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Sample records for lactate threshold lt

  1. Lactate threshold by muscle electrical impedance in professional rowers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jotta, B.; Coutinho, A. B. B.; Pino, A. V.; Souza, M. N.

    2017-04-01

    Lactate threshold (LT) is one of the physiological parameters usually used in rowing sport training prescription because it indicates the transitions from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism. Assessment of LT is classically based on a series of values of blood lactate concentrations obtained during progressive exercise tests and thus has an invasive aspect. The feasibility of noninvasive LT estimative through bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy (BIS) data collected in thigh muscles during rowing ergometer exercise tests was investigated. Nineteen professional rowers, age 19 (mean) ± 4.8 (standard deviation) yr, height 187.3 ± 6.6 cm, body mass 83 ± 7.7 kg, and training experience of 7 ± 4 yr, were evaluated in a rowing ergometer progressive test with paired measures of blood lactate concentration and BIS in thigh muscles. Bioelectrical impedance data were obtained by using a bipolar method of spectroscopy based on the current response to a voltage step. An electrical model was used to interpret BIS data and to derive parameters that were investigated to estimate LT noninvasively. From the serial blood lactate measurements, LT was also determined through Dmax method (LTDmax). The zero crossing of the second derivative of kinetic of the capacitance electrode (Ce), one of the BIS parameters, was used to estimate LT. The agreement between the LT estimates through BIS (LTBIS) and through Dmax method (LTDmax) was evaluated using Bland-Altman plots, leading to a mean difference between the estimates of just 0.07 W and a Pearson correlation coefficient r = 0.85. This result supports the utilization of the proposed method based on BIS parameters for estimating noninvasively the lactate threshold in rowing.

  2. Validity of Lactate Thresholds in Inline Speed Skating.

    PubMed

    Hecksteden, Anne; Heinze, Tobias; Faude, Oliver; Kindermann, Wilfried; Meyer, Tim

    2015-09-01

    Lactate thresholds are commonly used as estimates of the highest workload where lactate production and elimination are in equilibrium (maximum lactate steady state [MLSS]). However, because of the high static load on propulsive muscles, lactate kinetics in inline speed skating may differ significantly from other endurance exercise modes. Therefore, the discipline-specific validity of lactate thresholds has to be verified. Sixteen competitive inline-speed skaters (age: 30 ± 10 years; training per week: 10 ± 4 hours) completed an exhaustive stepwise incremental exercise test (start 24 km·h, step duration 3 minutes, increment 2 km·h) to determine individual anaerobic threshold (IAT) and the workload corresponding to a blood lactate concentration of 4 mmol·L (LT4) and 2-5 continuous load tests of (up to) 30 minutes to determine MLSS. The IAT and LT4 correlated significantly with MLSS, and the mean differences were almost negligible (MLSS 29.5 ± 2.5 km·h; IAT 29.2 ± 2.0 km·h; LT4 29.6 ± 2.3 km·h; p > 0.1 for all differences). However, the variability of differences was considerable resulting in 95% limits of agreement in the upper range of values known from other endurance disciplines (2.6 km·h [8.8%] for IAT and 3.1 km·h [10.3%] for LT4). Consequently, IAT and LT4 may be considered as valid estimates of the MLSS in inline speed skating, but verification by means of a constant load test should be considered in cases of doubt or when optimal accuracy is needed (e.g., in elite athletes or scientific studies).

  3. Comparison of a field-based test to estimate functional threshold power and power output at lactate threshold.

    PubMed

    Gavin, Timothy P; Van Meter, Jessica B; Brophy, Patricia M; Dubis, Gabriel S; Potts, Katlin N; Hickner, Robert C

    2012-02-01

    It has been proposed that field-based tests (FT) used to estimate functional threshold power (FTP) result in power output (PO) equivalent to PO at lactate threshold (LT). However, anecdotal evidence from regional cycling teams tested for LT in our laboratory suggested that PO at LT underestimated FTP. It was hypothesized that estimated FTP is not equivalent to PO at LT. The LT and estimated FTP were measured in 7 trained male competitive cyclists (VO2max = 65.3 ± 1.6 ml O2·kg(-1)·min(-1)). The FTP was estimated from an 8-minute FT and compared with PO at LT using 2 methods; LT(Δ1), a 1 mmol·L(-1) or greater rise in blood lactate in response to an increase in workload and LT(4.0), blood lactate of 4.0 mmol·L(-1). The estimated FTP was equivalent to PO at LT(4.0) and greater than PO at LT(Δ1). VO2max explained 93% of the variance in individual PO during the 8-minute FT. When the 8-minute FT PO was expressed relative to maximal PO from the VO2max test (individual exercise performance), VO2max explained 64% of the variance in individual exercise performance. The PO at LT was not related to 8-minute FT PO. In conclusion, FTP estimated from an 8-minute FT is equivalent to PO at LT if LT(4.0) is used but is not equivalent for all methods of LT determination including LT(Δ1).

  4. Is the Functional Threshold Power (FTP) a Valid Surrogate of the Lactate Threshold?

    PubMed

    Valenzuela, Pedro L; Morales, Javier S; Foster, Carl; Lucia, Alejandro; de la Villa, Pedro

    2018-05-10

    This study aimed to analyze the relationship between the Functional Threshold Power (FTP) and the Lactate Threshold (LT). 20 male cyclists performed an incremental test in which the LT was determined. At least 48 h later, they performed a 20-minute time trial and 95% of the mean power output (P20) was defined as FTP. Participants were divided into recreational (Peak Power Output [PPO] < 4.5 W∙kg -1 , n=11) or trained cyclists (PPO > 4.5 W∙kg -1 , n=9) according to their fitness status. The FTP (240 ± 35 W) was overall not significantly different (effect size[ES]=0.20, limits of agreement [LoA]=-2.4 ± 11.5%) from the LT (246 ± 24 W), and both markers were strongly correlated (r=0.95, p<0.0001). Accounting for the participants' fitness status, no significant differences were found between FTP and LT ([ES]=0.22; LoA=2.1 ± 7.8%) in TC, but FTP was significantly lower than the LT (p=0.0004, ES=0.81; LoA=-6.5 ± 8.3%) in RC. A significant relationship was found between relative PPO and the bias between FTP and the LT markers (r=0.77, p<0.0001). The FTP is a valid field test-based marker for the assessment of endurance fitness. However, caution should be taken when using the FTP interchangeably with the LT as the bias between markers seems to depend on the athletes' fitness status. Whereas the FTP provides a good estimate of the LT in trained cyclists, in recreational cyclists FTP may underestimate LT.

  5. Understanding the meaning of lactate threshold in resistance exercises.

    PubMed

    Garnacho-Castaño, M V; Dominguez, R; Maté-Muñoz, J L

    2015-05-01

    This study compares acute cardiorespiratory, metabolic, mechanical and rating of perceived effort (RPE) responses to 2 different prolonged constant-load exercises, half-squat (HS) and cycle ergometry, performed at a workload corresponding to the lactate threshold (LT). A total of 18 healthy subjects completed 5 exercise tests separated by 48 h rest periods: an incremental cycle ergometer test, a constant-load cycle ergometer test at LT intensity, a one-repetition maximum (1RM) HS test, an incremental HS test and a constant-load HS test at LT intensity. In both constant-load tests, cardiorespiratory, metabolic and RPE data were recorded. Mechanical responses before and after each test were assessed in terms of jump height and mean power measured in a counter movement jump (CMJ) test. In both exercises, cardiorespiratory and metabolic responses stabilized, though cardiorespiratory responses were significantly greater for cycle ergometry (P<0.001), with the exception of respiratory exchange ratio (RER), which was higher for HS (P=0.028). Mechanical fatigue was observed in only HS (P<0.001). In conclusion, different exercise modalities induced different yet stable acute cardiorespiratory and metabolic responses. Although such responses were significantly reduced in HS, greater mechanical fatigue was produced, most likely because of the particular muscle actions involved in this form of exercise. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Prediction of lactate threshold and fixed blood lactate concentrations from 3200-m running performance in male runners.

    PubMed

    Weltman, A; Snead, D; Seip, R; Schurrer, R; Levine, S; Rutt, R; Reilly, T; Weltman, J; Rogol, A

    1987-12-01

    To determine the effectiveness of a 3200-m time trial for predicting VO2 and running velocity at lactate threshold (LT), fixed blood lactate concentrations of 2.0, 2.5, and 4.0 mM, and peak, 42 male runners (means age = 31.1 +/- 8.3 years; means ht = 176.8 +/- 6.6 cm; means wt = 70.4 +/- 10.0 kg) completed a VO2 peak/LT test and a 3200-m time trial. The continuous treadmill protocol started at 0% grade 150 m/min and increased 10 m/min every 3 min until exhaustion. Velocity at LT, 2.0, 2.5, and 4.0 mM was determined from individual velocity blood lactate relationships, and VO2 values were determined from individual plots ov VO2 vs velocity. VO2 peak and velocity peak were chosen as the highest values observed. Oxygen uptake at LT, 2.0, 2.5, 4.0 mM, and peak was 52.51, 56.61, 58.31, 61.70, and 64.21 ml/kg.min-1, respectively, while the velocities associated with LT, 2.0, 2.5, 4.0 mM, and peak were 235.5, 251.5, 259.8, 273.5, and 285.5 m/min, respectively. During the 3200-m time trial (means time = 11.28 +/- 0.96 min), 400-m split times and cumulative times were recorded. Twenty-nine subjects were randomly assigned to a validation sample and the remaining subjects were used for cross-validation purposes. Regression analysis revealed that a 3200-m time trial was a good predictor of both VO2 (ml/kg.min-1) and velocity (m/min) at LT, 2.0, 2.5, 4.0 mM, and peak.

  7. Supplemental intermittent-day heat training and the lactate threshold.

    PubMed

    Gollan, Stuart; Chalmers, Samuel; Alderton, Stephen; Norton, Kevin

    2017-04-01

    Heat acclimation over consecutive days has been shown to improve aerobic-based performance. Recently, it has been suggested that heat training can improve performance in a temperate environment. However, due to the multifactorial training demands of athletes, consecutive-day heat training may not be suitable. The current study aimed to investigate the effect of brief (8×30min) intermittent (every 3-4 days) supplemental heat training on the second lactate threshold point (LT 2 ) in temperate and hot conditions. 21 participants undertook eight intermittent-day mixed-intensity treadmill exercise training sessions in hot (30°C; 50% relative humidity [RH]) or temperate (18°C; 30% RH) conditions. A pre- and post-incremental exercise test occurred in temperate (18°C; 30% RH) and hot conditions (30°C; 50% RH) to determine the change in LT 2 . The heat training protocol did not improve LT 2 in temperate (Effect Size [ES]±90 confidence interval=0.10±0.16) or hot (ES=0.26±0.26) conditions. The primary finding was that although the intervention group had a change greater than the SWC, no statistically significant improvements were observed following an intermittent eight day supplemental heat training protocol comparable to a control group training only in temperate conditions. This is likely due to the brief length of each heat training session and/or the long duration between each heat exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Wearable Lactate Threshold Predicting Device is Valid and Reliable in Runners.

    PubMed

    Borges, Nattai R; Driller, Matthew W

    2016-08-01

    Borges, NR and Driller, MW. Wearable lactate threshold predicting device is valid and reliable in runners. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2212-2218, 2016-A commercially available device claiming to be the world's first wearable lactate threshold predicting device (WLT), using near-infrared LED technology, has entered the market. The aim of this study was to determine the levels of agreement between the WLT-derived lactate threshold workload and traditional methods of lactate threshold (LT) calculation and the interdevice and intradevice reliability of the WLT. Fourteen (7 male, 7 female; mean ± SD; age: 18-45 years, height: 169 ± 9 cm, mass: 67 ± 13 kg, V[Combining Dot Above]O2max: 53 ± 9 ml·kg·min) subjects ranging from recreationally active to highly trained athletes completed an incremental exercise test to exhaustion on a treadmill. Blood lactate samples were taken at the end of each 3-minute stage during the test to determine lactate threshold using 5 traditional methods from blood lactate analysis which were then compared against the WLT predicted value. In a subset of the population (n = 12), repeat trials were performed to determine both inter-reliability and intrareliability of the WLT device. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) found high to very high agreement between the WLT and traditional methods (ICC > 0.80), with TEMs and mean differences ranging between 3.9-10.2% and 1.3-9.4%. Both interdevice and intradevice reliability resulted in highly reproducible and comparable results (CV < 1.2%, TEM <0.2 km·h, ICC > 0.97). This study suggests that the WLT is a practical, reliable, and noninvasive tool for use in predicting LT in runners.

  9. Fatty acid kinetic responses to running above or below lactate threshold.

    PubMed

    Kanaley, J A; Mottram, C D; Scanlon, P D; Jensen, M D

    1995-08-01

    During running exercise above the lactate threshold (LT), it is unknown whether free fatty acid (FFA) mobilization can meet the energy demands for fatty acid oxidation. This study was performed to determine whether FFA availability is reduced during running exercise above compared with below the LT and to assess whether the level of endurance training influences FFA mobilization. Twelve marathon runners and 12 moderately trained runners ran at a workload that was either above or below their individual LT. Fatty acid oxidation (indirect calorimetry) and FFA release ([1-14C]palmitate) were measured at baseline, throughout exercise, and at recovery. The plasma FFA rate of appearance increased during exercise in both groups; running above or below the LT, but the total FFA availability for 30 min of exercise was greater (P < 0.01) in the below LT group (marathon, 23 +/- 2 mmol; moderate, 21 +/- 2 mmol) than in the above LT group (18 +/- 3 and 13 +/- 3 mmol, respectively). Total fatty acid oxidation (indirect calorimetry) greatly exceeded circulating FFA availability, regardless of training or exercise group (P < 0.01). No statistically significant exercise intensity or training differences in fatty acid oxidation were found (above LT: marathon, 71 +/- 12, moderate, 64 +/- 17 mmol/30 min; below LT: marathon 91 +/- 12, moderate, 60 +/- 5 mmol/30 min). In conclusion, during exercise above or below LT, circulating FFA cannot meet the oxidative needs and intramuscular triglyceride stores must be utilized. Further marathon training does not enhance effective adipose tissue lipolysis during exercise compared with moderate endurance training.

  10. Lactate Threshold as a Measure of Aerobic Metabolism in Resistance Exercise.

    PubMed

    Domínguez, Raúl; Maté-Muñoz, José Luis; Serra-Paya, Noemí; Garnacho-Castaño, Manuel Vicente

    2018-02-01

    In resistance training, load intensity is usually calculated as the percentage of a maximum repetition (1RM) or maximum number of possible repetitions (% of 1RM). Some studies have proposed a lactate threshold (LT) intensity as an optimal approach for concurrent training of cardiorespiratory endurance and muscle strength, as well as an alternative in resistance training. The objective of the present study was to analyze the results obtained in research evaluating the use of LT in resistance training. A keyword and search tree strategy identified 14 relevant articles in the Dialnet, Elsevier, Medline, Pubmed, Scopus and Web of Science databases. Based on the studies analyzed, the conclusion was that the LT in resistance exercises can be determined either by mathematical methods or by visual inspection of graphical plots. Another possibility is to measure the intensity at which LT might coincide with the first ventilatory threshold (VT1). Since performing an exercise session at one's LT intensity has been shown to accelerate the cardiorespiratory response and induce neuromuscular fatigue, this intensity could be used to set the training load in a resistance training program. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. The effect of the hypohydration on the lactate threshold in a hot and humid environment.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, C; Doyle, J; Rupp, J; Brandon, L; Benardot, D; Thompson, W

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of hypohydration (HH) on the lactate threshold (LT) in a hot and humid environment. Ten apparently healthy males (age 25+/-3 yrs; height 1.8+/-0.04 m; mass 78+/-12 kg; VO2peak 3.7+/-0.4 L/min) underwent four randomly assigned maximal treadmill tests. Two trials were at room temperature (22+/-1 degrees C; RH = 50%) under two different hydration conditions: euhydrated (EH-RM) and hypohydrated (HH-RM), and two trials were performed in a warm chamber (37+/-0.5 degrees C; RH = 70%) under two different hydration conditions: euhydrated (EH-HT) and hypohydrated (HH-HT). The desired HH level (2-4%) was accomplished in the 24+ hours before testing by fluid restriction. Mean HH was 2.6+/-1.0% body weight. Capillary blood samples were collected at the end of each stage and analyzed for lactic acid (LA). LA concentrations were plotted for each exercise stage, and the LT was determined by visual inspection as the highest exercise stage at which blood LA concentration began to increase above each individual's resting levels. LT and body temperature were analyzed with a two-way repeated measures ANOVA (P < 0.05). During the trials in the warm chamber, the LT occurred at a significantly earlier stage compared to the thermoneutral environment (4.4+/-0.09 vs 5.8+/-0.10) and with a significantly lower oxygen consumption (2.38+/-0.09 L.min(-1) vs 2.86+/-0.13 L.min(-1)). Body temperature at the LT was significantly higher in the heat trials compared to room temperature (38.7+/-0.12 degrees C vs 37.6+/-0.14 degrees C). LT determination was not significantly altered by hydration. These results suggest that during progressive incremental maximal treadmill exercise, moderate HH does not affect the LT, whereas exercise in a hot and humid environment induces a downward shift in the LT. The elevated body temperature during the heat trials suggests that body temperature may affect running performance associated with the LT.

  12. Oxygen uptake and ratings of perceived exertion at the lactate threshold and maximal fat oxidation rate in untrained adults

    PubMed Central

    Rynders, Corey A.; Angadi, Siddhartha S.; Weltman, Nathan Y.; Gaesser, Glenn A.; Weltman, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the relationship between VO2 and RPE at the lactate threshold (LT) and maximal fat oxidation rate (FATMAX) in untrained adults and determine the stability of the relationship across sex, age, and fitness status. A total of 148 untrained adults (mean age [year] = 30.5 ± 13.9, height [m] = 1.72 ± 0.08 m, body mass [kg] = 82.6 ± 20.5, body fat [%] = 28.7 ± 12.0) completed a continuous incremental VO2 peak/LT protocol. Fat oxidation rates were determined using indirect calorimetry. The highest recorded fat oxidation rate was chosen as FATMAX. The breakpoint in the VO2–blood lactate relationship was chosen as LT. RPE was based on the Borg 6–20 scale. Bland–Altman plot analysis demonstrated that VO2 FATMAX systematically preceded VO2 LT (mean bias = 1.3 ml kg−1 min−1) with wide limits of agreement (+9.6 to −6.9 ml kg−1 min−1). Multivariate ANOVA revealed a significant difference between VO2 FATMAX (12.7 ± 7.5 ml kg−1 min−1) and VO2 LT (14.1 ± 5.9 ml kg−1 min−1) in the total sample (p = 0.04). There were no differences between the intensities when the sample was divided into sex, age, and fitness comparison groups (p values [0.05). RPE FATMAX (9.4 ± 2.5) preceded RPE LT (10.4 ± 2.0) in the total sample (p = 0.008), but was not different across comparison groups (p > 0.05). The present data indicate that the highest rate of fat oxidation slightly precedes the LT in untrained adults. For exercise prescription, a Borg-RPE of 9–12 identifies both FATMAX and LT. PMID:21259025

  13. Ginseng supplementation does not change lactate threshold and physical performances in physically active Thai men.

    PubMed

    Kulaputana, Onanong; Thanakomsirichot, Siriwan; Anomasiri, Wilai

    2007-06-01

    Ginseng has been one of the most popular herbs said to improve human exercise performance. Unclear and anecdotal information is known about the effect of ginseng on lactate threshold and aerobic performance in humans. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of ginseng supplementation on lactate threshold in physically active young men. Sixty men from the Naval Medical Corps, Royal Thai Navy, aged 17- 22 years old, were randomized into either the ginseng (n = 30) or placebo (n = 30) group. The ginseng group took 3 grams of 100% ginseng orally, while the placebo group took an equal amount of lactose powder each day, for 8 weeks. Blood lactic acid levels for determination of lactate threshold (LT) were measured during an incremental cycle ergometer work. LT exercise performance, and heart rate (HR) responses to exercise were determined at baseline and after 8 weeks of ginseng and placebo consumption. Substrate oxidation rates during steady state exercise were assessed upon study completion. Selected markers for liver and kidney functions, including serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, blood urea nitrogen, and creatinine were monitored for possible side effects of ginseng. L T before and after 8 weeks of supplementation in the ginseng group (164.5 +/- 32.8 and 170.9 +/- 26.4 watts), and in the placebo group (163.7 + 25.1 and 163.7 + 17.3 watts) were not different (p = 0.448). Both groups had a similar pattern of exercise heart rate (p = 0.918), total exercise time (p = 0.241), and peak power output (p = 0.411). After 8 weeks, the magnitude of difference between ginseng and placebo groups on oxidation rates of fat (3.82 +/- 10.0 cal. kg(-1). min(-1), p = 0.704) or carbohydrate (4.36 +/- 12.6 cal. kg(-1). min(-1), p = 0.731) was not statistically significant. There were no abnormal changes of markers of liver and renal functions after ginseng administration. Daily administration of 3 g of ginseng for an 8-week period did not

  14. Marathon performance, anaerobic threshold, and onset of blood lactate accumulation.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, K; Matsuura, Y

    1984-09-01

    The study tested the hypothesis that running velocity corresponding to the anaerobic threshold (VAT) would more accurately approximate the actually measured marathon race velocity (VM) than would running velocity corresponding to the so-called onset of blood lactate (4 mM) accumulation (VOBLA). The VAT (4.57 m X s-1) well approximated the VM (4.49 m X s-1), whereas the VOBLA (5.30 m X s-1) differed significantly from the VM. In addition, the VAT (r = 0.781) correlated with VM to a greater extent than did the VOBLA (r = 0.682). When the VAT (X1) was combined with delta % maximum O2 consumption (VO2max) (%VO2max at the OBLA minus %VO2max at the AT; X2) and VO2max (ml X min-1 x kg-1; X3), variation in the VM accounted for increased profoundly from 61 to 88%. Thus one of the useful equations formulated with high predictive accuracy was VM (m X s-1) = 1.312X1 + 0.0346X2 - 0.00993X3 - 1.272. Our study demonstrates that the anaerobic threshold (AT) is more closely associated with marathon running performance and that the degree of the association is raised when delta %VO2max and/or VO2max are combined as additional information.

  15. Gas exchange and lactate anaerobic thresholds: inter- and intraevaluator agreement.

    PubMed

    Gladden, L B; Yates, J W; Stremel, R W; Stamford, B A

    1985-06-01

    Twenty-four coded graph sets of gas exchange variables and blood lactate concentration (LA) plotted against time at 15-s intervals were analyzed by nine evaluators who determined the gas exchange (ATGE) and LA (ATLA) anaerobic thresholds. In addition, ATGE and ATLA were determined by a linear regression computer program. Agreement between ATGE and ATLA was poor; the median intraclass correlation coefficient (ri) was 0.53. Among evaluators, ATLA agreement (median ri = 0.81) was better than ATGE agreement (median ri = 0.70). In general, the ability of any evaluator to choose similar values from duplicate plots for either ATGE (median ri = 0.97) or ATLA (median ri = 0.995) was good. There was better agreement between the mean ATLA of the evaluators and the computer ATLA (ComLA) (ri = 0.88) than between the mean ATGE of the evaluators and the computer ATGE (ComVE), (ri = 0.58). Agreement between ComVE and ComLA was poor (ri = 0.29). These results suggest that ATGE does not accurately predict ATLA and that different evaluators choose different thresholds from the same data. Further assessment of the validity and precision of ATGE based on breath-by-breath and minute-by-minute data is needed.

  16. Higher Accuracy of the Lactate Minimum Test Compared to Established Threshold Concepts to Determine Maximal Lactate Steady State in Running.

    PubMed

    Wahl, Patrick; Zwingmann, Lukas; Manunzio, Christian; Wolf, Jacob; Bloch, Wilhelm

    2018-05-18

    This study evaluated the accuracy of the lactate minimum test, in comparison to a graded-exercise test and established threshold concepts (OBLA and mDmax) to determine running speed at maximal lactate steady state. Eighteen subjects performed a lactate minimum test, a graded-exercise test (2.4 m·s -1 start,+0.4 m·s -1 every 5 min) and 2 or more constant-speed tests of 30 min to determine running speed at maximal lactate steady state. The lactate minimum test consisted of an initial lactate priming segment, followed by a short recovery phase. Afterwards, the initial load of the subsequent incremental segment was individually determined and was increased by 0.1 m·s -1 every 120 s. Lactate minimum was determined by the lowest measured value (LM abs ) and by a third-order polynomial (LM pol ). The mean difference to maximal lactate steady state was+0.01±0.14 m·s -1 (LM abs ), 0.04±0.15 m·s -1 (LM pol ), -0.06±0.31 m·s 1 (OBLA) and -0.08±0.21 m·s 1 (mDmax). The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) between running velocity at maximal lactate steady state and LM abs was highest (ICC=0.964), followed by LM pol (ICC=0.956), mDmax (ICC=0.916) and OBLA (ICC=0.885). Due to the higher accuracy of the lactate minimum test to determine maximal lactate steady state compared to OBLA and mDmax, we suggest the lactate minimum test as a valid and meaningful concept to estimate running velocity at maximal lactate steady state in a single session for moderately up to well-trained athletes. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Effect of peripheral arterial disease on the onset of lactate threshold during cardiopulmonary exercise test: study protocol.

    PubMed

    Key, Angela; Ali, Tamara; Walker, Paul; Duffy, Nick; Barkat, Mo; Snellgrove, Jayne; Torella, Francesco

    2016-12-19

    Cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) is widely used in preoperative assessment and cardiopulmonary rehabilitation. The effect of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) on oxygen delivery (VO 2 ) measured by CPET is not known. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of PAD on VO 2 measurements during CPET. We designed a prospective cohort study, which will recruit 30 patients with PAD, who will undergo CPET before and after treatment of iliofemoral occlusive arterial disease. The main outcome measure is the difference in VO 2 at the lactate threshold (LT) between the 2 CPETs. The secondary outcome measure is the relationship between change in VO 2 at the LT and peak exercise pretreatment and post-treatment and haemodynamic measures of PAD improvement (ankle-brachial index differential). For VO 2 changes, only simple paired bivariate comparisons, not multivariate analyses, are planned, due to the small sample size. The correlation between ABI and VO 2 rise will be tested by linear regression. The study was approved by the North West-Lancaster Research and Ethics committee (reference 15/NW/0801). Results will be disseminated through scientific journal and scientific conference presentation. Completion of recruitment is expected by the end of 2016, and submission for publication by March 2017. NCT02657278. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  18. Lactate threshold responses to a season of professional British youth soccer

    PubMed Central

    McMillan, K; Helgerud, J; Grant, S; Newell, J; Wilson, J; Macdonald, R; Hoff, J

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To examine the changes in aerobic endurance performance of professional youth soccer players throughout the soccer season. Methods: Nine youth soccer players were tested at six different time points throughout the soccer season by sub-maximal blood lactate assessment, using an incremental treadmill protocol. Whole blood lactate concentration and heart frequency (Hf) were determined at each exercise stage. Running velocities at the first lactate inflection point (v-Tlac) and at a blood lactate concentration of 4 mmol l–1 (v-4mM) were determined. Results: Running velocity at the two lactate thresholds increased from the start of pre-season training to the early weeks of the competitive season, from 11.67 (0.29) to 12.96 (0.28) km h–1 for v-Tlac, and from 13.62 (0.25) to 14.67 (0.24) km h–1 for v-4mM (p<0.001). However, v-Tlac and v-4mM when expressed relative to maximum heart frequency (Hfmax) remained unchanged. The Hf to blood lactate concentration relationship was unchanged after the pre-season training period. The two expressions of lactate threshold did not reveal differences between each other. Conclusion: Running velocity at v-Tlac and v-4mM increased significantly over the pre-season period, but v-Tlac and v-4mM were unchanged when expressed relative to Hfmax. This finding may indicate that increased endurance performance may be mainly attributable to alterations in Vo2max. Although lactate assessment of soccer players is useful for determining endurance training adaptations in soccer players, additional assessment of the other two determinants of endurance performance (Vo2max and running economy) may provide more useful information for determining physiological adaptations resulting from soccer training and training interventions. PMID:15976165

  19. Low anaerobic threshold and increased skeletal muscle lactate production in subjects with Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Ciammola, Andrea; Sassone, Jenny; Sciacco, Monica; Mencacci, Niccolò E; Ripolone, Michela; Bizzi, Caterina; Colciago, Clarissa; Moggio, Maurizio; Parati, Gianfranco; Silani, Vincenzo; Malfatto, Gabriella

    2011-01-01

    Mitochondrial defects that affect cellular energy metabolism have long been implicated in the etiology of Huntington's disease (HD). Indeed, several studies have found defects in the mitochondrial functions of the central nervous system and peripheral tissues of HD patients. In this study, we investigated the in vivo oxidative metabolism of exercising muscle in HD patients. Ventilatory and cardiometabolic parameters and plasma lactate concentrations were monitored during incremental cardiopulmonary exercise in twenty-five HD subjects and twenty-five healthy subjects. The total exercise capacity was normal in HD subjects but notably the HD patients and presymptomatic mutation carriers had a lower anaerobic threshold than the control subjects. The low anaerobic threshold of HD patients was associated with an increase in the concentration of plasma lactate. We also analyzed in vitro muscular cell cultures and found that HD cells produce more lactate than the cells of healthy subjects. Finally, we analyzed skeletal muscle samples by electron microscopy and we observed striking mitochondrial structural abnormalities in two out of seven HD subjects. Our findings confirm mitochondrial abnormalities in HD patients' skeletal muscle and suggest that the mitochondrial dysfunction is reflected functionally in a low anaerobic threshold and an increased lactate synthesis during intense physical exercise. Copyright © 2010 Movement Disorder Society.

  20. Reverse lactate threshold: a novel single-session approach to reliable high-resolution estimation of the anaerobic threshold.

    PubMed

    Dotan, Raffy

    2012-06-01

    The multisession maximal lactate steady-state (MLSS) test is the gold standard for anaerobic threshold (AnT) estimation. However, it is highly impractical, requires high fitness level, and suffers additional shortcomings. Existing single-session AnT-estimating tests are of compromised validity, reliability, and resolution. The presented reverse lactate threshold test (RLT) is a single-session, AnT-estimating test, aimed at avoiding the pitfalls of existing tests. It is based on the novel concept of identifying blood lactate's maximal appearance-disappearance equilibrium by approaching the AnT from higher, rather than from lower exercise intensities. Rowing, cycling, and running case data (4 recreational and competitive athletes, male and female, aged 17-39 y) are presented. Subjects performed the RLT test and, on a separate session, a single 30-min MLSS-type verification test at the RLT-determined intensity. The RLT and its MLSS verification exhibited exceptional agreement at 0.5% discrepancy or better. The RLT's training sensitivity was demonstrated by a case of 2.5-mo training regimen following which the RLT's 15-W improvement was fully MLSS-verified. The RLT's test-retest reliability was examined in 10 trained and untrained subjects. Test 2 differed from test 1 by only 0.3% with an intraclass correlation of 0.997. The data suggest RLT to accurately and reliably estimate AnT (as represented by MLSS verification) with high resolution and in distinctly different sports and to be sensitive to training adaptations. Compared with MLSS, the single-session RLT is highly practical and its lower fitness requirements make it applicable to athletes and untrained individuals alike. Further research is needed to establish RLT's validity and accuracy in larger samples.

