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Sample records for lacking ganglioside gm3

  1. Synthesis and characterization of N-parinaroyl analogs of ganglioside GM3 and de-N-acetyl GM3. Interactions with the EGF receptor kinase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Song, W.; Welti, R.; Hafner-Strauss, S.; Rintoul, D. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    A specific plasma membrane glycosphingolipid, known as ganglioside GM3, can regulate the intrinsic tyrosyl kinase activity of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor; this modulation is not associated with alterations in hormone binding to the receptor. GM3 inhibits EGF receptor tyrosyl kinase activity in detergent micelles, in plasma membrane vesicles, and in whole cells. In addition, immunoaffinity-purified EGF receptor preparations contain ganglioside GM3 (Hanai et al. (1988) J. Biol. Chem. 263, 10915-10921), implying that the glycosphingolipid is intimately associated with the receptor kinase in cell membranes. Both the nature of this association and the molecular mechanism of kinase inhibition remain to be elucidated. In this report, we describe the synthesis of a fluorescent analog of ganglioside GM3, in which the native fatty acid was replaced with trans-parinaric acid. This glycosphingolipid inhibited the receptor kinase activity in a manner similar to that of the native ganglioside. A modified fluorescent glycosphingolipid, N-trans-parinaroyl de-N-acetyl ganglioside GM3, was also prepared. This analog, like the nonfluorescent de-N-acetyl ganglioside GM3, had no effect on receptor kinase activity. Results from tryptophan fluorescence quenching and steady-state anisotropy measurements in membranes containing these fluorescent probes and the human EGF receptor were consistent with the notion that GM3, but not de-N-acetyl GM3, interacts specifically with the receptor in intact membranes.

  2. Neuromuscular synaptic function in mice lacking major subsets of gangliosides.

    PubMed

    Zitman, F M P; Todorov, B; Jacobs, B C; Verschuuren, J J; Furukawa, K; Furukawa, K; Willison, H J; Plomp, J J

    2008-10-28

    Gangliosides are a family of sialylated glycosphingolipids enriched in the outer leaflet of neuronal membranes, in particular at synapses. Therefore, they have been hypothesized to play a functional role in synaptic transmission. We have measured in detail the electrophysiological parameters of synaptic transmission at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) ex vivo of a GD3-synthase knockout mouse, expressing only the O- and a-series gangliosides, as well as of a GM2/GD2-synthase*GD3-synthase double-knockout (dKO) mouse, lacking all gangliosides except GM3. No major synaptic deficits were found in either null-mutant. However, some extra degree of rundown of acetylcholine release at high intensity use was present at the dKO NMJ and a temperature-specific increase in acetylcholine release at 35 degrees C was observed in GD3-synthase knockout NMJs, compared with wild-type. These results indicate that synaptic transmission at the NMJ is not crucially dependent on the particular presence of most ganglioside family members and remains largely intact in the sole presence of GM3 ganglioside. Rather, presynaptic gangliosides appear to play a modulating role in temperature- and use-dependent fine-tuning of transmitter output. PMID:18801416

  3. Ganglioside GM3 synthase depletion reverses neuropathic pain and small fiber neuropathy in diet-induced diabetic mice

    PubMed Central

    Jayaraj, Nirupa D; Wilson, Heather M; Ren, Dongjun; Flood, Kelsey; Wang, Xiao-Qi; Shum, Andrew; Miller, Richard J; Paller, Amy S

    2016-01-01

    Background Small fiber neuropathy is a well-recognized complication of type 2 diabetes and has been shown to be responsible for both neuropathic pain and impaired wound healing. In previous studies, we have demonstrated that ganglioside GM3 depletion by knockdown of GM3 synthase fully reverses impaired wound healing in diabetic mice. However, the role of GM3 in neuropathic pain and small fiber neuropathy in diabetes is unknown. Purpose Determine whether GM3 depletion is able to reverse neuropathic pain and small fibers neuropathy and the mechanism of the reversal. Results We demonstrate that GM3 synthase knockout and the resultant GM3 depletion rescues the denervation in mouse footpad skin and fully reverses the neuropathic pain in diet-induced obese diabetic mice. In cultured dorsal root ganglia from diet-induced diabetic mice, GM3 depletion protects against increased intracellular calcium influx in vitro. Conclusions These studies establish ganglioside GM3 as a new candidate responsible for neuropathic pain and small fiber neuropathy in diabetes. Moreover, these observations indicate that systemic or topically applied interventions aimed at depleting GM3 may improve both the painful neuropathy and the wound healing impairment in diabetes by protecting against nerve end terminal degeneration, providing a disease-modifying approach to this common, currently intractable medical issue. PMID:27590073

  4. Prognostic Significance of N-Glycolyl GM3 Ganglioside Expression in Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma Patients: New Evidences

    PubMed Central

    Blanco, Rancés; Domínguez, Elizabeth; Morales, Orlando; Blanco, Damián; Martínez, Darel; Rengifo, Charles E.; Viada, Carmen; Cedeño, Mercedes; Rengifo, Enrique; Carr, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    The prognostic role of N-glycolyl GM3 ganglioside (NeuGcGM3) expression in non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) still remains controversial. In this study, the NeuGcGM3 expression was reevaluated using an increased number of NSCLC cases and the 14F7 Mab (a highly specific IgG1 raised against NeuGcGM3). An immunohistochemical score integrating the percentage of 14F7-positive cells and the intensity of reaction was applied to reassess the relationship between NeuGcGM3 expression, some clinicopathological features, and the overall survival (OS) of NSCLC patients. The double and the triple expression of NeuGcGM3 with the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and/or its ligand, the epidermal growth factor (EGF), were also evaluated. NeuGcGM3 expression correlates with both S-Phase fraction (p = 0.006) and proliferation index (p = 0.000). Additionally, NeuGcGM3 expression was associated with a poor OS of patients in both univariate (p = 0.020) and multivariate (p = 0.010) analysis. Moreover, the double and/or the triple positivity of tumors to NeuGcGM3, EGFR, and/or EGF permitted us to identify phenotypes of NSCLC with a more aggressive biological behavior. Our results are in agreement with the negative prognostic significance of NeuGcGM3 expression in NSCLC patients. However, standardization of techniques to determine the expression of NeuGcGM3 in NSCLC as well as the implementation of a universal scoring system is recommended. PMID:26634172

  5. Detection of N-glycolyl GM3 ganglioside in neuroectodermal tumors by immunohistochemistry: an attractive vaccine target for aggressive pediatric cancer.

    PubMed

    Scursoni, Alejandra M; Galluzzo, Laura; Camarero, Sandra; Lopez, Jessica; Lubieniecki, Fabiana; Sampor, Claudia; Segatori, Valeria I; Gabri, Mariano R; Alonso, Daniel F; Chantada, Guillermo; de Dávila, María Teresa G

    2011-01-01

    The N-glycolylated ganglioside NeuGc-GM3 has been described in solid tumors such as breast carcinoma, nonsmall cell lung cancer, and melanoma, but is usually not detected in normal human cells. Our aim was to evaluate the presence of NeuGc-GM3 in pediatric neuroectodermal tumors by immunohistochemistry. Twenty-seven archival cases of neuroblastoma and Ewing sarcoma family of tumors (ESFT) were analyzed. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor samples were cut into 5 μm sections. The monoclonal antibody 14F7, a mouse IgG1 that specifically recognizes NeuGc-GM3, and a peroxidase-labeled polymer conjugated to secondary antibodies were used. Presence of NeuGc-GM3 was evident in 23 of 27 cases (85%), with an average of about 70% of positive tumors cells. Immunoreactivity was moderate to intense in most tumors, showing a diffuse cytoplasmic and membranous staining, although cases of ESFT demonstrated a fine granular cytoplasmic pattern. No significant differences were observed between neuroblastoma with and without NMYC oncogene amplification, suggesting that expression of NeuGc-GM3 is preserved in more aggressive cancers. Until now, the expression of N-glycolylated gangliosides in pediatric neuroectodermal tumors has not been investigated. The present study evidenced the expression of NeuGc-GM3 in a high proportion of neuroectodermal tumors, suggesting its potential utility as a specific target of immunotherapy.

  6. Differential uPAR recruitment in caveolar-lipid rafts by GM1 and GM3 gangliosides regulates endothelial progenitor cells angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Margheri, Francesca; Papucci, Laura; Schiavone, Nicola; D'Agostino, Riccardo; Trigari, Silvana; Serratì, Simona; Laurenzana, Anna; Biagioni, Alessio; Luciani, Cristina; Chillà, Anastasia; Andreucci, Elena; Del Rosso, Tommaso; Margheri, Giancarlo; Del Rosso, Mario; Fibbi, Gabriella

    2015-01-01

    Gangliosides and the urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) tipically partition in specialized membrane microdomains called lipid-rafts. uPAR becomes functionally important in fostering angiogenesis in endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) upon recruitment in caveolar-lipid rafts. Moreover, cell membrane enrichment with exogenous GM1 ganglioside is pro-angiogenic and opposite to the activity of GM3 ganglioside. On these basis, we first checked the interaction of uPAR with membrane models enriched with GM1 or GM3, relying on the adoption of solid-supported mobile bilayer lipid membranes with raft-like composition formed onto solid hydrophilic surfaces, and evaluated by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) the extent of uPAR recruitment. We estimated the apparent dissociation constants of uPAR-GM1/GM3 complexes. These preliminary observations, indicating that uPAR binds preferentially to GM1-enriched biomimetic membranes, were validated by identifying a pro-angiogenic activity of GM1-enriched EPCs, based on GM1-dependent uPAR recruitment in caveolar rafts. We have observed that addition of GM1 to EPCs culture medium promotes matrigel invasion and capillary morphogenesis, as opposed to the anti-angiogenesis activity of GM3. Moreover, GM1 also stimulates MAPKinases signalling pathways, typically associated with an angiogenesis program. Caveolar-raft isolation and Western blotting of uPAR showed that GM1 promotes caveolar-raft partitioning of uPAR, as opposed to control and GM3-challenged EPCs. By confocal microscopy, we have shown that in EPCs uPAR is present on the surface in at least three compartments, respectively, associated to GM1, GM3 and caveolar rafts. Following GM1 exogenous addition, the GM3 compartment is depleted of uPAR which is recruited within caveolar rafts thereby triggering angiogenesis. PMID:25313007

  7. Differential uPAR recruitment in caveolar-lipid rafts by GM1 and GM3 gangliosides regulates endothelial progenitor cells angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Margheri, Francesca; Papucci, Laura; Schiavone, Nicola; D'Agostino, Riccardo; Trigari, Silvana; Serratì, Simona; Laurenzana, Anna; Biagioni, Alessio; Luciani, Cristina; Chillà, Anastasia; Andreucci, Elena; Del Rosso, Tommaso; Margheri, Giancarlo; Del Rosso, Mario; Fibbi, Gabriella

    2015-01-01

    Gangliosides and the urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) tipically partition in specialized membrane microdomains called lipid-rafts. uPAR becomes functionally important in fostering angiogenesis in endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) upon recruitment in caveolar-lipid rafts. Moreover, cell membrane enrichment with exogenous GM1 ganglioside is pro-angiogenic and opposite to the activity of GM3 ganglioside. On these basis, we first checked the interaction of uPAR with membrane models enriched with GM1 or GM3, relying on the adoption of solid-supported mobile bilayer lipid membranes with raft-like composition formed onto solid hydrophilic surfaces, and evaluated by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) the extent of uPAR recruitment. We estimated the apparent dissociation constants of uPAR-GM1/GM3 complexes. These preliminary observations, indicating that uPAR binds preferentially to GM1-enriched biomimetic membranes, were validated by identifying a pro-angiogenic activity of GM1-enriched EPCs, based on GM1-dependent uPAR recruitment in caveolar rafts. We have observed that addition of GM1 to EPCs culture medium promotes matrigel invasion and capillary morphogenesis, as opposed to the anti-angiogenesis activity of GM3. Moreover, GM1 also stimulates MAPKinases signalling pathways, typically associated with an angiogenesis program. Caveolar-raft isolation and Western blotting of uPAR showed that GM1 promotes caveolar-raft partitioning of uPAR, as opposed to control and GM3-challenged EPCs. By confocal microscopy, we have shown that in EPCs uPAR is present on the surface in at least three compartments, respectively, associated to GM1, GM3 and caveolar rafts. Following GM1 exogenous addition, the GM3 compartment is depleted of uPAR which is recruited within caveolar rafts thereby triggering angiogenesis. PMID:25313007

  8. Differential uPAR recruitment in caveolar-lipid rafts by GM1 and GM3 gangliosides regulates endothelial progenitor cells angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Margheri, Francesca; Papucci, Laura; Schiavone, Nicola; D'Agostino, Riccardo; Trigari, Silvana; Serratì, Simona; Laurenzana, Anna; Biagioni, Alessio; Luciani, Cristina; Chillà, Anastasia; Andreucci, Elena; Del Rosso, Tommaso; Margheri, Giancarlo; Del Rosso, Mario; Fibbi, Gabriella

    2015-01-01

    Gangliosides and the urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) tipically partition in specialized membrane microdomains called lipid-rafts. uPAR becomes functionally important in fostering angiogenesis in endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) upon recruitment in caveolar-lipid rafts. Moreover, cell membrane enrichment with exogenous GM1 ganglioside is pro-angiogenic and opposite to the activity of GM3 ganglioside. On these basis, we first checked the interaction of uPAR with membrane models enriched with GM1 or GM3, relying on the adoption of solid-supported mobile bilayer lipid membranes with raft-like composition formed onto solid hydrophilic surfaces, and evaluated by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) the extent of uPAR recruitment. We estimated the apparent dissociation constants of uPAR-GM1/GM3 complexes. These preliminary observations, indicating that uPAR binds preferentially to GM1-enriched biomimetic membranes, were validated by identifying a pro-angiogenic activity of GM1-enriched EPCs, based on GM1-dependent uPAR recruitment in caveolar rafts. We have observed that addition of GM1 to EPCs culture medium promotes matrigel invasion and capillary morphogenesis, as opposed to the anti-angiogenesis activity of GM3. Moreover, GM1 also stimulates MAPKinases signalling pathways, typically associated with an angiogenesis program. Caveolar-raft isolation and Western blotting of uPAR showed that GM1 promotes caveolar-raft partitioning of uPAR, as opposed to control and GM3-challenged EPCs. By confocal microscopy, we have shown that in EPCs uPAR is present on the surface in at least three compartments, respectively, associated to GM1, GM3 and caveolar rafts. Following GM1 exogenous addition, the GM3 compartment is depleted of uPAR which is recruited within caveolar rafts thereby triggering angiogenesis.

  9. Increased Expression of Simple Ganglioside Species GM2 and GM3 Detected by MALDI Imaging Mass Spectrometry in a Combined Rat Model of Aβ Toxicity and Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Caughlin, Sarah; Hepburn, Jeffrey D.; Park, Dae Hee; Jurcic, Kristina; Yeung, Ken K.-C.; Cechetto, David F.; Whitehead, Shawn N.

    2015-01-01

    The aging brain is often characterized by the presence of multiple comorbidities resulting in synergistic damaging effects in the brain as demonstrated through the interaction of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and stroke. Gangliosides, a family of membrane lipids enriched in the central nervous system, may have a mechanistic role in mediating the brain’s response to injury as their expression is altered in a number of disease and injury states. Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization (MALDI) Imaging Mass Spectrometry (IMS) was used to study the expression of A-series ganglioside species GD1a, GM1, GM2, and GM3 to determine alteration of their expression profiles in the presence of beta-amyloid (Aβ) toxicity in addition to ischemic injury. To model a stroke, rats received a unilateral striatal injection of endothelin-1 (ET-1) (stroke alone group). To model Aβ toxicity, rats received intracerebralventricular (icv) injections of the toxic 25-35 fragment of the Aβ peptide (Aβ alone group). To model the combination of Aβ toxicity with stroke, rats received both the unilateral ET-1 injection and the bilateral icv injections of Aβ₂₅₋₃₅ (combined Aβ/ET-1 group). By 3 d, a significant increase in the simple ganglioside species GM2 was observed in the ischemic brain region of rats who received a stroke (ET-1), with or without Aβ. By 21 d, GM2 levels only remained elevated in the combined Aβ/ET-1 group. GM3 levels however demonstrated a different pattern of expression. By 3 d GM3 was elevated in the ischemic brain region only in the combined Aβ/ET-1 group. By 21 d, GM3 was elevated in the ischemic brain region in both stroke alone and Aβ/ET-1 groups. Overall, results indicate that the accumulation of simple ganglioside species GM2 and GM3 may be indicative of a mechanism of interaction between AD and stroke. PMID:26086081

  10. Synthesis of a glioma-related ganglioside, O-Ac GM3 having 3-O-Ac ceramide and its substrate property toward hydrolases.

    PubMed

    Tsuchihashi, K; Daino, T; Akino, T; Gasa, S

    1996-10-01

    An O-acetyl group was selectively introduced into the ceramide moiety at the C-3-O on ganglioside GM3 containing N-acetyl neuraminic acid, the product of which has been previously found in rat glioma tissue as a glioma-associated ganglioside. The introduction of the acetyl residue involved a two-step process involving per O-acetylation of GM3 and saponification with a mild alkaline solution in a bilayer system constituted of water and water-immiscible organic solvent. Of the several solvents studied, 2-pentanol and diethyl ether gave the highest yields (68% and 62%, respectively). The chemical structure of the synthesized 3-O-acetyl GM3 was confirmed by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and fast atom bombardment-mass spectrometry, as well as by comparing the mobilities on thin-layer chromatography of its exoglycosidase-digested products with those of the synthesized, authentic 3-O-acetyl-lactosylceramide and ceramide. Furthermore, the substrate specificities of both 3-O-acetyl GM3 and 3-O-acetyl sphingomyelin toward exo- and endo-hydrolases were examined, revealing that they were hardly cleaved by the endoglycoceramidase and sphingolipid N-deacylase for the 3-O-acetyl GM3 and by sphingomyelinase for 3-O-acetyl sphingomyelin. Thus, the enzymes were found to recognize a free C-3 hydroxyl group on ceramide.

  11. Prognostic Role of 14F7 Mab Immunoreactivity against N-Glycolyl GM3 Ganglioside in Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Calvo, Adanays; Torres, Griselda; Rengifo, Charles E.; Quintero, Santiago; Arango, María del Carmen; Danta, Debora; Vázquez, José M.; Escobar, Xiomara; Carr, Adriana

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To assess the prognostic role of 14F7 Mab immunoreactivity, against N-Glycolyl GM3 ganglioside, in patients with colon cancer (CC) and to evaluate the relationship between its expression and clinicopathological features. Methods. Paraffin-embedded specimens were retrospectively collected from 50 patients with CC operated between 2004 and 2008. 14F7 Mab staining was determined by immunohistochemistry technique and its relation with survival and clinicopathologic features was evaluated. Results. The reactivity of 14F7 Mab was detected in all cases. Most cases had high level of immunostaining (70%) that showed statistical correlation with TNM stage (P = 0.025). In univariate survival analysis, level of 14F7 Mab immunoreactivity (P = 0.0078), TNM Stage (P = 0.0007) and lymphovascular invasion (0.027) were significant prognostic factors for overall survival. Among these variables, level of 14F7 Mab immunoreactivity (HR = 0.268; 95% CI  0.078–0.920; P = 0.036) and TNM stage (HR = 0.249; 95% CI 0.066–0.932; P = 0.039) were independent prognostic factors on multivariate analysis. Conclusions. This study is the first approach on the prognostic significance of 14F7 Mab immunoreactivity in patients with colon adenocarcinoma and this assessment might be used in the prognostic estimate of CC, although further studies will be required to validate these findings. PMID:24639871

  12. Autoantibodies against ganglioside GM3 are associated with narcolepsy-cataplexy developing after Pandemrix vaccination against 2009 pandemic H1N1 type influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Saariaho, Anna-Helena; Vuorela, Arja; Freitag, Tobias L; Pizza, Fabio; Plazzi, Giuseppe; Partinen, Markku; Vaarala, Outi; Meri, Seppo

    2015-09-01

    Following the mass vaccinations against pandemic influenza A/H1N1 virus in 2009, a sudden increase in juvenile onset narcolepsy with cataplexy (NC) was detected in several European countries where AS03-adjuvanted Pandemrix vaccine had been used. NC is a chronic neurological disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy. In human NC, the hypocretin-producing neurons in the hypothalamus or the hypocretin signaling pathway are destroyed by an autoimmune reaction. Both genetic (e.g. HLA-DQB1*0602) and environmental risk factors (e.g. Pandemrix) contribute to the disease development, but the underlying and the mediating immunological mechanisms are largely unknown. Influenza virus hemagglutinin is known to bind gangliosides, which serve as host cell virus receptors. Anti-ganglioside antibodies have previously been linked to various neurological disorders, like the Guillain-Barré syndrome which may develop after infection or vaccination. Because of these links we screened sera of NC patients and controls for IgG anti-ganglioside antibodies against 11 human brain gangliosides (GM1, GM2, GM3, GM4, GD1a, GD1b, GD2, GD3, GT1a, GT1b, GQ1b) and a sulfatide by using a line blot assay. Samples from 173 children and adolescents were analyzed: 48 with Pandemrix-associated NC, 20 with NC without Pandemrix association, 57 Pandemrix-vaccinated and 48 unvaccinated healthy children. We found that patients with Pandemrix-associated NC had more frequently (14.6%) anti-GM3 antibodies than vaccinated healthy controls (3.5%) (P = 0.047). Anti-GM3 antibodies were significantly associated with HLA-DQB1*0602 (P = 0.016) both in vaccinated NC patients and controls. In general, anti-ganglioside antibodies were more frequent in vaccinated (18.1%) than in unvaccinated (7.3%) individuals (P = 0.035). Our data suggest that autoimmunity against GM3 is a feature of Pandemrix-associated NC and that autoantibodies against gangliosides were induced by Pandemrix vaccination.

  13. Milk-derived GM(3) and GD(3) differentially inhibit dendritic cell maturation and effector functionalities.

    PubMed

    Brønnum, H; Seested, T; Hellgren, L I; Brix, S; Frøkiaer, H

    2005-06-01

    Gangliosides are complex glycosphingolipids, which exert immune-modulating effects on various cell types. Ganglioside GD(3) and GM(3) are the predominant gangliosides of human breast milk but during the early phase of lactation, the content of GD(3) decreases while GM(3) increases. The biological value of gangliosides in breast milk has yet to be elucidated but when milk is ingested, dietary gangliosides might conceptually affect immune cells, such as dendritic cells (DCs). In this study, we address the in vitro effect of GD(3) and GM(3) on DC effector functionalities. Treatment of bone marrow-derived DCs with GD(3) before lipopolysaccharide-induced maturation decreased the production of interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-10, IL-12 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha as well as reduced the alloreactivity in mixed leucocyte reaction (MLR). In contrast, only IL-10 and IL-12 productions were significantly inhibited by GM(3,) and the potency of DCs to activate CD4(+) cells in MLR was unaffected by GM(3). However, both gangliosides suppressed expression of CD40, CD80, CD86 and major histocompatibility complex class II on DCs. Because GD(3) overall inhibits DC functionalities more than GM(3), the immune modulating effect of the ganglioside fraction of breast milk might be more prominent in the commencement of lactation during which the milk contains the most GD(3). PMID:15963050

  14. Cholera Toxin and Cell Growth: Role of Membrane Gangliosides

    PubMed Central

    Hollenberg, Morley D.; Fishman, Peter H.; Bennett, Vann; Cuatrecasas, Pedro

    1974-01-01

    The binding of cholera toxin to three transformed mouse cell lines derived from the same parent strain, and the effects of the toxin on DNA synthesis and adenylate cyclase activity, vary in parallel with the ganglioside composition of the cells. TAL/N cells of early passage, which contain large quantities of gangliosides GM3, GM2, GM1, and GDla, as well as the glycosyltransferases necessary for the synthesis of these gangliosides, bind the most cholera toxin and are the most sensitive to its action. TAL/N cells of later passage, which lack chemically detectable GM1 and GDla and which have no UDP-Gal:GM2 galactosyltransferase activity, are intermediate in binding and response to the toxin. SVS AL/N cells, which lack GM2 in addition to GM1 and GDla and which have little detectable UDP-GalNAc:GM3N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase activity, bind the least amount of toxin. The SVS AL/N cells are the least responsive to inhibition of DNA synthesis and stimulation of adenylate cyclase activity by cholera toxin. Gangliosides (especially GM1), which appear to be the natural membrane receptors for cholera toxin, may normally have important roles in the regulation of cell growth and cAMP-mediated responses. PMID:4530298

  15. Effect of the β-propiolactone treatment on the adsorption and fusion of influenza A/Brisbane/59/2007 and A/New Caledonia/20/1999 virus H1N1 on a dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine/ganglioside GM3 mixed phospholipids monolayer at the air-water interface.

    PubMed

    Desbat, Bernard; Lancelot, Eloïse; Krell, Tino; Nicolaï, Marie-Claire; Vogel, Fred; Chevalier, Michel; Ronzon, Frédéric

    2011-11-15

    The production protocol of many whole cell/virion vaccines involves an inactivation step with β-propiolactone (BPL). Despite the widespread use of BPL, its mechanism of action is poorly understood. Earlier work demonstrated that BPL alkylates nucleotide bases, but its interaction with proteins has not been studied in depth. In the present study we use ellipsometry to analyze the influence of BPL treatment of two H1N1 influenza strains, A/Brisbane/59/2007 and A/New Caledonia/20/1999, which are used for vaccine production on an industrial scale. Analyses were conducted using a mixed lipid monolayer containing ganglioside GM3, which functions as the viral receptor. Our results show that BPL treatment of both strains reduces viral affinity for the mixed monolayer and also diminishes the capacity of viral domains to self-assemble. In another series of experiments, the pH of the subphase was reduced from 7.4 to 5 to provoke the pH-induced conformational change of hemagglutinin, which occurs following endocytosis into the endosome. In the presence of the native virus the pH decrease caused a reduction in domain size, whereas lipid layer thickness and surface pressure were increased. These observations are consistent with a fusion of the viral membrane with the lipid monolayer. Importantly, this fusion was not observed with adsorbed inactivated virus, which indicates that BPL treatment inhibits the first step of virus-membrane fusion. Our data also indicate that BPL chemically modifies hemagglutinin, which mediates the interaction with GM3.

  16. Neuromuscular synaptic transmission in aged ganglioside-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Zitman, Femke M P; Todorov, Boyan; Verschuuren, Jan J; Jacobs, Bart C; Furukawa, Keiko; Furukawa, Koichi; Willison, Hugh J; Plomp, Jaap J

    2011-01-01

    Gangliosides are sialylated glycosphingolipids that are present in high density on neuronal membranes, especially at synapses, where they are assumed to play functional or modulating roles. Mice lacking GM2/GD2-synthase express only the simple gangliosides GD3 and GM3 and develop progressive motor behaviour deficits upon ageing, apparently due to failing complex ganglioside-dependent maintenance and/or repair processes or, alternatively, toxic GM3/GD3 accumulation. We investigated the function of neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) of aged (>9 month-old) GM2/GD2-synthase null-mutant mice, because synaptic dysfunction might develop with age and could potentially contribute to the late-onset motor phenotype. In addition, we studied NMJs of old mice lacking GD3-synthase (expressing only O- and a-series gangliosides), which do not show an overt neurological phenotype but may develop subclinical synaptic deficits. Detailed electrophysiological analyses showed subtle changes in presynaptic neurotransmitter release. Acetylcholine release at 40 Hz nerve stimulation at aged GM2/GD2-synthase null-mutant NMJs ran down slightly more pronounced than at wild-type NMJs, and spontaneous acetylcholine release rate at GD3-synthase null-mutant NMJs was somewhat higher than at wild-type, selectively at 25 °C bath temperature. Interestingly, we observed faster kinetics of postsynaptic electrophysiological responses at aged GD3-synthase null-mutant NMJs, not previously seen by us at NMJs of young GD3-synthase null-mutants or other types of (aged or young) ganglioside-deficient mice. These kinetic changes might reflect a change in postsynaptic acetylcholine receptor behaviour. Our data indicate that it is highly unlikely that transmission failure at NMJs contributes to the progressive motor defects of aged GM2/GD2-synthase null-mutants and that, despite some kinetic changes of synaptic signals, neuromuscular transmission remains successful in aged GD3-synthase null-mutant mice. Apparently

  17. Genetics Home Reference: GM3 synthase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... GM3 synthase deficiency is characterized by recurrent seizures (epilepsy) and problems with brain development. Within the first ... diagnosis or management of GM3 synthase deficiency: American Epilepsy Society: Find a Doctor Clinic for Special Children ( ...

  18. Ganglioside-magnetosome complex formation enhances uptake of gangliosides by cells

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Feng; Li, Xiang; Guo, Jia; Yang, Ganglong; Li, Xiang

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial magnetosomes, because of their nano-scale size, have a large surface-to-volume ratio and are able to carry large quantities of bioactive substances such as enzymes, antibodies, and genes. Gangliosides, a family of sialic acid-containing glycosphingolipids, function as distinctive cell surface markers and as specific determinants in cellular recognition and cell-to-cell communication. Exogenously added gangliosides are often used to study biological functions, transport mechanisms, and metabolism of their endogenous counterparts. Absorption of gangliosides into cells is typically limited by their tendency to aggregate into micelles in aqueous media. We describe here a simple strategy to remove proteins from the magnetosome membrane by sodium dodecyl sulfate treatment, and efficiently immobilize a ganglioside (GM1 or GM3) on the magnetosome by mild ultrasonic treatment. The maximum of 11.7±1.2 µg GM1 and 11.6±1.5 μg GM3 was loaded onto 1 mg magnetosome, respectively. Complexes of ganglioside-magnetosomes stored at 4°C for certain days presented the consistent stability. The use of GM1-magnetosome complex resulted in the greatest enhancement of ganglioside incorporation by cells. GM3-magnetosome complex significantly inhibited EGF-induced phosphorylation of the epidermal growth factor receptor. Both of these effects were further enhanced by the presence of a magnetic field. PMID:26609230

  19. Anchored and soluble gangliosides contribute to myelosupportivity of stromal cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ziulkoski, Ana L.; Santos, Aline X.S. dos; Andrade, Claudia M.B.; Trindade, Vera M.T.; Daniotti, Jose Luis; Borojevic, Radovan; Guma, Fatima C.R.

    2009-10-09

    Stroma-mediated myelopoiesis depends upon growth factors and an appropriate intercellular microenvironment. Previous studies have demonstrated that gangliosides, produced by hepatic stromal cell types, are required for optimal myelosupportive function. Here, we compared the mielossuportive functions of a bone marrow stroma (S17) and skin fibroblasts (SF) regarding their ganglioside pattern of synthesis and shedding. The survival and proliferation of a myeloid precursor cell (FDC-P1) were used as reporter. Although the ganglioside synthesis of the two stromal cells was similar, their relative content and shedding were distinct. The ganglioside requirement for mielossuportive function was confirmed by the decreased proliferation of FDC-P1 cells in ganglioside synthesis-inhibited cultures and in presence of an antibody to GM3 ganglioside. The distinct mielossuportive activities of the S17 and SF stromata may be related to differences on plasma membrane ganglioside concentrations or to differences on the gangliosides shed and their subsequent uptake by myeloid cells, specially, GM3 ganglioside.

  20. Gangliosides have a functional role during rotavirus cell entry.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Miguel Angel; López, Susana; Arias, Carlos F; Isa, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    Cell entry of rotaviruses is a complex process, which involves sequential interactions with several cell surface molecules. Among the molecules implicated are gangliosides, glycosphingolipids with one or more sialic acid (SA) residues. The role of gangliosides in rotavirus cell entry was studied by silencing the expression of two key enzymes involved in their biosynthesis--the UDP-glucose:ceramide glucosyltransferase (UGCG), which transfers a glucose molecule to ceramide to produce glucosylceramide GlcCer, and the lactosyl ceramide-α-2,3-sialyl transferase 5 (GM3-s), which adds the first SA to lactoceramide-producing ganglioside GM3. Silencing the expression of both enzymes resulted in decreased ganglioside levels (as judged by GM1a detection). Four rotavirus strains tested (human Wa, simian RRV, porcine TFR-41, and bovine UK) showed a decreased infectivity in cells with impaired ganglioside synthesis; however, their replication after bypassing the entry step was not affected, confirming the importance of gangliosides for cell entry of the viruses. Interestingly, viral binding to the cell surface was not affected in cells with inhibited ganglioside synthesis, but the infectivity of all strains tested was inhibited by preincubation of gangliosides with virus prior to infection. These data suggest that rotaviruses can attach to cell surface in the absence of gangliosides but require them for productive cell entry, confirming their functional role during rotavirus cell entry.

  1. Ganglioside and Non-ganglioside Mediated Host Responses to the Mouse Polyomavirus.

    PubMed

    You, John; O'Hara, Samantha D; Velupillai, Palanivel; Castle, Sherry; Levery, Steven; Garcea, Robert L; Benjamin, Thomas

    2015-10-01

    Gangliosides serve as receptors for internalization and infection by members of the polyomavirus family. Specificity is determined by recognition of carbohydrate moieties on the ganglioside by the major viral capsid protein VP1. For the mouse polyomavirus (MuPyV), gangliosides with terminal sialic acids in specific linkages are essential. Although many biochemical and cell culture experiments have implicated gangliosides as MuPyV receptions, the role of gangliosides in the MuPyV-infected mouse has not been investigated. Here we report results of studies using ganglioside-deficient mice and derived cell lines. Knockout mice lacking complex gangliosides were completely resistant to the cytolytic and pathogenic effects of the virus. Embryo fibroblasts from these mice were likewise resistant to infection, and supplementation with specific gangliosides restored infectibility. Although lacking receptors for viral infection, cells from ganglioside-deficient mice retained the ability to respond to the virus. Ganglioside-deficient fibroblasts responded rapidly to virus exposure with a transient induction of c-fos as an early manifestation of a mitogenic response. Additionally, splenocytes from ganglioside-deficient mice responded to MuPyV by secretion of IL-12, previously recognized as a key mediator of the innate immune response. Thus, while gangliosides are essential for infection in the animal, gangliosides are not required for mitogenic responses and innate immune responses to the virus. PMID:26474471

  2. Suppression of vascular smooth muscle cell responses induced by TNF-α in GM3 synthase gene transfected cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung-Suk; Kim, Wun-Jae; Moon, Sung-Kwon

    2011-01-01

    The natural accumulation of ganglioside GM3 (N-glycolylneuraminic acid) on atherosclerotic lesions is a common theory. The present study is the first to examine the effects of the GM3 synthase gene on the responses of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) to tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). We found that overexpression of the GM3 synthase gene inhibited DNA synthesis and ERK1/2 activity induced by TNF-α in VSMC, whereas the basal levels of DNA synthesis and ERK1/2 activity remained unchanged. In addition, GM3 synthase gene transfectants significantly reduced the migration and invasion of VSMC following TNF-α treatment, compared with empty vector transfectants. Furthermore, TNF-α-induced matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) expression and promoter activity were also decreased in GM3 synthase gene transfectants. GM3 synthase gene expression markedly suppressed the TNF-α-stimulated transcriptional activity of activator protein-1 (AP-1) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), which are the controlling factors of MMP-9 expression. Consistent with these results, the addition of anti-GM3 antibody into the GM3 synthase gene transfectants blocked inhibition of DNA synthesis, ERK1/2 activity, migration and invasion. Finally, GM3 synthase gene transfectants treated with anti-GM3 antibody reversed the suppression of MMP-9 expression by reducing AP-1 and NF-κB binding activity. These results suggest regulatory roles for the GM3 synthase gene in VSMC proliferation and migration during the formation of atherosclerotic lesions.

  3. Exploiting the lactose-GM3 interaction for drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Murthy, Raghavendra Vasudeva; Bavireddi, Harikrishna; Gade, Madhuri; Kikkeri, Raghavendra

    2015-05-01

    Protein-protein and protein-carbohydrate interactions as a means to target the cell surface for therapeutic applications have been extensively investigated. However, carbohydrate-carbohydrate interactions (CCIs) have largely been overlooked. Here, we investigate the concept of CCI-mediated drug delivery. Lactose-functionalized β-cyclodextrin (L-β-CD) hosting doxorubicin (Dox) was evaluated for site-specific delivery to cancer cells via interaction with GM3 , a cell-surface carbohydrate. The host-guest complex was evaluated in B16 melanoma cells, which express exceptionally high levels of GM3 , and acute monocytic leukemia (THP-1) and mouse fibroblast (NIH-3T3) cells, which lack GM3 on the cell surface. Doxorubicin (Dox) was delivered more efficiently into B16 cells compared with NIH-3T3 and THP-1 cells. In B16 cells pretreated with sialidase or sodium periodate, thus preventing CCI formation, drug uptake was significantly decreased. Taken together, the results of these studies strongly support CCI-mediated uptake via the GM3 -lactose interaction as the mechanism of controlled drug delivery.

  4. Ganglioside accumulation in activated glia in the developing brain: comparison between WT and GalNAcT KO mice

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Mariko; Wu, Gusheng; Hui, Maria; Masiello, Kurt; Dobrenis, Kostantin; Ledeen, Robert W.; Saito, Mitsuo

    2015-01-01

    Our previous studies have shown accumulation of GM2 ganglioside during ethanol-induced neurodegeneration in the developing brain, and GM2 elevation has also been reported in other brain injuries and neurodegenerative diseases. Using GM2/GD2 synthase KO mice lacking GM2/GD2 and downstream gangliosides, the current study explored the significance of GM2 elevation in WT mice. Immunohistochemical studies indicated that ethanol-induced acute neurodegeneration in postnatal day 7 (P7) WT mice was associated with GM2 accumulation in the late endosomes/lysosomes of both phagocytic microglia and increased glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive astrocytes. However, in KO mice, although ethanol induced robust neurodegeneration and accumulation of GD3 and GM3 in the late endosomes/lysosomes of phagocytic microglia, it did not increase the number of GFAP-positive astrocytes, and the accumulation of GD3/GM3 in astrocytes was minimal. Not only ethanol, but also DMSO, induced GM2 elevation in activated microglia and astrocytes along with neurodegeneration in P7 WT mice, while lipopolysaccharide, which did not induce significant neurodegeneration, caused GM2 accumulation mainly in lysosomes of activated astrocytes. Thus, GM2 elevation is associated with activation of microglia and astrocytes in the injured developing brain, and GM2, GD2, or other downstream gangliosides may regulate astroglial responses in ethanol-induced neurodegeneration. PMID:26063460

  5. Ganglioside Biochemistry

    PubMed Central

    Kolter, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Gangliosides are sialic acid-containing glycosphingolipids. They occur especially on the cellular surfaces of neuronal cells, where they form a complex pattern, but are also found in many other cell types. The paper provides a general overview on their structures, occurrence, and metabolism. Key functional, biochemical, and pathobiochemical aspects are summarized. PMID:25969757

  6. Gangliosides inhibit the development from monocytes to dendritic cells

    PubMed Central

    WÖLFL, M; BATTEN, W Y; POSOVSZKY, C; BERNHARD, H; BERTHOLD, F

    2002-01-01

    Dendritic cell (DC) development and function is critical in the initiation phase of any antigen-specific immune response against tumours. Impaired function of DC is one explanation as to how tumours escape immunosurveillance. In the presence of various soluble tumour-related factors DC precursors lose their ability to differentiate into mature DC and to activate T cells. Gangliosides are glycosphingolipids shed by tumours of neuroectodermal origin such as melanoma and neuroblastoma. In this investigation we address the question of whether gangliosides suppress the development and function of monocyte-derived DC in vitro. In the presence of gangliosides, the monocytic DC precursors showed increased adherence, cell spreading and a reduced number of dendrites. The expression of MHC class II molecules, co-stimulatory molecules and the GM-CSF receptor (CD116) on the ganglioside-treated DC was significantly reduced. Furthermore, the function of ganglioside-treated DC was impaired as observed in endocytosis, chemotactic and T cell proliferation assays. In contrast to monocytic DC precursors, mature DC were unaffected even when higher doses of gangliosides were added to the culture. With regard to their carbohydrate structure, five different gangliosides (GM2, GM3, GD2, GD3, GT1b), which are typically shed by melanoma and neuroblastoma, were tested for their ability to suppress DC development and function. Suppression was induced by GM2, but not by the other gangliosides. These data suggest that certain gangliosides impair DC precursors, implying a possible mechanism for tumour escape. PMID:12452834

  7. Glycomimicry: display of the GM3 sugar epitope on Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica sv Typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Ilg, Karin; Yavuz, Elif; Maffioli, Carola; Priem, Bernard; Aebi, Markus

    2010-10-01

    Oligosaccharides present on the surface of pathogenic bacteria play an important role in their interaction with their host. Bacteria with altered cell surface structures can be used to study these interactions, and glycoengineering represents a tool to display a glycoepitope on a different bacterium. Here, we present non-pathogenic Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium expressing the sialyllactose oligosaccharide epitope of the ganglioside GM3. By expression of the galactosyltransferase LgtE and the sialic acid transferase Lst as well as the CMP-sialic acid synthetase SiaB from Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Neisseria meningitidis in engineered strains devoid of the sialic acid catabolism, the GM3 sugar epitope was displayed on these bacteria as demonstrated by live cell immunostaining and a detailed analysis of their lipooligosaccharides. These strains offer the possibility to investigate the role of sialic acid in the recognition of bacteria by the immune system in a non-pathogenic background.

  8. [Gangliosides and cancer].

    PubMed

    Dumontet, C; Portoukalian, J

    1991-01-01

    Gangliosides are glycosphingolipids which contain neuraminic acid. Although they are present in the plasma membranes of all cells, gangliosides are expressed differently, both quantitatively and qualitatively, in certain types of cancer. Modifications in ganglioside composition may account for some of the abnormal interactions between these tumor cells and their environment. Furthermore, some of the gangliosides are shed by tumor cells and may modify host immunity, thus contributing to the development of tumors. In cases of melanoma and neuroblastoma, the modifications in ganglioside expression are such that gangliosides may be used both as tumor markers and as targets for immunotherapy.

  9. [Gangliosides in neurological pharmacotherapy].

    PubMed

    Małecki, A; Małecka, E; Trzeciak, H I

    1992-01-01

    Gangliosides take part in synaptic transmission, neuronal metabolism and development of nervous tissue. They cooperate with nerve growth factor (NGF) and have positive influence on regeneration of the nervous system impairments. There exist many behavioural and biochemical evidences of gangliosides participation in the regeneration of experimentally injured animal nervous system. The therapeutic effectivity of gangliosides in clinical practice is encouraging. Commercial preparates of gangliosides (Cronassial, Sygen) have been successfully used in the therapy of chronic neuropathies, strokes and subarachnoidal haemorrhages. Among the adverse reactions to these drugs are: local irritation, anxiety and possible detrimental effect in immunological system. Ganglioside preparations need further clinical examinations. PMID:1291908

  10. Immunosuppressive activity of human neuroblastoma tumor gangliosides.

    PubMed

    Floutsis, G; Ulsh, L; Ladisch, S

    1989-01-15

    Gangliosides are shed in substantial amounts by some tumors, including human neuroblastoma, and these molecules modulate experimental tumor formation in vivo. We now demonstrate that neuroblastoma tumor gangliosides have potent immunoregulatory activity. Gangliosides of every one of 17 tumors studied were highly inhibitory for the normal in vitro human lymphoproliferative responses to the soluble antigen, tetanus toxoid; 30 nmol ganglioside/ml caused 43% to greater than 99% inhibition and the mean concentration causing 50% inhibition was only 17.3 nmol/ml. Furthermore, gangliosides isolated from clinically more aggressive tumors (Stage III or IV) were up to twice as immunosuppressive as those of the generally less aggressive tumors (Stage I or II) (p less than 0.05). Taken together with the lack of immunosuppressive activity of normal plasma gangliosides, the potent activity of neuroblastoma gangliosides supports the hypothesis that one mechanism by which these shed molecules may act to enhance tumor formation in vivo is through abrogation of the host cellular immune response at the site of tumor formation.

  11. NEU3 Sialidase Strictly Modulates GM3 Levels in Skeletal Myoblasts C2C12 Thus Favoring Their Differentiation and Protecting Them from Apoptosis*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Anastasia, Luigi; Papini, Nadia; Colazzo, Francesca; Palazzolo, Giacomo; Tringali, Cristina; Dileo, Loredana; Piccoli, Marco; Conforti, Erika; Sitzia, Clementina; Monti, Eugenio; Sampaolesi, Maurilio; Tettamanti, Guido; Venerando, Bruno

    2008-01-01

    Membrane-bound sialidase NEU3, often referred to as the “ganglioside sialidase,” has a critical regulatory function on the sialoglycosphingolipid pattern of the cell membrane, with an anti-apoptotic function, especially in cancer cells. Although other sialidases have been shown to be involved in skeletal muscle differentiation, the role of NEU3 had yet to be disclosed. Herein we report that NEU3 plays a key role in skeletal muscle differentiation by strictly modulating the ganglioside content of adjacent cells, with special regard to GM3. Induced down-regulation of NEU3 in murine C2C12 myoblasts, even when partial, totally inhibits their capability to differentiate by increasing the GM3 level above a critical point, which causes epidermal growth factor receptor inhibition (and ultimately its down-regulation) and an higher responsiveness of myoblasts to the apoptotic stimuli. PMID:18945680

  12. Ganglioside Regulation of AMPA Receptor Trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Prendergast, Jillian; Umanah, George K.E.; Yoo, Seung-Wan; Lagerlöf, Olof; Motari, Mary G.; Cole, Robert N.; Huganir, Richard L.; Dawson, Ted M.; Dawson, Valina L.

    2014-01-01

    Gangliosides are major cell-surface determinants on all vertebrate neurons. Human congenital disorders of ganglioside biosynthesis invariably result in intellectual disability and are often associated with intractable seizures. To probe the mechanisms of ganglioside functions, affinity-captured ganglioside-binding proteins from rat cerebellar granule neurons were identified by quantitative proteomic mass spectrometry. Of the six proteins that bound selectively to the major brain ganglioside GT1b (GT1b:GM1 > 4; p < 10−4), three regulate neurotransmitter receptor trafficking: Thorase (ATPase family AAA domain-containing protein 1), soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF) attachment protein (γ-SNAP), and the transmembrane protein Nicalin. Thorase facilitates endocytosis of GluR2 subunit-containing AMPA-type glutamate receptors (AMPARs) in an ATPase-dependent manner; its deletion in mice results in learning and memory deficits (J. Zhang et al., 2011b). GluR2-containing AMPARs did not bind GT1b, but bound specifically to another ganglioside, GM1. Addition of noncleavable ATP (ATPγS) significantly disrupted ganglioside binding, whereas it enhanced AMPAR association with Thorase, NSF, and Nicalin. Mutant mice lacking GT1b expressed markedly higher brain Thorase, whereas Thorase-null mice expressed higher GT1b. Treatment of cultured hippocampal neurons with sialidase, which cleaves GT1b (and other sialoglycans), resulted in a significant reduction in the size of surface GluR2 puncta. These data support a model in which GM1-bound GluR2-containing AMPARs are functionally segregated from GT1b-bound AMPAR-trafficking complexes. Release of ganglioside binding may enhance GluR2-containing AMPAR association with its trafficking complexes, increasing endocytosis. Disrupting ganglioside biosynthesis may result in reduced synaptic expression of GluR2-contianing AMPARs resulting in intellectual deficits and seizure susceptibility in mice and humans. PMID:25253868

  13. Cancer vaccines: an update with special focus on ganglioside antigens.

    PubMed

    Bitton, Roberto J; Guthmann, Marcel D; Gabri, Mariano R; Carnero, Ariel J L; Alonso, Daniel F; Fainboim, Leonardo; Gomez, Daniel E

    2002-01-01

    the (CIM) from La Havana, Cuba, to developed new strategies for specific active immunotherapy. The project included two ganglioside based vaccines and one anti-idiotypic vaccine. We focused on two antigens: first GM3, an ubiquitous antigen which is over-expressed in several epithelial tumor types; and a second one, N-Glycolyl-GM3 a more molecule, not being expressed in normal tissues and recently found in several neoplastic cells, in particular breast, melanoma and neuroectodermal cancer cells. We developed two vaccines, one with each antigen, both using proteins derived from the outer membrane proteins (OMP) of Neisseria Meningitidis B, as carriers. We developed also the 1E10 vaccine; an anti-idiotype vaccine designed to mimic the N-Glycolyl-GM3 gangliosides. This monoclonal antibody is an Ab2-type-antibody which recognizes the Ab1 antibody called P3, the latter is a monoclonal antibody that specifically recognizes gangliosides as antigens. Since 1998 we initiated a clinical development program for these three compounds. Results of the phase I clinical trials proved that the three vaccines were safe and able to elicit specific antibody responses. In addition we were able to demonstrate the activation of the cellular arm of the immune response in patients treated with the GM3 vaccine. Although phase I trials are not designed to evaluate antitumor efficacy, it was encouraging to observe tumor shrinkage in some patients treated both with the GM3 and N-Glycolyl-GM3 vaccines. We have already begun a phase II program in several neoplastic diseases, with all three vaccines.

  14. Changes of the ganglioside pattern and content in human fibroblasts by high density cell population subculture progression.

    PubMed

    Sciannamblo, Mariateresa; Chigorno, Vanna; Passi, Alberto; Valaperta, Rea; Zucchi, Ileana; Sonnino, Sandro

    2002-03-01

    In this study we show that the ganglioside content and pattern of human skin fibroblasts change along the process of cell subculture progression by varying the cell density. GM3, GD3 and GD1a were components of the total cell ganglioside mixtures extracted from cells, but GD1a was in all the extracts a minor component or very scant. Other gangliosides present in traces were not characterised. The fibroblast ganglioside content of 52 pools of cells obtained from 5 different cell lines cultured at variable cell density ranged from 2.0 to 13.1 nmoles per mg of cell protein. The molar ratio between GM3 and GD3 varied from 418 to 0.6 in the ganglioside mixtures, as determined by densitometric quantitative analysis after thin layer chromatographic separation. Both the ganglioside content and the GM3/GD3 molar ratio were constant along several passages of subculture progression performed by plating cells collected at confluence. Instead, when the subculture progression was performed by plating cells collected at a few days after reaching confluence, a progressive increase of the ganglioside content was observed. GD3 increased proportionally more than GM3 so that a progressive decrease of the ratio between GM3 and GD3 was observed. In some experiments, GD3 was very scant at the beginning of the progression, while it was near 30% after 5 passages under these conditions. The progressive increase of GD3 along the high density cell population subculture progression was associated to a moderate increase of the mRNA GD3 synthase.

  15. The tumor antigen N-glycolyl-GM3 is a human CD1d ligand capable of mediating B cell and natural killer T cell interaction.

    PubMed

    Gentilini, M Virginia; Pérez, M Eugenia; Fernández, Pablo Mariano; Fainboim, Leonardo; Arana, Eloísa

    2016-05-01

    The expression of N-glycolyl-monosialodihexosyl-ganglioside (NGcGM3) in humans is restricted to cancer cells; therefore, it is a tumor antigen. There are measurable quantities of circulating anti-NGcGM3 antibodies (aNGcGM3 Abs) in human serum. Interestingly, some people have circulating Ag-specific immunoglobulins G (IgGs) that are capable of complement mediated cytotoxicity against NGcGM3 positive cells, which is relevant for tumor surveillance. In light of the chemical nature of Ag, we postulated it as a candidate ligand for CD1d. Furthermore, we hypothesize that the immune mechanism involved in the generation of these Abs entails cross talk between B lymphocytes (Bc) and invariant natural killer T cells (iNKT). Combining cellular techniques, such as flow cytometry and biochemical assays, we demonstrated that CD1d binds to NGcGM3 and that human Bc present NGcGM3 in a CD1d context according to two alternative strategies. We also showed that paraformaldehyde treatment of cells expressing CD1d affects the presentation. Finally, by co-culturing primary human Bc with iNKT and measuring Ki-67 expression, we detected a reproducible increment in the proliferation of the iNKT population when Ag was on the medium. Our findings identify a novel, endogenous, human CD1d ligand, which is sufficiently competent to stimulate iNKT. We postulate that CD1d-restricted Bc presentation of NGcGM3 drives effective iNKT activation, an immunological mechanism that has not been previously described for humans, which may contribute to understanding aNGcGM3 occurrence.

  16. The tumor antigen N-glycolyl-GM3 is a human CD1d ligand capable of mediating B cell and natural killer T cell interaction.

    PubMed

    Gentilini, M Virginia; Pérez, M Eugenia; Fernández, Pablo Mariano; Fainboim, Leonardo; Arana, Eloísa

    2016-05-01

    The expression of N-glycolyl-monosialodihexosyl-ganglioside (NGcGM3) in humans is restricted to cancer cells; therefore, it is a tumor antigen. There are measurable quantities of circulating anti-NGcGM3 antibodies (aNGcGM3 Abs) in human serum. Interestingly, some people have circulating Ag-specific immunoglobulins G (IgGs) that are capable of complement mediated cytotoxicity against NGcGM3 positive cells, which is relevant for tumor surveillance. In light of the chemical nature of Ag, we postulated it as a candidate ligand for CD1d. Furthermore, we hypothesize that the immune mechanism involved in the generation of these Abs entails cross talk between B lymphocytes (Bc) and invariant natural killer T cells (iNKT). Combining cellular techniques, such as flow cytometry and biochemical assays, we demonstrated that CD1d binds to NGcGM3 and that human Bc present NGcGM3 in a CD1d context according to two alternative strategies. We also showed that paraformaldehyde treatment of cells expressing CD1d affects the presentation. Finally, by co-culturing primary human Bc with iNKT and measuring Ki-67 expression, we detected a reproducible increment in the proliferation of the iNKT population when Ag was on the medium. Our findings identify a novel, endogenous, human CD1d ligand, which is sufficiently competent to stimulate iNKT. We postulate that CD1d-restricted Bc presentation of NGcGM3 drives effective iNKT activation, an immunological mechanism that has not been previously described for humans, which may contribute to understanding aNGcGM3 occurrence. PMID:26969612

  17. Differential subcellular localization of cholesterol, gangliosides, and glycosaminoglycans in murine models of mucopolysaccharide storage disorders.

    PubMed

    McGlynn, Robert; Dobrenis, Kostantin; Walkley, Steven U

    2004-12-20

    The mucopolysaccharidoses (MPSs) are a complex family of lysosomal storage disorders characterized by failure to degrade heparan sulfate (HS) and/or other types of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) secondary to the absence of specific lysosomal enzymes. An accompanying storage of glycosphingolipids (GSLs), most notably GM2 and GM3 gangliosides, has also been documented to occur in many types of MPS disease and is believed to be caused by secondary inhibition of GSL-degradative enzymes by intracellular GAG accumulation. We have documented the presence of secondary ganglioside accumulation in mouse models of several MPS disorders (types I, IIIA, IIIB, and VII) and report that this storage is accompanied by sequestration of free cholesterol in a manner similar to that observed in primary gangliosidoses. Using confocal microscopy, we evaluated the cellular distribution of cholesterol, GM2 and GM3 gangliosides, and HS in brains of mice with MPS IIIA disease. Unexpectedly, we found that although both gangliosides often accumulated in the same neurons, they were consistently located in separate populations of cytoplasmic vesicles. Additionally, GM3 ganglioside only partially co-localized with the primary storage material (HS), and cholesterol likewise only partially co-localized with the GM2 and GM3 gangliosides. These findings raise significant questions about the mechanism(s) responsible for secondary accumulation of storage materials in MPS disease. Furthermore, given that GSLs and cholesterol are constituents of membrane rafts believed critical in signal transduction events in neurons, their co-sequestration in individual neurons suggests the presence of defects in the composition, trafficking, and/or recycling of raft components and thus possible new mechanisms to explain neuronal dysfunction in MPS disorders.

  18. Anti-NeuGcGM3 antibodies, actively elicited by idiotypic vaccination in nonsmall cell lung cancer patients, induce tumor cell death by an oncosis-like mechanism.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Ana María; Rodríguez, Nely; González, Jorge E; Reyes, Emma; Rondón, Teresa; Griñán, Tania; Macías, Amparo; Alfonso, Sailyn; Vázquez, Ana María; Pérez, Rolando

    2011-03-15

    1E10 is a murine anti-idiotypic mAb specific for an idiotypic mAb that reacts with NeuGc-containing gangliosides, sulfatides, and Ags expressed in some human tumors. In melanoma, breast, and lung cancer patients, this anti-idiotypic Ab was able to induce a specific Ab response against N-glycosylated gangliosides, attractive targets for cancer immunotherapy as these glycolipids are not naturally expressed in humans. A clinical study with nonsmall cell lung cancer patients showed encouraging clinical benefits. Immunological studies performed in 20 of these patients suggested a correlation between the induction of Abs against NeuGcGM3 and longer survival times. The induced anti-NeuGcGM3 Abs recognized and directly killed tumor cells expressing the Ag, by a mechanism independent of complement activation. In the present work, we show that this cytotoxicity differs from apoptosis because it is temperature independent, no chromatin condensation or caspase 3 induction are detected, and the DNA fragmentation induced has a different pattern than the one characteristic for apoptosis. It is a very quick process and involves cytosqeleton reorganization. The Abs induce cellular swelling and the formation of big membrane lesions that allow the leakage of cytoplasm and the loss of the cell membrane integrity. All of these characteristics resemble a process of oncotic necrosis. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the active induction in cancer patients of NeuGcGM3-specific Abs able to induce complement independent oncotic necrosis to tumor cells. These results contribute to reinforcing the therapeutic potential of anti-idiotypic vaccines and the importance of NeuGcGM3 ganglioside as antitumor target. PMID:21300821

  19. Glycosphingolipid GM3 is Indispensable for Dengue Virus Genome Replication

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kezhen; Wang, Juanjuan; Sun, Ta; Bian, Gang; Pan, Wen; Feng, Tingting; Wang, Penghua; Li, Yunsen; Dai, Jianfeng

    2016-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) causes the most prevalent arthropod-borne viral disease of humans worldwide. Glycosphingolipids (GSLs) are involved in virus infection by regulating various steps of viral-host interaction. However, the distinct role of GSLs during DENV infection remains unclear. In this study, we used mouse melanoma B16 cells and their GSL-deficient mutant counterpart GM95 cells to study the influence of GSLs on DENV infection. Surprisingly, GM95 cells were highly resistant to DENV infection compared with B16 cells. Pretreatment of B16 cells with synthetase inhibitor of GM3, the most abundant GSLs in B16 cells, or silencing GM3 synthetase T3GAL5, significantly inhibited DENV infection. DENV attachment and endocytosis were not impaired in GM95 cells, but DENV genome replication was obviously inhibited in GM95 cells compared to B16 cells. Furthermore, GM3 was colocalized with DENV viral replication complex on endoplasmic reticulum (ER) inside the B16 cells. Finally, GM3 synthetase inhibitor significantly reduced the mortality rate of suckling mice that challenged with DENV by impairing the viral replication in mouse brain. Taken together, these data indicated that GM3 was not required for DENV attachment and endocytosis, however, essential for viral genome replication. Targeting GM3 could be a novel strategy to inhibit DENV infection. PMID:27313500

  20. Production of Multiple Brain-Like Ganglioside Species Is Dispensable for Fas-Induced Apoptosis of Lymphoid Cells

    PubMed Central

    Carpentier, Stéphane; Levade, Thierry; Cuvillier, Olivier; Portoukalian, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    Activation of an acid sphingomyelinase (aSMase) leading to a biosynthesis of GD3 disialoganglioside has been associated with Fas-induced apoptosis of lymphoid cells. The present study was undertaken to clarify the role of this enzyme in the generation of gangliosides during apoptosis triggered by Fas ligation. The issue was addressed by using aSMase-deficient and aSMase-corrected cell lines derived from Niemann-Pick disease (NPD) patients. Fas cross-linking elicited a rapid production of large amounts of complex a- and b-series species of gangliosides with a pattern and a chromatographic behavior as single bands reminiscent of brain gangliosides. The gangliosides were synthesized within the first ten minutes and completely disappeared within thirty minutes after stimulation. Noteworthy is the observation that GD3 was not the only ganglioside produced. The production of gangliosides and the onset of apoptotic hallmarks occurred similarly in both aSMase-deficient and aSMase-corrected NPD lymphoid cells, indicating that aSMase activation is not accountable for ganglioside generation. Hampering ganglioside production by inhibiting the key enzyme glucosylceramide synthase did not abrogate the apoptotic process. In addition, GM3 synthase-deficient lymphoid cells underwent Fas-induced apoptosis, suggesting that gangliosides are unlikely to play an indispensable role in transducing Fas-induced apoptosis of lymphoid cells. PMID:21629700

  1. Receptor ganglioside content of three hosts for Sendai virus. MDBK, HeLa, and MDCK cells.

    PubMed

    Markwell, M A; Fredman, P; Svennerholm, L

    1984-08-01

    Specific gangliosides GD1a, GT1b and GQ1b isolated from brain have been shown to function as receptors for Sendai virus by conferring susceptibility to infection when they are incorporated into receptor-deficient cells (Markwell, M.A.K., Svennerholm, L. and Paulson, J.C. (1981) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 78, 5406-5410). The endogenous gangliosides of three commonly used hosts for Sendai virus: MDBK, HeLa, and MDCK cells were analyzed to determine the amount and type of receptor gangliosides present. In all three cell lines, GM3 was the major ganglioside component. The presence of GM1, GD1a and the more complex homologs of the gangliotetraose series was also established. In cell lines derived from normal tissue, MDBK and MDCK cells, gangliosides contributed 47-65% of the total sialic acid. In HeLa cells, gangliosides contributed substantially less (17% of the total sialic acid). The ganglioside content of each cell line was shown not to be immutable but instead to depend on the state of differentiation, passage number, and surface the cells were grown on. Thus, the ganglioside concentration of undifferentiated MDCK cells was found to be substantially greater than that of MDBK or HeLa cells, but decreased as the MDCK cells underwent differentiation. Changes in culture conditions that were shown to decrease the receptor ganglioside content of the cells resulted in a corresponding decrease in susceptibility to infection. The endogenous oligosialogangliosides present in susceptible host cells were shown to function as receptors for Sendai virus.

  2. Helicobacter pylori-binding gangliosides of human gastric adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Roche, N; Larsson, T; Angström, J; Teneberg, S

    2001-11-01

    Acidic and neutral glycosphingolipids were isolated from a human gastric adenocarcinoma, and binding of Helicobacter pylori to the isolated glycosphingolipids was assessed using the chromatogram binding assay. The isolated glycosphingolipids were characterized using fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry and by binding of antibodies and lectins. The predominating neutral glycosphingolipids were found to migrate in the di- to tetraglycosylceramide regions as revealed by anisaldehyde staining and detection with lectins. No binding of H. pylori to these compounds was obtained. The most abundant acidic glycosphingolipids, migrating as the GM3 ganglioside and sialyl-neolactotetraosylceramide, were not recognized by the bacteria. Instead, H. pylori selectively interacted with slow-migrating, low abundant gangliosides not detected by anisaldehyde staining. Binding-active gangliosides were isolated and characterized by mass spectrometry, proton nuclear magnetic resonance, and lectin binding as sialyl-neolactohexaosylceramide (NeuAcalpha3Galbeta4GlcNAcbeta3Galbeta4GlcNAcbeta3Galbeta4Glcbeta1Cer) and sialyl-neolactooctaosylceramide (NeuAcalpha3Galbeta4GlcNAcbeta3Galbeta4GlcNAcbeta3Galbeta4GlcNAcbeta3Galbeta4Glcbeta1Cer).

  3. NGlycolylGM3/VSSP Vaccine in Metastatic Breast Cancer Patients: Results of Phase I/IIa Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    de la Torre, Ana; Hernandez, Julio; Ortiz, Ramón; Cepeda, Meylán; Perez, Kirenia; Car, Adriana; Viada, Carmen; Toledo, Darién; Guerra, Pedro Pablo; García, Elena; Arboláez, Migdacelys; Fernandez, Luis E

    2012-01-01

    Patients treated with vaccines based on NGlycolil gangliosides have showed benefit in progression free survival and overall survival. These molecules, which have been observed in breast cancer cells, are minimally or not expressed in normal human tissue and have been considered as antigen tumor-specific. For this reason they are very attractive to immunotherapy. A phase I/II clinical trial was carried out in metastatic breast cancer patients with the NGlycolylGM3/VSSP vaccine administered by subcutaneous route. Selecting the optimal biological doses of the vaccine in these patients was the principal objective based on the immunogenicity, efficacy and safety results. Six levels of doses of vaccine were studied. Treatment schedule consisted of five doses every two weeks and then monthly until reaching a fifteenth doses. Doses levels studied were 150, 300, 600, 900, 1200 and 1500 μg. Five patients in each level were included except at the 900 μg dose, in which ten patients were included. Immunogenicity was determined by levels of antibodies generated in patients after vaccination. The response criteria of evaluation in solid tumors (RECIST) was used to evaluate antitumoral effect. Safety was evaluated by Common Toxicity Criteria of Adverse Event (CTCAE). The vaccine administration was safe and immunogenic in all does levels. Most frequent adverse events related to vaccination were mild or moderate and were related to injection site reactions and “flu-like” symptoms. Vaccination induced specific anti-NeuGcGM3 IgM and IgG antibodies responses in all patients. Disease control (objective response or stable disease) was obtained in 72.7% of evaluated patients. Median overall survival was 15.9 months. Two patients of two different dose levels achieved overall survival values of about six years. The dose of 900 μg was selected as biological optimal dose in which overall survival was 28.5 months. PMID:23055739

  4. Superior Efficacy and Safety of a Nonemulsive Variant of the NGcGM3/VSSP Vaccine in Advanced Breast Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    de la Torre, Ana; Pérez, Kirenia; Vega, Aliz M; Santiesteban, Eduardo; Ruiz, Raiza; Hernández, Leonardo; Durrutí, Dayamí; Viada, Carmen E; Sánchez, Liset; Álvarez, Mabel; Durán, Yunier; Moreno, Yoisbel G; Arencibia, Maylén; Cepeda, Meylán; Domecq, Milagros; Cabrera, Leticia; Sánchez, Jorge L; Hernández, José J; Valls, Ana R; Fernández, Luis E

    2016-01-01

    NGcGM3 ganglioside is a tumor-specific antigen expressed in human breast tumors. The NGcGM3/VSSP vaccine, consisting in very small-sized proteoliposomes (VSSP) obtained by the incorporation of NGcGM3 into the outer membrane protein complex of Neisseria meningitidis, has been previously tested in a Phase II trial in patients with metastatic breast cancer (MBC) but emulsified with Montanide ISA 51. An Expanded Access study was carried out in MBC patients aiming to find if a nonemulsive formulation of NGcGM3/VSSP, without Montanide ISA 51, could be more safe and effective. A total of 104 patients were vaccinated with the nonemulsive formulation (900 μg), subcutaneously (SC), or with the emulsive formulation (200 μg), intramuscularly (IM). An intent-to-treat analysis of efficacy was performed with all patients, and 93 patients were split off according to the site of metastases (visceral/nonvisceral). Of note, SC-treated patients exhibited a superior median overall survival (OS) than IM-treated patients (23.6 vs. 8.2 months; log rank P = 0.001). Even though in the subset of patients with nonvisceral metastases SC vaccination duplicated the median OS compared to the alternative option (31.6 vs. 16.5 months), this difference did not reach statistical significance (log rank P = 0.118). Curiously, in patients with visceral metastases, the advantage of the nonemulsive formulation was more apparent (median OS 21.0 vs. 6.2 months; log rank P = 0.005). The vaccine was safe for both formulations.

  5. Superior Efficacy and Safety of a Nonemulsive Variant of the NGcGM3/VSSP Vaccine in Advanced Breast Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    de la Torre, Ana; Pérez, Kirenia; Vega, Aliz M.; Santiesteban, Eduardo; Ruiz, Raiza; Hernández, Leonardo; Durrutí, Dayamí; Viada, Carmen E.; Sánchez, Liset; Álvarez, Mabel; Durán, Yunier; Moreno, Yoisbel G.; Arencibia, Maylén; Cepeda, Meylán; Domecq, Milagros; Cabrera, Leticia; Sánchez, Jorge L.; Hernández, José J.; Valls, Ana R.; Fernández, Luis E.

    2016-01-01

    NGcGM3 ganglioside is a tumor-specific antigen expressed in human breast tumors. The NGcGM3/VSSP vaccine, consisting in very small-sized proteoliposomes (VSSP) obtained by the incorporation of NGcGM3 into the outer membrane protein complex of Neisseria meningitidis, has been previously tested in a Phase II trial in patients with metastatic breast cancer (MBC) but emulsified with Montanide ISA 51. An Expanded Access study was carried out in MBC patients aiming to find if a nonemulsive formulation of NGcGM3/VSSP, without Montanide ISA 51, could be more safe and effective. A total of 104 patients were vaccinated with the nonemulsive formulation (900 μg), subcutaneously (SC), or with the emulsive formulation (200 μg), intramuscularly (IM). An intent-to-treat analysis of efficacy was performed with all patients, and 93 patients were split off according to the site of metastases (visceral/nonvisceral). Of note, SC-treated patients exhibited a superior median overall survival (OS) than IM-treated patients (23.6 vs. 8.2 months; log rank P = 0.001). Even though in the subset of patients with nonvisceral metastases SC vaccination duplicated the median OS compared to the alternative option (31.6 vs. 16.5 months), this difference did not reach statistical significance (log rank P = 0.118). Curiously, in patients with visceral metastases, the advantage of the nonemulsive formulation was more apparent (median OS 21.0 vs. 6.2 months; log rank P = 0.005). The vaccine was safe for both formulations. PMID:26917965

  6. Cholera toxin binding affinity and specificity for gangliosides determined by surface plasmon resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Kuziemko, G.M.; Stroh, M.; Stevens, R.C. |

    1996-05-21

    The present study determines the affinity of cholera toxin for the ganglioside series GM1, GM2, GM3, GD1A, GD1B, GT1B, asialo GM1, globotriosyl ceramide, and lactosyl ceramide using real time biospecific interaction analysis (surface plasmon resonance, SPR). SPR shows that cholera toxin preferably binds to gangliosides in the following sequence: GM1 > GM2 > GD1A > GM3 > GT1B > GD1B > asialo-GM1. The measured binding affinity of cholera toxin for the ganglioside sequence ranges from 4.61 {times} 10{sup {minus}12} M for GM1 to 1.88 {times} 10{sup {minus}10} M for asialo GM1. The picomolar values obtained by surface plasmon resonance are similar to K{sub d} values determined with whole-cell binding assays. Both whole-cell assays ans SPR measurements on synthetic membranes are higher than free solution measurements by several orders of magnitude. This difference may be caused by the effects of avidity and charged lipid head-groups, which may play a major role in the binding between cholera toxin, the receptor, and the membrane surface. The primary difference between free solution binding studies and surface plasmon resonance studies is that the latter technique is performed on surfaces resembling the cell membrane. Surface plasmon resonance has the further advantage of measuring apparent kinetic association and dissociation rates in real time, providing direct information about binding events at the membrane surface. 34 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Novel Ganglioside-mediated Entry of Botulinum Neurotoxin Serotype D into Neurons

    SciTech Connect

    Kroken, Abby R.; Karalewitz, Andrew P.-A.; Fu, Zhuji; Kim, Jung-Ja P.; Barbieri, Joseph T.

    2012-02-07

    Botulinum Neurotoxins (BoNTs) are organized into seven serotypes, A-G. Although several BoNT serotypes enter neurons through synaptic vesicle cycling utilizing dual receptors (a ganglioside and a synaptic vesicle-associated protein), the entry pathway of BoNT/D is less well understood. Although BoNT/D entry is ganglioside-dependent, alignment and structural studies show that BoNT/D lacks key residues within a conserved ganglioside binding pocket that are present in BoNT serotypes A, B, E, F, and G, which indicate that BoNT/D-ganglioside interactions may be unique. In this study BoNT/D is shown to have a unique association with ganglioside relative to the other BoNT serotypes, utilizing a ganglioside binding loop (GBL, residues Tyr-1235-Ala-1245) within the receptor binding domain of BoNT/D (HCR/D) via b-series gangliosides, including GT1b, GD1b, and GD2. HCR/D bound gangliosides and entered neurons dependent upon the aromatic ring of Phe-1240 within the GBL. This is the first BoNT-ganglioside interaction that is mediated by a phenylalanine. In contrast, Trp-1238, located near the N terminus of the ganglioside binding loop, was mostly solvent-inaccessible and appeared to contribute to maintaining the loop structure. BoNT/D entry and intoxication were enhanced by membrane depolarization via synaptic vesicle cycling, where HCR/D colocalized with synaptophysin, a synaptic vesicle marker, but immunoprecipitation experiments did not detect direct association with synaptic vesicle protein 2. Thus, BoNT/D utilizes unique associations with gangliosides and synaptic vesicles to enter neurons, which may facilitate new neurotoxin therapies.

  8. Cellular and humoral immune response to N-Glycolyl-GM3 elicited by prolonged immunotherapy with an anti-idiotypic vaccine in high-risk and metastatic breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Guthmann, Marcelo D; Castro, Mónica A; Cinat, Gabriela; Venier, Cecilia; Koliren, Leonardo; Bitton, Roberto J; Vázquez, Ana María; Fainboim, Leonardo

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the immunogenicity and toxicity profile of 1E10, an anti-idiotypic vaccine mimicking the N-glycolyl-GM3 ganglioside, was investigated with an extended vaccination protocol. The year-long vaccination scheme consisted of 6 biweekly intradermal injections (induction phase), followed by 10 monthly boosters (maintenance). Nineteen patients with high-risk (stage III) or metastatic breast cancer were vaccinated with different dose levels of 1E10 (0.5, 1, and 2 mg). The humoral and cellular responses to 1E10 and the targeted ganglioside were assessed at baseline and throughout the treatment. Local skin reactions represented the most common adverse event (National Cancer Institute Toxicity Criteria (NCIC) grades I and II), followed by mild flu-like symptoms lasting for 1 to 2 days. Two patients were removed from the study because of vaccine-related hypersensitivity reactions. A third patient was removed from the study after a transient loss of consciousness with uncertain relation to the vaccine. All patients showed a strong antibody response to the targeted ganglioside. In addition, ganglioside-specific T-cell responses were recorded in 5 of 13 evaluable patients. Vaccination with 1E10 was immunogenic and relatively well tolerated. Because similar results were observed with the 3 tested dose levels, the 0.5-mg dose level was selected for future trials. PMID:16531822

  9. New trends in ganglioside chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Sonnino, S.; Ghidoni, R.; Gazzotti, G.; Acquotti, D.; Tettamanti, G.

    1988-01-01

    New methods have been developed for the preparation of highly purified gangliosides, homogeneous in the saccharide, long chain base, and fatty acid moieties and gangliosides carrying different kinds of labelled probes. Gangliosides, homogeneous in the oligosaccharide portion, were prepared by preparative normal phase HPLC on a Lichrosorb-NH-2 column, using a gradient of acetonitrile-phosphate buffer, pH 5.6, as solvent system. Each class of ganglioside (from monosialo- to tetrasialogangliosides) was then submitted to reversed phase HPLC on a preparative RP-8 column, using acetonitrile-5 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7, as solvent system, to obtain gangliosides homogeneous in the long chain base moiety. Gangliosides containing C18 and C20 sphinganine were prepared by catalytic hydrogenation of the corresponding unsaturated gangliosides. GM1 with homogeneous acyl chain was prepared by alkaline hydrolysis in the presence of tetramethylammonium hydroxide, followed by re-N-acylation, carried out in the presence of dimethylaminopropyl, ethylcarbodiimide and natural fatty acids, or of mixed anhydride of ethylchloroformate and 14C-stearic acid, and re-N-acetylation performed with acetic anhydride or labelled acetic anhydride. The GM1 derivative, de-acetylated at the level of sialic acid, also produced by alkaline treatment of GM1, was submitted to re-N-acetylation with 14C-acetic anhydride to produce specifically 14C-labelled GM1. Re-N-acylation was carried out a) in the presence of dimethylaminopropyl, ethylcarbodiimide and natural fatty acids, b) with mixed anhydride of ethylchloroformate and 14C-stearic acid. After re-N-acylations, re-N-acetylation was performed with acetic anhydride or labelled acetic anhydride. 53 references.

  10. Mass spectrometry of gangliosides in extracranial tumors: Application to adrenal neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Robu, Adrian C; Vukelić, Željka; Schiopu, Catalin; Capitan, Florina; Zamfir, Alina D

    2016-09-15

    We report here on the introduction of mass spectrometry (MS) for profiling of native gangliosides from an extracranial tumor. The analytical approach was based on a modern platform combining the superior sensitivity and reproducibility of fully automated chip-based nanoelectrospray ionization (nanoESI) with the high resolution and mass accuracy provided by a hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF) instrument. The feasibility of the method for the analysis of gangliosides, which are much less expressed in extracranial tissues, was here tested using as the model substrate an adrenal neuroblastoma (NB) specimen located in the abdominal region of a 2-year-old infant. Under properly optimized conditions, MS profiling revealed information on at least 61 different gangliosides exhibiting heterogeneity of the glycan and lipid compositions. NB was found dominated by species bearing short-chain oligosaccharide cores with a reduced overall Neu5Ac content. By chip-nanoESI MS, preceding findings related to the GD2 role in NB were confirmed. Moreover, the screening experiments offered novel information supporting the possible biomarker role of GM4, GM3, and GM1 ganglioside classes. Structural analysis of GM1(d18:1/18:2) and GD1(d18:0/19:0) possibly tumor-associated markers, carried out by tandem MS (MS/MS) using collision-induced dissociation (CID) at low energies, indicated that both GM1a and GD1b isomers are present in NB. PMID:27311552

  11. Mass spectrometry of gangliosides in extracranial tumors: Application to adrenal neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Robu, Adrian C; Vukelić, Željka; Schiopu, Catalin; Capitan, Florina; Zamfir, Alina D

    2016-09-15

    We report here on the introduction of mass spectrometry (MS) for profiling of native gangliosides from an extracranial tumor. The analytical approach was based on a modern platform combining the superior sensitivity and reproducibility of fully automated chip-based nanoelectrospray ionization (nanoESI) with the high resolution and mass accuracy provided by a hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF) instrument. The feasibility of the method for the analysis of gangliosides, which are much less expressed in extracranial tissues, was here tested using as the model substrate an adrenal neuroblastoma (NB) specimen located in the abdominal region of a 2-year-old infant. Under properly optimized conditions, MS profiling revealed information on at least 61 different gangliosides exhibiting heterogeneity of the glycan and lipid compositions. NB was found dominated by species bearing short-chain oligosaccharide cores with a reduced overall Neu5Ac content. By chip-nanoESI MS, preceding findings related to the GD2 role in NB were confirmed. Moreover, the screening experiments offered novel information supporting the possible biomarker role of GM4, GM3, and GM1 ganglioside classes. Structural analysis of GM1(d18:1/18:2) and GD1(d18:0/19:0) possibly tumor-associated markers, carried out by tandem MS (MS/MS) using collision-induced dissociation (CID) at low energies, indicated that both GM1a and GD1b isomers are present in NB.

