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Sample records for labyrinth

  1. Labyrinthitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... neuritis; Labyrinthitis - vertigo: Labyrinthitis - dizziness; Labyrinthitis - vertigo; Labyrinthitis - hearing loss ... ear. Your inner ear is important for both hearing and balance. When you have labyrinthitis, the parts ...

  2. [Giving up life in the labyrinth].

    PubMed

    Portera Sánchez, A

    2001-01-01

    A brief historic survey of the labyrinth, from prehistoric images carved in stone, to gardens, Renaissance drawings and architectonic constructions will presented. The metaphor of the labyrinths, which began with Theseus killing the Minotaur with the help of Ariadne, can be applied to all: scientific investigation, artistic creation, wickedness, theology ... to life. In these eculiar and chaotic designs, structural simplicity and functional complexity coincide and therefore may produce repeated erroneous decisions. To wander successfully through these labyrinths, caution and repeated decision-makings are required to enable the traveller to reach the desired and elusive center. In each instant, decisions are made in our mind as a consequence of complex cerebral systems, activated by stimuli which originate in the intimate regions of the mind, the most complex labyrinth of all. These types of mental labyrinths are immaterial, without paths or walks, where each successive decision made facing multiple bifurcations, causes the mental traveller to advance until reaching the center. This center deceptively becomes the entrance to another of the innumerable and unknown mental labyrinths that the intimate life proposes.

  3. Fluid Dynamic - Structural Interactions of Labyrinth Seals.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-08-01

    A., "The Leakage of Steam Through Labyrinth Seals ", Trans. ASME, Vol. 57, 1935, pp 115-122. 21. Komotori, K., "A Consideration on the Labyrinth ...October 1980. 17. Vermes, G., "A fluid-Mechanics Approach to the Labyrinth Seal Leakage Problem", Journal of Basic Engineering, Tr. ASME, Series D...INTERACTIONS OF LABYRINTH SEALS Manuel Martinez-Sanchez John Dugundji Gas Turbine and Plasma Dynamics Laboratory D T IC Department of Aeronautics and

  4. Low-leakage and low-instability labyrinth seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhode, David L. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    Improved labyrinth seal designs are disclosed. The present invention relates to labyrinth seal systems with selected sealing surfaces and seal geometry to optimize flow deflection and produce maximum turbulent action. Optimum seal performance is generally accomplished by providing sealing surfaces and fluid cavities formed to dissipate fluid energy as a function of the geometry of the sealing surfaces along with the position and size of the fluid cavities formed between members of the labyrinth seal system. Improved convex surfaces, annular flow reversal grooves, flow deflection blocks and rough, machined surfaces cooperate to enhance the performance of the labyrinth seal systems. For some labyrinth seal systems a mid-cavity throttle and either rigid teeth or flexible spring teeth may be included.

  5. Rotordynamic Forces Developed by Labyrinth Seals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-11-01

    the prediction of leakage and the rotordynamic coefficients of Eq. (1) for labyrinth seals . A copy of reference DI) is attached. In comparison to... Leakage of Steam Through Labyrinth Glands," Trans. ASME, Vol. 57, 1935, pp. 115-122. 16. John, E. A. Jamea, Gas Dynamios, Wylie, 1979. -19- • ]{ o -Cr...Quadratic-Upstream Di iferemcing in Uigh Reynolds Number Illiptic a. Xgli. A.. ’"the Leakage of Steam Through Labyrinth flows," of P ohAa. ab o.. l 9

  6. The origin and evolution of terrestrial and Martian rock labyrinths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brook, G. A.

    1984-01-01

    The morphological characteristics and evolutionary development of rock labyrinths on Earth (in sandstone, volcanics, and carbonates) are compared with those on Mars. On Earth rock labyrinths originate as parallel, an echelon, or intersecting narrow grabens, or develop where fault and joint networks are selectively eroded. Labyrinths frequently contain both downfaulted and erosional elements. Closed labyrinths contain depressions; open labyrinths do not, they are simple part of a fluvial network generally of low order. As closed labyrinths made up of intersecting grabens or made up of connected erosional depressions are extremely common on Mars, the research focussed on an understanding of these labyrinth types. Field investigations were carried out in Canyonlands National Park, Utah, and in the Chirachahua Mountains of Arizona. Martian labyrinths were investigated using Viking orbiter images. In addition, research was undertaken on apparent thermokarst features in Lunae Planum and Chryse Planitia where closed depressions are numerous and resemble atlas topography.

  7. A Titanic Labyrinth

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-07-29

    This synthetic-aperture radar image was obtained by NASA's Cassini spacecraft during its T-120 pass over Titan's southern latitudes on June 7, 2016. The image is centered near 47 degrees south, 153 degrees west. It covers an area of 87 by 75 miles (140 by 120 kilometers) and has a resolution of about 1,300 feet (400 meters). Radar illuminates the scene from the left at a 35-degree incidence angle. The features seen here are an excellent example of "labyrinth terrain." Labyrinth terrains on Titan are thought to be higher areas that have been cut apart by rivers of methane, eroded or dissolved as they were either lifted up or left standing above as the region around them lowered. (Other examples of labyrinth terrain can be seen in PIA10219.) In this image, several obvious valley systems have developed, draining liquids from methane rainfall toward the southeast (at top). Several of these systems are near parallel (running from upper left to lower right), suggesting that either the geological structure of the surface or the local topographic gradient (the general slope across the area) may be influencing their direction. Also presented here is an annotated version of the image, along with an aerial photograph of a region in southern Java known as Gunung Kidul that resembles this Titan labyrinth. This region is limestone that has been dissolved and eroded by water, creating a system of canyons called polygonal karst. Like on Titan, the canyons show a trend from upper left to lower right, in this case controlled by faults or joints. (Java photo from Haryono and Day, Journal of Cave and Karst Studies 66 (2004) 62-69, courtesy of Eko Haryono.) http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20708

  8. The Measurement and Prediction of Rotordynamic Forces for Labyrinth Seals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-01

    Leakage of Steam Through Labyrinth Seals ," Transactions ASME, vol. 57...stiffness and damping) coefficients and leakage characteristics were completed for labyrinth -rotor/hofleycombe- Istator seals . Comparisons to labyrinth -rotor...range of labyrinth - seal con- figurations, and U (c) the development and validation of "bulk-flow" models for the prediction of leakage

  9. Evolution of the Sauropterygian Labyrinth with Increasingly Pelagic Lifestyles.

    PubMed

    Neenan, James M; Reich, Tobias; Evers, Serjoscha W; Druckenmiller, Patrick S; Voeten, Dennis F A E; Choiniere, Jonah N; Barrett, Paul M; Pierce, Stephanie E; Benson, Roger B J

    2017-12-18

    Sauropterygia, a successful clade of marine reptiles abundant in aquatic ecosystems of the Mesozoic, inhabited nearshore to pelagic habitats over >180 million years of evolutionary history [1]. Aquatic vertebrates experience strong buoyancy forces that allow movement in a three-dimensional environment, resulting in structural convergences such as flippers and fish-like bauplans [2, 3], as well as convergences in the sensory systems. We used computed tomographic scans of 19 sauropterygian species to determine how the transition to pelagic lifestyles influenced the evolution of the endosseous labyrinth, which houses the vestibular sensory organ of balance and orientation [4]. Semicircular canal geometries underwent distinct changes during the transition from nearshore Triassic sauropterygians to the later, pelagic plesiosaurs. Triassic sauropterygians have dorsoventrally compact, anteroposteriorly elongate labyrinths, resembling those of crocodylians. In contrast, plesiosaurs have compact, bulbous labyrinths, sharing some features with those of sea turtles. Differences in relative labyrinth size among sauropterygians correspond to locomotory differences: bottom-walking [5, 6] placodonts have proportionally larger labyrinths than actively swimming taxa (i.e., all other sauropterygians). Furthermore, independent evolutionary origins of short-necked, large-headed "pliosauromorph" body proportions among plesiosaurs coincide with reductions of labyrinth size, paralleling the evolutionary history of cetaceans [7]. Sauropterygian labyrinth evolution is therefore correlated closely with both locomotory style and body proportions, and these changes are consistent with isolated observations made previously in other marine tetrapods. Our study presents the first virtual reconstructions of plesiosaur endosseous labyrinths and the first large-scale, quantitative study detailing the effects of increasingly aquatic lifestyles on labyrinth morphology among marine reptiles. Copyright

  10. The Idea of Labyrinth ("Migong") in Chinese Building Tradition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zou, Hui

    2012-01-01

    The concept of labyrinth as a design idea is prevalent throughout the history of Western architecture. In the late-eighteenth century when the Western Jesuits built a labyrinth as a part of a "Western-like" garden within the Chinese imperial garden Yuanming Yuan, the labyrinth appeared exotic and enjoyable for the Chinese. This essay…

  11. Labyrinth Seal Analysis. Volume 3. Analytical and Experimental Development of a Design Model for Labyrinth Seals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    the information that has been determined experimentally. The Labyrinth Seal Analysis program was, therefore, directed to the develop - ment of an...labyrinth seal performance, the program included the development of an improved empirical design model to pro- j. .,’ vide the calculation of the flow... program . * Phase I was directed to the analytical development of both an *analysis* model and an improvwd empirical *design" model. Supporting rig tests

  12. Circumferential pressure distributions in a model labyrinth seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leong, Y. M. M. S.; Brown, R. D.

    1982-01-01

    A research program to isolate and study leakage flow through labyrinth glands was initiated. Circumferential pressure distributions were measured in the labyrinth glands with geometry appropriate to the high pressure labyrinths in large steam turbines. Knowledge of this pressure distribution is essential as it is this unequal pressure field that results in the destabilizing force. Parameters that are likely to affect the pressure distributions are incorporated into the test rig. Some preliminary pressure profiles are presented.

  13. Experimental Investigations of Exciting Forces Caused by Flow in Labyrinth Seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thieleke, G.; Stetter, H.

    1991-01-01

    The interaction of the flow through the labyrinth seals with the shaft of the rotor can have an effect on the stability of turbomachines. Thus, the excited forces, so-called cross forces or nonconservative forces, arise, which act perpendicular to the rotor eccentricity. This effect is caused by an unsymmetrical pressure distribution within the labyrinth cavities. Experimental studies were carried out for different types of labyrinth geometries: two staggered labyrinths with teeth on the stator and grooved rotor as well as a full and a convergent stepped labyrinth. These labyrinths can be found on the tip shrouding of bladings in steam or gas turbines. The following parameters were varied in the test facility: geometry of the labyrinth seals (number of cavities, inlet region), shaft rotation, pressure difference on the seal, entry swirl and eccentricity of the rotor. The results are presented for stiffness coefficients of the labyrinth seals, leakage flow and circumferential flow in each cavity which was measured with special probes. Generally, the inlet swirl has the greatest influence on the coefficients of the seals. The experimental results were compared with theoretical results and were in good agreement.

  14. Walking the Labyrinth: An Innovative Approach to Counseling Center Outreach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigard, Michelle F.

    2009-01-01

    This article introduces the use of the labyrinth as one systemic approach counseling centers can use when conducting outreach targeting the college community. The author discusses the labyrinth's history and its recent resurgence in professional settings, summarizes the principles of walking the labyrinth, illustrates its introduction on one…

  15. Design of a Two Dimensional Planer Pressurized Air Labyrinth Seal Test Rig

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-01

    identity by block number) Dump Diffuser, Flow Modification, Laser Doppler Velocimeter, Labyrinth Seal , Leakage Prediction, Press --ized air 19 Abstract...reducing this high to low pressure leakage . Figure 1.1 is a two dimensional representation of a 3 dimensional annular labyrinth seal . The object of this... Labyrinth Seal literature, Sneck [2] credits C.A. Parsons with development of the labyrinth seal in concert with Parson’s [31 development of the steam

  16. Flow induced force of labyrinth seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iwatsubo, T.; Motooka, N.; Kawai, R.

    1982-01-01

    Flow induced instability force due to a labyrinth seal is analyzed. An approximate solution is given for the partial differential equation representing the flow in labyrinth seal and it is compared with the finite difference method in order to verify the accuracy of both methods. The effects of difference of inlet and outlet pressures of the seal, deflection of pressure and mass flow from the steady state, rotor diameter, seal clearance, seal interval and seal number on the flow induced force of the seal are investigated and it is known that some of these factors are very influential on the flow induced force.

  17. Dampers for Stationary Labyrinth Seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    El-Aini, Yehia; Mitchell, William; Roberts, Lawrence; Montgomery, Stuart; Davis, Gary

    2011-01-01

    Vibration dampers have been invented that are incorporated as components within the stationary labyrinth seal assembly. These dampers are intended to supplement other vibration-suppressing features of labyrinth seals in order to reduce the incidence of high-cycle-fatigue failures, which have been known to occur in the severe vibratory environments of jet engines and turbopumps in which labyrinth seals are typically used. A vibration damper of this type includes several leaf springs and/or a number of metallic particles (shot) all held in an annular seal cavity by a retaining ring. The leaf springs are made of a spring steel alloy chosen, in conjunction with design parameters, to maintain sufficient preload to ensure effectiveness of damping at desired operating temperatures. The cavity is vented via a small radial gap between the retaining ring and seal housing. The damping mechanism is complex. In the case of leaf springs, the mechanism is mainly friction in the slippage between the seal housing and individual dampers. In the case of a damper that contains shot, the damping mechanism includes contributions from friction between individual particles, friction between particles and cavity walls, and dissipation of kinetic energy of impact. The basic concept of particle/shot vibration dampers has been published previously; what is new here is the use of such dampers to suppress traveling-wave vibrations in labyrinth seals. Damping effectiveness depends on many parameters, including, but not limited to, coefficient of friction, mode shape, and frequency and amplitude of vibrational modes. In tests, preloads of the order of 6 to 15 lb (2.72 to 6.8 kilograms) per spring damper were demonstrated to provide adequate damping levels. Effectiveness of shot damping of vibrations having amplitudes from 20 to 200 times normal terrestrial gravitational acceleration (196 to 1,960 meters per square second) and frequencies up to 12 kHz was demonstrated for shot sizes from 0.032 to

  18. Virtual patients: practical advice for clinical authors using Labyrinth.

    PubMed

    Begg, Michael

    2010-09-01

    Labyrinth is a tool originally developed in the University of Edinburgh's Learning Technology Section for authoring and delivering branching case scenarios. The scenarios can incorporate game-informed elements such as scoring, randomising, avatars and counters. Labyrinth has grown more popular internationally since a version of the build was made available on the open source network Source Forge. This paper offers help and advice for clinical educators interested in creating cases. Labyrinth is increasingly recognised as a tool offering great potential for delivering cases that promote rich, situated learning opportunities for learners. There are, however, significant challenges to generating such cases, not least of which is the challenge for potential authors in approaching the process of constructing narrative-rich, context-sensitive cases in an unfamiliar authoring environment. This paper offers a brief overview of the principles informing Labyrinth cases (game-informed learning), and offers some practical advice to better prepare educators with little or no prior experience. Labyrinth has continued to grow and develop, from its roots as a research and development environment to one that is optimised for use by non-technical clinical educators. The process becomes increasingly iterative and better informed as the teaching community push the software further. The positive implications of providing practical advice and concept insight to new case authors is that it ideally leads to a broader base of users who will inform future iterations of the software. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2010.

  19. Are Titan's radial Labyrinth terrains surface expressions of large laccoliths?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schurmeier, L.; Dombard, A. J.; Malaska, M.; Radebaugh, J.

    2017-12-01

    The Labyrinth terrain unit may be the one of the best examples of the surface expression of Titan's complicated history. They are characterized as highly eroded, dissected, and elevated plateaus and remnant ridges, with an assumed composition that is likely organic-rich based on radar emissivity. How these features accumulated organic-rich sediments and formed topographic highs by either locally uplifting or surviving pervasive regional deflation or erosion is an important question for understanding the history of Titan. There are several subsets of Labyrinth terrains, presumably with differing evolutionary histories and formation processes. We aim to explain the formation of a subset of Labyrinth terrain units informally referred to as "radial Labyrinth terrains." They are elevated and appear dome-like, circular in planform, have a strong radial dissection pattern, are bordered by Undifferentiated Plains units, and are found in the mid-latitudes. Based on their shape, clustering, and dimensions, we suggest that they may be the surface expression of large subsurface laccoliths. A recent study by Manga and Michaut (Icarus, 2017) explained Europa's lenticulae (pits, domes, spots) with the formation of saucer-shaped sills that form laccoliths around the brittle-ductile transition depth within the ice shell (1-5 km). Here, we apply the same scaling relationships and find that the larger size of radial labyrinth terrains with Titan's higher gravity implies deeper intrusion depths of around 20-40 km. This intrusion depth matches the expected brittle-ductile transition on Titan based on our finite element simulations and yield strength envelope analyses. We hypothesize that Titan's radial labyrinth terrains formed as cryovolcanic (water) intrusions that rose to the brittle-ductile transition within the ice shell where they spread horizontally, and uplifted the overlying ice. The organic-rich sedimentary cover also uplifted, becoming more susceptible to pluvial and fluvial

  20. Quantum and spectral properties of the Labyrinth model

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Yuki, E-mail: takahasy@math.uci.edu

    2016-06-15

    We consider the Labyrinth model, which is a two-dimensional quasicrystal model. We show that the spectrum of this model, which is known to be a product of two Cantor sets, is an interval for small values of the coupling constant. We also consider the density of states measure of the Labyrinth model and show that it is absolutely continuous with respect to Lebesgue measure for almost all values of coupling constants in the small coupling regime.

  1. Evaluation of instability forces of labyrinth seals in turbines or compressors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iwatsubo, T.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of a force induced by the labyrinth seal on the stability of rotor systems and the factors of the seal which affect the stability are investigated. In the analysis, it is assumed that the fluid in the seal is steady and that the rotor is set vertically in order to avoid the effects of gravity force. The force induced by the seal is expressed in terms proportional to the velocity and displacement of the rotor and is deduced to that expression for the oil film force in journal bearings. That force is taken into account in the equations of motion; then the stability of the system is discussed by energy concept. The force induced by the labyrinth seal always makes the rotor system unstable, and the tendency is marked when seal leakages are small. The resonance point of the rotor system is also affected by the labyrinth seal (the resonance point of the rotor system is removed by the seal leakages). The force induced by the labyrinth seal was measured by using a water-tunnel experimental system which was designed to measure the labyrinth seal force by using the similarity between gas and liquid flow theory.

  2. Analysis of dynamic characteristics of fluid force induced by labyrinth seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iwatsubo, T.; Kawai, R.; Kagawa, N.; Kakiuchi, T.; Takahara, K.

    1984-01-01

    Flow patterns of the labyrinth seal are experimentally investigated for making a mathematical model of labyrinth seal and to obtain the flow induced force of the seal. First, the flow patterns in the labyrinth chamber are studied on the circumferential flow using bubble and on the cross section of the seal chamber using aluminum powder as tracers. And next, the fluid force and its phase angle are obtained from the measured pressure distribution in the chamber and the fluid force coefficients are derived from the fluid force and the phase angle. Those are similar to the expression of oil film coefficients. As a result, it is found that the vortices exist in the labyrinth chambers and its center moves up and down periodically. The pressure drop is biggest in the first stage of chambers and next in the last stage of chambers.

  3. Silent Conversations in the Labyrinth of Artistic Research and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eis, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    This essay explores silent conversations with the past, but also navigates through the labyrinth of artistic process, with its manifold passages of research, chance occurrence and aesthetic experimentation. The double metaphors of silent conversations and labyrinths apply to the essay and the artwork within it, to the research and to the practice.…

  4. Prediction of force coefficients for labyrinth seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, O. W. K.; Martinez-Sanchez, M.; Czajkowski, E.

    1984-01-01

    The development of a linear model for the prediction of labyrinth seal forces and on its comparison to available stiffness data is presented. A discussion of the relevance of fluid damping forces and the preliminary stages of a program to obtain data on these forces are examined. Fluid-dynamic forces arising from nonuniform pressure patterns in labyrinth seal glands are known to be potentially destablizing in high power turbomachinery. A well documented case in point is that of the space Shuttle Main Engine turbopumps. Seal forces are also an important factor for the stability of shrouded turbines, acting in that case in conjunction with the effects of blade-tip clearance variations.

  5. Labyrinth seal testing for lift fan engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dobek, L. J.

    1973-01-01

    An abradable buffered labyrinth seal for the control of turbine gas path leakage in a tip-turbine driven lift fan was designed, tested, and analyzed. The seal configuration was not designed to operate in any specific location but was sized to be evaluated in an existing test rig. The final sealing diameter selected was 28 inches. Results of testing indicate that the flow equations predicted seal air flows consistent with measured values. Excellent sealing characteristics of the abradable coating on the stator land were demonstrated when a substantial seal penetration of .030 inch into the land surface was encountered without appreciable wear on the labyrinth knife edges.

  6. The mammalian bony labyrinth reconsidered, introducing a comprehensive geometric morphometric approach

    PubMed Central

    Gunz, Philipp; Ramsier, Marissa; Kuhrig, Melanie; Hublin, Jean-Jacques; Spoor, Fred

    2012-01-01

    The bony labyrinth in the temporal bone houses the sensory systems of balance and hearing. While the overall structure of the semicircular canals and cochlea is similar across therian mammals, their detailed morphology varies even among closely related groups. As such, the shape of the labyrinth carries valuable functional and phylogenetic information. Here we introduce a new, semilandmark-based three-dimensional geometric morphometric approach to shape analysis of the labyrinth, as a major improvement upon previous metric studies based on linear measurements and angles. We first provide a detailed, step-by-step description of the measurement protocol. Subsequently, we test our approach using a geographically diverse sample of 50 recent modern humans and 30 chimpanzee specimens belonging to Pan troglodytes troglodytes and P. t. verus. Our measurement protocol can be applied to CT scans of different spatial resolutions because it primarily quantifies the midline skeleton of the bony labyrinth. Accurately locating the lumen centre of the semicircular canals and the cochlea is not affected by the partial volume and thresholding effects that can make the comparison of the outer border problematic. After virtually extracting the bony labyrinth from CT scans of the temporal bone, we computed its midline skeleton by thinning the encased volume. On the resulting medial axes of the semicircular canals and cochlea we placed a sequence of semilandmarks. After Procrustes superimposition, the shape coordinates were analysed using multivariate statistics. We found statistically significant shape differences between humans and chimpanzees which corroborate previous analyses of the labyrinth based on traditional measurements. As the geometric relationship among the semilandmark coordinates was preserved throughout the analysis, we were able to quantify and visualize even small-scale shape differences. Notably, our approach made it possible to detect and visualize subtle, yet

  7. Virtual reconstruction of the skeletal labyrinth of two lamnid sharks (Elasmobranchii, Lamniformes).

    PubMed

    Schnetz, L; Kriwet, J; Pfaff, C

    2017-03-01

    The first virtual reconstruction of the skeletal labyrinth of the porbeagle shark Lamna nasus and the shortfin mako shark Isurus oxyrinchus is presented here using high-resolution micro-computed tomography. The results, in comparison with previously published information, suggest relationships between skeletal labyrinth morphology and locomotion mode in chondrichthyans, but also show that further studies are required to establish such connections. Nevertheless, this study adds to the knowledge of the skeletal labyrinth morphology in two apex elasmobranch species. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  8. "A Constant Transit of Finding": Fantasy as Realisation in "Pan's Labyrinth"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Roger; McDonald, Keith

    2010-01-01

    This article considers Guillermo Del Toro's "Pan's Labyrinth" as a text which utilises key codes and conventions of children's literature as a means of encountering the trauma of Fascism. The article begins by placing "Pan's Labyrinth" at a contextual crossroads involving fairy tale and a Spanish cinematic tradition and…

  9. Numerical calculation of the influence of axial position on the performance of stepped labyrinth seals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dianhai; Shi, Chengying; Cai, Xinghui

    2018-05-01

    In order to analyze the influence of the change of axial position on the performance of labyrinth gear, the Fluent is used to simulate the airflow in the labyrinth in this paper. The leakage coefficient and heat transfer coefficient of the sealing teeth under different axial positions are obtained. The comparisons of results shows that the change of the axial position of the stepped labyrinth seals and the bushing has little effect on the airflow inside the cavity, and the change of axial position has little influence on the leakage coefficient of labyrinth seal; The change in the axial position of the stepped labyrinth seals and the bushing does not lead to a significant effect on the heat transfer characteristics of the airflow and the cavity channel.

  10. Placental labyrinth formation in mice requires endothelial FLRT2/UNC5B signaling.

    PubMed

    Tai-Nagara, Ikue; Yoshikawa, Yusuke; Numata, Naoko; Ando, Tomofumi; Okabe, Keisuke; Sugiura, Yuki; Ieda, Masaki; Takakura, Nobuyuki; Nakagawa, Osamu; Zhou, Bin; Okabayashi, Koji; Suematsu, Makoto; Kitagawa, Yuko; Bastmeyer, Martin; Sato, Kohji; Klein, Rüdiger; Navankasattusas, Sutip; Li, Dean Y; Yamagishi, Satoru; Kubota, Yoshiaki

    2017-07-01

    The placental labyrinth is the interface for gas and nutrient exchange between the embryo and the mother; hence its proper development is essential for embryogenesis. However, the molecular mechanism underlying development of the placental labyrinth, particularly in terms of its endothelial organization, is not well understood. Here, we determined that fibronectin leucine-rich transmembrane protein 2 (FLRT2), a repulsive ligand of the UNC5 receptor family for neurons, is unexpectedly expressed in endothelial cells specifically in the placental labyrinth. Mice lacking FLRT2 in endothelial cells exhibited embryonic lethality at mid-gestation, with systemic congestion and hypoxia. Although they lacked apparent deformities in the embryonic vasculature and heart, the placental labyrinths of these embryos exhibited aberrant alignment of endothelial cells, which disturbed the feto-maternal circulation. Interestingly, this vascular deformity was related to endothelial repulsion through binding to the UNC5B receptor. Our results suggest that the proper organization of the placental labyrinth depends on coordinated inter-endothelial repulsion, which prevents uncontrolled layering of the endothelium. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  11. Rotordynamic coefficients for stepped labyrinth gas seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scharrer, Joseph K.

    1989-01-01

    The basic equations are derived for compressible flow in a stepped labyrinth gas seal. The flow is assumed to be completely turbulent in the circumferential direction where the friction factor is determined by the Blasius relation. Linearized zeroth and first-order perturbation equations are developed for small motion about a centered position by an expansion in the eccentricity ratio. The zeroth-order pressure distribution is found by satisfying the leakage equation while the circumferential velocity distribution is determined by satisfying the momentum equations. The first order equations are solved by a separation of variables solution. Integration of the resultant pressure distribution along and around the seal defines the reaction force developed by the seal and the corresponding dynamic coefficients. The results of this analysis are presented in the form of a parametric study, since there are no known experimental data for the rotordynamic coefficients of stepped labyrinth gas seals. The parametric study investigates the relative rotordynamic stability of convergent, straight and divergent stepped labyrinth gas seals. The results show that, generally, the divergent seal is more stable, rotordynamically, than the straight or convergent seals. The results also show that the teeth-on-stator seals are not always more stable, rotordynamically, then the teeth-on-rotor seals as was shown by experiment by Childs and Scharrer (1986b) for a 15 tooth seal.

  12. Flow Induced Spring Coefficients of Labyrinth Seals for Application in Rotor Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benckert, H.; Wachter, J.

    1980-01-01

    Flow induced aerodynamic spring coefficients of labyrinth seals are discussed and the restoring force in the deflection plane of the rotor and the lateral force acting perpendicularly to it are also considered. The effects of operational conditions on the spring characteristics of these components are examined, such as differential pressure, speed, inlet flow conditions, and the geometry of the labyrinth seals. Estimation formulas for the lateral forces due to shaft rotation and inlet swirl, which are developed through experiments, are presented. The utilization of the investigations is explained and results of stability calculations, especially for high pressure centrifugal compressors, are added. Suggestions are made concerning the avoidance of exciting forces in labyrinths.

  13. Women and the labyrinth of leadership.

    PubMed

    Eagly, Alice H; Carli, Linda L

    2007-09-01

    Two decades ago, people began using the "glass ceiling" catchphrase to describe organizations' failure to promote women into top leadership roles. Eagly and Carli, of Northwestern University and Wellesley College, argue in this article (based on a forthcoming book from Harvard Business School Press) that the metaphor has outlived its usefulness. In fact, it leads managers to overlook interventions that would attack the problem at its roots, wherever it occurs. A labyrinth is a more fitting image to help organizations understand and address the obstacles to women's progress. Rather than depicting just one absolute barrier at the penultimate stage of a distinguished career, a labyrinth conveys the complexity and variety of challenges that can appear along the way. Passage through a labyrinth requires persistence, awareness of one's progress, and a careful analysis of the puzzles that lie ahead. Routes to the center exist but are full of twists and turns, both expected and unexpected. Vestiges of prejudice against women, issues of leadership style and authenticity, and family responsibilities are just a few of the challenges. For instance, married mothers now devote even more time to primary child care per week than they did in earlier generations (12.9 hours of close interaction versus 10.6), despite the fact that fathers, too, put in a lot more hours than they used to (6.5 versus 2.6). Pressures for intensive parenting and the increasing demands of most high-level careers have left women with very little time to socialize with colleagues and build professional networks--that is, to accumulate the social capital that is essential to managers who want to move up. The remedies proposed--such as changing the long-hours culture, using open-recruitment tools, and preparing women for line management with appropriately demanding assignments--are wide ranging, but together they have a chance of achieving leadership equity in our time.

  14. Damping device for a stationary labyrinth seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    El-Aini, Yehia M. (Inventor); Mitchell, William S. (Inventor); Roberts, Lawrence P. (Inventor); Montgomery, Stuart K. (Inventor); Davis, Gary A. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A stationary labyrinth seal system includes a seal housing having an annular cavity, a plurality of damping devices, and a retaining ring. The damping devices are positioned within the annular cavity and are maintained within the annular cavity by the retaining ring.

  15. Comparative Anatomy of the Bony Labyrinth (Inner Ear) of Placental Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Ekdale, Eric G.

    2013-01-01

    Background Variation is a naturally occurring phenomenon that is observable at all levels of morphology, from anatomical variations of DNA molecules to gross variations between whole organisms. The structure of the otic region is no exception. The present paper documents the broad morphological diversity exhibited by the inner ear region of placental mammals using digital endocasts constructed from high-resolution X-ray computed tomography (CT). Descriptions cover the major placental clades, and linear, angular, and volumetric dimensions are reported. Principal Findings The size of the labyrinth is correlated to the overall body mass of individuals, such that large bodied mammals have absolutely larger labyrinths. The ratio between the average arc radius of curvature of the three semicircular canals and body mass of aquatic species is substantially lower than the ratios of related terrestrial taxa, and the volume percentage of the vestibular apparatus of aquatic mammals tends to be less than that calculated for terrestrial species. Aspects of the bony labyrinth are phylogenetically informative, including vestibular reduction in Cetacea, a tall cochlear spiral in caviomorph rodents, a low position of the plane of the lateral semicircular canal compared to the posterior canal in Cetacea and Carnivora, and a low cochlear aspect ratio in Primatomorpha. Significance The morphological descriptions that are presented add a broad baseline of anatomy of the inner ear across many placental mammal clades, for many of which the structure of the bony labyrinth is largely unknown. The data included here complement the growing body of literature on the physiological and phylogenetic significance of bony labyrinth structures in mammals, and they serve as a source of data for future studies on the evolution and function of the vertebrate ear. PMID:23805251

  16. The Amazing Labyrinth: An Ancient-Modern Humanities Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladensack, Carl

    1973-01-01

    The image of the labyrinth from mythology can find modern day parallelisms in architecture, art, music, and literature--all of which contributes to a humanities unit combining the old with the new. (MM)

  17. Labyrinth seal forces on a whirling rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, D. V.

    1983-01-01

    An experimental investigation of air labyrinth seal forces on a subsynchronously whirling model rotor is described and test results are given for diverging, converging, and straight two-strip seals. The effects of pressure drop, provide basic experimental data needed in the development of design methods for predicting and preventing self-excited whirl of turbine rotors and other machines having labyrinth seals. The total dynamic seal forces on the whirling model rotor are measured accurately by means of an active damping and stiffness system that is adjusted to obtain neutral whirl stability of the model rotor system. In addition, the whirling pressure pattern in the seal annulus is measured for a few test conditions and the corresponding pressure forces on the rotor are compared with the total measured forces. This comparison shows that either radial and axial pressure gradients in the seal annulus or drag forces on the rotor are significant. Comparisons made between the measured seal forces and theoretical results show that present theory is inadequate.

  18. Neurotransmission in the human labyrinth.

    PubMed

    Schrott-Fischer, Anneliese; Kammen-Jolly, Keren; Scholtz, Arne W; Kong, Wei-jia; Eybalin, Michel

    2002-01-01

    Different neuroactive substances have been found in the efferent pathways of both the olivocochlear and vestibular systems. In the present study, the distribution and role of three neurotransmitters, choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA), and enkephalin were investigated in the human labyrinth of 4 normal-hearing individuals. Immunohistochemical studies in human inner ear research, however, face a problem of procuring well-preserved specimens with maintained neurotransmitter antigenicity and morphology. Methods and findings are reported and discussed.

  19. Phonon Conduction in Silicon Nanobeam Labyrinths

    DOE PAGES

    Park, Woosung; Romano, Giuseppe; Ahn, Ethan C.; ...

    2017-07-24

    Here we study single-crystalline silicon nanobeams having 470 nm width and 80 nm thickness cross section, where we produce tortuous thermal paths (i.e. labyrinths) by introducing slits to control the impact of the unobstructed “line-of-sight” (LOS) between the heat source and heat sink. The labyrinths range from straight nanobeams with a complete LOS along the entire length to nanobeams in which the LOS ranges from partially to entirely blocked by introducing slits, s = 95, 195, 245, 295 and 395 nm. The measured thermal conductivity of the samples decreases monotonically from ~47 W m -1K -1 for straight beam tomore » ~31 W m -1 K -1 for slit width of 395 nm. A model prediction through a combination of the Boltzmann transport equation and ab initio calculations shows an excellent agreement with the experimental data to within ~8%. The model prediction for the most tortuous path (s = 395 nm) is reduced by ~14% compared to a straight beam of equivalent cross section. This study suggests that LOS is an important metric for characterizing and interpreting phonon propagation in nanostructures.« less

  20. High-Throughput Microfluidic Labyrinth for the Label-free Isolation of Circulating Tumor Cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Eric; Rivera-Báez, Lianette; Fouladdel, Shamileh; Yoon, Hyeun Joong; Guthrie, Stephanie; Wieger, Jacob; Deol, Yadwinder; Keller, Evan; Sahai, Vaibhav; Simeone, Diane M; Burness, Monika L; Azizi, Ebrahim; Wicha, Max S; Nagrath, Sunitha

    2017-09-27

    We present "Labyrinth," a label-free microfluidic device to isolate circulating tumor cells (CTCs) using the combination of long loops and sharp corners to focus both CTCs and white blood cells (WBCs) at a high throughput of 2.5 mL/min. The high yield (>90%) and purity (600 WBCs/mL) of Labyrinth enabled us to profile gene expression in CTCs. As proof of principle, we used previously established cancer stem cell gene signatures to profile single cells isolated from the blood of breast cancer patients. We observed heterogeneous subpopulations of CTCs expressing genes for stem cells, epithelial cells, mesenchymal cells, and cells transitioning between epithelial and mesenchymal. Labyrinth offers a cell-surface marker-independent single-cell isolation platform to study heterogeneous CTC subpopulations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Women as University Presidents: Navigating the Administrative Labyrinth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reis, Tania Carlson; Grady, Marilyn L.

    2018-01-01

    Eleven of the 81 public research universities within the Carnegie Classification of Doctoral Universities: Highest Research are led by woman presidents. Using Eagly & Carli's (2007) labyrinth framework, five of the women presidents were interviewed to identify their experiences navigating leadership barriers. Findings indicated that women…

  2. An experimental study of dynamic characteristics of labyrinth seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iwatsubo, Takuzo; Fukumoto, Koji; Mochida, Hideyuki

    1994-01-01

    The fluid force due to labyrinth seal sometimes makes the turbomachineries unstable under higher rotating speed, higher pressure and higher power. Therefore, it is important to predict the magnitude and the direction of the fluid force and to evaluate the stability of the rotor system in design process. This paper shows the experimental results of the fluid force induced by a straight labyrinth seal and the rotordynamic coefficients calculated from the fluid force. Influences of the number of fins under the rotating speed, whirling speed, inlet pressure, and inlet tangential velocity are mainly investigated on a stability of the rotor system. The results show that increase of the number of fins makes the fluid force small and the rotor system stable, an increase of inlet pressure makes the fluid forces large and an increase of inlet tangential velocity makes the rotor system unstable.

  3. Annular honeycomb seals: Test results for leakage and rotordynamic coefficients; comparisons to labyrinth and smooth configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Childs, Dara W.; Elrod, David; Hale, Keith

    1989-01-01

    Test results are presented for leakage and rotordynamic coefficients for seven honeycomb seals. All seals have the same radius, length, and clearance; however, the cell depths and diameters are varied. Rotordynamic data, which are presented, consist of the direct and cross-coupled stiffness coefficients and the direct damping coefficients. The rotordynamic-coefficient data show a considerable sensitivity to changes in cell dimensions; however, no clear trends are identifiable. Comparisons of test data for the honeycomb seals with labyrinth and smooth annular seals show the honeycomb seal had the best sealing (minimum leakage) performance, followed in order by the labyrinth and smooth seals. For prerotated fluid entering the seal, in the direction of shaft rotation, the honeycomb seal has the best rotordynamic stability followed in order by the labyrinth and smooth. For no prerotation, or fluid prerotation against shaft rotation, the labyrinth seal has the best rotordynamic stability followed in order by the smooth and honeycomb seals.

  4. Radiation attenuation on labyrinth design bunker using Iridium-192 source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, Mohamad Pauzi bin; Sani, Suhairy bin; Masenwat, Noor Azreen bin; Mohd, Shukri; Sayuti, Shaharudin; Ahmad, Mohamad Ridzuan Bin; Mahmud, Mohamad Haniza bin; Isa, Nasharuddin bin

    2017-01-01

    Gamma rays are better absorbed by materials with high atomic numbers and high density. Steel, lead, depleted uranium, concrete, water or sand can be used as gamma shielding. Lead and steel are normally used for making doors of the bunker and to reduce radiation scatter. Depleted uranium is used for gamma container. Water is used in nuclear reactor as neutron and gamma absorber. Sand is used for mobile hot cell. However concrete is the most common and cheap material for gamma radiation bunker. In this research, concrete made from hematite aggregates was used to make chevron blocks for a temporary construction of labyrinth bunker. This paper explains and discusses the gamma attenuation around labyrinth bunker with concrete containing hematite aggregates.

  5. Design and implementation of a modular interactive labyrinth targeted for use in optical education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saitgalina, Azaliya K.; Tolstoba, Nadezhda D.; Butova, Daria V.; Orekhova, Maria K.; Lyamets, Dmitry A.; Kozhina, Anastasiia D.; Kolomoitcev, Vladimir S.; Shevchenko, Denis N.; Krivtcova, Renata S.; Stepanenko, Maksim A.; Kochnev, Kirill A.; Beliaeva, Alina S.

    2017-08-01

    Through the creation of a large number of interactive optical projects in pursuit of this goal, the laboratory has realized that the most effective educational approach is one that presents information in a fun, engaging, and informative manner. Hence, the idea for an optical labyrinth was born. This labyrinth allows students to interact with and learn optical phenomena in real time, presenting tangible benefits for ongoing education of optics and photonics in schools and universities.

  6. Three-step labyrinth seal for high-performance turbomachines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Robert C.

    1987-01-01

    A three-step labyrinth seal with 12, 11, and 10 labyrinth teeth per step, respectively, was tested under static (nonrotating) conditions. The configuration represented the seal for a high-performance turbopump (e.g., the space shuttle main engine fuel pump). The test data included critical mass flux and pressure profiles over a wide range of fluid conditions at concentric, partially eccentric, and fully eccentric seal positions. The seal mass fluxes (leakage rates) were lower over the entire range of fluid conditions tested than those for data collected for similar straight and three-step cylindrical seals, and this conformed somewhat to expectations. However, the pressure profiles for the eccentric positions indicated little, if any, direct stiffness for this configuration in contrast to significant direct stiffness reported for the straight and three-step cylindrical seals over the range of test conditions. Seal dynamics depend on geometric configuration, inlet and exit parameters, fluid phase, and rotation. The method of corresponding states was applied to the mass flux data, which were found to have a pressure dependency for helium.

  7. [The application of the computer technologies for the mathematical simulation of the ethmoidal labyrinth].

    PubMed

    Markeeva, M V; Mareev, O V; Nikolenko, V N; Mareev, G O; Danilova, T V; Fadeeva, E A; Fedorov, R V

    The objective of the present work was to study the relationship between the dimensions of the ethmoidal labyrinth and the skull in the subjects differing in the nose shape by means of the factorial and correlation analysis with the application of the modern computer-assisted methods for the three-dimensional reconstruction of the skull. We developed an original method for computed craniometry with the use the original program that made it possible to determine the standard intravital craniometrics characteristics of the human skull with a high degree of accuracy based on the results of analysis of 200 computed tomograms of the head. It was shown that the length of the inferior turbinated bones and the posterior edge of the orbital plate is of special relevance for practically all parameters of the ethmoidal labyrinth. Also, the width of the choanae positively relates to the height of the ethmoidal labyrinth.

  8. Determination of Rotordynamic Coefficients for Labyrinth Seals and Application to Rotordynamic Design Calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiser, P.; Nordmann, R.

    1991-01-01

    In today's rotordynamic calculations, the input parameters for a finite element analysis (FEA) determine very much the reliability of eigenvalue and eigenmode predictions. While modeling of an elastic structure by means of beam elements etc. is relatively straightforward to perform and the input data for journal bearings are usually known exactly enough, the determination of stiffness and damping for labyrinth seals is still the subject of many investigations. Therefore, the rotordynamic influence of labyrinths is often not included in FEA for rotating machinery because of a lack of computer programs to calculate these parameters. This circumstance can give rise to severe vibration problems especially for high performance turbines or compressors, resulting in remarkable economic losses. The forces generated in labyrinths can be described for small motions around the seal center with a linearized force-motion relationship. Several years ago, we started with the development of computer codes for the determination of rotordynamic seal coefficients. Our different approaches to evaluate the dynamic fluid forces generated by turbulent, compressible seal flow are introduced.

  9. [Otosclerosis- or the loss of the natural variant of inertness ( of the labyrinth capsule)].

    PubMed

    Kiselev, A S

    2012-01-01

    The author suggests an original hypothesis of otosclerosis based on the analyses of the literature publications for many years and his personal clinical observations. The normal labyrinth capsule is considered to be bradytrophic, i.e. inert and showing an extremely low level of metabolic processes. The disturbance of bradytrophicity under the action of individual factors and/or especially their combination make it involved in the maintenance of calcium homeostasis in the body. The validity of this conjecture is confirmed by the results of histological investigations, viz. the appearance of diquide or xplasma-like, bone in the labyrinth of the patients suffering otosclerosis. Such bone resorption is known to occur in other parts of the bony skeletontoo and should be regarded as a normal physiological process contributing to the replenishment of blood calcium deficiency.The subsequent reorganization (remodeling) of any part of the bony skeleton is physiologically neutral. In the labyrinth capsule,with its small size and delicate structure, such reorganization induces the otosclerotic process responsible for dysfunction of the membranaceous labyrinth. The surgical treatment of the patients presenting with otosclerosis should be supplemented by conservative treatment intended to slow down the otosclerotic reorganization and to restore bradytrophicity of the labyrinth capsule.

  10. Navigating through 'a labyrinth' of guidance.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Susan

    2014-09-01

    Devising a strategy to deliver safe water to thousands of outlets spread across numerous buildings is always going to be a challenge, so how do you navigate your way through a bewildering labyrinth of sometimes contradictory guidance documents? Is there, in fact, simply too much guidance? Posing this question at a recent one-day conference on waterborne infections in healthcare facilities, Paul Nolan, authorised water engineer (AE), and operations manager for PFI provider, Lend Lease, took delegates through a review of the latest guidance and regulations, as Susan Pearson reports.

  11. Analysis of a hydraulic a scaled asymmetric labyrinth weir with Ansys-Fluent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otálora Carmona, Andrés Humberto; Santos Granados, Germán Ricardo

    2017-04-01

    This document presents the three dimensional computational modeling of a labyrinth weir, using the version 17.0 of the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software ANSYS - FLUENT. The computational characteristics of the model such as the geometry consideration, the mesh sensitivity, the numerical scheme, and the turbulence modeling parameters. The volume fraction of the water mixture - air, the velocity profile, the jet trajectory, the discharge coefficient and the velocity field are analyzed. With the purpose of evaluating the hydraulic behavior of the labyrinth weir of the Naveta's hydroelectric, in Apulo - Cundinamarca, was development a 1:21 scale model of the original structure, which was tested in the laboratory of the hydraulic studies in the Escuela Colombiana de Ingeniería Julio Garavito. The scale model of the structure was initially developed to determine the variability of the discharge coefficient with respect to the flow rate and their influence on the water level. It was elaborate because the original weir (labyrinth weir with not symmetrical rectangular section), did not have the capacity to work with the design flow of 31 m3/s, because over 15 m3/s, there were overflows in the adduction channel. This variation of efficiency was due to the thickening of the lateral walls by structural requirements. During the physical modeling doing by Rodríguez, H. and Matamoros H. (2015) in the test channel, it was found that, with the increase in the width of the side walls, the discharge coefficient is reduced an average by 34%, generating an increase of the water level by 0.26 m above the structure. This document aims to develop a splicing methodology between the physical models of a labyrinth weir and numerical modeling, using concepts of computational fluid dynamics and finite volume theories. For this, was carried out a detailed analysis of the variations in the different directions of the main hydraulic variables involved in the behavior, such as, the

  12. The Serious Use of Play and Metaphor: Legos and Labyrinths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Alison; Brookfield, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the authors wish to examine kinesthetic forms of learning involving the body and the physical realm. The authors look at two particular techniques; using Legos to build metaphorical models and living the physical experience of metaphors in the shape of labyrinth-walking and its attendant activities. The authors begin by discussing…

  13. Influence of disk leakage path on labyrinth seal inlet swirl ratio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirk, R. Gordon

    1987-01-01

    The results of numerous investigators have shown the importance of labyrinth seal inlet swirl on the calculated dynamic stiffness of labyrinth seals. These results have not included any calculation of inlet leakage swirl as a function of geometry and sealing conditions of the given seal. This paper outlines a method of calculating the inlet swirl at a given seal by introducing a radial chamber to predict the gas swirl as it goes from the stage tip down to the seal location. For a centrifugal compressor, this amounts to including the flow path from the impeller discharge, down the back of the disk or front of the cover, then into the shaft seal or eye packing, respectively. The solution includes the friction factors of both the disk and stationary wall with account for mass flow rate and calculation of radial pressure gradients by a free vortex solution. The results of various configurations are discussed and comparisons made to other published results of disk swirl.

  14. Experimental study on the sealing clearance between the labyrinth sealing displacer and cylinder in the 10 K G-M refrigerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, X. H.; Ju, Y. L.; Lu, Y. J.

    2011-05-01

    The labyrinth sealing displacer has been optimal designed to improve the operating stability and life-time of 10 K G-M refrigerator. The displacer was made of stainless steel 304 or inconel 718, coated with PTFE on its outer surface. Compared to the traditional piston-ring sealing displacer, the sealing clearance between the ridge of the labyrinth sealing displacer and cylinder is critical to the cooling performance of the G-M refrigerator. The displacers with different sealing clearances were experimentally studied, and the optimal clearance was given. The effects of the materials of the displacers and the system charge pressures on the performance of the labyrinth sealing were also tested and analyzed.

  15. Experimental and numerical study on the performance of the smooth-land labyrinth seal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szymanski, A.; Dykas, S.; Wróblewski, W.; Majkut, M.; Strozik, M.

    2016-10-01

    In turbomachinery the secondary flow system includes flow phenomena occurring outside the main channel, where the gaseous medium performs work on blades. Secondary air distribution constitutes a very complex and closely interrelated system that affects most of the gas turbine components. One of the most important examples of the secondary flow is leakage occurring in seals, e.g. at the rotor and stator tips, on the shaft or on the sides of the blade rim. Owing to its simplicity, low price, easy maintenance and high temperature capability, the labyrinth seal is a prime sealing solution that may be selected from numerous types of sealing structures applied in turbomachinery. For this reason, an experimental study of this particular structure has been carried out. The paper presents leakage performance of the smooth-land labyrinth seal.

  16. MEMBRANOUS LABYRINTH IN BACULOVIRUS-INFECTED CRUSTRACEAN CELLS: POSSIBLE ROLES IN VIRAL REPRODUCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The origins and morphogenesis of the membranous labyrinth (ML) in Baculovirus penaei (BP) infected cells of penaeid shrimps (Crustacea:Decapoda) are described. t is hypothesized that, because of the close parallel and concurrent development of the ML and virus reproduction, and o...

  17. Labyrinth, An Abstract Model for Hypermedia Applications. Description of its Static Components.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz, Paloma; Aedo, Ignacio; Panetsos, Fivos

    1997-01-01

    The model for hypermedia applications called Labyrinth allows: (1) the design of platform-independent hypermedia applications; (2) the categorization, generalization and abstraction of sparse unstructured heterogeneous information in multiple and interconnected levels; (3) the creation of personal views in multiuser hyperdocuments for both groups…

  18. Electric Current Transmission Through Tissues of the Vestibular Labyrinth of a Patient: Perfection of the Vestibular Implant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demkin, V. P.; Shchetinin, P. P.; Melnichuk, S. V.; Kingma, H.; Van de Berg, R.; Pleshkov, M. O.; Starkov, D. N.

    2018-03-01

    An electric model of current transmission through tissues of the vestibular labyrinth of a patient is suggested. To stimulate directly the vestibular nerve in surgical operation, terminations of the electrodes are implanted through the bone tissue of the labyrinth into the perilymph in the vicinity of the vestibular nerve. The biological tissue of the vestibular labyrinth surrounding the electrodes and having heterogeneous composition possesses conductive and dielectric properties. Thus, when a current pulse from the vestibular implant is applied to one of the electrodes, conductive disturbance currents may arise between the electrodes and the vestibular nerves that can significantly deteriorate the direct signal quality. To study such signals and to compensate for the conductive disturbance currents, an equivalent electric circuit with actual electric impedance properties of tissues of the vestibular system is suggested, and the time parameters of the conductive disturbance current transmission are calculated. It is demonstrated that these parameters can reach large values. The suggested electric model and the results of calculations can be used for perfection of the vestibular implant.

  19. Human bony labyrinth is an indicator of population history and dispersal from Africa

    PubMed Central

    Ponce de León, Marcia S.; Koesbardiati, Toetik; Weissmann, John David; Milella, Marco; Reyna-Blanco, Carlos S.; Suwa, Gen; Kondo, Osamu; Malaspinas, Anna-Sapfo; White, Tim D.; Zollikofer, Christoph P. E.

    2018-01-01

    The dispersal of modern humans from Africa is now well documented with genetic data that track population history, as well as gene flow between populations. Phenetic skeletal data, such as cranial and pelvic morphologies, also exhibit a dispersal-from-Africa signal, which, however, tends to be blurred by the effects of local adaptation and in vivo phenotypic plasticity, and that is often deteriorated by postmortem damage to skeletal remains. These complexities raise the question of which skeletal structures most effectively track neutral population history. The cavity system of the inner ear (the so-called bony labyrinth) is a good candidate structure for such analyses. It is already fully formed by birth, which minimizes postnatal phenotypic plasticity, and it is generally well preserved in archaeological samples. Here we use morphometric data of the bony labyrinth to show that it is a surprisingly good marker of the global dispersal of modern humans from Africa. Labyrinthine morphology tracks genetic distances and geography in accordance with an isolation-by-distance model with dispersal from Africa. Our data further indicate that the neutral-like pattern of variation is compatible with stabilizing selection on labyrinth morphology. Given the increasingly important role of the petrous bone for ancient DNA recovery from archaeological specimens, we encourage researchers to acquire 3D morphological data of the inner ear structures before any invasive sampling. Such data will constitute an important archive of phenotypic variation in present and past populations, and will permit individual-based genotype–phenotype comparisons. PMID:29610337

  20. Human bony labyrinth is an indicator of population history and dispersal from Africa.

    PubMed

    Ponce de León, Marcia S; Koesbardiati, Toetik; Weissmann, John David; Milella, Marco; Reyna-Blanco, Carlos S; Suwa, Gen; Kondo, Osamu; Malaspinas, Anna-Sapfo; White, Tim D; Zollikofer, Christoph P E

    2018-04-17

    The dispersal of modern humans from Africa is now well documented with genetic data that track population history, as well as gene flow between populations. Phenetic skeletal data, such as cranial and pelvic morphologies, also exhibit a dispersal-from-Africa signal, which, however, tends to be blurred by the effects of local adaptation and in vivo phenotypic plasticity, and that is often deteriorated by postmortem damage to skeletal remains. These complexities raise the question of which skeletal structures most effectively track neutral population history. The cavity system of the inner ear (the so-called bony labyrinth) is a good candidate structure for such analyses. It is already fully formed by birth, which minimizes postnatal phenotypic plasticity, and it is generally well preserved in archaeological samples. Here we use morphometric data of the bony labyrinth to show that it is a surprisingly good marker of the global dispersal of modern humans from Africa. Labyrinthine morphology tracks genetic distances and geography in accordance with an isolation-by-distance model with dispersal from Africa. Our data further indicate that the neutral-like pattern of variation is compatible with stabilizing selection on labyrinth morphology. Given the increasingly important role of the petrous bone for ancient DNA recovery from archaeological specimens, we encourage researchers to acquire 3D morphological data of the inner ear structures before any invasive sampling. Such data will constitute an important archive of phenotypic variation in present and past populations, and will permit individual-based genotype-phenotype comparisons. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  1. [Pneumococcal meningitis revealing dysplasia of the bony labyrinth in an infant].

    PubMed

    Louaib, D; François, M; Coderc, E; Dieu, S; Nathanson, M; Narcy, P; Gaudelus, J

    1996-03-01

    Dysplasias of the bony labyrinth are frequently associated with cerebrospinal fluid fistula and are usually discovered because of recurrent meningitis. A 1 year-old infant was admitted for a pneumococcal meningitis which appeared 2 days after the occurrence of a clear otorrhea from the right ear. The same organism was isolated from the otorrhea fluid, which also contained cerebrospinal fluid as confirmed cytochemically. The meningitis rapidly resolved with antibiotic treatment. Auditory brain stem responses were abolished from the right ear. CT of the temporal bones showed a pseudo-Mondini type labyrinth dysplasia at the right ear and Mondini type dysplasia at the left one. A translabyrinthine cerebrospinal fluid fistula was discovered by surgical exploration of the right ear, occurring through a perforation in the stapedial foot plate. The leak was cured by packing the vestibule and obturating both oval and round windows. Three years after the operation, the child did not experience any further episode of otorrhea or meningitis. Features suggesting a translabyrinthine fistula, especially otorrhea and deafness, should be systematically searched in any child with bacterial meningitis. Closure of these fistulas can prevent severe infectious recurrences.

  2. Relative performance comparison between baseline labyrinth and dual-brush compressor discharge seals in a T-700 engine test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Robert C.; Griffin, Thomas A.; Kline, Teresa R.; Csavina, Kristine R.; Pancholi, Arvind; Sood, Devendra

    1995-01-01

    In separate series of YT-700 engine tests, direct comparisons were made between the forward-facing labyrinth and dual brush compressor discharge seals. Compressor speeds to 43 000 rpm, surface speeds to 160 m/s (530 ft/s), pressures to 1 MPa (145 psi), and temperatures to 680 K (765 F) characterized these tests. The wear estimate for 46 hr of engine operations was less than 0.025 mm (0.001 in.) of the Haynes 25 alloy bristles running against a chromium-carbide-coated rub runner. The pressure drops were higher for the dual-brush seal than for the forward-facing labyrinth seal and leakage was lower-with the labyrinth seal leakage being 2-1/2 times greater-implying better seal characteristics, better secondary airflow distribution, and better engine performance (3 percent at high pressure to 5 percent at lower pressure) for the brush seal. (However, as brush seals wear down (after 500 to 1000 hr of engine operation), their leakage rates will increase.) Modification of the secondary flow path requires that changes in cooling air and engine dynamics be accounted for.

  3. Deafness due to haemorrhagic labyrinthitis and a review of relapses in Streptococcus suis meningitis.

    PubMed

    Tan, J H; Yeh, B I; Seet, C S R

    2010-02-01

    Deafness is a common and often permanent neurological sequel of Streptococcus (S.) suis meningitis. Suppurative labyrinthitis, rather than direct auditory nerve infection, has been found to be the site responsible for deafness. Neuroimaging is important to localise the site involved in hearing loss and to assess the feasibility of a cochlear implantation. S. suis is very sensitive to penicillin. Although a relapse of S. suis meningitis is uncommon, it can occur despite an adequate duration of appropriate antibiotic therapy. We describe a patient with S. suis meningitis, who developed permanent deafness from haemorrhagic labyrinthitis, as shown on magnetic resonance imaging. She suffered a relapse despite a seven-week course of intravenous antibiotics. A review on six cases of relapse reported in the literature shows that relapses occurred despite two to four weeks of antibiotics being administered to the patients. The clinical implications and treatment of relapse are discussed.

  4. An experimental investigation of rubbing interaction in labyrinth seals at cryogenic temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolan, F. X.; Kennedy, F. E.; Schulson, E. M.

    1985-01-01

    An experimental program was carried out to address issues related to the observed cracking of the titanium knife edges on the labyrinth seals of the high pressure fuel pump (HPFP) in the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME). Thermal shock experiments were carried out using a jet specimen with geometry similar to the knife edge geometry. These tests demonstrate that cracking of the titanium alloy is possible in a situation involving repeated thermal cycles over a wide temperature range, as might be realized during a rub in the liquid hydrogen fuel pump. High speed rub interaction tests were conducted using a representative knife edge and seal geometry over a broad range of interaction rates. Alternative materials were also experimentally evaluated. These tests provide information which can be used to design improved labyrinth seals for the HPFP of the SSME. In particular, plasma-sprayed aluminum-graphite was found to be significantly better than aluminum alloy seals used at present from the standpoint of rub performance. Ion nitriding of the titanium alloy knife edges was also found to improve rub performance compared with the untreated baseline knife edge material.

  5. Palaeobiology of Hyaenodon exiguus (Hyaenodonta, Mammalia) based on morphometric analysis of the bony labyrinth.

    PubMed

    Pfaff, Cathrin; Nagel, Doris; Gunnell, Gregg; Weber, Gerhard W; Kriwet, Jürgen; Morlo, Michael; Bastl, Katharina

    2017-02-01

    Species of the extinct genus Hyaenodon were among the largest carnivorous mammals from the Late Eocene through Early Miocene in North America, Europe and Asia. The origin, phylogeny and palaeobiology of Hyaenodonta are still ambiguous. Most previous studies focused on teeth and dental function in these highly adapted species, which might be influenced by convergent morphologies. The anatomy of the bony labyrinth in vertebrates is generally quite conservative and, additionally, was used in functional-morphological studies. This study provides the first anatomical description of the bony labyrinth of the extinct European species Hyaenodon exiguus in comparison to selected extant carnivoran taxa discussed from a functional-morphological perspective. Hyaenodon exiguus may have occupied a hyaena-like dietary niche with a semi-arboreal lifestyle, based on the relative height, width and length of the semicircular canals of the inner ear. However, this contradicts previous functional-morphological studies focusing on the diameter of the canals, which presumably represent the signal of locomotion mode. © 2016 Anatomical Society.

  6. Validation of numerical models for flow simulation in labyrinth seals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frączek, D.; Wróblewski, W.

    2016-10-01

    CFD results were compared with the results of experiments for the flow through the labyrinth seal. RANS turbulence models (k-epsilon, k-omega, SST and SST-SAS) were selected for the study. Steady and transient results were analyzed. ANSYS CFX was used for numerical computation. The analysis included flow through sealing section with the honeycomb land. Leakage flows and velocity profiles in the seal were compared. In addition to the comparison of computational models, the divergence of modeling and experimental results has been determined. Tips for modeling these problems were formulated.

  7. Development and application of a unified algorithm for solving the interdisciplinary problem of modeling aeroelastic processes in the labyrinth seal of centrifugal compressors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butymova, L. N.; Modorskii, V. Ya.

    2017-10-01

    To ensure contactless sealing of the connection between the rotating rotor and the stationary body in aircraft engines [16], high pressure pumps [13, 14], etc., labyrinth seals (LS) are used. In labyrinth seals, the working medium is sealed by throttling it when moving through successive constrictions and expansions. The study of throttling is usually performed when investigating the gas flow in the direction parallel to the rotor axis. However, it was shown in [1] that the wave processes occurring in the circumferential direction of the labyrinth seals during the vibrations of the rotor contribute to the formation of gas dynamic oscillatory processes. It should be noted that sequencing of the constrictions and extensions affects the oscillation amplitude in the gas-dynamic cavity between the LS and the rotor and increases the flow unevenness. Consequently, if these elements are not taken into account in aeroelastic calculation [15, 21] it can give an additional margin of reducing oscillations in LS and, which is important, to solve related problems [18] of continuous media mechanics [19], reduce labor intensity and counting time. Thus, in accordance with the foregoing, the LS calculation is replaced with calculating the gap seal, equivalent (with margin) to the labyrinth seal, if we consider the processes occurring in the LS circumferential direction.

  8. Investigation on the electromagnetic centring technique in compressor with labyrinth seal structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, W.; Feng, C.; Cheng, J.; Feng, Q.; Wu, W.

    2017-08-01

    At present, the piston of compressors with labyrinth seal structure generally runs eccentrically, which causes uneven radial clearance, serious leakages and lower volumetric efficiency. This has become an urgent problem in the development of labyrinth compressors. In this study, electromagnetic levitation technology was introduced to achieve concentric centering between the piston and cylinder, and the conventional cantilever structure for the piston centering was replaced by a simple support structure using the through-piston rod. Furthermore, the simulation model of the electromagnetic centering system was established and the experimental prototype was built. The mathematical simulation model was verified by comparing simulated and tested results. Then, the centering effect of the system was assessed and the variation of the leakage in the compressor was studied by models using dynamic mesh technology. The results showed that the radial clearance between piston and cylinder can be maintained in the range of -0.3 mm to 0.3 mm through the electromagnetic centering control. In addition, the inner leakage of the compressor was quite appreciable without the electromagnetic control. However, it was reduced by 1.8 times with the introduction of the electromagnetic control. Thus, it can be concluded that the precise centering between the piston and the cylinder can be achieved by the introduction of the electromagnetic centering technique.

  9. Navigating the Labyrinth of Leadership: The Experience of Female Presidents in Arkansas Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herwatic, Amanda Doyle

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the lived experiences of female presidents in Arkansas community colleges. This was accomplished by collecting data through one-on-one interviews to examine how these women have navigated the labyrinth of leadership to reach the presidency of a community college. Using the conceptual framework of the…

  10. A comparison of experimental and theoretical results for labyrinth gas seals with honeycomb stators. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawkins, Lawrence Allen

    1988-01-01

    Experimental results for the rotordynamic stiffness and damping coefficients of a labyrinth -rotor honeycomb-stator seal are presented. The coefficients are compared to the coefficients of a labyrinth-rotor smooth-stator seal having the same geometry. The coefficients are compared to analytical results from a two-control-volume compressible flow model. The experimental results show that the honeycomb stator configuration is more stable than the smooth stator configuration at low rotor speeds. At high rotor speeds and low clearance, the smooth stator seal is more stable. The theoretical model predicts the cross-coupled stiffness of the honeycomb stator seal correctly within 25 percent of measured values. The model provides accurate predictions of direct damping for large clearance seals. Overall, the model does not perform as well for low clearance seals as for high clearance seals.

  11. Experimental investigation of lateral forces induced by flow through model labyrinth glands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leong, Y. M. M. S.; Brown, R. D.

    1984-01-01

    The lateral forces induced by flow through model labyrinth glands were investigated. Circumferential pressure distributions, lateral forces and stiffness coefficients data obtained are discussed. The force system is represented as a negative spring and a tangential force orthogonal to eccentricity. The magnitude of these forces are dependent on eccentricity, entry swirl, rotor peripheral velocity and seal size. A pressure equalization chamber at midgland tests should in significantly reduced forces and stiffness coefficients.

  12. Labyrinth and cerebral-spinal fluid pressure changes in guinea pigs and monkeys during simulated zero G

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, D. E.

    1977-01-01

    This study was undertaken to explore the hypothesis that shifts of body fluids from the legs and torso toward the head contribute to the motion sickness experienced by astronauts and cosmonauts. The shifts in body fluids observed during zero-G exposure were simulated by elevating guinea pigs' and monkeys' torsos and hindquarters. Cerebral-spinal fluid pressure was recorded from a transducer located in a brain ventricle; labyrinth fluid pressure was recorded from a pipette cemented in a hole in a semicircular canal. An anticipated divergence in cerebral-spinal fluid pressure and labyrinth fluid pressure during torso elevation was not observed. The results of this study do not support a fluid shift mechanism of zero-G-induced motion sickness. However, a more complete test of the fluid shift mechanism would be obtained if endolymph and perilymph pressure changes were determined separately; we have been unable to perform this test to date.