  1. Training Performed Above Lactate Threshold Decreases p53 and Shelterin Expression in Mice.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho Cunha, Verusca Najara; Dos Santos Rosa, Thiago; Sales, Marcelo Magalhães; Sousa, Caio Victor; da Silva Aguiar, Samuel; Deus, Lysleine Alves; Simoes, Herbert Gustavo; de Andrade, Rosangela Vieira

    2018-06-26

    Telomere shortening is associated to sarcopenia leading to functional impairment during aging. There are mechanisms associated with telomere attrition, as well to its protection and repair. Physical training is a factor that attenuates telomere shortening, but little is known about the effects of different exercise intensities on telomere biology. Thus, we evaluated the effects of exercise intensity (moderate vs. high-intensity domain) on gene expression of senescence markers Checkpoint kinase 2 and tumor suppressor ( Chk2 and p53 , respectively), shelterin telomere repeat binding 1 and 2 ( Trf1 / Trf2 ), DNA repair ( Xrcc5 ), telomerase reverse transcriptase ( mTERT ) and telomere length in middle aged mice. Three groups were studied: a control group (CTL) and two groups submitted to swimming at intensities below the lactate threshold (LI group) and above the lactate threshold (HI group) for 40 and 20 min respectively, for 12 weeks. After training, the HI group showed reduction in p53 expression in the muscle, and decreased shelterin complex expression when compared to LI group. No differences were observed between groups for mTERT expression and telomere length. Thus, exercise training in high-intensity domain was more effective on reducing markers of senescence and apoptosis. The higher intensity exercise training also diminished shelterin expression, with no differences in telomere length and mTERT expression. Such results possibly indicate a more effective DNA protection for the higher-intensity exercise training. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Individual anaerobic threshold estimates maximal lactate steady state in temperate and hot climate.

    PubMed

    De Barros, Cristiano L Monteiro; Mendes, Thiago T; Mortimer, Lucas De Ávila Castro Fleury; Ramos, Guilherme Passos; Garcia, Emerson Silami

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the power output at the maximal lactate steady state (MLSS) with the power output at the individual anaerobic threshold (IAT) and at the onset of blood lactate accumulation (OBLA) in both temperate (TEMP) (22 °C) and hot (HOT) (40 °C) climates. Eight young active male (23.9±2.4 yr, 75.9±7.3 kg and 47.8±4.9 mL/kg/min) were evaluated on a cycle ergometer and performed a progressive exercise test until fatigue to determine the IAT and OBLA and two to five 30-min exercise tests at constant intensities for determine MLSS at both temperatures. An ANOVA with repeated measures and Dunnett's post-hoc test was performed to compare results of IAT and OBLA to the variables at the MLSS in both climates with MLSS being considered as the standard. At TEMP there was no difference between the power output at MLSS and IAT (180±11 W and 182±13 W, respectively), however, the intensity of the OBLA (154±11 W) was lower than MLSS (P<0.05). At HOT there was no difference between the power output at MLSS, IAT, and OBLA (148±11 W, 155±12 W and 144±11 W, respectively). These results showed that IAT is sensitive enough to estimate MLSS in both TEMP and HOT climate.

  3. Inclusion of Exercise Intensities Above the Lactate Threshold in VO2/Running Speed Regression Does not Improve the Precision of Accumulated Oxygen Deficit Estimation in Endurance-Trained Runners

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Victor M.; Silva, António J.; Ascensão, António; Duarte, José A.

    2005-01-01

    The present study intended to verify if the inclusion of intensities above lactate threshold (LT) in the VO2/running speed regression (RSR) affects the estimation error of accumulated oxygen deficit (AOD) during a treadmill running performed by endurance-trained subjects. Fourteen male endurance-trained runners performed a sub maximal treadmill running test followed by an exhaustive supra maximal test 48h later. The total energy demand (TED) and the AOD during the supra maximal test were calculated from the RSR established on first testing. For those purposes two regressions were used: a complete regression (CR) including all available sub maximal VO2 measurements and a sub threshold regression (STR) including solely the VO2 values measured during exercise intensities below LT. TED mean values obtained with CR and STR were not significantly different under the two conditions of analysis (177.71 ± 5.99 and 174.03 ± 6.53 ml·kg-1, respectively). Also the mean values of AOD obtained with CR and STR did not differ under the two conditions (49.75 ± 8.38 and 45.8 9 ± 9.79 ml·kg-1, respectively). Moreover, the precision of those estimations was also similar under the two procedures. The mean error for TED estimation was 3.27 ± 1.58 and 3.41 ± 1.85 ml·kg-1 (for CR and STR, respectively) and the mean error for AOD estimation was 5.03 ± 0.32 and 5.14 ± 0.35 ml·kg-1 (for CR and STR, respectively). The results indicated that the inclusion of exercise intensities above LT in the RSR does not improve the precision of the AOD estimation in endurance-trained runners. However, the use of STR may induce an underestimation of AOD comparatively to the use of CR. Key Points It has been suggested that the inclusion of exercise intensities above the lactate threshold in the VO2/power regression can significantly affect the estimation of the energy cost and, thus, the estimation of the AOD. However data on the precision of those AOD measurements is rarely provided. We have

  4. Influence of taekwondo as security martial arts training on anaerobic threshold, cardiorespiratory fitness, and blood lactate recovery.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae-Young; Seo, Byoung-Do; Choi, Pan-Am

    2014-04-01

    [Purpose] This study was conducted to determine the influence of Taekwondo as security martial arts training on anaerobic threshold, cardiorespiratory fitness, and blood lactate recovery. [Subjects and Methods] Fourteen healthy university students were recruited and divided into an exercise group and a control group (n = 7 in each group). The subjects who participated in the experiment were subjected to an exercise loading test in which anaerobic threshold, value of ventilation, oxygen uptake, maximal oxygen uptake, heart rate, and maximal values of ventilation / heart rate were measured during the exercise, immediately after maximum exercise loading, and at 1, 3, 5, 10, and 15 min of recovery. [Results] At the anaerobic threshold time point, the exercise group showed a significantly longer time to reach anaerobic threshold. The exercise group showed significantly higher values for the time to reach VO2max, maximal values of ventilation, maximal oxygen uptake and maximal values of ventilation / heart rate. Significant changes were observed in the value of ventilation volumes at the 1- and 5-min recovery time points within the exercise group; oxygen uptake and maximal oxygen uptake were significantly different at the 5- and 10-min time points; heart rate was significantly different at the 1- and 3-min time points; and maximal values of ventilation / heart rate was significantly different at the 5-min time point. The exercise group showed significant decreases in blood lactate levels at the 15- and 30-min recovery time points. [Conclusion] The study results revealed that Taekwondo as a security martial arts training increases the maximal oxygen uptake and anaerobic threshold and accelerates an individual's recovery to the normal state of cardiorespiratory fitness and blood lactate level. These results are expected to contribute to the execution of more effective security services in emergencies in which violence can occur.

  5. Validation of a novel wearable, wireless technology to estimate oxygen levels and lactate threshold power in the exercising muscle.

    PubMed

    Farzam, Parisa; Starkweather, Zack; Franceschini, Maria A

    2018-04-01

    There is a growing interest in monitoring muscle oxygen saturation (SmO 2 ), which is a localized measure of muscle oxidative metabolism and can be acquired continuously and noninvasively using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) methods. Most NIRS systems are cumbersome, expensive, fiber coupled devices, with use limited to lab settings. A novel, low cost, wireless, wearable has been developed for use in athletic training. In this study, we evaluate the advantages and limitations of this new simple continuous-wave (CW) NIRS device with respect to a benchtop, frequency-domain near-infrared spectroscopy (FDNIRS) system. Oxygen saturation and hemoglobin/myoglobin concentration in the exercising muscles of 17 athletic individuals were measured simultaneously with the two systems, while subjects performed an incremental test on a stationary cycle ergometer. In addition, blood lactate concentration was measured at the end of each increment with a lactate analyzer. During exercise, the correlation coefficients of the SmO 2 and hemoglobin/myoglobin concentrations between the two systems were over 0.70. We also found both systems were insensitive to the presence of thin layers of varying absorption, mimicking different skin colors. Neither system was able to predict the athletes' lactate threshold power accurately by simply using SmO 2 thresholds. Instead, the proprietary software of the wearable device was able to predict the athletes' lactate threshold power within half of one power increment of the cycling test. These results indicate this novel wearable device may provide a physiological indicator of athlete's exertion. © 2018 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  6. The effect of pre-test carbohydrate ingestion on the anaerobic threshold, as determined by the lactate-minimum test.

    PubMed

    Rotstein, Arie; Dotan, Raffy; Zigel, Levana; Greenberg, Tally; Benyamini, Yael; Falk, Bareket

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of pre-test carbohydrate (CHO) ingestion on anaerobic-threshold assessment using the lactate-minimum test (LMT). Fifteen competitive male distance runners capable of running 10 km in 33.5-43 min were used as subjects. LMT was performed following CHO (2x300 mL, 7% solution) or comparable placebo (Pl) ingestion, in a double-blind, randomized order. The LMT consisted of two high-intensity 1 min treadmill runs (17-21 km.h(-1)), followed by an 8 min recovery period. Subsequently, subjects performed 5 min running stages, incremented by 0.6 km.h(-1) and separated by 1 min blood-sampling intervals. Tests were terminated after 3 consecutive increases in blood-lactate concentration ([La]) had been observed. Finger-tip capillary blood was sampled for [La] and blood-glucose determination 30 min before the test's onset, during the recovery phase following the 2 high-intensity runs, and following each of the subsequent 5 min stages. Heart rate (HR) and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded after each stage. The lactate-minimum speed (LMS) was determined from the individual [La]-velocity plots and was considered reflective of the anaerobic threshold. Pre-test CHO ingestion had no effect on LMS (13.19+/-1.12 km.h(-1) vs. 13.17+/-1.08 km.h(-1) in CHO and Pl, respectively), nor on [La] and glucose concentration at that speed, or on HR and RPE responses. Pre-test CHO ingestion therefore does not affect LMS or the LMT-estimated anaerobic threshold.

  7. The influence of ambient temperature on power at anaerobic threshold determined based on blood lactate concentration and myoelectric signals.

    PubMed

    Tyka, Aleksander; Pałka, Tomasz; Tyka, Anna; Cisoń, Tomasz; Szyguła, Zbigniew

    2009-01-01

    To compare the mechanical power and physiological parameters in males at the lactate (LAAT) and integrated electromyographic (IEMGAT) anaerobic thresholds during exercise testing at 23 degrees C, 31 degrees C and 37 degrees C. Fifteen men aged 21.9+/-1.80 years performed an incremental exercise test on a cycle ergometer at pedal frequency of 60 rpm. The test began at the power output of 120 W which was increased by 30 W every 3 min. Heart rate, oxygen uptake, carbon dioxide in expired air and minute ventilation were monitored. Venous blood samples were collected at 30 s before termination of each 3-min stage of test to determine the lactate anaerobic threshold. IEMGAT for vastus lateralis (VL) and rectus femoris (RF) muscles were regarded as the inflection point at which a non-linear increase in IEMGAT occurred. IEMGAT for VL and RF were similar for all the three temperatures. IEMGAT (VL and RF) correlated closely with LAAT at ambient temperatures of 23 degrees C (r = 0.91), 31 degrees C (r = 0.96) and 37 degrees C (r = 0.97). Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed that the mechanical power at LAAT and IEMGAT was higher at 23 degrees C (202+/-26.5 W vs. 205+/-22.9 W) than at 31 degrees C (186+/-20.2 W vs. 186.2+/-20.2 W) and 37 degrees C (175.5+/-25.2 W vs. 175.3+/-20.0 W) for LAAT and IEMGAT respectively (p < 0.01). Higher ambient temperature induced a decrease in the mechanical power at which the anaerobic threshold occurred. The high correlation between LAAT and IEMGAT (r = 0.91-0.97) indicated that IEMGAT can be used as a practical and reliable, non-invasive method for assessment of the anaerobic threshold.

  8. A Lactate Kinetics Method for Assessing the Maximal Lactate Steady State Workload

    PubMed Central

    Hering, Gernot O.; Hennig, Ewald M.; Riehle, Hartmut J.; Stepan, Jens

    2018-01-01

    During a continuously increasing exercise workload (WL) a point will be reached at which arterial lactate accumulates rapidly. This so-called lactate threshold (LT) is associated with the maximal lactate steady state workload (MLSSW), the highest WL, at which arterial lactate concentration [LA] does not change. However, the physiological range in which the LT and the MLSSW occur has not been demonstrated directly. We used minor WL variations in the MLSSW range to assess arterial lactate kinetics in 278 treadmill and 148 bicycle ergometer exercise tests. At a certain workload, minimal further increment of running speed (0.1–0.15 m/s) or cycling power (7–10 W) caused a steep elevation of [LA] (0.9 ± 0.43 mM, maximum increase 2.4 mM), indicating LT achievement. This sharp [LA] increase was more pronounced when higher WL increments were used (0.1 vs. 0.30 m/s, P = 0.02; 0.15 vs. 0.30 m/s, P < 0.001; 7 vs. 15 W, P = 0.002; 10 vs. 15 W, P = 0.001). A subsequent workload reduction (0.1 m/s/7 W) stopped the [LA] increase indicating MLSSW realization. LT based determination of running speed (MLSSW) was highly reproducible on a day-to-day basis (r = 0.996, P < 0.001), valid in a 10 km constant velocity setting (r = 0.981, P < 0.001) and a half marathon race (r = 0.969, P < 0.001). These results demonstrate a fine-tuned regulation of exercise-related lactate metabolism, which can be reliably captured by assessing lactate kinetics at the MLSSW. PMID:29651253

  9. Lack of concordance amongst measurements of individual anaerobic threshold and maximal lactate steady state on a cycle ergometer.

    PubMed

    Arratibel-Imaz, Iñaki; Calleja-González, Julio; Emparanza, Jose Ignacio; Terrados, Nicolas; Mjaanes, Jeffrey M; Ostojic, Sergej M

    2016-01-01

    The calculation of exertion intensity, in which a change is produced in the metabolic processes which provide the energy to maintain physical work, has been defined as the anaerobic threshold (AT). The direct calculation of maximal lactate steady state (MLSS) would require exertion intensities over a long period of time and with sufficient rest periods which would prove significantly difficult for daily practice. Many protocols have been used for the indirect calculation of MLSS. The aim of this study is to determine if the results of measurements with 12 different AT calculation methods and calculation software [Keul, Simon, Stegmann, Bunc, Dickhuth (TKM and WLa), Dmax, Freiburg, Geiger-Hille, Log-Log, Lactate Minimum] can be used interchangeably, including the method of the fixed threshold of Mader/OBLA's 4 mmol/l and then to compare them with the direct measurement of MLSS. There were two parts to this research. Phase 1: results from 162 exertion tests chosen at random from the 1560 tests. Phase 2: sixteen athletes (n = 16) carried out different tests on five consecutive days. There was very high concordance among all the methods [intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) > 0.90], except Log-Log in relation to the Stegamnn, Dmax, Dickhuth-WLa and Geiger-Hille. The Dickhuth-TKM showed a high tendency towards concordance, with Dmax (2.2 W) and Dickhuth-WLa (0.1 W). The Dickhuth-TKM method presented a high tendency to concordance with Dickhuth-WLa (0.5 W), Freiburg (7.4 W), MLSS (2.0 W), Bunc (8.9 W), Dmax (0.1 W). The calculation of MLSS power showed a high tendency to concordance, with Dickhuth-TKM (2 W), Dmax (2.1 W), Dickhuth-WLa (1.5 W). The fixed threshold of 4 mmol/l or OBLA produces slightly different and higher results than those obtained with all the methods analyzed, including MLSS, meaning an overestimation of power in the individual anaerobic threshold. The Dickhuth-TKM, Dmax and Dickhuth-WLa methods defined a high concordance on a cycle ergometer

  10. Lactate-related factors as a critical determinant of endurance.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, K

    1990-04-01

    Many interrelated physiological and/or morphological factors have been demonstrated to influence endurance exercise performance. Some of these factors include skeletal musculature, running economy, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), maximal steady state (MSS), onset of blood lactate accumulation (OBLA), onset of plasma lactate accumulation (OPLA), and anaerobic (or lactate) threshold (AT or LT). The present paper focuses mainly on VO2max, MSS, OBLA, OPLA and LT, all of which have been postulated as a prerequisite in endurance exercise success. This paper consists of: (1) significance of La-related variables, (2) longitudinal studies, (3) comments, and (4) conclusion. Briefly, it is suggested that estimation of endurance exercise potential could be obtained with relatively high precision using laboratoriously measured La-related variables. The most critical determinant of endurance exercise performance such as marathon time is considered running velocity (V) at which LT is detected (V / LT), VO2 / LT, or V / MSS, while V / OBLA appears to be the best predictor of performance in endurance events of 16 km or shorter distances.

  11. Blood lactate thresholds and walking/running economy are determinants of backpack-running performance in trained soldiers.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Richard J; Graham, Scott M; Connaboy, Christopher; Clement, Richard; Pollonini, Luca; Florida-James, Geraint D

    2017-01-01

    We developed a standardized laboratory treadmill protocol for assessing physiological responses to a simulated backpack load-carriage task in trained soldiers, and assessed the efficacy of blood lactate thresholds (LTs) and economy in predicting future backpack running success over an 8-mile course in field conditions. LTs and corresponding physiological responses were determined in 17 elite British soldiers who completed an incremental treadmill walk/run protocol to exhaustion carrying 20 kg backpack load. Treadmill velocity at the breakpoint (r = -0.85) and Δ 1 mmol l(-1) (r = -0.80) LTs, and relative V˙O2 at 4 mmol l(-1) (r = 0.76) and treadmill walk/run velocities of 6.4 (r = 0.76), 7.4 (r = 0.80), 11.4 (r = 0.66) and 12.4 (r = 0.65) km h(-1) were significantly associated with field test completion time. We report for the first time that LTs and backpack walk/run economy are major determinants of backpack load-carriage performance in trained soldiers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Prioritized LT Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woo, Simon S.; Cheng, Michael K.

    2011-01-01

    The original Luby Transform (LT) coding scheme is extended to account for data transmissions where some information symbols in a message block are more important than others. Prioritized LT codes provide unequal error protection (UEP) of data on an erasure channel by modifying the original LT encoder. The prioritized algorithm improves high-priority data protection without penalizing low-priority data recovery. Moreover, low-latency decoding is also obtained for high-priority data due to fast encoding. Prioritized LT codes only require a slight change in the original encoding algorithm, and no changes at all at the decoder. Hence, with a small complexity increase in the LT encoder, an improved UEP and low-decoding latency performance for high-priority data can be achieved. LT encoding partitions a data stream into fixed-sized message blocks each with a constant number of information symbols. To generate a code symbol from the information symbols in a message, the Robust-Soliton probability distribution is first applied in order to determine the number of information symbols to be used to compute the code symbol. Then, the specific information symbols are chosen uniform randomly from the message block. Finally, the selected information symbols are XORed to form the code symbol. The Prioritized LT code construction includes an additional restriction that code symbols formed by a relatively small number of XORed information symbols select some of these information symbols from the pool of high-priority data. Once high-priority data are fully covered, encoding continues with the conventional LT approach where code symbols are generated by selecting information symbols from the entire message block including all different priorities. Therefore, if code symbols derived from high-priority data experience an unusual high number of erasures, Prioritized LT codes can still reliably recover both high- and low-priority data. This hybrid approach decides not only "how to encode

  13. Advances of the reverse lactate threshold test: Non-invasive proposal based on heart rate and effect of previous cycling experience

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    Our first aim was to compare the anaerobic threshold (AnT) determined by the incremental protocol with the reverse lactate threshold test (RLT), investigating the previous cycling experience effect. Secondarily, an alternative RLT application based on heart rate was proposed. Two groups (12 per group-according to cycling experience) were evaluated on cycle ergometer. The incremental protocol started at 25 W with increments of 25 W at each 3 minutes, and the AnT was calculated by bissegmentation, onset of blood lactate concentration and maximal deviation methods. The RLT was applied in two phases: a) lactate priming segment; and b) reverse segment; the AnT (AnTRLT) was calculated based on a second order polynomial function. The AnT from the RLT was calculated based on the heart rate (AnTRLT-HR) by the second order polynomial function. In regard of the Study 1, most of statistical procedures converged for similarity between the AnT determined from the bissegmentation method and AnTRLT. For 83% of non-experienced and 75% of experienced subjects the bias was 4% and 2%, respectively. In Study 2, no difference was found between the AnTRLT and AnTRLT-HR. For 83% of non-experienced and 91% of experienced subjects, the bias between AnTRLT and AnTRLT-HR was similar (i.e. 6%). In summary, the AnT determined by the incremental protocol and RLT are consistent. The AnT can be determined during the RLT via heart rate, improving its applicability. However, future studies are required to improve the agreement between variables. PMID:29534108

  14. The importance of staphylococci and threshold value of somatic cell count for diagnosis of sub-clinical mastitis in Pirlak sheep at mid-lactation.

    PubMed

    Ozenc, E; Seker, E; Baki Acar, D; Birdane, M K; Darbaz, I; Dogan, N

    2011-12-01

    This study investigated the bacterial agents causing sub-clinical mastitis and the mean somatic cell counts (SCC) of milk in Pirlak sheep at mid-lactation. The percentage of infected udder halves was 11.4% (53/464). The most frequently isolated species were coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) (64.2%), followed by Staphylococcus aureus (24.5%) and Escherichia coli (11.3%). Among the CNS, the most common species was Staphylococcus epidermidis (38.2%). The other species isolated from milk samples were Staphylococcus xylosus (17.7%), Staphylococcus chromogenes (14.7%), Staphylococcus simulans (8.8%) and Staphylococcus hyicus (8.8%). The mean SCC for culture positive and negative samples was 1742×10(3) and 161×10(3) cells/ml, respectively. A significant difference (p<0.05) was determined between with and without microbial growth groups in terms of the SCC values. Threshold limit for SCC was 374×10(3) cells/ml for Pirlak sheep. In conclusion, it was considered that SCC is an important predictor of sub-clinical mastitis in Pirlak sheep. This is the first study to describe the bacterial agents causing sub-clinical mastitis and threshold limit for SCC in Pirlak sheep in Turkey. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Is heart rate variability a feasible method to determine anaerobic threshold in progressive resistance exercise in coronary artery disease?

    PubMed

    Sperling, Milena P R; Simões, Rodrigo P; Caruso, Flávia C R; Mendes, Renata G; Arena, Ross; Borghi-Silva, Audrey

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that the magnitude of the metabolic and autonomic responses during progressive resistance exercise (PRE) is associated with the determination of the anaerobic threshold (AT). AT is an important parameter to determine intensity in dynamic exercise. To investigate the metabolic and cardiac autonomic responses during dynamic resistance exercise in patients with Coronary Artery Disease (CAD). Twenty men (age = 63±7 years) with CAD [Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction (LVEF) = 60±10%] underwent a PRE protocol on a leg press until maximal exertion. The protocol began at 10% of One Repetition Maximum Test (1-RM), with subsequent increases of 10% until maximal exhaustion. Heart Rate Variability (HRV) indices from Poincaré plots (SD1, SD2, SD1/SD2) and time domain (rMSSD and RMSM), and blood lactate were determined at rest and during PRE. Significant alterations in HRV and blood lactate were observed starting at 30% of 1-RM (p<0.05). Bland-Altman plots revealed a consistent agreement between blood lactate threshold (LT) and rMSSD threshold (rMSSDT) and between LT and SD1 threshold (SD1T). Relative values of 1-RM in all LT, rMSSDT and SD1T did not differ (29%±5 vs 28%±5 vs 29%±5 Kg, respectively). HRV during PRE could be a feasible noninvasive method of determining AT in CAD patients to plan intensities during cardiac rehabilitation.

  16. Is heart rate variability a feasible method to determine anaerobic threshold in progressive resistance exercise in coronary artery disease?

    PubMed Central

    Sperling, Milena P. R.; Simões, Rodrigo P.; Caruso, Flávia C. R.; Mendes, Renata G.; Arena, Ross; Borghi-Silva, Audrey

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Recent studies have shown that the magnitude of the metabolic and autonomic responses during progressive resistance exercise (PRE) is associated with the determination of the anaerobic threshold (AT). AT is an important parameter to determine intensity in dynamic exercise. Objectives To investigate the metabolic and cardiac autonomic responses during dynamic resistance exercise in patients with Coronary Artery Disease (CAD). Method Twenty men (age = 63±7 years) with CAD [Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction (LVEF) = 60±10%] underwent a PRE protocol on a leg press until maximal exertion. The protocol began at 10% of One Repetition Maximum Test (1-RM), with subsequent increases of 10% until maximal exhaustion. Heart Rate Variability (HRV) indices from Poincaré plots (SD1, SD2, SD1/SD2) and time domain (rMSSD and RMSM), and blood lactate were determined at rest and during PRE. Results Significant alterations in HRV and blood lactate were observed starting at 30% of 1-RM (p<0.05). Bland-Altman plots revealed a consistent agreement between blood lactate threshold (LT) and rMSSD threshold (rMSSDT) and between LT and SD1 threshold (SD1T). Relative values of 1-RM in all LT, rMSSDT and SD1T did not differ (29%±5 vs 28%±5 vs 29%±5 Kg, respectively). Conclusion HRV during PRE could be a feasible noninvasive method of determining AT in CAD patients to plan intensities during cardiac rehabilitation. PMID:27556384

  17. The influence of weight loss on anaerobic threshold in obese women.

    PubMed

    Zak-Golab, Agnieszka; Zahorska-Markiewicz, Barbara; Langfort, Józef; Kocelak, Piotr; Holecki, Michal; Mizia-Stec, Katarzyna; Olszanecka-Glinianowicz, Magdalena; Chudek, Jerzy

    2010-01-01

    Obesity is associated with decreased physical activity. The aim of the study was to assess the anaerobic threshold in obese and normal weight women and to analyse the effect of weight-reduction therapy on the determined thresholds. 42 obese women without concomitant disease (age 30.5 ± 6.9y; BMI 33.6 ± 3.7 kg·m(-2)) and 19 healthy normal weight women (age 27.6 ± 7.0y; BMI 21.2 ± 1.9 kg·m(-2)) performed cycle ergometer incremental ramp exercise test up to exhaustion. The test was repeated in 19 obese women after 12.3 ± 4.2% weight loss. The lactate threshold (LT) and the ventilatory threshold (VT) were determined. Obese women had higher lactate (expressed as oxygen consumption) and ventilator threshold than normal weight women. The lactate threshold was higher than ventilatory one both in obese and normal weight women (1.11 ± 0.21 vs 0.88 ± 0.18 L·min(-1), p < 0.001; 0.94 ± 0.15 vs 0.79 ± 0.23 L·min(- 1), p < 0.01, respectively). After weight reduction therapy neither the lactate nor the ventilatory threshold changed significantly. The results concluded that; 1. The higher lactate threshold noted in obese women may be related to the increased fat acid usage in metabolism. 2. Both in obese and normal weight women lactate threshold appears at higher oxygen consumption than ventilatory threshold. 3. The obtained weight reduction, without weight normalisation was insufficient to cause significant changes of lactate and ventilatory thresholds in obese women. Key pointsResults showed that adolescent young female gymnasts have an altered serum inflammatory markers and endothelial activation, compared to their less physically active peers.Physical activities improved immune system.Differences in these biochemical data kept significant after adjustment for body weight and height.

  18. Analysis of heart rate deflection points to predict the anaerobic threshold by a computerized method.

    PubMed

    Marques-Neto, Silvio R; Maior, Alex S; Maranhão Neto, Geraldo A; Santos, Edil L

    2012-07-01

    Many studies have used the heart rate deflection points (HRDPs) during incremental exercise tests, because of their strong correlation with the anaerobic threshold. The aim of this study was to evaluate the profile of the HRDPs identified by a computerized method and compare them with ventilatory and lactate thresholds. Twenty-four professional soccer players (age, 22 ± 5 years; body mass, 74 ± 7 kg; height 177 ± 7 cm) volunteered for the study. The subjects completed a Bruce-protocol incremental treadmill exercise test to volitional fatigue. Heart rate (HR) and alveolar gas exchange were recorded continuously at ≥1 Hz during exercise testing. Subsequently, the time course of the HR was fit by a computer algorithm, and a set of lines yielding the lowest pooled residual sum of squares was chosen as the best fit. This procedure defined 2 HRDPs (HRDP1 and HRDP2). The HR break points averaged 43.9 ± 5.9 and 89.7 ± 7.5% of the VO2peak. The HRDP1 showed a poor correlation with ventilatory threshold (VT; r = 0.50), but HRDP2 was highly correlated to the respiratory compensation (RC) point (r = 0.98). Neither HRDP1 nor HRDP2 was correlated with LT1 (at VO2 = 2.26 ± 0.72 L·min(-1); r = 0.26) or LT2 (2.79 ± 0.59 L·min(-1); r = 0.49), respectively. LT1 and LT2 also were not well correlated with VT (2.93 ± 0.68 L·min(-1); r = 0.20) or RC (3.82 ± 0.60 L·min(-1); r = 0.58), respectively. Although the HR deflection points were not correlated to LT, HRDP2 could be identified in all the subjects and was strongly correlated with RC, consistent with a relationship to cardiorespiratory fatigue and endurance performance.