  12. Serum Deprivation-Induced Human GM3 Synthase (hST3Gal V) Gene Expression Is Mediated by Runx2 in Human Osteoblastic MG-63 Cells.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Hyun-Kyoung; Lee, Ji-Won; Kim, Kyoung-Sook; Mun, Seo-Won; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Kim, Hyun-Jun; Kim, Cheorl-Ho; Lee, Young-Choon

    2016-01-01

    Serum deprivation (SD) is well known to induce G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in various cells. In the present study, we firstly found that SD could induce G1 arrest and the differentiation of human osteoblastic MG-63 cells, as evidenced by the increase of osteoblastic differentiation markers, such as bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2), osteocalcin and runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2). In parallel, gene expression of human GM3 synthase (hST3Gal V) catalyzing ganglioside GM3 biosynthesis was upregulated by SD in MG-63 cells. The 5'-flanking region of the hST3Gal V gene was functionally characterized to elucidate transcriptional regulation of hST3Gal V in SD-induced MG-63 cells. Promoter analysis using 5'-deletion constructs of the hST3Gal V gene demonstrated that the -432 to -177 region functions as the SD-inducible promoter. Site-directed mutagenesis revealed that the Runx2 binding sites located side-by-side at positions -232 and -222 are essential for the SD-induced expression of hST3Gal V in MG-63 cells. In addition, the chromatin immunoprecipitation assay also showed that Runx2 specifically binds to the hST3Gal V promoter region containing Runx2 binding sites. These results suggest that SD triggers upregulation of hST3Gal V gene expression through Runx2 activation by BMP signaling in MG-63 cells.

  13. GM-3 Lactone Mimetic Interacts with CD4 and HIV-1 Env Proteins, Hampering HIV-1 Infection without Inducing a Histopathological Alteration.

    PubMed

    Richichi, Barbara; Pastori, Claudia; Gherardi, Stefano; Venuti, Assunta; Cerreto, Antonella; Sanvito, Francesca; Toma, Lucio; Lopalco, Lucia; Nativi, Cristina

    2016-08-12

    Glycosphingolipids (GSLs) are involved in HIV-1 entry. GM-3 ganglioside, a widespread GSL, affects HIV entry and infection in different ways, depending on the concentration, through its anchoring activity in lipid rafts. This explains why the induction of an altered GSLs metabolism was a tempting approach to reducing HIV-1 cell infection. This study assayed the biological properties of a synthetic GM-3 lactone mimetic, 1, aimed at blocking HIV-1 infection without inducing the adverse events expected by an altered metabolism of GLSs in vivo. The mimetic, conjugated to immunogenic protein ovalbumin and multivalently presented, was able to bind the CD4 molecule with high affinity and block its engagement with gp120, thus inhibiting virus entry. Elicited antimimetic antibodies were also able to block HIV-1 infection in vitro, with activity complementary to that observed for 1. These preliminary results show that the use of GSLs mimetics can be a novel promising mode to block HIV-1 infection and that 1 and other GSL mimetics deserve further attention. PMID:27626296

  14. Improvement of the immune efficacy of carbohydrate vaccines by chemical modification on the GM3 antigen.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiu-Jing; Yang, Fan; Zheng, Mingwei; Huo, Chang-Xin; Zhang, Ye; Ye, Xin-Shan

    2015-06-14

    Tumor cells often display aberrant levels and patterns of cell surface glycosylation, which provides a potential opportunity to develop carbohydrate-based anticancer vaccines for cancer immunotherapy. However, one of the most addressed challenges in this field is the low efficiency of the carbohydrate vaccination due to poor immunogenicity of carbohydrate antigens. In this article, a number of structure-modified GM3 antigen analogues were designed and chemically synthesized. The modified GM3 antigens were conjugated to protein carriers for vaccination. The vaccination results on mice show that the modification on the GM3 antigen could improve the efficiency of the vaccination, and in particular, two glycoconjugates (3-KLH and 8-KLH) elicited higher titers of anti-GM3 antibodies than the unmodified GM3-protein conjugate (2-KLH) did.

  15. Pathophysiological actions of neuropathy-related anti-ganglioside antibodies at the neuromuscular junction

    PubMed Central

    Plomp, Jaap J; Willison, Hugh J

    2009-01-01

    The outer leaflet of neuronal membranes is highly enriched in gangliosides. Therefore, specific neuronal roles have been attributed to this family of sialylated glycosphingolipids, e.g. in modulation of ion channels and transporters, neuronal interaction and recognition, temperature adaptation, Ca2+ homeostasis, axonal growth, (para)node of Ranvier stability and synaptic transmission. Recent developmental, ageing and injury studies on transgenic mice lacking subsets of gangliosides indicate that gangliosides are involved in maintenance rather than development of the nervous system and that ganglioside family members are able to act in a mutually compensatory manner. Besides having physiological functions, gangliosides are the likely antigenic targets of autoantibodies present in Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), a group of neuropathies with clinical symptoms of motor- and/or sensory peripheral nerve dysfunction. Antibody binding to peripheral nerves is thought to either interfere with ganglioside function or activate complement, causing axonal damage and thereby disturbed action potential conduction. The presynaptic motor nerve terminal at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) may be a prominent target because it is highly enriched in gangliosides and lies outside the blood–nerve barrier, allowing antibody access. The ensuing neuromuscular synaptopathy might contribute to the muscle weakness in GBS patients. Several groups, including our own, have studied the effects of anti-ganglioside antibodies in ex vivo and in vivo experimental settings at mouse NMJs. Here, after providing a background overview on ganglioside synthesis, localization and physiology, we will review those studies, which clearly show that anti-ganglioside antibodies are capable of binding to NMJs and thereby can exert a variety of pathophysiological effects. Furthermore, we will discuss the human clinical electrophysiological and histological evidence produced so far of the existence of a neuromuscular

  16. Trans-activity of Plasma Membrane-associated Ganglioside Sialyltransferase in Mammalian Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Vilcaes, Aldo A.; Demichelis, Vanina Torres; Daniotti, Jose L.

    2011-01-01

    Gangliosides are acidic glycosphingolipids that contain sialic acid residues and are expressed in nearly all vertebrate cells. They are synthesized at the Golgi complex by a combination of glycosyltransferase activities followed by vesicular delivery to the plasma membrane, where they participate in a variety of physiological as well as pathological processes. Recently, a number of enzymes of ganglioside anabolism and catabolism have been shown to be associated with the plasma membrane. In particular, it was observed that CMP-NeuAc:GM3 sialyltransferase (Sial-T2) is able to sialylate GM3 at the plasma membrane (cis-catalytic activity). In this work, we demonstrated that plasma membrane-integrated ecto-Sial-T2 also displays a trans-catalytic activity at the cell surface of epithelial and melanoma cells. By using a highly sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay combined with confocal fluorescence microscopy, we observed that ecto-Sial-T2 was able to sialylate hydrophobically or covalently immobilized GM3 onto a solid surface. More interestingly, we observed that ecto-Sial-T2 was able to sialylate GM3 exposed on the membrane of neighboring cells by using both the exogenous and endogenous donor substrate (CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid) available at the extracellular milieu. In addition, the trans-activity of ecto-Sial-T2 was considerably reduced when the expression of the acceptor substrate was inhibited by using a specific inhibitor of biosynthesis of glycolipids, indicating the lipidic nature of the acceptor. Our findings provide the first direct evidence that an ecto-sialyltransferase is able to trans-sialylate substrates exposed in the plasma membrane from mammalian cells, which represents a novel insight into the molecular events that regulate the local glycosphingolipid composition. PMID:21768099

  17. Quantitative analysis of gangliosides in bovine milk and colostrum-based dairy products by ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyeyoung; German, J Bruce; Kjelden, Randy; Lebrilla, Carlito B; Barile, Daniela

    2013-10-01

    Milk gangliosides have gained considerable attention because they participate in diverse biological processes, including neural development, pathogen binding, and activation of the immune system. Herein, we present a quantitative measurement of the gangliosides present in bovine milk and other dairy products and byproducts. Ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography separation was used for high-throughput analysis and achieved a short running time without sacrificing chromatographic resolution. Dynamic multiple reaction monitoring was conducted for 12 transitions for GM3 and 12 transitions for GD3. Transitions to sialic acid fragments (m/z 290.1) were chosen for the quantitation. There was a considerable amount of gangliosides in day 2 milk (GM3, 0.98 mg/L; GD3, 15.2 mg/L) which dramatically decreased at day 15 and day 90. GM3 and GD3 were also analyzed in pooled colostrum, colostrum cream, colostrum butter, and colostrum buttermilk. The separation and analytical approaches here proposed could be integrated into the dairy industry processing adding value to side-streams. PMID:24024650

  18. Composition of gangliosides and neutral glycosphingolipids of brain in classical Tay-Sachs and Sandhoff disease: more lyso-GM2 in Sandhoff disease?

    PubMed

    Rosengren, B; Månsson, J E; Svennerholm, L

    1987-09-01

    The ganglioside composition of the brain from an individual with classical Tay-Sachs disease and from an individual with Sandhoff disease was examined using our new quantitative methods for ganglioside content determination and compared with that of age-matched control brains. The concentration of GM2 was found to be 12.2 and 13.0 mumol/g of fresh tissue in Tay-Sachs disease and in Sandhoff disease cerebral gray matter, respectively. GM2 was 86 and 87% respectively, of total gangliosides. The concentration of GM1 and, in particular, GM3 ganglioside was also found to be increased, whereas the concentration of the major di- and trisialogangliosides (GD1a, GD1b, and GT1b) had diminished markedly. There was no significant increase in level of any other ganglioside than lyso-GM2. Its concentration was 12 and 16 nmol/g in cerebral gray matter of two Tay-Sachs disease brains and 43 nmol/g in Sandhoff disease brain. The Sandhoff disease brain also differed from the classical Tay-Sachs disease brain by having a much higher concentration of gangliotriaosylceramide and globotetraosylceramide. The structures of relevant gangliosides and neutral glycolipids were established by fast atom bombardment-mass spectrometry and permethylation studies.

  19. Synthesis and biological evaluation of several dephosphonated analogues of CMP-Neu5Ac as inhibitors of GM3-synthase.

    PubMed

    Rota, Paola; Cirillo, Federica; Piccoli, Marco; Gregorio, Antonio; Tettamanti, Guido; Allevi, Pietro; Anastasia, Luigi

    2015-10-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that reducing the GM3 content in myoblasts increased the cell resistance to hypoxic stress, suggesting that a pharmacological inhibition of the GM3 synthesis could be instrumental for the development of new treatments for ischemic diseases. Herein, the synthesis of several dephosphonated CMP-Neu5Ac congeners and their anti-GM3-synthase activity is reported. Biological activity testes revealed that some inhibitors almost completely blocked the GM3-synthase activity in vitro and reduced the GM3 content in living embryonic kidney 293A cells, eventually activating the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling cascade.

  20. Glycosylated SV2 and Gangliosides as Dual Receptors for Botulinum Neurotoxin Serotype F

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Zhuji; Chen, Chen; Barbieri, Joseph T.; Kim, Jung-Ja P.; Baldwin, Michael R.

    2010-02-22

    Botulinum neurotoxin causes rapid flaccid paralysis through the inhibition of acetylcholine release at the neuromuscular junction. The seven BoNT serotypes (A-G) have been proposed to bind motor neurons via ganglioside-protein dual receptors. To date, the structure-function properties of BoNT/F host receptor interactions have not been resolved. Here, we report the crystal structures of the receptor binding domains (HCR) of BoNT/A and BoNT/F and the characterization of the dual receptors for BoNT/F. The overall polypeptide fold of HCR/A is essentially identical to the receptor binding domain of the BoNT/A holotoxin, and the structure of HCR/F is very similar to that of HCR/A, except for two regions implicated in neuronal binding. Solid phase array analysis identified two HCR/F binding glycans: ganglioside GD1a and oligosaccharides containing an N-acetyllactosamine core. Using affinity chromatography, HCR/F bound native synaptic vesicle glycoproteins as part of a protein complex. Deglycosylation of glycoproteins using {alpha}(1-3,4)-fucosidase, endo-{beta}-galactosidase, and PNGase F disrupted the interaction with HCR/F, while the binding of HCR/B to its cognate receptor, synaptotagmin I, was unaffected. These data indicate that the HCR/F binds synaptic vesicle glycoproteins through the keratan sulfate moiety of SV2. The interaction of HCR/F with gangliosides was also investigated. HCR/F bound specifically to gangliosides that contain {alpha}2,3-linked sialic acid on the terminal galactose of a neutral saccharide core (binding order GT1b = GD1a GM3; no binding to GD1b and GM1a). Mutations within the putative ganglioside binding pocket of HCR/F decreased binding to gangliosides, synaptic vesicle protein complexes, and primary rat hippocampal neurons. Thus, BoNT/F neuronal discrimination involves the recognition of ganglioside and protein (glycosylated SV2) carbohydrate moieties, providing a structural basis for the high affinity and specificity of BoNT/F for neurons.

  1. New Insights on Non-Enzymatic Oxidation of Ganglioside GM1 Using Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couto, Daniela; Melo, Tânia; Maciel, Elisabete; Campos, Ana; Alves, Eliana; Guedes, Sofia; Domingues, M. Rosário M.; Domingues, Pedro

    2016-08-01

    Gangliosides are acidic glycosphingolipids that are present in cell membranes and lipid raft domains, being particularly abundant in central nervous systems. They participate in modulating cell membrane properties, cell-cell recognition, cell regulation, and signaling. Disturbance in ganglioside metabolism has been correlated with the development of diseases, such as neurodegenerative diseases, and in inflammation. Both conditions are associated with an increased production of reactive oxidation species (ROS) that can induce changes in the structure of biomolecules, including lipids, leading to the loss or modification of their function. Oxidized phospholipids are usually involved in chronic diseases and inflammation. However, knowledge regarding oxidation of gangliosides is scarce. In order to evaluate the effect of ROS in gangliosides, an in vitro biomimetic model system was used to study the susceptibility of GM1 (Neu5Acα2-3(Galβ1-3GalNAcβ1-4)Galβ1-4Glcβ1Cer) to undergo oxidative modifications. Oxidation of GM1 under Fenton reaction conditions was monitored using high resolution electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS). Upon oxidation, GM1 underwent oxidative cleavages in the carbohydrate chain, leading to the formation of other gangliosides GM2 (GalNAcβ1-4Gal(Neu5Acα2-3)1-4Glcβ1Cer), GM3 (Neu5Acα2-3Galβ1-4Glcβ1Cer), asialo-GM1 (Galβ1-3GalNAcβ1-4Galβ1-4Glcβ1Cer), asialo-GM2 (GalNAcβ1-4Galβ1-4Glcβ1Cer), of the small glycolipids lactosylceramide (LacCer), glucosylceramide (GlcCer), and of ceramide (Cer). In addition, oxygenated GM1 and GM2 (as keto and hydroxy derivatives), glycans, oxidized glycans, and oxidized ceramides were also identified. Nonenzymatic oxidation of GM1 under oxidative stress contributes to the generation of other gangliosides that may participate in the imbalance of gangliosides metabolism in vivo, through uncontrolled enzymatic pathways and, consequently, play some role in

  2. Association to HeLa cells and surface behavior of exogenous gangliosides studied with a fluorescent derivative of GM1

    SciTech Connect

    Masserini, M.; Giuliani, A.; Palestini, P.; Acquotti, D.; Pitto, M.; Chigorno, V.; Tettamanti, G. )

    1990-01-23

    Cultured HeLa cells were incubated with pyrene-GM1/{sup 3}H-radiolabeled GM1 ganglioside (1:4 M/M) mixtures for various times. The process of association of pyrene-GM1 with cells was qualitatively and quantitatively the same as that of {sup 3}H-GM1. The pyrene-GM1 and {sup 3}H-GM1 proportions in the various forms of association with cells were similar to that of the starting ganglioside mixture. After 2-h incubation, the association of ganglioside with cells was well established whereas almost no metabolic processing had occurred. During a 24-h incubation, pyrene- and {sup 3}H-GM1 underwent similar metabolic processing and gave rise to catabolic (GM2 and GM3) and anabolic (GDla) derivatives. Fluorescence spectroscopy experiments carried out with the excimer formation technique on subcellular fractions containing plasma membranes showed that exogenous ganglioside was, in part, associated with the cells in a micellar form removable by trypsin treatment, and in part inserted in a seemingly molecular dispersion. Addition of Ca{sup 2+} salts caused aggregation of the ganglioside, as indicated by the increase of the excimer:monomer fluorescence ratio. The phenomenon was Ca{sup 2+} concentration dependent (maximum at 10 mM), and subsequent addition of EDTA has no effect. The saccharide portion of exogenously incorporated pyrene-GM1 was available to interact with external ligands, as shown by its ability to bind cholera toxin whose addition reduced the collision rate among the ganglioside lipid moieties.

  3. Wisp2/CCN5 up-regulated in the central nervous system of GM3-only mice facilitates neurite formation in Neuro2a cells via integrin-Akt signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Ohkawa, Yuki; Ohmi, Yuhsuke; Tajima, Orie; Yamauchi, Yoshio; Furukawa, Keiko; Furukawa, Koichi

    2011-08-05

    Highlights: {yields} Wisp2/CCN5 was up-regulated in nervous tissues of GM3-only mutant mice. {yields} Wisp2/CCN5 was found in neurons more strongly in the mutant mice. {yields} Wisp2/CCN5 induces Akt phosphorylation via integrins and facilitates neurite formation. {yields} Wisp2/CCN5 conferred resistance to H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced apoptosis. {yields} Up-regulation of Wisp2/CCN5 in GM3-only mice seemed for protection of brains from neurodegeneration. -- Abstract: Wisp2/CCN5 belongs to CCN family proteins which are involved in cell proliferation, angiogenesis, tumorigenesis and wound healing. Although a number of studies on the roles of Wisp2/CCN5 in cancers have been reported, no study on the expression and function of Wisp2/CCN5 in the central nervous system has been reported. In this study, we focused on Wisp2/CCN5 that was up-regulated in nervous tissues in GM3-only mice. Over-expression of Wisp2/CCN5 enhanced neurite outgrowth potently after serum withdrawal with increased phosphorylation levels of Akt and ERKs. When cells were cultured with recombinant Wisp2/CCN5 proteins, more and longer neurites were formed than in the controls. Thus, we demonstrated for the first time that Wisp2/CCN5 facilitates neurite formation in a mouse neuroblastoma cell line, Neuro2a. Akt phosphorylation induced by recombinant Wisp2/CCN5 was suppressed after knockdown of integrin {beta}1. Moreover, Wisp2/CCN5-over-expressing cells were resistant to apoptosis induced by H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. These results suggested that secreted Wisp2/CCN5 induces Akt and ERK phosphorylation via integrins, and consequently facilitates neurite formation and conferred resistance to apoptosis. Up-regulation of Wisp2/CCN5 in GM3-only mice should be, therefore, a reaction to protect nervous tissues from neurodegeneration caused by ganglioside deficiency.

  4. Unique Ganglioside Recognition Strategies for Clostridial Neurotoxins

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, Marc A.; Fu, Zhuji; Kim, Jung-Ja P.; Baldwin, Michael R.

    2012-03-15

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) and tetanus neurotoxin are the causative agents of the paralytic diseases botulism and tetanus, respectively. The potency of the clostridial neurotoxins (CNTs) relies primarily on their highly specific binding to nerve terminals and cleavage of SNARE proteins. Although individual CNTs utilize distinct proteins for entry, they share common ganglioside co-receptors. Here, we report the crystal structure of the BoNT/F receptor-binding domain in complex with the sugar moiety of ganglioside GD1a. GD1a binds in a shallow groove formed by the conserved peptide motif E ... H ... SXWY ... G, with additional stabilizing interactions provided by two arginine residues. Comparative analysis of BoNT/F with other CNTs revealed several differences in the interactions of each toxin with ganglioside. Notably, exchange of BoNT/F His-1241 with the corresponding lysine residue of BoNT/E resulted in increased affinity for GD1a and conferred the ability to bind ganglioside GM1a. Conversely, BoNT/E was not able to bind GM1a, demonstrating a discrete mechanism of ganglioside recognition. These findings provide a structural basis for ganglioside binding among the CNTs and show that individual toxins utilize unique ganglioside recognition strategies.

  5. How Do Gangliosides Regulate RTKs Signaling?

    PubMed Central

    Julien, Sylvain; Bobowski, Marie; Steenackers, Agata; Le Bourhis, Xuefen; Delannoy, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Gangliosides, the glycosphingolipids carrying one or several sialic acid residues, are located on the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane in glycolipid-enriched microdomains, where they interact with molecules of signal transduction pathways including receptors tyrosine kinases (RTKs). The role of gangliosides in the regulation of signal transduction has been reported in many cases and in a large number of cell types. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on the biosynthesis of gangliosides and the mechanism by which they regulate RTKs signaling. PMID:24709879

  6. Monitoring Diabetic Nephropathy by Circulating Gangliosides.

    PubMed

    Ene, Corina Daniela; Penescu, Mircea; Anghel, Amalia; Neagu, Monica; Budu, Vlad; Nicolae, Ilinca

    2016-01-01

    Gangliosides are multifunctional molecules, abundantly expressed in renal cell membrane but also in sera of patients with renal disease. The aim of this study was to quantify the serum levels of sialic acid-ganglioside in patients diagnosed with diabetes for an eventual biomarker stratification of patients with renal complications. We included 35 diabetic patients without metabolic complications, 35 patients with diabetic nephropathy, 35 non-diabetic individuals. We found that sialic acid ganglioside serum level was significantly increased in patients with diabetic nephropathy compared to the level obtained in patients with uncomplicated diabetes and to non-diabetic controls. A statistically significant positive correlation was obtained between serum levels of sialic acid gangliosides, HbA1c, and serum creatinine in patients with diabetes without complications. Moreover positive correlation was found between sialic acid ganglioside and blood glucose, HbA1c, urea, creatinine, microalbuminuria in patients with diabetic nephropathy. We can conclude that serum sialic acid-gangliosides are statistically increased in diabetic nephropathy positively correlated with microalbuminuria. PMID:26359623

  7. Phospatidylserine or ganglioside--which of anionic lipids determines the effect of cationic dextran on lipid membrane?

    PubMed

    Hąc-Wydro, Katarzyna; Wydro, Paweł; Cetnar, Andrzej; Włodarczyk, Grzegorz

    2015-02-01

    In this work the influence of cationic polymer, namely diethylaminoethyl DEAE-dextran on model lipid membranes was investigated. This polymer is of a wide application as a biomaterial and a drug carrier and its cytotoxicity toward various cancer cells was also confirmed. It was suggested that anticancer effect of cationic dextran is connected with the binding of the polymer to the negatively charged sialic acid residues overexpressed in cancer membrane. This fact encouraged us to perform the studies aimed at verifying whether the effect of cationic DEAE-dextran on membrane is determined only by the presence of the negatively charged lipid in the system or the kind of anionic lipid is also important. To reach this goal systematic investigations on the effect of dextran on various one-component lipid monolayers and multicomponent hepatoma cell model membranes differing in the level and the kind of anionic lipids (phosphatidylserine, sialic acid-containing ganglioside GM3 or their mixture) were done. As evidenced the results the effect of DEAE-dextran on the model system is determined by anionic lipid-polymer electrostatic interactions. However, the magnitude of the effect of cationic polymer is strongly dependent on the kind of anionic lipid in the model system. Namely, the packing and ordering of the mixtures containing ganglioside GM3 were more affected by DEAE-dextran than phosphatidylserine-containing monolayers. Although the experiments were done on model systems and therefore further studies are highly needed, the collected data may indicate that ganglioside may be important in the differentiation of the effect of cationic dextran on membranes. PMID:25576813

  8. Deciphering the Glycolipid Code of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's Amyloid Proteins Allowed the Creation of a Universal Ganglioside-Binding Peptide

    PubMed Central

    Yahi, Nouara; Fantini, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    A broad range of microbial and amyloid proteins interact with cell surface glycolipids which behave as infectivity and/or toxicity cofactors in human pathologies. Here we have deciphered the biochemical code that determines the glycolipid-binding specificity of two major amyloid proteins, Alzheimer's β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) and Parkinson's disease associated protein α-synuclein. We showed that both proteins interact with selected glycolipids through a common loop-shaped motif exhibiting little sequence homology. This 12-residue domain corresponded to fragments 34-45 of α-synuclein and 5-16 of Aβ. By modulating the amino acid sequence of α-synuclein at only two positions in which we introduced a pair of histidine residues found in Aβ, we created a chimeric α-synuclein/Aβ peptide with extended ganglioside-binding properties. This chimeric peptide retained the property of α-synuclein to recognize GM3, and acquired the capacity to recognize GM1 (an Aβ-inherited characteristic). Free histidine (but not tryptophan or asparagine) and Zn2+ (but not Na+) prevented this interaction, confirming the key role of His-13 and His-14 in ganglioside binding. Molecular dynamics studies suggested that the chimeric peptide recognized cholesterol-constrained conformers of GM1, including typical chalice-shaped dimers, that are representative of the condensed cholesterol-ganglioside complexes found in lipid raft domains of the plasma membrane of neural cells. Correspondingly, the peptide had a particular affinity for raft-like membranes containing both GM1 and cholesterol. The chimeric peptide also interacted with several other gangliosides, including major brain gangliosides (GM4, GD1a, GD1b, and GT1b) but not with neutral glycolipids such as GlcCer, LacCer or asialo-GM1. It could inhibit the binding of Aβ1-42 onto neural SH-SY5Y cells and did not induce toxicity in these cells. In conclusion, deciphering the glycolipid code of amyloid proteins allowed us to create a universal

  9. Mice Lacking GD3 Synthase Display Morphological Abnormalities in the Sciatic Nerve and Neuronal Disturbances during Peripheral Nerve Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro-Resende, Victor Túlio; Gomes, Tiago Araújo; de Lima, Silmara; Nascimento-Lima, Maiara; Bargas-Rega, Michele; Santiago, Marcelo Felipe; Reis, Ricardo Augusto de Melo; de Mello, Fernando Garcia

    2014-01-01

    The ganglioside 9-O-acetyl GD3 is overexpressed in peripheral nerves after lesioning, and its expression is correlated with axonal degeneration and regeneration in adult rodents. However, the biological roles of this ganglioside during the regenerative process are unclear. We used mice lacking GD3 synthase (Siat3a KO), an enzyme that converts GM3 to GD3, which can be further converted to 9-O-acetyl GD3. Morphological analyses of longitudinal and transverse sections of the sciatic nerve revealed significant differences in the transverse area and nerve thickness. The number of axons and the levels of myelin basic protein were significantly reduced in adult KO mice compared to wild-type (WT) mice. The G-ratio was increased in KO mice compared to WT mice based on quantification of thin transverse sections stained with toluidine blue. We found that neurite outgrowth was significantly reduced in the absence of GD3. However, addition of exogenous GD3 led to neurite growth after 3 days, similar to that in WT mice. To evaluate fiber regeneration after nerve lesioning, we compared the regenerated distance from the lesion site and found that this distance was one-fourth the length in KO mice compared to WT mice. KO mice in which GD3 was administered showed markedly improved regeneration compared to the control KO mice. In summary, we suggest that 9-O-acetyl GD3 plays biological roles in neuron-glia interactions, facilitating axonal growth and myelination induced by Schwann cells. Moreover, exogenous GD3 can be converted to 9-O-acetyl GD3 in mice lacking GD3 synthase, improving regeneration. PMID:25330147

  10. Gangliosides, or sialic acid, antagonize ethanol intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Klemm, W.R.; Boyles, R.; Matthew, J.; Cherian, L.

    1988-01-01

    Because ethanol elicits a dose-dependent hydrolysis of brain sialogangliosides, the authors tested the possibility that injected gangliosides might antagonize intoxicating doses of ethanol. Clear anti-intoxication effects were seen at 24 hr post-injection of mixed mouse-brain gangliosides at 125-130 mg/kg, but not at lower or higher doses. Sleep time was reduced on the order of 50%, and roto-rod agility was significantly enhanced. Sialic acid (SA) similarly antagonized ethanol; however, the precursor of SA, N-acetyl-D-mannosamine, as well as ceramide and asialoganglioside did not.

  11. Ganglioside/glycosphingolipid turnover: new concepts.

    PubMed

    Tettamanti, G

    2004-01-01

    In this review focus is given to the metabolic turnover of gangliosides/glycosphingolipids. The metabolism and accompanying intracellular trafficking of gangliosides/glycosphingolipids is illustrated with particular attention to the following events: (a) the de novo biosynthesis in the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus, followed by vesicular sorting to the plasma membrane; (b) the enzyme-assisted chemical modifications occurring at the plasma membrane level; (c) the internalization via endocytosis and recycling to the plasma membrane; (d) the direct glycosylations taking place after sorting from endosomes to the Golgi apparatus; (e) the degradation at the late endosomal/lysosomal level with formation of fragments of sugar (glucose, galactose, hexosamine, sialic acid) and lipid (ceramide, sphingosine, fatty acid) nature; (f) the metabolic recycling of these fragments for biosynthetic purposes (salvage pathways); and (g) further degradation of fragments to waste products. Noteworthy, the correct course of ganglioside/glycosphingolipid metabolism requires the presence of the vimentin intracellular filament net work, likely to assist intracellular transport of sphingoid molecules. ut of the above events those that can be quantitatively evaluated with acceptable reliability are the processes of de novo biosynthesis, metabolic salvage and direct glycosylation. Depending on the cultured cells employed, the percentage of distribution of de novo biosynthesis, salvage pathways, and direct glycosylation, over total metabolism were reported to be: 35% (range: 10-90%) for de novo biosynthesis, 7% (range: 5-10%) for direct glycosylation, and 58% (range: 10-90%) for salvage pathways. The attempts made to calculate the half-life of overall ganglioside turnover provided data of unsure reliability, especially because in many studies salvage pathways were not taken into consideration. The values of half-life range from 2 to 6.5 h to 3 days depending on the cells used

  12. Changes in ganglioside content affect the binding of Clostridium perfringens epsilon-toxin to detergent-resistant membranes of Madin-Darby canine kidney cells.

    PubMed

    Shimamoto, Seiko; Tamai, Eiji; Matsushita, Osamu; Minami, Junzaburo; Okabe, Akinobu; Miyata, Shigeru

    2005-01-01

    Epsilon-toxin (ET) of Clostridium perfringens, which causes fatal enterotoxemia in ungulates, was previously shown to bind to and form a heptameric pore within the detergent-resistant membranes (DRMs) of MDCK cells. Depletion of cholesterol has also been shown to decrease the cytotoxicity of ET and its heptamerization. In this study, we investigated the effects of changes in sphingolipids, other DRM components of MDCK cells, on the cells' susceptibility to ET. Treatment with fumonisin B1 and PDMP, inhibitors of sphingolipid and glycosphingolipid syntheses, respectively, increased the susceptibility, while D609, a sphingomyelin synthesis inhibitor, had the opposite effect. The exogenous addition of ganglioside G(M1) dramatically decreased the ET binding, heptamerization and cytotoxicity. These effects were shown not to be due to ET binding to G(M1) or to denaturation of ET. We also found that the ET cytotoxicity towards MDCK cells decreased with an increase in culture time. In accordance with the resistance observed for prolonged cultured cells, G(M3), a major ganglioside component, increased and sialidase treatment increased their susceptibility. These results suggest that membrane-anchored sialic acid of G(M3) within DRMs inhibits ET binding, leading to prevention of the heptamerization of ET and cell death. It is also suggested that sialidase produced by this organism aids the targeting of ET to MDCK cells.

  13. The role of gangliosides in neurodevelopment.

    PubMed

    Palmano, Kate; Rowan, Angela; Guillermo, Rozey; Guan, Jian; McJarrow, Paul

    2015-05-22

    Gangliosides are important components of neuronal cell membranes and it is widely accepted that they play a critical role in neuronal and brain development. They are functionally involved in neurotransmission and are thought to support the formation and stabilization of functional synapses and neural circuits required as the structural basis of memory and learning. Available evidence, as reviewed herein, suggests that dietary gangliosides may impact positively on cognitive functions, particularly in the early postnatal period when the brain is still growing. Further, new evidence suggests that the mechanism of action may be through an effect on the neuroplasticity of the brain, mediated through enhanced synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus and nigro-striatal dopaminergic pathway.

  14. The Role of Gangliosides in Neurodevelopment

    PubMed Central

    Palmano, Kate; Rowan, Angela; Guillermo, Rozey; Guan, Jian; Mc Jarrow, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Gangliosides are important components of neuronal cell membranes and it is widely accepted that they play a critical role in neuronal and brain development. They are functionally involved in neurotransmission and are thought to support the formation and stabilization of functional synapses and neural circuits required as the structural basis of memory and learning. Available evidence, as reviewed herein, suggests that dietary gangliosides may impact positively on cognitive functions, particularly in the early postnatal period when the brain is still growing. Further, new evidence suggests that the mechanism of action may be through an effect on the neuroplasticity of the brain, mediated through enhanced synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus and nigro-striatal dopaminergic pathway. PMID:26007338

  15. Structural aspects of ganglioside-containing membranes.

    PubMed

    Cantu', Laura; Corti, Mario; Brocca, Paola; Del Favero, Elena

    2009-01-01

    The demand for understanding the physical role of gangliosides in membranes is pressing, due to the high number of diverse and crucial biological functions in which they are involved, needing a unifying thread. To this purpose, model systems including gangliosides have been subject of extensive structural studies. Although showing different levels of complication, all models share the need for simplicity, in order to allow for physico-chemical clarity, so they keep far from the extreme complexity of the true biological systems. Nonetheless, as widely agreed, they provide a basic hint on the structural contribution specific molecules can pay to the complex aggregate. This topic we address in the present review. Gangliosides are likely to play their physical role through metamorphism, cooperativity and demixing, that is, they tend to segregate and identify regions where they can dictate and modulate the geometry and the topology of the structure, and its mechanical properties. Strong three-dimensional organisation and cooperativity are exploited to scale up the local arrangement hierarchically from the nano- to the mesoscale, influencing the overall morphology of the structure. PMID:19063860

  16. High-throughput imaging method for direct assessment of GM1 ganglioside levels in mammalian cells

    PubMed Central

    Acosta, Walter; Martin, Reid; Radin, David N.; Cramer, Carole L.

    2016-01-01

    GM1-gangliosidosis is an inherited autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the gene GLB1, which encodes acid β-galactosidase (β-gal). The lack of activity in this lysosomal enzyme leads to accumulation of GM1 gangliosides (GM1) in cells. We have developed a high-content-imaging method to assess GM1 levels in fibroblasts that can be used to evaluate substrate reduction in treated GLB1−/− cells [1]. This assay allows fluorescent quantification in a multi-well system which generates unbiased and statistically significant data. Fluorescently labeled Cholera Toxin B subunit (CTXB), which specifically binds to GM1 gangliosides, was used to detect in situ GM1 levels in a fixed monolayer of fibroblasts. This sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive method facilitates in vitro drug screening in a format that allows a high number of replicates using low working volumes. PMID:26958633

  17. Gangliosides in the Nervous System: Biosynthesis and Degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Robert K.; Ariga, Toshio; Yanagisawa, Makoto; Zeng, Guichao

    Gangliosides, abundant in the nervous system, are known to play crucial modulatory roles in cellular recognition, interaction, adhesion, and signal transduction, particularly during early developmental stages. The expression of gangliosides in the nervous system is developmentally regulated and is closely related to the differentiation state of the cell. Ganglioside biosynthesis occurs in intracellular organelles, from which gangliosides are transported to the plasma membrane. During brain development, the ganglioside composition of the nervous system undergoes remarkable changes and is strictly regulated by the activities of glycosyltransferases, which can occur at different levels of control, including glycosyltransferase gene transcription and posttranslational modification. Genes for glycosyltransferase involved in ganglioside biosynthesis have been cloned and classified into families of glycosyltransferases based on their amino acid sequence similarities. The donor and acceptor substrate specificities are determined by enzymatic analysis of the glycosyltransferase gene products. Cell-type specific regulation of these genes has also been studied. Gangliosides are degraded by lysosomal exoglycosidases. The action of these enzymes occurs frequently in cooperation with activator proteins. Several human diseases are caused by defects of degradative enzymes, resulting in massive accumulation of certain glycolipids, including gangliosides in the lysosomal compartment and other organelles in the brain and visceral organs. Some of the representative lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs) caused by the accumulation of lipids in late endosomes and lysosomes will be discussed.

  18. Expression of GD2 ganglioside by untreated primary human neuroblastomas.

    PubMed

    Wu, Z L; Schwartz, E; Seeger, R; Ladisch, S

    1986-01-01

    Primary neuroblastomas obtained before therapy from 36 patients were studied to determine the frequency of tumors expressing a specific glycosphingolipid, GD2 ganglioside. Total tissue gangliosides were purified by a new partition method, quantitated, and analyzed by high-performance thin-layer chromatography. All 36 neuroblastoma tumors, representing all clinical stages, contained GD2 ganglioside. The mean relative and absolute concentrations of GD2 were substantial (12% of the total tissue gangliosides and 50 nmol/g of tissue) and were independent of the clinical stage of the tumor. In contrast, 6 samples of related but more differentiated tumors (ganglioneuroblastoma and ganglioneuroma) had little or no detectable GD2 (less than or equal to 1.5% of total gangliosides and less than or equal to 4 nmol/g of tissue). These results suggest that GD2 is a sensitive marker for neuroblastoma tissue and may be an excellent target antigen for immunotherapy of this tumor.

  19. Expansion of natural killer cells in mice transgenic for IgM antibody to ganglioside GD2: demonstration of prolonged survival after challenge with syngeneic tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Ikuo; Yoshida, Yukiko; Taya, Chouji; Shitara, Hiroshi; Yonekawa, Hiromichi; Karasuyama, Hajime; Tada, Nobuhiko; Furukawa, Koichi; Tai, Tadashi

    2003-08-01

    IgM antibodies to gangliosides, sialic acid-containing glycosphingolipids, have been shown to mediate anti-tumor effects in cancer patients with melanoma and neuroblastoma and to correlate with survival. Mechanisms by which the antibodies induce tumor suppression, however, have not been systematically studied. To investigate this point, we produced and characterized C57BL/6 mice transgenic for IgM antibody to ganglioside GD2. The transgenic (TG) mice showed high IgM, but not IgG antibody titers against GD2 in their sera. No significant clinical symptoms were observed. When EL4 cells, syngeneic T lymphoma that express ganglioside GD2, were injected into TG mice, prolonged survival was observed. Complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) of EL4 cells was mediated with TG mice sera. Neither antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity with their sera nor cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity to EL4 cells was shown in TG mice. Spleen lymphocytes from TG mice had increased numbers of natural killer (NK) cells, but not T cells, B cells, or macrophages compared with wild-type mice. Depletion of NK cells with anti-asialo GM1 rabbit serum reduced or abrogated the observed anti-tumor effects, suggesting that NK cells play a major role in tumor eradication or suppression. NK cell activity in TG mice was much higher than wild-type mice. Moreover, TG mice showed prolonged survival after injection with syngeneic B16 melanoma cells, which express GM3, but not GD2 or GD3. Taking these results together, our studies demonstrate that the TG mice have significant anti-tumor characteristics, probably due to CDC and NK cell expansion and activation with anti-ganglioside GD2 antibody.

  20. Correlations between cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, anti-ganglioside antibodies, electrodiagnostic findings and functional status in Guillain-Barré syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Taheraghdam, Aliakbar; Pourkhanjar, Peyman; Talebi, Mahnaz; Bonyadi, Mohammadreza; Pashapour, Ali; Rikhtegar, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background Due to underlying autoimmune background of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), the possible role of infectious agents cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and also due to association of anti-ganglioside antibodies with GBS, the present study aimed to investigate the associations between serum anti-ganglioside antibodies (AGA) level, type of infection and electrodiagnostic (ED) findings with the severity and three-month functional outcome of patients with GBS. Methods In a prospective study, 30 patients with GBS were selected and before starting the treatment, baseline serum samples of patients were obtained for measuring the serum AGA including the antibodies against GQ1b, GT1b, GD1a, GD1b, GM1, GM2, GM3 and strains of CMV and EBV. All the patients were precisely examined for ED findings. Functional status of patients on admission and three months after admission were recorded according to the modified Rankin scale (mRS). Results The results of patients’ serum assessment revealed that CMV IgM was positive in one patient (3.3%), CMV IgG in 29 patients (96.7%) and EBV IgG in 27 patients (90%). Anti-GM1 was found in 3 patients (10%) and anti-GM3 was found only in one patient (3.3%). However, no statistical significant association was found between the AGA and strain of the disease and ED findings. Conclusion Despite the coexistence of AGA and serum antibodies against CMV and EBV in some GBS patients, there was not clear association in this regard. However, the AGA was positive in patients who suffered from severe phase of the disease. PMID:24800041

  1. Assessment of the Molecular Expression and Structure of Gangliosides in Brain Metastasis of Lung Adenocarcinoma by an Advanced Approach Based on Fully Automated Chip-Nanoelectrospray Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamfir, Alina D.; Serb, Alina; Vukeli, Željka; Flangea, Corina; Schiopu, Catalin; Fabris, Dragana; Kalanj-Bognar, Svjetlana; Capitan, Florina; Sisu, Eugen

    2011-12-01

    Gangliosides (GGs), sialic acid-containing glycosphingolipids, are known to be involved in the invasive/metastatic behavior of brain tumor cells. Development of modern methods for determination of the variations in GG expression and structure during neoplastic cell transformation is a priority in the field of biomedical analysis. In this context, we report here on the first optimization and application of chip-based nanoelectrospray (NanoMate robot) mass spectrometry (MS) for the investigation of gangliosides in a secondary brain tumor. In our work a native GG mixture extracted and purified from brain metastasis of lung adenocarcinoma was screened by NanoMate robot coupled to a quadrupole time-of-flight MS. A native GG mixture from an age-matched healthy brain tissue, sampled and analyzed under identical conditions, served as a control. Comparative MS analysis demonstrated an evident dissimilarity in GG expression in the two tissue types. Brain metastasis is characterized by many species having a reduced N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) content, however, modified by fucosylation or O-acetylation such as Fuc-GM4, Fuc-GM3, di- O-Ac-GM1, O-Ac-GM3. In contrast, healthy brain tissue is dominated by longer structures exhibiting from mono- to hexasialylated sugar chains. Also, significant differences in ceramide composition were discovered. By tandem MS using collision-induced dissociation at low energies, brain metastasis-associated GD3 (d18:1/18:0) species as well as an uncommon Fuc-GM1 (d18:1/18:0) detected in the normal brain tissue could be structurally characterized. The novel protocol was able to provide a reliable compositional and structural characterization with high analysis pace and at a sensitivity situated in the fmol range.

  2. Biosynthesis and transport of gangliosides in peripheral nerve

    SciTech Connect

    Yates, A.J.; Tipnis, U.R.; Hofteig, J.H.; Warner, J.K.

    1984-01-01

    Radiolabelled glucosamine was injected into L-7 dorsal root ganglion (DRG) of rabbits. At several different times after injection DRG, lumbosacral trunks (LST) and sciatic nerves (SN) were removed and gangliosides extracted. Two and 3 weeks after injection the amounts of radioactivity in the ganglioside fractions of LST and SN were significantly higher than at days 1 and 2. The TCA soluble radioactivity decreased dramatically over the same time period. Colchicine prevented the appearance of radiolabelled lipid in LST and SN. From these experiments the authors conclude that some ganglioside is synthesized in the neuronal cell bodies of DRG and transported in the axons of the sciatic nerve. In another experiment the sciatic nerve was transected and ends separated to prevent regeneration. There was no difference in the amount of radiolabelled ganglioside that was isolated from DRG or LST of transected nerves compared with control nerves. The behavior of several potential acid soluble contaminants was studied in several steps used to isolate gangliosides. Of those studied only CMP-NeuAc could cause significant contamination of the final ganglioside preparation.

  3. Association of Anti-GT1a Antibodies with an Outbreak of Guillain-Barré Syndrome and Analysis of Ganglioside Mimicry in an Associated Campylobacter jejuni Strain.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Maojun; Gilbert, Michel; Yuki, Nobuhiro; Cao, Fangfang; Li, Jianjun; Liu, Hongying; Li, Qun; Meng, Fanliang; Zhang, Jianzhong

    2015-01-01

    An outbreak of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), subsequent to Campylobacter jejuni enteritis, occurred in China in 2007. Serum anti-ganglioside antibodies were measured in GBS patients and controls. Genome sequencing was used to determine the phylogenetic relationship among three C. jejuni strains from a patient with GBS (ICDCCJ07001), a patient with gastroenteritis (ICDCCJ07002) and a healthy carrier (ICDCCJ07004), which were all associated with the outbreak. The ganglioside-like structures of the lipo-oligosaccharides of these strains were determined by mass spectrometry. Seventeen (53%) of the GBS patients had anti-GT1a IgG antibodies. GT1a mimicry was found in the lipo-oligosaccharides of strain ICDCCJ07002 and ICDCCJ07004; but a combination of GM3/GD3 mimics was observed in ICDCCJ07001, although this patient had anti-GT1a IgG antibodies. A single-base deletion in a glycosyltransferase gene caused the absence of GT1a mimicry in ICDCCJ07001. The phylogenetic tree showed that ICDCCJ07002 and ICDCCJ07004 were genetically closer to each other than to ICDCCJ07001. C. jejuni, bearing a GT1a-like lipo-oligosaccharide, might have caused the GBS outbreak and the loss of GT1a mimicry may have helped ICDCCJ07001 to survive in the host.

  4. Association of Anti-GT1a Antibodies with an Outbreak of Guillain-Barré Syndrome and Analysis of Ganglioside Mimicry in an Associated Campylobacter jejuni Strain

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Fangfang; Li, Jianjun; Liu, Hongying; Li, Qun; Meng, Fanliang; Zhang, Jianzhong

    2015-01-01

    An outbreak of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), subsequent to Campylobacter jejuni enteritis, occurred in China in 2007. Serum anti-ganglioside antibodies were measured in GBS patients and controls. Genome sequencing was used to determine the phylogenetic relationship among three C. jejuni strains from a patient with GBS (ICDCCJ07001), a patient with gastroenteritis (ICDCCJ07002) and a healthy carrier (ICDCCJ07004), which were all associated with the outbreak. The ganglioside-like structures of the lipo-oligosaccharides of these strains were determined by mass spectrometry. Seventeen (53%) of the GBS patients had anti-GT1a IgG antibodies. GT1a mimicry was found in the lipo-oligosaccharides of strain ICDCCJ07002 and ICDCCJ07004; but a combination of GM3/GD3 mimics was observed in ICDCCJ07001, although this patient had anti-GT1a IgG antibodies. A single-base deletion in a glycosyltransferase gene caused the absence of GT1a mimicry in ICDCCJ07001. The phylogenetic tree showed that ICDCCJ07002 and ICDCCJ07004 were genetically closer to each other than to ICDCCJ07001. C. jejuni, bearing a GT1a-like lipo-oligosaccharide, might have caused the GBS outbreak and the loss of GT1a mimicry may have helped ICDCCJ07001 to survive in the host. PMID:26197476

  5. The effect of β-sitosterol on the properties of cholesterol/phosphatidylcholine/ganglioside monolayers--the impact of monolayer fluidity.

    PubMed

    Hąc-Wydro, Katarzyna

    2013-10-01

    In this paper the influence of one of phytosterols, namely β-sitosterol on cholesterol (Chol)/phosphatidylcholine (PC)/ganglioside (GM3) monolayers was examined to find the correlation between the properties of model system and the effect of phytocompound. The studied monolayers differed in condensation and fluidity, which were modified by the structure of phosphatidylcholine. It was found that the incorporation of β-sitosterol into cholesterol/phosphatidylcholine/ganglioside films changes their morphology, condensation and interactions between the lipids. The substitution of cholesterol more strongly decreased the condensation and stability of the film containing PC molecules having monounsaturated chains than more densely packed monolayer composed of saturated phosphatidylcholine. However, thorough analysis of data obtained so far suggests that the magnitude of β-sitosterol effect is determined by the composition of the system rather than its fluidity itself. Moreover, the results collected herein correlate well with the findings that phytosterol more strongly inhibits the growth of cancer cells, which at a given proportion of cholesterol to phospholipids in membranes, have more unsaturated fatty acids within phospholipids molecules.

  6. Association of Anti-GT1a Antibodies with an Outbreak of Guillain-Barré Syndrome and Analysis of Ganglioside Mimicry in an Associated Campylobacter jejuni Strain.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Maojun; Gilbert, Michel; Yuki, Nobuhiro; Cao, Fangfang; Li, Jianjun; Liu, Hongying; Li, Qun; Meng, Fanliang; Zhang, Jianzhong

    2015-01-01

    An outbreak of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), subsequent to Campylobacter jejuni enteritis, occurred in China in 2007. Serum anti-ganglioside antibodies were measured in GBS patients and controls. Genome sequencing was used to determine the phylogenetic relationship among three C. jejuni strains from a patient with GBS (ICDCCJ07001), a patient with gastroenteritis (ICDCCJ07002) and a healthy carrier (ICDCCJ07004), which were all associated with the outbreak. The ganglioside-like structures of the lipo-oligosaccharides of these strains were determined by mass spectrometry. Seventeen (53%) of the GBS patients had anti-GT1a IgG antibodies. GT1a mimicry was found in the lipo-oligosaccharides of strain ICDCCJ07002 and ICDCCJ07004; but a combination of GM3/GD3 mimics was observed in ICDCCJ07001, although this patient had anti-GT1a IgG antibodies. A single-base deletion in a glycosyltransferase gene caused the absence of GT1a mimicry in ICDCCJ07001. The phylogenetic tree showed that ICDCCJ07002 and ICDCCJ07004 were genetically closer to each other than to ICDCCJ07001. C. jejuni, bearing a GT1a-like lipo-oligosaccharide, might have caused the GBS outbreak and the loss of GT1a mimicry may have helped ICDCCJ07001 to survive in the host. PMID:26197476

  7. Antibody Recognition of Cancer-Related Gangliosides and Their Mimics Investigated Using in silico Site Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Agostino, Mark; Yuriev, Elizabeth; Ramsland, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    Modified gangliosides may be overexpressed in certain types of cancer, thus, they are considered a valuable target in cancer immunotherapy. Structural knowledge of their interaction with antibodies is currently limited, due to the large size and high flexibility of these ligands. In this study, we apply our previously developed site mapping technique to investigate the recognition of cancer-related gangliosides by anti-ganglioside antibodies. The results reveal a potential ganglioside-binding motif in the four antibodies studied, suggesting the possibility of structural convergence in the anti-ganglioside immune response. The structural basis of the recognition of ganglioside-mimetic peptides is also investigated using site mapping and compared to ganglioside recognition. The peptides are shown to act as structural mimics of gangliosides by interacting with many of the same binding site residues as the cognate carbohydrate epitopes. These studies provide important clues as to the structural basis of immunological mimicry of carbohydrates. PMID:22536387

  8. Reactivity of neuroborreliosis patients (Lyme disease) to cardiolipin and gangliosides.

    PubMed

    García Moncó, J C; Wheeler, C M; Benach, J L; Furie, R A; Lukehart, S A; Stanek, G; Steere, A C

    1993-07-01

    A subset of patients (50%) with neuroborreliosis (Lyme disease) showed IgG reactivity to cardiolipin in solid phase ELISA. In addition, a subset of patients with neuroborreliosis (29%) and syphilis (59%) had IgM reactivity to gangliosides with a Gal(beta 1-3) GalNac terminal sequence (GM1, GD1b, and asialo GM1). Anti-ganglioside IgM antibodies were significantly more frequent in these two groups of patients compared to patients with cutaneous and articular Lyme disease, primary antiphospholipid syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus and normal controls. Correlative evidence and adsorption experiments indicated that antibodies to cardiolipin had separate specificities from those directed against the gangliosides. IgM antibodies to Gal(beta 1-3) GalNac gangliosides appeared to have similar specificities since these were positively correlated and inhibitable by cross adsorption assays. Given the clinical associations of patients with neuroborreliosis and syphilis with IgM reactivity to gangliosides sharing the Gal(beta 1-3) GalNac terminus, we suggest that these antibodies could represent a response to injury in neurological disease or a cross reactive event caused by spirochetes.

  9. Ganglioside Composition in Beef, Chicken, Pork, and Fish Determined Using Liquid Chromatography-High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Fong, Bertram Y; Ma, Lin; Khor, Geok Lin; van der Does, Yvonne; Rowan, Angela; McJarrow, Paul; MacGibbon, Alastair K H

    2016-08-17

    Gangliosides (GA) are found in animal tissues and fluids, such as blood and milk. These sialo-glycosphingolipids have bioactivities in neural development, the gastrointestinal tract, and the immune system. In this study, a high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) method was validated to characterize and quantitate the GA in beef, chicken, pork, and fish species (turbot, snapper, king salmon, and island mackerel). For the first time, we report the concentration of GM3, the dominant GA in these foods, as ranging from 0.35 to 1.1 mg/100 g and 0.70 to 5.86 mg/100 g of meat and fish, respectively. The minor GAs measured were GD3, GD1a, GD1b, and GT1b. Molecular species distribution revealed that the GA contained long- to very-long-chain acyl fatty acids attached to the ceramide moiety. Fish GA contained only N-acetylneuraminic acid (NeuAc) sialic acid, while beef, chicken, and pork contained GD1a/b species that incorporated both NeuAc and N-glycolylneuraminic acid (NeuGc) and hydroxylated fatty acids. PMID:27436425

  10. GM1 and GM2 gangliosides: recent developments.

    PubMed

    Bisel, Blaine; Pavone, Francesco S; Calamai, Martino

    2014-03-01

    GM1 and GM2 gangliosides are important components of the cell membrane and play an integral role in cell signaling and metabolism. In this conceptual overview, we discuss recent developments in our understanding of the basic biological functions of GM1 and GM2 and their involvement in several diseases. In addition to a well-established spectrum of disorders known as gangliosidoses, such as Tay-Sachs disease, more and more evidence points at an involvement of GM1 in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. New emerging methodologies spanning from single-molecule imaging in vivo to simulations in silico have complemented standard studies based on ganglioside extraction. PMID:25372744

  11. The role of gangliosides in brain development and the potential benefits of perinatal supplementation.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Jennifer M; Rice, Gregory E; Mitchell, Murray D

    2013-11-01

    The maternal diet provides critical nutrients that can influence fetal and infant brain development and function. This review highlights the potential benefits of maternal dietary ganglioside supplementation on fetal and infant brain development. English-language systematic reviews, preclinical studies, and clinical studies were obtained through searches on PubMed. Reports were selected if they included benefits and harms of maternal ganglioside supplementation during pregnancy or ganglioside-supplemented formula after pregnancy. The potential benefits of ganglioside supplementation were explored by investigating the following: (1) their role in neural development, (2) their therapeutic use in neural injury and disease, (3) their presence in human breast milk, and (4) their use as a dietary supplement during or after pregnancy. Preclinical studies indicate that ganglioside supplementation at high doses (1% of total dietary intake) can significantly increase cognitive development and body weight when given prenatally. However, lower ganglioside supplementation doses have no beneficial cognitive effects, even when given throughout pregnancy and lactation. In human clinical trials, infants given formula supplemented with gangliosides showed increased cognitive development and an increase in ganglioside content. Ganglioside supplementation may promote brain development and function in offspring when administered at the optimum dosage. We propose that prenatal maternal dietary supplementation with gangliosides throughout pregnancy may promote greater long-term effects on brain development and function. Before this concept can be encouraged in preconception clinics, future research and clinical trials are needed to confirm the ability of dietary gangliosides to improve cognitive development, but available results already encourage this area of research.

  12. In cellulo examination of a beta-alpha hybrid construct of beta-hexosaminidase A subunits, reported to interact with the GM2 activator protein and hydrolyze GM2 ganglioside.

    PubMed

    Sinici, Incilay; Yonekawa, Sayuri; Tkachyova, Ilona; Gray, Steven J; Samulski, R Jude; Wakarchuk, Warren; Mark, Brian L; Mahuran, Don J

    2013-01-01

    The hydrolysis in lysosomes of GM2 ganglioside to GM3 ganglioside requires the correct synthesis, intracellular assembly and transport of three separate gene products; i.e., the alpha and beta subunits of heterodimeric beta-hexosaminidase A, E.C. # 3.2.1.52 (encoded by the HEXA and HEXB genes, respectively), and the GM2-activator protein (GM2AP, encoded by the GM2A gene). Mutations in any one of these genes can result in one of three neurodegenerative diseases collectively known as GM2 gangliosidosis (HEXA, Tay-Sachs disease, MIM # 272800; HEXB, Sandhoff disease, MIM # 268800; and GM2A, AB-variant form, MIM # 272750). Elements of both of the hexosaminidase A subunits are needed to productively interact with the GM2 ganglioside-GM2AP complex in the lysosome. Some of these elements have been predicted from the crystal structures of hexosaminidase and the activator. Recently a hybrid of the two subunits has been constructed and reported to be capable of forming homodimers that can perform this reaction in vivo, which could greatly simplify vector-mediated gene transfer approaches for Tay-Sachs or Sandhoff diseases. A cDNA encoding a hybrid hexosaminidase subunit capable of dimerizing and hydrolyzing GM2 ganglioside could be incorporated into a single vector, whereas packaging both subunits of hexosaminidase A into vectors, such as adeno-associated virus, would be impractical due to size constraints. In this report we examine the previously published hybrid construct (H1) and a new more extensive hybrid (H2), with our documented in cellulo (live cell- based) assay utilizing a fluorescent GM2 ganglioside derivative. Unfortunately when Tay-Sachs cells were transfected with either the H1 or H2 hybrid construct and then were fed the GM2 derivative, no significant increase in its turnover was detected. In vitro assays with the isolated H1 or H2 homodimers confirmed that neither was capable of human GM2AP-dependent hydrolysis of GM2 ganglioside. PMID:23483939

  13. Packing of ganglioside-phospholipid monolayers: an x-ray diffraction and reflectivity study.

    PubMed

    Majewski, J; Kuhl, T L; Kjaer, K; Smith, G S

    2001-11-01

    Using synchrotron grazing-incidence x-ray diffraction (GIXD) and reflectivity, the in-plane and out-of-plane structure of mixed ganglioside-phospholipid monolayers was investigated at the air-water interface. Mixed monolayers of 0, 5, 10, 20, and 100 mol% ganglioside GM(1) and the phospholipid dipalmitoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DPPE) were studied in the solid phase at 23 degrees C and a surface pressure of 45 mN/m. At these concentrations and conditions the two components do not phase-separate and no evidence for domain formation was observed. X-ray scattering measurements reveal that GM(1) is accommodated within the host DPPE monolayer and does not distort the hexagonal in-plane unit cell or out-of-plane two-dimensional (2-D) packing compared with a pure DPPE monolayer. The oligosaccharide headgroups were found to extend normally from the monolayer surface, and the incorporation of these glycolipids into DPPE monolayers did not affect hydrocarbon tail packing (fluidization or condensation of the hydrocarbon region). This is in contrast to previous investigations of lipopolymer-lipid mixtures, where the packing structure of phospholipid monolayers was greatly altered by the inclusion of lipids bearing hydrophilic polymer groups. Indeed, the lack of packing disruptions by the oligosaccharide groups indicates that protein-GM(1) interactions, including binding, insertion, chain fluidization, and domain formation (lipid rafts), can be studied in 2-D monolayers using scattering techniques.

  14. Identification of a Unique Ganglioside Binding Loop within Botulinum Neurotoxins C and D-SA

    SciTech Connect

    Karalewitz, Andrew P.-A.; Kroken, Abby R.; Fu, Zhuji; Baldwin, Michael R.; Kim, Jung-Ja P.; Barbieri, Joseph T.

    2010-09-22

    The botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are the most potent protein toxins for humans. There are seven serotypes of BoNTs (A-G) based on a lack of cross antiserum neutralization. BoNTs utilize gangliosides as components of the host receptors for binding and entry into neurons. Members of BoNT/C and BoNT/D serotypes include mosaic toxins that are organized in D/C and C/D toxins. One D/C mosaic toxin, BoNT/D-South Africa (BoNT/D-SA), was not fully neutralized by immunization with BoNT serotype C or D, which stimulated this study. Here the crystal structures of the receptor binding domains of BoNT/C, BoNT/D, and BoNT/D-SA are presented. Biochemical and cell binding studies show that BoNT/C and BoNT/D-SA possess unique mechanisms for ganglioside binding. These studies provide new information about how the BoNTs can enter host cells as well as a basis for understanding the immunological diversity of these neurotoxins.

  15. Identification of a unique ganglioside binding loop within botulinum neurotoxins C and D-SA .

    PubMed

    Karalewitz, Andrew P-A; Kroken, Abby R; Fu, Zhuji; Baldwin, Michael R; Kim, Jung-Ja P; Barbieri, Joseph T

    2010-09-21

    The botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are the most potent protein toxins for humans. There are seven serotypes of BoNTs (A-G) based on a lack of cross antiserum neutralization. BoNTs utilize gangliosides as components of the host receptors for binding and entry into neurons. Members of BoNT/C and BoNT/D serotypes include mosaic toxins that are organized in D/C and C/D toxins. One D/C mosaic toxin, BoNT/D-South Africa (BoNT/D-SA), was not fully neutralized by immunization with BoNT serotype C or D, which stimulated this study. Here the crystal structures of the receptor binding domains of BoNT/C, BoNT/D, and BoNT/D-SA are presented. Biochemical and cell binding studies show that BoNT/C and BoNT/D-SA possess unique mechanisms for ganglioside binding. These studies provide new information about how the BoNTs can enter host cells as well as a basis for understanding the immunological diversity of these neurotoxins.

  16. Targeted Delivery of Immunotoxin by Antibody to Ganglioside GD3: A Novel Drug Delivery Route for Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Torres Demichelis, Vanina; Vilcaes, Aldo A.; Iglesias-Bartolomé, Ramiro; Ruggiero, Fernando M.; Daniotti, Jose L.

    2013-01-01

    Gangliosides are sialic acid-containing glycolipids expressed on plasma membranes from nearly all vertebrate cells. The expression of ganglioside GD3, which plays essential roles in normal brain development, decreases in adults but is up regulated in neuroectodermal and epithelial derived cancers. R24 antibody, directed against ganglioside GD3, is a validated tumor target which is specifically endocytosed and accumulated in endosomes. Here, we exploit the internalization feature of the R24 antibody for the selective delivery of saporin, a ribosome-inactivating protein, to GD3-expressing cells [human (SK-Mel-28) and mouse (B16) melanoma cells and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO)-K1 cells]. This immunotoxin showed a specific cytotoxicity on tumor cells grew on 2D monolayers, which was further evident by the lack of any effect on GD3-negative cells. To estimate the potential antitumor activity of R24-saporin complex, we also evaluated the effect of the immunotoxin on the clonogenic growth of SK-Mel-28 and CHO-K1GD3+ cells cultured in attachment-free conditions. A drastic growth inhibition (>80–90%) of the cell colonies was reached after 3 days of immunotoxin treatment. By the contrary, colonies continue to growth at the same concentration of the immuntoxin, but in the absence of R24 antibody, or in the absence of both immunotoxin and R24, undoubtedly indicating the specificity of the effect observed. Thus, the ganglioside GD3 emerge as a novel and attractive class of cell surface molecule for targeted delivery of cytotoxic agents and, therefore, provides a rationale for future therapeutic intervention in cancer. PMID:23383146

  17. Effect of a chimeric anti-ganglioside GM2 antibody on ganglioside GM2-expressing human solid tumors in vivo.

    PubMed

    Fukumoto, H; Nishio, K; Ohta, S; Hanai, N; Fukuoka, K; Ohe, Y; Sugihara, K; Kodama, T; Saijo, N

    1999-08-27

    Ganglioside GM2 is expressed on the surface of neuroblastoma and glioblastoma cells, and may also be detected on lung cancer cells. We reported previously that anti-ganglioside GM2 antibody exhibited strong in vitro anti-tumor activity against adriamycin-resistant cancer cells, which overexpressed ganglioside GM2. In the present study, we examined the in vivo anti-tumor effect of the chimeric anti-ganglioside GM2 antibody, KM966, against human lung and breast carcinoma cells, SBC-3 and MCF-7, and respective adriamycin-resistant clones, SBC-3/ADM and AdrR MCF-7 in BALB/c nu/nu mice. Ratios of tumor volume (T/C) between KM966-treated group and control group were 0.01 for SBC-3, 0.00 for SBC-3/ADM, 0.85 for MCF-7 and 0.34 for AdrR MCF-7 cells, respectively. Nude mice, which were pretreated with anti-asialo GM1 antibody to remove natural killer cells, were transplanted with 4 x 10(7) of SBC-3 and SBC-3/ADM subcutaneously. Seven days later, when tumors had grown to a diameter of over 8 mm, mice began to receive intravenous treatment of 120 microgram/mouse KM966 daily. Fourteen daily treatments induced regression to less than 4-mm diameter in 4/5 SBC-3 tumors and 5/5 of SBC-3/ADM tumors. All SBC-3/ADM tumors disappeared completely, suggesting that KM966 exerts a strong in vivo anti-tumor effect on ganglioside GM2-expressing cancer cells. In KM966-treated mice, the surface of the tumor cells stained positive with anti-human IgG. In addition, numerous leukocytes had infiltrated into the tumor mass. Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) of KM966 against tumor cells was examined in vitro by (51)Cr-release assay and revealed that KM966 induces ADCC activity against ganglioside GM2-expressing tumors. Our results suggest that immunotherapy using KM966 may be useful for the treatment of ganglioside GM2-expressing solid tumors.

  18. Zika virus and neurologic autoimmunity: the putative role of gangliosides.

    PubMed

    Anaya, Juan-Manuel; Ramirez-Santana, Carolina; Salgado-Castaneda, Ignacio; Chang, Christopher; Ansari, Aftab; Gershwin, M Eric

    2016-03-21

    An increasing number of severe neurological complications associated with Zika virus (ZIKV), chiefly Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and primary microcephaly, have led the World Health Organization to declare a global health emergency. Molecular mimicry between glycolipids and surface molecules of infectious agents explain most of the cases of GBS preceded by infection, while a direct toxicity of ZIKV on neural cells has been raised as the main mechanism by which ZIKV induces microcephaly. Gangliosides are crucial in brain development, and their expression correlates with neurogenesis, synaptogenesis, synaptic transmission, and cell proliferation. Targeting the autoimmune response to gangliosides may represent an underexploited opportunity to examine the increased incidence of neurological complications related to ZIKV infection.

  19. Anti-ganglioside antibodies are removed from circulation in mice by neuronal endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Madeleine E; McGonigal, Rhona; Meehan, Gavin R; Barrie, Jennifer A; Yao, Denggao; Halstead, Susan K; Willison, Hugh J

    2016-06-01

    SEE VAN DOORN AND JACOBS DOI101093/BRAIN/AWW078 FOR A SCIENTIFIC COMMENTARY ON THIS ARTICLE  : In axonal forms of Guillain-Barré syndrome, anti-ganglioside antibodies bind gangliosides on nerve surfaces, thereby causing injury through complement activation and immune cell recruitment. Why some nerve regions are more vulnerable than others is unknown. One reason may be that neuronal membranes with high endocytic activity, including nerve terminals involved in neurotransmitter recycling, are able to endocytose anti-ganglioside antibodies from the cell surface so rapidly that antibody-mediated injury is attenuated. Herein we investigated whether endocytic clearance of anti-ganglioside antibodies by nerve terminals might also be of sufficient magnitude to deplete circulating antibody levels. Remarkably, systemically delivered anti-ganglioside antibody in mice was so avidly cleared from the circulation by endocytosis at ganglioside-expressing plasma membranes that it was rapidly rendered undetectable in serum. A major component of the clearance occurred at motor nerve terminals of neuromuscular junctions, from where anti-ganglioside antibody was retrogradely transported to the motor neuron cell body in the spinal cord, recycled to the plasma membrane, and secreted into the surrounding spinal cord. Uptake at the neuromuscular junction represents a major unexpected pathway by which pathogenic anti-ganglioside antibodies, and potentially other ganglioside binding proteins, are cleared from the systemic circulation and also covertly delivered to the central nervous system.

  20. Anti-ganglioside antibodies are removed from circulation in mice by neuronal endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Madeleine E.; McGonigal, Rhona; Meehan, Gavin R.; Barrie, Jennifer A.; Yao, Denggao; Halstead, Susan K.

    2016-01-01

    See van Doorn and Jacobs (doi:10.1093/brain/aww078) for a scientific commentary on this article.   In axonal forms of Guillain-Barré syndrome, anti-ganglioside antibodies bind gangliosides on nerve surfaces, thereby causing injury through complement activation and immune cell recruitment. Why some nerve regions are more vulnerable than others is unknown. One reason may be that neuronal membranes with high endocytic activity, including nerve terminals involved in neurotransmitter recycling, are able to endocytose anti-ganglioside antibodies from the cell surface so rapidly that antibody-mediated injury is attenuated. Herein we investigated whether endocytic clearance of anti-ganglioside antibodies by nerve terminals might also be of sufficient magnitude to deplete circulating antibody levels. Remarkably, systemically delivered anti-ganglioside antibody in mice was so avidly cleared from the circulation by endocytosis at ganglioside-expressing plasma membranes that it was rapidly rendered undetectable in serum. A major component of the clearance occurred at motor nerve terminals of neuromuscular junctions, from where anti-ganglioside antibody was retrogradely transported to the motor neuron cell body in the spinal cord, recycled to the plasma membrane, and secreted into the surrounding spinal cord. Uptake at the neuromuscular junction represents a major unexpected pathway by which pathogenic anti-ganglioside antibodies, and potentially other ganglioside binding proteins, are cleared from the systemic circulation and also covertly delivered to the central nervous system. PMID:27017187

  1. GM1-ganglioside-induced Abeta assembly on synaptic membranes of cultured neurons.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Naoki; Fukata, Yuko; Fukata, Masaki; Yanagisawa, Katsuhiko

    2007-05-01

    The cell-surface expression of GM1 ganglioside was studied using various cultured cells, including brain-derived endothelial cells, astrocytes, neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y), and pheochromocytoma cells (PC12). GM1 ganglioside was detected only on the surface of native and nerve-growth-factor (NGF)-treated PC12 cells. We investigated whether GM1 ganglioside on the surface of these cells is sufficiently potent to induce the assembly of an exogenous soluble amyloid beta-protein (Abeta). A marked Abeta assembly was observed in the culture of NGF-treated PC12 cells. Notably, immunocytochemical study revealed that, despite the ubiquitous surface expression of GM1 ganglioside throughout cell bodies and neurites, Abeta assembly initially occurred at the terminals of SNAP25-immunopositive neurites. Abeta assembly in the culture was completely suppressed by the coincubation of Abeta with the subunit B of cholera toxin, a natural ligand for GM1 ganglioside, or 4396C, a monoclonal antibody specific to GM1-ganglioside-bound Abeta (GAbeta). In primary neuronal cultures, Abeta assembly initially occurred at synaptophysin-positive sites. These results suggest that the cell-surface expression of GM1 ganglioside is strictly cell-type-specific, and that expression of GM1 ganglioside on synaptic membranes is unique in terms of its high potency to induce Abeta assembly through the generation of GAbeta, which is an endogenous seed for Abeta assembly in Alzheimer brain.

  2. Inhibition of enterotoxin from Escherichia coli and Vibrio cholerae by gangliosides from human milk.

    PubMed Central

    Otnaess, A B; Laegreid, A; Ertresvåg, K

    1983-01-01

    Inhibitory activity of enterotoxin from Escherichia coli and Vibrio cholerae was associated with the ganglioside fraction of human milk. Both the milk fat and skim milk contained gangliosides that inhibited the toxins. The most purified milk fraction contained three glycolipid components, of which two migrated close to ganglioside GM1 on thin-layer chromatography plates. A component with a slightly different mobility from GM1 appeared to be associated with the inhibitory activity. Milk ganglioside fraction, derived from 2 ml of human milk, contained 1 to 4 micrograms of lipid-bound sialic acid and completely inhibited 0.1 micrograms of cholera toxin in rabbit intestinal loop experiments. It is suggested that human milk gangliosides, although present only in trace amounts, may be important in protecting infants against enterotoxin-induced diarrhea. PMID:6341242

  3. Gangliosides enhance behavioral and neurochemical effects induced by chronic desipramine (DMI) treatment.

    PubMed

    Molina, V A; Keller, E A; Orsingher, O A

    1989-01-31

    Rats pretreated with gangliosides showed a significant enhancement of the anti-immobility effect of desipramine (DMI) in the forced swimming test. Accordingly, an associated treatment of gangliosides and DMI for 7 days significantly enhanced beta-adrenergic down-regulation in the frontal cortex as compared with the effect of DMI alone. Gangliosides exerted an accelerating effect on the decrease of beta-adrenoceptor density induced by DMI, since the down-regulation phenomenon appeared after 3 days of treatment. Gangliosides did not affect the pharmacokinetics of DMI, since associated acute or prolonged treatments did not modify the brain levels of DMI as compared to the levels of animals that had received DMI alone. These results evidence a stimulating effect of gangliosides on the development of adaptative receptor changes induced by chronic DMI treatment. PMID:2547628

  4. Ganglioside conjugate vaccines. Immunotherapy against tumors of neuroectodermal origin.

    PubMed

    Helling, F; Livingston, P O

    1994-01-01

    Gangliosides are known to be suitable targets for immune attack against cancer but they are poorly immunogenic. Active immunization with ganglioside/BCG or liposome vaccines results in moderate titer IgM antibody responses of short duration. Covalent attachment of poorly immunogenic antigens to immunogenic proteins is a potent method for inducing an IgG antibody response. GD3, a dominant ganglioside on malignant melanoma, was modified by ozone cleavage of the double bond in the ceramide backbone, an aldehyde group introduced and used for coupling via reductive amination to epsilon-amino-lysyl groups of proteins. Utilizing this method, GD3 conjugates were constructed with: 1. Synthetic multiple antigenic peptide (MAP) constructs expressing 4 repeats of a malaria T-cell epitope; 2. Outer membrane proteins (OMP) of Neisseria meningitidis; 3. Cationized bovine serum albumin; 4. Keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH); and 5. Polylysine. In addition, conjugates containing only the GD3 oligosaccharide were synthesized. All constructs were tested for antigenicity using anti-GD3 antibody R24, and for immunogenicity in mice. Serum antibody levels were analyzed by ELISA and immune thin-layer chromatography. Results in the mouse show a significant improvement in the IgM antibody response and a consistent IgG response against GD3 using GD3-KLH conjugates. Other carrier proteins and the use of GD3 oligosaccharide were significantly less effective. If improved immunogenicity and clinical benefit with conjugate vaccines can be demonstrated in patients with melanoma, this approach may be applicable to patients with other tumors of neuroectodermal origin, including gliomas, glioblastomas, astrocytomas, and neuroblastomas.

  5. Liquid chromatography/electrospray ionisation-tandem mass spectrometry quantification of GM2 gangliosides in human peripheral cells and plasma.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Maria; Duplock, Stephen; Hein, Leanne K; Rigat, Brigitte A; Mahuran, Don J

    2014-08-01

    GM2 gangliosidosis is a group of inherited neurodegenerative disorders resulting primarily from the excessive accumulation of GM2 gangliosides (GM2) in neuronal cells. As biomarkers for categorising patients and monitoring the effectiveness of developing therapies are lacking for this group of disorders, we sought to develop methodology to quantify GM2 levels in more readily attainable patient samples such as plasma, leukocytes, and cultured skin fibroblasts. Following organic extraction, gangliosides were partitioned into the aqueous phase and isolated using C18 solid-phase extraction columns. Relative quantification of three species of GM2 was achieved using LC/ESI-MS/MS with d35GM1 18:1/18:0 as an internal standard. The assay was linear over the biological range, and all GM2 gangliosidosis patients were demarcated from controls by elevated GM2 in cultured skin fibroblast extracts. However, in leukocytes only some molecular species could be used for differentiation and in plasma only one was informative. A reduction in GM2 was easily detected in patient skin fibroblasts after a short treatment with media from normal cells enriched in secreted β-hexosaminidase. This method may show promise for measuring the effectiveness of experimental therapies for GM2 gangliosidosis by allowing quantification of a reduction in the primary storage burden. PMID:24769373

  6. Glycolipid and Ganglioside Metabolism Imbalances In Huntington’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Desplats, Paula A.; Denny, Christine A.; Kass, Kristi E.; Gilmartin, Tim; Head, Steven R.; Sutcliffe, J. Gregor; Seyfried, Thomas N.; Thomas, Elizabeth A.

    2007-01-01

    We have explored genome-wide expression of genes related to glycobiology in exon 1 transgenic Huntington’s disease (HD) mice using a custom designed GLYCOv2 chip and Affymetrix microarray analyses. We validated, using quantitative real-time PCR, abnormal expression levels of genes encoding glycosyltransferases in the striatum of R6/1 transgenic mice, as well as in postmortem caudate from human HD patients. Many of these genes show differential regional expression within the CNS, as indicated by in situ hybridization analysis, suggesting region-specific regulation of this system in the brain. We further show disrupted patterns of glycolipids (acidic and neutral lipids) and/or ganglioside levels in both the forebrain of the R6/1 transgenic mice and caudate samples from human HD subjects. These findings reveal novel disruptions in glycolipid/ganglioside metabolic pathways in the pathology of HD and suggest that the development of new targets to restore glycosphingolipid balance may act to ameliorate some symptoms in HD. PMID:17600724

  7. Effect of Dietary Complex Lipids on the Biosynthesis of Piglet Brain Gangliosides.

    PubMed

    Reis, Marlon M; Bermingham, Emma N; Reis, Mariza G; Deb-Choudhury, Santanu; MacGibbon, Alastair; Fong, Bertram; McJarrow, Paul; Bibiloni, Rodrigo; Bassett, Shalome A; Roy, Nicole C

    2016-02-17

    Gangliosides, found in mammalian milk, are known for their roles in brain development of the newborn. However, the mechanism involved in the impact of dietary gangliosides on brain metabolism is not fully understood. The impact of diets containing complex lipids rich in milk-derived ganglioside GD3 on the biosynthesis of gangliosides (assessed from the incorporation of deuterium) in the frontal lobe of a piglet model is reported. Higher levels of incorporation of deuterium was observed in the GM1 and GD1a containing stearic acid in samples from piglets fed milk containing 18.2 μg/mL of GD3 compared to that in those fed milk containing 25 μg/mL of GD3. This could suggest that the gangliosides from the diet may be used as a precursor for de novo biosynthesis of brain gangliosides or lead to the reduction of de novo biosynthesis of these gangliosides. This effect was more pronounced in the left compared to that in the right brain hemisphere.