  13. Numerical solution of a flow inside a labyrinth seal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šimák, Jan; Straka, Petr; Pelant, Jaroslav

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study is a behaviour of a flow inside a labyrinth seal on a rotating shaft. The labyrinth seal is a type of a non-contact seal where a leakage of a fluid is prevented by a rather complicated path, which the fluid has to overcome. In the presented case the sealed medium is the air and the seal is made by a system of 20 teeth on a rotating shaft situated against a smooth static surface. Centrifugal forces present due to the rotation of the shaft create vortices in each chamber and thus dissipate the axial velocity of the escaping air.The structure of the flow field inside the seal is studied through the use of numerical methods. Three-dimensional solution of the Navier-Stokes equations for turbulent flow is very time consuming. In order to reduce the computational time we can simplify our problem and solve it as an axisymmetric problem in a two-dimensional meridian plane. For this case we use a transformation of the Navier-Stokes equations and of the standard k-omega turbulence model into a cylindrical coordinate system. A finite volume method is used for the solution of the resulting problem. A one-side modification of the Riemann problem for boundary conditions is used at the inlet and at the outlet of the axisymmetric channel. The total pressure and total density (temperature) are to be used preferably at the inlet whereas the static pressure is used at the outlet for the compatibility. This idea yields physically relevant boundary conditions. The important characteristics such as a mass flow rate and a power loss, depending on a pressure ratio (1.1 - 4) and an angular velocity (1000 - 15000 rpm) are evaluated.

  14. The History and Evolution of Surgery on the Vestibular Labyrinth.

    PubMed

    Naples, James G; Eisen, Marc D

    2016-11-01

    The history of surgery on the vestibular labyrinth is rich but sparsely documented in the literature. The story begins over a century ago with the labyrinthectomy in an era that consisted exclusively of ablative surgery for infection or vertigo. Improved understanding of vestibular physiology and pathology produced an era of selective ablation and hearing preservation that includes semicircular canal occlusion for benign paroxysmal positional vertigo. An era of restoration began with a discovery of superior semicircular canal dehiscence and its repair. The final era of vestibular replacement is upon us as the possibility of successful prosthetic vestibular implantation becomes reality. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2016.

  15. Dreaming of Graben in the Labyrinth of the Night

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-06-29

    Noctis Labyrinthus is a highly tectonized region immediately to the west of Valles Marineris. It formed when Mars' crust stretched itself apart. In this region, the crust first stretched in a north-south direction (as evidenced by the east-west trending scarp) and then in an east-west direction (as evidenced by the north-south trending smaller scarps). This sort of tectonic stretching creates faults in the crust (cracks along with masses of rock slide. This process is totally unrelated to Earth's plate tectonics.). The lower portions between faults are called "grabens" and the interspersed higher portions are called "horsts." The Basin and Range tectonic province of the western United States is a close Earth analog to Noctis Labyrinthus, which is Latin for "labyrinth of the night." http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20740

  16. Body shape transformation along a shared axis of anatomical evolution in labyrinth fishes (Anabantoidei).

    PubMed

    Collar, David C; Quintero, Michelle; Buttler, Bernardo; Ward, Andrea B; Mehta, Rita S

    2016-03-01

    Major morphological transformations, such as the evolution of elongate body shape in vertebrates, punctuate evolutionary history. A fundamental step in understanding the processes that give rise to such transformations is identification of the underlying anatomical changes. But as we demonstrate in this study, important insights can also be gained by comparing these changes to those that occur in ancestral and closely related lineages. In labyrinth fishes (Anabantoidei), rapid evolution of a highly derived torpedo-shaped body in the common ancestor of the pikehead (Luciocephalus aura and L. pulcher) occurred primarily through exceptional elongation of the head, with secondary contributions involving reduction in body depth and lengthening of the precaudal vertebral region. This combination of changes aligns closely with the primary axis of anatomical diversification in other anabantoids, revealing that pikehead evolution involved extraordinarily rapid change in structures that were ancestrally labile. Finer-scale examination of the anatomical components that determine head elongation also shows alignment between the pikehead evolutionary trajectory and the primary axis of cranial diversification in anabantoids, with much higher evolutionary rates leading to the pikehead. Altogether, our results show major morphological transformation stemming from extreme change along a shared morphological axis in labyrinth fishes. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  17. Klein's archaic Oedipus complex and its possible relationship to the myth of the labyrinth: notes on the origin of courage.

    PubMed

    Grotstein, J S

    1997-10-01

    The ancient Greek myth linking the images of the labyrinth and the Minotaur provides an allegory for Melanie Klein's conception of the archaic Oedipus complex as well as a vivid illustration of Winnicott's notions of object usage and the 'subjective object'. The labyrinth is suggestive of mother's body as the first area for an infant's exploration and putative sadistic conquest. The Minotaur, in turn, suggests the infant's unconscious phantasies about the content of mother's body, namely such projective identifications onto that body as the paternal penis and the 'internal babies'. Further, the heroic dynamic personified by Theseus in the myth of the labyrinth metaphorically signifies what is here proposed as a developmental line that involves the courage to do a number of things, including to become, to create, to seek, to explore, to do, to challenge, to undertake risks, to accept, to rescue, to initiate, to think, to know and to realize. The Minotaur can thus be thought to serve as a universal subjective signifier for an 'Object of Challenge', which, if not successfully dealt with by the ego-development of the infant, transforms that default into the 'Object of Nemesis'. Ultimately, this myth of mastery speaks to the psychoanalytic process itself as well as casting light on the transformative aspects of sexual intercourse as a personal healing ritual.

  18. Comparative study of notoungulate (Placentalia, Mammalia) bony labyrinths and new phylogenetically informative inner ear characters

    PubMed Central

    Macrini, Thomas E; Flynn, John J; Ni, Xijun; Croft, Darin A; Wyss, André R

    2013-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of notoungulates, an extinct group of predominantly South American herbivores, remain poorly resolved with respect to both other placental mammals and among one another. Most previous phylogenetic analyses of notoungulates have not included characters of the internal cranium, not least because few such features, including the bony labyrinth, have been described for members of the group. Here we describe the inner ears of the notoungulates Altitypotherium chucalensis (Mesotheriidae), Pachyrukhos moyani (Hegetotheriidae) and Cochilius sp. (Interatheriidae) based on reconstructions of bony labyrinths obtained from computed tomography imagery. Comparisons of the bony labyrinths of these taxa with the basally diverging notoungulate Notostylops murinus (Notostylopidae), an isolated petrosal from Itaboraí, Brazil, referred to Notoungulata, and six therian outgroups, yielded an inner ear character matrix of 25 potentially phylogenetically informative characters, 14 of them novel to this study. Two equivocally optimized character states potentially support a pairing of Mesotheriidae and Hegetotheriidae, whereas four others may be diagnostic of Notoungulata. Three additional characters are potentially informative for diagnosing more inclusive clades: one for crown Placentalia; another for a clade containing Kulbeckia, Zalambdalestes, and Placentalia; and a third for Eutheria (crown Placentalia plus stem taxa). Several other characters are apomorphic for at least one notoungulate in our study and are of potential interest for broader taxonomic sampling within Notoungulata to clarify currently enigmatic interrelationships. Measures of the semicircular canals were used to infer agility (e.g. capable of quick movements vs. lethargic movements) of these taxa. Agility scores calculated from these data generally corroborate interpretations based on postcranial remains of these or closely related species. We provide estimates of the low

  19. Static and Dynamic Pressure Distributions in a Short Labyrinth Seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millsaps, K. T.; Martinez-Sanchez, M.

    1991-01-01

    As part of a study into turbine blade tip destabilizing forces, a seals test rig was built in which spin rate, circular whirl rate, direction and amplitude of inlet swirl angle, and eccentricity can all be controlled over wide ranges, and measurements can be made at gap Reynolds numbers up to about 2 x 10(exp 4). This facility is described and preliminary data is presented for a one cavity labyrinth seal with a flat, stator mounted land. The impact of different flow coefficients for the first and second knives on the rotordynamic coefficients was found. While this effect is dominant for the direct forces, it should also be incorporated into calculations of cross forces where it has an impact under many conditions.

  20. Rotordynamic coefficients for labyrinth seals calculated by means of a finite difference technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nordmann, R.; Weiser, P.

    1989-01-01

    The compressible, turbulent, time dependent and three dimensional flow in a labyrinth seal can be described by the Navier-Stokes equations in conjunction with a turbulence model. Additionally, equations for mass and energy conservation and an equation of state are required. To solve these equations, a perturbation analysis is performed yielding zeroth order equations for centric shaft position and first order equations describing the flow field for small motions around the seal center. For numerical solution a finite difference method is applied to the zeroth and first order equations resulting in leakage and dynamic seal coefficients respectively.

  1. Pan's Labyrinth: a subjective view on childhood fantasies and the nature of evil.

    PubMed

    Segal, Timothy

    2009-06-01

    Pan's Labyrinth offers an interesting, if somewhat extreme, example of how a child in harsh situations may isolate herself from reality. This form of a personal fantasy is inspired by a child's love of fairy tales, probably a form of escapism itself. However, even in the tragic unfolding of the story, those characters who can withstand the situational evil are those that are conveyed with heroic characteristics. The film leaves us with this principle: that although evil may come in many forms, heroism itself may also come from nothing, indicating that all of us have an innate possibility of being heroes.

  2. Aerodynamic performance of conventional and advanced design labyrinth seals with solid-smooth abradable, and honeycomb lands. [gas turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stocker, H. L.; Cox, D. M.; Holle, G. F.

    1977-01-01

    Labyrinth air seal static and dynamic performance was evaluated using solid, abradable, and honeycomb lands with standard and advanced seal designs. The effects on leakage of land surface roughness, abradable land porosity, rub grooves in abradable lands, and honeycomb land cell size and depth were studied using a standard labyrinth seal. The effects of rotation on the optimum seal knife pitch were also investigated. Selected geometric and aerodynamic parameters for an advanced seal design were evaluated to derive an optimized performance configuration. The rotational energy requirements were also measured to determine the inherent friction and pumping energy absorbed by the various seal knife and land configurations tested in order to properly assess the net seal system performance level. Results indicate that: (1) seal leakage can be significantly affected with honeycomb or abradable lands; (2) rotational energy absorption does not vary significantly with the use of a solid-smooth, an abradable, or a honeycomb land; and (3) optimization of an advanced lab seal design produced a configuration that had leakage 25% below a conventional stepped seal.

  3. An iwatsubo-based solution for labyrinth seals - comparison with experimental results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Childs, D. W.; Scharrer, J. K.

    1984-01-01

    The basic equations are derived for compressible flow in a labyrinth seal. The flow is assumed to be completely turbulent in the circumferential direction where the friction factor is determined by the Blasius relation. Linearized zeroth and first-order perturbation equations are developed for small motion about a centered position by an expansion in the eccentricity ratio. The zeroth-order pressure distribution is found by satisfying the leakage equation while the circumferential velocity distribution is determined by satisfying the momentum equation. The first-order equations are solved by a separation of variables solution. Integration of the resultant pressure distribution along and around the seal defines the reaction force developed by the seal and the corresponding dynamic coefficients. The results of this analysis are compared to published test results.

  4. Calculation and measurement of the influence of flow parameters on rotordynamic coefficients in labyrinth seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwanka, K.; Ortinger, W.; Steckel, J.

    1994-01-01

    First experimental investigations performed on a new test rig are presented. For a staggered labyrinth seal with fourteen cavities the stiffness coefficient and the leakage flow are measured. The experimental results are compared to calculated results which are obtained by a one-volume bulk-flow theory. A perturbation analysis is made for seven terms. It is found out that the friction factors have great impact on the dynamic coefficients. They are obtained by turbulent flow computation by a finite-volume model with the Reynolds equations used as basic equations.

  5. Forskolin and protein kinase inhibitors differentially affect hair cell potassium currents and transmitter release at the cytoneural junction in the isolated frog labyrinth.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Maria Lisa; Rubbini, Gemma; Martini, Marta; Canella, Rita; Fesce, Riccardo

    2017-08-15

    The post-transductional elaboration of sensory input at the frog semicircular canal has been studied by correlating the effects of drugs that interfere with phosphorylation processes on: (i) potassium conductances in isolated hair cell and (ii) transmitter release at the cytoneural junction in the intact labyrinth. At hair cells, delayed potassium currents (IKD) undergo voltage- and time-dependent inactivation; inactivation removal requires ATP, is sensitive to kinase blockade, but is unaffected by exogenous application of cyclic nucleotides. We report here that forskolin, an activator of endogenous adenylyl cyclase, enhances IKD inactivation removal in isolated hair cells, but produces an overall decrease in IKD amplitude consistent with the direct blocking action of the drug on several families of K channels. In the intact labyrinth, forskolin enhances transmitter release, consistent with such depression of K conductances. Kinase blockers - H-89 and KT5823 - have been shown to reduce IKD inactivation removal and IKD amplitude at isolated hair cells. In the labyrinth, the effects of these drugs on junctional activity are quite variable, with predominant inhibition of transmitter release, rather than the enhancement expected from the impairment of K currents. The overall action of forskolin and kinase inhibitors on K conductances is similar (depression), but they have opposite effects on transmitter release: this indicates that some intermediate steps between the bioelectric control of hair cell membrane potential and transmitter release are affected in opposite ways and therefore are presumably regulated by protein phosphorylation. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Cortical hot spots and labyrinths: why cortical neuromodulation for episodic migraine with aura should be personalized

    PubMed Central

    Dahlem, Markus A.; Schmidt, Bernd; Bojak, Ingo; Boie, Sebastian; Kneer, Frederike; Hadjikhani, Nouchine; Kurths, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Stimulation protocols for medical devices should be rationally designed. For episodic migraine with aura we outline model-based design strategies toward preventive and acute therapies using stereotactic cortical neuromodulation. To this end, we regard a localized spreading depression (SD) wave segment as a central element in migraine pathophysiology. To describe nucleation and propagation features of the SD wave segment, we define the new concepts of cortical hot spots and labyrinths, respectively. In particular, we firstly focus exclusively on curvature-induced dynamical properties by studying a generic reaction-diffusion model of SD on the folded cortical surface. This surface is described with increasing level of details, including finally personalized simulations using patient's magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner readings. At this stage, the only relevant factor that can modulate nucleation and propagation paths is the Gaussian curvature, which has the advantage of being rather readily accessible by MRI. We conclude with discussing further anatomical factors, such as areal, laminar, and cellular heterogeneity, that in addition to and in relation to Gaussian curvature determine the generalized concept of cortical hot spots and labyrinths as target structures for neuromodulation. Our numerical simulations suggest that these target structures are like fingerprints, they are individual features of each migraine sufferer. The goal in the future will be to provide individualized neural tissue simulations. These simulations should predict the clinical data and therefore can also serve as a test bed for exploring stereotactic cortical neuromodulation. PMID:25798103

  7. Refractory Positional Vertigo With Apogeotropic Horizontal Nystagmus After Labyrinthitis: Surgical Treatment and Identification of Dysmorphic Ampullae.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Sameer; Heidenreich, Katherine D; McHugh, Jonathan B; Altschuler, Richard A; Carender, Wendy J; Telian, Steven A

    2015-09-01

    To describe the rationale, intraoperative details, and histopathologic findings discovered when treating an unusual case of apogeotropic horizontal canal positional vertigo with a transmastoid labyrinthectomy. A single case report. Therapeutic. Resolution of apogeotropic nystagmus and improvement of positional vertigo. The apogeotropic variant of horizontal canal positional vertigo can be a difficult entity to treat. This report describes a patient who developed profound sensorineural hearing loss and vertigo after an acute left labyrinthitis. Ten months later, she developed vertigo with apogeotropic positional nystagmus involving the left horizontal semicircular canal. Particle repositioning maneuvers and vestibular physical therapy were unsuccessful. In addition, she developed intermittent positional vertigo affecting the ipsilateral vertical semicircular canals. Given the persistence of her vertigo, multiple canal involvement, and patient preference for definitive treatment, a transmastoid labyrinthectomy was performed. Intraoperatively, the ampulla of the horizontal canal as well as that of the other canals was grossly abnormal as later confirmed on histology. After surgery, her apogeotropic nystagmus and vertigo resolved, and her balance ability gradually improved to a highly functional level. This case illustrates a unique form of positional vertigo that developed and persisted after acute labyrinthitis. Conservative measures were unsuccessful and a transmastoid labyrinthectomy documented dense inflammatory tissue involving all three ampullae. We postulate that the post-labyrinthitic inflammatory changes resulted in mass loading of the membranous ampullae, causing abnormal nystagmus patterns and positional vertigo, which resolved after the labyrinthectomy.

  8. Lead exposure results in hearing loss and disruption of the cochlear blood-labyrinth barrier and the protective role of iron supplement.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xinqin; Zheng, Gang; Wu, Yongxiang; Shen, Xuefeng; Jing, Jinfei; Yu, Tao; Song, Han; Chen, Jingyuan; Luo, Wenjing

    2013-12-01

    This study was designed to investigate the impact of lead (Pb(2+)) on the auditory system and its molecular mechanisms. Pb(AC)2 was administrated to male SD rats aged 21-22 d for 8 weeks at a dose of 300ppm. Male guinea pigs were also administrated with 50mg/kg Pb(AC)2 two times a week for 8 weeks. The auditory nerve-brainstem evoked responses (ABR) was recorded and the morphological changes of the outer hair cells (OHCs) were observed with Phallodin-FITC staining. In addition, the integrity of the blood-labyrinth barrier was observed by TEM and the expression of tight junction proteins (TJPs) in the cochlear stria vascularis was determined by immunofluorescence. Our results showed that Pb(2+) exposure resulted in increased ABR threshold in both rats and guinea pigs. Abnormal shapes and loss of OHCs were found in the cochlear basilar membrane following the Pb(2+) exposure. TEM study showed that the tight junctions between the endothelial cells and the border cells were lost and disrupted. Down-regulation of the occludin, ZO-1 and claudin-5 in the stria vascularis suggested that the increased permeability of the blood-labyrinth barrier may attribute to the Pb(2+)-induced decrease of TJPs' expression. Additionally, Fe(2+) supplement partly reversed the Pb(2+)-induced hearing loss and down-regulation of TJPs. Taken together, these data indicate that the disruption of blood-labyrinth barrier by down-regulating the expression of TJPs plays a role in the Pb(2+)-induced hearing loss, and Fe(2+) supplement protects the auditory system against Pb(2+)-induced toxicity and may have significant clinical implications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Labyrinth Seal Flutter Analysis and Test Validation in Support of Robust Rocket Engine Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    El-Aini, Yehia; Park, John; Frady, Greg; Nesman, Tom

    2010-01-01

    High energy-density turbomachines, like the SSME turbopumps, utilize labyrinth seals, also referred to as knife-edge seals, to control leakage flow. The pressure drop for such seals is order of magnitude higher than comparable jet engine seals. This is aggravated by the requirement of tight clearances resulting in possible unfavorable fluid-structure interaction of the seal system (seal flutter). To demonstrate these characteristics, a benchmark case of a High Pressure Oxygen Turbopump (HPOTP) outlet Labyrinth seal was studied in detail. First, an analytical assessment of the seal stability was conducted using a Pratt & Whitney legacy seal flutter code. Sensitivity parameters including pressure drop, rotor-to-stator running clearances and cavity volumes were examined and modeling strategies established. Second, a concurrent experimental investigation was undertaken to validate the stability of the seal at the equivalent operating conditions of the pump. Actual pump hardware was used to construct the test rig, also referred to as the (Flutter Rig). The flutter rig did not include rotational effects or temperature. However, the use of Hydrogen gas at high inlet pressure provided good representation of the critical parameters affecting flutter especially the speed of sound. The flutter code predictions showed consistent trends in good agreement with the experimental data. The rig test program produced a stability threshold empirical parameter that separated operation with and without flutter. This empirical parameter was used to establish the seal build clearances to avoid flutter while providing the required cooling flow metering. The calibrated flutter code along with the empirical flutter parameter was used to redesign the baseline seal resulting in a flutter-free robust configuration. Provisions for incorporation of mechanical damping devices were introduced in the redesigned seal to ensure added robustness

  10. Anatomy of the lamprey ear: morphological evidence for occurrence of horizontal semicircular ducts in the labyrinth of Petromyzon marinus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maklad, Adel; Reed, Caitlyn; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Fritzsch, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    In jawed (gnathostome) vertebrates, the inner ears have three semicircular canals arranged orthogonally in the three Cartesian planes: one horizontal (lateral) and two vertical canals. They function as detectors for angular acceleration in their respective planes. Living jawless craniates, cyclostomes (hagfish and lamprey) and their fossil records seemingly lack a lateral horizontal canal. The jawless vertebrate hagfish inner ear is described as a torus or doughnut, having one vertical canal, and the jawless vertebrate lamprey having two. These observations on the anatomy of the cyclostome (jawless vertebrate) inner ear have been unchallenged for over a century, and the question of how these jawless vertebrates perceive angular acceleration in the yaw (horizontal) planes has remained open. To provide an answer to this open question we reevaluated the anatomy of the inner ear in the lamprey, using stereoscopic dissection and scanning electron microscopy. The present study reveals a novel observation: the lamprey has two horizontal semicircular ducts in each labyrinth. Furthermore, the horizontal ducts in the lamprey, in contrast to those of jawed vertebrates, are located on the medial surface in the labyrinth rather than on the lateral surface. Our data on the lamprey horizontal duct suggest that the appearance of the horizontal canal characteristic of gnathostomes (lateral) and lampreys (medial) are mutually exclusive and indicate a parallel evolution of both systems, one in cyclostomes and one in gnathostome ancestors.

  11. L-Tryptophan on Cu(111): engineering a molecular labyrinth driven by indole groups

    SciTech Connect

    Yitamben, E. N.; Clayborne, A.; Darling, Seth B.

    2015-05-21

    The present article investigates the adsorption and molecular orientation of L-Tryptophan, which is both an essential amino acid important for protein synthesis and of particular interest for the development of chiral molecular electronics and biocompatible processes and devices, on Cu(111) using scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy at 55 K and at room temperature. The arrangement of chemisorbed L-Tryptophan on the copper surface varies with both temperature and surface coverage. At low coverage, small clusters form on the surface irrespective of temperature, while at high coverage an ordered chain structure emerges at room temperature, and a tightly packed structure forms amore » molecular labyrinth at low temperature. The dominating superstructure of the adsorbates arises from intermolecular hydrogen bonding, and pi-bonding interactions between the indole groups of neighboring molecules and the Cu surface.« less

  12. Theory versus experiment for the rotordynamic coefficients of labyrinth gas seals. II - A comparison to experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Childs, D. W.; Scharrer, J. K.

    1987-01-01

    An experimental test facility is used to measure the leakage and rotordynamic coefficients of teeth-on-rotor and teeth-on-stator labyrinth gas seals. The test results are presented along with the theoretically predicted values for the two seal configurations at three different radial clearances and shaft speeds to 16,000 cpm. The test results show that the theory accurately predicts the cross-coupled stiffness for both seal configurations and shows improvement in the prediction of the direct damping for the teeth-on-rotor seal. The theory fails to predict a decrease in the direct damping coefficient for an increase in the radial clearance for the teeth-on-stator seal.

  13. The bony labyrinth of the middle Pleistocene Sima de los Huesos hominins (Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain).

    PubMed

    Quam, Rolf; Lorenzo, Carlos; Martínez, Ignacio; Gracia-Téllez, Ana; Arsuaga, Juan Luis

    2016-01-01

    We performed 3D virtual reconstructions based on CT scans to study the bony labyrinth morphology in 14 individuals from the large middle Pleistocene hominin sample from the site of the Sima de los Huesos (SH) in the Sierra de Atapuerca in northern Spain. The Atapuerca (SH) hominins represent early members of the Neandertal clade and provide an opportunity to compare the data with the later in time Neandertals, as well as Pleistocene and recent humans more broadly. The Atapuerca (SH) hominins do not differ from the Neandertals in any of the variables related to the absolute and relative sizes and shape of the semicircular canals. Indeed, the entire Neandertal clade seems to be characterized by a derived pattern of canal proportions, including a relatively small posterior canal and a relatively large lateral canal. In contrast, one of the most distinctive features observed in Neandertals, the low placement of the posterior canal (i.e., high sagittal labyrinthine index), is generally not present in the Atapuerca (SH) hominins. This low placement is considered a derived feature in Neandertals and is correlated with a more vertical orientation of the ampullar line (LSCm < APA), posterior surface of the petrous pyramid (LSCm > PPp), and third part of the facial canal (LSCm < FC3). Some variation is present within the Atapuerca (SH) sample, however, with a few individuals approaching the Neandertal condition more closely. In addition, the cochlear shape index in the Atapuerca (SH) hominins is low, indicating a reduction in the height of the cochlea. Although the phylogenetic polarity of this feature is less clear, the low shape index in the Atapuerca (SH) hominins may be a derived feature. Regardless, cochlear height subsequently increased in Neandertals. In contrast to previous suggestions, the expanded data in the present study indicate no difference across the genus Homo in the angle of inclination of the cochlear basal turn (COs < LSCm). Principal components

  14. Aspects of gorgonopsian paleobiology and evolution: insights from the basicranium, occiput, osseous labyrinth, vasculature, and neuroanatomy

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Vincent; Polcyn, Michael J.; Fröbisch, Jörg; Martins, Rui M.S.

    2017-01-01

    Synapsida, the clade including therapsids and thus also mammals, is one of the two major branches of amniotes. Organismal design, with modularity as a concept, offers insights into the evolution of therapsids, a group that experienced profound anatomical transformations throughout the past 270 Ma, eventually leading to the evolution of the mammalian bauplan. However, the anatomy of some therapsid groups remains obscure. Gorgonopsian braincase anatomy is poorly known and many anatomical aspects of the brain, cranial nerves, vasculature, and osseous labyrinth, remain unclear. We analyzed two gorgonopsian specimens, GPIT/RE/7124 and GPIT/RE/7119, using propagation phase contrast synchrotron micro-computed tomography. The lack of fusion between many basicranial and occipital bones in GPIT/RE/7124, which is an immature specimen, allowed us to reconstruct its anatomy and ontogenetic sequence, in comparison with the mature GPIT/RE/7119, in great detail. We explored the braincase and rendered various skull cavities. Notably, we found that there is a separate ossification between what was previously referred to as the “parasphenoid” and the basioccipital. We reinterpreted this element as a posterior ossification of the basisphenoid: the basipostsphenoid. Moreover, we show that the previously called “parasphenoid” is in fact the co-ossification of the dermal parasphenoid and the endochondral basipresphenoid. In line with previous descriptions, the anatomy of the osseous labyrinth is rendered in detail, revealing a unique discoid morphology of the horizontal semicircular canal, rather than toroidal, probably due to architectural constraints of the ossification of the opisthotic and supraoccipital. In addition, the orientation of the horizontal semicircular canal suggests that gorgonopsians had an anteriorly tilted alert head posture. The morphology of the brain endocast is in accordance with the more reptilian endocast shape of other non-mammaliaform neotherapsids

  15. Aspects of gorgonopsian paleobiology and evolution: insights from the basicranium, occiput, osseous labyrinth, vasculature, and neuroanatomy.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Ricardo; Fernandez, Vincent; Polcyn, Michael J; Fröbisch, Jörg; Martins, Rui M S

    2017-01-01

    Synapsida, the clade including therapsids and thus also mammals, is one of the two major branches of amniotes. Organismal design, with modularity as a concept, offers insights into the evolution of therapsids, a group that experienced profound anatomical transformations throughout the past 270 Ma, eventually leading to the evolution of the mammalian bauplan. However, the anatomy of some therapsid groups remains obscure. Gorgonopsian braincase anatomy is poorly known and many anatomical aspects of the brain, cranial nerves, vasculature, and osseous labyrinth, remain unclear. We analyzed two gorgonopsian specimens, GPIT/RE/7124 and GPIT/RE/7119, using propagation phase contrast synchrotron micro-computed tomography. The lack of fusion between many basicranial and occipital bones in GPIT/RE/7124, which is an immature specimen, allowed us to reconstruct its anatomy and ontogenetic sequence, in comparison with the mature GPIT/RE/7119, in great detail. We explored the braincase and rendered various skull cavities. Notably, we found that there is a separate ossification between what was previously referred to as the "parasphenoid" and the basioccipital. We reinterpreted this element as a posterior ossification of the basisphenoid: the basipostsphenoid. Moreover, we show that the previously called "parasphenoid" is in fact the co-ossification of the dermal parasphenoid and the endochondral basipresphenoid. In line with previous descriptions, the anatomy of the osseous labyrinth is rendered in detail, revealing a unique discoid morphology of the horizontal semicircular canal, rather than toroidal, probably due to architectural constraints of the ossification of the opisthotic and supraoccipital. In addition, the orientation of the horizontal semicircular canal suggests that gorgonopsians had an anteriorly tilted alert head posture. The morphology of the brain endocast is in accordance with the more reptilian endocast shape of other non-mammaliaform neotherapsids.

  16. Critical neuropsychobiological analysis of panic attack- and anticipatory anxiety-like behaviors in rodents confronted with snakes in polygonal arenas and complex labyrinths: a comparison to the elevated plus- and T-maze behavioral tests.

    PubMed

    Coimbra, Norberto C; Paschoalin-Maurin, Tatiana; Bassi, Gabriel S; Kanashiro, Alexandre; Biagioni, Audrey F; Felippotti, Tatiana T; Elias-Filho, Daoud H; Mendes-Gomes, Joyce; Cysne-Coimbra, Jade P; Almada, Rafael C; Lobão-Soares, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    To compare prey and snake paradigms performed in complex environments to the elevated plus-maze (EPM) and T-maze (ETM) tests for the study of panic attack- and anticipatory anxiety-like behaviors in rodents. PubMed was reviewed in search of articles focusing on the plus maze test, EPM, and ETM, as well as on defensive behaviors displayed by threatened rodents. In addition, the authors' research with polygonal arenas and complex labyrinth (designed by the first author for confrontation between snakes and small rodents) was examined. The EPM and ETM tests evoke anxiety/fear-related defensive responses that are pharmacologically validated, whereas the confrontation between rodents and snakes in polygonal arenas with or without shelters or in the complex labyrinth offers ethological conditions for studying more complex defensive behaviors and the effects of anxiolytic and panicolytic drugs. Prey vs. predator paradigms also allow discrimination between non-oriented and oriented escape behavior. Both EPM and ETM simple labyrinths are excellent apparatuses for the study of anxiety- and instinctive fear-related responses, respectively. The confrontation between rodents and snakes in polygonal arenas, however, offers a more ethological environment for addressing both unconditioned and conditioned fear-induced behaviors and the effects of anxiolytic and panicolytic drugs.

  17. Rotordynamic forces in labyrinth seals: Theory and experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millsaps, Knox T.; Martinez-Sanchez, Manuel

    1994-01-01

    A theoretical and experimental investigation of the aerodynamic forces generated by a single gland labyrinth seal executing a simultaneous spinning/whirling motion has been conducted. A lumped parameter model for a single gland seal with coupling to an upstream cavity with leakage is developed along with an appropriate solution technique. From this theory, it is shown that the presence of the upstream cavity can, in some cases, augment the cross-stiffness and direct damping by a factor of four. The parameters that govern the coupling are presented along with predictions on their influence. A simple uncoupled model is used to identify the mechanisms responsible for cross force generation. This reduced system is nondimensionalized and the physical significance of the reduced parameters is discussed. Closed form algebraic formulas are given for some simple limiting cases. It is also shown that the total cross-force predicted by the uncoupled model can be represented as the sum of an ideal component due to an inviscid flow with entry swirl and a viscous part due to the change in swirl created by friction inside the gland. The frequency dependent ideal part is solely responsible for the rotordynamic direct damping. The facility designed and built to measure these frequency dependent forces is described. Experimental data confirm the validity and usefulness of this ideal/viscous decomposition. A method for calculating the damping coefficients based on the force decomposition using only the static measurements is presented. Experimental results supporting the predicted cross force augmentation due to the effect of upstream coupling are presented.

  18. Gap junction systems in the rat vestibular labyrinth: immunohistochemical and ultrastructural analysis.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, T; Adams, J C; Paul, D L; Kimura, R S

    1994-09-01

    The distribution of gap junctions within the vestibular labyrinth was investigated using immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy. Connexin26-like immunoreactivity was observed among supporting cells in each vestibular sensory epithelium. Reaction product was also present in the transitional epithelium of each vestibular endorgan and in the planum semilunatum of crista ampullaris. No connexin26-like immunoreactivity was observed among thin wall epithelial cells or among vestibular dark cells. In addition, fibrocytes within vestibular connective tissue were positively immunostained. Reaction product was also detected in the melanocyte area just beneath dark cells. Ultrastructural observations indicated that a gap junction network of vestibular supporting cells extends to the transitional epithelium and planum semilunatum and forms an isolated epithelial cell gap junction system in each vestibular endorgan. In contrast, no gap junctions were found among wall epithelial cells or among dark cells. Fibrocytes and melanocytes were coupled by gap junctions and belong to the connective tissue cell gap junction system, which is continuous throughout the vestibular system and the cochlea. The possible functional significance of these gap junction systems is discussed.

  19. A Comparison of Experimental and Theoretical Results for Labyrinth Gas Seals. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scharrer, Joseph Kirk

    1987-01-01

    The basic equations are derived for a two control volume model for compressible flow in a labyrinth seal. The flow is assumed to be completely turbulent and isoenergetic. The wall friction factors are determined using the Blasius formula. Jet flow theory is used for the calculation of the recirculation velocity in the cavity. Linearized zeroth and first order perturbation equations are developed for small motion about a centered position by an expansion in the eccentricity ratio. The zeroth order pressure distribution is found by satisfying the leakage equation. The circumferential velocity distribution is determined by satisfying the momentum equations. The first order equations are solved by a separation of variable solution. Integration of the resultant pressure distribution along and around the seal defines the reaction force developed by the seal and the corresponding dynamic coefficients. The results of this analysis are compared to experimental test results.

  20. Innate defensive behaviour and panic-like reactions evoked by rodents during aggressive encounters with Brazilian constrictor snakes in a complex labyrinth: behavioural validation of a new model to study affective and agonistic reactions in a prey versus predator paradigm.

    PubMed

    Guimarães-Costa, Raquel; Guimarães-Costa, Maria Beatriz; Pippa-Gadioli, Leonardo; Weltson, Alfredo; Ubiali, Walter Adriano; Paschoalin-Maurin, Tatiana; Felippotti, Tatiana Tocchini; Elias-Filho, Daoud Hibrahim; Laure, Carlos Júlio; Coimbra, Norberto Cysne

    2007-09-15

    Defensive behaviour has been extensively studied, and non-invasive methodologies may be interesting approaches to analyzing the limbic system function as a whole. Using experimental models of animals in the state of anxiety has been fundamental in the search for new anxiolytic and antipanic compounds. The aim of this present work is to examine a new model for the study of affective behaviour, using a complex labyrinth consisting of an arena and galleries forming a maze. Furthermore, it aims to compare the defensive behaviour of Wistar rats, Mongolian gerbils and golden hamsters in a complex labyrinth, as well as the defensive behaviour of Meriones unguiculatus in aggressive encounters with either Epicrates cenchria assisi or Boa constrictor amarali in this same model. Among species presently studied, the Mongolian gerbils showed better performance in the exploration of both arena and galleries of the labyrinth, also demonstrating less latency in finding exits of the galleries. This increases the possibility of survival, as well as optimizes the events of encounter with the predator. The duration of alertness and freezing increased during confrontation with living Epicrates, as well as the duration of exploratory behaviour in the labyrinth. There was an increase in the number of freezing and alertness behaviours, as well as in duration of alertness during confrontations involving E.c. assisi, compared with behavioural reactions elicited by jirds in presence of B.c. amarali. Interestingly, the aggressive behaviour of Mongolian gerbils was more prominent against B.c. amarali compared with the other Boidae snake. E.c. assisi elicited more offensive attacks and exhibited a greater time period of body movement than B.c. amarali, which spent more time in the arena and in defensive immobility than the E.c. assisi. Considering that jirds evoked more fear-like reaction in contact with E.c. assisi, a fixed E.c. assisi kept in a hermetically closed acrylic box was used as

  1. Mapping of Technological Opportunities-Labyrinth Seal Example

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, Dana W., Sr.

    2006-01-01

    All technological systems evolve based on evolutionary sequences that have repeated throughout history and can be abstracted from the history of technology and patents. These evolutionary sequences represent objective patterns and provide considerable insights that can be used to proactively model future seal concepts. This presentation provides an overview of how to map seal technology into the future using a labyrinth seal example. The mapping process delivers functional descriptions of sequential changes in market/consumer demand, from today s current paradigm to the next major paradigm shift. The future paradigm is developed according to a simple formula: the future paradigm is free of all flaws associated with the current paradigm; it is as far into the future as we can see. Although revolutionary, the vision of the future paradigm is typically not immediately or completely realizable nor is it normally seen as practical. There are several reasons that prevent immediate and complete practical application, such as: 1) Some of the required technological or business resources and knowledge not being available; 2) Availability of other technological or business resources are limited; and/or 3) Some necessary knowledge has not been completely developed. These factors tend to drive the Total Cost of Ownership or Utilization out of an acceptable range and revealing the reasons for the high Total Cost of Ownership or Utilization which provides a clear understanding of research opportunities essential for future developments and defines the current limits of the immediately achievable improvements. The typical roots of high Total Cost of Ownership or Utilization lie in the limited availability or even the absence of essential resources and knowledge necessary for its realization. In order to overcome this obstacle, step-by-step modification of the current paradigm is pursued to evolve from the current situation toward the ideal future, i.e., evolution rather than

  2. The leadership labyrinth: leveraging the talents of women to transform health care.

    PubMed

    McDonagh, Kathryn J; Paris, Nancy M

    2013-01-01

    Women have had a transformative influence on the health care field as highly effective leaders known to produce superior results. Women make up the vast majority of the health care workforce as well as health care graduates. Women also make most health care decisions on behalf of their families. Yet, despite this omnipresence in health care, there is a dearth of women in chief executive and governance roles. A lack of leadership development and succession planning in health care and other obstacles to career progression make it challenging for women to advance to top leadership levels. The traditional linear career ladder that has existed in health care is not conducive to women's advancement. Women have taken a different pathway to career development referred to as the leadership labyrinth. This is a development process leading to wisdom and insights essential for today's health care challenges. This crucial stage in the evolution of health care calls for new models of care and leadership. The most abundant resource at risk of being overlooked is the optimal engagement of women. Women leaders are the backbone of the health care workforce but have yet to be strategically deployed in key leadership positions. The talents of women leaders can be a significant factor in the transformation of health care.

  3. Measurement and evaluation of swirl-type flow in labyrinth seals of conventional turbine stages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hauck, L.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of load factor and rotor eccentricity were determined on flow conditions in test series for two stages. The results indicate that swirl-type entry flow follows the rules of potential swirl. Within the labyrinth cavities two spatial separated flow areas are considered. A dominating flow in periphera direction nearly fills the space between the sealing strips and the ceiling of the cavity. Below this flow, an area of axial mass transport is situated, with a slight peripheral component, limited on the nearest surroundings of the seals gap and the rotor surface. Between both flows, an exchange of energy takes place. Within the gaps, flow direction depends on axial velocity and therefore on variable flow contraction. A balance of energy within the seal and the cavities interprets the results of lateral force measurements as an influence of friction at the sealing strips surface and the rotating shaft surface. Stages with their blades put together in buckets by means of shrouding segments are particularly influenced by the rotating speed of the shrouding.

  4. Neurons in the pontomedullary reticular formation receive converging inputs from the hindlimb and labyrinth.

    PubMed

    Miller, Derek M; DeMayo, William M; Bourdages, George H; Wittman, Samuel R; Yates, Bill J; McCall, Andrew A

    2017-04-01

    The integration of inputs from vestibular and proprioceptive sensors within the central nervous system is critical to postural regulation. We recently demonstrated in both decerebrate and conscious cats that labyrinthine and hindlimb inputs converge onto vestibular nucleus neurons. The pontomedullary reticular formation (pmRF) also plays a key role in postural control, and additionally participates in regulating locomotion. Thus, we hypothesized that like vestibular nucleus neurons, pmRF neurons integrate inputs from the limb and labyrinth. To test this hypothesis, we recorded the responses of pmRF neurons to passive ramp-and-hold movements of the hindlimb and to whole-body tilts, in both decerebrate and conscious felines. We found that pmRF neuronal activity was modulated by hindlimb movement in the rostral-caudal plane. Most neurons in both decerebrate (83% of units) and conscious (61% of units) animals encoded both flexion and extension movements of the hindlimb. In addition, hindlimb somatosensory inputs converged with vestibular inputs onto pmRF neurons in both preparations. Pontomedullary reticular formation neurons receiving convergent vestibular and limb inputs likely participate in balance control by governing reticulospinal outflow.

  5. Neurons in the pontomedullary reticular formation receive converging inputs from the hindlimb and labyrinth

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Derek M.; DeMayo, William M.; Bourdages, George H.; Wittman, Samuel; Yates, Bill J.; McCall, Andrew A.

    2017-01-01

    The integration of inputs from vestibular and proprioceptive sensors within the central nervous system is critical to postural regulation. We recently demonstrated in both decerebrate and conscious cats that labyrinthine and hindlimb inputs converge onto vestibular nucleus neurons. The pontomedullary reticular formation (pmRF) also plays a key role in postural control, and additionally participates in regulating locomotion. Thus, we hypothesized that like vestibular nucleus neurons, pmRF neurons integrate inputs from the limb and labyrinth. To test this hypothesis, we recorded the responses of pmRF neurons to passive ramp-and-hold movements of the hindlimb and to whole-body tilts, in both decerebrate and conscious felines. We found that pmRF neuronal activity was modulated by hindlimb movement in the rostral-caudal plane. Most neurons in both decerebrate (83% of units) and conscious (61% of units) animals encoded both flexion and extension movements of the hindlimb. Additionally, hindlimb somatosensory inputs converged with vestibular inputs onto pmRF neurons in both preparations. Pontomedullary reticular formation neurons receiving convergent vestibular and limb inputs likely participate in balance control by governing reticulospinal outflow. PMID:28188328

  6. Does Otosclerosis Affect Dark and Transitional Cells in the Human Vestibular Labyrinth?

    PubMed

    Kaya, Serdar; Paparella, Michael M; Cureoglu, Sebahattin

    2017-02-01

    The density of vestibular dark cells (DCs) and vestibular transitional cells (TCs) can be quantitatively decreased in human temporal bones with otosclerosis. Previous reports have shown that otosclerosis can lead to vestibular symptoms. We examined 61 human temporal bone specimens from 52 deceased donors with otosclerosis group-with and without endosteal involvement (EI), and with and without endolymphatic hydrops (EH)-versus 25 specimens from 18 age-matched controls. Using light microscopy, we evaluated the nonsensory epithelium of the lateral semicircular canal (LSC) and posterior semicircular canal (PSC) of the human vestibular labyrinth, focusing on the density of DCs and TCs. In both the LSC and the PSC, as compared with the control group, the mean density of DCs significantly decreased in the EI (+) group, in the EI (+) and EH (+) subgroup, and in the EI (+) and EH (-) subgroup (p < 0.05). In addition, we found a significant difference in the mean density of DCs between the EI (+) group and the EI (-) group in the LSC and in the PSC (p < 0.05). But we found no significant difference in the mean density of TCs in any of the otosclerosis groups or subgroups as compared with the control group (p > 0.05). We found a decrease in the density of DCs associated with EI in human temporal bone specimens with otosclerosis, regardless of the presence of EH. This decrease might cause damage in ion and water transportation, leading to vestibular symptoms.

  7. Does Otosclerosis Affect Dark and Transitional Cells in the Human Vestibular Labyrinth?

    PubMed Central

    Kaya, Serdar; Paparella, Michael M.; Cureoglu, Sebahattin

    2016-01-01

    Hypothesis The density of vestibular dark cells (DCs) and vestibular transitional cells (TCs) can be quantitatively decreased in human temporal bones with otosclerosis. Background Previous reports have shown that otosclerosis can lead to vestibular symptoms. Methods We examined 61 human temporal bone specimens from 52 deceased donors with otosclerosis group—with and without endosteal involvement (EI), and with and without endolymphatic hydrops (EH)—vs. 25 specimens from 18 age-matched controls. Using light microscopy, we evaluated the nonsensory epithelium of the lateral semicircular canal (LSC) and posterior semicircular canal (PSC) of the human vestibular labyrinth, focusing on the density of DCs and TCs. Results In both the LSC and the PSC, as compared with the control group, the mean density of DCs significantly decreased in the EI (+) group, in the EI (+) and EH (+) subgroup, and in the EI (+) and EH (−) subgroup (P < 0.05). In addition, we found a significant difference in the mean density of DCs between the EI (+) group and the EI (−) group in the LSC and in the PSC (P < 0.05). But we found no significant difference in the mean density of TCs in any of the otosclerosis groups or subgroups as compared with the control group (P > 0.05). Conclusion We found a decrease in the density of DCs associated with EI in human temporal bone specimens with otosclerosis, regardless of the presence of EH. This decrease might cause damage in ion and water transportation, leading to vestibular symptoms. PMID:27851656

  8. Labyrinth double split open loop resonator based bandpass filter design for S, C and X-band application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Jubaer; Faruque, Mohammad Rashed Iqbal; Tariqul Islam, Mohammad

    2018-07-01

    Nested circular shaped Labyrinth double split open loop resonators (OLRs) are introduced in this article to design a triple bandpass filter for 3.01 GHz, 7.39 GHz and 12.88 GHz applications. A Rogers RT-5880 is used as a substrate to design the proposed passband filter which has a succinct structure where the attainment of the resonator is explored both integrally and experimentally. The same structure is designed on both sides of the substrate and an analysis is made on the current distribution. Based on the proposed resonator, a bandpass filter is designed and fabricated to justify the perception focusing on 3.01 GHz, 7.39 GHz and 12.88 GHz. It has also been observed by the Nicolson–Ross–Weir approach at the filtering frequencies. The effective electromagnetic parameters retrieved from the simulation of the S-parameters imply that the OLR metamaterial filter shows negative refraction bands. Having an auspicious design and double negative characteristics, this structure is suitable for triple passband filters, particularly for S, C and X-band applications.

  9. Analytical and experimental investigation of rubbing interaction in labyrinth seals for a liquid hydrogen fuel pump. [space shuttle main engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolan, F. X.; Kennedy, F. E.; Schulson, E. M.

    1984-01-01

    Cracking of the titanium knife edges on the labyrinth seals of the liquid hydrogen fuel pump in the Space Shuttle main engine is considered. Finite element analysis of the thermal response of the knife edge in sliding contact with the wear ring surface shows that interfacial temperatures can be quite high and they are significantly influenced by the thermal conductivity of the surfaces in rubbing contact. Thermal shock experiments on a test specimen similar to the knife edge geometry demonstrate that cracking of the titanium alloy is possible in a situation involving repeated thermal cycles over a wide temperature range, as might be realized during a rub in the liquid hydrogen fuel pump. High-speed rub interaction tests were conducted using a representative knife edge and seal geometry over a broad range of interaction rates and alternate materials were experimentally evaluated. Plasma-sprayed aluminum-graphite was found to be significantly better than presently used aluminum alloy seals from the standpoint of rub performance. Ion nitriding the titanium alloy knife-edges also improved rub performance compared to the untreated baseline.

  10. Bioethics, biotechnology products and humans: Europe between the skilled Theseus and the Labyrinth-Minotaur's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Frati, P

    1999-01-01

    Following the approval on May 1998 of the European Union Common position no. 19/98 regarding the legal protection of biotechnological inventions, the debate on bioethical aspects of biotechnologies is increased. The European Union document clearly protects the patentability of inventions (that concerns more than a particular plant or animal variety or a single procedure if they are of industrial interest), but not the finding or discovery of that is in the nature, e.g. a gene. Some safeguards (the dignity and integrity of the person and of the human embryo, the plant diversity, etc.) and exclusions from patentability (plant and animal varieties, processes for the production of plants or animals, the human body at any stage of growth, cloning of human beings, modifications of germ line, use of human embryos for industrial or commercial purposes as well as the inventions whose publication or exploitation would offend against public policy or morality, according to the Article 53a of the European Patenting Convention) are also indicated. Ethical issues discussed include the nature of human life and its protection, the safeguard of plant-animal biological diversity, the safeguard of human dignity and nature, whereas on several aspects (e. g. limits of the use of genetic material, xenotransplantation, etc.) the Parliament Assembly of the Council of Europe has requested a discussion or a moratorium (April, 1999). In this case an evaluation on the basis of the ethical beneficial principles should be performed and society should decide whether to master technologies and emulate the positive action of the hero Theseus against the Labyrinth-Minotaur syndrome or to renounce or "misuse" technologies like Daedalus and Icarus, who met a tragic end.

  11. Gestational Protein Restriction Reduces Expression of Hsd17b2 in Rat Placental Labyrinth1

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Haijun; Yallampalli, Uma; Yallampalli, Chandra

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Accumulating evidence strongly supports the premise that testosterone may be a key player in fetal programming on hypertension. Studies have shown that gestational protein restriction doubles the plasma testosterone levels in pregnant rats. In this study, we hypothesized that elevated testosterone levels in response to gestational protein restriction were caused by enhanced expression of steroidogenic enzymes or impaired expression of Hsd17b2, a known testosterone inactivator that converts testosterone to androstenedione in placenta. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were fed normal (20% protein, control; n = 10) or a low-protein diet (6% protein, PR; n = 10) from Day 1 of pregnancy until killed at Days 14, 18, or 21. Junctional (JZ) and labyrinth (LZ) zones of placenta were collected for expression assay on steroidogenic genes (Cyp11a1, Hsd3b1, Cyp17a1, Hsd17b2, and Srd5a1) by real-time PCR. The main findings include the following: 1) expressions of Cyp11a1, Hsd3b1, and Cyp17a1 in JZ were not affected by diet but were affected by day of pregnancy; 2) expression of Hsd17b2 in both female and male JZs was remarkably increased by PR at Days 18 and 21 of pregnancy; 3) expressions of Hsd17b2 were reduced by PR in both female and male LZ at Day 18 of pregnancy and in female LZ at Day 21 of pregnancy; and 4) expression of Srd5a1in LZ was not affected by day of pregnancy, gender, or diet. These results indicate that in response to gestational protein restriction, Hsd17b2 may be a key regulator of testosterone levels and associated activities in placental zones, apparently in a paradoxical manner. PMID:22837477

  12. Can organic matter hide from decomposers in the labyrinth of soil aggregates? Micro-engineered Soil Chips challenging foraging fungi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, Edith C.; Aleklett, Kristin; Arellano Caicedo, Carlos G.; Bengtsson, Martin; Micaela Mafla Endara, Paola; Ohlsson, Pelle

    2017-04-01

    From the point of view of microorganisms, the soil environment is an enormously complex labyrinth with paths and dead-end streets, where resources and shelters are unevenly distributed. We study foraging strategies of soil organisms, especially fungi, and the possibility of physio-spatial stabilization of organic matter by "hiding" in occluded soil spaces. We manipulate growth habitat microstructure with lab-on-a-chip techniques, where we designed complex environments with channels and obstacle at dimensions of the size of hyphae, and construct them in the transparent, gas-permeable polymer PDMS. We fill those with different nutrient solutions or combine with mineral nutrient gradients, and inoculate them with soil organisms. We analyze organisms and substrates with microscopy, fluorescence microscopy and analytical chemistry. We compared different soil litter decomposers and an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus for their ability to forage through complex air-gap structures and attempt to classify them into functional traits concerning their mycelium directionality, space-exploring approach and ability to grow through acute angles and narrow constrictions. We identified structures which are very difficult to penetrate for most species, and compounds located behind such features may thus be spatially unavailable for decomposers. We discuss our approach in comparison to soil pore space tomographic analyses and findings we made in the pore space of colonized wood biochar.

  13. Stereolithographic biomodelling to create tangible hard copies of the ethmoidal labyrinth air cells based on the visible human project.

    PubMed

    Kapakin, S

    2011-02-01

    Rapid prototyping (RP), or stereolithography, is a new clinical application area, which is used to obtain accurate three-dimensional physical replicas of complex anatomical structures. The aim of this study was to create tangible hard copies of the ethmoidal labyrinth air cells (ELACs) with stereolithographic biomodelling. The visible human dataset (VHD) was used as the input imaging data. The Surfdriver software package was applied to these images to reconstruct the ELACs as three-dimensional DXF (data exchange file) models. These models were post-processed in 3D-Doctor software for virtual reality modelling language (VRML) and STL (Standard Triangulation Language) formats. Stereolithographic replicas were manufactured in a rapid prototyping machine by using the STL format. The total number of ELACs was 21. The dimensions of the ELACs on the right and left sides were 52.91 x 13.00 x 28.68 mm and 53.79 x 12.42 x 28.55 mm, respectively. The total volume of the ELACs was 4771.1003 mm(3). The mean ELAC distance was 27.29 mm from the nasion and 71.09 mm from the calotte topologically. In conclusion, the combination of Surfdriver and 3D-Doctor could be effectively used for manufacturing 3D solid models from serial sections of anatomical structures. Stereolithographic anatomical models provide an innovative and complementary tool for students, researchers, and surgeons to apprehend these anatomical structures tangibly. The outcomes of these attempts can provide benefits in terms of the visualization, perception, and interpretation of the structures in anatomy teaching and prior to surgical interventions.

  14. Formation of the Periotic Space During the Early Fetal Period in Humans.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Aoi; Ohtsuki, Sae; Yamada, Shigehito; Uwabe, Chigako; Imai, Hirohiko; Matsuda, Tetsuya; Takakuwa, Tetsuya

    2018-04-01

    The inner ear is a very complicated structure, composed of a bony labyrinth (otic capsule; OC), membranous labyrinth, with a space between them, named the periotic labyrinth or periotic space. We investigated how periotic tissue fluid spaces covered the membranous labyrinth three-dimensionally, leading to formation of the periotic labyrinth encapsulated in the OC during human fetal development. Digital data sets from magnetic resonance images and phase-contrast X-ray tomography images of 24 inner ear organs from 24 human fetuses from the Kyoto Collection (fetuses in trimesters 1 and 2; crown-rump length: 14.4-197 mm) were analyzed. The membranous labyrinth was morphologically differentiated in samples at the end of the embryonic period (Carnegie stage 23), and had grown linearly to more than eight times in size during the observation period. The periotic space was first detected at the 35-mm samples, around the vestibule and basal turn of the cochlea, which elongated rapidly to the tip of the cochlea and semicircular ducts, successively, and almost covered the membranous labyrinth at the 115-mm CRL stage or later. In those samples, several ossification centers were detected around the space. This article thus demonstrated that formation of the membranous labyrinth, periotic space (labyrinth), and ossification of the OC occurs successively, according to an intricate timetable. Anat Rec, 301:563-570, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Noise alters guinea pig's blood-labyrinth barrier ultrastructure and permeability along with a decrease of cochlear Claudin-5 and Occludin.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yong-Xiang; Zhu, Guo-Xia; Liu, Xin-Qin; Sun, Fei; Zhou, Ke; Wang, Shuang; Wang, Chun-Mei; Jia, Jin-Wen; Song, Jian-Tao; Lu, Lian-Jun

    2014-12-24

    Noise exposure (NE) is a severe modern health hazard that induces hearing impairment. However, the noise-induced ultrastructural changes of blood-labyrinth barrier (BLB) and the potential involvements of tight junction proteins (TJP) remain inconclusive. We investigated the effects of NE on not only the ultrastructure of cochlea and permeability of BLB but also the expression of TJP within the guinea pig cochlea. Male albino guinea pigs were exposed to white noise for 4 h or 2 consecutive days (115 dB sound pressure level, 6 hours per day) and the hearing impairments and light microscopic change of BLB were evaluated with auditory brainstem responses (ABR) and the cochlear sensory epithelia surface preparation, respectively. The cochlear ultrastructure and BLB permeability after NE 2d were revealed with transmission electron microscope (TEM) and lanthanum nitrate-tracing techniques, respectively. The potential alterations of TJPs Claudin-5 and Occludin were quantified with immunohistochemistry and western blot. NE induced significant hearing impairment and NE 2d contributed to significant outer hair cell (OHC) loss that is most severe in the first row of outer hair cells. Furthermore, the loosen TJ and an obvious leakage of lanthanum nitrate particles beneath the basal lamina were revealed with TEM. Moreover, a dose-dependent decrease of Claudin-5 and Occludin was observed in the cochlea after NE. All these findings suggest that both decrease of Claudin-5 and Occludin and increased BLB permeability are involved in the pathologic process of noise-induced hearing impairment; however, the causal relationship and underlying mechanisms should be further investigated.

  16. Computational fluid dynamics simulation of pressure and velocity distribution inside Meniere’s diseased vestibular system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamsuddin, N. F. H.; Isa, N. M.; Taib, I.; Mohammed, A. N.

    2017-09-01

    Meniere’s disease or known as endolymphatic hydrops is an incurable vestibular disorder of the inner ear. This is due to the excessive fluid build-up in the endolymphatic sac which causing the vestibular endolymphatic membrane to start stretching. Although this mechanism has been widely accepted as the likely mechanism of Meniere’s syndrome, the reason for its occurrence remains unclear. Thus, the aims of this study to investigate the critical parameters of fluid flow in membranous labyrinth that is influencing instability of vestibular system. In addition, to visualise the flow behaviour between a normal membranous labyrinth and dilated membranous labyrinth in Meniere’s disease in predicting instability of vestibular system. Three dimensional geometry of endolymphatic sac is obtained from Magnetic Resonance Images (MRI) and reconstructed using commercial software. As basis of comparison the two different model of endolymphatic sac is considered in this study which are normal membranous labyrinth for model I and dilated membranous labyrinth for model II. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method is used to analyse the behaviour of pressure and velocity flow in the endolymphatic sac. The comparison was made in terms of pressure distribution and velocity profile. The results show that the pressure for dilated membranous labyrinth is greater than normal membranous labyrinth. Due to abnormally pressure in the vestibular system, it leads to the increasing value of the velocity at dilated membranous labyrinth while at the normal membranous labyrinth the velocity values decreasing. As a conclusion by changing the parameters which is pressure and velocity can significantly affect to the instability of vestibular system for Meniere’s disease.

  17. Effect of energy equation in one control-volume bulk-flow model for the prediction of labyrinth seal dynamic coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cangioli, Filippo; Pennacchi, Paolo; Vannini, Giuseppe; Ciuchicchi, Lorenzo

    2018-01-01

    The influence of sealing components on the rotordynamic stability of turbomachinery has become a key topic because the oil and gas market is increasingly demanding high rotational speeds and high efficiency. This leads the turbomachinery manufacturers to design higher flexibility ratios and to reduce the clearance of the seals. Accurate prediction of the effective damping of seals is critical to avoid instability problems; in recent years, "negative-swirl" swirl brakes have been used to reverse the circumferential direction of the inlet flow, which changes the sign of the cross-coupled stiffness coefficients and generates stabilizing forces. Experimental tests for a teeth-on-stator labyrinth seal were performed by manufacturers with positive and negative pre-swirl values to investigate the pre-swirl effect on the cross-coupled stiffness coefficient. Those results are used as a benchmark in this paper. To analyse the rotor-fluid interaction in the seals, the bulk-flow numeric approach is more time efficient than computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Although the accuracy of the coefficients prediction in bulk-flow models is satisfactory for liquid phase application, the accuracy of the results strongly depends on the operating conditions in the case of the gas phase. In this paper, the authors propose an improvement in the state-of-the-art bulk-flow model by introducing the effect of the energy equation in the zeroth-order solution to better characterize real gas properties due to the enthalpy variation along the seal cavities. The consideration of the energy equation allows for a better estimation of the coefficients in the case of a negative pre-swirl ratio, therefore, it extend the prediction fidelity over a wide range of operating conditions. The numeric results are also compared to the state-of-the-art bulk-flow model, which highlights the improvement in the model.

  18. Introduction to Pump Rotordynamics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    reducing leakage as well as cross-coupled stiffness coefficients [5]. Figure 6 depicts two textured seals and a conventional labyrinth seal (teeth on...well documented in the technical literature are due to the aerodynamic effects of labyrinth seals and the hydrodynamic effects of lubricated...Figure 4: Typical Squeeze Film Damper Configuration. 2.4 Annular Pressure Seals Radial seals (annular, labyrinth or honeycomb) separate regions of

  19. The CP molecule labyrinth: a paradigm of how endeavors in total synthesis lead to discoveries and inventions in organic synthesis.

    PubMed

    Nicolaou, K C; Baran, Phil S

    2002-08-02

    Imagine an artist carving a sculpture from a marble slab and finding gold nuggets in the process. This thought is not a far-fetched description of the work of a synthetic chemist pursuing the total synthesis of a natural product. At the end of the day, he or she will be judged by the artistry of the final work and the weight of the gold discovered in the process. However, as colorful as this description of total synthesis may be, it does not entirely capture the essence of the endeavor, for there is much more to be told, especially with regard to the contrast of frustrating failures and exhilarating moments of discovery. To fully appreciate the often Herculean nature of the task and the rewards that accompany it, one must sense the details of the enterprise behind the scenes. A more vivid description of total synthesis as a struggle against a tough opponent is perhaps appropriate to dramatize these elements of the experience. In this article we describe one such endeavor of total synthesis which, in addition to reaching the target molecule, resulted in a wealth of new synthetic strategies and technologies for chemical synthesis. The total synthesis of the CP molecules is compared to Theseus' most celebrated athlos (Greek for exploit, accomplishment): the conquest of the dreaded Minotaur, which he accomplished through brilliance, skill, and bravery having traversed the famous labyrinth with the help of Ariadne. This story from Greek mythology comes alive in modern synthetic expeditions toward natural products as exemplified by the total synthesis of the CP molecules which serve as a paradigm for modern total synthesis endeavors, where the objectives are discovery and invention in the broader sense of organic synthesis.

  20. Labyrinthitis -- aftercare

    MedlinePlus

    ... Being dizzy can cause you to lose your balance, fall, and hurt yourself. These tips can help ... symptoms. If symptoms continue, ask your provider about balance therapy. Balance therapy includes head, eye, and body ...

  1. Continued Investigation of Leakage and Power Loss Test Results for Competing Turbine Engine Seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delgado, Irebert R.; Proctor, Margaret P.

    2006-01-01

    Secondary seal leakage in jet engine applications results in power losses to the engine cycle. Likewise, seal power loss in jet engines not only result in efficiency loss but also increase the heat input into the engine resulting in reduced component lives. Experimental work on labyrinth and annular seals was performed at NASA Glenn Research Center to quantify seal leakage and power loss at various temperatures, seal pressure differentials, and surface speeds. Data from annular and labyrinth seals are compared with previous brush and finger seal test results. Data are also compared to literature. Annular and labyrinth seal leakage rates are 2 to 3 times greater than brush and finger seal rates. Seal leakage decreases with increasing speed but increases with increasing test temperature due to thermal expansion mismatch. Also seal power loss increases with surface speed, seal pressure differential, mass flow rate, and radial clearance. Annular and labyrinth seal power losses were higher than those of brush or finger seal data. The brush seal power loss was 15 to 30 percent lower than annular and labyrinth seal power loss.

  2. A Method for Studying Piston Friction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1943-03-01

    t_ough the labyrinth , and assure atmosohoric T_rcssuroon the uoper diaphragm° Reduction of gas leakage through the labyrinth ix provided by a duo%(ii...meochined so as to form a labvrinbh sea].. (6) to the cortoustmon _.-os_s and yet not restrain the oylindor-s].oevc motion, The labyrinth section of the...8217-]-_:-._oan lever (8) ,’__rescaled off from the jacket cooling water by _._cans of flexible neoprene seals (9). Those seals _ert no aporccia0!e constraint

  3. Ear Infections in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... labyrinth, which help us keep our balance. The cochlea, a part of the labyrinth, is a snail- ... The auditory nerve carries these signals from the cochlea to the brain. Other nearby parts of the ...

  4. Comparative analysis of vestibular ecomorphology in birds.

    PubMed

    Benson, Roger B J; Starmer-Jones, Ethan; Close, Roger A; Walsh, Stig A

    2017-12-01

    The bony labyrinth of vertebrates houses the semicircular canals. These sense rotational accelerations of the head and play an essential role in gaze stabilisation during locomotion. The sizes and shapes of the semicircular canals have hypothesised relationships to agility and locomotory modes in many groups, including birds, and a burgeoning palaeontological literature seeks to make ecological interpretations from the morphology of the labyrinth in extinct species. Rigorous tests of form-function relationships for the vestibular system are required to support these interpretations. We test the hypothesis that the lengths, streamlines and angles between the semicircular canals are related to body size, wing kinematics and flying style in birds. To do this, we applied geometric morphometrics and multivariate phylogenetic comparative methods to a dataset of 64 three-dimensional reconstructions of the endosseous labyrinth obtained using micro-computed tomography scanning of bird crania. A strong relationship between centroid size of the semicircular canals and body size indicates that larger birds have longer semicircular canals compared with their evolutionary relatives. Wing kinematics related to manoeuvrability (and quantified using the brachial index) explain a small additional portion of the variance in labyrinth size. We also find strong evidence for allometric shape change in the semicircular canals of birds, indicating that major aspects of the shape of the avian labyrinth are determined by spatial constraints. The avian braincase accommodates a large brain, a large eye and large semicircular canals compared with other tetrapods. Negative allometry of these structures means that the restriction of space within the braincase is intense in small birds. This may explain our observation that the angles between planes of the semicircular canals of birds deviate more strongly from orthogonality than those of mammals, and especially from agile, gliding and flying

  5. Temperature distribution of a simplified rotor due to a uniform heat source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welzenbach, Sarah; Fischer, Tim; Meier, Felix; Werner, Ewald; kyzy, Sonun Ulan; Munz, Oliver

    2018-03-01

    In gas turbines, high combustion efficiency as well as operational safety are required. Thus, labyrinth seal systems with honeycomb liners are commonly used. In the case of rubbing events in the seal system, the components can be damaged due to cyclic thermal and mechanical loads. Temperature differences occurring at labyrinth seal fins during rubbing events can be determined by considering a single heat source acting periodically on the surface of a rotating cylinder. Existing literature analysing the temperature distribution on rotating cylindrical bodies due to a stationary heat source is reviewed. The temperature distribution on the circumference of a simplified labyrinth seal fin is calculated using an available and easy to implement analytical approach. A finite element model of the simplified labyrinth seal fin is created and the numerical results are compared to the analytical results. The temperature distributions calculated by the analytical and the numerical approaches coincide for low sliding velocities, while there are discrepancies of the calculated maximum temperatures for higher sliding velocities. The use of the analytical approach allows the conservative estimation of the maximum temperatures arising in labyrinth seal fins during rubbing events. At the same time, high calculation costs can be avoided.