  19. Grade influences blood lactate kinetics during cross-country skiing.

    PubMed

    LaRoche, Dain P; Amann, Markus; Rundell, Kenneth W

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of level vs. graded skate skiing on capillary blood lactate (B(La)), heart rate (HR), oxygen consumption (V(O2)), and training intensity prescriptions. Eleven Nordic skiers completed 2 submaximal skate roller skiing treadmill protocols during which intensity was increased either by grade (G(inc)) or by speed (S(inc)). The protocols were compared for prethreshold BLa, HR, and V(O2) at lactate threshold (LT) and the HR/V(O2) relationship. Additionally, double-pole (primarily upper body) and skating (arms and legs combined) protocols were used to measure peak V(O2) and peak HR. Heart rate and V(O2) at LT were lower during G(inc) compared with S(inc) (154.9 +/- 6.8 b.min(-1) vs. 162.0 +/- 9.1 b.min(-1) and 46.3 +/- 2.8 ml.kg(-1).min(-1) vs. 49.1 +/- 1.6 ml.kg(-1).min(-1), respectively, both p < 0.01). Pre-threshold B(La) and the HR/V(O2) relationship were not different between the submaximal protocols. V(O2) and HRpeak were higher in skating compared with double poling (64.6 +/- 1.8 ml.kg(-1).min(-1) vs. 60.3 +/- 2.8 ml.kg(-1).min(-1), 192.6 +/- 5.8 b.min(-1) vs. 187.8 +/- 6.7 b.min(-1), respectively, both p < 0.01). Greater reliance on upper-body musculature during graded skiing and its associated lower aerobic capacity increases B(La) when compared with level skiing. The leftward shift in the B(La) vs. intensity curve during uphill skiing should be recognized to properly prescribe training intensity as well as interpret laboratory results.

  20. Measurement precision of the anaerobic threshold by means of a portable calorimeter.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Fernando dos Santos; Pompeu, Fernando Augusto Monteiro Sabóia

    2010-09-01

    Many methods are used for determining the Anaerobic Threshold (AT) by means of sophisticated ergospirometer. To test the AT variation, detected by mathematical models and visual inspection, when low cost ergospirometer is used and intended for clinical application. Seventy nine apparently healthy subjects were volunteers in this study; from these, 57 men. The VO₂(max) and the ventilatory threshold were determined by indirect, open-circuit calorimetry. The electro-enzymatic method was used for analyzing the lactacidemia and direct determination of the Lactate Threshold (LT). The AT was determined by two mathematical methods (MM(RSS) and MM(slope)), based on the gases exchange, and by the log-log visual method, for determining the LT. Two independent investigators determined the AT through visual inspection of three graphs, considering two methods (AT₋(a)= V-slope, EqV; and AT₋(b) = V-slope, EqV and ExCO₂). The data were analyzed by means of parametric statistics for determining the differences between AT₋(a) versus ExCO₂, MM(RSS) and MM(slope); AT-b versus MM(RSS) and MM(slope); and LT versus AT₋(a), AT₋(b), MM(RSS) and MM(slope). The MM(slope) was the only method that presented a significant difference between the AT₋(a) and AT₋(b) (p=0.001), with CV% >15. LT versus MM(slope) did not present significant difference (p=0.274), however, it was observed a high CV (24%). It was concluded that with the low cost equipment, the MM(RSS) and AT₋(a) methods can be used for determining the TAn. The MM(slope) method did not present satisfactory precision to be employed with this equipment.

  1. Lactate Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... by cells as the body turns food into energy (cell metabolism). Depending on pH , it is sometimes ... level or when the primary way of producing energy in the body's cells is disrupted. Excess lactate ...

  2. HyBoLT Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Fang-Jeng (Frank); Berry, Scott A.

    2010-01-01

    HyBoLT was a Hypersonic Boundary Layer Transition flight experiment funded by the Hypersonics Project of the Fundamental Aeronautics Program in NASA's Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate. The HyBoLT test article mounted on the top of the ALV X-1 rocket was launched from Virginia's Wallops Island on August 22, 2008. Unfortunately a problem in the rocket's flight control system caused the vehicle to veer off the designed flight course. Launch officials activated a self-destruct mechanism in the rocket's nose cone after 20 seconds into flight. This report is a closeout document about the HyBoLT flight experiment. Details are provided of the objectives and approach associated with this experimental program as well as the 20 seconds flight data acquired before the vehicle was destroyed.

  3. Noninvasive method to estimate anaerobic threshold in individuals with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Sales, Marcelo M; Campbell, Carmen Sílvia G; Morais, Pâmella K; Ernesto, Carlos; Soares-Caldeira, Lúcio F; Russo, Paulo; Motta, Daisy F; Moreira, Sérgio R; Nakamura, Fábio Y; Simões, Herbert G

    2011-01-12

    While several studies have identified the anaerobic threshold (AT) through the responses of blood lactate, ventilation and blood glucose others have suggested the response of the heart rate variability (HRV) as a method to identify the AT in young healthy individuals. However, the validity of HRV in estimating the lactate threshold (LT) and ventilatory threshold (VT) for individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D) has not been investigated yet. To analyze the possibility of identifying the heart rate variability threshold (HRVT) by considering the responses of parasympathetic indicators during incremental exercise test in type 2 diabetics subjects (T2D) and non diabetics individuals (ND). Nine T2D (55.6 ± 5.7 years, 83.4 ± 26.6 kg, 30.9 ± 5.2 kg.m2(-1)) and ten ND (50.8 ± 5.1 years, 76.2 ± 14.3 kg, 26.5 ± 3.8 kg.m2(-1)) underwent to an incremental exercise test (IT) on a cycle ergometer. Heart rate (HR), rate of perceived exertion (RPE), blood lactate and expired gas concentrations were measured at the end of each stage. HRVT was identified through the responses of root mean square successive difference between adjacent R-R intervals (RMSSD) and standard deviation of instantaneous beat-to-beat R-R interval variability (SD1) by considering the last 60 s of each incremental stage, and were known as HRVT by RMSSD and SD1 (HRVT-RMSSD and HRVT-SD1), respectively. No differences were observed within groups for the exercise intensities corresponding to LT, VT, HRVT-RMSSD and HHVT-SD1. Furthermore, a strong relationship were verified among the studied parameters both for T2D (r = 0.68 to 0.87) and ND (r = 0.91 to 0.98) and the Bland & Altman technique confirmed the agreement among them. The HRVT identification by the proposed autonomic indicators (SD1 and RMSSD) were demonstrated to be valid to estimate the LT and VT for both T2D and ND.

  4. Dinosaur lactation?

    PubMed

    Else, Paul L

    2013-02-01

    Lactation is a process associated with mammals, yet a number of birds feed their newly hatched young on secretions analogous to the milk of mammals. These secretions are produced from various sections (crop organ, oesophageal lining and proventriculus) of the upper digestive tract and possess similar levels of fat and protein, as well as added carotenoids, antibodies and, in the case of pigeons and doves, epidermal growth factor. Parental care in avian species has been proposed to originate from dinosaurs. This study examines the possibility that some dinosaurs used secretory feeding to increase the rate of growth of their young, estimated to be similar to that of present day birds and mammals. Dinosaur 'lactation' could also have facilitated immune responses as well as extending parental protection as a result of feeding newly hatched young in nest environments. While the arguments for dinosaur lactation are somewhat generic, a case study for lactation in herbivorous site-nesting dinosaurs is presented. It is proposes that secretory feeding could have been used to bridge the gap between hatching and establishment of the normal diet in some dinosaurs.

  5. Edible vaccine protects mice against Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LT): potatoes expressing a synthetic LT-B gene.

    PubMed

    Mason, H S; Haq, T A; Clements, J D; Arntzen, C J

    1998-08-01

    The authors have designed and constructed a plant-optimize synthetic gene encoding the Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit (LT-B), for use in transgenic plants as an edible vaccine against enterotoxigenic E. coli. Expression of the synthetic LT-B gene in potato plants under the control of a constitutive promoter yielded increased accumulation of LT-B in leaves and tubers, as compared to the bacterial LT-B gene. The plant-derived LT-B assembled into native pentameric structures as evidenced by its ability to bind ganglioside. The authors demonstrated immunogenicity by feeding mice the raw tubers and comparing the anti-LT-B serum IgG and faecal IgA to that produced in mice gavaged with bacterial LT-B. Mice were fed three weekly doses of 5 g tuber tissue containing either 20 or 50 micrograms LT-B, or gavaged weekly with 5 micrograms of LT-B from recombinant E. coli. One week after the third dose, mice immunized with potato LT-B had higher levels of serum and mucosal anti-LT-B than those gavaged with bacterial LT-B. Mice were challenged by oral administration of 25 micrograms LT, and protection assessed by comparing the gut/carcass mass ratios. Although none of the mice were completely protected, the higher dose potato vaccine compared favourably with the bacterial vaccine. These findings show that an edible vaccine against E. coli LT-B is feasible.

  6. HaLT2- an enhanced lumber grading trainer

    Treesearch

    Powsiri Klinkhachorn; Charles Gatchell; Charles McMillin; Ravi Kothari; Dennis Yost

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on HaLT2, an improved version of HaLT (Hardwood Lumber Traning Program)- a computer program that provides training in lumber grading. The newly added enhancements In HaLT2 will provide training for both novice and experienced hardwood lumber graders in accordance with National Hardwood Lumber Assodation (NHLA) rules. HaLT2 is more accurate, easier to...

  7. Combination L-T3 and L-T4 therapy for hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Wartofsky, Leonard

    2013-10-01

    Because of the longstanding controversy regarding whether hypothyroid patients can be optimally replaced by treatment with levothyroxine (L-T4) alone, numerous studies have addressed potential benefits of combined therapy of triiodothyronine (T3) with L-T4. Results of these studies have failed to support a potential benefit of combined therapy. A strong argument for the addition of L-T3 to L-T4 monotherapy has been lacking until recent genetic studies indicated a rationale for such therapy among a small fraction of the hypothyroid patient population. Interest in this issue has focused on the importance of the deiodinases in maintaining the euthyroid state and the role of genetic polymorphisms in the deiodinase genes that would affect thyroid hormone concentrations in both blood and tissues. One such polymorphism in the D2 gene, Thr92Ala, is associated with reduced T4 to T3 activation in skeletal muscle and thyroid, linked to obesity and alterations in thyroid-pituitary feedback, and in responses to thyroid hormone treatment. Although our professional organizations continue to recommend L-T4 alone for the treatment of hypothyroidism, the possibility of a D2 gene polymorphism should be considered in patients on L-T4 monotherapy who continue to complain of fatigue in spite of dosage achieving low normal serum thyroid stimulating hormone levels. A suggestive clue to the presence of this polymorphism could be a higher than normal free T4/free T3 ratio. Clinicians could consider adding T3 as a therapeutic trial in selected patients. Future well controlled clinical trials will be required to more fully resolve the controversy.

  8. Cumulative lactate and hospital mortality in ICU patients

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Both hyperlactatemia and persistence of hyperlactatemia have been associated with bad outcome. We compared lactate and lactate-derived variables in outcome prediction. Methods Retrospective observational study. Case records from 2,251 consecutive intensive care unit (ICU) patients admitted between 2001 and 2007 were analyzed. Baseline characteristics, all lactate measurements, and in-hospital mortality were recorded. The time integral of arterial blood lactate levels above the upper normal threshold of 2.2 mmol/L (lactate-time-integral), maximum lactate (max-lactate), and time-to-first-normalization were calculated. Survivors and nonsurvivors were compared and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis were applied. Results A total of 20,755 lactate measurements were analyzed. Data are srpehown as median [interquartile range]. In nonsurvivors (n = 405) lactate-time-integral (192 [0–1881] min·mmol/L) and time-to-first normalization (44.0 [0–427] min) were higher than in hospital survivors (n = 1846; 0 [0–134] min·mmol/L and 0 [0–75] min, respectively; all p < 0.001). Normalization of lactate <6 hours after ICU admission revealed better survival compared with normalization of lactate >6 hours (mortality 16.6% vs. 24.4%; p < 0.001). AUC of ROC curves to predict in-hospital mortality was the largest for max-lactate, whereas it was not different among all other lactate derived variables (all p > 0.05). The area under the ROC curves for admission lactate and lactate-time-integral was not different (p = 0.36). Conclusions Hyperlactatemia is associated with in-hospital mortality in a heterogeneous ICU population. In our patients, lactate peak values predicted in-hospital mortality equally well as lactate-time-integral of arterial blood lactate levels above the upper normal threshold. PMID:23446002

  9. Variable-Threshold Threshold Elements,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    A threshold element is a mathematical model of certain types of logic gates and of a biological neuron. Much work has been done on the subject of... threshold elements with fixed thresholds; this study concerns itself with elements in which the threshold may be varied, variable- threshold threshold ...elements. Physical realizations include resistor-transistor elements, in which the threshold is simply a voltage. Variation of the threshold causes the

  10. Blood lactate clearance after maximal exercise depends on active recovery intensity.

    PubMed

    Devlin, J; Paton, B; Poole, L; Sun, W; Ferguson, C; Wilson, J; Kemi, O J

    2014-06-01

    High-intensity exercise is time-limited by onset of fatigue, marked by accumulation of blood lactate. This is accentuated at maximal, all-out exercise that rapidly accumulates high blood lactate. The optimal active recovery intensity for clearing lactate after such maximal, all-out exercise remains unknown. Thus, we studied the intensity-dependence of lactate clearance during active recovery after maximal exercise. We constructed a standardized maximal, all-out treadmill exercise protocol that predictably lead to voluntary exhaustion and blood lactate concentration>10 mM. Next, subjects ran series of all-out bouts that increased blood lactate concentration to 11.5±0.2 mM, followed by recovery exercises ranging 0% (passive)-100% of the lactate threshold. Repeated measurements showed faster lactate clearance during active versus passive recovery (P<0.01), and that active recovery at 60-100% of lactate threshold was more efficient for lactate clearance than lower intensity recovery (P<0.05). Active recovery at 80% of lactate threshold had the highest rate of and shortest time constant for lactate clearance (P<0.05), whereas the response during the other intensities was graded (100%=60%>40%>passive recovery, P<0.05). Active recovery after maximal all-out exercise clears accumulated blood lactate faster than passive recovery in an intensity-dependent manner, with maximum clearance occurring at active recovery of 80% of lactate threshold.

  11. Lactate shuttles in nature.

    PubMed

    Brooks, G A

    2002-04-01

    Once thought to be the consequence of oxygen lack in contracting skeletal muscle, the glycolytic product lactate is formed and utilized continuously under fully aerobic conditions. "Cell-cell" and "intracellular lactate shuttle" concepts describe the roles of lactate in the delivery of oxidative and gluconeogenic substrates, as well as in cell signalling. Examples of cell-cell shuttles include lactate exchanges between white-glycolytic and red-oxidative fibres within a working muscle bed, between working skeletal muscle and heart, and between tissues of net lactate release and gluconeogenesis. Lactate exchange between astrocytes and neurons that is linked to glutamatergic signalling in the brain is an example of a lactate shuttle supporting cell-cell signalling. Lactate uptake by mitochondria and pyruvate-lactate exchange in peroxisomes are examples of intracellular lactate shuttles. Lactate exchange between sites of production and removal is facilitated by monocarboxylate transport proteins, of which there are several isoforms, and, probably, also by scaffolding proteins. The mitochondrial lactate-pyruvate transporter appears to work in conjunction with mitochondrial lactate dehydrogenase, which permits lactate to be oxidized within actively respiring cells. Hence mitochondria function to establish the concentration and proton gradients necessary for cells with high mitochondrial densities (e.g. cardiocytes) to take up and oxidize lactate. Arteriovenous difference measurements on working cardiac and skeletal muscle beds as well as NMR spectral analyses of these tissues show that lactate is formed and oxidized within the cells of formation in vivo. Glycolysis and lactate oxidation within cells permits high flux rates and the maintenance of redox balance in the cytosol and mitochondria. Other examples of intracellular lactate shuttles include lactate uptake and oxidation in sperm mitochondria and the facilitation of beta-oxidation in peroxisomes by pyruvate-lactate

  12. An integrative perspective of the anaerobic threshold.

    PubMed

    Sales, Marcelo Magalhães; Sousa, Caio Victor; da Silva Aguiar, Samuel; Knechtle, Beat; Nikolaidis, Pantelis Theodoros; Alves, Polissandro Mortoza; Simões, Herbert Gustavo

    2017-12-14

    The concept of anaerobic threshold (AT) was introduced during the nineteen sixties. Since then, several methods to identify the anaerobic threshold (AT) have been studied and suggested as novel 'thresholds' based upon the variable used for its detection (i.e. lactate threshold, ventilatory threshold, glucose threshold). These different techniques have brought some confusion about how we should name this parameter, for instance, anaerobic threshold or the physiological measure used (i.e. lactate, ventilation). On the other hand, the modernization of scientific methods and apparatus to detect AT, as well as the body of literature formed in the past decades, could provide a more cohesive understanding over the AT and the multiple physiological systems involved. Thus, the purpose of this review was to provide an integrative perspective of the methods to determine AT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. THRESHOLD LOGIC.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    synthesis procedures; a ’best’ method is definitely established. (2) ’Symmetry Types for Threshold Logic’ is a tutorial expositon including a careful...development of the Goto-Takahasi self-dual type ideas. (3) ’Best Threshold Gate Decisions’ reports a comparison, on the 2470 7-argument threshold ...interpretation is shown best. (4) ’ Threshold Gate Networks’ reviews the previously discussed 2-algorithm in geometric terms, describes our FORTRAN

  14. Inhibition of lactation.

    PubMed

    Llewellyn-Jones, D

    1975-01-01

    The mechanism and hormonal regulation of lactation is explained and illustrated with a schematic representation. Circulating estrogen above a critical amount seems to be the inhibitory factor controlling lactation during pregnancy. Once delivery occurs, the level of estrogen falls, that of prolactin rises, and lactation begins. Nonsuckling can be used to inhibit lactation. Estrogens can also be used to inhibit lactation more quickly and with less pain. The reported association between estrogens and puerperal thromboembolism cannot be considered conclusive due to defects in the reporting studies. There is no reason not to use estrogens in lactation inhibition except for women over 35 who experienced a surgical delivery. Alternative therapy is available for these women. The recently-developed drug, brom-ergocryptine, may replace other methods of lactation inhibition.

  15. Lactation and reproduction*

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, A. M.; Hytten, F. E.; Black, A. E.

    1975-01-01

    The authors review the literature on the effect of lactation on fertility in the absence of contraception and on the effects of contraceptive measures on lactation. They examine data from several countries on the intervals between births and on the return of menstruation and ovulation after childbirth, comparing lactating with nonlactating women. They conclude that lactation is an inefficient contraceptive for the individual, but that in populations sustained lactation is associated with reduced fertility. Possible physiological mechanisms causing lactation amenorrhoea are discussed. Though much of the literature on the effect of contraceptives on lactation is inadequate, there is general agreement that the estrogen component of hormonal preparations has an adverse effect on lactation, but that progestins alone do not. Many questions remain. Is this effect seen in established lactation, or only in the puerperal period? Is it a direct pharmacological effect, or are pill-users the mothers least motivated to maintain breast-feeding? Does a close relationship exist between hormones given and lactation performance? The authors comment on some of the technical deficiencies of previous studies in this field and discuss practical possibilities of, and limitations to, obtaining adequate scientific information in the future. PMID:1084804

  16. Efficacy of combined or single use of Lactobacillus crispatus LT116 and L. johnsonii LT171 on broiler performance.

    PubMed

    Taheri, H R; Moravej, H; Tabandeh, F; Zaghari, M; Shivazad, M

    2010-10-01

    1. The objective of this research was to investigate the efficacy of combined or single use of Lactobacillus crispatus LT116 and Lactobacillus johnsonii LT171 on broiler performance. 2. A total of 320 one-d-old male Ross broiler chicks were allocated in 4 experimental treatments for 6 weeks. The experimental treatments received a maize-soybean meal basal diet that was supplemented as follows: 'control', with no other additions; 'LJ', 1 × 10(6) CFU of L. johnsonii LT171; 'LC', 1 × 10(6) CFU of L. crispatus LT116; and 'LCJ', 0·5 × 10(6) CFU of L. johnsonii LT171 + 0·5 × 10(6) CFU of L. crispatus LT116/g of the diet. A suspension of sheep red blood cells (SRBC) was injected into the breast of 8 birds from each treatment on d 14 and 30, and the antibody titre was measured on d 20, 26, 36 and 42. 3. Body weight was improved when compared with control for broilers fed diets supplemented with LCJ. The feed conversion ratio (FCR) decreased in LC and LCJ groups compared with control. The number of coliforms in the ileum of LJ, LC and LCJ birds was lower than that from the control birds. However, only the LCJ treatment significantly decreased the number of coliforms in the caecum. The LCJ group had greater villus height in the duodenum than the LC group, and both LCJ and LC groups showed increased villus height in the duodenum and jejunum relative to the control. Antibody titre against SRBC was higher for the LCJ group than for the LJ and control groups in terms of secondary immune response (mean of 36 and 42 d). 4. This study showed, compared with the control, that the combination of Lactobacillus spp. could positively affect body weight, coliform numbers in the caecum and immune response.

  17. 16. WEST ELEVATION. MONOMOY POINT LT. STATION, MASS., SHOWING PROPOSED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. WEST ELEVATION. MONOMOY POINT LT. STATION, MASS., SHOWING PROPOSED ALTERATION AND IMPROVEMENT OF DWELLING. No. 1343. SHEET 3 of 5. July 1899. - Monomoy Point Light Station, Approximately 3500 feet Northeast Powder Hole Pond, Monomoy National Wildlife Refuge, Chatham, Barnstable County, MA

  18. 17. WEST ELEVATION. MONOMOY POINT LT. STATION, MASS., SHOWING PROPOSED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. WEST ELEVATION. MONOMOY POINT LT. STATION, MASS., SHOWING PROPOSED ALTERATION AND IMPROVEMENT OF DWELLING. No. 1343. Sheet 4 of 5. July 1899. - Monomoy Point Light Station, Approximately 3500 feet Northeast Powder Hole Pond, Monomoy National Wildlife Refuge, Chatham, Barnstable County, MA

  19. 14. FIRST FLOOR PLAN. MONOMOY POINT LT. STATION, MASS., SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. FIRST FLOOR PLAN. MONOMOY POINT LT. STATION, MASS., SHOWING PROPOSED ALTERATION AND IMPROVEMENT OF DWELLING. No. 1343. SHEET 1 of 5. July 1899. - Monomoy Point Light Station, Approximately 3500 feet Northeast Powder Hole Pond, Monomoy National Wildlife Refuge, Chatham, Barnstable County, MA

  20. 15. SECOND FLOOR PLAN. MONOMOY POINT LT. STATION, MASS., SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. SECOND FLOOR PLAN. MONOMOY POINT LT. STATION, MASS., SHOWING PROPOSED ALTERATION AND IMPROVEMENT OF DWELLING. No. 1343. SHEET 2 OF 5. July 1899. - Monomoy Point Light Station, Approximately 3500 feet Northeast Powder Hole Pond, Monomoy National Wildlife Refuge, Chatham, Barnstable County, MA

  1. 18. EXISTING FIRST FLOOR PLAN. MONOMOY POINT LT. STATION, MASS., ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. EXISTING FIRST FLOOR PLAN. MONOMOY POINT LT. STATION, MASS., SHOWING PROPOSED ALTERATION AND IMPROVEMENT OF DWELLING. No. 1343. Sheet 5 of 5. July 1899. - Monomoy Point Light Station, Approximately 3500 feet Northeast Powder Hole Pond, Monomoy National Wildlife Refuge, Chatham, Barnstable County, MA

  2. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: LOW TEMPERATURE THERMAL TREATMENT (LT3®) SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Roy F. Weston, Inc. (Weston) low temperature thermal treatment (LT3®) system thermally desorbs organic compounds from contaminated soil without heating the soil to combustion temperatures. The transportable system is comprised of equipment assembled on thre...

  3. Lactate Accumulation for Runners and Non-Runners during Various Exercise Tests,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-21

    individual reaches a point at which lactate begins to increase exponentially in the blood. Anaerobic threshold (AT) and lactate turning point (LTP) are terms...Workloads were assigned based upon a previous assessment of the subject’s anaerobic threshold , however, there was no indication of the individual’s...Vodak, 3.H. Wilmore, J. Vodak and P Kurtz. Anaerobic threshold and maximal aerobic power for three modes of exercise. J. Appl. Physiol. 41(4):544-550

  4. Six weeks of a polarized training-intensity distribution leads to greater physiological and performance adaptations than a threshold model in trained cyclists.

    PubMed

    Neal, Craig M; Hunter, Angus M; Brennan, Lorraine; O'Sullivan, Aifric; Hamilton, D Lee; De Vito, Giuseppe; Galloway, Stuart D R

    2013-02-15

    This study was undertaken to investigate physiological adaptation with two endurance-training periods differing in intensity distribution. In a randomized crossover fashion, separated by 4 wk of detraining, 12 male cyclists completed two 6-wk training periods: 1) a polarized model [6.4 (±1.4 SD) h/wk; 80%, 0%, and 20% of training time in low-, moderate-, and high-intensity zones, respectively]; and 2) a threshold model [7.5 (±2.0 SD) h/wk; 57%, 43%, and 0% training-intensity distribution]. Before and after each training period, following 2 days of diet and exercise control, fasted skeletal muscle biopsies were obtained for mitochondrial enzyme activity and monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) 1 and 4 expression, and morning first-void urine samples were collected for NMR spectroscopy-based metabolomics analysis. Endurance performance (40-km time trial), incremental exercise, peak power output (PPO), and high-intensity exercise capacity (95% maximal work rate to exhaustion) were also assessed. Endurance performance, PPOs, lactate threshold (LT), MCT4, and high-intensity exercise capacity all increased over both training periods. Improvements were greater following polarized rather than threshold for PPO [mean (±SE) change of 8 (±2)% vs. 3 (±1)%, P < 0.05], LT [9 (±3)% vs. 2 (±4)%, P < 0.05], and high-intensity exercise capacity [85 (±14)% vs. 37 (±14)%, P < 0.05]. No changes in mitochondrial enzyme activities or MCT1 were observed following training. A significant multilevel, partial least squares-discriminant analysis model was obtained for the threshold model but not the polarized model in the metabolomics analysis. A polarized training distribution results in greater systemic adaptation over 6 wk in already well-trained cyclists. Markers of muscle metabolic adaptation are largely unchanged, but metabolomics markers suggest different cellular metabolic stress that requires further investigation.

  5. [Bone histomorphometry of lactating and no lactating hyperthyroid rats].

    PubMed

    Serakides, Rogéria; Ocarino, Natália de Melo; Magalhães, Fernanda do Carmo; Souza, Cíntia de Almeida; Leite, Eveline Dias; Freitas, Edmilson Santos de

    2008-06-01

    The objective of this study was to verify if hyperthyroidism potentiates the osteopenia lactational. 24 adult female rats were distributed in four groups: euthyroid no lactating (control), euthyroid lactating, hyperthyroid no lactating and hyperthyroid lactating. 20 days after gestation, all the animals were necropsied. The thoracic and lumbar vertebrae, the femur and tibia were decalcified and processed for histomorphometric analysis. The euthyroid lactating group presented intense osteopenia in the studied bones. In the hyperthyroid no lactating group, there was not any change in trabecular bone percentage in none of the analyzed bone. In the hyperthyroid lactating group, there was osteopenia in the tibia and femur, similar to the one in the euthyroid lactating group. But the trabecular bone percentage in all the vertebral bodies was significantly larger in comparison with the euthyroid lactating group. It was concluded that the hyperthyroidism does not potentiate the osteopenia lactational in female rats, but it minimizes the vertebral osteopenia once it stimulates the osteoblastic activity.

  6. Effects of Long-Term Combination LT4 and LT3 Therapy for Improving Hypothyroidism and Overall Quality of Life.

    PubMed

    Tariq, Anam; Wert, Yijin; Cheriyath, Pramil; Joshi, Renu

    2018-06-01

    Hypothyroidism results in decreased mood and neurocognition, weight gain, fatigue, and many other undesirable symptoms. The American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, the American Thyroid Association (ATA), and The Endocrine Society recommend levothyroxine (LT4) monotherapy as the treatment for hypothyroidism; however, after years of monotherapy, some patients continue to experience impaired quality of life. Combination LT4 and synthetic liothyronine (LT3) therapy or the use of desiccated thyroid extract (DTE), has not been suggested for this indication based on short-duration studies with no significant benefits. Our first observational study examined the role of combination therapy for 6 years in improving quality of life in a subset of a hypothyroid population without adverse effects and cardiac mortality. An observational retrospective study examining patients prescribed thyroid replacements with serum triiodothyronine (FT3), LT4 with LT3 (synthetic therapy) or DTE (natural therapy), compared with LT4 alone in the United States from 2010 to 2016. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), serum thyroxine (FT4), and FT3 levels were documented for each patient in addition to any admissions of myxedema coma, thyrotoxicosis, or cardiovascular complications, such as arrhythmias, atrial fibrillation, and mortality. At the conclusion of the study, a cross-sectional interview assessed quality of life for each combination therapy through the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-20 questionnaire. Compared with patients taking only LT4, 89.47% using synthetic therapy had therapeutic TSH ( P < 0.05). Similarly, 96.49% using natural therapy had therapeutic TSH ( P < 0.05). Less than 5% of patients had supratherapeutic FT3. None of the patients who had abnormally low TSH or elevated FT3 or FT4 levels had hospitalizations for arrhythmias or thyrotoxicosis. On the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-20 questionnaire, >92% answered feeling "excellent, very good, or good" when

  7. Low temperature solid oxide electrolytes (LT-SOE): A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, B.; Ghosh, S.; Aich, S.; Roy, B.

    2017-01-01

    Low temperature solid oxide fuel cell (LT-SOFC) can be a source of power for vehicles, online grid, and at the same time reduce system cost, offer high reliability, and fast start-up. A huge amount of research work, as evident from the literature has been conducted for the enhancement of the ionic conductivity of LT electrolytes in the last few years. The basic conduction mechanisms, advantages and disadvantages of different LT oxide ion conducting electrolytes {BIMEVOX systems, bilayer systems including doped cerium oxide/stabilised bismuth oxide and YSZ/DCO}, mixed ion conducting electrolytes {doped cerium oxides/alkali metal carbonate composites}, and proton conducting electrolytes {doped and undoped BaCeO3, BaZrO3, etc.} are discussed here based on the recent research articles. Effect of various material aspects (composition, doping, layer thickness, etc.), fabrication methods (to achieve different microstructures and particle size), design related strategies (interlayer, sintering aid etc.), characterization temperature & environment on the conductivity of the electrolytes and performance of the fuel cells made from these electrolytes are shown in tabular form and discussed. The conductivity of the electrolytes and performance of the corresponding fuel cells are compared. Other applications of the electrolytes are mentioned. A few considerations regarding the future prospects are pointed.

  8. Automatic Threshold Detector Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-07-15

    Averaging CFAR in Non- Stationary Weibull Clutter, " L. Novak, (1974 IEEE Symposium on Information Theory ). 8. "The Weibull Distribution Applied to the... UGTS (K) ,Kml NPTS) 140 DO 153 K~lvNPT9 IF(SIGCSO(K) .LT.0. )SIOCSO(K).1 .E-50 IF(SIOWSO(K) .LT.0. )SIGWSQ(K)-1 .E-50 IF(SIONSG(K) .LT.O. )SIG3NSQCIO-1.E

  9. Two Levels of Caffeine Ingestion on Blood Lactate and Free Fatty Acid Responses during Incremental Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNaughton, Lars

    1987-01-01

    Research was conducted to determine the effects of two doses of caffeine on the lactate threshold and also to examine the effects on substrate utilization during incremental cycle ergometry. Results found that caffeine increased heart rates and free fatty acid levels for all workloads and decreased blood lactate levels at some of the workloads.…

  10. A functional antigen in a practical crop: LT-B producing maize protects mice against Escherichia coli heat labile enterotoxin (LT) and cholera toxin (CT).