  8. Changes in Liver Ganglioside Metabolism in Obstructive Cholestasis - the Role of Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Šmíd, V; Petr, T; Váňová, K; Jašprová, J; Šuk, J; Vítek, L; Šmíd, F; Muchová, L

    2016-01-01

    Bile acids have been implicated in cholestatic liver damage, primarily due to their detergent effect on membranes and induction of oxidative stress. Gangliosides can counteract these harmful effects by increasing the rigidity of the cytoplasmic membrane. Induction of haem oxygenase (HMOX) has been shown to protect the liver from increased oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to determine the changes in the synthesis and distribution of liver gangliosides following bile duct ligation (BDL), and to assess the effects of HMOX both on cholestatic liver injury and ganglioside metabolism. Compared to controls, BDL resulted in a significant increase in total as well as complex gangliosides and mRNA expression of corresponding glycosyltransferases ST3GalV, ST8SiaI and B3GalTIV. A marked shift of GM1 ganglioside from the intracellular compartment to the cytoplasmic membrane was observed following BDL. Induction of oxidative stress by HMOX inhibition resulted in a further increase of these changes, while HMOX induction prevented this effect. Compared to BDL alone, HMOX inhibition in combination with BDL significantly increased the amount of bile infarcts, while HMOX activation decreased ductular proliferation. We have demonstrated that cholestasis is accompanied by significant changes in the distribution and synthesis of liver gangliosides. HMOX induction results in attenuation of the cholestatic pattern of liver gangliosides, while HMOX inhibition leads to the opposite effect. PMID:27643580

  9. Recovery from Experimental Parkinsonism in Primates with GM1 Ganglioside Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, J. S.; Pope, Anne; Simpson, Kimberly; Taggart, James; Smith, M. G.; Distefano, L.

    1992-05-01

    A parkinsonian syndrome can be produced in nonhuman primates by administration of the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). Parkinsonian-like symptoms induced acutely by MPTP were ameliorated after treatment with GM1 ganglioside, a substance shown to have neurotrophic effects on the damaged dopamine system in rodents. Treatment with GM1 ganglioside also increased striatal dopamine and metabolite levels and enhanced the dopaminergic innervation of the striatum as demonstrated by tyrosine hydroxylase immunohistochemistry. These results suggest that GM1 ganglioside may hold promise as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of Parkinson's disease.

  10. Changes in brain gangliosides of the neotene and metamorphic (thyroxine-induced) newt axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum).

    PubMed

    Hilbig, R; Schmitt, M; Rahmann, H

    1987-01-01

    Qualitative and quantitative changes in the concentration of proteins, sialoglycoproteins and gangliosides and in the composition of gangliosides in the brains of the neotene and the thyroxine-induced metamorphic newt axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) were investigated. During metamorphosis two polar gangliosides (GT1b and GQ1b) decreased by about 5% each. On the contrary GD1a increased to 10%. Another developmental trend was a slight increase of two other disialogangliosides (GD1b, GD2). Additionally, incorporation profiles (2-8 days) of 14C-N-Ac-mannosamine, the specific precursor for gangliosides, in the brain of neotene and metamorphic axolotls were followed giving evidence of significant changes in the sialoglycoconjugate metabolism of the central nervous system during metamorphosis of this newt.

  11. b-Series gangliosides crucially regulate leptin secretion in adipose tissues.

    PubMed

    Ji, Shuting; Ohkawa, Yuki; Tokizane, Kyohei; Ohmi, Yuhsuke; Banno, Ryoichi; Furukawa, Keiko; Kiyama, Hiroshi; Furukawa, Koichi

    2015-04-01

    Gangliosides are widely involved in the regulation of cells and organs. However, little is known about their roles in leptin secretion from adipose tissues. Genetic deletion of b-series gangliosides resulted in the marked reduction of serum leptin. Expression analysis of leptin revealed that leptin accumulated in the adipose tissues of GD3 synthase-knockout (GD3S KO) mice. Analysis of primary cultured stromal vascular fractions (SVF) derived from GD3S KO mice revealed that leptin secretion was reduced, although leptin amounts in cells were increased compared with those of wild type. Interestingly, addition of b-series gangliosides to the culture medium of differentiated SVF resulted in the restoration of leptin secretion. Results of methyl-β-cyclodextrin treatment of differentiated 3T3-L1 cells as well as immunocytostaining of leptin and caveolin-1 suggested that b-series gangliosides regulate the leptin secretion from adipose tissues in lipid rafts.

  12. Configuration and interactions of the polar head group in gangliosides

    PubMed Central

    Maggio, Bruno; Cumar, Federico A.; Caputto, Ranwel

    1980-01-01

    1. The interactions of gangliosides with Ca2+ and some polar-head-group requirements for establishment of particular interactions with phosphatidylcholine were studied in monolayers at the air/145mm-NaCl interface. 2. Ganglioside–Ca2+ interactions, as revealed by surface-potential measurements, depended on the position occupied by sialosyl residues in the oligosaccharide chain. The interactions with Ca2+ of the single sialosyl residue of monosialogangliosides occurred above 0.1mm-CaCl2, whereas the interaction of the cation with additional sialosyl groups in di- or tri-sialogangliosides depended on the carbohydrate residue to which the sialosyl moiety was attached. The sialosyl residue bound in sialosyl–sialosyl linkage interacted very little with Ca2+. The sialosyl residue attached to the terminal galactose of the neutral tetrasaccharide chain interacted with Ca2+ above 1μm-CaCl2. 3. Experiments with mixed monolayers containing dihexadecyl phosphate and hexadecyltrimethylammonium indicated that for the occurrence of interactions of polysialogangliosides with phosphatidylcholine characterized by reductions in molecular packing and surface potential both charged groups of the phospholipid and sialosyl residues with particular dipolar properties in the ganglioside are participating. 4. Possible configurations that can explain the behaviour in monolayers were inspected with space-filling molecular models. The position of the carboxylate group of sialosyl residues with respect to the interface and to the sialosyl molecular plane can explain the different orientation of the dipole-moment vector of this residue, which depends on the position to which it is linked in the oligosaccharide chain. Favoured interactions of polysialogangliosides with phosphatidylcholine may result from a configuration allowing a partial matching of two oppositely oriented electrical vectors contributed by the zwitterionic phosphocholine group and particular sialosyl groups. ImagesPLATE 1

  13. Number of Sialic Acid Residues in Ganglioside Headgroup Affects Interactions with Neighboring Lipids

    PubMed Central

    Frey, Shelli L.; Lee, Ka Yee C.

    2013-01-01

    Monolayers of binary mixtures of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) and asialo-(GA1), disialo-(GD1b) and trisialo-(GT1b) gangliosides were used to determine the effect of ganglioside headgroup charge and geometry on its interactions with the neighboring zwitterionic lipid. Surface pressure versus molecular area isotherm measurements along with concurrent fluorescence microscopy of the monolayers at the air-water interface were complemented with atomic force microscopy imaging of monolayers deposited on solid substrates. Results were used to further develop a proposed geometric packing model that the complementary geometry of DPPC and monosialoganglioside GM1 headgroups affects their close molecular packing, inducing condensation of the layer at small mol % of ganglioside. For GA1, GD1b, and GT1b, a similar condensing effect, followed by a fluidizing effect is seen that varies with glycosphingolipid concentration, but results do not directly follow from geometric arguments because less DPPC is needed to condense ganglioside molecules with larger cross-sectional areas. The variations in critical packing mole ratios can be explained by global effects of headgroup charge and resultant dipole moments within the monolayer. Atomic force microscopy micrographs further support the model of ganglioside-induced DPPC condensation with condensed domains composed of a striped phase of condensed DPPC and DPPC/ganglioside geometrically packed complexes at low concentrations. PMID:24047994

  14. Number of sialic acid residues in ganglioside headgroup affects interactions with neighboring lipids.

    PubMed

    Frey, Shelli L; Lee, Ka Yee C

    2013-09-17

    Monolayers of binary mixtures of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) and asialo-(GA1), disialo-(GD1b) and trisialo-(GT1b) gangliosides were used to determine the effect of ganglioside headgroup charge and geometry on its interactions with the neighboring zwitterionic lipid. Surface pressure versus molecular area isotherm measurements along with concurrent fluorescence microscopy of the monolayers at the air-water interface were complemented with atomic force microscopy imaging of monolayers deposited on solid substrates. Results were used to further develop a proposed geometric packing model that the complementary geometry of DPPC and monosialoganglioside GM1 headgroups affects their close molecular packing, inducing condensation of the layer at small mol % of ganglioside. For GA1, GD1b, and GT1b, a similar condensing effect, followed by a fluidizing effect is seen that varies with glycosphingolipid concentration, but results do not directly follow from geometric arguments because less DPPC is needed to condense ganglioside molecules with larger cross-sectional areas. The variations in critical packing mole ratios can be explained by global effects of headgroup charge and resultant dipole moments within the monolayer. Atomic force microscopy micrographs further support the model of ganglioside-induced DPPC condensation with condensed domains composed of a striped phase of condensed DPPC and DPPC/ganglioside geometrically packed complexes at low concentrations. PMID:24047994

  15. Impaired Levels of Gangliosides in the Corpus Callosum of Huntington Disease Animal Models

    PubMed Central

    Di Pardo, Alba; Amico, Enrico; Maglione, Vittorio

    2016-01-01

    Huntington Disease (HD) is a genetic neurodegenerative disorder characterized by broad types of cellular and molecular dysfunctions that may affect both neuronal and non-neuronal cell populations. Among all the molecular mechanisms underlying the complex pathogenesis of the disease, alteration of sphingolipids has been identified as one of the most important determinants in the last years. In the present study, besides the purpose of further confirming the evidence of perturbed metabolism of gangliosides GM1, GD1a, and GT1b the most abundant cerebral glycosphingolipids, in the striatal and cortical tissues of HD transgenic mice, we aimed to test the hypothesis that abnormal levels of these lipids may be found also in the corpus callosum white matter, a ganglioside-enriched brain region described being dysfunctional early in the disease. Semi-quantitative analysis of GM1, GD1a, and GT1b content indicated that ganglioside metabolism is a common feature in two different HD animal models (YAC128 and R6/2 mice) and importantly, demonstrated that levels of these gangliosides were significantly reduced in the corpus callosum white matter of both models starting from the early stages of the disease. Besides corroborating the evidence of aberrant ganglioside metabolism in HD, here, we found out for the first time, that ganglioside dysfunction is an early event in HD models and it may potentially represent a critical molecular change influencing the pathogenesis of the disease. PMID:27766070

  16. Effects of ganglioside GM1 and neural growth factor on neural stem cell proliferation and differentiation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Q; Song, Y H; Tang, Z; Wang, Z P; Xu, Q; Bao, N

    2016-01-01

    Neurogenesis, recovery from nerve injury, neurodegeneration, and Parkinson's disease affect people's health, yet the underlying molecular mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we investigated the effect of ganglioside GM1 and neural growth factor (NGF) on neural stem cell (NSC) proliferation and differentiation in vitro to provide a scientific basis for comprehensive treatment of nervous system diseases via NSC application. As widely applied methods of relatively high accuracy, cell counts and 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays were used to assess NSC proliferation. In addition, western blotting was employed to determine NSC differentiation. Cell counts and MTT assays demonstrated that in epidermal growth factor (EGF)- and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF)-containing medium, a high concentration of GM1, but not NGF, significantly elevated NSC proliferation. In NSC cultures lacking EGF and bFGF, cell counts and MTT values were significantly increased compared to those in the negative control group on days 4, 7, and 10 after GM1 (25, 100, and 200 ng/mL) but not NGF (25, 50, 100, and 200 ng/mL) treatment. Western blotting revealed significantly increased expression of nestin (an NSC marker) in NSCs treated with GM1, and upregulation of glial fibrillary acidic protein (a glial cell marker) and neuron-specific enolase (a neuron marker) in those administered NGF. Our results suggest that GM1 and NGF induce NSC proliferation and differentiation, respectively, in a dose-dependent manner. PMID:27525911

  17. The biological activity of botulinum neurotoxin type C is dependent upon novel types of ganglioside binding sites.

    PubMed

    Strotmeier, Jasmin; Gu, Shenyan; Jutzi, Stephan; Mahrhold, Stefan; Zhou, Jie; Pich, Andreas; Eichner, Timo; Bigalke, Hans; Rummel, Andreas; Jin, Rongsheng; Binz, Thomas

    2011-07-01

    The seven botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) cause muscle paralysis by selectively cleaving core components of the vesicular fusion machinery. Their extraordinary activity primarily relies on highly specific entry into neurons. Data on BoNT/A, B, E, F and G suggest that entry follows a dual receptor interaction with complex gangliosides via an established ganglioside binding region and a synaptic vesicle protein. Here, we report high resolution crystal structures of the BoNT/C cell binding fragment alone and in complex with sialic acid. The WY-motif characteristic of the established ganglioside binding region was located on an exposed loop. Sialic acid was co-ordinated at a novel position neighbouring the binding pocket for synaptotagmin in BoNT/B and G and the sialic acid binding site in BoNT/D and TeNT respectively. Employing synaptosomes and immobilized gangliosides binding studies with BoNT/C mutants showed that the ganglioside binding WY-loop, the newly identified sialic acid-co-ordinating pocket and the area corresponding to the established ganglioside binding region of other BoNTs are involved in ganglioside interaction. Phrenic nerve hemidiaphragm activity tests employing ganglioside deficient mice furthermore evidenced that the biological activity of BoNT/C depends on ganglioside interaction with at least two binding sites. These data suggest a unique cell binding and entry mechanism for BoNT/C among clostridial neurotoxins. PMID:21542861

  18. Combination of ESI and MALDI mass spectrometry for qualitative, semi-quantitative and in situ analysis of gangliosides in brain

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yangyang; Wang, Jun; Liu, Jian’an; Han, Juanjuan; Xiong, Shaoxiang; Yong, Weidong; Zhao, Zhenwen

    2016-01-01

    Gangliosides are a family of complex lipids that are abundant in the brain. There is no doubt the investigations about the distribution of gangliosides in brian and the relationship between gangliosides and Alzheimer’s disease is profound. However, these investigations are full of challenges due to the structural complexity of gangliosides. In this work, the method for efficient extraction and enrichment of gangliosides from brain was established. Moreover, the distribution of gangliosides in brain was obtained by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry imaging (MSI). It was found that 3-aminoquinoline (3-AQ) as matrix was well-suited for MALDI MS analysis of gangliosides in negative ion mode. In addition, the pretreatment by ethanol (EtOH) cleaning brain section and the addition of ammonium formate greatly improved the MS signal of gangliosides in the brain section when MALDI MSI analysis was employed. The distribution of ganliosides in cerebral cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum was respectively acquired by electrospray ionization (ESI) MS and MALDI MSI, and the data were compared for reliability evaluation of MALDI MSI. Further, applying MALDI MSI technology, the distribution of gangliosides in amyloid precursor protein transgenic mouse brain was obtained, which may provide a new insight for bioresearch of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). PMID:27142336

  19. Detection of Sendai virus receptor, the ganglioside GDla, in target tissue (mouse lung)

    SciTech Connect

    Markwell, M.A.K.; Sato, E.

    1986-05-01

    Previously the authors had shown that the gangliosides GDla, GTlb, and GQlb derived from brain function as receptors for the paramyxovirus Sendai virus by their ability to induce infection when incubated with receptor-deficient cells. Analyses of MDBK, HeLa, and MDCK cells in culture demonstrated that these putative receptors were present in host cells in the quantities required for infection. The primary site of infection for Sendai virus in the whole animal is the respiratory tract, culminating in the lung. Therefore, the ganglioside content of this target organ was analyzed to determine the endogenous receptor population available to Sendai virus. The total ganglioside fraction of lung was resolved into individual species by HPTLC. Gangliosides of the gangliotetraose series were identified by the specific binding of /sup 125/I-labeled tetanus and cholera toxins before and after exposure with sialidase. In this manner one of the major resorcinol-positive bands was identified as GDla. Evidence of the more complex ganglioside receptors for Sendai virus was also seen.

  20. Apprehending ganglioside diversity: a comprehensive methodological approach[S

    PubMed Central

    Masson, Elodie A. Y.; Sibille, Estelle; Martine, Lucy; Chaux-Picquet, Fanny; Bretillon, Lionel; Berdeaux, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Gangliosides (GGs) make a wide family of glycosphingolipids ubiquitously expressed in mammalian tissues and particularly abundant in the brain and nervous system. They exhibit a huge diversity due to structural variations in both their oligosaccharidic chain and ceramide moiety, which represent a real analytical challenge. Since their discovery in the 1940s, methods have persistently improved until the emergence of LC/MS, which offers a high level of specificity and sensitivity and is suitable with high-throughput profiling studies. We describe here a comprehensive approach relying on various techniques and aiming at fully characterizing GGs in biological samples. First, total GG content was determined by a biochemical assay. Second, GG class composition was assessed by high-performance thin-layer chromatography followed by colorimetric revelation. Then, ceramide types of GG classes were identified, and their relative quantification was performed thanks to the development of a powerful and reliable LC/MS method. Finally, ceramides were structurally characterized, and minor and less common GG classes were identified using high-resolution MS. These methods were applied to the rat retina to provide an exhaustive description of its GG composition, giving the base for a better understanding of the precise roles of GGs in this tissue. PMID:26142958

  1. Influence of tunicamycin, sialidase, and cholera toxin on gangliosides and T-lymphocyte responses to interleukin 2

    SciTech Connect

    Semmes, O.J.; Bailey, J.M.; Merritt, W.D.

    1986-05-01

    The authors have shown that gangliosides inhibit interleukin 2 (IL 2)-dependent proliferation of murine T cells. Tunicamycin (TM), sialidase, and cholera toxin-..beta.. subunit (..beta..-CT) are known modulators of cell surface glycoconjugates. To test the possible role of endogenous gangliosides in T cell responses to IL-2, the effect of these agents on ganglioside expression and cell proliferation was studied. Gangliosides were labelled for 24 hrs with /sup 3/H-glucosamine/galactose in the presence of IL-2 and purified sialidase, TM or ..beta..-CT. Gangliosides were isolated and the species separated by TLC. Alternatively, proliferation was assayed by /sup 3/H-thymidine uptake after 48 hrs culture. TM treatment at a concentration (10 ..mu..g/ml) that completely inhibited proliferation resulted in a 86% reduction of incorporation of saccharide precursors into gangliosides compared to a 50% reduction into proteins. Sialidase treatment (0.1 IU/ml) resulted in a 70% inhibition of proliferation and 30% reduction of radiolabel into gangliosides, of which 3 species were specifically reduced. ..beta..-CT, which binds to GM/sub 1/ and to a lesser extent GD/sub 1a/, caused a 50% reduction in proliferation response at 35 units/ml. The results support the hypothesis that gangliosides are involved in IL-2-dependent proliferation.

  2. 5-Methoxysalicylic Acid Matrix for Ganglioside Analysis with Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dongkun; Cha, Sangwon

    2015-03-01

    In this note, we report that high quality ganglioside profiles with minimal loss of sialic acid residues can be obtained in the positive ion mode by using a 5-methoxysalicylic acid (MSA) matrix for matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry (MS). Our results showed that MSA produced much less sialic acid losses from gangliosides than DHB, although MSA and DHB are differ only by their functional groups at their 5-positions (-OH for DHB and -OCH3 for MSA). Furthermore, our data also demonstrated that addition of an alkali metal additive was effective for simplifying ganglioside profiles, but not necessary for stabilizing glycosidic bonds of gangliosides if MSA was used as a matrix. This suggests that MALDI MS with MSA has a potential to gain additional benefits from the positive-ion mode analyses without losing performance in ganglioside profiling.

  3. Nondestructive detection of gangliosides with lipophilic fluorochromes and their employment for preparative high-performance thin-layer chromatography.

    PubMed

    Müthing, J; Heitmann, D

    1993-01-01

    A simple and effective procedure for the isolation and purification of gangliosides by preparative thin-layer chromatography is described. The method is based on nondestructive visualization of gangliosides on silica gel-precoated thin-layer chromatography plates by staining with uncharged lipophilic fluorochromes. Fluorescent dyes were added in low concentrations into the mobile phase (0.002%, w/v) without any interference of the ganglioside separation. After uv localization, the fluorescent zones were scraped off the plate and the silica gel was extracted with chloroform/methanol/water (30/60/8). In the following step fluorochromes were removed from gangliosides containing crude extracts by anion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-Sepharose. After desalting, impurities were removed by Iatrobeads chromatography. The method described offers an easy to handle and successful preparative thin-layer chromatography strategy to obtain pure gangliosides in microgram and miligram quantities. PMID:8434781

  4. Cross-Linking Mast Cell Specific Gangliosides Stimulates the Release of Newly Formed Lipid Mediators and Newly Synthesized Cytokines.

    PubMed

    Filho, Edismauro Garcia Freitas; da Silva, Elaine Zayas Marcelino; Zanotto, Camila Ziliotto; Oliver, Constance; Jamur, Maria Célia

    2016-01-01

    Mast cells are immunoregulatory cells that participate in inflammatory processes. Cross-linking mast cell specific GD1b derived gangliosides by mAbAA4 results in partial activation of mast cells without the release of preformed mediators. The present study examines the release of newly formed and newly synthesized mediators following ganglioside cross-linking. Cross-linking the gangliosides with mAbAA4 released the newly formed lipid mediators, prostaglandins D2 and E2, without release of leukotrienes B4 and C4. The effect of cross-linking these gangliosides on the activation of enzymes in the arachidonate cascade was then investigated. Ganglioside cross-linking resulted in phosphorylation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 and increased expression of cyclooxygenase-2. Translocation of 5-lipoxygenase from the cytosol to the nucleus was not induced by ganglioside cross-linking. Cross-linking of GD1b derived gangliosides also resulted in the release of the newly synthesized mediators, interleukin-4, interleukin-6, and TNF-α. The effect of cross-linking the gangliosides on the MAP kinase pathway was then investigated. Cross-linking the gangliosides induced the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, JNK1/2, and p38 as well as activating both NFκB and NFAT in a Syk-dependent manner. Therefore, cross-linking the mast cell specific GD1b derived gangliosides results in the activation of signaling pathways that culminate with the release of newly formed and newly synthesized mediators. PMID:27578923

  5. Cross-Linking Mast Cell Specific Gangliosides Stimulates the Release of Newly Formed Lipid Mediators and Newly Synthesized Cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Zanotto, Camila Ziliotto

    2016-01-01

    Mast cells are immunoregulatory cells that participate in inflammatory processes. Cross-linking mast cell specific GD1b derived gangliosides by mAbAA4 results in partial activation of mast cells without the release of preformed mediators. The present study examines the release of newly formed and newly synthesized mediators following ganglioside cross-linking. Cross-linking the gangliosides with mAbAA4 released the newly formed lipid mediators, prostaglandins D2 and E2, without release of leukotrienes B4 and C4. The effect of cross-linking these gangliosides on the activation of enzymes in the arachidonate cascade was then investigated. Ganglioside cross-linking resulted in phosphorylation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 and increased expression of cyclooxygenase-2. Translocation of 5-lipoxygenase from the cytosol to the nucleus was not induced by ganglioside cross-linking. Cross-linking of GD1b derived gangliosides also resulted in the release of the newly synthesized mediators, interleukin-4, interleukin-6, and TNF-α. The effect of cross-linking the gangliosides on the MAP kinase pathway was then investigated. Cross-linking the gangliosides induced the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, JNK1/2, and p38 as well as activating both NFκB and NFAT in a Syk-dependent manner. Therefore, cross-linking the mast cell specific GD1b derived gangliosides results in the activation of signaling pathways that culminate with the release of newly formed and newly synthesized mediators. PMID:27578923

  6. Evidence that small molecule enhancement of β-hexosaminidase activity corrects the behavioral phenotype in Dutch APP(E693Q) mice through reduction of ganglioside-bound Aβ.

    PubMed

    Knight, E M; Williams, H N; Stevens, A C; Kim, S H; Kottwitz, J C; Morant, A D; Steele, J W; Klein, W L; Yanagisawa, K; Boyd, R E; Lockhart, D J; Sjoberg, E R; Ehrlich, M E; Wustman, B A; Gandy, S

    2015-02-01

    Certain mutant Alzheimer's amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides (that is, Dutch mutant APP(E693Q)) form complexes with gangliosides (GAβ). These mutant Aβ peptides may also undergo accelerated aggregation and accumulation upon exposure to GM2 and GM3. We hypothesized that increasing β-hexosaminidase (β-hex) activity would lead to a reduction in GM2 levels, which in turn, would cause a reduction in Aβ aggregation and accumulation. The small molecule OT1001 is a β-hex-targeted pharmacological chaperone with good bioavailability, blood-brain barrier penetration, high selectivity for β-hex and low cytotoxicity. Dutch APP(E693Q) transgenic mice accumulate oligomeric Aβ as they age, as well as Aβ oligomer-dose-dependent anxiety and impaired novel object recognition (NOR). Treatment of Dutch APP(E693Q) mice with OT1001 caused a dose-dependent increase in brain β-hex levels up to threefold over those observed at baseline. OT1001 treatment was associated with reduced anxiety, improved learning behavior in the NOR task and dramatically reduced GAβ accumulation in the subiculum and perirhinal cortex, both of which are brain regions required for normal NOR. Pharmacological chaperones that increase β-hex activity may be useful in reducing accumulation of certain mutant species of Aβ and in preventing the associated behavioral pathology. PMID:25349165

  7. Ganglioside GD2 in reception and transduction of cell death signal in tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Ganglioside GD2 is expressed on plasma membranes of various types of malignant cells. One of the most promising approaches for cancer immunotherapy is the treatment with monoclonal antibodies recognizing tumor-associated markers such as ganglioside GD2. It is considered that major mechanisms of anticancer activity of anti-GD2 antibodies are complement-dependent cytotoxicity and/or antibody-mediated cellular cytotoxicity. At the same time, several studies suggested that anti-GD2 antibodies are capable of direct induction of cell death of number of tumor cell lines, but it has not been investigated in details. In this study we investigated the functional role of ganglioside GD2 in the induction of cell death of multiple tumor cell lines by using GD2-specific monoclonal antibodies. Methods Expression of GD2 on different tumor cell lines was analyzed by flow cytometry using anti-GD2 antibodies. By using HPTLC followed by densitometric analysis we measured the amount of ganglioside GD2 in total ganglioside fractions isolated from tumor cell lines. An MTT assay was performed to assess viability of GD2-positive and -negative tumor cell lines treated with anti-GD2 mAbs. Cross-reactivity of anti-GD2 mAbs with other gangliosides or other surface molecules was investigated by ELISA and flow cytometry. Inhibition of GD2 expression was achieved by using of inhibitor for ganglioside synthesis PDMP and/or siRNA for GM2/GD2 and GD3 synthases. Results Anti-GD2 mAbs effectively induced non-classical cell death that combined features of both apoptosis and necrosis in GD2-positive tumor cells and did not affect GD2-negative tumors. Anti-GD2 mAbs directly induced cell death, which included alteration of mitochondrial membrane potential, induction of apoptotic volume decrease and cell membrane permeability. This cytotoxic effect was mediated exclusively by specific binding of anti-GD2 antibodies with ganglioside GD2 but not with other molecules. Moreover, the level of GD2

  8. Dissecting the Role of Anti-ganglioside Antibodies in Guillain-Barré Syndrome: an Animal Model Approach.

    PubMed

    Asthana, Pallavi; Vong, Joaquim Si Long; Kumar, Gajendra; Chang, Raymond Chuen-Chung; Zhang, Gang; Sheikh, Kazim A; Ma, Chi Him Eddie

    2016-09-01

    Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is an autoimmune polyneuropathy disease affecting the peripheral nervous system (PNS). Most of the GBS patients experienced neurological symptoms such as paresthesia, weakness, pain, and areflexia. There are also combinations of non-neurological symptoms which include upper respiratory tract infection and diarrhea. One of the major causes of GBS is due largely to the autoantibodies against gangliosides located on the peripheral nerves. Gangliosides are sialic acid-bearing glycosphingolipids consisting of a ceramide lipid anchor with one or more sialic acids attached to a neutral sugar backbone. Molecular mimicry between the outer components of oligosaccharide of gangliosides on nerve membrane and lipo-oligosaccharide of microbes is thought to trigger the autoimmunity. Intra-peritoneal implantation of monoclonal ganglioside antibodies secreting hybridoma into animals induced peripheral neuropathy. Recent studies demonstrated that injection of synthesized anti-ganglioside antibodies raised by hybridoma cells into mice initiates immune response against peripheral nerves, and eventually failure in peripheral nerve regeneration. Accumulating evidences indicate that the conjugation of anti-ganglioside monoclonal antibodies to activating FcγRIII present on the circulating macrophages inhibits axonal regeneration. The activation of RhoA signaling pathways is also involved in neurite outgrowth inhibition. However, the link between these two molecular events remains unresolved and requires further investigation. Development of anti-ganglioside antagonists can serve as targeted therapy for the treatment of GBS and will open a new approach of drug development with maximum efficacy and specificity.

  9. [Gangliosides as carbohydrate antigens associated with cancer and their possible use in tumor immunotherapy].

    PubMed

    Horwacik, Irena

    2004-01-01

    Aberrant glycosylation is a universal feature of a cancer cell. The examples of such differences are the observed quantitative and qualitative changes in the expression of gangliosides of the tumors of the neuroectodermal origin. The role of gangliosides in cancer progression has been described, as well as their abilities to act as immunosuppressors. The presence of large amounts of these tumor associated carbohydrate antigens (TACA) on cancer cells, as compared to normal cells, opens the possibilities to use them in diagnosis and immunotherapeutic approaches which engage the immune system to fight with a tumor disease. The passive immunotherapy of neuroblastoma with anti-gangliosides monoclonal antibodies and their derivatives has been reviewed. The advantages and the disadvantages of using carbohydrate antigens as vaccines have been summarized. The examples of use of active specific immunotherapy with gangliosides have been described, as well as the approaches to modify the immunogenic potential of these antigens with carbohydrate-protein conjugate vaccines, and antiidiotypic antibodies used with immunomodulators such as QA-21. Finally, in a separate paragraph, the application of anti-carbohydrate antibodies to screen phage display peptide libraries for mimotopes has been described. The perspectives of using carbohydrate mimicking surrogate antigens in the immunotherapy of cancer have been discussed.

  10. GD3/proteosome vaccines induce consistent IgM antibodies against the ganglioside GD3.

    PubMed

    Livingston, P O; Calves, M J; Helling, F; Zollinger, W D; Blake, M S; Lowell, G H

    1993-09-01

    The gangliosides of melanoma and other tumours of neuroectodermal origin are suitable targets for immune intervention with tumour vaccines. The optimal vaccines in current use contain ganglioside plus bacillus Calmette-Guérin and induce considerable morbidity. We have screened a variety of new adjuvants in the mouse, and describe one antigen-delivery system, proteosomes, which is especially effective. Highly hydrophobic Neisserial outer membrane proteins (OMP) form multimolecular liposome-like vesicular structures termed proteosomes which can readily incorporate amphiphilic molecules such as GD3 ganglioside. The optimal GD3/proteosome vaccine formulation for induction of GD3 antibodies in the mouse is determined. Interestingly, the use of potent immunological adjuvants in addition to proteosomes augments the IgM and IgG antibody titres against OMP in these vaccines but GD3 antibody titres are unaffected. The application of proteosomes to enhance the immune response to GD3 extends the concept of the proteosome immunopotentiating system from lipopeptides to amphipathic carbohydrate epitopes such as cell-surface gangliosides. The demonstrated safety of meningococcal OMP in humans and the data in mice presented here suggest that proteosome vaccines have potential for augmenting the immunogenicity of amphipathic tumour antigens in humans.

  11. Beyond gangliosides: Multiple forms of glycan mimicry exhibited by Campylobacter jejuni in its lipooligosaccharide (LOS)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter jejuni is well known for synthesizing ganglioside mimics within the glycan component of its lipooligosaccharide (LOS), which have been implicated in triggering Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). We now confirm that this pathogen is capable of synthesizing a much broader spectrum of host g...

  12. Ganglioside GT1b protects human spermatozoa from hydrogen peroxide-induced DNA and membrane damage.

    PubMed

    Gavella, Mirjana; Garaj-Vrhovac, Verica; Lipovac, Vaskresenija; Antica, Mariastefania; Gajski, Goran; Car, Nikica

    2010-06-01

    We have reported previously that various gangliosides, the sialic acid containing glycosphingolipids, provide protection against sperm injury caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this study, we investigated the effect of treatment of human spermatozoa with ganglioside GT1b on hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))-induced DNA fragmentation and plasma membrane damage. Single-cell gel electrophoresis (Comet assay) used in the assessment of sperm DNA integrity showed that in vitro supplemented GT1b (100 microm) significantly reduced DNA damage induced by H(2)O(2) (200 microm) (p < 0.05). Measurements of Annexin V binding in combination with the propidium iodide vital dye labelling demonstrated that the spermatozoa pre-treated with GT1b exhibited a significant increase (p < 0.05) in the percentage of live cells with intact membrane and decreased phosphatidylserine translocation after exposure to H(2)O(2). Flow cytometry using the intracellular ROS-sensitive fluorescence dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate dye employed to investigate the transport of the extracellularly supplied H(2)O(2) into the cell interior revealed that ganglioside GT1b completely inhibited the passage of H(2)O(2) through the sperm membrane. These results suggest that ganglioside GT1b may protect human spermatozoa from H(2)O(2)-induced damage by rendering sperm membrane more hydrophobic, thus inhibiting the diffusion of H(2)O(2) across the membrane.

  13. Structural Basis of GD2 Ganglioside and Mimetic Peptide Recognition by 14G2a Antibody.

    PubMed

    Horwacik, Irena; Golik, Przemyslaw; Grudnik, Przemyslaw; Kolinski, Michal; Zdzalik, Michal; Rokita, Hanna; Dubin, Grzegorz

    2015-10-01

    Monoclonal antibodies targeting GD2 ganglioside (GD2) have recently been approved for the treatment of high risk neuroblastoma and are extensively evaluated in clinics in other indications. This study illustrates how a therapeutic antibody distinguishes between different types of gangliosides present on normal and cancer cells and informs how synthetic peptides can imitate ganglioside in its binding to the antibody. Using high resolution crystal structures we demonstrate that the ganglioside recognition by a model antibody (14G2a) is based primarily on an extended network of direct and water molecule mediated hydrogen bonds. Comparison of the GD2-Fab structure with that of a ligand free antibody reveals an induced fit mechanism of ligand binding. These conclusions are validated by directed mutagenesis and allowed structure guided generation of antibody variant with improved affinity toward GD2. Contrary to the carbohydrate, both evaluated mimetic peptides utilize a "key and lock" interaction mechanism complementing the surface of the antibody binding groove exactly as found in the empty structure. The interaction of both peptides with the Fab relies considerably on hydrophobic contacts however, the detailed connections differ significantly between the peptides. As such, the evaluated peptide carbohydrate mimicry is defined primarily in a functional and not in structural manner. PMID:26179345

  14. Expression of GD2 and GD3 gangliosides in human embryonic neural stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Yanagisawa, Makoto; Yoshimura, Saori; Yu, Robert K

    2011-01-01

    NSCs (neural stem cells) are undifferentiated neural cells endowed with a high potential for proliferation and a capacity for self-renewal with retention of multipotency to differentiate into neurons and glial cells. It has been recently reported that GD3, a b-series ganglioside, is a marker molecule for identifying and isolating mouse NSCs. However, the expression of gangliosides in human NSCs is largely unknown. In the present study, we analysed the expression of gangliosides, GD2 and GD3, in human NSCs that were isolated from human brains at gestational week 17 in the form of neurospheres, which are floating clonal aggregates formed by NSCs in vitro. Employing immunocytochemistry, we found that human NSCs were strongly reactive to anti-GD2 antibody and relatively weakly reactive to anti-GD3 antibody. Treatment of these cells with an organic solvent such as 100% methanol, which selectively removes glycolipids from plasma membrane, abolished the immunoreactivity with those antibodies, indicating that the reactivity was due to GD2 and GD3, but not to GD2-/GD3-like glycoproteins or proteoglycans. The immunoreactivity of human NSCs to antibody against SSEA-1 (stage-specific embryonic antigen-1), a well-known carbohydrate antigen of NSCs, was not decreased by the treatment with 100% methanol, indicating that SSEA-1 is mainly carried by glycoproteins and/or proteoglycans in human NSCs. Our study suggests that GD2 and GD3 can be marker gangliosides for identifying human NSCs. PMID:21395555

  15. Structural Basis of GD2 Ganglioside and Mimetic Peptide Recognition by 14G2a Antibody*

    PubMed Central

    Horwacik, Irena; Golik, Przemyslaw; Grudnik, Przemyslaw; Kolinski, Michal; Zdzalik, Michal; Rokita, Hanna; Dubin, Grzegorz

    2015-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies targeting GD2 ganglioside (GD2) have recently been approved for the treatment of high risk neuroblastoma and are extensively evaluated in clinics in other indications. This study illustrates how a therapeutic antibody distinguishes between different types of gangliosides present on normal and cancer cells and informs how synthetic peptides can imitate ganglioside in its binding to the antibody. Using high resolution crystal structures we demonstrate that the ganglioside recognition by a model antibody (14G2a) is based primarily on an extended network of direct and water molecule mediated hydrogen bonds. Comparison of the GD2-Fab structure with that of a ligand free antibody reveals an induced fit mechanism of ligand binding. These conclusions are validated by directed mutagenesis and allowed structure guided generation of antibody variant with improved affinity toward GD2. Contrary to the carbohydrate, both evaluated mimetic peptides utilize a “key and lock” interaction mechanism complementing the surface of the antibody binding groove exactly as found in the empty structure. The interaction of both peptides with the Fab relies considerably on hydrophobic contacts however, the detailed connections differ significantly between the peptides. As such, the evaluated peptide carbohydrate mimicry is defined primarily in a functional and not in structural manner. PMID:26179345

  16. Early Supplementation of Phospholipids and Gangliosides Affects Brain and Cognitive Development in Neonatal Piglets123

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hongnan; Radlowski, Emily C; Conrad, Matthew S; Li, Yao; Dilger, Ryan N; Johnson, Rodney W

    2014-01-01

    Background: Because human breast milk is a rich source of phospholipids and gangliosides and breastfed infants have improved learning compared with formula-fed infants, the importance of dietary phospholipids and gangliosides for brain development is of interest. Objective: We sought to determine the effects of phospholipids and gangliosides on brain and cognitive development. Methods: Male and female piglets from multiple litters were artificially reared and fed formula containing 0% (control), 0.8%, or 2.5% Lacprodan PL-20 (PL-20; Arla Foods Ingredients), a phospholipid/ganglioside supplement, from postnatal day (PD) 2 to PD28. Beginning on PD14, performance in a spatial T-maze task was assessed. At PD28, brain MRI data were acquired and piglets were killed to obtain hippocampal tissue for metabolic profiling. Results: Diet affected maze performance, with piglets that were fed 0.8% and 2.5% PL-20 making fewer errors than control piglets (80% vs. 75% correct on average; P < 0.05) and taking less time to make a choice (3 vs. 5 s/trial; P < 0.01). Mean brain weight was 5% higher for piglets fed 0.8% and 2.5% PL-20 (P < 0.05) than control piglets, and voxel-based morphometry revealed multiple brain areas with greater volumes and more gray and white matter in piglets fed 0.8% and 2.5% PL-20 than in control piglets. Metabolic profiling of hippocampal tissue revealed that multiple phosphatidylcholine-related metabolites were altered by diet. Conclusion: In summary, dietary phospholipids and gangliosides improved spatial learning and affected brain growth and composition in neonatal piglets. PMID:25411030

  17. Lacking "Lack": A Reply to Joldersma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, James D.

    2007-01-01

    First I would like to thank Clarence Joldersma for his review of our "Poststructuralism, Philosophy, Pedagogy" (Marshall, 2004-PPP). In particular, I would thank him for his opening sentence: "[t]his book is a response to a lack." It is the notion of a lack, noted again later in his review, which I wish to take up mainly in this response. Rather…

  18. Selection of novel peptide mimics of the GD2 ganglioside from a constrained phage-displayed peptide library.

    PubMed

    Horwacik, Irena; Czaplicki, Dominik; Talarek, Katarzyna; Kowalczyk, Aleksandra; Bolesta, Elzbieta; Kozbor, Danuta; Rokita, Hanna

    2007-05-01

    Aberrant glycosylation is a universal feature of cancer cells. There are quantitative and qualitative changes in expression of gangliosides observed in tumors of a neuroectodermal origin such as neuroblastoma, melanoma and astrocytoma. The presence of large amounts of GD2 ganglioside on neuroblastoma cells, as compared to normal cells, opens the possibilities to use the tumor-associated carbohydrate antigen in diagnosis and immunotherapeutic approaches. In the quest for immunogens potentially capable of eliciting anti-GD2 ganglioside immune responses, we performed affinity purification of phage-displayed peptides from the LX-8 library (12-mer containing disulphide bridge). The library was screened with the biotinylated anti-GD2 ganglioside 14G2a mAb monoclonal antibody. Our goal was to isolate and characterize peptide mimics of GD2 ganglioside. Numerous individual phage clones that bound 14G2a mAb were identified with the application of immunoblotting technique in the phage pools yielded from the pannings. The phage-borne peptides were tested for their anti-GD2 ganglioside antibody binding ability using ELISA. Among these clones five different phage-displayed peptide sequences were identified. Moreover, we showed that the secondary structure of the peptides, stabilized by the disulfide bridging between cysteine residues at positions 2 and 11, was crucial for the binding of the peptides to 14G2a mAb. In a separate set of experiments, we observed a competition of the peptides, expressed on phages as well as in their synthetic form, with the nominal antigen GD2 ganglioside expressed on IMR-32 neuroblastoma cells for binding to 14G2a mAb. Based on the obtained results we concluded that all of these 5 peptides were mimics of the GD2 ganglioside. PMID:17390090

  19. Specific suppression of major histocompatibility complex class I and class II genes in astrocytes by brain-enriched gangliosides

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    The effect of brain-enriched gangliosides on constitutive and cytokine- inducible expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and II genes in cultured astrocytes was studied. Before treatment with gangliosides, astrocytes expressed constitutive MHC class I but not class II molecules, however, the expression of both MHC class I and II cell surface molecules on astrocytes was induced to high levels by interferon gamma (IFN-gamma). Constitutive and IFN-gamma-inducible expression of MHC class I and II molecules was suppressed by treatment of astrocytes with exogenous bovine brain gangliosides in a dose- dependent manner. Constitutive and induced MHC class I and II mRNA levels were also suppressed by gangliosides, indicating control through transcriptional mechanisms. This was consistent with the ability of gangliosides to suppress the binding activity of transcription factors, especially NF-kappa B-like binding activity, important for the expression of both MHC class I and II genes. These studies may be important for understanding mechanisms of central nervous system (CNS)- specific regulation of major histocompatibility molecules in neuroectodermal cells and the role of gangliosides in regulating MHC- restricted antiviral and autoimmune responses within the CNS. PMID:8376939

  20. Effects of Ganglioside on Working Memory and the Default Mode Network in Individuals with Subjective Cognitive Impairment: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Yujin; Kim, Binna; Kim, Jieun E; Kim, Bori R; Ban, Soonhyun; Jeong, Jee Hyang; Kwon, Oran; Rhie, Sandy Jeong; Ahn, Chang-Won; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Jung, Sung Ug; Park, Soo-Hyun; Lyoo, In Kyoon; Yoon, Sujung

    2016-01-01

    This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial examined whether the administration of ganglioside, an active ingredient of deer bone extract, can improve working memory performance by increasing gray matter volume and functional connectivity in the default mode network (DMN) in individuals with subjective cognitive impairment. Seventy-five individuals with subjective cognitive impairment were chosen to receive either ganglioside (330[Formula: see text][Formula: see text]g/day or 660[Formula: see text][Formula: see text]g/day) or a placebo for 8 weeks. Changes in working memory performance with treatment of either ganglioside or placebo were assessed as cognitive outcome measures. Using voxel-based morphometry and functional connectivity analyses, changes in gray matter volume and functional connectivity in the DMN were also assessed as brain outcome measures. Improvement in working memory performance was greater in the ganglioside group than in the placebo group. The ganglioside group, relative to the placebo group, showed greater increases in gray matter volume and functional connectivity in the DMN. A significant relationship between increased functional connectivity of the precuneus and improved working memory performance was observed in the ganglioside group. The current findings suggest that ganglioside has cognitive-enhancing effects in individuals with subjective cognitive impairment. Ganglioside-induced increases in gray matter volume and functional connectivity in the DMN may partly be responsible for the potential nootropic effects of ganglioside. The clinical trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (identifier: NCT02379481).

  1. Anti-amyloidogenic effects of glycosphingolipid synthesis inhibitors occur independently of ganglioside alterations.

    PubMed

    Noel, Anastasia; Ingrand, Sabrina; Barrier, Laurence

    2016-09-01

    Evidence has suggested that ganglioside abnormalities may be linked to the proteolytic processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP) in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and that pharmacological inhibition of ganglioside synthesis may reduce amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) production. In this study, we assessed the usefulness of two well-established glycosphingolipid (GSL) synthesis inhibitors, the synthetic ceramide analog D-PDMP (1-phenyl 2-decanoylamino-3-morpholino-1-propanol) and the iminosugar N-butyldeoxynojirimycin (NB-DNJ or miglustat), as anti-amyloidogenic drugs in a human cellular model of AD. We found that both GSL inhibitors were able to markedly inhibit Aβ production, although affecting differently the APP cleavage. Surprisingly, the L-enantiomer of PDMP, which promotes ganglioside accumulation, acted similarly to D-PDMP to inhibit Aβ production. Concurrently, both D- and L-PDMP strongly and equally reduced the levels of long-chain ceramides. Altogether, our data suggested that the anti-amyloidogenic effects of PDMP agents are independent of the altered cellular ganglioside composition, but may result, at least in part, from their ability to reduce ceramide levels. Moreover, our current study established for the first time that NB-DNJ, a drug already used as a therapeutic for Gaucher disease (a lysosomal storage disorder), was also able to reduce Aβ production in our cellular model. Therefore, our study provides novel information regarding the possibilities to target amyloidogenic processing of APP through modulation of sphingolipid metabolism and emphasizes the potential of the iminosugar NB-DNJ as a disease modifying therapy for AD. PMID:27373967

  2. A Novel Approach for Ganglioside Structural Analysis Based on Electrospray Multiple-Stage Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Zamfir, Alina D.; Vukelić, Željka; Schneider, Andrea; Sisu, Eugen; Dinca, Nicolae; Ingendoh, Arnd

    2007-01-01

    A powerful method for detailed structural analysis based on electrospray ionization high-capacity ion-trap multiple-stage mass spectrometry (MS) is for the first time introduced in glycolipidomics. The method was optimized for accurate structural elucidation of human brain gangliosides and specifically applied to normal adult human hippocampus-associated structures. The multiple-stage MS experiments reported here allowed for a complete structural characterization of the oligosaccharide moiety of a GM1 ganglioside species. This was achieved by elucidating the sequence and identification of the GM1a structural isomer from the sialic acid attachment site at the neutral oligosaccharide chain. Moreover, the determination of the d18:1/18:0 sphingoid base/fatty acid composition of the ceramide moiety could be confirmed by this method. The novel protocol developed here proves high potential for rapid, reliable, and reproducible investigation of complex lipid-linked carbohydrates such as polysialylated gangliosides or species carrying some other groups that easily cleave off. PMID:17916791

  3. Imbalance in fatty-acid-chain length of gangliosides triggers Alzheimer amyloid deposition in the precuneus.

    PubMed

    Oikawa, Naoto; Matsubara, Teruhiko; Fukuda, Ryoto; Yasumori, Hanaki; Hatsuta, Hiroyuki; Murayama, Shigeo; Sato, Toshinori; Suzuki, Akemi; Yanagisawa, Katsuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Amyloid deposition, a crucial event of Alzheimer's disease (AD), emerges in distinct brain regions. A key question is what triggers the assembly of the monomeric amyloid ß-protein (Aß) into fibrils in the regions. On the basis of our previous findings that gangliosides facilitate the initiation of Aß assembly at presynaptic neuritic terminals, we investigated how lipids, including gangliosides, cholesterol and sphingomyelin, extracted from synaptic plasma membranes (SPMs) isolated from autopsy brains were involved in the Aß assembly. We focused on two regions of the cerebral cortex; precuneus and calcarine cortex, one of the most vulnerable and one of the most resistant regions to amyloid deposition, respectively. Here, we show that lipids extracted from SPMs isolated from the amyloid-bearing precuneus, but neither the amyloid-free precuneus nor the calcarine cortex, markedly accelerate the Aß assembly in vitro. Through liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry of the lipids, we identified an increase in the ratio of the level of GD1b-ganglioside containing C20:0 fatty acid to that containing C18:0 as a cause of the enhanced Aß assembly in the precuneus. Our results suggest that the local glycolipid environment play a critical role in the initiation of Alzheimer amyloid deposition.

  4. Imbalance in Fatty-Acid-Chain Length of Gangliosides Triggers Alzheimer Amyloid Deposition in the Precuneus

    PubMed Central

    Oikawa, Naoto; Matsubara, Teruhiko; Fukuda, Ryoto; Yasumori, Hanaki; Hatsuta, Hiroyuki; Murayama, Shigeo; Sato, Toshinori; Suzuki, Akemi; Yanagisawa, Katsuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Amyloid deposition, a crucial event of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), emerges in distinct brain regions. A key question is what triggers the assembly of the monomeric amyloid ß-protein (Aß) into fibrils in the regions. On the basis of our previous findings that gangliosides facilitate the initiation of Aß assembly at presynaptic neuritic terminals, we investigated how lipids, including gangliosides, cholesterol and sphingomyelin, extracted from synaptic plasma membranes (SPMs) isolated from autopsy brains were involved in the Aß assembly. We focused on two regions of the cerebral cortex; precuneus and calcarine cortex, one of the most vulnerable and one of the most resistant regions to amyloid deposition, respectively. Here, we show that lipids extracted from SPMs isolated from the amyloid-bearing precuneus, but neither the amyloid-free precuneus nor the calcarine cortex, markedly accelerate the Aß assembly in vitro. Through liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry of the lipids, we identified an increase in the ratio of the level of GD1b-ganglioside containing C20:0 fatty acid to that containing C18:0 as a cause of the enhanced Aß assembly in the precuneus. Our results suggest that the local glycolipid environment play a critical role in the initiation of Alzheimer amyloid deposition. PMID:25798597

  5. Enhanced capabilities for imaging gangliosides in murine brain with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization and desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry coupled to ion mobility separation.

    PubMed

    Škrášková, Karolina; Claude, Emmanuelle; Jones, Emrys A; Towers, Mark; Ellis, Shane R; Heeren, Ron M A

    2016-07-15

    The increased interest in lipidomics calls for improved yet simplified methods of lipid analysis. Over the past two decades, mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) has been established as a powerful technique for the analysis of molecular distribution of a variety of compounds across tissue surfaces. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) MSI is widely used to study the spatial distribution of common lipids. However, a thorough sample preparation and necessity of vacuum for efficient ionization might hamper its use for high-throughput lipid analysis. Desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) is a relatively young MS technique. In DESI, ionization of molecules occurs under ambient conditions, which alleviates sample preparation. Moreover, DESI does not require the application of an external matrix, making the detection of low mass species more feasible due to the lack of chemical matrix background. However, irrespective of the ionization method, the final information obtained during an MSI experiment is very complex and its analysis becomes challenging. It was shown that coupling MSI to ion mobility separation (IMS) simplifies imaging data interpretation. Here we employed DESI and MALDI MSI for a lipidomic analysis of the murine brain using the same IMS-enabled instrument. We report for the first time on the DESI IMS-MSI of multiply sialylated ganglioside species, as well as their acetylated versions, which we detected directly from the murine brain tissue. We show that poly-sialylated gangliosides can be imaged as multiply charged ions using DESI, while they are clearly separated from the rest of the lipid classes based on their charge state using ion mobility. This represents a major improvement in MSI of intact fragile lipid species. We additionally show that complementary lipid information is reached under particular conditions when DESI is compared to MALDI MSI.

  6. Cholesterol accelerates the binding of Alzheimer's β-amyloid peptide to ganglioside GM1 through a universal hydrogen-bond-dependent sterol tuning of glycolipid conformation

    PubMed Central

    Fantini, Jacques; Yahi, Nouara; Garmy, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Age-related alterations of membrane lipids in brain cell membranes together with high blood cholesterol are considered as major risk factors for Alzheimer's disease. Yet the molecular mechanisms by which these factors increase Alzheimer's risk are mostly unknown. In lipid raft domains of the plasma membrane, neurotoxic Alzheimer's beta-amyloid (Abeta) peptides interact with both cholesterol and ganglioside GM1. Recent data also suggested that cholesterol could stimulate the binding of Abeta to GM1 through conformational modulation of the ganglioside headgroup. Here we used a combination of physicochemical and molecular modeling approaches to decipher the mechanisms of cholesterol-assisted binding of Abeta to GM1. With the aim of decoupling the effect of cholesterol on GM1 from direct Abeta-cholesterol interactions, we designed a minimal peptide (Abeta5-16) containing the GM1-binding domain but lacking the amino acid residues involved in cholesterol recognition. Using the Langmuir technique, we showed that cholesterol (but not phosphatidylcholine or sphingomyelin) significantly accelerates the interaction of Abeta5-16 with GM1. Molecular dynamics simulations suggested that Abeta5-16 interacts with a cholesterol-stabilized dimer of GM1. The main structural effect of cholesterol is to establish a hydrogen-bond between its own OH group and the glycosidic-bond linking ceramide to the glycone part of GM1, thereby inducing a tilt in the glycolipid headgroup. This fine conformational tuning stabilizes the active conformation of the GM1 dimer whose headgroups, oriented in two opposite directions, form a chalice-shaped receptacle for Abeta. These data give new mechanistic insights into the stimulatory effect of cholesterol on Abeta/GM1 interactions. They also support the emerging concept that cholesterol is a universal modulator of protein-glycolipid interactions in the broader context of membrane recognition processes. PMID:23772214

  7. Gangliosides are functional nerve cell ligands for myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG), an inhibitor of nerve regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Vyas, Alka A.; Patel, Himatkumar V.; Fromholt, Susan E.; Heffer-Lauc, Marija; Vyas, Kavita A.; Dang, Jiyoung; Schachner, Melitta; Schnaar, Ronald L.

    2002-01-01

    Myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) binds to the nerve cell surface and inhibits nerve regeneration. The nerve cell surface ligand(s) for MAG are not established, although sialic acid-bearing glycans have been implicated. We identify the nerve cell surface gangliosides GD1a and GT1b as specific functional ligands for MAG-mediated inhibition of neurite outgrowth from primary rat cerebellar granule neurons. MAG-mediated neurite outgrowth inhibition is attenuated by (i) neuraminidase treatment of the neurons; (ii) blocking neuronal ganglioside biosynthesis; (iii) genetically modifying the terminal structures of nerve cell surface gangliosides; and (iv) adding highly specific IgG-class antiganglioside mAbs. Furthermore, neurite outgrowth inhibition is mimicked by highly multivalent clustering of GD1a or GT1b by using precomplexed antiganglioside Abs. These data implicate the nerve cell surface gangliosides GD1a and GT1b as functional MAG ligands and suggest that the first step in MAG inhibition is multivalent ganglioside clustering. PMID:12060784

  8. Constituents of ophiuroidea. 1. Isolation and structure of three ganglioside molecular species from the brittle star Ophiocoma scolopendrina.

    PubMed

    Inagaki, M; Shibai, M; Isobe, R; Higuchi, R

    2001-12-01

    Three ganglioside molecular species, OSG-0 (1), OSG-1 (2), and OSG-2 (3) have been obtained from the polar lipid fraction of the chloroform/methanol extract of the brittle star Ophiocoma scolopendrina. The structures of these gangliosides have been determined on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic evidence as 1-O-[(N-glycolyl-alpha-D-neuraminosyl)-(2-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl]-ceramide (1), 1-O-[8-O-sulfo-(N-acetyl-alpha-D-neuraminosyl)-(2-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranosyll-ceramide (2) and 1-O-[(N-glycolyl-alpha-D-neuraminosyl)-(2-->8)-(N-acetyl- and N-glycolyl-alpha-D-neuraminosyl)-(2-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl]-ceramide (3). The ceramide moieties were composed of heterogeneous unsubstituted fatty acid, 2-hydroxy fatty acid and phytosphingosine units. Compounds 2 and 3 represent new ganglioside molecular species. PMID:11767069

  9. Constituents of ophiuroidea. 1. Isolation and structure of three ganglioside molecular species from the brittle star Ophiocoma scolopendrina.

    PubMed

    Inagaki, M; Shibai, M; Isobe, R; Higuchi, R

    2001-12-01

    Three ganglioside molecular species, OSG-0 (1), OSG-1 (2), and OSG-2 (3) have been obtained from the polar lipid fraction of the chloroform/methanol extract of the brittle star Ophiocoma scolopendrina. The structures of these gangliosides have been determined on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic evidence as 1-O-[(N-glycolyl-alpha-D-neuraminosyl)-(2-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl]-ceramide (1), 1-O-[8-O-sulfo-(N-acetyl-alpha-D-neuraminosyl)-(2-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranosyll-ceramide (2) and 1-O-[(N-glycolyl-alpha-D-neuraminosyl)-(2-->8)-(N-acetyl- and N-glycolyl-alpha-D-neuraminosyl)-(2-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl]-ceramide (3). The ceramide moieties were composed of heterogeneous unsubstituted fatty acid, 2-hydroxy fatty acid and phytosphingosine units. Compounds 2 and 3 represent new ganglioside molecular species.

  10. Fucosyl-GM1a, an endoglycoceramidase-resistant ganglioside of porcine brain.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xu; Monjusho, Hatsumi; Inagaki, Masanori; Hama, Yoichiro; Yamaguchi, Kuniko; Sakaguchi, Keishi; Iwamori, Masao; Okino, Nozomu; Ito, Makoto

    2007-01-01

    The use of bovine brain has been prohibited in many countries because of the world-wide prevalence of mad cow disease, and thus porcine brain is expected to be a new source for the preparation of gangliosides. Here, we report the presence of a ganglioside in porcine brain which is strongly resistant to hydrolysis by endoglycoceramidase, an enzyme capable of cleaving the glycosidic linkage between oligosaccharides and ceramides of various glycosphingolipids. Five major gangliosides (designated PBG-1, 2, 3, 4, 5) were extracted from porcine brain by Folch's partition, followed by mild alkaline hydrolysis and PBA column chromatography. We found that PBG-2, but not the others, was strongly resistant to hydrolysis by the enzyme. After the purification of PBG-2 with Q-Sepharose, Silica gel 60 and Prosep-PB chromatographies, the structure of PBG-2 was determined by GC, GC-MS, FAB-MS and NMR spectroscopy as Fucalpha1-2Galbeta1-3GalNAcbeta1-4(NeuAcalpha2-3)Galbeta1-4Glcbeta1-1'Cer (fucosyl-GM1a). The ceramide was mainly composed of C18:0 and C20:0 fatty acids and d18:1 and d20:1 sphingoid bases. The apparent kcat/Km for fucosyl-GM1a was found to be 30 times lower than that for GM1a, indicating that terminal fucosylation makes GM1a resistant to hydrolysis by the enzyme. This report indicates the usefulness of endoglycoceramidase to prepare fucosyl-GM1a from porcine brain. PMID:17167042

  11. Condensing and Fluidizing Effects of Ganglioside GM1 on Phospholipid Films

    PubMed Central

    Frey, Shelli L.; Chi, Eva Y.; Arratia, Cristóbal; Majewski, Jaroslaw; Kjaer, Kristian; Lee, Ka Yee C.

    2008-01-01

    Mixed monolayers of the ganglioside GM1 and the lipid dipalmitoylphosphatidlycholine (DPPC) at air-water and solid-air interfaces were investigated using various biophysical techniques to ascertain the location and phase behavior of the ganglioside molecules in a mixed membrane. The effects induced by GM1 on the mean molecular area of the binary mixtures and the phase behavior of DPPC were followed for GM1 concentrations ranging from 5 to 70 mol %. Surface pressure isotherms and fluorescence microscopy imaging of domain formation indicate that at low concentrations of GM1 (<25 mol %), the monolayer becomes continually more condensed than DPPC upon further addition of ganglioside. At higher GM1 concentrations (>25 mol %), the mixed monolayer becomes more expanded or fluid-like. After deposition onto a solid substrate, atomic force microscopy imaging of these lipid monolayers showed that GM1 and DPPC pack cooperatively in the condensed phase domain to form geometrically packed complexes that are more ordered than either individual component as evidenced by a more extended total height of the complex arising from a well-packed hydrocarbon tail region. Grazing incidence x-ray diffraction on the DPPC/GM1 binary mixture provides evidence that ordering can emerge when two otherwise fluid components are mixed together. The addition of GM1 to DPPC gives rise to a unit cell that differs from that of a pure DPPC monolayer. To determine the region of the GM1 molecule that interacts with the DPPC molecule and causes condensation and subsequent expansion of the monolayer, surface pressure isotherms were obtained with molecules modeling the backbone or headgroup portions of the GM1 molecule. The observed concentration-dependent condensing and fluidizing effects are specific to the rigid, sugar headgroup portion of the GM1 molecule. PMID:18192361

  12. Ganglioside GD1a promotes oocyte maturation, furthers preimplantation development, and increases blastocyst quality in pigs

    PubMed Central

    KIM, Jin-Woo; PARK, Hyo-Jin; CHAE, Sung-Kyu; AHN, Jae-Hyun; DO, Geon-Yeop; CHOO, Young-Kug; PARK, Joung Jun; JUNG, Bae Dong; KIM, Sun-Uk; CHANG, Kyu-Tae; KOO, Deog-Bon

    2016-01-01

    Gangliosides are key lipid molecules required for the regulation of cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, and cell signaling, including signaling of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Epidermal growth factor (EGF) has long been considered a potential regulator of meiotic and cytoplasmic maturation in mammalian oocytes. However, there is no report on the direct effect of ganglioside GD1a in porcine oocyte maturation. In this study, we first investigated a functional link between GD1a and meiotic maturation during in vitro maturation (IVM) of porcine embryos. Moreover, we confirmed the effect of exogenous GD1a treatment on blastocyst development, quality, and fertilization rate in early embryonic development. First, we observed that the protein level of ST3GAL2, a GD1a synthesizing enzyme, significantly increased (P < 0.01) in cumulus-oocyte-complexes (COCs) during IVM progress. The proportion of arrested germinal vesicles (GV) increased in oocytes treated with EGF+GD1a (41.6 ± 1.5%) at the IVM I stage. Upon completion of meiotic maturation, the proportion of metaphase II (M II) was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the EGF+GD1a (89.9 ± 3.6%) treated group. After IVF, the percentage of penetrated oocytes was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the EGF+GD1a (89.1 ± 2.3%) treated group than in the control group. Furthermore, exogenous GD1a treatment improved the developmental competence and quality of blastocysts during preimplantation embryo development stage. These results suggest that ganglioside GD1a may play an important role in IVM mechanisms of porcine maturation capacity. Furthermore, our findings will be helpful for better promoting the embryo development and blastocyst quality in pigs. PMID:26860251

  13. Development of an immunoassay for rapid detection of ganglioside GM(1) mimicry in Campylobacter jejuni strains.

    PubMed

    Prendergast, M M; Kosunen, T U; Moran, A P

    2001-04-01

    Mimicry of peripheral nerve gangliosides by Campylobacter jejuni lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) has been proposed to induce cross-reacting antiganglioside antibodies in Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). Because current methods for LPS characterization are labor-intensive and inhibit the screening of large numbers of strains, a rapid GM(1) epitope screening assay was developed. Biomass from two agar plates of confluent growth yielded sufficient LPS using a novel phenol-water and ether extraction procedure. Extracts of LPS were reacted with cholera toxin (GM(1) ligand), peanut agglutinin (Gal beta1-->3GalNAc ligand), and anti-GM(1) antibodies. After the assay was validated, 12 of 59 (20%) C. jejuni serostrains, including four serotypes that have not previously been associated with GBS, reacted with two or more anti-GM(1) ganglioside reagents. Subsequently, LPS extracts from 5 of 7 (71%) C. jejuni isolates and 2 of 3 (67%) C. jejuni culture collection strains bore GM(1) structures. Overall, the assay system was reliable, efficient, and reproducible and may be adapted for large-scale epidemiological studies.

  14. Plasma membrane ganglioside sialidase regulates axonal growth and regeneration in hippocampal neurons in culture.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, J A; Piddini, E; Hasegawa, T; Miyagi, T; Dotti, C G

    2001-11-01

    It has been long recognized that the ganglioside GM1 plays a role in axonal growth and neuronal differentiation. However, the involvement of plasma membrane GM1 has been difficult to elucidate. This is possible now thanks to the recent cloning of plasma membrane ganglioside sialidase (PMGS), the enzyme responsible for the localized hydrolysis of oligosialogangliosides into GM1. In this work we show that PMGS mRNA and protein levels are high at early developmental stages of the hippocampus and low in adulthood both in vivo and in vitro. We also demonstrate that inhibition of PMGS activity blocks axonal elongation, whereas the increase in PMGS activity dramatically enhances axon growth and accelerates the polarization of cytoskeletal proteins. Finally, we show that axotomy close to the cell body in PMGS overexpressing neurons results in the regrowth of the original axon instead of randomly, as is the case in control neurons. In all, these results imply that PMGS activity through the modulation of GM1 surface levels is an important component of the machinery controlling axonal growth. We hypothesize that increasing PMGS activity in the adult nervous system may be useful to improve regeneration after nerve damage. PMID:11606627

  15. Ganglioside GD2 as a Therapeutic Target for Antibody-Mediated Therapy in Osteosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Michael; Linkowski, Marissa; Tarim, John; Piperdi, Sajida; Sowers, Rebecca; Geller, David; Gill, Jonathan; Gorlick, Richard

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Survival outcomes for patients with osteosarcoma have remained stagnant over the past three decades. Targeting of ganglioside GD2, a glycosphingolipid on the cell surface of some tumors, with immunotherapy has resulted in improved outcomes for patients with neuroblastoma. The expression pattern of GD2 was examined in osteosarcoma. METHODS Immunohistochemistry was performed on osteosarcoma samples from patients at the time of initial biopsy, definitive surgery, and recurrence. The intensity and location of staining were scored. Cell-based ELISA was performed on osteosarcoma cell lines to quantitate the level of GD2 expression. RESULTS Forty-four osteosarcoma samples were evaluated by immunohistochemistry, including 8 samples from the initial biopsy, 28 samples from the definitive surgery, and 8 samples from the time of recurrence. GD2 was expressed on all 44 osteosarcoma samples. Osteosarcoma tissue obtained at the time of recurrence showed higher intensity of staining compared to samples obtained at initial biopsy and definitive surgery (p=0.016). The majority of osteosarcoma cell lines expressed GD2 at higher levels than the neuroblastoma cell line BE(2)-C. CONCLUSIONS Ganglioside GD2 is highly expressed on osteosarcomas. Clinical trials are needed to assess the efficacy of targeting GD2 in patients with osteosarcoma. PMID:24166473

  16. Detection of cholera toxin in seafood using a ganglioside-liposome immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Soohyoun; Durst, Richard A

    2008-05-01

    Microbiological contamination of foods continues to be a major concern in public health. Biological toxins are one class of important contaminants that can cause various human diseases. Outbreaks related to contamination by biological toxins or toxin-producing microorganisms have made it extremely important to develop rapid (approximately 20 min), sensitive and cost-effective analytical methods. This paper describes the development of a sensitive bioassay for the detection of cholera toxin (CT) in selected seafood samples, using ganglioside-incorporated liposomes. In this study, the assays were run with food samples spiked with various concentrations of CT. The limit of detection (LOD) increased by a factor of about 10-20 in most food samples, compared with the LOD in the buffer system previously reported. However, the LOD of toxins in food samples (8 × 10-3 × 10(3) fg/mL for CT) was still comparable to, or lower than, that previously reported for other assays. The results from this study demonstrate that the bioassays using ganglioside-liposomes can detect the toxin directly in the field screening of food samples rapidly, simply and reliably, without the need for complex instrumentation. PMID:17899040

  17. Efficacy of Ganglioside GM1 in the Treatment of Postherpetic Neuralgia.

    PubMed

    Koju, Ram Prasad; Lei, Tie-Chi

    2016-07-01

    Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) is a commonest and difficult-to-manage complication of Herpes zoster. This comparative study included 140 cases of PHN admitted in the department of dermatology in Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, China, from March 2014 to February 2015, divided into a control and a study group. In addition to the combination of antiviral, analgesic, and neurotrophic agents given to the control group, additional ganglioside GM1 was given to patients in the study group. Pain assessment was performed at the time of admission, and then on the third, seventh and tenth day of treatment, on both groups, using a 10 cm visual analogue scale (VAS). There was a significant statistical difference between the pain VAS score of the two groups, on the seventh day (3.73 ±1.66 vs. 3.03 ±1.86, p=0.024) and on the tenth day (3.25 ±1.78 vs. 2.20 ±1.59, p=0.006) of treatment. The number of patients who have good /and complete response (37.5%) were largely higher in the study group than those in the control group (15%, p < 0.05). This finding demonstrates that the administration of ganglioside GM1 may potentially serve as a neoadjuvant therapy to reduce the severity and duration of pain in PHN patients. PMID:27504562

  18. Evidence for the existence of ganglioside molecules in the antigen of Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed

    Sorice, M; Griggi, T; Nicodemo, G; Garofalo, T; Marangi, M; Sanguigni, S; Becker, S I; Mirelman, D

    1996-03-01

    Gangliosides were found to be present in Entamoeba histolytica. They were extracted from lyophilized trophozoites of the pathogenic strain HM-1:IMSS and purified by high performance thin-layer chromatography. Two resorcinol-positive bands, comigrating with GM2 and GD1a were demonstrated, revealing the existence of ganglioside molecules in Entamoeba histolytica. The GM2 content, determined as lipid-bound sialic acid, was 1.5 micrograms/10(8) amoebae, the content of the GD1a comigrating band was 0.32 microgram/10(8) amoebae. The identity of the GM2 comigrating band was confirmed by TLC immunostaining, using the monoclonal anti-GM2 antibody GMB28. Furthermore, six out of ten anti-amoeba positive sera selectively reacted with the GM2 comigrating band, as revealed by immunostaining on TLC plates. Absorption tests revealed that preincubation of anti-amoeba positive sera with standard GM2 was followed by a significant decrease in the reaction with amoeba trophozoites by indirect immunofluorescence. These results demonstrate that a GM2 comigrating component of Entamoeba histolytica may be one of the antigens responsible for the appearance of circulating antibodies in patients with amoebiasis. PMID:9223167

  19. UVB-irradiated keratinocytes induce melanoma-associated ganglioside GD3 synthase gene in melanocytes via secretion of tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin 6.

    PubMed

    Miyata, Maiko; Ichihara, Masatoshi; Tajima, Orie; Sobue, Sayaka; Kambe, Mariko; Sugiura, Kazumitsu; Furukawa, Koichi; Furukawa, Keiko

    2014-03-01

    Although expression of gangliosides and their synthetic enzyme genes in malignant melanomas has been well studied, that in normal melanocytes has been scarcely analyzed. In particular, changes in expression levels of glycosyltransferase genes responsible for ganglioside synthesis during evolution of melanomas from melanocytes are very important to understand roles of gangliosides in melanomas. Here, expression of glycosyltransferase genes related to the ganglioside synthesis was analyzed using RNAs from cultured melanocytes and melanoma cell lines. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed that melanomas expressed high levels of mRNA of GD3 synthase and GM2/GD2 synthase genes and low levels of GM1/GD1b synthase genes compared with melanocytes. As a representative exogenous stimulation, effects of ultraviolet B (UVB) on the expression levels of 3 major ganglioside synthase genes in melanocytes were analyzed. Although direct UVB irradiation of melanocytes caused no marked changes, culture supernatants of UVB-irradiated keratinocytes (HaCaT cells) induced definite up-regulation of GD3 synthase and GM2/GD2 synthase genes. Detailed examination of the supernatants revealed that inflammatory cytokines such as TNFα and IL-6 enhanced GD3 synthase gene expression. These results suggest that inflammatory cytokines secreted from UVB-irradiated keratinocytes induced melanoma-associated ganglioside synthase genes, proposing roles of skin microenvironment in the promotion of melanoma-like ganglioside profiles in melanocytes. PMID:24548412

  20. GM1 and GD1a gangliosides modulate toxic and inflammatory effects of E. coli lipopolysaccharide by preventing TLR4 translocation into lipid rafts.

    PubMed

    Nikolaeva, Svetlana; Bayunova, Lubov; Sokolova, Tatyana; Vlasova, Yulia; Bachteeva, Vera; Avrova, Natalia; Parnova, Rimma

    2015-03-01

    Exogenous gangliosides are known to inhibit the effects of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in different cells exhibiting anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive activities. The mechanisms underlying ganglioside action are not fully understood. Because LPS recognition and receptor complex formation occur in lipid rafts, and gangliosides play a key role in their maintenance, we hypothesize that protective effects of exogenous gangliosides would depend on inhibition of LPS signaling via prevention of TLR4 translocation into lipid rafts. The effect of GM1 and GD1a gangliosides on LPS-induced toxic and inflammatory reactions in PC12 cells, and in epithelial cells isolated from the frog urinary bladder, was studied. In PC12 cells, GD1a and GM1 significantly reduced the effect of LPS on the decrease of cell survival and on stimulation of reactive oxygen species production. In epithelial cells, gangliosides decreased LPS-stimulated iNOS expression, NO, and PGE2 production. Subcellular fractionation, in combination with immunoblotting, showed that pretreatment of cells with GM1, GD1a, or methyl-β-cyclodextrin, completely eliminated the effect of LPS on translocation of TLR4 into lipid rafts. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that ganglioside-induced prevention of TLR4 translocation into lipid rafts could be a mechanism of protection against LPS in various cells.

  1. UVB-irradiated keratinocytes induce melanoma-associated ganglioside GD3 synthase gene in melanocytes via secretion of tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin 6.

    PubMed

    Miyata, Maiko; Ichihara, Masatoshi; Tajima, Orie; Sobue, Sayaka; Kambe, Mariko; Sugiura, Kazumitsu; Furukawa, Koichi; Furukawa, Keiko

    2014-03-01

    Although expression of gangliosides and their synthetic enzyme genes in malignant melanomas has been well studied, that in normal melanocytes has been scarcely analyzed. In particular, changes in expression levels of glycosyltransferase genes responsible for ganglioside synthesis during evolution of melanomas from melanocytes are very important to understand roles of gangliosides in melanomas. Here, expression of glycosyltransferase genes related to the ganglioside synthesis was analyzed using RNAs from cultured melanocytes and melanoma cell lines. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed that melanomas expressed high levels of mRNA of GD3 synthase and GM2/GD2 synthase genes and low levels of GM1/GD1b synthase genes compared with melanocytes. As a representative exogenous stimulation, effects of ultraviolet B (UVB) on the expression levels of 3 major ganglioside synthase genes in melanocytes were analyzed. Although direct UVB irradiation of melanocytes caused no marked changes, culture supernatants of UVB-irradiated keratinocytes (HaCaT cells) induced definite up-regulation of GD3 synthase and GM2/GD2 synthase genes. Detailed examination of the supernatants revealed that inflammatory cytokines such as TNFα and IL-6 enhanced GD3 synthase gene expression. These results suggest that inflammatory cytokines secreted from UVB-irradiated keratinocytes induced melanoma-associated ganglioside synthase genes, proposing roles of skin microenvironment in the promotion of melanoma-like ganglioside profiles in melanocytes.

  2. Alterations in cholesterol and ganglioside GM1 content of lipid rafts in platelets from patients with Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li; Zhang, Ke; Tan, Liang; Chen, Yu-Hua; Cao, Yun-Peng

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in the protein, cholesterol, and ganglioside GM1 content of lipid rafts in platelets from patients with Alzheimer disease (AD), and identify potential blood biomarkers of the disease. A total of 31 Chinese patients with AD and 31 aged-matched control subjects were selected. Lipid rafts were isolated from platelets using Optiprep gradient centrifugation. The protein content of lipid rafts was evaluated using Micro BCA assay, the cholesterol content using molecular probes, ganglioside GM1 content using colorimetry and dot-blotting analysis. The results showed that the cholesterol and ganglioside GM1 content of lipid rafts from platelets was significantly higher in patients with AD than aged-matched control subjects, whereas the protein content of lipid rafts did not show any differences between the 2 groups. These results indicate that the increases in the cholesterol and ganglioside GM1 content of lipid rafts from the platelets of patients with AD might serve as a biochemical adjunct to the clinical diagnosis of AD.

  3. The metabolism of Tay-Sachs ganglioside: catabolic studies with lysosomal enzymes from normal and Tay-Sachs brain tissue.

    PubMed

    Tallman, J F; Johnson, W G; Brady, R O

    1972-09-01

    The catabolism of Tay-Sachs ganglioside, N-acetylgalactosaminyl- (N-acetylneuraminosyl) -galactosylglucosylceramide, has been studied in lysosomal preparations from normal human brain and brain obtained at biopsy from Tay-Sachs patients. Utilizing Tay-Sachs ganglioside labeled with (14)C in the N-acetylgalactosaminyl portion or (3)H in the N-acetylneuraminosyl portion, the catabolism of Tay-Sachs ganglioside may be initiated by either the removal of the molecule of N-acetylgalactosamine or N-acetylneuraminic acid. The activity of the N-acetylgalactosamine-cleaving enzyme (hexosaminidase) is drastically diminished in such preparations from Tay-Sachs brain whereas the activity of the N-acetylneuraminic acid-cleaving enzyme (neuraminidase) is at a normal level. Total hexosaminidase activity as measured with an artificial fluorogenic substrate is increased in tissues obtained from patients with the B variant form of Tay-Sachs disease and it is virtually absent in the O-variant patients. The addition of purified neuraminidase and various purified hexosaminidases exerted only a minimal synergistic effect on the hydrolysis of Tay-Sachs ganglioside in the lysosomal preparations from the control or patient with the O variant of Tay-Sachs disease.