  6. Instability of multistage compressor K1501

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Ren-Mu

    1987-01-01

    The K1501 compressor, driven by a steam turbine, is used to transport synthetic gas in fertilizer plants of 1000 tons daily production. The turbo-compressor set, which had been in operation since 1982, vibrated rather intensely, and its maximum load was only about 95 percent of the normal value. Damaging vibration to pads and gas-sealing labyrinths occurred three times from 1982 to 1983 and resulted in considerable economic loss. From the characteristics of the vibration, we suspected its cause to be rotor instability due to labyrinth-seal excitation. But, for lack of experience, the problem was not addressed for two years. Finally, we determined that the instability was indeed produced by labyrinth-seal excitation and corrected this problem by injecting gas into the middle-diaphragm labyrinths. This paper primarily discusses the failure and the remedy described above.

  7. Brush seals for turbine engine fuel conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa, Mike

    1994-07-01

    The program objective is to demonstrate brush seals for replacing labyrinth seals in turboprop engines. The approach taken was to design and procure brush seals with assistance from Sealol, modify and instrument an existing T407 low pressure turbine test rig, replace inner balance piston and outer balance piston labyrinth seals with brush seals, conduct cyclic tests to evaluate seal leakage at operating pressures and temperatures, and evaluate effect of seal pack width and rotor eccentricity. Results are presented in viewgraph format and show that brush seals offer performance advantages over labyrinth seals.

  8. Navigating the Labyrinth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eagly, Alice H.; Carli, Linda L.

    2009-01-01

    The glass ceiling has shattered. The metaphor of a glass ceiling, an absolute barrier to women's advancement, is seriously outdated. Some women do make it to high positions as big-city superintendents of schools, governors, secretaries of state and, even occasionally, as Fortune 500 CEOs. The glass ceiling metaphor has great appeal but is…

  9. Effects of deuterium oxide and galvanic vestibular stimulation on visual cortical cell function

    SciTech Connect

    Reinis, S.; Landolt, J.P.; Weiss, D.S.

    1984-03-01

    The spontaneous and evoked unit activities of complex visual cortical cells were recorded from Brodmann's area 18 in immobilized, unanesthetized cats before, during, and after stimulation of the vestibular system. The vestibular system was stimulated by intravenous injection of deuterium oxide (D2O)--a noted nystagmogenic agent--or by direct galvanic stimulation of the labyrinth. Measures of the receptive-field areas, poststimulus time histograms, directional preferences, and the optimal speed of the light bar stimulating the cell were obtained before and after the application of D2O. Directional preferences were determined in a novel manner, using a method derived from a hierarchical clustering technique. Datamore » were collected and analyzed from a) visual cortical cells in cats with intact labyrinths, b) visual cortical cells in cats following bilateral labrinthectomies, and c) nonvisual cortical cells in cats with intact labyrinths. The other cellular characteristics were also altered by the D2O. Galvanic stimulation of the labyrinth resembles, in its effects, the injection of D2O. In labyrinth-intact cats, the time course of area 18 spontaneous activity dramatically increased 30 min or more after D2O was administered. It peaked 2-3 h later and still had not returned to preinjection levels even 7 h after the D2O administration. In bilaterally labyrinthectomized cats, the spontaneous activity of the visual cells did not change following D2O administration. In nonvisual cells from labyrinth-intact cats, the spontaneous activity demonstrated a slight but significant decrease over time after D2O injection. In pilot studies, the cats were injected with D2O. Within 8-10 min afterward, signs of positional nystagmus commenced; and within 30 min, problems in maintaining balance were noted. This continued for 7-8 h before disappearing. In the labyrinthectomized animals, such effects were not observed.« less

  10. The macroscopic vascular anatomy of the equine ethmoidal area.

    PubMed

    Bell, B T; Baker, G J; Abbott, L C; Foreman, J H; Kneller, S K

    1995-03-01

    The vascular anatomy of the ethmoidal area in six normal horses and two normal ponies was studied using vascular-corrosion casts. The major arterial supply to the ethmoidal area stems from an intracranial source. The internal and external ethmoidal arteries anastomose on the rostral intracranial surface of the cribriform plate to form the arterial ethmoidal rete which arborizes and passes through the perforations of the cribriform plate to supply the ethmoid labyrinth. A minor arterial supply to the ventral portion of the ethmoid labyrinth stems from a small caudal nasal branch of the sphenopalatine artery. Multiple parallel venules drain the ethmoid labyrinth rostrally to its apex then join the venous drainage from the surrounding sinuses.

  11. Environmental Assessment: PL 84-99 Levee Rehabilitation Program Lower Platte South Natural Resource District, Antelope Creek, Lincoln, Lancaster County, Nebraska

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    block erosion protection, vegetated banks, rock riprap protection, a labyrinth weir, underground conduit, concrete retaining walls near bridges...erosion protection, vegetated banks, rock riprap protection, a labyrinth weir, underground conduit, concrete retaining walls near bridges, and outlet...called “criteria pollutants”. These include: ozone, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, and lead. Lancaster County

  12. Rim seal for turbine wheel

    DOEpatents

    Glezer, Boris; Boyd, Gary L.; Norton, Paul F.

    1996-01-01

    A turbine wheel assembly includes a disk having a plurality of blades therearound. A ceramic ring is mounted to the housing of the turbine wheel assembly. A labyrinth rim seal mounted on the disk cooperates with the ceramic ring to seal the hot gases acting on the blades from the disk. The ceramic ring permits a tighter clearance between the labyrinth rim seal and the ceramic ring.

  13. Continued Investigation of Leakage and Power Loss Test Results for Competing Turbine Engine Seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delgado, Irebert R.; Proctor, Margaret P.

    2007-01-01

    Seal leakage decreases with increasing surface speed due to reduced clearances from disk centrifugal growth. Annular and labyrinth seal leakage are 2-3 times greater than brush and finger seal leakage. Seal leakage rates increase with increasing temperature because of seal clearance growth due to different coefficients of thermal expansion between the seal and test disk. Seal power loss is not strongly affected by inlet temperature. Seal power loss increases with increasing surface speed, seal pressure differential, mass flow rate or flow factor, and radial clearance. The brush and finger seals had nearly the same power loss. Annular and labyrinth seal power loss were higher than finger or brush seal power loss. The brush seal power loss was the lowest and 15-30% lower than annular and labyrinth seal power loss.

  14. Development of gas exchange and ion regulation in two species of air-breathing fish, Betta splendens and Macropodus opercularis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun-Yen; Lin, Cheng-Huang; Lin, Hui-Chen

    2015-07-01

    Aquatic air-breathing anabantoids, a group of fish species characterized by the presence of a labyrinth organ and some gills, exhibit morphological variations. This study aimed to examine whether unequal gill growth begins during the early stages and described the sequence of the early gill developmental events in Betta splendens and Macropodus opercularis. To determine when the ion regulatory and gas exchange abilities first appear in the gills, mitochondria-rich cells (MRCs) and neuroepithelial cells (NECs) were examined in young B. splendens. To evaluate the relative importance of the gills and the labyrinth organ under different levels of oxygen uptake stress, the levels of carbonic anhydrase II (CAII) and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (NKA) protein expressions in 2 gills and the labyrinth organ were examined in M. opercularis. We found that the first 3 gills developed earlier than the 4th gill in both species, an indication that the morphological variation begins early in life. In B. splendens, the MRCs and NECs clearly appeared in the first 3 gills at 4 dph and were first found in the 4th gill until 11 dph. The oxygen-sensing ability of the gills was concordant with the ionoregulatory function. In M. opercularis, the hypoxic group had a significantly higher air-breathing frequency. CAII protein expression was higher in the labyrinth organ in the hypoxic group. The gills exhibited increased NKA protein expression in the hypoxic and restricted groups, respectively. Functional plasticity in CAII and NKA protein expressions was found between the gills and the labyrinth organ in adult M. opercularis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Virtual Patients on the Semantic Web: A Proof-of-Application Study

    PubMed Central

    Dafli, Eleni; Antoniou, Panagiotis; Ioannidis, Lazaros; Dombros, Nicholas; Topps, David

    2015-01-01

    Background Virtual patients are interactive computer simulations that are increasingly used as learning activities in modern health care education, especially in teaching clinical decision making. A key challenge is how to retrieve and repurpose virtual patients as unique types of educational resources between different platforms because of the lack of standardized content-retrieving and repurposing mechanisms. Semantic Web technologies provide the capability, through structured information, for easy retrieval, reuse, repurposing, and exchange of virtual patients between different systems. Objective An attempt to address this challenge has been made through the mEducator Best Practice Network, which provisioned frameworks for the discovery, retrieval, sharing, and reuse of medical educational resources. We have extended the OpenLabyrinth virtual patient authoring and deployment platform to facilitate the repurposing and retrieval of existing virtual patient material. Methods A standalone Web distribution and Web interface, which contains an extension for the OpenLabyrinth virtual patient authoring system, was implemented. This extension was designed to semantically annotate virtual patients to facilitate intelligent searches, complex queries, and easy exchange between institutions. The OpenLabyrinth extension enables OpenLabyrinth authors to integrate and share virtual patient case metadata within the mEducator3.0 network. Evaluation included 3 successive steps: (1) expert reviews; (2) evaluation of the ability of health care professionals and medical students to create, share, and exchange virtual patients through specific scenarios in extended OpenLabyrinth (OLabX); and (3) evaluation of the repurposed learning objects that emerged from the procedure. Results We evaluated 30 repurposed virtual patient cases. The evaluation, with a total of 98 participants, demonstrated the system’s main strength: the core repurposing capacity. The extensive metadata schema

  16. Virtual patients on the semantic Web: a proof-of-application study.

    PubMed

    Dafli, Eleni; Antoniou, Panagiotis; Ioannidis, Lazaros; Dombros, Nicholas; Topps, David; Bamidis, Panagiotis D

    2015-01-22

    Virtual patients are interactive computer simulations that are increasingly used as learning activities in modern health care education, especially in teaching clinical decision making. A key challenge is how to retrieve and repurpose virtual patients as unique types of educational resources between different platforms because of the lack of standardized content-retrieving and repurposing mechanisms. Semantic Web technologies provide the capability, through structured information, for easy retrieval, reuse, repurposing, and exchange of virtual patients between different systems. An attempt to address this challenge has been made through the mEducator Best Practice Network, which provisioned frameworks for the discovery, retrieval, sharing, and reuse of medical educational resources. We have extended the OpenLabyrinth virtual patient authoring and deployment platform to facilitate the repurposing and retrieval of existing virtual patient material. A standalone Web distribution and Web interface, which contains an extension for the OpenLabyrinth virtual patient authoring system, was implemented. This extension was designed to semantically annotate virtual patients to facilitate intelligent searches, complex queries, and easy exchange between institutions. The OpenLabyrinth extension enables OpenLabyrinth authors to integrate and share virtual patient case metadata within the mEducator3.0 network. Evaluation included 3 successive steps: (1) expert reviews; (2) evaluation of the ability of health care professionals and medical students to create, share, and exchange virtual patients through specific scenarios in extended OpenLabyrinth (OLabX); and (3) evaluation of the repurposed learning objects that emerged from the procedure. We evaluated 30 repurposed virtual patient cases. The evaluation, with a total of 98 participants, demonstrated the system's main strength: the core repurposing capacity. The extensive metadata schema presentation facilitated user exploration

  17. Performance of an Exhaust-Gas "Blowdown" Turbine on a Nine-Cylinder Radial Engine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1944-12-01

    seal gland for the tur- bine shaft was provided around the opening between the Inside of the housing and an evacuated fore chamber, leakage of air...entire turbine was enclosed in a metal housing with four inlet pipes that extended through sliding glands to the outside of the housing. A labyrinth ...through this gland was reduced to a negligible amount by adjusting tho pres- sure difference between the labyrinth stages to 0 £0.1 millimeter of

  18. Quantifying ataxia: ideal trajectory analysis--a technical note

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McPartland, M. D.; Krebs, D. E.; Wall, C. 3rd

    2000-01-01

    We describe a quantitative method to assess repeated stair stepping stability. In both the mediolateral (ML) and anterioposterior (AP) directions, the trajectory of the subject's center of mass (COM) was compared to an ideal sinusoid. The two identified sinusoids were unique in each direction but coupled. Two dimensionless numbers-the mediolateral instability index (IML) and AP instability index (IAP)-were calculated using the COM trajectory and ideal sinusoids for each subject with larger index values resulting from less stable performance. The COM trajectories of nine nonimpaired controls and six patients diagnosed with unilateral or bilateral vestibular labyrinth hypofunction were analyzed. The average IML and IAP values of labyrinth disorder patients were respectively 127% and 119% greater than those of controls (p<0.014 and 0.006, respectively), indicating that the ideal trajectory analysis distinguishes persons with labyrinth disorder from those without. The COM trajectories also identify movement inefficiencies attributable to vestibulopathy.

  19. Cochlear implant-related three-dimensional characteristics determined by micro-computed tomography reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Ni, Yusu; Dai, Peidong; Dai, Chunfu; Li, Huawei

    2017-01-01

    To explore the structural characteristics of the cochlea in three-dimensional (3D) detail using 3D micro-computed tomography (mCT) image reconstruction of the osseous labyrinth, with the aim of improving the structural design of electrodes, the selection of stimulation sites, and the effectiveness of cochlear implantation. Three temporal bones were selected from among adult donors' temporal bone specimens. A micro-CT apparatus (GE eXplore) was used to scan three specimens with a voxel resolution of 45 μm. We obtained about 460 slices/specimen, which produced abundant data. The osseous labyrinth images of three specimens were reconstructed from mCT. The cochlea and its spiral characteristics were measured precisely using Able Software 3D-DOCTOR. The 3D images of the osseous labyrinth, including the cochlea, vestibule, and semicircular canals, were reconstructed. The 3D models of the cochlea showed the spatial relationships and surface structural characteristics. Quantitative data concerning the cochlea and its spiral structural characteristics were analyzed with regard to cochlear implantation. The 3D reconstruction of mCT images clearly displayed the detailed spiral structural characteristics of the osseous labyrinth. Quantitative data regarding the cochlea and its spiral structural characteristics could help to improve electrode structural design, signal processing, and the effectiveness of cochlear implantation. Clin. Anat. 30:39-43, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Industrial Computer Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapiro, Wilbur

    1996-01-01

    This is an overview of new and updated industrial codes for seal design and testing. GCYLT (gas cylindrical seals -- turbulent), SPIRALI (spiral-groove seals -- incompressible), KTK (knife to knife) Labyrinth Seal Code, and DYSEAL (dynamic seal analysis) are covered. CGYLT uses G-factors for Poiseuille and Couette turbulence coefficients. SPIRALI is updated to include turbulence and inertia, but maintains the narrow groove theory. KTK labyrinth seal code handles straight or stepped seals. And DYSEAL provides dynamics for the seal geometry.

  1. The scientific learning approach using multimedia-based maze game to improve learning outcomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setiawan, Wawan; Hafitriani, Sarah; Prabawa, Harsa Wara

    2016-02-01

    The objective of curriculum 2013 is to improve the quality of education in Indonesia, which leads to improving the quality of learning. The scientific approach and supported empowerment media is one approach as massaged of curriculum 2013. This research aims to design a labyrinth game based multimedia and apply in the scientific learning approach. This study was conducted in one of the Vocational School in Subjects of Computer Network on 2 (two) classes of experimental and control. The method used Mix Method Research (MMR) which combines qualitative in multimedia design, and quantitative in the study of learning impact. The results of a survey showed that the general of vocational students like of network topology material (68%), like multimedia (74%), and in particular, like interactive multimedia games and flash (84%). Multimediabased maze game developed good eligibility based on media and material aspects of each value 840% and 82%. Student learning outcomes as a result of using a scientific approach to learning with a multimediabased labyrinth game increase with an average of gain index about (58%) and higher than conventional multimedia with index average gain of 0.41 (41%). Based on these results the scientific approach to learning by using multimediabased labyrinth game can improve the quality of learning and increase understanding of students. Multimedia of learning based labyrinth game, which developed, got a positive response from the students with a good qualification level (75%).

  2. Leakage and Power Loss Test Results for Competing Turbine Engine Seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, Margaret P.; Delgado, Irebert R.

    2004-01-01

    Advanced brush and finger seal technologies offer reduced leakage rates over conventional labyrinth seals used in gas turbine engines. To address engine manufacturers concerns about the heat generation and power loss from these contacting seals, brush, finger, and labyrinth seals were tested in the NASA High Speed, High Temperature Turbine Seal Test Rig. Leakage and power loss test results are compared for these competing seals for operating conditions up to 922 K (1200 F) inlet air temperature, 517 KPa (75 psid) across the seal, and surface velocities up to 366 m/s (1200 ft/s).

  3. Laboratory simulation of meteoritic noble gases. III - Sorption of neon, argon, krypton, and xenon on carbon - Elemental fractionation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wacker, John F.

    1989-01-01

    The sorption of Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe was studied in carbon black, acridine carbon, and diamond in an attempt to understand the origin of trapped noble gases in meteorites. The results support a model in which gases are physically adsorbed on interior surfaces formed by a pore labyrinth within amorphous carbons. The data show that: (1) the adsorption/desorption times are controlled by choke points that restrict the movement of noble gas atoms within the pore labyrinth, and (2) the physical adsorption controls the temperature behavior and elemental fractionation patterns.

  4. 6-Mercaptopurine-induced histopathological changes and xanthine oxidase expression in rat placenta.

    PubMed

    Taki, Kenji; Fukushima, Tamio; Ise, Ryota; Horii, Ikuo; Yoshida, Takemi

    2012-01-01

    The placenta secures the embryo and fetus to the endometrium and releases a variety of steroid and peptide hormones that convert the physiology of a female to that of a pregnant female. Chemical-induced alteration or deviation of placental function in the maternal and extraembryonic tissue can ultimately lead to pregnancy loss, congenital malformation and fetal death. The 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP), an anti-leukemic drug, is known to produce undesired effects on some organs, then the placenta/embryo toxicity of 6-MP was investigated in pregnant rats given 60 mg/kg with two intraperitoneal injections on gestation days (GD) 11 and 12. The rats were sacrificed and their placentas were collected on GD13 or 15. On GD15 small and limb-defected embryos were found in the 6-MP-treated rats. Placental weights were significantly reduced on GD15, as well as a reduced number of cells was detected in the labyrinth zone with both the labyrinth and basal zones having thinned. Cleaved caspase-3-positive cells increased in number in the labyrinth zone, while in the basal zone, glycogen cells reduced with cytolysis. The number of spongiotrophoblasts and trophoblastic giant cells also increased by 6-MP treatment. The 6-MP-treatment resulted in the increased xanthine oxidase (Xdh) expression in the placenta, which gene is related to the ischemic condition of tissues. These data suggest that apoptosis of the labyrinth zone cells may lead to decreased materno-fetal exchange. Moreover, subsequent ischemia in the placental tissue may occur and induce Xdh expression.

  5. On the characteristics of caloric nystagmus in healthy persons. [in response to caloric stimuli

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bodo, D.; Baranova, V. P.; Matsnev, E. I.; Yakovleva, M. Y.

    1974-01-01

    The asymmetry of reflex activity of labyrinths and directional preponderance of the reaction were studied on healthy persons subjected to caloric tests. Calorization with hot water was accompanied by less pronounced reactions in all parameters of nystagmus than analogous indices at cold water stimulation. The symmetry of labyrinth function shifted to the right in individuals with greater activity of the left central vestibular formations, analogous to right handedness behavior. It is concluded that asymmetry of reflex nystagmus in healthy persons can be due to a certain preponderance of functional activity in structures of the left hemisphere of the brain.

  6. Piezoelectric axial flow microvalve

    DOEpatents

    Gemmen, Randall; Thornton, Jimmy; Vipperman, Jeffrey S.; Clark, William W.

    2007-01-09

    This invention is directed to a fuel cell operable with a quantity of fuel and a quantity of an oxidizer to produce electrical power, the fuel cell including a fuel cell body including a labyrinth system structured to permit the fuel and the oxidizer to flow therethrough; at least a first catalyst in fluid communication with the labyrinth; and at least a first microvalve operably disposed within at least a portion of the labyrinth. The microvalve utilizes a deflectable member operable upon the application of a voltage from a voltage source. The microvalve includes an elongated flow channel formed therein and extending substantially longitudinally between the first and second ends to permit substantially longitudinal flow of the fluid therethrough and between the first and second ends; and the deflectable member disposed on the valve body, the deflectable member including at least a first piezoelectric portion that is piezoelectrically operable to deflect the deflectable member between an open position and a closed position upon the application of a voltage, the deflectable member in the closed position being operable to resist the flow of the fluid through the flow channel.

  7. Experimental and theoretical rotordynamic stiffness coefficients for a three-stage brush seal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pugachev, A. O.; Deckner, M.

    2012-08-01

    Experimental and theoretical results are presented for a multistage brush seal. Experimental stiffness is obtained from integrating circumferential pressure distribution measured in seal cavities. A CFD analysis is used to predict seal performance. Bristle packs are modeled by the porous medium approach. Leakage is predicted well by the CFD method. Theoretical stiffness coefficients are in reasonable agreement with the measurements. Experimental results are also compared with a three-teeth-on-stator labyrinth seal. The multistage brush seal gives about 60% leakage reduction over the labyrinth seal. Rotordynamic stiffness coefficients are also improved: the brush seal has positive direct stiffness and smaller cross-coupled stiffness.

  8. The Narrative Labyrinth of Violent Dying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rynearson, E. K.

    2005-01-01

    This essay outlines the dynamics of retelling the violent death of a loved one and the narrative "dilemma" of vulnerable family members fixated on retelling. To counter this fixation, the author presents a mythic retelling of violent death (the Myth of Theseus) as narrative basis for developing a restorative retelling. The essay begins by…

  9. The narrative labyrinth of violent dying.

    PubMed

    Rynearson, E K

    2005-05-01

    This essay outlines the dynamics of retelling the violent death of a loved one and the narrative "dilemma" of vulnerable family members fixated on retelling. To counter this fixation, the author presents a mythic retelling of violent death (the Myth of Theseus) as narrative basis for developing a restorative retelling. The essay begins by exploring the deformed and deforming structure of the violent dying story, then details the dynamics of its retelling and concludes by presenting a restorative retelling model for family members who cannot release themselves from the story for months or years after the violent dying.

  10. Daedalus in Dublin: A Physicist's Labyrinth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connor, Thomas C.

    2014-03-01

    I describe some of the rich physical and natural-philosophy heritage of the urban center of the Irish capital Dublin (first tour) and its environs (second tour), in a two-part excursion that could take between two and eight hours in toto. In terms of history, both tours center around the nineteenth century. The first tour is located in and around Trinity College, and we encounter such personages as William Rowan Hamilton, George Fitzgerald, Ernest Walton, and Erwin Schrödinger, among others. Moving away from Trinity College, the second tour explores some of the periphery of the city. I describe the role of politics, money, and religion in shaping the emergence and development of scientific talent among the Irish people, and consequently the footprint left by physics in the city today, with its numerous sites and names that put Irish physics in an honorable place among the nations.

  11. A Labyrinth of the Wide World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plater, William M.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the design of the University Library at Indiana University, Purdue University Indianapolis. Topics include storage capacity; workstations; the user-friendly multimedia network information system; on- and off-campus connections to the system; the Center on Teaching and Learning; librarians' collaboration with faculty; and the Copyright…

  12. Navigating the Certification Labyrinth. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Children of New Jersey, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The Association for Children of New Jersey (ACNJ) conducted interviews with teachers in one of the Abbott districts to identify the major barriers in the licensing process and identify needed policy changes. The district chosen was identified in another report by Ryan and Ackerman (2004a) as being in jeopardy of losing a significant percentage of…

  13. ESKAPEing the labyrinth of antibacterial discovery.

    PubMed

    Tommasi, Ruben; Brown, Dean G; Walkup, Grant K; Manchester, John I; Miller, Alita A

    2015-08-01

    Antimicrobial drug resistance is a growing threat to global public health. Multidrug resistance among the 'ESKAPE' organisms - encompassing Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacter spp. - is of particular concern because they are responsible for many serious infections in hospitals. Although some promising agents are in the pipeline, there is an urgent need for new antibiotic scaffolds. However, antibacterial researchers have struggled to identify new small molecules with meaningful cellular activity, especially those effective against multidrug-resistant Gram-negative pathogens. This difficulty ultimately stems from an incomplete understanding of efflux systems and compound permeation through bacterial membranes. This Opinion article describes findings from target-based and phenotypic screening efforts carried out at AstraZeneca over the past decade, discusses some of the subsequent chemistry challenges and concludes with a description of new approaches comprising a combination of computational modelling and advanced biological tools which may pave the way towards the discovery of new antibacterial agents.

  14. An experimental technique for performing 3-D LDA measurements inside whirling annular seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Gerald L.; Johnson, Mark C.; Deotte, Robert E., Jr.; Thames, H. Davis, III.; Wiedner, Brian G.

    1992-01-01

    During the last several years, the Fluid Mechanics Division of the Turbomachinery Laboratory at Texas A&M University has developed a rather unique facility with the experimental capability for measuring the flow field inside journal bearings, labyrinth seals, and annular seals. The facility consists of a specially designed 3-D LDA system which is capable of measuring the instantaneous velocity vector within 0.2 mm of a wall while the laser beams are aligned almost perpendicular to the wall. This capability was required to measure the flow field inside journal bearings, labyrinth seals, and annular seals. A detailed description of this facility along with some representative results obtained for a whirling annular seal are presented.

  15. Bacterial meningitic deafness: historical development of epidemiology and cellular pathology.

    PubMed

    Ruben, Robert

    2008-04-01

    Meningitis resulting in labyrinthitis and its associated hearing loss was first described by several authors during 1864 and 1865 but it was not integrated into the otological cannon until H. Knapp's publications of 1871. These reports were incorporated by St John Rossa in his textbook of 1873. Politzer, in 1882, included a fuller description of the clinical symptoms. Analysis of records of the etiologies of students in 90 schools for the deaf in North America from 1817 to 1893 showed that before the mid-1870s meningitis was rarely identified as an etiology (<1%) but by the 1880s it accounted for 10-20% of all etiologies, with male preponderance. Cellular pathology of meningitic labyrinthitis from the 1860s to the 1990s examined the ways in which bacteria invaded the inner ear. Human temporal bone studies were a major source of understanding of the pathological processes. Honda, in 1927, injected guinea pigs intracranially with live bacteria, and observed the effects on the membranous labyrinth. In 1988 Lebel's observation of the effectiveness of dexamethasone in preventing much deafness from meningitis stimulated the examination of the labyrinthine immune response. Immunological mechanisms can account for some of the variable morbidity of unilateral, progressive, less-than-severe deafness.

  16. Morphological and biochemical variations in the gills of 12 aquatic air-breathing anabantoid fish.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun-Yen; Lin, Chung-Ping; Lin, Hui-Chen

    2011-01-01

    All fish species in the Anabantoidei suborder are aquatic air-breathing fish. These species have an accessory air-breathing organ, called the labyrinth organ, in the branchial cavity and can engulf air at the surface of the water to assist in gas exchange. It is therefore necessary to examine the extent of gill modification among anabantoid fish species and the potential trade-offs in their function. The experimental hypothesis that we aimed to test is whether anabantoid fishes have both morphological and functional variations in the gills among different species. We examined the gills of 12 species from three families and nine genera of Anabantoidei. Though the sizes of the fourth gill arch in three species of Trichogaster were reduced significantly, not all anabantoid species had morphological and functional variations in the gills. In these three species, the specific enzyme activity and relative protein abundance of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase were significantly higher in the anterior gills as compared with the posterior gills and the labyrinth organ. The relative abundance of cytosolic carbonic anhydrase, an indicator of gas exchange, was found to be highest in the labyrinth organ. The phylogenetic distribution of the fourth gill's morphological differentiation suggests that these variations are lineage specific, which may imply a phylogenetic influence on gill morphology in anabantoid species.

  17. Steam Turbine Flow Path Seals (a Review)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuimin, V. M.

    2018-03-01

    Various types of shroud, diaphragm, and end seals preventing idle leak of working steam are installed in the flow paths of steam turbine cylinders for improving their efficiency. Widely known labyrinth seals are most extensively used in the Russian turbine construction industry. The category of labyrinth seals also includes seals with honeycomb inserts. The developers of seals with honeycomb inserts state that the use of such seals makes it possible to achieve certain gain due to smaller leaks of working fluid and more reliable operation of the system under the conditions in which the rotor rotating parts may rub against the stator elements. However, a positive effect can only be achieved if the optimal design parameters of the honeycomb structure are fulfilled with due regard to the specific features of its manufacturing technology and provided that this structure is applied in a goal-seeking manner in the seals of steam and gas turbines and compressors without degrading their vibration stability. Calculated and preliminary assessments made by experts testify that the replacement of conventional labyrinth seals by seals with honeycomb inserts alone, due to which the radial gaps in the shroud seal can be decreased from 1.5 to 0.5 mm, allows the turbine cylinder efficiency to be increased at the initial stage by approximately 1% with the corresponding gain in the turbine set power output. The use of rectangular-cellular seals may result, according to estimates made by their developers, in a further improvement of turbine efficiency by 0.5-1.0%. The labor input required to fabricate such seals is six to eight times smaller than that to fabricate labyrinth seals with honeycomb inserts. Recent years have seen the turbine construction companies of the United States and Germany advertising the use of abradable (sealing) coatings (borrowed from the gas turbine construction technology) in the turbine designs instead of labyrinth seals. The most efficient performance of

  18. Shaft seal system

    DOEpatents

    Kapich, Davorin D.

    1985-01-01

    A shaft seal system is disclosed for isolating two regions of different fluid mediums through which a rotatable shaft extends. The seal system includes a seal housing through which the shaft extends and which defines an annular land and an annular labyrinth both of which face on the shaft so that each establishes a corresponding fluid sealing annulus. A collection cavity is formed in communication with the annular sealing spaces, and fluids compatible with the fluids in each of the two regions to be isolated are introduced, respectively, into the annular sealing spaces and collected in the collection cavity from which the fluid mixture is removed and passed to a separator which separates the fluids and returns them to their respective annular sealing spaces in a recycling manner. In the illustrated embodiment, the isolated fluid mediums comprise a liquid region and a gas region. Gas is removed from the gas region and passed through a purifier and a gas pump operative to introduce the purified gas through the labyrinth sealing annulus to the collection cavity. After passing to the separator, the separated gas is passed through a dryer from which the dried gas is caused to pass through the labyrinth sealing annulus into the collection cavity independently of the purified gas so as to insure isolation of the gas region in the event of sealing gas pump malfunction.

  19. Electronystagmography

    MedlinePlus

    ... movements. Any disease or injury that damages the acoustic nerve can cause vertigo. This may include: Blood ... conditions under which the test may be performed: Acoustic neuroma Benign positional vertigo Labyrinthitis Meniere disease

  20. Type 1 and 3 inositol trisphosphate receptors are required for extra-embryonic vascular development.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Keiko; Nakazawa, Maki; Yamagishi, Chihiro; Mikoshiba, Katsuhiko; Yamagishi, Hiroyuki

    2016-10-01

    The embryonic-maternal interface of the placental labyrinth, allantois, and yolk sac are vital during embryogenesis; however, the precise mechanism underlying the vascularization of these structures remains unknown. Herein we focus on the role of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptors (IP3R), which are intracellular Ca(2+) release channels, in placentation. Double knockout (DKO) of type 1 and 3 IP3Rs (IP3R1 and IP3R3, respectively) in mice resulted in embryonic lethality around embryonic day (E) 11.5. Because IP3R1 and IP3R3 were co-expressed in endothelial cells in the labyrinth, allantois, and yolk sac, we investigated extra-embryonic vascular development in IP3R1- and IP3R3-DKO mice. The formation of chorionic plates and yolk sac vessels seemed dysregulated around the timing of the chorio-allantoic attachment, immediately followed by the disorganization of allantoic vessels, the decreased expression of the spongiotrophoblast cell marker Tpbpa and the growth retardation of the embryos in DKO mice. Fluorescent immunohistochemistry demonstrated downregulation of a vascular endothelial marker, CD31, in labyrinth embryonic vessels and poor elongation of extra-embryonic mesoderm into the labyrinth layer in DKO placenta, whereas the branching of the DKO chorionic trophoblast was initiated. In addition, allantoic and yolk sac vessels in extra-embryonic tissues were less remodeled in DKO mice. In vitro endothelial cord formation and migration activities of cultured vascular endothelial cells derived from human umbilical vein were downregulated under the inhibition of IP3R. Our results suggest that IP3R1 and IP3R3 are required for extra-embryonic vascularization in the placenta, allantois, and yolk sac. This is the first demonstration of the essential role of IP3/IP3Rs signaling in the development of the vasculature at the embryonic-maternal interface. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Geomorphic Units on Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, R. M. C.; Malaska, M. J.; Schoenfeld, A.; Birch, S. P.; Hayes, A. G., Jr.

    2014-12-01

    The Cassini-Huygens mission has revealed the surface of Titan in unprecedented detail. The Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) mode on the Cassini Titan Radar Mapper is able to penetrate clouds and haze to provide high resolution (~350 m spatial resolution at best) views of the surface geology. The instrument's other modes (altimetry, scatterometry, radiometry) also provide valuable data for interpreting the geology, as do other instruments on Cassini, in particular, the Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) and the Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS). Continuing the initial work described in Lopes et al. (2010, Icarus, 212, 744-750), we have established the major geomorphologic unit classes on Titan using data from flybys Ta through T92 (October 2004-July 2013). We will present the global distribution of the major classes of units and, where there are direct morphological contacts, describe how these classes of units relate to each other in terms of setting and emplacement history. The classes of units are mountainous/hummocky terrains, plains, dunes, labyrinthic terrains and lakes. The oldest classes of units are the mountainous/hummocky and the labyrinthic terrains. The mountainous/hummocky terrains consist of mountain chains and isolated radar-bright terrains. The labyrinthic terrains consist of highly incised dissected plateaux with medium radar backscatter. The plains are younger than both mountainous/hummocky and labyrinthic unit classes. Dunes and lakes are the youngest unit classes on Titan; no contact is observed between the dunes and lakes but it is likely that both processes are still active. We have identified individual features such as craters, channels, and candidate cryovolcanic features. Characterization and comparison of the properties of the unit classes and the individual features with data from radiometry, ISS, and VIMS provides information on their composition and possible provenance. We can use these correlations to also infer global

  2. The Geology of Titan as Revealed by Cassini

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, Rosaly M.; Malaska, Michael; Solomonidou, Anezina; Cassini RADAR Team

    2015-08-01

    The Cassini-Huygens mission has revealed the surface of Titan in unprecedented detail, enabling us to discern the different geomorphic units on the surface and constrain the relative times of emplacement. We used a combined dataset of Cassini’s multiple instruments and instrument modes: Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR-RADAR), altimetry, scatterometry, imaging (ISS) and hyperspectral imaging (VIMS) to provide information on Titan’s surface geology. Continuing the initial work described in Lopes et al. [1], we established the major geomorphologic unit classes on Titan using data from flybys Ta through T92 (October 2004-July 2013). We will present the global distribution of the major classes of units and, where there are direct morphological contacts, describe how these classes of units relate to each other in terms of setting and emplacement history. The classes of units are mountainous/hummocky terrains, plains, dunes, labyrinthic terrains and lakes. The oldest classes of units are the mountainous/hummocky and the labyrinthic terrains. The mountainous/hummocky terrains consist of mountain chains and isolated radar-bright terrains. The labyrinthic terrains consist of highly incised dissected plateaus with medium radar backscatter. The plains are younger than both mountainous/hummocky and labyrinthic unit classes. Dunes and lakes are the youngest unit classes on Titan; no contact is observed between them but it is likely that both processes are still active. We have identified individual features such as craters, channels, and candidate cryovolcanic features. Characterization and comparison of the properties of the unit classes and the individual features with data from radiometry, ISS, and VIMS provides information on their composition and possible provenance. We can use these correlations to also infer global distribution on regions not covered by SAR. This is particularly important, as SAR data will not provide complete coverage of Titan by the end of the Cassini

  3. Geomorphic Units on Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, Rosaly; Malaska, Michael; Schoenfeld, Ashley; Birch, Samuel; Hayes, Alexander; Solomonidou, Anezina; Radebaugh, Jani

    2015-04-01

    The Cassini-Huygens mission has revealed the surface of Titan in unprecedented detail. The Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) mode on the Cassini Titan Radar Mapper is able to penetrate clouds and haze to provide high resolution (~350 m spatial resolution at best) views of the surface geology. The instrument's other modes (altimetry, scatterometry, radiometry) also provide valuable data for interpreting the geology, as do other instruments on Cassini, in particular, the Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) and the Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS). Continuing the initial work described in Lopes et al. (2010, Icarus, 212, 744-750), we have established the major geomorphologic unit classes on Titan using data from flybys Ta through T92 (October 2004-July 2013). We will present the global distribution of the major classes of units and, where there are direct morphological contacts, describe how these classes of units relate to each other in terms of setting and emplacement history. The classes of units are mountainous/hummocky terrains, plains, dunes, labyrinthic terrains and lakes. The oldest classes of units are the mountainous/hummocky and the labyrinthic terrains. The mountainous/hummocky terrains consist of mountain chains and isolated radar-bright terrains. The labyrinthic terrains consist of highly incised dissected plateaux with medium radar backscatter. The plains are younger than both mountainous/hummocky and labyrinthic unit classes. Dunes and lakes are the youngest unit classes on Titan; no contact is observed between the dunes and lakes but it is likely that both processes are still active. We have identified individual features such as craters, channels, and candidate cryovolcanic features. Characterization and comparison of the properties of the unit classes and the individual features with data from radiometry, ISS, and VIMS provides information on their composition and possible provenance. We can use these correlations to also infer global

  4. Advanced Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Brayton Cycle Development

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Mark; Sienicki, James; Moisseytsev, Anton

    2015-10-21

    Fluids operating in the supercritical state have promising characteristics for future high efficiency power cycles. In order to develop power cycles using supercritical fluids, it is necessary to understand the flow characteristics of fluids under both supercritical and two-phase conditions. In this study, a Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) methodology was developed for supercritical fluids flowing through complex geometries. A real fluid property module was implemented to provide properties for different supercritical fluids. However, in each simulation case, there is only one species of fluid. As a result, the fluid property module provides properties for either supercritical CO 2 (S-CO 2)more » or supercritical water (SCW). The Homogeneous Equilibrium Model (HEM) was employed to model the two-phase flow. HEM assumes two phases have same velocity, pressure, and temperature, making it only applicable for the dilute dispersed two-phase flow situation. Three example geometries, including orifices, labyrinth seals, and valves, were used to validate this methodology with experimental data. For the first geometry, S-CO 2 and SCW flowing through orifices were simulated and compared with experimental data. The maximum difference between the mass flow rate predictions and experimental measurements is less than 5%. This is a significant improvement as previous works can only guarantee 10% error. In this research, several efforts were made to help this improvement. First, an accurate real fluid module was used to provide properties. Second, the upstream condition was determined by pressure and density, which determines supercritical states more precise than using pressure and temperature. For the second geometry, the flow through labyrinth seals was studied. After a successful validation, parametric studies were performed to study geometric effects on the leakage rate. Based on these parametric studies, an optimum design strategy for the see-through labyrinth seals was

  5. [How to manage vertigo in adult?

    PubMed

    Vuong Chaney, Hella; Rohmer, Dominique; Charpiot, Anne

    2017-11-01

    The interrogation and the clinical examination are critical in the research of vertigo etiology. In the context of vertigo, the vital emergencies are of neurological and vascular origins. It is therefore necessary to be able to identify them quickly and simply. Vertigo is a symptom to relieve and the cause is to be diagnosed. Careful questioning combined with neurological examination, nystagmus study, Halmagyi test and skew deviation search are more reliable than imaging in the first 48hours to detect a stroke. There are 12% false negatives in cerebral MRI and 74% false negative in cerebral CT-scan in the first 48hours of an ischemic stroke. Labyrinth emergencies are infectious labyrinthitis, perilymphatic fistula and aeroembolism of the vestibule. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Seal For Precooling A Turbopump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owen, Samuel S.; Mulready, R.C.

    1988-01-01

    Diaphragm reduces misalignment. Rotary seal retains precooling fluid in pump section of cryogenic turbopump, preventing fluid from entering turbine section. Precooling fluid held in pump section of turbopump by knife-edge labyrinth seal on diaphragm.

  7. Selection of labyrinth seals in steam turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostyuk, A. G.

    2015-01-01

    The efficiency, vibration stability, operational durability, and cost of the main types of peripheral seals used in steam turbines are considered. A comparison between the conventional and honeycomb seals is given. Conditions subject to which replacement of conventional seals by honeycomb ones can be justified are pointed out. The use of variable-pitch multicomb seals as the most promising ones is recommended.

  8. Intriguing mechanistic labyrinths in gold(i) catalysis

    PubMed Central

    Obradors, Carla

    2014-01-01

    Many mechanistically intriguing reactions have been developed in the last decade using gold(i) as catalyst. Here we review the main mechanistic proposals in gold-catalysed activation of alkynes and allenes, in which this metal plays a central role by stabilising a variety of complex cationic intermediates. PMID:24176910

  9. Correction coefficient for see-through labyrinth seal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasnedl, Dan; Epikaridis, Premysl; Slama, Vaclav

    In a steam turbine design, the flow-part design and blade shapes are influenced by the design mass-flow through each turbine stage. If it would be possible to predict this mass-flow more precisely, it will result in optimized design and therefore an efficiency benefit. This article is concerned with improving the prediction of losses caused by the seal leakage. In the common simulation of the thermodynamic cycle of a steam turbine, analytical formulas are used in order to simulate the seal leakage. Therefore, this article describes an improvement of analytical formulas used in a turbine heat balance calculation. The results are verified by numerical simulations and experimental data from the steam test rig.

  10. MRI evidence of endolymphatic impermeability to the gadolinium molecule in the in vivo mouse inner ear at 9.4 tesla.

    PubMed

    Counter, S Allen; Nikkhou, Sahar; Brené, Stefan; Damberg, Peter; Sierakowiak, Adam; Klason, Tomas; Berglin, Cecilia Engmér; Laurell, Göran

    2013-01-01

    Previous in vivo experimental magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) investigations of the mammalian inner ear at 4.7 Tesla have indicated that intravenously injected gadolinium (Gd) penetrates the perilymphatic labyrinth, but not the endolymphatic membranous labyrinth. In the present study, high field MRI at 9.4T was used to visualize the in vivo mouse vestibulo-cochlea system, and to determine whether the endolymphatic system is permeable to a Gd complex. A 9.4 T Varian magnet equipped with a 12 cm inner diameter gradient system with maximum gradient strength of 600 mT/m, a millipede coil (Varian design) and a Gd contrast agent were used for image acquisition in the normal C57 BL-6 mouse. High-resolution 2D and 3D images of the mouse cochlea were acquired within 80 minutes following intravenous injection of Gd. Gd initially permeated the perilymphatic scala tympani and scala vestibuli, and permitted visualization of both cochlear turns from base to apex. The superior, inferior and lateral semicircular canals were subsequently visualized in 3 planes. The membranous endolymphatic labyrinth was impermeable to intravenously injected Gd, and thus showed no apparent uptake of Gd at 9.4T. The 9.4T field strength MRI permitted acquisition of high resolution images of anatomical and physiological features of the normal, wild type mouse perilymphatic inner ear in vivo, and provided further evidence that the endolymphatic system is impermeable to intravenously injected Gd.

  11. MRI Evidence of Endolymphatic Impermeability to the Gadolinium Molecule in the In Vivo Mouse Inner Ear at 9.4 Tesla

    PubMed Central

    Counter, S Allen; Nikkhou, Sahar; Brené, Stefan; Damberg, Peter; Sierakowiak, Adam; Klason, Tomas; Berglin, Cecilia Engmér; Laurell, Göran

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Previous in vivo experimental magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) investigations of the mammalian inner ear at 4.7 Tesla have indicated that intravenously injected gadolinium (Gd) penetrates the perilymphatic labyrinth, but not the endolymphatic membranous labyrinth. In the present study, high field MRI at 9.4T was used to visualize the in vivo mouse vestibulo-cochlea system, and to determine whether the endolymphatic system is permeable to a Gd complex. Methods: A 9.4 T Varian magnet equipped with a 12 cm inner diameter gradient system with maximum gradient strength of 600 mT/m, a millipede coil (Varian design) and a Gd contrast agent were used for image acquisition in the normal C57 BL-6 mouse. Results: High-resolution 2D and 3D images of the mouse cochlea were acquired within 80 minutes following intravenous injection of Gd. Gd initially permeated the perilymphatic scala tympani and scala vestibuli, and permitted visualization of both cochlear turns from base to apex. The superior, inferior and lateral semicircular canals were subsequently visualized in 3 planes. The membranous endolymphatic labyrinth was impermeable to intravenously injected Gd, and thus showed no apparent uptake of Gd at 9.4T. Conclusion: The 9.4T field strength MRI permitted acquisition of high resolution images of anatomical and physiological features of the normal, wild type mouse perilymphatic inner ear in vivo, and provided further evidence that the endolymphatic system is impermeable to intravenously injected Gd. PMID:23894262

  12. Imaging diagnostics: congenital malformations and acquired lesions of the inner ear.

    PubMed

    Pont, Elena; Mazón, Miguel; Montesinos, Pau; Sánchez, Miguel Ángel; Más-Estellés, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Congenital malformations and acquired lesions of the inner ear are characterised by small structural changes in this region. In recent decades, treatment options have improved considerably. At the same time, there has been a great advancement in diagnostic methods, obtaining high-resolution labyrinth images. Currently, we use a 64-multislice computed tomography scanner in spiral mode (Brilliance 64 Phillips, Eindhoven, the Netherlands), with an overlap of 0.66 mm and an interval of 0.33 mm, 120 KV and 300 mA. The magnetic resonance images were taken with Signa HDxt 1.5 and 3.0 T units (GE Healthcare, Waukesha, WI, USA). We reviewed the radiological features of the lesions affecting the inner ear. They are classified as congenital (labyrinth malformation and statoacoustic nerve deficiencies) or acquired (otospongiosis, labyrinthitis, Ménière's disease, inner ear haemorrhage, intralabyrinthine schwannoma and endolymphatic sac tumour). Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography play an essential role in diagnosing patients with inner ear pathology. The technique selected should be chosen depending on the clinical setting. In a generic way, tomography is the method of choice for the study of traumatic pathology or otospongiosis. When tumour or inflammatory pathology is suspected, magnetic resonance is superior. In cases of congenital malformation, both techniques are complementary. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Patología Cérvico-Facial. All rights reserved.

  13. Matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor attenuates cochlear lateral wall damage induced by intratympanic instillation of endotoxin.

    PubMed

    Choi, Cheol Hee; Jang, Chul Ho; Cho, Yong Bum; Jo, Si Young; Kim, Min Young; Park, Byung Young

    2012-04-01

    Oxytetracycline and ilomastat are inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Their efficacy in protecting against cochlear damage induced by the intratympanic instillation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), as a means of inducing labyrinthitis, was investigated. Experiments were performed in 21 young male guinea pigs. Intratympanic instillation of LPS was done in the control group (n=7). Intratympanic instillation of oxytetracycline or ilomastat was done after LPS instillation in the experimental group. Measurements of auditory brainstem response (ABR) and cochlear blood flow (CBF) were performed. The organ of Corti was evaluated by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). The blood-labyrinth barrier (BLB) integrity was evaluated with Evans blue uptake. Gelatin zymography was used to assess the expression of active MMP-2 and MMP-9. Ears treated with MMP inhibitors were significantly protected from hearing loss compared to the LPS group. In LPS group, there was a significant decrease of CBF. However, experimental group displayed a statistically significant recovery of CBF. FE-SEM revealed hair cell damage in the LPS-treated group, but hair cells presented a normal appearance in MMP inhibitors. The LPS group showed a marked increase of Evans blue extravasation in the cochlea. However, MMP inhibitors significantly reduced the BLB opening. Active MMP-9 was expressed in the LPS group. Treatment with MMP inhibitors attenuated active MMP-9 expression. The MMP inhibitors oxytetracycline and ilomastat protect from cochlear lateral wall damage caused by LPS-induced labyrinthitis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Vertigo-associated disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the part of the inner ear that controls balance. These areas are called the vestibular labyrinth or ... Dizziness Hearing loss in one ear Loss of balance (may cause falls) Ringing in the ears If you have vertigo ...

  15. Morphometric analysis of the placenta in the New World mouse Necromys lasiurus (Rodentia, Cricetidae): a comparison of placental development in cricetids and murids

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Stereology is an established method to extrapolate three-dimensional quantities from two-dimensional images. It was applied to placentation in the mouse, but not yet for other rodents. Herein, we provide the first study on quantitative placental development in a sigmodontine rodent species with relatively similar gestational time. Placental structure was also compared to the mouse, in order to evaluate similarities and differences in developmental patterns at the end of gestation. Methods Fetal and placental tissues of Necromys lasiurus were collected and weighed at 3 different stages of gestation (early, mid and late gestation) for placental stereology. The total and relative volumes of placenta and of its main layers were investigated. Volume fractions of labyrinth components were quantified by the One Stop method in 31 placentae collected from different individuals, using the Mercator® software. Data generated at the end of gestation from N. lasiurus placentae were compared to those of Mus musculus domesticus obtained at the same stage. Results A significant increase in the total absolute volumes of the placenta and its main layers occurred from early to mid-gestation, followed by a reduction near term, with the labyrinth layer becoming the most prominent area. Moreover, at the end of gestation, the total volume of the mouse placenta was significantly increased compared to that of N. lasiurus although the proportions of the labyrinth layer and junctional zones were similar. Analysis of the volume fractions of the components in the labyrinth indicated a significant increase in fetal vessels and sinusoidal giant cells, a decrease in labyrinthine trophoblast whereas the proportion of maternal blood space remained stable in the course of gestation. On the other hand, in the mouse, volume fractions of fetal vessels and sinusoidal giant cells decreased whereas the volume fraction of labyrinthine trophoblast increased compared to N. lasiurus placenta

  16. Transcript Profiling Identifies Gene Cohorts Controlled by Each Signal Regulating Trans-Differentiation of Epidermal Cells of Vicia faba Cotyledons to a Transfer Cell Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hui-Ming; Wheeler, Simon L.; Xia, Xue; Colyvas, Kim; Offler, Christina E.; Patrick, John W.

    2017-01-01

    Transfer cells (TCs) support high rates of membrane transport of nutrients conferred by a plasma membrane area amplified by lining a wall labyrinth comprised of an uniform wall layer (UWL) upon which intricate wall ingrowth (WI) papillae are deposited. A signal cascade of auxin, ethylene, extracellular hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and cytosolic Ca2+ regulates wall labyrinth assembly. To identify gene cohorts regulated by each signal, a RNA- sequencing study was undertaken using Vicia faba cotyledons. When cotyledons are placed in culture, their adaxial epidermal cells spontaneously undergo trans-differentiation to epidermal TCs (ETCs). Expressed genes encoding proteins central to wall labyrinth formation (signaling, intracellular organization, cell wall) and TC function of nutrient transport were assembled. Transcriptional profiles identified 9,742 annotated ETC-specific differentially expressed genes (DEGs; Log2fold change > 1; FDR p ≤ 0.05) of which 1,371 belonged to signaling (50%), intracellular organization (27%), cell wall (15%) and nutrient transporters (9%) functional categories. Expression levels of 941 ETC-specific DEGs were found to be sensitive to the known signals regulating ETC trans-differentiation. Significantly, signals acting alone, or in various combinations, impacted similar numbers of ETC-specific DEGs across the four functional gene categories. Amongst the signals acting alone, H2O2 exerted most influence affecting expression levels of 56% of the ETC-specific DEGs followed by Ca2+ (21%), auxin (18%) and ethylene (5%). The dominance by H2O2 was evident across all functional categories, but became more attenuated once trans-differentiation transitioned into WI papillae formation. Amongst the eleven signal combinations, H2O2/Ca2+ elicited the greatest impact across all functional categories accounting for 20% of the ETC-specific DEG cohort. The relative influence of the other signals acting alone, or in various combinations, varied across the four

  17. Transcript Profiling Identifies Gene Cohorts Controlled by Each Signal Regulating Trans-Differentiation of Epidermal Cells of Vicia faba Cotyledons to a Transfer Cell Phenotype.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui-Ming; Wheeler, Simon L; Xia, Xue; Colyvas, Kim; Offler, Christina E; Patrick, John W

    2017-01-01

    Transfer cells (TCs) support high rates of membrane transport of nutrients conferred by a plasma membrane area amplified by lining a wall labyrinth comprised of an uniform wall layer (UWL) upon which intricate wall ingrowth (WI) papillae are deposited. A signal cascade of auxin, ethylene, extracellular hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) and cytosolic Ca 2+ regulates wall labyrinth assembly. To identify gene cohorts regulated by each signal, a RNA- sequencing study was undertaken using Vicia faba cotyledons. When cotyledons are placed in culture, their adaxial epidermal cells spontaneously undergo trans -differentiation to epidermal TCs (ETCs). Expressed genes encoding proteins central to wall labyrinth formation (signaling, intracellular organization, cell wall) and TC function of nutrient transport were assembled. Transcriptional profiles identified 9,742 annotated ETC-specific differentially expressed genes (DEGs; Log 2 fold change > 1; FDR p ≤ 0.05) of which 1,371 belonged to signaling (50%), intracellular organization (27%), cell wall (15%) and nutrient transporters (9%) functional categories. Expression levels of 941 ETC-specific DEGs were found to be sensitive to the known signals regulating ETC trans -differentiation. Significantly, signals acting alone, or in various combinations, impacted similar numbers of ETC-specific DEGs across the four functional gene categories. Amongst the signals acting alone, H 2 O 2 exerted most influence affecting expression levels of 56% of the ETC-specific DEGs followed by Ca 2+ (21%), auxin (18%) and ethylene (5%). The dominance by H 2 O 2 was evident across all functional categories, but became more attenuated once trans -differentiation transitioned into WI papillae formation. Amongst the eleven signal combinations, H 2 O 2 /Ca 2+ elicited the greatest impact across all functional categories accounting for 20% of the ETC-specific DEG cohort. The relative influence of the other signals acting alone, or in various combinations

  18. Spatial coordination of compensatory eye movements in vertebrates: form and function.

    PubMed

    Graf, W

    1988-01-01

    The semicircular canals of the labyrinth of vertebrates provide one way of motion detection in three-dimensional space. The fully developed form of the vertebrate labyrinth consists of six semicircular canals, three on each side of the head, whose spatial arrangement (vertical canals are placed diagonally in the head, horizontal canals are oriented earth horizontally) follows three interconnected principles: 1) bilateral symmetry, 2) push-pull operational mode, and 3) mutual orthogonality. Other sensory and motor systems related to vestibular reflexes, such as the extraocular muscles or the "optokinetic" coordinate axes encoded in the activity of the visually driven cells of the accessory optic system, share the same geometrical framework. This framework is also reflected in the anatomical networks mediating compensatory eye movements, linking each of the semicircular canals to a particular set of extraocular muscles (so-called principal vestibuloocular reflex connections to yoke muscles). These classical vestibulo-oculomotor relationships have been verified at many levels of the vertebrate hierarchy, including lateral- and frontal-eyed animals. The particular spatial orientation of the semicircular canals requires further comment and phylogenetic evaluation. The spatial arrangement of the vertical canals is already present in fossil ostracoderms, and is also exemplified in lampreys, the modern forms of once abundant agnathan species that populated the Silurian and Devonian oceans. The lampreys and ostracoderms lack horizontal canals, which appear later in all descendent vertebrates. The fully developed vertebrate labyrinth with its six semicircular canals displays distinct differences that are obvious when comparing distant taxa (e.g. elasmobranchs versus other vertebrates). Whereas the common crus of the semicircular canals in teleosts through mammals is formed between the anterior and the posterior semicircular canal, it occurs between the anterior and the

  19. A Contemporary Blueprint for North Atlantic Treaty Organization Provisional Reconstruction Teams in Afghanistan?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-25

    States-led coalition, working in close cooperation with the Northern Alliance, succeeded in ousting the Taliban regime and chasing the remnants of its...Oxford University Press. Misra, Amalendu. 2004. Afghanistan: The Labyrinth of Violence. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Polity Press. Ralph, Magnus . 1998

  20. Rotordynamic stability problems and solutions in high pressure turbocompressors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmied, J.

    1989-01-01

    The stability of a high pressure compressor is investigated with special regard to the self-exciting effects in oil seals and labyrinths. It is shown how to stabilize a rotor in spite of these effects and even increase its stability with increasing pressure.

  1. Comparative ultrastructure of coxal glands in unfed larvae of Leptotrombidium orientale (Schluger, 1948) (Trombiculidae) and Hydryphantes ruber (de Geer, 1778) (Hydryphantidae).

    PubMed

    Shatrov, Andrey B

    2017-11-01

    Coxal glands of unfed larvae Leptotrombidium orientale (Schluger, 1948) (Trombiculidae), a terrestrial mite parasitizing vertebrates, and Hydryphantes ruber (de Geer, 1778) (Hydryphantidae), a water mite parasitizing insects were studied using transmission electron microscopy. In both species, the coxal glands are represented by a paired tubular organ extending on the sides of the brain from the mouthparts to the frontal midgut wall and are formed of the cells arranged around the central lumen. As in other Parasitengona, the coxal glands are devoid of a proximal sacculus. The excretory duct, joining with ducts of the prosomal salivary glands constitutes the common podocephalic duct, opening into the subcheliceral space. The coxal glands of L. orientale are composed of a distal tubule with a basal labyrinth, an intermediate segment without labyrinth, and a proximal tubule bearing tight microvilli on the apical cell surface and coiled around the intermediate segment. The coxal glands of H. ruber mainly consist of the uniformly organized proximal tubule with apical microvilli of the cells lacking the basal labyrinth. This tubule shows several loops running backward and forward in a vertical plane on the side of the brain. In contrast to L. orientale, larvae of H. ruber reveal a terminal cuticular sac/bladder for accumulation of secreted fluids. Organization of the coxal glands depends on the ecological conditions of mites. Larvae of terrestrial L. orientale possess distal tubule functioning in re-absorption of ions and water. Conversely, water mite larvae H. ruber need to evacuate of the water excess, so the filtrating proximal tubule is prominent. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. RNA-seq analysis of the rat placentation site reveals maternal obesity-associated changes in placental and offspring thyroid hormone signaling

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Introduction In animal models, maternal obesity (OB) leads to augmented risk of offspring OB. While placental function is influenced by maternal habitus, the effect of maternal obesity on the interacting zones of the placenta [the labyrinth (LZ), junctional (JZ) and metrial gland (MG)] remains unkno...

  3. 38 CFR 4.87 - Schedule of ratings-ear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., and complications such as labyrinthitis, tinnitus, facial nerve paralysis, or bone loss of skull... weekly, with or without tinnitus 100 Hearing impairment with attacks of vertigo and cerebellar gait occurring from one to four times a month, with or without tinnitus 60 Hearing impairment with vertigo less...

  4. 38 CFR 4.87 - Schedule of ratings-ear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., and complications such as labyrinthitis, tinnitus, facial nerve paralysis, or bone loss of skull... weekly, with or without tinnitus 100 Hearing impairment with attacks of vertigo and cerebellar gait occurring from one to four times a month, with or without tinnitus 60 Hearing impairment with vertigo less...

  5. 38 CFR 4.87 - Schedule of ratings-ear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., and complications such as labyrinthitis, tinnitus, facial nerve paralysis, or bone loss of skull... weekly, with or without tinnitus 100 Hearing impairment with attacks of vertigo and cerebellar gait occurring from one to four times a month, with or without tinnitus 60 Hearing impairment with vertigo less...

  6. 38 CFR 4.87 - Schedule of ratings-ear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., and complications such as labyrinthitis, tinnitus, facial nerve paralysis, or bone loss of skull... weekly, with or without tinnitus 100 Hearing impairment with attacks of vertigo and cerebellar gait occurring from one to four times a month, with or without tinnitus 60 Hearing impairment with vertigo less...

  7. 38 CFR 4.87 - Schedule of ratings-ear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., and complications such as labyrinthitis, tinnitus, facial nerve paralysis, or bone loss of skull... weekly, with or without tinnitus 100 Hearing impairment with attacks of vertigo and cerebellar gait occurring from one to four times a month, with or without tinnitus 60 Hearing impairment with vertigo less...

  8. Physics and Psychophysics of High-Fidelity Sound. Part III: The Components of a Sound-Reproducing System: Amplifiers and Loudspeakers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossing, Thomas D.

    1980-01-01

    Described are the components for a high-fidelity sound-reproducing system which focuses on various program sources, the amplifier, and loudspeakers. Discussed in detail are amplifier power and distortion, air suspension, loudspeaker baffles and enclosures, bass-reflex enclosure, drone cones, rear horn and acoustic labyrinth enclosures, horn…

  9. Development of gas-to-gas lift pad dynamic seals, volumes 1 and 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pope, A. N.; Pugh, D. W.

    1987-01-01

    Dynamic tests were performed on self acting (hydrodynamic) carbon face rotary shaft seals to assess their potential, relative to presently used labyrinth seals, for improving performance of aircraft gas turbine engines by reducing air leakage flow rate at compressor end seal locations. Three self acting bearing configurations, designed to supply load support at the interface of the stationary carbon seal and rotating seal race, were tested. Two configurations, the shrouded taper and shrouded flat step, were incorporated on the face of the stationary carbon seal element. The third configuration, inward pumping spiral grooves, was incorporated on the hard faced surface of the rotating seal race. Test results demonstrated seal leakage air flow rates from 75 to 95% lower that can be achieved with best state-of-the-art labyrinth designs and led to identification of the need for a more geometrically stable seal design configuration which is presently being manufactured for subsequent test evaluation.

  10. Seeing Beyond the Naked Eye in a Planetarium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fairall, A.

    2005-12-01

    I have a philosophy that the traditional naked-eye sky, as usually shown in planetariums, should only be an introductory step in portraying the Universe. Consequently, over the years I have produced 'inter alia' various versions of an enhanced Milky Way (the latest based on Axel Mellenger's panorama), the extragalactic sky and the radio sky for projection on planetarium domes. I also put together a three-dimensional planetarium show-the audience being equipped with ChromDepth(tm) spectacles- which stepped from the Solar System to the cosmic microwave background. The advent of digital technology now makes all this much easier. Currently, Labyrinth, a visualization program developed in-house, serves much the same function as the Hayden Planetarium's Partiview, but also permits rendering and fl y-throughs of large-scale structures. It allows viewers to explore local cosmography. Labyrinth can produce images that operate with the 3-D spectacles; we have also produced a version of Partiview that does the same.

  11. CFD study of leakage flows in shroud cavities of a compressor impeller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soldatova, K.

    2017-08-01

    The flow character in a gap between shroud disc of an impeller and a stator surface (shroud cavity) influences disc friction loss, labyrinth seal loss (parasitic losses) and thrust force. Flow calculations inside the shroud cavity of a model of centrifugal compressor stage and its labyrinth seal in a range of flow rates and axial width and radial gap are presented. The results are presented in terms of non-dimensional coefficients of flow, disc friction and seal leakage losses coefficients and pressure coefficient. The distributions meridional and tangential flow velocities correspond to the continuity and equilibrium equations - flow radial circulation exists in wide cavity and is absent in narrow cavities. The radial pressure distributions as measured and calculated are not fully comparable. The possible reason is that CFD-calculated leakage coefficient is less than calculated by A.Stodola formula. The influence of a cavity width on the losses and the thrust force requires a balanced design.

  12. Design, develop and test high temperature dynamic seals for the space shuttle's aerodynamic control surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A description is given of the design, development and testing of high temperature dynamic seals for the gaps between the structure and aerodynamic control surfaces on the space shuttle. These aerodynamic seals are required to prevent high temperature airflow from damaging thermally unprotected structures and components during entry. Two seal concepts evolved a curtain seal for the spanwise elevon cove gap, and a labyrinth seal for the area above the elevon, at the gap between the end of the elevon and the fuselage. On the basis of development testing, both seal concepts were shown to be feasible for controlling internal temperatures to 350 F or less when exposed to a typical space shuttle entry environment. The curtain seal concept demonstrated excellent test results and merits strong consideration for application on the space shuttle orbiter. The labyrinth seal concept, although demonstrating significant temperature reduction characteristics, may or may not be required on the Orbiter, depending on the actual design configuration and flight environment.

  13. Insights into inner ear-specific gene regulation: epigenetics and non-coding RNAs in inner ear development and regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Avraham, Karen B.