    PubMed

    Chikwamba, Rachel; Cunnick, Joan; Hathaway, Diane; McMurray, Jennifer; Mason, Hugh; Wang, Kan

    2002-10-01

    We have produced a functional heat labile enterotoxin (LT-) B subunit of Escherichia coli in maize. LT-B is a multimeric protein that presents an ideal model for an edible vaccine, displaying stability in the gut and inducing mucosal and systemic immune responses. Transgenic maize was engineered to synthesize the LT-B polypeptides, which assembled into oligomeric structures with affinity for G(M1) gangliosides. We orally immunized BALB/c mice by feeding transgenic maize meal expressing LT-B or non-transgenic maize meal spiked with bacterial LT-B. Both treatments stimulated elevated IgA and IgG antibodies against LT-B and the closely related cholera toxin B subunit (CT-B) in serum, and elevated IgA in fecal pellets. The transgenic maize induced a higher anti-LT-B and anti-CT-B mucosal and serum IgA response compared to the equivalent amount of bacterial LT-B spiked into maize. Following challenge by oral administration of the diarrhea inducing toxins LT and CT, transgenic maize-fed mice displayed reduced fluid accumulation in the gut compared to non-immunized mice. Moreover, the gut to carcass ratio of immunized mice was not significantly different from the PBS (non-toxin) challenged control group. We concluded that maize-synthesized LT-B had features of the native bacterial LT-B such as molecular weight, G(M1) binding ability, and induction of serum and mucosal immunity. We have demonstrated that maize, a major food and feed ingredient, can be efficiently transformed to produce, accumulate, and store a fully assembled and functional candidate vaccine antigen.

  11. Oral immunisation of naive and primed animals with transgenic potato tubers expressing LT-B.

    PubMed

    Lauterslager, T G; Florack, D E; van der Wal, T J; Molthoff, J W; Langeveld, J P; Bosch, D; Boersma, W J; Hilgers, L A

    2001-03-21

    The efficacy of edible vaccines produced in potato tubers was examined in mice. Transgenic plants were developed by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. The antigen selected was the non-toxic B subunit of the Escherichia coli enterotoxin (recLT-B). A synthetic gene coding for recLT-B was made and optimised for expression in potato tubers and accumulation in the endoplasmic reticulum. Introduction of this gene under control of the tuber-specific patatin promoter in potato plants resulted in the production of functional, i.e. Gm1-binding, recLT-B pentamers in tubers. Selected tubers containing about 13 microg of recLT-B per gram fresh weight were used for immunisation. Subcutaneous immunisation with an extract of recLT-B tubers yielded high antibody titres in serum that were similar to those obtained with bacterial recLT-B. The efficacy of oral administration of recLT-B tubers was determined by measuring mucosal and systemic immune responses in naive and primed mice. Animals were primed by subcutaneous injection of an extract of recLT-B tuber plus adjuvant. Naive and primed mice were fed 5 g of tubers ( approximately 65 microg of recLT-B) or were intubated intragastrically with 0.4 ml of tuber extract ( approximately 2 microg of recLT-B). In naive mice, feeding recLT-B tubers or intubation of tuber extract did not induce detectable anti-LT antibody titres. In primed animals, however, oral immunisation resulted in significant anti-LT IgA antibody responses in serum and faeces. Intragastric intubation of tuber extract revealed higher responses than feeding of tubers. These results indicate clearly that functional recLT-B can be produced in potato tubers, that this recombinant protein is immunogenic and that oral administration thereof elicits both systemic and local IgA responses in parentally primed, but not naive, animals.

  12. Lymphotoxin beta receptor (Lt betaR): dual roles in demyelination and remyelination and successful therapeutic intervention using Lt betaR-Ig protein.

    PubMed

    Plant, Sheila R; Iocca, Heather A; Wang, Ying; Thrash, J Cameron; O'Connor, Brian P; Arnett, Heather A; Fu, Yang-Xin; Carson, Monica J; Ting, Jenny P-Y

    2007-07-11

    Inflammation mediated by macrophages is increasingly found to play a central role in diseases and disorders that affect a myriad of organs, prominent among these are diseases of the CNS. The neurotoxicant-induced, cuprizone model of demyelination is ideally suited for the analysis of inflammatory events. Demyelination on exposure to cuprizone is accompanied by predictable microglial activation and astrogliosis, and, after cuprizone withdrawal, this activation reproducibly diminishes during remyelination. This study demonstrates enhanced expression of lymphotoxin beta receptor (Lt betaR) during the demyelination phase of this model, and Lt betaR is found in areas enriched with microglial and astroglial cells. Deletion of the Lt betaR gene (Lt betaR-/-) resulted in a significant delay in demyelination but also a slight delay in remyelination. Inhibition of Lt betaR signaling by an Lt betaR-Ig fusion decoy protein successfully delayed demyelination in wild-type mice. Unexpectedly, this Lt betaR-Ig decoy protein dramatically accelerated the rate of remyelination, even after the maximal pathological disease state had been reached. This strongly indicates the beneficial role of Lt betaR-Ig in the delay of demyelination and the acceleration of remyelination. The discrepancy between remyelination rates in these systems could be attributed to developmental abnormalities in the immune systems of Lt betaR-/- mice. These findings bode well for the use of an inhibitory Lt betaR-Ig as a candidate biological therapy in demyelinating disorders, because it is beneficial during both demyelination and remyelination.

  13. A Systematic Review of Clinical Practice Guidelines' Recommendations on Levothyroxine Therapy Alone versus Combination Therapy (LT4 plus LT3) for Hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Kraut, Eyal; Farahani, Pendar

    2015-12-04

    Patients with hypothyroidism are increasingly enquiring about the benefit of using combination therapy of levothyroxine (LT4) and liothyronine (LT3) as a potential treatment for hypothyroidism. Combination therapy, however, remains controversial. The purpose of this study was to systematically review available hypothyroidism treatment recommendations from clinical practice guidelines from around the world to identify the consensus regarding combination therapy. Clinical practice guidelines were obtained from searches of PubMed, EMBASE, and MEDLINE, using several combinations of MeSH terms. The search was limited to clinical guidelines in English-language publications, published between January 1, 1990 and May 1, 2015. A quantitative approach was utilized for data synthesis. Thirteen guidelines were identified, including three regarding pregnancy, two regarding pediatric populations and eight regarding adult populations. There were six guidelines from North America, four guidelines from Europe and three guidelines from South America. Twelve of the guidelines were published after 2010. Nine guidelines addressed combination therapy of LT4 plus LT3, and all nine concluded that LT4 therapy alone is the standard of care, with insufficient evidence to recommend widespread combination therapy. Only the 2012 ETA Guidelines and the 2015 BTA Guidelines concluded that combination therapy could be used, although only in certain circumstances and as an experimental treatment. This systematic review illustrates that clinical practice guidelines worldwide do not recommend and do not support routine use of combination LT4 and LT3 therapy to treat hypothyroidism.

  14. Anaerobic Threshold: Its Concept and Role in Endurance Sport

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Asok Kumar

    2004-01-01

    aerobic to anaerobic transition intensity is one of the most significant physiological variable in endurance sports. Scientists have explained the term in various ways, like, Lactate Threshold, Ventilatory Anaerobic Threshold, Onset of Blood Lactate Accumulation, Onset of Plasma Lactate Accumulation, Heart Rate Deflection Point and Maximum Lactate Steady State. But all of these have great role both in monitoring training schedule and in determining sports performance. Individuals endowed with the possibility to obtain a high oxygen uptake need to complement with rigorous training program in order to achieve maximal performance. If they engage in endurance events, they must also develop the ability to sustain a high fractional utilization of their maximal oxygen uptake (%VO2 max) and become physiologically efficient in performing their activity. Anaerobic threshold is highly correlated to the distance running performance as compared to maximum aerobic capacity or VO2 max, because sustaining a high fractional utilization of the VO2 max for a long time delays the metabolic acidosis. Training at or little above the anaerobic threshold intensity improves both the aerobic capacity and anaerobic threshold level. Anaerobic Threshold can also be determined from the speed-heart rate relationship in the field situation, without undergoing sophisticated laboratory techniques. However, controversies also exist among scientists regarding its role in high performance sports. PMID:22977357

  15. Anaerobic threshold: its concept and role in endurance sport.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Asok Kumar

    2004-01-01

    aerobic to anaerobic transition intensity is one of the most significant physiological variable in endurance sports. Scientists have explained the term in various ways, like, Lactate Threshold, Ventilatory Anaerobic Threshold, Onset of Blood Lactate Accumulation, Onset of Plasma Lactate Accumulation, Heart Rate Deflection Point and Maximum Lactate Steady State. But all of these have great role both in monitoring training schedule and in determining sports performance. Individuals endowed with the possibility to obtain a high oxygen uptake need to complement with rigorous training program in order to achieve maximal performance. If they engage in endurance events, they must also develop the ability to sustain a high fractional utilization of their maximal oxygen uptake (%VO(2) max) and become physiologically efficient in performing their activity. Anaerobic threshold is highly correlated to the distance running performance as compared to maximum aerobic capacity or VO(2) max, because sustaining a high fractional utilization of the VO(2) max for a long time delays the metabolic acidosis. Training at or little above the anaerobic threshold intensity improves both the aerobic capacity and anaerobic threshold level. Anaerobic Threshold can also be determined from the speed-heart rate relationship in the field situation, without undergoing sophisticated laboratory techniques. However, controversies also exist among scientists regarding its role in high performance sports.

  16. Cost-effectiveness analysis of early point-of-care lactate testing in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Ward, Michael J; Self, Wesley H; Singer, Adam; Lazar, Danielle; Pines, Jesse M

    2016-12-01

    To determine the cost-effectiveness of implementing a point-of-care (POC) Lactate Program in the emergency department (ED) for patients with suspected sepsis to identify patients who can benefit from early resuscitation. We constructed a cost-effectiveness model to examine an ED with 30 000 patients annually. We evaluated a POC lactate program screening patients with suspected sepsis for an elevated lactate ≥4 mmol/L. Those with elevated lactate levels are resuscitated and their lactate clearance is evaluated by serial POC lactate measurements. The POC Lactate Program was compared with a Usual Care Strategy in which all patients with sepsis and an elevated lactate are admitted to the intensive care unit. Costs were estimated from the 2014 Medicare Inpatient and National Physician Fee schedules, and hospital and industry estimates. In the base-case, the POC Lactate Program cost $39.53/patient whereas the Usual Care Strategy cost $33.20/patient. The screened patients in the POC arm resulted in 1.07 quality-adjusted life years for an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $31 590 per quality-adjusted life year gained, well below accepted willingness-to-pay-thresholds. Implementing a POC Lactate Program for screening ED patients with suspected sepsis is a cost-effective intervention to identify patients responsive to early resuscitation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Loss Reduction on Adoption of High Voltage LT Less Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, Deepika; Adhikari, Nikhileshwar Prasad; Gupta, Amit; Bajpai, Santosh Kumar

    2016-06-01

    In India there is a need to improve the quality of the electricity distribution process which has increased varying from year to year. In distribution networks, the limiting factor to load carrying capacity is generally the voltage reduction. High voltage distribution system (HVDS) is one of the steps to reduce line losses in electrical distribution network. It helps to reduce the length of low tension (LT) lines and makes the power available close to the users. The high voltage power distribution system reduces the probability of power theft by hooking HVDS suggests an increase in installation of small capacity single-phase transformers in the network which again save considerable energy. This paper is compared to existing conventional low tension distribution network with HVDS. The paper gives a clear picture of reduction in distribution losses with adoption of HVDS system. Losses Reduction of 11 kV Feeder in Nuniya (India) with adoption of HVDS have been worked out/ quantified and benefits thereby in generating capacity have discussed.

  18. Lactating Mother and Psychotropic Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Tripathi, B. M.; Majumder, Pradipta

    2010-01-01

    Usage of psychotropics during pregnancy and lactation has always been a topic of debate and controversy. The debate stems from the potential adverse effects on the growing fetus or infants due to the transfer of psychotropic drugs through placenta or breast milk of mothers receiving them; and the problem of discontinuing psychotropics in lactating mother considering chances of relapse. However, most of the psychotropics are found to be relatively safe when used cautiously during the lactation phase. This article describes available data on the use of psychotropics in lactating mothers, in particular, in relation to the safety profile of infants. PMID:21327172

  19. SuperLab LT: Evaluation and Uses in Teaching Experimental Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ragozzine, Frank

    2002-01-01

    I describe and evaluate SuperLab LT (Chase & Abboud, 1990), a software package that enables students to replicate classic experiments in cognitive psychology. I also discuss the package with respect to its uses in teaching an undergraduate course in Experimental Psychology. Although the package has minor flaws, SuperLab LT provides numerous…

  20. Multiple defects in innate and adaptive immunologic function in NOD/LtSz-scid mice.

    PubMed

    Shultz, L D; Schweitzer, P A; Christianson, S W; Gott, B; Schweitzer, I B; Tennent, B; McKenna, S; Mobraaten, L; Rajan, T V; Greiner, D L

    1995-01-01

    The scid mutation was backcrossed ten generations onto the NOD/Lt strain background, resulting in an immunodeficient stock (NOD/LtSz-scid/scid) with multiple defects in adaptive as well as nonadaptive immunologic function. NOD/LtSz-scid/scid mice lack functional lymphoid cells and show little or no serum Ig with age. Although NOD/(Lt-)+/+ mice develop T cell-mediated autoimmune, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, NOD/LtSz-scid/scid mice are both insulitis- and diabetes-free throughout life. However, because of a high incidence of thymic lymphomas, the mean lifespan of this congenic stock is only 8.5 mo under specific pathogen-free conditions. After i.v. injection of human CEM T-lymphoblastoid cells, splenic engraftment of these cells was fourfold greater in NOD/LtSz-scid/scid mice than in C.B17/Sz-scid/scid mice. Although C.B-17Sz-scid/scid mice exhibit robust NK cell activity, this activity is markedly reduced in both NOD/(Lt-)+/+ and NOD/LtSz-scid/scid mice. Presence of a functionally less mature macrophage population in NOD/LtSz-scid/scid vs C.B-17Sz-scid/scid mice is indicated by persistence in the former of the NOD/Lt strain-specific defect in LPS-stimulated IL-1 secretion by marrow-derived macrophages. Although C.B-17Sz-scid/scid and C57BL/6Sz-scid/scid mice have elevated serum hemolytic complement activity compared with their respective +/+ controls, both NOD/(LtSz-)+/+ and NOD/LtSz-scid/scid mice lack this activity. Age-dependent increases in serum Ig levels (> 1 micrograms/ml) were observed in only 2 of 30 NOD/LtSz-scid/scid mice vs 21 of 29 C.B-17/Sz-scid/scid animals. The multiple defects in innate and adaptive immunity unique to the NOD/LtSz-scid/scid mouse provide an excellent in vivo environment for reconstitution with human hematopoietic cells.

  1. Studies of L-T Separated Kaon Electroproduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trotta, Richard; Horn, Tanja; Vargas, Andres

    2017-09-01

    QCD is characterized by two emergent phenomena: confinement and dynamical chiral symmetry breaking (DCSB). Pion and kaon form factors are of particular interest as they are connected to the Goldstone modes of DCSB. The flavor degrees of freedom of the produced meson selectively probe aspects of the reaction mechanism and the transition from hadronic to partonic degrees of freedom. There has been significant progress in the theoretical description of the nucleon structure in terms of QCD degrees of freedom, in particular through Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs).The last decade saw a dramatic improvement in precision of charged pion form factor data and new results have become available on the pion transition form factor. The kaon provides an interesting way to expand these studies, opening the possibility to access the production mechanism involving strangeness. Kaon data at larger virtual photon mass allow one to search for the onset of the partonic picture. In this regime, hard and soft physics have been shown to factorize and GPDs provide the most complete description of the non-perturbative physics. The lack of necessary experimental facilities has left a gap in L-T separated data for exclusive K + production from the proton above the resonance region.The newly upgraded 12 GeV beam energy at Jlab, in addition to the recently built SHMS spectrometer for Hall C, has provided an opportunity to expand the kaon data. Recent kaon form factor and cross section results will be discussed showing the impact of E12-09-011, the running Jlab 12 GeV kaon experiment. NSF Grants PHY1306227, PHY1306418 and PHY1530874.

  2. Life below the threshold.

    PubMed

    Castro, C

    1991-01-01

    This article explains that malnutrition, poor health, and limited educational opportunities plague Philippine children -- especially female children -- from families living below the poverty threshold. Nearly 70% of households in the Philippines do not meet the required daily level of nutritional intake. Because it is often -- and incorrectly -- assumed that women's nutritional requirements are lower than men's, women suffer higher rates of malnutrition and poor health. A 1987 study revealed that 11.7% of all elementary students were underweight and 13.9% had stunted growths. Among elementary-school girls, 17% were malnourished and 40% suffered from anemia (among lactating mothers, more than 1/2 are anemic). A 1988 Program for Decentralized Educational Development study showed that grade VI students learn only about 1/2 of what they are supposed to learn. 30% of the children enrolled in grade school drop out before they reach their senior year. The Department of Education, Culture and Sports estimates that some 2.56 million students dropped out of school in l989. That same year, some 3.7 million children were counted as part of the labor force. In Manila alone, some 60,000 children work the streets, whether doing odd jobs or begging, or turning to crime or prostitution. the article tells the story of a 12 year-old girl named Ging, a 4th grader at a public school and the oldest child in a poor family of 6 children. The undernourished Ging dreams of a good future for her family and sees education as a way out of poverty; unfortunately, her time after school is spend working in the streets or looking after her family. She considers herself luckier than many of the other children working in the streets, since she at least has a family.

  3. Effects of Altering Levothyroxine (L-T4) Doses on Quality of Life, Mood, and Cognition in L-T4 Treated Subjects.

    PubMed

    Samuels, Mary H; Kolobova, Irina; Niederhausen, Meike; Janowsky, Jeri S; Schuff, Kathryn G

    2018-05-01

    The brain is a critical target organ for thyroid hormone, but it is unclear whether variations in thyroid function within and near the reference range affect quality of life, mood, or cognition. A total of 138 subjects with levothyroxine (L-T4)-treated hypothyroidism and normal thyrotropin (TSH) levels underwent measures of quality of life (36-Item Short Form Health Survey, Underactive Thyroid-Dependent Quality of Life Questionnaire), mood (Profile of Mood States, Affective Lability Scale), and cognition (executive function, memory). They were then randomly assigned to receive an unchanged, higher, or lower L-T4 dose in double-blind fashion, targeting one of three TSH ranges (0.34 to 2.50, 2.51 to 5.60, or 5.61 to 12.0 mU/L). Doses were adjusted every 6 weeks based on TSH levels. Baseline measures were reassessed at 6 months. At the end of the study, by intention to treat, mean L-T4 doses were 1.50 ± 0.07, 1.32 ± 0.07, and 0.78 ± 0.08 μg/kg (P < 0.001), and mean TSH levels were 1.85 ± 0.25, 3.93 ± 0.38, and 9.49 ± 0.80 mU/L (P < 0.001), respectively, in the three arms. There were minor differences in a few outcomes between the three arms, which were no longer significant after correction for multiple comparisons. Subjects could not ascertain how their L-T4 doses had been adjusted (P = 0.55) but preferred L-T4 doses they perceived to be higher (P < 0.001). Altering L-T4 doses in hypothyroid subjects to vary TSH levels in and near the reference range does not affect quality of life, mood, or cognition. L-T4-treated subjects prefer perceived higher L-T4 doses despite a lack of objective benefit. Adjusting L-T4 doses in hypothyroid patients based on symptoms in these areas may not result in significant clinical improvement.

  4. 21 CFR 184.1311 - Ferrous lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... It is prepared by reacting calcium lactate or sodium lactate with ferrous sulfate, direct reaction of lactic acid with iron filings, reaction of ferrous chloride with sodium lactate, or reaction of ferrous...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1311 - Ferrous lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... prepared by reacting calcium lactate or sodium lactate with ferrous sulfate, direct reaction of lactic acid with iron filings, reaction of ferrous chloride with sodium lactate, or reaction of ferrous sulfate...

  6. Elevated lactate during psychogenic hyperventilation.

    PubMed

    ter Avest, E; Patist, F M; Ter Maaten, J C; Nijsten, M W N

    2011-04-01

    Elevated arterial lactate levels are closely related to morbidity and mortality in various patient categories. In the present retrospective study, the relation between arterial lactate, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (Pco(2)) and pH was systematically investigated in patients who visited the emergency department (ED) with psychogenic hyperventilation. Over a 5-month period, all the patients who visited the ED of a university hospital with presumed psychogenic hyperventilation were evaluated. Psychogenic hyperventilation was presumed to be present when an increased respiratory rate (>20 min) was documented at or before the ED visit and when somatic causes explaining the hyperventilation were absent. Arterial blood gas and lactate levels (reference values 0.5-1.5 mmol/l) were immediately measured by a point-of-care analyser that was managed and calibrated by the central laboratory. During the study period, 46 patients were diagnosed as having psychogenic hyperventilation. The median (range) Pco(2) for this group was 4.3 (2.0-5.5) kPa, the pH was 7.47 (7.40-7.68) and the lactate level was 1.2 (0.5-4.4) mmol/l. 14 participants (30%) had a lactate level above the reference value of 1.5 mmol/l. Pco(2) was the most important predictor of lactate in multivariate analysis. None of the participants underwent any medical treatment other than observation at the ED or had been hospitalised after their ED visit. In patients with psychogenic hyperventilation, lactate levels are frequently elevated. Whereas high lactates are usually associated with acidosis and an increased risk of poor outcome, in patients with psychogenic hyperventilation, high lactates are associated with hypocapnia and alkalosis. In this context, elevated arterial lactate levels should not be regarded as an adverse sign.

  7. The Application of LT-Table in TRIZ Contradiction Resolving Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Zihui; Li, Qinghai; Wang, Donglin; Tian, Yumei

    TRIZ is used to resolve invention problems. ARIZ is the most powerful systematic method which integrates all of TRIZ heuristics. Definition of ideal final result (IFR), identification of contradictions and resource utilization are main lines of ARIZ. But resource searching of ARIZ has fault of blindness. Alexandr sets up mathematical model of transformation of the hereditary information in an invention problem using the theory of catastrophes, and provides method of resource searching using LT-table. The application of LT-table on contradiction resolving is introduced. Resource utilization using LT-table is joined into ARIZ step as an addition of TRIZ, apply this method in separator paper punching machine design.

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT LASER TOUCH AND TECHNOLOGIES, LLC LASER TOUCH MODEL LT-B512

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Technology Verification report discusses the technology and performance of Laser Touch model LT-B512 targeting device manufactured by Laser Touch and Technologies, LLC, for manual spray painting operations. The relative transfer efficiency (TE) improved an avera...

  9. Genetic influences on ovulation of primary oocytes in LT/Sv strain mice.

    PubMed

    Everett, Clare A; Auchincloss, Catherine A; Kaufman, Matthew H; Abbott, Catherine M; West, John D

    2004-11-01

    A high proportion of LT/Sv strain oocytes arrest in meiotic metaphase I (MI) and are ovulated as diploid primary oocytes rather than haploid secondary oocytes. (Mus musculus castaneus x LT/SvKau)F1 x LT/SvKau backcross females were analysed for the proportion of oocytes that arrested in MI and typed by PCR for a panel of microsatellite DNA sequences (simple sequence repeat polymorphisms) that differed between strain LT/SvKau and M. m. castaneus. This provided a whole genome scan of 86 genetic markers distributed over all 19 autosomes and the X chromosome, and revealed genetic linkage of the MI arrest phenotype to markers on chromosomes 1 and 9. Identification of these two chromosomal regions should facilitate the identification of genes involved in mammalian oocyte maturation and the control of meiosis.

  10. LT1SWTR Form for Conventional or Direct Filtration 10K

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The LT1SWTR monthly report for turbidity and disinfection data contains the Daily Data Sheet for Combined Filter Effluent (CFE) Turbidity, Disinfectant Residual Data, and Individual Filter (IF) Turbidity Monitoring data.

  11. CARA Risk Assessment Thresholds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hejduk, M. D.

    2016-01-01

    Warning remediation threshold (Red threshold): Pc level at which warnings are issued, and active remediation considered and usually executed. Analysis threshold (Green to Yellow threshold): Pc level at which analysis of event is indicated, including seeking additional information if warranted. Post-remediation threshold: Pc level to which remediation maneuvers are sized in order to achieve event remediation and obviate any need for immediate follow-up maneuvers. Maneuver screening threshold: Pc compliance level for routine maneuver screenings (more demanding than regular Red threshold due to additional maneuver uncertainty).

  12. The Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745 strain shows protective effects against the B. anthracis LT toxin.

    PubMed

    Pontier-Bres, Rodolphe; Rampal, Patrick; Peyron, Jean-François; Munro, Patrick; Lemichez, Emmanuel; Czerucka, Dorota

    2015-10-30

    The probiotic yeast Saccharomyces boulardii (S. boulardii) has been prescribed for the prophylaxis and treatment of several infectious diarrheal diseases. Gastrointestinal anthrax causes fatal systemic disease. In the present study, we investigated the protective effects conferred by Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745 strain on polarized T84 columnar epithelial cells intoxicated by the lethal toxin (LT) of Bacillus anthracis. Exposure of polarized T84 cells to LT affected cell monolayer integrity, modified the morphology of tight junctions and induced the formation of actin stress fibers. Overnight treatment of cells with S. boulardii before incubation with LT maintained the integrity of the monolayers, prevented morphological modification of tight junctions, restricted the effects of LT on actin remodeling and delayed LT-induced MEK-2 cleavage. Mechanistically, we demonstrated that in the presence of S. boulardii, the medium is depleted of both LF and PA sub-units of LT and the appearance of a cleaved form of PA. Our study highlights the potential of the S. boulardii CNCM I-745 strain as a prophylactic agent against the gastrointestinal form of anthrax.

  13. The Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745 Strain Shows Protective Effects against the B. anthracis LT Toxin

    PubMed Central

    Pontier-Bres, Rodolphe; Rampal, Patrick; Peyron, Jean-François; Munro, Patrick; Lemichez, Emmanuel; Czerucka, Dorota

    2015-01-01

    The probiotic yeast Saccharomyces boulardii (S. boulardii) has been prescribed for the prophylaxis and treatment of several infectious diarrheal diseases. Gastrointestinal anthrax causes fatal systemic disease. In the present study, we investigated the protective effects conferred by Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745 strain on polarized T84 columnar epithelial cells intoxicated by the lethal toxin (LT) of Bacillus anthracis. Exposure of polarized T84 cells to LT affected cell monolayer integrity, modified the morphology of tight junctions and induced the formation of actin stress fibers. Overnight treatment of cells with S. boulardii before incubation with LT maintained the integrity of the monolayers, prevented morphological modification of tight junctions, restricted the effects of LT on actin remodeling and delayed LT-induced MEK-2 cleavage. Mechanistically, we demonstrated that in the presence of S. boulardii, the medium is depleted of both LF and PA sub-units of LT and the appearance of a cleaved form of PA. Our study highlights the potential of the S. boulardii CNCM I-745 strain as a prophylactic agent against the gastrointestinal form of anthrax. PMID:26529015

  14. A novel formulation of L-thyroxine (L-T4) reduces the problem of L-T4 malabsorption by coffee observed with traditional tablet formulations.

    PubMed

    Vita, Roberto; Saraceno, Giovanna; Trimarchi, Francesco; Benvenga, Salvatore

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this work is to evaluate if the coffee-associated malabsorption of tablet levothyroxine (L-T4) is reduced by soft gel capsule. We recruited 8 patients with coffee-associated L-T4 malabsorption including one hypothyroid patient. For 6 months, the patients were switched to the capsule maintaining the L-T4 daily dose. Patients took the capsule with water, having coffee 1 h later (proper habit, PH) on days 1-90, or with coffee ≤ 5 min later (improper habit, IH) on days 91-180. After 6 months, 2 patients volunteered for an acute loading test of 600 μg L-T4 (capsule) ingested with water (PH) or with coffee (IH). In the single hypothyroid patient, the post-switch TSH ranged 0.06-0.16 mU/L (PH) versus 5.8-22.4 mU/L pre-switch (PH) and 0.025-0.29 mU/L (IH) versus 26-34 mU/L pre-switch (IH). In the other 7 patients, post-switch TSH was 0.41 ± 0.46 (PH) versus 0.28 ± 0.20 pre-switch (PH) (P = 0.61) and 0.34 ± 0.30 (IH) versus 1.23 ± 1.47 pre-switch (IH) (P < 0.001). Importantly, TSH levels in PH versus IH habit did not differ post-switch (P = 0.90), but they did pre-switch (P < 0.0001). The proportions of post-switch TSH levels <0.10 mU/L with PH (33.3 %) or with IH (33.3 %) were borderline significantly greater than the corresponding pre-switch levels with PH (10.3 %) (P = 0.088) or with IH (0 %) (P = 0.0096). In the two volunteers, the L-T4 loading test showed that coffee influenced L-T4 pharmacokinetics minimally. Soft gel capsules can be used in patients who are unable/unwilling to change their IH of taking L-T4.

  15. A comparison of the lactate Pro, Accusport, Analox GM7 and Kodak Ektachem lactate analysers in normal, hot and humid conditions.

    PubMed

    Mc Naughton, L R; Thompson, D; Philips, G; Backx, K; Crickmore, L

    2002-02-01

    This study aimed to compare the performance of a new portable lactate analyser against other standard laboratory methods in three conditions, normal (20 +/- 1.3 degrees C; 40 +/- 5 % RH), hot (40 +/- 2.5 degrees C; 40 +/- 5 % RH), and humid (20 +/- 1.1 degrees C; 82 +/- 6 % RH) conditions. Seven healthy males, ([Mean +/- SE]: age, 26.3 +/- 1.3 yr; height, 177.7 +/- 1.6 cm; weight, 77.4 +/- 0.9 kg, .VO(2)max, 56.1 +/- 1.9 ml x kg x min(-1)) undertook a maximal cycle ergometry test to exhaustion in the three conditions. Blood was taken every 3 min at the end of each stage and was analysed using the Lactate Pro LT-1710, the Accusport, the Analox GM7 and the Kodak Ektachem systems. The MANOVA (Analyser Type x Condition x Workload) indicated no interaction effect (F(42,660), = 0.45, p > 0.99, Power = 0.53). The data across all workloads indicated that the machines measured significantly differently to each other (F(4,743) = 14.652, p < 0.0001, Power = 1.00). The data were moderately to highly correlated. We conclude that the Lactate Pro is a simple and effective measurement device for taking blood lactate in a field or laboratory setting. However, we would caution against using this machine to compare data from other machines.