  4. Induction of IgG antibodies against GD3 ganglioside in rabbits by an anti-idiotypic monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, P B; Houghton, A N

    1991-01-01

    Anti-idiotypic MAb were raised in syngeneic mice against a mouse MAb recognizing GD3 ganglioside (MAb R24). Two anti-idiotypic MAb, designated BEC2 and BEC3, recognized distinct determinants on MAb R24 that mapped near or within the GD3-binding site. New Zealand white rabbits, which express GD3 on normal tissues, were immunized with either BEC2, BEC3, or control MAb FLOPC-21. All rabbits developed high and equivalent titers of antibodies against mouse immunoglobulins. Immunization with BEC2 and BEC3 induced rabbit antibodies expressing R24 idiotype as demonstrated by their ability to inhibit BEC2 binding to R24. Antibodies (IgG and IgM) reacting with GD3 developed in five of eight rabbits immunized with BEC2 but not in rabbits immunized with BEC3 or with control MAb. Serum antibodies against GD3 did not cross-react with other gangliosides. These results show that MAb BEC2 can mimic GD3 ganglioside and can induce antibodies against GD3 ganglioside despite expression of GD3 on normal rabbit tissue. Images PMID:2056117

  5. Sialidase NEU3 Dynamically Associates to Different Membrane Domains Specifically Modifying Their Ganglioside Pattern and Triggering Akt Phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Pasini, Mario; Dileo, Loredana; Orizio, Flavia; Monti, Eugenio; Caimi, Luigi; Venerando, Bruno; Bresciani, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Lipid rafts are known to regulate several membrane functions such as signaling, trafficking and cellular adhesion. The local enrichment in sphingolipids and cholesterol together with the low protein content allows their separation by density gradient flotation after extraction with non-ionic detergent at low temperature. These structures are also referred to as detergent resistant membranes (DRM). Among sphingolipids, gangliosides play important roles in different biological events, including signal transduction and tumorigenesis. Sialidase NEU3 shows high enzymatic specificity toward gangliosides. Moreover, the enzyme is present both at the cell surface and in endosomal structures and cofractionates with caveolin. Although changes in the expression level of NEU3 have been correlated to different tumors, little is known about the precise distribution of the protein and its ability in modifying the ganglioside composition of DRM and non-DRM, thus regulating intracellular events. By means of inducible expression cell system we found that i) newly synthesized NEU3 is initially associated to non-DRM; ii) at steady state the protein is equally distributed between the two membrane subcompartments, i.e., DRM and non-DRM; iii) NEU3 is degraded via the proteasomal pathway; iv) the enzyme specifically modifies the ganglioside composition of the membrane areas where it resides; and v) NEU3 triggers phosphorylation of Akt, even in absence of exogenously administered EGF. Taken together our data demonstrate that NEU3 regulates the DRM ganglioside content and it can be considered as a modulator of Akt phosphorylation, further supporting the role of this enzyme in cancer and tumorigenesis. PMID:24925219

  6. Ganglioside Structure Dictates Signal Transduction by Cholera Toxin and Association with Caveolae-like Membrane Domains in Polarized Epithelia

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Anne A.; Jobling, Michael G.; Wimer-Mackin, Susan; Ferguson-Maltzman, Margaret; Madara, James L.; Holmes, Randall K.; Lencer, Wayne I.

    1998-01-01

    In polarized cells, signal transduction by cholera toxin (CT) requires apical endocytosis and retrograde transport into Golgi cisternae and perhaps ER (Lencer, W.I., C. Constable, S. Moe, M. Jobling, H.M. Webb, S. Ruston, J.L. Madara, T. Hirst, and R. Holmes. 1995. J. Cell Biol. 131:951–962). In this study, we tested whether CT's apical membrane receptor ganglioside GM1 acts specifically in toxin action. To do so, we used CT and the related Escherichia coli heat-labile type II enterotoxin LTIIb. CT and LTIIb distinguish between gangliosides GM1 and GD1a at the cell surface by virtue of their dissimilar receptor-binding B subunits. The enzymatically active A subunits, however, are homologous. While both toxins bound specifically to human intestinal T84 cells (Kd ≈ 5 nM), only CT elicited a cAMP-dependent Cl− secretory response. LTIIb, however, was more potent than CT in eliciting a cAMP-dependent response from mouse Y1 adrenal cells (toxic dose 10 vs. 300 pg/well). In T84 cells, CT fractionated with caveolae-like detergent-insoluble membranes, but LTIIb did not. To investigate further the relationship between the specificity of ganglioside binding and partitioning into detergent-insoluble membranes and signal transduction, CT and LTIIb chimeric toxins were prepared. Analysis of these chimeric toxins confirmed that toxin-induced signal transduction depended critically on the specificity of ganglioside structure. The mechanism(s) by which ganglioside GM1 functions in signal transduction likely depends on coupling CT with caveolae or caveolae-related membrane domains. PMID:9585411

  7. Anti-ganglioside antibodies were not detected in human subjects infected with or vaccinated against 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus.

    PubMed

    Lei, Ting; Siu, Kam-Leung; Kok, Kin-Hang; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Chan, Eric Y T; Hung, Ivan F N; To, Kelvin K W; Li, Patrick C K; Zhou, Jie; Zheng, Bo-Jian; Yuen, Kwok-Yung; Wang, Ming; Jin, Dong-Yan

    2012-03-30

    Recipients of influenza A (H1N1) vaccine in 1976 had an increased risk for the neurologic disorder Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). Anti-ganglioside antibodies, which might be associated with the development of GBS, were previously reported to be induced in mice immunized with an H1N1 vaccine of 1976 or another influenza vaccine. In this study we analyzed anti-ganglioside antibodies in human subjects infected with or vaccinated against 2009 pandemic H1N1, including eight patients diagnosed to have post-vaccination GBS. Antibodies against GM1 or another ganglioside were not detected in any subject or in vaccinated mice. Our results did not support the induction of anti-ganglioside antibodies by influenza viruses or vaccines.

  8. Lyso-GM2 ganglioside: a possible biomarker of Tay-Sachs disease and Sandhoff disease.

    PubMed

    Kodama, Takashi; Togawa, Tadayasu; Tsukimura, Takahiro; Kawashima, Ikuo; Matsuoka, Kazuhiko; Kitakaze, Keisuke; Tsuji, Daisuke; Itoh, Kohji; Ishida, Yo-Ichi; Suzuki, Minoru; Suzuki, Toshihiro; Sakuraba, Hitoshi

    2011-01-01

    To find a new biomarker of Tay-Sachs disease and Sandhoff disease. The lyso-GM2 ganglioside (lyso-GM2) levels in the brain and plasma in Sandhoff mice were measured by means of high performance liquid chromatography and the effect of a modified hexosaminidase (Hex) B exhibiting Hex A-like activity was examined. Then, the lyso-GM2 concentrations in human plasma samples were determined. The lyso-GM2 levels in the brain and plasma in Sandhoff mice were apparently increased compared with those in wild-type mice, and they decreased on intracerebroventricular administration of the modified Hex B. The lyso-GM2 levels in plasma of patients with Tay-Sachs disease and Sandhoff disease were increased, and the increase in lyso-GM2 was associated with a decrease in Hex A activity. Lyso-GM2 is expected to be a potential biomarker of Tay-Sachs disease and Sandhoff disease.

  9. Sialidase-mediated depletion of GM2 ganglioside in Tay-Sachs neuroglia cells.

    PubMed

    Igdoura, S A; Mertineit, C; Trasler, J M; Gravel, R A

    1999-06-01

    Tay-Sachs disease is a severe, inherited disease of the nervous system caused by accumulation of the brain lipid GM2 ganglioside. Mouse models of Tay-Sachs disease have revealed a metabolic bypass of the genetic defect based on the more potent activity of the enzyme sialidase towards GM2. To determine whether increasing the level of sialidase would produce a similar effect in human Tay-Sachs cells, we introduced a human sialidase cDNA into neuroglia cells derived from a Tay-Sachs fetus and demonstrated a dramatic reduction in the accumulated GM2. This outcome confirmed the reversibility of GM2 accumulation and opens the way to pharmacological induction or activation of sialidase for the treatment of human Tay-Sachs disease.

  10. Isolation and Structure Elucidation of GM4-Type Gangliosides from the Okinawan Starfish Protoreaster nodosus

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Ke; Tanaka, Chiaki; Inagaki, Masanori; Higuchi, Ryuichi; Miyamoto, Tomofumi

    2012-01-01

    Three new ganglioside molecular species, termed PNG-1, PNG-2A, and PNG-2B were isolated from pyloric caeca of the starfish Protoreaster nodosus. Their structures were elucidated using a combination of spectroscopic and chemical methods, and characterized as 1-O-[8-O-methyl-N-acetyl-α-neuraminosyl-(2→3)-β-galactopyranosyl]-ceramide for PNG-1, 1-O-[β-galactofuranosyl-(1→3)-α-galactopyranosyl-(1→4)-8-O-methyl-N-acetyl-α-neuraminosyl-(2→3)-β-galactopyranosyl]-ceramide for PNG-2A, and 1-O-[β-galactofuranosyl-(1→3)-α-galactopyranosyl-(1→9)-N-acetyl-α-neuraminosyl-(2→3)-β-galactopyranosyl]-ceramide for PNG-2B. PNG-2A and PNG-2B represent the first GM4 elongation products in nature. PMID:23203271

  11. UVB-irradiated keratinocytes induce melanoma-associated ganglioside GD3 synthase gene in melanocytes via secretion of tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin 6

    SciTech Connect

    Miyata, Maiko; Ichihara, Masatoshi; Tajima, Orie; Sobue, Sayaka; Kambe, Mariko; Sugiura, Kazumitsu; Furukawa, Koichi; Furukawa, Keiko

    2014-03-07

    Highlights: • Melanocytes showed low ST8SIA1 and high B3GALT4 levels in contrast with melanomas. • Direct UVB irradiation of melanocytes did not induce ganglioside synthase genes. • Culture supernatants of UVB-irradiated keratinocytes induced ST8SIA1 in melanocytes. • TNFα and IL-6 secreted from keratinocytes enhanced ST8SIA1 expression in melanocytes. • Inflammatory cytokines induced melanoma-related ST8SIA1 in melanocytes. - Abstract: Although expression of gangliosides and their synthetic enzyme genes in malignant melanomas has been well studied, that in normal melanocytes has been scarcely analyzed. In particular, changes in expression levels of glycosyltransferase genes responsible for ganglioside synthesis during evolution of melanomas from melanocytes are very important to understand roles of gangliosides in melanomas. Here, expression of glycosyltransferase genes related to the ganglioside synthesis was analyzed using RNAs from cultured melanocytes and melanoma cell lines. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed that melanomas expressed high levels of mRNA of GD3 synthase and GM2/GD2 synthase genes and low levels of GM1/GD1b synthase genes compared with melanocytes. As a representative exogenous stimulation, effects of ultraviolet B (UVB) on the expression levels of 3 major ganglioside synthase genes in melanocytes were analyzed. Although direct UVB irradiation of melanocytes caused no marked changes, culture supernatants of UVB-irradiated keratinocytes (HaCaT cells) induced definite up-regulation of GD3 synthase and GM2/GD2 synthase genes. Detailed examination of the supernatants revealed that inflammatory cytokines such as TNFα and IL-6 enhanced GD3 synthase gene expression. These results suggest that inflammatory cytokines secreted from UVB-irradiated keratinocytes induced melanoma-associated ganglioside synthase genes, proposing roles of skin microenvironment in the promotion of melanoma-like ganglioside profiles in melanocytes.

  12. Detergent extraction of cholera toxin and gangliosides from cultured cells and isolated membranes.

    PubMed

    Hagmann, J; Fishman, P H

    1982-04-29

    Choleragen, when bound to various cultured cells, resisted extraction by Triton X-100 under conditions which retained the cytoskeletal framework of the cells. The resistance (greater than 75% of the bound toxin) was observed in Friend erythroleukemic, mouse neuroblastoma N18 and NB41A and rat glioma C6 cells even though the different cells varied over 1000-fold in the number of toxin receptors. The extent of extraction did not depend on whether the cells were in monolayer culture of in suspension or whether choleragen was found at 0 or 37 degrees C. A similar resistance to extraction was also observed in membranes isolated from toxin-treated cells. Using more drastic conditions and other non-ionic detergents, 90% of the bound choleragen was solubilized from cells and membranes. When rat glioma C6 cells, which bind only small amounts of choleragen, were incubated with the ganglioside GM1, toxin binding was increased and the bound toxin was also resistant to extraction. When these cells were incubated with [3H]GM1, up to 70% of the cell-associated GM1 was extracted under the mild conditions. When the Gm1-labeled cells were incubated with choleragen or its B (binding) component, there was a significant reduction in the solubilization of GM1. Similar results were obtained with isolated membranes. When choleragen-receptor complexes were isolated from N18 cells labeled with [3H] galactose by immunoadsorption, only labeled GM1 was specifically recovered. These results suggest that it is the choleragen-ganglioside complex that is resistant to detergent extraction.

  13. Sialylated intravenous immunoglobulin suppress anti-ganglioside antibody mediated nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gang; Massaad, Cynthia A; Gao, Tong; Pillai, Laila; Bogdanova, Nataliia; Ghauri, Sameera; Sheikh, Kazim A

    2016-08-01

    The precise mechanisms underlying the efficacy of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) in autoimmune neurological disorders including Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) are not known. Anti-ganglioside antibodies have been reported to be pathogenic in some variants of GBS, and we have developed passive transfer animal models to study anti-ganglioside antibody mediated-endoneurial inflammation and associated neuropathological effects and to evaluate the efficacy of new therapeutic approaches. Some studies indicate that IVIg's anti-inflammatory activity resides in a minor sialylated IVIg (sIVIg) fractions and is dependent on an innate Th2 response via binding to a specific ICAM3-grabbing nonintegrin related 1 receptor (SIGN-R1). Therefore the efficacy of IVIg, IVIg fractions with various IgG Fc sialylation status, and the involvement of Th2 pathway were examined in one of our animal model of antibody-mediated inhibition of axonal regeneration. We demonstrate that both IVIg and sIVIg ameliorated anti-glycan antibody mediated-pathological effect, whereas, the unsialylated fractions of IVIg were not beneficial in our model. Tenfold lower doses of sIVIg compared to whole IVIg provided equivalent efficacy in our studies. Moreover, we found that whole IVIg and sIVIg significantly upregulates the gene expression of IL-33, which itself can provide protection from antibody-mediated nerve injury in our model. Our results support that the SIGN-R1-Th2 pathway is involved in the anti-inflammatory effects of IVIg on endoneurium in our model and elements of this pathway including IL-33 can provide novel therapeutics in inflammatory neuropathies. PMID:27208700

  14. Peptides mimicking GD2 ganglioside elicit cellular, humoral and tumor-protective immune responses in mice

    PubMed Central

    Wondimu, Assefa; Zhang, Tianqian; Kieber-Emmons, Thomas; Gimotty, Phyllis; Sproesser, Katrin; Somasundaram, Rajasekharan; Ferrone, Soldano; Tsao, Chun-Yen

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Because of its restricted distribution in normal tissues and its high expression on tumors of neuroectodermal origin, GD2 ganglioside is an excellent target for active specific immunotherapy. However, GD2 usually elicits low-titered IgM and no IgG or cellular immune responses, limiting its usefulness as a vaccine for cancer patients. We have previously shown that anti-idiotypic monoclonal antibody mimics of GD2 can induce antigen-specific humoral and cellular immunity in mice, but inhibition of tumor growth by the mimics could not be detected. Methods and results Here, we isolated two peptides from phage display peptide libraries by panning with GD2-specific mAb ME361. The peptides inhibited binding of the mAb to GD2. When coupled to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) or presented as multiantigenic peptides in QS21 adjuvant, the peptides induced in mice antibodies binding specifically to GD2 and delayed-type hypersensitive lymphocytes reactive specifically with GD2-positive D142.34 mouse melanoma cells. Induction of delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction was dependent on CD4-positive lymphocytes. The immunity elicited by the peptides significantly inhibited growth of GD2-positive melanoma cells in mice. Conclusion Our study suggests that immunization with peptides mimicking GD2 ganglioside inhibits tumor growth through antibody and/or CD4-positive T cell-mediated mechanisms. Cytolytic T lymphocytes most likely do not play a role. Our results provide the basis for structural analysis of carbohydrate mimicry by peptides. PMID:18157673

  15. VAN method lacks validity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, David D.; Kagan, Yan Y.

    Varotsos and colleagues (the VAN group) claim to have successfully predicted many earthquakes in Greece. Several authors have refuted these claims, as reported in the May 27,1996, special issue of Geophysical Research Letters and a recent book, A Critical Review of VAN [Lighthill 1996]. Nevertheless, the myth persists. Here we summarize why the VAN group's claims lack validity.The VAN group observes electrical potential differences that they call “seismic electric signals” (SES) weeks before and hundreds of kilometers away from some earthquakes, claiming that SES are somehow premonitory. This would require that increases in stress or decreases in strength cause the electrical variations, or that some regional process first causes the electrical signals and then helps trigger the earthquakes. Here we adopt their notation SES to refer to the electrical variations, without accepting any link to the quakes.

  16. Electrokinetic and electrostatic properties of bilayers containing gangliosides GM1, GD1a, or GT1. Comparison with a nonlinear theory.

    PubMed Central

    McDaniel, R V; Sharp, K; Brooks, D; McLaughlin, A C; Winiski, A P; Cafiso, D; McLaughlin, S

    1986-01-01

    We formed vesicles from mixtures of egg phosphatidylcholine (PC) and the gangliosides GM1, GD1a, or GT1 to model the electrokinetic properties of biological membranes. The electrophoretic mobilities of the vesicles are similar in NaCl, CsCl, and TMACl solutions, suggesting that monovalent cations do not bind significantly to these gangliosides. If we assume the sialic acid groups on the gangliosides are located some distance from the surface of the vesicle and the sugar moieties exert hydrodynamic drag, we can describe the mobility data in 1, 10, and 100 mM monovalent salt solutions with a combination of the Navier-Stokes and nonlinear Poisson-Boltzmann equations. The values we assume for the thickness of the ganglioside head group and the location of the charge affect the theoretical predictions markedly, but the Stokes radius of each sugar and the location of the hydrodynamic shear plane do not. We obtain a reasonable fit to the mobility data by assuming that all ganglioside head groups project 2.5 nm from the bilayer and all fixed charges are in a plane 1 nm from the bilayer surface. We tested the latter assumption by estimating the surface potentials of PC/ganglioside bilayers using four techniques: we made 31P nuclear magnetic resonance, fluorescence, electron spin resonance, and conductance measurements. The results are qualitatively consistent with our assumption. PMID:3697476

  17. DNA vaccine expressing the mimotope of GD2 ganglioside induces protective GD2 cross-reactive antibody responses.

    PubMed

    Bolesta, Elizabeth; Kowalczyk, Aleksandra; Wierzbicki, Andrzej; Rotkiewicz, Piotr; Bambach, Barbara; Tsao, Chun-Yen; Horwacik, Irena; Kolinski, Andrzej; Rokita, Hanna; Brecher, Martin; Wang, Xinhui; Ferrone, Soldano; Kozbor, Danuta

    2005-04-15

    The GD2 ganglioside expressed on neuroectodermally derived tumors, including neuroblastoma and melanoma, is weakly immunogenic in tumor-bearing patients and induces predominantly immunoglobulin (Ig)-M antibody responses in the immunized host. Here, we investigated whether interconversion of GD2 into a peptide mimetic form would induce GD2 cross-reactive IgG antibody responses in mice. Screening of the X(15) phage display peptide library with the anti-GD2 monoclonal antibody (mAb) 14G2a led to isolation of mimetic peptide 47, which inhibited the binding of 14G2a antibody to GD2-positive tumor cells. The peptide was also recognized by GD2-specific serum antibodies from a patient with neuroblastoma, suggesting that it bears an internal image of GD2 ganglioside expressed on the tumor cells. The molecular basis for antigenicity of the GD2 mimetic peptide, established by molecular modeling and mutagenesis studies, led to the generation of a 47-LDA mutant with an increased mimicry to GD2. Immunization of mice with peptide 47-LDA-encoded plasmid DNA elicited GD2 cross-reactive IgG antibody responses, which were increased on subsequent boost with GD2 ganglioside. The vaccine-induced antibodies recognized GD2-positive tumor cells, mediated complement-dependent cytotoxicity, and exhibited protection against s.c. human GD2-positive melanoma growth in the severe combined immunodeficient mouse xenograft model. The results from our studies provide insights into approaches for boosting GD2 cross-reactive IgG antibody responses by minigene vaccination with a protective epitope of GD2 ganglioside.

  18. Sialic Acids in the Brain: Gangliosides and Polysialic Acid in Nervous System Development, Stability, Disease, and Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Gerardy-Schahn, Rita; Hildebrandt, Herbert

    2014-01-01

    Every cell in nature carries a rich surface coat of glycans, its glycocalyx, which constitutes the cell's interface with its environment. In eukaryotes, the glycocalyx is composed of glycolipids, glycoproteins, and proteoglycans, the compositions of which vary among different tissues and cell types. Many of the linear and branched glycans on cell surface glycoproteins and glycolipids of vertebrates are terminated with sialic acids, nine-carbon sugars with a carboxylic acid, a glycerol side-chain, and an N-acyl group that, along with their display at the outmost end of cell surface glycans, provide for varied molecular interactions. Among their functions, sialic acids regulate cell-cell interactions, modulate the activities of their glycoprotein and glycolipid scaffolds as well as other cell surface molecules, and are receptors for pathogens and toxins. In the brain, two families of sialoglycans are of particular interest: gangliosides and polysialic acid. Gangliosides, sialylated glycosphingolipids, are the most abundant sialoglycans of nerve cells. Mouse genetic studies and human disorders of ganglioside metabolism implicate gangliosides in axon-myelin interactions, axon stability, axon regeneration, and the modulation of nerve cell excitability. Polysialic acid is a unique homopolymer that reaches >90 sialic acid residues attached to select glycoproteins, especially the neural cell adhesion molecule in the brain. Molecular, cellular, and genetic studies implicate polysialic acid in the control of cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions, intermolecular interactions at cell surfaces, and interactions with other molecules in the cellular environment. Polysialic acid is essential for appropriate brain development, and polymorphisms in the human genes responsible for polysialic acid biosynthesis are associated with psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia, autism, and bipolar disorder. Polysialic acid also appears to play a role in adult brain plasticity

  19. DNA vaccine expressing the mimotope of GD2 ganglioside induces protective GD2 cross-reactive antibody responses.

    PubMed

    Bolesta, Elizabeth; Kowalczyk, Aleksandra; Wierzbicki, Andrzej; Rotkiewicz, Piotr; Bambach, Barbara; Tsao, Chun-Yen; Horwacik, Irena; Kolinski, Andrzej; Rokita, Hanna; Brecher, Martin; Wang, Xinhui; Ferrone, Soldano; Kozbor, Danuta

    2005-04-15

    The GD2 ganglioside expressed on neuroectodermally derived tumors, including neuroblastoma and melanoma, is weakly immunogenic in tumor-bearing patients and induces predominantly immunoglobulin (Ig)-M antibody responses in the immunized host. Here, we investigated whether interconversion of GD2 into a peptide mimetic form would induce GD2 cross-reactive IgG antibody responses in mice. Screening of the X(15) phage display peptide library with the anti-GD2 monoclonal antibody (mAb) 14G2a led to isolation of mimetic peptide 47, which inhibited the binding of 14G2a antibody to GD2-positive tumor cells. The peptide was also recognized by GD2-specific serum antibodies from a patient with neuroblastoma, suggesting that it bears an internal image of GD2 ganglioside expressed on the tumor cells. The molecular basis for antigenicity of the GD2 mimetic peptide, established by molecular modeling and mutagenesis studies, led to the generation of a 47-LDA mutant with an increased mimicry to GD2. Immunization of mice with peptide 47-LDA-encoded plasmid DNA elicited GD2 cross-reactive IgG antibody responses, which were increased on subsequent boost with GD2 ganglioside. The vaccine-induced antibodies recognized GD2-positive tumor cells, mediated complement-dependent cytotoxicity, and exhibited protection against s.c. human GD2-positive melanoma growth in the severe combined immunodeficient mouse xenograft model. The results from our studies provide insights into approaches for boosting GD2 cross-reactive IgG antibody responses by minigene vaccination with a protective epitope of GD2 ganglioside. PMID:15833876

  20. Database and data analysis application for structural characterization of gangliosides and sulfated glycosphingolipids by negative ion mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Rožman, Marko; Fabris, Dragana; Mrla, Tomislav; Vukelić, Zeljka

    2014-12-01

    Gangliosides and sulfated glycosphingolipids, as building and functional components of animal cell membranes, participate in cell-to-cell interactions and signaling, but also in changes of cell architecture due to different pathophysiological events. In order to enable higher throughput and to facilitate structural characterization of gangliosides/sulfo-glycosphingolipids (GSL) and their neutral GSL counterparts by negative ion mass spectrometry (MS) and tandem MS techniques, a database and data analysis application have been developed. In silico developed glycosphingolipid database considers a high diversity of ceramide compositions, several sialic acid types (N-acetylneuraminic acid, N-glycolylneuraminic acid and 2-keto-3-deoxynononic acid) as well as possible additional substitutions/modifications of glycosphingolipids, such as O-acetylation, de-N-acetylation, fucosylation, glucuronosylation, sulfation, attachment of repeating terminal hexose-N-acetylhexosamine- (Hex-HexNAc-)1-6 extension, and possible lactone forms. Data analysis application, named GSL-finder, enables correlation of negative ion MS and/or low-energy tandem MS spectra with the database structures. The GSL-database construction and the GSL-finder application searching rules are explained. Validation conducted on GD1a fraction as well as on complex mixtures of native gangliosides isolated from different mammalian brain tissues (human fetal and adult brain, and calf brain tissue) demonstrated agreement with previous studies. Plain, fast, and automated routine for structural characterization of gangliosides/sulfated glycosphingolipids and their neutral GSL counterparts described here could facilitate and improve mass spectrometric analysis of complex glycosphingolipid mixtures originating from variety of normal and pathological biomaterial, where it is known that distinctive changes in glycosphingolipid composition occur.

  1. Heterogeneity of detergent-insoluble membranes from human intestine containing caveolin-1 and ganglioside G(M1).

    PubMed

    Badizadegan, K; Dickinson, B L; Wheeler, H E; Blumberg, R S; Holmes, R K; Lencer, W I

    2000-06-01

    In intestinal epithelia, cholera and related toxins elicit a cAMP-dependent chloride secretory response fundamental to the pathogenesis of toxigenic diarrhea. We recently proposed that specificity of cholera toxin (CT) action in model intestinal epithelia may depend on the toxin's cell surface receptor ganglioside G(M1). Binding G(M1) enabled the toxin to elicit a response, but forcing the toxin to enter the cell by binding the closely related ganglioside G(D1a) rendered the toxin inactive. The specificity of ganglioside function correlated with the ability of G(M1) to partition CT into detergent-insoluble glycosphingolipid-rich membranes (DIGs). To test the biological plausibility of these hypotheses, we examined native human intestinal epithelia. We show that human small intestinal epithelia contain DIGs that distinguish between toxin bound to G(M1) and G(D1a), thus providing a possible mechanism for enterotoxicity associated with CT. We find direct evidence for the presence of caveolin-1 in DIGs from human intestinal epithelia but find that these membranes are heterogeneous and that caveolin-1 is not a structural component of apical membrane DIGs that contain CT.

  2. Construction of a hybrid β-hexosaminidase subunit capable of forming stable homodimers that hydrolyze GM2 ganglioside in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Tropak, Michael B; Yonekawa, Sayuri; Karumuthil-Melethil, Subha; Thompson, Patrick; Wakarchuk, Warren; Gray, Steven J; Walia, Jagdeep S; Mark, Brian L; Mahuran, Don

    2016-01-01

    Tay-Sachs or Sandhoff disease result from mutations in either the evolutionarily related HEXA or HEXB genes encoding respectively, the α- or β-subunits of β-hexosaminidase A (HexA). Of the three Hex isozymes, only HexA can interact with its cofactor, the GM2 activator protein (GM2AP), and hydrolyze GM2 ganglioside. A major impediment to establishing gene or enzyme replacement therapy based on HexA is the need to synthesize both subunits. Thus, we combined the critical features of both α- and β-subunits into a single hybrid µ-subunit that contains the α-subunit active site, the stable β-subunit interface and unique areas in each subunit needed to interact with GM2AP. To facilitate intracellular analysis and the purification of the µ-homodimer (HexM), CRISPR-based genome editing was used to disrupt the HEXA and HEXB genes in a Human Embryonic Kidney 293 cell line stably expressing the µ-subunit. In association with GM2AP, HexM was shown to hydrolyze a fluorescent GM2 ganglioside derivative both in cellulo and in vitro. Gene transfer studies in both Tay-Sachs and Sandhoff mouse models demonstrated that HexM expression reduced brain GM2 ganglioside levels. PMID:26966698

  3. Construction of a hybrid β-hexosaminidase subunit capable of forming stable homodimers that hydrolyze GM2 ganglioside in vivo.

    PubMed

    Tropak, Michael B; Yonekawa, Sayuri; Karumuthil-Melethil, Subha; Thompson, Patrick; Wakarchuk, Warren; Gray, Steven J; Walia, Jagdeep S; Mark, Brian L; Mahuran, Don

    2016-01-01

    Tay-Sachs or Sandhoff disease result from mutations in either the evolutionarily related HEXA or HEXB genes encoding respectively, the α- or β-subunits of β-hexosaminidase A (HexA). Of the three Hex isozymes, only HexA can interact with its cofactor, the GM2 activator protein (GM2AP), and hydrolyze GM2 ganglioside. A major impediment to establishing gene or enzyme replacement therapy based on HexA is the need to synthesize both subunits. Thus, we combined the critical features of both α- and β-subunits into a single hybrid µ-subunit that contains the α-subunit active site, the stable β-subunit interface and unique areas in each subunit needed to interact with GM2AP. To facilitate intracellular analysis and the purification of the µ-homodimer (HexM), CRISPR-based genome editing was used to disrupt the HEXA and HEXB genes in a Human Embryonic Kidney 293 cell line stably expressing the µ-subunit. In association with GM2AP, HexM was shown to hydrolyze a fluorescent GM2 ganglioside derivative both in cellulo and in vitro. Gene transfer studies in both Tay-Sachs and Sandhoff mouse models demonstrated that HexM expression reduced brain GM2 ganglioside levels. PMID:26966698

  4. Expression of B4GALNT1, an essential glycosyltransferase for the synthesis of complex gangliosides, suppresses BACE1 degradation and modulates APP processing

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Tokiaki; Yamauchi, Yoshio; Furukawa, Keiko; Ohmi, Yuhsuke; Ohkawa, Yuki; Zhang, Qing; Okajima, Tetsuya; Furukawa, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most prevalent form of dementia characterized by the extracellular accumulation of amyloid β (Aβ) peptides, which are produced by proteolytic cleavages of amyloid precursor protein (APP). Gangliosides are involved in AD pathophysiology including Aβ deposition and APP processing, yet the detailed mechanisms are not fully understood. Here we examined how changes in the carbohydrate moiety of gangliosides alter APP processing in human melanoma cells, neuroectoderm-derived cells. We showed that forced expression of GD2, GM2 or GM1 (by introducing B4GALNT1 cDNA into cells not expressing this glycosyltransferase) results in increases of α- and β-site cleavages of APP with a prominent increase in β-cleavage. We also showed that β-site APP cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) protein is highly protected from the degradation in cells expressing these gangliosides, thereby increasing the expression of this protein. Unexpectedly, adding gangliosides exogenously altered neither BACE1 levels nor β-site cleavage. The stabilisation of BACE1 protein led to the increase of this protein in lipid rafts, where BACE1 processes APP. Based on the current results, we propose a hitherto undisclosed link between ganglioside expression and AD; the expression of B4GALNT1 positively regulates the β-site cleavage by mainly inhibiting the lysosomal degradation of BACE1 protein. PMID:27687691

  5. Gangliosides in human, cow and goat milk, and their abilities as to neutralization of cholera toxin and botulinum type A neurotoxin.

    PubMed

    Iwamori, Masao; Takamizawa, Kotarou; Momoeda, Mikio; Iwamori, Yuriko; Taketani, Yuji

    2008-10-01

    To elucidate the potential of mammalian milk as to protection of infants from infections, we determined the ganglioside compositions of human, cow and goat milk in relation with cholera toxin and botulinum type A neurotoxin-receptors. Gangliosides accounted for 1 to 2 micromol of lipid-bound sialic acid (LSA) in 100 ml of milk, and GD3 comprised about 69% of LSA in all milk samples. Among the milk samples examined, goat milk was found to contain an amount of gangliosides belonging to the b-pathway representing 15.8% of the total LSA. Accordingly, botulinum neurotoxin bound to GT1b and GQ1b in goat milk, but not to any gangliosides in human or cow milk. On the other hand, GM1, the cholera toxin receptor, was found to be present in all milk samples at concentrations of 0.02% to 0.77% of the total LSA and to be maintained at a relatively constant level in human milk during the postpartum period. Gangliosides from 1 ml of pooled human milk exhibited the ability to attenuate the binding of cholera toxin (30 ng) to GM1 by 93%, and those from 500 microl of goat milk completely inhibited the binding of botulinum type A neurotoxin 1.5 microg to GT1b.

  6. The first total synthesis of ganglioside GalNAc-GD1a, a target molecule for autoantibodies in Guillain-Barré syndrome.

    PubMed

    Fujikawa, Kohki; Nakashima, Shinya; Konishi, Miku; Fuse, Tomoaki; Komura, Naoko; Ando, Takayuki; Ando, Hiromune; Yuki, Nobuhiro; Ishida, Hideharu; Kiso, Makoto

    2011-05-01

    The first synthesis of ganglioside GalNAc-GD1a, featuring efficient glycan assembly and a cyclic glucosyl ceramide as a versatile unit for ganglioside synthesis is described. Although ganglioside GalNAc-GD1a was first found as a brain ganglioside, IgG autoantibodies to GalNAc-GD1a were subsequently found to be closely related to a human peripheral-nerve disorder, Guillain-Barré syndrome, which is the commonest cause of acute flaccid paralysis worldwide. In this study, the characteristic hexasaccharide part carrying two sialic acid residues was synthesized efficiently by use of a readily accessible GM2-core unit as a common unit. The potentially difficult coupling of the oligosaccharide and ceramide moieties was carried out by using a cyclic glucosyl ceramide as a coupling partner for the hexasaccharide part, thereby successfully providing the framework of the target compound. Global deprotection delivered the homogenous ganglioside GalNAc-GD1a. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed that sera from patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome reacted both with natural and with synthetic GalNAc-GD1a.

  7. The first total synthesis of ganglioside GalNAc-GD1a, a target molecule for autoantibodies in Guillain-Barré syndrome.

    PubMed

    Fujikawa, Kohki; Nakashima, Shinya; Konishi, Miku; Fuse, Tomoaki; Komura, Naoko; Ando, Takayuki; Ando, Hiromune; Yuki, Nobuhiro; Ishida, Hideharu; Kiso, Makoto

    2011-05-01

    The first synthesis of ganglioside GalNAc-GD1a, featuring efficient glycan assembly and a cyclic glucosyl ceramide as a versatile unit for ganglioside synthesis is described. Although ganglioside GalNAc-GD1a was first found as a brain ganglioside, IgG autoantibodies to GalNAc-GD1a were subsequently found to be closely related to a human peripheral-nerve disorder, Guillain-Barré syndrome, which is the commonest cause of acute flaccid paralysis worldwide. In this study, the characteristic hexasaccharide part carrying two sialic acid residues was synthesized efficiently by use of a readily accessible GM2-core unit as a common unit. The potentially difficult coupling of the oligosaccharide and ceramide moieties was carried out by using a cyclic glucosyl ceramide as a coupling partner for the hexasaccharide part, thereby successfully providing the framework of the target compound. Global deprotection delivered the homogenous ganglioside GalNAc-GD1a. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed that sera from patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome reacted both with natural and with synthetic GalNAc-GD1a. PMID:21469228

  8. Evaluation of a ganglioside immunosorbent assay for detection of Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin.

    PubMed

    Bäck, E; Svennerholm, A M; Holmgren, J; Möllby, R

    1979-12-01

    The GM1 ganglioside enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (GM1-ELISA), an immunological method for detection of Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LT), was quantitatively and qualitatively compared with the conventional adrenal cell test for the identification of LT-producing strains. A micromodification model of the assay was developed. Enterotoxin preparations from 120 E. coli isolates from individuals with diarrhea, which had been previously shown to be enterotoxigenic by the adrenal cell test, and from 44 control strains of E. coli were compared in parallel by the two methods. Quantitatively the covariation of the enterotoxin titers was highly significant (RS = 0.98, P less than 0.001), the GM1-ELISA being somewhat more sensitive than the adrenal cell test. The methodological error was less than 5% in both tests. Qualitatively the overall agreement for positive and negative reactions for the two methods was 89%. The GM1-ELISA is practical for routine use in the diagnosis of enterotoxigenic E. coli, especially in laboratories without facilities for cell culture.

  9. An animal model of pain produced by systemic administration of an immunotherapeutic anti-ganglioside antibody.

    PubMed

    Slart, R; Yu, A L; Yaksh, T L; Sorkin, L S

    1997-01-01

    For the management of pediatric neuroblastoma, a promising experimental treatment includes slow systemic infusion of a human/ mouse chimeric monoclonal antibody against the GD2 ganglioside. Beneficial actions are however, accompanied by severe pain and altered cardiovascular tone. The pain is conventionally controllable with moderate to relatively high doses of intravenous morphine. An animal model was established to examine the change in nociceptive threshold produced by anti-GD2-antibody. Rats given bolus injections of antibody through an in-dwelling jugular catheter developed a quantifiable mechanical allodynia. At higher doses, allodynia and touch evoked agitation began within the first 15-min test interval, was maximal within the first hour, and for some doses was still present, although greatly reduced at 24 and 48 h. Rapid administration of antibody led to an increase in mean resting blood pressure of 12 mmHg +/- 1.8 (P < or = 0.02) and the development of a prolonged cardiovascular response to an otherwise innocuous stimulus. These observations demonstrate that the pain associated with monoclonal antibody treatment can be modeled in animals. This approach has potential for defining the pharmacology of the allodynia and ways in which the pain state may be ameliorated.

  10. Bis(monoacylglycero)phosphate and ganglioside GM1 spontaneously form small homogeneous vesicles at specific concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Chebukati, Janetricks N.; Goff, Philip C.; Frederick, Thomas E.; Fanucci, Gail E.

    2010-04-09

    The morphology and size of hydrated lipid dispersions of bis(monoacylglycero)phosphate (BMP) mixed with varying mole percentages of the ganglioside GM1 were investigated by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy of these same mixtures, doped at 0.5 mol% with doxyl labeled lipids, was used to investigate acyl-chain packing. Results show that for 20-30% GM1, hydrated BMP:GM1 mixtures spontaneously form small spherical vesicles with diameters {approx}100 nm and a narrow size distribution profile. For other concentrations of GM1, hydrated dispersions with BMP have non-spherical shapes and heterogeneous size profiles, with average vesicle diameters >400 nm. All samples were prepared at pH 5.5 to mimic the lumen acidity of the late endosome where BMP is an essential component of intraendosomal vesicle budding, lipid sorting and trafficking. These findings indicate that GM1 and BMP under a limited concentration range spontaneously form small vesicles of homogeneous size in an energy independent manner without the need of protein templating. Because BMP is essential for intraendosomal vesicle formation, these results imply that lipid-lipid interactions may play a critical role in the endosomal process of lipid sorting and trafficking.

  11. Structural basis of GM1 ganglioside recognition by simian virus 40.

    PubMed

    Neu, Ursula; Woellner, Karin; Gauglitz, Guenter; Stehle, Thilo

    2008-04-01

    Simian virus 40 (SV40) has been a paradigm for understanding attachment and entry of nonenveloped viruses, viral DNA replication, and virus assembly, as well as for endocytosis pathways associated with caveolin and cholesterol. We find by glycan array screening that SV40 recognizes its ganglioside receptor GM1 with a quite narrow specificity, but isothermal titration calorimetry shows that individual binding sites have a relatively low affinity, with a millimolar dissociation constant. The high-resolution crystal structure of recombinantly produced SV40 capsid protein, VP1, in complex with the carbohydrate portion of GM1, reveals that the receptor is bound in a shallow solvent-exposed groove at the outer surface of the capsid. Through a complex network of interactions, VP1 recognizes a conformation of GM1 that is the dominant one in solution. Analysis of contacts provides a structural basis for the observed specificity and suggests binding mechanisms for additional physiologically relevant GM1 variants. Comparison with murine Polyomavirus (Polyoma) receptor complexes reveals that SV40 uses a different mechanism of sialic acid binding, which has implications for receptor binding of human polyomaviruses. The SV40-GM1 complex reveals a parallel to cholera toxin, which uses a similar cell entry pathway and binds GM1 in the same conformation.

  12. Effects of Methylprednisolone And Ganglioside GM-1 on a Spinal Lesion: A Functional Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Márcio Oliveira Penna; de Barros Filho, Tarcisio Eloy Pessoa; Tebet, Marcos Antonio

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The pharmacological effects of methylprednisolone (MP) and ganglioside GM-1 on spinal injuries have been thoroughly investigated, but only a few studies have evaluated the interaction between these two drugs. METHODS Twenty-four Wistar rats were subjected to contusive injury of the spinal cord produced by the NYU system. These animals were divided into four groups: group I was injected with MP; group II was injected with GM-1; group III was injected with MP together with GM-1; and group control received physiological serum. The animals were evaluated with regard to their recovery of locomotive function by means of the BBB test on the second, seventh and fourteenth days after receiving the contusive injury to the spinal cord. They were sacrificed on the fourteenth day. RESULTS This study demonstrated that the MP and GM-1 groups presented functional results that were better than those of the control group, although the enhanced recovery of group II (GM-1) relative to the control group was not statistically significant (p>0.05). The most notable recovery of locomotive function was observed in the group that received MP alone (p<0.05). The group that received MP together with GM-1 presented results that were better than those of the control group (p<0.05). CONCLUSION Administration of methylprednisolone alone or with GM-1 was shown to be effective for recovery of locomotive function. Combined administration of these drugs resulted in better outcomes than administration of methylprednisolone alone. PMID:18568249

  13. [Serum IgG antibodies to GD1a and GM1 gangliosides in elderly people].

    PubMed

    Kolyovska, V

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, the percentage of elderly people in society grows. Good nutrition and medical care help older people to have a normal life over 80 to 90 years. In the last ten years it is of critical importance to establish the clinical significance of serum IgG anti-GD1a and anti-GM1 ganglioside antibodies as potential biomarkers for neuronal damage in neurodegenerative diseases and immune-mediated neuropathies and demyelination. In the current study, the diagnostic values of IgG anti-GD1a and anti-GM1 antibodies were determined by the ELISA method in serum samples of 18 elderly patients (71-91 years). Significantly elevated serum IgG anti-GD1a and anti-GM1 antibodies titers were detected only in patients over 80 years. These data suggest that the immune-mediated neuropathies, neurodegeneration and demyelination in healthy elderly occur after 80 years old. Therefore, IgG anti-GD1a and anti-GM1 antibodies can serve as biomarkers, showing the nervous system dysfunction. PMID:26973195

  14. Membrane lipids regulate ganglioside GM2 catabolism and GM2 activator protein activity[S

    PubMed Central

    Anheuser, Susi; Breiden, Bernadette; Schwarzmann, Günter; Sandhoff, Konrad

    2015-01-01

    Ganglioside GM2 is the major lysosomal storage compound of Tay-Sachs disease. It also accumulates in Niemann-Pick disease types A and B with primary storage of SM and with cholesterol in type C. Reconstitution of GM2 catabolism with β-hexosaminidase A and GM2 activator protein (GM2AP) at uncharged liposomal surfaces carrying GM2 as substrate generated only a physiologically irrelevant catabolic rate, even at pH 4.2. However, incorporation of anionic phospholipids into the GM2 carrying liposomes stimulated GM2 hydrolysis more than 10-fold, while the incorporation of plasma membrane stabilizing lipids (SM and cholesterol) generated a strong inhibition of GM2 hydrolysis, even in the presence of anionic phospholipids. Mobilization of membrane lipids by GM2AP was also inhibited in the presence of cholesterol or SM, as revealed by surface plasmon resonance studies. These lipids also reduced the interliposomal transfer rate of 2-NBD-GM1 by GM2AP, as observed in assays using Förster resonance energy transfer. Our data raise major concerns about the usage of recombinant His-tagged GM2AP compared with untagged protein. The former binds more strongly to anionic GM2-carrying liposomal surfaces, increases GM2 hydrolysis, and accelerates intermembrane transfer of 2-NBD-GM1, but does not mobilize membrane lipids. PMID:26175473

  15. Membrane lipids regulate ganglioside GM2 catabolism and GM2 activator protein activity.

    PubMed

    Anheuser, Susi; Breiden, Bernadette; Schwarzmann, Günter; Sandhoff, Konrad

    2015-09-01

    Ganglioside GM2 is the major lysosomal storage compound of Tay-Sachs disease. It also accumulates in Niemann-Pick disease types A and B with primary storage of SM and with cholesterol in type C. Reconstitution of GM2 catabolism with β-hexosaminidase A and GM2 activator protein (GM2AP) at uncharged liposomal surfaces carrying GM2 as substrate generated only a physiologically irrelevant catabolic rate, even at pH 4.2. However, incorporation of anionic phospholipids into the GM2 carrying liposomes stimulated GM2 hydrolysis more than 10-fold, while the incorporation of plasma membrane stabilizing lipids (SM and cholesterol) generated a strong inhibition of GM2 hydrolysis, even in the presence of anionic phospholipids. Mobilization of membrane lipids by GM2AP was also inhibited in the presence of cholesterol or SM, as revealed by surface plasmon resonance studies. These lipids also reduced the interliposomal transfer rate of 2-NBD-GM1 by GM2AP, as observed in assays using Förster resonance energy transfer. Our data raise major concerns about the usage of recombinant His-tagged GM2AP compared with untagged protein. The former binds more strongly to anionic GM2-carrying liposomal surfaces, increases GM2 hydrolysis, and accelerates intermembrane transfer of 2-NBD-GM1, but does not mobilize membrane lipids. PMID:26175473

  16. Membrane lipids regulate ganglioside GM2 catabolism and GM2 activator protein activity.

    PubMed

    Anheuser, Susi; Breiden, Bernadette; Schwarzmann, Günter; Sandhoff, Konrad

    2015-09-01

    Ganglioside GM2 is the major lysosomal storage compound of Tay-Sachs disease. It also accumulates in Niemann-Pick disease types A and B with primary storage of SM and with cholesterol in type C. Reconstitution of GM2 catabolism with β-hexosaminidase A and GM2 activator protein (GM2AP) at uncharged liposomal surfaces carrying GM2 as substrate generated only a physiologically irrelevant catabolic rate, even at pH 4.2. However, incorporation of anionic phospholipids into the GM2 carrying liposomes stimulated GM2 hydrolysis more than 10-fold, while the incorporation of plasma membrane stabilizing lipids (SM and cholesterol) generated a strong inhibition of GM2 hydrolysis, even in the presence of anionic phospholipids. Mobilization of membrane lipids by GM2AP was also inhibited in the presence of cholesterol or SM, as revealed by surface plasmon resonance studies. These lipids also reduced the interliposomal transfer rate of 2-NBD-GM1 by GM2AP, as observed in assays using Förster resonance energy transfer. Our data raise major concerns about the usage of recombinant His-tagged GM2AP compared with untagged protein. The former binds more strongly to anionic GM2-carrying liposomal surfaces, increases GM2 hydrolysis, and accelerates intermembrane transfer of 2-NBD-GM1, but does not mobilize membrane lipids.

  17. Design, Synthesis, and Biological Evaluation of Ganglioside Hp-s1 Analogues Varying at Glucosyl Moiety.

    PubMed

    Hung, Jung-Tung; Yeh, Chun-Hong; Yang, Shih-An; Lin, Chiu-Ya; Tai, Hung-Ju; Shelke, Ganesh B; Reddy, Daggula Mallikarjuna; Yu, Alice L; Luo, Shun-Yuan

    2016-08-17

    Ganglioside Hp-s1 is isolated from the ovary of sea urchin Diadema setosum. It exhibited better neuritogenic activity than GM1 in pheochromocytoma 12 cells. To explore the roles of glucosyl moiety of Hp-s1 in contributing to the neurogenic activity, we developed feasible procedures for synthesis of Hp-s1 analogues (2a-2f). The glucosyl moiety of Hp-s1 was replaced with α-glucose, α-galactose, β-galactose, α-mannose, and β-mannose, and their biological activities on SH-SY5Y cells and natural killer T (NKT) cells were evaluated. We found that the orientation of C-2 hydroxyl group at glucosyl moiety of Hp-s1 plays an important role to induce neurite outgrowth of SH-SY5Y cells. Surprisingly, compound 2d could activate NKT cells to produce interleukin 2, although it did not show great activity on neurite outgrowth of SH-SY5Y cells. In general, the Hp-s1 might be considered as a lead compound for the development of novel drugs aimed at modulating the activity of neuronal cells. PMID:27276519

  18. Ganglioside GD2 identifies breast cancer stem cells and promotes tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Battula, Venkata Lokesh; Shi, Yuexi; Evans, Kurt W.; Wang, Rui-Yu; Spaeth, Erika L.; Jacamo, Rodrigo O.; Guerra, Rudy; Sahin, Aysegul A.; Marini, Frank C.; Hortobagyi, Gabriel; Mani, Sendurai A.; Andreeff, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a small subpopulation of cancer cells that have increased resistance to conventional therapies and are capable of establishing metastasis. However, only a few biomarkers of CSCs have been identified. Here, we report that ganglioside GD2 (a glycosphingolipid) identifies a small fraction of cells in human breast cancer cell lines and patient samples that are capable of forming mammospheres and initiating tumors with as few as 10 GD2+ cells. In addition, the majority of GD2+ cells are also CD44hiCD24lo, the previously established CSC-associated cell surface phenotype. Gene expression analysis revealed that GD3 synthase (GD3S) is highly expressed in GD2+ as well as in CD44hiCD24lo cells and that interference with GD3S expression, either by shRNA or using a pharmacological inhibitor, reduced the CSC population and CSC-associated properties. GD3S knockdown completely abrogated tumor formation in vivo. Also, induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in transformed human mammary epithelial cells (HMLER cells) dramatically increased GD2 as well as GD3S expression in these cells, suggesting a role of EMT in the origin of GD2+ breast CSCs. In summary, we identified GD2 as a new CSC-specific cell surface marker and GD3S as a potential therapeutic target for CSCs, with the possibility of improving survival and cure rates in patients with breast cancer. PMID:22585577

  19. Lyso-GM2 ganglioside: a possible biomarker of Tay-Sachs disease and Sandhoff disease.

    PubMed

    Kodama, Takashi; Togawa, Tadayasu; Tsukimura, Takahiro; Kawashima, Ikuo; Matsuoka, Kazuhiko; Kitakaze, Keisuke; Tsuji, Daisuke; Itoh, Kohji; Ishida, Yo-Ichi; Suzuki, Minoru; Suzuki, Toshihiro; Sakuraba, Hitoshi

    2011-01-01

    To find a new biomarker of Tay-Sachs disease and Sandhoff disease. The lyso-GM2 ganglioside (lyso-GM2) levels in the brain and plasma in Sandhoff mice were measured by means of high performance liquid chromatography and the effect of a modified hexosaminidase (Hex) B exhibiting Hex A-like activity was examined. Then, the lyso-GM2 concentrations in human plasma samples were determined. The lyso-GM2 levels in the brain and plasma in Sandhoff mice were apparently increased compared with those in wild-type mice, and they decreased on intracerebroventricular administration of the modified Hex B. The lyso-GM2 levels in plasma of patients with Tay-Sachs disease and Sandhoff disease were increased, and the increase in lyso-GM2 was associated with a decrease in Hex A activity. Lyso-GM2 is expected to be a potential biomarker of Tay-Sachs disease and Sandhoff disease. PMID:22205997

  20. Human monoclonal IgM with autoantibody activity against two gangliosides (GM1 and GD1b) in a patient with motor neuron syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Jauberteau, M O; Gualde, N; Preud'Homme, J L; Rigaud, M; Gil, R; Vallat, J M; Baumann, N

    1990-01-01

    Small amounts of oligoclonal immunoglobulins were detected by Western blotting in the serum from a patient with motor neuron syndrome. The prominent one, a monoclonal IgM lambda, reacted strongly with the gangliosides GM1 and GD1b and more weakly with asialo GM1, as shown by immunoenzymatic staining of thin-layer chromatograms of gangliosides, ELISA on purified glycolipid coats and immunoadsorption with purified GM1. Affinity-chromatography with purified GM1 resulted in the purification of monoclonal IgM lambda. This purified IgM and its Fab fragments showed the same pattern of reactivity with gangliosides as that observed with whole serum. Such monoclonal IgM could be responsible for motor neuron diseases in some patients with overt or barely detectable monoclonal gammopathies. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:2357844

  1. Ganglioside GM2 mediates migration of tumor cells by interacting with integrin and modulating the downstream signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Kundu, Manjari; Mahata, Barun; Banerjee, Avisek; Chakraborty, Sohini; Debnath, Shibjyoti; Ray, Sougata Sinha; Ghosh, Zhumur; Biswas, Kaushik

    2016-07-01

    The definitive role of ganglioside GM2 in mediating tumor-induced growth and progression is still unknown. Here we report a novel role of ganglioside GM2 in mediating tumor cell migration and uncovered its mechanism. Data shows differential expression levels of GM2-synthase as well as GM2 in different human cancer cells. siRNA mediated knockdown of GM2-synthase in CCF52, A549 and SK-RC-26B cells resulted in significant inhibition of tumor cell migration as well as invasion in vitro without affecting cellular proliferation. Over-expression of GM2-synthase in low-GM2 expressing SK-RC-45 cells resulted in a consequent increase in migration thus confirming the potential role GM2 and its downstream partners play in tumor cell migration and motility. Further, treatment of SK-RC-45 cells with exogenous GM2 resulted in a dramatic increase in migratory and invasive capacity with no change in proliferative capacity, thereby confirming the role of GM2 in tumorigenesis specifically by mediating tumor migration and invasion. Gene expression profiling of GM2-synthase silenced cells revealed altered expression of several genes involved in cell migration primarily those controlling the integrin mediated signaling. GM2-synthase knockdown resulted in decreased phosphorylation of FAK, Src as well as Erk, while over-expression and/or exogenous GM2 treatment caused increased FAK and Erk phosphorylation respectively. Again, GM2 mediated invasion and Erk phosphorylation is blocked in integrin knockdown SK-RC-45 cells, thus confirming that GM2 mediated migration and phosphorylation of Erk is integrin dependent. Finally, confocal microscopy suggested co-localization while co-immunoprecipitation and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) confirmed direct interaction of membrane bound ganglioside, GM2 with the integrin receptor. PMID:27066976

  2. Monoclonal antibody R24 distinguishes between different N-acetyl- and N-glycolylneuraminic acid derivatives of ganglioside GD3.

    PubMed

    Tai, T; Kawashima, I; Furukawa, K; Lloyd, K O

    1988-01-01

    Monoclonal antibody (MAb) R24 was previously shown to be directed toward ganglioside GD3 [Pukel, C. S., Lloyd, K. O., Travassos, L. R., Dippold, W. G., Oettgen, H. F., and Old, L. J. (1982) J. Exp. Med. 155, 1133-1147]. The structural specificity of the MAb has now been further characterized based on binding to structurally related glycolipids, including four GD3 derivatives with different N-acetylneuraminic acid (NeuAc) and N-glycolylneuraminic acid (NeuGc) substituents. Three assay systems (enzyme immunostaining on thin-layer chromatography, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and immune adherence inhibition assay) were used. MAb R24 was found to react with (NeuAc-NeuAc-)GD3 and (NeuAc-NeuGc-)GD3 but not with (NeuGc-NeuAc-)GD3 or (NeuGc-NeuGc-)GD3. These results clearly indicate that the outer sialic acid (Sia) moiety of GD3 is crucial and must be a NeuAc residue, while the inner sialic acid is less involved in binding to the MAb and can be either NeuAc or NeuGc. The MAb was also found to cross-react weakly with two gangliosides, GT1a and GQ1b, but none of other gangliosides nor neutral glycolipids tested reacted. These findings suggest that the epitope detected by MAb R24 is the trisaccharide structure NeuAc alpha 2----8Sia alpha 2----3Gal-, which must be in a terminal position.

  3. Gangliosides inhibit bee venom melittin cytotoxicity but not phospholipase A{sub 2}-induced degranulation in mast cells

    SciTech Connect

    Nishikawa, Hirofumi; Kitani, Seiichi

    2011-05-01

    Sting accident by honeybee causes severe pain, inflammation and allergic reaction through IgE-mediated anaphylaxis. In addition to this hypersensitivity, an anaphylactoid reaction occurs by toxic effects even in a non-allergic person via cytolysis followed by similar clinical manifestations. Auto-injectable epinephrine might be effective for bee stings, but cannot inhibit mast cell lysis and degranulation by venom toxins. We used connective tissue type canine mast cell line (CM-MC) for finding an effective measure that might inhibit bee venom toxicity. We evaluated degranulation and cytotoxicity by measurement of {beta}-hexosaminidase release and MTT assay. Melittin and crude bee venom induced the degranulation and cytotoxicity, which were strongly inhibited by mono-sialoganglioside (G{sub M1}), di-sialoganglioside (G{sub D1a}) and tri-sialoganglioside (G{sub T1b}). In contrast, honeybee venom-derived phospholipase A{sub 2} induced the net degranulation directly without cytotoxicity, which was not inhibited by G{sub M1}, G{sub D1a} and G{sub T1b}. For analysis of distribution of G{alpha}{sub q} and G{alpha}{sub i} protein by western blotting, lipid rafts were isolated by using discontinuous sucrose gradient centrifuge. Melittin disrupted the localization of G{alpha}{sub q} and G{alpha}{sub i} at lipid raft, but gangliosides stabilized the rafts. As a result from this cell-based study, bee venom-induced anaphylactoid reaction can be explained with melittin cytotoxicity and phospholipase A{sub 2}-induced degranulation. Taken together, gangliosides inhibit the effect of melittin such as degranulation, cytotoxicity and lipid raft disruption but not phospholipase A{sub 2}-induced degranulation in mast cells. Our study shows a potential of gangliosides as a therapeutic tool for anaphylactoid reaction by honeybee sting.

  4. Ganglioside GM2 mediates migration of tumor cells by interacting with integrin and modulating the downstream signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Kundu, Manjari; Mahata, Barun; Banerjee, Avisek; Chakraborty, Sohini; Debnath, Shibjyoti; Ray, Sougata Sinha; Ghosh, Zhumur; Biswas, Kaushik

    2016-07-01

    The definitive role of ganglioside GM2 in mediating tumor-induced growth and progression is still unknown. Here we report a novel role of ganglioside GM2 in mediating tumor cell migration and uncovered its mechanism. Data shows differential expression levels of GM2-synthase as well as GM2 in different human cancer cells. siRNA mediated knockdown of GM2-synthase in CCF52, A549 and SK-RC-26B cells resulted in significant inhibition of tumor cell migration as well as invasion in vitro without affecting cellular proliferation. Over-expression of GM2-synthase in low-GM2 expressing SK-RC-45 cells resulted in a consequent increase in migration thus confirming the potential role GM2 and its downstream partners play in tumor cell migration and motility. Further, treatment of SK-RC-45 cells with exogenous GM2 resulted in a dramatic increase in migratory and invasive capacity with no change in proliferative capacity, thereby confirming the role of GM2 in tumorigenesis specifically by mediating tumor migration and invasion. Gene expression profiling of GM2-synthase silenced cells revealed altered expression of several genes involved in cell migration primarily those controlling the integrin mediated signaling. GM2-synthase knockdown resulted in decreased phosphorylation of FAK, Src as well as Erk, while over-expression and/or exogenous GM2 treatment caused increased FAK and Erk phosphorylation respectively. Again, GM2 mediated invasion and Erk phosphorylation is blocked in integrin knockdown SK-RC-45 cells, thus confirming that GM2 mediated migration and phosphorylation of Erk is integrin dependent. Finally, confocal microscopy suggested co-localization while co-immunoprecipitation and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) confirmed direct interaction of membrane bound ganglioside, GM2 with the integrin receptor.

  5. Lysosomal dysfunction in a mouse model of Sandhoff disease leads to accumulation of ganglioside-bound amyloid-β peptide.

    PubMed

    Keilani, Serene; Lun, Yi; Stevens, Anthony C; Williams, Hadis N; Sjoberg, Eric R; Khanna, Richie; Valenzano, Kenneth J; Checler, Frederic; Buxbaum, Joseph D; Yanagisawa, Katsuhiko; Lockhart, David J; Wustman, Brandon A; Gandy, Sam

    2012-04-11

    Alterations in the lipid composition of endosomal-lysosomal membranes may constitute an early event in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. In this study, we investigated the possibility that GM2 ganglioside accumulation in a mouse model of Sandhoff disease might be associated with the accumulation of intraneuronal and extracellular proteins commonly observed in AD. Our results show intraneuronal accumulation of amyloid-β peptide (Aβ)-like, α-synuclein-like, and phospho-tau-like immunoreactivity in the brains of β-hexosaminidase knock-out (HEXB KO) mice. Biochemical and immunohistochemical analyses confirmed that at least some of the intraneuronal Aβ-like immunoreactivity (iAβ-LIR) represents amyloid precursor protein C-terminal fragments (APP-CTFs) and/or Aβ. In addition, we observed increased levels of Aβ40 and Aβ42 peptides in the lipid-associated fraction of HEXB KO mouse brains, and intraneuronal accumulation of ganglioside-bound Aβ (GAβ) immunoreactivity in a brain region-specific manner. Furthermore, α-synuclein and APP-CTFs and/or Aβ were found to accumulate in different regions of the substantia nigra, indicating different mechanisms of accumulation or turnover pathways. Based on the localization of the accumulated iAβ-LIR to endosomes, lysosomes, and autophagosomes, we conclude that a significant accumulation of iAβ-LIR may be associated with the lysosomal-autophagic turnover of Aβ and fragments of APP-containing Aβ epitopes. Importantly, intraneuronal GAβ immunoreactivity, a proposed prefibrillar aggregate found in AD, was found to accumulate throughout the frontal cortices of postmortem human GM1 gangliosidosis, Sandhoff disease, and Tay-Sachs disease brains. Together, these results establish an association between the accumulation of gangliosides, autophagic vacuoles, and the intraneuronal accumulation of proteins associated with AD. PMID:22496568

  6. When Lack of Evidence Is Evidence of Lack.

    PubMed

    Pickering, Neil

    2015-12-01

    In their recent article "A Gentle Ethical Defence of Homeopathy," Levy, Gadd, Kerridge, and Komesaroff use the claim that "lack of evidence is not equivalent to evidence of lack" as a component of their ethical defence of homeopathy. In response, this article argues that they cannot use this claim to shore up their ethical arguments. This is because it is false. PMID:26631232

  7. Therapeutic Strategies for Human IgM Antibodies Directed at Tumor-Associated Ganglioside Antigens: Discoveries Made During the Morton Era and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Jones, Peter C; Irie, Reiko F

    2016-01-01

    Tumor-associated gangliosides have been investigated for their potential as antigenic targets for more than 35 years, culminating in the recent Food and Drug Administration approval of dinutuximab (Unituxin), an IgG antibody targeted against GD2, for the treatment of neuroblastoma in children. This review is focused on discoveries and development of therapeutic approaches involving human IgM antibodies directed against gangliosides, which occurred over the past 40 years at University of California-Los Angeles and the John Wayne Cancer Institute, where Dr. Donald Morton led the surgical oncology department until his death. PMID:27481004

  8. Neoglycolipid analogues of ganglioside G sub M1 as functional receptors of cholera toxin

    SciTech Connect

    Pacuszka, T.; Bradley, R.M.; Fishman, P.H. )

    1991-03-12

    The authors synthesized several lipid analogues of ganglioside G{sub M1} by attaching its oligosaccharide moiety (G{sub M1}OS) to aminophospholipids, aliphatic amines, and cholesteryl hemisuccinate. They incubated G{sub M1}-deficient rat glioma C6 cells with each of the derivatives as well as native G{sub M1} and assayed the cells for their ability to bind and respond to cholera toxin. On the basis of the observed increase in binding of {sup 125}I-labeled cholera toxin, it was apparent that the cells took up and initially incorporated most of the derivatives into the plasma membrane. In the case of the aliphatic amine derivatives, the ability to generate new toxin binding sites was dependent on chain length; whereas the C{sub 10} derivative was ineffective, C{sub 12} and higher analogues were effective. Increased binding was dependent on both the concentration of the neoglycolipid in the medium and the time of exposure. Cells pretreated with the various derivatives accumulated cyclic AMP in response to cholera toxin, but there were differences in their effectiveness. The cholesterol and long-chain aliphatic amine derivatives were more effective than native G{sub M1}, whereas the phospholipid derivatives were less effective. The distance between G{sub M1}OS and the phospholipid also appeared to influence its functional activity. The results indicate that although G{sub M1}OS provides the recognition site for the binding of cholera toxin, the nature of the lipid moiety plays an important role in the action of the toxin.

  9. Protection against Experimental Stroke by Ganglioside GM1 Is Associated with the Inhibition of Autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li; Tian, Jinghua; Long, Mitchell King-Wei; Chen, Yong; Lu, Jianfei; Zhou, Changman; Wang, Tianlong

    2016-01-01

    Ganglioside GM1, which is particularly abundant in the central nervous system (CNS), is closely associated with the protection against several CNS disorders. However, controversial findings have been reported on the role of GM1 following ischemic stroke. In the present study, using a rat middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model, we investigated whether GM1 can protect against ischemic brain injury and whether it targets the autophagy pathway. GM1 was delivered to Sprague-Dawley male rats at 3 doses (25 mg/kg, 50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg) by intraperitoneal injection soon after reperfusion and then once daily for 2 days. The same volume of saline was given as a control. Tat–Beclin-1, a specific autophagy inducer, was administered by intraperitoneal injection at 24 and 48 hours post-MCAO. Infarction volume, mortality and neurological function were assessed at 72 hours after ischemic insult. Immunofluorescence and Western blotting were performed to determine the expression of autophagy-related proteins P62, LC3 and Beclin-1 in the penumbra area. No significant changes in mortality and physiological variables (heart rate, blood glucose levels and arterial blood gases) were observed between the different groups. However, MCAO resulted in enhanced conversion of LC3-I into LC3-II, P62 degradation, high levels of Beclin-1, a large area infarction (26.3±3.6%) and serious neurobehavioral deficits. GM1 (50 mg/kg) treatment significantly reduced the autophagy activation, neurobehavioral dysfunctions, and infarction volume (from 26.3% to 19.5%) without causing significant adverse side effects. However, this biological function could be abolished by Tat–Beclin-1. In conclusion: GM1 demonstrated safe and robust neuroprotective effects that are associated with the inhibition of autophagy following experimental stroke. PMID:26751695

  10. GM1 Ganglioside in Parkinson’s Disease: Pilot Study of Effects on Dopamine Transporter Binding

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Jay S.; Cambi, Franca; Gollomp, Stephen M.; Kuwabara, Hiroto; Brašić, James R.; Leiby, Benjamin; Sendek, Stephanie; Wong, Dean F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective GM1 ganglioside has been suggested as a treatment for Parkinson’s disease (PD), potentially having symptomatic and disease modifying effects. The current pilot imaging study was performed to examine effects of GM1 on dopamine transporter binding, as a surrogate measure of disease progression, studied longitudinally. Methods Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging data were obtained from a subset of subjects enrolled in a delayed start clinical trial of GM1 in PD1: 15 Early-start (ES) subjects, 14 Delayed-start (DS) subjects, and 11 Comparison (standard-of-care) subjects. Treatment subjects were studied over a 2.5 year period while Comparison subjects were studied over 2 years. Dynamic PET scans were performed over 90 minutes following injection of [11C]methylphenidate. Regional values of binding potential (BPND) were analyzed for several striatal volumes of interest. Results Clinical results for this subset of subjects were similar to those previously reported for the larger study group. ES subjects showed early symptomatic improvement and slow symptom progression over the study period. DS and Comparison subjects were initially on the same symptom progression trajectory but diverged once DS subjects received GM1 treatment. Imaging results showed significant slowing of BPND loss in several striatal regions in GM1-treated subjects and in some cases, an increased BPND in some striatal regions was detected after GM1 use. Interpretation Results of this pilot imaging study provide additional data to suggest a potential disease modifying effect of GM1 on PD. These results need to be confirmed in a larger number of subjects. PMID:26099170

  11. Antidepressant-Like Effects of GM1 Ganglioside Involving the BDNF Signaling Cascade in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Song, Lu; Wang, Cheng-Niu; Zhang, Wei; Huang, Chao; Tong, Li-Juan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Depression is a serious psychiatric disorder that easily causes physical impairments and a high suicide rate. Monosialotetrahexosylganglioside is a crucial ganglioside for the central nervous system and has been reported to affect the function of the brain derived neurotrophic factor system. This study is aimed to evaluate whether monosialotetrahexosylganglioside has antidepressant-like effects. Methods: Antidepressant-like effects of monosialotetrahexosylganglioside were assessed in the chronic social defeat stress model of depression, and various behavioral tests were performed. Changes in the brain derived neurotrophic factor signaling pathway after chronic social defeat stress and monosialotetrahexosylganglioside treatment were also investigated. A tryptophan hydroxylase inhibitor and brain derived neurotrophic factor signaling inhibitors were used to determine the antidepressant mechanisms of monosialotetrahexosylganglioside. Results: Monosialotetrahexosylganglioside administration significantly reversed the chronic social defeat stress-induced reduction of sucrose preference and social interaction in mice and also prevented the increased immobility time in the forced swim test and tail suspension test. In addition, monosialotetrahexosylganglioside completely ameliorated the stress-induced dysfunction of brain derived neurotrophic factor signaling cascade in the hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex, 2 regions closely involved in the pathophysiology of depression. Furthermore, the usage of brain derived neurotrophic factor signaling cascade inhibitors, K252a and anti-brain derived neurotrophic factor antibody, each abolished the antidepressant-like effects of monosialotetrahexosylganglioside, while the usage of a serotonin system inhibitor did not. Conclusions: Taken together, our findings suggest that monosialotetrahexosylganglioside indeed has antidepressant-like effects, and these effects were mediated through the activation of brain derived

  12. Postnatal dietary supplementation with either gangliosides or choline: effects on spatial short-term memory in artificially-reared rats.

    PubMed

    Wainwright, Patricia E; Lomanowska, Anna M; McCutcheon, Dawn; Park, Eek J; Clandinin, M Thomas; Ramanujam, Kalathur S

    2007-01-01

    This study addressed the hypothesis that dietary supplementation with either gangliosides or choline during the brain growth spurt would enhance short-term spatial memory. Male Long-Evans rats were reared artificially from postnatal days (PD) 5-18 and were fed diets containing either (i) choline chloride 1250 mg/l (CHL), (ii) choline chloride 250 mg/l and GD3 24 mg/l (GNG) or (iii) choline chloride 250 mg/l (STD). A fourth group (SCK) was reared normally. Rats were weaned onto AIN 93G diet and on PD 35 were trained on a cued delayed- matching-to-place version of the Morris water maze. All groups learned to swim to the beacon that indicated the platform position on the first trial; similarly, on the second un-cued trial, the distance swam to reach the platform decreased to the same extent in all groups over the five days of training. The groups also responded in the same way to an increase in delay between the first and second trial from 1 min to 1 h, showing an increase in the distance swam, accompanied by a decrease in the number of direct swims to the platform. Thus, all rats were equally proficient at using spatial short-term memory, regardless of the choline or ganglioside content of the preweaning diet.

  13. Gangliosides as a potential new class of stem cell markers: the case of GD1a in human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Bergante, Sonia; Torretta, Enrica; Creo, Pasquale; Sessarego, Nadia; Papini, Nadia; Piccoli, Marco; Fania, Chiara; Cirillo, Federica; Conforti, Erika; Ghiroldi, Andrea; Tringali, Cristina; Venerando, Bruno; Ibatici, Adalberto; Gelfi, Cecilia; Tettamanti, Guido; Anastasia, Luigi

    2014-03-01

    Owing to their exposure on the cell surface and the possibility of being directly recognized with specific antibodies, glycosphingolipids have aroused great interest in the field of stem cell biology. In the search for specific markers of the differentiation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) toward osteoblasts, we studied their glycosphingolipid pattern, with particular attention to gangliosides. After lipid extraction and fractionation, gangliosides, metabolically (3)H-labeled in the sphingosine moiety, were separated by high-performance TLC and chemically characterized by MALDI MS. Upon induction of osteogenic differentiation, a 3-fold increase of ganglioside GD1a was observed. Therefore, the hypothesis of GD1a involvement in hBMSCs commitment toward the osteogenic phenotype was tested by comparison of the osteogenic propensity of GD1a-highly expressing versus GD1a-low expressing hBMSCs and direct addition of GD1a in the differentiation medium. It was found that either the high expression of GD1a in hBMSCs or the addition of GD1a in the differentiation medium favored osteogenesis, providing a remarkable increase of alkaline phosphatase. It was also observed that ganglioside GD2, although detectable in hBMSCs by immunohistochemistry with an anti-GD2 antibody, could not be recognized by chemical analysis, likely reflecting a case, not uncommon, of molecular mimicry.

  14. The biosynthesis of gangliosides. The incorporation of galactose, N-acetylgalactosamine and N-acetylneuraminic acid into endogenous acceptors of subcellular particles from rat brain in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Arce, A.; Maccioni, H. J.; Caputto, R.

    1971-01-01

    Gangliosides bound to subcellular particles from rat brain were labelled by incubation of the particles (i) with CMP-N[3H]-acetylneuraminic acid and (ii) simultaneously, with CMP-N[3H]-acetylneuraminic acid and UDP-N-acetyl-[14C1]galactosamine or with CMP-N[3H]-acetylneuraminic acid and UDP-[U-14C]-galactose. Analysis of the labelled gangliosides showed that in (i), (a) the labelling was mostly in the neuraminidase-labile sialyl groups, (b) rigid relationships exist between the enzymes and the sialyl acceptors; the enzymes are not free to interact with all the specific substrates present in the preparation and (c) the precursor of the trisialoganglioside was the major disialoganglioside with a sialyl 2→8 sialyl group. In (ii), (a) precursor–product relationships between the main pools of each ganglioside apparently do not exist, (b) for the labelling of Tay–Sachs ganglioside the amount formed from hematoside was at least 2.5 times that from aminoglycolipid and (c) the major monosialoganglioside was the precursor for the major disialoganglioside with a sialyl 2→8 sialyl group. PMID:5119784

  15. Gangliosides as a potential new class of stem cell markers: the case of GD1a in human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells[S

    PubMed Central

    Bergante, Sonia; Torretta, Enrica; Creo, Pasquale; Sessarego, Nadia; Papini, Nadia; Piccoli, Marco; Fania, Chiara; Cirillo, Federica; Conforti, Erika; Ghiroldi, Andrea; Tringali, Cristina; Venerando, Bruno; Ibatici, Adalberto; Gelfi, Cecilia; Tettamanti, Guido; Anastasia, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Owing to their exposure on the cell surface and the possibility of being directly recognized with specific antibodies, glycosphingolipids have aroused great interest in the field of stem cell biology. In the search for specific markers of the differentiation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) toward osteoblasts, we studied their glycosphingolipid pattern, with particular attention to gangliosides. After lipid extraction and fractionation, gangliosides, metabolically 3H-labeled in the sphingosine moiety, were separated by high-performance TLC and chemically characterized by MALDI MS. Upon induction of osteogenic differentiation, a 3-fold increase of ganglioside GD1a was observed. Therefore, the hypothesis of GD1a involvement in hBMSCs commitment toward the osteogenic phenotype was tested by comparison of the osteogenic propensity of GD1a-highly expressing versus GD1a-low expressing hBMSCs and direct addition of GD1a in the differentiation medium. It was found that either the high expression of GD1a in hBMSCs or the addition of GD1a in the differentiation medium favored osteogenesis, providing a remarkable increase of alkaline phosphatase. It was also observed that ganglioside GD2, although detectable in hBMSCs by immunohistochemistry with an anti-GD2 antibody, could not be recognized by chemical analysis, likely reflecting a case, not uncommon, of molecular mimicry. PMID:24449473

  16. Erythrocyte gangliosides act as receptors for Neisseria subflava: identification of the Sia-1 adhesin.

    PubMed Central

    Nyberg, G; Strömberg, N; Jonsson, A; Karlsson, K A; Normark, S

    1990-01-01

    Neisseria gonorrhoeae was recently shown to bind to a subset of lactose-containing glycolipids (N. Strömberg, C. Deal, G. Nyberg, S. Normark, M. So, and K.-A. Karlsson, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85:4902-4906, 1988). A number of commensal Neisseria strains were also shown to be lactose binders. In addition, Neisseria subflava bound to immobilized gangliosides, such as hematoside and sialosyl paragloboside, carrying the NeuAc alpha 2-3Gal beta 1-4Glc sequence. To a lesser extent, N. gonorrhoeae also bound to this receptor in vitro. In N. subflava GN01, this binding property mediated agglutination of human erythrocytes in a neuraminidase-sensitive fashion. Nitrosoguanidine-induced nonhemagglutinative mutants of N. subflava GN01 had lost the ability to bind hematoside and sialosylparagloboside but remained able to bind lactosylceramide and gangliotetraosylceramide. These mutants fell into three classes with respect to their outer membrane protein profiles in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Class 1 mutants were identical to the parent strain save for the loss of a 27-kilodalton (kDa) protein. Class 2 mutants showed an outer membrane protein profile identical to that of the wild type, whereas mutants belonging to class 3 showed a number of changes, including the apparent absence of the 27-kDa protein. The 27-kDa protein from N. subflava GN01 was purified from the supernatant. A polyclonal antiserum to the purified Sia-1 protein as well as a Sia-1-specific monoclonal antibody inhibited hemagglutination by strain GN01. The purified Sia-1 protein in the presence of diluted anti-Sia-1 antiserum mediated a neuraminidase-sensitive hemagglutination. The purified Sia protein from a class 2 mutant was not able to hemagglutinate when cross-linked with antibodies, suggesting that it is a mutant form of Sia-1 affected in the receptor-binding site. Immunoelectron microscopy with a Sia-1-specific monoclonal antibody revealed that the adhesin was

  17. Ganglioside GD2-specific trifunctional surrogate antibody Surek demonstrates therapeutic activity in a mouse melanoma model

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Trifunctional bispecific antibodies (trAb) are a special class of bispecific molecules recruiting and activating T cells and accessory immune cells simultaneously at the targeted tumor. The new trAb Ektomab that targets the melanoma-associated ganglioside antigen GD2 and the signaling molecule human CD3 (hCD3) on T cells demonstrated potent T-cell activation and tumor cell destruction in vitro. However, the relatively low affinity for the GD2 antigen raised the question of its therapeutic capability. To further evaluate its efficacy in vivo it was necessary to establish a mouse model. Methods We generated the surrogate trAb Surek, which possesses the identical anti-GD2 binding arm as Ektomab, but targets mouse CD3 (mCD3) instead of hCD3, and evaluated its chemical and functional quality as a therapeutic antibody homologue. The therapeutic and immunizing potential of Surek was investigated using B78-D14, a B16 melanoma transfected with GD2 and GD3 synthases and showing strong GD2 surface expression. The induction of tumor-associated and autoreactive antibodies was evaluated. Results Despite its low affinity of approximately 107 M-1 for GD2, Surek exerted efficient tumor cell destruction in vitro at an EC50 of 70ng/ml [0.47nM]. Furthermore, Surek showed strong therapeutic efficacy in a dose-dependent manner and is superior to the parental GD2 mono-specific antibody, while the use of a control trAb with irrelevant target specificity had no effect. The therapeutic activity of Surek was strictly dependent on CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, and cured mice developed a long-term memory response against a second challenge even with GD2-negative B16 melanoma cells. Moreover, tumor protection was associated with humoral immune responses dominated by IgG2a and IgG3 tumor-reactive antibodies indicating a Th1-biased immune response. Autoreactive antibodies against the GD2 target antigen were not induced. Conclusion Our data suggest that Surek revealed strong tumor elimination

  18. Electrophysiological characteristics of primary afferent fibers after systemic administration of anti-GD2 ganglioside antibody.