    2016-01-01

    The vertebrate inner ear houses highly specialized sensory organs, tuned to detect and encode sound, head motion and gravity. Gene expression programs under the control of transcription factors orchestrate the formation and specialization of the non-sensory inner ear labyrinth and its sensory constituents. More recently, epigenetic factors and non-coding RNAs emerged as an additional layer of gene regulation, both in inner ear development and disease. In this review, we provide an overview on how epigenetic modifications and non-coding RNAs, in particular microRNAs (miRNAs), influence gene expression and summarize recent discoveries that highlight their critical role in the proper formation of the inner ear labyrinth and its sensory organs. In contrast to non-mammalian vertebrates, adult mammals lack the ability to regenerate inner ear mechano-sensory hair cells. Finally, we discuss recent insights into how epigenetic factors and miRNAs may facilitate, or in the case of mammals, restrict sensory hair cell regeneration. PMID:27836639

  14. Tour of a labyrinth: exploring the vertebrate nose.

    PubMed

    Van Valkenburgh, Blaire; Smith, Timothy D; Craven, Brent A

    2014-11-01

    This special issue of The Anatomical Record is the outcome of a symposium entitled "Inside the Vertebrate Nose: Evolution, Structure and Function." The skeletal framework of the nasal cavity is a complicated structure that often houses sinuses and comprises an internal skeleton of bone or cartilage that can vary greatly in architecture among species. The nose serves multiple functions, including olfaction and respiratory air-conditioning, and its morphology is constrained by evolution, development, and conflicting demands on cranial space, such as enlarged orbits. The nasal cavity of vertebrates has received much more attention in the last decade due to the emergence of nondestructive methods that allow improved visualization of the internal anatomy of the skull, such as high-resolution x-ray computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. The 17 articles included here represent a broad range of investigators, from paleontologists to engineers, who approach the nose from different perspectives. Key topics include the evolution and development of the nose, its comparative anatomy and function, and airflow through the nasal cavity of individual species. In addition, this special issue includes review articles on anatomical reduction of the olfactory apparatus in both cetaceans and primates (the vomeronasal system), as well as the molecular biology of olfaction in vertebrates. Together these articles provide an expansive summary of our current understanding of vertebrate nasal anatomy and function. In this introduction, we provide background information and an overview of each of the three primary topics, and place each article within the context of previous research and the major challenges that lie ahead. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. A Journey through the Labyrinth of Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowan, Katherine C.

    2015-01-01

    Behind every student dealing with a mental health problem is a family trying to grasp what's happening to their child and struggling to do its best. This personal story shares the journey of a family as it confronts a child with Generalized Anxiety and Panic Disorder and describes the many starts and stops and confusion of diagnosing and…

  16. The inner ear of Diacodexis, the oldest artiodactyl mammal

    PubMed Central

    Orliac, M J; Benoit, J; O'Leary, M A

    2012-01-01

    We provide the first detailed description of the inner ear of the oldest artiodactyl, Diacodexis, based on a three-dimensional reconstruction extracted from computed tomography imagery of a skull of Diacodexis ilicis of earliest Wasatchian age (ca. 55 Ma). This description provides new anatomical data for the earliest artiodactyls, and reveals that the bony labyrinth of Diacodexis differs greatly from that of modern artiodactyls described so far. The bony labyrinth of Diacodexis presents a weakly coiled cochlea (720 °), a secondary common crus, a dorsal extension of the anterior semicircular canal more pronounced than that of the posterior one, and a small angle between the basal turn of the bony cochlear canal and the lateral semicircular canal. This suite of characters also occurs in basal eutherian mammals. Diacodexis strongly resembles small living tragulid ruminants in its overall body shape and hindlimb proportions. Comparison of the bony labyrinth of Diacodexis to that of the tragulid Moschiola meminna (Indian mouse deer) reveals great morphological difference in cochlear shape and semicircular canal disposition. The shape of the cochlea suggests that Diacodexis was a high-frequency hearing specialist, with a high low-frequency hearing limit (543 Hz at 60 dB). By comparison, the estimated low-frequency limit of Moschiola meminna is much lower (186.0 Hz at 60 dB). We also assess the locomotor agility of Diacodexis based on measurements of the semicircular canals. Locomotor agility estimates for Diacodexis range between 3.62 and 3.93, and suggest a degree of agility compatible with a nimble, fast running to jumping animal. These results are congruent with the postcranial functional analysis for this extinct taxon. PMID:22938073

  17. Label-Free, High-Throughput Purification of Satellite Cells Using Microfluidic Inertial Separation.

    PubMed

    Syverud, Brian C; Lin, Eric; Nagrath, Sunitha; Larkin, Lisa M

    2018-01-01

    Skeletal muscle satellite cells have tremendous therapeutic potential in cell therapy or skeletal muscle tissue engineering. Obtaining a sufficiently pure satellite cell population, however, presents a significant challenge. We hypothesized that size differences between satellite cells and fibroblasts, two primary cell types obtained from skeletal muscle dissociation, would allow for label-free, inertial separation in a microfluidic device, termed a "Labyrinth," and that these purified satellite cells could be used to engineer skeletal muscle. Throughout tissue fabrication, Labyrinth-purified cells were compared with unsorted controls to assess the efficiency of this novel sorting process and to examine potential improvements in myogenic proliferation, differentiation, and tissue function. Immediately after dissociation and Labyrinth sorting, cells were immunostained to identify myogenic cells and fibroblast progenitors. Remaining cells were cultured for 14 days to form a confluent monolayer that was induced to delaminate and was captured as a 3D skeletal muscle construct. During monolayer development, myogenic proliferation (BrdU assay on Day 4), differentiation and myotube fusion index (α-actinin on Day 11), and myotube structural development (light microscopy on Day 14) were assessed. Isometric tetanic force production was measured in 3D constructs on Day 16. Immediately following sorting, unsorted cells exhibited a myogenic purity of 39.9% ± 3.99%, and this purity was enriched approximately two-fold to 75.5% ± 1.59% by microfluidic separation. The BrdU assay on Day 4 similarly showed significantly enhanced myogenic proliferation: in unsorted controls 47.0% ± 2.77% of proliferating cells were myogenic, in comparison to 61.7% ± 2.55% following purification. Myogenic differentiation and fusion, assessed by fusion index quantification, showed improvement from 82.7% ± 3.74% in control to 92.3% ± 2.04% in the purified cell population

  18. Otolith mass asymmetry: natural, and after weightlessness and hypergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lychakov, Dmitri

    It is believed that otolith mass asymmetry (OA) can play an essential role in genesis of vestibular space disturbances in human subjects and fish. This review poster presents data on values and characters of OA in animals of various species and classes and on the effect of weightlessness and hypergravity on OA; the issue of the effect of OA on vestibular and auditory functions also is considered (Lychakov, Rebane, 2004, 2005; Lychakov et al., 2006, 2008). In symmetric vertebrates, OA was shown to be fluctuating, its coefficient chiχ ranges from - 0.2 to + 0.2 (±± 20%). It should be stressed that in the overwhelming majority of individuals absolute values of chiχ << 0.06. The low OA level enables the paired otolith organs to work in coordination; this is why the OA level is equally low regardless of the individual taxonomic and ecological position, size, age, and otolith growth rate. Individuals with the abnormally high OA level can experience difficulties in analyzing auditory and vestibular stimuli; therefore, most of such individuals are eliminated by natural selection. Unlike symmetric vertebrates, labyrinths of many Pleuronectiformes have pronounced OA. Otoliths in the lower labyrinth, on average, are significantly heavier than those in the upper labyrinth. The organs of flatfish represent the only example when OA, being directional, seem to play an essential role in lateralized behavior and are suggested to be used in the spatial localization of the source of sound. The short-term weightlessness and relatively weak hypergravity (<< 2g) do not affect OA. However, it cannot be ruled out that the long-term weightlessness and hypergravity >> 3g as well as some diseases and age-related changes can indirectly enhance OA and cause some functional disturbances. This work was partly supported by Russian grant RFFI 14-04-00601.

  19. Current and Future Management of Bilateral Loss of Vestibular Sensation – An update on the Johns Hopkins Multichannel Vestibular Prosthesis Project

    PubMed Central

    Della Santina, Charles C.; Migliaccio, Americo A.; Hayden, Russell; Melvin, Thuy-Anh; Fridman, Gene Y.; Chiang, Bryce; Davidovics, Natan S.; Dai, Chenkai; Carey, John P.; Minor, Lloyd B.; Anderson, Iee-Ching; Park, HongJu; Lyford-Pike, Sofia; Tang, Shan

    2012-01-01

    Bilateral loss of vestibular sensation can disable individuals whose vestibular hair cells are injured by ototoxic medications, infection, Ménière’s disease or other insults to the labyrinth including surgical trauma during cochlear implantation. Without input to vestibulo-ocular and vestibulo-spinal reflexes that normally stabilize the eyes and body, affected patients suffer blurred vision during head movement, postural instability, and chronic disequilibrium. While individuals with some residual sensation often compensate for their loss through rehabilitation exercises, those who fail to do so are left with no adequate treatment options. An implantable neuroelectronic vestibular prosthesis that emulates the normal labyrinth by sensing head movement and modulating activity on appropriate branches of the vestibular nerve could significantly improve quality of life for these otherwise chronically dizzy patients. This brief review describes the impact and current management of bilateral loss of vestibular sensation, animal studies supporting the feasibility of prosthetic vestibular stimulation, and a vestibular prosthesis designed to restore sensation of head rotation in all directions. Similar to a cochlear implant in concept and size, the Johns Hopkins Multichannel Vestibular Prosthesis (MVP) includes miniature gyroscopes to sense head rotation, a microcontroller to process inputs and control stimulus timing, and current sources switched between pairs of electrodes implanted within the vestibular labyrinth. In rodents and rhesus monkeys rendered bilaterally vestibular-deficient via treatment with gentamicin and/or plugging of semicircular canals, the MVP partially restores the vestibulo-ocular reflex for head rotations about any axis of rotation in 3-dimensional space. Our efforts now focus on addressing issues prerequisite to human implantation, including refinement of electrode designs and surgical technique to enhance stimulus selectivity and preserve

  20. Biaxially mechanical tuning of 2-D reversible and irreversible surface topologies through simultaneous and sequential wrinkling.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jie; Yagüe, Jose Luis; Boyce, Mary C; Gleason, Karen K

    2014-02-26

    Controlled buckling is a facile means of structuring surfaces. The resulting ordered wrinkling topologies provide surface properties and features desired for multifunctional applications. Here, we study the biaxially dynamic tuning of two-dimensional wrinkled micropatterns under cyclic mechanical stretching/releasing/restretching simultaneously or sequentially. A biaxially prestretched PDMS substrate is coated with a stiff polymer deposited by initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD). Applying a mechanical release/restretch cycle in two directions loaded simultaneously or sequentially to the wrinkled system results in a variety of dynamic and tunable wrinkled geometries, the evolution of which is investigated using in situ optical profilometry, numerical simulations, and theoretical modeling. Results show that restretching ordered herringbone micropatterns, created through sequential release of biaxial prestrain, leads to reversible and repeatable surface topography. The initial flat surface and the same wrinkled herringbone pattern are obtained alternatively after cyclic release/restretch processes, owing to the highly ordered structure leaving no avenue for trapping irregular topological regions during cycling as further evidenced by the uniformity of strains distributions and negligible residual strain. Conversely, restretching disordered labyrinth micropatterns created through simultaneous release shows an irreversible surface topology whether after sequential or simultaneous restretching due to creation of irregular surface topologies with regions of highly concentrated strain upon formation of the labyrinth which then lead to residual strains and trapped topologies upon cycling; furthermore, these trapped topologies depend upon the subsequent strain histories as well as the cycle. The disordered labyrinth pattern varies after each cyclic release/restretch process, presenting residual shallow patterns instead of achieving a flat state. The ability to

  1. Theory, Self, and Rhetoric Or, What To Do With Ariadne's Thread.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marinara, Martha

    Using Ariadne's thread in the narrative of the labyrinth as a metaphor for the elusiveness of language, this paper explores the concept of "self" to prepare for the discussion of autobiography as a "tool" for teaching writing, and to create a connection between a politically enabled self, a private self, and critical theory.…

  2. Reducing Foreign Language Communication Apprehension with Computer-Mediated Communication: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Nike

    2007-01-01

    Many studies (e.g., [Beauvois, M.H., 1998. "E-talk: Computer-assisted classroom discussion--attitudes and motivation." In: Swaffar, J., Romano, S., Markley, P., Arens, K. (Eds.), "Language learning online: Theory and practice in the ESL and L2 computer classroom." Labyrinth Publications, Austin, TX, pp. 99-120; Bump, J., 1990. "Radical changes in…

  3. Perceived Difficulty of a Motor-Skill Task as a Function of Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bratfisch, Oswald; And Others

    A simple device called a "wire labyrinth" was used in an experiment involving learning of a two-hand motor task. The Ss were asked, after completing each of 7 successive trails, to give their estimates of perceived (subjective) difficulty of the task. For this purpose, the psychophysical method of magnitude estimation was used. Time was…

  4. Full load shop testing of 18,000-hp gas turbine driven centrifugal compressor for offshore platform service: Evaluation of rotor dynamics performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirk, R. G.; Simpson, M.

    1985-01-01

    The results for in-plant full load testing of a 13.4 MW (18000 HP) gas turbine driven centrifugal compressor are presented and compared to analytical predictions of compressor rotor stability. Unique problems from both oil seals and labyrinth gas seals were encountered during the testing. The successful resolution of these problems are summarized.

  5. LOFT, TAN650. Service building preamp tower, top three floors. Floor ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LOFT, TAN-650. Service building pre-amp tower, top three floors. Floor plan, cable mazes, duct labyrinth. Borated water tank enclosure on roof. Kaiser engineers 6413-11-STEP/LOFT-650-A-3. Date: October 1964. INEEL index code no. 036-650-00-486-122215 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  6. SciTech Connect

    Sager, P.H.

    Studies were carried out on the FED Baseline to improve design definition, establish feasibility, and reduce cost. Emphasis was placed on cost reduction, but significant feasibility concerns existed in several areas, and better design definition was required to establish feasibility and provide a better basis for cost estimates. Design definition and feasibility studies included the development of a labyrinth shield ring concept to prevent radiation streaming between the torus spool and the TF coil cryostat. The labyrinth shield concept which was developed reduced radiation streaming sufficiently to permit contact maintenance of the inboard EF coils. Various concepts of preventing arcingmore » between adjacent shield sectors were also explored. It was concluded that installation of copper straps with molybdenum thermal radiation shields would provide the most reliable means of preventing arcing. Other design studies included torus spool electrical/structural concepts, test module shielding, torus seismic response, poloidal conditions in the magnets, disruption characteristics, and eddy current effects. These additional studies had no significant impact on cost but did confirm the feasibility of the basic FED Baseline concept.« less

  7. Optical coherence tomography as a guide for cochlear implant surgery?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Just, T.; Lankenau, E.; Hüttmann, G.; Pau, H. W.

    2008-02-01

    To assess the potential use of optical coherence tomography (OCT) in cochlear implant surgery, OCT was applied in human temporal bones before cochleostomy. The question was whether OCT might provide information about the cochlear topography, especially about the site of the scala tympani. OCT was carried out on human temporal bone preparations, in which the cochleostomy was performed leaving the membranous labyrinth and the fluid-filled inner ear intact. A specially equipped operating microscope with integrated OCT prototype was used. Spectral-domain (SD)-OCT was used for all investigations. On all scans, OCT supplied information about inner ear structures, such as scala tympani, scala vestibuli while the membranous labyrinth was still intact. In the fresh temporal bone the scala media, basilar membrane and the Reissner's membrane were identified. This OCT study clearly documents the possibility to identify inner ear structures, especially the scala tympani without opening its enveloping membranes. These findings may have an impact on cochlear implant surgery, especially as an orientation guide to localize the scala tympani precisely before opening the fluid filled inner ear.

  8. Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex Responses to a Multichannel Vestibular Prosthesis Incorporating a 3D Coordinate Transformation for Correction of Misalignment

    PubMed Central

    Fridman, Gene Y.; Davidovics, Natan S.; Dai, Chenkai; Migliaccio, Americo A.

    2010-01-01

    There is no effective treatment available for individuals unable to compensate for bilateral profound loss of vestibular sensation, which causes chronic disequilibrium and blurs vision by disrupting vestibulo-ocular reflexes that normally stabilize the eyes during head movement. Previous work suggests that a multichannel vestibular prosthesis can emulate normal semicircular canals by electrically stimulating vestibular nerve branches to encode head movements detected by mutually orthogonal gyroscopes affixed to the skull. Until now, that approach has been limited by current spread resulting in distortion of the vestibular nerve activation pattern and consequent inability to accurately encode head movements throughout the full 3-dimensional (3D) range normally transduced by the labyrinths. We report that the electrically evoked 3D angular vestibulo-ocular reflex exhibits vector superposition and linearity to a sufficient degree that a multichannel vestibular prosthesis incorporating a precompensatory 3D coordinate transformation to correct misalignment can accurately emulate semicircular canals for head rotations throughout the range of 3D axes normally transduced by a healthy labyrinth. PMID:20177732

  9. A Study on Rotordynamic Characteristics of Swirl Brakes for Three Types of Seals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wanjun; Yang, Jiangang

    2017-03-01

    In order to understand swirl brakes mechanisms and their influence on rotordynamic characteristics for different types of seals, a three-dimensional flow numerical simulation was presented. Three typical seals including labyrinth seal, fully partitioned damper seal and hole-pattern seal were compared under three inlet conditions of no preswirl, preswirl and preswirl with swirl brakes. FAN boundary condition was used to provide inlet preswirl. A modified identification method of effective damping was proposed. Feasibility of the swirl brakes on improving performance of damper seals was discussed. The results show that the swirl brakes influence the seal stability characteristics with whirl frequency. For the labyrinth seal the swirl brakes reverse the sign of effective damping at low frequency and improve the seal stability performance in a wide frequency range. The swirl brakes also improve the damper seals’ stability performance by increasing the low frequency effective damping and reducing their crossover frequency. Further results indicate the swirl brakes affect the rotational direction of the maximum (minimum) pressure positions and enhance the stability of the seals by reducing tangential force in each cavity.

  10. Turbine disc sealing assembly

    DOEpatents

    Diakunchak, Ihor S.

    2013-03-05

    A disc seal assembly for use in a turbine engine. The disc seal assembly includes a plurality of outwardly extending sealing flange members that define a plurality of fluid pockets. The sealing flange members define a labyrinth flow path therebetween to limit leakage between a hot gas path and a disc cavity in the turbine engine.

  11. Design improvement of a pump wear ring labyrinth seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhode, David L.; Morrison, G. L.; Ko, S. H.; Waughtal, S. P.

    1987-01-01

    The investigation was successful in obtaining two improved designs for the impeller wear ring seal of the liquid hydrogen turbopump of interest. A finite difference computer code was extensively used in a parametric computational study in determining a cavity configuration with high flow resistance due to turbulence dissipation. These two designs, along with that currently used, were fabricated and tested. The improved designs were denoted Type O and Type S. The measurements showed that Type O and Type S given 67 and 30 percent reduction in leakage over the current design, respectively. It was found that the number of cavities, the step height and the presence of a small stator groove are quite important design features. Also, the tooth thickness is of some significance. Finally, the tooth height and an additional large cavity cut out from the stator (upstream of the step) are of negligible importance.

  12. Tuberculous Otitis Media with Facial Paralysis Combined with Labyrinthitis

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Gyu Ho; Jung, Jong Yoon; Yum, Gunhwee

    2013-01-01

    Tuberculosis otitis media is a very rare cause of otorrhea, so that it is infrequently considered in differential diagnosis because clinical symptoms are nonspecific, and standard microbiological and histological tests for tuberculosis often give false-negative results. We present a rare case presenting as a rapidly progressive facial paralysis with severe dizziness and hearing loss on the ipsilateral side that was managed with facial nerve decompression and anti-tuberculosis therapy. The objective of this article is to create an awareness of ear tuberculosis, and to consider tuberculosis in the differential diagnosis of chronic otitis media with complications. PMID:24653900

  13. Tuberculous otitis media with facial paralysis combined with labyrinthitis.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Gyu Ho; Jung, Jong Yoon; Yum, Gunhwee; Choi, June

    2013-04-01

    Tuberculosis otitis media is a very rare cause of otorrhea, so that it is infrequently considered in differential diagnosis because clinical symptoms are nonspecific, and standard microbiological and histological tests for tuberculosis often give false-negative results. We present a rare case presenting as a rapidly progressive facial paralysis with severe dizziness and hearing loss on the ipsilateral side that was managed with facial nerve decompression and anti-tuberculosis therapy. The objective of this article is to create an awareness of ear tuberculosis, and to consider tuberculosis in the differential diagnosis of chronic otitis media with complications.

  14. Smart behavior of true slime mold in a labyrinth.

    PubMed

    Nakagaki, T

    2001-11-01

    Even for humans it is not easy to solve a maze. But the plasmodium of true slime mold, an amoeba-like unicellular organism, has shown an amazing ability to do so. This implies that an algorithm and a high computing capacity are included in the unicellular organism. In this report, we discuss information processing in the microorganism to focus on the issue as to whether the maze-solving behavior is akin to primitive intelligence.

  15. Stories from the Stacks: Students Lost in the Labyrinth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoonover, Dan; Kinsley, Kirsten M.

    2014-01-01

    Research shows that academic libraries can be difficult to navigate and that students are often frustrated with not being able to find the right materials. This current study attempts to identify access barriers in FSU's Strozier Library by assessing the effectiveness of signs and directories, as well as wayfinding patterns of both undergraduate…

  16. Historical Research and Narrative Inquiry: Striking Similarities, Notable Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Cheryl J.

    2005-01-01

    When Theseus sailed from Athens to the island of Crete to slay the Minotaur, a fearsome monster whose food was human flesh and whose home was the labyrinth, Ariadne, the daughter of the Cretan King Minos, gave her new found love, Theseus, a ball of thread to assist him in maneuvering his way through the great maze of winding passages. "Unwind it…

  17. Design and Development of a Segmented Magnet Homopolar Torque Converter

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-07-01

    configuration Hydrostatically-positioned seal ( sealed drain) Hydrostatically-positioned seal Power- leakage relationship for a single annular seal lip... Seal 1. conducting wick - stationary/rotating, fiber, foam 2. hydrodynamic/hydrostatic 3. flooded (alternately) labyrinth C. Low-Speed Flooding...between collectors may be used to introduce oil droplets to lubricate the seals and to drain any NaK leakage that might occur Alternatively, they

  18. Functional support of glutamate as a vestibular hair cell transmitter in an amniote

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cochran, S. L.; Correia, M. J.

    1995-01-01

    Although hair cells in the cochlea and in the vestibular endorgans of anamniotes are thought to release glutamate or a similar compound as their transmitter, there is little evidence in amniotes (which, unlike anamniotes, possess both type I and II hair cells) as to the nature of the hair cell transmitters in the vestibular labyrinth. We have recorded extracellularly from single semicircular canal afferents in the turtle labyrinth maintained in vitro and have bath-applied a number of transmitter agonists and antagonists to relate the effects of these substances to the actions of the endogenous transmitter substances. Both glutamate and aspartate strongly excite the afferents while GABA and carbachol have negligible or weak effects. In contrast to its lack of effect on afferent activity in some anamniotes, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) was also found to excite these afferents. Kynurenic acid reversibly reduced the resting firing rates of the afferents and the increases in firing due to the application of glutamate and aspartate. These findings provide preliminary support for the hypothesis that glutamate (or a related compound) is also a vestibular hair cell transmitter in amniotes.

  19. The effect of boldness on decision-making in barnacle geese is group-size-dependent.

    PubMed

    Kurvers, Ralf H J M; Adamczyk, Vena M A P; van Wieren, Sipke E; Prins, Herbert H T

    2011-07-07

    In group-living species, decisions made by individuals may result in collective behaviours. A central question in understanding collective behaviours is how individual variation in phenotype affects collective behaviours. However, how the personality of individuals affects collective decisions in groups remains poorly understood. Here, we investigated the role of boldness on the decision-making process in different-sized groups of barnacle geese. Naive barnacle geese, differing in boldness score, were introduced in a labyrinth in groups with either one or three informed demonstrators. The demonstrators possessed information about the route through the labyrinth. In pairs, the probability of choosing a route prior to the informed demonstrator increased with increasing boldness score: bolder individuals decided more often for themselves where to go compared with shyer individuals, whereas shyer individuals waited more often for the demonstrators to decide and followed this information. In groups of four individuals, however, there was no effect of boldness on decision-making, suggesting that individual differences were less important with increasing group size. Our experimental results show that personality is important in collective decisions in pairs of barnacle geese, and suggest that bolder individuals have a greater influence over the outcome of decisions in groups.

  20. Semicircular Canal Size and Locomotion in Colobine Monkeys: A Cautionary Tale.

    PubMed

    Rae, Todd C; Johnson, Paul Martin; Yano, Wataru; Hirasaki, Eishi

    2016-01-01

    The semicircular canals of the inner ear constitute the organ of balance, tracking head rotation during movement and facilitating stabilisation of vision. Morphological characteristics of the canals are correlated with agility scores related to locomotion. To date, however, the relationship between canal morphology and specific locomotor behaviours, such as leaping, is unclear. Knowledge of such a relationship could strengthen the inferences of locomotion of extinct taxa. To test this, crania of two sets of closely related primate species (Presbytis melalophos and P. potenziani; Colobus guereza and C. polykomos) that differ in the percentage of leaping in their locomotor repertoire were examined using microscopic computed tomography. Three-dimensional virtual models of the bony labyrinth were derived, and the radius of curvature of each of the three canals was evaluated relative to cranial size. The findings are contradictory; one leaping form (P. melalophos) differs from its congener in possessing significantly larger lateral canals, a pattern seen in previous studies of primates, while the other leaper (C. guereza) has significantly smaller posterior canals than its close relative. These results undermine efforts to determine specific locomotor behaviours from the bony labyrinth of extinct primates. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. A Review of Engine Seal Performance and Requirements for Current and Future Army Engine Platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delgado, Irebert R.; Proctor, Margaret P.

    2008-01-01

    Sand ingestion continues to impact combat ground and air vehicles in military operations in the Middle East. The T-700 engine used in Apache and Blackhawk helicopters has been subjected to increased overhauls due to sand and dust ingestion during desert operations. Engine component wear includes compressor and turbine blades/vanes resulting in decreased engine power and efficiency. Engine labyrinth seals have also been subjected to sand and dust erosion resulting in tooth tip wear, increased clearances, and loss in efficiency. For the current investigation, a brief overview is given of the history of the T-700 engine development with respect to sand and dust ingestion requirements. The operational condition of labyrinth seals taken out of service from 4 different locations of the T-700 engine during engine overhauls are examined. Collaborative efforts between the Army and NASA to improve turbine engine seal leakage and life capability are currently focused on noncontacting, low leakage, compliant designs. These new concepts should be evaluated for their tolerance to sand laden air. Future R&D efforts to improve seal erosion resistance and operation in desert environments are recommended

  2. Recognition of psychotherapy effectiveness: the APA resolution.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Linda F; Norcross, John C; Vasquez, Melba J T; Kaslow, Nadine J

    2013-03-01

    In August 2012, the American Psychological Association (APA) Council of Representatives voted overwhelmingly to adopt as APA policy a Resolution on the Recognition of Psychotherapy Effectiveness. This invited article traces the origins and intentions of that resolution and its protracted journey through the APA governance labyrinth. We summarize the planned dissemination and projected results of the resolution and identify several lessons learned through the entire process.

  3. The Vestibular Apparatus under Water and in Compressed Gas Environments: Abstracts of Translated Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-02-01

    found no evidence for progressive degeneration of the neurological symptoms, although there was no recovery either. 13. LANGE, J., I. ROZSAHEGYI...des Gehoemerven in den Maculae und Cristae Acustlcae Im Gehoerlabyrinth der Wirbeltiere. (The manner of termina- tion of the auditory nerve in the... maculae and cristae acustlcae in the auditory labyrinth of vertebrates. Trans, by Mrs. A. Woke, NMRI, 1972.) Biologische Untersuchungen (Stockholm

  4. SCISEAL: A CFD Code for Analysis of Fluid Dynamic Forces in Seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Althavale, Mahesh M.; Ho, Yin-Hsing; Przekwas, Andre J.

    1996-01-01

    A 3D CFD code, SCISEAL, has been developed and validated. Its capabilities include cylindrical seals, and it is employed on labyrinth seals, rim seals, and disc cavities. State-of-the-art numerical methods include colocated grids, high-order differencing, and turbulence models which account for wall roughness. SCISEAL computes efficient solutions for complicated flow geometries and seal-specific capabilities (rotor loads, torques, etc.).

  5. Bioelectrical activity of limb muscles during cold shivering of stimulation of the vestibular apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuzmina, G. I.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of caloric and electric stimulation of the vestibular receptors on the EMG activity of limb muslces in anesthetized cats during cold induced shivering involved flexor muscles alone. Both types of stimulation suppressed bioelectrical activity more effectively in the ipsilateral muscles. The suppression of shivering activity seems to be due to the increased inhibitory effect of descending labyrinth pathways on the function of flexor motoneurons.

  6. Change of magnetic domain structure by mechanically induced twin boundary motion in Ni-Mn-Ga single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopecký, Vít; Heczko, Oleg

    2017-10-01

    The single variant state exhibits usual labyrinth and band magnetic domains depending on orientation of easy magnetization axis. By the passage of single twin boundary induced by mechanical stress the rake and granular domain patterns are formed. These domain patterns are further modified by repeated passage of the twin boundary resulting in similar domain patterns in the sample even though the orientation of the magnetization is different.

  7. Phylogenetic and functional implications of the ear region anatomy of Glossotherium robustum (Xenarthra, Mylodontidae) from the Late Pleistocene of Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boscaini, Alberto; Iurino, Dawid A.; Billet, Guillaume; Hautier, Lionel; Sardella, Raffaele; Tirao, German; Gaudin, Timothy J.; Pujos, François

    2018-04-01

    Several detailed studies of the external morphology of the ear region in extinct sloths have been published in the past few decades, and this anatomical region has proved extremely helpful in elucidating the phylogenetic relationships among the members of this mammalian clade. Few studies of the inner ear anatomy in these peculiar animals were conducted historically, but these are increasing in number in recent years, in both the extinct and extant representatives, due to wider access to CT-scanning facilities, which allow non-destructive access to internal morphologies. In the present study, we analyze the extinct ground sloth Glossotherium robustum and provide a description of the external features of the ear region and the endocranial side of the petrosal bone, coupled with the first data on the anatomy of the bony labyrinth. Some features observable in the ear region of G. robustum (e.g., the shape and size of the entotympanic bone and the morphology of the posteromedial surface of the petrosal) are highly variable, both intraspecifically and intraindividually. The form of the bony labyrinth of G. robustum is also described, providing the first data from this anatomical region for the family Mylodontidae. The anatomy of the bony labyrinth of the genus Glossotherium is here compared at the level of the superorder Xenarthra, including all available extant and extinct representatives, using geometric morphometric methods. In light of the new data, we discuss the evolution of inner ear anatomy in the xenarthran clade, and most particularly in sloths, considering the influence of phylogeny, allometry, and physiology on the shape of this highly informative region of the skull. These analyses show that the inner ear of Glossotherium more closely resembles that of the extant anteaters, and to a lesser extent those of the giant ground sloth Megatherium and euphractine armadillos, than those of the extant sloths Bradypus and Choloepus, further demonstrating the striking

  8. Phylogenetic and functional implications of the ear region anatomy of Glossotherium robustum (Xenarthra, Mylodontidae) from the Late Pleistocene of Argentina.

    PubMed

    Boscaini, Alberto; Iurino, Dawid A; Billet, Guillaume; Hautier, Lionel; Sardella, Raffaele; Tirao, German; Gaudin, Timothy J; Pujos, François

    2018-03-27

    Several detailed studies of the external morphology of the ear region in extinct sloths have been published in the past few decades, and this anatomical region has proved extremely helpful in elucidating the phylogenetic relationships among the members of this mammalian clade. Few studies of the inner ear anatomy in these peculiar animals were conducted historically, but these are increasing in number in recent years, in both the extinct and extant representatives, due to wider access to CT-scanning facilities, which allow non-destructive access to internal morphologies. In the present study, we analyze the extinct ground sloth Glossotherium robustum and provide a description of the external features of the ear region and the endocranial side of the petrosal bone, coupled with the first data on the anatomy of the bony labyrinth. Some features observable in the ear region of G. robustum (e.g., the shape and size of the entotympanic bone and the morphology of the posteromedial surface of the petrosal) are highly variable, both intraspecifically and intraindividually. The form of the bony labyrinth of G. robustum is also described, providing the first data from this anatomical region for the family Mylodontidae. The anatomy of the bony labyrinth of the genus Glossotherium is here compared at the level of the superorder Xenarthra, including all available extant and extinct representatives, using geometric morphometric methods. In light of the new data, we discuss the evolution of inner ear anatomy in the xenarthran clade, and most particularly in sloths, considering the influence of phylogeny, allometry, and physiology on the shape of this highly informative region of the skull. These analyses show that the inner ear of Glossotherium more closely resembles that of the extant anteaters, and to a lesser extent those of the giant ground sloth Megatherium and euphractine armadillos, than those of the extant sloths Bradypus and Choloepus, further demonstrating the striking

  9. Brush Seals for Cryogenic Applications: Performance, Stage Effects, and Preliminary Wear Results in LN2 and LH2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, Margaret P.; Walker, James F.; Perkins, H. Douglas; Hoopes, Joan F.; Williamson, G. Scott

    1996-01-01

    Brush seals are compliant contacting seals and have significantly lower leakage than labyrinth seals in gas turbine applications. Their long life and low leakage make them candidates for use in rocket engine turbopumps. Brush seals, 50.8 mm (2 in.) in diameter with a nominal 127-micron (0.005-in.) radial interference, were tested in liquid nitrogen (LN2) and liquid hydrogen (LH2) at shaft speeds up to 35,000 and 65,000 rpm, respectively, and at pressure drops up to 1.21 MPa (175 psid) per brush. A labyrinth seal was also tested in liquid nitrogen to provide a baseline. The LN2 leakage rate of a single brush seal with an initial radial shaft interference of 127 micron (0.005 in.) measured one-half to one-third the leakage rate of a 12-tooth labyrinth seal with a radial clearance of 127 micron (0.005 in.). Two brushes spaced 7.21 micron (0.248 in.) apart leaked about one-half as much as a single brush, and two brushes tightly packed together leaked about three-fourths as much as a single brush. The maximum measured groove depth on the Inconel 718 rotor with a surface finish of 0.81 micron (32 microinch) was 25 micron (0.0010 in.) after 4.3 hr of shaft rotation in liquid nitrogen. The Haynes-25 bristles wore approximately 25 to 76 micron (0.001 to 0.003 in.) under the same conditions. Wear results in liquid hydrogen were significantly different. In liquid hydrogen the rotor did not wear, but the bristle material transferred onto the rotor and the initial 127 micron (0.005 in.) radial interference was consumed. Relatively high leakage rates were measured in liquid hydrogen. More testing is required to verify the leakage performance, to validate and calibrate analysis techniques, and to determine the wear mechanisms. Performance, staging effects, and preliminary wear results are presented.

  10. Performance Assessment Register. Working Group 12 Preliminary Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-08-01

    Psychology in the DOD conference. -Amell, J.A. (1986). A comparison of two chord keyboards coding systems for alphanumeric data entry. Masters Thesis . Wright...psycho-motor performance); also, various paper-pencil tests (IST-70, CFT -3, LGT, WFT, KBT, labyrinth) for pilot preselection, ATC selection...reproditction o~f a)"trsct geometrical fig,- tires (GEMAT): ability to perceive aml ] estimate the spiced of nmovitng objects (DEST): non-verbal intelligence (M30

  11. Project SQUID. Bulletin of the Instrumentation Panel. Number 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1948-05-01

    protecting tubes to be used In gas turbines* -15- It is convenient to make the pressure seal at the cool end of the protecting tube with an...illustrates the effect of a slight misalignment of the turbine wheel. Since the leakage between the nozzle and the openings in the wheel varied...calorimeter proper, whier it traverses a labyrinth surrounding a constantan heater, and leaves the calorimeter through a throttle valve. The

  12. Books: Not just computers and companions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-08-01

    Mary Brück's historical survey is the second RAS Series publication, and one that gives an insight into the different roles taken by women astronomers: original thinkers, computers, educators, and entrepreneurs. In this extract from the chapter ``The Labyrinths of Heaven'', we find out how Maria Short (c1788-1869) came to own and operate an observatory open to the public in the mid-19th century.

  13. Test results for rotordynamic coefficients of anti-swirl self-injection seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, C. H.; Lee, Y. B.

    1994-01-01

    Test results are presented for rotordynamic coefficients and leakage for three annular seals which use anti-swirl self-injection concept to yield significant improvement in whirl frequency ratios as compared to smooth and damper seals. A new anti-swirl self-inection mechanism is achieved by deliberately machining self-injection holes inside the seal stator mechanism which is used to achieve effective reduction of the tangential flow which is considered as a prime cause of rotor instability in high performance turbomachinery. Test results show that the self-injection mechanism significantly improves whirl frequency ratios; however, the leakage performance degrades due to the introduction of the self-injection mechanism. Through a series of the test program, an optimum anti-swirl self-injection seal which uses a labyrinth stator surface with anti-axial flow injections is selected to obtain a significant improvement in the whirl frequency ratio as compared to a damper seal, while showing moderate leakage performance. Best whirl frequency ratio is achieved by an anti-swirl self-injection seal of 12 holes anti-swirl and 6 degree anti-leakage injection with a labyrinth surface configuration. When compared to a damper seal, the optimum configuration outperforms the whirl frequency ratio by a factor of 2.

  14. Immunolocalization of aquaporin CHIP in the guinea pig inner ear.

    PubMed

    Stanković, K M; Adams, J C; Brown, D

    1995-12-01

    Aquaporin CHIP (AQP-CHIP) is a water channel protein previously identified in red blood cells and water transporting epithelia. The inner ear is an organ of hearing and balance whose normal function depends critically on maintenance of fluid homeostasis. In this study, AQP-CHIP, or a close homologue, was found in specific cells of the inner ear, as assessed by immunocytochemistry with the use of affinity-purified polyclonal antibodies against AQP-CHIP.AQP-CHIP was predominantly found in fibrocytes in close association with bone, including most of the cells lining the bony labyrinth and in fibrocytes lining the endolymphatic duct and sac. AQP-CHIP-positive cells not directly apposing bone include cells under the basilar membrane, some type III fibrocytes of the spiral ligament, fibrocytes of the spiral limbus, and the trabecular perilymphatic tissue extending from the membranous to the bony labyrinth. AQP-CHIP was also found in the periosteum of the middle ear and cranial bones, as well as in chondrocytes of the oval window and stapes. The distribution of AQP-CHIP in the inner ear suggests that AQP-CHIP may have special significance for maintenance of bone and the basilar membrane, and for function of the spiral ligament.

  15. Development of the chorioallantoic placenta in Octodon degus--a model for growth processes in caviomorph rodents?

    PubMed

    Mess, Andrea

    2007-07-15

    The degu Octodon degus is one of the very few members of caviomorph or hystricognath Rodentia that possesses a simply arranged chorioallantoic placenta without advanced lobulation. Therefore this species was used as a model to study regional development and growth processes of the placenta, based on the examination of 20 individuals by light and electron microscopy as well as by using markers for proliferation, trophoblast and endometrial stroma. The results were interpreted by comparison with other hystricognaths in the light of their evolutionary history. It was found that trophoblast derived from the trophospongium is essential for extension of the placenta including the labyrinth: extensive proliferation is restricted to trophoblast cells at the outer margin of the placenta and along internally directed, finger-tip like protrusions of fetal mesenchyme towards the labyrinth. This kind of placental development is regarded as part of the stem species pattern of hystricognaths, evolved more than 40 million years ago. It is indicated for the first time that the replenishment of the syncytiotrophoblast is similar to corresponding processes in the human placenta. In conclusion, the degu is a useful model for placental growth dynamics, particularly because of its simply arranged placental architecture, and may also serve as an animal model in comparison to human pregnancies.

  16. The effect of boldness on decision-making in barnacle geese is group-size-dependent

    PubMed Central

    Kurvers, Ralf H. J. M.; Adamczyk, Vena M. A. P.; van Wieren, Sipke E.; Prins, Herbert H. T.

    2011-01-01

    In group-living species, decisions made by individuals may result in collective behaviours. A central question in understanding collective behaviours is how individual variation in phenotype affects collective behaviours. However, how the personality of individuals affects collective decisions in groups remains poorly understood. Here, we investigated the role of boldness on the decision-making process in different-sized groups of barnacle geese. Naive barnacle geese, differing in boldness score, were introduced in a labyrinth in groups with either one or three informed demonstrators. The demonstrators possessed information about the route through the labyrinth. In pairs, the probability of choosing a route prior to the informed demonstrator increased with increasing boldness score: bolder individuals decided more often for themselves where to go compared with shyer individuals, whereas shyer individuals waited more often for the demonstrators to decide and followed this information. In groups of four individuals, however, there was no effect of boldness on decision-making, suggesting that individual differences were less important with increasing group size. Our experimental results show that personality is important in collective decisions in pairs of barnacle geese, and suggest that bolder individuals have a greater influence over the outcome of decisions in groups. PMID:21123271

  17. The use of strain gauge platform and virtual reality tool for patient stability examination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walendziuk, Wojciech; Wysk, Lukasz; Skoczylas, Marcin

    2016-09-01

    Virtual reality is one of the fastest growing information technologies. This paper is only a prelude to a larger study on the use of virtual reality tools in analysing bony labyrinth and sense of balance. Problems with the functioning of these areas of the body are a controversial topic in debate among specialists. The result of still unresolved imbalance treatments is a constant number of people reporting this type of ailment. Considering above, authors created a system and application that contains a model of virtual environment, and a tool for the modification of the obstacles in 3D space. Preliminary studies of patients from a test group aged 22-49 years were also carried out, in which behaviour and sense of balance in relation to the horizontal curvature of the virtual world around patient has been analysed. Experiments carried out on a test group showed that the shape of the curve and the virtual world space and age of patient has a major impact on a sense of balance. The data obtained can be linked with actual disorders of bony labyrinth and human behaviour at the time of their occurrence. Another important achievement that will be the subject of further work is possible use a modified version of the software for rehabilitation purposes.

  18. New notch weir system designed to pass shad through Potomac Dam

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    This article discusses the design and functional characteristics of a notch and three-weir labyrinth fish passage facility at Little Falls Dam. Most effective at low-head hydroelectric power plants, the weir system will reduce flow velocities to a value thought to be low enough for healthy shad to swim against. It is felt that this system will re-establish the shad population in a 10-mile stretch of the Patomac River near Washington.

  19. Orbiting Frog Otolith experiment (OFO-A): Data reduction and control experimentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gualtierotti, T.; Bracchi, F.; Rocca, E.

    1972-01-01

    The OFO-A mission was prepared as a part of a special program of vestibular physiology with the purpose of studying in which way the lack of the gravity pull will affect the functioning of that part of the labyrinth which controls balance. The gravitational components corresponded to the different head positions, namely, the gravity sensitive or positioning receptors. It is evident that in weightlessness the gravity sensitive receptors are deprived of their primary input.

  20. Compact Closed Cycle Brayton System Feasibility Study. Volume I.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-08-01

    are exposed to cooler 204°C (400’F) gas originating from the power turbine balance piston labyrinth seal . The removal of the turbomachinery from the... seals , leakage of helium from the intercooler to the precooler inlet could occur, and there is a possibility of water mixing with j the turbomachinery...component joints to be sealed . Some leakage is tolerable at inter-component joints within the system as this leakage remains confined within the

  1. Destroyer Engineered Operating Cycle (DDEOC). System Maintenance Analysis CG-16 and CG-26 Class 1200 PSI Propulsion Plant SWAB Group 200 SMA 1626-200. Review of Experience,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-11-01

    shaft seals during the CASREP data period. Five of these CASREPs reported excessive leakage , two reported ruptured inflatable seals , and one reported...failures, like the DDG-37 Class CASREPs, were related to lube oil problems, steam valve problems, or leaking packing ( steam or oil seals ) that had become...sources of this water: (1) gradual deterioration of the turbine labyrinth seals , (2) leaking of exhaust and relief valves, and (3) condensation in the

  2. An Update of Engine System Research at the Army Propulsion Directorate

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    6.1) pro- grams. Brush seals , illustrated in figure 14, offer great potential for reduc- ing secondary flow leakages and are inherently self...incorporate brush seals into the build of one of our workhorse engines in the early 1990’s as a replacement for shaft carbon seals , inner air labyrinth seals ...to steam and increasing its cooling capacity (ref. 12). The idea was conceived in-house and, following feasibility studies and fundamental heat

  3. [The righting reaction in free fall in labyrinthectomized rats after a flight on the Kosmos-936 biosatellite].

    PubMed

    Aĭzikov, G S; Markin, A S; Shipov, A A

    1992-01-01

    The paper presents the experimental data on a turning over reaction in labyrinthectomized rats after 18.5 day flight on Cosmos 936. On Earth, the labyrinthectomized rats are found to exhibit with time an activation of gaze fixation reflex (GFR) which substitutes for labyrinth function when executed a turning over reaction. In microgravity, in the labyrinthectomized rats there is no activation of GFR and postflight turning over reaction is absent in the rats.

  4. Polyester Wax: A New Embedding Medium for the Histopathologic Study of Human Temporal Bones

    PubMed Central

    Merchant, Saumil N.; Burgess, Barbara; O'Malley, Jennifer; Jones, Diane; Adams, Joe C.

    2007-01-01

    Background Celloidin and paraffin are the two common embedding mediums used for histopathologic study of the human temporal bone by light microscopy. Although celloidin embedding permits excellent morphologic assessment, celloidin is difficult to remove, and there are significant restrictions on success with immunostaining. Embedding in paraffin allows immunostaining to be performed, but preservation of cellular detail within the membranous labyrinth is relatively poor. Objectives/Hypothesis Polyester wax is an embedding medium that has a low melting point (37°C), is soluble in most organic solvents, is water tolerant, and sections easily. We hypothesized that embedding in polyester wax would permit good preservation of the morphology of the membranous labyrinth and, at the same time, allow the study of proteins by immunostaining. Methods Nine temporal bones from individuals aged 1 to 94 years removed 2 to 31 hours postmortem, from subjects who had no history of otologic disease, were used. The bones were fixed using 10% formalin, decal-cified using EDTA, embedded in polyester wax, and serially sectioned at a thickness of 8 to 12 μm on a rotary microtome. The block and knife were cooled with frozen CO2 (dry ice) held in a funnel above the block. Sections were placed on glass slides coated with a solution of 1% fish gelatin and 1% bovine albumin, followed by staining of selected sections with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E). Immunostaining was also performed on selected sections using antibodies to 200 kD neurofilament and Na-K-ATPase. Results Polyester wax–embedded sections demonstrated good preservation of cellular detail of the organ of Corti and other structures of the membranous labyrinth, as well as the surrounding otic capsule. The protocol described in this paper was reliable and consistently yielded sections of good quality. Immuno-staining was successful with both antibodies. Conclusion The use of polyester wax as an embedding medium for human temporal

  5. A hybrid floating brush seal (HFBS) for improved sealing and wear performance in turbomachinery applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lattime, Scott Byran

    A conceptually new type of seal has been developed for gas turbine applications which dramatically reduces wear and leakage associated with current labyrinth and brush seal technologies. The Hybrid Floating Brush Seal (HFBS) combines brush seal and film riding face seal technologies to create a hybrid seal that allows both axial and radial excursions of the sealed shaft, while simultaneously eliminating interface surface speeds (friction and heat) between the rotor and the brush material that characterize standard brush seal technology. A simple test rig was designed to evaluate feasibility of the HFBS under relatively low pressures and rotational speeds (50psig, 5krpm). A second test stand was created to study the effects of centrifugal force on bristle deflection. A third test facility was constructed for prototype development and extensive room temperature testing at moderate pressures and fairly high rotational speeds (100psig, 40krpm). This test rig also allowed the evaluation of the HFBS during axial movement of a rotating shaft. An analytical model to predict the effects of centrifugal force on the bristles of a rotating brush seal was developed. Room temperature analysis of the HFBS proved successful for relatively high operating rotational velocities at moderate pressures with very acceptable leakage rates for gas turbine engines. Brush seals were able to track rotor speeds up to 24krpm while maintaining sealing integrity. The HFBS's ability to function under axial shaft displacement and synchronous dynamic radial loading was also proven successful. Hydrodynamic performance of the face seal was proven to provide adequate stiffness and load carrying capacity to keep the brush seal from contacting the face seal at pressure drops across the brush of up to 100psi. Leakage performance over standard brush seal and labyrinth technology was quite dramatic. The HFBS showed its sealing advantage using much higher radial interference between the rotor and the bristle

  6. Growth and development of the placenta in the capybara (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris)

    PubMed Central

    Kanashiro, Claudia; Santos, Tatiana C; Miglino, Maria Angelica; Mess, Andrea M; Carter, Anthony M

    2009-01-01

    Background The guinea pig is an attractive model for human pregnancy and placentation, mainly because of its haemomonochorial placental type, but is rather small in size. Therefore, to better understand the impact of body mass, we studied placental development in the capybara which has a body mass around 50 kg and a gestation period of around 150 days. We paid attention to the development of the lobulated arrangement of the placenta, the growth of the labyrinth in the course of gestation, the differentiation of the subplacenta, and the pattern of invasion by extraplacental trophoblast. Methods Material was collected from six animals at pregnancy stages ranging from the late limb bud stage to mid gestation. Methods included latex casts, standard histology, immunohistochemistry for cytokeratin, vimentin, alpha-smooth muscle actin, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen as well as transmission electron microscopy. Results At the limb bud stage, the placenta was a pad of trophoblast covered by a layer of mesoderm from which fetal vessels were beginning to penetrate at folds in the surface. By 70 days, the placenta comprised areas of labyrinth (lobes) separated by interlobular areas. Placental growth resulted predominantly from proliferation of cellular trophoblast situated in nests at the fetal side of the placenta and along internally directed projections on fetal mesenchyme. Additional proliferation was demonstrated for cellular trophoblast within the labyrinth. Already at the limb bud stage, there was a prominent subplacenta comprising cellular and syncytial trophoblast with mesenchyme and associated blood vessels. At 90 days, differentiation was complete and similar to that seen in other hystricognath rodents. Overlap of fetal vessels and maternal blood lacunae was confirmed by latex injection of the vessels. At all stages extraplacental trophoblast was associated with the maternal arterial supply and consisted of cellular trophoblast and syncytial streamers

  7. Effects of crack tip plastic zone on corrosion fatigue cracking of alloy 690(TT) in pressurized water reactor environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, J.; Qiu, S. Y.; Chen, Y.; Fu, Z. H.; Lin, Z. X.; Xu, Q.

    2015-01-01

    Alloy 690(TT) is widely used for steam generator tubes in pressurized water reactor (PWR), where it is susceptible to corrosion fatigue. In this study, the corrosion fatigue behavior of Alloy 690(TT) in simulated PWR environments was investigated. The microstructure of the plastic zone near the crack tip was investigated and labyrinth structures were observed. The relationship between the crack tip plastic zone and fatigue crack growth rates and the environment factor Fen was illuminated.

  8. Current Launch Vehicle Practice and Data Base Assessment. Volume 1. Executive Summary and Report Body

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-01

    resulted in an increase of the intermediate seal purge pressure, revised redlines, and a design change from a lift-off seal to a labyrinth seal design. This...engine 0003 caused fa&i!ure of the primary lox seal and an uncontained engine fire. The redline cut was set by a HPOTP overspeed. This failure...occurred as a result of undetected internal HEX damage caused during arc welding which resulted in an engine fire. HEX coil leakage resulted in an

  9. [The development OF THE vestibular apparatus under conditions of weightlessness].

    PubMed

    Vinikov, Ia A; Gazenko, O G; Titovo, L K; Bornshteĭn, A A; Govardovskiĭ, V I

    1976-01-01

    The spawn of the aquarium fish Brachydanio rerio was developing during 5--6 days under conditions of weightlessness (first on board the spaceship "Sojuz-16", then in the space station "Salut-4") in special aquariums "EMKON", in thermostable installations. Electron microscopically the embryos were found to have a well developed labyrinth in early developmental histologically and cytologically differentiated receptory structures of the macula utriculi and macula saccili. In contrast to controls, the experimental animals showed certain alterations in the otolite organization. In similar experiments the embryos of clawed frog Xenopus laevis in the stage of the tail bud were also placed in special containers "EMKON" and thermostable apparatus "Biotherm-4" and by the spaceship "Sojuz-17" were brought to the space station "Salut-4", where it stayed for 16 days. The initial embryos had already had a well developed acoustic vesicle with macula communis. Inspite of the preliminary load by start acceleration and staying under conditions of weightlessness, they reached the general development fairly similar to controls. As it was shown electron microscopically their labyrinth had highly histologically and cytologically differentiated structures. However, a disturbance of the development of the otolithic membrane and otoconia should be noted. The alterations observed in the otolithic membrane organization in experimental fishes and frogs may be explained by general disorders in calcium metabolism.

  10. Heavy metal staining, a comparative assessment of gadolinium chloride and osmium tetroxide for inner ear labyrinthine contrast enhancement using X-ray microtomography.

    PubMed

    Wong, Christopher C; Curthoys, Ian S; O'Leary, Stephen J; Jones, Allan S

    2013-01-01

    The use of both gadolinium chloride (GdCl(3)) and osmium tetroxide (OsO(4)) allowed for the visualization of the membranous labyrinth and other intralabyrinthine structures, at different intensities, as compared with the control sample. This initial comparison shows the advantages of GdCl(3) in radiological assessments and OsO(4) in more detailed anatomical studies and pathways of labyrinthine pathogenesis using X-ray microtomography (microCT). To assess an improved OsO(4) staining protocol and compare the staining affinities against GdCl(3). Guinea pig temporal bones were stained with either GdCl(3) (2% w/v) for 7 days or OsO(4) (2% w/v) for 3 days, and scanned in a microCT system. The post-scanned datasets were then assessed in a 3D rendering program. The enhanced soft tissue contrast as presented in the temporal bones stained with either GdCl(3) or OsO(4) allowed for the membranous labyrinth to be visualized throughout the whole specimen. GdCl(3)-stained specimens presented more defined contours of the bone profile in the radiographs, while OsO(4)-stained specimens provided more anatomical detail of individual intralabyrinthine structures, hence allowing spatial relationships to be visualized with ease in a 3D rendering context and 2D axial slice images.

  11. Contribution of intracranial vertebral artery asymmetry to vestibular neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Y M; Chern, C M; Liao, W H; Hsu, L C; Lien, C F; Lirng, J F; Shiao, A S; Ko, J S C

    2011-07-01

    To test the hypothesis that vertebral artery hypoplasia (VAH) may affect the lateralisation of vestibular neuropathy (VN), probably through haemodynamic effect on the vestibular labyrinth. 69 patients with unilateral VN were examined with a magnetic resonance angiographic (MRA) and caloric test. 50 healthy subjects served as controls. The diagnosis of intracranial VAH was based on MRA if <0.22 cm in VA diameter and a diameter asymmetry index >40%. The authors then correlated the canal paretic side with the VAH side. MRA study revealed 29 VAH (right/left: 23/6) in VN subjects and six VAH in controls (right/left: 5/1). The RR of VAH in VN subjects compared with controls was elevated (RR=2.2; 95% CI 1.8 to 2.8). There was a high accordance rate between the side of VAH and VN. Among 29 patients with unilateral VAH, 65.5% (N=19) had an ipsilateral VN, in which left VAH showed a higher accordance rate (83.3%) than the right side (60.9%). VN subjects with vascular risk factors also had a higher VAH accordance rate (81%) than those without (25%). VAH may serve as a regional haemodynamic negative contributor and impede blood supply to the ipsilateral vestibular labyrinth, contributing to the development of VN, which could be enhanced by atherosclerotic risk factors and the left-sided location.

  12. High-Speed, High-Temperature Finger Seal Test Evaluated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, Margaret P.

    2003-01-01

    A finger seal, designed and fabricated by Honeywell Engines, Systems and Services, was tested at the NASA Glenn Research Center at surface speeds up to 1200 ft/s, air temperatures up to 1200 F, and pressures across the seal of 75 psid. These are the first test results obtained with NASA s new High-Temperature, High-Speed Turbine Seal Test Rig (see the photograph). The finger seal is an innovative design recently patented by AlliedSignal Engines, which has demonstrated considerably lower leakage than commonly used labyrinth seals and is considerably cheaper than brush seals. The cost to produce finger seals is estimated to be about half of the cost to produce brush seals. Replacing labyrinth seals with fingers seals at locations that have high-pressure drops in gas turbine engines, typically main engine and thrust seals, can reduce air leakage at each location by 50 percent or more. This directly results in a 0.7- to 1.4-percent reduction in specific fuel consumption and a 0.35- to 0.7-percent reduction in direct operating costs . Because the finger seal is a contacting seal, this testing was conducted to address concerns about its heat generation and life capability at the higher speeds and temperatures required for advanced engines. The test results showed that the seal leakage and wear performance are acceptable for advanced engines.

  13. Waardenburg Syndrome: An Unusual Indication of Cochlear Implantation Experienced in 11 Patients.

    PubMed

    Bayrak, Feda; Çatlı, Tolgahan; Atsal, Görkem; Tokat, Taşkın; Olgun, Levent

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to present the surgical findings of children with Waardenburg syndrome (WS) and investigate speech development after cochlear implantation in this unique group of patients. A retrospective chart review of the patients diagnosed with WS and implanted between 1998 and 2015 was performed. Categories of auditory performance (CAP) test were used to assess the auditory skills of these patients. CAP is a nonlinear hierarchical scale used to rate a child's developing auditory abilities. Preoperative test results and intraoperative surgical findings of these patients have been presented. In total, 1835 cases were implanted a tour institution, and 1210 of these were children. Among these implantees, 11 were diagnosed with WS (0.59% of all implantees). Four of the 11 patients showed incomplete partition type 2bony labyrinth abnormality (Mondini deformity) and all patients showed intraoperative gusher during cochleostomy, which was subsided through routine interventions. No other complications occurred during surgery, and all patients showed satisfactory CAP results in the late postoperative period. Our experiences with cochlear implantation in patients with WS showed that the procedure is safe and effective in this group of patients. Surgeons should be aware of possible labyrinth malformations and intraoperative problems such as gusher in these patients. In long term, auditory performances may exhibit satisfactory results with optimal postoperative educational and supportive measures.

  14. Polycystic ovary syndrome, insulin resistance, and obesity: navigating the pathophysiologic labyrinth.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Joselyn; Chávez, Mervin; Olivar, Luis; Rojas, Milagros; Morillo, Jessenia; Mejías, José; Calvo, María; Bermúdez, Valmore

    2014-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a highly prevalent endocrine-metabolic disorder that implies various severe consequences to female health, including alarming rates of infertility. Although its exact etiology remains elusive, it is known to feature several hormonal disturbances, including hyperandrogenemia, insulin resistance (IR), and hyperinsulinemia. Insulin appears to disrupt all components of the hypothalamus-hypophysis-ovary axis, and ovarian tissue insulin resistance results in impaired metabolic signaling but intact mitogenic and steroidogenic activity, favoring hyperandrogenemia, which appears to be the main culprit of the clinical picture in PCOS. In turn, androgens may lead back to IR by increasing levels of free fatty acids and modifying muscle tissue composition and functionality, perpetuating this IR-hyperinsulinemia-hyperandrogenemia cycle. Nonobese women with PCOS showcase several differential features, with unique biochemical and hormonal profiles. Nevertheless, lean and obese patients have chronic inflammation mediating the long term cardiometabolic complications and comorbidities observed in women with PCOS, including dyslipidemia, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular disease. Given these severe implications, it is important to thoroughly understand the pathophysiologic interconnections underlying PCOS, in order to provide superior therapeutic strategies and warrant improved quality of life to women with this syndrome.

  15. Supply and demand: negotiating the prescription drug labyrinth to reduce costs.

    PubMed

    DeStefino, Kevin

    2003-01-01

    Prescription drug costs are increasing at a rate of 15% to 17% a year and a look into the future does not bring much better news. Employers can expect to see more numbers like these as doctors more aggressively treat diseases using drug therapy, the population continues to age and pharmaceutical companies continue to spend billions of dollars on direct-to-consumer advertising aimed at consumers who are desensitized to the true costs of their prescriptions. In this environment, it is unlikely that companies can realistically expect to reverse costs of even to avoid cost increases. However, this article provides employers with a prudent approach to managing both the supply and demand sides of the prescription drug equation in order to reduce their level of increase. Supply-side management focuses on negotiations with vendors, while the demand side focuses on managing employee utilization.

  16. 'Trapped in the labyrinth': exploring mental illness through devised theatrical performance.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Paul; Sextou, Persephone

    2017-06-01

    Mental health difficulties remain a major source of burden and distress for individuals, families, health and social care providers with stigma a key target for educational campaigns attempting to improve care pathways and access to support. Stigma is a multifaceted concept having a range of drivers including shame and is thought to act as a barrier to successful help seeking and engagement with support services. The current paper explores some of the salient themes that emerged from a British university drama project on the impact of symptoms and behaviours associated with a severe mental health condition on a young couple's relationship and reflects on the opportunities for connection with an audience provided by the medium and experience. It is suggested that enabling the impact of mental ill health to be explored in a protected environment such as theatre can allow for reflection and empathy to develop, with potential for positive impact on awareness understanding and stigma. Elements of the drama setting and narrative are explored, and analogies are made with the emerging literature on post-traumatic growth. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  17. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome, Insulin Resistance, and Obesity: Navigating the Pathophysiologic Labyrinth

    PubMed Central

    Rojas, Joselyn; Chávez, Mervin; Olivar, Luis; Rojas, Milagros; Morillo, Jessenia; Mejías, José; Calvo, María; Bermúdez, Valmore

    2014-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a highly prevalent endocrine-metabolic disorder that implies various severe consequences to female health, including alarming rates of infertility. Although its exact etiology remains elusive, it is known to feature several hormonal disturbances, including hyperandrogenemia, insulin resistance (IR), and hyperinsulinemia. Insulin appears to disrupt all components of the hypothalamus-hypophysis-ovary axis, and ovarian tissue insulin resistance results in impaired metabolic signaling but intact mitogenic and steroidogenic activity, favoring hyperandrogenemia, which appears to be the main culprit of the clinical picture in PCOS. In turn, androgens may lead back to IR by increasing levels of free fatty acids and modifying muscle tissue composition and functionality, perpetuating this IR-hyperinsulinemia-hyperandrogenemia cycle. Nonobese women with PCOS showcase several differential features, with unique biochemical and hormonal profiles. Nevertheless, lean and obese patients have chronic inflammation mediating the long term cardiometabolic complications and comorbidities observed in women with PCOS, including dyslipidemia, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular disease. Given these severe implications, it is important to thoroughly understand the pathophysiologic interconnections underlying PCOS, in order to provide superior therapeutic strategies and warrant improved quality of life to women with this syndrome. PMID:25763405

  18. Vestibular and Oculomotor Physiology: International Meeting of the Barany Society. Volume 374. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-11-06

    A. L. 1968. The Brain Stem of the Cat. University of Wisconsin Press. Madison . Wis. 8. KICVER, 1-. & E. BARRERA. 1953. A method for the combined...Inhibition of central vestibular neurons from the W~ UW % labyrinth and its mediating pathway. 1. NeurophysioL 29: 467-492. S1 MI 1111 t BAME & A. GLWTYN. 1980...revealed lethargy, slow speech, nystagmus, dysmetria, and ataxia. A lumbar puncture at that time showed a spinal fluid protein of 110 mg%, glucose of 15

  19. Lubricants for High-Vacuum Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-03-15

    SEAL LUBRICANT R O RESERVOIR S• BALL RETAINER Figure 3. Schematic of a bearing configuration showing a labyrinth seal. (From m. N. Gardos , ASLE...are known as channeling greases. Such greases are pushed out of the way and form a path ( channel ) when the balls of a bearing pass through the grease...contacting surfaces. If a grease is fluid enough that it tends to fill the spaces between balls, it is a "slumping" (non- channeling ) grease. The consistency

  20. Experimental rotordynamic coefficient results for honeycomb seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elrod, David A.; Childs, Dara W.

    1988-01-01

    Test results (leakage and rotordynamic coefficients) are presented for seven honeycomb-stator smooth-rotor seals. Tests were carried out with air at rotor speeds up to 16,000 cpm and supply pressures up to 8.2 bars. Test results for the seven seals are compared, and the most stable configuration is identified based on the whirl frequency ratio. Results from tests of a smooth-rotor/smooth-stator seal, a teeth-on-stator labyrinth seal, and the most stable honeycomb seal are compared.

  1. A brief review of the clinical anatomy of the vestibular-ocular connections-how much do we know?

    PubMed

    Bronstein, A M; Patel, M; Arshad, Q

    2015-02-01

    The basic connectivity from the vestibular labyrinth to the eye muscles (vestibular ocular reflex, VOR) has been elucidated in the past decade, and we summarise this in graphic format. We also review the concept of 'velocity storage', a brainstem integrator that prolongs vestibular responses. Finally, we present new discoveries of how complex visual stimuli, such as binocular rivalry, influence VOR processing. In contrast to the basic brainstem circuits, cortical vestibular circuits are far from being understood, but parietal-vestibular nuclei projections are likely to be involved.

  2. Vestibular-induced vomiting after vestibulocerebellar lesions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, A. D.; Wilson, V. J.

    1983-01-01

    Vestibular stimulation, by sinusoidal electrical polarization of the labyrinths of decerebrate cats which can produce vomiting and related activity which resembles motion sickness was examined. The symptoms include panting, salivation, swallowing, and retching as well as vomiting. These symptoms can be produced in cats with lesions of the posterior cerebellar vermis. It is suggested that a transcerebellar pathway from the vestibular apparatus through the nodulus and uvula to the vomiting center is not essential for vestibular induced vomiting and the occurrence of many symptoms of motion.