  16. Threshold quantum cryptography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokunaga, Yuuki; Okamoto, Tatsuaki; Imoto, Nobuyuki

    2005-01-01

    We present the concept of threshold collaborative unitary transformation or threshold quantum cryptography, which is a kind of quantum version of threshold cryptography. Threshold quantum cryptography states that classical shared secrets are distributed to several parties and a subset of them, whose number is greater than a threshold, collaborates to compute a quantum cryptographic function, while keeping each share secretly inside each party. The shared secrets are reusable if no cheating is detected. As a concrete example of this concept, we show a distributed protocol (with threshold) of conjugate coding.

  17. ADAPTIVE THRESHOLD LOGIC.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The design and construction of a 16 variable threshold logic gate with adaptable weights is described. The operating characteristics of tape wound...and sizes as well as for the 16 input adaptive threshold logic gate. (Author)

  18. A Review of Worksite Lactation Accommodations.

    PubMed

    Hilliard, Elizabeth Dianne

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to examine workplace lactation accommodations, and their association with breastfeeding duration, and identify strategies occupational health professionals can use to promote lactation improvements. This study included literature published from 1985 through 2015 and listed in PubMed and CINAHL. Using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA), 11 articles were identified for review. Presence of a corporate lactation program, on-site child care, and return to work/telephone lactation consultation were consistently associated with breastfeeding at 6 months. Other breastfeeding accommodations (i.e., lactation spaces, lactation breaks, worksite lactation policies, and supervisor/coworker support) were not consistently associated with breastfeeding duration. Occupational health professionals can play key roles in improving the effectiveness of lactation accommodations. Assuring adequate implementation of accommodations, increasing communication and marketing of accommodations, and promoting supervisor and coworker support are areas that occupational health professionals should explore for improving lactation duration.

  19. Threshold Concepts in Biochemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loertscher, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Threshold concepts can be identified for any discipline and provide a framework for linking student learning to curricular design. Threshold concepts represent a transformed understanding of a discipline, without which the learner cannot progress and are therefore pivotal in learning in a discipline. Although threshold concepts have been…

  20. Influence of Fiber Type Composition and Capillary Density on Onset of Blood Lactate Accumulation,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-25

    changes referred to as aerobic and anaerobic thresholds as suggested by e.g. Skinner and McLellan (32). To assess the "breaking point", which re- presents...in man. Acta Physiol Scand Suppl 443, 1976. 37 Wasserman K., Whipp B., Koyal S., Beaver t’. : Anaerobic threshold and respiratory gas exchange during...onset of a net accumulation of lactate in blood, has been proposed to represent a metabolic shift from aerobic to revalent anaerobic energy contribution

  1. Effect of water-based recovery on blood lactate removal after high-intensity exercise.

    PubMed

    Lucertini, Francesco; Gervasi, Marco; D'Amen, Giancarlo; Sisti, Davide; Rocchi, Marco Bruno Luigi; Stocchi, Vilberto; Benelli, Piero

    2017-01-01

    This study assessed the effectiveness of water immersion to the shoulders in enhancing blood lactate removal during active and passive recovery after short-duration high-intensity exercise. Seventeen cyclists underwent active water- and land-based recoveries and passive water and land-based recoveries. The recovery conditions lasted 31 minutes each and started after the identification of each cyclist's blood lactate accumulation peak, induced by a 30-second all-out sprint on a cycle ergometer. Active recoveries were performed on a cycle ergometer at 70% of the oxygen consumption corresponding to the lactate threshold (the control for the intensity was oxygen consumption), while passive recoveries were performed with subjects at rest and seated on the cycle ergometer. Blood lactate concentration was measured 8 times during each recovery condition and lactate clearance was modeled over a negative exponential function using non-linear regression. Actual active recovery intensity was compared to the target intensity (one sample t-test) and passive recovery intensities were compared between environments (paired sample t-tests). Non-linear regression parameters (coefficients of the exponential decay of lactate; predicted resting lactates; predicted delta decreases in lactate) were compared between environments (linear mixed model analyses for repeated measures) separately for the active and passive recovery modes. Active recovery intensities did not differ significantly from the target oxygen consumption, whereas passive recovery resulted in a slightly lower oxygen consumption when performed while immersed in water rather than on land. The exponential decay of blood lactate was not significantly different in water- or land-based recoveries in either active or passive recovery conditions. In conclusion, water immersion at 29°C would not appear to be an effective practice for improving post-exercise lactate removal in either the active or passive recovery modes.

  2. Ultrafast carrier dynamics in LT-GaAs doped with Si delta layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khusyainov, D. I.; Dekeyser, C.; Buryakov, A. M.; Mishina, E. D.; Galiev, G. B.; Klimov, E. A.; Pushkarev, S. S.; Klochkov, A. N.

    2017-10-01

    We characterized the ultrafast properties of LT-GaAs doped with silicon δ-layers and introduced delta-doping (δ-doping) as efficient method for enhancing the properties of GaAs-based structures which can be useful for terahertz (THz) antenna, ultrafast switches and other high frequency applications. Low temperature grown GaAs (LT-GaAs) became one of the most promising materials for ultrafast optical and THz devices due to its short carrier lifetime and high carrier mobility. Low temperature growth leads to a large number of point defects and an excess of arsenic. Annealing of LT-GaAs creates high resistivity through the formation of As-clusters, which appear due to the excess of arsenic. High resistivity is very important for THz antennas so that voltage can be applied without the risk of breakdown. With δ-Si doping, control of As-clusters is possible, since after annealing, clusters align in the plane where the δ-doping occurs. In this paper, we compare the properties of LT-GaAs-based planar structures with and without δ-Si doping and subsequent annealing. We used pump-probe transient reflectivity as a probe for ultrafast carrier dynamics in LT-GaAs. The results of the experiment were interpreted using the Ortiz model and show that the δ-Si doping increases deep donor and acceptor concentrations and decreases the photoinduced carrier lifetime as compared with LT-GaAs with same growth and annealing temperatures, but without doping.

  3. Broadening and shifting of Bragg reflections of nanoscale-microtwinned LT-Ni3Sn2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leineweber, Andreas; Krumeich, Frank

    2013-12-01

    The effect of nanoscale microtwinning of long-range ordered domains in LT-Ni3Sn2 on its diffraction behaviour was studied by X-ray powder diffraction and electron microscopy. LT-Ni3Sn2 exhibits a Ni2In/NiAs-type structure with a superstructure breaking the symmetry relative to the hexagonal high-temperature (HT) to the orthorhombic low-temperature (LT) phase, implying three different twin-domain orientations. The microstructure was generated by annealing HT-Ni3Sn2 considerably below the order-disorder transition temperature, establishing the LT phase avoiding too much domain coarsening. High-resolution electron microscopy reveals domain sizes of 100-200 Å compatible with the Scherrer broadening of the superstructure reflections recorded by X-ray diffraction. Whereas the orthorhombic symmetry of the LT phase leads in powder-diffraction patterns from coarse-domain size material to splitting of the fundamental reflections, this splitting does not occur for the LT-Ni3Sn2 with nanoscale domains. Instead, a (pseudo)hexagonal indexing is possible giving hexagonal lattice parameters, which are, however, incompatible with the positions of the superstructure reflections. This can be attributed to interference between X-rays scattered by the differently oriented, truly orthorhombic domains leading to merging of the fundamental reflections. These show pronounced anisotropic microstrain-like broadening, where the integral breadths ? on the reciprocal d-spacing scale of a series of higher order reflection increase in a non-linear fashion with upward curvature with the reciprocal d-spacings ? of these reflections. Such a type of unusual microstrain broadening appears to be typical for microstructures which are inhomogeneous on the nanoscale, and in which the structural inhomogeneities lead to small phase shifts of the scattered radiation from different locations (e.g. domains).

  4. Lactate: link between glycolytic and oxidative metabolism.

    PubMed

    Brooks, George A

    2007-01-01

    Once thought to be the consequence of oxygen lack in contracting skeletal muscle, the glycolytic product lactate is formed and utilised continuously under fully aerobic conditions. 'Cell-cell' and 'intracellular lactate shuttle' concepts describe the roles of lactate in delivery of oxidative and gluconeogenic substrates as well as in cell signalling. Examples of cell-cell shuttles include lactate exchanges (i) between white-glycolytic and red-oxidative fibres within a working muscle bed; (ii) between working skeletal muscle and heart; and (iii) between tissues of net lactate release and gluconeogenesis. Lactate shuttles exist in diverse tissues including in the brain, where a shuttle between astrocytes and neurons is linked to glutamatergic signalling. Because lactate, the product of glycogenolysis and glycolysis, is disposed of by oxidative metabolism, lactate shuttling unites the two major processes of cellular energy transduction. Lactate disposal is mainly through oxidation, especially during exercise when oxidation accounts for 70-75% of removal and gluconeogenesis the remainder. Lactate flux occurs down proton and concentration gradients that are established by the mitochondrial lactate oxidation complex. Marathon running is a power activity requiring high glycolytic and oxidative fluxes; such activities require lactate shuttling. Knowledge of the lactate shuttle is yet to be imparted to the sport.

  5. A SEARCH FOR L/T TRANSITION DWARFS WITH PAN-STARRS1 AND WISE. II. L/T TRANSITION ATMOSPHERES AND YOUNG DISCOVERIES

    SciTech Connect

    Best, William M. J.; Liu, Michael C.; Magnier, Eugene A.

    The evolution of brown dwarfs from L to T spectral types is one of the least understood aspects of the ultracool population, partly for lack of a large, well-defined, and well-characterized sample in the L/T transition. To improve the existing census, we have searched ≈28,000 deg{sup 2} using the Pan-STARRS1 and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer surveys for L/T transition dwarfs within 25 pc. We present 130 ultracool dwarf discoveries with estimated distances ≈9–130 pc, including 21 that were independently discovered by other authors and 3 that were previously identified as photometric candidates. Seventy-nine of our objects have near-IR spectral types ofmore » L6–T4.5, the most L/T transition dwarfs from any search to date, and we have increased the census of L9–T1.5 objects within 25 pc by over 50%. The color distribution of our discoveries provides further evidence for the “L/T gap,” a deficit of objects with (J − K){sub MKO} ≈ 0.0–0.5 mag in the L/T transition, and thus reinforces the idea that the transition from cloudy to clear photospheres occurs rapidly. Among our discoveries are 31 candidate binaries based on their low-resolution spectral features. Two of these candidates are common proper motion companions to nearby main sequence stars; if confirmed as binaries, these would be rare benchmark systems with the potential to stringently test ultracool evolutionary models. Our search also serendipitously identified 23 late-M and L dwarfs with spectroscopic signs of low gravity implying youth, including 10 with vl-g or int-g gravity classifications and another 13 with indications of low gravity whose spectral types or modest spectral signal-to-noise ratio do not allow us to assign formal classifications. Finally, we identify 10 candidate members of nearby young moving groups (YMG) with spectral types L7–T4.5, including three showing spectroscopic signs of low gravity. If confirmed, any of these would be among the coolest known YMG

  6. 21 CFR 582.5311 - Ferrous lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5311 Ferrous lactate. (a) Product. Ferrous lactate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  7. 21 CFR 582.5311 - Ferrous lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5311 Ferrous lactate. (a) Product. Ferrous lactate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  8. 21 CFR 582.5311 - Ferrous lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5311 Ferrous lactate. (a) Product. Ferrous lactate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  9. 21 CFR 582.5311 - Ferrous lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5311 Ferrous lactate. (a) Product. Ferrous lactate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  10. 21 CFR 582.5311 - Ferrous lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5311 Ferrous lactate. (a) Product. Ferrous lactate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1311 - Ferrous lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... reacting calcium lactate or sodium lactate with ferrous sulfate, direct reaction of lactic acid with iron... section 412(a)(2) of the act (21 U.S.C. 350a(a)(2)). (d) Prior sanctions for this ingredient different...

  12. 21 CFR 582.1207 - Calcium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Additives § 582.1207 Calcium lactate. (a) Product. Calcium lactate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in accordance with good manufacturing or feeding practice. ...

  13. 21 CFR 582.1207 - Calcium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Additives § 582.1207 Calcium lactate. (a) Product. Calcium lactate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in accordance with good manufacturing or feeding practice. ...

  14. 21 CFR 582.1207 - Calcium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Additives § 582.1207 Calcium lactate. (a) Product. Calcium lactate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in accordance with good manufacturing or feeding practice. ...

  15. CSF lactate alone is not a reliable indicator of bacterial ventriculitis in patients with ventriculostomies.

    PubMed

    Hill, Emily; Bleck, Thomas P; Singh, Kamaljit; Ouyang, Bichun; Busl, Katharina M

    2017-06-01

    In a febrile patient with a ventriculostomy, diagnosing or excluding bacterial or microbial ventriculitis is difficult, as conventional markers in analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are not applicable due to presence of blood and inflammation. CSF lactate has been shown to be a useful indicator of bacterial meningitis in CSF obtained via lumbar puncture, but little and heterogenous data exist on patients with ventriculostomies. We reviewed all CSF analyses obtained via ventriculostomy in patients admitted to our tertiary medical center between 2008 and 2013, and constructed receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves to evaluate the accuracy of CSF lactate concentration in discriminating a positive CSF culture from a negative one in setting of ventriculostomy and prophylactic antibiosis. Among 467 CSF lactate values, there were 22 corresponding CSF cultures with bacterial growth. Sensitivities and specificities for CSF lactate at threshold values 3, 4, 5 and 6mmol/L showed sensitivity and specificity greater than 70% for CSF lactate threshold 4mmol/L. The lowest threshold value of 3mmol/L resulted in higher sensitivity of 81.8%, and the highest chosen threshold value resulted in high specificity of 94.2%, but these values had poor corresponding specificity and sensitivity, respectively. The area under the curve was 0.82 (95% CI 0.72, 0.91). Our data from a large sample of CSF studies in patients with ventriculostomy indicate that no single value of CSF lactate provided both sensitivity and specificity high enough to be regarded as reliable test. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. 21 CFR 582.1207 - Calcium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium lactate. 582.1207 Section 582.1207 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1207 Calcium lactate. (a) Product. Calcium lactate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  17. 21 CFR 582.1207 - Calcium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium lactate. 582.1207 Section 582.1207 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1207 Calcium lactate. (a) Product. Calcium lactate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  18. Continuous Seismic Threshold Monitoring

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-05-31

    Continuous threshold monitoring is a technique for using a seismic network to monitor a geographical area continuously in time. The method provides...area. Two approaches are presented. Site-specific monitoring: By focusing a seismic network on a specific target site, continuous threshold monitoring...recorded events at the site. We define the threshold trace for the network as the continuous time trace of computed upper magnitude limits of seismic

  19. Sampling Based Influence Maximization on Linear Threshold Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Su; Chen, Ling

    2018-04-01

    A sampling based influence maximization on linear threshold (LT) model method is presented. The method samples the routes in the possible worlds in the social networks, and uses Chernoff bound to estimate the number of samples so that the error can be constrained within a given bound. Then the active possibilities of the routes in the possible worlds are calculated, and are used to compute the influence spread of each node in the network. Our experimental results show that our method can effectively select appropriate seed nodes set that spreads larger influence than other similar methods.

  20. OBR-1-1/Fizika-LT(Letaushaya Tarelka/Flying Disk) experiment

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-04-24

    ISS019-E-010226 (24 April 2009) --- Cosmonaut Gennady Padalka, Expedition 19/20 commander, holds the OBR-1-1/?Fizika-LT? (Letaushaya Tarelka/Flying Disk) educational experiment, also called ?UFO?, in the Zvezda Service Module of the International Space Station. The OBR-1-1 is part of the OBRAZOVANIE (Education) suite of three educational demonstrations of physics in microgravity.

  1. LOW TEMPERATURE THERMAL TREATMENT (LT3®) TECHNOLOGY - ROY F. WESTON, INC. - APPLICATIONS ANALYSIS REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report evaluates the Low Temperature Thermal Treatment (LT3®) system's ability to remove VOC and SVOC compounds from solid wastes. This evaluation is based on treatment performance and cost data from the Superfund Innovative Technology (SITE) demonstration and fi...

  2. Rotavirus 2/6 Viruslike Particles Administered Intranasally with Cholera Toxin, Escherichia coli Heat-Labile Toxin (LT), and LT-R192G Induce Protection from Rotavirus Challenge

    PubMed Central

    O’Neal, Christine M.; Clements, John D.; Estes, Mary K.; Conner, Margaret E.

    1998-01-01

    We have shown that rotavirus 2/6 viruslike particles composed of proteins VP2 and VP6 (2/6-VLPs) administered to mice intranasally with cholera toxin (CT) induced protection from rotavirus challenge, as measured by virus shedding. Since it is unclear if CT will be approved for human use, we evaluated the adjuvanticity of Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin (LT) and LT-R192G. Mice were inoculated intranasally with 10 μg of 2/6-VLPs combined with CT, LT, or LT-R192G. All three adjuvants induced equivalent geometric mean titers of rotavirus-specific serum antibody and intestinal immunoglobulin G (IgG). Mice inoculated with 2/6-VLPs with LT produced significantly higher titers of intestinal IgA than mice given CT as the adjuvant. All mice inoculated with 2/6-VLPs mixed with LT and LT-R192G were totally protected (100%) from rotavirus challenge, while mice inoculated with 2/6-VLPs mixed with CT showed a mean 91% protection from challenge. The availability of a safe, effective mucosal adjuvant such as LT-R192G will increase the practicality of administering recombinant vaccines mucosally. PMID:9525668

  3. Pausing at the Threshold

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Patrick K.

    2015-01-01

    Since about 2003, the notion of threshold concepts--the central ideas in any field that change how learners think about other ideas--have become difficult to escape at library conferences and in general information literacy discourse. Their visibility will likely only increase because threshold concepts figure prominently in the Framework for…

  4. FUNDAMENTALS OF THRESHOLD LOGIC.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    These notes on threshold logic are intended as intermediary material between a completely geometric, heuristic presentation and the more formal...source material available in the literature. Basic definitions and simple properties of threshold function are developed, followed by a complete treatment

  5. Threshold Concepts in Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanahan, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine threshold concepts in the context of teaching and learning first-year university economics. It outlines some of the arguments for using threshold concepts and provides examples using opportunity cost as an exemplar in economics. Design/ Methodology/Approach: The paper provides an overview of the…

  6. Bayesian Threshold Estimation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gustafson, S. C.; Costello, C. S.; Like, E. C.; Pierce, S. J.; Shenoy, K. N.

    2009-01-01

    Bayesian estimation of a threshold time (hereafter simply threshold) for the receipt of impulse signals is accomplished given the following: 1) data, consisting of the number of impulses received in a time interval from zero to one and the time of the largest time impulse; 2) a model, consisting of a uniform probability density of impulse time…

  7. Diminution in energy expenditure during lactation.

    PubMed Central

    Illingworth, P J; Jung, R T; Howie, P W; Leslie, P; Isles, T E

    1986-01-01

    Energy expenditure at rest and in response to a meal and to an infusion of noradrenaline was measured in 12 lactating women and compared with that in seven bottle feeding women and seven non-pregnant, non-lactating controls. The energy response of the lactating women was remeasured after lactation stopped. During lactation the resting metabolic rate was unaltered but there was a reduced response to infusion of noradrenaline and to a meal, which increased to normal control values after lactation stopped. Such reductions in expenditure were not found in women who had been bottle feeding and were tested at a similar six to eight weeks post partum. These findings suggest that metabolic efficiency is enhanced in lactating women, who may not need to increase energy intake to the extent suggested by current recommended dietary allowances. PMID:3081114

  8. The Type II Heat-Labile Enterotoxins LT-IIa and LT-IIb and Their Respective B Pentamers Differentially Induce and Regulate Cytokine Production in Human Monocytic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hajishengallis, George; Nawar, Hesham; Tapping, Richard I.; Russell, Michael W.; Connell, Terry D.

    2004-01-01

    The type II heat-labile enterotoxins, LT-IIa and LT-IIb, exhibit potent adjuvant properties. However, little is known about their immunomodulatory activities upon interaction with innate immune cells, unlike the widely studied type I enterotoxins that include cholera toxin (CT). We therefore investigated interactions of LT-IIa and LT-IIb with human monocytic THP-1 cells. We found that LT-II enterotoxins were inactive in stimulating cytokine release, whereas CT induced low levels of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-8. However, all three enterotoxins potently regulated cytokine induction in cells activated by bacterial lipopolysaccharide or fimbriae. Induction of proinflammatory (tumor necrosis factor α [TNF-α]) or chemotactic (IL-8) cytokines was downregulated, whereas induction of cytokines with anti-inflammatory (IL-10) or mucosal adjuvant properties (IL-1β) was upregulated by the enterotoxins. These effects appeared to depend on their A subunits, because isolated B-pentameric subunits lacked regulatory activity. Enterotoxin-mediated inhibition of proinflammatory cytokine induction in activated cells was partially attributable to synergism for endogenous production of IL-10 and to an IL-10-independent inhibition of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) activation. In sharp contrast to the holotoxins, the B pentamers (LT-IIaB and, to a greater extent, LT-IIbB) stimulated cytokine production, suggesting a link between the absence of the A subunit and increased proinflammatory properties. In this regard, the ability of LT-IIbB to activate NF-κB and induce TNF-α and IL-8 was antagonized by the LT-IIb holotoxin. These findings support distinct immunomodulatory roles for the LT-II holotoxins and their respective B pentamers. Moreover, the anti-inflammatory properties of the holotoxins may serve to suppress innate immunity and promote the survival of the pathogen. PMID:15501764

  9. Breast pain in lactating mothers.

    PubMed

    Leung, S Sf

    2016-08-01

    The number of new mothers who breastfeed has increased dramatically over the last three decades. There is a concern that the present related medical service may be inadequate. Breast pain is the most common complaint among lactating mothers who seek medical help. This study aimed to investigate this problem. Medical records of women who presented with breast pain to a private clinic run by a doctor who was trained as an International Lactation Consultant were reviewed over a period of 6 months in 2015. Most patients were self-referred after chatting online. Assessment included characteristics and duration of pain, treatment prior to consultation, feeding practices, mother's diet, and breast examination. Any site of blockage was identified and relieved. Those with persistent pain were given antibiotics. When there were signs of abscess or abscess that could not be drained, they were referred to a breast surgeon. A total of 69 patients were seen of whom 45 had been breastfeeding for more than 1 month. Pain was experienced for longer than 7 days in 22 women. Antifungal or antibacterial treatment had been unsuccessful in 31 women prior to consultation. The diagnoses were engorgement in five women, blocked duct in 35, mastitis in 13, breast abscess in six, poor positioning and latch in seven, nipple cracks in two, and skin infection in one. Oral antibiotics were prescribed to 21 patients and local antifungal treatment was given to one patient only. Blocked duct was the most common cause of breast pain in lactating mothers. Without prompt relief it is possible that it will progress to mastitis/breast abscess or the mother may discontinue breastfeeding. This may be a suitable time for Hong Kong to set up one or more public full-time breastfeeding clinics to provide a better service to lactating mothers and to facilitate professional training and research.

  10. Advancements in the treatment of hypothyroidism with L-T4 liquid formulation or soft gel capsule: an update.

    PubMed

    Fallahi, Poupak; Ferrari, Silvia Martina; Ruffilli, Ilaria; Ragusa, Francesca; Biricotti, Marco; Materazzi, Gabriele; Miccoli, Paolo; Antonelli, Alessandro

    2017-05-01

    The most recent advance concerning levothyroxine (L-T4) therapy is the development of novel oral formulations: the liquid preparation, and the soft gel capsule. Areas covered: This review evaluates the most recent clinical studies about these new formulations. The liquid formulation has been shown to overcome: the food and beverages intereference with L-T4 tablets absorption, caused by food or coffee at breakfast; malabsorption induced by the increased gastric pH, resulting from atrophic gastritis, or due to proton-pump inhibitors; and malabsorption after bariatric surgery. The use of liquid L-T4 has been studied also in pregnancy, newborns and infants, suggesting a better bioequivalence than tablets. Finally, liquid L-T4 is more active than tablets in the control of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in hypothyroid patients without malabsorption, drug interference, or gastric disorders, leading to a hypothesized higher absorption of liquid L-T4 also in these patients. Few studies have evaluated soft gel L-T4 with promising results in patients with malabsorption related to coffee or gastritis. Expert opinion: Liquid L-T4 (and soft gel capsules) are more active than the tablet L-T4 in the control of TSH in hypothyroid patients with gastric disorders, malabsorption, or drug interference, but also in patients without absorption disorders.

  11. Threshold concepts in prosthetics.

    PubMed

    Hill, Sophie

    2017-12-01

    Curriculum documents identify key concepts within learning prosthetics. Threshold concepts provide an alternative way of viewing the curriculum, focussing on the ways of thinking and practicing within prosthetics. Threshold concepts can be described as an opening to a different way of viewing a concept. This article forms part of a larger study exploring what students and staff experience as difficult in learning about prosthetics. To explore possible threshold concepts within prosthetics. Qualitative, interpretative phenomenological analysis. Data from 18 students and 8 staff at two universities with undergraduate prosthetics and orthotics programmes were generated through interviews and questionnaires. The data were analysed using an interpretative phenomenological analysis approach. Three possible threshold concepts arose from the data: 'how we walk', 'learning to talk' and 'considering the person'. Three potential threshold concepts in prosthetics are suggested with possible implications for prosthetics education. These possible threshold concepts involve changes in both conceptual and ontological knowledge, integrating into the persona of the individual. This integration occurs through the development of memories associated with procedural concepts that combine with disciplinary concepts. Considering the prosthetics curriculum through the lens of threshold concepts enables a focus on how students learn to become prosthetists. Clinical relevance This study provides new insights into how prosthetists learn. This has implications for curriculum design in prosthetics education.

  12. Impact of System-Wide King LT Airway Implementation on Orotracheal Intubation.

    PubMed

    Hilton, Michael T; Wayne, Max; Martin-Gill, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Orotracheal intubation is a key component of prehospital airway management and success rates are dependent on procedural experience. Supraglottic airway devices are increasingly being used in the prehospital setting. As a result, paramedics may have fewer opportunities for performing intubation, limiting their proficiency in the procedure. We aimed to determine the trends in intubation versus supraglottic airway use over an 8 year period. We also aimed to determine the association between system-wide introduction of King LT guidelines and ETI success rates. We performed a retrospective observational study of 37 Emergency Medical Services (EMS) agencies in a 10 county region of Southwestern Pennsylvania. Cases between January 1, 2005 and December 31, 2012 were included if an advanced airway procedure was performed. We determined trends in advanced airway placement and compared the proportion of cases with first pass intubation success before and after the King LT was introduced and promoted by statewide protocol starting in 2007. Use of airway devices before and after King LT implementation were presented using descriptive statistics and compared using Pearson's Chi-square or Fishers Exact test as appropriate. We compared first pass success rate of orotracheal intubation between study periods using multivariable logistic regression, controlling for other factors that may impact success of orotracheal intubation (year, EMS agency, age category, traumatic injury, and cardiac arrest). There were 712 cases of orotracheal intubation before and 2,835 cases after introduction of the King LT. The proportion of cases ultimately managed with orotracheal intubation before and after 2007 decreased from 72.3% (95% CI 68.9-75.6%) to 67.1% (95% CI 65.3-68.8%) (p = 0.007). In the multivariable analysis, success of orotracheal intubation was not associated with implementation of the King LT airway (OR 1.02, 95% CI 0.74-1.41). Fewer patients with advanced airway management received

  13. Double Photoionization Near Threshold

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wehlitz, Ralf

    2007-01-01

    The threshold region of the double-photoionization cross section is of particular interest because both ejected electrons move slowly in the Coulomb field of the residual ion. Near threshold both electrons have time to interact with each other and with the residual ion. Also, different theoretical models compete to describe the double-photoionization cross section in the threshold region. We have investigated that cross section for lithium and beryllium and have analyzed our data with respect to the latest results in the Coulomb-dipole theory. We find that our data support the idea of a Coulomb-dipole interaction.

  14. Immunogenicity of recombinant LT-B delivered orally to humans in transgenic corn.

    PubMed

    Tacket, Carol O; Pasetti, Marcela F; Edelman, Robert; Howard, John A; Streatfield, Stephen

    2004-10-22

    Previous clinical studies have demonstrated the feasibility of using edible transgenic plants to deliver protective antigens as new oral vaccines. Transgenic corn is particularly attractive for this purpose since the recombinant antigen is stable and homogeneous, and corn can be formulated in several edible forms without destroying the cloned antigen. Transgenic corn expressing 1 mg of LT-B of Escherichia coli without buffer was fed to adult volunteers in three doses, each consisting of 2.1 g of plant material. Seven (78%) of nine volunteers developed rises in both serum IgG anti-LT and numbers of specific antibody secreting cells after vaccination. Four (44%) of nine volunteers also developed stool IgA. Transgenic plants represent a new vector for oral vaccine antigens.

  15. OBR-1-1/Fizika-LT(Letaushaya Tarelka/Flying Disk) experiment

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-04-24

    ISS019-E-010230 (24 April 2009) --- Cosmonaut Gennady Padalka, Expedition 19/20 commander, is pictured near the OBR-1-1/?Fizika-LT? (Letaushaya Tarelka/Flying Disk) educational experiment, also called ?UFO?, floating freely in the Zvezda Service Module of the International Space Station. The OBR-1-1 is part of the OBRAZOVANIE (Education) suite of three educational demonstrations of physics in microgravity.

  16. OBR-1-1/Fizika-LT(Letaushaya Tarelka/Flying Disk) experiment

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-04-24

    ISS019-E-010081 (24 April 2009) --- Cosmonaut Gennady Padalka, Expedition 19/20 commander, is pictured near the OBR-1-1/?Fizika-LT? (Letaushaya Tarelka/Flying Disk) educational experiment, also called ?UFO?, floating freely in the Zvezda Service Module of the International Space Station. The OBR-1-1 is part of the OBRAZOVANIE (Education) suite of three educational demonstrations of physics in microgravity.

  17. The Three Wars of Lt. Gen. George E. Stratemeyer. His Korean War Diary

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-01-01

    Powers (SCAP), he exercised command over all occupation forces and, in essence , ruled Japan; as Commander-in-Chief, Far East Command (CINCFE), he exercised... essence , he was attempting to make national policy himself and was giving the Chinese an ultimatum that the war would be extended to their mainland...LT. GEN. GEORGE E. STRATEMEYER : HIS KOREAN WAR DIARY 45. The Sykes report was, in essence , General Stratemeyer’s diary entries for those dates with

  18. After 23 years the yellow symbiotic star LT Del is again in outburst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munari, U.; Ochner, P.; Dallaporta, S.; Belligoli, R.