    PubMed

    Xiao, W H; Yu, A L; Sorkin, L S

    1997-01-01

    An animal model showing mechanical allodynia following systemic bolus injection of a human/mouse chimeric monoclonal antibody to the GD2 ganglioside (ch14.18) has been established (e.g. pain behavior generated by a light tactile stimulus). This is of clinical relevance since ch14.18 is a promising experimental treatment for pediatric neuroblastoma. The present study examined the hypothesis that allodynic effects of the anti-GD2 antibody are mediated by actions on cutaneous nerve fibers. After determining the basal magnitude of the mechanical stimulus required to produce withdrawal, ch14.18, a murine form of the anti-GD2 antibody of IgG2a isotype (14G2a), a control murine anti-melanoma antibody of IgG2a isotype (9.2.27) or saline was injected through a previously implanted jugular cannula. The experimenter was blinded to the syringe contents. Withdrawal threshold was tested at 15 min intervals for 1 h. After administration of either ch14.18 or 14G2a mechanical allodynia typically started within the first 15 min and persisted throughout the hour of behavioral testing. In the control antibody group, a modest change in tactile withdrawal threshold was observed at the 60 min time point only. Rats were then anesthetized with pentobarbital and prepared for single fiber recordings from the sural nerve. Fibers were classified based on conduction velocity, as A beta (> 25 m/s), A delta (2-25 m/s) or C (< 2 m/s). Background activity (BA) was observed in a significant number of A delta (12/61) and C (32/42) fibers in both anti-GD2 treated groups compared to the anti-melanoma antibody (1/17 A delta and 2/10 C fibers) and saline (0/26 A delta and 0/19 C fibers) treated groups. Mean mechanical threshold for A delta fibers in all three antibody treated groups was significantly reduced compared to the saline control; this was not observed for C-fibers in any group. Intravenous bolus injection (15 mg/kg) and infusion of lidocaine (plasma level 0.3-2.2 micrograms/ml) both reduced

  19. Structural and mutational analyses of the receptor binding domain of botulinum D/C mosaic neurotoxin: Insight into the ganglioside binding mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Nuemket, Nipawan; Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Tsukamoto, Kentaro; Tsuji, Takao; Nakamura, Keiji; Kozaki, Shunji; Yao, Min; Tanaka, Isao

    2011-07-29

    Highlights: {yields} We determined the crystal structure of the receptor binding domain of BoNT in complex with 3'-sialyllactose. {yields} An electron density derived from the 3'-sialyllactose was confirmed at the cleft in the C-terminal subdomain. {yields} Alanine site-directed mutagenesis showed that GBS and GBL are important for ganglioside binding. {yields} A cell binding mechanism, which involves cooperative contribution of two sites, was proposed. -- Abstract: Clostridium botulinum type D strain OFD05, which produces the D/C mosaic neurotoxin, was isolated from cattle killed by the recent botulism outbreak in Japan. The D/C mosaic neurotoxin is the most toxic of the botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) characterized to date. Here, we determined the crystal structure of the receptor binding domain of BoNT from strain OFD05 in complex with 3'-sialyllactose at a resolution of 3.0 A. In the structure, an electron density derived from the 3'-sialyllactose was confirmed at the cleft in the C-terminal subdomain. Alanine site-directed mutagenesis showed the significant contribution of the residues surrounding the cleft to ganglioside recognition. In addition, a loop adjoining the cleft also plays an important role in ganglioside recognition. In contrast, little effect was observed when the residues located around the surface previously identified as the protein receptor binding site in other BoNTs were substituted. The results of cell binding analysis of the mutants were significantly correlated with the ganglioside binding properties. Based on these observations, a cell binding mechanism of BoNT from strain OFD05 is proposed, which involves cooperative contribution of two ganglioside binding sites.

  20. Exogenous and Endogeneous Disialosyl Ganglioside GD1b Induces Apoptosis of MCF-7 Human Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Sun-Hyung; Lee, Ji-Min; Kwon, Kyung-Min; Kwak, Choong-Hwan; Abekura, Fukushi; Park, Jun-Young; Cho, Seung-Hak; Lee, Kichoon; Chang, Young-Chae; Lee, Young-Choon; Choi, Hee-Jung; Chung, Tae-Wook; Ha, Ki-Tae; Chang, Hyeun-Wook; Kim, Cheorl-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Gangliosides have been known to play a role in the regulation of apoptosis in cancer cells. This study has employed disialyl-ganglioside GD1b to apoptosis in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells using exogenous treatment of the cells with GD1b and endogenous expression of GD1b in MCF-7 cells. First, apoptosis in MCF-7 cells was observed after treatment of GD1b. Treatment of MCF-7 cells with GD1b reduced cell growth rates in a dose and time dependent manner during GD1b treatment, as determined by XTT assay. Among the various gangliosides, GD1b specifically induced apoptosis of the MCF-7 cells. Flow cytometry and immunofluorescence assays showed that GD1b specifically induces apoptosis in the MCF-7 cells with Annexin V binding for apoptotic actions in early stage and propidium iodide (PI) staining the nucleus of the MCF-7 cells. Treatment of MCF-7 cells with GD1b activated apoptotic molecules such as processed forms of caspase-8, -7 and PARP (Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase), without any change in the expression of mitochondria-mediated apoptosis molecules such as Bax and Bcl-2. Second, to investigate the effect of endogenously produced GD1b on the regulation of cell function, UDP-gal: β1,3-galactosyltransferase-2 (GD1b synthase, Gal-T2) gene has been transfected into the MCF-7 cells. Using the GD1b synthase-transfectants, apoptosis-related signal proteins linked to phenotype changes were examined. Similar to the exogenous GD1b treatment, the cell growth of the GD1b synthase gene-transfectants was significantly suppressed compared with the vector-transfectant cell lines and transfection activated the apoptotic molecules such as processed forms of caspase-8, -7 and PARP, but not the levels of expression of Bax and Bcl-2. GD1b-induced apoptosis was blocked by caspase inhibitor, Z-VAD. Therefore, taken together, it was concluded that GD1b could play an important role in the regulation of breast cancer apoptosis. PMID:27144558

  1. Porcine Sapelovirus Uses α2,3-Linked Sialic Acid on GD1a Ganglioside as a Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Deok-Song; Son, Kyu-Yeol; Koo, Kyung-Min; Kim, Ji-Yun; Alfajaro, Mia Madel; Park, Jun-Gyu; Hosmillo, Myra; Soliman, Mahmoud; Baek, Yeong-Bin; Cho, Eun-Hyo; Lee, Ju-Hwan; Kang, Mun-Il

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The receptor(s) for porcine sapelovirus (PSV), which causes diarrhea, pneumonia, polioencephalomyelitis, and reproductive disorders in pigs, remains largely unknown. Given the precedent for other picornaviruses which use terminal sialic acids (SAs) as receptors, we examined the role of SAs in PSV binding and infection. Using a variety of approaches, including treating cells with a carbohydrate-destroying chemical (NaIO4), mono- or oligosaccharides (N-acetylneuraminic acid, galactose, and 6′-sialyllactose), linkage-specific sialidases (neuraminidase and sialidase S), lectins (Maakia amurensis lectin and Sambucus nigra lectin), proteases (trypsin and chymotrypsin), and glucosylceramide synthase inhibitors (dl-threo-1-phenyl-2-decanoylamino-3-morpholino-1-propanol and phospholipase C), we demonstrated that PSV could recognize α2,3-linked SA on glycolipids as a receptor. On the other hand, PSVs had no binding affinity for synthetic histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs), suggesting that PSVs could not use HBGAs as receptors. Depletion of cell surface glycolipids followed by reconstitution studies indicated that GD1a ganglioside, but not other gangliosides, could restore PSV binding and infection, further confirming α2,3-linked SA on GD1a as a PSV receptor. Our results could provide significant information on the understanding of the life cycle of sapelovirus and other picornaviruses. For the broader community in the area of pathogens and pathogenesis, these findings and insights could contribute to the development of affordable, useful, and efficient drugs for anti-sapelovirus therapy. IMPORTANCE The porcine sapelovirus (PSV) is known to cause enteritis, pneumonia, polioencephalomyelitis, and reproductive disorders in pigs. However, the receptor(s) that the PSV utilizes to enter host cells remains largely unknown. Using a variety of approaches, we showed that α2,3-linked terminal sialic acid (SA) on the cell surface GD1a ganglioside could be used for PSV

  2. Molecular recognition and colorimetric detection of cholera toxin by poly(diacetylene) liposomes incorporating G{sub m1} ganglioside

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, J.J.; Charych, D.

    1997-03-19

    Molecular recognition sites on cell membranes serve as the main communication channels between the inside of a cell and its surroundings. Upon receptor binding, cellular messages such as ion channel opening or activation of enzymes are triggered. In this report, we demonstrate that artificial cell membranes made from conjugated lipid polymers (poly(diacetylene)) can, on a simple level, mimic membrane processes of molecular recognition and signal transduction. The ganglioside GM1 was incorporated into poly(diacetylene) liposomes. Molecular recognition of cholera toxin at the interface of the liposome resulted in a change of the membrane color due to conformational charges in the conjugated (ene-yne) polymer backbone. The `colored liposomes` might be used as simple colorimetric sensors for drug screening or as new tools to study membrane-membrane or membrane-receptor interactions. 21 refs., 3 figs.

  3. Effects of ganglioside G(M1) and erythropoietin on spinal cord lesions in rats: functional and histological evaluations

    PubMed Central

    Marcon, Raphael Martus; Cristante, Alexandre Fogaça; de Barros Filho, Tarcísio Eloy Pessoa; Ferreira, Ricardo; dos Santos, Gustavo Bispo

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the functional and histological effects of ganglioside G(M1) and erythropoietin after experimental spinal cord contusion injury. METHODS: Fifty male Wistar rats underwent experimental spinal cord lesioning using an NYU-Impactor device and were randomly divided into the following groups, which received treatment intraperitoneally. The G(M1) group received ganglioside G(M1) (30 mg/kg); the erythropoietin group received erythropoietin (1000 IU/kg); the combined group received both drugs; and the saline group received saline (0.9%) as a control. A fifth group was the laminectomy group, in which the animals were subjected to laminectomy alone, without spinal lesioning or treatment. The animals were evaluated according to the Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan (BBB) scale, motor evoked potential recordings and, after euthanasia, histological analysis of spinal cord tissue. RESULTS: The erythropoietin group had higher BBB scores than the G(M1) group. The combined group had the highest BBB scores, and the saline group had the lowest BBB scores. No significant difference in latency was observed between the three groups that underwent spinal cord lesioning and intervention. However, the combined group showed a significantly higher signal amplitude than the other treatment groups or the saline group (p<0.01). Histological tissue analysis showed no significant difference between the groups. Axonal index was significantly enhanced in the combined group than any other intervention (p<0.01). CONCLUSION: G(M1) and erythropoietin exert therapeutic effects on axonal regeneration and electrophysiological and motor functions in rats subjected to experimental spinal cord lesioning and administering these two substances in combination potentiates their effects. PMID:27438570

  4. Nitrogen dioxide induced changes in level of free fatty acids, triglyceride, esterified fatty acid, ganglioside and lipase activity in the guinea pig brain

    SciTech Connect

    Farahani, H.; Hasan, M. )

    1992-02-01

    The biochemical response to controlled inhalation of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) was studied in 18 male guinea pigs. Animals were exposed to 2.5, 5.0, and 10 ppm NO2 for 2h daily for 35 consecutive days, and the results compared with six control animals exposed to filtered air for 2h daily for same period. Five biochemical parameters, including triglyceride, free fatty acids, esterified fatty acid, ganglioside and lipase activity were measured immediately after the last day of exposure. At 2.5 ppm NO2 inhalation no significant changes occurred in any region of the central nervous system (CNS). While as the dose concentration was increased to 5 and 10 ppm nitrogen dioxide, significant dose-related alteration were observed in the levels of triglyceride, free fatty acid, esterified fatty acid, ganglioside and lipase activity in the different regions of the guinea pig CNS.

  5. Stimulation of a Ca sup 2+ -dependent protein kinase by G sub M1 ganglioside in nerve growth factor-treated PC12 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hilbush, B.S.; Levine, J.M. )

    1991-07-01

    The authors have investigated the ability of exogenous gangliosides to modulate nerve growth factor (NGF) signal transduction in PC12 cells. The effects of exogenous ganglioside G{sub M1} on multiple protein kinase activities were assayed by analyzing site-specific serine phosphorylation of tyrosine hydroxylase (TyrOHase) by two-dimensional phosphopeptide mapping. In the presence of NGF, exogenous G{sub M1} increased {sup 32}P incorporation into TyrOHase phosphopeptide T2, a Ca{sup 2+}/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase substrate whose phosphorylation is not normally affected by NGF treatment. In the absence of NGF, G{sub M1} treatment had no significant effects on TyrOHase phosphorylation. The removal of extracellular Ca{sup 2+} or blockade of dihydropyridine-sensitive Ca{sup 2+} channels prevented the G{sub M1}-induced increases in {sup 32}P incorporation into phosphopeptide T2. Exogenous G{sub M1} also potentiated K{sup +} depolarization-induced increases in the phosphorylation of TyrOHase. These results suggest that the stimulatory effects of exogenous G{sub M1} ganglioside on NGF actions may be due to its ability to potentiate a Ca{sup 2+}-dependent signaling pathway.

  6. A New Assay for Determining Ganglioside Sialyltransferase Activities Lactosylceramide-2,3-Sialyltransferase (SAT I) and Monosialylganglioside-2,3-Sialyltransferase (SAT IV)

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Cynthia Q.; Hubl, Ulrike; Hoefakker, Petra; Vasudevamurthy, Madhusudan K.; Johnson, Keryn D.

    2014-01-01

    A new assay for the determination of lactosylceramide-2,3-sialyltransferase (SAT I, EC 2.4.99.9) and monosialoganglioside sialyltransferase (SAT IV, EC 2.4.99.2) is described. The assay utilised the commercially available fluorophore labelled sphingolipids, boron dipyrromethene difluoride (BODIPY) lactosylceramide (LacCer), and BODIPY-monosialotetrahexosylganglioside (GM1) as the acceptor substrates, for SAT I and SAT IV, respectively. HPLC coupled with fluorescence detection was used to analyse product formation. The analysis was performed in a quick and automated fashion. The assay showed good linearity for both BODIPY sphingolipids with a quantitative detection limit of 0.05 pmol. The high sensitivity enabled the detection of SAT I and SAT IV activities as low as 0.001 μU, at least 200 fold lower than that of most radiometric assays. This new assay was applied to the screening of SAT I and SAT IV activities in ovine and bovine organs (liver, heart, kidney, and spleen). The results provided evidence that young animals, such as calves, start to produce ganglioside sialyltransferases as early as 7 days after parturition and that levels change during maturation. Among the organs tested from a bovine source, spleen had the highest specific ganglioside sialyltransferase activity. Due to the organ size, the greatest total ganglioside sialyltransferase activities (SAT I and SAT IV) were detected in the liver of both bovine and ovine origin. PMID:24718572

  7. A new assay for determining ganglioside sialyltransferase activities lactosylceramide-2,3-sialyltransferase (SAT I) and monosialylganglioside-2,3-sialyltransferase (SAT IV).

    PubMed

    Sun, Cynthia Q; Hubl, Ulrike; Hoefakker, Petra; Vasudevamurthy, Madhusudan K; Johnson, Keryn D

    2014-01-01

    A new assay for the determination of lactosylceramide-2,3-sialyltransferase (SAT I, EC 2.4.99.9) and monosialoganglioside sialyltransferase (SAT IV, EC 2.4.99.2) is described. The assay utilised the commercially available fluorophore labelled sphingolipids, boron dipyrromethene difluoride (BODIPY) lactosylceramide (LacCer), and BODIPY-monosialotetrahexosylganglioside (GM1) as the acceptor substrates, for SAT I and SAT IV, respectively. HPLC coupled with fluorescence detection was used to analyse product formation. The analysis was performed in a quick and automated fashion. The assay showed good linearity for both BODIPY sphingolipids with a quantitative detection limit of 0.05 pmol. The high sensitivity enabled the detection of SAT I and SAT IV activities as low as 0.001 μU, at least 200 fold lower than that of most radiometric assays. This new assay was applied to the screening of SAT I and SAT IV activities in ovine and bovine organs (liver, heart, kidney, and spleen). The results provided evidence that young animals, such as calves, start to produce ganglioside sialyltransferases as early as 7 days after parturition and that levels change during maturation. Among the organs tested from a bovine source, spleen had the highest specific ganglioside sialyltransferase activity. Due to the organ size, the greatest total ganglioside sialyltransferase activities (SAT I and SAT IV) were detected in the liver of both bovine and ovine origin. PMID:24718572

  8. Analysis and optimization of interactions between peptides mimicking the GD2 ganglioside and the monoclonal antibody 14G2a.

    PubMed

    Horwacik, Irena; Kurciński, Mateusz; Bzowska, Małgorzata; Kowalczyk, Aleksandra K; Czaplicki, Dominik; Koliński, Andrzej; Rokita, Hanna

    2011-07-01

    Overexpression of the GD2 ganglioside (GD2) is a hallmark of neuroblastoma. The antigen is used in neuroblastoma diagnosis and to target newly developed therapies to cancer cells. Peptide mimetics are novel approaches in the design of antigens for vaccine development. We previously reported the isolation of five GD2-mimicking peptides from the LX-8 phage display library with the monoclonal antibody (mAb) 14G2a. The goal of our current study was to analyze and optimize the binding of the peptide mimetics to the mAb 14G2a. Therefore, we performed further experiments and supported them with molecular modeling to investigate structure-activity relationships that are the basis for the observed mimicry of GD2 by our peptides. Here, we show that the peptides have overlapping binding sites on the mAb, 14G2a and restricted specificity, as they did not crossreact with other ganglioside-specific antibodies tested. In addition we demonstrate that the phage environment was involved in the process of selection of our peptides. The AAEGD sequence taken from the viral major coat protein, p8, and added to the C-termini of the peptides #65, #85 and #94 significantly improved their binding to the mAb, 14G2a. By application of analogs with amino acid substitutions and sequence truncations, we elucidated the structure-activity relationships necessary for the interactions between the 14G2a mAb and the peptide #94 (RCNPNMEPPRCF). We identified amino acids indispensable for the observed GD2-mimicry by #94 and confirmed a pivotal role of the disulphide bridge between the cysteine residues of #94 for binding to the mAb 14G2a. More importantly, we report five new peptides demonstrating a significant improvement of mAb 14G2a binding. The experimental data were supported and expanded with molecular modeling tools. Taken together, the experimental results and the in silico data allowed us to probe in detail the mechanism of the molecular mimicry of GD2 by the peptides. Additionally, we

  9. Structure-Activity Relationship Study of the Neuritogenic Potential of the Glycan of Starfish Ganglioside LLG-3 ‡

    PubMed Central

    Yamagishi, Megumi; Hosoda-Yabe, Ritsuko; Tamai, Hideki; Konishi, Miku; Imamura, Akihiro; Ishida, Hideharu; Yabe, Tomio; Ando, Hiromune; Kiso, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    LLG-3 is a ganglioside isolated from the starfish Linchia laevigata. To clarify the structure-activity relationship of the glycan of LLG-3 toward rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells in the presence of nerve growth factor, a series of mono- to tetrasaccharide glycan derivatives were chemically synthesized and evaluated in vitro. The methyl group at C8 of the terminal sialic acid residue was crucial for neuritogenic activity, and the terminal trisaccharide moiety was the minimum active motif. Furthermore, the trisaccharide also stimulated neuritogenesis in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells via mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling. Phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 was rapidly induced by adding 1 or 10 nM of the trisaccharide. The ratio of phosphorylated ERK to ERK reached a maximum 5 min after stimulation, and then decreased gradually. However, the trisaccharide did not induce significant Akt phosphorylation. These effects were abolished by pretreatment with the MAPK inhibitor U0126, which inhibits enzymes MEK1 and MEK2. In addition, U0126 inhibited the phosphorylation of ERK 1/2 in response to the trisaccharide dose-dependently. Therefore, we concluded that the trisaccharide promotes neurite extension in SH-SY5Y cells via MAPK/ERK signaling, not Akt signaling. PMID:26690179

  10. The ganglioside antigen GD2 is surface-expressed in Ewing sarcoma and allows for MHC-independent immune targeting

    PubMed Central

    Kailayangiri, S; Altvater, B; Meltzer, J; Pscherer, S; Luecke, A; Dierkes, C; Titze, U; Leuchte, K; Landmeier, S; Hotfilder, M; Dirksen, U; Hardes, J; Gosheger, G; Juergens, H; Rossig, C

    2012-01-01

    Background: Novel treatment strategies are needed to cure disseminated Ewing sarcoma. Primitive neuroectodermal features and a mesenchymal stem cell origin are both compatible with aberrant expression of the ganglioside antigen GD2 and led us to explore GD2 immune targeting in this cancer. Methods: We investigated GD2 expression in Ewing sarcoma by immunofluorescence staining. We then assessed the antitumour activity of T cells expressing a chimeric antigen receptor specific for GD2 against Ewing sarcoma in vitro and in vivo. Results: Surface GD2 was detected in 10 out of 10 Ewing sarcoma cell lines and 3 out of 3 primary cell cultures. Moreover, diagnostic biopsies from 12 of 14 patients had uniform GD2 expression. T cells specifically modified to express the GD2-specific chimeric receptor 14. G2a-28ζ efficiently interacted with Ewing sarcoma cells, resulting in antigen-specific secretion of cytokines. Moreover, chimeric receptor gene-modified T cells from healthy donors and from a patient exerted potent, GD2-specific cytolytic responses to allogeneic and autologous Ewing sarcoma, including tumour cells grown as multicellular, anchorage-independent spheres. GD2-specific T cells further had activity against Ewing sarcoma xenografts. Conclusion: GD2 surface expression is a characteristic of Ewing sarcomas and provides a suitable target antigen for immunotherapeutic strategies to eradicate micrometastatic cells and prevent relapse in high-risk disease. PMID:22374462

  11. Binding of monoclonal antibody AA4 to gangliosides on rat basophilic leukemia cells produces changes similar to those seen with Fc epsilon receptor activation

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    The mAb AA4 binds to novel derivatives of the ganglioside Gd1b on rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3) cells. Some of the gangliosides are located close to the high affinity IgE receptor (Fc epsilon RI), and binding of mAb AA4 inhibits Fc epsilon RI-mediated histamine release. In the present study, mAb AA4 was found to bind exclusively to mast cells in all rat tissues examined. In vitro, within 1 min of mAb AA4 binding, the cells underwent striking morphologic changes. They lost their normal spindle shaped appearance, increased their ruffling, and spread over the surface of the culture dish. These changes were accompanied by a redistribution of the cytoskeletal elements, actin, tubulin, and vimentin, but only the actin was associated with the membrane ruffles. Binding of mAb AA4 also induces a rise in intracellular calcium, stimulates phosphatidyl inositol breakdown, and activates PKC. However, the extent of these changes was less than that observed when the cells were stimulated with antigen or antibody directed against the Fc epsilon RI. None of these changes associated with mAb AA4 binding were seen when the cells were exposed to nonspecific IgG, IgE, or four other anti-cell surface antibodies, nor were the changes induced by binding mAb AA4 at 4 degrees C or in the absence of extracellular calcium. Although mAb AA4 does not stimulate histamine release, it enhances the effect of the calcium ionophore A23187 mediated release. The morphological and biochemical effects produced by mAb AA4 are similar to those seen following activation of the cell through the IgE receptor. Therefore, the surface gangliosides which bind mAb AA4 may function in modulating secretory events. PMID:1370498

  12. Association of antibodies to ganglioside complexes and conduction blocks in axonal Guillain-Barré syndrome presenting as acute motor conduction block neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Créange, Alain; Shahrizaila, Nortina; Salhi, Hayet; Lefaucheur, Jean-Pascal; Yuki, Nobuhiro

    2014-06-01

    A close relationship between acute motor conduction block neuropathy and antibodies against the complex of GM1 and GalNAc-GD1a has been reported. This study investigates the hypothesis that conduction block at the early phase of axonal Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is also associated with such ganglioside complexes. Sera were obtained from seven French patients with initial evidence of isolated conduction blocks that resolved or progressed to acute motor axonal neuropathy. Serum IgG to asialo-GM1 and gangliosides of LM1, GM1, GM1b, GD1a, GalNAc-GD1a, GD1b, GT1a, GT1b, and GQ1b as well as their complexes were measured. Five of seven patients progressed within the first month of disease to AMAN. One patient had IgG antibodies against the complex of asialo-GM1 and each of the other ganglioside antigens. Another patient carried IgG antibodies against GM1 complex with GM1b, GD1a, and GT1a as well as asialo-GM1 complex with GD1a and GT1a. None had IgG antibodies against GM1/GalNAc-GD1a complex. Six patients had IgG against single antigens GM1, GD1a, GalNAc-GD1a, GD1b, and asialo-GM1. In three patients, a reduced reaction against GM1/GalNAc-GD1a complex was observed. The presence of conduction block in axonal GBS is not always associated with anti-GM1/GalNAc-GD1a complex antibodies.

  13. Analysis of genes involved in response to doxorubicin and a GD2 ganglioside-specific 14G2a monoclonal antibody in IMR-32 human neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Horwacik, Irena; Durbas, Małgorzata; Boratyn, Elżbieta; Sawicka, Anna; Węgrzyn, Paulina; Krzanik, Sylwia; Górka, Anna; Drożniak, Joanna; Augustyniak, Ewa; Kowalczyk, Aleksandra; Rokita, Hanna

    2015-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is the most common extra-cranial solid tumor of childhood and it is characterized by the presence of a glycosphingolipid, GD2 ganglioside. Monoclonal antibodies targeting the antigen are currently tested in clinical trials. Additionally, several research groups reported results revealing that ganglioside-specific antibodies can affect cellular signaling and cause direct cytotoxicity against tumor cells. To shed more light on gene expression signatures of tumor cells, we used microarrays to analyze changes of transcriptome in IMR-32 human neuroblastoma cell cultures treated with doxorubicin (DOX) or a mouse monoclonal antibody binding to GD2 ganglioside 14G2a (mAb) for 24 h. The obtained results highlight that disparate cellular pathways are regulated by doxorubicin and 14G2a. Next, we used RT-PCR to verify mRNA levels of selected DOX-responsive genes such as RPS27L, PPM1D, SESN1, CDKN1A, TNFSF10B, and 14G2a-responsive genes such as SVIL, JUN, RASSF6, TLX2, ID1. Then, we applied western blot and analyzed levels of RPS27L, PPM1D, sestrin 1 proteins after DOX-treatment. Additionally, we aimed to measure effects of doxorubicin and topotecan (TPT) and 14G2a on expression of a novel human NDUFAF2 gene encoding for mimitin protein (MYC-induced mitochondrial protein) and correlate it with expression of the MYCN gene. We showed that expression of both genes was concomitantly decreased in the 14G2a-treated IMR-32 cells after 24 h and 48 h. Our results extend knowledge on gene expression profiles after application of DOX and 14G2a in our model and reveal promising candidates for further research aimed at finding novel anti-neuroblastoma targets. PMID:26284262

  14. Relative Roles of GM1 Ganglioside, N-Acylneuraminic Acids, and α2β1 Integrin in Mediating Rotavirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Fiona E.; Böhm, Raphael; Dang, Vi T.; Holloway, Gavan; Haselhorst, Thomas; Madge, Paul D.; Deveryshetty, Jaigeeth; Yu, Xing; Blanchard, Helen; von Itzstein, Mark

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT N-acetyl- and N-glycolylneuraminic acids (Sia) and α2β1 integrin are frequently used by rotaviruses as cellular receptors through recognition by virion spike protein VP4. The VP4 subunit VP8*, derived from Wa rotavirus, binds the internal N-acetylneuraminic acid on ganglioside GM1. Wa infection is increased by enhanced internal Sia access following terminal Sia removal from main glycan chains with sialidase. The GM1 ligand cholera toxin B (CTB) reduces Wa infectivity. Here, we found sialidase treatment increased cellular GM1 availability and the infectivity of several other human (including RV-3) and animal rotaviruses, typically rendering them susceptible to methyl α-d-N-acetylneuraminide treatment, but did not alter α2β1 usage. CTB reduced the infectivity of these viruses. Aceramido-GM1 inhibited Wa and RV-3 infectivity in untreated and sialidase-treated cells, and GM1 supplementation increased their infectivity, demonstrating the importance of GM1 for infection. Wa recognition of α2β1 and internal Sia were at least partially independent. Rotavirus usage of GM1 was mapped to VP4 using virus reassortants, and RV-3 VP8* bound aceramido-GM1 by saturation transfer difference nuclear magnetic resonance (STD NMR). Most rotaviruses recognizing terminal Sia did not use GM1, including RRV. RRV VP8* interacted minimally with aceramido-GM1 by STD NMR. Unusually, TFR-41 rotavirus infectivity depended upon terminal Sia and GM1. Competition of CTB, Sia, and/or aceramido-GM1 with cell binding by VP8* from representative rotaviruses showed that rotavirus Sia and GM1 preferences resulted from VP8*-cell binding. Our major finding is that infection by human rotaviruses of commonly occurring VP4 serotypes involves VP8* binding to cell surface GM1 glycan, typically including the internal N-acetylneuraminic acid. IMPORTANCE Rotaviruses, the major cause of severe infantile gastroenteritis, recognize cell surface receptors through virus spike protein VP4. Several animal

  15. Endothelin A Receptor Antagonism Enhances Inhibitory Effects of Anti-Ganglioside GD2 Monoclonal Antibody on Invasiveness and Viability of Human Osteosarcoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bo; Wu, Yi; Zhou, Yu; Peng, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1)/endothelin A receptor (ETAR) signaling is important for osteosarcoma (OS) progression. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) targeting ganglioside GD2 reportedly inhibit tumor cell viability independent of the immune system. A recent study suggests that ganglioside GD2 may play an important role in OS progression. In the present study, we for the first time explored the effects of anti-GD2 mAb alone or in combination with ETAR antagonist on OS cell invasiveness and viability. Human OS cell lines Saos-2, MG-63 and SJSA-1 were treated with control IgG (PK136 mAb, 50 µg/mL), anti-GD2 14G2a mAb (50 µg/mL), selective ETAR antagonist BQ123 (5 µM), or 14G2a (50 µg/mL)+BQ123 (5 µM). Cells with knockdown of ETAR (ETAR-shRNA) with or without 14G2a mAb treatment were also tested. Cells treated with selective phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor BKM120 (50 µM) were used as a positive control. Our results showed that BQ123, ETAR-shRNA and 14G2a mAb individually decreased cell invasion and viability, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) expression and activity, PI3k activity, and phosphorylation at serine 473 (ser473) of Akt in OS cells. 14G2a mAb in combination with BQ123 or ETAR-shRNA showed significantly stronger inhibitory effects compared with each individual treatment. In all three cell lines tested, 14G2a mAb in combination with BQ123 showed the strongest inhibitory effects. In conclusion, we provide the first in vitro evidence that anti-ganglioside GD2 14G2a mAb effectively inhibits cell invasiveness, MMP-2 expression and activity, and cell viability in human OS cells. ETAR antagonist BQ123 significantly enhances the inhibitory effects of 14G2a mAb, likely mainly through inhibiting the PI3K/Akt pathway. This study adds novel insights into OS treatment, which will serve as a solid basis for future in vivo studies on the effects of combined treatment of OS with anti-ganglioside GD2 mAbs and ETAR antagonists. PMID:24727660

  16. Endothelin A receptor antagonism enhances inhibitory effects of anti-ganglioside GD2 monoclonal antibody on invasiveness and viability of human osteosarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bo; Wu, Yi; Zhou, Yu; Peng, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1)/endothelin A receptor (ETAR) signaling is important for osteosarcoma (OS) progression. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) targeting ganglioside GD2 reportedly inhibit tumor cell viability independent of the immune system. A recent study suggests that ganglioside GD2 may play an important role in OS progression. In the present study, we for the first time explored the effects of anti-GD2 mAb alone or in combination with ETAR antagonist on OS cell invasiveness and viability. Human OS cell lines Saos-2, MG-63 and SJSA-1 were treated with control IgG (PK136 mAb, 50 µg/mL), anti-GD2 14G2a mAb (50 µg/mL), selective ETAR antagonist BQ123 (5 µM), or 14G2a (50 µg/mL)+BQ123 (5 µM). Cells with knockdown of ETAR (ETAR-shRNA) with or without 14G2a mAb treatment were also tested. Cells treated with selective phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor BKM120 (50 µM) were used as a positive control. Our results showed that BQ123, ETAR-shRNA and 14G2a mAb individually decreased cell invasion and viability, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) expression and activity, PI3k activity, and phosphorylation at serine 473 (ser473) of Akt in OS cells. 14G2a mAb in combination with BQ123 or ETAR-shRNA showed significantly stronger inhibitory effects compared with each individual treatment. In all three cell lines tested, 14G2a mAb in combination with BQ123 showed the strongest inhibitory effects. In conclusion, we provide the first in vitro evidence that anti-ganglioside GD2 14G2a mAb effectively inhibits cell invasiveness, MMP-2 expression and activity, and cell viability in human OS cells. ETAR antagonist BQ123 significantly enhances the inhibitory effects of 14G2a mAb, likely mainly through inhibiting the PI3K/Akt pathway. This study adds novel insights into OS treatment, which will serve as a solid basis for future in vivo studies on the effects of combined treatment of OS with anti-ganglioside GD2 mAbs and ETAR antagonists. PMID:24727660

  17. A natural human IgM that binds to gangliosides is therapeutic in murine models of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiaohua; Denic, Aleksandar; Jordan, Luke R.; Wittenberg, Nathan J.; Warrington, Arthur E.; Wootla, Bharath; Papke, Louisa M.; Zoecklein, Laurie J.; Yoo, Daehan; Shaver, Jonah; Oh, Sang-Hyun; Pease, Larry R.; Rodriguez, Moses

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating, fatal neurological disease that primarily affects spinal cord anterior horn cells and their axons for which there is no treatment. Here we report the use of a recombinant natural human IgM that binds to the surface of neurons and supports neurite extension, rHIgM12, as a therapeutic strategy in murine models of human ALS. A single 200 µg intraperitoneal dose of rHIgM12 increases survival in two independent genetic-based mutant SOD1 mouse strains (SOD1G86R and SOD1G93A) by 8 and 10 days, delays the onset of neurological deficits by 16 days, delays the onset of weight loss by 5 days, and preserves spinal cord axons and anterior horn neurons. Immuno-overlay of thin layer chromatography and surface plasmon resonance show that rHIgM12 binds with high affinity to the complex gangliosides GD1a and GT1b. Addition of rHIgM12 to neurons in culture increases α-tubulin tyrosination levels, suggesting an alteration of microtubule dynamics. We previously reported that a single peripheral dose of rHIgM12 preserved neurological function in a murine model of demyelination with axon loss. Because rHIgM12 improves three different models of neurological disease, we propose that the IgM might act late in the cascade of neuronal stress and/or death by a broad mechanism. PMID:26035393

  18. Treatment of neuroblastoma meningeal carcinomatosis with intrathecal application of alpha-emitting atomic nanogenerators targeting disialo-ganglioside GD2.

    PubMed

    Miederer, Matthias; McDevitt, Michael R; Borchardt, Paul; Bergman, Ira; Kramer, Kim; Cheung, Nai-Kong V; Scheinberg, David A

    2004-10-15

    Labeling of specific antibodies with bifunctional chelated Actinium-225 ((225)Ac; an alpha generator) allows the formation of new, highly potent and selective alpha-emitting anticancer drugs. We synthesized and evaluated a radioimmunoconjugate based on 3F8, an IgG(3) antibody that specifically binds to ganglioside GD2, which is overexpressed by many neuroectodermal tumors including neuroblastoma. The (225)Ac-1,4,7,10-tetra-azacylododecane (DOTA)-3F8 construct was evaluated for radiochemical purity and sterility, immunoreactivity, cytotoxicity in vitro, induction of apoptosis on GD2-positive cells, as well as for pharmacological biodistribution and metabolism of the (225)Ac generator and its daughters in a nude mouse xenograft model of neuroblastoma. The (225)Ac-3F8 showed an IC(50) of 3 Bq/ml (80 pCi/ml) on the neuroblastoma cell line, NMB7, in vitro. Apoptosis of these cells was not observed. Biodistribution in mice showed specific targeting of a subcutaneous tumor; there was redistribution of the (225)Ac daughter nuclides mainly from blood to kidneys and to small intestine. Toxicity was examined in cynomolgus monkeys. Monkeys injected with 1 to 3 doses of intrathecal (225)Ac-3F8 radioimmunoconjugate (80 to 150 kBq/kg total dose) did not show signs of toxicity based on blood chemistry, complete blood counts, or by clinical evaluations. Therapeutic efficacy of intrathecal (225)Ac-3F8 was studied in a nude rat xenograft model of meningeal carcinomatosis. The (225)Ac-3F8 treatment improved survival 2-fold from 16 to 34 days (P = 0.01). In conclusion, in vivo alpha generators targeted by 3F8 warrant additional study as a possible new approach to the treatment of carcinomatous meningitis.

  19. Interaction between Simian Virus 40 Major Capsid Protein VP1 and Cell Surface Ganglioside GM1 Triggers Vacuole Formation

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yong; Motamedi, Nasim; Magaldi, Thomas G.; Gee, Gretchen V.; Atwood, Walter J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Simian virus 40 (SV40), a polyomavirus that has served as an important model to understand many aspects of biology, induces dramatic cytoplasmic vacuolization late during productive infection of monkey host cells. Although this activity led to the discovery of the virus in 1960, the mechanism of vacuolization is still not known. Pentamers of the major SV40 capsid protein VP1 bind to the ganglioside GM1, which serves as the cellular receptor for the virus. In this report, we show that binding of VP1 to cell surface GM1 plays a key role in SV40 infection-induced vacuolization. We previously showed that SV40 VP1 mutants defective for GM1 binding fail to induce vacuolization, even though they replicate efficiently. Here, we show that interfering with GM1-VP1 binding by knockdown of GM1 after infection is established abrogates vacuolization by wild-type SV40. Vacuole formation during permissive infection requires efficient virus release, and conditioned medium harvested late during SV40 infection rapidly induces vacuoles in a VP1- and GM1-dependent fashion. Furthermore, vacuolization can also be induced by a nonreplicating SV40 pseudovirus in a GM1-dependent manner, and a mutation in BK pseudovirus VP1 that generates GM1 binding confers vacuole-inducing activity. Vacuolization can also be triggered by purified pentamers of wild-type SV40 VP1, but not by GM1 binding-defective pentamers or by intracellular expression of VP1. These results demonstrate that SV40 infection-induced vacuolization is caused by the binding of released progeny viruses to GM1, thereby identifying the molecular trigger for the activity that led to the discovery of SV40. PMID:27006465

  20. Treatment of neuroblastoma meningeal carcinomatosis with intrathecal application of alpha-emitting atomic nanogenerators targeting disialo-ganglioside GD2.

    PubMed

    Miederer, Matthias; McDevitt, Michael R; Borchardt, Paul; Bergman, Ira; Kramer, Kim; Cheung, Nai-Kong V; Scheinberg, David A

    2004-10-15

    Labeling of specific antibodies with bifunctional chelated Actinium-225 ((225)Ac; an alpha generator) allows the formation of new, highly potent and selective alpha-emitting anticancer drugs. We synthesized and evaluated a radioimmunoconjugate based on 3F8, an IgG(3) antibody that specifically binds to ganglioside GD2, which is overexpressed by many neuroectodermal tumors including neuroblastoma. The (225)Ac-1,4,7,10-tetra-azacylododecane (DOTA)-3F8 construct was evaluated for radiochemical purity and sterility, immunoreactivity, cytotoxicity in vitro, induction of apoptosis on GD2-positive cells, as well as for pharmacological biodistribution and metabolism of the (225)Ac generator and its daughters in a nude mouse xenograft model of neuroblastoma. The (225)Ac-3F8 showed an IC(50) of 3 Bq/ml (80 pCi/ml) on the neuroblastoma cell line, NMB7, in vitro. Apoptosis of these cells was not observed. Biodistribution in mice showed specific targeting of a subcutaneous tumor; there was redistribution of the (225)Ac daughter nuclides mainly from blood to kidneys and to small intestine. Toxicity was examined in cynomolgus monkeys. Monkeys injected with 1 to 3 doses of intrathecal (225)Ac-3F8 radioimmunoconjugate (80 to 150 kBq/kg total dose) did not show signs of toxicity based on blood chemistry, complete blood counts, or by clinical evaluations. Therapeutic efficacy of intrathecal (225)Ac-3F8 was studied in a nude rat xenograft model of meningeal carcinomatosis. The (225)Ac-3F8 treatment improved survival 2-fold from 16 to 34 days (P = 0.01). In conclusion, in vivo alpha generators targeted by 3F8 warrant additional study as a possible new approach to the treatment of carcinomatous meningitis. PMID:15501978

  1. A natural human IgM that binds to gangliosides is therapeutic in murine models of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaohua; Denic, Aleksandar; Jordan, Luke R; Wittenberg, Nathan J; Warrington, Arthur E; Wootla, Bharath; Papke, Louisa M; Zoecklein, Laurie J; Yoo, Daehan; Shaver, Jonah; Oh, Sang-Hyun; Pease, Larry R; Rodriguez, Moses

    2015-08-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating, fatal neurological disease that primarily affects spinal cord anterior horn cells and their axons for which there is no treatment. Here we report the use of a recombinant natural human IgM that binds to the surface of neurons and supports neurite extension, rHIgM12, as a therapeutic strategy in murine models of human ALS. A single 200 µg intraperitoneal dose of rHIgM12 increases survival in two independent genetic-based mutant SOD1 mouse strains (SOD1G86R and SOD1G93A) by 8 and 10 days, delays the onset of neurological deficits by 16 days, delays the onset of weight loss by 5 days, and preserves spinal cord axons and anterior horn neurons. Immuno-overlay of thin layer chromatography and surface plasmon resonance show that rHIgM12 binds with high affinity to the complex gangliosides GD1a and GT1b. Addition of rHIgM12 to neurons in culture increases α-tubulin tyrosination levels, suggesting an alteration of microtubule dynamics. We previously reported that a single peripheral dose of rHIgM12 preserved neurological function in a murine model of demyelination with axon loss. Because rHIgM12 improves three different models of neurological disease, we propose that the IgM might act late in the cascade of neuronal stress and/or death by a broad mechanism.

  2. The size of lipid rafts: an atomic force microscopy study of ganglioside GM1 domains in sphingomyelin/DOPC/cholesterol membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Chunbo; Furlong, Jennifer; Burgos, Pierre; Johnston, Linda J

    2002-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy has been used to study the distribution of ganglioside GM1 in model membranes composed of ternary lipid mixtures that mimic the composition of lipid rafts. The results demonstrate that addition of 1% GM1 to 1:1:1 sphingomyelin/dioleoylphosphatidylcholine/cholesterol monolayers leads to the formation of small ganglioside-rich microdomains (40-100 nm in size) that are localized preferentially in the more ordered sphingomyelin/cholesterol-rich phase. With 5% GM1 some GM1 microdomains are also detected in the dioleoylphosphatidylcholine-rich phase. A similar preferential localization of GM1 in the ordered phase is observed for bilayers with the same ternary lipid mixture in the upper leaflet. The small GM1-rich domains observed in these experiments are similar to the sizes for lipid rafts in natural membranes but considerably smaller than the ordered bilayer domains that have been shown to be enriched in GM1 in recent fluorescence microscopy studies of lipid bilayers. The combined data from a number of studies of model membranes indicate that lateral organization occurs on a variety of length scales and mimics many of the properties of natural membranes. PMID:11964241

  3. Stage-specific embryonic antigens (SSEA-3 and -4) are epitopes of a unique globo-series ganglioside isolated from human teratocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Kannagi, R; Cochran, N A; Ishigami, F; Hakomori, S; Andrews, P W; Knowles, B B; Solter, D

    1983-01-01

    Two monoclonal antibodies (MC631 and MC813-70) raised against 4- to 8-cell stage mouse embryos and a human teratocarcinoma cell line, respectively, detect the stage-specific embryonic antigens, the previously defined SSEA-3 and SSEA-4, described herein. These antibodies were both reactive with a unique globo-series ganglioside with the structure shown below: (formula; see text) The antibodies were found to recognize sequential regions of this ganglioside, i.e., MC813-70 recognizes the terminal 'a' structure whereas antibody MC631 recognizes the internal 'b' structure. Thus, a set of two antibodies defines this unique embryonic antigen. During differentiation of human teratocarcinoma 2102Ep cells, the globo-series glycolipids defined by these antibodies decrease and the lacto-series glycolipids, reacting with the SSEA-1 antibody appear. This antigenic conversion suggests that a shift of glycolipid synthesis from globo-series to lacto-series glycolipids occurs during differentiation of human teratocarcinoma and perhaps of pre-implantation mouse embryos. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:6141938

  4. GM1 ganglioside activates ERK1/2 and Akt downstream of Trk tyrosine kinase and protects PC12 cells against hydrogen peroxide toxicity.

    PubMed

    Zakharova, Irina O; Sokolova, Tatyana V; Vlasova, Yulia A; Furaev, Victor V; Rychkova, Maria P; Avrova, Natalia F

    2014-11-01

    Ganglioside GM1 at micro- and nanomolar concentrations was shown to increase the viability of pheochromocytoma PC12 cells exposed to hydrogen peroxide and diminish the accumulation of reactive oxygen species and oxidative inactivation of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase, the effects of micromolar GM1 being more pronounced than those of nanomolar GM1. These effects of GM1 were abolished by Trk receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor and diminished by MEK1/2, phosphoinositide 3-kinase and protein kinase C inhibitors. Hydrogen peroxide activates Trk tyrosine kinase; Akt and ERK1/2 are activated downstream of this protein kinase. GM1 was found to activate Trk receptor tyrosine kinase in PC12 cells. GM1 (100 nM and 10 µM) increased the basal activity of Akt, but did not change Akt activity in cells exposed to hydrogen peroxide. Basal ERK1/2 activity in PC12 cells was increased by GM1 at a concentration of 10 µM, but not at nanomolar concentrations. Activation of ERK1/2 by hydrogen peroxide was enhanced by GM1 at a concentration of 10 µM and to a lesser extent at a concentration of 100 nM. Thus, the protective and metabolic effects of GM1 ganglioside on PC12 cells exposed to hydrogen peroxide appear to depend on the activation of Trk receptor tyrosine kinase and downstream activation of Akt and ERK1/2.

  5. A Monoclonal Antibody to O-Acetyl-GD2 Ganglioside and Not to GD2 Shows Potent Anti-Tumor Activity without Peripheral Nervous System Cross-Reactivity

    PubMed Central

    Cochonneau, Denis; Chaumette, Tanguy; Clemenceau, Béatrice; Leprieur, Stéphanie; Bougras, Gwenola; Supiot, Stéphane; Mussini, Jean-Marie; Barbet, Jacques; Saba, Julie; Paris, François; Aubry, Jacques; Birklé, Stéphane

    2011-01-01

    Background Monoclonal antibodies (mAb) against GD2 ganglioside have been shown to be effective for the treatment of neuroblastoma. Beneficial actions are, however, associated with generalized pain due to the binding of anti- GD2 mAbs to peripheral nerve fibers followed by complement activation. Neuroblastoma cells that express GD2 also express its O-acetyl derivative, O-acetyl- GD2 ganglioside (OAcGD2). Hence, we investigated the distribution of OAcGD2 in human tissues using mAb 8B6 to study the cross-reactivity of mAb 8B6 with human tissues. Methodology/Principal Findings The distribution of OAcGD2 was performed in normal and malignant tissues using an immunoperoxydase technique. Anti-tumor properties of mAb 8B6 were studied in vitro and in vivo in a transplanted tumor model in mice. We found that OAcGD2 is not expressed by peripheral nerve fibers. Furthermore, we demonstrated that mAb 8B6 was very effective in the in vitro and in vivo suppression of the growth of tumor cells. Importantly, mAb 8B6 anti-tumor efficacy was comparable to that of mAb 14G2a specific to GD2. Conclusion/Significance Development of therapeutic antibodies specific to OAcGD2 may offer treatment options with reduced adverse side effects, thereby allowing dose escalation of antibodies. PMID:21966461

  6. Lack of Set Theory Relevant Prerequisite Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dogan-Dunlap, Hamide

    2006-01-01

    Many students struggle with college mathematics topics due to a lack of mastery of prerequisite knowledge. Set theory language is one such prerequisite for linear algebra courses. Many students' mistakes on linear algebra questions reveal a lack of mastery of set theory knowledge. This paper reports the findings of a qualitative analysis of a…

  7. Motor-dominant polyneuropathy due to IgM monoclonal antibody against disialosyl gangliosides in a patient with mantle cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Mori, Akio; Ueno, Yuji; Kuroki, Takuma; Hoshino, Yasunobu; Shimura, Hideki; Sekiguchi, Yasunobu; Noguchi, Masaaki; Hamada, Yukihiro; Kusunoki, Susumu; Hattori, Nobutaka; Urabe, Takao

    2014-02-15

    A rapidly progressive motor-dominant neuropathy associated with IgM monoclonal antibody against gangliosides with disialosyl residues, GD3, GD1b, GT1b, and GQ1b, in a 60-year-old Japanese man with mantle cell lymphoma is reported. Plasma exchange and chemotherapy for mantle cell lymphoma were performed for the neuropathy and mantle cell lymphoma. After therapy, the motor neuropathy dramatically improved concurrently with substantial reduction of the antibody activities especially in reaction to GD1b. This is the first case report of neuropathy with anti-disialosyl IgM antibodies associated with mantle cell lymphoma, and plasma exchange and chemotherapy were effective. PMID:24315580

  8. Identification of gangliosides recognized by IgG anti-GalNAc-GD1a antibodies in bovine spinal motor neurons and motor nerves.

    PubMed

    Yoshino, Hiide; Ariga, Toshio; Suzuki, Akemi; Yu, Robert K; Miyatake, Tadashi

    2008-08-28

    The presence of immunoglobulin G (IgG)-type antibodies to the ganglioside, N-acetylgalactosaminyl GD1a (GalNAc-GD1a), is closely associated with the pure motor type of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). In the present study, we isolated disialogangliosides from the motor neurons and motor nerves of bovine spinal cords by DEAE-Sephadex column chromatography. The disialoganglioside fraction contained GD1a, GD2, GD1b, and three gangliosides, designated X1, X2 and X3. Serum from a patient with axonal GBS with IgG anti-GalNAc-GD1a antibody yielded positive immunostaining with X1, X2, and X3. When isolated by preparative thin-layer chromatography (TLC), X1 migrated at the same position as GalNAc-GD1a from Tay-Sachs brain, suggesting that X1 is GalNAc-GD1a containing N-acetylneuraminic acid (NeuAc). TLC of isolated X2 revealed that it migrated between GD1a and GD2. On the other hand, X3 had a migratory rate on TLC between and GD1b and GT1b. Since both X2 and X3 were recognized by IgG anti-GalNAc-GD1a antibody, the results suggest that X2 is a GalNAc-GD1a species containing a mixture containing a NeuAc-and an N-glycolylneuraminic acid (NeuGc) species, and X3 is a GalNAc-GD1a species with two NeuGc. This evidence indicating the specific localization of GalNAc-GD1a and its isomers in spinal motor neurons should be useful in elucidating the pathogenic role of IgG anti-GalNAc-GD1a antibody in pure motor-type GBS.

  9. Ganglioside GD3 Enhances Invasiveness of Gliomas by Forming a Complex with Platelet-derived Growth Factor Receptor α and Yes Kinase*

    PubMed Central

    Ohkawa, Yuki; Momota, Hiroyuki; Kato, Akira; Hashimoto, Noboru; Tsuda, Yusuke; Kotani, Norihiro; Honke, Koichi; Suzumura, Akio; Furukawa, Keiko; Ohmi, Yuhsuke; Natsume, Atsushi; Wakabayashi, Toshihiko; Furukawa, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    There have been a few studies on the ganglioside expression in human glioma tissues. However, the role of these gangliosides such as GD3 and GD2 has not been well understood. In this study we employed a genetically engineered mouse model of glioma to clarify the functions of GD3 in gliomas. Forced expression of platelet-derived growth factor B in cultured astrocytes derived from p53-deficient mice resulted in the expression of GD3 and GD2. GD3-positive astrocytes exhibited increased cell growth and invasion activities along with elevated phosphorylation of Akt and Yes kinase. By enzyme-mediated activation of radical sources reaction and mass spectrometry, we identified PDGF receptor α (PDGFRα) as a GD3-associated molecule. GD3-positive astrocytes showed a significant amount of PDGFRα in glycolipid-enriched microdomains/rafts compared with GD3-negative cells. Src kinase family Yes was co-precipitated with PDGFRα, and its pivotal role in the increased cell invasion of GD3-positive astrocytes was demonstrated by silencing with anti-Yes siRNA. Direct association between PDGFRα and GD3 was also shown, suggesting that GD3 forms ternary complex with PDGFRα and Yes. The fact that GD3, PDGFRα, and activated Yes were colocalized in lamellipodia and the edge of tumors in cultured cells and glioma tissues, respectively, suggests that GD3 induced by platelet-derived growth factor B enhances PDGF signals in glycolipid-enriched microdomain/rafts, leading to the promotion of malignant phenotypes such as cell proliferation and invasion in gliomas. PMID:25940087

  10. Relationship between ganglioside expression and anti-cancer effects of the monoclonal antibody against epithelial cell adhesion molecule in colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Dong Hoon; Ryu, Jae-Sung; Kim, Chang-Hyun; Ko, Kisung; Ma, Jin Yeul; Hwang, Kyung-A; Choo, Young-Kug

    2011-12-31

    The human colorectal carcinoma-associated GA733 antigen epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) was initially described as a cell surface protein selectively expressed in some myeloid cancers. Gangliosides are sialic acid-containing glycosphingolipids involved in inflammation and oncogenesis. We have demonstrated that treatment with anti-EpCAM mAb and RAW264.7 cells significant inhibited the cell growth in SW620 cancer cells, but neither anti-EpCAM mAb nor RAW264.7 cells alone induced cytotoxicity. The relationship between ganglioside expression and the anti- cancer effects of anti-EpCAM mAb and RAW264.7 was investigated by high-performance thin-layer chromatography. The results demonstrated that expression of GM1 and GD1a significantly increased in the ability of anti-EpCAM to inhibit cell growth in SW620 cells. Anti-EpCAM mAb treatment increased the expression of anti-apoptotic proteins such as Bcl-2, but the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins Bax, TNF-α, caspase-3, cleaved caspase-3, and cleaved caspase-8 were unaltered. We observed that anti-EpCAM mAb significantly inhibited the growth of colon tumors, as determined by a decrease in tumor volume and weight. The expression of anti-apoptotic protein was inhibited by treatment with anti-EpCAM mAb, whereas the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins was increased. These results suggest that GD1a and GM1 were closely related to anticancer effects of anti-EpCAM mAb. In light of these results, further clinical investigation should be conducted on anti-EpCAM mAb to determine its possible chemopreventive and/or therapeutic efficacy against human colon cancer.

  11. Ganglioside GD3 Enhances Invasiveness of Gliomas by Forming a Complex with Platelet-derived Growth Factor Receptor α and Yes Kinase.

    PubMed

    Ohkawa, Yuki; Momota, Hiroyuki; Kato, Akira; Hashimoto, Noboru; Tsuda, Yusuke; Kotani, Norihiro; Honke, Koichi; Suzumura, Akio; Furukawa, Keiko; Ohmi, Yuhsuke; Natsume, Atsushi; Wakabayashi, Toshihiko; Furukawa, Koichi

    2015-06-26

    There have been a few studies on the ganglioside expression in human glioma tissues. However, the role of these gangliosides such as GD3 and GD2 has not been well understood. In this study we employed a genetically engineered mouse model of glioma to clarify the functions of GD3 in gliomas. Forced expression of platelet-derived growth factor B in cultured astrocytes derived from p53-deficient mice resulted in the expression of GD3 and GD2. GD3-positive astrocytes exhibited increased cell growth and invasion activities along with elevated phosphorylation of Akt and Yes kinase. By enzyme-mediated activation of radical sources reaction and mass spectrometry, we identified PDGF receptor α (PDGFRα) as a GD3-associated molecule. GD3-positive astrocytes showed a significant amount of PDGFRα in glycolipid-enriched microdomains/rafts compared with GD3-negative cells. Src kinase family Yes was co-precipitated with PDGFRα, and its pivotal role in the increased cell invasion of GD3-positive astrocytes was demonstrated by silencing with anti-Yes siRNA. Direct association between PDGFRα and GD3 was also shown, suggesting that GD3 forms ternary complex with PDGFRα and Yes. The fact that GD3, PDGFRα, and activated Yes were colocalized in lamellipodia and the edge of tumors in cultured cells and glioma tissues, respectively, suggests that GD3 induced by platelet-derived growth factor B enhances PDGF signals in glycolipid-enriched microdomain/rafts, leading to the promotion of malignant phenotypes such as cell proliferation and invasion in gliomas.

  12. A Phenomenological Study on Lack of Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Research and Reviews, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research is to point out the underlying reasons about the lack of motivation at academic activities concerning Attribution Theory. Attribution Theory trys to understand how the people answer "why" question and how they do casual explanations. This research is a qualitative based research. It used the phenomenological…

  13. The regulation of ER export and Golgi retention of ST3Gal5 (GM3/GM4 synthase) and B4GalNAcT1 (GM2/GD2/GA2 synthase) by arginine/lysine-based motif adjacent to the transmembrane domain.

    PubMed

    Uemura, Satoshi; Shishido, Fumi; Kashimura, Madoka; Inokuchi, Jin-ichi

    2015-12-01

    In the Golgi maturation model, the Golgi cisternae dynamically mature along a secretory pathway. In this dynamic process, glycosyltransferases are transported from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi apparatus where they remain and function. The precise mechanism behind this maturation process remains unclear. We investigated two glycosyltransferases, ST3Gal5 (ST3G5) and B4GalNAcT1 (B4GN1), involved in ganglioside synthesis and examined their signal sequences for ER export and Golgi retention. Reports have suggested that the [R/K](X)[R/K] motif functions as an ER exporting signal; however, this signal sequence is insufficient in stably expressed, full-length ST3G5. Through further analysis, we have clarified that the (2)R(3)R(X)(5) (9)K(X)(3) (13)K sequence in ST3G5 is essential for ER export. We have named the sequence the R/K-based motif. On the other hand, for ER export of B4GN1, the homodimer formation in addition to the R/K-based motif is required for ER export suggesting the importance of unidentified lumenal side interaction. We found that ST3G5 R2A/R3A and K9A/K13A mutants localized not only in Golgi apparatus but also in endosomes. Furthermore, the amounts of mature type asparagine-linked (N)-glycans in ST3G5 R2A/R3A and K9A/K13A mutants were decreased compared with those in wild-type proteins, and the stability of the mutants was lower. These results suggest that the R/K-based motif is necessary for the Golgi retention of ST3G5 and that the retention is involved in the maturation of N-glycans and in stability. Thus, several basic amino acids located on the cytoplasmic tail of ST3G5 play important roles in both ER export and Golgi retention.

  14. The regulation of ER export and Golgi retention of ST3Gal5 (GM3/GM4 synthase) and B4GalNAcT1 (GM2/GD2/GA2 synthase) by arginine/lysine-based motif adjacent to the transmembrane domain.

    PubMed

    Uemura, Satoshi; Shishido, Fumi; Kashimura, Madoka; Inokuchi, Jin-ichi

    2015-12-01

    In the Golgi maturation model, the Golgi cisternae dynamically mature along a secretory pathway. In this dynamic process, glycosyltransferases are transported from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi apparatus where they remain and function. The precise mechanism behind this maturation process remains unclear. We investigated two glycosyltransferases, ST3Gal5 (ST3G5) and B4GalNAcT1 (B4GN1), involved in ganglioside synthesis and examined their signal sequences for ER export and Golgi retention. Reports have suggested that the [R/K](X)[R/K] motif functions as an ER exporting signal; however, this signal sequence is insufficient in stably expressed, full-length ST3G5. Through further analysis, we have clarified that the (2)R(3)R(X)(5) (9)K(X)(3) (13)K sequence in ST3G5 is essential for ER export. We have named the sequence the R/K-based motif. On the other hand, for ER export of B4GN1, the homodimer formation in addition to the R/K-based motif is required for ER export suggesting the importance of unidentified lumenal side interaction. We found that ST3G5 R2A/R3A and K9A/K13A mutants localized not only in Golgi apparatus but also in endosomes. Furthermore, the amounts of mature type asparagine-linked (N)-glycans in ST3G5 R2A/R3A and K9A/K13A mutants were decreased compared with those in wild-type proteins, and the stability of the mutants was lower. These results suggest that the R/K-based motif is necessary for the Golgi retention of ST3G5 and that the retention is involved in the maturation of N-glycans and in stability. Thus, several basic amino acids located on the cytoplasmic tail of ST3G5 play important roles in both ER export and Golgi retention. PMID:26362868

  15. Immune response to racotumomab in a child with relapsed neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Sampor, C; Guthmann, M D; Scursoni, A; Cacciavillano, W; Torbidoni, A; Galluzzo, L; Camarero, S; Lopez, J; de Dávila, M T G; Fainboim, L; Chantada, G L

    2012-01-01

    Immunotherapy targeting ganglioside antigens is a powerful tool for the treatment of high risk neuroblastoma. However, only treatment with anti-GD2 antibodies has been used in clinical practice and other options may be pursued. We report the use of racotumomab, an anti-idiotype vaccine against N-glycolyl neuraminic acid (NeuGc)- containing gangliosides, eliciting an immune response in a child with relapsed neuroblastoma expressing the NeuGcGM3 ganglioside.

  16. Mutations in the ganglioside-induced differentiation-associated protein-1 (GDAP1) gene in intermediate type autosomal recessive Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Senderek, Jan; Bergmann, Carsten; Ramaekers, Vincent T; Nelis, Eva; Bernert, Günther; Makowski, Astrid; Züchner, Stephan; De Jonghe, Peter; Rudnik-Schöneborn, Sabine; Zerres, Klaus; Schröder, J Michael

    2003-03-01

    Mutations in the gene for the ganglioside-induced differentiation-associated protein-1 (GDAP1) on 8q21 recently were reported to cause autosomal recessive Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) sensorimotor neuropathy. Neurophysiology and nerve pathology were heterogeneous in these cases: a subset of GDAP1 mutations was associated with peripheral nerve demyelination, whereas others resulted in axonal degeneration. In this study, we identified two novel mutations disrupting the GDAP1 reading frame. Homozygosity for a single base pair insertion in exon 3 (c.349_350insT) was observed in affected children from a Turkish inbred pedigree. The other novel allele detected in a German patient was a homozygous mutation of the intron 4 donor splice site (c.579 + 1G>A). Patients with GDAP1 mutations displayed severe, early childhood-onset CMT neuropathy with prominent pes equinovarus deformity and impairment of hand muscles. Nerve conduction velocities were between 25 and 35 m/s and peripheral nerve pathology showed axonal as well as demyelinating changes. These findings fitted the definition of intermediate type CMT and further support the view that GDAP1 is vital for both, axonal integrity and Schwann cell properties.

  17. GM1 ganglioside reduces the motor incoordination and loss of righting reflex caused by acute ethanol in C57BL/6J mice

    SciTech Connect

    Wallis, C.; Rezazadeh, S.M.; Forster, M.J.; Lal, H. )

    1992-02-26

    Ethanol produces its intoxicating effects by modifying neuronal membranes. Gangliosides stabilize neuronal membranes and promote their recovery from a variety of insults. In this experiment, the efficacy of GM1(i.p.) to reverse ethanol intoxication was evaluated in male mice trained to run on a constantly accelerating rotorod. When mice were tested 15-min following saline or ethanol GM1 pre-treatment reduced rotorod performance by 15% but was ineffective in modifying the ethanol-impaired performance. However, when mice were tested at 15, 35, 55, 75, and 95 min intervals following ethanol, GM1 pre-treatments dose-dependently reduced the efficacy and duration of ethanol in producing motor incoordination. Further, GM1 given prior to ethanol significantly prolonged the time to onset of the loss of righting reflex from 1.4 to 1.9 min, and reduced the duration of the righting-reflex loss from 94 to 77 min. This GM1 effect was seen at 24 h, but not at 48 or 72 h after its administration. The blood ethanol concentration at awakening was significantly higher in 24h GM1-treated animals than in controls suggesting that the GM1 effect was not due to an alteration in ethanol clearance. These findings support the hypothesis that GM1 promotes recovery from ethanol intoxication via a neuroprotective mechanism.

  18. Targeting GD2 ganglioside and aurora A kinase as a dual strategy leading to cell death in cultures of human neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Horwacik, Irena; Durbas, Małgorzata; Boratyn, Elżbieta; Węgrzyn, Paulina; Rokita, Hanna

    2013-12-01

    The mechanism of the inhibitory effect of anti-GD2 ganglioside (GD2) 14G2a mouse monoclonal antibody (mAb) on human neuroblastoma cells survival was studied in vitro. It was recently shown in IMR-32 cells that death induced by this antibody exhibited several characteristics typical of apoptosis. In this study we used cytotoxixity assays, qRT-PCR and immunoblotting to evaluate the response of several human neuroblastoma cell lines to the anti-GD2 14G2a mAb. We showed that the mAb decreases all three aurora kinases expression and phosphorylation in IMR-32 and LA-N-1 cells. Most importantly, we show, that MK-5108 specific aurora A kinase inhibitor decreases neuroblastoma cell survival, and when used in combination with the mAb, significantly potentiates cytotoxicity against IMR-32, CHP-134, and LA-N-5 neuroblastoma cells in vitro. It was shown that downregulation of aurora A kinase by the therapeutic antibody is associated with decreased levels of MYCN protein in cytoplasm, and induced expression of PHLDA1 and P53 proteins. PMID:23962557

  19. Ligands Binding to Cell Surface Ganglioside GD2 Cause Src-Dependent Activation of N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Signaling and Changes in Cellular Morphology

    PubMed Central

    Gagnon, Martin; Saragovi, H. Uri

    2015-01-01

    Ganglioside GD2 is a plasma membrane glycosphinogolipid. In healthy adults it is expressed at low levels, but it is over-expressed in many cancers. For cancer therapy, GD2 is targeted with anti-GD2 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), and one adverse side effect is severe visceral pain. Pain is not neuropathic, cannot be blocked with morphine, and stops on discontinuation of mAb therapy. Here, we provide evidence that ligand binding to cell surface GD2 induces rapid and transient activation of Src-family kinases, followed by Src-dependent phosphorylation of NMDA-receptor NR2B subunits selectively, activation of Ca++ fluxes, production of cAMP, and changes in cellular morphology. These GD2-ligand activated signals differ in kinetics and in pharmacology from activation of the same signals in the same cells by BDNF, the growth factor agonist of the TrkB receptor, suggesting biological specificity. Hence, cell surface GD2 regulates pathways that can be associated with neoplasia and with morphine-intractable pain; and this can explain why expression of GD2 correlates with these two pathologies. PMID:26252487

  20. Lack of transplacental transmission of Bartonella bovis.

    PubMed

    Chastant-Maillard, S; Boulouis, H-J; Reynaud, K; Thoumire, S; Gandoin, C; Bouillin, C; Cordonnier, N; Maillard, R

    2015-02-01

    Transplacental transmission of Bartonella spp. has been reported for rodents, but not for cats and has never been investigated in cattle. The objective of this study was to assess vertical transmission of Bartonella in cattle. Fifty-six cow-calf pairs were tested before (cows) and after (calves) caesarean section for Bartonella bacteremia and/or serology, and the cotyledons were checked for gross lesions and presence of the bacteria. None of the 29 (52%) bacteremic cows gave birth to bacteremic calves, and all calves were seronegative at birth. Neither placentitis nor vasculitis were observed in all collected cotyledons. Bartonella bovis was not detected in placental cotyledons. Therefore, transplacental transmission of B. bovis and multiplication of the bacteria in the placenta do not seem likely. The lack of transplacental transmission may be associated with the particular structure of the placenta in ruminants or to a poor affinity/agressiveness of B. bovis for this tissue.

  1. The lack of large compact symmetric objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augusto, P.

    2009-02-01

    In recent years, `baby' (< 103 yr) and `young' (103-105 yr) radio galaxies have been found and classified, although their numbers are still small (tens). Also, they have many different names, depending on the type of survey and scientific context in which they were found: compact steep spectrum sources (CSS), giga-Hertz peaked spectrum sources (GPS) and compact-medium symmetric objects (C-MSO). The latter have the radio galaxy structure more obvious and correspond to the `babies' (CSOs; < 1 kpc) and `young' (MSOs; 1-15 kpc) radio galaxies. The log-size distribution of CSOs shows a sharp drop at 0.3 kpc. This trend continues through flat-spectrum MSOs (over the full 1-15 kpc size range). In order to find out if this lack of large CSOs and flat-spectrum MSOs is due to poor sampling (lack of surveys that probe efficiently the 0.3-15 kpc size range) and/or has physical meaning (e.g. if the lobes of CSOs expand as they grow and age, they might become CSSs, `disappearing' from the flat-spectrum MSO statistics), we have built a sample of 157 flat-spectrum radio sources with structure on ˜0.3-15 kpc scales. We are using new, archived and published data to produce and inspect hundreds of multi-frequency multi-instrument maps and models. We have already found 13 new secure CSO/MSOs. We expect to uncover ˜30-40 new CSOs and MSOs, most on the 0.3-15 kpc size range, when our project is complete.

  2. Psychosocial correlates of parenting stress, lack of support and lack of confidence/security.

    PubMed

    Sepa, Anneli; Frodi, Ann; Ludvigsson, Johnny

    2004-04-01

    The purpose of the current study was to identify important correlates of parenting stress, frequently conceptualized as a mediator of suboptimal family function, and of social support and confidence/security, often regarded as buffers. Potential correlates of these concepts were assessed in questionnaires at delivery and at one year, in a sample of 16,000 families in Sweden. Predictors (1) of parenting stress were parental dissatisfaction and poor child sleeping patterns; (2) of lack of support included lack of confidence/security, parents born abroad, single motherhood, and maternal health problems; and (3) of lack of confidence/security were lack of support and serious life events. Mothers lacking social support or confidence/security exhibited significantly higher stress. Although parenting stress is a complex phenomenon certain risk factors can be emphasized, such as sleep problems which appear more important than child health problems. These risk factors can be used both in efforts to prevent stress and in studies of stress effects.

  3. A chenopod extensin lacks repetitive tetrahydroxyproline blocks

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xiongbiao; Kieliszewski, M.; Lamport, D.T.A. )

    1990-02-01

    An extensin isolated from sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) cell suspension cultures fulfills all criteria for membership of the extensin family save one, notably, lack of the diagnostic pentamer Ser-Hyp-Hyp-Hyp-Hyp. However, sequence analysis of the major tryptic peptides shows that sugar beet extensin shares a motif in common with tomato extensin P1 but differs by the position of an insertion sequence (X) or (Y) which, in sugar beet, splits the tetrahydroxyproline block: Ser-Hyp-Hyp-(X)-Hyp-Hyp-Thr-Hyp-Val-Tyr-Lys, where (X) is (Val-His-Glu/Lys-Tyr-Pro), while in tomato the insertion sequence (Y) = (Val-Lys-Pro-Tyr-His-Pro) and, when it occurs, immediately follows the tetrahydroxyproline block: Ser-Hyp-Hyp-Hyp-Hyp-(Y)-Thr-Hyp-Val-Tyr-Lys. Based on these data were reinterpret three highly repetitive cDNA sequences, including nodulin N75 from soybean and wound-induced P33 of carrot, as extensins with split tetra(hydroxy)proline blocks.

  4. Lack of universal scaling in magnetohydrodynamic turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pouquet, A.; Brachet, M.; Krstulovic, G.; Lee, E.; Mininni, P.; Rosenberg, D. L.

    2012-12-01

    Universality is often viewed as a hallmark of turbulent flows, with a search for scaling exponents that derive from intrinsic dynamics and do not depend on initial conditions or forcing, the Kolmogorov law for the energy spectrum of an incompressible fluid being the best known case. However, in the presence of waves due to an external agent such as rotation, stratification or a strong large-scale magnetic field B0, different regimes -- such as weak or strong turbulence, may arise and thus, different scaling behavior may arise as well. This is observed for example in the ocean, and it leads to different mixing and transport properties. In this talk, we shall first review, in the context of MHD turbulence, the phenomenological models that can be constructed using the following plausible dimensionless parameters: (i) RT, the ratio of characteristic time scales (here, the wave period Tw=L_0/B_0 and the eddy-turn-over time based on large-scale length and velocity, TNL=L0/U_0; (ii) RE, the ratio of magnetic to kinetic energy EM/E_V; and (iii) RA, the degree of alignment between the velocity and the magnetic field \\cos(v,b), or between the magnetic potential and magnetic induction, \\cos(A,b). Note that these ratios can also be defined at scale ℓ of velocity uℓ (as opposed to L0, U0), and thus one can consider as well the variation of such ratios across scales. We shall then contrast these models with data stemming from (mostly) solar observations that indicate a clear lack of universal scaling behavior. Similarly, a number of direct numerical simulations (DNS) including some at high resolution, in the spin-down of forcing case, in the presence of boundaries or not, and with or without an imposed strong external magnetic field B0, all point-out to different energy spectra, although the attainable Reynolds numbers in present-day DNS are still limited when contrasted with geophysical and astrophysical flows. In particular, we shall show that, when using as initial

  5. High resolution proton NMR studies of gangliosides. Structure of two types of GD3 lactones and their reactivity with monoclonal antibody R24.

    PubMed

    Ando, S; Yu, R K; Scarsdale, J N; Kusunoki, S; Prestegard, J H

    1989-02-25

    Ganglioside GD3 was converted at room temperature to two stable lactones, denoted as GD3 lactones I and II. The reaction sequence was presumed to be GD3----GD3 lactone I----GD3 lactone II based on the time course of their production. Lactone I behaved as a monosialoganglioside and lactone II as a neutral species. The two lactones were isolated by DEAE-Sephadex column chromatography. The positions of the inner ester linkages were investigated by two-dimensional J-correlated proton NMR spectroscopy. An ester linkage was most likely formed between the carboxyl group of the external sialic acid residue and C9-OH of the internal sialic acid residue in lactone I. In addition to this ester linkage, a second ester linkage between the carboxyl group of the internal sialic acid and C2-OH of the galactose residue was likely formed in lactone II. The structural changes induced by lactonization were further examined by their reactivity with the monoclonal antibody R24 (Puckel, C. S., Lloyd, K. O., Travassos, L. R., Dippold, W. G., Oettgen, H. F., and Old, L. J. (1982) J. Exp. Med. 155, 1133-1147), which reacted with GD3. R24 was found to bind weakly to GD3 lactone I, but not to GD3 lactone II. The results suggest that the monoclonal antibody requires both sialic acid residues for high affinity binding, and the complete lactonization results in a loss of negative charges and/or a change in the overall conformation of the oligosaccharide moiety which may account for the loss of binding.

  6. Binding Cooperativity Matters: A GM1-Like Ganglioside-Cholera Toxin B Subunit Binding Study Using a Nanocube-Based Lipid Bilayer Array

    PubMed Central

    Weatherston, Joshua D.

    2016-01-01

    Protein-glycan recognition is often mediated by multivalent binding. These multivalent bindings can be further complicated by cooperative interactions between glycans and individual glycan binding subunits. Here we have demonstrated a nanocube-based lipid bilayer array capable of quantitatively elucidating binding dissociation constants, maximum binding capacity, and binding cooperativity in a high-throughput format. Taking cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) as a model cooperativity system, we studied both GM1 and GM1-like gangliosides binding to CTB. We confirmed the previously observed CTB-GM1 positive cooperativity. Surprisingly, we demonstrated fucosyl-GM1 has approximately 7 times higher CTB binding capacity than GM1. In order to explain this phenomenon, we hypothesized that the reduced binding cooperativity of fucosyl-GM1 caused the increased binding capacity. This was unintuitive, as GM1 exhibited higher binding avidity (16 times lower dissociation constant). We confirmed the hypothesis using a theoretical stepwise binding model of CTB. Moreover, by taking a mixture of fucosyl-GM1 and GM2, we observed the mild binding avidity fucosyl-GM1 activated GM2 receptors enhancing the binding capacity of the lipid bilayer surface. This was unexpected as GM2 receptors have negligible binding avidity in pure GM2 bilayers. These unexpected discoveries demonstrate the importance of binding cooperativity in multivalent binding mechanisms. Thus, quantitative analysis of multivalent protein-glycan interactions in heterogeneous glycan systems is of critical importance. Our user-friendly, robust, and high-throughput nanocube-based lipid bilayer array offers an attractive method for dissecting these complex mechanisms. PMID:27070150

  7. Alteration of Electrostatic Surface Potential Enhances Affinity and Tumor Killing Properties of Anti-ganglioside GD2 Monoclonal Antibody hu3F8.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qi; Ahmed, Mahiuddin; Guo, Hong-fen; Cheung, Irene Y; Cheung, Nai-Kong V

    2015-05-22

    Ganglioside GD2 is highly expressed on neuroectodermal tumors and an attractive therapeutic target for antibodies that have already shown some clinical efficacy. To further improve the current antibodies, which have modest affinity, we sought to improve affinity by using a combined method of random mutagenesis and in silico assisted design to affinity-mature the anti-GD2 monoclonal antibody hu3F8. Using yeast display, mutants in the Fv with enhanced binding over the parental clone were FACS-sorted and cloned. In silico modeling identified the minimal key interacting residues involved in the important charged interactions with the sialic acid groups of GD2. Two mutations, D32H (L-CDR1) and E1K (L-FR1) altered the electrostatic surface potential of the antigen binding site, allowing for an increase in positive charge to enhance the interaction with the negatively charged GD2-pentasaccharide headgroup. Purified scFv and IgG mutant forms were then tested for antigen specificity by ELISA, for tissue specificity by immunohistochemistry, for affinity by BIACORE, for antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) and complement-mediated cytotoxicity in vitro, and for anti-tumor efficacy in xenografted humanized mice. The nearly 7-fold improvement in affinity of hu3F8 with a single D32H (L-CDR1) mutation translated into a ∼12-fold improvement in NK92MI-transfected CD16-mediated ADCC, a 6-fold improvement in CD32-mediated ADCC, and a 2.5-fold improvement in complement-mediated cytotoxicity while maintaining restricted normal tissue cross-reactivity and achieving substantial improvement in tumor ablation in vivo. Despite increasing GD2 affinity, the double mutation D32H (L-CDR1) and E1K (L-FR1) did not further improve anti-tumor efficacy.