  3. Continued Investigation of Leakage and Power Loss Test Results for Competing Turbine Engine Seals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    Pressure-balanced design Figure 3.—Annular seal made of Inconel 625 . Note, each grid square is 6.35 mm. Figure 4.—Four-knife labyrinth...seal made of Inconel 625 . NASA/TM—2006-214420 7 Figure 5.—Brush seal with flow deflector. Figure 6.—Finger seal design. NASA/TM—2006-214420 8...thermocouples are located at the 90° and 180° positions (0° is top-dead-center). Type-K thermocouples are used and all are 157 µm, Inconel sheath, closed

  4. Vestibular-induced vomiting after vestibulocerebellar lesions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, A. D.; Wilson, V. J.

    1982-01-01

    Vestibular stimulation, by sinusoidal electrical polarization of the labyrinths of decerebrate cats which can produce vomiting and related activity which resembles motion sickness was examined. The symptoms include panting, salivation, swallowing, and retching as well as vomiting. These symptoms can be produced in cats with lesions of the posterior cerebellar vermis. It is suggested that a transcerebellar pathway from the vestibular apparatus through the nodulus and uvula to the vomiting center is not essential for vestibular induced vomiting and the occurrence of many symptoms of motion.

  5. Otolith-Canal Convergence In Vestibular Nuclei Neurons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickman, J. David; Si, Xiao-Hong

    2002-01-01

    The current final report covers the period from June 1, 1999 to May 31, 2002. The primary objective of the investigation was to determine how information regarding head movements and head position relative to gravity is received and processed by central vestibular nuclei neurons in the brainstem. Specialized receptors in the vestibular labyrinths of the inner ear function to detect angular and linear accelerations of the head, with receptors located in the semicircular canals transducing rotational head movements and receptors located in the otolith organs transducing changes in head position relative to gravity or linear accelerations of the head. The information from these different receptors is then transmitted to central vestibular nuclei neurons which process the input signals, then project the appropriate output information to the eye, head, and body musculature motor neurons to control compensatory reflexes. Although a number of studies have reported on the responsiveness of vestibular nuclei neurons, it has not yet been possible to determine precisely how these cells combine the information from the different angular and linear acceleration receptors into a correct neural output signal. In the present project, rotational and linear motion stimuli were separately delivered while recording responses from vestibular nuclei neurons that were characterized according to direct input from the labyrinth and eye movement sensitivity. Responses from neurons receiving convergent input from the semicircular canals and otolith organs were quantified and compared to non-convergent neurons.

  6. The dual-specificity protein phosphatase DUSP9/MKP-4 is essential for placental function but is not required for normal embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Christie, Graham R; Williams, David J; Macisaac, Fiona; Dickinson, Robin J; Rosewell, Ian; Keyse, Stephen M

    2005-09-01

    To elucidate the physiological role(s) of DUSP9 (dual-specificity phosphatase 9), also known as MKP-4 (mitogen-activated protein kinase [MAPK] phosphatase 4), the gene was deleted in mice. Crossing male chimeras with wild-type females resulted in heterozygous (DUSP9(+/-)) females. However, when these animals were crossed with wild-type (DUSP9(+/y)) males none of the progeny carried the targeted DUSP9 allele, indicating that both female heterozygous and male null (DUSP9(-/y)) animals die in utero. The DUSP9 gene is on the X chromosome, and this pattern of embryonic lethality is consistent with the selective inactivation of the paternal X chromosome in the extraembryonic tissues of the mouse, suggesting that DUSP9/MKP4 performs an essential function during placental development. Examination of embryos between 8 and 10.5 days postcoitum confirmed that lethality was due to a failure of labyrinth development, and this correlates exactly with the normal expression pattern of DUSP9/MKP-4 in the trophoblast giant cells and labyrinth of the placenta. Finally, when the placental defect was rescued, male null (DUSP9(-/y)) embryos developed to term, appeared normal, and were fertile. Our results indicate that DUSP9/MKP-4 is essential for placental organogenesis but is otherwise dispensable for mammalian embryonic development and highlights the critical role of dual-specificity MAPK phosphatases in the regulation of developmental outcomes in vertebrates.

  7. Beyond xMOOCs in healthcare education: study of the feasibility in integrating virtual patient systems and MOOC platforms.

    PubMed

    Stathakarou, Natalia; Zary, Nabil; Kononowicz, Andrzej A

    2014-01-01

    Background. Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) are an emerging trend in online learning. However, their technology is not yet completely adjusted to the needs of healthcare education. Integration of Virtual Patients within MOOCs to increase interactivity and foster clinical reasoning skills training, has been discussed in the past, but not verified by a practical implementation. Objective. To investigate the technical feasibility of integrating MOOCs with Virtual Patients for the purpose of enabling further research into the potential pedagogical benefits of this approach. Methods. We selected OpenEdx and Open Labyrinth as representative constituents of a MOOC platform and Virtual Patient system integration. Based upon our prior experience we selected the most fundamental technical requirement to address. Grounded in the available literature we identified an e-learning standard to guide the integration. We attempted to demonstrate the feasibility of the integration by designing a "proof-of-concept" prototype. The resulting pilot implementation was subject of verification by two test cases. Results. A Single Sign-On mechanism connecting Open Labyrinth with OpenEdx and based on the IMS LTI standard was successfully implemented and verified. Conclusion. We investigated the technical perspective of integrating Virtual Patients with MOOCs. By addressing this crucial technical requirement we set a base for future research on the educational benefits of using virtual patients in MOOCs. This provides new opportunities for integrating specialized software in healthcare education at massive scale.

  8. Beyond xMOOCs in healthcare education: study of the feasibility in integrating virtual patient systems and MOOC platforms

    PubMed Central

    Zary, Nabil; Kononowicz, Andrzej A.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) are an emerging trend in online learning. However, their technology is not yet completely adjusted to the needs of healthcare education. Integration of Virtual Patients within MOOCs to increase interactivity and foster clinical reasoning skills training, has been discussed in the past, but not verified by a practical implementation. Objective. To investigate the technical feasibility of integrating MOOCs with Virtual Patients for the purpose of enabling further research into the potential pedagogical benefits of this approach. Methods. We selected OpenEdx and Open Labyrinth as representative constituents of a MOOC platform and Virtual Patient system integration. Based upon our prior experience we selected the most fundamental technical requirement to address. Grounded in the available literature we identified an e-learning standard to guide the integration. We attempted to demonstrate the feasibility of the integration by designing a “proof-of-concept” prototype. The resulting pilot implementation was subject of verification by two test cases. Results. A Single Sign-On mechanism connecting Open Labyrinth with OpenEdx and based on the IMS LTI standard was successfully implemented and verified. Conclusion. We investigated the technical perspective of integrating Virtual Patients with MOOCs. By addressing this crucial technical requirement we set a base for future research on the educational benefits of using virtual patients in MOOCs. This provides new opportunities for integrating specialized software in healthcare education at massive scale. PMID:25405078

  9. Cochlear third window in the scala vestibuli: an animal model.

    PubMed

    Preis, Michal; Attias, Joseph; Hadar, Tuvia; Nageris, Ben I

    2009-08-01

    Pathologic third window has been investigated in both animals and humans, with a third window located in the vestibular apparatus, specifically, dehiscence of the superior semicircular canal, serving as the clinical model. The present study sought to examine the effect of a cochlear third window in the scala vestibuli on the auditory thresholds in fat sand rats that have a unique anatomy of the inner ear that allows for easy surgical access. The experiment included 7 healthy 6-month-old fat sand rats (a total of 10 ears). A pathologic third window was induced by drilling a hole in the bony labyrinth over the scala vestibuli, with preservation of the membranous labyrinth. Auditory brainstem responses to high- and low-frequency acoustic stimuli delivered via air and bone conduction were recorded before and after the procedure. In the preoperative auditory brainstem response recordings, air-conduction thresholds (ACTs) to clicks and tone bursts averaged 9 and 10 dB, respectively, and bone-conduction thresholds averaged 4.5 and 2.9 dB, respectively. Postfenestration ACTs averaged 41 and 42.2 dB, and bone-conduction thresholds averaged 1.1 and 4.3 dB. The change in ACT was statistically significant (p < 0.01). The presence of a cochlear third window in the scala vestibuli affects auditory thresholds by causing a decrease in sensitivity to air-conducted sound stimuli. These findings agree with the theoretical model and clinical findings.

  10. Eccentricity effects on leakage of a brush seal at low speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlumberger, Julie A.; Proctor, Margaret P.; Hendricks, Robert C.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of eccentricity on brush seal leakage at low rotational speeds were investigated. Included are the leakage results for ambient temperature air and nearly saturated streams at three different rotor eccentricities at both 0 and 400 rpm. A brush seal with a nominal bore diameter of 13.647 cm. (5.3730 in.) was used. It had a radial concentric interference of 0.071 cm (0.0028 in.) and a fence height of 0.0927 cm (0.0365 in.). There were 1060 bristles per centimeter of circumference (2690 bristles per inch of circumference). Rotor eccentricities of 0.003, 0.010, 0.038, and 0.043 cm (0.001, 0.004, 0.015, and 0.017 in.) were achieved by using bushings with different offsets. The results were compared with an annular seal model (FLOWCAL) for air and to a standard labyrinth seal model for steam. The annular seal model was also compared with a bulk flow model of a concentric brush seal in air. Large eccentricities did not damage the brush seals or their Haynes 25 bristles. However, the 304 stainless steel rotor did not show wear, indicating a harder surface is needed. Only the stream data showed hysteresis and were affected by shaft rotation. The brush seal had lower leakage rates than those predicted for comparable annular and labyrinth seals (conventional) because of the large clearances those seals require to accommodate large shaft excursions.

  11. A model for the space shuttle main engine high pressure oxidizer turbopump shaft seal system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paxson, Daniel E.

    1990-01-01

    A simple static model is presented which solves for the flow properties of pressure, temperature, and mass flow in the Space Shuttle Main Engine pressure Oxidizer Turbopump Shaft Seal Systems. This system includes the primary and secondary turbine seals, the primary and secondary turbine drains, the helium purge seals and feed line, the primary oxygen drain, and the slinger/labyrinth oxygen seal pair. The model predicts the changes in flow variables that occur during and after failures of the various seals. Such information would be particularly useful in a post flight situation where processing of sensor information using this model could identify a particular seal that had experienced excessive wear. Most of the seals in the system are modeled using simple one dimensional equations which can be applied to almost any seal provided that the fluid is gaseous. A failure is modeled as an increase in the clearance between the shaft and the seal. Thus, the model does not attempt to predict how the failure process actually occurs (e.g., wear, seal crack initiation). The results presented were obtained using a FORTRAN implementation of the model running on a VAX computer. Solution for the seal system properties is obtained iteratively; however, a further simplified implementation (which does not include the slinger/labyrinth combination) was also developed which provides fast and reasonable results for most engine operating conditions. Results from the model compare favorably with the limited redline data available.

  12. SSME alternate turbopump (pump section) axial load analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crease, G. A.; Rosello, A., Jr.; Fetfatsidis, A. K.

    1989-01-01

    A flow balancing computer program constructed to calculate the axial loads on the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) alternate turbopumps (ATs) pump sections are described. The loads are used in turn to determine load balancing piston design requirements. The application of the program to the inlet section, inducer/impeller/stage, bearings, seals, labyrinth, damper, piston, face and corner, and stationary/rotating surfaces is indicated. Design analysis results are reported which show that the balancing piston's designs are adequate and that performance and life will not be degraded by the turbopump's axial load characteristics.

  13. Some physiological effects of alternation between zero gravity and one gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graybiel, A.

    1977-01-01

    The anatomy and physiology of the healthy vestibular system and the history of its study, maintenance of muskuloskeletal fitness under low-gravity conditions, tests of motion sickness, and data and techniques on testing subjects in a slow rotation room, are covered. Components of the inner ear labyrinth and their behavior in relation to equilibrium, gravity and inertial forces, motion sickness, and dizziness are discussed. Preventive medicine, the biologically effective force environment, weightlessness per se, activity in a weightless spacecraft, exercizing required to maintain musculoskeletal function, and ataxia problems are dealt with.

  14. A&M. TAN607 floor plans. Shows three floor levels of pool, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    A&M. TAN-607 floor plans. Shows three floor levels of pool, hot shop, and warm shop. Includes view of pool vestibule, personnel labyrinth, location of floor rails, and room numbers of office areas, labs, instrument rooms, and stairways. This drawing was re-drawn to show as-built features in 1993. Ralph M. Parsons 902-3-ANP-607-A 96. Date of original: December 1952. Approved by INEEL Classification Office for public release. INEEL index code no. 034-0607-00-693-106748 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  15. Technical Development for S-CO 2 Advanced Energy Conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Mark; Ranjan, Devesh; Hassan, Yassin

    This report is divided into four parts. First part of the report describes the methods used to measure and model the flow of supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO 2) through annuli and straight-through labyrinth seals. The effects of shaft eccentricity in small diameter annuli were observed for length-to-hydraulic diameter (L/D) ratios of 6, 12, 143, and 235. Flow rates through tooth-cavity labyrinth seals were measured for inlet pressures of 7.7, 10, and 11 MPa with corresponding inlet densities of 325, 475, and 630 kg/m 3. Various leakage models were compared to this result to describe their applicability in supercritical carbon dioxidemore » applications. Flow rate measurements were made varying tooth number for labyrinth seals of same total length. Second part of the report describes the computational study performed to understand the leakage through the labyrinth seals using Open source CFD package OpenFOAM. Fluid Property Interpolation Tables (FIT) program was implemented in OpenFOAM to accurately model the properties of CO2 required to solve the governing equations. To predict the flow behavior in the two phase dome Homogeneous Equilibrium Model (HEM) is assumed to be valid. Experimental results for plain orifice (L/D ~ 5) were used to show the capabilities of the FIT model implemented in OpenFOAM. Error analysis indicated that OpenFOAM is capable of predicting experimental data within ±10% error with the majority of data close to ±5% error. Following the validation of computational model, effects of geometrical parameters and operating conditions are isolated from each other and a parametric study was performed in two parts to understand their effects on leakage flow. Third part of the report provides the details of the constructed heat exchanger test facility and presents the experimental results obtained to investigate the effects of buoyancy on heat transfer characteristics of Supercritical carbon dioxide in heating mode. Turbulent flows with Reynolds

  16. Interface proliferation and the growth of labyrinths in a reaction-diffusion system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, Raymond E.; Muraki, David J.; Petrich, Dean M.

    1996-04-01

    In the bistable regime of the FitzHugh-Nagumo model of reaction-diffusion systems, spatially homogeneous patterns may be nonlinearly unstable to the formation of compact "localized states." The formation of space-filling patterns from instabilities of such structures is studied in the context of a nonlocal contour dynamics model for the evolution of boundaries between high and low concentrations of the activator. An earlier heuristic derivation [D. M. Petrich and R. E. Goldstein,

    Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 1120 (1994)
    ] is made more systematic by an asymptotic analysis appropriate to the limits of fast inhibition, sharp activator interfaces, and small asymmetry in the bistable minima. The resulting contour dynamics is temporally local, with the normal component of the velocity involving a local contribution linear in the interface curvature and a nonlocal component having the form of a screened Biot-Savart interaction. The amplitude of the nonlocal interaction is set by the activator-inhibitor coupling and controls the "lateral inhibition" responsible for the destabilization of localized structures such as spots and stripes, and the repulsion of nearby interfaces in the later stages of those instabilities. The phenomenology of pattern formation exhibited by the contour dynamics is consistent with that seen by Lee, McCormick, Ouyang, and Swinney
    [Science 261, 192 (1993)]
    in experiments on the iodide-ferrocyanide-sulfite reaction in a gel reactor. Extensive numerical studies of the underlying partial differential equations are presented and compared in detail with the contour dynamics. The similarity of these phenomena (and their mathematical description) with those observed in amphiphilic monolayers, type I superconductors in the intermediate state, and magnetic fluids in Hele-Shaw geometry is emphasized.

  17. Walking a Path of Transformation: Using the Labyrinth as a Spiritual Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plugge, Carol; McCormick, Debby

    Personal and spiritual transformation is emerging as a great need. Numerous societal and health concerns are beginning to surface as spiritual issues in the eyes of many professionals. A better understanding of the relationship between psychosocial-biological issues and spirituality would enhance professional capabilities. Experiential skills and…

  18. Writing through the Labyrinth of Fears: The Legacy of Walter Dean Myers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatum, Alfred W.

    2015-01-01

    This commentary discusses the legacy of Walter Dean Myers in relationship to advancing writing as an intellectual tool of protection for black male teens. Multiple implications are provided for teachers who want to engage black male teens to write fearlessly to extend the legacy of Walter Dean Myers.

  19. FROM THE HISTORY OF PHYSICS: Mysteries of diffusion and labyrinths of destiny

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakunin, Oleg G.

    2003-03-01

    The role of prominent Soviet physicist B I Davydov in the development of our understanding of diffusion is briefly reviewed, with emphasis on the ideas he put forward in the 1930s: introducing additional partial derivatives into diffusion equations and extending diffusion concepts to phase space.

  20. Evolutionary transformations of chorioallantoic placental characters in rodentia with special reference to hystricognath species.

    PubMed

    Mess, Andrea

    2003-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to reconstruct the evolution of chorioallantoic placental characters in Rodentia. The analysis is based on pre-existing hypotheses of rodent relationships and the tracing of character evolution. Data on 64 rodent species of 49 genera are derived from the literature. New results refer to the hystricognath species Petromus typicus A. Smith, 1831 and Octodon degus (Molina, 1782). This comprehensive analysis confirms that the stem species pattern of Rodentia is characterised by a haemochorial placenta which is divided horizontally. Inside the placental labyrinth, fetal vessels and their trophoblastic external border build up a network through which the maternal blood flows. The trophoblastic tissue is one-layered, syncytial and possess a considerable surface extension. Within Rodentia, evolutionary transformations occurred on the macroscopic as well as the fine structural level. The results suggest that the stem species of Hystricognathi underwent transformations only on the macroscopic level, i.e., forming a ring-shaped arrangement of placental regions with centrally situated maternal arteries and the acquisition of a subplacenta. By contrast, in Muridae the chorioallantoic placenta shows derived features only in regard to the fine structure of the labyrinth, i.e. the interhaemal membrane is modified in composition, and the fetal capillary endothelium is fenestrated. Geomyoidea underwent transformations on both levels. Macroscopically, their placenta is modified into a hillock shape. Microscopically, the interhaemal membrane is formed by the cytotrophoblast. In addition to the mentioned transformations, some aspects of other fetal membrane differentiation in Rodentia are briefly discussed. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Properties of vestibular neurones projecting to neck segments of the cat spinal cord*

    PubMed Central

    Rapoport, S.; Susswein, A.; Uchino, Y.; Wilson, V. J.

    1977-01-01

    1. Vestibular neurones projecting to the upper cervical grey matter (vestibulocollic neurones) were identified by localized microstimulation in the C3 segment of the cat spinal cord. 2. The neurones were found in the lateral (Deiters'), medial and descending nuclei bilaterally and projected to the spinal cord in the lateral and medial vestibulospinal tracts (LVST and MVST). Ipsilateral axons of Deiters' neurones were mostly in the LVST, axons of medial and descending neurones in the MVST; a few Deiters' neurones had axons in the MVST; some descending neurones had axons in the LVST. Most axons of contralateral neurones were in the MVST. 3. The axons of 62% of ipsilateral vestibulocollic Deiters' neurones not only gave off a collateral to C3, but also extended as far as the cervical enlargement (`branching'); some of these neurones projected as far as the upper thoracic cord, almost none to the lumbar cord. Ipsilateral descending nucleus neurones branch in the same fashion, but there is no branching in the relatively small medial nucleus population. 4. A large majority of vestibulocollic neurones receive monosynaptic excitation from the ipsilateral labyrinth and a number are inhibited by stimulation of the contralateral labyrinth (commissural inhibition). It is possible that commissural inhibition acts on a broad population of vestibular neurones involved in the control of eye, head and trunk movement. 5. Vestibulocollic neurones do not make up a homogeneous population acting only on the neck. Instead it is likely that subpopulations, for example branching and non-branching neurones, have different functions. PMID:874918

  2. Brush seal numerical simulation: Concepts and advances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braun, M. J.; Kudriavtsev, V. V.

    1994-01-01

    The development of the brush seal is considered to be most promising among the advanced type seals that are presently in use in the high speed turbomachinery. The brush is usually mounted on the stationary portions of the engine and has direct contact with the rotating element, in the process of limiting the 'unwanted' leakage flows between stages, or various engine cavities. This type of sealing technology is providing high (in comparison with conventional seals) pressure drops due mainly to the high packing density (around 100 bristles/sq mm), and brush compliance with the rotor motions. In the design of modern aerospace turbomachinery leakage flows between the stages must be minimal, thus contributing to the higher efficiency of the engine. Use of the brush seal instead of the labyrinth seal reduces the leakage flow by one order of magnitude. Brush seals also have been found to enhance dynamic performance, cost less, and are lighter than labyrinth seals. Even though industrial brush seals have been successfully developed through extensive experimentation, there is no comprehensive numerical methodology for the design or prediction of their performance. The existing analytical/numerical approaches are based on bulk flow models and do not allow the investigation of the effects of brush morphology (bristle arrangement), or brushes arrangement (number of brushes, spacing between them), on the pressure drops and flow leakage. An increase in the brush seal efficiency is clearly a complex problem that is closely related to the brush geometry and arrangement, and can be solved most likely only by means of a numerically distributed model.

  3. Middle ear bones of a mid-gestation ruminant foetus extracted from x-ray computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costeur, Loic; Mennecart, Bastien; Müller, Bert; Schulz, Georg

    2016-10-01

    The timing of ossification of middle ear ossicles has been extensively studied in humans. This is an exception since it is vastly unknown in the +5000 extant species of placentals. As a preliminary approach, a cow foetus (around 115 days of gestation) was visualized using X-ray microtomography (μCT) and the ossicles including stapes, incus, and malleus could be extracted from the data set. All three bones have already undergone substantial ossification, which allow comparison to adult middle ear bones. Their ossification at this stage parallels ossification in humans at a comparable stage of gestation. While full ossification is not yet achieved almost all the morphological characters of the ossicles are observed. Bone tissue is still very porous, the stapes does not have the characteristic plate-like footplate, the lenticular process of the incus is missing and the manubrium of the malleus is very thin and not yet complete. Despite all this, the ossicles are articulate with each other and perfectly with the bony labyrinth. The stapes footplate is positioned on the oval window but is smaller than the latter while it should perfectly fit to transmit sound vibrations to the cochlea. All ossicles, especially the stapes, have not yet reached adult size, while the bony labyrinth already has. This is the first detailed description of a set of middle ear bones in a placental at mid-gestation based on high-resolution μCT. Similarities in ossification timing with humans encourage more work to be done on foetuses to understand if a general rule for placental mammals exists.

  4. Vestibular short latency responses to pulsed linear acceleration in unanesthetized animals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, T. A.

    1992-01-01

    Linear acceleration transients were used to elicit vestibular compound action potentials in non-invasively prepared, unanesthetized animals for the first time (chicks, Gallus domesticus, n = 33). Responses were composed of a series of up to 8 dominant peaks occurring within 8 msec of the stimulus. Response amplitudes for 1.0 g stimulus ranged from 1 to 10 microV. A late, slow, triphasic, anesthesia-labile component was identified as a dominant response feature in unanesthetized animals. Amplitudes increased and latencies decreased as stimulus intensity was increased (MANOVA P less than 0.05). Linear regression slope ranges were: amplitudes = 1.0-5.0 microV/g; latencies = -300 to -1100 microseconds/g. Thresholds for single polarity stimuli (0.035 +/- 0.022 g, n = 11) were significantly lower than those of alternating polarity (0.074 +/- 0.028 g, n = 18, P less than 0.001). Bilateral labyrinthectomy eliminated responses whereas bilateral extirpation of cochleae did not significantly change response thresholds. Intense acoustic masking (100/104 dB SL) produced no effect in 2 animals, but did produce small to moderate effects on response amplitudes in 7 others. Changes were attributed to effects on vestibular end organs. Results of unilateral labyrinth blockade (tetrodotoxin) suggest that P1 and N1 preferentially reflect ipsilateral eighth nerve compound action potentials whereas components beyond approximately 2 msec reflect activity from vestibular neurons that depend on both labyrinths. The results demonstrate that short latency vestibular compound action potentials can be measured in unanesthetized, non-invasively prepared animals.

  5. A Structurally Specialized Uniform Wall Layer is Essential for Constructing Wall Ingrowth Papillae in Transfer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Xue; Zhang, Hui-Ming; Offler, Christina E.; Patrick, John W.

    2017-01-01

    Transfer cells are characterized by wall labyrinths with either a flange or reticulate architecture. A literature survey established that reticulate wall ingrowth papillae ubiquitously arise from a modified component of their wall labyrinth, termed the uniform wall layer; a structure absent from flange transfer cells. This finding sparked an investigation of the deposition characteristics and role of the uniform wall layer using a Vicia faba cotyledon culture system. On transfer of cotyledons to culture, their adaxial epidermal cells spontaneously trans-differentiate to a reticulate architecture comparable to their abaxial epidermal transfer cell counterparts formed in planta. Uniform wall layer construction commenced once adaxial epidermal cell expansion had ceased to overlay the original outer periclinal wall on its inner surface. In contrast to the dense ring-like lattice of cellulose microfibrils in the original primary wall, the uniform wall layer was characterized by a sparsely dispersed array of linear cellulose microfibrils. A re-modeled cortical microtubule array exerted no influence on uniform wall layer formation or on its cellulose microfibril organization. Surprisingly, formation of the uniform wall layer was not dependent upon depositing a cellulose scaffold. In contrast, uniform wall cellulose microfibrils were essential precursors for constructing wall ingrowth papillae. On converging to form wall ingrowth papillae, the cellulose microfibril diameters increased 3-fold. This event correlated with up-regulated differential, and transfer-cell specific, expression of VfCesA3B while transcript levels of other cellulose biosynthetic-related genes linked with primary wall construction were substantially down-regulated. PMID:29259611

  6. A Structurally Specialized Uniform Wall Layer is Essential for Constructing Wall Ingrowth Papillae in Transfer Cells.

    PubMed

    Xia, Xue; Zhang, Hui-Ming; Offler, Christina E; Patrick, John W

    2017-01-01

    Transfer cells are characterized by wall labyrinths with either a flange or reticulate architecture. A literature survey established that reticulate wall ingrowth papillae ubiquitously arise from a modified component of their wall labyrinth, termed the uniform wall layer; a structure absent from flange transfer cells. This finding sparked an investigation of the deposition characteristics and role of the uniform wall layer using a Vicia faba cotyledon culture system. On transfer of cotyledons to culture, their adaxial epidermal cells spontaneously trans -differentiate to a reticulate architecture comparable to their abaxial epidermal transfer cell counterparts formed in planta . Uniform wall layer construction commenced once adaxial epidermal cell expansion had ceased to overlay the original outer periclinal wall on its inner surface. In contrast to the dense ring-like lattice of cellulose microfibrils in the original primary wall, the uniform wall layer was characterized by a sparsely dispersed array of linear cellulose microfibrils. A re-modeled cortical microtubule array exerted no influence on uniform wall layer formation or on its cellulose microfibril organization. Surprisingly, formation of the uniform wall layer was not dependent upon depositing a cellulose scaffold. In contrast, uniform wall cellulose microfibrils were essential precursors for constructing wall ingrowth papillae. On converging to form wall ingrowth papillae, the cellulose microfibril diameters increased 3-fold. This event correlated with up-regulated differential, and transfer-cell specific, expression of VfCesA3B while transcript levels of other cellulose biosynthetic-related genes linked with primary wall construction were substantially down-regulated.

  7. Morphology, histochemistry and glycosylation of the placenta and associated tissues in the European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus).

    PubMed

    Jones, Carolyn J P; Carter, A M; Allen, W R; Wilsher, Sandra A

    2016-12-01

    There are few descriptions of the placenta and associated tissues of the European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus) and here we present findings on a near-term pregnant specimen. Tissues were examined grossly and then formalin fixed and wax-embedded for histology and immunocytochemistry (cytokeratin) and resin embedded for lectin histochemistry. Each of four well-developed and near term hoglets displayed a discoid, haemochorial placenta with typical labyrinth and spongy zones. In addition there was a paraplacenta incorporating Reichert's membrane and a largely detached yolk sac. The trophoblast of the placenta contained diverse populations of granule which expressed most classes of glycan. Intercellular membranes were also glycosylated and this tended to be heavier in the labyrinth zone. Fetal capillary endothelium had glycosylated apical surfaces expressing sialic acid and various other glycans. Glycogen was present in large cells situated between the spongy zone and the endometrium. Trophoblast cells in the placental disc and under Reichert's membrane, as well as yolk sac endoderm and mesothelium, were cytokeratin positive. Reichert's membrane was heavily glycosylated. Yolk sac inner and outer endoderm expressed similar glycans except for N-acetylgalactosamine residues in endodermal acini. New features of near-term hedgehog placenta and associated tissues are presented, including their glycosylation, and novel yolk sac acinar structures are described. The trophoblast of the placental disc showed significant differences from that underlying Reichert's membrane while the glycan composition of the membrane itself showed some similarity to that of rat thereby implying a degree of biochemical conservation of this structure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Wrinkling pattern evolution of cylindrical biological tissues with differential growth.

    PubMed

    Jia, Fei; Li, Bo; Cao, Yan-Ping; Xie, Wei-Hua; Feng, Xi-Qiao

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional surface wrinkling of soft cylindrical tissues induced by differential growth is explored. Differential volumetric growth can cause their morphological stability, leading to the formation of hexagonal and labyrinth wrinkles. During postbuckling, multiple bifurcations and morphological transitions may occur as a consequence of continuous growth in the surface layer. The physical mechanisms underpinning the morphological evolution are examined from the viewpoint of energy. Surface curvature is found to play a regulatory role in the pattern evolution. This study may not only help understand the morphogenesis of soft biological tissues, but also inspire novel routes for creating desired surface patterns of soft materials.

  9. Metal casts showing the three-dimensional structure of the human inner ear were converted into jewelry.

    PubMed

    Heywood, Peter

    2015-06-01

    This article describes a straightforward method for making metal casts of the human inner ear developed in 1937 by M. Wharton Young of Howard University College of Medicine. These casts were used to study anatomy, but there do not appear to be any published photographs of the casts. Inner ear casts converted into jewelry provide the only known images of this work. Later, Young studied the inner ear in living rhesus monkeys by injecting mercury into their membranous labyrinths. Young's investigations indicated a blind-ending perilymphatic sac that was not in continuity with the subarachnoid space.

  10. Dynamic, High-Temperature, Flexible Seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M.; Sirocky, Paul J.

    1989-01-01

    New seal consists of multiple plies of braided ceramic sleeves filled with small ceramic balls. Innermost braided sleeve supported by high-temperature-wire-mesh sleeve that provides both springback and preload capabilities. Ceramic balls reduce effect of relatively high porosity of braided ceramic sleeves by acting as labyrinth flow path for gases and thereby greatly increasing pressure gradient seal can sustain. Dynamic, high-temperature, flexible seal employed in hypersonic engines, two-dimensional convergent/divergent and vectorized-thrust exhaust nozzles, reentry vehicle airframes, rocket-motor casings, high-temperature furnaces, and any application requiring non-asbestos high-temperature gaskets.

  11. JWST NIRSpec Cryogenic Light Shield Mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hale, Kathleen; Sharma, Rajeev

    2006-01-01

    The focal plane detectors for the Near-Infrared Spectrometer (NIRSpec) instrument on the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) require a light tight cover for calibration along with an open field-of-view during ground performance testing within a cryogenic dewar. In order to meet the light attenuation requirements and provide open and closed fields of view without breaking vacuum, a light shield mechanism was designed. This paper describes the details of the light shield mechanism design and test results. Included is information on the labyrinth light path design, motor capability and performance, dry film lubrication, mechanism control, and mechanism cryogenic performance results.

  12. New Resources for Childbirth Educators and Parents

    PubMed Central

    Shilling, Teri

    2009-01-01

    In this column, reviewers offer perspectives and comments on a variety of new media resources for childbirth educators and for expectant and new parents. The books and DVDs reviewed in this issue's column address the following topics: new directions for childbirth education classes; pregnancy tips for expectant mothers; empowering women to give birth naturally; midwifery care; breastfeeding; labyrinths and “laborinths” (an alternative approach to preparing for birth); preterm labor; understanding newborns' language cues; and exercise programs during pregnancy and the postnatal period, as well as exercises that strengthen the pelvic floor and help new mothers deal with incontinence. PMID:20514118

  13. Contribution of irregular semicircular canal afferents to the horizontal vestibuloocular response during constant velocity rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angelaki, D. E.; Perachio, A. A.

    1993-01-01

    1. The effects of constant anodal currents (100 microA) delivered bilaterally to both labyrinths on the horizontal vestibuloocular response (VOR) were studied in squirrel monkeys during steps of angular velocity in the dark. We report that bilateral anodal currents decreased eye velocity approximately 30-50% during the period of galvanic stimulation without a change in the time constant of VOR. The decrease in eye velocity, present during steps of angular velocity, was not observed during sinusoidal head rotation at 0.2, 0.5, and 1 Hz. The results suggest that responses from irregular vestibular afferents influence VOR amplitude during constant velocity rotation.

  14. A Balanced-pressure Sliding Seal for Transfer of Pressurized Air Between Stationary and Rotating Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curren, Arthur N; Cochran, Reeves P

    1957-01-01

    A combination sliding-ring and pressure-balancing seal capable of transferring pressurize air from stationary to rotating parts was developed and experimentally investigated at sliding velocities and cooling-air pressures up to 10,000 feet per minute and 38.3 pounds per square inch absolute, respectively. Leakage of cooling air was completely eliminated with an expenditure of balance air less than one-fourth the leakage loss of air from labyrinth seals under the same conditions. Additional cooling of the carbon-base seal rings was required, and the maximum wear rate on the rings was about 0.0005 inch per hour.

  15. Simplifying Gardner's Labyrinth: The Role of Interpersonal Relationships in Pablo Picasso's Artistic Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gupta, Anoop

    2012-01-01

    An attempt is made to demonstrate if not the dispensability of Gardner's (1983) theory of multiple intelligences, at least that it is not foundational, to understanding what motivated Picasso's creative development. Gardner used the theory of multiple intelligences to account for the extraordinariness of various figures, including Picasso, who is…

  16. Restricted diffusion in a model acinar labyrinth by NMR: Theoretical and numerical results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grebenkov, D. S.; Guillot, G.; Sapoval, B.

    2007-01-01

    A branched geometrical structure of the mammal lungs is known to be crucial for rapid access of oxygen to blood. But an important pulmonary disease like emphysema results in partial destruction of the alveolar tissue and enlargement of the distal airspaces, which may reduce the total oxygen transfer. This effect has been intensively studied during the last decade by MRI of hyperpolarized gases like helium-3. The relation between geometry and signal attenuation remained obscure due to a lack of realistic geometrical model of the acinar morphology. In this paper, we use Monte Carlo simulations of restricted diffusion in a realistic model acinus to compute the signal attenuation in a diffusion-weighted NMR experiment. We demonstrate that this technique should be sensitive to destruction of the branched structure: partial removal of the interalveolar tissue creates loops in the tree-like acinar architecture that enhance diffusive motion and the consequent signal attenuation. The role of the local geometry and related practical applications are discussed.

  17. [Effects of electromagnetic fields emitted by cellular phone on auditory and vestibular labyrinth].

    PubMed

    Sievert, U; Eggert, S; Goltz, S; Pau, H W

    2007-04-01

    It is the subject of this study to investigate the biological effect of the HF radiation produced by the Global System for Mobile Communications-( GSM)-mobile phone on the inner ear with its sensors of the vestibular and auditive systems. Thermographic investigations made on various model materials and on the human temporal bone should show whether mobile phone does induce any increases of temperature which would lead to a relevant stimulus for the auditive and vestibular system or not. We carried out video-nystagmographic recordings of 13 subjects, brainstem electric response audiometry of 24 ears, and recordings of distorsion products of otoacoustic emissions of 20 ears. All tests were made with and without a mobile phone in use. The data was then analyzed for variation patterns in the functional parameters of the hearing and balance system that are subject to the (non)existence of electromagnetic radiation from the mobile phone. The thermographic investigations suggest that the mobile phone does not induce any increases of temperature which would lead to a relevant stimulus for the auditive and vestibular system. Video-nystagmographic recordings under field effect do not furnish any indication of vestibular reactions generated by field effects. Compared with the recording without field, the brainstem electric response audiometry under field effect did not reveal any changes of the parameters investigated, i. e. absolute latency of the peaks I, III, V and the interpeak latency between the peaks I and V. The distorsion products of otoacoustic emissions do not indicate, comparing the three measuring situations, i. e. before field effect, pulsed field and continuous field, any possible impacts of the HF field on the spectrum or levels of emissions for none of the probands. The investigations made show that the electromagnetic fields generated in using the mobile phone do not have an effect on the inner ear and auditive system to the colliculus inferior in the brainstem and on the vestibular receptors in the inner ear and the vestibular system.

  18. Can the exposure of Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera, Apiadae) larvae to a field concentration of thiamethoxam affect newly emerged bees?

    PubMed

    Friol, Priscila Sepúlveda; Catae, Aline Fernanda; Tavares, Daiana Antonia; Malaspina, Osmar; Roat, Thaisa Cristina

    2017-10-01

    The use of insecticides on crops can affect non-target insects, such as bees. In addition to the adult bees, larvae can be exposed to the insecticide through contaminated floral resources. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the possible effects of the exposure of A. mellifera larvae to a field concentration of thiamethoxam (0.001 ng/μL thiamethoxam) on larval and pupal survival and on the percentage of adult emergence. Additionally, its cytotoxic effects on the digestive cells of midgut, Malpighian tubules cells and Kenyon cells of the brain of newly emerged A. mellifera bees were analyzed. The results showed that larval exposure to this concentration of thiamethoxam did not influence larval and pupal survival or the percentage of adult bee emergence. However, this exposure caused ultra-structural alterations in the target and non-target organs of newly emerged bees. The digestive cell of bees that were exposed to the insecticide exhibited a basal labyrinth without long and thin channels and compromised mitochondria. In Malpighian tubules cells, disorganized basal labyrinth, dilated mitochondria with a deformed shape and a loss of cristae, and disorganized microvilli were observed. The results showed that the exposed bees presented Kenyon cells with alterations in the nucleus and mitochondria. These alterations indicate possible tissue degeneration, demonstrating the cytotoxicity of thiamethoxam in the target and non-target organs of newly emerged bees. Such results suggest cellular organelle impairment that can compromise cellular function of the midgut cells, Malpighian tubules cells and Kenyon cells, and, consequently, can compromise the longevity of the bees of the whole colony. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Chorioallantoic placentation in Galea spixii (Rodentia, Caviomorpha, Caviidae)

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Moacir F; Mess, Andrea; Ambrósio, Carlos E; Dantas, Carlos AG; Favaron, Phelipe O; Miglino, Maria A

    2008-01-01

    Background Placentas of guinea pig-related rodents are appropriate animal models for human placentation because of their striking similarities to those of humans. To optimize the pool of potential models in this context, it is essential to identify the occurrence of characters in close relatives. Methods In this study we first analyzed chorioallantoic placentation in the prea, Galea spixii, as one of the guinea pig's closest relatives. Material was collected from a breeding group at the University of Mossoró, Brazil, including 18 individuals covering an ontogenetic sequence from initial pregnancy to term. Placentas were investigated by means of histology, electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry (vimentin, α-smooth muscle actin, cytokeration) and proliferation activity (PCNA). Results Placentation in Galea is primarily characterized by an apparent regionalization into labyrinth, trophospongium and subplacenta. It also has associated growing processes with clusters of proliferating trophoblast cells at the placental margin, internally directed projections and a second centre of proliferation in the labyrinth. Finally, the subplacenta, which is temporarily supplied in parallel by the maternal and fetal blood systems, served as the center of origin for trophoblast invasion. Conclusion Placentation in Galea reveals major parallels to the guinea pig and other caviomorphs with respect to the regionalization of the placenta, the associated growing processes, as well as trophoblast invasion. A principal difference compared to the guinea pig occurred in the blood supply of the subplacenta. Characteristics of the invasion and expanding processes indicate that Galea may serve as an additional animal model that is much smaller than the guinea pig and where the subplacenta partly has access to both maternal and fetal blood systems. PMID:18771596

  20. Age-related morphological changes in the basement membrane in the stria vascularis of C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Mitsuya; Sakamoto, Takashi; Kashio, Akinori; Yamasoba, Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    Basement membrane anionic sites (BMAS) are involved in the selective transport of electrically charged macromolecules in cochlear capillaries. Using cationic polyethyleneimine (PEI), we examined age-related changes in BMAS in the cochleae of C57BL/6 mice. The mice were grouped according to age as follows: 3 days, 4 weeks, 8 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months. In the right bony labyrinths, widths of the stria vascularis were measured in paraffin-embedded sections using light microscopy. The left bony labyrinths were immersed in a 0.5 % cationic PEI solution and embedded in epoxy resin. Ultrathin sections of the left cochlea were examined using transmission electron microscopy. A significant difference in stria vascularis width was observed between the 4-week-old and 12-month-old mice. The PEI distribution in the capillary and epithelial basement membranes (BMs) of the cochlea was observed. In all animals, PEI particles were evenly distributed in the capillary BM of the spiral ligament and in the subepithelial BM of Reissner's membrane. In the stria vascularis, PEI particles were evenly distributed in the capillary BM in 3-day-old mice. In 4- and 8-week-old mice, PEI particle sizes were markedly lower than those observed in 3-day-old mice. In 6- and 12-month-old mice, PEI particles were hardly detected in the strial capillary BM. In the strial capillary BM in these mice, the laminae rarae externa and interna disappeared, but the lamina densa became larger. We speculated that age-related changes of strial capillary BMAS may affect electrically charged macromolecule transport systems in the stria vascularis of C57BL/6 mice.

  1. Placental expression of EG-VEGF and its receptors PKR1 (prokineticin receptor-1) and PKR2 throughout mouse gestation.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, P; Feige, J-J; Alfaidy, N

    2007-10-01

    Compelling evidence indicates that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an important mediator of placental angiogenesis and appears to be disregulated in pre-eclampsia (PE). Recently, we characterised the expression of EG-VEGF (endocrine gland-derived vascular endothelial growth factor), also known as prokineticin 1 (PK1) in human placenta during the first trimester of pregnancy and showed that this factor is likely to play an important role in human placentation. However, because it is impossible to prospectively study placentation in humans, it has been impossible to further characterise EG-VEGF expression throughout complete gestation and especially at critical gestational ages for PE development. In the present study, we used mouse placenta to further characterise EG-VEGF expression throughout gestation. We investigated the pattern of expression of EG-VEGF and its receptors, PKR1 and PKR2 at the mRNA and protein levels. Our results show that EG-VEGF and VEGF exhibit different patterns of expression and different localisations in the mouse placenta. EG-VEGF was mainly localised in the labyrinth whereas VEGF was mainly present in glycogen and giant cells. EG-VEGF mRNA and protein levels were highest before 10.5days post coitus (dpc) whereas those of VEGF showed stable expression throughout gestation. PKR1 protein was localised to the labyrinth layer and showed the same pattern of expression as EG-VEGF whereas PKR2 expression was maintained over 10.5dpc with both trophoblastic and endothelial cell localisations. Altogether these findings suggest that EG-VEGF may have a direct effect on both endothelial and trophoblastic cells and is likely to play an important role in mouse placentation.

  2. Nonlinear correlations impair quantification of episodic memory by mesial temporal BOLD activity.

    PubMed

    Klamer, Silke; Zeltner, Lena; Erb, Michael; Klose, Uwe; Wagner, Kathrin; Frings, Lars; Groen, Georg; Veil, Cornelia; Rona, Sabine; Lerche, Holger; Milian, Monika

    2013-07-01

    Episodic memory processes can be investigated using different functional MRI (fMRI) paradigms. The purpose of the present study was to examine correlations between neuropsychological memory test scores and BOLD signal changes during fMRI scanning using three different memory tasks. Twenty-eight right-handed healthy subjects underwent three paradigms, (a) a word pair, (b) a space-labyrinth, and (c) a face-name association paradigm. These paradigms were compared for their value in memory quantification and lateralization by calculating correlations between the BOLD signals in the mesial temporal lobe and behavioral data derived from a neuropsychological test battery. As expected, group analysis showed left-sided activation for the verbal, a tendency to right-sided activation for the spatial, and bilateral activation for the face-name paradigm. No linear correlations were observed between neuropsychological data and activation in the temporo-mesial region. However, we found significant u-shaped correlations between behavioral memory performance and activation in both the verbal and the face-name paradigms, that is, BOLD signal changes were greater not only among participants who performed best on the neuropsychological tests, but also among the poorest performers. The figural learning task did not correlate with the activations in the space-labyrinth paradigm at all. We interpreted the u-shaped correlations to be due to compensatory hippocampal activations associated with low performance when people try unsuccessfully to remember presented items. Because activation levels did not linearly increase with memory performance, the latter cannot be quantified by fMRI alone, but only be used in conjunction with neuropsychological testing. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. Otolith-Canal Convergence in Vestibular Nuclei Neurons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickman, J. David

    1996-01-01

    During manned spaceflight, acute vestibular disturbances often occur, leading to physical duress and a loss of performance. Vestibular adaptation to the weightless environment follows within two to three days yet the mechanisms responsible for the disturbance and subsequent adaptation are still unknown In order to understand vestibular system function in space and normal earth conditions the basic physiological mechanisms of vestibular information co coding must be determined. Information processing regarding head movement and head position with respect to gravity takes place in the vestibular nuclei neurons that receive signals From the semicircular canals and otolith organs in the vestibular labyrinth. These neurons must synthesize the information into a coded output signal that provides for the head and eye movement reflexes as well as the conscious perception of the body in three-dimensional space The current investigation will for the first time. determine how the vestibular nuclei neurons quantitatively synthesize afferent information from the different linear and angular acceleration receptors in the vestibular labyrinths into an integrated output signal. During the second year of funding, progress on the current project has been focused on the anatomical orientation of semicircular canals and the spatial orientation of the innervating afferent responses. This information is necessary in order to understand how vestibular nuclei neurons process the incoming afferent spatial signals particularly with the convergent otolith afferent signals that are also spatially distributed Since information from the vestibular nuclei is presented to different brain regions associated with differing reflexive and sensory functions it is important to understand the computational mechanisms used by vestibular neurons to produce the appropriate output signal.

  4. [Diagnostic aspects of pharyngeal tumors].

    PubMed

    Savin, A A; Kradinov, A I; Vasil'ev, A Iu; Rogozhin, V A; Ivankov, A P

    1999-01-01

    In the work there are summarized the results of the examination of the 28 patients suffering with the pharynx tumors (angiophybroma of the pharynx, tumor of rhinopharynx with spreading to the cells of ethmoidal labyrinth and maxillary sinus, tumor of the pharynx spreading upon the rhinopharynx and intracranially) aged from 14 till 62. There are described the methods of roentgenologic investigation, computed and magnetic resonance tomography. There are shown the possibilities of different diagnostic methods in pharynx tumors, in estimation of the localization specification, prevalence, structure, degree of invasion into the neoplasms gathering round the cells, as well as the definition of the bony destruction.

  5. Numerical simulation of flow in a high head Francis turbine with prediction of efficiency, rotor stator interaction and vortex structures in the draft tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jošt, D.; Škerlavaj, A.; Morgut, M.; Mežnar, P.; Nobile, E.

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents numerical simulations of flow in a model of a high head Francis turbine and comparison of results to the measurements. Numerical simulations were done by two CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) codes, Ansys CFX and OpenFOAM. Steady-state simulations were performed by k-epsilon and SST model, while for transient simulations the SAS SST ZLES model was used. With proper grid refinement in distributor and runner and with taking into account losses in labyrinth seals very accurate prediction of torque on the shaft, head and efficiency was obtained. Calculated axial and circumferential velocity components on two planes in the draft tube matched well with experimental results.

  6. An open-structure sound insulator against low-frequency and wide-band acoustic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhe; Fan, Li; Zhang, Shu-yi; Zhang, Hui; Li, Xiao-juan; Ding, Jin

    2015-10-01

    To block sound, i.e., the vibration of air, most insulators are based on sealed structures and prevent the flow of the air. In this research, an acoustic metamaterial adopting side structures, loops, and labyrinths, arranged along a main tube, is presented. By combining the accurately designed side structures, an extremely wide forbidden band with a low cut-off frequency of 80 Hz is produced, which demonstrates a powerful low-frequency and wide-band sound insulation ability. Moreover, by virtue of the bypass arrangement, the metamaterial is based on an open structure, and thus air flow is allowed while acoustic waves can be insulated.

  7. Adenoviral vector gene delivery via the round window membrane in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Mitsuya; Yamasoba, Tatsuya; Suzukawa, Keigo; Kaga, Kimitaka

    2003-10-27

    We have found that damage from a local anesthetic solution containing phenol permitted beta-galactosidase (beta-gal) gene delivery to the guinea pig inner ear via the round window membrane (RWM). RWM damage was evident as degeneration of the outer epithelium. After adenovirus lacZ vector was applied to the damaged RWM, immunohistochemistry showed strong beta-gal expression in the RWM, mesothelial cells, organ of Corti, spiral limbus, spiral ligament and spiral ganglion. In the vestibular labyrinth, expression was seen in the sensory and supporting cells, transitional cells, and the dark-cell area. Thus, adenovirus can transfect a variety of inner ear cells in the guinea pig through a damaged RWM.

  8. Impeller leakage flow modeling for mechanical vibration control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palazzolo, Alan B.

    1996-01-01

    HPOTP and HPFTP vibration test results have exhibited transient and steady characteristics which may be due to impeller leakage path (ILP) related forces. For example, an axial shift in the rotor could suddenly change the ILP clearances and lengths yielding dynamic coefficient and subsequent vibration changes. ILP models are more complicated than conventional-single component-annular seal models due to their radial flow component (coriolis and centrifugal acceleration), complex geometry (axial/radial clearance coupling), internal boundary (transition) flow conditions between mechanical components along the ILP and longer length, requiring moment as well as force coefficients. Flow coupling between mechanical components results from mass and energy conservation applied at their interfaces. Typical components along the ILP include an inlet seal, curved shroud, and an exit seal, which may be a stepped labyrinth type. Von Pragenau (MSFC) has modeled labyrinth seals as a series of plain annular seals for leakage and dynamic coefficient prediction. These multi-tooth components increase the total number of 'flow coupled' components in the ILP. Childs developed an analysis for an ILP consisting of a single, constant clearance shroud with an exit seal represented by a lumped flow-loss coefficient. This same geometry was later extended to include compressible flow. The objective of the current work is to: supply ILP leakage-force impedance-dynamic coefficient modeling software to MSFC engineers, base on incompressible/compressible bulk flow theory; design the software to model a generic geometry ILP described by a series of components lying along an arbitrarily directed path; validate the software by comparison to available test data, CFD and bulk models; and develop a hybrid CFD-bulk flow model of an ILP to improve modeling accuracy within practical run time constraints.

  9. Functional characterization of the vertebrate primary ureter: Structure and ion transport mechanisms of the pronephric duct in axolotl larvae (Amphibia)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Three kidney systems appear during vertebrate development: the pronephroi, mesonephroi and metanephroi. The pronephric duct is the first or primary ureter of these kidney systems. Its role as a key player in the induction of nephrogenic mesenchyme is well established. Here we investigate whether the duct is involved in urine modification using larvae of the freshwater amphibian Ambystoma mexicanum (axolotl) as model. Results We investigated structural as well as physiological properties of the pronephric duct. The key elements of our methodology were: using histology, light and transmission electron microscopy as well as confocal laser scanning microscopy on fixed tissue and applying the microperfusion technique on isolated pronephric ducts in combination with single cell microelectrode impalements. Our data show that the fully differentiated pronephric duct is composed of a single layered epithelium consisting of one cell type comparable to the principal cell of the renal collecting duct system. The cells are characterized by a prominent basolateral labyrinth and a relatively smooth apical surface with one central cilium. Cellular impalements demonstrate the presence of apical Na+ and K+ conductances, as well as a large K+ conductance in the basolateral cell membrane. Immunolabeling experiments indicate heavy expression of Na+/K+-ATPase in the basolateral labyrinth. Conclusions We propose that the pronephric duct is important for the subsequent modification of urine produced by the pronephros. Our results indicate that it reabsorbs sodium and secretes potassium via channels present in the apical cell membrane with the driving force for ion movement provided by the Na+/K+ pump. This is to our knowledge the first characterization of the pronephric duct, the precursor of the collecting duct system, which provides a model of cell structure and basic mechanisms for ion transport. Such information may be important in understanding the evolution of vertebrate

  10. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtype expression in avian vestibular hair cells, nerve terminals and ganglion cells.

    PubMed

    Li, G Q; Kevetter, G A; Leonard, R B; Prusak, D J; Wood, T G; Correia, M J

    2007-04-25

    Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) are widely expressed in the CNS and peripheral nervous system and play an important role in modulating the cell activity and function. We have shown that the cholinergic agonist carbachol reduces the pigeon's inwardly rectifying potassium channel (pKir2.1) ionic currents in native vestibular hair cells. We have cloned and sequenced pigeon mAChR subtypes M2-M5 and we have studied the expression of all five mAChR subtypes (M1-M5) in the pigeon vestibular end organs (semicircular canal ampullary cristae and utricular maculae), vestibular nerve fibers and the vestibular (Scarpa's) ganglion using tissue immunohistochemistry (IH), dissociated single cell immunocytochemistry (IC) and Western blotting (WB). We found that vestibular hair cells, nerve fibers and ganglion cells each expressed all five (M1-M5) mAChR subtypes. Two of the three odd-numbered mAChRs (M1, M5) were present on the hair cell cilia, supporting cells and nerve terminals. And all three odd numbered mAChRs (M1, M3 and M5) were expressed on cuticular plates, myelin sheaths and Schwann cells. Even-numbered mAChRs were seen on the nerve terminals. M2 was also shown on the cuticular plates and supporting cells. Vestibular efferent fibers and terminals were not identified in our studies. Results from WB of the dissociated vestibular epithelia, nerve fibers and vestibular ganglia were consistent with the results from IH and IC. Our findings suggest that there is considerable co-expression of the subtypes on the neural elements of the labyrinth. Further electrophysiological and pharmacological studies should delineate the mechanisms of action of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors on structures in the labyrinth.

  11. Animal model of cochlear third window in the scala vestibuli or scala tympani.

    PubMed

    Attias, Joseph; Preis, Michal; Shemesh, Rafi; Hadar, Tuvia; Nageris, Ben I

    2010-08-01

    The auditory impact of a cochlear third window differs by its location in the scala vestibuli or scala tympani. Pathologic third window has been investigated primarily in the vestibular apparatus of animals and humans. Dehiscence of the superior semicircular canal is the clinical model. Fat sand rats (n = 11) have a unique inner-ear anatomy that allows easy surgical access. A window was drilled in the bony labyrinth over the scala vestibuli in 1 group (12 ears) and over the scala tympani in another (7 ears) while preserving the membranous labyrinth. Auditory brain stem responses to high- and low-frequency stimuli delivered by air and bone conduction were recorded before and after the procedure. Scala vestibuli group: preoperative air-conduction thresholds to clicks and tone-bursts averaged 8.3 and 9.6 dB, respectively, and bone-conduction thresholds, 4.6 and 3.3 dB, respectively; after fenestration, air-conduction thresholds averaged 40.4 and 41.8 dB, respectively, and bone-conduction thresholds, -1 and 5.6 dB, respectively. Scala tympani group: preoperative air-conduction thresholds to clicks and tone-bursts averaged 8.6 dB each, and bone-conduction thresholds, 7.9 dB and 7.1 dB, respectively; after fenestration, air-conduction thresholds averaged 11.4 and 9.3 dB, respectively, and bone-conduction thresholds, 9.3 and 4.2 dB, respectively. The changes in air- (p = 0.0001) and bone-conduction (p = 0.04) thresholds were statistically significant only in the scala vestibuli group. The presence of a cochlear third window over the scala vestibuli, but not over the scala tympani, causes a significant increase in air-conduction auditory thresholds. These results agree with the theoretic model and clinical findings and contribute to our understanding of vestibular dehiscence.

  12. The developmental expression of the CDK inhibitor p57(kip2) (Cdkn1c) in the early mouse placenta.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Ann Catherine Eugenia; McGonnigal, Bethany; Uzun, Alper; Padbury, James

    2016-05-01

    p57(kip2) (encoded by the Cdkn1c gene) is a member of the cip/kip family of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors that mediates cell cycle arrest in G1, allowing cells to differentiate. In the placenta, p57(kip2) is involved in endoreduplication, formation of trophoblast giant cells, trophoblast invasion, and expansion of placental cell layers. Here, we quantitatively and qualitatively define the cell- and region-specific expression of mouse placental p57(kip2) using laser-capture microdissection, in situ hybridization, and immunohistochemistry. Cdkn1c RNA was quantified by real-time quantitative PCR. Co-expression of Pl1 was used to identify trophoblast giant cells while Tbpba was used to identify spongiotrophoblast cells. Timed sacrifices were also carried out at embryonic days E7.5, E8.5, E9.5, and E12.5 to profile the expression in embryos and their placentas. At E8.5, intense expression of Cdkn1c was seen in invasive TGCs and the ectoplacental cone. Cdkn1c expression was more diffuse and more abundant in the labyrinth that in the junctional zone at both E9.5 and E12.5. Immunohistochemistry revealed robust p57(kip2) staining in trophoblast giant cells and in the ectoplacental cone at E8.5. p57(kip2) protein was seen in giant cells and throughout the labyrinth, although its abundance was reduced in the junctional zone at E9.5, and became more diffuse by E12.5. The early and intense expression in trophoblast giant cells is consistent with a role for p57(kip2) in the invasive phenotype of these cells. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 83: 405-412, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Maternal insulin-like growth factor-II promotes placental functional development via the type 2 IGF receptor in the guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Sferruzzi-Perri, A N; Owens, J A; Standen, P; Roberts, C T

    2008-04-01

    In guinea pigs, maternal insulin-like growth factor (IGF) infusion in early-pregnancy enhances placental transport near-term, increasing fetal growth and survival. The effects of IGF-II, but not IGF-I, appear due to enhanced placental labyrinthine (exchange) development. To determine if the type-2 IGF receptor (IGF2R) mediates these distinct actions of exogenous IGF-II in the mother, we compared the impact of IGF-II with an IGF-II analogue, Leu(27)-IGF-II, which only binds the IGF2R. IGF-II, Leu(27)-IGF-II (1mg/kg per day.sc) or vehicle were infused from days 20-38 of pregnancy (term = 67 days) and placental structure and uptake and transfer of [(3)H]-methyl-D-glucose (MG) and [(14)C]-amino-isobutyric acid (AIB) and fetal growth and plasma metabolites, were measured on day 62. Both IGF-II and Leu(27)-IGF-II increased the volume of placental labyrinth, trophoblast and maternal blood space within the labyrinth and total surface area of trophoblast for exchange, compared to vehicle. Leu(27)-IGF-II also reduced the barrier to diffusion (trophoblast thickness) compared to vehicle and IGF-II. Both IGF-II and Leu(27)-IGF-II increased fetal plasma amino acid concentrations and placental transfer of MG to the fetus compared to vehicle, with Leu(27)-IGF-II also increasing AIB transport compared with vehicle and IGF-II. In addition, Leu(27)-IGF-II increased fetal weight compared to vehicle. In conclusion, maternal treatment with IGF-II or Leu(27)-IGF-II in early gestation, induce similar placental and fetal outcomes near term. This suggests that maternal IGF-II in early gestation acts in part via the IGF2R to persistently enhance placental functional development and nutrient delivery and promote fetal growth.

  14. Current diagnostic procedures for diagnosing vertigo and dizziness

    PubMed Central

    Walther, Leif Erik

    2017-01-01

    Vertigo is a multisensory syndrome that otolaryngologists are confronted with every day. With regard to the complex functions of the sense of orientation, vertigo is considered today as a disorder of the sense of direction, a disturbed spatial perception of the body. Beside the frequent classical syndromes for which vertigo is the leading symptom (e.g. positional vertigo, vestibular neuritis, Menière’s disease), vertigo may occur as main or accompanying symptom of a multitude of ENT-related diseases involving the inner ear. It also concerns for example acute and chronic viral or bacterial infections of the ear with serous or bacterial labyrinthitis, disorders due to injury (e.g. barotrauma, fracture of the oto-base, contusion of the labyrinth), chronic-inflammatory bone processes as well as inner ear affections in the perioperative course. In the last years, diagnostics of vertigo have experienced a paradigm shift due to new diagnostic possibilities. In the diagnostics of emergency cases, peripheral and central disorders of vertigo (acute vestibular syndrome) may be differentiated with simple algorithms. The introduction of modern vestibular test procedures (video head impulse test, vestibular evoked myogenic potentials) in the clinical practice led to new diagnostic options that for the first time allow a complex objective assessment of all components of the vestibular organ with relatively low effort. Combined with established methods, a frequency-specific assessment of the function of vestibular reflexes is possible. New classifications allow a clinically better differentiation of vertigo syndromes. Modern radiological procedures such as for example intratympanic gadolinium application for Menière’s disease with visualization of an endolymphatic hydrops also influence current medical standards. Recent methodical developments significantly contributed to the possibilities that nowadays vertigo can be better and more quickly clarified in particular in

  15. Dynamic analysis of the mechanical seals of the rotor of the labyrinth screw pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedev, A. Y.; Andrenko, P. M.; Grigoriev, A. L.

    2017-08-01

    A mathematical model of the work of the mechanical seal with smooth rings made from cast tungsten carbide in the condition of liquid friction is drawn up. A special feature of this model is the allowance for the thermal expansion of a liquid in the gap between the rings; this effect acting in the conjunction with the frictional forces creates additional pressure and lift which in its turn depends on the width of the gap and the speed of sliding. The developed model displays the processes of separation, transportation and heat removal in the compaction elements and also the resistance to axial movement of the ring arising in the gap caused by the pumping effect and the friction in the flowing liquid; the inertia of this fluid is taken into account by the mass reduction method. The linearization of the model is performed and the dynamic characteristics of the transient processes and the forced oscillations of the device are obtained. The conditions imposed on the parameters of the mechanical seal are formulated to provide a regime of the liquid friction, which minimizes the wear.

  16. Effect of temperature on acoustic communication: sound production in the croaking gourami (labyrinth fishes).

    PubMed

    Ladich, Friedrich; Schleinzer, Günter

    2015-04-01

    Sound communication comprising the production and detection of acoustic signals is affected by ambient temperature in ectothermic animals. In the present study we investigated the effects of temperature on sound production and characteristics in the croaking gourami Trichopsis vittata, a freshwater fish from Southeast Asia possessing a highly specialized sound-generating mechanism found only in a single genus. The croaking gourami produces pulsed sounds by stretching and plucking two enhanced pectoral fin tendons during rapid pectoral fin beating. Croaking sounds typically consist of a series of double-pulsed bursts with main energies between 1 and 1.5 kHz. Sounds were recorded during dyadic contests between two males at three different temperatures (25°, 30° and 35°C). The mean dominant frequency increased with rising temperature from 1.18 to 1.33 kHz, whereas temporal characteristics decreased. The sound interval dropped from 492 to 259 ms, the burst period from 51 to 35 ms and the pulse period from 5.8 to 5.1 ms. In contrast, the number of sounds and number of bursts within a sound were not affected by temperature. The current study shows that spectral and temporal characteristics of sounds are affected in different ways by temperature in the croaking gourami, whereas the numbers of sounds and bursts remain unaffected. We conclude that acoustic communication in gouramis is affected by changes in ambient temperature. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Practical experience with unstable compressors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malanoski, S. B.

    1980-01-01

    Using analytical mathematical modeling techniques for the system components, an attempt is made to gauge the destabilizing effects in a number of compressor designs. In particular the overhung (or cantilevered) compressor designs and the straddle-mounted (or simply supported) compressor designs are examined. Recommendations are made, based on experiences with stable and unstable compressors, which can be used as guides in future designs. High and low pressure compressors which operate well above their fundamental rotor-bearing lateral natural frequencies can suffer from destructive subsynchronous vibration. Usually the elements in the system design which contribute to this vibration, other than the shafting and the bearings, are the seals (both gas labyrinth and oil breakdown bushings) and the aerodynamic components.

  18. Vitiligo: Pathogenesis, clinical variants and treatment approaches.

    PubMed

    Iannella, Giannicola; Greco, Antonio; Didona, Dario; Didona, Biagio; Granata, Guido; Manno, Alessandra; Pasquariello, Benedetta; Magliulo, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    Vitiligo is a common chronic acquired disease of pigmentation whose etiology is unknown, which usually occurs with asymptomatic whitish patch or macule. Although several hypotheses have been proposed in the literature, the leading theory is still the auto-immune etiology linked to specific genetic mutations. Vitiligo can also be associated with several autoimmune diseases, including autoimmune thyroid diseases, alopecia areata, and halo nevi. Sensorineural hearing loss was reported in several vitiligo patients due to a reduction in the number of melanocytes contained in the membranous labyrinth of the inner ear. Because of its complexity, several therapeutic options are available to treat this systemic disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Compressible and incompressible fluid seals: Influence on rotordynamic response and stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thames, Howard D.

    1992-01-01

    The flow field inside a whirling annular seal operating a Reynolds numbers of 12,000 and 24,000 and a Taylor number of 6,600 was measured. The rotor was mounted eccentric (50 percent) upon the facilities shaft which resulted in a circular orbit at a whirl ratio of 1.0. Three papers which summarize the work were written and are presented. Addition measurements were performed for the annular seal operating at an eccentricity ratio of 10 percent for Re = 24,000 and Ta = 6,600. A labyrinth seal was also installed into the facility and operated at an eccentricity ratio of 50 percent at the same Reynolds and Taylor numbers. These data are currently being reduced and analyzed.

  20. Preliminary Test Results of a Non-Contacting Finger Seal on a Herringbone-Grooved Rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, Margaret P.; Degado, Irebert R.

