knees group and none in the usual care group gave birth by caesarean section. Hourly back pain ratings were highly variable in both groups, covering the full range
Stremler, Robyn; Halpern, Stephen H.; Weston, Julie; Windrim, Rory
Background. Caesarean birth rates in North America continue to rise, in the absence of benefit for mothers and babies. One reason may be that hospitalized labouring women spend most of their labours in recumbent or semi-recumbent positions. Although hands-and-knees position has theoretical advantages, efforts to encourage its adoption in practice are severely hampered by the lack of compelling evidence that it is beneficial. Before a definitive, large scale trial, with spontaneous vaginal birth as the primary outcome, could be justified in terms of time, effort, and expense, several feasibility and acceptability questions had to be addressed. We aimed to enrol 60 women in a pilot study to assess feasibility and acceptability of the trial protocol, and to obtain estimates of treatment effects on method of birth and persistent back pain. Methods. We conducted a pilot study at two North American hospitals. In ten months of recruitment, 30 nulliparous women in labour at term were randomly allocated to either usual care (use of any position during labour except hands-and-knees) or to try hands-and-knees for 15 min every hour during labour. Data were collected about compliance, acceptability, persistent back pain, intrapartum interventions, and women’s views of their experiences. Results. Although mean length of time from randomization to delivery was over 12 hours, only 9 of the 16 women allocated to repeated hands-and-knees used it more than twice. Two of the 14 in the usual care group used hands-and-knees once. Twenty-seven women had regional analgesia (15 in the hands-and-knees group and 12 in the usual care group). Eleven in the hands-and-knees group and 14 in the usual care group had spontaneous vaginal births. One woman (in the hands-and-knees group) had a vacuum extraction. Four women in the hands-and-knees group and none in the usual care group gave birth by caesarean section. Hourly back pain ratings were highly variable in both groups, covering the full
Hutcheon, Jennifer A.; Riddell, Corinne A.; Strumpf, Erin C.; Lee, Lily; Harper, Sam
BACKGROUND: In recent decades, many smaller hospitals in British Columbia, Canada, have stopped providing planned obstetric services. We examined the effect of these service closures on the labour and delivery outcomes of pregnant women living in affected communities. METHODS: We used maternal postal codes to identify delivery records (1998–2014) of women residing in a community affected by service closure. The records were obtained from the British Columbia Perinatal Data Registry. We examined the effect of the closures using a within-communities fixed-effects framework and included similar-sized communities without service closures to control for underlying time trends. The primary outcome was a previously published composite measure of labour and delivery safety, the Adverse Outcome Index, which includes adverse events such as birth injury and unanticipated operative procedures, and includes weights for severity of adverse events. Secondary outcomes included maternal or newborn transfer, and use of obstetric interventions. RESULTS: We found little evidence that closure of planned obstetric services affected the risk of composite adverse maternal–newborn outcome (−0.4 excess adverse events per 100 deliveries, 95% confidence interval [CI] −2.0 to 1.1), or most other secondary outcomes. The severity of composite outcome events decreased following the closures (rate ratio 0.58, 95% CI 0.36 to 0.89). Closures were associated with increases in use of epidural analgesia (3.4 excess events per 100 deliveries, 95% CI 0.4 to 6.3) and length of antepartum stay (0.6 h, 95% CI 0.1 to 1.0 h). INTERPRETATION: Closure of planned obstetric services in low-volume hospitals was not associated with an increase or decrease in frequency of adverse events during labour and delivery. PMID:27821464
Chan, Val; Duffield, Rob; Watsford, Mark
This study investigated the effects of wearing compression garments during and 24 h following a 4-h exercise protocol simulating manual-labour tasks. Ten physically trained male participants, familiar with labouring activities, undertook 4 h of work tasks characteristic of industrial workplaces. Participants completed 2 testing sessions, separated by at least 1 week. In the experimental condition, participants wore a full-length compression top and compression shorts during the exercise protocol and overnight recovery, with normal work clothes worn in the control condition. Testing for serum creatine kinase and C-reactive protein, handgrip strength, knee flexion and extension torque, muscle stiffness, perceived muscle soreness and fatigue as well as heart rate and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) responses to 4-min cycling were performed before, following, and 24 h after exercise. Creatine kinase, muscle soreness, and rating of perceived fatigue increased following the exercise protocol (p < 0.05) as did RPE to a standardised cycling warm-up bout. Conversely, no postexercise changes were observed in C-reactive protein, handgrip strength, peak knee flexion torque, or stiffness measures (p > 0.05). Knee extension torque was significantly higher in the control condition at 24 h postexercise (3.1% ± 5.4% change; compression: 2.2% ± 11.1% change), although no other variables were different between conditions at any time. However, compression demonstrated a moderate-large effect (d > 0.60) to reduce perceived muscle soreness, fatigue, and RPE from standardised warm-up at 24 h postexercise. The current findings suggest that compression may assist in perceptual recovery from manual-labour exercise with implications for the ability to perform subsequent work bouts.