  8. Immunization with a mimotope of GD2 ganglioside induces CD8+ T cells that recognize cell adhesion molecules on tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Wierzbicki, Andrzej; Gil, Margaret; Ciesielski, Michael; Fenstermaker, Robert A; Kaneko, Yutaro; Rokita, Hanna; Lau, Joseph T; Kozbor, Danuta

    2008-11-01

    The GD2 ganglioside expressed on neuroectodermal tumor cells has been used as a target for passive and active immunotherapy in patients with malignant melanoma and neuroblastoma. We have reported that immunization of mice with a 47-LDA mimotope of GD2, isolated from a phage display peptide library with anti-GD2 mAb 14G2a, induces MHC class I-restricted CD8(+) T cell responses to syngeneic neuroblastoma tumor cells. The cytotoxic activity of the vaccine-induced CTLs was independent of GD2 expression, suggesting recognition of a novel tumor-associated Ag cross-reacting with 47-LDA. Glycan microarray and immunoblotting studies using 14G2a mAb demonstrated that this Ab is highly specific for the entire carbohydrate motif of GD2 but also cross-reacts with a 105 kDa glycoprotein expressed by GD2(+) and GD2(-) neuroblastoma and melanoma cells. Functional studies of tumor cells grown in three-dimensional collagen cultures with 14G2a mAb showed decreases in matrix metalloproteinase-2 activation, a process regulated by the 105 kDa-activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM/CD166). A recombinant CD166 glycoprotein was shown to be recognized by 14G2a Ab and inhibition of CD166 expression by RNA interference ablated the cell sensitivity to lysis by 47-LDA-induced CD8(+) T cells in vitro and in vivo. The binding of 14G2a to CD166 was not disruptable by a variety of exo- and endo-glycosidases, implying recognition of a non-glycan epitope on CD166. These results suggest that the vaccine-induced CTLs recognize a 47-LDA cross-reactive epitope expressed by CD166, and reveal a novel mechanism of induction of potent tumor-specific cellular responses by mimotopes of tumor-associated carbohydrate Ags.

  9. Alteration of Electrostatic Surface Potential Enhances Affinity and Tumor Killing Properties of Anti-ganglioside GD2 Monoclonal Antibody hu3F8.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qi; Ahmed, Mahiuddin; Guo, Hong-fen; Cheung, Irene Y; Cheung, Nai-Kong V

    2015-05-22

    Ganglioside GD2 is highly expressed on neuroectodermal tumors and an attractive therapeutic target for antibodies that have already shown some clinical efficacy. To further improve the current antibodies, which have modest affinity, we sought to improve affinity by using a combined method of random mutagenesis and in silico assisted design to affinity-mature the anti-GD2 monoclonal antibody hu3F8. Using yeast display, mutants in the Fv with enhanced binding over the parental clone were FACS-sorted and cloned. In silico modeling identified the minimal key interacting residues involved in the important charged interactions with the sialic acid groups of GD2. Two mutations, D32H (L-CDR1) and E1K (L-FR1) altered the electrostatic surface potential of the antigen binding site, allowing for an increase in positive charge to enhance the interaction with the negatively charged GD2-pentasaccharide headgroup. Purified scFv and IgG mutant forms were then tested for antigen specificity by ELISA, for tissue specificity by immunohistochemistry, for affinity by BIACORE, for antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) and complement-mediated cytotoxicity in vitro, and for anti-tumor efficacy in xenografted humanized mice. The nearly 7-fold improvement in affinity of hu3F8 with a single D32H (L-CDR1) mutation translated into a ∼12-fold improvement in NK92MI-transfected CD16-mediated ADCC, a 6-fold improvement in CD32-mediated ADCC, and a 2.5-fold improvement in complement-mediated cytotoxicity while maintaining restricted normal tissue cross-reactivity and achieving substantial improvement in tumor ablation in vivo. Despite increasing GD2 affinity, the double mutation D32H (L-CDR1) and E1K (L-FR1) did not further improve anti-tumor efficacy. PMID:25851904

  10. Binding Cooperativity Matters: A GM1-Like Ganglioside-Cholera Toxin B Subunit Binding Study Using a Nanocube-Based Lipid Bilayer Array.

    PubMed

    Worstell, Nolan C; Krishnan, Pratik; Weatherston, Joshua D; Wu, Hung-Jen

    2016-01-01

    Protein-glycan recognition is often mediated by multivalent binding. These multivalent bindings can be further complicated by cooperative interactions between glycans and individual glycan binding subunits. Here we have demonstrated a nanocube-based lipid bilayer array capable of quantitatively elucidating binding dissociation constants, maximum binding capacity, and binding cooperativity in a high-throughput format. Taking cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) as a model cooperativity system, we studied both GM1 and GM1-like gangliosides binding to CTB. We confirmed the previously observed CTB-GM1 positive cooperativity. Surprisingly, we demonstrated fucosyl-GM1 has approximately 7 times higher CTB binding capacity than GM1. In order to explain this phenomenon, we hypothesized that the reduced binding cooperativity of fucosyl-GM1 caused the increased binding capacity. This was unintuitive, as GM1 exhibited higher binding avidity (16 times lower dissociation constant). We confirmed the hypothesis using a theoretical stepwise binding model of CTB. Moreover, by taking a mixture of fucosyl-GM1 and GM2, we observed the mild binding avidity fucosyl-GM1 activated GM2 receptors enhancing the binding capacity of the lipid bilayer surface. This was unexpected as GM2 receptors have negligible binding avidity in pure GM2 bilayers. These unexpected discoveries demonstrate the importance of binding cooperativity in multivalent binding mechanisms. Thus, quantitative analysis of multivalent protein-glycan interactions in heterogeneous glycan systems is of critical importance. Our user-friendly, robust, and high-throughput nanocube-based lipid bilayer array offers an attractive method for dissecting these complex mechanisms. PMID:27070150

  11. Immunization with a mimotope of GD2 ganglioside induces CD8+ T cells that recognize cell adhesion molecules on tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Wierzbicki, Andrzej; Gil, Margaret; Ciesielski, Michael; Fenstermaker, Robert A; Kaneko, Yutaro; Rokita, Hanna; Lau, Joseph T; Kozbor, Danuta

    2008-11-01

    The GD2 ganglioside expressed on neuroectodermal tumor cells has been used as a target for passive and active immunotherapy in patients with malignant melanoma and neuroblastoma. We have reported that immunization of mice with a 47-LDA mimotope of GD2, isolated from a phage display peptide library with anti-GD2 mAb 14G2a, induces MHC class I-restricted CD8(+) T cell responses to syngeneic neuroblastoma tumor cells. The cytotoxic activity of the vaccine-induced CTLs was independent of GD2 expression, suggesting recognition of a novel tumor-associated Ag cross-reacting with 47-LDA. Glycan microarray and immunoblotting studies using 14G2a mAb demonstrated that this Ab is highly specific for the entire carbohydrate motif of GD2 but also cross-reacts with a 105 kDa glycoprotein expressed by GD2(+) and GD2(-) neuroblastoma and melanoma cells. Functional studies of tumor cells grown in three-dimensional collagen cultures with 14G2a mAb showed decreases in matrix metalloproteinase-2 activation, a process regulated by the 105 kDa-activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM/CD166). A recombinant CD166 glycoprotein was shown to be recognized by 14G2a Ab and inhibition of CD166 expression by RNA interference ablated the cell sensitivity to lysis by 47-LDA-induced CD8(+) T cells in vitro and in vivo. The binding of 14G2a to CD166 was not disruptable by a variety of exo- and endo-glycosidases, implying recognition of a non-glycan epitope on CD166. These results suggest that the vaccine-induced CTLs recognize a 47-LDA cross-reactive epitope expressed by CD166, and reveal a novel mechanism of induction of potent tumor-specific cellular responses by mimotopes of tumor-associated carbohydrate Ags. PMID:18941255

  12. Immunization with a Mimotope of GD2 Ganglioside Induces CD8+ T Cells That Recognize Cell Adhesion Molecules on Tumor Cells1

    PubMed Central

    Wierzbicki, Andrzej; Gil, Margaret; Ciesielski, Michael; Fenstermaker, Robert A.; Kaneko, Yutaro; Rokita, Hanna; Lau, Joseph T.; Kozbor, Danuta

    2009-01-01

    The GD2 ganglioside expressed on neuroectodermal tumor cells has been used as a target for passive and active immunotherapy in patients with malignant melanoma and neuroblastoma. We have reported that immunization of mice with a 47-LDA mimotope of GD2, isolated from a phage display peptide library with anti-GD2 mAb 14G2a, induces MHC class I-restricted CD8+ T cell responses to syngeneic neuroblastoma tumor cells. The cytotoxic activity of the vaccine-induced CTLs was independent of GD2 expression, suggesting recognition of a novel tumor-associated Ag cross-reacting with 47-LDA. Glycan microarray and immunoblotting studies using 14G2a mAb demonstrated that this Ab is highly specific for the entire carbohydrate motif of GD2 but also cross-reacts with a 105 kDa glycoprotein expressed by GD2+ and GD2− neuroblastoma and melanoma cells. Functional studies of tumor cells grown in three-dimensional collagen cultures with 14G2a mAb showed decreases in matrix metalloproteinase-2 activation, a process regulated by the 105 kDa-activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM/CD166). A recombinant CD166 glycoprotein was shown to be recognized by 14G2a Ab and inhibition of CD166 expression by RNA interference ablated the cell sensitivity to lysis by 47-LDA-induced CD8+ T cells in vitro and in vivo. The binding of 14G2a to CD166 was not disruptable by a variety of exo- and endo-glycosidases, implying recognition of a non-glycan epitope on CD166. These results suggest that the vaccine-induced CTLs recognize a 47-LDA cross-reactive epitope expressed by CD166, and reveal a novel mechanism of induction of potent tumor-specific cellular responses by mimotopes of tumor-associated carbohydrate Ags. PMID:18941255

  13. Alteration of Electrostatic Surface Potential Enhances Affinity and Tumor Killing Properties of Anti-ganglioside GD2 Monoclonal Antibody hu3F8*

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Qi; Ahmed, Mahiuddin; Guo, Hong-fen; Cheung, Irene Y.; Cheung, Nai-Kong V.

    2015-01-01

    Ganglioside GD2 is highly expressed on neuroectodermal tumors and an attractive therapeutic target for antibodies that have already shown some clinical efficacy. To further improve the current antibodies, which have modest affinity, we sought to improve affinity by using a combined method of random mutagenesis and in silico assisted design to affinity-mature the anti-GD2 monoclonal antibody hu3F8. Using yeast display, mutants in the Fv with enhanced binding over the parental clone were FACS-sorted and cloned. In silico modeling identified the minimal key interacting residues involved in the important charged interactions with the sialic acid groups of GD2. Two mutations, D32H (L-CDR1) and E1K (L-FR1) altered the electrostatic surface potential of the antigen binding site, allowing for an increase in positive charge to enhance the interaction with the negatively charged GD2-pentasaccharide headgroup. Purified scFv and IgG mutant forms were then tested for antigen specificity by ELISA, for tissue specificity by immunohistochemistry, for affinity by BIACORE, for antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) and complement-mediated cytotoxicity in vitro, and for anti-tumor efficacy in xenografted humanized mice. The nearly 7-fold improvement in affinity of hu3F8 with a single D32H (L-CDR1) mutation translated into a ∼12-fold improvement in NK92MI-transfected CD16-mediated ADCC, a 6-fold improvement in CD32-mediated ADCC, and a 2.5-fold improvement in complement-mediated cytotoxicity while maintaining restricted normal tissue cross-reactivity and achieving substantial improvement in tumor ablation in vivo. Despite increasing GD2 affinity, the double mutation D32H (L-CDR1) and E1K (L-FR1) did not further improve anti-tumor efficacy. PMID:25851904

  14. Pharmacokinetics of anti-ganglioside GD2 mAb 14G2a in a phase I trial in pediatric cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Uttenreuther-Fischer, M M; Huang, C S; Reisfeld, R A; Yu, A L

    1995-07-01

    A phase I trial of a murine anti-ganglioside (GD2) monoclonal antibody (mAb) 14G2a was conducted in 14 neuroblastoma patients and 1 osteosarcoma patient to assess its safety, toxicity and pharmacokinetics in pediatric patients. The pharmacokinetics of mAb 14G2a were biphasic with a t alpha 1/2 of 2.8 +/- 2.8 h and a t beta 1/2 of 18.3 +/- 11.8 h. In general, t beta 1/2 was dose-dependent with a level of significance of P = 0.036, and it reached a plateau at doses of 250 mg/m2 or more. Overall the peak serum levels were dose-dependent at P < 0.001. However, they demonstrated an abrupt increase between doses of 100 mg/m2 and 250 mg/m2. The latter two suggest a saturable mechanism for mAb elimination. In addition, peak serum concentrations were observed earlier at higher mAb doses, which indicates the achievement of a steady state. The t beta 1/2 of mAb 14G2a in children appears to be shorter than in adults. Furthermore, 2 patients demonstrated a considerable decrease in t beta 1/2 following retreatment with 14G2a. This was paralleled by high human anti-(mouse Ig) antibody levels. This study represents the first comprehensive analysis of murine mAb pharmacokinetics in children and will be useful in the future design of mAb therapy. PMID:7641217

  15. Anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic activity of GD2 ganglioside-specific monoclonal antibody 3F8 in human melanoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Tsao, Chun-Yen; Sabbatino, Francesco; Cheung, Nai-Kong V; Hsu, Jeff Chi-feng; Villani, Vincenzo; Wang, Xinhui; Ferrone, Soldano

    2015-01-01

    The beneficial clinical effects of immunotherapy with GD2-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) in melanoma and neuroblastoma patients have stimulated interest in characterizing the mechanisms underlying their antitumor effects. Previous studies have shown that GD2-specific mAbs mediate complement- and cell-dependent cytotoxicity and induce caspase-dependent apoptosis of tumor cells. In this study, we showed that GD2-specific mAb 3F8, which is undergoing clinical evaluation, inhibited the in vitro growth and induced apoptosis of melanoma cells. This effect was dose- and time-dependent, mediated by the interaction of mAb 3F8 combining site with GD2 ganglioside, associated with GD2 expression level on the cell surface, mAb internalization and increase of GD2 containing endosomes triggered by mAb 3F8. The induction of apoptosis by mAb 3F8 was mediated by caspase 3-, 7-, and 8-dependent pathways, downregulation of the anti-apoptotic molecules survivin and cytochrome c, and caspase 9 independent-AIF release from mitochondria. In addition, analyses of signaling pathway components demonstrated that mAb 3F8 strongly inhibited AKT and FAK activation and increased cleaved PARP expression. These results indicated that multiple mechanisms played a role in the antitumor activity of mAb 3F8 in melanoma cells. This information should provide a mechanistic basis for the optimization of the rational design of immunotherapeutic strategies in the mAb-based treatment of GD2 positive tumors. PMID:26405581

  16. GD2 ganglioside specific antibody treatment downregulates PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling network in human neuroblastoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Durbas, Małgorzata; Horwacik, Irena; Boratyn, Elżbieta; Kamycka, Elżbieta; Rokita, Hanna

    2015-09-01

    Mechanisms leading to inhibitory effects of an anti-GD2 ganglioside (GD2) 14G2a mouse monoclonal antibody (mAb) and PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway inhibitors on human neuroblastoma cell survival were studied in vitro. We have recently shown on IMR-32, CHP‑134, and LA-N-1 neuroblastoma cells that targeting GD2 with the mAb decreases cell viability of the cell lines. In this study we used cytotoxicity assays, proteomic arrays and immunoblotting to evaluate the response of the three cell lines to the anti‑GD2 14G2a mAb and specific PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway inhibitors. We show here that the mAb modulates intracellular signal transduction through changes in several kinases and their substrates phosphorylation. More detailed analysis of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway showed significant decrease in activity of Akt, mTOR, p70 S6 and 4E-BP1 proteins and transient increase in PTEN (a suppressor of the pathway), leading to inhibition of the signaling network responsible for stimulation of translation and proliferation. Additionally, combining the GD2-specific 14G2a mAb with an Akt inhibitor (perifosine), dual mTOR/PI3K inhibitors (BEZ-235 and SAR245409), and a pan-PI3K inhibitor (LY294002) was shown to enhance cytotoxic effects against IMR-32, CHP‑134 and LA-N-1 cells. Our study extends knowledge on mechanisms of action of the 14G2a mAb on the neuroblastoma cells. Also, it stresses the need for further delineation of molecular signal orchestration aimed at more reasonable selection of drugs to target key cellular pathways in quest for better cure for neuroblastoma patients. PMID:26134970

  17. Lack of efficacy of ergocalciferol repletion

    PubMed Central

    Kebede, Amal; Ephrussi, Corey; Lamanna, Meredith; Scheirer, Jorge; Alweis, Richard; Wasser, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Vitamin D has become an area of intensive scrutiny, both in medical and lay literature. However, there are limited data to suggest proper repletion regimens for those patients who have hypovitaminosis D. Consequently, various methods are used in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of various treatment strategies for hypovitaminosis D in an ambulatory internal medicine practice. Methods A retrospective chart review between October 2005 and June 2010 of a suburban internal medicine practice was performed via query of the electronic medical record (Centricity, General Electric Healthcare, UK). Patients with a 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration less than 32 mg/dl were identified and treated. Treatment success was defined as 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations greater than 32 mg/dl. Statistical analysis to assess changes in vitamin D level controlling for season, comorbidities, and demographics were used. Results A total of 607 treatment episodes were identified, with 395 excluded due to lack of follow-up vitamin D level within 16 weeks, no treatment documented, topical treatment, doxercalciferol treatment, or non-compliance. Of the remaining patients, there were 212 treatment instances on 178 patients. Ergocalciferol 50,000 international units (IU) was used most frequently (71.4% of the time.). A higher initial vitamin D level was positively associated with treatment success (adjusted odds ratio = 1.11, p=0.002). Increased doses of ergocalciferol increased the likelihood of treatment success (p=0.0011). Seasonal variation was related to posttreatment 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration as was body mass index (BMI) (p=0.003 and p=0.044). Conclusion Pretreatment levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, BMI, season, and vitamin D dose are predictors of successful hypovitaminosis D treatment. Our data suggest that patients with initial 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations of <20 should be treated with a higher total dose of ergocalciferol than

  18. Interplanetary Shocks Lacking Type 2 Radio Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswamy, N.; Xie, H.; Maekela, P.; Akiyama, S.; Yashiro, S.; Kaiser, M. L.; Howard, R. A.; Bougeret, J.-L.

    2010-01-01

    We report on the radio-emission characteristics of 222 interplanetary (IP) shocks detected by spacecraft at Sun-Earth L1 during solar cycle 23 (1996 to 2006, inclusive). A surprisingly large fraction of the IP shocks (approximately 34%) was radio quiet (RQ; i.e., the shocks lacked type II radio bursts). We examined the properties of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and soft X-ray flares associated with such RQ shocks and compared them with those of the radio-loud (RL) shocks. The CMEs associated with the RQ shocks were generally slow (average speed approximately 535 km/s) and only approximately 40% of the CMEs were halos. The corresponding numbers for CMEs associated with RL shocks were 1237 km/s and 72%, respectively. Thus, the CME kinetic energy seems to be the deciding factor in the radio-emission properties of shocks. The lower kinetic energy of CMEs associated with RQ shocks is also suggested by the lower peak soft X-ray flux of the associated flares (C3.4 versus M4.7 for RL shocks). CMEs associated with RQ CMEs were generally accelerating within the coronagraph field of view (average acceleration approximately +6.8 m/s (exp 2)), while those associated with RL shocks were decelerating (average acceleration approximately 3.5 m/s (exp 2)). This suggests that many of the RQ shocks formed at large distances from the Sun, typically beyond 10 Rs, consistent with the absence of metric and decameter-hectometric (DH) type II radio bursts. A small fraction of RL shocks had type II radio emission solely in the kilometric (km) wavelength domain. Interestingly, the kinematics of the CMEs associated with the km type II bursts is similar to those of RQ shocks, except that the former are slightly more energetic. Comparison of the shock Mach numbers at 1 AU shows that the RQ shocks are mostly subcritical, suggesting that they were not efficient in accelerating electrons. The Mach number values also indicate that most of these are quasi-perpendicular shocks. The radio-quietness is

  19. INTERPLANETARY SHOCKS LACKING TYPE II RADIO BURSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Gopalswamy, N.; Kaiser, M. L.; Xie, H.; Maekelae, P.; Akiyama, S.; Yashiro, S.; Howard, R. A.; Bougeret, J.-L.

    2010-02-20

    We report on the radio-emission characteristics of 222 interplanetary (IP) shocks detected by spacecraft at Sun-Earth L1 during solar cycle 23 (1996 to 2006, inclusive). A surprisingly large fraction of the IP shocks ({approx}34%) was radio quiet (RQ; i.e., the shocks lacked type II radio bursts). We examined the properties of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and soft X-ray flares associated with such RQ shocks and compared them with those of the radio-loud (RL) shocks. The CMEs associated with the RQ shocks were generally slow (average speed {approx}535 km s{sup -1}) and only {approx}40% of the CMEs were halos. The corresponding numbers for CMEs associated with RL shocks were 1237 km s{sup -1} and 72%, respectively. Thus, the CME kinetic energy seems to be the deciding factor in the radio-emission properties of shocks. The lower kinetic energy of CMEs associated with RQ shocks is also suggested by the lower peak soft X-ray flux of the associated flares (C3.4 versus M4.7 for RL shocks). CMEs associated with RQ CMEs were generally accelerating within the coronagraph field of view (average acceleration {approx}+6.8 m s{sup -2}), while those associated with RL shocks were decelerating (average acceleration {approx}-3.5 m s{sup -2}). This suggests that many of the RQ shocks formed at large distances from the Sun, typically beyond 10 Rs, consistent with the absence of metric and decameter-hectometric (DH) type II radio bursts. A small fraction of RL shocks had type II radio emission solely in the kilometric (km) wavelength domain. Interestingly, the kinematics of the CMEs associated with the km type II bursts is similar to those of RQ shocks, except that the former are slightly more energetic. Comparison of the shock Mach numbers at 1 AU shows that the RQ shocks are mostly subcritical, suggesting that they were not efficient in accelerating electrons. The Mach number values also indicate that most of these are quasi-perpendicular shocks. The radio-quietness is predominant

  20. A single native ganglioside GM1-binding site is sufficient for cholera toxin to bind to cells and complete the intoxication pathway.

    PubMed

    Jobling, Michael G; Yang, Zhijie; Kam, Wendy R; Lencer, Wayne I; Holmes, Randall K

    2012-01-01

    Cholera toxin (CT) from Vibrio cholerae is responsible for the majority of the symptoms of the diarrheal disease cholera. CT is a heterohexameric protein complex with a 240-residue A subunit and a pentameric B subunit of identical 103-residue B polypeptides. The A subunit is proteolytically cleaved within a disulfide-linked loop to generate the A1 and A2 fragments. The B subunit of wild-type (wt) CT binds 5 cell surface ganglioside GM(1) (GM(1)) molecules, and the toxin-GM(1) complex traffics from the plasma membrane (PM) retrograde through endosomes and the Golgi apparatus to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). From the ER, the enzymatic A1 fragment retrotranslocates to the cytosol to cause disease. Clustering of GM(1) by multivalent toxin binding can structurally remodel cell membranes in ways that may assist toxin uptake and retrograde trafficking. We have recently found, however, that CT may traffic from the PM to the ER by exploiting an endogenous glycosphingolipid pathway (A. A. Wolf et al., Infect. Immun. 76:1476-1484, 2008, and D. J. F. Chinnapen et al., Dev. Cell 23:573-586, 2012), suggesting that multivalent binding to GM(1) is dispensable. Here we formally tested this idea by creating homogenous chimeric holotoxins with defined numbers of native GM(1) binding sites from zero (nonbinding) to five (wild type). We found that a single GM(1) binding site is sufficient for activity of the holotoxin. Therefore, remodeling of cell membranes by mechanisms that involve multivalent binding of toxin to GM(1) receptors is not essential for toxicity of CT. Through multivalent binding to its lipid receptor, cholera toxin (CT) can remodel cell membranes in ways that may assist host cell invasion. We recently found that CT variants which bind no more than 2 receptor molecules do exhibit toxicity, suggesting that CT may be able to enter cells by coopting an endogenous lipid sorting pathway without clustering receptors. We tested this idea directly by using purified variants

  1. A therapeutic trial of human melanomas with combined small interfering RNAs targeting adaptor molecules p130Cas and paxillin activated under expression of ganglioside GD3.

    PubMed

    Makino, Yusuke; Hamamura, Kazunori; Takei, Yoshifumi; Bhuiyan, Robiul Hasan; Ohkawa, Yuki; Ohmi, Yuhsuke; Nakashima, Hideyuki; Furukawa, Keiko; Furukawa, Koichi

    2016-08-01

    We previously demonstrated that focal adhesion kinase (FAK), p130Cas and paxillin are crucially involved in the enhanced malignant properties under expression of ganglioside GD3 in melanoma cells. Therefore, molecules existing in the GD3-mediated signaling pathway could be considered as suitable targets for therapeutic intervention in malignant melanoma. The aim of this study was to determine whether blockade of p130Cas and/or paxillin by RNAi suppresses melanoma growth. We found a suitable dose (40 μM siRNA, 25 μl/tumor) of the siRNA to suppress p130Cas in the xenografts generated in nu/nu mice. Based on these results, we performed intratumoral (i.t.) treatment with anti-p130Cas and/or anti-paxillin siRNAs mixed with atelocollagen as a drug delivery system in a xenograft tumor of a human melanoma cell line, SK-MEL-28. Mixture of atelocollagen (1.75%) and an siRNA (500 or 1000 pmol/tumor) was injected into the tumors every 3 days after the first injection. An siRNA against human p130Cas markedly suppressed tumor growth of the xenograft in a dose-dependent manner, whereas siRNA against human paxillin slightly inhibited the tumor growth. A control siRNA against firefly luciferase showed no effect. To our surprise, siRNA against human p130Cas (500 or 1000 pmol/tumor) combined with siRNA against human paxillin dramatically suppressed tumor growth. In agreement with the tumor suppression effects of the anti-p130Cas siRNA, reduction in Ki-67 positive cell number as well as in p130Cas expression was demonstrated by immunohistostaining. These results suggested that blockade of GD3-mediated growth signaling pathways by siRNAs might be a novel and promising therapeutic strategy against malignant melanomas, provided signaling molecules such as p130Cas and paxillin are significantly expressed in individual cases. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Glycans in personalised medicine" Guest Editor: Professor Gordan Lauc. PMID:27068854

  2. A therapeutic trial of human melanomas with combined small interfering RNAs targeting adaptor molecules p130Cas and paxillin activated under expression of ganglioside GD3.

    PubMed

    Makino, Yusuke; Hamamura, Kazunori; Takei, Yoshifumi; Bhuiyan, Robiul Hasan; Ohkawa, Yuki; Ohmi, Yuhsuke; Nakashima, Hideyuki; Furukawa, Keiko; Furukawa, Koichi

    2016-08-01

    We previously demonstrated that focal adhesion kinase (FAK), p130Cas and paxillin are crucially involved in the enhanced malignant properties under expression of ganglioside GD3 in melanoma cells. Therefore, molecules existing in the GD3-mediated signaling pathway could be considered as suitable targets for therapeutic intervention in malignant melanoma. The aim of this study was to determine whether blockade of p130Cas and/or paxillin by RNAi suppresses melanoma growth. We found a suitable dose (40 μM siRNA, 25 μl/tumor) of the siRNA to suppress p130Cas in the xenografts generated in nu/nu mice. Based on these results, we performed intratumoral (i.t.) treatment with anti-p130Cas and/or anti-paxillin siRNAs mixed with atelocollagen as a drug delivery system in a xenograft tumor of a human melanoma cell line, SK-MEL-28. Mixture of atelocollagen (1.75%) and an siRNA (500 or 1000 pmol/tumor) was injected into the tumors every 3 days after the first injection. An siRNA against human p130Cas markedly suppressed tumor growth of the xenograft in a dose-dependent manner, whereas siRNA against human paxillin slightly inhibited the tumor growth. A control siRNA against firefly luciferase showed no effect. To our surprise, siRNA against human p130Cas (500 or 1000 pmol/tumor) combined with siRNA against human paxillin dramatically suppressed tumor growth. In agreement with the tumor suppression effects of the anti-p130Cas siRNA, reduction in Ki-67 positive cell number as well as in p130Cas expression was demonstrated by immunohistostaining. These results suggested that blockade of GD3-mediated growth signaling pathways by siRNAs might be a novel and promising therapeutic strategy against malignant melanomas, provided signaling molecules such as p130Cas and paxillin are significantly expressed in individual cases. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Glycans in personalised medicine" Guest Editor: Professor Gordan Lauc.

  3. Biosynthesis of ganglioside mimics in Campylobacter jejuni OH4384. Identification of the glycosyltransferase genes, enzymatic synthesis of model compounds, and characterization of nanomole amounts by 600-mhz (1)h and (13)c NMR analysis.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, M; Brisson, J R; Karwaski, M F; Michniewicz, J; Cunningham, A M; Wu, Y; Young, N M; Wakarchuk, W W

    2000-02-11

    We have applied two strategies for the cloning of four genes responsible for the biosynthesis of the GT1a ganglioside mimic in the lipooligosaccharide (LOS) of a bacterial pathogen, Campylobacter jejuni OH4384, which has been associated with Guillain-Barré syndrome. We first cloned a gene encoding an alpha-2, 3-sialyltransferase (cst-I) using an activity screening strategy. We then used nucleotide sequence information from the recently completed sequence from C. jejuni NCTC 11168 to amplify a region involved in LOS biosynthesis from C. jejuni OH4384. The LOS biosynthesis locus from C. jejuni OH4384 is 11.47 kilobase pairs and encodes 13 partial or complete open reading frames, while the corresponding locus in C. jejuni NCTC 11168 spans 13.49 kilobase pairs and contains 15 open reading frames, indicating a different organization between these two strains. Potential glycosyltransferase genes were cloned individually, expressed in Escherichia coli, and assayed using synthetic fluorescent oligosaccharides as acceptors. We identified genes encoding a beta-1, 4-N-acetylgalactosaminyl-transferase (cgtA), a beta-1, 3-galactosyltransferase (cgtB), and a bifunctional sialyltransferase (cst-II), which transfers sialic acid to O-3 of galactose and to O-8 of a sialic acid that is linked alpha-2,3- to a galactose. The linkage specificity of each identified glycosyltransferase was confirmed by NMR analysis at 600 MHz on nanomole amounts of model compounds synthesized in vitro. Using a gradient inverse broadband nano-NMR probe, sequence information could be obtained by detection of (3)J(C,H) correlations across the glycosidic bond. The role of cgtA and cst-II in the synthesis of the GT1a mimic in C. jejuni OH4384 were confirmed by comparing their sequence and activity with corresponding homologues in two related C. jejuni strains that express shorter ganglioside mimics in their LOS.

  4. The Divergent CD8+ T Cell Adjuvant Properties of LT-IIb and LT-IIc, Two Type II Heat-Labile Enterotoxins, Are Conferred by Their Ganglioside-Binding B Subunits

    PubMed Central

    Hu, John C.; Greene, Christopher J.; King-Lyons, Natalie D.; Connell, Terry D.

    2015-01-01

    Poor immune responses elicited by vaccine antigens can be enhanced by the use of appropriate adjuvants. Type II heat-labile enterotoxins (HLT) produced by Escherichia coli are extremely potent adjuvants that augment both humoral and cellular immunity to co-administered antigens. Recent findings demonstrate that LT-IIb and LT-IIc, two type II HLT adjuvants, exhibit potent, yet distinguishable CD8+ T cell adjuvant properties. While LT-IIc elicits a robust and rapid response at one week after administration, LT-IIb engenders a more gradual and slower expansion of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells that correlates with improved immunity. The variations in immune effects elicited by the HLT adjuvants have been generally attributed to their highly divergent B subunits that mediate binding to various gangliosides on cell surfaces. Yet, HLT adjuvants with point mutations in the B subunit that significantly alter ganglioside binding retain similar adjuvant functions. Therefore, the contribution of the B subunits to adjuvanticity remains unclear. To investigate the influence of the B subunits on the enhancement of immune responses by LT-IIb and LT-IIc, chimeric HLT were engineered in which the B subunits of the two adjuvants were exchanged. Comparing the immune potentiating characteristics of both native and chimeric HLT adjuvants, it was found that not all the adjuvant characteristics of the HLT adjuvants were modulated by the respective B subunits. Specifically, the differences in the CD8+ T cell kinetics and protective responses elicited by LT-IIb and LT-IIc did indeed followed their respective B subunits. However, induction of IL-1 from macrophages and the capacity to intoxicate cells in a mouse Y1 adrenal cell bioassay did not correlate with the B subunits. Therefore, it is likely that additional factors other than the B subunits contribute to the effects elicited by the HLT adjuvants. PMID:26565800

  5. 29 CFR 18.602 - Lack of personal knowledge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Lack of personal knowledge. 18.602 Section 18.602 Labor... OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES Rules of Evidence Witnesses § 18.602 Lack of personal knowledge. A... witness has personal knowledge of the matter. Evidence to prove personal knowledge may, but need...

  6. 7. VIEW OF ARIZONA CANAL ABOVE EVERGREEN, SHOWING LACK OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW OF ARIZONA CANAL ABOVE EVERGREEN, SHOWING LACK OF SILT. OLD TOOTH MARKS OF DRAGLINE BUCKET MADE IN 1909 CALICHE BOTTOM WERE STILL VISIBLE Photographer: unknown. February 1938 - Arizona Canal, North of Salt River, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  7. 1 in 3 Hospitals in Developing World Lack Running Water

    MedlinePlus

    ... in 3 Hospitals in Developing World Lack Running Water Clean water essential for surgeries, hygiene, infection control, researchers say ... SUNDAY, July 3, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Clean running water is essential for hospital sanitation, but a new ...

  8. Structural abnormalities at neuromuscular synapses lacking multiple syntrophin isoforms.

    PubMed

    Adams, Marvin E; Kramarcy, Neal; Fukuda, Taku; Engel, Andrew G; Sealock, Robert; Froehner, Stanley C

    2004-11-17

    The syntrophins are modular adapter proteins that function by recruiting signaling molecules to the cytoskeleton via their direct association with proteins of the dystrophin protein family. We investigated the physiological function of beta2-syntrophin by generating a line of mice lacking this syntrophin isoform. The beta2-syntrophin null mice show no overt phenotype, or muscular dystrophy, and form structurally normal neuromuscular junctions (NMJs). To determine whether physiological consequences caused by the lack of beta2-syntrophin were masked by compensation from the alpha-syntrophin isoform, we crossed these mice with our previously described alpha-syntrophin null mice to produce mice lacking both isoforms. The alpha/beta2-syntrophin null mice have NMJs that are structurally more aberrant than those lacking only alpha-syntrophin. The NMJs of the alpha/beta2-syntrophin null mice have fewer junctional folds than either parent strain, and the remaining folds are abnormally shaped with few openings to the synaptic space. The levels of acetylcholine receptors are reduced to 23% of wild type in mice lacking both syntrophin isoforms. Furthermore, the alpha/beta2-syntrophin null mice ran significantly shorter distances on voluntary exercise wheels despite having normal neuromuscular junction transmission as determined by micro-electrode recording of endplate potentials. We conclude that both alpha-syntrophin and beta2-syntrophin play distinct roles in forming and maintaining NMJ structure and that each syntrophin can partially compensate for the loss of the other.

  9. Evidence for Golgi bodies in proposed 'Golgi-lacking' lineages.

    PubMed

    Dacks, Joel B; Davis, Lesley A M; Sjögren, Asa M; Andersson, Jan O; Roger, Andrew J; Doolittle, W Ford

    2003-11-01

    Golgi bodies are nearly ubiquitous in eukaryotic cells. The apparent lack of such structures in certain eukaryotic lineages might be taken to mean that these protists evolved prior to the acquisition of the Golgi, and it raises questions of how these organisms function in the absence of this crucial organelle. Here, we report gene sequences from five proposed 'Golgi-lacking' organisms (Giardia intestinalis, Spironucleus barkhanus, Entamoeba histolytica, Naegleria gruberi and Mastigamoeba balamuthi). BLAST and phylogenetic analyses show these genes to be homologous to those encoding components of the retromer, coatomer and adaptin complexes, all of which have Golgi-related functions in mammals and yeast. This is, to our knowledge, the first molecular evidence for Golgi bodies in two major eukaryotic lineages (the pelobionts and heteroloboseids). This substantiates the suggestion that there are no extant primitively 'Golgi-lacking' lineages, and that this apparatus was present in the last common eukaryotic ancestor, but has been altered beyond recognition several times.

  10. Bordetella pertussis Strain Lacking Pertactin and Pertussis Toxin.

    PubMed

    Williams, Margaret M; Sen, Kathryn; Weigand, Michael R; Skoff, Tami H; Cunningham, Victoria A; Halse, Tanya A; Tondella, M Lucia

    2016-02-01

    A Bordetella pertussis strain lacking 2 acellular vaccine immunogens, pertussis toxin and pertactin, was isolated from an unvaccinated infant in New York State in 2013. Comparison with a French strain that was pertussis toxin-deficient, pertactin wild-type showed that the strains carry the same 28-kb deletion in similar genomes.

  11. Lack of Emphasis on Nutrition in Medical School Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Suanne

    The need and concern for the apparent lack of nutrition education provided in training programs for physicians was the impetus for begining a 10-session nutrition lecture series program. The program was developed and implemented in a large teaching medical center hospital and given to 16 third-year medical students. The program's purpose was to…

  12. Domestic properties in the UK and a lack of sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ugochukwu, Nnadozie

    This research aims to provide sufficient insight into the lack of sustainable domestic properties in the UK. The paper reviewed relevant theories of sustainability, with respect to energy performance and environmental friendliness of the built environment. The research also studied the efforts made by the UK Government and other Stakeholders to ensure availability of sustainable domestic properties in the UK, by introducing the Code for Sustainable Homes. The research identified constraints that cause the lack of sustainable domestic properties in the UK, they are: The extra costs associated with building homes to sustainable standards, flexible government legislation, lack of information of the benefits of owning a home built to sustainable standards, and lack of community participation in the formulation of sustainable policies. Recommendations for the availability of more homes built to sustainable standards include the need for mandatory government legislation, making the formulation of policies more participatory amongst the communities where they will be implemented, creating public awareness about the benefits of owning a home built to sustainable standards and the fact that the costs associated with owning such a home is recoverable through savings made in energy costs.

  13. A Lack of Vision: The Bradley Commission Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burson, George

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the limitations of the Bradley Commission on History in Schools report. Critiques the History Advanced Placement Examination, and outlines suggestions for its improvement. Presents the Aspen High School, Colorado, solution to the inadequacy of a one-year U.S. history curriculum and the lack of a global view. Examines the role of history…

  14. 10 CFR 503.21 - Lack of alternate fuel supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... substantially exceed the cost of using imported petroleum as a primary energy source as defined in § 503.6 (Cost... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Lack of alternate fuel supply. 503.21 Section 503.21 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS NEW FACILITIES Temporary Exemptions for...

  15. 10 CFR 503.21 - Lack of alternate fuel supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... substantially exceed the cost of using imported petroleum as a primary energy source as defined in § 503.6 (Cost... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lack of alternate fuel supply. 503.21 Section 503.21 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS NEW FACILITIES Temporary Exemptions for...

  16. 10 CFR 503.21 - Lack of alternate fuel supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... substantially exceed the cost of using imported petroleum as a primary energy source as defined in § 503.6 (Cost... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Lack of alternate fuel supply. 503.21 Section 503.21 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS NEW FACILITIES Temporary Exemptions for...

  17. 10 CFR 503.21 - Lack of alternate fuel supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... substantially exceed the cost of using imported petroleum as a primary energy source as defined in § 503.6 (Cost... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Lack of alternate fuel supply. 503.21 Section 503.21 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS NEW FACILITIES Temporary Exemptions for...

  18. 10 CFR 503.21 - Lack of alternate fuel supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... substantially exceed the cost of using imported petroleum as a primary energy source as defined in § 503.6 (Cost... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Lack of alternate fuel supply. 503.21 Section 503.21 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS NEW FACILITIES Temporary Exemptions for...

  19. DETECTION OF LACK OF FUSION WELD DEFECTS BY RADIOGRAPHY

    SciTech Connect

    Souza, M. P.; Almeida, R. M.; Rebello, J. M. A.

    2009-03-03

    In this work, radiography was employed as the NDT technique for detection of flaws in circumferential girth welds of steel pipelines used in offshore installations in the petroleum industry. The kind of defect specifically focused was lack of fusion. It is currently accepted in the literature that radiography is not as sensitive as ultrasonics to detect lack of fusion defects. Unfortunately, the radiographic inspection can barely detect lack of fusion and only when it is associated to inclusions and voids of considerable size. However, in a previous article ('Reliability of radiographic inspection of steel pipeline girth welds', QNDE Conference, 2007), the authors showed that it is possible to detect lack of fusion defects if, in the radiographic tests, the angle of incidence is the same angle that the weld bevel makes with the test piece surface, which means lowering the angle of disorientation between the flaw and the radiographic beam. However, no concerns were made to sizing the defects. Computational simulation was used with XRSIM software to establish the optimal radiographic parameters to reach the lower limit for detection for this kind of defect.

  20. Special Relativity in Week One: 4) Lack of Simultaneity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huggins, Elisha

    2011-01-01

    This is our final article on teaching special relativity in the first week of an introductory physics course. One of the profound changes in our view of the world was Einstein's discovery of the lack of simultaneity. He illustrated this result with a thought experiment in which we observe a railroad car passing by us. We see the two ends of the…

  1. Acetylcholine receptor and behavioral deficits in mice lacking apolipoprotein E

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Jessica A; Benice, Theodore S; Van Meer, Peter; Park, Byung S; Raber, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    Apolipoprotein E (apoE) is involved in the risk to develop sporadic Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Since impaired central acetylcholine (ACh) function is a hallmark of AD, apoE may influence ACh function by modulating muscarinic ACh receptors (mAChRs). To test this hypothesis, mAChR binding was measured in mice lacking apoE and wild type C57BL/6J mice. Mice were also tested on the pre-pulse inhibition, delay eyeblink classical conditioning, and 5-choice serial reaction time tasks, which are all modulated by ACh transmission. Mice were also given scopolamine to challenge central mAChR function. Compared to wild type mice, mice lacking apoE had reduced number of cortical and hippocampal mAChRs. Scopolamine had a small effect on delay eyeblink classical conditioning in wild type mice but a large effect in mice lacking apoE. Mice lacking apoE were also unable to acquire performance on the 5-choice serial reaction time task. These results support a role for apoE in ACh function and suggest that modulation of cortical and hippocampal mAChRs might contribute to genotype differences in scopolamine sensitivity and task acquisition. Impaired apoE functioning may result in cholinergic deficits that contribute to the cognitive impairments seen in AD. PMID:19178986

  2. Bordetella pertussis Strain Lacking Pertactin and Pertussis Toxin

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Kathryn; Weigand, Michael R.; Skoff, Tami H.; Cunningham, Victoria A.; Halse, Tanya A.; Tondella, M. Lucia

    2016-01-01

    A Bordetella pertussis strain lacking 2 acellular vaccine immunogens, pertussis toxin and pertactin, was isolated from an unvaccinated infant in New York State in 2013. Comparison with a French strain that was pertussis toxin–deficient, pertactin wild-type showed that the strains carry the same 28-kb deletion in similar genomes. PMID:26812174

  3. Novel insights into the lipidome of glioblastoma cells based on a combined PLSR and DD-HDS computational analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lespinats, S.; Meyer-Bäse, Anke; He, Huan; Marshall, Alan G.; Conrad, Charles A.; Emmett, Mark R.

    2009-05-01

    Partial Least Square Regression (PLSR) and Data-Driven High Dimensional Scaling (DD-HDS) are employed for the prediction and the visualization of changes in polar lipid expression induced by different combinations of wild-type (wt) p53 gene therapy and SN38 chemotherapy of U87 MG glioblastoma cells. A very detailed analysis of the gangliosides reveals that certain gangliosides of GM3 or GD1-type have unique properties not shared by the others. In summary, this preliminary work shows that data mining techniques are able to determine the modulation of gangliosides by different treatment combinations.

  4. Lack of centrioles and primary cilia in STIL(-/-) mouse embryos.

    PubMed

    David, Ahuvit; Liu, Fengying; Tibelius, Alexandra; Vulprecht, Julia; Wald, Diana; Rothermel, Ulrike; Ohana, Reut; Seitel, Alexander; Metzger, Jasmin; Ashery-Padan, Ruth; Meinzer, Hans-Peter; Gröne, Hermann-Josef; Izraeli, Shai; Krämer, Alwin

    2014-01-01

    Although most animal cells contain centrosomes, consisting of a pair of centrioles, their precise contribution to cell division and embryonic development is unclear. Genetic ablation of STIL, an essential component of the centriole replication machinery in mammalian cells, causes embryonic lethality in mice around mid gestation associated with defective Hedgehog signaling. Here, we describe, by focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy, that STIL(-/-) mouse embryos do not contain centrioles or primary cilia, suggesting that these organelles are not essential for mammalian development until mid gestation. We further show that the lack of primary cilia explains the absence of Hedgehog signaling in STIL(-/-) cells. Exogenous re-expression of STIL or STIL microcephaly mutants compatible with human survival, induced non-templated, de novo generation of centrioles in STIL(-/-) cells. Thus, while the abscence of centrioles is compatible with mammalian gastrulation, lack of centrioles and primary cilia impairs Hedgehog signaling and further embryonic development. PMID:25486474

  5. Lack of centrioles and primary cilia in STIL(-/-) mouse embryos.

    PubMed

    David, Ahuvit; Liu, Fengying; Tibelius, Alexandra; Vulprecht, Julia; Wald, Diana; Rothermel, Ulrike; Ohana, Reut; Seitel, Alexander; Metzger, Jasmin; Ashery-Padan, Ruth; Meinzer, Hans-Peter; Gröne, Hermann-Josef; Izraeli, Shai; Krämer, Alwin

    2014-01-01

    Although most animal cells contain centrosomes, consisting of a pair of centrioles, their precise contribution to cell division and embryonic development is unclear. Genetic ablation of STIL, an essential component of the centriole replication machinery in mammalian cells, causes embryonic lethality in mice around mid gestation associated with defective Hedgehog signaling. Here, we describe, by focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy, that STIL(-/-) mouse embryos do not contain centrioles or primary cilia, suggesting that these organelles are not essential for mammalian development until mid gestation. We further show that the lack of primary cilia explains the absence of Hedgehog signaling in STIL(-/-) cells. Exogenous re-expression of STIL or STIL microcephaly mutants compatible with human survival, induced non-templated, de novo generation of centrioles in STIL(-/-) cells. Thus, while the abscence of centrioles is compatible with mammalian gastrulation, lack of centrioles and primary cilia impairs Hedgehog signaling and further embryonic development.

  6. When the patient lacks decision-making capacity.

    PubMed

    Erlen, J A

    1995-01-01

    Our society supports the right of its members to be self-determining and to make decisions based on their personal values and beliefs. However, what happens when a person lacks the capacity to make decisions? The author identifies criteria for determining decision-making capacity and discusses the surrogate decision maker, the best interests standard, and the substituted judgment standard. Nursing implications focusing on treating the patient with dignity and respect and protecting the patient's rights are discussed.

  7. Unresolved questions from the analysis of mice lacking MCU expression.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Elizabeth; Pan, Xin; Nguyen, Tiffany; Liu, Jie; Holmström, Kira M; Finkel, Toren

    2014-07-11

    Entry of mitochondrial calcium is believed to play an essential role in regulating bioenergetics and initiating cell death pathways. We have recently described a mouse model lacking MCU expression. Surprisingly, these mice are viable and the cells and tissues from these animals do not exhibit any marked protection from cell death. Here, we discuss our findings as well as potential explanations for some of the more unexpected results.

  8. Microstructure of iridescence-lacking pearl formed in Pinctada fucata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Michio; Mukai, Hiroki; Aoki, Hideo; Yoshimura, Etsuro; Sakuda, Shohei; Nagasawa, Hiromichi; Kogure, Toshihiro

    2016-01-01

    The iridescence-lacking pearl is regarded as a low-quality product because it shows no iridescent color which is generated by the interference of the light reflected at the organic-inorganic boundaries in the regulated interstratification of organic sheets and thin aragonite tablets. In this study, we investigated the microstructural difference between normal and iridescence-lacking pearls, as well as original nacreous layers in the shell of the pearl oyster, Pinctada fucata. Cross-sectional observation by scanning electron microscopy revealed abundant organic spherules of a few hundred nanometers in diameter attached to the inter-crystalline organic sheets in the iridescence-lacking pearl. The incoherent light scattered by the spherules inhibit the formation or emission of the iridescent color. The same spherules were also observed in hazy nacreous layers of the shell. The organic spherules often connected to the gap of inter-crystalline organic sheets implying that the spherules consist of same components of the organic sheets. Their abundance varies along the thickness of nacre, suggesting that their formation is determined by environmental factors, as well as genetic ones.

  9. Neobiosynthesis of Glycosphingolipids by Plasma Membrane-associated Glycosyltransferases*

    PubMed Central

    Crespo, Pilar M.; Demichelis, Vanina Torres; Daniotti, José L.

    2010-01-01

    Gangliosides, complex glycosphingolipids containing sialic acids, are synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum and in the Golgi complex. These neobiosynthesized gangliosides move via vesicular transport to the plasma membrane, becoming components of the external leaflet. Gangliosides can undergo endocytosis followed by recycling to the cell surface or sorting to the Golgi complex or lysosomes for remodeling and catabolism. Recently, glycosphingolipid catabolic enzymes (glycohydrolases) have been found to be associated with the plasma membrane, where they display activity on the membrane components. In this work, we demonstrated that ecto-ganglioside glycosyltransferases may catalyze ganglioside synthesis outside the Golgi compartment, particularly at the cell surface. Specifically, we report the first direct evidence of expression and activity of CMP-NeuAc:GM3 sialyltransferase (Sial-T2) at the cell surface of epithelial and melanoma cells, with membrane-integrated ecto-Sial-T2 being able to sialylate endogenously synthesized GM3 ganglioside as well as exogenously incorporated substrate. Interestingly, we also showed that ecto-Sial-T2 was able to synthesize GD3 ganglioside at the cell surface using the endogenously synthesized cytidine monophospho-N-acetylneuraminic acid (CMP-NeuAc) available at the extracellular milieu. In addition, the expression of UDP-GalNAc:LacCer/GM3/GD3 N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase (GalNAc-T) was also detected at the cell surface of epithelial cells, whose catalytic activity was only observed after feeding the cells with exogenous GM3 substrate. Thus, the relative interplay between the plasma membrane-associated glycosyltransferase and glycohydrolase activities, even when acting on a common substrate, emerges as a potential level of regulation of the local glycosphingolipid composition in response to different external and internal stimuli. PMID:20639193

  10. Transcriptional changes associated with lack of lipid synthesis in parasitoids.

    PubMed

    Visser, Bertanne; Roelofs, Dick; Hahn, Daniel A; Teal, Peter E A; Mariën, Janine; Ellers, Jacintha

    2012-01-01

    Phenotypic regression of morphological, behavioral, or physiological traits can evolve when reduced trait expression has neutral or beneficial effects on overall performance. Studies on the evolution of phenotypic degradation in animals have concentrated mostly on the evaluation of resulting phenotypes, whereas much less research has been dedicated to uncovering the molecular mechanisms that underlie phenotypic regression. The majority of parasitoids (i.e., insects that develop on or inside other arthropods), do not accumulate lipid reserves during their free-living adult life-stage and represent an excellent system to study phenotypic regression in animals. Here, we study transcriptional patterns associated with lack of lipogenesis in the parasitic wasp Nasonia vitripennis. We first confirmed that N. vitripennis does not synthesize lipids by showing a reduction in lipid reserves despite ingestion of dietary sugar, and a lack of incorporation of isotopic labels into lipid reserves when fed deuterated sugar solution. Second, we investigated transcriptional responses of 28 genes involved in lipid and sugar metabolism in short- and long-term sugar-fed females relative to starved females of N. vitripennis. Sugar feeding did not induce transcription of fatty acid synthase (fas) or other key genes involved in the lipid biosynthesis pathway. Furthermore, several genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism had a lower transcription in fed than in starved females. Our results reveal that N. vitripennis gene transcription in response to dietary sugar deviates markedly from patterns typically observed in other organisms. This study is the first to identify differential gene transcription associated with lack of lipogenesis in parasitoids and provides new insights into the molecular mechanism that underlies phenotypic regression of this trait.

  11. No pain, no gain: lack of exercise obstructs neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Watson, Nate; Ji, Xunming; Yasuhara, Takao; Date, Isao; Kaneko, Yuji; Tajiri, Naoki; Borlongan, Cesar V

    2015-01-01

    Bedridden patients develop atrophied muscles, their daily activities greatly reduced, and some display a depressive mood. Patients who are able to receive physical rehabilitation sometimes show surprising clinical improvements, including reduced depression and attenuation of other stress-related behaviors. Regenerative medicine has advanced two major stem cell-based therapies for CNS disorders, namely, transplantation of exogenous stem cells and amplification of endogenous neurogenesis. The latter strategy embraces a natural way of reinnervating the damaged brain and correcting the neurological impairments. In this study, we discussed how immobilization-induced disuse atrophy, using the hindlimb suspension model, affects neurogenesis in rats. The overarching hypothesis is that immobilization suppresses neurogenesis by reducing the circulating growth or trophic factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor or brain-derived neurotrophic factor. That immobilization alters neurogenesis and stem cell differentiation in the CNS requires characterization of the stem cell microenvironment by examining the trophic and growth factors, as well as stress-related proteins that have been implicated in exercise-induced neurogenesis. Although accumulating evidence has revealed the contribution of "increased" exercise on neurogenesis, the reverse paradigm involving "lack of exercise," which mimics pathological states (e.g., stroke patients are often immobile), remains underexplored. This novel paradigm will enable us to examine the effects on neurogenesis by a nonpermissive stem cell microenvironment likely produced by lack of exercise. BrdU labeling of proliferative cells, biochemical assays of serum, cerebrospinal fluid and brain levels of trophic factors, growth factors, and stress-related proteins are proposed as indices of neurogenesis, while quantitative measurements of spontaneous movements will reveal psychomotor components of immobilization. Studies designed to

  12. No pain, no gain: lack of exercise obstructs neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Watson, Nate; Ji, Xunming; Yasuhara, Takao; Date, Isao; Kaneko, Yuji; Tajiri, Naoki; Borlongan, Cesar V

    2015-01-01

    Bedridden patients develop atrophied muscles, their daily activities greatly reduced, and some display a depressive mood. Patients who are able to receive physical rehabilitation sometimes show surprising clinical improvements, including reduced depression and attenuation of other stress-related behaviors. Regenerative medicine has advanced two major stem cell-based therapies for CNS disorders, namely, transplantation of exogenous stem cells and amplification of endogenous neurogenesis. The latter strategy embraces a natural way of reinnervating the damaged brain and correcting the neurological impairments. In this study, we discussed how immobilization-induced disuse atrophy, using the hindlimb suspension model, affects neurogenesis in rats. The overarching hypothesis is that immobilization suppresses neurogenesis by reducing the circulating growth or trophic factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor or brain-derived neurotrophic factor. That immobilization alters neurogenesis and stem cell differentiation in the CNS requires characterization of the stem cell microenvironment by examining the trophic and growth factors, as well as stress-related proteins that have been implicated in exercise-induced neurogenesis. Although accumulating evidence has revealed the contribution of "increased" exercise on neurogenesis, the reverse paradigm involving "lack of exercise," which mimics pathological states (e.g., stroke patients are often immobile), remains underexplored. This novel paradigm will enable us to examine the effects on neurogenesis by a nonpermissive stem cell microenvironment likely produced by lack of exercise. BrdU labeling of proliferative cells, biochemical assays of serum, cerebrospinal fluid and brain levels of trophic factors, growth factors, and stress-related proteins are proposed as indices of neurogenesis, while quantitative measurements of spontaneous movements will reveal psychomotor components of immobilization. Studies designed to

  13. Lack of oblique astigmatism in the chicken eye.

    PubMed

    Maier, Felix M; Howland, Howard C; Ohlendorf, Arne; Wahl, Siegfried; Schaeffel, Frank

    2015-04-01

    Primate eyes display considerable oblique off-axis astigmatism which could provide information on the sign of defocus that is needed for emmetropization. The pattern of peripheral astigmatism is not known in the chicken eye, a common model of myopia. Peripheral astigmatism was mapped out over the horizontal visual field in three chickens, 43 days old, and in three near emmetropic human subjects, average age 34.7years, using infrared photoretinoscopy. There were no differences in astigmatism between humans and chickens in the central visual field (chicks -0.35D, humans -0.65D, n.s.) but large differences in the periphery (i.e. astigmatism at 40° in the temporal visual field: humans -4.21D, chicks -0.63D, p<0.001, unpaired t-test). The lack of peripheral astigmatism in chicks was not due to differences in corneal shape. Perhaps related to their superior peripheral optics, we found that chickens had excellent visual performance also in the far periphery. Using an automated optokinetic nystagmus paradigm, no difference was observed in spatial visual performance with vision restricted to either the central 67° of the visual field or to the periphery beyond 67°. Accommodation was elicited by stimuli presented far out in the visual field. Transscleral images of single infrared LEDs showed no sign of peripheral astigmatism. The chick may be the first terrestrial vertebrate described to lack oblique astigmatism. Since corneal shape cannot account for the difference in astigmatism in humans and chicks, it must trace back to the design of the crystalline lens. The lack of peripheral astigmatism in chicks also excludes a role in emmetropization.

  14. Transcriptional Changes Associated with Lack of Lipid Synthesis in Parasitoids

    PubMed Central

    Visser, Bertanne; Roelofs, Dick; Hahn, Daniel A.; Teal, Peter E. A.; Mariën, Janine; Ellers, Jacintha

    2012-01-01

    Phenotypic regression of morphological, behavioral, or physiological traits can evolve when reduced trait expression has neutral or beneficial effects on overall performance. Studies on the evolution of phenotypic degradation in animals have concentrated mostly on the evaluation of resulting phenotypes, whereas much less research has been dedicated to uncovering the molecular mechanisms that underlie phenotypic regression. The majority of parasitoids (i.e., insects that develop on or inside other arthropods), do not accumulate lipid reserves during their free-living adult life-stage and represent an excellent system to study phenotypic regression in animals. Here, we study transcriptional patterns associated with lack of lipogenesis in the parasitic wasp Nasonia vitripennis. We first confirmed that N. vitripennis does not synthesize lipids by showing a reduction in lipid reserves despite ingestion of dietary sugar, and a lack of incorporation of isotopic labels into lipid reserves when fed deuterated sugar solution. Second, we investigated transcriptional responses of 28 genes involved in lipid and sugar metabolism in short- and long-term sugar-fed females relative to starved females of N. vitripennis. Sugar feeding did not induce transcription of fatty acid synthase (fas) or other key genes involved in the lipid biosynthesis pathway. Furthermore, several genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism had a lower transcription in fed than in starved females. Our results reveal that N. vitripennis gene transcription in response to dietary sugar deviates markedly from patterns typically observed in other organisms. This study is the first to identify differential gene transcription associated with lack of lipogenesis in parasitoids and provides new insights into the molecular mechanism that underlies phenotypic regression of this trait. PMID:22820524

  15. Increased sensitivity to kindling in mice lacking TSP1.

    PubMed

    Mendus, D; Rankin-Gee, E K; Mustapha, M; Porter, B E

    2015-10-01

    The development of a hyperexcitable neuronal network is thought to be a critical event in epilepsy. Thrombospondins (TSPs) regulate synaptogenesis by binding the neuronal α2δ subunit of the voltage-gated calcium channel. TSPs regulate synapse formation during development and in the mature brain following injury. It is unclear if TSPs are involved in hyperexcitability that contributes to the development of epilepsy. Here we explore the development of epilepsy using a pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) kindling model in mice lacking TSP1 and TSP2. Unexpectedly, we found increased sensitivity to PTZ kindling in mice lacking TSP1, while mice lacking TSP2 kindled similar to wild-type. We found that the increased seizure susceptibility in the TSP1 knockout (KO) mice was not due to a compensatory increase in TSP2 mRNA as TSP1/2 KO mice were sensitive to PTZ, similar to the TSP1 KO mice. Furthermore, there were similar levels of TGF-B signal activation during kindling in the TSP1 KO mice compared to wild-type. We observed decreased expression of voltage-dependent calcium channel subunit CACNA2D1 mRNA in TSP1, TSP2, and TSP1/2 KO mice. Decreased CACNA2D2 mRNA was only detected in mice that lacked TSP1 and α2δ-1/2 protein levels in the cortex were lower in the TSP 1/2 KO mice. CACNA2D2 knockout mice have spontaneous seizures and increased PTZ seizure susceptibility. Here we report similar findings, TSP1, and TSP1/2 KO mice have low levels of CACNA2D2 mRNA expression and α2δ-1/2 receptor level in the cortex, and are more susceptible to seizures. CACNA2D2 mutations in mice and humans can cause epilepsy. Our data suggest TSP1 in particular may control CACNA2D2 levels and could be a modifier of seizure susceptibility.

  16. Lack of Syneresis during Gelation of Dense Colloidal Suspensions.

    PubMed

    Helbig; Hütter; Schönholzer

    2000-02-01

    This study reports experimental results about the shrinkage of particle networks produced by pH-induced destabilization of dense colloidal suspensions. The resulting solid networks exhibit no syneresis effects, at least prior to aging of the gel. From this lack of syneresis it is concluded that the solidification in wet particle systems either is not purely determined by energy (but is also influenced by entropic effects) or cannot be explained within the framework of (static) equilibrium thermodynamics at all. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  17. Disclosing personal health information relating to adults who lack capacity.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Richard

    2014-03-01

    The need to share information about patients is vital to effective care and protection, especially where it relates to adults who lack decision-making capacity but it has to be balanced against the right to confidentiality. Like other health professionals, district nurses have a duty to maintain the confidentiality of patient information, and incapable adults have the right to expect their personal health information to be kept private. This right is guaranteed by the common-law duty of confidence, the Data Protection Act 1998 and the NHS Care Record Guarantee and confidentiality policy. This article discusses the district nurse's legal obligations when considering sharing information in relation to an incapable adult

  18. Lack of semantic parafoveal preview benefit in reading revisited

    PubMed Central

    Rayner, Keith; Schotter, Elizabeth R.; Drieghe, Denis

    2014-01-01

    In contrast to earlier research, evidence for semantic preview benefit in reading has been reported by Hohenstein and Kliegl (2013) in an alphabetic writing system; they also implied that prior demonstrations of a lack of semantic preview benefit needed to be re-examined. In the present article we report a rather direct replication of an experiment reported by Rayner, Balota, and Pollatsek (1986). Using the gaze-contingent boundary paradigm, subjects read sentences that contained a target word (razor), but different preview words were initially presented in the sentence. The preview was either identical to the target word (i.e., razor), semantically related to the target word (i.e., blade), semantically unrelated to the target word (i.e., sweet), or a visually similar non-word (i.e., razar). When the reader's eyes crossed an invisible boundary location just to the left of the target word location, the preview changed to the target word. Like Rayner et al. (1986), we found that fixations on the target word were significantly shorter in the identical condition than in the unrelated condition, which did not differ from the semantically related condition; when an orthographically similar preview had been initially present in the sentence fixations were shorter than when a semantically unrelated preview had been present. Thus, the present experiment replicates the earlier data reported by Rayner et al. (1986) indicating evidence for orthographic preview benefit, but a lack of semantic preview benefit in reading English. PMID:24496738

  19. Individuals With OCD Lack Unrealistic Optimism Bias in Threat Estimation.

    PubMed

    Zetsche, Ulrike; Rief, Winfried; Exner, Cornelia

    2015-07-01

    Overestimating the occurrence of threatening events has been highlighted as a central cognitive factor in the maintenance of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The present study examined the different facets of this cognitive bias, its underlying mechanisms, and its specificity to OCD. For this purpose, threat estimation, probabilistic classification learning (PCL) and psychopathological measures were assessed in 23 participants with OCD, 30 participants with social phobia, and 31 healthy controls. Whereas healthy participants showed an optimistic expectation bias regarding positive and negative future events, OCD participants lacked such a bias. This lack of an optimistic expectation bias was not specific to OCD. Compared to healthy controls, OCD participants overestimated their personal risk for experiencing negative events, but did not differ from controls in their risk estimation regarding other people. Finally, OCD participants' biases in the prediction of checking-related events were associated with their impairments in learning probabilistic cue-outcome associations in a disorder-relevant context. In sum, the present results add to a growing body of research demonstrating that cognitive biases in OCD are context-dependent.

  20. Metabolic alterations in yeast lacking copper-zinc superoxide dismutase.

    PubMed

    Sehati, Sadaf; Clement, Matthew H S; Martins, Jake; Xu, Lei; Longo, Valter D; Valentine, Joan S; Gralla, Edith B

    2011-06-01

    Yeast lacking copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (sod1∆) have a number of oxygen-dependent defects, including auxotrophies for lysine and methionine and sensitivity to oxygen. Here we report additional defects in metabolic regulation. Under standard growth conditions with glucose as the carbon source, yeast undergo glucose repression in which mitochondrial respiration is deemphasized, energy is mainly derived from glycolysis, and ethanol is produced. When glucose is depleted, the diauxic shift is activated, in which mitochondrial respiration is reemphasized and stress resistance increases. We find that both of these programs are adversely affected by the lack of Sod1p. Key events in the diauxic shift do not occur and sod1∆ cells do not utilize ethanol and stop growing. The ability to shift to growth on ethanol is gradually lost as time in culture increases. In early stages of culture, sod1∆ cells consume more oxygen and have more mitochondrial mass than wild-type cells, indicating that glucose repression is not fully activated. These changes are at least partially dependent on the activity of the Hap2,3,4,5 complex, as indicated by CYC1-lacZ reporter assays. These changes may indicate a role for superoxide in metabolic signaling and regulation and/or a role for glucose derepression in defense against oxidative stress.

  1. Sensory quality of soymilk and tofu from soybeans lacking lipoxygenases.

    PubMed

    Yang, Aijun; Smyth, Heather; Chaliha, Mridusmita; James, Andrew

    2016-03-01

    The oxidation of unsaturated lipids by lipoxygenases in soybeans causes undesirable flavors in soy foods. Using a traditional and a nontraditional soy food user group, we examined the cultural difference in perceiving the sensory characteristics of soymilk and tofu produced from soybeans with or without lipoxygenases (Lx123). The two groups described the samples using similar terms. The traditional users preferred the control soy milk and lipoxygenase-free tofu while the nontraditional users preferred the lipoxygenase-free soymilk with no preference for tofu. In a separate study, a trained descriptive taste panel compared the odor of soymilk and tofu from control soybeans or those lacking lipoxygenase-1 and lipoxygenase-2 (Lx12) or all three isomers (Lx123). The rancid/grassy odor was rated the lowest in Lx123 products, followed by Lx12 products with the control products given the highest rating. The Lx12 and Lx123 products were also sweeter and less bitter than the controls. Taken together, our results demonstrated that soybeans lacking lipoxygenases can produce soy foods with less undesirable aromas and are therefore likely more acceptable to the consumers. PMID:27004110

  2. Salmonella enterica serovar Senftenberg human clinical isolates lacking SPI-1.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qinghua; Coburn, Bryan; Deng, Wanyin; Li, Yuling; Shi, Xiaolu; Lan, Quanxue; Wang, Bing; Coombes, Brian K; Finlay, B Brett

    2008-04-01

    Nontyphoidal Salmonella species cause gastrointestinal disease worldwide. The prevailing theory of Salmonella enteropathogenesis is that bacterial invasion of the intestinal epithelium is essential for virulence and that this requires the virulence-associated genomic region Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1). Recent studies of Salmonella enterica infection models have demonstrated that enterocolitis and diarrhea in mice and cows can occur independently of SPI-1. In this study, we sought to confirm whether two S. enterica serovar Senftenberg clinical isolates lacked genes essential for SPI-1 function. Two clinical strains were isolated and identified as being S. enterica serovar Senftenberg from four stool samples from a food-borne disease outbreak affecting seven individuals in Shenzhen, Guangdong Province, China, using conventional methods, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequence typing. The possibility of coinfection with other potential bacteria or usual viruses was excluded. Two isolates were analyzed for the presence of invA, sipA, ssaR, sifA, and sopE2 by PCR and Southern blotting and were then assayed for the presence of SPI-1 by PCR and long-range PCR for fhlA-hilA, hilA-spaP, and spaP-invH and Southern blot analysis. A long-range PCR fragment from fhlA to mutS covering the 5' and 3' flanks of SPI-1 was also amplified from the two clinical isolates and sequenced. In addition, the two clinical isolates were assayed for enteroinvasiveness in vitro. Murine infection models were also examined. Biochemical tests and serotyping confirmed that the two clinical isolates are S. enterica serovar Senftenberg. However, they lacked genes critical for SPI-1 function but contained SPI-2 genes and were attenuated for the invasion of cultured intestinal epithelial cells. In conclusion, clinical S. enterica serovar Senftenberg strains isolated from a food-borne disease outbreak lack the invasion-associated locus SPI-1, indicating that SPI-1 is not

  3. Lack of Evidence Supporting the Effectiveness of Disaster Supply Kits.

    PubMed

    Heagele, Tara N

    2016-06-01

    We reviewed the available evidence in support of the effectiveness of disaster supply kits presently used in household emergency preparedness in the United States. The expectation that people should take responsibility for their own disaster preparedness has largely not taken into account contextual influences on disaster preparedness. The efficiency of current disaster supply kits used during critical postdisaster periods has not been empirically tested. Professional recommendations regarding the composition of disaster supply kits containing at least water, food, first aid, hygiene, and clothing have not been universally defined. This lack of consensus may lead to the assembling of disaster supply kits yielding suboptimal results. The use of disaster supply kits should continue to be nationally recommended, although additional research is needed to demonstrate their beneficial impact on survival and resilience after a disaster. PMID:27077362

  4. Problems caused by regulatory delays and lack of regulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reamer, Lynne A.

    1994-12-01

    An FDA perspective on some of the problems encountered during the device review process is described. Emphasis is placed on the need for communication and teamwork among all parties to make the system work. Manufacturers are encouraged to `Do it right the first time.' Pertinent questions are asked of the manufacturers and proposed solutions are presented. Day to day reality at FDA is described and document workload is revealed. Lack of regulation, or more appropriately, when less regulation is appropriate is discussed. FDA has distributed to manufacturers a new draft guidance document to help in the decisionmaking process and when to submit a 510(k) when modifications are made to a device. This and other mechanisms are in place at the FDA to streamline the review process. Manufacturers are cautioned about their decisions and to seek advice from qualified persons. FDA emphasizes that help is available and that when in doubt, call.

  5. Lethal Cardiomyopathy in Mice Lacking Transferrin Receptor in the Heart.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wenjing; Barrientos, Tomasa; Mao, Lan; Rockman, Howard A; Sauve, Anthony A; Andrews, Nancy C

    2015-10-20

    Both iron overload and iron deficiency have been associated with cardiomyopathy and heart failure, but cardiac iron utilization is incompletely understood. We hypothesized that the transferrin receptor (Tfr1) might play a role in cardiac iron uptake and used gene targeting to examine the role of Tfr1 in vivo. Surprisingly, we found that decreased iron, due to inactivation of Tfr1, was associated with severe cardiac consequences. Mice lacking Tfr1 in the heart died in the second week of life and had cardiomegaly, poor cardiac function, failure of mitochondrial respiration, and ineffective mitophagy. The phenotype could only be rescued by aggressive iron therapy, but it was ameliorated by administration of nicotinamide riboside, an NAD precursor. Our findings underscore the importance of both Tfr1 and iron in the heart, and may inform therapy for patients with heart failure. PMID:26456827

  6. Calf thymus ribonuclease H IIa activity lacks ribonuclease H specificity.

    PubMed

    Vonwirth, H; Frank, P; Büsen, W

    1990-03-15

    Less purified fractions of ribonuclease H IIa activity of calf thymus display divalent cation-dependent ribonuclease H activity and divalent cation-independent ribonuclease activity. Because the ratio of the two enzyme activities does not change during successive chromatographic procedures, we suggest that ribonuclease H IIa activity is indeed able to degrade both ssRNA and the RNA moiety of RNA.DNA-hybrids. Ribonuclease H IIa activity can therefore be differentiated from calf thymus ribonuclease H I and H IIb by its lack of ribonuclease H specificity. The native molecular mass of ribonuclease H IIa activity is between 23 and 28 kDa. Under denaturing conditions a 23 kDa-protein band copurifies with the enzyme activity suggesting that this enzyme is monomeric.

  7. Lack of performance: the top reasons for terminating healthcare employees.

    PubMed

    McKinnies, Richard C; Collins, Sandra K; Collins, Kevin S; Matthews, Eric

    2010-01-01

    One of the responsibilities of being a radiology manager unfortunately involves terminating employees. This task can be unpleasant and difficult for both the employee and the manager. It can also be filled with legal ramifications if not handled appropriately. Therefore, it is important for radiology managers to be keenly aware of the typical reasons healthcare employees are terminated. Recognizing the most common reasons for termination can provide radiology managers with an avenue by which to create initiatives. These initiatives should be aimed at reducing the problem areas which lead to the undesirable task of firing employees. A survey of human resource managers in the healthcare industry was conducted and identified the most recurrent reasons healthcare employees are terminated. It also explored the root causes pertaining to terminations involving lack of employee performance.

  8. Vaccinia virions deficient in transcription enzymes lack a nucleocapsid

    SciTech Connect

    McFadden, Baron D.H.; Moussatche, Nissin; Kelley, Karen; Kang, Byung-Ho; Condit, Richard C.

    2012-12-05

    The poxvirus virion contains an inner tubular nucleocapsid structure. The nucleocapsid is apparently labile to conventional electron microscopy fixation procedures and has therefore been largely ignored for decades. Advancements in electron microscopy sample preparation, notably high pressure freezing, better preserve the nucleocapsid structure. Using high pressure freezing and electron microscopy, we have compared the virion structures of wt virus and mutant viruses known to be deficient in packaging of viral transcription enzymes. We show that the mutant viruses lack a defined nucleocapsid. These results support the hypothesis that the nucleocapsid contains the viral DNA genome complexed with viral transcription enzymes and structural proteins. The studies open the door to further investigation of the composition and ultrastructure of the poxvirus nucleocapsid.

  9. Characterization of inherent curvature in DNA lacking polyadenine runs.

    PubMed

    McNamara, P T; Harrington, R E

    1991-07-01

    Sequence-directed DNA curvature is most commonly associated with AA dinucleotides in the form of polyadenine runs. We demonstrate inherent curvature in DNA which lacks AA/TT dinucleotides using the criteria of polyacrylamide gel mobility and efficiency of DNA cyclization. These studies are based upon two 21-base pair synthetic DNA fragments designed to exhibit fixed curvature according to deflections made to the helical axis by non-AA dinucleotide stacks. Repeats of these sequences display anomalously slow migration in polyacrylamide gels. Moreover, both sequences describe helical conformations that are closed into circles by DNA ligase at much smaller sizes than is typical of nondeformed DNA. Chemical cleavage of these DNA molecules with hydroxyl radical is also consistent with local variation in helical conformation at specific dinucleotide steps. PMID:1648100

  10. Disclosing personal health information relating to adults who lack capacity.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Richard

    2014-03-01

    The need to share information about patients is vital to effective care and protection, especially where it relates to adults who lack decision-making capacity but it has to be balanced against the right to confidentiality. Like other health professionals, district nurses have a duty to maintain the confidentiality of patient information, and incapable adults have the right to expect their personal health information to be kept private. This right is guaranteed by the common-law duty of confidence, the Data Protection Act 1998 and the NHS Care Record Guarantee and confidentiality policy. This article discusses the district nurse's legal obligations when considering sharing information in relation to an incapable adult PMID:24897837

  11. Lack of Dystrophin Affects Bronchial Epithelium in mdx Mice.

    PubMed

    Morici, Giuseppe; Rappa, Francesca; Cappello, Francesco; Pace, Elisabetta; Pace, Andrea; Mudò, Giuseppa; Crescimanno, Grazia; Belluardo, Natale; Bonsignore, Maria R

    2016-10-01

    Mild exercise training may positively affect the course of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD). Training causes mild bronchial epithelial injury in both humans and mice, but no study assessed the effects of exercise in mdx mice, a well known model of DMD. The airway epithelium was examined in mdx (C57BL/10ScSn-Dmdmdx) mice, and in wild type (WT, C57BL/10ScSc) mice either under sedentary conditions (mdx-SD, WT-SD) or during mild exercise training (mdx-EX, WT-EX). At baseline, and after 30 and 45 days of training (5 d/wk for 6 weeks), epithelial morphology and markers of regeneration, apoptosis, and cellular stress were assessed. The number of goblet cells in bronchial epithelium was much lower in mdx than in WT mice under all conditions. At 30 days, epithelial regeneration (PCNA positive cells) was higher in EX than SD animals in both groups; however, at 45 days, epithelial regeneration decreased in mdx mice irrespective of training, and the percentage of apoptotic (TUNEL positive) cells was higher in mdx-EX than in WT-EX mice. Epithelial expression of HSP60 (marker of stress) progressively decreased, and inversely correlated with epithelial apoptosis (r = -0.66, P = 0.01) only in mdx mice. Lack of dystrophin in mdx mice appears associated with defective epithelial differentiation, and transient epithelial regeneration during mild exercise training. Hence, lack of dystrophin might impair repair in bronchial epithelium, with potential clinical consequences in DMD patients. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 2218-2223, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Lack of myoglobin causes a switch in cardiac substrate selection.