    2008-01-01

    Low leakage, non-contacting finger seals have potential to reduce gas turbine engine specific fuel consumption by 2 to 3 percent and to reduce direct operating costs by increasing the time between engine overhauls. A non-contacting finger seal with concentric lift-pads operating adjacent to a test rotor with herringbone grooves was statically tested at 300, 533, and 700 K inlet air temperatures at pressure differentials up to 576 kPa. Leakage flow factors were approximately 70 percent less than state-of-the-art labyrinth seals. Leakage rates are compared to first order predictions. Initial spin tests at 5000 rpm, 300 K inlet air temperature and pressure differentials to 241 kPa produced no measurable wear.

  1. The functional head impulse test: preliminary data.

    PubMed

    Corallo, Giulia; Versino, Maurizio; Mandalà, Marco; Colnaghi, Silvia; Ramat, Stefano

    2018-06-04

    The functional head impulse test is a new test of vestibular function based on the ability to recognize the orientation of a Landolt C optotype that briefly appears on a computer screen during passive head impulses imposed by the examiner over a range of head accelerations. Here, we compare its results with those of the video head impulse test on a population of vestibular neuritis patients recorded acutely and after 3 months from symptoms onset. The preliminary results presented here show that while both tests are able to identify the affected labyrinth and to show a recovery of vestibular functionality at 3 months, the two tests are not redundant, but complementary.

  2. Self-organization of sorted patterned ground.

    PubMed

    Kessler, M A; Werner, B T

    2003-01-17

    Striking circular, labyrinthine, polygonal, and striped patterns of stones and soil self-organize in many polar and high alpine environments. These forms emerge because freeze-thaw cycles drive an interplay between two feedback mechanisms. First, formation of ice lenses in freezing soil sorts stones and soil by displacing soil toward soil-rich domains and stones toward stone-rich domains. Second, stones are transported along the axis of elongate stone domains, which are squeezed and confined as freezing soil domains expand. In a numerical model implementing these feedbacks, circles, labyrinths, and islands form when sorting dominates; polygonal networks form when stone domain squeezing and confinement dominate; and stripes form as hillslope gradient is increased.

  3. Development of Advanced Seals for Industrial Turbine Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chupp, Raymond E.; Aksit, Mahmut F.; Ghasripoor, Farshad; Turnquist, Norman A.; Dinc, Saim; Mortzheim, Jason; Demiroglu, Mehmet

    2002-10-01

    A critical area being addressed to improve industrial turbine performance is reducing the parasitic leakage flows through the various static and dynamic seals. Implementation of advanced seals into General Electric (GE) industrial turbines has progressed well over the last few years with significant operating performance gains achieved. Advanced static seals have been placed in gas turbine hot gas-path junctions and steam turbine packing ring segment end gaps. Brush seals have significantly decreased labyrinth seal leakages in gas turbine compressors and turbine interstages, steam turbine interstage and end packings, industrial compressor shaft seals, and generator seals. Abradable seals are being developed for blade-tip locations in various turbine locations. This presentation summarizes the status of advanced seal development for industrial turbines at GE.

  4. Design study of shaft face seal with self-acting lift augmentation. 5: Performance in simulated gas turbine engine operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludwig, L. P.; Johnson, R. L.

    1971-01-01

    The feasibility and the noncontact operation of the self-acting seal was demonstrated over a range of simulated gas turbine engine conditions from 200 to 500 ft/sec sliding speed. Sealed pressure differentials were 50 to 300 psi and sealed temperatures were 150 to 1200 F. Low leakage (about 1/10 that of conventional labyrinth seals) was exhibited in two endurance runs (200 and 338 hr) at 400 ft/sec, 200 psi and 1000 F (gas temperature). For these endurance runs, the self-acting pad wear was less than 3.8 micrometers (0.00015 in.); this low wear was attributed to the noncontact operation of the primary seal. Operating problems identified were fretting wear of the secondary seal and erosion of the primary seal by hard particles.

  5. Dewetting and spreading transitions for active matter on random pinning substrates.

    PubMed

    Sándor, Cs; Libál, A; Reichhardt, C; Olson Reichhardt, C J

    2017-05-28

    We show that sterically interacting self-propelled disks in the presence of random pinning substrates exhibit transitions among a variety of different states. In particular, from a phase separated cluster state, the disks can spread out and homogeneously cover the substrate in what can be viewed as an example of an active matter wetting transition. We map the location of this transition as a function of activity, disk density, and substrate strength, and we also identify other phases including a cluster state, coexistence between a cluster and a labyrinth wetted phase, and a pinned liquid. Convenient measures of these phases include the cluster size, which dips at the wetting-dewetting transition, and the fraction of sixfold coordinated particles, which drops when dewetting occurs.

  6. 6. Workers laying up the graphite core of the 105B ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Workers laying up the graphite core of the 105-B file. In the lower-left can be seen a portion of the rear face of the pile, the top of its shielding wall, and the gun barrels protruding through it. The inside of the front face of the pile and its gun barrels can be seen toward the upper-right side. The angled top of the front shielding wall can be seen in the picture. All four walls were "stepped" in this manner where they joined with another wall or the ceiling to form a "labyrinth" joint, so that radiation would not have a straight route through any gaps in the joints. D-3045 - B Reactor, Richland, Benton County, WA

  7. Microbead-regulated surface wrinkling patterns in a film-substrate system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Cheng; Wang, Jiawen; Cao, Yan-Ping; Lu, Conghua; Li, Bo; Feng, Xi-Qiao

    2017-10-01

    The control of surface wrinkling patterns at the microscale is a concern in many applications. In this letter, we regulate surface wrinkling patterns on a film-substrate system by introducing microbeads atop the film. Both experiments and theoretical analysis reveal the changes in surface wrinkles induced by microbeads. Under equibiaxial compression, the film-substrate system without microbeads bonded on its upper surface often buckles into global, uniform labyrinths, whereas the labyrinthine pattern locally gives way to radial stripes emanating from the microbeads. This regulation of surface wrinkles depends on the sizes and spacing of microbeads. We combine the finite element method and the Fourier spectral method to explore the physical mechanisms underlying the phenomena. This study offers a viable technique for engineering surfaces with tunable functions.

  8. High stability design for new centrifugal compressor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanki, H.; Katayama, K.; Morii, S.; Mouri, Y.; Umemura, S.; Ozawa, U.; Oda, T.

    1989-01-01

    It is essential that high-performance centrifugal compressors be free of subsynchronous vibrations. A new high-performance centrifugal compressor has been developed by applying the latest rotordynamics knowledge and design techniques: (1) To improve the system damping, a specially designed oil film seal was developed. This seal attained a damping ratio three times that of the conventional design. The oil film seal contains a special damper ring in the seal cartridge. (2) To reduce the destabilizing effect of the labyrinth seal, a special swirl canceler (anti-swirl nozzle) was applied to the balance piston seal. (3) To confirm the system damping margin, the dynamic simulation rotor model test and the full load test applied the vibration exciting test in actual load conditions.

  9. Blue Corn Tortillas: Effects on Learning and Spatial Memory in Rats.

    PubMed

    Aguirre López, L O; Chávez Servia, J L; Gómez Rodiles, C C; Beltrán Ramírez, J R; Bañuelos Pineda, J

    2017-12-01

    Consumption of pigmented corn has been associated with health benefits due to its flavonoid contents (mainly anthocyanins) and antioxidant ability. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the effect of blue corn tortilla (BM) consumption on memory and learning ability adult rats. Eighteen adult female rats were divided into three groups and fed for 38 consecutive days with commercial food (Control group) or the commercial food plus 6 g/day of either blue corn (BM) or white corn (WM) tortillas. Memory and learning capabilities were assessed using Barnes's labyrinth at the end of the feeding period. Short-and long-term memory was improved in the BM group, showing that consumption of blue maize tortillas improves learning and memory capabilities in adult rats.

  10. Influence of torsional-lateral coupling on stability behavior of geared rotor systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwibinger, P.; Nordmann, R.

    1987-01-01

    In high-performance turbomachinery trouble often arises because of unstable nonsynchronous lateral vibrations. The instabilities are mostly caused by oil-film bearings, clearance excitation, internal damping, annular pressure seals in pumps, or labyrinth seals in turbocompressors. In recent times the coupling between torsional and lateral vibrations has been considered as an additional influence. This coupling is of practical importance in geared rotor systems. The literature describes some field problems in geared drive trains where unstable lateral vibrations occurred together with torsional oscillations. This paper studies the influence of the torsional-lateral coupling on the stability behavior of a simple geared system supported by oil-film bearings. The coupling effect is investigated by parameter studies and a sensitivity analysis for the uncoupled and coupled systems.

  11. Wrinkle motifs in thin films

    PubMed Central

    Budrikis, Zoe; Sellerio, Alessandro L.; Bertalan, Zsolt; Zapperi, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    On length scales from nanometres to metres, partial adhesion of thin films with substrates generates a fascinating variety of patterns, such as ‘telephone cord’ buckles, wrinkles, and labyrinth domains. Although these patterns are part of everyday experience and are important in industry, they are not completely understood. Here, we report simulation studies of a previously-overlooked phenomenon in which pairs of wrinkles form avoiding pairs, focusing on the case of graphene over patterned substrates. By nucleating and growing wrinkles in a controlled way, we characterize how their morphology is determined by stress fields in the sheet and friction with the substrate. Our simulations uncover the generic behaviour of avoiding wrinkle pairs that should be valid at all scales. PMID:25758174

  12. Diagnosis of latent forms of labyrinthine affections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaslilyeva, V. P.

    1980-01-01

    Features and significance of individual vestibular symptoms for the diagnosis of latent labyrinthitis and limited forms of labyrinthine affections offering considerable difficulties are discussed. Vestibular symptoms are indistinct. In case of the negative fistular symptom the greatest significance is acquired by the study of posture nystagmus according to the results of electronystagmograms, changes of tonic reactions and statics, as well as data of experimental vestibular tests. The necessity of evaluation of all the vestibular symptoms from the point of view of their vector characteristics and in a complex of evidence obtained by otoneurological examination of the patient is emphasized. Delicate topic and differential diagnosis of vestibular disturbances is of great importance and significance in the choice of the conservative or surgical method of treatment.

  13. Brush seals for cryogenic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proctor, Margaret P.

    1994-07-01

    This viewgraph presentation presents test results of brush seals for cryogenic applications. Leakage for a single brush seal was two to three times less than for a 12-tooth labyrinth seal. The maximum temperature rise for a single brush seal was less than 50 R and occurred at 25 psid across the seal and 35,000 rpm. A static blowout test demonstrated sealing capability up to 550 psid. The seal limit was not obtained. The power loss for a single brush at 35,000 rpm and 175 psid was 2.45 hp. Two brushes far apart leak less than two brushes tight packed. Rotor wear was approximately 0.00075 mils and bristle wear was 1-3 mils after 4-1/2 hours.

  14. Walking the Labyrinth: Examining the Intersection of Spirituality and Leadership among Senior Student Affairs Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riera, Jose-Luis

    2013-01-01

    As senior student affairs administrators (SSAAs) seek to lead effectively in higher education, some SSAAs consider spiritual resources to enhance leadership practice. Yet, empirical literature on the intersection of spirituality and leadership in higher education is relatively absent and needs to be deepened and broadened. The purpose of this…

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging of the inner ear by using a hybrid radiofrequency coil at 7 T

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyoung-Nam; Heo, Phil; Kim, Young-Bo; Han, Gyu-Cheol

    2015-01-01

    Visualization of the membranous structures of the inner ear has been limited to the detection of the normal fluid signal intensity within the bony labyrinth by using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) equipped with a 1.5 Tesla (T) magnet. High-field (HF) MRI has been available for more than a decade, and numerous studies have documented its significant advantages over conventional MRI with regards to its use in basic scientific research and routine clinical assessments. No previous studies of the inner ear by using HF MRI have been reported, in part because high-quality resolution of mastoid pneumatization is challenging due to artifacts generated in the HF environment and insufficient performance of radiofrequency (RF) coils. Therefore, a hybrid RF coil with integrated circuitry was developed at 7 T and was targeted for anatomical imaging to achieve a high resolution image of the structure of the human inner ear, excluding the bony portion. The inner-ear's structure is composed of soft tissues containing hydrogen ions and includes the membranous labyrinth, endolymphatic space, perilymphatic space, and cochlear-vestibular nerves. Visualization of the inner-ear's anatomy was performed in-vivo with a custom-designed hybrid RF coil and a specific imaging protocol based on an interpolated breath-held examination sequence. The comparative signal intensity value at 30-mm away from the phantom side was 88% higher for the hybrid RF coil and 24% higher for the 8-channel transmit/receive (Tx/Rx) coil than for the commercial birdcage coil. The optimized MRI protocol employed a hybrid RF coil because it enabled high-resolution imaging of the inner-ear's anatomy and accurate mapping of structures including the cochlea and the semicircular canals. These results indicate that 7 T MRI achieves high spatial resolution visualization of the inner-ear's anatomy. Therefore, MRI imaging using a hybrid RF coil at 7 T could provide a powerful tool for clinical investigations of petrous

  16. ITE and TCDD differentially regulate the vascular remodeling of rat placenta via the activation of AhR.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yanming; Chen, Xiao; Zhou, Qian; He, Qizhi; Kang, Jiuhong; Zheng, Jing; Wang, Kai; Duan, Tao

    2014-01-01

    Vascular remodeling in the placenta is essential for normal fetal development. The previous studies have demonstrated that in utero exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD, an environmental toxicant) induces the intrauterine fetal death in many species via the activation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). In the current study, we compared the effects of 2-(1'H-indole-3'-carbonyl)-thiazole-4-carboxylic acid methyl ester (ITE) and TCDD on the vascular remodeling of rat placentas. Pregnant rats on gestational day (GD) 15 were randomly assigned into 5 groups, and were exposed to a single dose of 1.6 and 8.0 mg/kg body weight (bw) ITE, 1.6 and 8.0 µg/kg bw TCDD, or an equivalent volume of the vehicle, respectively. The dams were sacrificed on GD20 and the placental tissues were gathered. The intrauterine fetal death was observed only in 8.0 µg/kg bw TCDD-exposed group and no significant difference was seen in either the placental weight or the fetal weight among all these groups. The immunohistochemical and histological analyses revealed that as compared with the vehicle-control, TCDD, but not ITE, suppressed the placental vascular remodeling, including reduced the ratio of the placental labyrinth zone to the basal zone thickness (at least 0.71 fold of control), inhibited the maternal sinusoids dilation and thickened the trophoblastic septa. However, no marked difference was observed in the density of fetal capillaries in the labyrinth zone among these groups, although significant differences were detected in the expression of angiogenic growth factors between ITE and TCDD-exposed groups, especially Angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2), Endoglin, Interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and placenta growth factor (PIGF). These results suggest ITE and TCDD differentially regulate the vascular remodeling of rat placentas, as well as the expression of angiogenic factors and their receptors, which in turn may alter the blood flow in the late gestation and partially resulted in

  17. ITE and TCDD Differentially Regulate the Vascular Remodeling of Rat Placenta via the Activation of AhR

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Qian; He, Qizhi; Kang, Jiuhong; Zheng, Jing; Wang, Kai; Duan, Tao

    2014-01-01

    Vascular remodeling in the placenta is essential for normal fetal development. The previous studies have demonstrated that in utero exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD, an environmental toxicant) induces the intrauterine fetal death in many species via the activation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). In the current study, we compared the effects of 2-(1′H-indole-3′-carbonyl)-thiazole-4-carboxylic acid methyl ester (ITE) and TCDD on the vascular remodeling of rat placentas. Pregnant rats on gestational day (GD) 15 were randomly assigned into 5 groups, and were exposed to a single dose of 1.6 and 8.0 mg/kg body weight (bw) ITE, 1.6 and 8.0 µg/kg bw TCDD, or an equivalent volume of the vehicle, respectively. The dams were sacrificed on GD20 and the placental tissues were gathered. The intrauterine fetal death was observed only in 8.0 µg/kg bw TCDD-exposed group and no significant difference was seen in either the placental weight or the fetal weight among all these groups. The immunohistochemical and histological analyses revealed that as compared with the vehicle-control, TCDD, but not ITE, suppressed the placental vascular remodeling, including reduced the ratio of the placental labyrinth zone to the basal zone thickness (at least 0.71 fold of control), inhibited the maternal sinusoids dilation and thickened the trophoblastic septa. However, no marked difference was observed in the density of fetal capillaries in the labyrinth zone among these groups, although significant differences were detected in the expression of angiogenic growth factors between ITE and TCDD-exposed groups, especially Angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2), Endoglin, Interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and placenta growth factor (PIGF). These results suggest ITE and TCDD differentially regulate the vascular remodeling of rat placentas, as well as the expression of angiogenic factors and their receptors, which in turn may alter the blood flow in the late gestation and partially resulted in

  18. Compliant seal development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Robert C.

    1993-01-01

    The compliant metallic seal combines the noncontact feature of the labyrinth seal, the low leakage of a mechanical seal, and the compliant nature of the brush seal. It consists of several thin metallic elements or leaves mounted within a ring which is press fit into the housing, and in form, sort of resembles a lip seal sections wiping the shaft. A second set of overlapping cover leaves are placed on top of the shaft riding leaves which reduces leakage and provides stiffness. The leaves can be straight or angle cut. The shaft riding fingers are designed with mismatched curvature to provide lift off similar to the Rayleigh lift pads in mechanical seals with leading edge clearances nearly twice those of the trailing edge as as shown by Fleming to be optimal for gas flows in convergent seal passages. Leading edge clearances range from 300 to 500 microinches. Balance pockets beneath the leaves provide fluid film feed to the 'Rayleigh lift' surface and the proper balance ratio (mechanical seal) when combined with the static pressure and film pressure. The leaves flex in the radial direction and accommodate thermomechanical behavior as well as axial motion and angular misalignment. In the static mode, there is a net closing force on the leaves. The seals were tested to 70 psi at speeds to 16,000 rpm or surface speeds to 330 fps and temperatures from ambient to 440 F. A slow cycle through the rig critical at 10,000 rpm induced a radial vibration response of 0.004 to 0.005 inch were accommodated by the seal. Preliminary performance data are encouraging demonstrating hydrodynamic liftoff and noncontacting operation at pressure and speeds typical of gas turbine engines. The leakage performance data are significantly better than commercial labyrinth and brush seals which should be expected as this design incorporates the features of the low leakage face or mechanical seal along with the flexibility of the brush configuration.

  19. Prolonged endoplasmic reticulum stress alters placental morphology and causes low birth weight

    SciTech Connect

    Kawakami, Takashige, E-mail: tkawakami@ph.bunri-u.ac.jp; Yoshimi, Masaki; Kadota, Yoshito

    The role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in pregnancy remains largely unknown. Pregnant mice were subcutaneously administered tunicamycin (Tun), an ER stressor, as a single dose [0, 50, and 100 μg Tun/kg/body weight (BW)] on gestation days (GDs) 8.5, 12.5, and 15.5. A high incidence (75%) of preterm delivery was observed only in the group treated with Tun 100 μg/kg BW at GD 15.5, indicating that pregnant mice during late gestation are more susceptible to ER stress on preterm delivery. We further examined whether prolonged in utero exposure to ER stress affects fetal development. Pregnant mice were subcutaneously administered amore » dose of 0, 20, 40, and 60 μg Tun/kg from GD 12.5 to 16.5. Tun treatment decreased the placental and fetal weights in a dose-dependent manner. Histological evaluation showed the formation of a cluster of spongiotrophoblast cells in the labyrinth zone of the placenta of Tun-treated mice. The glycogen content of the fetal liver and placenta from Tun-treated mice was lower than that from control mice. Tun treatment decreased mRNA expression of Slc2a1/glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), which is a major transporter for glucose, but increased placental mRNA levels of Slc2a3/GLUT3. Moreover, maternal exposure to Tun resulted in a decrease in vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 (VEGFR-1), VEGFR-2, and placental growth factor. These results suggest that excessive and exogenous ER stress may induce functional abnormalities in the placenta, at least in part, with altered GLUT and vascular-related gene expression, resulting in low infant birth weight. - Highlights: • Maternal exposure to excessive ER stress induced preterm birth and IUGR. • Prolonged excessive ER stress altered the formation of the placental labyrinth. • ER stress decreased GLUT1 mRNA expression in the placenta, but increased GLUT3. • ER stress-induced IUGR causes decreased glycogen and altered glucose transport.« less

  20. Seals Research at Texas A/M University

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Gerald L.

    1991-01-01

    The Turbomachinery Laboratory at Texas A&M has been providing experimental data and computational codes for the design seals for many years. The program began with the development of a Halon based seal test rig. This facility provided information about the effective stiffness and damping in whirling seals. The Halon effectively simulated cryogenic fluids. Another test facility was developed (using air as the working fluid) where the stiffness and damping matrices can be determined. This data was used to develop bulk flow models of the seal's effect upon rotating machinery; in conjunction with this research, a bulk flow model for calculation of performance and rotordynamic coefficients of annular pressure seals of arbitrary non-uniform clearance for barotropic fluids such as LH2, LOX, LN2, and CH4 was developed. This program is very efficient (fast) and converges for very large eccentricities. Currently, work is being performed on a bulk flow analysis of the effects of the impeller-shroud interaction upon the stability of pumps. The data was used along with data from other researchers to develop an empirical leakage prediction code for MSFC. Presently, the flow field inside labyrinth and annular seals are being studied in detail. An advanced 3-D Doppler anemometer system is being used to measure the mean velocity and entire Reynolds stress tensor distribution throughout the seals. Concentric and statically eccentric seals were studied; presently, whirling seals are being studied. The data obtained are providing valuable information about the flow phenomena occurring inside the seals, as well as a data base for comparison with numerical predictions and for turbulence model development. A finite difference computer code was developed for solving the Reynolds averaged Navier Stokes equation inside labyrinth seals. A multi-scale k-epsilon turbulence model is currently being evaluated. A new seal geometry was designed and patented using a computer code. A large scale, 2

  1. Compliant seal development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendricks, Robert C.

    1993-10-01

    The compliant metallic seal combines the noncontact feature of the labyrinth seal, the low leakage of a mechanical seal, and the compliant nature of the brush seal. It consists of several thin metallic elements or leaves mounted within a ring which is press fit into the housing, and in form, sort of resembles a lip seal sections wiping the shaft. A second set of overlapping cover leaves are placed on top of the shaft riding leaves which reduces leakage and provides stiffness. The leaves can be straight or angle cut. The shaft riding fingers are designed with mismatched curvature to provide lift off similar to the Rayleigh lift pads in mechanical seals with leading edge clearances nearly twice those of the trailing edge as as shown by Fleming to be optimal for gas flows in convergent seal passages. Leading edge clearances range from 300 to 500 microinches. Balance pockets beneath the leaves provide fluid film feed to the 'Rayleigh lift' surface and the proper balance ratio (mechanical seal) when combined with the static pressure and film pressure. The leaves flex in the radial direction and accommodate thermomechanical behavior as well as axial motion and angular misalignment. In the static mode, there is a net closing force on the leaves. The seals were tested to 70 psi at speeds to 16,000 rpm or surface speeds to 330 fps and temperatures from ambient to 440 F. A slow cycle through the rig critical at 10,000 rpm induced a radial vibration response of 0.004 to 0.005 inch were accommodated by the seal. Preliminary performance data are encouraging demonstrating hydrodynamic liftoff and noncontacting operation at pressure and speeds typical of gas turbine engines. The leakage performance data are significantly better than commercial labyrinth and brush seals which should be expected as this design incorporates the features of the low leakage face or mechanical seal along with the flexibility of the brush configuration.

  2. Aerodynamic seals for rotary machine

    SciTech Connect

    Bidkar, Rahul Anil; Cirri, Massimiliano; Thatte, Azam Mihir

    2016-02-09

    An aerodynamic seal assembly for a rotary machine includes multiple sealing device segments disposed circumferentially intermediate to a stationary housing and a rotor. Each of the segments includes a shoe plate with a forward-shoe section and an aft-shoe section having multiple labyrinth teeth therebetween facing the rotor. The sealing device segment also includes multiple flexures connected to the shoe plate and to a top interface element, wherein the multiple flexures are configured to allow the high pressure fluid to occupy a forward cavity and the low pressure fluid to occupy an aft cavity. Further, the sealing device segments include amore » secondary seal attached to the top interface element at one first end and positioned about the flexures and the shoe plate at one second end.« less

  3. Conference on Fluid Machinery, 8th, Budapest, Hungary, Sept. 1987, Proceedings. Volumes 1 & 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szabo, A.; Kisbocskoi, L.

    The present conference on turbomachine fluid mechanics gives attention to the analysis of labyrinth seals, irrigation turbomachinery, axial-flow fans, poppet valves, the generation of Karman vortices, self-rectifying Wells-type air turbines, computer simulations for water-supply systems, the computation of meridional flow in turbomachines, entrained air effects on vortex pump performance, the three-dimensional potential flow in a draft tube, and hydro powerplant diagnostic methods. Also discussed are a mathematical model for the initiation of cavitation wear, cryogenic flow in ejectors, flow downstream of guide vanes in a Kaplan turbine, unsteady flow in rotating cascades, novel methods for turbomachine vibration monitoring, cavitation breakdown in centrifugal pumps, test results for Banki turbines, centrifugal compressor return-channel flow, performance predictions for regenerative turbomachines, and secondary flows in a centrifugal pump.

  4. [Tuberculous otitis media. Report of 3 cases].

    PubMed

    Benito González, J J; Benito González, F; Santa Cruz Ruiz, S; Gómez González, J L; Coscarón Blanco, E; Cordero Sánchez, M; del Cañizo Alvarez, A

    2003-01-01

    Tuberculous otitis media (TOM) is a rare cause of chronic suppurative infection of the middle ear. Due to that the symptoms and signs are often indistinguishable from those of nontuberculosis chronic otitis media and the fact that the index of suspicion is low, there is frequently a considerable delay prior to diagnosis. This can lead to irreversible complications such as facial nerve paralysis and labyrinthitis. Medical therapy with antituberculous drugs is usually effective. We report three cases with TOM diagnosticated and followed up in our Service from january 1993 to july 2001. Their charts were retrospectively reviewed for relevant historical data, physical findings, complementary studies, treatment and clinical response. We performed a review of the literature, emphasizing that TOM should be considered in the differential diagnosis of chronic otitis media.

  5. [The role of investigations by János Szentágothai in developmental neurology].

    PubMed

    Katona, Ferenc; Berényi, Marianne

    2003-11-20

    The vestibulospinal system plays determining role in the activation processes of elementary sensorymotor patterns characterised by the verticalization of the trunk and elevation of the head. In the thirties of the last century János Szentágothai proved that axons of the vestibulospinal tract reach the cervical and thoracic spinal cord and innervate the muscles of the neck. Later he verified existence of various connections among the labyrinth, the vestibular system, and the motor nuclei of the III., IV. and the VI. cranial nerves. His studies explain the functional neuroanatomic background of sitting up, sitting and balancing in the air, head-elevation and head control during the execution of a special elementary sensorymotor pattern: "sitting in air". All these functions can be activated by labyrinthine stimulation long before the maturation of the corticospinal tract.

  6. Seals Code Development Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Robert C. (Compiler); Liang, Anita D. (Compiler)

    1996-01-01

    Seals Workshop of 1995 industrial code (INDSEAL) release include ICYL, GCYLT, IFACE, GFACE, SPIRALG, SPIRALI, DYSEAL, and KTK. The scientific code (SCISEAL) release includes conjugate heat transfer and multidomain with rotordynamic capability. Several seals and bearings codes (e.g., HYDROFLEX, HYDROTRAN, HYDROB3D, FLOWCON1, FLOWCON2) are presented and results compared. Current computational and experimental emphasis includes multiple connected cavity flows with goals of reducing parasitic losses and gas ingestion. Labyrinth seals continue to play a significant role in sealing with face, honeycomb, and new sealing concepts under investigation for advanced engine concepts in view of strict environmental constraints. The clean sheet approach to engine design is advocated with program directions and anticipated percentage SFC reductions cited. Future activities center on engine applications with coupled seal/power/secondary flow streams.

  7. Vestibular ataxia and its measurement in man

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fregly, A. R.

    1974-01-01

    Methods involved in and results obtained with a new comprehensive ataxia test battery are described, and definitions of spontaneous and induced vestibular ataxia in man are given in terms of these findings. In addition, the topic of alcohol-induced ataxia in relation to labyrinth function is investigated. Items in the test battery comprise a sharpened Romberg test, in which the subject stands on the floor with eyes closed and arms folded against his chest, feet heel-to-toe, for 60 seconds; an eyes-open walking test; an eyes-open standing test; an eyes-closed standing test; an eyes-closed on-leg standing test; an eyes-closed walk a line test; an eyes-closed heel-to-toe walking test; and supplementary ataxia tests such as the classical Romberg test.

  8. Cellular organisation and functions of the olfactory epithelium of pearl spot Etroplus suratensis (Bloch): a light and scanning electron microscopic study.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, S K; Chakrabarti, P

    2010-08-01

    The cellular organisation of the olfactory rosettes of Etroplus suratensis was studied by light and scanning electron microscopy. The oval shaped olfactory rosette of the fish consists of 12 lamellae radiating from a central raphe. The olfactory lamellae are comprised of restricted areas of sensory epithelium and broad areas of non-sensory epithelium in the apical, middle, and basal regions. The sensory epithelium contains three types of receptor cells: microvillus, ciliated, and rod cells, as well as labyrinth cells and supporting cells. The non-sensory epithelium consists of stratified epithelial and mucous cells. The transitional region between the sensory and non-sensory epithelium consists of ciliated receptor cells, mucous cells, and stratified epithelial cells. The different cells on the olfactory epithelium were discussed regarding the functional significance of the fish concerned.

  9. Brush Seal Performance and Durability Issues Based on T-700 Engine Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, R. C.

    1994-01-01

    The integrity and performance of brush seals have been established. Severe bench and engine tests have shown high initial wear or run-in rates, material smearing at the interface, and bristle and rub-runner wear, but the brush seals did not fail. Short-duration (46 hr) experimental T-700 engine testing of the compressor discharge seal established over 1-percent engine performance gain (brush versus labyrinth). Long-term gains were established only as leakage comparisons, with the brush at least 20 percent better at controlling leakage. Long-term materials issues, such as wear and ultimately seal life, remain to be resolved. Future needs are cited for materials and analysis tools that account for heat generation, thermomechanical behavior, and tribological pairing to enable original equipment manufacturers to design high-temperature, high-surface-speed seals with confidence.

  10. Convection, buoyancy or endolymph expansion: what is the actual mechanism responsible for the caloric response of semicircular canals?

    PubMed

    Valli, Paulo; Buizza, Angelo; Botta, Laura; Zucca, Giampiero; Ghezzi, Luciano; Valli, Stefano

    The mechanisms underlying caloric nystagmus are still matter of debate. The original theory proposed by Barany and more recently by Pau and Limberg suggested that convective endolymphatic currents were involved. In contrast Gentine et al. suggested that the main mechanism responsible for caloric nystagmus is buoyancy due to calorization of the endolymph, without the need of continuous convective currents. Finally, other authors (Scherer and Clarke, Arai et al.) proposed that thermal expansion or contraction of the endolymph were involved. In the present study experimental conditions have been considered able to discriminate between these different models. The experiments, were carried out on isolated labyrinth preparations of the frog. Only the predictions of the model based on buoyancy were fully consistent with the experimental results whereas those provided by the other models were not.

  11. Friction and wear of sintered fiber-metal abradable seal materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bill, R. C.; Shiembob, L. T.

    1977-01-01

    Three abradable gas path seal material systems based on a sintered NiCrAlY fibermetal structure were evaluated under a range of wear conditions representative of those likely to be encountered in various knife-edge seal (labyrinth or shrouded turbine) applications. Conditions leading to undesirable wear of the rotating knife were identified and a model was proposed based on thermal effects arising under different rub conditions. It was found, and predicted by the model, that low incursion (plunge) rates tended to promote smearing of the low density sintered material with consequent wear to the knife-edge. Tradeoffs benefits between baseline 19 percent dense material, a similar material of increased density, and a self lubricating coating applied to the 19 percent material were identified based on relative rub tolerance and erosion resistance.

  12. High-Speed, High-Temperature Finger Seal Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, Margaret P.; Kumar, Arun; Delgado, Irebert R.

    2002-01-01

    Finger seals have significantly lower leakage rates than conventional labyrinth seals used in gas turbine engines and are expected to decrease specific fuel consumption by over 1 percent and to decrease direct operating cost by over 0.5 percent. Their compliant design accommodates shaft growth and motion due to thermal and dynamic loads with minimal wear. The cost to fabricate these finger seals is estimated to be about half the cost to fabricate brush seals. A finger seal has been tested in NASA's High Temperature, High Speed Turbine Seal Test Rig at operating conditions up to 1200 F, 1200 ft/s, and 75 psid. Static, performance and endurance test results are presented. While seal leakage and wear performance are acceptable, further design improvements are needed to reduce the seal power loss.

  13. Shielding design for the front end of the CERN SPL.

    PubMed

    Magistris, Matteo; Silari, Marco; Vincke, Helmut

    2005-01-01

    CERN is designing a 2.2-GeV Superconducting Proton Linac (SPL) with a beam power of 4 MW, to be used for the production of a neutrino superbeam. The SPL front end will initially accelerate 2 x 10(14) negative hydrogen ions per second up to an energy of 120 MeV. The FLUKA Monte Carlo code was employed for shielding design. The proposed shielding is a combined iron-concrete structure, which also takes into consideration the required RF wave-guide ducts and access labyrinths to the machine. Two beam-loss scenarios were investigated: (1) constant beam loss of 1 Wm(-1) over the whole accelerator length and (2) full beam loss occurring at various locations. A comparison with results based on simplified approaches is also presented.

  14. Effects of electrical stimulation of the rat vestibular labyrinth on c-Fos expression in the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Hitier, Martin; Sato, Go; Zhang, Yan-Feng; Besnard, Stephane; Smith, Paul F

    2018-06-11

    Several studies have demonstrated that electrical activation of the peripheral vestibular system can evoke field potential, multi-unit neuronal activity and acetylcholine release in the hippocampus (HPC). However, no study to date has employed the immediate early gene protein, c-Fos, to investigate the distribution of activation of cells in the HPC following electrical stimulation of the vestibular system. We found that vestibular stimulation increased the number of animals expressing c-Fos in the dorsal HPC compared to sham control rats (P ≤ 0.02), but not in the ventral HPC. c-Fos was also expressed in an increased number of animals in the dorsal dentate gyrus (DG) compared to sham control rats (P ≤ 0.0001), and to a lesser extent in the ventral DG (P ≤ 0.006). The results of this study show that activation of the vestibular system results in a differential increase in the expression of c-Fos across different regions of the HPC. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The Chicano Labyrinth of Solitude: A Study in the Making of the Chicano Mind and Character.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orozco, E. C.

    This book overviews the process by which Mexican American children are socialized to the dominant Anglo American society and analyzes a 1973-76 study and 1983-86 follow-up of Mexican American college students regarding their knowledge of their own race and ethnicity and their attitudes toward the White race and culture. The chapters are: chapter…

  16. Experimental investigations and improvements for the 10 K G-M refrigerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Xihuan; Ju, Yonglin

    2012-06-01

    With the wide application of high performance cryo-pumps, high and low temperature superconducting devices, MRI, infrared detectors and cryogenic electronics, the development of high efficient and reliable 10 K G-M refrigerator is of critical importance and awaited by cryogenic industries. In the past two years, systematic studies have been carried out, and detailed experimental tests indicated that the cooling performance of the 10 K G-M refrigerator was improved by adding two additional rectification meshes inside the low temperature regenerator and by optimizing the system charge pressure. Furthermore, a new labyrinth sealing displacer was proposed and fabricated to substitute the traditional piston-ring sealing displacer for improved operating stability and reliability of the 10 K GM refrigerator. The detailed experimental results and improvements were summarized and their optimal cases were given in this paper.

  17. A model for the Space Shuttle Main Engine High Pressure Oxidizer Turbopump shaft seal system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paxson, Daniel E.

    1990-01-01

    A model of the High Pressure Oxidizer Turbopump (HPOTP) shaft seal system on the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) is described. The model predicts the fluid properties and flow rates throughout this system for a number of conditions simulating failed seals. The results agree well with qualitative expectations and redline values but cannot be verified with actual data due to the lack thereof. The results indicate that each failure mode results in a unique distribution of properties throughout the seal system and can therefore be individually identified given the proper instrumentation. Furthermore, the detection process can be built on the principle of qualitative reasoning without the use of exact fluid property values. A simplified implementation of the model which does not include the slinger/labyrinth seal combination has been developed and will be useful for inclusion in a real-time diagnostic system.

  18. Film riding seals for rotary machines

    SciTech Connect

    Bidkar, Rahul Anil; Sarawate, Neelesh Nandkumar; Wolfe, Christopher Edward

    A seal assembly for a rotary machine is provided. The seal assembly includes multiple sealing device segments disposed circumferentially intermediate to a stationary housing and a rotor. Each of the segments includes a shoe plate with a forward-shoe section and an aft-shoe section having one or more labyrinth teeth therebetween facing the rotor. The sealing device includes a stator interface element having a groove or slot for allowing disposal of a spline seal for preventing segment leakages. The sealing device segment also includes multiple bellow springs or flexures connected to the shoe plate and to the stator interface element. Further,more » the sealing device segments include a secondary seal integrated with the stator interface element at one end and positioned about the multiple bellow springs or flexures and the shoe plate at the other end.« less

  19. Gravity and the cells of gravity receptors in mammals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, M. D.

    1983-01-01

    A model of the mammalian gravity receptor system is presented, with attention given to the effects of weightlessness. Two receptors are on each side of the head, with end organs in the saccule and utricle of the vestibular membranous labyrinth of the inner ear, embedded in the temporal bone. Each end organ has a macula, containing hair cells and supporting cells, and an otoconial complex, an otoconial membrane and mineral masses called otoconia. X ray powder diffraction examinations have revealed that the otoconia can behave like crystals, i.e., with piezoelectric properties, due to the mineral deposits. Bending of the hair cells because of acceleration can put pressure on the otoconial mineral, producing an electrical signal in the absence of a gravitational field. The possibility that pyroelectricity, as well as piezoelectricity, is present in the otoconial complexes, is discussed.

  20. [The Polish physicians's impressions from the First Otolaryngological International Congress in Copenhagen].

    PubMed

    Kierzek, Andrzej

    2007-01-01

    The problem of meetings and congresses of otologists and laryngologists from 1876 till 1928 is described widely. The First International Congress of Otorhinolaryngologists was performed in 1928 in Copenhagen. It was a unique meeting with numerous magnificent social entertainments with participation of several hundred physicians. The chief of editorial committee was Karl Schmigielow (1856-). The programmatic subject matters: the problems of otitis media, the problems of aural operations, the problems of postinflammatory complications of ear with intracranial complications, the problems of sinusitis, the septic complications of pharyngeal origin, the use of diathermy in treatment of tumors in E.N.T., the problems of malignant neoplasms of larynx, the problems of scleroma of upper respiratory tract, the problems of brain tumors were discussed with full particular. The labyrinthical report of Bronislaw B. Karbowski was well-disposed accepted.

  1. Understanding form and function of the stem in early flattened echinoderms (pleurocystitids) using a microstructural approach

    PubMed Central

    Zamora, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Pleurocystitid rhombiferans are among the most unusual echinoderms whose mode of life has been long debated. These echinoderms are usually interpreted as vagile epibenthic echinoderms, moving over the sea bottom by means of a flexible stem. Although their life habits and posture are reasonably well understood, the mechanisms that control the movement of stem are highly controversial. Specifically, it is unknown whether the stem flexibility was under the control of muscles or ligamentary mutable collagenous tissues (MCTs). Here, we reconstruct palaeoanatomy of the two Ordovician pleurocystitid rhombiferans (Pleurocystites and Amecystis) based on stereom microstructure. We show that the articular facets of columnals in pleurocystitid rhombiferans are composed of fine labyrinthic stereom. Comparison with modern echinoderms suggests that this type of stereom was associated with muscles implying that their stem was a muscular locomotory organ supporting an active mode of life. PMID:27168956

  2. Air riding seal with purge cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Sexton, Thomas D; Mills, Jacob A

    An air riding seal for a turbine in a gas turbine engine, where an annular piston is axial moveable within an annular piston chamber formed in a stator of the turbine and forms a seal with a surface on the rotor using pressurized air that forms a cushion in a pocket of the annular piston. A purge cavity is formed on the annular piston and is connected to a purge hole that extends through the annular piston to a lower pressure region around the annular piston or through the rotor to an opposite side. The annular piston is sealed alsomore » with inner and outer seals that can be a labyrinth seal to form an additional seal than the cushion of air in the pocket to prevent the face of the air riding seal from overheating.« less

  3. Pressure actuated film riding seals for turbo machinery

    DOEpatents

    Bidkar, Rahul Anil; Thatte, Azam Mihir; Gibson, Nathan Evan McCurdy; Giametta, Andrew Paul

    2015-08-25

    A seal assembly for a rotary machine is provided. The seal assembly includes multiple sealing device segments disposed circumferentially intermediate to a stationary housing and a rotor. Each of the sealing device segments includes a stator interface element, a shoe plate having an extended portion having one or more labyrinth teeth facing the rotor and a load bearing portion, wherein the shoe plate is configured to generate an aerodynamic force between the shoe plate and the rotor. The sealing device segment further includes a secondary seal configured to be in contact with the stator interface element at a radially outer end and configured to be in contact with an elevated nose section of the extended portion of the shoe plate on a radially inner end; and multiple flexible elements attached to the shoe plate and to the stator interface element.

  4. [Free radical modification of proteins in brain structure of Sprague-Dawley rats and some behaviour indicators after prenatal stress].

    PubMed

    V'iushina, A V; Pritvorova, A V; Flerov, M A

    2012-08-01

    We studied the influence of late prenatal stress on free radical oxidation processes in Sprague-Dawley rats cortex, striatum, hippocampus, hypothalamus proteins. It was shown that after prenatal stress most changes were observed in hypothalamus and hippocampus. It was shown that in hypothalamus spontaneous oxidation level increased, but level of induced oxidation decreased, the opposite changes were found in hippocampus. Simultaneously minor changes of protein modification were observed in cortex and striatum. It was shown that prenatal stress changed both correlation of proteins free radical oxidation in studied structures and values of these data regarding to control. In test of "open field" motor activity in rats after prenatal stress decreased and time of freezing and grooming increased; opposite, in T-labyrinth motor activity and time of grooming in rats after prenatal stress increased, but time of freezing decreased.

  5. Full load testing in the platform module prior to tow-out: A case history of subsynchronous instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fulton, J. W.

    1984-01-01

    An electric motor driven centrifugal compressor to supply gas for further compression and reinjection on a petroleum production platform in the North Sea was examined. The compressor design, raised concerns about susceptibility to subsynchronous instability. Log decrement, aerodynamic features, and the experience of other compressors with similar ratios of operating to critical speed ratio versus gas density led to the decision to full load test. Mixed hydrocarbon gas was chosen for the test to meet discharge temperature restrictions. The module was used as the test site. Subsynchronous vibrations made the compressor inoperable above approximately one-half the rated discharge pressure of 14500 kPa. Modifications, which includes shortening the bearing span, change of leakage inlet flow direction on the back to back labyrinth, and removal of the vaned diffusers on all stages were made simultaneously. The compressor is operating with satisfactory vibration levels.

  6. Advanced nozzle and engine components test facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beltran, Luis R.; Delroso, Richard L.; Delrosario, Ruben

    1992-01-01

    A test facility for conducting scaled advanced nozzle and engine component research is described. The CE-22 test facility, located in the Engine Research Building of the NASA Lewis Research Center, contains many systems for the economical testing of advanced scale-model nozzles and engine components. The combustion air and altitude exhaust systems are described. Combustion air can be supplied to a model up to 40 psig for primary air flow, and 40, 125, and 450 psig for secondary air flow. Altitude exhaust can be simulated up to 48,000 ft, or the exhaust can be atmospheric. Descriptions of the multiaxis thrust stand, a color schlieren flow visualization system used for qualitative flow analysis, a labyrinth flow measurement system, a data acquisition system, and auxiliary systems are discussed. Model recommended design information and temperature and pressure instrumentation recommendations are included.

  7. Techniques used for limiting degradation products of polymeric materials for use in the space environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vest, C. E.; Park, J. J.

    1978-01-01

    Techniques are discussed for limiting or controlling the degradation products (outgassing) of polymeric materials in the space environment. One technique, now ASTM E-595-77, is used to screen out those materials which lose greater than 1% Total Mass Loss when in vacuum for 24 hours at 125 C and which have more than 0.10% Collected Volatile Condensable Materials condensing on a collector surface at 25 C. Examples of silicone materials which are high and low in outgassing are given. The numerous mechanical motions in spacecraft experiments require liquid lubricants which also might degrade in space. Labyrinth seals and barrier films are utilized to limit the degradation of or from these lubricants. A recoverable in-flight experiment has been proposed for making definitive measurements of how effective these techniques are in limiting the amounts and escape paths of outgassed molecules.

  8. Changes in magnetic domain structure during twin boundary motion in single crystal Ni-Mn-Ga exhibiting magnetic shape memory effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopecký, V.; Fekete, L.; Perevertov, O.; Heczko, O.

    2016-05-01

    The complexity of Ni-Mn-Ga single crystal originates from the interplay between ferromagnetic domain structure and ferroelastic twinned microstructure. Magnetic domain structure in the vicinity of single twin boundary was studied using magneto-optical indicator film and magnetic force microscopy technique. The single twin boundary of Type I was formed mechanically and an initial magnetization state in both variants were restored by local application of magnetic field (≈40 kA/m). The differently oriented variants exhibited either stripe or labyrinth magnetic domain pattern in agreement with the uniaxial magnetocrystalline anisotropy of the martensite. The twin boundary was then moved by compressive or tensile stress. The passage of the boundary resulted in the formation of granular or rake domains, respectively. Additionally, the specific magnetic domains pattern projected by twin boundary gradually vanished during twin boundary motion.

  9. Silicone impression material foreign body in the middle ear: Two case reports and literature review.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Nobuyoshi; Okamura, Koji; Yano, Takuya; Moteki, Hideaki; Kitoh, Ryosuke; Takumi, Yutaka; Usami, Shin-ichi

    2015-10-01

    We report two cases of impression material foreign body in the middle ear. The first case had been affected with chronic otitis media. The silicone flowed into the middle ear through a tympanic membrane perforation during the process of making an ear mold. About 4 years and 8 months after, the patient had severe vertigo and deafness. We found bone erosion of the prominence of the lateral semicircular canal and diagnosed labyrinthitis caused by silicone impression material. In the second case silicone flowed into the canal wall down mastoid cavity. Both cases required surgery to remove the foreign body. The clinical courses in such cases are variable and timing of surgery is sometimes difficult. In addition to reporting these two cases, we present here a review of the literature regarding impression material foreign bodies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Asymmetric otolith function and increased susceptibility to motion sickness during exposure to variations in gravitoinertial acceleration level

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lackner, James R.; Graybiel, Ashton; Johnson, Walter H.; Money, Kenneth E.

    1987-01-01

    Von Baumgarten and coworkers (1979, 1981) have suggested that asymmetries in otolith function between the left and right labyrinths may result from differences in otoconial mass and could play a role in space motion sickness. Such asymmetries would be centrally compensated for under terrestrial conditions, but on exposure to weightlessness the persisting central compensation would produce a central imbalance that could lead to motion sickness. In this work ocular counterrolling was used as a way of measuring the relative 'efficiency' of the left and right otoliths; the ocular counterrolling scores of individuals were compared with their susceptibility to motion sickness during passive exposure to variations in Gz in parabolic flight maneuvers. The experimental findings indicate that large asymmetries in counterrolling for leftward and rightward body tilts are associated with greater susceptibility to motion sickness in parabolic flight.

  11. Nicergoline facilitates vestibular compensation in aged male rats with unilateral labyrinthectomy.

    PubMed

    Rampello, L; Drago, F

    1999-05-28

    The ergoline derivatives, nicergoline (NIC) or dihydroergocristine (DHE) were administered at various doses (0.1, 0.5 and 1 mg/kg) to aged male rats subjected to labyrinth unilateral lesion (LBX). The nystagmus rate appeared to be lower in animals treated with DHE or NIC 1mg/kg than in saline-injected rats, when observed on day 1 and 2 after operation. The number of falls in the rotorod test of LBX animals was decreased by NIC 0.5 or 1 mg/kg at all observation times. This parameter was affected by DHE only at the higher dose. These results suggest that NIC facilitates vestibular compensation of LBX rats. DHE appeared to be less potent in this respect. Since both drugs act on central dopaminergic neurotransmission, it is possible that this neurotransmission may be involved in their mechanism of action.

  12. Noctis Labyrinthus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 26 April 2002) The Science This image shows a portion of Noctis Labyrinthus, a large valley system at the western end of the Valles Marineris canyon system. Noctis Labyrinthus is notable for its unusual pattern of intersecting valleys, which give the region a maze-like appearance when viewed from above. The walls of these valleys are very high (5 km) and quite steep, with slopes approaching 35o. Dust covers most of this region, leading to its rather uniform appearance. At the tops of the ridgelines, small dark streaks can be observed trailing downslope; these streaks suggest that the sediments covering this area occasionally become unstable and slide. Ridges of resistant material also can be observed in the highest terrains. In the lower half of the image, a small linear feature appears to cut across the generally NE/SW-trending slopes. This feature is not continuous, indicating that geologic activity has disrupted it since its formation. The northeastern termination of the feature is on a mesa, where it is joined by a less pronounced but similar feature that trends NE/SW. These small features may have originated in several ways: they may be ridges formed by compression, they may be small fault scarps, or they may represent the edges of ancient lava flows that have been disrupted by the formation of the valley system. The Story The smoothly sculpted surface in this close-up image belies the bizarre and twisted Martian landscape of which it is a part (seen at a larger scale in the context image). Labyrinths have long been in the human imagination, and it's no wonder that this area conjured up for early viewers all of the legends of antiquity, of a land where a Minotaur hides and a conquering hero needs a spool of thread to guide him through an inner maze. As writer Jorge Luis Borges might say, this Martian region is a real-life example of a geological 'garden of forking paths,' a dangerous-seeming place where 'the paths of the labyrinth converge.' Noctis

  13. The Braincase of the Basal Sauropod Dinosaur Spinophorosaurus and 3D Reconstructions of the Cranial Endocast and Inner Ear

    PubMed Central

    Knoll, Fabien; Witmer, Lawrence M.; Ortega, Francisco; Ridgely, Ryan C.; Schwarz-Wings, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    Background Sauropod dinosaurs were the largest animals ever to walk on land, and, as a result, the evolution of their remarkable adaptations has been of great interest. The braincase is of particular interest because it houses the brain and inner ear. However, only a few studies of these structures in sauropods are available to date. Because of the phylogenetic position of Spinophorosaurus nigerensis as a basal eusauropod, the braincase has the potential to provide key evidence on the evolutionary transition relative to other dinosaurs. Methodology/Principal Findings The only known braincase of Spinophorosaurus (‘Argiles de l'Irhazer’, Irhazer Group; Agadez region, Niger) differs significantly from those of the Jurassic sauropods examined, except potentially for Atlasaurus imelakei (Tilougguit Formation, Morocco). The basisphenoids of Spinophorosaurus and Atlasaurus bear basipterygoid processes that are comparable in being directed strongly caudally. The Spinophorosaurus specimen was CT scanned, and 3D renderings of the cranial endocast and inner-ear system were generated. The endocast resembles that of most other sauropods in having well-marked pontine and cerebral flexures, a large and oblong pituitary fossa, and in having the brain structure obscured by the former existence of relatively thick meninges and dural venous sinuses. The labyrinth is characterized by long and proportionally slender semicircular canals. This condition recalls, in particular, that of the basal non-sauropod sauropodomorph Massospondylus and the basal titanosauriform Giraffatitan. Conclusions/Significance Spinophorosaurus has a moderately derived paleoneuroanatomical pattern. In contrast to what might be expected early within a lineage leading to plant-eating graviportal quadrupeds, Spinophorosaurus and other (but not all) sauropodomorphs show no reduction of the vestibular apparatus of the inner ear. This character-state is possibly a primitive retention in Spinophorosaurus, but due

  14. Inactivation of maternal Hif-1α at mid-pregnancy causes placental defects and deficits in oxygen delivery to the fetal organs under hypoxic stress.

    PubMed

    Kenchegowda, Doreswamy; Natale, Bryony; Lemus, Maria A; Natale, David R; Fisher, Steven A

    2017-02-15

    A critical transition occurs near mid-gestation of mammalian pregnancy. Prior to this transition, low concentrations of oxygen (hypoxia) signaling through Hypoxia Inducible Factor (HIF) functions as a morphogen for the placenta and fetal organs. Subsequently, functional coupling of the placenta and fetal cardiovascular system for oxygen (O 2 ) transport is required to support the continued growth and development of the fetus. Here we tested the hypothesis that Hif-1α is required in maternal cells for placental morphogenesis and function. We used Tamoxifen-inducible Cre-Lox to inactivate Hif-1α in maternal tissues at E8.5 (MATcKO), and used ODD-Luciferase as a reporter of hypoxia in placenta and fetal tissues. MATcKO of Hif-1α reduced the number of uterine natural killer (uNK) cells and Tpbpa-positve trophoblast cells in the maternal decidua at E13.5 -15.5. There were dynamic changes in all three layers of E13.5-15.5 MATcKO placenta. Of note was the under-development of the labyrinth at E15.5 associated with reduced Ki67 and increased TUNEL staining consistent with reduced cell proliferation and increased apoptosis. Labyrinth defects were particularly evident in placentas connected to effectively HIF-1α heterozygous null embryos. MATcKO had no effect on basal ODD-Luciferase activity in fetal organs (heart, liver, brain) at any stage, but at E13.5-15.5 resulted in enhanced induction of the ODD-Luciferase hypoxia reporter when the dam's inspired O 2 was reduced to 8% for 4 hours. MATcKO also slowed the growth after E13.5 of fetuses that were effectively heterozygous for Hif-1α, with most being non-viable at E15.5. The hearts of these E15.5 fetuses were abnormal with reduction in size, thickened epicardium and mesenchymal septum. We conclude that maternal HIF-1α is required for placentation including recruitment of uNK and trophoblast cells into the maternal decidua and other trophoblast cell behaviors. The placental defects render the fetus vulnerable to O 2

  15. Expression of epigenetic machinery genes is sensitive to maternal obesity and weight loss in relation to fetal growth in mice.

    PubMed

    Panchenko, Polina E; Voisin, Sarah; Jouin, Mélanie; Jouneau, Luc; Prézelin, Audrey; Lecoutre, Simon; Breton, Christophe; Jammes, Hélène; Junien, Claudine; Gabory, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Maternal obesity impacts fetal growth and pregnancy outcomes. To counteract the deleterious effects of obesity on fertility and pregnancy issue, preconceptional weight loss is recommended to obese women. Whether this weight loss is beneficial/detrimental for offspring remains poorly explored. Epigenetic mechanisms could be affected by maternal weight changes, perturbing expression of key developmental genes in the placenta or fetus. Our aim was to investigate the effects of chronic maternal obesity on feto-placental growth along with the underlying epigenetic mechanisms. We also tested whether preconceptional weight loss could alleviate these effects. Female mice were fed either a control diet (CTRL group), a high-fat diet (obese (OB) group), or a high-fat diet switched to a control diet 2 months before conception (weight loss (WL) group). At mating, OB females presented an obese phenotype while WL females normalized metabolic parameters. At embryonic day 18.5 (E18.5), fetuses from OB females presented fetal growth restriction (FGR; -13 %) and 28 % of the fetuses were small for gestational age (SGA). Fetuses from WL females normalized this phenotype. The expression of 60 epigenetic machinery genes and 32 metabolic genes was measured in the fetal liver, placental labyrinth, and junctional zone. We revealed 23 genes altered by maternal weight trajectories in at least one of three tissues. The fetal liver and placental labyrinth were more responsive to maternal obesity than junctional zone. One third (18/60) of the epigenetic machinery genes were differentially expressed between at least two maternal groups. Interestingly, genes involved in the histone acetylation pathway were particularly altered (13/18). In OB group, lysine acetyltransferases and Bromodomain-containing protein 2 were upregulated, while most histone deacetylases were downregulated. In WL group, the expression of only a subset of these genes was normalized. This study highlights the high

  16. Negotiating the labyrinth of modernity's promise a paradigm analysis of energy poverty in peri-urban Kumasi, Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odarno, Lily Ameley

    Energy poverty in developing countries has been conventionally attributed to a lack of access to sufficient, sustainable and modern forms of energy (ESMAP 2001; Modi et al. 2006). Per this definition, Sub--Saharan Africa is the most energy poor region in the world today. In line with this, efforts at addressing energy poverty in the region have concentrated on the expansion of access to modern energy sources, particularly electricity. In spite of the implementation of diverse energy development interventions, access to modern energy services remains limited. That energy poverty remains one of the most pressing challenges in Sub--Saharan Africa today in spite of the many decades of energy development necessitates a candid and thorough re--evaluation of the questions that have been traditionally asked about this issue and the solutions that have been offered in response to it. Based on theoretical analyses and empirical studies in peri--urban Kumasi, Ghana, this study attempts to offer some of the much needed re--evaluations. Using Kuhn's paradigm approach as a conceptual tool, this dissertation identifies peri--urban energy poverty as a paradigm--scale conflict in the modern arrangement of energy--development relations. By emphasizing the importance of context and political economy in understanding energy poverty, the study proposes strategies for an alternative paradigm in which energy--development relations are fundamentally redefined; one which enlists appropriate knowledge, technologies, and institutions in addressing the needs of the energy poor in ways which promote environmental values, social equity and sustainable livelihoods.

  17. Changes in immunostaining of inner ears after antigen challenge into the scala tympani.

    PubMed

    Ichimiya, I; Kurono, Y; Hirano, T; Mogi, G

    1998-04-01

    To study the mechanisms of immune responses and immune injuries in inner ears, labyrinthitis was induced by inoculation of keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) into the scala tympani of systemically sensitized guinea pigs. Inner ears were then immunostained for KLH, immunoglobulin G (IgG), albumin, connexin26 (Cx26), and sodium-potassium adenosine triphosphate (Na,K-ATPase). Inflammatory cells containing KLH were observed in the scala tympani and in the collecting venule of the spiral modiolar vein (SMV). Spiral ligament, spiral limbus, and blood vessels including the SMV were diffusely positive for IgG and albumin. Immunoreactivity for Cx26 and Na,K-ATPase was decreased compared with the normal ears in the fibrocytes of the spiral ligament. These results suggest that inflammatory cells and blood constituents could extravasate into the cochlea from blood vessels and that fibrocyte damage in the spiral ligament could cause cochlear dysfunction.

  18. Siberian Ribbons

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    Siberian Ribbons - June 15th, 2005 Description: Vivid colors and bizarre shapes come together in an image that could be an imaginative illustration for a fantasy story. This labyrinth of exotic features is present along the edge of Russia's Chaunskaya Bay (vivid blue half circle) in northeastern Siberia. Two major rivers, the Chaun and Palyavaam, flow into the bay, which in turn opens into the Arctic Ocean. Ribbon lakes and bogs are present throughout the area, created by depressions left by receding glaciers. Credit: USGS/NASA/Landsat 5 To learn more about the Landsat satellite go to: landsat.gsfc.nasa.gov/ NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Join us on Facebook

  19. Comparative evaluation of three shaft seals proposed for high performance turbomachinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, R. C.

    1982-01-01

    Experimental pressure profiles and leak rate characteristics for three shaft seal prototype model configurations proposed for the space shuttle turbopump were assessed in the concentric and fully eccentric, to point of rub, positions without the effects of rotation. The parallel-cylindrical configuration has moderate to good stiffness with a higher leak rate. It represents a simple concept, but for practical reasons and possible increases in stability, all such seals should be conical-convergent. The three-stepdown-sequential, parallel-cylindrical seal is converging and represents good to possible high stiffness when fluid separation occurs, with a significant decrease in leak rate. Such seals can be very effective. The three-stepdown-sequential labyrinth seal of 33-teeth (i.e., 12-11-10 teeth from inlet to exit) provides excellent leak control but usually has very poor stiffness, depending on cavity design. The seal is complex and not recommended for dynamic control.

  20. Film riding seal assembly for turbomachinery

    SciTech Connect

    Bidkar, Rahul Anil; Giametta, Andrew Paul; Gibson, Nathan Evan McCurdy

    2016-06-07

    An aerodynamic seal assembly for a rotary machine includes multiple sealing segments disposed circumferentially intermediate to a stationary housing and a rotor. Each of the segments includes a shoe plate with a forward load-bearing section and an aft load-bearing section configured to generate an aerodynamic force between the shoe plate and the rotor. The shoe plate includes at least one labyrinth teeth facing the rotor and positioned between the forward load-bearing section and the aft load-bearing section. The sealing segment also includes at least one spring connected to a pedestal located about midway of an axial length of the shoemore » plate and to a stator interface element. Further, the sealing segment includes a rigid segmented secondary seal attached to the stator interface element at one first end and in contact with the pedestal of the shoe plate at one second end.« less

  1. Vestibular reflexes of otolith origin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Victor J.

    1988-01-01

    The vestibular system and its role in the maintenance of posture and in motion sickness is investigated using cats as experimental subjects. The assumption is that better understanding of the physiology of vestibular pathways is not only of intrinsic value, but will help to explain and eventually alleviate the disturbances caused by vestibular malfunction, or by exposure to an unusual environment such as space. The first project deals with the influence on the spinal cord of stimulation of the vestibular labyrinth, particularly the otoliths. A second was concerned with the properties and neural basis of the tonic neck reflex. These two projects are related, because vestibulospinal and tonic neck reflexes interact in the maintenance of normal posture. The third project began with an interest in mechanisms of motion sickness, and eventually shifted to a study of central control of respiratory muscles involved in vomiting.

  2. Magnetic resonance characteristics and susceptibility weighted imaging of the brain in gadolinium encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Samardzic, Dejan; Thamburaj, Krishnamoorthy

    2015-01-01

    To report the brain imaging features on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in inadvertent intrathecal gadolinium administration. A 67-year-old female with gadolinium encephalopathy from inadvertent high dose intrathecal gadolinium administration during an epidural steroid injection was studied with multisequence 3T MRI. T1-weighted imaging shows pseudo-T2 appearance with diffusion of gadolinium into the brain parenchyma, olivary bodies, and membranous labyrinth. Nulling of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) signal is absent on fluid attenuation recovery (FLAIR). Susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) demonstrates features similar to subarachnoid hemorrhage. CT may demonstrate a pseudo-cerebral edema pattern given the high attenuation characteristics of gadolinium. Intrathecal gadolinium demonstrates characteristic imaging features on MRI of the brain and may mimic subarachnoid hemorrhage on susceptibility-weighted imaging. Identifying high dose gadolinium within the CSF spaces on MRI is essential to avoid diagnostic and therapeutic errors. Copyright © 2013 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  3. Vestibular efferent neurons project to the flocculus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shinder, M. E.; Purcell, I. M.; Kaufman, G. D.; Perachio, A. A.

    2001-01-01

    A bilateral projection from the vestibular efferent neurons, located dorsal to the genu of the facial nerve, to the cerebellar flocculus and ventral paraflocculus was demonstrated. Efferent neurons were double-labeled by the unilateral injections of separate retrograde tracers into the labyrinth and into the floccular and ventral parafloccular lobules. Efferent neurons were found with double retrograde tracer labeling both ipsilateral and contralateral to the sites of injection. No double labeling was found when using a fluorescent tracer with non-fluorescent tracers such as horseradish peroxidase (HRP) or biotinylated dextran amine (BDA), but large percentages of efferent neurons were found to be double labeled when using two fluorescent substances including: fluorogold, microruby dextran amine, or rhodamine labeled latex beads. These data suggest a potential role for vestibular efferent neurons in modulating the dynamics of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) during normal and adaptive conditions.

  4. Heart failure therapy at a crossroad: are there limits to the neurohormonal model?

    PubMed

    Mehra, Mandeep R; Uber, Patricia A; Francis, Gary S

    2003-05-07

    The advent of neurohormonal blockade in heart failure (HF) has been an overwhelming success, but current evidence points to a ceiling effect as newer neurohormonal targets are exploited in an incremental manner. This has lead us to question whether the neurohormonal model of HF can be sustained by simply stacking multiple neurohormonal or cytokine blockers together as treatment. A unifying theme in some of these disparate trials relates to either a lack of efficacy or, more importantly, adversity resulting in regression of already achieved benefits. It is our contention that the available evidence has uncovered the remarkable complexity of interaction within the context of the neurohormonal construct. As we stand at a crossroad in HF and begin to fervently pursue non-neurohormonal therapeutic targets, we must also direct attention at navigating the multifaceted labyrinth of the neurohormonal model that has led to the current imbroglio.

  5. Comparison of results of experimental research with numerical calculations of a model one-sided seal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joachimiak, Damian; Krzyślak, Piotr

    2015-06-01

    Paper presents the results of experimental and numerical research of a model segment of a labyrinth seal for a different wear level. The analysis covers the extent of leakage and distribution of static pressure in the seal chambers and the planes upstream and downstream of the segment. The measurement data have been compared with the results of numerical calculations obtained using commercial software. Based on the flow conditions occurring in the area subjected to calculations, the size of the mesh defined by parameter y+ has been analyzed and the selection of the turbulence model has been described. The numerical calculations were based on the measurable thermodynamic parameters in the seal segments of steam turbines. The work contains a comparison of the mass flow and distribution of static pressure in the seal chambers obtained during the measurement and calculated numerically in a model segment of the seal of different level of wear.