    2017-05-01

    The ANS Collaboration photometric and spectroscopic monitoring of symbiotic stars has detected LT Del (= Hen 2-467 = PK 063-12.1 = StHa 179) in outburst. This is the first recorded outburst since the last one of 1994-1995, which was discovered by Passuello et al. (1994, IAUC 6065) and described by Arkhipova et al. (1995a, ALett 21, 339; 1995b, ALett 21, 391).

  19. Exogenous lactate supply affects lactate kinetics of rainbow trout, not swimming performance

    PubMed Central

    Omlin, Teye; Langevin, Karolanne

    2014-01-01

    Intense swimming causes circulatory lactate accumulation in rainbow trout because lactate disposal (Rd) is not stimulated as strongly as lactate appearance (Ra). This mismatch suggests that maximal Rd is limited by tissue capacity to metabolize lactate. This study uses exogenous lactate to investigate what constrains maximal Rd and minimal Ra. Our goals were to determine how exogenous lactate affects: 1) Ra and Rd of lactate under baseline conditions or during graded swimming, and 2) exercise performance (critical swimming speed, Ucrit) and energetics (cost of transport, COT). Results show that exogenous lactate allows swimming trout to boost maximal Rd lactate by 40% and reach impressive rates of 56 μmol·kg−1·min−1. This shows that the metabolic capacity of tissues for lactate disposal is not responsible for setting the highest Rd normally observed after intense swimming. Baseline endogenous Ra (resting in normoxic water) is not significantly reduced by exogenous lactate supply. Therefore, trout have an obligatory need to produce lactate, either as a fuel for oxidative tissues and/or from organs relying on glycolysis. Exogenous lactate does not affect Ucrit or COT, probably because it acts as a substitute for glucose and lipids rather than extra fuel. We conclude that the observed 40% increase in Rd lactate is made possible by accelerating lactate entry into oxidative tissues via monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs). This observation together with the weak expression of MCTs and the phenomenon of white muscle lactate retention show that lactate metabolism of rainbow trout is significantly constrained by transmembrane transport. PMID:25121611

  20. Nanoscale characterization and local piezoelectric properties of lead-free KNN-LT-LS thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abazari, M.; Choi, T.; Cheong, S.-W.; Safari, A.

    2010-01-01

    We report the observation of domain structure and piezoelectric properties of pure and Mn-doped (K0.44,Na0.52,Li0.04)(Nb0.84,Ta0.1,Sb0.06)O3 (KNN-LT-LS) thin films on SrTiO3 substrates. It is revealed that, using piezoresponse force microscopy, ferroelectric domain structure in such 500 nm thin films comprised of primarily 180° domains. This was in accordance with the tetragonal structure of the films, confirmed by relative permittivity measurements and x-ray diffraction patterns. Effective piezoelectric coefficient (d33) of the films were calculated using piezoelectric displacement curves and shown to be ~53 pm V-1 for pure KNN-LT-LS thin films. This value is among the highest values reported for an epitaxial lead-free thin film and shows a great potential for KNN-LT-LS to serve as an alternative to PZT thin films in future applications.

  1. Twist-3 fragmentation effects for A LT in light hadron production from proton-proton collisions

    DOE PAGES

    Koike, Y.; Pitonyak, D.; Takagi, Y.; ...

    2015-11-11

    Here, we compute the contribution from the twist-3 fragmentation function for light hadron production in collisions between transversely and longitudinally polarized protons, i.e., View the MathML sourcep↑p →→hX, which can cause a double-spin asymmetry (DSA) A LT. This is a naïve T-even twist-3 observable that we analyze in collinear factorization using both Feynman gauge and lightcone gauge as well as give a general proof of color gauge invariance. So far only twist-3 effects in the transversely polarized proton have been studied for A LT in p↑p →→hX. However, there are indications that the naïve T-odd transverse single-spin asymmetry (SSA) Amore » N in p↑p→hX is dominated not by such distribution effects but rather by a fragmentation mechanism. Therefore, one may expect similarly that the fragmentation contribution is important for A LT. As a result, given possible plans at RHIC to measure this observable, it is timely to provide a calculation of this term.« less

  2. HP LT Variscan metamorphism in the Cubito-Moura schists (Ossa-Morena Zone, southern Iberia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth-Rea, Guillermo; Simancas, José Fernando; Azor, Antonio; Azañón, José Miguel; González-Lodeiro, Francisco; Fonseca, Paulo

    2006-12-01

    Multi-equilibrium thermobarometry shows that low-grade metapelites (Cubito-Moura schists) from the Ossa-Morena Zone underwent HP-LT metamorphism from 340-370 °C at 1.0-0.9 GPa to 400-450 °C at 0.8-0.7 GPa. These HP-LT equilibriums were reached by parageneses including white K mica, chlorite and chloritoid, which define the earliest schistosity (S 1) in these rocks. The main foliation in the schists is a crenulation cleavage (S 2), which developed during decompression from 0.8-0.7 to 0.4-0.3 GPa at increasing temperatures from 400-450 °C to 440-465 °C. Fe 3+ in chlorite decreased greatly during prograde metamorphism from molar fractions of 0.4 determined in syn-S 1 chlorites down to 0.1 in syn-S 2 chlorites. These new data add to previous findings of eclogites in the Moura schists indicating that a pile of allochtonous rocks situated next to the Beja-Acebuches oceanic amphibolites underwent HP-LT metamorphism during the Variscan orogeny. To cite this article: G. Booth-Rea et al., C. R. Geoscience 338 (2006).

  3. The effect of rider weight and additional weight in Icelandic horses in tölt: part I. Physiological responses.

    PubMed

    Stefánsdóttir, G J; Gunnarsson, V; Roepstorff, L; Ragnarsson, S; Jansson, A

    2017-09-01

    This study examined the effect of increasing BW ratio (BWR) between rider and horse, in the BWR range common for Icelandic horses (20% to 35%), on heart rate (HR), plasma lactate concentration (Lac), BWR at Lac 4 mmol/l (W4), breathing frequency (BF), rectal temperature (RT) and hematocrit (Hct) in Icelandic horses. In total, eight experienced school-horses were used in an incremental exercise test performed outdoors on an oval riding track and one rider rode all horses. The exercise test consisted of five phases (each 642 m) in tölt, a four-beat symmetrical gait, at a speed of 5.4±0.1 m/s (mean±SD), where BWR between rider (including saddle) and horse started at 20% (BWR20), was increased to 25% (BWR25), 30% (BWR30), and 35% (BWR35) and finally decreased to 20% (BWR20b). Between phases, the horses were stopped (~5.5 min) to add lead weights to specially adjusted saddle bags and a vest on the rider. Heart rate was measured during warm-up, the exercise test and after 5, 15 and 30 min of recovery and blood samples were taken and BF recorded at rest, and at end of each of these aforementioned occasions. Rectal temperature was measured at rest, at end of the exercise test and after a 30-min recovery period. Body size and body condition score (BCS) were registered and a clinical examination performed on the day before the test and for 2 days after. Heart rate and BF increased linearly (P0.05), but negative correlations (P<0.05) existed between body size measurements and Hct. While HR, Hct and BF recovered to values at rest within 30 min, Lac and RT did not. All horses had no clinical remarks on palpation and at walk 1 and 2 days after the test. In conclusion, increasing BWR from 20% to 35% resulted in increased HR, Lac, RT and BF responses in the test group of experienced adult Icelandic riding horses. The horses mainly worked aerobically until BWR reached 22.7%, but considerable individual differences (17.0% to 27.5%) existed that were not linked to horse size, but

  4. MaLT - Combined Motor and Language Therapy Tool for Brain Injury Patients Using Kinect.

    PubMed

    Wairagkar, Maitreyee; McCrindle, Rachel; Robson, Holly; Meteyard, Lotte; Sperrin, Malcom; Smith, Andy; Pugh, Moyra

    2017-03-23

    The functional connectivity and structural proximity of elements of the language and motor systems result in frequent co-morbidity post brain injury. Although rehabilitation services are becoming increasingly multidisciplinary and "integrated", treatment for language and motor functions often occurs in isolation. Thus, behavioural therapies which promote neural reorganisation do not reflect the high intersystem connectivity of the neurologically intact brain. As such, there is a pressing need for rehabilitation tools which better reflect and target the impaired cognitive networks. The objective of this research is to develop a combined high dosage therapy tool for language and motor rehabilitation. The rehabilitation therapy tool developed, MaLT (Motor and Language Therapy), comprises a suite of computer games targeting both language and motor therapy that use the Kinect sensor as an interaction device. The games developed are intended for use in the home environment over prolonged periods of time. In order to track patients' engagement with the games and their rehabilitation progress, the game records patient performance data for the therapist to interrogate. MaLT incorporates Kinect-based games, a database of objects and language parameters, and a reporting tool for therapists. Games have been developed that target four major language therapy tasks involving single word comprehension, initial phoneme identification, rhyme identification and a naming task. These tasks have 8 levels each increasing in difficulty. A database of 750 objects is used to programmatically generate appropriate questions for the game, providing both targeted therapy and unique gameplay every time. The design of the games has been informed by therapists and by discussions with a Public Patient Involvement (PPI) group. Pilot MaLT trials have been conducted with three stroke survivors for the duration of 6 to 8 weeks. Patients' performance is monitored through MaLT's reporting facility

  5. Hydrodynamics of sediment threshold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Sk Zeeshan; Dey, Subhasish

    2016-07-01

    A novel hydrodynamic model for the threshold of cohesionless sediment particle motion under a steady unidirectional streamflow is presented. The hydrodynamic forces (drag and lift) acting on a solitary sediment particle resting over a closely packed bed formed by the identical sediment particles are the primary motivating forces. The drag force comprises of the form drag and form induced drag. The lift force includes the Saffman lift, Magnus lift, centrifugal lift, and turbulent lift. The points of action of the force system are appropriately obtained, for the first time, from the basics of micro-mechanics. The sediment threshold is envisioned as the rolling mode, which is the plausible mode to initiate a particle motion on the bed. The moment balance of the force system on the solitary particle about the pivoting point of rolling yields the governing equation. The conditions of sediment threshold under the hydraulically smooth, transitional, and rough flow regimes are examined. The effects of velocity fluctuations are addressed by applying the statistical theory of turbulence. This study shows that for a hindrance coefficient of 0.3, the threshold curve (threshold Shields parameter versus shear Reynolds number) has an excellent agreement with the experimental data of uniform sediments. However, most of the experimental data are bounded by the upper and lower limiting threshold curves, corresponding to the hindrance coefficients of 0.2 and 0.4, respectively. The threshold curve of this study is compared with those of previous researchers. The present model also agrees satisfactorily with the experimental data of nonuniform sediments.

  6. Designing an efficient LT-code with unequal error protection for image transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    S. Marques, F.; Schwartz, C.; Pinho, M. S.; Finamore, W. A.

    2015-10-01

    The use of images from earth observation satellites is spread over different applications, such as a car navigation systems and a disaster monitoring. In general, those images are captured by on board imaging devices and must be transmitted to the Earth using a communication system. Even though a high resolution image can produce a better Quality of Service, it leads to transmitters with high bit rate which require a large bandwidth and expend a large amount of energy. Therefore, it is very important to design efficient communication systems. From communication theory, it is well known that a source encoder is crucial in an efficient system. In a remote sensing satellite image transmission, this efficiency is achieved by using an image compressor, to reduce the amount of data which must be transmitted. The Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS), a multinational forum for the development of communications and data system standards for space flight, establishes a recommended standard for a data compression algorithm for images from space systems. Unfortunately, in the satellite communication channel, the transmitted signal is corrupted by the presence of noise, interference signals, etc. Therefore, the receiver of a digital communication system may fail to recover the transmitted bit. Actually, a channel code can be used to reduce the effect of this failure. In 2002, the Luby Transform code (LT-code) was introduced and it was shown that it was very efficient when the binary erasure channel model was used. Since the effect of the bit recovery failure depends on the position of the bit in the compressed image stream, in the last decade many e orts have been made to develop LT-code with unequal error protection. In 2012, Arslan et al. showed improvements when LT-codes with unequal error protection were used in images compressed by SPIHT algorithm. The techniques presented by Arslan et al. can be adapted to work with the algorithm for image compression

  7. Mitochondrial threshold effects.

    PubMed Central

    Rossignol, Rodrigue; Faustin, Benjamin; Rocher, Christophe; Malgat, Monique; Mazat, Jean-Pierre; Letellier, Thierry

    2003-01-01

    The study of mitochondrial diseases has revealed dramatic variability in the phenotypic presentation of mitochondrial genetic defects. To attempt to understand this variability, different authors have studied energy metabolism in transmitochondrial cell lines carrying different proportions of various pathogenic mutations in their mitochondrial DNA. The same kinds of experiments have been performed on isolated mitochondria and on tissue biopsies taken from patients with mitochondrial diseases. The results have shown that, in most cases, phenotypic manifestation of the genetic defect occurs only when a threshold level is exceeded, and this phenomenon has been named the 'phenotypic threshold effect'. Subsequently, several authors showed that it was possible to inhibit considerably the activity of a respiratory chain complex, up to a critical value, without affecting the rate of mitochondrial respiration or ATP synthesis. This phenomenon was called the 'biochemical threshold effect'. More recently, quantitative analysis of the effects of various mutations in mitochondrial DNA on the rate of mitochondrial protein synthesis has revealed the existence of a 'translational threshold effect'. In this review these different mitochondrial threshold effects are discussed, along with their molecular bases and the roles that they play in the presentation of mitochondrial diseases. PMID:12467494

  8. A longitudinal study on the ammonia threshold in junior cyclists

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Y; Chan, K

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To identify the effect of a one year non-specific training programme on the ammonia threshold of a group of junior cyclists and to correlate ammonia threshold with other common physiological variables. Methods: The cyclists performed tests at three time points (T1, T2, T3) during the year. Follow up tests were conducted every six months after the original test. Ammonia threshold was obtained from a graded exercise with four minute steps. Results: The relatively non-specific one year training programme was effective in inducing an increase in peak VO2 (60.6 (5.9), 65.9 (7.4), and 64.6 (6.5) ml/min/kg at T1, T2, and T3 respectively) and endurance time (18.3 (4.5), 20.1 (5.2), and 27.0 (6.1) minutes at T1, T2, and T3 respectively), but was not effective for the sprint related variables. Ammonia threshold, together with lactate threshold and ventilatory threshold, was not significantly different at the three test times. Only endurance time correlated significantly with ammonia threshold (r  =  0.915, p  =  0.001). Conclusions: The findings suggest that a relatively non-specific one year training programme does not modify the ammonia threshold of junior cyclists. The significant correlation between ammonia threshold and endurance time further confirms that ammonia threshold is a measure of the ability to sustain exercise at submaximal intensities. PMID:15039242

  9. Survey of A{sub LT'} asymmetries in semi-exclusive electron scattering on He4 and C12

    SciTech Connect

    Dan Protopopescu; et. Al.

    2005-02-21

    Single spin azimuthal asymmetries A{sub LT'} were measured at Jefferson Lab using 2.2 and 4.4 GeV longitudinally polarized electrons incident on {sup 4}He and {sup 12}C targets in the CLAS detector. A{sub LT'} is related to the imaginary part of the longitudinal-transverse interference and in quasifree nucleon knockout it provides an unambiguous signature for final state interactions (FSI). Experimental values of A{sub LT'} were found to be below 5%, typically |A{sub LT'}| < 3% for data with good statistical precision. Optical Model in Eikonal Approximation (OMEA) and Relativistic Multiple-Scattering Glauber Approximation (RMSGA) calculations are shown to be consistent with themore » measured asymmetries.« less

  10. 21 CFR 73.165 - Ferrous lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ferrous lactate. 73.165 Section 73.165 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.165 Ferrous lactate. (a) Identity. The color additive ferrous...

  11. 21 CFR 73.165 - Ferrous lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ferrous lactate. 73.165 Section 73.165 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.165 Ferrous lactate. (a) Identity. The color additive ferrous...

  12. 21 CFR 73.165 - Ferrous lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ferrous lactate. 73.165 Section 73.165 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.165 Ferrous lactate. (a) Identity. The color additive ferrous...

  13. 21 CFR 73.165 - Ferrous lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ferrous lactate. 73.165 Section 73.165 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.165 Ferrous lactate. (a) Identity. The color additive ferrous...

  14. 21 CFR 73.165 - Ferrous lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ferrous lactate. 73.165 Section 73.165 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.165 Ferrous lactate. (a) Identity. The color additive ferrous...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1768 - Sodium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ....1768 Sodium lactate. (a) Sodium lactate (C3H5O3Na, CAS Reg. No. 72-17-3) is the sodium salt of lactic acid. It is prepared commercially by the neutralization of lactic acid with sodium hydroxide. (b) The... ingredient is used in food at levels not to exceed current good manufacturing practice. (d) Prior sanctions...

  16. Lactation performance of rural Mesoamerindians.

    PubMed

    Villalpando, S F; Butte, N F; Wong, W W; Flores-Huerta, S; Hernandez-Beltran, M J; Smith, E O; Garza, C

    1992-05-01

    Anthropometry, body composition and dietary intake of 30 lactating Otomi Indians of Capulhuac, Mexico, were studied to identify maternal factors which potentially limit lactation and thereby infant growth. Human milk production, milk composition, and maternal dietary intake, body weight, skinfold thicknesses, and body composition were measured at 4 and 6 months postpartum. The 2H2O dose-to-mother method was used to estimate milk production and maternal total body water (TBW). Fat-free mass (FFM) was calculated as TBW/0.73. Body fat was computed as body weight minus FFM. Human milk samples were analyzed for energy, nitrogen, lactose and fat using standard analytical methods. Maternal diet was assessed by three 24-h intake recalls. Mean (SD) milk production was 885 (146) and 869 (150) g/d at 4 and 6 months, respectively. Milk concentrations of protein nitrogen (1.23 (0.17) mg/g) and lactose (66.6 (2.8) mg/g) were comparable to, but the concentrations of fat (22.2 (6.7) mg/g) and energy (0.54 (0.06) kcal/g) were lower than, values observed in economically privileged populations. Maternal height, weight, and BMI were 1.47 (0.06) m, 50.3 (6.0) kg, and 23.4 (3.1) kg/m2, respectively. Maternal TBW, FFM and body fat were 55.8 (4.6)%, 76.4 (6.3)%, and 23.6 (6.4)%, expressed as a percentage of body weight, respectively. Maternal energy and protein intakes averaged 1708 (338) kcal/d and 40 (10) g/d, respectively. Milk production was negatively correlated with maternal body fat (P = 0.006). Energy and fat concentrations in the milk of the Otomi women were positively related to their weight (P = 0.002), BMI (P = 0.05), and body fat (P = 0.004). Energy concentrations in milk were not related to rates of milk production (r = 0.24; P = 0.23). Nor was milk production or composition significantly associated with maternal dietary intake. Lactation performance of these Otomi women correlated significantly with maternal body size and composition, but not current dietary intake.

  17. Detection of the change point in oxygen uptake during an incremental exercise test using recursive residuals: relationship to the plasma lactate accumulation and blood acid base balance.

    PubMed

    Zoladz, J A; Szkutnik, Z; Majerczak, J; Duda, K

    1998-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a method to determine the power output at which oxygen uptake (VO2) during an incremental exercise test begins to rise non-linearly. A group of 26 healthy non-smoking men [mean age 22.1 (SD 1.4) years, body mass 73.6 (SD 7.4) kg, height 179.4 (SD 7.5) cm, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) 3.726 (SD 0.363) l x min(-1)], experienced in laboratory tests, were the subjects in this study. They performed an incremental exercise test on a cycle ergometer at a pedalling rate of 70 rev x min(-1). The test started at a power output of 30 W, followed by increases amounting to 30 W every 3 min. At 5 min prior to the first exercise intensity, at the end of each stage of exercise protocol, blood samples (1 ml each) were taken from an antecubital vein. The samples were analysed for plasma lactate concentration [La]pl, partial pressure of O2 and CO2 and hydrogen ion concentration [H+]b. The lactate threshold (LT) in this study was defined as the highest power output above which [La-]pl showed a sustained increase of more than 0.5 mmol x l(-1) x step(-1). The VO2 was measured breath-by-breath. In the analysis of the change point (CP) of VO2 during the incremental exercise test, a two-phase model was assumed for the 3rd-min-data of each step of the test: Xi = at(i) + b + epsilon(i) for i = 1,2, ..., T, and E(Xi) > at(i) + b for i = T + 1, ..., n, where X1, ..., Xn are independent and epsilon(i) approximately N(0, sigma2). In the first phase, a linear relationship between VO2 and power output was assumed, whereas in the second phase an additional increase in VO2 above the values expected from the linear model was allowed. The power output at which the first phase ended was called the change point in oxygen uptake (CP-VO2). The identification of the model consisted of two steps: testing for the existence of CP and estimating its location. Both procedures were based on suitably normalised recursive residuals. We showed that in 25 out of 26 subjects

  18. CysLT2 receptor activation is involved in LTC4-induced lung air-trapping in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Sekioka, Tomohiko; Kadode, Michiaki; Yonetomi, Yasuo; Kamiya, Akihiro; Fujita, Manabu; Nabe, Takeshi; Kawabata, Kazuhito

    2017-01-05

    CysLT 1 receptors are known to be involved in the pathogenesis of asthma. However, the functional roles of CysLT 2 receptors in this condition have not been determined. The purpose of this study is to develop an experimental model of CysLT 2 receptor-mediated LTC 4 -induced lung air-trapping in guinea pigs and use this model to clarify the mechanism underlying response to such trapping. Because LTC 4 is rapidly converted to LTD 4 by γ-glutamyltranspeptidase (γ-GTP) under physiological conditions, S-hexyl GSH was used as a γ-GTP inhibitor. In anesthetized artificially ventilated guinea pigs with no S-hexyl GSH treatment, i.v. LTC 4 -induced bronchoconstriction was almost completely inhibited by montelukast, a CysLT 1 receptor antagonist, but not by BayCysLT 2 RA, a CysLT 2 receptor antagonist. The inhibitory effect of montelukast was diminished by treatment with S-hexyl GSH, whereas the effect of BayCysLT 2 RA was enhanced with increasing dose of S-hexyl GSH. Macroscopic and histological examination of lung tissue isolated from LTC 4 -/S-hexyl-GSH-treated guinea pigs revealed air-trapping expansion, particularly at the alveolar site. Inhaled LTC 4 in conscious guinea pigs treated with S-hexyl GSH increased both airway resistance and airway hyperinflation. On the other hand, LTC 4 -induced air-trapping was only partially suppressed by treatment with the bronchodilator salmeterol. Although montelukast inhibition of LTC 4 -induced air-trapping was weak, treatment with BayCysLT 2 RA resulted in complete suppression of this air-trapping. Furthermore, BayCysLT 2 RA completely suppressed LTC 4 -induced airway vascular hyperpermeability. In conclusion, we found in this study that CysLT 2 receptors mediate LTC 4 -induced bronchoconstriction and air-trapping in S-hexyl GSH-treated guinea pigs. It is therefore believed that CysLT 2 receptors contribute to asthmatic response involving air-trapping. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A role for inflammatory mediators in heterologous desensitization of CysLT1 receptor in human monocytes

    PubMed Central

    Capra, Valérie; Accomazzo, Maria Rosa; Gardoni, Fabrizio; Barbieri, Silvia; Rovati, G. Enrico

    2010-01-01

    Cysteinyl-leukotrienes (cysteinyl-LT) are rapidly generated at sites of inflammation and, in addition to their role in asthma, rhinitis, and other immune disorders, are increasingly regarded as significant inflammatory factors in cancer, gastrointestinal, cardiovascular diseases. We recently demonstrated that in monocyte/macrophage–like U937 cells, extracellular nucleotides heterologously desensitize CysLT1 receptor (CysLT1R)-induced Ca2+ transients. Given that monocytes express a number of other inflammatory and chemoattractant receptors, this study was aimed at characterizing transregulation between these different stimuli. We demonstrate that in U937 cells and in primary human monocytes, a series of inflammatory mediators activating Gi-coupled receptor (FPR1, BLT1) desensitize CysLT1R-induced Ca2+ response unidirectionally through activation of PKC. Conversely, PAF-R, exclusively coupled to Gq, cross-desensitizes CysLT1R without the apparent involvement of any kinase. Interestingly, Gs-coupled receptors (β2AR, H1/2R, EP2/4R) are also able to desensitize CysLT1R response through activation of PKA. Heterologous desensitization seems to affect mostly the Gi-mediated signaling of the CysLT1R. The hierarchy of desensitization among agonists may be important for leukocyte signal processing at the site of inflammation. Considering that monocytes/macrophages are likely to be the major source of cysteinyl-LT in many immunological and inflammatory processes, shedding light on how their receptors are regulated will certainly help to better understand the role of these cells in orchestrating this complex network of integrated signals. PMID:19965602

  20. Effects of high and low blood lactate concentrations on sweat lactate response.

    PubMed

    Green, J M; Bishop, P A; Muir, I H; McLester, J R; Heath, H E

    2000-11-01

    Sweat lactate results from eccrine gland metabolism, however, the possible clearance of blood lactate through sweat has not been resolved. On separate days in an environmental chamber (32 +/- 1 C) 12 subjects completed a constant load (CON) (30 min at 40% VO2 max) and an interval cycling trial (INT) (15 one-min intervals at 80% VO2 max, each separated by one min rest) each designed to elicit different blood lactate responses. Each 30 min cycling trial was preceded by 15 min warm-up (30 watts) and followed by 15 min passive rest. Sweat and blood were analyzed for lactate concentration at 15, 25, 35, 45, and 60 min during CON and INT. Total body water loss was used to calculate sweat rate (ml/hr). Blood lactate was significantly greater (p < or = 0.05) at 25, 35, 45, and 60 min during INT compared to CON (approximately 5 mmol/L vs 1.5 mmol/L). Sweat lactate was not significantly different (p>0.05) between trials at any time (approximately 10 mmol/L). Sweat rates (approximately 600ml/hr) and estimated total lactate secretion were not significantly different (CON vs. INT) (p > 0.05). Elevated blood lactate was not associated with changes in sweat lactate concentration. Sweat lactate seems to originate in eccrine glands independent of blood lactate.

  1. Brain lactate kinetics: Modeling evidence for neuronal lactate uptake upon activation.

    PubMed

    Aubert, Agnès; Costalat, Robert; Magistretti, Pierre J; Pellerin, Luc

    2005-11-08

    A critical issue in brain energy metabolism is whether lactate produced within the brain by astrocytes is taken up and metabolized by neurons upon activation. Although there is ample evidence that neurons can efficiently use lactate as an energy substrate, at least in vitro, few experimental data exist to indicate that it is indeed the case in vivo. To address this question, we used a modeling approach to determine which mechanisms are necessary to explain typical brain lactate kinetics observed upon activation. On the basis of a previously validated model that takes into account the compartmentalization of energy metabolism, we developed a mathematical model of brain lactate kinetics, which was applied to published data describing the changes in extracellular lactate levels upon activation. Results show that the initial dip in the extracellular lactate concentration observed at the onset of stimulation can only be satisfactorily explained by a rapid uptake within an intraparenchymal cellular compartment. In contrast, neither blood flow increase, nor extracellular pH variation can be major causes of the lactate initial dip, whereas tissue lactate diffusion only tends to reduce its amplitude. The kinetic properties of monocarboxylate transporter isoforms strongly suggest that neurons represent the most likely compartment for activation-induced lactate uptake and that neuronal lactate utilization occurring early after activation onset is responsible for the initial dip in brain lactate levels observed in both animals and humans.

  2. Brain lactate kinetics: Modeling evidence for neuronal lactate uptake upon activation

    PubMed Central

    Aubert, Agnès; Costalat, Robert; Magistretti, Pierre J.; Pellerin, Luc

    2005-01-01

    A critical issue in brain energy metabolism is whether lactate produced within the brain by astrocytes is taken up and metabolized by neurons upon activation. Although there is ample evidence that neurons can efficiently use lactate as an energy substrate, at least in vitro, few experimental data exist to indicate that it is indeed the case in vivo. To address this question, we used a modeling approach to determine which mechanisms are necessary to explain typical brain lactate kinetics observed upon activation. On the basis of a previously validated model that takes into account the compartmentalization of energy metabolism, we developed a mathematical model of brain lactate kinetics, which was applied to published data describing the changes in extracellular lactate levels upon activation. Results show that the initial dip in the extracellular lactate concentration observed at the onset of stimulation can only be satisfactorily explained by a rapid uptake within an intraparenchymal cellular compartment. In contrast, neither blood flow increase, nor extracellular pH variation can be major causes of the lactate initial dip, whereas tissue lactate diffusion only tends to reduce its amplitude. The kinetic properties of monocarboxylate transporter isoforms strongly suggest that neurons represent the most likely compartment for activation-induced lactate uptake and that neuronal lactate utilization occurring early after activation onset is responsible for the initial dip in brain lactate levels observed in both animals and humans. PMID:16260743

  3. Treatment of mastitis during lactation.

    PubMed

    Pyörälä, S

    2009-04-01

    Treatment of mastitis should be based on bacteriological diagnosis and take national and international guidelines on prudent use of antimicrobials into account. In acute mastitis, where bacteriological diagnosis is not available, treatment should be initiated based on herd data and personal experience. Rapid bacteriological diagnosis would facilitate the proper selection of the antimicrobial. Treating subclinical mastitis with antimicrobials during lactation is seldom economical, because of high treatment costs and generally poor efficacy. All mastitis treatment should be evidence-based, i.e., the efficacy of each product and treatment length should be demonstrated by scientific studies. Use of on-farm written protocols for mastitis treatment promotes a judicious use of antimicrobials and reduces the use of antimicrobials.