    PubMed

    Flögel, Ulrich; Laussmann, Tim; Gödecke, Axel; Abanador, Nadine; Schäfers, Michael; Fingas, Christian Dominik; Metzger, Sabine; Levkau, Bodo; Jacoby, Christoph; Schrader, Jürgen

    2005-04-29

    Myoglobin is an important intracellular O2 binding hemoprotein in heart and skeletal muscle. Surprisingly, disruption of myoglobin in mice (myo-/-) resulted in no obvious phenotype and normal cardiac function was suggested to be mediated by structural alterations that tend to steepen the oxygen pressure gradient from capillary to mitochondria. Here we report that lack of myoglobin causes a biochemical shift in cardiac substrate utilization from fatty acid to glucose oxidation. Proteome and gene expression analysis uncovered key enzymes of mitochondrial beta-oxidation as well as the nuclear receptor PPAR to be downregulated in myoglobin-deficient hearts. Using FDG-PET we showed a substantially increased in vivo cardiac uptake of glucose in myo-/- mice (6.7+/-2.3 versus 0.8+/-0.5% of injected dose in wild-type, n=5, P<0.001), which was associated with an upregulation of the glucose transporter GLUT4. The metabolic switch was confirmed by 13C NMR spetroscopic isotopomer studies of isolated hearts which revealed that [1,6-13C2]glucose utilization was increased in myo-/- hearts (38+/-8% versus 22+/-5% in wild-type, n=6, P<0.05), and concomitantly, [U-13C16]palmitate utilization was decreased in the myoglobin-deficient group (42+/-6% versus 63+/-11% in wild-type, n=6, P<0.05). Because of the O2-sparing effect of glucose utilization, the observed shift in substrate metabolism benefits energy homoeostasis and therefore represents a molecular adaptation process allowing to compensate for lack of the cytosolic oxygen carrier myoglobin. Furthermore, our data suggest that an altered myoglobin level itself may be a critical determinant for substrate selection in the heart. The full text of this article is available online at http://circres.ahajournals.org. PMID:15817884

  13. Lack of semantic parafoveal preview benefit in reading revisited.

    PubMed

    Rayner, Keith; Schotter, Elizabeth R; Drieghe, Denis

    2014-08-01

    In contrast to earlier research, evidence for semantic preview benefit in reading has been reported by Hohenstein and Kliegl (Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 40, 166-190, 2013) in an alphabetic writing system; they also implied that prior demonstrations of lack of a semantic preview benefit needed to be reexamined. In the present article, we report a rather direct replication of an experiment reported by Rayner, Balota, and Pollatsek (Canadian Journal of Psychology, 40, 473-483, 1986). Using the gaze-contingent boundary paradigm, subjects read sentences that contained a target word (razor), but different preview words were initially presented in the sentence. The preview was identical to the target word (i.e., razor), semantically related to the target word (i.e., blade), semantically unrelated to the target word (i.e., sweet), or a visually similar nonword (i.e., razar). When the reader's eyes crossed an invisible boundary location just to the left of the target word location, the preview changed to the target word. Like Rayner et al. (Canadian Journal of Psychology, 40, 473-483, 1986), we found that fixations on the target word were significantly shorter in the identical condition than in the unrelated condition, which did not differ from the semantically related condition; when an orthographically similar preview had been initially present in the sentence, fixations were shorter than when a semantically unrelated preview had been present. Thus, the present experiment replicates the earlier data reported by Rayner et al. (Canadian Journal of Psychology, 40, 473-483, 1986), indicating evidence for an orthographic preview benefit but a lack of semantic preview benefit in reading English.

  14. Lack of size selectivity for paddlefish captured in hobbled gillnets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scholten, G.D.; Bettoli, P.W.

    2007-01-01

    A commercial fishery for paddlefish Polyodon spathula caviar exists in Kentucky Lake, a reservoir on the lower Tennessee River. A 152-mm (bar-measure) minimum mesh size restriction on entanglement gear was enacted in 2002 and the minimum size limit was increased to 864 mm eye-fork length to reduce the possibility of recruitment overfishing. Paddlefish were sampled in 2003-2004 using experimental monofilament gillnets with panels of 89, 102, 127, 152, 178, and 203-mm meshes and the efficacy of the mesh size restriction was evaluated. Following the standards of commercial gear used in that fishery, nets were "hobbled" (i.e., 128 m ?? 3.6 m nets were tied down to 2.4 m; 91 m ?? 9.1 m nets were tied down to 7.6 m). The mean lengths of paddlefish (Ntotal = 576 fish) captured in each mesh were similar among most meshes and bycatch rates of sublegal fish did not vary with mesh size. Selectivity curves could not be modeled because the mean and modal lengths of fish captured in each mesh did not increase with mesh size. Ratios of fish girth to mesh perimeter (G:P) for individual fish were often less than 1.0 as a result of the largest meshes capturing small paddlefish. It is unclear whether lack of size selectivity for paddlefish was because the gillnets were hobbled, the unique morphology of paddlefish, or the fact that they swim with their mouths agape when filter feeding. The lack of size selectivity by hobbled gillnets fished in Kentucky Lake means that managers cannot influence the size of paddlefish captured by commercial gillnet gear by changing minimum mesh size regulations. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Lack of myoglobin causes a switch in cardiac substrate selection.

    PubMed

    Flögel, Ulrich; Laussmann, Tim; Gödecke, Axel; Abanador, Nadine; Schäfers, Michael; Fingas, Christian Dominik; Metzger, Sabine; Levkau, Bodo; Jacoby, Christoph; Schrader, Jürgen

    2005-04-29

    Myoglobin is an important intracellular O2 binding hemoprotein in heart and skeletal muscle. Surprisingly, disruption of myoglobin in mice (myo-/-) resulted in no obvious phenotype and normal cardiac function was suggested to be mediated by structural alterations that tend to steepen the oxygen pressure gradient from capillary to mitochondria. Here we report that lack of myoglobin causes a biochemical shift in cardiac substrate utilization from fatty acid to glucose oxidation. Proteome and gene expression analysis uncovered key enzymes of mitochondrial beta-oxidation as well as the nuclear receptor PPAR to be downregulated in myoglobin-deficient hearts. Using FDG-PET we showed a substantially increased in vivo cardiac uptake of glucose in myo-/- mice (6.7+/-2.3 versus 0.8+/-0.5% of injected dose in wild-type, n=5, P<0.001), which was associated with an upregulation of the glucose transporter GLUT4. The metabolic switch was confirmed by 13C NMR spetroscopic isotopomer studies of isolated hearts which revealed that [1,6-13C2]glucose utilization was increased in myo-/- hearts (38+/-8% versus 22+/-5% in wild-type, n=6, P<0.05), and concomitantly, [U-13C16]palmitate utilization was decreased in the myoglobin-deficient group (42+/-6% versus 63+/-11% in wild-type, n=6, P<0.05). Because of the O2-sparing effect of glucose utilization, the observed shift in substrate metabolism benefits energy homoeostasis and therefore represents a molecular adaptation process allowing to compensate for lack of the cytosolic oxygen carrier myoglobin. Furthermore, our data suggest that an altered myoglobin level itself may be a critical determinant for substrate selection in the heart. The full text of this article is available online at http://circres.ahajournals.org.

  16. Structural and functional evaluation of branched myofibers lacking intermediate filaments.

    PubMed

    Goodall, Mariah H; Ward, Christopher W; Pratt, Stephen J P; Bloch, Robert J; Lovering, Richard M

    2012-07-15

    Intermediate filaments (IFs), composed of desmin and keratins, link myofibrils to each other and to the sarcolemma in skeletal muscle. Fast-twitch muscle of mice lacking the IF proteins, desmin and keratin 19 (K19), showed reduced specific force and increased susceptibility to injury in earlier studies. Here we tested the hypothesis that the number of malformed myofibers in mice lacking desmin (Des(-/-)), keratin 19 (K19(-/-)), or both IF proteins (double knockout, DKO) is increased and is coincident with altered excitation-contraction (EC) coupling Ca(2+) kinetics, as reported for mdx mice. We quantified the number of branched myofibers, characterized their organization with confocal and electron microscopy (EM), and compared the Ca(2+) kinetics of EC coupling in flexor digitorum brevis myofibers from adult Des(-/-), K19(-/-), or DKO mice and compared them to age-matched wild type (WT) and mdx myofibers. Consistent with our previous findings, 9.9% of mdx myofibers had visible malformations. Des(-/-) myofibers had more malformations (4.7%) than K19(-/-) (0.9%) or DKO (1.3%) myofibers. Confocal and EM imaging revealed no obvious changes in sarcomere misalignment at the branch points, and the neuromuscular junctions in the mutant mice, while more variably located, were limited to one per myofiber. Global, electrically evoked Ca(2+) signals showed a decrease in the rate of Ca(2+) uptake (decay rate) into the sarcoplasmic reticulum after Ca(2+) release, with the most profound effect in branched DKO myofibers (44% increase in uptake relative to WT). Although branched DKO myofibers showed significantly faster rates of Ca(2+) clearance, the milder branching phenotype observed in DKO muscle suggests that the absence of K19 corrects the defect created by the absence of desmin alone. Thus, there are complex roles for desmin-based and K19-based IFs in skeletal muscle, with the null and DKO mutations having different effects on Ca(2+) reuptake and myofiber branching.

  17. Mice lacking all conventional MHC class II genes

    PubMed Central

    Madsen, Lars; Labrecque, Nathalie; Engberg, Jan; Dierich, Andrée; Svejgaard, Arne; Benoist, Christophe; Mathis, Diane; Fugger, Lars

    1999-01-01

    MHC class II (MHC-II) molecules play a central role in the selection of the T cell repertoire, in the establishment and regulation of the adaptive immune response, and in autoimmune deviation. We have generated knockout mice lacking all four of the classical murine MHC-II genes (MHCIIΔ/Δ mice), via a large (80-kilobase) deletion of the entire class II region that was engineered by homologous recombination and Cre recombinase-mediated excision. These mice feature immune system perturbations like those of Aα and Aβ knockout animals, notably a dearth of CD4+ lymphocytes in the thymus and spleen. No new anatomical or physiological abnormalities were observed in MHCIIΔ/Δ mice. Because these animals are devoid of all classical MHC-II chains, even unpaired chains, they make excellent recipients for MHC-II transgenes from other species, avoiding the problem of interspecies cross-pairing of MHC-II chains. Therefore, they should be invaluable for engineering “humanized” mouse models of human MHC-II-associated autoimmune disorders. PMID:10468609

  18. Lack of "immunological fitness" during fasting in metabolically challenged animals.

    PubMed

    Asterholm, Ingrid Wernstedt; McDonald, John; Blanchard, Pierre-Gilles; Sinha, Madhur; Xiao, Qiang; Mistry, Jehangir; Rutkowski, Joseph M; Deshaies, Yves; Brekken, Rolf A; Scherer, Philipp E

    2012-07-01

    Subclinical inflammation is frequently associated with obesity. Here, we aim to better define the acute inflammatory response during fasting. To do so, we analyzed representatives of immune-related proteins in circulation and in tissues as potential markers for adipose tissue inflammation and modulation of the immune system. Lipopolysaccharide treatment or high-fat diet led to an increase in circulating serum amyloid (SAA) and α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), whereas adipsin levels were reduced. Mouse models that are protected against diet-induced challenges, such as adiponectin-overexpressing animals or mice treated with PPARγ agonists, displayed lower SAA levels and higher adip-sin levels. An oral lipid gavage, as well as prolonged fasting, increased circulating SAA concurrent with the elevation of free FA levels. Moreover, prolonged fasting was associated with an increased number of Mac2-positive crown-like structures, an increased capillary permeability, and an increase in several M2-type macrophage markers in adipose tissue. This fasting-induced increase in SAA and M2-type macrophage markers was impaired in metabolically challenged animals. These data suggest that metabolic inflexibility is associated with a lack of "immunological fitness." PMID:22504909

  19. Behavioral abnormalities in mice lacking mesenchyme-specific Pten.

    PubMed

    Borniger, Jeremy C; Cissé, Yasmine M; Cantemir-Stone, Carmen Z; Bolon, Brad; Nelson, Randy J; Marsh, Clay B

    2016-05-01

    Phosphatase and tensin homolog (Pten) is a negative regulator of cell proliferation and growth. Using a Cre-recombinase approach with Lox sequences flanking the fibroblast-specific protein 1 (Fsp1 aka S100A4; a mesenchymal marker), we probed sites of expression using a β-galactosidase Rosa26(LoxP) reporter allele; the transgene driving deletion of Pten (exons 4-5) was found throughout the brain parenchyma and pituitary, suggesting that deletion of Pten in Fsp1-positive cells may influence behavior. Because CNS-specific deletion of Pten influences social and anxiety-like behaviors and S100A4 is expressed in astrocytes, we predicted that loss of Pten in Fsp1-expressing cells would result in deficits in social interaction and increased anxiety. We further predicted that environmental enrichment would compensate for genetic deficits in these behaviors. We conducted a battery of behavioral assays on Fsp1-Cre;Pten(LoxP/LoxP) male and female homozygous knockouts (Pten(-/-)) and compared their behavior to Pten(LoxP/LoxP) (Pten(+/+)) conspecifics. Despite extensive physical differences (including reduced hippocampal size) and deficits in sensorimotor function, Pten(-/-) mice behaved remarkably similar to control mice on nearly all behavioral tasks. These results suggest that the social and anxiety-like phenotypes observed in CNS-specific Pten(-/-) mice may depend on neuronal Pten, as lack of Pten in Fsp1-expressing cells of the CNS had little effect on these behaviors.

  20. Dnmt2-dependent methylomes lack defined DNA methylation patterns

    PubMed Central

    Raddatz, Günter; Guzzardo, Paloma M.; Olova, Nelly; Fantappié, Marcelo Rosado; Rampp, Markus; Schaefer, Matthias; Reik, Wolf; Hannon, Gregory J.; Lyko, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Several organisms have retained methyltransferase 2 (Dnmt2) as their only candidate DNA methyltransferase gene. However, information about Dnmt2-dependent methylation patterns has been limited to a few isolated loci and the results have been discussed controversially. In addition, recent studies have shown that Dnmt2 functions as a tRNA methyltransferase, which raised the possibility that Dnmt2-only genomes might be unmethylated. We have now used whole-genome bisulfite sequencing to analyze the methylomes of Dnmt2-only organisms at single-base resolution. Our results show that the genomes of Schistosoma mansoni and Drosophila melanogaster lack detectable DNA methylation patterns. Residual unconverted cytosine residues shared many attributes with bisulfite deamination artifacts and were observed at comparable levels in Dnmt2-deficient flies. Furthermore, genetically modified Dnmt2-only mouse embryonic stem cells lost the DNA methylation patterns found in wild-type cells. Our results thus uncover fundamental differences among animal methylomes and suggest that DNA methylation is dispensable for a considerable number of eukaryotic organisms. PMID:23641003

  1. Vulnerability to schizophrenia and lack of common sense.

    PubMed

    Stanghellini, G

    2000-01-01

    This article explores the hypothesis that the relational deficit in schizophrenia is not a consequence of acute symptoms and course but instead is a fundamental aspect of schizophrenic vulnerability. This basic relational deficit could be better understood as disconnectedness from common sense. Common sense is a tool for adaptation whose main scope is establishing cause-and-effect and motivational relationships in the physical and social realms. The common sense deficit appears to involve a lack of intuitive attunement (impaired capacity to accurately typify the mental states of other persons because of the incapacity to be involved in their mental lives) and a damaged social knowledge network (disorders of the background of knowledge useful for organizing everyday experiences). Three dimensions of schizophrenic vulnerability can be distinguished: the sensory, conceptualization, and attitudinal dimensions. Sensory disorders are aberrations of self, body, and world perceptions. Conceptualization disorders are disturbances in the attribution of meanings and intentions. Attitudinal disorders consist of eccentricities in the individual's structure of values and beliefs, characterized by distrust toward conventional knowledge and attunement. This article describes the present state and possible future directions of qualitative analyses and empirical investigations relevant to assessing the interplay between vulnerability dimensions and disorders of common sense.

  2. Clinical errors as a lack of context responsiveness.

    PubMed

    Bugatti, Matteo; Boswell, James F

    2016-09-01

    Although standardized treatments have the potential to decrease clinical errors, within-session responsiveness is complicated and complementary frameworks may be needed to foster enhanced responsiveness in the context of evidence-based treatments. Recent efforts have targeted the enhancement of flexibility and responsiveness in the delivery of manualized treatments, including the development of transdiagnostic treatments (i.e., protocols that are designed to be used across different diagnoses) intended to tailor intervention principles to the needs of individual patients. Context-Responsive Psychotherapy Integration (Constantino, Boswell, Bernecker, & Castonguay, 2013) offers an framework that supports the utilization of evidence-based clinical strategies in response to the identification of specific process markers. Failure to identify or appropriately respond to such markers may result in negative therapeutic process as well as outcomes. This case study uses the context-response psychotherapy integration framework to understand critical moments of clinical decision-making through examining an individual treatment case that unilaterally terminated after seven sessions of transdiagnostic treatment. This illustrative empirical case analysis focuses on three potential clinical errors, as indicated by a lack of responsiveness to three candidate process markers: (a) low outcome expectations, (b) self-strivings, and (c) outcome monitoring. For each clinical error, alternative clinical strategies are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record

  3. Characterization of nonconventional hepatitis B viruses lacking the core promoter.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shau-Feng; Chang, Shih-Hsuan; Li, Bi-Chen; Will, Hans; Netter, Hans Jürgen

    2004-12-20

    The core gene (C-gene) promoter and regulatory sequences play a central role in the hepatitis B virus (HBV) life cycle. They are essential for the synthesis of the pregenomic and precore mRNA. The pregenomic RNA is the template required for replication and also the template for the synthesis of the core protein and polymerase. Here, we report the in vivo existence and functional characterization of HBV variants that lack the C-gene promoter region and the regulatory sequences located therein. HBV promoter fragments were isolated by PCR from sera of chronic carriers and characterized. Truncated promoter elements were identified, and then tested in the context of wild-type genomes in the HuH-7 cell line. The expression of the recombinant HBV genome resulted in the synthesis of surface proteins, and low level of core protein as well as a transcript pattern similar to, but smaller in size to wild-type virus. The recombinant HBV genome with the truncated promoter region produced pregenomic RNA-like transcripts. These transcripts were encapsidated and reverse transcribed when complemented by sufficient core and polymerase protein. These date provide an explanation as to why such deletion mutants of HBV can be produced at all, they highlight the functional potentials of viral sequences activated by mutations and may be of relevance for viral evolution and persistence.

  4. [Evidence and Lack of Evidence in the Treatment of Tinnitus].

    PubMed

    Hesse, G

    2016-04-01

    A broad variety of therapeutic regimen is proposed, introduced and sold against tinnitus, but most of these approaches lack scientific validation and evidence. Up to date a causal, tinnitus eliminating therapy is not available. Most probably this will not be possible at all, as the mechanism of tinnitus generation are multiple and include peripheral as well as central or cortical reactions. Like in fashion and design however, therapeutic medical interventions against tinnitus come in waves again and again over the last decades, without being able to prove lasting and scientifically evident effects.This review presents, discusses and assesses almost all available therapies regarding their evidence. Evidence should include besides external evidence through publications and available data also internal evidence, e.g. including experience of the therapist and needs of the patients.Almost all interventions that try to influence the inner ear or the auditory cortex either pharmaceutically or by direct stimulation or modulation do not reach evidence. However, there are procedures that have proven to be effective and show at least certain degrees of evidence with proven strength of effect. These are habituation therapies and psychotherapeutic interventions like cognitive behavioural therapy, especially when they are combined with concrete measures to improve auditory perception like hearing-aids, cochlear implants or hearing-therapy. PMID:27128400

  5. A mutant of barley lacking NADH-hydroxypyruvate reductase

    SciTech Connect

    Blackwell, R.; Lea, P. )

    1989-04-01

    A mutant of barley, LaPr 88/29, deficient in peroxisomal NADH-hydroxypyruvate reductase (HPR) activity has been identified. Compared to the wild type the activities of NADH-HPR and NADPH-HPR were severely reduced but the mutant was still capable of fixing CO{sub 2} at rates equivalent to 75% of that of the wild type in air. Although lacking an enzyme in the main photorespiratory pathway, there appeared to be little disruption to photorespiratory metabolism as ammonia release, CO{sub 2} efflux and {sup 14}CO{sub 2} release from L-(U-{sup 14}C) serine were similar in both mutant and wild type. LaPr 88/29 has been used to show that NADH-glyoxylate reductase (GR) and NADH-HPR are probably not catalyzed by the same enzyme in barley and that over 80% of the NADPH-HPR activity is due to the NADH-HPR enzyme. Immunological studies, using antibodies raised against spinach HPR, have shown that the NADH-dependent enzyme protein is absent in LaPr 88/29 but there appears to be enhanced synthesis of the NADPH-dependent enzyme protein.

  6. Impaired cardiac energy metabolism in embryos lacking adrenergic stimulation.

    PubMed

    Baker, Candice N; Gidus, Sarah A; Price, George F; Peoples, Jessica N R; Ebert, Steven N

    2015-03-01

    As development proceeds from the embryonic to fetal stages, cardiac energy demands increase substantially, and oxidative phosphorylation of ADP to ATP in mitochondria becomes vital. Relatively little, however, is known about the signaling mechanisms regulating the transition from anaerobic to aerobic metabolism that occurs during the embryonic period. The main objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that adrenergic hormones provide critical stimulation of energy metabolism during embryonic/fetal development. We examined ATP and ADP concentrations in mouse embryos lacking adrenergic hormones due to targeted disruption of the essential dopamine β-hydroxylase (Dbh) gene. Embryonic ATP concentrations decreased dramatically, whereas ADP concentrations rose such that the ATP/ADP ratio in the adrenergic-deficient group was nearly 50-fold less than that found in littermate controls by embryonic day 11.5. We also found that cardiac extracellular acidification and oxygen consumption rates were significantly decreased, and mitochondria were significantly larger and more branched in adrenergic-deficient hearts. Notably, however, the mitochondria were intact with well-formed cristae, and there was no significant difference observed in mitochondrial membrane potential. Maternal administration of the adrenergic receptor agonists isoproterenol or l-phenylephrine significantly ameliorated the decreases in ATP observed in Dbh-/- embryos, suggesting that α- and β-adrenergic receptors were effective modulators of ATP concentrations in mouse embryos in vivo. These data demonstrate that adrenergic hormones stimulate cardiac energy metabolism during a critical period of embryonic development. PMID:25516547

  7. Lack of immunoediting in murine pancreatic cancer reversed with neoantigen

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Rebecca A.; Diamond, Mark S.; Rech, Andrew J.; Chao, Timothy; Richardson, Max W.; Lin, Jeffrey H.; Bajor, David L.; Byrne, Katelyn T.; Stanger, Ben Z.; Riley, James L.; Markosyan, Nune; Winograd, Rafael; Vonderheide, Robert H.

    2016-01-01

    In carcinogen-driven cancers, a high mutational burden results in neoepitopes that can be recognized immunologically. Such carcinogen-induced tumors may evade this immune response through “immunoediting,” whereby tumors adapt to immune pressure and escape T cell–mediated killing. Many tumors lack a high neoepitope burden, and it remains unclear whether immunoediting occurs in such cases. Here, we evaluated T cell immunity in an autochthonous mouse model of pancreatic cancer and found a low mutational burden, absence of predicted neoepitopes derived from tumor mutations, and resistance to checkpoint immunotherapy. Spontaneous tumor progression was identical in the presence or absence of T cells. Moreover, tumors arising in T cell–depleted mice grew unchecked in immune-competent hosts. However, introduction of the neoantigen ovalbumin (OVA) led to tumor rejection and T cell memory, but this did not occur in OVA immune-tolerant mice. Thus, immunoediting does not occur in this mouse model — a likely consequence, not a cause, of absent neoepitopes. Because many human tumors also have a low missense mutational load and minimal neoepitope burden, our findings have clinical implications for the design of immunotherapy for patients with such tumors. PMID:27642636

  8. Association between friction and wear in diarthrodial joints lacking lubricin

    PubMed Central

    Jay, Gregory D; Torres, Jahn R; Rhee, David K; Helminen, Heikki J; Hytinnen, Mika M; Cha, Chung-Ja; Elsaid, Khaled; Kim, Kyung-Suk; Cui, Yajun; Warman, Matthew L

    2007-01-01

    Objective The glycoprotein lubricin (encoded by the gene Prg4) is secreted by surface chondrocytes and synovial cells, and has been shown to reduce friction in vitro. In contrast to man-made bearings, mammalian diarthrodial joints must endogenously produce friction-reducing agents. This study was undertaken to investigate whether friction is associated with wear. Methods The lubricating ability of synovial fluid (SF) samples from humans with genetic lubricin deficiency was tested in vitro. The coefficient of friction in the knee joints of normal and lubricin-null mice was measured ex vivo; these joints were also studied by light and electron microscopy. Atomic force microscopy was used to image and measure how lubricin reduces friction in vitro. Results SF lacking lubricin failed to reduce friction in the boundary mode. Joints of lubricin-null mice showed early wear and higher friction than joints from their wild-type counterparts. Lubricin self-organized and reduced the work of adhesion between apposing asperities. Conclusion These data show that friction is coupled with wear at the cartilage surface in vivo. They imply that acquired lubricin degradation occurring in inflammatory joint diseases predisposes the cartilage to damage. Lastly, they suggest that lubricin, or similar biomolecules, will have applications in man-made devices in which reducing friction is essential. PMID:17968947

  9. Lack of psychopathic character (Rorschach) in forensic psychiatric rapists.

    PubMed

    Dåderman, Anna M; Jonson, Carin

    2008-01-01

    Previous research using Rorschach is sparse in rapists. The aim of this study of 10 violent male forensic psychiatric rapists was to describe them on a set of Rorschach variables, which are assumed to reflect psychopathic character, in order to increase our understanding of rapists. The participants were involved in a long-term psychodynamic sexual offender treatment program. They were previously assessed on dyslexia and ADHD, and the results showed an over-representation of these disorders in this sample. Compared with normative samples, the participants scored significantly lower on three of the Rorschach variables--Lambda, WSum6 and Afr. The participants did not meet criteria for psychopathic character. Although the generalization of the results from 10 rapists is severely limited, our results suggest helplessness in managing emotionally laden situations and hint at the problems experienced by this sample of forensic psychiatric rapists. Clinicians should be aware of the lack of psychopathic character in some rapists and that effective treatment programs should focus on training this type of rapists to be able to react appropriately to emotional stimuli. PMID:18609030

  10. Lack of immunoediting in murine pancreatic cancer reversed with neoantigen

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Rebecca A.; Diamond, Mark S.; Rech, Andrew J.; Chao, Timothy; Richardson, Max W.; Lin, Jeffrey H.; Bajor, David L.; Byrne, Katelyn T.; Stanger, Ben Z.; Riley, James L.; Markosyan, Nune; Winograd, Rafael; Vonderheide, Robert H.

    2016-01-01

    In carcinogen-driven cancers, a high mutational burden results in neoepitopes that can be recognized immunologically. Such carcinogen-induced tumors may evade this immune response through “immunoediting,” whereby tumors adapt to immune pressure and escape T cell–mediated killing. Many tumors lack a high neoepitope burden, and it remains unclear whether immunoediting occurs in such cases. Here, we evaluated T cell immunity in an autochthonous mouse model of pancreatic cancer and found a low mutational burden, absence of predicted neoepitopes derived from tumor mutations, and resistance to checkpoint immunotherapy. Spontaneous tumor progression was identical in the presence or absence of T cells. Moreover, tumors arising in T cell–depleted mice grew unchecked in immune-competent hosts. However, introduction of the neoantigen ovalbumin (OVA) led to tumor rejection and T cell memory, but this did not occur in OVA immune-tolerant mice. Thus, immunoediting does not occur in this mouse model — a likely consequence, not a cause, of absent neoepitopes. Because many human tumors also have a low missense mutational load and minimal neoepitope burden, our findings have clinical implications for the design of immunotherapy for patients with such tumors.

  11. Isolation and characterization of Escherichia coli mutants lacking inducible cyanase.

    PubMed

    Guilloton, M; Karst, F

    1987-03-01

    To determine the physiological role of cyanate aminohydrolase (cyanase, EC 3.5.5.3) in bacteria, mutants of Escherichia coli K12 devoid of this inducible activity were isolated and their properties investigated. Five independent mutations were localized next to lac; three of them lay between lacY and codA. Thus cyanase activity could depend on the integrity of one gene or set of clustered genes; we propose for this locus the symbol cnt. Growth of the mutant stains was more sensitive to cyanate than growth of wild-type strains. This difference was noticeable in synthetic medium in the presence of low concentrations of cyanate (less than or equal to 1 mM). Higher concentrations inhibited growth of both wild-type and mutant strains. Urea in aqueous solutions dissociates slowly into ammonium cyanate. Accordingly wild-type strains were able to grow on a synthetic medium containing 0.5 M-urea whereas mutants lacking cyanase were not. We conclude that cyanase could play a role in destroying exogenous cyanate originating from the dissociation of carbamoyl compounds such as urea; alternatively cyanate might constitute a convenient nitrogen source for bacteria able to synthesize cyanase in an inducible way.

  12. Failures of metacognition and lack of insight in neuropsychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    David, Anthony S; Bedford, Nicholas; Wiffen, Ben; Gilleen, James

    2012-05-19

    Lack of insight or unawareness of illness are the hallmarks of many psychiatric disorders, especially schizophrenia (SCZ) and other psychoses and could be conceived of as a failure in metacognition. Research in this area in the mental health field h as burgeoned with the development and widespread use of standard assessment instruments and the mapping out of the clinical and neuropsychological correlates of insight and its loss. There has been a growing appreciation of the multi-faceted nature of the concept and of the different 'objects' of insight, such as the general awareness that one is ill, to more specific metacognitive awareness of individual symptoms, impairments and performance. This in turn has led to the notion that insight may show modularity and may fractionate across different domains and disorders, supported by work that directly compares metacognition of memory deficits and illness awareness in patients with SCZ, Alzheimer's disease and brain injury. The focus of this paper will be on the varieties of metacognitive failure in psychiatry, particularly the psychoses. We explore cognitive models based on self-reflectiveness and their possible social and neurological bases, including data from structural and functional MRI. The medial frontal cortex appears to play an important role in self-appraisal in health and disease.

  13. Lack of Collagen VI Promotes Wound-Induced Hair Growth.

    PubMed

    Chen, Peiwen; Cescon, Matilde; Bonaldo, Paolo

    2015-10-01

    Collagen VI is an extracellular matrix molecule that is abundantly expressed in the skin. However, the role of collagen VI in hair follicle growth is unknown. Here, we show that collagen VI is strongly deposited in hair follicles, and is markedly upregulated by skin wounding. Lack of collagen VI in Col6a1(-/-) mice delays hair cycling and growth under physiological conditions, but promotes wound-induced hair regrowth without affecting skin regeneration. Conversely, addition of purified collagen VI rescues the abnormal wound-induced hair regrowth in Col6a1(-/-) mice. Mechanistic studies revealed that the increased wound-induced hair regrowth of Col6a1(-/-) mice is triggered by activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, and is abolished by inhibition of this pathway. These findings highlight the essential relationships between extracellular matrix (ECM) and hair follicle regeneration, and suggest that collagen VI could be a potential therapeutic target for hair loss and other skin-related diseases.

  14. Clinical errors as a lack of context responsiveness.

    PubMed

    Bugatti, Matteo; Boswell, James F

    2016-09-01

    Although standardized treatments have the potential to decrease clinical errors, within-session responsiveness is complicated and complementary frameworks may be needed to foster enhanced responsiveness in the context of evidence-based treatments. Recent efforts have targeted the enhancement of flexibility and responsiveness in the delivery of manualized treatments, including the development of transdiagnostic treatments (i.e., protocols that are designed to be used across different diagnoses) intended to tailor intervention principles to the needs of individual patients. Context-Responsive Psychotherapy Integration (Constantino, Boswell, Bernecker, & Castonguay, 2013) offers an framework that supports the utilization of evidence-based clinical strategies in response to the identification of specific process markers. Failure to identify or appropriately respond to such markers may result in negative therapeutic process as well as outcomes. This case study uses the context-response psychotherapy integration framework to understand critical moments of clinical decision-making through examining an individual treatment case that unilaterally terminated after seven sessions of transdiagnostic treatment. This illustrative empirical case analysis focuses on three potential clinical errors, as indicated by a lack of responsiveness to three candidate process markers: (a) low outcome expectations, (b) self-strivings, and (c) outcome monitoring. For each clinical error, alternative clinical strategies are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27631853

  15. Physiological evidence that pyramidal neurons lack functional water channels.

    PubMed

    Andrew, R David; Labron, Mark W; Boehnke, Susan E; Carnduff, Lisa; Kirov, Sergei A

    2007-04-01

    The physiological conditions that swell mammalian neurons are clinically important but contentious. Distinguishing the neuronal component of brain swelling requires viewing intact neuronal cell bodies, dendrites, and axons and measuring their changing volume in real time. Cultured or dissociated neuronal somata swell within minutes under acutely overhydrated conditions and shrink when strongly dehydrated. But paradoxically, most central nervous system (CNS) neurons do not express aquaporins, the membrane channels that conduct osmotically driven water. Using 2-photon laser scanning microscopy (2PLSM), we monitored neuronal volume under osmotic stress in real time. Specifically, the volume of pyramidal neurons in cerebral cortex and axon terminals comprising cerebellar mossy fibers was measured deep within live brain slices. The expected swelling or shrinking of the gray matter was confirmed by recording altered light transmittance and by indirectly measuring extracellular resistance over a wide osmotic range of -80 to +80 milliOsmoles (mOsm). Neurons expressing green fluorescent protein were then imaged with 2PLSM between -40 and +80 mOsm over 20 min. Surprisingly, pyramidal somata, dendrites, and spines steadfastly maintained their volume, as did the cerebellar axon terminals. This precluded a need for the neurons to acutely regulate volume, preserved their intrinsic electrophysiological stability, and confirmed that these CNS nerve cells lack functional aquaporins. Thus, whereas water easily permeates the aquaporin-rich endothelia and glia driving osmotic brain swelling, neurons tenatiously maintain their volume. However, these same neurons then swell dramatically upon oxygen/glucose deprivation or [K+]0 elevation, so prolonged depolarization (as during stroke or seizure) apparently swells neurons by opening nonaquaporin channels to water. PMID:16723408

  16. Implications of the lack of desiccation tolerance in recalcitrant seeds

    PubMed Central

    Berjak, Patricia; Pammenter, Norman W.

    2013-01-01

    A suite of interacting processes and mechanisms enables tolerance of desiccation and storage (conservation) of orthodox seeds in the dry state. While this is a long-term option under optimized conditions, dry orthodox seeds are not immortal, with life spans having been characterized as short, intermediate and long. Factors facilitating desiccation tolerance are metabolic “switch-off” and intracellular dedifferentiation. Recalcitrant seeds lack these mechanisms, contributing significantly to their desiccation sensitivity. Consequently, recalcitrant seeds, which are shed at high water contents, can be stored only in the short-term, under conditions not allowing dehydration. The periods of such hydrated storage are constrained by germination that occurs without the need for extraneous water, and the proliferation of seed-associated fungi. Cryopreservation is viewed as the only option for long-term conservation of the germplasm of recalcitrant-seeded species. This is not easily achieved, as each of the necessary procedures imposes oxidative damage. Intact recalcitrant seeds cannot be cryopreserved, the common practice being to use excised embryos or embryonic axes as explants. Dehydration is a necessary procedure prior to exposure to cryogenic temperatures, but this is associated with metabolism-linked injury mediated by uncontrolled reactive oxygen species generation and failing anti-oxidant systems. While the extent to which this occurs can be curtailed by maximizing drying rate (flash drying) it cannot be completely obviated. Explant cooling for, and rewarming after, cryostorage must necessarily be rapid, to avoid ice crystallization. The ramifications of desiccation sensitivity are discussed, as are problems involved in cryostorage, particularly those accompanying dehydration and damage consequent upon ice crystallization. While desiccation sensitivity is a “fact” of seed recalcitrance, resolutions of the difficulties involved germplasm conservation are

  17. Hearts of some Antarctic fishes lack mitochondrial creatine kinase.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, K M; Mueller, I A; Orczewska, J I; Dullen, K R; Ortego, M

    2014-12-01

    Creatine kinase (CK; EC 2.7.3.2) functions as a spatial and temporal energy buffer, dampening fluctuations in ATP levels as ATP supply and demand change. There are four CK isoforms in mammals, two cytosolic isoforms (muscle [M-CK] and brain [B-CK]), and two mitochondrial isoforms (ubiquitous [uMtCK] and sarcomeric [sMtCK]). Mammalian oxidative muscle couples expression of sMtCK with M-CK, creating an energy shuttle between mitochondria and myofibrils. We hypothesized that the expression pattern and activity of CK would differ between hearts of red- and white-blooded Antarctic notothenioid fishes due to their striking differences in cardiac ultrastructure. Hearts of white-blooded icefishes (family Channichthyidae) have significantly higher mitochondrial densities compared to red-blooded species, decreasing the diffusion distance for ATP between mitochondria and myofibrils and potentially minimizing the need for CK. The distribution of CK isoforms was evaluated using western blotting and maximal activity of CK was measured in mitochondrial and cytosolic fractions and tissue homogenates of heart ventricles of red- and white-blooded notothenioids. Transcript abundance of sMtCK and M-CK was also quantified. Overall, CK activity is similar between hearts of red- and white-blooded notothenioids but hearts of icefishes lack MtCK and have higher activities of M-CK in the cytosol compared to red-blooded fishes. The absence of MtCK may compromise cardiac function under stressful conditions when ATP supply becomes limiting. PMID:25151023

  18. Lack of plasma kallikrein-kinin system cascade in teleosts.

    PubMed

    Wong, Marty Kwok-Shing; Takei, Yoshio

    2013-01-01

    The kallikrein-kinin system (KKS) consists of two major cascades in mammals: "plasma KKS" consisting of high molecular-weight (HMW) kininogen (KNG), plasma kallikrein (KLKB1), and bradykinin (BK); and "tissue KKS" consisting of low molecular-weight (LMW) KNG, tissue kallikreins (KLKs), and [Lys(0)]-BK. Some components of the KKS have been identified in the fishes, but systematic analyses have not been performed, thus this study aims to define the KKS components in teleosts and pave a way for future physiological and evolutionary studies. Through a combination of genomics, molecular, and biochemical methods, we showed that the entire plasma KKS cascade is absent in teleosts. Instead of two KNGs as found in mammals, a single molecular weight KNG was found in various teleosts, which is homologous to the mammalian LMW KNG. Results of molecular phylogenetic and synteny analyses indicated that the all current teleost genomes lack KLKB1, and its unique protein structure, four apple domains and one trypsin domain, could not be identified in any genome or nucleotide databases. We identified some KLK-like proteins in teleost genomes by synteny and conserved domain analyses, which could be the orthologs of tetrapod KLKs. A radioimmunoassay system was established to measure the teleost BK and we found that [Arg(0)]-BK is the major circulating form instead of BK, which supports that the teleost KKS is similar to the mammalian tissue KKS. Coincidently, coelacanths are the earliest vertebrate that possess both HMW KNG and KLKB1, which implies that the plasma KKS could have evolved in the early lobe-finned fish and descended to the tetrapod lineage. The co-evolution of HMW KNG and KLKB1 in lobe-finned fish and early tetrapods may mark the emergence of the plasma KKS and a contact activation system in blood coagulation, while teleosts may have retained a single KKS cascade. PMID:24278376

  19. Increased Bone Mass in Mice Lacking the Adipokine Apelin

    PubMed Central

    Wattanachanya, Lalita; Lu, Wei-Dar; Kundu, Ramendra K.; Wang, Liping; Abbott, Marcia J.; O'Carroll, Dylan; Quertermous, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Adipose tissue plays an important role in skeletal homeostasis, and there is interest in identifying adipokines that influence bone mass. One such adipokine may be apelin, a ligand for the Gi-G protein-coupled receptor APJ, which has been reported to enhance mitogenesis and suppress apoptosis in MC3T3-E1 cells and primary human osteoblasts (OBs). However, it is unclear whether apelin plays a physiological role in regulating skeletal homeostasis in vivo. In this study, we compared the skeletal phenotypes of apelin knockout (APKO) and wild-type mice and investigated the direct effects of apelin on bone cells in vitro. The increased fractional cancellous bone volume at the distal femur was observed in APKO mice of both genders at 12 weeks of age and persisted until the age of 20. Cortical bone perimeter at the femoral midshaft was significantly increased in males and females at both time points. Dynamic histomorphometry revealed that APKO mice had increased rates of bone formation and mineral apposition, with evidences of accelerated OB proliferation and differentiation, without significant alteration in osteoclast activity. An in vitro study showed that apelin increased proliferation of primary mouse OBs as well as suppressed apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner with the maximum effect at 5nM. However, it had no effect on the formation of mineralized nodules. We did not observed significantly altered in osteoclast parameters in vitro. Taken together, the increased bone mass in mice lacking apelin suggested complex direct and paracrine/endocrine effects of apelin on bone, possibly via modulating insulin sensitivity. These results indicate that apelin functions as a physiologically significant antianabolic factor in bone in vivo. PMID:23584856

  20. Characterization of mice lacking the gene for cholecystokinin.

    PubMed

    Lo, Chun-Min; Samuelson, Linda C; Chambers, James Brad; King, Alexandra; Heiman, Justin; Jandacek, Ronald J; Sakai, Randall R; Benoit, Stephen C; Raybould, Helen E; Woods, Stephen C; Tso, Patrick

    2008-03-01

    CCK acts peripherally as a satiating peptide released during meals in response to lipid feeding and centrally functions in the modulation of feeding, exploratory, and memory activities. The present study determined metabolic parameters, food intake, anxiety-like behaviors, and cognitive function in mice lacking the CCK gene. We studied intestinal fat absorption, body composition, and food intake of CCK knockout (CCK-KO) mice by using the noninvasive measurement of intestinal fat absorption along with quantitative magnetic resonance (QMR) imaging and the DietMax system, respectively. Additionally, exploratory and memory capacities were assessed by monitoring running wheel activity and conducting elevated plus-maze and Morris water-maze tests with these mice. Compared with wild-type (WT) littermate controls, CCK-KO mice had normal food intake, fat absorption, body weight, and body mass. CCK-KO mice ate more food than control animals during the light period and less food during the dark period. Energy expenditure was unchanged between the genotypes; however, CCK-KO mice displayed greater fatty acid oxidation. CCK-KO mice were as active as WT animals in the running wheel test. CCK-KO mice spent more time in the closed arms of an elevated plus-maze, indicative of increased anxiety. Additionally, CCK-KO mice exhibited attenuated performance in a passive avoidance task and impaired spatial memory in the Morris water maze test. We conclude that CCK is involved in metabolic rate and is important for memory and exploration. CCK is intimately involved in multiple processes related to cognitive function and food intake regulation. PMID:18160529

  1. Respondent driven sampling of wheelchair users: A lack of traction?

    PubMed Central

    Bourke, John A.; Schluter, Philip J.; Hay-Smith, E. Jean C.; Snell, Deborah L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Internationally, wheelchair users are an emerging demographic phenomenon, due to their increased prevalence and rapidly increasing life-span. While having significant healthcare implications, basic robust epidemiological information about wheelchair users is often lacking due, in part, to this population’s ‘hidden’ nature. Increasingly popular in epidemiological research, Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS) provides a mechanism for generating unbiased population-based estimates for hard-to-reach populations, overcoming biases inherent within other sampling methods. This paper reports the first published study to employ RDS amongst wheelchair users. Methods: Between October 2015 and January 2016, a short, successfully piloted, internet-based national survey was initiated. Twenty seeds from diverse organisations were invited to complete the survey then circulate it to peers within their networks following a well-defined protocol. A predetermined reminder protocol was triggered when seeds or their peers failed to respond. All participants were entered into a draw for an iPad. Results: Overall, 19 people participated (nine women); 12 initial seeds, followed by seven second-wave participants arising from four seeds . Completion time for the survey ranged between 7 and 36 minutes. Despite repeated reminders, no further people were recruited. Discussion: While New Zealand wheelchair user numbers are unknown, an estimated 14% of people have physical impairments that limited mobility. The 19 respondents generated from adopting the RDS methodology here thus represents a negligible fraction of wheelchair users in New Zealand, and an insufficient number to ensure equilibrium required for unbiased analyses. While successful in other hard-to-reach populations, applying RDS methodology to wheelchair users requires further consideration. Formative research exploring areas of network characteristics, acceptability of RDS, appropriate incentive options, and seed

  2. Respondent driven sampling of wheelchair users: A lack of traction?

    PubMed Central

    Bourke, John A.; Schluter, Philip J.; Hay-Smith, E. Jean C.; Snell, Deborah L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Internationally, wheelchair users are an emerging demographic phenomenon, due to their increased prevalence and rapidly increasing life-span. While having significant healthcare implications, basic robust epidemiological information about wheelchair users is often lacking due, in part, to this population’s ‘hidden’ nature. Increasingly popular in epidemiological research, Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS) provides a mechanism for generating unbiased population-based estimates for hard-to-reach populations, overcoming biases inherent within other sampling methods. This paper reports the first published study to employ RDS amongst wheelchair users. Methods: Between October 2015 and January 2016, a short, successfully piloted, internet-based national survey was initiated. Twenty seeds from diverse organisations were invited to complete the survey then circulate it to peers within their networks following a well-defined protocol. A predetermined reminder protocol was triggered when seeds or their peers failed to respond. All participants were entered into a draw for an iPad. Results: Overall, 19 people participated (nine women); 12 initial seeds, followed by seven second-wave participants arising from four seeds . Completion time for the survey ranged between 7 and 36 minutes. Despite repeated reminders, no further people were recruited. Discussion: While New Zealand wheelchair user numbers are unknown, an estimated 14% of people have physical impairments that limited mobility. The 19 respondents generated from adopting the RDS methodology here thus represents a negligible fraction of wheelchair users in New Zealand, and an insufficient number to ensure equilibrium required for unbiased analyses. While successful in other hard-to-reach populations, applying RDS methodology to wheelchair users requires further consideration. Formative research exploring areas of network characteristics, acceptability of RDS, appropriate incentive options, and seed

  3. Altered sleep latency and arousal regulation in mice lacking norepinephrine.

    PubMed

    Hunsley, Melissa S; Palmiter, Richard D

    2004-08-01

    Latency to sleep and the amount of sensory stimulation required to awaken an animal are measures of arousal threshold, which are ultimately modulated by an arousal regulation system involving many brain areas. Among these brain areas and network connections are wake-promoting nuclei of the brainstem and their corresponding neurotransmitters, including norepinephrine (NE). In this study, we used mice that are unable to produce NE to study its role in regulating sleep latency after a variety of interventions, and to study arousal from sleep after sleep deprivation (SD). Sleep latency was measured after gentle awakening or after injections of saline, caffeine or modafinil. Sleep latency was also measured before and after partial restoration of NE pharmacologically. Arousal threshold was measured by recording the number of decibels of white noise required to wake each mouse from NREM sleep after 0, 3 and 3 + 3 h SD (3 h SD followed by < 2 min sleep, followed by an additional 3 h SD). Results showed that when mice were awakened without being touched, there were no differences in sleep latency between the genotypes. However, after an injection of saline, the control mice increased their sleep latency, whereas the NE-deficient mice did not. There were no group differences in sleep latency after treatment with either stimulant. The sleep latency difference between the genotypes was ameliorated by partial restoration of NE. The arousal threshold experiments revealed that significantly more noise was required to wake the NE-deficient mice after 3 and 3 + 3 h of SD. These findings show that mice lacking NE fall asleep more rapidly only after a mild stressor, such as an intraperitoneal injection. NE-deficient mice are also more difficult to wake up using audio stimulation after SD. The results presented here suggest that NE promotes wakefulness during transitions between sleep and wake under conditions involving mild stress and SD, but not under baseline circumstances.

  4. Thermal ablation in colorectal liver metastases: Lack of evidence or lack of capability to prove the evidence?

    PubMed Central

    Sartori, Sergio; Tombesi, Paola; Di Vece, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Many studies suggest that combined multimodality treatments including ablative therapies may achieve better outcomes than systemic chemotherapy alone in patients with colorectal liver metastases. Nevertheless, ablative therapies are not yet considered as effective options because their efficacy has never been proved by randomized controlled trials (RCT). However, there are in literature no trials that failed in demonstrating the effectiveness of ablative treatments: what are lacking, are the trials. All the attempts to organize phase III studies on this topic failed as a result of non accrual. Just one prospective RCT comparing radiofrequency ablation combined with systemic chemotherapy vs chemotherapy alone has been published. It was designed as a phase III study, but it was closed early because of slow accrual, and was downscaled to phase II study, with the consequent limits in drawing definite conclusions on the benefit of combined treatment. However, the combination treatment met the primary end point of the study and obtained a significantly higher 3-year progression-free survival than systemic chemotherapy alone. It is very unlikely that ultimate efficacy of ablation treatments will ever be tested again, and the best available evidence points toward a benefit for the combination strategy using ablative treatments and chemotherapy. PMID:27053843

  5. Microglia Lacking E Prostanoid Receptor Subtype 2 Have Enhanced Aβ Phagocytosis yet Lack Aβ-Activated Neurotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Shie, Feng-Shiun; Breyer, Richard M.; Montine, Thomas J.

    2005-01-01

    Experimental therapies for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are focused on enhanced clearance of neurotoxic Aβ peptides from brain. Microglia can be neuroprotective by phagocytosing Aβ; however, this comes at the cost of activated innate immunity that causes paracrine damage to neurons. Here, we show that ablation of E prostanoid receptor subtype 2 (EP2) significantly increased microglial-mediated clearance of Aβ peptides from AD brain sections and enhanced microglial Aβ phagocytosis in cell culture. The enhanced phagocytosis was PKC-dependent and was associated with elevated microglial secretion of the chemoattractant chemokines, macrophage inflammatory protein-1α and macrophage chemoattractant protein-1. This suggested that microglial activation is negatively regulated by EP2 signaling through suppression of prophagocytic cytokine secretion. However, despite this enhancement of Aβ phagocytosis, lack of EP2 completely suppressed Aβ-activated microglia-mediated paracrine neurotoxicity. These data demonstrate that blockade of microglial EP2 is a highly desirable mechanism for AD therapy that can maximize neuroprotective actions while minimizing bystander damage to neurons. PMID:15793296

  6. Differential Anatomical Expression of Ganglioside GM1 Species Containing d18:1 or d20:1 Sphingosine Detected by MALDI Imaging Mass Spectrometry in Mature Rat Brain

    PubMed Central

    Weishaupt, Nina; Caughlin, Sarah; Yeung, Ken K.-C.; Whitehead, Shawn N.

    2015-01-01

    GM1 ganglioside plays a role in essential neuronal processes, including differentiation, survival, and signaling. Yet, little is known about GM1 species with different sphingosine bases, such as the most abundant species containing 18 carbon atoms in the sphingosine chain (GM1d18:1), and the less abundant containing 20 carbon atoms (GM1d20:1). While absent in the early fetal brain, GM1d20:1 continues to increase throughout pre- and postnatal development and into old age, raising questions about the functional relevance of the GM1d18:1 to GM1d20:1 ratio. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging mass spectrometry is a novel technology that allows differentiation between these two GM1 species and quantification of their expression within an anatomical context. Using this technology, we find GM1d18:1/d20:1 expression ratios are highly specific to defined anatomical brain regions in adult rats. Thus, the ratio was significantly different among different thalamic nuclei and between the corpus callosum and internal capsule. Differential GM1d18:1/GM1d20:1 ratios measured in hippocampal subregions in rat brain complement previous studies conducted in mice. Across layers of the sensory cortex, opposing expression gradients were found for GM1d18:1 and GM1d20:1. Superficial layers demonstrated lower GM1d18:1 and higher GM1d20:1 signal than other layers, while in deep layers GM1d18:1 expression was relatively high and GM1d20:1 expression low. By far the highest GM1d18:1/d20:1 ratio was found in the amygdala. Differential expression of GM1 with d18:1- or d20:1-sphingosine bases in the adult rat brain suggests tight regulation of expression and points toward a distinct functional relevance for each of these GM1 species in neuronal processes. PMID:26648849

  7. Phosphorylated guanidinoacetate partly compensates for the lack of phosphocreatine in skeletal muscle of mice lacking guanidinoacetate methyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    Kan, Hermien E; Jan Renema, W Klaas; Isbrandt, Dirk; Heerschap, Arend

    2004-01-01

    The effects of creatine (Cr) absence in skeletal muscle caused by a deletion of guanidinoacetate methyltransferase (GAMT) were studied in a knockout mouse model by in vivo 31P magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy. 31P MR spectra of hindleg muscle of GAMT-deficient (GAMT–/–) mice showed no phosphocreatine (PCr) signal and instead showed the signal for phosphorylated guanidinoacetate (PGua), the immediate precursor of Cr, which is not normally present. Tissue pH did not differ between wild-type (WT) and GAMT–/– mice, while relative inorganic phosphate (Pi) levels were increased in the latter. During ischaemia, PGua was metabolically active in GAMT–/– mice and decreased at a rate comparable to the decrease of PCr in WT mice. However, the recovery rate of PGua in GAMT–/– mice after ischaemia was reduced compared to PCr in WT mice. Saturation transfer measurements revealed no detectable flux from PGua to γ-ATP, indicating severely reduced enzyme kinetics. Supplementation of Cr resulted in a rapid increase in PCr signal intensity until only this resonance was visible, along with a reduction in relative Pi values. However, the PGua recovery rate after ischaemia did not change. Our results show that despite the absence of Cr, GAMT–/– mice can cope with mild ischaemic stress by using PGua for high energy phosphoryl transfer. The reduced affinity of creatine kinase (CK) for (P)Gua only becomes apparent during recovery from ischaemia. It is argued that absence of Cr causes the higher relative Pi concentration also observed in animals lacking muscle CK, indicating an important role of the CK system in Pi homeostasis. PMID:15284341

  8. 42 CFR 476.90 - Lack of cooperation by a health care facility or practitioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Lack of cooperation by a health care facility or...) Qio Review Functions § 476.90 Lack of cooperation by a health care facility or practitioner. (a) If a health care facility or practitioner refuses to allow a QIO to enter and perform the duties and...

  9. Teacher Resistance to Frequent Rewards and Praise: Lack of Skill or a Wise Decision?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bear, George G.

    2013-01-01

    Resistance and the lack of fidelity or integrity in the use of rewards and praise are commonly cited in the behavioral consultation literature, particularly when teachers are asked to manage student behavior using frequent rewards and praise in a systematic manner. There are multiple potential reasons for resistance and lack of implementation…

  10. 45 CFR 46.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Research Subjects § 46.118 Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Applications and proposals lacking definite plans... definite plans would not normally be set forth in the application or proposal. These include...

  11. 28 CFR 46.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applications and proposals lacking... OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 46.118 Applications and proposals lacking... application or proposal. These include activities such as institutional type grants when selection of...

  12. 16 CFR 1028.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Applications and proposals lacking definite... SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 1028.118 Applications and proposals lacking... application or proposal. These include activities such as institutional type grants when selection of...

  13. 40 CFR 26.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... in Human Research Conducted or Supported by EPA § 26.118 Applications and proposals lacking definite... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applications and proposals lacking... application or proposal. These include activities such as institutional type grants when selection of...

  14. 10 CFR 745.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects. 745.118 Section 745.118 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 745.118 Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human...

  15. Sensitivity of Goodness of Fit Indexes to Lack of Measurement Invariance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Fang Fang

    2007-01-01

    Two Monte Carlo studies were conducted to examine the sensitivity of goodness of fit indexes to lack of measurement invariance at 3 commonly tested levels: factor loadings, intercepts, and residual variances. Standardized root mean square residual (SRMR) appears to be more sensitive to lack of invariance in factor loadings than in intercepts or…

  16. 42 CFR 476.90 - Lack of cooperation by a health care facility or practitioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lack of cooperation by a health care facility or...) Qio Review Functions § 476.90 Lack of cooperation by a health care facility or practitioner. (a) If a health care facility or practitioner refuses to allow a QIO to enter and perform the duties and...

  17. 28 CFR 541.30 - Lack of verification of need for protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lack of verification of need for protection. 541.30 Section 541.30 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT INMATE DISCIPLINE AND SPECIAL HOUSING UNITS Special Housing Units § 541.30 Lack...

  18. 28 CFR 541.30 - Lack of verification of need for protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lack of verification of need for protection. 541.30 Section 541.30 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT INMATE DISCIPLINE AND SPECIAL HOUSING UNITS Special Housing Units § 541.30 Lack...

  19. 28 CFR 541.30 - Lack of verification of need for protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lack of verification of need for protection. 541.30 Section 541.30 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT INMATE DISCIPLINE AND SPECIAL HOUSING UNITS Special Housing Units § 541.30 Lack...

  20. 15 CFR 27.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects. 27.118 Section 27.118 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 27.118 Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of...

  1. 28 CFR 46.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects. 46.118 Section 46.118 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 46.118 Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human...

  2. 7 CFR 1c.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects. 1c.118 Section 1c.118 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 1c.118 Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects. Certain types...

  3. 38 CFR 16.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects. 16.118 Section 16.118 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 16.118 Applications and proposals lacking definite plans...

  4. 38 CFR 16.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects. 16.118 Section 16.118 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 16.118 Applications and proposals lacking definite plans...

  5. 45 CFR 690.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects. 690.118 Section 690.118 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 690.118 Applications and proposals lacking definite plans...

  6. 10 CFR 745.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects. 745.118 Section 745.118 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 745.118 Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects. Certain types of applications for...

  7. 49 CFR 11.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects. 11.118 Section 11.118 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 11.118 Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects. Certain...

  8. 38 CFR 16.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects. 16.118 Section 16.118 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 16.118 Applications and proposals lacking definite plans...

  9. 10 CFR 745.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects. 745.118 Section 745.118 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 745.118 Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects. Certain types of applications for...

  10. Mice lacking chromogranins exhibit increased aggressive and depression-like behaviour.

    PubMed

    Pereda, Daniel; Pardo, Marta R; Morales, Yezer; Dominguez, Natalia; Arnau, Maria Rosa; Borges, Ricardo

    2015-02-01

    Chromogranins are acidic proteins; both chromogranins A and B constitute the main protein component in the vesicular matrix of large dense core vesicles. Chromogranins are a natural source of peptides with different physiological activities that have been associated with vascular and neurological diseases. We have used three different genetic mutant models of mice lacking chromogranin A, chromogranin B and both all on the same C57BL/6J background, to characterize the physiological roles of these proteins using metabolic, cardiovascular and behavioural tests. In mice from 3 to 18 months of age, the lack of any chromogranin promoted age-dependent hypersensitivity to insulin, while the lack of both chromogranins provoked progressive lack of response to stress, as restriction did not promote tachycardia in old mice. Moreover, the lack of chromogranin B produced a depressive-like and aggressive phenotype, while the lack either or both chromogranins increased barbering behaviour. In addition, we observed no effects on light-dark box or RotaRod tests. Mice lacking chromogranin B exhibited lower exploratory activity. Based on this extensive phenotyping with more than 2800 mice, these findings support roles of chromogranins, or the peptides derived from them, in the control of aggressive behaviour along with changes in their metabolic profile beyond their previously described activities in the secretory pathway.

  11. An XX female with sexual infantilism, absent gonads, and lack of Müllerian ducts.

    PubMed Central

    Levinson, G; Zárate, A; Guzmán-Toledano, R; Canales, E S; Jiménez, M

    1976-01-01

    A patient with a 46,XX chromosome constitution showed the following main characteristics: lack of secondary sexual development, female external genitalia with absence of vagina, no gonadal structures, and complete lack of internal genitalia. This is a variant of the gonadal agenesis syndrome so far only described in association with and XY chromosome component. Endrocinology demonstrated that in the absence of gonadal feedback the pituitary responsiveness to synthetic luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone was increased. Images PMID:1271429

  12. Experimental research of fluorescence spectra of watercress stressed by lack or excess of watering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bullo, O. A.; Fedotov, Yu. V.; Belov, M. L.; Gorodnichev, V. A.

    2015-11-01

    Experimental laboratory investigations of the laser-induced fluorescence spectra of watercress were conducted. The fluorescence spectra were excited by a YAG:Nd laser emitting at 532 nm. The laboratory setup was described and fluorescence spectra of watercress in stressed states caused by lack and excess of water were presented. It was established that the influence of stress caused by lack and excess of watering is manifested in changes of fluorescence spectra.

  13. Acidic glycosphingolipids of cock testis elucidated by mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Iga, D P; Iga, S; Larsson, T; Angström, J; Soussi, B; Rakotonirainy, O; Miller-Podraza, H

    1998-12-01

    The main acidic glycosphingolipids (GSLs) of cock testis were identified as GalCer I3-sulfate and gangliosides GM4, GM3, GD3 and GT3. They contained N-acetylneuraminic acid as the major sialic acid, and ceramides composed mainly of sphingosine (dl8:1) and C18-24 non-hydroxy fatty acids. Appreciable amounts of hydroxy fatty acids were detected only in the GM4 preparation.

  14. Detecting Protein-Glycolipid Interactions Using Glycomicelles and CaR-ESI-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Ling; Kitova, Elena N.; Klassen, John S.

    2016-11-01

    This study reports on the use of the catch-and-release electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (CaR-ESI-MS) assay, combined with glycomicelles, as a method for detecting specific interactions between water-soluble proteins and glycolipids (GLs) in aqueous solution. The B subunit homopentamers of cholera toxin (CTB5) and Shiga toxin type 1 B (Stx1B5) and the gangliosides GM1, GM2, GM3, GD1a, GD1b, GT1b, and GD2 served as model systems for this study. The CTB5 exhibits broad specificity for gangliosides and binds to GM1, GM2, GM3, GD1a, GD1b, and GT1b; Stx1B5 does not recognize gangliosides. The CaR-ESI-MS assay was used to analyze solutions of CTB5 or Stx1B5 and individual gangliosides (GM1, GM2, GM3, GD1a, GD1b, GT1b, and GD2) or mixtures thereof. The high affinity interaction of CTB5 with GM1 was successfully detected. However, the apparent affinity, as determined from the mass spectra, is significantly lower than that of the corresponding pentasaccharide or when GM1 is presented in model membranes such as nanodiscs. Interactions between CTB5 and the low affinity gangliosides GD1a, GD1b, and GT1b, as well as GD2, which served as a negative control, were detected; no binding of CTB5 to GM2 or GM3 was observed. The CaR-ESI-MS results obtained for Stx1B5 reveal that nonspecific protein-ganglioside binding can occur during the ESI process, although the extent of binding varies between gangliosides. Consequently, interactions detected for CTB5 with GD1a, GD1b, and GT1b are likely nonspecific in origin. Taken together, these results reveal that the CaR-ESI-MS/glycomicelle approach for detecting protein-GL interactions is prone to false positives and false negatives and must be used with caution.

  15. Detecting Protein-Glycolipid Interactions Using Glycomicelles and CaR-ESI-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Ling; Kitova, Elena N.; Klassen, John S.

    2016-08-01

    This study reports on the use of the catch-and-release electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (CaR-ESI-MS) assay, combined with glycomicelles, as a method for detecting specific interactions between water-soluble proteins and glycolipids (GLs) in aqueous solution. The B subunit homopentamers of cholera toxin (CTB5) and Shiga toxin type 1 B (Stx1B5) and the gangliosides GM1, GM2, GM3, GD1a, GD1b, GT1b, and GD2 served as model systems for this study. The CTB5 exhibits broad specificity for gangliosides and binds to GM1, GM2, GM3, GD1a, GD1b, and GT1b; Stx1B5 does not recognize gangliosides. The CaR-ESI-MS assay was used to analyze solutions of CTB5 or Stx1B5 and individual gangliosides (GM1, GM2, GM3, GD1a, GD1b, GT1b, and GD2) or mixtures thereof. The high affinity interaction of CTB5 with GM1 was successfully detected. However, the apparent affinity, as determined from the mass spectra, is significantly lower than that of the corresponding pentasaccharide or when GM1 is presented in model membranes such as nanodiscs. Interactions between CTB5 and the low affinity gangliosides GD1a, GD1b, and GT1b, as well as GD2, which served as a negative control, were detected; no binding of CTB5 to GM2 or GM3 was observed. The CaR-ESI-MS results obtained for Stx1B5 reveal that nonspecific protein-ganglioside binding can occur during the ESI process, although the extent of binding varies between gangliosides. Consequently, interactions detected for CTB5 with GD1a, GD1b, and GT1b are likely nonspecific in origin. Taken together, these results reveal that the CaR-ESI-MS/glycomicelle approach for detecting protein-GL interactions is prone to false positives and false negatives and must be used with caution.

  16. The physiological role of mitochondrial calcium revealed by mice lacking the mitochondrial calcium uniporter.

    PubMed

    Pan, Xin; Liu, Jie; Nguyen, Tiffany; Liu, Chengyu; Sun, Junhui; Teng, Yanjie; Fergusson, Maria M; Rovira, Ilsa I; Allen, Michele; Springer, Danielle A; Aponte, Angel M; Gucek, Marjan; Balaban, Robert S; Murphy, Elizabeth; Finkel, Toren

    2013-12-01

    Mitochondrial calcium has been postulated to regulate a wide range of processes from bioenergetics to cell death. Here, we characterize a mouse model that lacks expression of the recently discovered mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU). Mitochondria derived from MCU(-/-) mice have no apparent capacity to rapidly uptake calcium. Whereas basal metabolism seems unaffected, the skeletal muscle of MCU(-/-) mice exhibited alterations in the phosphorylation and activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase. In addition, MCU(-/-) mice exhibited marked impairment in their ability to perform strenuous work. We further show that mitochondria from MCU(-/-) mice lacked evidence for calcium-induced permeability transition pore (PTP) opening. The lack of PTP opening does not seem to protect MCU(-/-) cells and tissues from cell death, although MCU(-/-) hearts fail to respond to the PTP inhibitor cyclosporin A. Taken together, these results clarify how acute alterations in mitochondrial matrix calcium can regulate mammalian physiology.

  17. Competency to stand trial and defendants who lack insight into their mental illness.

    PubMed

    Reisner, Andrew D; Piel, Jennifer; Makey, Miller

    2013-01-01

    Forensic evaluators often assess patients who lack insight into their mental illnesses. This lack of insight can have a significant impact on the defendant's ability to make legal strategy decisions that rely on their acceptance of their mental illness. In this article, the relationship between refusing an insanity plea and competency to stand trial will be explored in the context of defendants who lack insight into their mental illness. The authors argue that an adequate competency assessment should take into account the defendant's ability to consider his available pleas rationally. Such evaluations may have the effect of negating the necessity of a Frendak inquiry in those jurisdictions that can impose the insanity defense on defendants.

  18. Fatigue, Tiredness, and Lack of Energy Improve with Treatment for OSA

    PubMed Central

    Chotinaiwattarakul, Wattanachai; O'Brien, Louise M.; Fan, Ludi; Chervin, Ronald D.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: Many patients with obstructive sleep apnea complain of fatigue, tiredness, or lack of energy in addition to sleepiness, or instead of sleepiness. We explored whether self-defined fatigue, tiredness, and lack of energy improve, like sleepiness, after treatment with positive airway pressure (PAP). Methods: We conducted a prospective survey of adults referred to a University-based sleep disorders center and confirmed to have obstructive sleep apnea on polysomnography. Surveys were mailed to 1539 patients 6 months to 3 years after they were prescribed PAP for home use. Results: Participants (n = 313) included 183 who reported using PAP ≥ 5 hours per night, 96 who were considered inadequately treated because they had no active treatment or used PAP < 5 hours per night, and 34 treated by surgery or other means and therefore excluded from subsequent analysis. At follow-up in comparison to baseline, subjects adherent to PAP reported less fatigue, tiredness, lack of energy, and sleepiness (p < 0.05 for each). Improvement of each symptom except for lack of energy was significantly better (p < 0.05) among PAP-adherent subjects than among inadequately treated subjects. Conclusions: Patients' complaints of fatigue, tiredness, and lack of energy, like sleepiness, can improve substantially with good adherence to PAP for obstructive sleep apnea. Therefore, patients who prefer a range of common, related terms other than sleepiness to describe their problem may benefit from investigation and treatment for any underlying sleep-disordered breathing. Citation: Chotinaiwattarakul W; O'Brien LM; Fan L; Chervin RD. Fatigue, tiredness, and lack of energy improve with treatment for OSA. J Clin Sleep Med 2009;5(3):240-245. PMID:19960642

  19. Lack of Emotional Support from Parents Early in Life and Alcohol Abuse Later in Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Benjamin A.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the association between lacking emotional support from parents early in life and adult alcohol abuse. A series of logistic regression models were run with data collected from a nationally representative sample of over 2,500 adults ages 25-74. The findings reveal a linear relationship between level of…

  20. Barriers to Faculty Pedagogical Change: Lack of Training, Time, Incentives, and. . .Tensions with Professional Identity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brownell, Sara E.; Tanner, Kimberly D.

    2012-01-01

    A substantial body of literature has highlighted many factors that impede faculty change, the most common of which are a lack of training, time, and incentives. However, there may be other barriers--unacknowledged and unexamined barriers--that might prove to be equally important. In particular, the tensions between a scientist's professional…

  1. 14 CFR 1230.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects. 1230.118 Section 1230.118 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 1230.118 Applications and...

  2. 14 CFR 1230.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects. 1230.118 Section 1230.118 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 1230.118 Applications and...

  3. 14 CFR 1230.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects. 1230.118 Section 1230.118 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 1230.118 Applications and...

  4. Mind Maps to Modify Lack of Attention among Saudi Kindergarten Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daghistan, Bulquees Ismail Abdul Majid

    2016-01-01

    This research study aims at investigating the impact of Mind Maps on modifying the lack of attention in Arabic language class among Saudi Kindergarten children. To achieve the goals of this study the researcher used an experimental design with a random sample from AlRae'd Kindergarten's children in Riyadh -Saudi Arabia for the academic year…

  5. 25 CFR 170.811 - What happens if lack of funds results in inadequate maintenance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... maintenance? 170.811 Section 170.811 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM BIA Road Maintenance § 170.811 What happens if lack of funds results in inadequate maintenance? If BIA determines that an IRR transportation facility is not...

  6. Who Lacks Support and Why? An Examination of Mothers' Personal Safety Nets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harknett, Kristen S.; Hartnett, Caroline Sten

    2011-01-01

    We use data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 12,140 person-waves) to identify characteristics associated with mothers' having or lacking "personal safety net" support from family and friends. We focus on characteristics that are likely to increase the importance of having support available but may also interfere with the…

  7. Resident Characteristics Related to the Lack of Morning Care Provision in Long-Term Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Sandra F.; Durkin, Daniel W.; Rahman, Anna N.; Choi, Leena; Beuscher, Linda; Schnelle, John F.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine usual long-term care (LTC) practices related to 3 aspects of morning care and determine if there were resident characteristics related to the lack of care. Design and Methods: Participants were 169 long-stay residents in 4 community LTC facilities who required staff assistance with either transfer…

  8. Quantitative trait loci for a neurocranium deformity, lack of operculum, in gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.).

    PubMed

    Negrín-Báez, D; Navarro, A; Afonso, J M; Toro, M A; Zamorano, M J

    2016-04-01

    Lack of operculum, a neurocranial deformity, is the most common external abnormality to be found among industrially produced gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.), and this entails significant financial losses. This study conducts, for the first time in this species, a quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis of the lack of operculum. A total of 142 individuals from a paternal half-sibling family (six full-sibling families) were selected for QTL mapping. They had previously shown a highly significant association with the prevalence of lack of operculum in a segregation analysis. All the fish were genotyped for 106 microsatellite markers using a set of multiplex PCRs (ReMsa1-ReMsa13). A linear regression methodology was used for the QTL analysis. Four QTL were detected for this deformity, two of which (QTLOP1 and QTLOP2) were significant. They were located at LG (linkage group) nine and LG10 respectively. Both QTL showed a large effect (about 27%), and furthermore, the association between lack of operculum and sire allelic segregation observed was statistically significant in the QTLOP1 analysis. These results represent a significant step towards including marker-assisted selection for this deformity in genetic breeding programmes to reduce the incidence of the deformity in the species. PMID:26995565

  9. 38 CFR 16.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects. Certain types of applications... be set forth in the application or proposal. These include activities such as institutional type grants when selection of specific projects is the institution's responsibility; research training...

  10. 14 CFR 1230.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects. 1230.118 Section 1230.118 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 1230.118 Applications and...

  11. The Lack of Political Cartoons in the People's Republic of China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnell, Jim

    Political cartoons do not appear in the government-controlled press in the People's Republic of China. The cartoons that do appear in newspapers are good-natured and lacking in any type of political message. Chinese civilization has a 5,000-year history that is grounded in feudalism and must be considered in any analysis of Chinese society. Since…

  12. Non-Native Student's Communication Is Affected Due to the Lack of Pragmatic Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latha, V. G.; Rajan, Premalatha

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims at focusing how the lack of pragmatic competence affects student's communication in L2 (Second language) at tertiary level. The city based Indian students learn English which is their second language from 3 years onwards whereas the rural based students learn English only from 6 years onwards. This exposure of the L2 shows the…

  13. 40 CFR 26.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Basic EPA Policy for Protection of Subjects in Human Research Conducted or Supported by EPA § 26.118 Applications and proposals lacking definite... projects is the institution's responsibility; research training grants in which the activities...

  14. 45 CFR 46.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Basic HHS Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects § 46.118 Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human... responsibility; research training grants in which the activities involving subjects remain to be selected;...

  15. Special Deliveries: Certified Nurse-Midwifery Programs Lacking in New England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franzosa, Alyssa

    2012-01-01

    With Boston serving as a hub of both educational and medical excellence, it's no wonder that New England has a high reputation to uphold in both of these areas. However, Boston and the rest of the region lack a specific degree program that is putting New England below the radars of potential midwives. Certified nurse-midwifery is a popular field…

  16. 40 CFR 52.1118 - Approval of bubbles in nonattainment areas lacking approved demonstrations: State assurances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of bubbles in nonattainment... IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Maryland § 52.1118 Approval of bubbles in nonattainment areas lacking approved demonstrations: State assurances. In order to secure approval of a bubble control strategy for the...

  17. 40 CFR 52.1118 - Approval of bubbles in nonattainment areas lacking approved demonstrations: State assurances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Approval of bubbles in nonattainment... IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Maryland § 52.1118 Approval of bubbles in nonattainment areas lacking approved demonstrations: State assurances. In order to secure approval of a bubble control strategy for the...

  18. 40 CFR 52.1118 - Approval of bubbles in nonattainment areas lacking approved demonstrations: State assurances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Approval of bubbles in nonattainment... IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Maryland § 52.1118 Approval of bubbles in nonattainment areas lacking approved demonstrations: State assurances. In order to secure approval of a bubble control strategy for the...

  19. 40 CFR 52.1118 - Approval of bubbles in nonattainment areas lacking approved demonstrations: State assurances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Approval of bubbles in nonattainment... IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Maryland § 52.1118 Approval of bubbles in nonattainment areas lacking approved demonstrations: State assurances. In order to secure approval of a bubble control strategy for the...

  20. 17 CFR 14.8 - Lack of requisite qualifications, character and integrity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... qualifications, character and integrity. 14.8 Section 14.8 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES... requisite qualifications, character and integrity. In addition to those matters specifically referred to in... represent others; or (b) To be lacking in character or integrity; or (c) To have engaged in unethical...

  1. 25 CFR 170.811 - What happens if lack of funds results in inadequate maintenance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... maintenance? 170.811 Section 170.811 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM BIA Road Maintenance § 170.811 What happens if lack of funds results in inadequate maintenance? If BIA determines that an IRR transportation facility is not...

  2. 25 CFR 170.811 - What happens if lack of funds results in inadequate maintenance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... maintenance? 170.811 Section 170.811 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM BIA Road Maintenance § 170.811 What happens if lack of funds results in inadequate maintenance? If BIA determines that an IRR transportation facility is not...

  3. 25 CFR 170.811 - What happens if lack of funds results in inadequate maintenance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... maintenance? 170.811 Section 170.811 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM BIA Road Maintenance § 170.811 What happens if lack of funds results in inadequate maintenance? If BIA determines that an IRR transportation facility is not...

  4. 25 CFR 170.811 - What happens if lack of funds results in inadequate maintenance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... maintenance? 170.811 Section 170.811 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM BIA Road Maintenance § 170.811 What happens if lack of funds results in inadequate maintenance? If BIA determines that an IRR transportation facility is not...

  5. A Comparison between Administration of First Nations Education in Canada and Peru: Divestments, Losses and Lacks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young-Ing, Greg

    1988-01-01

    Points out similarities in the histories of Canadian and Peruvian government policies on the formal schooling of Native peoples. Discusses the divestment of Native cultural capital, loss of human potential, and lack of recognition of a fundamental Aboriginal right in both countries. Contains 20 references. (SV)

  6. Lack of acknowledgment in the family Rorschachs of families with a child at risk for schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Herman, B F; Jones, J E

    1976-09-01

    Lack of acknowledgment, a characteristic of the direct interactions of families of schizophrenics, was found also to characterize the Family Rorschach interactions of families whose disturbed, non-psychotic adolescents were assessed at high risk for schizophrenia on the basis of parental communication deviance. The same high-risk families had unbalanced interaction patterns as reflected in three measures of family structure.

  7. 45 CFR 690.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 690.118 Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects. Certain types of... be set forth in the application or proposal. These include activities such as institutional...

  8. 45 CFR 690.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 690.118 Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects. Certain types of... be set forth in the application or proposal. These include activities such as institutional...

  9. 32 CFR 219.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects. 219.118 Section 219.118 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 219.118 Applications and proposals...

  10. 34 CFR 97.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects. 97.118 Section 97.118 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Federal Policy for the Protection of Human Subjects (Basic ED Policy for Protection of Human Research...

  11. 40 CFR 26.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects. 26.118 Section 26.118 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Basic EPA Policy for Protection of Subjects in Human Research Conducted or Supported...

  12. 45 CFR 46.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects. 46.118 Section 46.118 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Basic HHS Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects § 46.118 Applications...

  13. 40 CFR 26.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects. 26.118 Section 26.118 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Basic EPA Policy for Protection of Subjects in Human Research Conducted or Supported...

  14. 34 CFR 97.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects. 97.118 Section 97.118 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Federal Policy for the Protection of Human Subjects (Basic ED Policy for Protection of Human Research...

  15. 76 FR 6694 - Disclosure of Medical Information to the Surrogate of a Patient Who Lacks Decision-Making Capacity

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-08

    ... Lacks Decision-Making Capacity AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This..., otherwise protected medical information with the representative of a patient who lacks decision-making... follows: ``To a representative of a patient who lacks decision-making capacity, when a practitioner...

  16. 37 CFR 1.489 - Protest to lack of unity of invention before the International Preliminary Examining Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Protest to lack of unity of... Protest to lack of unity of invention before the International Preliminary Examining Authority. (a) If the applicant disagrees with the holding of lack of unity of invention by the International...