  6. Maze-solving by chemotaxis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, A. M.

    2010-06-01

    Here, we report on numerical simulations showing that chemotaxis will take a body through a maze via the shortest possible route to the source of a chemoattractant. This is a robust finding that does not depend on the geometrical makeup of the maze. The predictions are supported by recent experimental studies which have shown that by moving down gradients in pH , a droplet of organic solvent can find the shortest of multiple possible paths through a maze to an acid-soaked exit. They are also consistent with numerical and experimental evidence that plant-parasitic nematodes take the shortest route through the labyrinth of air-filled pores within soil to preferred host plants that produce volatile chemoattractants. The predictions support the view that maze-solving is a robust property of chemotaxis and is not specific to particular kinds of maze or to the fractal structure of air-filled channels within soils.

  7. Retention of primitive reflexes and delayed motor development in very low birth weight infants.

    PubMed

    Marquis, P J; Ruiz, N A; Lundy, M S; Dillard, R G

    1984-06-01

    Primitive reflexes and motor development were evaluated in 127 very low birth weight (VLBW) infants (birth weight less than 1501 grams) at four months corrected age. The asymmetrical tonic neck reflex, tonic labyrinth reflex, and Moro reflex were assessed for each child. The ability of each child to reach (obtain a red ring) and roll were observed. The child's performance on the gross motor scale of the Denver Development Screening Test was recorded. Thirty-seven term infants were administered identical evaluations at four months of age. The VLBW infants retained stronger primitive reflexes and exhibited a significantly higher incidence of motor delays than term infants. Significant correlations existed between the strength of the primitive reflexes and early motor development for VLBW infants. This study confirms a high incidence of motor delays among VLBW infants and demonstrates a clear association between retained primitive reflexes and delayed motor development in VLBW infants.

  8. HWCTR CONTROL ROD AND SAFETY ROD DRIVE SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Kale, S.H.

    1963-07-01

    The Heavy Water Components Test Reactor (HWCTR) is a pressurized, D/sub 2/O reactor designed for operation up to 70 Mw at 1500 psig and 3l5 deg C. It has 18 control rods and six safety rods, each driven by an electric motor through a rack and pinion gear train. Racks, pinions, and bearings are located inside individual pressure housings that are penetrated by means of floating ring labyrinth seals. The drives are mounted on the reactor vessel top head. Safety rods have electromagnetic clutches and fall into the reactor when scrammed. The reliability and performance of the rod drives aremore » very good. Seal leakage is well within design limits. Recent inspections of seals and control rod plants showed no evidence of crud buildup or stress corrosion cracking of type 17- 4PH'' stainless steel components. (auth)« less

  9. Endoscopically Assisted Drilling, Exposure of the Fundus through a Presigmoid Retrolabyrinthine Approach: A Cadaveric Feasibility Study.

    PubMed

    Muelleman, Thomas; Shew, Matthew; Alvi, Sameer; Shah, Kushal; Staecker, Hinrich; Chamoun, Roukouz; Lin, James

    2018-01-01

    The presigmoid retrolabyrinthine approach to the cerebellopontine angle is traditionally described to not provide access to the internal auditory canal (IAC). We aimed to evaluate the extent of the IAC that could be exposed with endoscopically assisted drilling and to measure the percentage of the IAC that could be visualized with the microscope and various endoscopes after drilling had been completed. Presigmoid retrolabyrinthine approaches were performed bilaterally on 4 fresh cadaveric heads. We performed endoscopically assisted drilling to expose the fundus of the IAC, which resulted in exposure of the entire IAC in 8 of 8 temporal bone specimens. The microscope afforded a mean view of 83% (n = 8) of the IAC. The 0°, 30°, 45°, and 70° endoscope each afforded a view of 100% of the IAC in 8 of 8 temporal bone specimens. In conclusion, endoscopic drilling of the IAC of can provide an extradural means of exposing the entire length of the IAC while preserving the labyrinth.

  10. Three-Dimensional Printed Prosthesis for Repair of Superior Canal Dehiscence.

    PubMed

    Kozin, Elliott D; Remenschneider, Aaron K; Cheng, Song; Nakajima, Hideko Heidi; Lee, Daniel J

    2015-10-01

    Outcomes following repair of superior canal dehiscence (SCD) are variable, and surgery carries a risk of persistent or recurrent SCD symptoms, as well as a risk of hearing loss and vestibulopathy. Poor outcomes may occur from inadequate repair of the SCD or mechanical insult to the membranous labyrinth. Repair of SCD using a customized, fixed-length prosthesis may address current operative limitations and improve surgical outcomes. We aim to 3-dimensionally print customized prostheses to resurface or occlude bony SCD defects. Dehiscences were created along the arcuate eminence of superior semicircular canals in cadaveric temporal bones. Prostheses were designed and created using computed tomography and a 3-dimensional printer. The prostheses occupied the superior semicircular canal defect, reflected in postrepair computed tomography scans. This novel approach to SCD repair could have advantages over current techniques. Refinement of prosthesis design and materials will be important if this approach is translated into clinical use. © American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  11. Changing clothes easily: connexin41.8 regulates skin pattern variation.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Masakatsu; Kondo, Shigeru

    2012-05-01

    The skin patterns of animals are very important for their survival, yet the mechanisms involved in skin pattern formation remain unresolved. Turing's reaction-diffusion model presents a well-known mathematical explanation of how animal skin patterns are formed, and this model can predict various animal patterns that are observed in nature. In this study, we used transgenic zebrafish to generate various artificial skin patterns including a narrow stripe with a wide interstripe, a narrow stripe with a narrow interstripe, a labyrinth, and a 'leopard' pattern (or donut-like ring pattern). In this process, connexin41.8 (or its mutant form) was ectopically expressed using the mitfa promoter. Specifically, the leopard pattern was generated as predicted by Turing's model. Our results demonstrate that the pigment cells in animal skin have the potential and plasticity to establish various patterns and that the reaction-diffusion principle can predict skin patterns of animals. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  12. Technique of electrical stimulation of the vestibular analyzer under clinical conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khechinashvili, S. N.; Zargaryan, B. M.; Karakozov, K. G.

    1980-01-01

    Vestibular reactions appear under the action of direct current (dc) on the labyrinth of man and animals. A decrease of the stimulation effect of dc on the extralabyrinthine nervous formations in the suggested method is achieved by the use of electric pulses with steep front and back parts, as well as by previous anesthetization of the skin in the electrode application area by means of novocain solution electrophoresis. For this purpose a pulse producer giving trapezoid pulses with smoothly changing fronts and duration was constructed. With the help of an interrupter it is possible to stop the current increase instantly, and stimulation is performed at the level of the pulse 'plateau'. To induce vestibular reactions under monopolar stimulation, it is necessary to apply the current twice as high as that with bipolar electrode position. The use of short pulses with steep front and back parts for electrode stimulation of the vestibular analyzer is considered to be inexpedient.

  13. A comparison of lineament and fracture trace extraction from LANDSAT ETM+ panchromatic band and panchromatic aerial photograph in Gunungsewu karst area, Java-Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haryono, E.; Widartono, B. S.; Lukito, H.; Kusumayuda, S. B.

    2016-11-01

    This paper aims at exploring interpretability of the panchromatic band of Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) compared to the panchromatic aerial photograph in lineament and fracture trace extraction. Special interest is addressed to karst terrain where lineaments and fracture traces are expressed by aligned valleys and closed depressions. The study area is an single aerial photographic coverage in the Gunungsewu Karst, Java-Indonesia which is characterized by a lineament-controlled cone karst and labyrinth-cone karst. The result shows that the recording time of the Landsat ETM+ with respect to the shadow resulting from the sun illumination angle is the key factor in the performance of lineament and fracture traces extraction. Directional filtering and slicing techniques significantly enhance the lineament interpretability of the panchromatic band of Landsat ETM+. The two methods result in more lineaments and fracture traces which T-test affirm in 0.001 and 0.004 significant levels. Length based lineament analysis attains a better result compared to frequency based analysis.

  14. R-spondin3 is required for mouse placental development.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Motoko; Mieda, Michihiro; Ikeda, Toshio; Hamada, Yoshio; Nakamura, Harukazu; Okamoto, Hitoshi

    2007-01-01

    Mouse R-spondin3 (Rspo3) is a member of the R-spondin protein family, which is characterized by furin-like cysteine-rich domains and a thrombospondin type 1 repeat. Rspo3 has been proposed to function as a secretory molecule that promotes the Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway. We generated mice bearing a mutant Rspo3 allele in which a lacZ-coding region replaced the coding region of the first exon. The homozygous mutant mice died at about embryonic day 10, due to impaired formation of the labyrinthine layer of the placenta. Rspo3 was expressed in the allantoic component of the labyrinth. In the homozygous mutant placentas, fetal blood vessels did not penetrate into the chorion, and expression of Gcm1, encoding the transcription factor glial cells missing-1 (Gcm1), was dramatically reduced in the chorionic trophoblast cells. These findings suggest a critical role for Rspo3 in the interaction between chorion and allantois in labyrinthine development.

  15. Status of Understanding for Seal Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, P. F.

    1984-01-01

    Material selection for mainshaft face and ring seals, labyrinth seals, accessory gearbox face seals, and lip seals are discussed in light of tribology requirements and a given seal application. Carbon graphite has been found to be one of the best sealing materials and it is widely used in current gas turbine mainshaft and accessory gearbox seals. Its popularity is due to its unique combination of properties which consists of dimensional stability, corrosion resistance, low friction, good self lubricating characteristics, high thermal conductivity and low thermal expansion, the latter two properties combining to provide good thermal shock resistance. A brief description of the seals and the requirements they must meet are discussed to provide insight into the limitations and advantages of the seals in containing the lubricant. A forecast is made of the operational requirements of main shaft and gearbox seals for advanced engines and candidate materials and coatings that may satisfy these advanced engine requirements.

  16. Enzymes of acetylcholine metabolism in the rat cochlea.

    PubMed

    Godfrey, D A; Ross, C D

    1985-01-01

    The distributions within the rat cochlea of choline acetyltransferase and acetylcholinesterase activities were measured to evaluate the prominence of cholinergic mechanisms in cochlear function. Samples obtained by microdissection of freeze-dried bony labyrinths were assayed radiometrically. Activities of both enzymes were highest in regions containing olivocochlear fibers and terminals, especially the organ of Corti and spiral ganglion. Within the organ of Corti, activities of both enzymes were consistently higher in the vicinity of the inner hair cells than in that of the outer hair cells and were much lower in the apical turn than in middle or basal turns. Surgical cuts in the brain stem transecting the olivocochlear pathway on one side led within seven days to total loss of choline acetyltransferase activity in the ipsilateral organ of Corti. It is concluded that all cholinergic structures in the rat organ of Corti derive from the brain stem and that synapses on or near both inner and outer hair cells are cholinergic.

  17. Out-of-plane stretching for simultaneous generation of different morphological wrinkles on a soft matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xin; Zhao, Zhi-Jun; Park, Sang-Hu

    2016-07-01

    This study demonstrates a simple and flexible out-of-plane induced mechanical stretching method for generating labyrinthic, waving, and straight orderly microscale directional wrinkles. Different complex wrinkling patterns were fabricated simultaneously using a UV-curable thin layer of resin NOA-68T that was coated on a soft foundation. Then an out-of-plane pre-straining deformation was applied by a specially designed punch to generate internal elastic instabilities. The surface wrinkling pattern characteristics (shapes and size) changed according to the amount of punch stroke (pre-strain) and the cross-sectional shape of the punch. This study confirms the usefulness of this method for controlling and generating local wrinkling patterns for diverse applications. As an example, the contact angles of a water droplet on a local area of the same pattern were measured to identify the change in wettability with respect to different wrinkling shapes. This method can be utilized in topographical tunable wrinkle fabrication for local surface modification.

  18. Facilitating fish passage at ultra low head dams: An alternative to dam removal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Odeh, M.

    2004-01-01

    Ecosystem sustainability and returning the biological integrity to rivers continue to change the landscape of fish passage technology. Installing a conventional fishways has a limited degree of success in accommodating fish passage needs. Recently, the option of total dam removal has been gaining momentum among resource managers, conservationists, and even engineers. Certain dams, however, cannot be removed, and conventional fishways are either too expensive to build or the real estate is simply not available; yet freedom of passage must be attained. At the Little Falls Dam on the Potomac River a notch in the crest of the dam was installed to accommodate passage of fish. The notch has three labyrinth weirs used for energy dissipation. Water velocities are maintained at less than about 4 m/s anywhere within the passage structure during migratory season of the target species (American shad). Construction of this novel design was recently completed (March 2000) and future biological evaluations are ongoing. Copyright ASCE 2004.

  19. Self-excitation in Francis runner during load rejection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moisan, É.; Giacobbi, D.-B.; Gagnon, M.; Léonard, F.

    2014-03-01

    Typically, transients such as load rejection generate only a few high vibration cycles in Francis runners. However, in the cases presented in this study, a sustained vibration around a natural frequency was observed on three (3) homologous Francis runners of different sizes during such events. The first two (2) runners were equipped with strain gauges on the blades and displacement sensors positioned circumferentially in the bottom ring and head cover around the runner labyrinth seals. The third runner was monitored only with displacement sensors on non-rotating components. The data from the first two (2) runners provided a better understanding of the parameters influencing the appearance of the high amplitude vibrations and allowed the implementation of a test plan to circumvent the phenomenon during commissioning of the third runner. Based on the measured data, the distributor's closing parameters were optimized to eliminate the vibration observed during load rejection on most of the operating range and reduce it significantly at full load.

  20. The effect of labyrinthectomy on postural control of upside-down swimming catfish, Synodontis nigriventris, under pseudomicrogravity.

    PubMed

    Ohnishi, K; Yamamoto, T; Takahashi, A; Tanaka, H; Koyama, M; Ohnishi, T

    1999-08-01

    The catfish (Synodontis nigriventris) has a unique habitat of keeping an upside-down posture under normal gravity. We examined its postural control under pseudomicrogravity generated artificially, and the effect of unilateral labyrinthectomy on the postural control. The stable swimming posture under pseudomicrogravity was observed in the upside-down swimming catfish but not in the catfish (Corydoras paleatus), which has normal swimming habitat. Furthermore, although S. nigriventris but not C. paleatus could keep the stable swimming posture under normal gravity condition after unilateral labyrinthectomy, the labyrinthectomized fishes could not keep it under pseudomicrogravity. Seven days after the operation, S. nigriventris alone partially recovered the ability to keep an upside-down swimming posture, and did completely, to the control level, 25 days after the operation. Furthermore, when S. nigriventris was under pseudomicrogravity in dark conditions, it showed disturbed swimming postures. These results suggest that the upside-down swimming catfish has superior ability of postural control depending on the labyrinth.

  1. Numerical, analytical, experimental study of fluid dynamic forces in seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapiro, William; Artiles, Antonio; Aggarwal, Bharat; Walowit, Jed; Athavale, Mahesh M.; Preskwas, Andrzej J.

    1992-01-01

    NASA/Lewis Research Center is sponsoring a program for providing computer codes for analyzing and designing turbomachinery seals for future aerospace and engine systems. The program is made up of three principal components: (1) the development of advanced three dimensional (3-D) computational fluid dynamics codes, (2) the production of simpler two dimensional (2-D) industrial codes, and (3) the development of a knowledge based system (KBS) that contains an expert system to assist in seal selection and design. The first task has been to concentrate on cylindrical geometries with straight, tapered, and stepped bores. Improvements have been made by adoption of a colocated grid formulation, incorporation of higher order, time accurate schemes for transient analysis and high order discretization schemes for spatial derivatives. This report describes the mathematical formulations and presents a variety of 2-D results, including labyrinth and brush seal flows. Extensions of 3-D are presently in progress.

  2. [Clinical characteristics of benign paroxysmal vertigo of childhood (BPVC)].

    PubMed

    Goto, Fumiyuki; Morimoto, Noriko; Ohara, Takuya; Honmura, Tomoko; Taiji, Hidenobu

    2011-06-01

    Pediatric subjects with vertigo or dizziness are rare in Japan, although considerable statistical data accumulated, mostly indicating that orthostatic hypotension is the most frequent clinical symptoms in Japan, as opposed to Benign paroxysmal vertigo of childhood (BPVC), reported to be most frequent abroad. We studied BPVC incidence and clinical features. Subjects were 5 boys and 7 girls aged 4 to 15 years old (average +/- sd 9.5 +/- 3.1 years). The predominant diagnosis was BPVC in 8, orthostatic hypotension in 6, labyrinthitis in 2, and delayed endolymphatic hydrops, and conversion disorder in 1 case each. BPVC was most common. All subjects with BPVC had a history or a family history of migraine. Based on BPVC diagnostic criteria, subjects had neither organic nor functional abnormalities. Information is thus required on attack, injury, and personal or family migraine history to determine a final diagnosis. Note that subjects with BPVC have high orthostatic hypotension. These statistics indicate the importance of diagnostic BPVC criteria in pediatric subjects with dizziness or vertigo.

  3. Theoretical approach to obtaining dynamic characteristics of noncontacting spiral-grooved seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iwatsubo, Takuzo; Yang, Bo-Suk; Ibaraki, Ryuji

    1987-01-01

    The dynamic characteristics of spiral-grooved seals are theoretically obtained by using the Navier-Stokes equation. First, with the inertia term of the fluid considered, the flow and pressure in the steady state are obtained for the directions parallel to and perpendicular to the groove. Next, the dynamic character is obtained by analyzing the steady state and by analyzing the labyrinth seal. As a result, the following conclusions were drawn: (1) As the land width becomes shorter or the helix angle decreases, the cross-coupling stiffness, direct and cross-coupling damping, and add mass coefficients decrease; (2) As the axial Reynolds number increases, the stiffness and damping coefficients increase. But the add mass coefficient is not influenced by the axial Reynolds number; (3) The rotational Reynolds number influences greatly the direct and cross-coupling stiffness and direct damping coefficients; and (4) As the journal rotating frequency increases, the leakage flow decreases. Therefore zero net leakage flow is possible at a particular rotating frequency.

  4. Comparative lubrication studies of OH-58A tail rotor drive shaft bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietrich, M. W.; Parker, R. J.; Zaretsky, E. V.

    1972-01-01

    Comparative lubrication tests were run with OH-58A helicopter tail rotor drive shaft bearings. The tests were run in an outdoor environment with ambient temperatures ranging from 10 to 75 F. Dust was periodically applied to the bearings to simulate field conditions. The cause of bearing failure was associated with dust penetration. Rotor shaft failure was found to be caused by the shaft rotating in the standard rubber collar due to seizure of the bearings. Bearings with a positive rubbing seal having a MIL-G-81322 grease produced lives greater than with bearings having labyrinth seals and a mineral oil paste lubricant. An elongated collar prevented failure of the rotor shaft during bearing seizure. In a limited test, installation of tail boom shrouds over the bearings which excluded dust and water resulted in bearing lives in excess of 1800 hours or 1200 hours greater than the current 600 hours TBO, regardless of the lubricant-bearing combination used.

  5. Ceramic tile expansion engine housing

    DOEpatents

    Myers, Blake

    1995-01-01

    An expandable ceramic tile housing for a high temperature engine is disclosed wherein each tile is independently supported in place in an interlocking matrix by retention mechanisms which mechanically couple the individual ceramic tiles to an outer metal support housing while maintaining thermal isolation of the metal housing from the ceramic tiles. The ceramic tiles are formed with either an octagonal front face portion and a square shank portion or a square front face portion with an octagonal shank portion. The length of the sides of the octagonal front face portion on one tile is equal to the length of the sides of the square front face portion of adjoining tiles to permit formation of an interlocking matrix. Fibrous ceramic sealing material may be placed between radial and tangential facing surfaces of adjacent tiles to limit radial gas flow therebetween. Labyrinth-sealed pressure-controlled compartments may be established between the tile housing and the outer metal support housing to control radial gas flow.

  6. Ceramic tile expansion engine housing

    DOEpatents

    Myers, B.

    1995-04-11

    An expandable ceramic tile housing for a high temperature engine is disclosed wherein each tile is independently supported in place in an interlocking matrix by retention mechanisms which mechanically couple the individual ceramic tiles to an outer metal support housing while maintaining thermal isolation of the metal housing from the ceramic tiles. The ceramic tiles are formed with either an octagonal front face portion and a square shank portion or a square front face portion with an octagonal shank portion. The length of the sides of the octagonal front face portion on one tile is equal to the length of the sides of the square front face portion of adjoining tiles to permit formation of an interlocking matrix. Fibrous ceramic sealing material may be placed between radial and tangential facing surfaces of adjacent tiles to limit radial gas flow there between. Labyrinth-sealed pressure-controlled compartments may be established between the tile housing and the outer metal support housing to control radial gas flow. 8 figures.

  7. Redox signaling in cardiovascular health and disease

    PubMed Central

    Madamanchi, Nageswara R.; Runge, Marschall S.

    2013-01-01

    Spatiotemporal regulation of the activity of a vast array of intracellular proteins and signaling pathways by reactive oxygen species (ROS) governs normal cardiovascular function. However, data from experimental and animal studies strongly support that dysregulated redox signaling, resulting from hyper-activation of various cellular oxidases or mitochondrial dysfunction, is integral to the pathogenesis and progression of cardiovascular disease (CVD). In this review, we address how redox signaling modulates the protein function, the various sources of increased oxidative stress in CVD, and the labyrinth of redox-sensitive molecular mechanisms involved in the development of atherosclerosis, hypertension, cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure, and ischemia–reperfusion injury. Advances in redox biology and pharmacology for inhibiting ROS production in specific cell types and subcellular organelles combined with the development of nanotechnology-based new in vivo imaging systems and targeted drug delivery mechanisms may enable fine-tuning of redox signaling for the treatment and prevention of CVD. PMID:23583330

  8. Aeropropulsion Technology (APT). Task 23 - Stator Seal Cavity Flow Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heidegger, N. J.; Hall, E. J.; Delaney, R. A.

    1996-01-01

    The focus of NASA Contract NAS3-25950 Task 23 was to numerically investigate the flow through an axial compressor inner-banded stator seal cavity. The Allison/NASA developed ADPAC code was used to obtain all flow predictions. Flow through a labyrinth stator seal cavity of a high-speed compressor was modeled by coupling the cavity flow path and the main flow path of the compressor. A grid resolution study was performed to guarantee adequate grid spacing was used. Both unsteady rotor-stator-rotor interactions and steady-state isolated blade calculations were performed with and without the seal cavity present. A parameterized seal cavity study of the high-speed stator seal cavity collected a series of solutions for geometric variations. The parameter list included seal tooth gap, cavity depth, wheel speed, radial mismatch of hub flowpath, axial trench gap, hub corner treatments, and land edge treatments. Solution data presented includes radial and pitchwise distributions of flow variables and particle traces describing the flow character.

  9. Random walks on cubic lattices with bond disorder

    SciTech Connect

    Ernst, M.H.; van Velthoven, P.F.J.

    1986-12-01

    The authors consider diffusive systems with static disorder, such as Lorentz gases, lattice percolation, ants in a labyrinth, termite problems, random resistor networks, etc. In the case of diluted randomness the authors can apply the methods of kinetic theory to obtain systematic expansions of dc and ac transport properties in powers of the impurity concentration c. The method is applied to a hopping model on a d-dimensional cubic lattice having two types of bonds with conductivity sigma and sigma/sub 0/ = 1, with concentrations c and 1-c, respectively. For the square lattice the authors explicitly calculate the diffusion coefficient D(c,sigma)more » as a function of c, to O(c/sup 2/) terms included for different ratios of the bond conductivity sigma. The probability of return at long times is given by P/sub 0/(t) approx. (4..pi..D(c,sigma)t)/sup -d/2/, which is determined by the diffusion coefficient of the disordered system.« less

  10. Pressure pulsations and hydraulic efficiency at Smeland power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulvan, V. S.; Kverno, J. O.; Dahlhaug, O. G.

    2018-06-01

    Smeland power plant in Norway is experiencing pressure pulsations in their Francis turbine when running above best efficiency point. By measuring both the pressure pulsations and runner efficiency, the cause and effect of the pulsations are to be investigated thoroughly, which is this works main purpose. To find the Francis runners efficiency the thermodynamic method has been used, which builds on the principle that all of the hydraulic losses turns into heat in the flow itself. By measuring the change of temperature before and after the turbine one can, with little other data, calculate the hydraulic efficiency. To identify the pressure pulsations, pressure transducers were placed on the inlet to the spiral casing, draft tube, and upper labyrinth. While doing measurements, air-injection through the runner was tested on full load, which nearly eradicated the pressure pulsations. This might be due to an increase of volume in a pulsating full load vortex that changed its eigenfrequency, and therefore stopped resonating.

  11. Surgery for vertigo: 10-year audit from a contemporary vertigo clinic.

    PubMed

    Patnaik, U; Srivastava, A; Sikka, K; Thakar, A

    2015-12-01

    To present the profile of patients undergoing surgical treatment for vertigo at a contemporary institutional vertigo clinic. A retrospective analysis of clinical charts. The charts of 1060 patients, referred to an institutional vertigo clinic from January 2003 to December 2012, were studied. The clinical profile and long-term outcomes of patients who underwent surgery were analysed. Of 1060 patients, 12 (1.13 per cent) were managed surgically. Of these, disease-modifying surgical procedures included perilymphatic fistula repair (n = 7) and microvascular decompression of the vestibular nerve (n = 1). Labyrinth destructive procedures included transmastoid labyrinthectomy (n = 2) and labyrinthectomy with vestibular nerve section (n = 1). One patient with vestibular schwannoma underwent both a disease-modifying and destructive procedure (translabyrinthine excision). All patients achieved excellent vertigo control, classified as per the American Academy of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery 1995 criteria. With the advent of intratympanic treatments, surgical treatments for vertigo have become further limited. However, surgery with directed intent, in select patients, can give excellent results.

  12. Brush Seals for Improved Steam Turbine Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turnquist, Norman; Chupp, Ray; Baily, Fred; Burnett, Mark; Rivas, Flor; Bowsher, Aaron; Crudgington, Peter

    2006-01-01

    GE Energy has retrofitted brush seals into more than 19 operating steam turbines. Brush seals offer superior leakage control compared to labyrinth seals, owing to their compliant nature and ability to maintain very tight clearances to the rotating shaft. Seal designs have been established for steam turbines ranging in size from 12 MW to over 1200 MW, including fossil, nuclear, combined-cycle and industrial applications. Steam turbines present unique design challenges that must be addressed to ensure that the potential performance benefits of brush seals are realized. Brush seals can have important effects on the overall turbine system that must be taken into account to assure reliable operation. Subscale rig tests are instrumental to understanding seal behavior under simulated steam-turbine operating conditions, prior to installing brush seals in the field. This presentation discusses the technical challenges of designing brush seals for steam turbines; subscale testing; performance benefits of brush seals; overall system effects; and field applications.

  13. Labyrinths, columns and cavities: new internal features of pollen grain walls in the Acanthaceae detected by FIB-SEM.

    PubMed

    House, Alisoun; Balkwill, Kevin

    2016-03-01

    External pollen grain morphology has been widely used in the taxonomy and systematics of flowering plants, especially the Acanthaceae which are noted for pollen diversity. However internal pollen wall features have received far less attention due to the difficulty of examining the wall structure. Advancing technology in the field of microscopy has made it possible, with the use of a focused ion beam-scanning electron microscope (FIB-SEM), to view the structure of pollen grain walls in far greater detail and in three dimensions. In this study the wall structures of 13 species from the Acanthaceae were investigated for features of potential systematic relevance. FIB-SEM was applied to obtain precise cross sections of pollen grains at selected positions for examining the wall ultrastructure. Exploratory studies of the exine have thus far identified five basic structural types. The investigations also show that similar external pollen wall features may have a distinctly different internal structure. FIB-SEM studies have revealed diverse internal pollen wall features which may now be investigated for their systematic and functional significance.

  14. Response of pontomedullary reticulospinal neurons to vestibular stimuli in vertical planes. Role in vertical vestibulospinal reflexes of the decerebrate cat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolton, P. S.; Goto, T.; Schor, R. H.; Wilson, V. J.; Yamagata, Y.; Yates, B. J.

    1992-01-01

    1. To investigate the neural substrate of vestibulospinal reflexes in decerebrate cats, we studied the responses of pontomedullary reticulospinal neurons to natural stimulation of the labyrinth in vertical planes. Our principal aim was to determine whether reticulospinal neurons that terminate in, or are likely to give off collaterals to, the upper cervical segments had properties similar to those of the vestibulocollic reflex (VCR). 2. Antidromic stimulation was used to determine whether the neurons projected to the neck, lower cervical, thoracic, or lumbar levels. Dynamics of the responses of spontaneously firing neurons were studied with sinusoidal stimuli delivered at 0.05-1 Hz and aligned to the plane of body rotation, that produced maximal modulation of the neuron (response vector orientation). Each neuron was assigned a vestibular input classification of otolith, vertical canal, otolith + canal, or spatial-temporal convergence (STC). 3. We found, in agreement with previous studies, that the largest fraction of pontomedullary reticulospinal neurons projected to the lumbar cord, and that only a small number ended in the neck segments. Neurons projecting to all levels of the spinal cord had similar responses to labyrinth stimulation. 4. Reticulospinal neurons that received only vertical canal inputs were rare (1 of 67 units). Most reticulospinal neurons (48%) received predominant otolith inputs, 18% received otolith + canal input, and only 9% had STC behavior. These data are in sharp contrast to the results of our previous studies of vestibulospinal neurons. A considerable portion of vestibulospinal neurons receives vertical canal input (38%), fewer receive predominantly otolith input (22%), whereas the proportion that have otolith + canal input or STC behavior is similar to our present reticulospinal data. 5. The response vector orientations of our reticulospinal neurons, particularly those with canal inputs (canal, otolith + canal, STC) were predominantly in

  15. Fluid dynamics vascular theory of brain and inner-ear function in traumatic brain injury: a translational hypothesis for diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Shulman, Abraham; Strashun, Arnold M

    2009-01-01

    It is hypothesized that in all traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients with a clinical history of closed or penetrating head injury, the initial head trauma is associated with a vibratory sensation and noise exposure, with resultant alteration in vascular supply to the structures and contents of the fluid compartments of brain and ear (i.e., the fluid dynamics vascular theory of brain-inner-ear function [FDVTBE]). The primary etiology-head trauma-results in an initial fluctuation, interference, or interaction in the normal fluid dynamics between brain and labyrinth of the inner ear, with a resultant clinical diversity of complaints varying in time of onset and severity. Normal function of the brain and ear is a reflection of a normal state of homeostasis between the fluid compartments in the brain of cerebrospinal fluid and perilymph-endolymph in the labyrinth of the ear. The normal homeostasis in the structures and contents between the two fluid compartment systems--intracerebral and intralabyrinthine--is controlled by mechanisms involved in the maintenance of normal pressures, water and electrolyte content, and neurotransmitter activities. The initial pathophysiology (a reflection of an alteration in the vascular supply to the brain-ear) is hypothesized to be an initial acute inflammatory response, persistence of which results in ischemia and an irreversible alteration in the involved neural substrates of brain-ear. Clinically, a chronic multisymptom complex becomes manifest. The multisymptom complex, individual for each TBI patient regardless of the diagnostic TBI category (i.e., mild, moderate, or severe), initially reflects processes of inflammation and ischemia which, in brain, result in brain volume loss identified as neurodegeneration and hydrocephalus ex vacuo or an alteration in cerebrospinal fluid production (i.e., pseudotumor cerebri) and, in ear, secondary endolymphatic hydrops with associated cochleovestibular complaints of hearing loss, tinnitus

  16. [CT study on the development of facial nerve canal in children].

    PubMed

    Li, J M; Xu, W B; Zhong, J W; Wu, H Y; Dai, W C

    2016-10-07

    Objective: To assess the characteristics of facial nerve canal between normal anatomy and dysplasia of children in different ages. Methods: A total of 492 health ears were divided into six groups, neonatal group (<1 m , n =42), infancy group(1 m-1 y, n =106), toddler group(1-3 y, n =102), preschool group (3-6 y, n =100), school group(6-10 y, n =60)and adolescent group (10-14 y, n =82). The length and diameter of facial nerve canal and that angles of first and second genu were measured with CT in each group. Results: ①The lengths of facial nerve canal in neonatal and infancy group were shorter than other four groups, especially in the mastoid segments of facial nerve canal. The lengths of mastoid segments in neonatal, infancy, toddler, preschool, school and adolescent groups were 5.03±0.84, 6.25±1.40, 8.34±1.38, 9.70±1.34, 10.84±1.41 and 12.17±1.83 mm, with P <0.05, respectively. After school age, the lengths of labyrinthine and tympanic segment grew slowly or developed completely ( P >0.05). ② The diameter of labyrinth and tympanic segment in neonatal group were narrower than other five groups ( P <0.05), but no significant difference among them in other groups ( P >0.05). ③The dysplasia of facial nerve canal were occurred on 978 locations. Among them, the percentage of dehiscence, aberrance, partially expanding and bifurcation were 72.9%(713/978), 5.1%(50/978), 18.9%(185/978) and 3.1%(30/978) respectively. The percentage of dehiscence in geniculate fossa segment was decreased significantly with age (neonatal group 85.7%(36/42), infancy group 59.4%(63/106), toddler group 39.2%(40/102), preschool group 33%(33/100), school group 30%(18/60)and adolescent group 26.8%(22/82), with P <0.05). Except the dehiscence of geniculate fossa and mastoid segment, there was no significant difference in the occurrence rate of the other variants ( P >O.05). Conclusions: The growth of length and dehiscence in labyrinth segment of facial nerve canal are significant in

  17. [A way of helping "Mr. Minotaur" and "Ms. Ariadne" to exit from the multiple morbidity labyrinth: the "master problems"].

    PubMed

    Turabián, J L; Pérez Franco, B

    2016-01-01

    Multiple morbidity seems to be "infinite" and so is not easy to make useful decisions. A new concept is introduced: the "master problems", as a qualitative method to facilitate the exit from this maze of multiple morbidity. Metaphors from the art world have been used to teach this concept. These "master problems" generally remain hidden and can only "unravel" between the interstices of multiple morbidity, when the details of the system that defines the problem are explained. A problem with "energy" or a "master problem" is complex, multiple and dramatic or theatrical--everything in the clinical history history make us look into that particular question. It is what gives us a blow to the stomach, which causes our hearts to beat faster, that moves us on many levels, which has a high "density of emotions", human elements, social symbols, and opens solutions in a patient. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Navigating the Labyrinth toward College Student Government Presidency: A Phenomenological Study of Women Who Run for Student Government President

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Hilary

    2017-01-01

    In recent years in the United States, women have been outpacing men on important college outcomes such as grade point average and degree attainment. While women have made strides in the last few decades, there are still important areas of higher education in which women are significantly underrepresented. In student government, women are vastly…

  19. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Analysis Of Optical Payload For Lasercomm Science (OPALS) sealed enclosure module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Kevin R.; Zayas, Daniel; Turner, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) using the commercial CFD package CFDesign has been performed at NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) California Institute of Technology (Caltech) in support of the Phaeton Early Career Hire Program's Optical Payload for Lasercomm Science (OPALS) mission. The OPALS project is one which involves an International Space Station payload that will be using forced convection cooling in a hermetically sealed enclosure at 1 atm of air to cool "off-the-shelf" vendor electronics. The CFD analysis was used to characterize the thermal and fluid flow environment within a complicated labyrinth of electronics boards, fans, instrumentation, harnessing, ductwork and heat exchanger fins. The paradigm of iteratively using CAD/CAE tools and CFD was followed in order to determine the optimum flow geometry and heat sink configuration to yield operational convective film coefficients and temperature survivability limits for the electronics payload. Results from this current CFD analysis and correlation of the CFD model against thermal test data will be presented. Lessons learned and coupled thermal / flow modeling strategies will be shared in this paper.

  20. Aircraft Engine Sump Fire Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenlieb, J. W.

    1973-01-01

    An investigation was performed of the conditions in which fires can result and be controlled within the bearing sump simulating that of a gas turbine engine; Esso 4040 Turbo Oil, Mobil Jet 2, and Monsanto MCS-2931 lubricants were used. Control variables include the oil inlet temperature, bearing temperature, oil inlet and scavenge rates, hot air inlet temperature and flow rate, and internal sump baffling. In addition to attempting spontaneous combustion, an electric spark and a rub (friction) mechanism were employed to ignite fires. Spontaneous combustion was not obtained; however, fires were readily ignited with the electric spark while using each of the three test lubricants. Fires were also ignited using the rub mechanism with the only test lubricant evaluated, Esso 4040. Major parameters controlling ignitions were: Sump configuration; Bearing and oil temperatures, hot air temperature and flow and bearing speed. Rubbing between stationary parts and rotating parts (eg. labyrinth seal and mating rub strip) is a very potent fire source suggesting that observed accidental fires in gas turbine sumps may well arise from this cause.

  1. Neuroanatomy of flying reptiles and implications for flight, posture and behaviour.

    PubMed

    Witmer, Lawrence M; Chatterjee, Sankar; Franzosa, Jonathan; Rowe, Timothy

    2003-10-30

    Comparison of birds and pterosaurs, the two archosaurian flyers, sheds light on adaptation to an aerial lifestyle. The neurological basis of control holds particular interest in that flight demands on sensory integration, equilibrium, and muscular coordination are acute. Here we compare the brain and vestibular apparatus in two pterosaurs based on high-resolution computed tomographic (CT) scans from which we constructed digital endocasts. Although general neural organization resembles birds, pterosaurs had smaller brains relative to body mass than do birds. This difference probably has more to do with phylogeny than flight, in that birds evolved from nonavian theropods that had already established trends for greater encephalization. Orientation of the osseous labyrinth relative to the long axis of the skull was different in these two pterosaur species, suggesting very different head postures and reflecting differing behaviours. Their enlarged semicircular canals reflect a highly refined organ of equilibrium, which is concordant with pterosaurs being visually based, aerial predators. Their enormous cerebellar floccular lobes may suggest neural integration of extensive sensory information from the wing, further enhancing eye- and neck-based reflex mechanisms for stabilizing gaze.

  2. Rheoencephalography in Meniere's disease

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nikolayev, M. P.; Mertsalova, O. N.

    1980-01-01

    Rheoencephalography (REG) was used on 35 patients with Meniere's disease to determine tonus and perfusion of cerebral vessels. The analysis took account of age, duration of the disease and presence or absence of cervical osteochondrosis. Hypertensive symptoms in the vertebro-basilar system predominated in the under 45 age group, while for the over 45 patients and those suffering for more than 5 years, hypertensive symptoms were likewise noted in the internal carotid arterial system. Signs of angiospasm were revealed both for patients with cervical osteochondrosis and without it. Hypertensive signs were noted in 88.5% of patients with Meniere's disease and as a rule they were noted in the entire vertebro-basilar system without respect to the presence or absence of concurrent cervical osteochondrosis and uni- or bilateral affection of the labyrinth; in patients over 45 who had suffered more than 5 years this also applied to the internal carotid arterial system. Identification of the condition of cerebral circulation and the planning of more effective therapy that influences vascular tone is made possible by REG.

  3. Gesellschaft fuer angewandte Mathematik und Mechanik, Scientific Annual Meeting, Universitaet Hannover, Hanover, Federal Republic of Germany, Apr. 8-12, 1990, Reports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Various papers on applied mathematics and mechanics are presented. Among the individual topics addressed are: dynamical systems with time-varying or unsteady structure, micromechanical modeling of creep rupture, forced vibrations of elastic sandwich plates with thick surface layers, postbuckling of a complete spherical shell under a line load, differential-geometric approach to the multibody system dynamics, stability of an oscillator with stochastic parametric excitation, identification strategies for crack-formation in rotors, identification of physical parameters of FEMs, impact model for elastic and partly plastic impacts on objects, varying delay and stability in dynamical systems. Also discussed are: parameter identification of a hybrid model for vibration analysis using the FEM, vibration behavior of a labyrinth seal with through-flow, similarities in the boundary layer of fiber composite materials, distortion parameter in shell theories, elastoplastic crack problem at finite strain, algorithm for computing effective stiffnesses of plates with periodic structure, plasticity of metal-matrix composites in a mixed stress-strain space formation, constitutive equations in directly formulated plate theories, microbuckling and homogenization for long fiber composites.

  4. Distributed friction damping of travelling wave vibration in rods.

    PubMed

    Tangpong, Xiangqing W; Wickert, Jonathan A; Akay, Adnan

    2008-03-13

    A ring damper can be affixed to a rotating base structure such as a gear, an automotive brake rotor or a gas turbine's labyrinth air seal. Depending on the frequency range, wavenumber and level of preload, vibration of the base structure can be effectively and passively attenuated by friction that develops along the interface between it and the damper. The assembly is modelled as two rods that couple in longitudinal vibration through spatially distributed hysteretic friction, with each rod having periodic boundary conditions in a manner analogous to an unwrapped ring and disc. As is representative of rotating machinery applications, the system is driven by a travelling wave disturbance, and for that form of excitation, the base structure's and the damper's responses are determined without the need for computationally intensive simulation. The damper's performance can be optimized with respect to normal preload, and its effectiveness is insensitive to variations in preload or the excitation's magnitude when its natural frequency is substantially lower than the base structure's in the absence of contact.

  5. Method for Salmonella concentration from water at pH 3.5, using micro-fiber glass filters.

    PubMed Central

    Block, J C; Rolland, D

    1979-01-01

    A method is described for the concentration of Salmonella from water. As is done with enterovirus, Salmonella bacteria were concentrated from water in two steps: by pH 3.5 adsorption on and pH 9.5 elution from 8-micron porosity micro-fiber glass filter tubes. This method worked in less than 30 min, and Salmonella typhimurium was inactivated only slightly in spite of rapid pH variations (pH 3.5 to 9.5). It was demonstrated that the retention by the filters stems from two phenomena: a low retention in the micro-fiber glass labyrinth for small filtered volumes, and a high retention by adsorption at pH 3.5 for any filtered volume (experiments done with 15- and 80-liter samples). Addition in tap water of trivalent ions like Al3+ did not increase Salmonella adsorption. In most of the trials, Salmonella recovery varied from 42 to 93%. Preliminary field investigations indicate that enterovirus and Salmonella may both be concentrated from the same water sample by this procedure. PMID:39501

  6. Effects of neem oil (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) on midgut cells of predatory larvae Ceraeochrysa claveri (Navás, 1911) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae).

    PubMed

    Scudeler, Elton Luiz; dos Santos, Daniela Carvalho

    2013-01-01

    The effects of ingested neem oil, a botanical insecticide obtained from the seeds of the neem tree, Azadirachta indica, on the midgut cells of predatory larvae Ceraeochrysa claveri were analyzed. C. claveri were fed on eggs of Diatraea saccharalis treated with neem oil at a concentration of 0.5%, 1% and 2% during throughout the larval period. Light and electron microscopy showed severe damages in columnar cells, which had many cytoplasmic protrusions, clustering and ruptured of the microvilli, swollen cells, ruptured cells, dilatation and vesiculation of rough endoplasmic reticulum, development of smooth endoplasmic reticulum, enlargement of extracellular spaces of the basal labyrinth, intercellular spaces and necrosis. The indirect ingestion of neem oil with prey can result in severe alterations showing direct cytotoxic effects of neem oil on midgut cells of C. claveri larvae. Therefore, the safety of neem oil to non-target species as larvae of C. claveri was refuted, thus the notion that plants derived are safer to non-target species must be questioned in future ecotoxicological studies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Clinical significance of stapedioplasty biomechanics: swimming, diving, flying after stapes surgery.

    PubMed

    Hüttenbrink, Karl-Bernd

    2007-01-01

    A piston prosthesis in stapedioplasty significantly modifies the function of the normal ossicular chain. Due to the fact that the ear works as a pressure receptor, a piston prosthesis will be displaced at ambient air pressure changes in a different way than the normal stapes. Our ear is constantly exposed to these pressure changes in daily live, for example during swallowing, with tubal opening, with wind gusts at the external ear, during flying, or diving. Temporal bone experiments showed that elevated static pressures, like in tympanometry, can displace a piston up to 0.5mm in the vestibule. These large movements, which are caused by the missing attachment of the piston to the annual ligament, may explain why a short piston can be lifted out of the footplate perforation (e.g. after sneezing) or a piston with excessive length might come into contact with the membranous labyrinth, causing vertigo with an inward movement. Flying or diving can be performed by the patients after stapedioplasty, provided that a test with tympanometry is tolerated without evoking vertigo.

  8. Determination of domain wall chirality using in situ Lorentz transmission electron microscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Chess, Jordan J.; Montoya, Sergio A.; Fullerton, Eric E.; ...

    2017-02-23

    Controlling domain wall chirality is increasingly seen in non-centrosymmetric materials. Mapping chiral magnetic domains requires knowledge about all the vector components of the magnetization, which poses a problem for conventional Lorentz transmission electron microscopy (LTEM) that is only sensitive to magnetic fields perpendicular to the electron beams direction of travel. The standard approach in LTEM for determining the third component of the magnetization is to tilt the sample to some angle and record a second image. Furthermore, this presents a problem for any domain structures that are stabilized by an applied external magnetic field (e.g. skyrmions), because the standard LTEMmore » setup does not allow independent control of the angle of an applied magnetic field, and sample tilt angle. Here we show that applying a modified transport of intensity equation analysis to LTEM images collected during an applied field sweep, we can determine the domain wall chirality of labyrinth domains in a perpendicularly magnetized material, avoiding the need to tilt the sample.« less

  9. Determination of domain wall chirality using in situ Lorentz transmission electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Chess, Jordan J.; Montoya, Sergio A.; Fullerton, Eric E.

    Controlling domain wall chirality is increasingly seen in non-centrosymmetric materials. Mapping chiral magnetic domains requires knowledge about all the vector components of the magnetization, which poses a problem for conventional Lorentz transmission electron microscopy (LTEM) that is only sensitive to magnetic fields perpendicular to the electron beams direction of travel. The standard approach in LTEM for determining the third component of the magnetization is to tilt the sample to some angle and record a second image. Furthermore, this presents a problem for any domain structures that are stabilized by an applied external magnetic field (e.g. skyrmions), because the standard LTEMmore » setup does not allow independent control of the angle of an applied magnetic field, and sample tilt angle. Here we show that applying a modified transport of intensity equation analysis to LTEM images collected during an applied field sweep, we can determine the domain wall chirality of labyrinth domains in a perpendicularly magnetized material, avoiding the need to tilt the sample.« less

  10. Vestibular morphology in the German Waltzing guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, Sachie; Hultcrantz, Malou; Jin, Zhe; Ulfendahl, Mats; Suzuki, Mamoru

    2010-04-01

    The German waltzing guinea pig is a special strain of animal with a recessively inherited inner ear defect, resulting in deafness and a severe vestibular dysfunction. The hearing loss in the cochlea of the German strain is a result of a collapse of the Reissner membrane and the absence of scala media. The vestibular organ has not yet been described. German waltzing guinea pigs (homozygote and heterozygote) of different ages ranging from embryologic age 25 days to adulthood were investigated. The living animals were tested with four different vestibular tests, and the fetuses were controlled according to breeding. The morphology of the vestibular parts (ampulla, saccule, and utricle) was observed by using the light and transmission electron microscopy. Collapse of the membranous labyrinth was found already at embryologic age 50 days and progressed over time. Vestibular dysfunction was noted already from birth. Vestibular atelectasis has been shown to have the same morphology as the reported vestibular dysfunction in the German waltzing guinea pig. Owing to this similarity, this animal can be a good model for vestibular research.

  11. Fabrication and characterization of the noble metal nanostructures on the GaAs surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladskikh, Polina V.; Gladskikh, Igor A.; Toropov, Nikita A.; Vartanyan, Tigran A.

    2016-04-01

    Self-assembled silver, gold, and copper nanostructures on the monocrystalline GaAs (100) wafer surface were obtained via physical vapor deposition and characterized by optical reflection spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and current-voltage curve measurements. Reflection spectra of the samples with Ag equivalent thicknesses of 2, 5, 7.5, and 10 nm demonstrated wide plasmonic bands in the visible range of spectra. Thermal annealing of the nanostructures led to narrowing of the plasmonic bands of Au and Ag nanostructures caused by major transformations of the film morphology. While the as prepared films predominantly had a small scale labyrinth structure, after annealing well-separated nanoislands are formed on the gallium arsenide surface. A clear correlation between films morphology and their optical and electrical properties is elucidated. Annealing of the GaAs substrate with Ag nanostructures at 100 °C under control of the resistivity allowed us to obtain and fix the structure at the percolation threshold. It is established that the samples at the percolation threshold possess the properties of resistance switching and hysteresis.

  12. Pressure Actuated Leaf Seals for Improved Turbine Shaft Sealing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grondahl, Clayton

    2006-01-01

    This presentation introduces a shaft seal in which leaf seal elements are constructed from slotted shim material formed and layered into a frusto-conical assembly. Limited elastic deflection of seal leaves with increasing system pressure close large startup clearance to a small, non-contacting, steady state running clearance. At shutdown seal elements resiliently retract as differential seal pressure diminishes. Large seal clearance during startup and shutdown provides a mechanism for rub avoidance. Minimum operating clearance improves performance and non-contacting operation promises long seal life. Design features of this seal, sample calculations at differential pressures up to 2400 psid and benefit comparison with brush and labyrinth seals is documented in paper, AIAA 2005 3985, presented at the Advanced Seal Technology session of the Joint Propulsion Conference in Tucson this past July. In this presentation use of bimetallic leaf material will be discussed. Frictional heating of bimetallic leaf seals during a seal rub can relieve the rub condition to some extent with a change in seal shape. Improved leaf seal rub tolerance is expected with bimetallic material.

  13. Maternal di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate exposure during pregnancy causes fetal growth restriction in a stage-specific but gender-independent manner.

    PubMed

    Shen, Ru; Zhao, Ling-Li; Yu, Zhen; Zhang, Cheng; Chen, Yuan-Hua; Wang, Hua; Zhang, Zhi-Hui; Xu, De-Xiang

    2017-01-01

    Di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is male developmental toxicant that impairs testis development with reduced anogenital distance. The present study aimed to investigate whether maternal DEHP exposure during pregnancy causes intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) in a gender-specific manner and to identify the critical window of DEHP-induced fetal IUGR. Pregnant mice were administered with DEHP (0, 50 or 200mg/kg) by gavage. Fetal IUGR was observed not only in males but also in females when litters were exposed to DEHP on gestational day (GD)0-GD17. Interestingly, fetal weight and crown-rump length were reduced, markedly in dams with DEHP on GD13-GD17, slightly in dams with on GD7-GD12, but not in dams with on GD0-GD6. Further analysis showed that maternal DEHP exposure on GD7-GD12 inhibited cell proliferation, lowered placental weight, and reduced blood sinusoid area in placental labyrinth layer. These results suggest that maternal DEHP exposure induces IUGR in a stage-specific but gender-independent manner. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Gunshot injury to the face with a missile lodged in the upper cervical spine without neurological deficit.

    PubMed

    Bumbasirević, M; Lesić, A; Bumbasirević, V; Rakocević, Z; Djurić, M

    2006-01-01

    An unusual case of facial gunshot injury with the missile lodged in the cervical spinal canal, but without any neurological impairment is reported. The extent of tissue damage and missile track termination in a male patient who sustained gunshot trauma to the face was assessed by plain radiography and by CT scans. The patient was treated conservatively and observed for clinical manifestations of neurological deficit for 3 weeks. CT of the head and neck performed 13 years after injury with the three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of skeletal elements revealed healed fractures of the right nasal bone, the labyrinth of the right ethmoid bone, and position of the missile on the medial aspect of the right lateral mass of the atlas. There was no migration of the missile during this period. This case report of gunshot wound to the face associated with injury of the cervical spine indicated possibility of survival and atypical absence of clinical manifestation that may occur even when a bullet remains in the spinal canal.

  15. Numerical simulation of the role of the utriculo-endolymphatic valve in the rotation-sensing capabilities of semicircular canals.

    PubMed

    Shen, Shuang; Sun, Xiuzhen; Yu, Shen; Liu, Yingxi; Su, Yingfeng; Zhao, Wei; Liu, Wenlong

    2016-06-14

    The utriculo-endolymphatic valve (UEV) has an uncertain function, but its opening and closure have been predicted to maintain a constant endolymphatic pressure within the semicircular canals (SCCs) and the utricle of the inner ear. Here, the study׳s aim was to examine the role of the UEV in regulating the capabilities of the 3 SCCs in sensing angular acceleration by using the finite element method. The results of the developed model showed endolymphatic flow and cupula displacement patterns in good agreement with previous experiments. Moreover, the open valve was predicted to permit endolymph exchange between the 2 parts of the membranous labyrinth during head rotation and, in comparison to the closed valve, to result in a reinforced endolymph flow in the utricle and an enhanced or weakened cupula deflection. Further, the model predicted an increase in the size of the orifice would result in greater endolymph exchange and thereby to a greater impact on cupula deflection. The model findings suggest the UEV plays a crucial role in the preservation of inner ear sensory function. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Virtual Patients in a Behavioral Medicine Massive Open Online Course (MOOC): A Case-Based Analysis of Technical Capacity and User Navigation Pathways.

    PubMed

    Kononowicz, Andrzej A; Berman, Anne H; Stathakarou, Natalia; McGrath, Cormac; Bartyński, Tomasz; Nowakowski, Piotr; Malawski, Maciej; Zary, Nabil

    2015-09-10

    Massive open online courses (MOOCs) have been criticized for focusing on presentation of short video clip lectures and asking theoretical multiple-choice questions. A potential way of vitalizing these educational activities in the health sciences is to introduce virtual patients. Experiences from such extensions in MOOCs have not previously been reported in the literature. This study analyzes technical challenges and solutions for offering virtual patients in health-related MOOCs and describes patterns of virtual patient use in one such course. Our aims are to reduce the technical uncertainty related to these extensions, point to aspects that could be optimized for a better learner experience, and raise prospective research questions by describing indicators of virtual patient use on a massive scale. The Behavioral Medicine MOOC was offered by Karolinska Institutet, a medical university, on the EdX platform in the autumn of 2014. Course content was enhanced by two virtual patient scenarios presented in the OpenLabyrinth system and hosted on the VPH-Share cloud infrastructure. We analyzed web server and session logs and a participant satisfaction survey. Navigation pathways were summarized using a visual analytics tool developed for the purpose of this study. The number of course enrollments reached 19,236. At the official closing date, 2317 participants (12.1% of total enrollment) had declared completing the first virtual patient assignment and 1640 (8.5%) participants confirmed completion of the second virtual patient assignment. Peak activity involved 359 user sessions per day. The OpenLabyrinth system, deployed on four virtual servers, coped well with the workload. Participant survey respondents (n=479) regarded the activity as a helpful exercise in the course (83.1%). Technical challenges reported involved poor or restricted access to videos in certain areas of the world and occasional problems with lost sessions. The visual analyses of user pathways display

  17. Virtual Patients in a Behavioral Medicine Massive Open Online Course (MOOC): A Case-Based Analysis of Technical Capacity and User Navigation Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Berman, Anne H; Stathakarou, Natalia; McGrath, Cormac; Bartyński, Tomasz; Nowakowski, Piotr; Malawski, Maciej; Zary, Nabil

    2015-01-01

    Background Massive open online courses (MOOCs) have been criticized for focusing on presentation of short video clip lectures and asking theoretical multiple-choice questions. A potential way of vitalizing these educational activities in the health sciences is to introduce virtual patients. Experiences from such extensions in MOOCs have not previously been reported in the literature. Objective This study analyzes technical challenges and solutions for offering virtual patients in health-related MOOCs and describes patterns of virtual patient use in one such course. Our aims are to reduce the technical uncertainty related to these extensions, point to aspects that could be optimized for a better learner experience, and raise prospective research questions by describing indicators of virtual patient use on a massive scale. Methods The Behavioral Medicine MOOC was offered by Karolinska Institutet, a medical university, on the EdX platform in the autumn of 2014. Course content was enhanced by two virtual patient scenarios presented in the OpenLabyrinth system and hosted on the VPH-Share cloud infrastructure. We analyzed web server and session logs and a participant satisfaction survey. Navigation pathways were summarized using a visual analytics tool developed for the purpose of this study. Results The number of course enrollments reached 19,236. At the official closing date, 2317 participants (12.1% of total enrollment) had declared completing the first virtual patient assignment and 1640 (8.5%) participants confirmed completion of the second virtual patient assignment. Peak activity involved 359 user sessions per day. The OpenLabyrinth system, deployed on four virtual servers, coped well with the workload. Participant survey respondents (n=479) regarded the activity as a helpful exercise in the course (83.1%). Technical challenges reported involved poor or restricted access to videos in certain areas of the world and occasional problems with lost sessions. The visual

  18. A mountain of trouble; Nuclear waste has to go somewhere: But a Government geologist working at Yucca Mountain argues that burying it there is an invitation to disaster

    SciTech Connect

    Broad, W.J.

    1990-11-18

    Yucca Mountain is the last candidate for high-level radioactive waste disposal, selected after a stormy, decades-long, multibillion-dollar search that criss-crossed much of the nation and eliminated dozens of other potential sites, often for reasons of politics rather than science. Today, the site`s 1800 federal and contract workers feel great pressure to stay on schedule in assessing the site`s suitability and planning the repository, which would be a labyrinth of tunnels up to 115 miles long. Its cost is expected to be up to $15 billion, some $1 billion of which has already been spent. If everything goes according to plan,more » it will open for business in 2010. The evaluation was proceeding favorably until a young Polish geologist raised questions based on the presence of geologic faults and certain calcium carbonate mineral deposits which may have resulted from hot springs or hot water coming up through the faults. The article describes: (1) the geologic basis of their questions and their reception by previous geologists (namely US GS); and (2) the formation of review committees to resolve their new problems.« less

  19. Wavefunctions, quantum diffusion, and scaling exponents in golden-mean quasiperiodic tilings.

    PubMed

    Thiem, Stefanie; Schreiber, Michael

    2013-02-20

    We study the properties of wavefunctions and the wavepacket dynamics in quasiperiodic tight-binding models in one, two, and three dimensions. The atoms in the one-dimensional quasiperiodic chains are coupled by weak and strong bonds aligned according to the Fibonacci sequence. The associated d-dimensional quasiperiodic tilings are constructed from the direct product of d such chains, which yields either the hypercubic tiling or the labyrinth tiling. This approach allows us to consider fairly large systems numerically. We show that the wavefunctions of the system are multifractal and that their properties can be related to the structure of the system in the regime of strong quasiperiodic modulation by a renormalization group (RG) approach. We also study the dynamics of wavepackets to get information about the electronic transport properties. In particular, we investigate the scaling behaviour of the return probability of the wavepacket with time. Applying again the RG approach we show that in the regime of strong quasiperiodic modulation the return probability is governed by the underlying quasiperiodic structure. Further, we also discuss lower bounds for the scaling exponent of the width of the wavepacket and propose a modified lower bound for the absolute continuous regime.

  20. Yaxchilan's whistles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velazquez, Roberto

    2002-11-01

    Eight clay whistles found buried in Small Acropolis temples (650-800 BC) of Yaxchilan were analyzed. The study was centered on three dual whistles with body shapes resembling those of frogs. A method developed in previous studies and evidence from several disciplines were applied. Experimental replicas were made to find possible ancient ways of construction and to test hypotheses. The Helmholtz equation for globular resonators was calculated, sound signals were analyzed with spectrograms, and radiated acoustic power in different modes was estimated (0.0005-0.003W). The power level indicates that whistles' sounds could not be heard well if they were played along with louder Mayan aerophones like those of Bonampak's mural band nor in noisy celebrations in big plazas. Clay frogs were adequate to be used in the Small Acropolis, in the Labyrinth and by big groups, surely related to religion. The whistles can sing like natural frogs and produce beats, and they might have been used to produce a chorus in ceremonies to the god Chaac to call for rain, in H-men rites, or in the infraworld where they were discovered.

  1. Delay effects in the human sensory system during balancing.

    PubMed

    Stepan, Gabor

    2009-03-28

    Mechanical models of human self-balancing often use the Newtonian equations of inverted pendula. While these mathematical models are precise enough on the mechanical side, the ways humans balance themselves are still quite unexplored on the control side. Time delays in the sensory and motoric neural pathways give essential limitations to the stabilization of the human body as a multiple inverted pendulum. The sensory systems supporting each other provide the necessary signals for these control tasks; but the more complicated the system is, the larger delay is introduced. Human ageing as well as our actual physical and mental state affects the time delays in the neural system, and the mechanical structure of the human body also changes in a large range during our lives. The human balancing organ, the labyrinth, and the vision system essentially adapted to these relatively large time delays and parameter regions occurring during balancing. The analytical study of the simplified large-scale time-delayed models of balancing provides a Newtonian insight into the functioning of these organs that may also serve as a basis to support theories and hypotheses on balancing and vision.

  2. [Magnetic resonance imaging study and cochlear implantation in post-meningitic deaf patients].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiuli; Yao, Yiwen; He, Guili; Zhai, Lijie

    2004-07-01

    To investigate the clinical application of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in post-meningitic patients and its impact on surgical decision. The pre-operative MRI data and auditory brainstem response (ABR) examination of five post-meningitic patients were studied. They were implanted with cochleas. The interval between the onset of bacterial meningitis and the hearing loss was (15.8 +/- 15.0)d and it was longer in children than adults. Five ears showed membranous cochlear labyrinth abnormality; 3 ears had vestibule vestibule abnormality; 8 ears demonstrated semicircular canal abnormality on MRI examinations in totally 10 ears. The mean hearing threshold of 10 ears was (102.0 +/- 7.1)dB HL,that of the operated ears was (98.0 +/- 5.7)dB HL and that of the un-operated ears was (106.0 +/- 6.5)dB HL. It was (15.8 +/- 15.0)d from the bacterial meningitis onset to hearing loss. The interval is longer in children than adults. There were 3 ears that electrodes could not be inserted completely. The bacterial meningitis may cause the abnormalities of inner ears and the MRI before surgery is essential for the pre-operative planning of cochlear implant.

  3. Intratemporal complications of otitis media.

    PubMed

    Maranhão, André Souza de Albuquerque; Andrade, José Santos Cruz de; Godofredo, Valéria Romero; Matos, Rafaella Caruso; Penido, Norma de Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    Otitis media (OM) is considered a potentially severe disease due to the risk of complications. To establish the annual incidence of intratemporal complications (ITC) resulting from OM and to prospectively assess patients for epidemiological and clinical factors. This prospective cohort study included patients admitted during one year at a university hospital diagnosed with intratemporal complications of OM. Patients were analyzed for age, gender, type of intratemporal complication, treatment, and clinical outcome. The overall incidence of complications and the specific incidence rates of each type of complication were determined. 1,816 patients were diagnosed with OM; 592 (33%) had chronic OM; 1224 (67%) had acute OM. Fifteen patients were diagnosed with OM ITC, adding up to an annual incidence of 0.8%. Nineteen diagnoses of ITC were made in 15 patients. Seven (36.8%) patients were diagnosed with labyrinthine fistula, five (26.3%) with mastoiditis, four (21.1%) with peripheral facial palsy, and three (15.8%) with labyrinthitis. The incidence of intratemporal complications remains significant when compared to the rates seen in developed countries. Chronic cholesteatomatous otitis media is the most frequent etiology of intratemporal complications. Labyrinthine fistula is the most common intratemporal complication.

  4. Cochlin-tomoprotein (CTP) detection test identified perilymph leakage preoperatively in revision stapes surgery.

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Yuko; Ikezono, Tetsuo; Fukushima, Kunihiro; Yuen, Koji; Maeda, Yukihide; Sugaya, Akiko; Nishizaki, Kazunori

    2013-08-01

    Perilymphatic fistula (PLF) is defined as an abnormal leakage between perilymph from the labyrinth to the middle ear. Symptoms include hearing loss, tinnitus, and vertigo. The standard mode of PLF detection is intraoperative visualization of perilymph leakage and fistula, which ostensibly confirms the existence of PLF. Other possible methods of diagnosis include confirmation of pneumolabyrinth via diagnostic imaging. Recently, a cochlin-tomoprotein (CTP) detection test has been developed that allows definitive diagnosis of PLF-related hearing loss. We report the case of a 45-year-old man who presented with right-sided tinnitus, hearing loss, and dizziness 30 years after stapes surgery. Middle ear lavage was performed after myringotomy. A preoperative diagnosis of PLF was reached using the CTP detection test. Intraoperative observations included a necrotic long process of the incus, displaced wire piston, and fibrous tissue in the oval window. Perilymph leakage was not evident. The oval window was closed with fascia, and vertigo disappeared within 2 weeks postoperatively. When PLF is suspected after stapes surgery, the CTP detection test can be a useful, highly sensitive, and less invasive method for preoperative diagnosis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Tuberculous otitis in infants: temporal bone histopathology and clinical extrapolation.

    PubMed

    Nicolau, Yamileth; Northrop, Clarinda; Eavey, Roland

    2006-08-01

    The study of infant temporal bones with tuberculosis (TB) of the middle ear and mastoid could provide information to assist with clinical diagnosis in this population. The TB pandemic has become a critical global public health problem. With the rising incidence of the disease, otolaryngologists might encounter an increased frequency of otologic TB. Pediatric temporal bone reports of TB are rare. Light microscopic examination was performed on both temporal bones from an infant who died as a result of miliary TB. The tympanic membranes were thickened with dilated blood vessels, yet were intact without perforations. Purulence, granulation tissue, and classic tubercles were observed in the middle ears and mastoids. Serous labyrinthitis and inflammatory cells surrounding the Cranial Nerve VIII in the internal auditory canal were observed in the inner ear. The histological findings suggest that a clinical presentation of infantile tuberculous otitis media and mastoiditis could be a patient with otoscopic findings consistent with common otitis media with an intact tympanic membrane, likely in conjunction with inner ear symptoms. Lacking the classic finding of multiple tympanic membrane perforations, tuberculous otitis might be underappreciated in this population.