  4. Treatment of mastitis during lactation

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Treatment of mastitis should be based on bacteriological diagnosis and take national and international guidelines on prudent use of antimicrobials into account. In acute mastitis, where bacteriological diagnosis is not available, treatment should be initiated based on herd data and personal experience. Rapid bacteriological diagnosis would facilitate the proper selection of the antimicrobial. Treating subclinical mastitis with antimicrobials during lactation is seldom economical, because of high treatment costs and generally poor efficacy. All mastitis treatment should be evidence-based, i.e., the efficacy of each product and treatment length should be demonstrated by scientific studies. Use of on-farm written protocols for mastitis treatment promotes a judicious use of antimicrobials and reduces the use of antimicrobials. PMID:22081939

  5. Threshold q -voter model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, Allan R.; Anteneodo, Celia

    2018-05-01

    We introduce the threshold q -voter opinion dynamics where an agent, facing a binary choice, can change its mind when at least q0 among q neighbors share the opposite opinion. Otherwise, the agent can still change its mind with a certain probability ɛ . This threshold dynamics contemplates the possibility of persuasion by an influence group even when there is not full agreement among its members. In fact, individuals can follow their peers not only when there is unanimity (q0=q ) in the lobby group, as assumed in the q -voter model, but also, depending on the circumstances, when there is simple majority (q0>q /2 ), Byzantine consensus (q0>2 q /3 ), or any minimal number q0 among q . This realistic threshold gives place to emerging collective states and phase transitions which are not observed in the standard q voter. The threshold q0, together with the stochasticity introduced by ɛ , yields a phenomenology that mimics as particular cases the q voter with stochastic drivings such as nonconformity and independence. In particular, nonconsensus majority states are possible, as well as mixed phases. Continuous and discontinuous phase transitions can occur, but also transitions from fluctuating phases into absorbing states.

  6. Elaborating on Threshold Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rountree, Janet; Robins, Anthony; Rountree, Nathan

    2013-01-01

    We propose an expanded definition of Threshold Concepts (TCs) that requires the successful acquisition and internalisation not only of knowledge, but also its practical elaboration in the domains of applied strategies and mental models. This richer definition allows us to clarify the relationship between TCs and Fundamental Ideas, and to account…

  7. Threshold factorization redux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chay, Junegone; Kim, Chul

    2018-05-01

    We reanalyze the factorization theorems for the Drell-Yan process and for deep inelastic scattering near threshold, as constructed in the framework of the soft-collinear effective theory (SCET), from a new, consistent perspective. In order to formulate the factorization near threshold in SCET, we should include an additional degree of freedom with small energy, collinear to the beam direction. The corresponding collinear-soft mode is included to describe the parton distribution function (PDF) near threshold. The soft function is modified by subtracting the contribution of the collinear-soft modes in order to avoid double counting on the overlap region. As a result, the proper soft function becomes infrared finite, and all the factorized parts are free of rapidity divergence. Furthermore, the separation of the relevant scales in each factorized part becomes manifest. We apply the same idea to the dihadron production in e+e- annihilation near threshold, and show that the resultant soft function is also free of infrared and rapidity divergences.

  8. Estimating phonation threshold pressure.

    PubMed

    Fisher, K V; Swank, P R

    1997-10-01

    Phonation threshold pressure (PTP) is the minimum subglottal pressure required to initiate vocal fold oscillation. Although potentially useful clinically, PTP is difficult to estimate noninvasively because of limitations to vocal motor control near the threshold of soft phonation. Previous investigators observed, for example, that trained subjects were unable to produce flat, consistent oral pressure peaks during/pae/syllable strings when they attempted to phonate as softly as possible (Verdolini-Marston, Titze, & Druker, 1990). The present study aimed to determine if nasal airflow or vowel context affected phonation threshold pressure as estimated from oral pressure (Smitheran & Hixon, 1981) in 5 untrained female speakers with normal velopharyngeal and voice function. Nasal airflow during /p/occlusion was observed for 3 of 5 participants when they attempted to phonate near threshold pressure. When the nose was occluded, nasal airflow was reduced or eliminated during /p/;however, individuals then evidenced compensatory changes in glottal adduction and/or respiratory effort that may be expected to alter PTP estimates. Results demonstrate the importance of monitoring nasal flow (or the flow zero point in undivided masks) when obtaining PTP measurements noninvasively. Results also highlight the need to pursue improved methods for noninvasive estimation of PTP.

  9. Muscle fibre characteristics and lactate responses to exercise in chronic fatigue syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lane, R J; Barrett, M C; Woodrow, D; Moss, J; Fletcher, R; Archard, L C

    1998-03-01

    To examine the proportions of type 1 and type 2 muscle fibres and the degree of muscle fibre atrophy and hypertrophy in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome in relation to lactate responses to exercise, and to determine to what extent any abnormalities found might be due to inactivity. Quadriceps needle muscle biopsies were obtained from 105 patients with chronic fatigue syndrome and the proportions of type 1 and 2 fibres and fibre atrophy and hypertrophy factors were determined from histochemical preparations, using a semiautomated image analysis system. Forty one randomly selected biopsies were also examined by electron microscopy. Lactate responses to exercise were measured in the subanaerobic threshold exercise test (SATET). Inactivity would be expected to result in a shift to type 2 fibre predominance and fibre atrophy, but type 1 predominance (23%) was more common than type 2 predominance (3%), and fibre atrophy was found in only 10.4% of cases. Patients with increased lactate responses to exercise did have significantly fewer type 1 muscle fibres (p<0.043 males, p<0.0003 females), but there was no evidence that this group was less active than the patients with normal lactate responses. No significant ultrastructural abnormalities were found. Muscle histometry in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome generally did not show the changes expected as a result of inactivity. However, patients with abnormal lactate responses to exercise had a significantly lower proportion of mitochondria rich type 1 muscle fibres.

  10. Moderate hyperventilation during intravenous anesthesia increases net cerebral lactate efflux.

    PubMed

    Grüne, Frank; Kazmaier, Stephan; Sonntag, Hans; Stolker, Robert Jan; Weyland, Andreas

    2014-02-01

    Hyperventilation is known to decrease cerebral blood flow (CBF) and to impair cerebral metabolism, but the threshold in patients undergoing intravenous anesthesia is unknown. The authors hypothesized that reduced CBF associated with moderate hyperventilation might impair cerebral aerobic metabolism in patients undergoing intravenous anesthesia. Thirty male patients scheduled for coronary surgery were included in a prospective, controlled crossover trial. Measurements were performed under fentanyl-midazolam anesthesia in a randomized sequence aiming at partial pressures of carbon dioxide of 30 and 50 mmHg. Endpoints were CBF, blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery, and cerebral metabolic rates for oxygen, glucose, and lactate. Global CBF was measured using a modified Kety-Schmidt technique with argon as inert gas tracer. CBF velocity of the middle cerebral artery was recorded by transcranial Doppler sonography. Data were presented as mean (SD). Two-sided paired t tests and one-way ANOVA for repeated measures were used for statistical analysis. Moderate hyperventilation significantly decreased CBF by 60%, blood flow velocity by 41%, cerebral oxygen delivery by 58%, and partial pressure of oxygen of the jugular venous bulb by 45%. Cerebral metabolic rates for oxygen and glucose remained unchanged; however, net cerebral lactate efflux significantly increased from -0.38 (2.18) to -2.41(2.43) µmol min 100 g. Moderate hyperventilation, when compared with moderate hypoventilation, in patients with cardiovascular disease undergoing intravenous anesthesia increased net cerebral lactate efflux and markedly reduced CBF and partial pressure of oxygen of the jugular venous bulb, suggesting partial impairment of cerebral aerobic metabolism at clinically relevant levels of hypocapnia.

  11. Campylobacter jejuni chromosomal sequences that hybridize to Vibrio cholerae and Escherichia coli LT enterotoxin genes.

    PubMed

    Calva, E; Torres, J; Vázquez, M; Angeles, V; de la Vega, H; Ruíz-Palacios, G M

    1989-02-20

    Campylobacter jejuni is one of the main etiologic agents of gastrointestinal illness in developing and developed areas throughout the world. Isolation of enterotoxin-producing C. jejuni has been associated with clinical symptoms of a watery-secretory type of diarrhea. Although physiological and immunological relatedness has been demonstrated between the C. jejuni enterotoxin (CJT), the Vibrio cholerae enterotoxin (CT), and the heat-labile cholera-like Escherichia coli enterotoxin (LT), nucleotide sequence similarity between C. jejuni DNA and either the toxA, toxB, eltA or eltB genes remained to be shown. We found that binding to ganglioside GM1 prevented recognition of CJT by monoclonal antibodies directed to either CT or LT. This indicates antigenic similarity between the three enterotoxins in the ganglioside GM1-binding site. Therefore we searched for corresponding similarities at the DNA level and found, by oligodeoxynucleotide hybridization, C. jejuni chromosomal nucleotide sequences similar to the coding region for a postulated ganglioside GM1-binding site on toxB and eltB.

  12. Constraining Dust Hazes at the L/T Transition via Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radigan, Jacqueline; Apai, Daniel; Yang, Hao; Hiranaka, Kay; Cruz, Kelle; Buenzli, Esther; Marley, Mark

    2014-12-01

    The T2 dwarf SIMP 1629+03 is a variable L/T transition dwarf, with a normal near-infrared spectrum. However, it is remarkable in that the wavelength dependence of its variability differs markedly from that of other L/T transition brown dwarfs. In particular, the absence of a water absorption feature in its variability spectrum indicates that a patchy, high-altitude haze, rather than a deeper cloud layer is responsible for the observed variations. We propose to obtain Spitzer+HST observations of SIMP1629+02 over two consecutive rotations periods in order to simultaneously map it?s spectral variability across 1-5 um. The wide wavelength coverage will provide a suitable lever-arm for constraining the particle size distribution in the haze. A truly flat spectrum across this wavelength range would indicate large particle sizes in comparison to those inferred for red L-dwarf hazes, and would therefore provide direct evidence of grain growth with decreasing effective temperature and/or a grain-size dependence on surface gravity in brown dwarf atmospheres.

  13. Prognostic significance of blood lactate and lactate clearance in trauma patients.

    PubMed

    Régnier, Marie-Alix; Raux, Mathieu; Le Manach, Yannick; Asencio, Yves; Gaillard, Johann; Devilliers, Catherine; Langeron, Olivier; Riou, Bruno

    2012-12-01

    Lactate has been shown to be a prognostic biomarker in trauma. Although lactate clearance has already been proposed as an intermediate endpoint in randomized trials, its precise role in trauma patients remains to be determined. Blood lactate levels and lactate clearance (LC) were calculated at admission and 2 and 4 h later in trauma patients. The association of initial blood lactate level and lactate clearance with mortality was tested using receiver-operating characteristics curve, logistic regression using triage scores, Trauma Related Injury Severity Score as a reference standard, and reclassification method. The authors evaluated 586 trauma patients (mean age 38±16 yr, 84% blunt and 16% penetrating, mortality 13%). Blood lactate levels at admission were elevated in 327 (56%) patients. The lactate clearance should be calculated within the first 2 h after admission as LC0-2 h was correlated with LC0-4 h (R=0.55, P<0.001) but not with LC2-4 h (R=0.04, not significant). The lactate clearance provides additional predictive information to initial blood lactate levels and triage scores and the reference score. This additional information may be summarized using a categorical approach (i.e., less than or equal to -20 %/h) in contrast to initial blood lactate. The results were comparable in patients with high (5 mM/l or more) initial blood lactate. Early (0-2 h) lactate clearance is an important and independent prognostic variable that should probably be incorporated in future decision schemes for the resuscitation of trauma patients.

  14. CHANGES IN THE ANAEROBIC THRESHOLD IN AN ANNUAL CYCLE OF SPORT TRAINING OF YOUNG SOCCER PLAYERS

    PubMed Central

    Andrzejewski, M.; Wieczorek, A.; Barinow-Wojewódzki, A.; Jadczak, Ł.; Adrian, S.; Pietrzak, M.; Wieczorek, S.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess changes in the anaerobic threshold of young soccer players in an annual training cycle. A group of highly trained 15-18 year old players of KKS Lech Poznań were tested. The tests included an annual training macrocycle, and its individual stages resulted from the time structure of the sports training. In order to assess the level of exercise capacities of the players, a field exercise test of increasing intensity was carried out on a soccer pitch. The test made it possible to determine the 4 millimolar lactate threshold (T LA 4 mmol · l-1) on the basis of the lactate concentration in blood [LA], to establish the threshold running speed and the threshold heart rate [HR]. The threshold running speed at the level of the 4 millimolar lactate threshold was established using the two-point form of the equation of a straight line. The obtained indicators of the threshold running speed allowed for precise establishment of effort intensity used in individual training in developing aerobic endurance. In order to test the significance of differences in mean values between four dates of tests, a non-parametric Friedman ANOVA test was used. The significance of differences between consecutive dates of tests was determined using a post-hoc Friedman ANOVA test. The tests showed significant differences in values of selected indicators determined at the anaerobic threshold in various stages of an annual training cycle of young soccer players. The most beneficial changes in terms of the threshold running speed were noted on the fourth date of tests, when the participants had the highest values of 4.01 m · s-1 for older juniors, and 3.80 m · s-1 for younger juniors. This may be indicative of effective application of an individualized programme of training loads and of good preparation of teams for competition in terms of players’ aerobic endurance. PMID:24744480

  15. Changes in the anaerobic threshold in an annual cycle of sport training of young soccer players.

    PubMed

    Sliwowski, R; Andrzejewski, M; Wieczorek, A; Barinow-Wojewódzki, A; Jadczak, L; Adrian, S; Pietrzak, M; Wieczorek, S

    2013-06-01

    The aim of the study was to assess changes in the anaerobic threshold of young soccer players in an annual training cycle. A group of highly trained 15-18 year old players of KKS Lech Poznań were tested. The tests included an annual training macrocycle, and its individual stages resulted from the time structure of the sports training. In order to assess the level of exercise capacities of the players, a field exercise test of increasing intensity was carried out on a soccer pitch. The test made it possible to determine the 4 millimolar lactate threshold (T LA 4 mmol · l(-1)) on the basis of the lactate concentration in blood [LA], to establish the threshold running speed and the threshold heart rate [HR]. The threshold running speed at the level of the 4 millimolar lactate threshold was established using the two-point form of the equation of a straight line. The obtained indicators of the threshold running speed allowed for precise establishment of effort intensity used in individual training in developing aerobic endurance. In order to test the significance of differences in mean values between four dates of tests, a non-parametric Friedman ANOVA test was used. The significance of differences between consecutive dates of tests was determined using a post-hoc Friedman ANOVA test. The tests showed significant differences in values of selected indicators determined at the anaerobic threshold in various stages of an annual training cycle of young soccer players. The most beneficial changes in terms of the threshold running speed were noted on the fourth date of tests, when the participants had the highest values of 4.01 m · s(-1) for older juniors, and 3.80 m · s(-1) for younger juniors. This may be indicative of effective application of an individualized programme of training loads and of good preparation of teams for competition in terms of players' aerobic endurance.

  16. Network problem threshold

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gejji, Raghvendra, R.

    1992-01-01

    Network transmission errors such as collisions, CRC errors, misalignment, etc. are statistical in nature. Although errors can vary randomly, a high level of errors does indicate specific network problems, e.g. equipment failure. In this project, we have studied the random nature of collisions theoretically as well as by gathering statistics, and established a numerical threshold above which a network problem is indicated with high probability.

  17. Lactate biosensors: current status and outlook.

    PubMed

    Rassaei, Liza; Olthuis, Wouter; Tsujimura, Seiya; Sudhölter, Ernst J R; van den Berg, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Many research efforts over the last few decades have been devoted to sensing lactate as an important analytical target in clinical care, sport medicine, and food processing. Therefore, research in designing lactate sensors is no longer in its infancy and now is more directed toward viable sensors for direct applications. In this review, we provide an overview of the most immediate and relevant developments toward this end, and we discuss and assess common transduction approaches. Further, we critically describe the pros and cons of current commercial lactate sensors and envision how future sensing design may benefit from emerging new technologies.

  18. Lactational mastitis caused by Streptococcus lactarius.

    PubMed

    Tena, Daniel; Fernández, Cristina; López-Garrido, Beatriz; Pérez-Balsalobre, Mercedes; Losa, Cristina; Medina-Pascual, María José; Sáez-Nieto, Juan Antonio

    2016-08-01

    Human infections caused by Streptococcus lactarius have not been previously reported. In the present report, we describe a lactational mastitis caused by this organism. The infection occurred in a 28-year-old breast-feeding female, with a 10-days history of moderate pain on the right breast. The patient was cured after antibiotic treatment with levofloxacin for 21 days. Our case shows that S. lactarius should be considered as a cause of lactational mastitis. The introduction of molecular microbiology techniques can be extremely useful for knowing the implication of streptococci in lactational mastitis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Simulation-Based e-Learning Tools for Science,Engineering, and Technology Education(SimBeLT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Doyle V.; Cherner, Y.

    2006-12-01

    The focus of Project SimBeLT is the research, development, testing, and dissemination of a new type of simulation-based integrated e-learning set of modules for two-year college technical and engineering curricula in the areas of thermodynamics, fluid physics, and fiber optics that can also be used in secondary schools and four-year colleges. A collection of sophisticated virtual labs is the core component of the SimBeLT modules. These labs will be designed to enhance the understanding of technical concepts and underlying fundamental principles of these topics, as well as to master certain performance based skills online. SimBeLT software will help educators to meet the National Science Education Standard that "learning science and technology is something that students do, not something that is done to them". A major component of Project SimBeLT is the development of multi-layered technology-oriented virtual labs that realistically mimic workplace-like environments. Dynamic data exchange between simulations will be implemented and links with instant instructional messages and data handling tools will be realized. A second important goal of Project SimBeLT labs is to bridge technical skills and scientific knowledge by enhancing the teaching and learning of specific scientific or engineering subjects. SimBeLT builds upon research and outcomes of interactive teaching strategies and tools developed through prior NSF funding (http://webphysics.nhctc.edu/compact/index.html) (Project SimBeLT is partially supported by a grant from the National Science Foundation DUE-0603277)

  20. Step length and individual anaerobic threshold assessment in swimming.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, R J; Sousa, M; Machado, L; Vilas-Boas, J P

    2011-12-01

    Anaerobic threshold is widely used for diagnosis of swimming aerobic endurance but the precise incremental protocols step duration for its assessment is controversial. A physiological and biomechanical comparison between intermittent incremental protocols with different step lengths and a maximal lactate steady state (MLSS) test was conducted. 17 swimmers performed 7×200, 300 and 400 m (30 s and 24 h rest between steps and protocols) in front crawl until exhaustion and an MLSS test. The blood lactate concentration values ([La-]) at individual anaerobic threshold were 2.1±0.1, 2.2±0.2 and 1.8±0.1 mmol.l - 1 in the 200, 300 and 400 m protocols (with significant differences between 300 and 400 m tests), and 2.9±1.2 mmol.l - 1 at MLSS (higher than the incremental protocols); all these values are much lower than the traditional 4 mmol.l - 1 value. The velocities at individual anaerobic threshold obtained in incremental protocols were similar (and highly related) to the MLSS, being considerably lower than the velocity at 4 mmol.l - 1. Stroke rate increased and stroke length decreased throughout the different incremental protocols. It was concluded that it is valid to use intermittent incremental protocols of 200 and 300 m lengths to assess the swimming velocity corresponding to individual anaerobic threshold, the progressive protocols tend to underestimate the [La-] at anaerobic threshold assessed by the MLSS test, and swimmers increase velocity through stroke rate increases. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Regulation of bone mineral loss during lactation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brommage, R.; Deluca, H. F.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of varyng dietary calcium and phosphorous levels, vitamin D deficiency, oophorectomy, adrenalectomy, and simultaneous pregnancy on bone mineral loss during lactation in rats are studied. The experimental procedures and evaluations are described. The femur ash weight of lactating and nonlactating rats are calculated. The data reveals that a decrease in dietary calcium of 0.02 percent results in an increased loss of bone mineral, an increase in calcium to 1.4 percent does not lessen bone mineral loss, and bone mineral loss in vitamin D deficient rats is independent of calcium levels. It is observed that changes in dietary phosphorous level, oophorectomy, adrenalectomy, and simultaneous pragnancy do not reduce bone mineral loss during lactation. The analysis of various hormones to determine the mechanism that triggers bone mineral loss during lactation is presented.

  2. 21 CFR 184.1311 - Ferrous lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... lactic acid with iron filings, reaction of ferrous chloride with sodium lactate, or reaction of ferrous... under section 412(a)(2) of the act (21 U.S.C. 350a(a)(2)). (d) Prior sanctions for this ingredient...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1311 - Ferrous lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... lactic acid with iron filings, reaction of ferrous chloride with sodium lactate, or reaction of ferrous... under section 412(a)(2) of the act (21 U.S.C. 350a(a)(2)). (d) Prior sanctions for this ingredient...

  4. Genetics Home Reference: lactate dehydrogenase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... dehydrogenase-B pieces (subunits) of the lactate dehydrogenase enzyme. This enzyme is found throughout the body and is important ... cells. There are five different forms of this enzyme, each made up of four protein subunits. Various ...

  5. Inducing Lactation: Breastfeeding for Adoptive Moms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Inducing Lactation: Breastfeeding for Adoptive Moms Page Content Article Body A ... a breastfeeding relationship while further stimulating milk production. Nursing Supplement While there is no way to predict ...

  6. Association between the clinical classification of hypothyroidism and reduced TSH in LT4 supplemental replacement treatment for pregnancy in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lyu; Zhang, Zhaoyun; Ye, Hongying; Zhu, Xiaoming; Li, Yiming

    2016-01-01

    The study was aimed to evaluate the effects of levothyroxine (LT4) supplemental replacement treatment for pregnancy and analyze the associations between the clinical classification of hypothyroidism and reduced thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in LT4 therapy. Totally, 195 pregnant women with hypothyroidism receiving routine prenatal care were enrolled. They were categorized into three groups: overt hypothyroidism (OH), subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) with negative thyroperoxidase antibody (TPOAb), and SCH with positive TPOAb. The association between the clinical classification and reduced TSH in LT4 supplemental replacement treatment was assessed. The results indicated that reduced TSH was significantly different among the groups according to the clinical classifications (p = 0.043). The result was also significantly different between patients with OH and patients with SCH and negative TPOAb (p = 0.036). Similar result was reported for the comparison between patients with OH and patients with SCH and positive TPOAb (p = 0.016). Multiple variable analyses showed that LT4 supplementation, gestational age and the variable of clinical classifications were associated with reduced TSH independently. Our data suggested that the therapeutic effect of substitutive treatment with LT4 was significantly associated with different clinical classifications of hypothyroidism in pregnancy and the treatment should begin as soon as possible after diagnosis.

  7. Influence of lactation and pregnancy + lactation on mechanical properties and mineral content of the rat femur.

    PubMed

    Peng, T C; Kusy, R P; Garner, S C; Hirsch, P F; De Blanco, M C

    1987-06-01

    The quality of bone was assessed from femurs of rats both during lactation and after pregnancy + lactation. Mechanical properties of stiffness, strength, toughness, and ductility were measured, along with standard measurements of dry weight, ash weight, and total bone mineral. No changes occurred during the first week of lactation. During the second and third weeks of lactation all bone parameters except ductility decreased significantly. These data are consistent with bone losing mineral in order to supplement the dietary calcium intake necessary for milk production. In other experiments, femurs were collected from nulliparous rats and from rats that had previously undergone 1-3 pregnancy + lactations. The largest changes in bone mineral and mechanical properties occurred after a single pregnancy + lactation period, although significant further decreases in stiffness and strength occurred after the second pregnancy + lactation. No additional losses occurred following the third pregnancy + lactation. Even 5 months after only one pregnancy + lactation period, the bone quality was still impaired as all bone properties were lower than in nulliparous controls. Because the changes, especially stiffness and strength, were relatively larger than the changes in dry and ash weights of bone, measurements of these mechanical properties provide a more sensitive method to evaluate the quality of bone.

  8. Lactate shuttling and lactate use as fuel after traumatic brain injury: metabolic considerations

    PubMed Central

    Dienel, Gerald A

    2014-01-01

    Lactate is proposed to be generated by astrocytes during glutamatergic neurotransmission and shuttled to neurons as ‘preferred' oxidative fuel. However, a large body of evidence demonstrates that metabolic changes during activation of living brain disprove essential components of the astrocyte–neuron lactate shuttle model. For example, some glutamate is oxidized to generate ATP after its uptake into astrocytes and neuronal glucose phosphorylation rises during activation and provides pyruvate for oxidation. Extension of the notion that lactate is a preferential fuel into the traumatic brain injury (TBI) field has important clinical implications, and the concept must, therefore, be carefully evaluated before implementation into patient care. Microdialysis studies in TBI patients demonstrate that lactate and pyruvate levels and lactate/pyruvate ratios, along with other data, have important diagnostic value to distinguish between ischemia and mitochondrial dysfunction. Results show that lactate release from human brain to blood predominates over its uptake after TBI, and strong evidence for lactate metabolism is lacking; mitochondrial dysfunction may inhibit lactate oxidation. Claims that exogenous lactate infusion is energetically beneficial for TBI patients are not based on metabolic assays and data are incorrectly interpreted. PMID:25204393

  9. 21 CFR 862.1440 - Lactate dehydrogenase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Systems § 862.1440 Lactate dehydrogenase test system. (a) Identification. A lactate dehydrogenase test system is a device intended to measure the activity of the enzyme lactate dehydrogenase in serum. Lactate... hepatitis, cirrhosis, and metastatic carcinoma of the liver, cardiac diseases such as myocardial infarction...

  10. Coloring geographical threshold graphs

    SciTech Connect

    Bradonjic, Milan; Percus, Allon; Muller, Tobias

    We propose a coloring algorithm for sparse random graphs generated by the geographical threshold graph (GTG) model, a generalization of random geometric graphs (RGG). In a GTG, nodes are distributed in a Euclidean space, and edges are assigned according to a threshold function involving the distance between nodes as well as randomly chosen node weights. The motivation for analyzing this model is that many real networks (e.g., wireless networks, the Internet, etc.) need to be studied by using a 'richer' stochastic model (which in this case includes both a distance between nodes and weights on the nodes). Here, we analyzemore » the GTG coloring algorithm together with the graph's clique number, showing formally that in spite of the differences in structure between GTG and RGG, the asymptotic behavior of the chromatic number is identical: {chi}1n 1n n / 1n n (1 + {omicron}(1)). Finally, we consider the leading corrections to this expression, again using the coloring algorithm and clique number to provide bounds on the chromatic number. We show that the gap between the lower and upper bound is within C 1n n / (1n 1n n){sup 2}, and specify the constant C.« less

  11. myo-Inositol metabolism during lactation and development in the rat. The prevention of lactation-induced fatty liver by dietary myo-inositol.

    PubMed

    Burton, L E; Wells, W W

    1976-11-01

    Effects of dietary myo-inositol deprivation were examined during prenatal and postnatal development and during lactation in the rat. The deficient diet contained no detectable myo-inositol while the supplemented diet contained 0.5% (w/w) myo-inositol while the supplemented diet ct contained 0.5% (w/w) myo-inositol at the expense of sucrose. Both diets contained 25% casein, adequate amounts of all known vitamins, choline, and essential fatty acids as well as 0.5% (w/w) phthalylsulfathiazole to depress myo-inositol contribution to the diet by microorganisms. Pregnant rats of the Holtzman strain were fed the respective diets during gestation and lactation, and pups were fed the corresponding diet after weaning until 3 months of age. There were no significant differen-es in body weight between experimental groups. Supplementation of the diet with myo-inositol significanly increased the levels of myo-inositol in plasma, liver, kidney, and intestine of pups at all ages examined, and significantly increased the levels of myo-inositol in the milk and mammary tissue during lactation. During lactation, the myo-inositol deprived dams developed severe fatty livers (31% w/w) characterized by diminished phosphatidyl-inositol (50%) and total phospholipid phosphorus (57%) levels as compared with controls. After weaning, the liver lipid content of the myo-inositol deprived dams returned to normal (4.5%). The data suggest that a possible threshold level of free myo-inositol (approximately 0.15 mumoles/g lipid-free tissue) was required to prevent fatty liver in lactating dams under these dietary conditions. Effects of the deficient diet on fertility were also examined. Based on sperm count and production of offspring, there were no differnences between the experimental and control males. Females of both groups showed equal ability to produce offspring.

  12. Oscillatory Threshold Logic

    PubMed Central

    Borresen, Jon; Lynch, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    In the 1940s, the first generation of modern computers used vacuum tube oscillators as their principle components, however, with the development of the transistor, such oscillator based computers quickly became obsolete. As the demand for faster and lower power computers continues, transistors are themselves approaching their theoretical limit and emerging technologies must eventually supersede them. With the development of optical oscillators and Josephson junction technology, we are again presented with the possibility of using oscillators as the basic components of computers, and it is possible that the next generation of computers will be composed almost entirely of oscillatory devices. Here, we demonstrate how coupled threshold oscillators may be used to perform binary logic in a manner entirely consistent with modern computer architectures. We describe a variety of computational circuitry and demonstrate working oscillator models of both computation and memory. PMID:23173034

  13. Oscillatory threshold logic.

    PubMed

    Borresen, Jon; Lynch, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    In the 1940s, the first generation of modern computers used vacuum tube oscillators as their principle components, however, with the development of the transistor, such oscillator based computers quickly became obsolete. As the demand for faster and lower power computers continues, transistors are themselves approaching their theoretical limit and emerging technologies must eventually supersede them. With the development of optical oscillators and Josephson junction technology, we are again presented with the possibility of using oscillators as the basic components of computers, and it is possible that the next generation of computers will be composed almost entirely of oscillatory devices. Here, we demonstrate how coupled threshold oscillators may be used to perform binary logic in a manner entirely consistent with modern computer architectures. We describe a variety of computational circuitry and demonstrate working oscillator models of both computation and memory.

  14. Management of hyperthyroidism during pregnancy and lactation.

    PubMed

    Azizi, Fereidoun; Amouzegar, Atieh

    2011-06-01

    Poorly treated or untreated maternal overt hyperthyroidism may affect pregnancy outcome. Fetal and neonatal hypo- or hyper-thyroidism and neonatal central hypothyroidism may complicate health issues during intrauterine and neonatal periods. To review articles related to appropriate management of hyperthyroidism during pregnancy and lactation. A literature review was performed using MEDLINE with the terms 'hyperthyroidism and pregnancy', 'antithyroid drugs and pregnancy', 'radioiodine and pregnancy', 'hyperthyroidism and lactation', and 'antithyroid drugs and lactation', both separately and in conjunction with the terms 'fetus' and 'maternal.' Antithyroid drugs are the main therapy for maternal hyperthyroidism. Both methimazole (MMI) and propylthiouracil (PTU) may be used during pregnancy; however, PTU is preferred in the first trimester and should be replaced by MMI after this trimester. Choanal and esophageal atresia of fetus in MMI-treated and maternal hepatotoxicity in PTU-treated pregnancies are of utmost concern. Maintaining free thyroxine concentration in the upper one-third of each trimester-specific reference interval denotes success of therapy. MMI is the mainstay of the treatment of post partum hyperthyroidism, in particular during lactation. Management of hyperthyroidism during pregnancy and lactation requires special considerations and should be carefully implemented to avoid any adverse effects on the mother, fetus, and neonate.