Gonsalves, Hazel; Al-Riyami, Nihal; Al-Dughaishi, Tamima; Gowri, Vaidayanathan; Al-Azri, Mohammed; Salahuddin, Ayesha
Objectives This study aimed to evaluate rates of success and perinatal complications of labour induction using an intracervical Foley catheter among women with a previous Caesarean delivery at a tertiary centre in Oman. Methods This retrospective cohort study included 68 pregnant women with a history of a previous Caesarean section who were admitted for induction via Foley catheter between January 2011 and December 2013 to the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Muscat, Oman. Patient data were collected from electronic and delivery ward records. Results Most women were 25–35 years old (76.5%) and 20 women had had one previous vaginal delivery (29.4%). The most common indication for induction of labour was intrauterine growth restriction with oligohydramnios (27.9%). Most women delivered after 40 gestational weeks (48.5%) and there were no neonatal admissions or complications. The majority experienced no complications during the induction period (85.3%), although a few had vaginal bleeding (5.9%), intrapartum fever (4.4%), rupture of the membranes (2.9%) and cord prolapse shortly after insertion of the Foley catheter (1.5%). However, no cases of uterine rupture or scar dehiscence were noted. Overall, the success rate of vaginal birth after a previous Caesarean delivery was 69.1%, with the remaining patients undergoing an emergency Caesarean section (30.9%). Conclusion The use of a Foley catheter in the induction of labour in women with a previous Caesarean delivery appears a safe option with a good success rate and few maternal and fetal complications. PMID:28003890
Fleming, Paul J; Villa-Torres, Laura; Taboada, Arianna; Richards, Chelly; Barrington, Clare
The morbidity and mortality of Latino immigrants in the United States (US) stem from a complex mix of policy, culture, discrimination and economics. Immigrants working as day labourers may be particularly vulnerable to the negative influences of these social factors due to limited access to social, financial and legal resources. We aimed to understand how the health of male Latino day labourers in North Carolina, US is influenced by their experiences interacting with their community and perceptions of their social environment. To respond to our research questions, we conducted three focus groups (n = 9, n = 10, n = 10) and a photovoice project (n = 5) with Latino male immigrants between October 2013 and March 2014. We conducted a thematic analysis of transcripts from the discussions in the focus groups and the group discussions with Photovoice participants. We found that men's health and well-being were primarily shaped by their experiences and feelings of discrimination and marginalisation. We identified three main links between discrimination/marginalisation and poor health: (i) dangerous work resulted in workplace injuries or illnesses; (ii) unsteady employment caused stress, anxiety and insufficient funds for healthcare; and (iii) exclusionary policies and treatment resulted in limited healthcare accessibility. Health promotion with Latino immigrant men in new settlement areas could benefit from community-building activities, addressing discrimination, augmenting the reach of formal healthcare and building upon the informal mechanisms that immigrants rely on to meet their health needs. Reforms to immigration and labour policies are also essential to addressing these structural barriers to health for these men.
This basically economic treatise elaborates the thesis that the focal point of women's economic activities is provided by their special role in the reproduction of the labor force. Given that change in sex roles is necessary in order not to perpetuate a division of labor which places women in subordinate positions, this paper attempts to analyze the nature and functions of traditional sex roles and to study the structures that have supported them through generations in an effort to conceptualize the relevant issues and to set up a general framework from which change in social structure relating to women and their economic dependency can proceed. In addition, specific studies of concrete situations observed within and across countries and cultural barriers are used for illustration. The argument, simply stated, which the paper seeks to prove, is that male domination develops around the need to control reproduction in its different aspects; the concept of reproduction used here indicates a dynamic process of change linked with the perpetuation of social systems. It includes social as well as physical reproduction, and its meaning therefore goes beyond that of reproduction of human beings. This concept of reproduction is isolated in discussions of production and the sexual division of labor, including agrarian structures and modes of production; the commercialization and proletarization of agriculture; and the availability of labor resources and development of wage labor markets. The implications of this concept of reproduction in population policy, specifically population control, are not explicitly discussed but are tremendously important.