  6. Subacute tuberculous otitis media complicated by petrositis and meningitis.

    PubMed

    Dumas, G; Schmerber, S; Atallah, I; Brion, J-P; Righini, C A

    2012-01-01

    The aim of our case study is to illustrate diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties as well as gravity related to tuberculous otitis media with intracranial complications. A diabetic male patient of 65 years old was treated for subacute otitis media with mixed hearing loss. Early bacteriologic samples from ear exudates revealed opportunistic pathogens. Clinical evolution after four months was marked by the appearance of mastoiditis with facial paralysis. The patient presented petrositis and bilateral laryngeal paralysis with lymphocytic meningitis after six and eight months respectively. Tuberculosis was suspected after a positive ELlspot tests with appearance of biologic markers of hepatic dysfunction like cholestasis and hepatic cytolysis. Although antituberculous treatment was instaured even without isolation of acid fast bacilli, the patient died after ten months. Subacute otitis media complicated by labyrinthitis, early onset of facial paralysis or any other oranial nerve palsy should raise suspicion of tuberculosis. The prognosis depends on early diagnosis which remains difficult despite morphological and metabolic imaging. The diagnostic workup should include histological and bacteriologic samples, liver markers of intacellular damage as well as ELlspot test. The prognosis remains poor especially in immunocompromised patients despite appropriate treatment.

  7. The Effect of Post-heat Treatment on the Microstructures of Single Crystal DD6 Superalloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dongfan; Gao, Hangshan; Wen, Zhixun; Li, Zhenwei; Yue, Zhufeng

    2016-09-01

    Various thermal cycles at the end of solution heat treatment and their influences on microstructure of single crystal superalloy DD6 were studied by experiments. During various thermal cycles, the qualitative and quantitative microstructure of samples quenched of the transformations is microscopically characterized. This completely includes the large changes in volume fraction, size distribution and morphology of gamma prime precipitate experienced in the upper temperature transformation. Noticeable deviation from the equilibrium volume fraction of γ' phase is detected in both the dissolution and precipitation processes above 1,120°C for both moderate cooling and heating rate; differences were mainly attributed to the unsteady nature of the turbulent flow. The growth and alignment of the γ' precipitates are deeply influenced by several factors, e.g. ageing time, cooling rate and quenching temperature. In addition, interesting findings such as "labyrinth" and "cluster" morphologies were observed by scanning electron microscope. During precipitation processes, the complicated microstructure evolution is illustrated by considering the consecutive equilibrium shapes of a coherent precipitate, which grows under the interaction with its neighbors and the coherency of the precipitates improves their potential to resist dissolution.

  8. A 3D-CFD code for accurate prediction of fluid flows and fluid forces in seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Athavale, M. M.; Przekwas, A. J.; Hendricks, R. C.

    1994-01-01

    Current and future turbomachinery requires advanced seal configurations to control leakage, inhibit mixing of incompatible fluids and to control the rotodynamic response. In recognition of a deficiency in the existing predictive methodology for seals, a seven year effort was established in 1990 by NASA's Office of Aeronautics Exploration and Technology, under the Earth-to-Orbit Propulsion program, to develop validated Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) concepts, codes and analyses for seals. The effort will provide NASA and the U.S. Aerospace Industry with advanced CFD scientific codes and industrial codes for analyzing and designing turbomachinery seals. An advanced 3D CFD cylindrical seal code has been developed, incorporating state-of-the-art computational methodology for flow analysis in straight, tapered and stepped seals. Relevant computational features of the code include: stationary/rotating coordinates, cylindrical and general Body Fitted Coordinates (BFC) systems, high order differencing schemes, colocated variable arrangement, advanced turbulence models, incompressible/compressible flows, and moving grids. This paper presents the current status of code development, code demonstration for predicting rotordynamic coefficients, numerical parametric study of entrance loss coefficients for generic annular seals, and plans for code extensions to labyrinth, damping, and other seal configurations.

  9. Observed behaviours of pre-term children in a social play situation with classroom peers.

    PubMed

    Nadeau, Line; Tessier, Réjean; Descôteaux, Amélie

    2009-08-01

    A number of studies have reported social adjustment problems in pre-term children. To observe the pre-term's behaviour in an experimental situation and correlate these observed behaviours with the children's peer-rated social behaviours (withdrawal, aggression and sociability/leadership). Of 56 pre-term children, 24 were classified as the sick pre-term (SPT) group and 32 children as the healthy pre-term (HPT) group. The comparison group comprised 56 healthy full-terms. The experimental situation used a game called Rush Hour, a labyrinth-type board game. The play situation was videotaped and behaviours (number of consecutive moves) were coded in real time. At 12 years of age, the sick pre-term (SPT) group exhibited fewer consecutive moves during the game than the other two groups, especially when the task became more complex (involving four consecutives moves). Moreover, the Complex Task Index was correlated with the social withdrawal score rated by peers. The at-birth sick pre-term gradually became less involved in a complex decision-making task and this was understood as a lesser ability to make a decision in a complex setting.

  10. Vestibular function in families with inherited autosomal dominant hearing loss

    PubMed Central

    Street, Valerie A.; Kallman, Jeremy C.; Strombom, Paul D.; Bramhall, Naomi F.; Phillips, James O.

    2008-01-01

    The inner ear contains the developmentally related cochlea and peripheral vestibular labyrinth. Given the similar physiology between these two organs, hearing loss and vestibular dysfunction may be expected to occur simultaneously in individuals segregating mutations in inner ear genes. Twenty-two different genes have been discovered that when mutated lead to non-syndromic autosomal dominant hearing loss. A review of the literature indicates that families segregating mutations in 13 of these 22 genes have undergone formal clinical vestibular testing. Formal assessment revealed vestibular dysfunction in families with mutations in ten of these 13 genes. Remarkably, only families with mutations in the COCH and MYO7A genes self-report considerable vestibular challenges. Families segregating mutations in the other eight genes do not self-report significant balance problems and appear to compensate well in everyday life for vestibular deficits discovered during formal clinical vestibular assessment. An example of a family (referred to as the HL1 family) with progressive hearing loss and clinically-detected vestibular hypofunction that does not report vestibular symptoms is described in this review. Notably, one member of the HL1 family with clinically-detected vestibular hypofunction reached the summit of Mount Kilimanjaro. PMID:18776598

  11. Development of a CFD Code for Analysis of Fluid Dynamic Forces in Seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Athavale, Mahesh M.; Przekwas, Andrzej J.; Singhal, Ashok K.

    1991-01-01

    The aim is to develop a 3-D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code for the analysis of fluid flow in cylindrical seals and evaluation of the dynamic forces on the seals. This code is expected to serve as a scientific tool for detailed flow analysis as well as a check for the accuracy of the 2D industrial codes. The features necessary in the CFD code are outlined. The initial focus was to develop or modify and implement new techniques and physical models. These include collocated grid formulation, rotating coordinate frames and moving grid formulation. Other advanced numerical techniques include higher order spatial and temporal differencing and an efficient linear equation solver. These techniques were implemented in a 2D flow solver for initial testing. Several benchmark test cases were computed using the 2D code, and the results of these were compared to analytical solutions or experimental data to check the accuracy. Tests presented here include planar wedge flow, flow due to an enclosed rotor, and flow in a 2D seal with a whirling rotor. Comparisons between numerical and experimental results for an annular seal and a 7-cavity labyrinth seal are also included.

  12. Definition study for an advanced cosmic ray experiment utilizing the long duration exposure facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, P. B.

    1982-01-01

    To achieve the goals of cosmic ray astrophysics, an ultraheavy cosmic ray experiment on an LDEF reflight should be in an orbit with high inclination (approximately 57 deg) at approximately 230 nm for approximately 2 years near solar minimum (approximately 1986). It should fill 61 trays. Each tray should contain 4 modules of total active area 0.7 sq m, with a thermal blanket, thermal labyrinth mounts, aluminum honeycomb mechanical support, and total weight approximately 100 kg. Each module should contain interleaved CR39, Lexan, and thin copper sheets plus one event-thermometer canned in a thin metal cannister sealed with approximately 0.2 atm dry O2. The CR39 and Lexan should be manufactured to specifications and the sheet copper rolled to specifications. The event-thermometer should be a stiffened CR39 sheet that slides via bimetal strips relative to fixed CR39 sheet so that stack temperature can be read out for each event. The metal cannister can be collapsed at launch and landing, capturing the sliding assembly to prevent damage. An engineering study should be made of a prototype LDEF tray; this will include thermal and mechanical tests of detectors and the event thermometer.

  13. Multifunctional substrate of Al alloy based on general hierarchical micro/nanostructures: superamphiphobicity and enhanced corrosion resistance.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuewu; Shi, Tian; Liu, Cong; Zhang, Qiaoxin; Huang, Xingjiu

    2016-10-24

    Aluminum alloys are vulnerable to penetrating and peeling failures in seawater and preparing a barrier coating to isolate the substrate from corrosive medium is an effective anticorrosion method. Inspired by the lotus leaves effect, a wetting alloy surface with enhanced anticorrosion behavior has been prepared via etch, deposition, and low-surface-energy modification. Results indicate that excellent superamphiphobicity has been achieved after the modification of the constructed hierarchical labyrinth-like microstructures and dendritic nanostructures. The as-prepared surface is also found with good chemical stability and mechanical durability. Furthermore, superior anticorrosion behaviors of the resultant samples in seawater are investigated by electrochemical measurements. Due to trapped air in micro/nanostructures, the newly presented solid-air-liquid contacting interface can help to resist the seawater penetration by greatly reducing the interface interaction between corrosive ions and the superamphiphobic surface. Finally, an optimized two-layer perceptron artificial neural network is set up to model and predict the cause-and-effect relationship between preparation conditions and the anticorrosion parameters. This work provides a great potential to extend the applications of aluminum alloys especially in marine engineering fields.

  14. Lionfish predators use flared fin displays to initiate cooperative hunting

    PubMed Central

    Lönnstedt, Oona M.; Ferrari, Maud C. O.; Chivers, Douglas P.

    2014-01-01

    Despite considerable study, mystery surrounds the use of signals that initiate cooperative hunting in animals. Using a labyrinth test chamber, we examined whether a lionfish, Dendrochirus zebra, would initiate cooperative hunts with piscine partners. We found that D. zebra uses a stereotyped flared fin display to alert conspecific and heterospecific lionfish species Pterois antennata to the presence of prey. Per capita success rate was significantly higher for cooperative hunters when compared with solitary ones, with hunt responders assisting hunt initiators in cornering the prey using their large extended pectoral fins. The initiators would most often take the first strike at the group of prey, but both hunters would then alternate striking at the remaining prey. Results suggest that the cooperative communication signal may be characteristic to the lionfish family, as interspecific hunters were equally coordinated and successful as intraspecific hunters. Our findings emphasize the complexity of collaborative foraging behaviours in lionfish; the turn-taking in strikes suggests that individuals do not solely try to maximize their own hunting success: instead they equally share the resources between themselves. Communicative group hunting has enabled Pteroine fish to function as highly efficient predators. PMID:24966203

  15. Creation of virtual patients for midwifery education.

    PubMed

    Urbanová, Eva; Bašková, Martina; Maskálová, Erika; Kvaltínyová, Eva

    2018-07-01

    The objective of the study was to create several new, original virtual patients (VPs) in the Slovak language, especially for educational purposes in midwifery. Virtual patients have been created for the needs of university midwifery education in Slovakia. The creation of the six virtual patients basically consisted of three fixed stages: preparation, design and development, implementation into the virtual environment. We used the Open Labyrinth (OL) virtual environment, an open-source system for creating VPs. The VPs include six various scenarios of the most common problems seen in midwifery practice: preterm birth, perinatal loss, gestational diabetes, ineffective breastfeeding, postpartum bleeding and sudden home birth. Currently, six original virtual patients are used in university midwifery education in Slovakia. We use them for contact teaching as well as self-study of students. They present the first VPs in Slovakia and the Czech Republic created in academic settings in these countries. The future perspective of a virtual patient as an interactive process between the student and the medium is that it can deepen and improve learning outcomes, solve specific midwifery issues, and reduce mistakes in the clinical environment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Tinnitus pitch and minimum masking levels in different etiologies.

    PubMed

    Zagólski, Olaf; Stręk, Paweł

    2014-07-01

    We sought to determine whether the results of audiological tests and tinnitus characteristics, particularly tinnitus pitch and minimum masking level (MML), depend on tinnitus etiology, and what other etiology-specific tinnitus characteristics there are. The patients answered questions concerning tinnitus laterality, duration, character, aggravation, alleviation, previous treatment, and circumstances of onset. The results of tympanometry, pure-tone audiometry, distortion-product otoacoustic emissions, tinnitus likeness spectrum, MML, and uncomfortable loudness level were evaluated. Patients with several tinnitus etiological factors were excluded. The remaining participants were divided into groups according to medical history: acute acoustic trauma: 67 ears; chronic acoustic trauma: 82; prolonged use of oral estrogen and progesterone contraceptives: 46; Ménière's disease: 25; congenital hearing loss: 19; sensorineural sudden deafness: 40; dull head trauma: 19; viral labyrinthitis: 53; stroke: 6; presbycusis: 152. Data of 509 ears were analysed. Tinnitus pitch was highest in patients with acute acoustic trauma and lowest in patients receiving estrogen and progesterone. MML was lowest after acute acoustic trauma and in congenital hearing loss, and highest after a stroke and in the case of presbytinnitus. Tinnitus pitch and MML are etiology dependent.

  17. Definition study for an advanced cosmic ray experiment utilizing the long duration exposure facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, P. B.

    1982-06-01

    To achieve the goals of cosmic ray astrophysics, an ultraheavy cosmic ray experiment on an LDEF reflight should be in an orbit with high inclination (approximately 57 deg) at approximately 230 nm for approximately 2 years near solar minimum (approximately 1986). It should fill 61 trays. Each tray should contain 4 modules of total active area 0.7 sq m, with a thermal blanket, thermal labyrinth mounts, aluminum honeycomb mechanical support, and total weight approximately 100 kg. Each module should contain interleaved CR39, Lexan, and thin copper sheets plus one event-thermometer canned in a thin metal cannister sealed with approximately 0.2 atm dry O2. The CR39 and Lexan should be manufactured to specifications and the sheet copper rolled to specifications. The event-thermometer should be a stiffened CR39 sheet that slides via bimetal strips relative to fixed CR39 sheet so that stack temperature can be read out for each event. The metal cannister can be collapsed at launch and landing, capturing the sliding assembly to prevent damage. An engineering study should be made of a prototype LDEF tray; this will include thermal and mechanical tests of detectors and the event thermometer.

  18. Fabrication of nano-structured super-hydrophobic film on aluminum by controllable immersing method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ruomei; Liang, Shuquan; Pan, Anqiang; Yuan, Zhiqing; Tang, Yan; Tan, Xiaoping; Guan, Dikai; Yu, Ya

    2012-06-01

    Aluminum alloy surface can be etched easily in acid environment, but the microstructure of alloy surface hardly meets the customers' demand. In this work, a facile acidic-assistant surface oxidation technique has been employed to form reproducible super-hydrophobic surfaces on aluminum alloy plates. The samples immersed in three different acid solutions at ambient temperatures are studied and the results demonstrated that the aqueous mixture solution of oxalic acid and hydrochloric is easier to produce better faces and better stability. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectrometer, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and water contact angle measurement are used to investigate the morphologies, microstructures, chemical compositions and hydrophobicity of the produced films on aluminum substrates. The surfaces, configured of a labyrinth structure with convexity and concavity, are in different roughness and gloss because of the different recipe acid solutions used. Better roughness of the surface can be obtained by adjusting the concentration of Clˉ and oxalate ions in acid solutions. The present research work provides a new strategy for the controllable preparation super-hydrophobic films of general materials on aluminum alloy for practical industrial applications.

  19. Policy improvement by a model-free Dyna architecture.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Kao-Shing; Lo, Chia-Yue

    2013-05-01

    The objective of this paper is to accelerate the process of policy improvement in reinforcement learning. The proposed Dyna-style system combines two learning schemes, one of which utilizes a temporal difference method for direct learning; the other uses relative values for indirect learning in planning between two successive direct learning cycles. Instead of establishing a complicated world model, the approach introduces a simple predictor of average rewards to actor-critic architecture in the simulation (planning) mode. The relative value of a state, defined as the accumulated differences between immediate reward and average reward, is used to steer the improvement process in the right direction. The proposed learning scheme is applied to control a pendulum system for tracking a desired trajectory to demonstrate its adaptability and robustness. Through reinforcement signals from the environment, the system takes the appropriate action to drive an unknown dynamic to track desired outputs in few learning cycles. Comparisons are made between the proposed model-free method, a connectionist adaptive heuristic critic, and an advanced method of Dyna-Q learning in the experiments of labyrinth exploration. The proposed method outperforms its counterparts in terms of elapsed time and convergence rate.

  20. Multifunctional substrate of Al alloy based on general hierarchical micro/nanostructures: superamphiphobicity and enhanced corrosion resistance

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xuewu; Shi, Tian; Liu, Cong; Zhang, Qiaoxin; Huang, Xingjiu

    2016-01-01

    Aluminum alloys are vulnerable to penetrating and peeling failures in seawater and preparing a barrier coating to isolate the substrate from corrosive medium is an effective anticorrosion method. Inspired by the lotus leaves effect, a wetting alloy surface with enhanced anticorrosion behavior has been prepared via etch, deposition, and low-surface-energy modification. Results indicate that excellent superamphiphobicity has been achieved after the modification of the constructed hierarchical labyrinth-like microstructures and dendritic nanostructures. The as-prepared surface is also found with good chemical stability and mechanical durability. Furthermore, superior anticorrosion behaviors of the resultant samples in seawater are investigated by electrochemical measurements. Due to trapped air in micro/nanostructures, the newly presented solid-air-liquid contacting interface can help to resist the seawater penetration by greatly reducing the interface interaction between corrosive ions and the superamphiphobic surface. Finally, an optimized two-layer perceptron artificial neural network is set up to model and predict the cause-and-effect relationship between preparation conditions and the anticorrosion parameters. This work provides a great potential to extend the applications of aluminum alloys especially in marine engineering fields. PMID:27775053

  1. Numerical results of the influence of thermal effects on the turbo machine rotordynamics induced by light-rubs against a brush seal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fay, R.; Kreuzer, D.; Liebich, R.; Wiedemann, T.; Werner, S.

    2018-07-01

    Brush seals are an efficient alternative for labyrinth seals in turbomachinery. Brush seals show on the one hand a better leakage reduction in relation to their axial length and hence allow a shorter design of the machinery. On the other hand, the particularly small gap between bristles and the engine shaft increases the risk of rotor-stator-contact. The flexible brush seals induces basically light-rubs that in some cases might lead to spiral vibrations and thermal mechanical instabilities. Spiral vibrations are caused by a thermal deflection of the rotor induced by a heat flow into the shaft. To predict areas of instabilites during the design process a tool was developed at the Berlin Institute of Technology. The model combines a rotor dynamic model and a thermal model. The thermal system is reduced using a stationary solution, so that the final system, on which the stability analysis is performed, is comparable to the established Kellenberger model. The paper presents the numerical model for the predictions of unstable regions depending on rotational speed. This is illustrated by means of an example of an axial compressor manufactured by MAN Diesel & Turbo.

  2. Small fenestra stapedectomy. A preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Bailey, H A; Pappas, J J; Graham, S S

    1981-08-01

    The small fenestra stapedectomy is based on a rationale of creating a more effective acoustical mechanical transmission system, while reducing potential labyrinthine disturbance. Surgical technique for the small fenestra stapedectomy is described, including the creation of the fenestra and the use of McGee stainless steel piston prosthesis with loose areolar tissue around the piston. Postoperative results are compared in a series of 100 cases, 50 having the small fenestra technique, SFT, and 50 having partial or total footplate removal procedure. Vestibular results demonstrate a noticeable reduction in postoperative complaints of balance disorders in the SFT patients. Hearing results, when compared between the two groups, show a statistically significant advantage for the SFT patients in postoperative high frequency threshold sensitivity and speech discrimination scores. Technical difficulties in creating the fenestra without fracturing the entire footplate are discussed and suggestions made for their avoidance. The advantages of lowered risk, based on reduced trauma to and contamination of the labyrinth, as well as improved high frequency hearing sensitivity and speech discrimination, support the use of this procedure and call for further investigation and development of its clinical potential.

  3. Results of availability imposed configuration details developed for K-DEMO

    DOE PAGES

    Brown, Tom; Titus, Peter; Brooks, Art; ...

    2016-02-05

    We completed a two year study using the Korean fusion demonstration reactor (K-DEMO) where we looked at key Tokamak components and configuration options in preparation of a conceptual design phase. A key part of a device configuration centers on defining an arrangement that enhances the ability to reach high availability values by defining design solutions that foster simplified maintenance operations. In order to maximize the size and minimize the number of in-vessel components enlarged TF coils were defined that incorporate a pair of windings within each coil to mitigate pressure drop issues and to reduce the cost of the coils.more » Furthermore, we defined a semi-permanent shield structure in order to develop labyrinth interfaces between double-null plasma contoured shield modules, provide an entity to align blanket components and provide support against disruption loads—with a load path that equilibrates blanket, TF and PF loads through a base structure. Blanket piping services and auxiliary systems that interface with in-vessel components have played a major role in defining the overall device arrangement—concept details will be presented along with general arrangement features and preliminary results obtained from disruption analysis.« less

  4. Comparative studies on intestine ultrastructure of third-stage larvae and adults of Cystidicoloides ephemeridarum (Nematoda, Cystidicolidae).

    PubMed

    Frantová, Denisa; Moravec, Frantisek

    2004-11-01

    The intestinal epithelium of third-stage larvae and adults of Cystidicoloides ephemeridarum from haemocoel of mayflies and stomach of brown trout was studied by electron microscopy and cytochemistry. In section, the intestine of both stages is composed of a single layer of about ten undifferentiated intestinal cells in a ring. A labyrinth of deep invaginations is present in the basal region of each cell. The apical surface is modified into well developed, regularly arranged microvilli. These, together with numerous organelles engaged in metabolism and a well defined gut lumen filled with unidentifiable material suggest that the intestine may function in digestion and absorption during both stages. The adults seem to feed upon the semifluid content of the stomach of brown trout. Fortuitous oral infection with undetermined bacteria in vitro led to degenerative changes in the intestinal tissue and probably caused death of the infected specimens. Up to 75% of the cell volume in the L(3) is occupied by glycogen deposits. In the adults, a minor portion of glycogen, together with lipid droplets, has been observed. The adults are considered to rely more on aerobic metabolism, whereas anaerobic metabolism (glycolysis) may prevail in L(3).

  5. Cryogenic vertical test facility for the SRF cavities at BNL

    SciTech Connect

    Than, R.; Liaw, CJ; Porqueddu, R.

    2011-03-28

    A vertical test facility has been constructed to test SRF cavities and can be utilized for other applications. The liquid helium volume for the large vertical dewar is approximate 2.1m tall by 1m diameter with a clearance inner diameter of 0.95m after the inner cold magnetic shield installed. For radiation enclosure, the test dewar is located inside a concrete block structure. The structure is above ground, accessible from the top, and equipped with a retractable concrete roof. A second radiation concrete facility, with ground level access via a labyrinth, is also available for testing smaller cavities in 2 smaller dewars.more » The cryogenic transfer lines installation between the large vertical test dewar and the cryo plant's sub components is currently near completion. Controls and instrumentations wiring are also nearing completion. The Vertical Test Facility will allow onsite testing of SRF cavities with a maximum overall envelope of 0.9 m diameter and 2.1 m height in the large dewar and smaller SRF cavities and assemblies with a maximum overall envelope of 0.66 m diameter and 1.6 m height.« less

  6. Multifunctional substrate of Al alloy based on general hierarchical micro/nanostructures: superamphiphobicity and enhanced corrosion resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xuewu; Shi, Tian; Liu, Cong; Zhang, Qiaoxin; Huang, Xingjiu

    2016-10-01

    Aluminum alloys are vulnerable to penetrating and peeling failures in seawater and preparing a barrier coating to isolate the substrate from corrosive medium is an effective anticorrosion method. Inspired by the lotus leaves effect, a wetting alloy surface with enhanced anticorrosion behavior has been prepared via etch, deposition, and low-surface-energy modification. Results indicate that excellent superamphiphobicity has been achieved after the modification of the constructed hierarchical labyrinth-like microstructures and dendritic nanostructures. The as-prepared surface is also found with good chemical stability and mechanical durability. Furthermore, superior anticorrosion behaviors of the resultant samples in seawater are investigated by electrochemical measurements. Due to trapped air in micro/nanostructures, the newly presented solid-air-liquid contacting interface can help to resist the seawater penetration by greatly reducing the interface interaction between corrosive ions and the superamphiphobic surface. Finally, an optimized two-layer perceptron artificial neural network is set up to model and predict the cause-and-effect relationship between preparation conditions and the anticorrosion parameters. This work provides a great potential to extend the applications of aluminum alloys especially in marine engineering fields.

  7. Spent caustic oxidation using electro-generated Fenton's reagent in a batch reactor.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Nicolas; Hansen, Henrik K; Nunez, Patricio; Guzman, Jaime

    2008-07-01

    This work shows the results of four Electro-Fenton laboratory tests to reduce the chemical oxygen demand (COD) in spent caustic solutions. The treatment consisted of (i) a pH reduction followed by (ii) an Electro-Fenton process, which was analyzed in this work. The Fenton's reagent was produced in a specially designed reactor, where the waste stream flowed through a labyrinth made by ferrous plates. These plates acted as sacrificial anodes-releasing Fe(2 +) cations to the solution, where H(2)O(2) was also added. The Electro-Fenton process was analyzed varying the ferrous ion concentration ([Fe(+ 2)]), the spent caustic's initial temperature and the initial pH. Close to 95% removal of COD (from 8800 mg L(- 1)) was achieved at a pH of 4, a temperature of 40 degrees C and 100 mg L(- 1) of Fe(+ 2) (applying 1 A). Two models were considered to simulate the behavior of the reactor considering (i) axial dispersion and (ii) kinetic rate, respectively. The model that was based on kinetics, proved to be the slightly closest fit to the experimental values.

  8. Leptin does not induce an inflammatory response in the murine placenta.

    PubMed

    Appel, S; Turnwald, E-M; Alejandre-Alcazar, M A; Ankerne, J; Rother, E; Janoschek, R; Wohlfarth, M; Vohlen, C; Schnare, M; Meißner, U; Dötsch, J

    2014-06-01

    Leptin is described as a pro-inflammatory signal in fat tissue, which is released from adipocytes and in turn activates immune cells. Also, leptin levels are known to be increased in pregnancies complicated with enhanced inflammatory processes in the placenta. Hence, we assumed that increased leptin amounts might contribute to inducing an inflammatory response in the placenta. To test this hypothesis, pregnant mice were continuously infused with recombinant murine leptin s. c. from day g13 to g16, resulting in a 3-fold increase of maternal circulating serum leptin levels. Dissected placentas were examined for the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-alpha and the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 using qPCR analysis. No changes were found except for TNF-alpha, which was slightly elevated upon leptin stimulation. However, TNF-alpha protein levels were not significantly higher in placentas from leptin treated mice. Also, leukocyte infiltration in the labyrinth section of placentas was not increased. In summary, our data demonstrate for the first time that elevated leptin levels alone do not induce an inflammatory response in the placenta. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Can the University Escape from the Labyrinth of Technology? Part 2: Intellectual Map-Making and the Tension between Breadth and Depth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderburg, Willem H.

    2006-01-01

    This second part continues the search for ways of overcoming the three limitations of the current intellectual and professional division of labor and its knowledge infrastructure, which were shown to be at the root of the present economic, social and environmental crises. A complementary knowledge strategy is proposed to counterbalance the trade…

  10. 10 years of Vertigo Clinic at National Hospital Abuja, Nigeria: what have we learned?

    PubMed

    Olusesi, Abiodun D; Abubakar, J

    2016-11-01

    The clinician's major role in management of the dizzy patient involves determining what dizziness is vertigo, and what vertigo is of central or peripheral origin. These demand attention to details of history, otolaryngological workup including vestibular assessment, and often use of diagnostic and management algorithms. There is paucity of published reports of the management outcomes of peripheral vestibular diseases from Africa. Two tertiary care otologist-led dedicated vertigo clinics are located in Abuja, Nigeria. A prospective, non-randomized study of patients presenting with features of peripheral vestibular diseases attending the National Hospital Abuja Nigeria (between May 2005 and April 2014) and CSR Otologics Specialist Clinics (May 2010 to April 2014) was carried out. Both institutions adopted the same diagnostic and management protocols. Data extracted from anonymized databases created for this study include age, sex, vertigo duration (acute <12 weeks, chronic >12 weeks), dizziness handicap inventory score at presentation and at subsequent visits, otological and vestibular findings, ice-water caloric testing results, other investigation outcomes, treatments offered and outcomes. 561/575 (97.5 %) of the cases recorded had peripheral vestibular disease. The male-to-female ratio was 290:271. The mean age of the subjects was 44.7 years. Duration of vertigo at presentation was acute in 278 subjects and chronic in 283 subjects. Identifiable clinical diagnostic groups include BPPV (n = 200), Meniere's disease (n = 189), cervicogenic vertigo (n = 35), labyrinthitis (n = 32), Migraine-associated vertigo (MAV) (n = 32), cholesteatoma/perilymph Fistula (n = 10), climacteric vertigo (n = 8) and unclassified vertigo (n = 55). Migraine-associated vertigo recorded the highest DHI score (95 % CI 75 ± 4.3), followed by cholesteatoma/perilymph fistula (95 % CI 72 ± 6.1) and labyrinthitis (95 % CI 62 ± 1.9). Pure tone audiometry (95 % CI 67

  11. Can the University Escape from the Labyrinth of Technology? Part 4: Extending the Strategy to Medicine, the Social Sciences, and the University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderburg, Willem H.

    2006-01-01

    This fourth part outlines a strategy for overcoming the limitations of the knowledge system for engineering by combining intellectual maps, preventive approaches, umbrella concepts, and round tables as described in the earlier parts. A discussion of the issues faced by modern medicine illustrates the paradigmatic nature of the diagnosis and…

  12. A rat in the labyrinth of anorexia nervosa: contributions of the activity-based anorexia rodent model to the understanding of anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Emilio

    2013-05-01

    Activity-based anorexia (ABA) is an analogous animal model of anorexia nervosa where food-restricted rats develop excessive running activity when given free access to a running wheel; their body weight sharply decreases, and finally self-starvation and death ensue unless animals are removed from the experimental conditions. The parallel of this animal model with major signs in the human disorder has been the focus of much attention from researchers and clinicians as a platform for translational research. The paper reviews the historical antecedents of ABA, research characterizing its occurrence, and its main limitations and strengths as a model of AN. As a symptomatic model of AN, the ABA model can provide clinicians with innovative and alternative routes for improving the treatment of AN. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Calcitic microlenses as part of the photoreceptor system in brittlestars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aizenberg, Joanna; Tkachenko, Alexei; Weiner, Steve; Addadi, Lia; Hendler, Gordon

    2001-08-01

    Photosensitivity in most echinoderms has been attributed to `diffuse' dermal receptors. Here we report that certain single calcite crystals used by brittlestars for skeletal construction are also a component of specialized photosensory organs, conceivably with the function of a compound eye. The analysis of arm ossicles in Ophiocoma showed that in light-sensitive species, the periphery of the labyrinthic calcitic skeleton extends into a regular array of spherical microstructures that have a characteristic double-lens design. These structures are absent in light-indifferent species. Photolithographic experiments in which a photoresist film was illuminated through the lens array showed selective exposure of the photoresist under the lens centres. These results provide experimental evidence that the microlenses are optical elements that guide and focus the light inside the tissue. The estimated focal distance (4-7µm below the lenses) coincides with the location of nerve bundles-the presumed primary photoreceptors. The lens array is designed to minimize spherical aberration and birefringence and to detect light from a particular direction. The optical performance is further optimized by phototropic chromatophores that regulate the dose of illumination reaching the receptors. These structures represent an example of a multifunctional biomaterial that fulfills both mechanical and optical functions.

  14. Morphodifferentiation of Gené's organ in engorged Amblyomma sculptum Berlese, 1888 female ticks (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Marcelo Francisco; Maltauro Soares, Magna Aparecida; Lallo, Maria Anete; Barros-Battesti, Darci Moraes; de Lima-Netto, Solange; Spadacci-Morena, Diva Denelle

    2018-03-01

    The Gené's organ (GO) secretes a waxy substance on eggs that reduces water loss and has antimicrobial properties. The current study evaluated morphological and histochemical aspects of GO in Amblyomma sculptum from the period of post-feeding - when ticks detach from the host - to the stage just before oviposition. In this species, GO is composed of a corpus and two pairs of glands, namely, cranial and caudal. Glandular cells are joined laterally by a system of interdigitating membranes with junctional complexes. Histochemistry showed that lipid droplets became more evident as GO developed, while glycogen gradually disappeared, and proteins were detected only near the onset of oviposition. The ultrastructural results revealed a marked distension of the cuticle filled with an amorphous material. Glandular cells showed poor endoplasmatic reticulum, many mitochondria mainly in the basal cell poles and a very developed basal labyrinth. We concluded that the development of GO in A. sculptum ticks was continuous and progressive, and it started after detachment from the host. Additionally, the ultrastructure study suggests that gland cells have an important absorption ability and a low synthetic activity, which indicates that the majority of wax precursors are derived from haemolymph. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. The Placenta in Monoclea forsteri Hook. and Treubia lacunosa (Col.) Prosk: Insights into Placental Evolution in Liverworts

    PubMed Central

    CARAFA, A.; DUCKETT, J. G.; LIGRONE, R.

    2003-01-01

    Placental morphology is remarkably diverse between major bryophyte groups, especially with regard to the presence and distribution of transfer cells in the sporophyte and gametophyte. In contrast, with the exception of metzgerialean liverworts, placental morphology is highly conserved within major bryophyte groups. Here we examine the ultrastructure of the placenta in Monoclea forsteri and Treubia lacunosa, basal members of the marchantialean and metzgerialean liverwort lineages, respectively. In both species several layers of transfer cells are found on both sides of the placenta, with sporophytic transfer cells exhibiting prominent wall labyrinths. Consistent with previous reports of a similar placenta in other putatively basal and isolated liverwort genera such as Fossombronia, Haplomitrium, Blasia and Sphaerocarpos, this finding suggests that this type of placenta represents the plesiomorphic (primitive) condition in liverworts. Distinctive ultrastructural features of placental cells in Monoclea include branched plasmodesmata in the sporophyte and prominent arrays of smooth endoplasmic reticulum, seemingly active in secretion in the gametophyte. These arrays contain a core of narrow tubules interconnected by electron‐opaque rods, structures with no precedent in plants. Analysis of the distribution of different types of placenta in major bryophyte groups provides valuable insights into their inter‐relationships and possible phylogeny. PMID:12876192

  16. Solving Wakulla Springs underwater mysteries. Using GPS to map Florida's underground caverns

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Am, Ende B.

    2002-01-01

    Located in the Woodville Karst Plain stretching south from Tallahassee to the Gulf of Mexico, Florida's Wakulla Springs is one of the largest and deepest freshwater Springs in the world. It is also a gateway into one of the longest underwater cave system in the United States, a system that remained largely unexplored until recently. Soon, however, thanks to one of the world's most extreme scientific and exploration-related diving projects ever undertaken, visitors to Wakulla Springs State Park will be able to take a virtual tour through the Spring's huge underwater labyrinth. Using such cutting-edge technology as a 3D Digital Wall Mapper (DWM) and the Global Positioning System (GPS), the Wakulla 2 Expedition - with 151 volunteer cave divers, scientists and engineers from all over the world - created the world's first three-dimensional digital map of an underwater cave. Underwater caves are priceless treasures, helping supply fresh water to the region as well as acting as 'time capsules' to the past. Home to creatures found in few other places, areas such as Wakulla face threats of pollution and over-development. Wakulla 2 hopes their 3D interactive 'swim through' will help increase the understanding and preservation of these important areas.

  17. [Peripheral vertigo classification. Consensus document. Otoneurology committee of the Spanish otorhinolaryngology society (2003-2006)].

    PubMed

    Morera, Constantino; Pérez, Herminio; Pérez, Nicolás; Soto, Andrés

    2008-02-01

    There are many different vertigo classifications and different denominations are frequently used for the same clinical processes. The Otoneurology Committee of the Spanish Society for Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Pathology proposes an eminently practical classification of peripheral vertigo to facilitate a common terminology that can be easily used by the general ENT practitioners. The methodology used has been by consensus within our Society and especially among the most outstanding work groups in the area of otoneurology in Spain. Initially vertigo is divided into single-episode vertigo and recurring attacks of vertigo, and these are then sub-divided into 2 groups, depending on whether or not hearing loss is present. Acute vertigo without hearing loss corresponds to vestibular neuritis and if it is associated with hearing loss, it is due to labyrinthitis of different aetiologies and cochleo-vestibular neuritis. Recurrent vertigos without hearing loss are classified as induced, either by posture (BPPV) or pressure (perilymphatic fistula), or as spontaneous, including migraine-associated vertigo, metabolic vertigo, childhood paroxysmal vertigo and vertigo of vascular causes (AITs, vertebral-basilar failure). Finally, recurrent vertigo with hearing loss includes Ménière's disease and others such as vertigo-migraine (with hearing loss), autoimmune pathology of the inner ear, syphilitic infection, and perilymphatic fistula (with hearing loss).

  18. Morphological variation of stimuli-responsive polypeptide at air-water interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Sungchul; Ahn, Sungmin; Cheng, Jie; Chang, Hyejin; Jung, Dae-Hong; Hyun, Jinho

    2016-12-01

    The morphological variation of stimuli-responsive polypeptide molecules at the air-water interface as a function of temperature and compression was described. The surface pressure-area (π-A) isotherms of an elastin-like polypeptide (ELP) monolayer were obtained under variable external conditions, and Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) monolayers were deposited onto a mica substrate for characterization. As the compression of the ELP monolayer increased, the surface pressure increased gradually, indicating that the ELP monolayer could be prepared with high stability at the air-water interface. The temperature in the subphase of the ELP monolayer was critical in the preparation of LB monolayers. The change in temperature induced a shift in the π-A isotherms as well as a change in ELP secondary structures. Surprisingly, the compression of the ELP monolayer influenced the ELP secondary structure due to the reduction in the phase transition temperature with decreasing temperature. The change in the ELP secondary structure formed at the air-water interface was investigated by surface-enhanced Raman scattering. Moreover, the morphology of the ELP monolayer was subsequently imaged using atomic force microscopy. The temperature responsive behavior resulted in changes in surface morphology from relatively flat structures to rugged labyrinth structures, which suggested conformational changes in the ELP monolayers.

  19. Scopolamine provocation-based pharmacological MRI model for testing procognitive agents.

    PubMed

    Hegedűs, Nikolett; Laszy, Judit; Gyertyán, István; Kocsis, Pál; Gajári, Dávid; Dávid, Szabolcs; Deli, Levente; Pozsgay, Zsófia; Tihanyi, Károly

    2015-04-01

    There is a huge unmet need to understand and treat pathological cognitive impairment. The development of disease modifying cognitive enhancers is hindered by the lack of correct pathomechanism and suitable animal models. Most animal models to study cognition and pathology do not fulfil either the predictive validity, face validity or construct validity criteria, and also outcome measures greatly differ from those of human trials. Fortunately, some pharmacological agents such as scopolamine evoke similar effects on cognition and cerebral circulation in rodents and humans and functional MRI enables us to compare cognitive agents directly in different species. In this paper we report the validation of a scopolamine based rodent pharmacological MRI provocation model. The effects of deemed procognitive agents (donepezil, vinpocetine, piracetam, alpha 7 selective cholinergic compounds EVP-6124, PNU-120596) were compared on the blood-oxygen-level dependent responses and also linked to rodent cognitive models. These drugs revealed significant effect on scopolamine induced blood-oxygen-level dependent change except for piracetam. In the water labyrinth test only PNU-120596 did not show a significant effect. This provocational model is suitable for testing procognitive compounds. These functional MR imaging experiments can be paralleled with human studies, which may help reduce the number of false cognitive clinical trials. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Calibration for Thrust and Airflow Measurements in the CE-22 Advanced Nozzle Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werner, Roger A.; Wolter, John D.

    2010-01-01

    CE-22 facility procedures and measurements for thrust and airflow calibration obtained with choked-flow ASME nozzles are presented. Six calibration nozzles are used at an inlet total pressure from 20 to 48 psia. Throat areas are from 9.9986 to 39.986 sq. in.. Throat Reynolds number varies from 1.8 to 7.9 million. Nozzle gross thrust coefficient (CFG) uncertainty is 0.25 to 0.75 percent, with smaller uncertainly generally for larger nozzles and higher inlet total pressure. Nozzle discharge coefficient (CDN) uncertainty is 0.15 percent or less for all the data. ASME nozzle calibrations need to be done before and after research model testing to achieve these uncertainties. In addition, facility capability in terms of nozzle pressure ratio (NPR) and nozzle airflow are determined. Nozzle pressure ratio of 50 or more is obtainable at 40 psia for throat areas between 20 and 30 sq. in.. Also presented are results for two of the ASME nozzles vectored at 10deg, a dead-weight check of the vertical (perpendicular to the jet axis) force measurement, a calibration of load cell forces for the effects of facility tank deflection with tank pressure, and the calibration of the metric-break labyrinth seal.

  1. Ionizing Radiation and the Ear

    SciTech Connect

    Borsanyi, Steven J.

    The effects of ionizing radiation on the ears of 100 patients were studied in the course of treatment of malignant head and neck tumors by teleradiation using Co 60. Early changes consisted of radiation otitis media and a transient vasculitis of the vessels of the inner ear, resulting in hearing loss, tinnitus, and temporary recruitment. While no permanent changes were detected microscopically shortly after the completion of radiation in the cochlea or labyrinth, late changes sometimes occurred in the temporal bone as a result of an obliterating endarteritis. The late changes were separate entities caused primarily by obliterating endarteritis andmore » alterations in the collagen. Radiation affected the hearing of individuals selectively. When hearing threshold shift did occur, the shift was not great. The 4000 cps frequency showed a greater deficit in hearing capacity during the tests, while the area least affected appeared to be in the region of 2000 cps. The shift in speech reception was not significant and it was correlated with the over-all change in response to pure tones. Discrimination did not appear to be affected. Proper shielding of the ear with lead during radiation, when possible, eliminated most complications. (H.R.D.)« less

  2. Venice, Italy

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-09-24

    Four hundred bridges cross the labyrinth of canals that form the 120 islands of Venice, situated in a saltwater lagoon between the mouths of the Po and Piave rivers in northeast Italy. All traffic in the city moves by boat. Venice is connected to the mainland, 4 kilometers (2.5 miles) away, by ferries as well as a causeway for road and rail traffic. The Grand Canal winds through the city for about 3 kilometers (about 2 miles), dividing it into two nearly equal sections. According to tradition, Venice was founded in 452, when the inhabitants of Aquileia, Padua, and several other northern Italian cities took refuge on the islands of the lagoon from the Teutonic tribes invading Italy at that time. This image was acquired on December 9, 2001 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA03860

  3. Advanced Seal Development for Large Industrial Gas Turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chupp, Raymond E.

    2006-01-01

    Efforts are in progress to develop advanced sealing for large utility industrial gas turbine engines (combustion turbines). Such seals have been under developed for some time for aero gas turbines. It is desired to transition this technology to combustion turbines. Brush seals, film riding face and circumferential seals, and other dynamic and static sealing approaches are being incorporated into gas turbines for aero applications by several engine manufacturers. These seals replace labyrinth or other seals with significantly reduced leakage rates. For utility industrial gas turbines, leakage reduction with advanced sealing can be even greater with the enormous size of the components. Challenges to transitioning technology include: extremely long operating times between overhauls; infrequent but large radial and axial excursions; difficulty in coating larger components; and maintenance, installation, and durability requirements. Advanced sealing is part of the Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) engine development being done under a cooperative agreement between Westinghouse and the US Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy. Seal development focuses on various types of seals in the 501ATS engine both at dynamic and static locations. Each development includes rig testing of candidate designs and subsequent engine validation testing of prototype seals. This presentation gives an update of the ongoing ATS sealing efforts with special emphasis on brush seals.

  4. Real behavior in virtual environments: psychology experiments in a simple virtual-reality paradigm using video games.

    PubMed

    Kozlov, Michail D; Johansen, Mark K

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this research was to illustrate the broad usefulness of simple video-game-based virtual environments (VEs) for psychological research on real-world behavior. To this end, this research explored several high-level social phenomena in a simple, inexpensive computer-game environment: the reduced likelihood of helping under time pressure and the bystander effect, which is reduced helping in the presence of bystanders. In the first experiment, participants had to find the exit in a virtual labyrinth under either high or low time pressure. They encountered rooms with and without virtual bystanders, and in each room, a virtual person requested assistance. Participants helped significantly less frequently under time pressure but the presence/absence of a small number of bystanders did not significantly moderate helping. The second experiment increased the number of virtual bystanders, and participants were instructed to imagine that these were real people. Participants helped significantly less in rooms with large numbers of bystanders compared to rooms with no bystanders, thus demonstrating a bystander effect. These results indicate that even sophisticated high-level social behaviors can be observed and experimentally manipulated in simple VEs, thus implying the broad usefulness of this paradigm in psychological research as a good compromise between experimental control and ecological validity.

  5. Hydrostatic fluid pressure in the vestibular organ of the guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Park, Jonas J-H; Boeven, Jahn J; Vogel, Stefan; Leonhardt, Steffen; Wit, Hero P; Westhofen, Martin

    2012-07-01

    Since inner ear hair cells are mechano-electric transducers the control of hydrostatic pressure in the inner ear is crucial. Most studies analyzing dynamics and regulation of inner ear hydrostatic pressure performed pressure measurements in the cochlea. The present study is the first one reporting about absolute hydrostatic pressure values in the labyrinth. Hydrostatic pressure of the endolymphatic system was recorded in all three semicircular canals. Mean pressure values were 4.06 cmH(2)O ± 0.61 in the posterior, 3.36 cmH(2)O ± 0.94 in the anterior and 3.85 cmH(2)O ± 1.38 in the lateral semicircular canal. Overall hydrostatic pressure in the vestibular organ was 3.76 cmH(2)O ± 0.36. Endolymphatic hydrostatic pressure in all three semicircular canals is the same (p = 0.310). With regard to known endolymphatic pressure values in the cochlea from past studies vestibular pressure values are comparable to cochlear values. Until now it is not known whether the reuniens duct and the Bast's valve which are the narrowest passages in the endolymphatic system are open or closed. Present data show that most likely the endolymphatic system is a functionally open entity.

  6. Anatomical evidence for low frequency sensitivity in an archaeocete whale: comparison of the inner ear of Zygorhiza kochii with that of crown Mysticeti

    PubMed Central

    Ekdale, Eric G; Racicot, Rachel A

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of hearing in cetaceans is a matter of current interest given that odontocetes (toothed whales) are sensitive to high frequency sounds and mysticetes (baleen whales) are sensitive to low and potentially infrasonic noises. Earlier diverging stem cetaceans (archaeocetes) were hypothesized to have had either low or high frequency sensitivity. Through CT scanning, the morphology of the bony labyrinth of the basilosaurid archaeocete Zygorhiza kochii is described and compared to novel information from the inner ears of mysticetes, which are less known than the inner ears of odontocetes. Further comparisons are made with published information for other cetaceans. The anatomy of the cochlea of Zygorhiza is in line with mysticetes and supports the hypothesis that Zygorhiza was sensitive to low frequency noises. Morphological features that support the low frequency hypothesis and are shared by Zygorhiza and mysticetes include a long cochlear canal with a high number of turns, steeply graded curvature of the cochlear spiral in which the apical turn is coiled tighter than the basal turn, thin walls separating successive turns that overlap in vestibular view, and reduction of the secondary bony lamina. Additional morphology of the vestibular system indicates that Zygorhiza was more sensitive to head rotations than extant mysticetes are, which likely indicates higher agility in the ancestral taxon. PMID:25400023

  7. Classification and Current Management of Inner Ear Malformations.

    PubMed

    Sennaroğlu, Levent; Bajin, Münir Demir

    2017-09-29

    Morphologically congenital sensorineural hearing loss can be investigated under two categories. The majority of congenital hearing loss causes (80%) are membranous malformations. Here, the pathology involves inner ear hair cells. There is no gross bony abnormality and, therefore, in these cases high-resolution computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the temporal bone reveal normal findings. The remaining 20% have various malformations involving the bony labyrinth and, therefore, can be radiologically demonstrated by computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. The latter group involves surgical challenges as well as problems in decision-making. Some cases may be managed by a hearing aid, others need cochlear implantation, and some cases are candidates for an auditory brainstem implantation (ABI). During cochlear implantation, there may be facial nerve abnormalities, cerebrospinal fluid leakage, electrode misplacement or difficulty in finding the cochlea itself. During surgery for inner ear malformations, the surgeon must be ready to modify the surgical approach or choose special electrodes for surgery. In the present review article, inner ear malformations are classified according to the differences observed in the cochlea. Hearing and language outcomes after various implantation methods are closely related to the status of the cochlear nerve, and a practical classification of the cochlear nerve deficiency is also provided.

  8. Reassessing the improbability of a muscular crinoid stem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorzelak, Przemysław; Głuchowski, Edward; Salamon, Mariusz A.

    2014-08-01

    Muscular articulations in modern stalked crinoids are only present in the arms. Although it has been suggested that certain coiled-stemmed fossil taxa may have been functionally adapted to utilize muscles, evidence supporting this interpretation is lacking. Here, we use cathodoluminescence and SEM to reveal the skeletal microstructure of the enigmatic coiled-stemmed taxon Ammonicrinus (Flexibilia). Based on the well-established link between skeletal microstructure and the nature of infilling soft tissues in modern echinoderms, we reconstructed the palaeoanatomy of the Middle Devonian ammonicrinids. We show that their median columnals with elongated lateral columnal enclosure extensions (LCEE) have stereom microstructure unexpectedly resembling that in the crinoid muscular arm plates. In particular, large ligamentary facets, that are present on each side of a transverse ridge, are mainly comprised of fine galleried stereom that is indicative of the mutable collagenous tissues. In contrast, fine labyrinthic stereom, commonly associated with muscles, is situated in the periphery on each side of the surface of elongated LCEE. Our findings thus strongly suggest that the muscles may have also been present in the stem of ammonicrinids. These results reassess the previous hypotheses about evolution of muscles in crinoids and provide new insights into the mode of life of Ammonicrinus.

  9. Passive vectoring of entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana among the wax moth Galleria mellonella larvae by the ectoparasitoid Habrobracon hebetor females.

    PubMed

    Kryukov, Vadim Yu; Kryukova, Natalia A; Tyurin, Maksim V; Yaroslavtseva, Olga N; Glupov, Viktor V

    2017-03-15

    Females of the ectoparasitoid Habrobracon hebetor attack and envenomate numerous host individuals during oviposition. The vectoring of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana during the adhesion stage by ectoparasitoid females among the wax moth larvae Galleria mellonella was explored under laboratory conditions. Vectoring occurred both from infected parasitoids to wax moth larvae and from infected to healthy wax moth larvae by parasitoids. The efficacy of vectoring in both cases was dose dependent. Parasitoid females were unable to recognize infected larvae in a labyrinth test. In addition, the presence of H. hebetor females significantly (1.5-13 fold) increased the mycoses level in clusters of G. mellonella, with 40% of the larvae infected with fungal conidia. Envenomation by H. hebetor increased conidia germination on the cuticles of the wax moth larvae by 4.4 fold. An enhanced germination rate (2 fold) was registered in the n-hexane epicuticular extract of envenomated larvae compared to that of healthy larvae. Both envenomation and mycoses enhanced the phenoloxidase (PO) activity in the integument of G. mellonella and, in contrast, decreased the encapsulation rate in hemolymphs. We hypothesize that changes in the integument property and inhibition of cellular immunity provide the highest infection efficacy of entomopathogenic fungi with H. hebetor. © 2017 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  10. Pharmacokinetic Properties of Adenosine Amine Congener in Cochlear Perilymph after Systemic Administration.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hao; Telang, Ravindra S; Sreebhavan, Sreevalsan; Tingle, Malcolm; Thorne, Peter R; Vlajkovic, Srdjan M

    2017-01-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is a global health problem affecting over 5% of the population worldwide. We have shown previously that acute noise-induced cochlear injury can be ameliorated by administration of drugs acting on adenosine receptors in the inner ear, and a selective A 1 adenosine receptor agonist adenosine amine congener (ADAC) has emerged as a potentially effective treatment for cochlear injury and resulting hearing loss. This study investigated pharmacokinetic properties of ADAC in rat perilymph after systemic (intravenous) administration using a newly developed liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry detection method. The method was developed and validated in accordance with the USA FDA guidelines including accuracy, precision, specificity, and linearity. Perilymph was sampled from the apical turn of the cochlea to prevent contamination with the cerebrospinal fluid. ADAC was detected in cochlear perilymph within two minutes following intravenous administration and remained in perilymph above its minimal effective concentration for at least two hours. The pharmacokinetic pattern of ADAC was significantly altered by exposure to noise, suggesting transient changes in permeability of the blood-labyrinth barrier and/or cochlear blood flow. This study supports ADAC development as a potential clinical otological treatment for acute sensorineural hearing loss caused by exposure to traumatic noise.

  11. Pharmacokinetic Properties of Adenosine Amine Congener in Cochlear Perilymph after Systemic Administration

    PubMed Central

    Sreebhavan, Sreevalsan; Thorne, Peter R.

    2017-01-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is a global health problem affecting over 5% of the population worldwide. We have shown previously that acute noise-induced cochlear injury can be ameliorated by administration of drugs acting on adenosine receptors in the inner ear, and a selective A1 adenosine receptor agonist adenosine amine congener (ADAC) has emerged as a potentially effective treatment for cochlear injury and resulting hearing loss. This study investigated pharmacokinetic properties of ADAC in rat perilymph after systemic (intravenous) administration using a newly developed liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry detection method. The method was developed and validated in accordance with the USA FDA guidelines including accuracy, precision, specificity, and linearity. Perilymph was sampled from the apical turn of the cochlea to prevent contamination with the cerebrospinal fluid. ADAC was detected in cochlear perilymph within two minutes following intravenous administration and remained in perilymph above its minimal effective concentration for at least two hours. The pharmacokinetic pattern of ADAC was significantly altered by exposure to noise, suggesting transient changes in permeability of the blood-labyrinth barrier and/or cochlear blood flow. This study supports ADAC development as a potential clinical otological treatment for acute sensorineural hearing loss caused by exposure to traumatic noise. PMID:28194422

  12. Antimicrobial Cu-bearing stainless steel scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiang; Ren, Ling; Li, Xiaopeng; Zhang, Shuyuan; Sercombe, Timothy B; Yang, Ke

    2016-11-01

    Copper-bearing stainless steel scaffolds with two different structures (Body Centered Cubic and Gyroid labyrinth) at two solid fractions (25% and 40%) were fabricated from both 316L powder and a mixture of 316L and elemental Cu powder using selective laser melting, and relative 316L scaffolds were served as control group. After processing, the antimicrobial testing demonstrated that the 316L-Cu scaffolds presented excellent antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, and the cell viability assay indicated that there was no cytotoxic effect of 316L-Cu scaffolds on rat marrow mesenchymal stem cells. As such, these have the potential to reduce implant-associated infections. The Cu was also found to homogeneously distribute within the microstructure by scanning electronic microcopy. The addition of Cu would not significantly affect its strength and stiffness compared to 316L scaffold, and the stiffness of all the scaffolds (3-20GPa) is similar to that of bone and much less than that of bulk stainless steel. Consequently, fabrication of such low stiffness porous structures, especially coupled with the addition of antimicrobial Cu, may provide a new direction for medical stainless steels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. [Modification of the retrolabyrinthine approach with hearing preservation in CPA tumors].

    PubMed

    Schipper, J; Lohnstein, P; Stummer, W; Knapp, F; Turowski, B; Klenzner, T

    2010-02-01

    In an anatomical study including a CT scan of the cadaver sections by means of a virtual model analysis the option of a modified retrolabyrinthine passage to the cerebellopontine angle (CPA) preserving the Saccus endolymphaticus and the upper petrosus sinus was analysed. Due to the individual anatomical variations of the petrosus bone the results showed several limitations with regard to the retrolabyrintine passage to the CPA. The smallest distance between the dura of the posterior fossa and the posterior semicircular canal measured in a high resolution CT was of particular importance as to how much room was available for the surgical manipulation in the retrolabyrinthine space. As the back side angle to the petrosus bone is much flatter in a translabyrinthine approach than in a retrosigmoidal approach the internal auditory canal needed to be controlled by using a 30 degree endoscope. In five patients the translabyrinthine approach was modified by temporarily preserving the labyrinth in an effort to remove the CPA tumors. Based on our clinical experience and on the findings of the anatomical and radiological studies we eventually removed the CPA tumors type B2 or C3 in three patients preserving hearing by using a modified retrolabyrinthine approach.

  14. Crustal fingering: solidification on a viscously unstable interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Xiaojing; Jimenez-Martinez, Joaquin; Cueto-Felgueroso, Luis; Porter, Mark; Juanes, Ruben

    2017-11-01

    Motivated by the formation of gas hydrates in seafloor sediments, here we study the volumetric expansion of a less viscous gas pocket into a more viscous liquid when the gas-liquid interfaces readily solidify due to hydrate formation. We first present a high-pressure microfluidic experiment to study the depressurization-controlled expansion of a Xenon gas pocket in a water-filled Hele-Shaw cell. The evolution of the pocket is controlled by three processes: (1) volumetric expansion of the gas; (2) rupturing of existing hydrate films on the gas-liquid interface; and (3) formation of new hydrate films. These result in gas fingering leading to a complex labyrinth pattern. To reproduce these observations, we propose a phase-field model that describes the formation of hydrate shell on viscously unstable interfaces. We design the free energy of the three-phase system to rigorously account for interfacial effects, gas compressibility and phase transitions. We model the hydrate shell as a highly viscous fluid with shear-thinning rheology to reproduce shell-rupturing behavior. We present high-resolution numerical simulations of the model, which illustrate the emergence of complex crustal fingering patterns as a result of gas expansion dynamics modulated by hydrate growth at the interface.

  15. Lionfish predators use flared fin displays to initiate cooperative hunting.

    PubMed

    Lönnstedt, Oona M; Ferrari, Maud C O; Chivers, Douglas P

    2014-06-01

    Despite considerable study, mystery surrounds the use of signals that initiate cooperative hunting in animals. Using a labyrinth test chamber, we examined whether a lionfish, Dendrochirus zebra, would initiate cooperative hunts with piscine partners. We found that D. zebra uses a stereotyped flared fin display to alert conspecific and heterospecific lionfish species Pterois antennata to the presence of prey. Per capita success rate was significantly higher for cooperative hunters when compared with solitary ones, with hunt responders assisting hunt initiators in cornering the prey using their large extended pectoral fins. The initiators would most often take the first strike at the group of prey, but both hunters would then alternate striking at the remaining prey. Results suggest that the cooperative communication signal may be characteristic to the lionfish family, as interspecific hunters were equally coordinated and successful as intraspecific hunters. Our findings emphasize the complexity of collaborative foraging behaviours in lionfish; the turn-taking in strikes suggests that individuals do not solely try to maximize their own hunting success: instead they equally share the resources between themselves. Communicative group hunting has enabled Pteroine fish to function as highly efficient predators. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  16. High morphological variation of vestibular system accompanies slow and infrequent locomotion in three-toed sloths

    PubMed Central

    Billet, Guillaume; Hautier, Lionel; Asher, Robert J.; Schwarz, Cathrin; Crumpton, Nick; Martin, Thomas; Ruf, Irina

    2012-01-01

    The semicircular canals (SCs), part of the vestibular apparatus of the inner ear, are directly involved in the detection of angular motion of the head for maintaining balance, and exhibit adaptive patterns for locomotor behaviour. Consequently, they are generally believed to show low levels of intraspecific morphological variation, but few studies have investigated this assumption. On the basis of high-resolution computed tomography, we present here, to our knowledge, the first comprehensive study of the pattern of variation of the inner ear with a focus on Xenarthra. Our study demonstrates that extant three-toed sloths show a high level of morphological variation of the bony labyrinth of the inner ear. Especially, the variation in shape, relative size and angles of their SCs greatly differ from those of other, faster-moving taxa within Xenarthra and Placentalia in general. The unique pattern of variation in three-toed sloths suggests that a release of selection and/or constraints on their organ of balance is associated with the observed wide range of phenotypes. This release is coincident with their slow and infrequent locomotion and may be related, among other possible factors, to a reduced functional demand for a precise sensitivity to movement. PMID:22859594

  17. A morphometric analysis of vegetation patterns in dryland ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Dekker, Stefan C.; Li, Mao; Mio, Washington; Punyasena, Surangi W.; Lenton, Timothy M.

    2017-01-01

    Vegetation in dryland ecosystems often forms remarkable spatial patterns. These range from regular bands of vegetation alternating with bare ground, to vegetated spots and labyrinths, to regular gaps of bare ground within an otherwise continuous expanse of vegetation. It has been suggested that spotted vegetation patterns could indicate that collapse into a bare ground state is imminent, and the morphology of spatial vegetation patterns, therefore, represents a potentially valuable source of information on the proximity of regime shifts in dryland ecosystems. In this paper, we have developed quantitative methods to characterize the morphology of spatial patterns in dryland vegetation. Our approach is based on algorithmic techniques that have been used to classify pollen grains on the basis of textural patterning, and involves constructing feature vectors to quantify the shapes formed by vegetation patterns. We have analysed images of patterned vegetation produced by a computational model and a small set of satellite images from South Kordofan (South Sudan), which illustrates that our methods are applicable to both simulated and real-world data. Our approach provides a means of quantifying patterns that are frequently described using qualitative terminology, and could be used to classify vegetation patterns in large-scale satellite surveys of dryland ecosystems. PMID:28386414

  18. A morphometric analysis of vegetation patterns in dryland ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Mander, Luke; Dekker, Stefan C; Li, Mao; Mio, Washington; Punyasena, Surangi W; Lenton, Timothy M

    2017-02-01

    Vegetation in dryland ecosystems often forms remarkable spatial patterns. These range from regular bands of vegetation alternating with bare ground, to vegetated spots and labyrinths, to regular gaps of bare ground within an otherwise continuous expanse of vegetation. It has been suggested that spotted vegetation patterns could indicate that collapse into a bare ground state is imminent, and the morphology of spatial vegetation patterns, therefore, represents a potentially valuable source of information on the proximity of regime shifts in dryland ecosystems. In this paper, we have developed quantitative methods to characterize the morphology of spatial patterns in dryland vegetation. Our approach is based on algorithmic techniques that have been used to classify pollen grains on the basis of textural patterning, and involves constructing feature vectors to quantify the shapes formed by vegetation patterns. We have analysed images of patterned vegetation produced by a computational model and a small set of satellite images from South Kordofan (South Sudan), which illustrates that our methods are applicable to both simulated and real-world data. Our approach provides a means of quantifying patterns that are frequently described using qualitative terminology, and could be used to classify vegetation patterns in large-scale satellite surveys of dryland ecosystems.

  19. Excretory calcinosis: a new fatal disease of wild American lobsters Homarus americanus.

    PubMed

    Dove, Alistair D M; LoBue, Carl; Bowser, Paul; Powell, Mark

    2004-03-10

    A significant number of moribund and dead lobsters Homarus americanus were reported to New York state authorities by lobster fishers in Long Island Sound (LIS) during the summer of 2002. Morbid lobsters were characterised by an orange discolouration of the abdomen, lethargy, an excess of epibionts and poor post-capture survival. On necropsy, severe extensive multifocal or diffuse mineralised granulomatous inflammation of the gills and antennal glands was the most striking pathology. In the gills, granulomas often occluded the lumen of filaments, resulting in congestion, ischemia and coagulative necrosis of gill tissues. In the antennal glands, granulomas were concentrated along the border between the coelomosac and labyrinth. No significant pathogens were recovered from diseased individuals. In prechronic individuals, however, it was evident that granulomas were focused around calcium carbonate (aragonite) crystals. This disease may result from anomalously high sea-bottom temperatures in LIS (approximately 23 degrees C) during the summer of 2002 and associated disruptions of the calcium chemistry of lobsters in favour of deposition of minerals in soft tissues. The ultimate cause of death of affected lobsters is probably respiratory failure due to reduced effective surface area of the gills, exacerbated by hypermetabolic temperatures and an abundance of epibionts.

  20. Vestibular-Evoked Myogenic Potentials in Bilateral Vestibulopathy

    PubMed Central

    Rosengren, Sally M.; Welgampola, Miriam S.; Taylor, Rachael L.

    2018-01-01

    Bilateral vestibulopathy (BVP) is a chronic condition in which patients have a reduction or absence of vestibular function in both ears. BVP is characterized by bilateral reduction of horizontal canal responses; however, there is increasing evidence that otolith function can also be affected. Cervical and ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (cVEMPs/oVEMPs) are relatively new tests of otolith function that can be used to test the saccule and utricle of both ears independently. Studies to date show that cVEMPs and oVEMPs are often small or absent in BVP but are in the normal range in a significant proportion of patients. The variability in otolith function is partly due to the heterogeneous nature of BVP but is also due to false negative and positive responses that occur because of the large range of normal VEMP amplitudes. Due to their variability, VEMPs are not part of the diagnosis of BVP; however, they are helpful complementary tests that can provide information about the extent of disease within the labyrinth. This article is a review of the use of VEMPs in BVP, summarizing the available data on VEMP abnormalities in patients and discussing the limitations of VEMPs in diagnosing bilateral loss of otolith function. PMID:29719527