  17. 37 CFR 1.489 - Protest to lack of unity of invention before the International Preliminary Examining Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Protest to lack of unity of... Protest to lack of unity of invention before the International Preliminary Examining Authority. (a) If the applicant disagrees with the holding of lack of unity of invention by the International...

  18. 37 CFR 1.489 - Protest to lack of unity of invention before the International Preliminary Examining Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Protest to lack of unity of... Protest to lack of unity of invention before the International Preliminary Examining Authority. (a) If the applicant disagrees with the holding of lack of unity of invention by the International...

  19. Complete lack of mitochondrial divergence between two species of NE Atlantic marine intertidal gastropods.

    PubMed

    Kemppainen, P; Panova, M; Hollander, J; Johannesson, K

    2009-10-01

    Some mitochondrial introgression is common between closely related species, but distinct species rarely show substantial introgression in their entire distribution range. In this study, however, we report a complete lack of mitochondrial divergence between two sympatric species of flat periwinkles (Littorina fabalis and Littorina obtusata) which, based on previous allozyme studies, diverged approximately 1 Ma. We re-examined their species status using both morphology (morphometric analysis) and neutral genetic markers (microsatellites) and our results confirmed that these species are well separated. Despite this, the two species shared all common cytochrome-b haplotypes throughout their NE Atlantic distribution and no deep split between typical L. fabalis and L. obtusata haplotypes could be found. We suggest that incomplete lineage sorting explains most of the lack of mitochondrial divergence between these species. However, coalescent-based analyses and the sympatric sharing of unique haplotypes suggest that introgressive hybridization also has occurred. PMID:19678865

  20. The Effects of Lack of Joint Goal Planning on Divorce over 10 Years

    PubMed Central

    Gere, Judith; Almeida, David M.; Martire, Lynn M.

    2016-01-01

    Given the negative consequences of divorce on health and well-being, it is important to try to identify its predictors. In the current study we used data from the National Survey of Midlife Development (N = 2801) to examine the longitudinal effects of lack of joint goal planning with a romantic relationship partner on divorce over a 10-year period. Multilevel regression analyses showed that lack of joint planning with the relationship partner was associated with a 19% increase in the odds of divorce, even when controlling for various demographic (i.e., age, gender, relationship length, number of children in the household), individual (i.e., neuroticism, positive affect, negative affect, physical symptoms, planning), and relationship (i.e., marital empathy, partner strain, partner disagreement, marital satisfaction, commitment). These results demonstrate the importance of considering one’s partner when making decisions and plans for the future, given that it has clear implications for relationship dissolution. PMID:27668863

  1. Lack of reliability in the disruption of cognitive performance following exposure to protons.

    PubMed

    Rabin, Bernard M; Heroux, Nicholas A; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Carrihill-Knoll, Kirsty L; Beck, Zachary; Baxter, Chelsea

    2015-08-01

    A series of three replications were run to determine the reliability with which exposure to protons produces a disruption of cognitive performance, using a novel object recognition task and operant responding on an ascending fixed-ratio task. For the first two replications, rats were exposed to head-only exposures to 1000 MeV/n protons at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory. For the third replication, subjects were given head-only or whole-body exposures to both 1000 and 150 MeV/n protons. The results were characterized by a lack of consistency in the effects of exposure to protons on the performance of these cognitive tasks, both within and between replications. The factors that might influence the lack of consistency and the implications for exploratory class missions are discussed.

  2. Involvement of alanine racemase in germination of Bacillus cereus spores lacking an intact exosporium.

    PubMed

    Venir, Elena; Del Torre, Manuela; Cunsolo, Vincenzo; Saletti, Rosaria; Musetti, Rita; Stecchini, Mara Lucia

    2014-02-01

    The L-alanine mediated germination of food isolated Bacillus cereus DSA 1 spores, which lacked an intact exosporium, increased in the presence of D-cycloserine (DCS), which is an alanine racemase (Alr) inhibitor, reflecting the activity of the Alr enzyme, capable of converting L-alanine to the germination inhibitor D-alanine. Proteomic analysis of the alkaline extracts of the spore proteins, which include exosporium and coat proteins, confirmed that Alr was present in the B. cereus DSA 1 spores and matched to that encoded by B. cereus ATCC 14579, whose spore germination was strongly affected by the block of conversion of L- to D-alanine. Unlike ATCC 14579 spores, L-alanine germination of B. cereus DSA 1 spores was not affected by the preincubation with DCS, suggesting a lack of restriction in the reactant accessibility.

  3. How slow breeding can be selected in seabirds: testing Lack's hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Dobson, F Stephen; Jouventin, Pierre

    2007-01-22

    The historical debate of the 1960s between group and individual selection hinged on how the slow breeding of seabirds could be explained. While this debate was settled by the ascendance of individual selection, championed by David Lack, explanations for slow breeding in seabirds remain to be tested. We examined the slowest breeding of these birds, the albatrosses and petrels (order Procellariiformes), using analyses that statistically controlled for variations in body size and phylogeny. Incubation and fledging periods appeared strongly correlated, but this turned out to be largely explained by phylogeny. Nonetheless, developmental and reproductive rates were associated with the distance to the foraging range, as predicted under the hypothesis of ecological constraints on breeding pairs, and these results were independent of body size and phylogeny. Slower breeding in these seabirds appeared associated with the rigors of farther pelagic feeding, as Lack originally hypothesized.

  4. Edentulism, Severe Tooth Loss and Lack of Functional Dentition in Elders: A Study in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Camila Garcez; Cascaes, Andreia Morales; Silva, Alexandre Emídio Ribeiro; Seerig, Lenise Menezes; Nascimento, Gustavo Giacomelli; Demarco, Flávio Fernando

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate self-reported prevalence of edentulism, severe tooth loss and lack of functional dentition in elders, and to identify potential associated factors. A population based cross-sectional study was carried out with 1,451 elders (≥60 years), in Pelotas, RS, Brazil. Crude and adjusted prevalence ratios were estimated using Poisson regressions. The prevalence of edentulism, severe tooth loss and lack of functional dentition was 39.3%, 60.9% and 82.7%, respectively. The factors positively associated with tooth loss in the three-degree severity were sex (females), older individuals, low familial income, low level of schooling and having the last dental visit longer than 24 months ago. The high prevalence of tooth loss in its different degrees of severity and the association with preventable factors highlight the need of programs focused on elders, emphasizing the prevention of tooth loss and need for prosthetic rehabilitation. PMID:27224572

  5. The potential contribution of MVR-PCR to paternity probabilities in a case lacking a mother.

    PubMed

    Tamaki, K; Huang, X L; Mizutani, M; Yamamoto, T; Katsumata, R; Uchihi, R; Katsumata, Y; Jeffreys, A J

    1999-07-01

    Minisatellite variant repeat (MVR) mapping using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was applied to a paternity case lacking a mother to evaluate the paternity probability. After three flanking polymorphic sites at each of MS31A and MS32 loci were investigated from the child and alleged father, allele-specific MVR-PCR was performed using genomic DNA. It was confirmed that one allele in the child was identical to that in the alleged father at both loci. Mapped allele codes were compared with allele structures established from population surveys. No perfect matches were found although some motifs were shared with other Japanese alleles. The paternity index and probability of paternity exclusion at these two MVR loci were then estimated, establishing the power of MVR-PCR even in paternity cases lacking a mother.

  6. Lack of Penetration in Friction Stir Welds: Effects on Mechanical Properties and NDE Feasibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinchen, David G.; Adams, Glynn P.

    2000-01-01

    This presentation reviews the issue of lack of penetration (LOP) in Friction Stir Welding and the feasibility of using non-destructive tests to detect . Friction Stir Welding takes place in the solid phase below the melting point of the materials to be joined. It thus gives the ability to join materials which are difficult to fusion weld, for example 2000 and 7000 aluminium alloys. This process though can result in a lack of penetration, due to an incomplete penetration of the DXZ. This is frequently referred to as a "kissing bond", which requires micro examination to detect. The presentation then discusses the surface crack tension tests. It then reviews the simulated service test and results. It then discusses the feasibility of using non-destructive examination to detect LOP, the forms of test which can be used, and the results the tests.

  7. Scaffold proteins LACK and TRACK as potential drug targets in kinetoplastid parasites: Development of inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Qvit, Nir; Schechtman, Deborah; Pena, Darlene Aparecida; Berti, Denise Aparecida; Soares, Chrislaine Oliveira; Miao, Qianqian; Liang, Liying (Annie); Baron, Lauren A.; Teh-Poot, Christian; Martínez-Vega, Pedro; Ramirez-Sierra, Maria Jesus; Churchill, Eric; Cunningham, Anna D.; Malkovskiy, Andrey V.; Federspiel, Nancy A.; Gozzo, Fabio Cesar; Torrecilhas, Ana Claudia; Manso Alves, Maria Julia; Jardim, Armando; Momar, Ndao; Dumonteil, Eric; Mochly-Rosen, Daria

    2016-01-01

    Parasitic diseases cause ∼500,000 deaths annually and remain a major challenge for therapeutic development. Using a rational design based approach, we developed peptide inhibitors with anti-parasitic activity that were derived from the sequences of parasite scaffold proteins LACK (Leishmania's receptor for activated C-kinase) and TRACK (Trypanosomareceptor for activated C-kinase). We hypothesized that sequences in LACK and TRACK that are conserved in the parasites, but not in the mammalian ortholog, RACK (Receptor for activated C-kinase), may be interaction sites for signaling proteins that are critical for the parasites' viability. One of these peptides exhibited leishmanicidal and trypanocidal activity in culture. Moreover, in infected mice, this peptide was also effective in reducing parasitemia and increasing survival without toxic effects. The identified peptide is a promising new anti-parasitic drug lead, as its unique features may limit toxicity and drug-resistance, thus overcoming central limitations of most anti-parasitic drugs. PMID:27054066

  8. Meiosis I in Xenopus oocytes is not error-prone despite lacking spindle assembly checkpoint.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dandan; Shao, Hua; Wang, Hongmei; Liu, X Johné

    2014-01-01

    The spindle assembly checkpoint, SAC, is a surveillance mechanism to control the onset of anaphase during cell division. SAC prevents anaphase initiation until all chromosome pairs have achieved bipolar attachment and aligned at the metaphase plate of the spindle. In doing so, SAC is thought to be the key mechanism to prevent chromosome nondisjunction in mitosis and meiosis. We have recently demonstrated that Xenopus oocyte meiosis lacks SAC control. This prompted the question of whether Xenopus oocyte meiosis is particularly error-prone. In this study, we have karyotyped a total of 313 Xenopus eggs following in vitro oocyte maturation. We found no hyperploid egg, out of 204 metaphase II eggs with countable chromosome spreads. Therefore, chromosome nondisjunction is very rare during Xenopus oocyte meiosis I, despite the lack of SAC. PMID:24646611

  9. Myocardial Ischemia: Lack of Coronary Blood Flow or Myocardial Oxygen Supply/Demand Imbalance?

    PubMed

    Heusch, Gerd

    2016-07-01

    Regional myocardial blood flow and contractile function in ischemic myocardium are well matched, and there is no evidence for an oxygen supply/demand imbalance. Thus, myocardial ischemia is lack of coronary blood flow with electric, functional, metabolic, and structural consequences for the myocardium. All therapeutic interventions must aim to improve blood flow to ischemic myocardium as much and as quickly as possible. PMID:27390331

  10. Uncertainties associated with lacking data for predictions of solid-solution partitioning of metals in soil.

    PubMed

    Le, T T Yen; Hendriks, A Jan

    2014-08-15

    Soil properties, i.e., pH and contents of soil organic matter (SOM), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), clay, oxides, and reactive metals, are required inputs to both mechanistic and empirical modeling in assessing metal solid-solution partitioning. Several of these properties are rarely measured in site-specific risk assessment. We compared the uncertainties induced by lacking data on these soil properties in estimating metal soil solution concentrations. The predictions by the Orchestra framework were more sensitive to lacking soil property data than the predictions by the transfer functions. The deviations between soil solution concentrations of Cd, Ni, Zn, Ba, and Co estimated with measured SOM and those estimated with generic SOM by the Orchestra framework were about 10 times larger than the deviations in the predictions by the transfer functions. High uncertainties were induced by lacking data in assessing solid-solution partitioning of oxy-anions like As, Mo, Sb, Se, and V. Deviations associated with lacking data in predicting soil solution concentrations of these metals by the Orchestra framework reached three-to-six orders of magnitude. The solid-solution partitioning of metal cations was strongly influenced by pH and contents of organic matter, oxides, and reactive metals. Deviations of more than two orders of magnitude were frequently observed between the estimates of soil solution concentrations with the generic values of these properties and the estimates based on the measured data. Reliable information on these properties is preferred to be included in the assessment by either the Orchestra framework or transfer functions. PMID:24840279

  11. Uncertainties associated with lacking data for predictions of solid-solution partitioning of metals in soil.

    PubMed

    Le, T T Yen; Hendriks, A Jan

    2014-08-15

    Soil properties, i.e., pH and contents of soil organic matter (SOM), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), clay, oxides, and reactive metals, are required inputs to both mechanistic and empirical modeling in assessing metal solid-solution partitioning. Several of these properties are rarely measured in site-specific risk assessment. We compared the uncertainties induced by lacking data on these soil properties in estimating metal soil solution concentrations. The predictions by the Orchestra framework were more sensitive to lacking soil property data than the predictions by the transfer functions. The deviations between soil solution concentrations of Cd, Ni, Zn, Ba, and Co estimated with measured SOM and those estimated with generic SOM by the Orchestra framework were about 10 times larger than the deviations in the predictions by the transfer functions. High uncertainties were induced by lacking data in assessing solid-solution partitioning of oxy-anions like As, Mo, Sb, Se, and V. Deviations associated with lacking data in predicting soil solution concentrations of these metals by the Orchestra framework reached three-to-six orders of magnitude. The solid-solution partitioning of metal cations was strongly influenced by pH and contents of organic matter, oxides, and reactive metals. Deviations of more than two orders of magnitude were frequently observed between the estimates of soil solution concentrations with the generic values of these properties and the estimates based on the measured data. Reliable information on these properties is preferred to be included in the assessment by either the Orchestra framework or transfer functions.

  12. FANCD2 limits replication stress and genome instability in cells lacking BRCA2.

    PubMed

    Michl, Johanna; Zimmer, Jutta; Buffa, Francesca M; McDermott, Ultan; Tarsounas, Madalena

    2016-08-01

    The tumor suppressor BRCA2 plays a key role in genome integrity by promoting replication-fork stability and homologous recombination (HR) DNA repair. Here we report that human cancer cells lacking BRCA2 rely on the Fanconi anemia protein FANCD2 to limit replication-fork progression and genomic instability. Our results identify a new role of FANCD2 in limiting constitutive replication stress in BRCA2-deficient cells, thereby affecting cell survival and treatment responses. PMID:27322732

  13. Lack of access and continuity of adult health care: a national population-based survey

    PubMed Central

    Dilélio, Alitéia Santiago; Tomasi, Elaine; Thumé, Elaine; da Silveira, Denise Silva; Siqueira, Fernando Carlos Vinholes; Piccini, Roberto Xavier; Silva, Suele Manjourany; Nunes, Bruno Pereira; Facchini, Luiz Augusto

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the lack of access and continuity of health care in adults. METHODS A cross-sectional population-based study was performed on a sample of 12,402 adults aged 20 to 59 years in urban areas of 100 municipalities of 23 states in the five Brazilian geopolitical regions. Barriers to the access and continuity of health care and were investigated based on receiving, needing and seeking health care (hospitalization and accident/emergency care in the last 12 months; care provided by a doctor, by other health professional or home care in the last three months). Based on the results obtained by the description of the sample, a projection is provided for adults living in Brazilian urban areas. RESULTS The highest prevalence of lack of access to health services and to provision of care by health professionals was for hospitalization (3.0%), whilst the lowest prevalence was for care provided by a doctor (1.1%). The lack of access to care provided by other health professionals was 2.0%; to accident and emergency services, 2.1%; and to home care, 2.9%. As for prevalences, the greatest absolute lack of access occurred in emergency care (more than 360,000 adults). The main reasons were structural and organizational problems, such as unavailability of hospital beds, of health professionals, of appointments for the type of care needed and charges made for care. CONCLUSIONS The universal right to health care in Brazil has not yet been achieved. These projections can help health care management in scaling the efforts needed to overcome this problem, such as expanding the infrastructure of health services and the workforce. PMID:26061454

  14. Lack of lipid A pyrophosphorylation and functional lptA reduces inflammation by Neisseria commensals.

    PubMed

    John, Constance M; Liu, Mingfeng; Phillips, Nancy J; Yang, Zhijie; Funk, Courtney R; Zimmerman, Lindsey I; Griffiss, J McLeod; Stein, Daniel C; Jarvis, Gary A

    2012-11-01

    The interaction of the immune system with Neisseria commensals remains poorly understood. We have previously shown that phosphoethanolamine on the lipid A portion of lipooligosaccharide (LOS) plays an important role in Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling. For pathogenic Neisseria, phosphoethanolamine is added to lipid A by the phosphoethanolamine transferase specific for lipid A, which is encoded by lptA. Here, we report that Southern hybridizations and bioinformatics analyses of genomic sequences from all eight commensal Neisseria species confirmed that lptA was absent in 15 of 17 strains examined but was present in N. lactamica. Mass spectrometry of lipid A and intact LOS revealed the lack of both pyrophosphorylation and phosphoethanolaminylation in lipid A of commensal species lacking lptA. Inflammatory signaling in human THP-1 monocytic cells was much greater with pathogenic than with commensal Neisseria strains that lacked lptA, and greater sensitivity to polymyxin B was consistent with the absence of phosphoethanolamine. Unlike the other commensals, whole bacteria of two N. lactamica commensal strains had low inflammatory potential, whereas their lipid A had high-level pyrophosphorylation and phosphoethanolaminylation and induced high-level inflammatory signaling, supporting previous studies indicating that this species uses mechanisms other than altering lipid A to support commensalism. A meningococcal lptA deletion mutant had reduced inflammatory potential, further illustrating the importance of lipid A pyrophosphorylation and phosphoethanolaminylation in the bioactivity of LOS. Overall, our results indicate that lack of pyrophosphorylation and phosphoethanolaminylation of lipid A contributes to the immune privilege of most commensal Neisseria strains by reducing the inflammatory potential of LOS.

  15. LACK OF ANGULAR CORRELATION AND ODD-PARITY PREFERENCE IN COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jaiseung; Naselsky, Pavel

    2011-10-01

    We have investigated the angular correlation in the recent cosmic microwave background data. In addition to the known large-angle correlation anomaly, we find the lack of correlation at small angles with high statistical significance. We have investigated various non-cosmological contamination as well as the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) team's simulated data. However, we have not found a definite cause. In the angular power spectrum of WMAP data, there exists anomalous odd-parity preference at low multipoles. Noting the equivalence between the power spectrum and the correlation, we have investigated the association between the lack of large-angle correlation and the odd-parity preference. From our investigation, we find that the odd-parity preference at low multipoles is, in fact, a phenomenological origin of the lack of large-angle correlation. Further investigation is required to find out whether the origin of the anomaly is cosmological or due to unaccounted systematics. The data from the Planck surveyor, which has systematics distinct from WMAP, will greatly help us to resolve its origin.

  16. Lack of the scavenger receptor CD36 alters microglial phenotypes after neonatal stroke

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fan; Faustino, Joel; Woo, Moon-Sook; Derugin, Nikita; Vexler, Zinaida S

    2016-01-01

    The stage of brain development at the time of stroke has a major impact on the pathophysiological mechanisms of ischemic damage, including the neuroinflammatory response. Microglial cells have been shown to contribute to acute and sub-chronic injury in adult stroke models, whereas in neonatal rodents we showed that microglial cells serve as endogenous neuroprotectants early following transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO), limiting neuroinflammation and injury. In the neonate, microglial depletion or lack of the scavenger receptor CD36 exacerbates injury. In this study we asked if lack of CD36 affects microglial phenotypes after neonatal stroke. Using RT-PCR we characterized the patterns of gene expression in microglia isolated from injured regions following acute tMCAO in postnatal day 10 mice and showed that expression of several pro-inflammatory genes, including Toll-like receptors (TLR), remains largely unaffected in activated microglia in injured regions. Using multiple biochemical assays we demonstrated that lack of CD36 alters several functions of microglia in acutely injured neonatal brain: it further enhances accumulation of the chemokine MCP-1, affects the number of CD11b+/CD45+ cells, along with protein expression of its co-receptor, TLR2, but does not affect accumulation of superoxide in microglia or the cytokines TNFα and IL-1β in injured regions. PMID:26223273

  17. Lack of genetic polymorphism among peregrine falcons Falco peregrinus of Fiji

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Talbot, S.L.; Palmer, A.G.; Sage, G.K.; Sonsthagen, S.A.; Swem, T.; Brimm, D.J.; White, C.M.

    2011-01-01

    We compared levels of genetic diversity and isolation among peregrine falcons Falco peregrinus from two South Pacific island complexes (Fiji and Vanuatu: F. p. nesiotes), relative to other island and mainland populations. Fragment data from 12 microsatellite loci and sequence information from the control region of the mitochondrial DNA indicated levels of genetic variation in the South Pacific populations were lower than other island and mainland populations. Indeed, diversity varied from extremely low (Vanuatu) to completely absent (Fiji). We find little support for a hypothesis that populations on Fiji or Vanuatu were colonized via Australia. The complete lack of polymorphism in peregrine falcons of Fiji is remarkable, and to our knowledge has not been observed in a natural avian population. This lack of polymorphism, and the inability to test for decrease in polymorphism using museum samples, precludes testing whether the lack of genetic diversity in the population on Fiji is due to a recent bottleneck, or sustained isolation over evolutionary time. Increased fertility in eggs of Fiji peregrines upon outbreeding with males from other areas is consistent with inbreeding depression within a population typified by heterozygote deficiency. ?? 2011 The Authors.

  18. Defects in succinate dehydrogenase in gastrointestinal stromal tumors lacking KIT and PDGFRA mutations.

    PubMed

    Janeway, Katherine A; Kim, Su Young; Lodish, Maya; Nosé, Vânia; Rustin, Pierre; Gaal, José; Dahia, Patricia L M; Liegl, Bernadette; Ball, Evan R; Raygada, Margarita; Lai, Angela H; Kelly, Lorna; Hornick, Jason L; O'Sullivan, Maureen; de Krijger, Ronald R; Dinjens, Winand N M; Demetri, George D; Antonescu, Cristina R; Fletcher, Jonathan A; Helman, Lee; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2011-01-01

    Carney-Stratakis syndrome, an inherited condition predisposing affected individuals to gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) and paraganglioma, is caused by germline mutations in succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) subunits B, C, or D, leading to dysfunction of complex II of the electron transport chain. We evaluated the role of defective cellular respiration in sporadic GIST lacking mutations in KIT or PDGFRA (WT). Thirty-four patients with WT GIST without a personal or family history of paraganglioma were tested for SDH germline mutations. WT GISTs lacking demonstrable SDH genetic inactivation were evaluated for SDHB expression by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting and for complex II activity. For comparison, SDHB expression was also determined in KIT mutant and neurofibromatosis-1-associated GIST, and complex II activity was also measured in SDH-deficient paraganglioma and KIT mutant GIST; 4 of 34 patients (12%) with WT GIST without a personal or family history of paraganglioma had germline mutations in SDHB or SDHC. WT GISTs lacking somatic mutations or deletions in SDH subunits had either complete loss of or substantial reduction in SDHB protein expression, whereas most KIT mutant GISTs had strong SDHB expression. Complex II activity was substantially decreased in WT GISTs. WT GISTs, particularly those in younger patients, have defects in SDH mitochondrial complex II, and in a subset of these patients, GIST seems to arise from germline-inactivating SDH mutations. Testing for germline mutations in SDH is recommended in patients with WT GIST. These findings highlight a potential central role of SDH dysregulation in WT GIST oncogenesis.

  19. Diurnal cortisol rhythm: Associated with anxiety and depression, or just an indication of lack of energy?

    PubMed

    Harris, Anette; Endresen Reme, Silje; Tangen, Tone; Hansen, Åse Marie; Helene Garde, Anne; Eriksen, Hege Randi

    2015-08-15

    Dysregulation of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal-activity has been associated with low back pain (LBP). The underlying mechanisms are not fully explained, but psychological mechanisms are considered important. In this study we examine the association between psychiatric disorders/symptoms measured with different instruments, and cortisol in a population with LBP. Participants (n=305) sick-listed 2-10 months due to non-specific LBP were included in the study. The screening instruments were the MINI-interview, HADS and HSCL-25. Saliva cortisol were measured on 2 consecutive days; at awakening, 30min later, at 15:00h and 22:00h. Results showed no associations between any of the main diagnostic categories from the MINI-interview, or anxiety/depression measured with HADS or HSCL-25 and cortisol. However, significant associations were found between low cortisol awakening response, low cortisol slope during the day and the somatization scale from HSCL-25 (dizziness or lack of energy, lack of sexual interest, the feeling that everything requires substantial efforts, difficulties to fall asleep, headache). The results indicate that cortisol, may not be directly associated with psychopathology, such as anxiety and depression, but instead are associated with one dimension of the psychopathology, namely lack of energy. This could help explain the inconsistency in the literature, and it should be explored further.

  20. Lack of genetic polymorphism among peregrine falcons Falco peregrinus of Fiji

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Talbot, Sandra; Palmer, A.G.; Sage, G.K.; Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; Swem, T.; Brimm, D.J.

    2014-01-01

    We compared levels of genetic diversity and isolation among peregrine falcons Falco peregrinus from two South Pacific island complexes (Fiji and Vanuatu: F. p. nesiotes), relative to other island and mainland populations. Fragment data from 12 microsatellite loci and sequence information from the control region of the mitochondrial DNA indicated levels of genetic variation in the South Pacific populations were lower than other island and mainland populations. Indeed, diversity varied from extremely low (Vanuatu) to completely absent (Fiji). We find little support for a hypothesis that populations on Fiji or Vanuatu were colonized via Australia. The complete lack of polymorphism in peregrine falcons of Fiji is remarkable, and to our knowledge has not been observed in a natural avian population. This lack of polymorphism, and the inability to test for decrease in polymorphism using museum samples, precludes testing whether the lack of genetic diversity in the population on Fiji is due to a recent bottleneck, or sustained isolation over evolutionary time. Increased fertility in eggs of Fiji peregrines upon outbreeding with males from other areas is consistent with inbreeding depression within a population typified by heterozygote deficiency.

  1. Lack of Neuronal IFN-β-IFNAR Causes Lewy Body- and Parkinson's Disease-like Dementia.

    PubMed

    Ejlerskov, Patrick; Hultberg, Jeanette Göransdotter; Wang, JunYang; Carlsson, Robert; Ambjørn, Malene; Kuss, Martin; Liu, Yawei; Porcu, Giovanna; Kolkova, Kateryna; Friis Rundsten, Carsten; Ruscher, Karsten; Pakkenberg, Bente; Goldmann, Tobias; Loreth, Desiree; Prinz, Marco; Rubinsztein, David C; Issazadeh-Navikas, Shohreh

    2015-10-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases have been linked to inflammation, but whether altered immunomodulation plays a causative role in neurodegeneration is not clear. We show that lack of cytokine interferon-β (IFN-β) signaling causes spontaneous neurodegeneration in the absence of neurodegenerative disease-causing mutant proteins. Mice lacking Ifnb function exhibited motor and cognitive learning impairments with accompanying α-synuclein-containing Lewy bodies in the brain, as well as a reduction in dopaminergic neurons and defective dopamine signaling in the nigrostriatal region. Lack of IFN-β signaling caused defects in neuronal autophagy prior to α-synucleinopathy, which was associated with accumulation of senescent mitochondria. Recombinant IFN-β promoted neurite growth and branching, autophagy flux, and α-synuclein degradation in neurons. In addition, lentiviral IFN-β overexpression prevented dopaminergic neuron loss in a familial Parkinson's disease model. These results indicate a protective role for IFN-β in neuronal homeostasis and validate Ifnb mutant mice as a model for sporadic Lewy body and Parkinson's disease dementia.

  2. Dystroglycanopathy muscles lacking functional glycosylation of alpha-dystroglycan retain regeneration capacity.

    PubMed

    Awano, Hiroyuki; Blaeser, Anthony; Wu, Bo; Lu, Pei; Keramaris-Vrantsis, Elizabeth; Lu, Qi

    2015-06-01

    In dystroglycanopathies, lack of glycosylated alpha-dystroglycan (α-DG) alters membrane fragility leading to fiber damage and repetitive cycles of muscle degeneration and regeneration. However the effect of the glycosylation of α-DG on muscle regeneration is not clearly understood. In this study, we examined the regenerative capacity of dystrophic muscles in vivo in FKRP mutant and LARGE(myd) mice with little and complete lack of functionally glycosylated α-DG (F-α-DG) respectively. The number of regenerating fibers expressing embryonic myosin heavy chain (eMyHC) in the diseased muscles up to the age of 10 months is higher than or at similar levels to wild type muscle after notexin and polyethyleminine insults. The process of fiber maturation is not significantly affected by the lack of F-α-DG assessed by size distribution. The earlier appearance of a larger number of regenerating fibers after injury is consistent with the observation that the populations of myogenic satellite cells are increased and being readily activated in the dystroglycanopathy muscles. F-α-DG is expressed at trace amounts in undifferentiated myoblasts, but increases in differentiated myotubes in vitro. We therefore conclude that muscle regeneration is not impaired in the early stage of the dystroglycanopathies, and F-α-DG does not play a significant role in myogenic cell proliferation and fiber formation and maturation.

  3. Lack of depth constancy for grasping movements in both virtual and real environments.

    PubMed

    Bozzacchi, Chiara; Domini, Fulvio

    2015-10-01

    Recent studies on visuomotor processes using virtual setups have suggested that actions are affected by similar biases as perceptual tasks. In particular, a strong lack of depth constancy is revealed, resembling biases in perceptual estimates of relative depth. With this study we aim to understand whether these findings are mostly caused by a lack of metric accuracy of the visuomotor system or by the limited cues provided by the use of virtual reality. We addressed this issue by comparing grasping movements towards a spherical object located at four distances (420, 450, 480, and 510 mm) performed in three conditions: 1) virtual, in which the target was a virtual object defined by binocular cues, 2) glow-in-the-dark, in which the object was painted with luminous paint but no other cue was provided, and 3) full-cue, in which the movement was performed with the lights on and all the environmental information was available. Results revealed a striking effect of object distance on grip aperture equally in all three conditions. Specifically, grip aperture gradually decreased with increase in object distance, proving a consistent lack of depth constancy. These findings clearly demonstrate that systematic biases in grasping actions are not induced by the use of virtual environments and that action and perception may involve the same visual information, which does not engage a metric reconstruction of the scene.

  4. Severe hepatocellular disease in mice lacking one or both CaaX prenyltransferases.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shao H; Chang, Sandy Y; Tu, Yiping; Lawson, Gregory W; Bergo, Martin O; Fong, Loren G; Young, Stephen G

    2012-01-01

    Protein farnesyltransferase (FTase) and protein geranylgeranyltransferase-I (GGTase-I) add 15- or 20-carbon lipids, respectively, to proteins that terminate with a CaaX motif. These posttranslational modifications of proteins with lipids promote protein interactions with membrane surfaces in cells, but the in vivo importance of the CaaX prenyltransferases and the protein lipidation reactions they catalyze remain incompletely defined. One study concluded that a deficiency of FTase was inconsequential in adult mice and led to little or no tissue pathology. To assess the physiologic importance of the CaaX prenyltransferases, we used conditional knockout alleles and an albumin-Cre transgene to produce mice lacking FTase, GGTase-I, or both enzymes in hepatocytes. The hepatocyte-specific FTase knockout mice survived but exhibited hepatocellular disease and elevated transaminases. Mice lacking GGTase-I not only had elevated transaminases but also had dilated bile cannaliculi, hyperbilirubinemia, hepatosplenomegaly, and reduced survival. Of note, GGTase-I-deficient hepatocytes had a rounded shape and markedly reduced numbers of actin stress fibers. Hepatocyte-specific FTase/GGTase-I double-knockout mice closely resembled mice lacking GGTase-I alone, but the disease was slightly more severe. Our studies refute the notion that FTase is dispensable and demonstrate that GGTase-I is crucial for the vitality of hepatocytes.

  5. Severe hepatocellular disease in mice lacking one or both CaaX prenyltransferases[S

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shao H.; Chang, Sandy Y.; Tu, Yiping; Lawson, Gregory W.; Bergo, Martin O.; Fong, Loren G.; Young, Stephen G.

    2012-01-01

    Protein farnesyltransferase (FTase) and protein geranylgeranyltransferase-I (GGTase-I) add 15- or 20-carbon lipids, respectively, to proteins that terminate with a CaaX motif. These posttranslational modifications of proteins with lipids promote protein interactions with membrane surfaces in cells, but the in vivo importance of the CaaX prenyltransferases and the protein lipidation reactions they catalyze remain incompletely defined. One study concluded that a deficiency of FTase was inconsequential in adult mice and led to little or no tissue pathology. To assess the physiologic importance of the CaaX prenyltransferases, we used conditional knockout alleles and an albumin–Cre transgene to produce mice lacking FTase, GGTase-I, or both enzymes in hepatocytes. The hepatocyte-specific FTase knockout mice survived but exhibited hepatocellular disease and elevated transaminases. Mice lacking GGTase-I not only had elevated transaminases but also had dilated bile cannaliculi, hyperbilirubinemia, hepatosplenomegaly, and reduced survival. Of note, GGTase-I–deficient hepatocytes had a rounded shape and markedly reduced numbers of actin stress fibers. Hepatocyte-specific FTase/GGTase-I double-knockout mice closely resembled mice lacking GGTase-I alone, but the disease was slightly more severe. Our studies refute the notion that FTase is dispensable and demonstrate that GGTase-I is crucial for the vitality of hepatocytes. PMID:22039581

  6. Tissue-Specific Profiling Reveals Transcriptome Alterations in Arabidopsis Mutants Lacking Morphological Phenotypes[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Marissa; Bruex, Angela; Kainkaryam, Raghunandan M.; Zheng, Xiaohua; Huang, Ling; Woolf, Peter J.; Schiefelbein, John

    2013-01-01

    Traditional genetic analysis relies on mutants with observable phenotypes. Mutants lacking visible abnormalities may nevertheless exhibit molecular differences useful for defining gene function. To examine this, we analyzed tissue-specific transcript profiles from Arabidopsis thaliana transcription factor gene mutants with known roles in root epidermis development, but lacking a single-gene mutant phenotype due to genetic redundancy. We discovered substantial transcriptional changes in each mutant, preferentially affecting root epidermal genes in a manner consistent with the known double mutant effects. Furthermore, comparing transcript profiles of single and double mutants, we observed remarkable variation in the sensitivity of target genes to the loss of one or both paralogous genes, including preferential effects on specific branches of the epidermal gene network, likely reflecting the pathways of paralog subfunctionalization during evolution. In addition, we analyzed the root epidermal transcriptome of the transparent testa glabra2 mutant to clarify its role in the network. These findings provide insight into the molecular basis of genetic redundancy and duplicate gene diversification at the level of a specific gene regulatory network, and they demonstrate the usefulness of tissue-specific transcript profiling to define gene function in mutants lacking informative visible changes in phenotype. PMID:24014549

  7. Murine Leukemia Virus Nucleocapsid Mutant Particles Lacking Viral RNA Encapsidate Ribosomes

    PubMed Central

    Muriaux, Delphine; Mirro, Jane; Nagashima, Kunio; Harvin, Demetria; Rein, Alan

    2002-01-01

    A single retroviral protein, termed Gag, is sufficient for assembly of retrovirus-like particles in mammalian cells. Gag normally selects the genomic RNA of the virus with high specificity; the nucleocapsid (NC) domain of Gag plays a crucial role in this selection process. However, encapsidation of the viral RNA is completely unnecessary for particle assembly. We previously showed that mutant murine leukemia virus (MuLV) particles that lack viral RNA because of a deletion in the cis-acting packaging signal (“Ψ”) in the genomic RNA compensate for the loss of the viral RNA by incorporating cellular mRNA. The RNA in wild-type and Ψ− particles was also found to be necessary for virion core structure. In the present work, we explored the role of RNA in MuLV particles that lack genomic RNA because of mutations in the NC domain of Gag. Using a fluorescent dye assay, we observed that NC mutant particles contain the same amount of RNA that wild-type virions do. Surprisingly enough, these particles contained large amounts of rRNAs. Furthermore, ribosomal proteins were detected by immunoblotting, and ribosomes were observed inside the particles by electron microscopy. The biological significance of the presence of ribosomes in NC mutant particles lacking genomic RNA is discussed. PMID:12388701

  8. A comprehensive analysis of LACK (Leishmania homologue of receptors for activated C kinase) in the context of Visceral Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Sukrat; Kumar, Abhay; Sundaram, Shanthy

    2013-01-01

    The Leishmania homologue of activated C kinase (LACK) a known T cell epitope from soluble Leishmania antigens (SLA) that confers protection against Leishmania challenge. This antigen has been found to be highly conserved among Leishmania strains. LACK has been shown to be protective against L. donovani challenge. A comprehensive analysis of several LACK sequences was completed. The analysis shows a high level of conservation, lower variability and higher antigenicity in specific portions of the LACK protein. This information provides insights for the potential consideration of LACK as a putative candidate in the context of visceral Leishmaniasis vaccine target. PMID:24143055

  9. Assessment of NDE Methods to Detect Lack of Fusion in HDPE Butt Fusion Joints

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, Susan L.; Doctor, Steven R.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Watts, Michael W.; Moran, Traci L.; Anderson, Michael T.

    2011-07-31

    Studies at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in Richland, Washington, were conducted to evaluate nondestructive examinations (NDE) coupled with mechanical testing of butt fusion joints in high-density polyethylene (HDPE) pipe for assessing lack of fusion. The work provided information to the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) on the effectiveness of volumetric inspection techniques of HDPE butt fusion joints in Section III, Division 1, Class 3, buried piping systems in nuclear power plants. This paper describes results from assessments using ultrasonic and microwave nondestructive techniques and mechanical testing with the high-speed tensile impact test and the side-bend test for determining joint integrity. A series of butt joints were fabricated in 3408, 12-inch (30.5-cm) IPS DR-11 HDPE material by varying the fusion parameters to create good joints and joints containing a range of lack-of-fusion conditions. Six of these butt joints were volumetrically examined with time-of-flight diffraction (TOFD), phased-array (PA) ultrasound, and the Evisive microwave system. The outer diameter (OD) weld beads were removed for microwave evaluation and the pipes ultrasonically re-evaluated. In two of the six pipes, both the outer and inner diameter (ID) weld beads were removed and the pipe joints re-evaluated. Some of the pipes were sectioned and the joints destructively evaluated with the high-speed tensile test and the side-bend test. The fusion parameters, nondestructive and destructive evaluation results have been correlated to validate the effectiveness of what each NDE technology detects and what each does not detect. There was no single NDE method that detected all of the lack-of-fusion flaws but a combination of NDE methods did detect most of the flaws.

  10. Factors associated with lack of prenatal care in a large municipality

    PubMed Central

    da Rosa, Cristiane Quadrado; da Silveira, Denise Silva; da Costa, Juvenal Soares Dias

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the factors associated with a lack of prenatal care in a large municipality in southern Brazil. METHODS In this case-control age-matched study, 716 women were evaluated; of these, 179 did not receive prenatal care and 537 received prenatal care (controls). These women were identified using the Sistema Nacional de Informação sobre Nascidos Vivos (Live Birth Information System) of Pelotas, RS, Southern Brazil, between 2009 and 2010. Multivariate analysis was performed using conditional logistic regression to estimate the odds ratios (OR). RESULTS In the final model, the variables associated with a lack of prenatal care were the level of education, particularly when it was lesser than four years [OR 4.46; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.92;10.36], being single (OR 3.61; 95%CI 1.85;7.04), and multiparity (OR 2.89; 95%CI 1.72;4.85). The prevalence of a lack of prenatal care among administrative regions varied between 0.7% and 3.9%. CONCLUSIONS The risk factors identified must be considered when planning actions for the inclusion of women in prenatal care by both the central management and healthcare teams. These indicated the municipal areas with greater deficits in prenatal care. The reorganization of the actions to identify women with risk factors in the community can be considered to be a starting point of this process. In addition, the integration of the activities of local programs that target the mother and child is essential to constantly identify pregnant women without prenatal care. PMID:26039401

  11. Alteration in plasma testosterone levels in male mice lacking soluble epoxide hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Luria, Ayala; Morisseau, Christophe; Tsai, Hsing-Ju; Yang, Jun; Inceoglu, Bora; De Taeye, Bart; Watkins, Steven M; Wiest, Michelle M; German, J Bruce; Hammock, Bruce D

    2009-08-01

    Soluble epoxide hydrolase (Ephx2, sEH) is a bifunctional enzyme with COOH-terminal hydrolase and NH(2)-terminal phosphatase activities. sEH converts epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) to dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids (DHETs), and the phosphatase activity is suggested to be involved in cholesterol metabolism. EETs participate in a wide range of biological functions, including regulation of vascular tone, renal tubular transport, cardiac contractility, and inflammation. Inhibition of sEH is a potential approach for enhancing the biological activity of EETs. Therefore, disruption of sEH activity is becoming an attractive therapeutic target for both cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases. To define the physiological role of sEH, we characterized a knockout mouse colony lacking expression of the Ephx2 gene. Lack of sEH enzyme is characterized by elevation of EET to DHET ratios in both the linoleate and arachidonate series in plasma and tissues of both female and male mice. In male mice, this lack of expression was also associated with decreased plasma testosterone levels, sperm count, and testicular size. However, this genotype was still able to sire litters. Plasma cholesterol levels also declined in this genotype. Behavior tests such as anxiety-like behavior and hedonic response were also examined in Ephx2-null and WT mice, as all can be related to hormonal changes. Null mice showed a level of anxiety with a decreased hedonic response. In conclusion, this study provides a broad biochemical, physiological, and behavioral characterization of the Ephx2-null mouse colony and suggests a mechanism by which sEH and its substrates may regulate circulating levels of testosterone through cholesterol biosynthesis and metabolism. PMID:19458064

  12. Life without complex I: proteome analyses of an Arabidopsis mutant lacking the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase complex

    PubMed Central

    Fromm, Steffanie; Senkler, Jennifer; Eubel, Holger; Peterhänsel, Christoph; Braun, Hans-Peter

    2016-01-01

    The mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase complex (complex I) is of particular importance for the respiratory chain in mitochondria. It is the major electron entry site for the mitochondrial electron transport chain (mETC) and therefore of great significance for mitochondrial ATP generation. We recently described an Arabidopsis thaliana double-mutant lacking the genes encoding the carbonic anhydrases CA1 and CA2, which both form part of a plant-specific ‘carbonic anhydrase domain’ of mitochondrial complex I. The mutant lacks complex I completely. Here we report extended analyses for systematically characterizing the proteome of the ca1ca2 mutant. Using various proteomic tools, we show that lack of complex I causes reorganization of the cellular respiration system. Reduced electron entry into the respiratory chain at the first segment of the mETC leads to induction of complexes II and IV as well as alternative oxidase. Increased electron entry at later segments of the mETC requires an increase in oxidation of organic substrates. This is reflected by higher abundance of proteins involved in glycolysis, the tricarboxylic acid cycle and branched-chain amino acid catabolism. Proteins involved in the light reaction of photosynthesis, the Calvin cycle, tetrapyrrole biosynthesis, and photorespiration are clearly reduced, contributing to the significant delay in growth and development of the double-mutant. Finally, enzymes involved in defense against reactive oxygen species and stress symptoms are much induced. These together with previously reported insights into the function of plant complex I, which were obtained by analysing other complex I mutants, are integrated in order to comprehensively describe ‘life without complex I’. PMID:27122571

  13. Alteration in plasma testosterone levels in male mice lacking soluble epoxide hydrolase

    PubMed Central

    Luria, Ayala; Morisseau, Christophe; Tsai, Hsing-Ju; Yang, Jun; Inceoglu, Bora; De Taeye, Bart; Watkins, Steven M.; Wiest, Michelle M.; German, J. Bruce; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2009-01-01

    Soluble epoxide hydrolase (Ephx2, sEH) is a bifunctional enzyme with COOH-terminal hydrolase and NH2-terminal phosphatase activities. sEH converts epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) to dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids (DHETs), and the phosphatase activity is suggested to be involved in cholesterol metabolism. EETs participate in a wide range of biological functions, including regulation of vascular tone, renal tubular transport, cardiac contractility, and inflammation. Inhibition of sEH is a potential approach for enhancing the biological activity of EETs. Therefore, disruption of sEH activity is becoming an attractive therapeutic target for both cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases. To define the physiological role of sEH, we characterized a knockout mouse colony lacking expression of the Ephx2 gene. Lack of sEH enzyme is characterized by elevation of EET to DHET ratios in both the linoleate and arachidonate series in plasma and tissues of both female and male mice. In male mice, this lack of expression was also associated with decreased plasma testosterone levels, sperm count, and testicular size. However, this genotype was still able to sire litters. Plasma cholesterol levels also declined in this genotype. Behavior tests such as anxiety-like behavior and hedonic response were also examined in Ephx2-null and WT mice, as all can be related to hormonal changes. Null mice showed a level of anxiety with a decreased hedonic response. In conclusion, this study provides a broad biochemical, physiological, and behavioral characterization of the Ephx2-null mouse colony and suggests a mechanism by which sEH and its substrates may regulate circulating levels of testosterone through cholesterol biosynthesis and metabolism. PMID:19458064

  14. Lack of surface-associated microorganisms in a mixed species community of freshwater Unionidae

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, S. Jerrine; Allen, J.; Walker, G.; Yokoyama, M.; Garling, D.

    2001-01-01

    To determine whether unionids contain surface-attached endosymbiotic bacteria, ciliates, or fungi, we used scanning electron microscopy to examine the epithelial surface of various organs within the digestive systems and mantle cavity of temperate river and lake unionids on a seasonal basis. We also cultured material removed from the lumen of these same organs and from the mantle cavity to detect cellobiose-, cellulose-, and chitin- degrading microbes. No true endosymbiotic fauna were observed attached to the surface of the digestive or mantle tissues of any species of unionid. Microbial growth on cellulose or chitin bacteriological media varied by season and habitat, but not by unionid species or source of the isolate. Lake unionids did not contain microbes capable of digesting cellulose or chitin, whereas unionids from the river site did in March and August, but not in December. Since these cultured cellulose- and chitin-degrading bacteria were never found attached to any unionid tissues, they appeared to be transient forms, not true endosymbionts. Microbes capable of digesting cellobiose were found in every unionid collected in all seasons and habitats, but again, no microbes were directly observed attached to unionid tissues. If unionids, like most other vertebrates, lack digestive enzymes required to initiate primary bond breakage, then the lack of cellulolytic and chitinolytic endosymbionts would affect the ability to utilize cellulose or chitin foods. Thus, in captivity dry feeds based on corn, soybeans, or nauplii should be pre-digested to ensure maximum absorption of nutrients by unionids. The lack of celluloytic or chitinolytic endosymbionts should not affect relocation success, though the seasonal role of transient microbes in unionid nutrition requires further investigation.

  15. Leishmania pifanoi pathogenesis: selective lack of a local cutaneous response in the absence of circulating antibody.

    PubMed

    Colmenares, María; Constant, Stephanie L; Kima, Peter E; McMahon-Pratt, Diane

    2002-12-01

    Recently, a role for B cells in the pathogenesis associated with infection by Leishmania (Leishmania mexicana complex and L. donovani) has been established. In the case of L. mexicana complex parasites (L. mexicana, L. pifanoi, and L. amazonensis), a critical role for immunoglobulin G-mediated mechanisms for the amastigote stage in the host is evident; however, the immunological mechanisms involved remain to be established. In vitro analysis of the kinetics of parasite uptake by macrophages failed to indicate a major effect of antibody opsonization. Given the importance of CD4(+) T cells in the development of disease caused by these parasites, the possibility that the lack of pathogenesis was due to the lack of development of an immune response at the local site (draining lymph node and/or cutaneous site) was explored. Interestingly, the level of CD4(+)-T-cell activation (proliferation and cytokine) in draining lymph nodes from mice lacking circulating antibody (resistant) was found to be comparable to that in nodes from wild-type mice (susceptible) at 2, 5, and 10 weeks postinfection. However, antibody-deficient animals had markedly reduced numbers of monocytes and lymphocytes recruited or retained at the site of cutaneous infection in comparison to wild-type mice, indicating a selective impairment in the local cutaneous immune response. In vitro antigen presentation studies employing tissue-derived (opsonized) amastigotes demonstrated that L. pifanoi-infected FcR(-/-) macrophages, in contrast to comparably infected wild-type cells, failed to activate Leishmania antigen-specific T lymphocytes. These data, taken together, suggest that one possible mechanism for the role of antibody in pathogenesis may be to mediate parasite uptake and regulate the immune response at the local cutaneous site of infection.

  16. Virion Structure of Baboon Reovirus, a Fusogenic Orthoreovirus That Lacks an Adhesion Fiber ▿

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Xiaodong; Parent, Kristin N.; Goodman, Russell P.; Tang, Jinghua; Shou, Jingyun; Nibert, Max L.; Duncan, Roy; Baker, Timothy S.

    2011-01-01

    Baboon reovirus (BRV) is a member of the fusogenic subgroup of orthoreoviruses. Unlike most other members of its genus, BRV lacks S-segment coding sequences for the outer fiber protein that binds to cell surface receptors. It shares this lack with aquareoviruses, which constitute a related genus and are also fusogenic. We used electron cryomicroscopy and three-dimensional image reconstruction to determine the BRV virion structure at 9.0-Å resolution. The results show that BRV lacks a protruding fiber at its icosahedral 5-fold axes or elsewhere. The results also show that BRV is like nonfusogenic mammalian and fusogenic avian orthoreoviruses in having 150 copies of the core clamp protein, not 120 as in aquareoviruses. On the other hand, there are no hub-and-spoke complexes attributable to the outer shell protein in the P2 and P3 solvent channels of BRV, which makes BRV like fusogenic avian orthoreoviruses and aquareoviruses but unlike nonfusogenic mammalian orthoreoviruses. The outermost “flap” domains of the BRV core turret protein appear capable of conformational variability within the virion, a trait previously unseen among other ortho- and aquareoviruses. New cDNA sequence determinations for the BRV L1 and M2 genome segments, encoding the core turret and outer shell proteins, were helpful for interpreting the structural features of those proteins. Based on these findings, we conclude that the evolution of ortho- and aquareoviruses has included a series of discrete gains or losses of particular components, several of which cross taxonomic boundaries. Gain or loss of adhesion fibers is one of several common themes in double-stranded RNA virus evolution. PMID:21593159

  17. Life without complex I: proteome analyses of an Arabidopsis mutant lacking the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase complex.

    PubMed

    Fromm, Steffanie; Senkler, Jennifer; Eubel, Holger; Peterhänsel, Christoph; Braun, Hans-Peter

    2016-05-01

    The mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase complex (complex I) is of particular importance for the respiratory chain in mitochondria. It is the major electron entry site for the mitochondrial electron transport chain (mETC) and therefore of great significance for mitochondrial ATP generation. We recently described an Arabidopsis thaliana double-mutant lacking the genes encoding the carbonic anhydrases CA1 and CA2, which both form part of a plant-specific 'carbonic anhydrase domain' of mitochondrial complex I. The mutant lacks complex I completely. Here we report extended analyses for systematically characterizing the proteome of the ca1ca2 mutant. Using various proteomic tools, we show that lack of complex I causes reorganization of the cellular respiration system. Reduced electron entry into the respiratory chain at the first segment of the mETC leads to induction of complexes II and IV as well as alternative oxidase. Increased electron entry at later segments of the mETC requires an increase in oxidation of organic substrates. This is reflected by higher abundance of proteins involved in glycolysis, the tricarboxylic acid cycle and branched-chain amino acid catabolism. Proteins involved in the light reaction of photosynthesis, the Calvin cycle, tetrapyrrole biosynthesis, and photorespiration are clearly reduced, contributing to the significant delay in growth and development of the double-mutant. Finally, enzymes involved in defense against reactive oxygen species and stress symptoms are much induced. These together with previously reported insights into the function of plant complex I, which were obtained by analysing other complex I mutants, are integrated in order to comprehensively describe 'life without complex I'.

  18. Lack of glutathione peroxidase-1 facilitates a pro-inflammatory and activated vascular endothelium.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Arpeeta; Yuen, Derek; Huet, Olivier; Pickering, Raelene; Stefanovic, Nada; Bernatchez, Pascal; de Haan, Judy B

    2016-04-01

    A critical early event in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis is vascular inflammation leading to endothelial dysfunction (ED). Reactive oxygen species and inflammation are inextricably linked and declining antioxidant defense is implicated in ED. We have previously shown that Glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPx1) is a crucial antioxidant enzyme in the protection against diabetes-associated atherosclerosis. In this study we aimed to investigate mechanisms by which lack of GPx1 affects pro-inflammatory mediators in primary aortic endothelial cells (PAECs) isolated from GPx1 knockout (GPx1 KO) mice. Herein, we demonstrate that lack of GPx1 prolonged TNF-α induced phosphorylation of P38, ERK and JNK, all of which was reversed upon treatment with the GPx1 mimetic, ebselen. In addition, Akt phosphorylation was reduced in GPx1 KO PAECs, which correlated with decreased nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability as compared to WT PAECs. Furthermore, IκB degradation was prolonged in GPx1 KO PAECS suggesting an augmentation of NF-κB activity. In addition, the expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1) was significantly increased in GPx1 KO PAECs and aortas. Static and dynamic flow adhesion assays showed significantly increased adhesion of fluorescently labeled leukocytes to GPx1 KO PAECS and aortas respectively, which were significantly reduced by ebselen treatment. Our results suggest that GPx1 plays a critical role in regulating pro-inflammatory pathways, including MAPK and NF-κB, and down-stream mediators such as VCAM-1, in vascular endothelial cells. Lack of GPx1, via effects on p-AKT also affects signaling to eNOS-derived NO. We speculate based on these results that declining antioxidant defenses as seen in cardiovascular diseases, by failing to regulate these pro-inflammatory pathways, facilitates an inflammatory and activated endothelium leading to ED and atherogenesis. PMID:26569096

  19. Lack of Buffering by Composites Promotes Shift to More Cariogenic Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Nedeljkovic, I; De Munck, J; Slomka, V; Van Meerbeek, B; Teughels, W; Van Landuyt, K L

    2016-07-01

    Secondary caries (SC) remains a very important problem with composite restorations. The objectives of this study were to test the acid-buffering ability of several restorative materials and to evaluate whether buffering of the restorative material has an impact on the microbial composition of the biofilm. Disk-shaped specimens of conventional composite, composite with surface prereacted glass-ionomer filler particles (so-called giomer), glass-ionomer cement (GIC), amalgam, and hydroxyapatite (HAp) (control) were exposed to aqueous solutions with pH 4, 5, 6, and 7 and to the medium containing bacteria-produced acids, and pH changes were recorded over several days. Next, material specimens were immersed in bacterial growth medium with pH adjusted to 5. After a 24-h incubation, the extracts were collected and inoculated with a cariogenic (Streptococcus mutans) and a noncariogenic (Streptococcus sanguinis) species. The bacterial growth was monitored both in a single-species model by spectrophotometry and in a dual-species model by viability quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Amalgam and HAp showed the strongest acid-buffering ability, followed by the GIC and the giomer, while the conventional composite did not exhibit any buffering capacity. Furthermore, due to the lack of acid-buffering abilities, composite was not able to increase the pH of the medium (pH 5), which, in the absence of antibacterial properties, allowed the growth of S. mutans, while the growth of S. sanguinis, a less aciduric species, was completely inhibited. A similar effect was observed when bacteria were cultured together: there was a higher percentage of S. mutans and lower percentage of S. sanguinis with the conventional composite than with other materials and HAp. In conclusion, conventional composites lack the ability to increase the local pH, which leads to the outgrowth of more acidogenic/aciduric bacteria and higher cariogenicity of the biofilm. Together with lack of antibacterial

  20. Lack of association between schizophrenia and the CYP2D6 gene polymorphisms

    SciTech Connect

    Pirmohamed, M.; Wild, M.J.; Kitteringham, N.R.

    1996-04-09

    Approximately 5-10% of the Caucasian population lack the P450 isoform, CYP2D6. This polymorphism may be of importance in determining individual susceptibility to Parkinson`s disease. In this journal, Daniels et al. recently reported a negative association between the CYP2D6 gene locus and schizophrenia, a disease characterized by dopamine overactivity. It is important to exclude such an association because CYP2D6 is expressed in the brain and it is involved in dopamine catabolism. Between 1992 and 1993, we also performed a study similar to that, and reached the same conclusion. 7 refs., 1 tab.

  1. Automated Analysis of Radar Imagery of Venus: Handling Lack of Ground Truth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burl, M.; Fayyad, U.; Perona, P.; Smyth, P.

    1994-01-01

    Lack of verifiable ground truth is a common problem in remote sensing image analysis. For example, consider the synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image data of Venus obtained by the Magellan spacecraft. Planetary scientists are interested in automatically cataloging the locations of all the small volcanoes in this data set; however, the problem is very difficult and cannot be performed with perfect reliability even by human experts. Thus, training and evaluating the performance of an automatic algorithm on this data set must be handled carefully. We discuss the use of weighted free-response receiver-operating characteristics (wFROC) for evaluating detection performance when the ground truth is subjective.

  2. The elusiveness of masculinity: primordial vulnerability, lack, and the challenges of male development.

    PubMed

    Diamond, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Reaching beyond the Oedipus prototype to address the unrepresentable vulnerability founded on the boy's infantile helplessness in contact with the mother's body, the author aims to identify the inherent tensions and enigmas of being male. He proposes that both the repudiation of femininity and the overvaluation of phallicity are unconsciously constructed to withstand the fundamental deficiency grounded in the asymmetry of the boy's prephallic relation with his primary object. This bodily based primordial vulnerability, marked by absence and lack, remains elusive-an unsymbolizable experience that provides the archaic matrix for adaptive and defensive phallicism, the oedipal complex, and genital progression. A clinical vignette is presented to illustrate these concepts. PMID:25619366

  3. The elusiveness of masculinity: primordial vulnerability, lack, and the challenges of male development.

    PubMed

    Diamond, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Reaching beyond the Oedipus prototype to address the unrepresentable vulnerability founded on the boy's infantile helplessness in contact with the mother's body, the author aims to identify the inherent tensions and enigmas of being male. He proposes that both the repudiation of femininity and the overvaluation of phallicity are unconsciously constructed to withstand the fundamental deficiency grounded in the asymmetry of the boy's prephallic relation with his primary object. This bodily based primordial vulnerability, marked by absence and lack, remains elusive-an unsymbolizable experience that provides the archaic matrix for adaptive and defensive phallicism, the oedipal complex, and genital progression. A clinical vignette is presented to illustrate these concepts.

  4. An orphan nuclear hormone receptor that lacks a DNA binding domain and heterodimerizes with other receptors.

    PubMed

    Seol, W; Choi, H S; Moore, D D

    1996-05-31

    SHP is an orphan member of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily that contains the dimerization and ligand-binding domain found in other family members but lacks the conserved DNA binding domain. In the yeast two-hybrid system, SHP interacted with several conventional and orphan members of the receptor superfamily, including retinoid receptors, the thyroid hormone receptor, and the orphan receptor MB67. SHP also interacted directly with these receptors in vitro. In mammalian cells, SHP specifically inhibited transactivation by the superfamily members with which it interacted. These results suggest that SHP functions as a negative regulator of receptor-dependent signaling pathways. PMID:8650544

  5. Lack of effect of withdrawal from cigarette smoking on theophylline pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Eldon, M A; Luecker, P W; MacGee, J; Ritschel, W A

    1987-03-01

    The intravenous disposition of theophylline was determined in 12 healthy young male smokers during periods of smoking and short-term withdrawal (24 to 36 hours), using a crossover design. Median half-life, clearance, volume of distribution, hepatic extraction, and intrinsic clearance of theophylline during withdrawal were within +/- 5% of the corresponding median control (smoking) parameters and were normal in comparison with values published for smokers. The lack of change in the pharmacokinetic profile of theophylline indicates that adjustment of the dosage regimen should not be necessary immediately after smoking withdrawal.

  6. Reproduction of reaching movements to memorized targets in the lack of visual control.

    PubMed

    Angyán, L; Antall, C; Angyán, Z

    2007-09-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the precision of reaching movements to remembered target distances in the lack of visual information. Subjects were professional basketball players and nonathlete university students. The basketball players, having well-trained manual skills, performed better than the non-athlete students. Increase in the overestimation of the remembered target distances was found under the effect of fatigue. A weight load on the sliding handle caused some decrease in the errors of reaching the remembered targets. No significant gender differences were found.

  7. High quality long-term CD4+ and CD8+ effector memory populations stimulated by DNA-LACK/MVA-LACK regimen in Leishmania major BALB/c model of infection.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Sampedro, Lucas; Gómez, Carmen Elena; Mejías-Pérez, Ernesto; Sorzano, Carlos Oscar S; Esteban, Mariano

    2012-01-01

    Heterologous vaccination based on priming with a plasmid DNA vector and boosting with an attenuated vaccinia virus MVA recombinant, with both vectors expressing the Leishmania infantum LACK antigen (DNA-LACK and MVA-LACK), has shown efficacy conferring protection in murine and canine models against cutaneus and visceral leishmaniasis, but the immune parameters of protection remain ill defined. Here we performed by flow cytometry an in depth analysis of the T cell populations induced in BALB/c mice during the vaccination protocol DNA-LACK/MVA-LACK, as well as after challenge with L. major parasites. In the adaptive response, there is a polyfunctional CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell activation against LACK antigen. At the memory phase the heterologous vaccination induces high quality LACK-specific long-term CD4(+) and CD8(+) effector memory cells. After parasite challenge, there is a moderate boosting of LACK-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. Anti-vector responses were largely CD8(+)-mediated. The immune parameters induced against LACK and triggered by the combined vaccination DNA/MVA protocol, like polyfunctionality of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells with an effector phenotype, could be relevant in protection against leishmaniasis. PMID:22715418

  8. Reduced Glucose Sensation Can Increase the Fitness of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Lacking Mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed

    Akdoğan, Emel; Tardu, Mehmet; Garipler, Görkem; Baytek, Gülkız; Kavakli, İ Halil; Dunn, Cory D

    2016-01-01

    Damage to the mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) can lead to diseases for which there are no clearly effective treatments. Since mitochondrial function and biogenesis are controlled by the nutrient environment of the cell, it is possible that perturbation of conserved, nutrient-sensing pathways may successfully treat mitochondrial disease. We found that restricting glucose or otherwise reducing the activity of the protein kinase A (PKA) pathway can lead to improved proliferation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells lacking mtDNA and that the transcriptional response to mtDNA loss is reduced in cells with diminished PKA activity. We have excluded many pathways and proteins from being individually responsible for the benefits provided to cells lacking mtDNA by PKA inhibition, and we found that robust import of mitochondrial polytopic membrane proteins may be required in order for cells without mtDNA to receive the full benefits of PKA reduction. Finally, we have discovered that the transcription of genes involved in arginine biosynthesis and aromatic amino acid catabolism is altered after mtDNA damage. Our results highlight the potential importance of nutrient detection and availability on the outcome of mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:26751567

  9. Dilated cardiomyopathy and impaired cardiac hypertrophic response to angiotensin II in mice lacking FGF-2

    PubMed Central

    Pellieux, Corinne; Foletti, Alessandro; Peduto, Giovanni; Aubert, Jean-François; Nussberger, Jürg; Beermann, Friedrich; Brunner, Hans-R.; Pedrazzini, Thierry

    2001-01-01

    FGF-2 has been implicated in the cardiac response to hypertrophic stimuli. Angiotensin II (Ang II) contributes to maintain elevated blood pressure in hypertensive individuals and exerts direct trophic effects on cardiac cells. However, the role of FGF-2 in Ang II–induced cardiac hypertrophy has not been established. Therefore, mice deficient in FGF-2 expression were studied using a model of Ang II–dependent hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy. Echocardiographic measurements show the presence of dilated cardiomyopathy in normotensive mice lacking FGF-2. Moreover, hypertensive mice without FGF-2 developed no compensatory cardiac hypertrophy. In wild-type mice, hypertrophy was associated with a stimulation of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase, the extracellular signal regulated kinase, and the p38 kinase pathways. In contrast, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation was markedly attenuated in FGF-2–deficient mice. In vitro, FGF-2 of fibroblast origin was demonstrated to be essential in the paracrine stimulation of MAPK activation in cardiomyocytes. Indeed, fibroblasts lacking FGF-2 expression have a defective capacity for releasing growth factors to induce hypertrophic responses in cardiomyocytes. Therefore, these results identify the cardiac fibroblast population as a primary integrator of hypertrophic stimuli in the heart, and suggest that FGF-2 is a crucial mediator of cardiac hypertrophy via autocrine/paracrine actions on cardiac cells. PMID:11748268

  10. Lack of DNA helicase Pif1 disrupts zinc and iron homoeostasis in yeast.

    PubMed

    Guirola, María; Barreto, Lina; Pagani, Ayelen; Romagosa, Miriam; Casamayor, Antonio; Atrian, Silvia; Ariño, Joaquín

    2010-12-15

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene PIF1 encodes a conserved eukaryotic DNA helicase required for both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA integrity. Our previous work revealed that a pif1Δ strain is tolerant to zinc overload. In the present study we demonstrate that this effect is independent of the Pif1 helicase activity and is only observed when the protein is absent from the mitochondria. pif1Δ cells accumulate abnormal amounts of mitochondrial zinc and iron. Transcriptional profiling reveals that pif1Δ cells under standard growth conditions overexpress aconitase-related genes. When exposed to zinc, pif1Δ cells show lower induction of genes encoding iron (siderophores) transporters and higher expression of genes related to oxidative stress responses than wild-type cells. Coincidently, pif1Δ mutants are less prone to zinc-induced oxidative stress and display a higher reduced/oxidized glutathione ratio. Strikingly, although pif1Δ cells contain normal amounts of the Aco1 (yeast aconitase) protein, they completely lack aconitase activity. Loss of Aco1 activity is also observed when the cell expresses a non-mitochondrially targeted form of Pif1. We postulate that lack of Pif1 forces aconitase to play its DNA protective role as a nucleoid protein and that this triggers a domino effect on iron homoeostasis resulting in increased zinc tolerance.

  11. Terminally differentiated astrocytes lack DNA damage response signaling and are radioresistant but retain DNA repair proficiency

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, L; Fumagalli, M; d'Adda di Fagagna, F

    2012-01-01

    The impact and consequences of damage generation into genomic DNA, especially in the form of DNA double-strand breaks, and of the DNA-damage response (DDR) pathways that are promptly activated, have been elucidated in great detail. Most of this research, however, has been performed on proliferating, often cancerous, cell lines. In a mammalian body, the majority of cells are terminally differentiated (TD), and derives from a small pool of self-renewing somatic stem cells. Here, we comparatively studied DDR signaling and radiosensitivity in neural stem cells (NSC) and their TD-descendants, astrocytes – the predominant cells in the mammalian brain. Astrocytes have important roles in brain physiology, development and plasticity. We discovered that NSC activate canonical DDR upon exposure to ionizing radiation. Strikingly, astrocytes proved radioresistant, lacked functional DDR signaling, with key DDR genes such as ATM being repressed at the transcriptional level. Nevertheless, astrocytes retain the expression of non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) genes and indeed they are DNA repair proficient. Unlike in NSC, in astrocytes DNA-PK seems to be the PI3K-like protein kinase responsible for γH2AX signal generation upon DNA damage. We also demonstrate the lack of functional DDR signaling activation in vivo in astrocytes of irradiated adult mouse brains, although adjacent neurons activate the DDR. PMID:21979466

  12. Loneliness in patients with rheumatic diseases: the significance of invalidation and lack of social support.

    PubMed

    Kool, Marianne B; Geenen, Rinie

    2012-01-01

    Rheumatic diseases affect about 20% of the population, leading to common symptoms such as joint problems, pain, fatigue, and stiffness. Loneliness is prevalent in individuals with rheumatic diseases. This could be due to not receiving social support and being stigmatized and invalidated, which might be most common in fibromyalgia, a rheumatic disease that lacks medical evidence. The aim of this study was to compare loneliness in distinct rheumatic diseases and to examine the association of loneliness with social support and invalidation. Participants were 927 patients with ankylosing spondylitis (n = 152), fibromyalgia (n = 341), osteoarthritis (n = 150), rheumatoid arthritis (n = 171), or systemic diseases (n = 113). They completed online questionnaires including an 11-point Likert scale assessing loneliness, the Illness Invalidation Inventory (3*1; Kool et al., 2010), and the Social Support Survey (SSS; De Boer, Wijker, Speelman, & De Haes, 1996; Sherbourne & Stewart, 1991). Patients with fibromyalgia experienced significantly more loneliness than patients with ankylosing spondylitis and patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Besides being younger, having lower education, and not working, in multiple regression analyses both lack of social support and invalidation were independently correlated with loneliness. This suggests that to decrease loneliness, therapeutic attention should be given to both increasing social support as well as decreasing invalidation in patients with rheumatic diseases, especially in patients with fibromyalgia. PMID:22303622

  13. Nicotine anxiogenic and rewarding effects are decreased in mice lacking beta-endorphin.

    PubMed

    Trigo, José M; Zimmer, Andreas; Maldonado, Rafael

    2009-06-01

    The endogenous opioid system plays an important role in the behavioral effects of nicotine. Thus, micro-opioid receptor and the endogenous opioids derived from proenkephalin are involved in the central effects of nicotine. However, the role played by the different endogenous opioid peptides in the acute and chronic effects of nicotine remains to be fully established. Mice lacking beta-endorphin were acutely injected with nicotine at different doses to evaluate locomotor, anxiogenic and antinociceptive responses. The rewarding properties of nicotine were evaluated by using the conditioned place-preference paradigm. Mice chronically treated with nicotine were acutely injected with mecamylamine to study the behavioral expression of nicotine withdrawal. Mice lacking beta-endorphin exhibited a spontaneous hypoalgesia and hyperlocomotion and a reduction on the anxiogenic and rewarding effects induced by nicotine. Nicotine induced similar antinociception and hypolocomotion in both genotypes and no differences were found in the development of physical dependence. The dissociation between nicotine rewarding properties and physical dependence suggests a differential implication of beta-endorphin in these addictive related responses.

  14. Poor social performance of lonely people: lacking a skill or adopting a role?

    PubMed

    Vitkus, J; Horowitz, L M

    1987-06-01

    A substantial literature has shown that lonely people differ from nonlonely people on a variety of measures of social performance. These differences have usually been conceptualized as a social skills deficit, which implies that lonely people lack the ability to perform appropriate and effective social behavior. Rather than a lack of this ability, the authors hypothesize that the adoption of passive interpersonal roles predisposes lonely people to exhibit inadequate performance. In order to test this hypothesis, lonely and nonlonely subjects were assigned to one of two roles: They either listened (Condition Li) to an interaction partner describe a personal problem or they themselves described a personal problem (Condition Pr) to their partner. The subjects' interpersonal role produced a substantial effect on their social behavior. Subjects who listened to their partner describe a problem generated more solutions to a set of hypothetical situations, attended to their partners more adequately, and conversed longer than did subjects who described a personal problem. In contrast, lonely subjects did not differ from nonlonely subjects in their social performance within each particular role. Lonely and nonlonely subjects did differ, however, in their subjective evaluations of themselves and of their performance. These results illustrate the need for research to address both the interpersonal and the intrapersonal bases of social performance.

  15. Mice lacking NCF1 exhibit reduced growth of implanted melanoma and carcinoma tumors.

    PubMed

    Kelkka, Tiina; Pizzolla, Angela; Laurila, Juha Petteri; Friman, Tomas; Gustafsson, Renata; Källberg, Eva; Olsson, Olof; Leanderson, Tomas; Rubin, Kristofer; Salmi, Marko; Jalkanen, Sirpa; Holmdahl, Rikard

    2013-01-01

    The NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2) complex is a professional producer of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and is mainly expressed in phagocytes. While the activity of the NOX2 complex is essential for immunity against pathogens and protection against autoimmunity, its role in the development of malignant tumors remains unclear. We compared wild type and Ncf1 (m1J) mutated mice, which lack functional NOX2 complex, in four different tumor models. Ncf1 (m1J) mutated mice developed significantly smaller tumors in two melanoma models in which B16 melanoma cells expressing a hematopoietic growth factor FLT3L or luciferase reporter were used. Ncf1 (m1J) mutated mice developed significantly fewer Lewis Lung Carcinoma (LLC) tumors, but the tumors that did develop, grew at a pace that was similar to the wild type mice. In the spontaneously arising prostate carcinoma model (TRAMP), tumor growth was not affected. The lack of ROS-mediated protection against tumor growth was associated with increased production of immunity-associated cytokines. A significant increase in Th2 associated cytokines was observed in the LLC model. Our present data show that ROS regulate rejection of the antigenic B16-luc and LLC tumors, whereas the data do not support a role for ROS in growth of intrinsically generated tumors. PMID:24358335

  16. Contamination cannot explain the lack of large-scale power in the cosmic microwave background radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Bunn, Emory F.; Bourdon, Austin

    2008-12-15

    Several anomalies appear to be present in the large-angle cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy maps of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe. One of these is a lack of large-scale power. Because the data otherwise match standard models extremely well, it is natural to consider perturbations of the standard model as possible explanations. We show that, as long as the source of the perturbation is statistically independent of the source of the primary CMB anisotropy, no such model can explain this large-scale power deficit. On the contrary, any such perturbation always reduces the probability of obtaining any given low value of large-scale power. We rigorously prove this result when the lack of large-scale power is quantified with a quadratic statistic, such as the quadrupole moment. When a statistic based on the integrated square of the correlation function is used instead, we present strong numerical evidence in support of the result. The result applies to models in which the geometry of spacetime is perturbed (e.g., an ellipsoidal universe) as well as explanations involving local contaminants, undiagnosed foregrounds, or systematic errors. Because the large-scale power deficit is arguably the most significant of the observed anomalies, explanations that worsen this discrepancy should be regarded with great skepticism, even if they help in explaining other anomalies such as multipole alignments.

  17. Nicotine anxiogenic and rewarding effects are decreased in mice lacking β-endorphin

    PubMed Central

    Trigo, José M.; Zimmer, Andreas; Maldonado, Rafael

    2009-01-01

    The endogenous opioid system plays an important role in the behavioral effects of nicotine. Thus, μ-opioid receptor and the endogenous opioids derived from proenkephalin are involved in the central effects of nicotine. However, the role played by the different endogenous opioid peptides in the acute and chronic effects of nicotine remains to be fully established. Mice lacking β-endorphin were acutely injected with nicotine at different doses to evaluate locomotor, anxiogenic and antinociceptive responses. The rewarding properties of nicotine were evaluated by using the conditioned place-preference paradigm. Mice chronically treated with nicotine were acutely injected with mecamylamine to study the behavioral expression of nicotine withdrawal. Mice lacking β-endorphin exhibited a spontaneous hypoalgesia and hyperlocomotion and a reduction on the anxiogenic and rewarding effects induced by nicotine. Nicotine induced similar antinociception and hypolocomotion in both genotypes and no differences were found in the development of physical dependence. The dissociation between nicotine rewarding properties and physical dependence suggests a differential implication of β-endorphin in these addictive related responses. PMID:19376143

  18. Marines, medics, and machismo: lack of fit with masculine occupational stereotypes discourages men's participation.

    PubMed

    Peters, Kim; Ryan, Michelle K; Haslam, S Alexander

    2015-11-01

    Women have made substantial inroads into some traditionally masculine occupations (e.g., accounting, journalism) but not into others (e.g., military, surgery). Evidence suggests the latter group of occupations is characterized by hyper-masculine 'macho' stereotypes that are especially disadvantageous to women. Here, we explore whether such macho occupational stereotypes may be especially tenacious, not just because of their impact on women, but also because of their impact on men. We examined whether macho stereotypes associated with marine commandos and surgeons discourage men who feel that they are 'not man enough'. Study 1 demonstrates that male new recruits' (N = 218) perceived lack of fit with masculine commandos was associated with reduced occupational identification and motivation. Study 2 demonstrates that male surgical trainees' (N = 117) perceived lack of fit with masculine surgeons was associated with reduced identification and increased psychological exit a year later. Together, this suggests that macho occupational stereotypes may discourage the very men who may challenge them.

  19. Lack of genetic variation prevents adaptation at the geographic range margin in a damselfly.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Yuma; Suyama, Yoshihisa; Matsuki, Yu; Funayama, Ryo; Nakayama, Keiko; Kawata, Masakado

    2016-09-01

    What limits a species' distribution in the absence of physical barriers? Genetic load due to asymmetric gene flow and the absence of genetic variation due to lack of gene flow are hypothesized to constrain adaptation to novel environments in marginal populations, preventing range expansion. Here, we examined the genetic structure and geographic variation in morphological traits in two damselflies (Ischnura asiatica and I. senegalensis) along a latitudinal gradient in Japan, which is the distribution centre of I. asiatica and the northern limit of I. senegalensis. Genomewide genetic analyses found a loss of genetic diversity at the edge of distribution in I. senegalensis but consistently high diversity in I. asiatica. Gene flow was asymmetric in a south-north direction in both species. Although body size and wing loading showed decreasing latitudinal clines (smaller in north) in I. asiatica in Japan, increasing latitudinal clines (larger in north) in these phenotypic markers were observed in I. senegalensis, particularly near the northern boundary, which coincided well with the location where genetic diversity began a sharp decline. In ectothermic animals, increasing latitudinal cline in these traits was suggested to be established when they failed to adapt to thermal gradient. Therefore, our findings support the possibility that a lack of genetic variation rather than geneflow swamping is responsible for the constraint of adaptation at the margin of geographic distribution.

  20. Withdrawal, apathy and lack of vigor in late life depression: factorial validity and relationship to diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Sheung-Tak; Chan, Alfred C M

    2007-09-01

    Withdrawal, apathy and lack of vigor (WAV) describe a pattern of lack of vitality and dropping of interests and activities in later life, which may or may not indicate depression. This study examines (a) whether the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) contains a measure of this symptom cluster, and if so, (b) whether the presence of WAV leads to more false positive predictions by the GDS. A total of 444 Chinese older persons responded to the GDS and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), and were independently assessed by psychiatrists for depression and other diagnoses. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that six WAV symptoms formed a distinct cluster on the GDS. WAV was positively correlated with age and MMSE but most other symptom clusters measured on the GDS were not. Nonetheless, the ROC curves were essentially the same, regardless of whether the WAV items were included or not. Further analysis revealed that the optimal cutoff for the GDS without WAV produced fewer false positives, but also missed more true cases, than the full scale. The extent to which false positives become an issue depends on the specific threshold chosen (which entails a tradeoff with sensitivity) rather than the presence of WAV items.