  15. Flexible graphene bio-nanosensor for lactate.

    PubMed

    Labroo, Pratima; Cui, Yue

    2013-03-15

    The development of a flexible nanosensor for detecting lactate could expand opportunities for using graphene, both in fundamental studies for a variety of device platforms and in practical applications. Graphene is a delicate single-layer, two-dimensional network of carbon atoms with ultrasensitive sensing capabilities. Lactic acid is important for clinical analysis, sports medicine, and the food industry. Recently, wearable and flexible bioelectronics on plastics have attracted great interest for healthcare, sports and defense applications due to their advantages of being light-weight, bendable, or stretchable. Here, we demonstrate for the first time the development of a flexible graphene-based bio-nanosensor to detect lactate. Our results show that flexible lactate biosensors can be fabricated on a variety of plastic substrates. The sensor can detect lactate sensitively from 0.08 μM to 20 μM with a fast steady-state measuring time of 2s. The sensor can also detect lactate under different mechanical bending conditions, the sensor response decreased as the bending angle and number of bending repetitions increased. We anticipate that these results could open exciting opportunities for fundamental studies of flexible graphene bioelectronics by using other bioreceptors, as well as a variety of wearable, implantable, real-time, or on-site applications in fields ranging from clinical analysis to defense. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Early lactation production, health, and welfare characteristics of cows selected for extended lactation.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, J O; Mogensen, L; Kristensen, T

    2017-02-01

    Some cows are able to achieve relatively high milk yields during extended lactations beyond 305 d in milk, and farmers may be able to use this potential by selecting the most suitable cows for an extended lactation. However, the decision to postpone insemination has to rely on information available in early lactation. The main objectives of this study were, therefore, to assess the association between the information available in early lactation and the relative milk production of cows on extended lactation, and to investigate if this information can be used to differentiate time of first insemination between cows. Data came from 4 Danish private herds practicing extended lactation in which some cows are selected to have a delayed time of planned first insemination. Average herd size varied from 93 to 157 cows, and milk yield varied from 7,842 to 12,315 kg of energy-corrected milk (ECM) per cow per year across herds. The analysis was based on 422 completed extended lactations (427 ± 87 d), and each lactation was assigned to 1 of 3 (low, medium, and high) milk performance groups (MPG) within parity group within herd based on a standardized lactation yield. For cows in the high MPG, peak ECM yield, and ECM yield at dry off were significantly greater, the relative reduction in milk yield between 60 and 305 d in milk was significantly smaller, and a smaller proportion had a body condition score (scale: 1-5) at dry off of 3.5 or greater compared with cows in low MPG. Previous lactation days in milk at peak ECM yield and ECM yield at dry off were higher, the relative reduction in milk yield between 60 and 305 d in milk was smaller, and the number of inseminations per conception was higher for multiparous cows in high MPG compared with low. Current lactation ECM yield at second and third milk recording were greater for cows in high MPG compared with low. A principal component analysis indicated that variables related to fertility, diseases, and milk yield explained most

  17. Improving the method of low-temperature anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (LT-AMS) measurements in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Issachar, R.; Levi, T.; Lyakhovsky, V.; Marco, S.; Weinberger, R.

    2016-07-01

    This study examines the limitations of the method of low-temperature anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (LT-AMS) measurements in air and presents technical improvements that significantly reduce the instrumental drift and measurement errors. We analyzed the temperature profile of porous chalk core after cooling in liquid nitrogen and found that the average temperature of the sample during the LT-AMS measurement in air is higher than 77K and close to 92K. This analysis indicates that the susceptibility of the paramagnetic minerals are amplified by a factor ˜3.2 relative to that of room temperature AMS (RT-AMS). In addition, it was found that liquid nitrogen was absorbed in the samples during immersing and contributed diamagnetic component of ˜-9 × 10-6 SI to the total mean susceptibility. We showed that silicone sheet placed around and at the bottom of the measuring coil is an effective thermal protection, preventing instrument drift by the cold sample. In this way, the measuring errors of LT-AMS reduced to the level of RT-AMS, allowing accurate comparison with standard AMS measurements. We examined the applicability of the LT-AMS measurements on chalk samples that consist <5% (weight) of paramagnetic minerals and showed that it helps to efficiently enhance the paramagnetic fabric. The present study offers a practical approach, which can be applied to various types of rocks to better delineate the paramagnetic phase using conventional equipment.

  18. LOGIC OF CONTROLLED THRESHOLD DEVICES.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The synthesis of threshold logic circuits from several points of view is presented. The first approach is applicable to resistor-transistor networks...in which the outputs are tied to a common collector resistor. In general, fewer threshold logic gates than NOR gates connected to a common collector...network to realize a specified function such that the failure of any but the output gate can be compensated for by a change in the threshold level (and

  19. Crossing the threshold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, John; Tambasco, Lucas

    2017-11-01

    First, we summarize the circumstances in which chaotic pilot-wave dynamics gives rise to quantum-like statistical behavior. For ``closed'' systems, in which the droplet is confined to a finite domain either by boundaries or applied forces, quantum-like features arise when the persistence time of the waves exceeds the time required for the droplet to cross its domain. Second, motivated by the similarities between this hydrodynamic system and stochastic electrodynamics, we examine the behavior of a bouncing droplet above the Faraday threshold, where a stochastic element is introduced into the drop dynamics by virtue of its interaction with a background Faraday wave field. With a view to extending the dynamical range of pilot-wave systems to capture more quantum-like features, we consider a generalized theoretical framework for stochastic pilot-wave dynamics in which the relative magnitudes of the drop-generated pilot-wave field and a stochastic background field may be varied continuously. We gratefully acknowledge the financial support of the NSF through their CMMI and DMS divisions.

  20. Kinematical Analysis along Maximal Lactate Steady State Swimming Intensity

    PubMed Central

    Figueiredo, Pedro; Nazario, Rafael; Sousa, Marisa; Pelarigo, Jailton Gregório; Vilas-Boas, João Paulo; Fernandes, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a kinematical analysis during swimming at the intensity corresponding to maximal lactate steady state (MLSS). Thirteen long distance swimmers performed, in different days, an intermittent incremental protocol of n x 200 m until exhaustion and two to four 30-min submaximal constant speed bouts to determine the MLSS. The video analysis, using APAS System (Ariel Dynamics Inc., USA), allowed determining the following relevant swimming determinants (in five moments of the 30-min test: 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100%): stroke rate, stroke length, trunk incline, intracyclic velocity variation, propelling efficiency, index of coordination and the time allotted to propulsion per distance unit. An ANOVA for repeated measures was used to compare the parameters mean values along each moment of analysis. Stoke rate tended to increase and stroke length to decrease along the test; a tendency to decrease was also found for intracyclic velocity variation and propelling efficiency whereas the index of coordination and the propulsive impulse remained stable during the MLSS test. It can be concluded that the MLSS is not only an intensity to maintain without a significant increase of blood lactate concentration, but a concomitant stability for some biomechanical parameters exists (after an initial adaptation). However, efficiency indicators seem to be more sensitive to changes occurring during swimming at this threshold intensity. Key Points In MLSS swimming intensity, stability of the stroke length and stroke frequency occurs after an initial adaptation. Efficiency indicators seem to be more sensitive to possible changes occurring through time at MLSS intensity. MLSS is a useful and practical swimming intensity to be maintained for a long period of time, but some constraints in technique can occur. PMID:25177189

  1. Cloud Atlas: Rotational Modulations in the L/T Transition Brown Dwarf Companion HN Peg B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Yifan; Apai, Daniel; Metchev, Stanimir; Lew, Ben W. P.; Schneider, Glenn; Marley, Mark S.; Karalidi, Theodora; Manjavacas, Elena; Bedin, Luigi R.; Cowan, Nicolas B.; hide

    2018-01-01

    Time-resolved observations of brown dwarfs' rotational modulations provide powerful insights into the properties of condensate clouds in ultra-cool atmospheres. Multi-wavelength light curves reveal cloud vertical structures, condensate particle sizes, and cloud morphology, which directly constrain condensate cloud and atmospheric circulation models. We report results from Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) near-infrared G141 taken in six consecutive orbits observations of HNPeg B, an L/T transition brown dwarf companion to a G0V type star. The best-fit sine wave to the 1.1 to 1.7 micron broadband light curve has the amplitude of and period of hour. The modulation amplitude has no detectable wavelength dependence except in the 1.4 micron water absorption band, indicating that the characteristic condensate particle sizes are large (greater than 1 micron). We detect significantly (4.4 sigma) lower modulation amplitude in the 1.4 micron water absorption band, and find that HN Peg B's spectral modulation resembles those of early T type brown dwarfs. We also describe a new empirical interpolation method to remove spectral contamination from the bright host star. This method may be applied in other high-contrast time-resolved observations with WFC3.

  2. Ga2O3 doping and vacancy effect in KNN—LT lead-free piezoceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Zhi; Xing, Jie; Jiang, Laiming; Zhu, Jianguo; Wu, Bo

    2017-12-01

    Ga2O3 was doped into 0.95(K0.48Na0.52)NbO3—0.05LiTaO3 (KNN—LT) ceramics and its influences on the sintering behavior, phase structure and electrical properties of ceramics were studied. Firstly, SEM observation exhibits that more and more glass phase appears in ceramics with the gradual addition of Ga2O3, which determines the continuous decrease in sintering temperatures. And the addition of Ga2O3 is also found to increase the orthorhombic—tetragonal transition temperature ( T O—T) of system to a higher level. Secondly, both the density and the coercive field ( E C) of ceramics increase firstly and then decrease with increasing the Ga2O3 content, and the KNN—LT— xGa sample at x = 0.004 shows a pinched P— E hysteresis loop. Finally, the impedance characteristics of KNN—LT— xGa ceramics were investigated at different temperatures, revealing a typical vacancy related conduction mechanism. This work demonstrates that Ga2O3 is a good sintering aid for KNN-based ceramics, and the vacancy plays an important role in the sintering and electrical behaviors of ceramics.

  3. Cloud Atlas: Rotational Modulations in the L/T Transition Brown Dwarf Companion HN Peg B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yifan; Apai, Dániel; Metchev, Stanimir; Lew, Ben W. P.; Schneider, Glenn; Marley, Mark S.; Karalidi, Theodora; Manjavacas, Elena; Bedin, Luigi R.; Cowan, Nicolas B.; Miles-Páez, Paulo A.; Lowrance, Patrick J.; Radigan, Jacqueline; Burgasser, Adam J.

    2018-03-01

    Time-resolved observations of brown dwarfs’ rotational modulations provide powerful insights into the properties of condensate clouds in ultra-cool atmospheres. Multi-wavelength light curves reveal cloud vertical structures, condensate particle sizes, and cloud morphology, which directly constrain condensate cloud and atmospheric circulation models. We report results from Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Camera 3 near-infrared G141 taken in six consecutive orbits observations of HN Peg B, an L/T transition brown dwarf companion to a G0V type star. The best-fit sine wave to the 1.1–1.7 μm broadband light curve has an amplitude of 1.206% ± 0.025% and period of 15.4 ± 0.5 hr. The modulation amplitude has no detectable wavelength dependence except in the 1.4 μm water absorption band, indicating that the characteristic condensate particle sizes are large (>1 μm). We detect significantly (4.4σ) lower modulation amplitude in the 1.4 μm water absorption band and find that HN Peg B’s spectral modulation resembles those of early T type brown dwarfs. We also describe a new empirical interpolation method to remove spectral contamination from the bright host star. This method may be applied in other high-contrast time-resolved observations with WFC3.

  4. An atlas of L-T transition brown dwarfs with VLT/XShooter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marocco, F.; Day-Jones, A. C.; Jones, H. R. A.; Pinfield, D. J.

    In this contribution we present the first results from a large observing campaign we are carrying out using VLT/Xshooter to obtain spectra of a large sample (˜250 objects) of L-T transition brown dwarfs. Here we report the results based on the first ˜120 spectra already obtained. The large sample, and the wide spectral coverage (300-2480 nm) given by Xshooter, will allow us to do a new powerful analysis, at an unprecedent level. By fitting the absorption lines of a given element (e.g. Na) at different wavelengths we can test ultracool atmospheric models and draw for the first time a 3D picture of stellar atmospheres at temperatures down to 1000K. Determining the atmospheric parameters (e.g. temperature, surface gravity and metallicity) of a big sample of brown dwarfs, will allow us to understand the role of these parameters on the formation of their spectra. The large number of objects in our sample also will allow us to do a statistical significant test of the birth rate and initial mass function predictions for brown dwarfs. Determining the shape of the initial mass function for very low mass objects is a fundamental task to improve galaxy models, as recent studies tep{2010Natur.468..940V} have shown that low-mass objects dominate in massive elliptical galaxies.

  5. Effect of Endurance Training on The Lactate and Glucose Minimum Intensities

    PubMed Central

    Junior, Pedro B.; de Andrade, Vitor L.; Campos, Eduardo Z.; Kalva-Filho, Carlos A.; Zagatto, Alessandro M.; de Araújo, Gustavo G.; Papoti, Marcelo

    2018-01-01

    Due to the controversy about the sensitive of lactate minimum intensity (LMI) to training and the need to develop other tool for aerobic fitness evaluation, the purpose of this study was to analyze the sensitivity of glucose minimum intensity (GMI) and LMI to endurance training. Eight trained male cyclists (21.4 ± 1.9 years, 67.6 ± 7.5 kg and 1.72 ± 0.10 m) were evaluated twice, before and after 12 weeks of training. GMI and LMI were calculated, respectively, by the lowest blood glucose and lactate values attained during an incremental test performed after a hyperlactemia induction, and VO2max was determined during standard incremental effort. The training was prescribed in three different zones and controlled by heart rate (HR). The training distribution was equivalent to 59.7%, 25.0% and 15.3% below, at and above anaerobic threshold HR respectively. The anaerobic threshold evaluated by GMI and LMI improvement 9.89 ± 4.35% and 10.28 ± 9.89 respectively, after training, but the VO2max 2.52 ± 1.81%. No differences were found between GMI and LMI in pre (218.2 ± 22.1 vs 215.0 ± 18.6 W) and post (240.6 ± 22.9 vs 237.5 ± 18.8 W) training situations. LMI and GMI were sensitive to 12-week aerobic training in cyclist; thus, both protocols can be used to assess aerobic adaptation, athletes diagnostic and prescribe training. Key points The lactate and glucose minimum intensities (GMI) can be used for monitoring training effects on cyclists Although both GMI and lactate minimum intensities are important index of aerobic fitness, they cannot be used to determine aerobic fitness. The polarized training was effective for improvements of maximal oxygen uptake on trained cyclists. PMID:29535585

  6. Effects of acute L-carnitine intake on metabolic and blood lactate levels of elite badminton players.

    PubMed

    Eroğlu, Hüseyin; Senel, Omer; Güzel, Nevin A

    2008-04-01

    Purpose of this study is to research the effects of acute L-Carnitine intake on badminton players' metabolic and blood lactate values. A total of 16 Turkish national badminton players (8 male, 8 female) were voluntarily participated into study. MaxVO2, MET, energy consumption, HR (heart rate), VE (minute ventilation), R (respiratory exchange ratio), AT (anaerobic threshold), oxygen pulse and blood lactate (LA) of subjects were measured by Sensormedics VmaxST and Accutrend Lactate Analyzer. The participants were subjected to the test protocol twice before and after 2g of L-Carnitine intake. The data were evaluated by the use of SPSS 13.0 for Windows. No significant differences were found between 1st. (without L-Carnitine intake) and 2nd. (with L-Carnitine intake) measurements of female participants as regards to all measured parameters. There was a significant difference in EMHR (exercise maximum heart rate) of males between two measurements (p<0.05). However the differences in other parameters were not significant. AT values of female subjects were not significant difference (p>0.05). Respiratory exchange ratio of males was significantly different at anaerobic threshold (p<0.05). Results of this study show that L-carnitine intake one hour prior to the exercise has no effect on the metabolic and blood lactate values of badminton players.

  7. Liquiritin (LT) exhibits suppressive effects against the growth of human cervical cancer cells through activating Caspase-3 in vitro and xenograft mice in vivo.

    PubMed

    He, She-Hong; Liu, Hong-Gai; Zhou, Yu-Fei; Yue, Qing-Fen

    2017-08-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the most common female malignancies worldwide. Liquiritin (LT), a major constituent of Glycyrrhiza Radix, possesses a variety of pharmacological activities, including anti-cancer, anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and neuro-protective effects. However, its role in human cervical cancer remains to be elusive. In our study, we found that LT suppressed cervical cancer cell migration, invasion and cloning ability with little cytotoxicity to human normal cells. In addition, apoptosis was induced by LT in cervical cancer cells through activation of Caspase-3 and poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) cleavage. LT-triggered apoptosis was dependent on extrinsic and intrinsic pathways, which were relied on Fas-associated protein with death domain (FADD)- and Bcl-2/Bax-regulated pathways, leading to Caspase-8 and Caspase-9 cleavage, respectively. LT was found to increase FADD expression, while reduce Bcl-2 expression, contributing to Caspase-3 cleavage. And tumor suppressors, p21 and p53, were enhanced after LT treatment, inhibiting the growth of cervical cancer cells in vitro. Significantly, in vivo study suggested that tumor growth was impeded by LT in a dose-dependent manner through enhancing apoptosis. Together, the data here revealed that LT was an effective and promising candidate for preventing human cervical cancer progression via apoptosis enhancement. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  8. 21 CFR 862.1445 - Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system is a device intended to measure the activity of lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes (a group of enzymes with similar biological activity) in serum. Measurements of lactate...

  9. 21 CFR 862.1445 - Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system is a device intended to measure the activity of lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes (a group of enzymes with similar biological activity) in serum. Measurements of lactate...

  10. LactMed: New NLM Database on Drugs and Lactation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issues Research News From NIH LactMed: New NLM Database on Drugs and Lactation Past Issues / Summer 2006 ... Javascript on. Photo: Comstock LactMed, a free online database with information on drugs and lactation, is one ...

  11. Studying Reliability Using Identical Handheld Lactate Analyzers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Mark T.; Stavrianeas, Stasinos

    2008-01-01

    Accusport analyzers were used to generate lactate performance curves in an investigative laboratory activity emphasizing the importance of reliable instrumentation. Both the calibration and testing phases of the exercise provided students with a hands-on opportunity to use laboratory-grade instrumentation while allowing for meaningful connections…

  12. Nutritional Guide for Pregnant and Lactating Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelbard, Nancy

    Designed to provide accurate and up-to-date information about nutrition and health, this booklet is centered on the nutritional needs of pregnant and lactating adolescents and on the role of schools and the California State Department of Education in meeting those needs. The first section presents information for pregnant adolescents regarding…

  13. Osteoporosis presenting in pregnancy, puerperium, and lactation.

    PubMed

    Kovacs, Christopher S

    2014-12-01

    To describe our current state of knowledge about the pathophysiology, incidence, and treatment of osteoporosis that presents during pregnancy, puerperium, and lactation. When vertebral fractures occur in pregnant or lactating women, it is usually unknown whether the skeleton was normal before pregnancy. Maternal adaptations increase bone resorption modestly during pregnancy but markedly during lactation. The net bone loss may occasionally precipitate fractures, especially in women who have underlying low bone mass or skeletal fragility prior to pregnancy. Bone mass and strength are normally restored postweaning. Transient osteoporosis of the hip is a sporadic disorder localized to one or both femoral heads; it is not due to generalized skeletal resorption. Anecdotal reports have used bisphosphonates, strontium ranelate, teriparatide, or vertebroplasty/kyphoplasty to treat postpartum vertebral fractures, but it is unclear whether these therapies had any added benefit over the spontaneous skeletal recovery that normally occurs after weaning. These relatively rare fragility fractures result from multifactorial causes, including skeletal disorders that precede pregnancy, and structural and metabolic stresses that can compromise skeletal strength during pregnancy and lactation. Further study is needed to determine when pharmacological or surgical therapy is warranted instead of conservative or expectant management.

  14. Energy balance in lactating undernourished Indian women.

    PubMed

    Madhavapeddi, R; Rao, B S

    1992-05-01

    An energy balance study was conducted in eight lactating poor-income Indian women from delivery to 6 months. Energy intake and expenditure were assessed for 7 days every month (30-37 days). Every month, basal metabolic rate (BMR) and milk ingested by infants was measured. An energy balance was computed. As a group these women were in energy balance, indicated by small body weight changes with respect to time. However, only two of these women were in a positive energy balance. Women with higher body weight lost more weight. Estimated mean energy intake was higher than energy expenditure. BMR showed a slight but not significant fall during the second month of lactation and was not different from the BMR seen in 13 non-pregnant, non-lactating women matched for body weight from the staff of the Institute. The energy cost of lactation was 2.3 MJ (549 kcal), a figure that justifies the Recommended Dietary Allowance for energy recommended by FAO/WHO/UNU (1985) and ICMR (1989).

  15. CHOW PARAMETERS IN THRESHOLD LOGIC,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    respect to threshold functions, they provide the optimal test-synthesis method for completely specified 7-argument (or less) functions, reflect the...signs and relative magnitudes of realizing weights and threshold , and can be used themselves as approximating weights. Results are reproved in a

  16. Threshold Concepts and Information Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, Lori; Brunetti, Korey; Hofer, Amy R.

    2011-01-01

    What do we teach when we teach information literacy in higher education? This paper describes a pedagogical approach to information literacy that helps instructors focus content around transformative learning thresholds. The threshold concept framework holds promise for librarians because it grounds the instructor in the big ideas and underlying…

  17. Threshold Hypothesis: Fact or Artifact?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karwowski, Maciej; Gralewski, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    The threshold hypothesis (TH) assumes the existence of complex relations between creative abilities and intelligence: linear associations below 120 points of IQ and weaker or lack of associations above the threshold. However, diverse results have been obtained over the last six decades--some confirmed the hypothesis and some rejected it. In this…

  18. Methods for SBS Threshold Reduction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-30

    We have investigated methods for reducing the threshold for stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) using a frequency-narrowed Cr,Tm,Ho:YAG laser...operating at 2.12 micrometers. The SBS medium was carbon disulfide. Single-focus SBS and threshold reduction by using two foci, a loop, and a ring have

  19. On Hierarchical Threshold Access Structures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-01

    One of the recent generalizations of (t, n) secret sharing for hierarchical threshold access structures is given by Tassa, where he answers the...of theoretical background. We give a conceptually simpler alternative for the understanding of the realization of hierarchical threshold access

  20. The Nature of Psychological Thresholds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rouder, Jeffrey N.; Morey, Richard D.

    2009-01-01

    Following G. T. Fechner (1966), thresholds have been conceptualized as the amount of intensity needed to transition between mental states, such as between a states of unconsciousness and consciousness. With the advent of the theory of signal detection, however, discrete-state theory and the corresponding notion of threshold have been discounted.…

  1. Lactational transfer of mercury and polychlorinated biphenyls in polar bears.

    PubMed

    Knott, Katrina K; Boyd, Daryle; Ylitalo, Gina M; O'Hara, Todd M

    2012-07-01

    We examined concentrations of total mercury (tHg, inorganic and methylated forms) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in blood and milk from free-ranging Southern Beaufort-Chukchi Sea polar bears (Ursus maritimus) to assess maternal transfer of contaminants during lactation and the potential health risk to nursing young. Concentrations of contaminants in the blood of dependent and juvenile animals (ages 1-5 years) ranged from 35.9 to 52.2 μg kg(-1) ww for tHg and 13.9 to 52.2 μg kg(-1) ww (3255.81-11067.79 μg kg(-1) lw) for ΣPCB(7)s, similar to those of adult females, but greater than adult males. Contaminant concentrations in milk ranged from 5.7 to 71.8 μg tHg kg(-1)ww and 160 to 690 μg ΣPCB(11)s kg(-1) ww (547-5190 μg kg(-1) lw). The daily intake levels for tHg by milk consumption estimated for dependent young were below the tolerable daily intake level (TDIL) of tHg established for adult humans. Although the daily intake levels of PCBs through milk consumption for cubs of the year exceeded the TDIL thresholds, calculated dioxin equivalents for PCBs in milk were below adverse physiological thresholds for aquatic mammals. Relatively high concentrations of non-dioxin like PCBs in polar bear milk and blood could impact endocrine function of Southern Beaufort-Chukchi Sea polar bears, but this is uncertain. Transfer of contaminants during mid to late lactation likely limits bioaccumulation of dietary contaminants in female polar bears during spring. As polar bears respond to changes in their arctic sea ice habitat, the adverse health impacts associated with nutritional stress may be exacerbated by tHg and PCBs exposure, especially in ecologically and toxicologically sensitive polar bear cohorts such as reproductive females and young. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Differences in the ribosomes prepared from lactating and non-lactating bovine mammary gland

    PubMed Central

    Herrington, M. D.; Hawtrey, A. O.

    1971-01-01

    1. Ribosomes prepared from bovine lactating mammary gland are able to synthesize protein, whereas similar preparations from non-lactating glands are not. Washing the ribosome suspensions through a medium containing 0.5m-ammonium chloride enhanced their ability to incorporate phenylalanine into polyphenylalanine. 2. Ribosomes isolated from non-lactating bovine mammary gland, in contrast with those from rat liver and lactating mammary gland, contained significant amounts of extraneous nucleases. These enzymes could be removed by washing with a medium A buffer containing 0.5m-ammonium chloride. 3. Only those ribosomes from functionally active tissues were able to bind polyuridylic acid and phenylalanyl-tRNA. PMID:5165653

  3. Using the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory LT-MDL to Evaluate and Analyze Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bonn, Bernadine A.

    2008-01-01

    A long-term method detection level (LT-MDL) and laboratory reporting level (LRL) are used by the U.S. Geological Survey?s National Water Quality Laboratory (NWQL) when reporting results from most chemical analyses of water samples. Changing to this method provided data users with additional information about their data and often resulted in more reported values in the low concentration range. Before this method was implemented, many of these values would have been censored. The use of the LT-MDL and LRL presents some challenges for the data user. Interpreting data in the low concentration range increases the need for adequate quality assurance because even small contamination or recovery problems can be relatively large compared to concentrations near the LT-MDL and LRL. In addition, the definition of the LT-MDL, as well as the inclusion of low values, can result in complex data sets with multiple censoring levels and reported values that are less than a censoring level. Improper interpretation or statistical manipulation of low-range results in these data sets can result in bias and incorrect conclusions. This document is designed to help data users use and interpret data reported with the LTMDL/ LRL method. The calculation and application of the LT-MDL and LRL are described. This document shows how to extract statistical information from the LT-MDL and LRL and how to use that information in USGS investigations, such as assessing the quality of field data, interpreting field data, and planning data collection for new projects. A set of 19 detailed examples are included in this document to help data users think about their data and properly interpret lowrange data without introducing bias. Although this document is not meant to be a comprehensive resource of statistical methods, several useful methods of analyzing censored data are demonstrated, including Regression on Order Statistics and Kaplan-Meier Estimation. These two statistical methods handle complex

  4. Effect of lactate consumption on exercise performance.

    PubMed

    Bryner, R W; Hornsby, W G; Chetlin, R; Ullrich, I H; Yeater, R A

    1998-06-01

    Maintenance of plasma glucose is important in endurance performance. Gluconeogenesis or carbohydrate ingestion maintain glucose after hepatic glycogen depletion. Lactate may also serve as a gluconeogenic precursor as well as a blood buffer. To determine if an 8% carbohydrate (CHO) sports drink with and without a 2% lactate (L) solution increased endurance performance, peak power, and delayed blood acidosis, seven trained cyclists participated in a double-blind randomized study (6 males and 1 female) performed a bicycle test to determine max VO2max HR and the HR associated with the first respiratory exchange ratio (RER) value greater than 1.0 (target HR). Four bicycle rides to exhaustion, separated by one week, were done at a constant workload at a HR 10 beats below each subject's target HR. After a 12-hour fast, subjects received 100 g CHO 2-3 hrs before each test. Mean exercise heart rate was 86-87% max HR. During the final 30 s of each ride the Wingate power test was performed. Subjects consumed either (placebo, 2% L, 8% CHO or 8% CHO plus 2% L) every 20 min. Blood samples were collected before, every 30 min during and immediately following the test. No significant differences were observed in total time (placebo: 95.3 +/- 25.8, 2% lactate: 95.7 +/- 30.0, 8% CHO: 105.2 +/- 37.2, 8% CHO + 2% lactate: 89.0 +/- 28.1 min) or peak power (placebo: 798.2 +/- 241.1, 2% L: 750.1 +/- 279.2, 8% CHO: 789.4 +/- 353.5, 8% CHO + 2% L: 716.3 +/- 331.3 Watts) among drinks. There were no differences in insulin, glucose, pH and HCO3- after the power tests among the drinks. Exercise performance is unaffected by oral supplementation with lactate.

  5. Circulating concentrations of free thyroxine after an oral intake of liquid LT4 taken either during fasting conditions or at breakfast.

    PubMed

    Marina, Michela; Ceda, Gian Paolo; Aloe, Rosalia; Gnocchi, Cecilia; Ceresini, Graziano

    2017-01-16

    Liquid levothyroxine (LT4) given at breakfast normalizes TSH in hypothyroid patients. However, a few studies are available on circulating free thyroxine (FT4) concentrations after liquid vs solid LT4 preparations. During an "ad interim" analysis on serum FT4 after 200 mcg liquid LT4 consumption while fasting in thyroidectomized thyroid cancer patients, we found that seven subjects fortuitously took liquid LT4 at breakfast. As established in the original protocol, serum FT4 was measured both at baseline as well as at 3 and 4 hours after solid or liquid LT4 consumption. We compared serum profile of FT4 in these subjects with those obtained in other subjects participating in the same study who took liquid LT4 (n. 7 subjects) or solid LT4 (n. 7 subjects) while fasting. The percentage increase of circulating FT4 was calculated at the above reported peak-times over the baseline values. Circulating FT4 increased of about 40% in each group of subjects at both the 3rd and the 4th hour with no difference between these two time points in either group. The maximum FT4 % increase, irrespective of the time point, was 44.62 ± 3.05 (Mean ± SE), 44.84 ± 5.43, and 43.83 ± 1.30 after fasting solid, fasting liquid, and breakfast liquid LT4 consumption, respectively, with no differences among the three groups. Circulating FT4 obtained after 3 and 4 hours from the ingestion of 200 mcg liquid LT4 is not influenced by meal and is comparable with that observed after solid LT4 preparations ingested while fasting.

  6. PmLT, a C-type lectin specific to hepatopancreas is involved in the innate defense of the shrimp Penaeus monodon.

    PubMed

    Ma, Tracy Hoi-Tung; Benzie, John A H; He, Jian-Guo; Chan, Siu-Ming

    2008-11-01

    A diverse class of proteins called lectins plays a major role in shrimp innate immunity. In this study, the cDNA encoding a C-type lectin of Penaeus monodon (PmLT) was cloned, and its potential role examined. Despite the low overall amino acid sequence identity with other animal lectins, PmLT includes conserved carbohydrate recognition domains (CRDs) characteristic of animal C-type lectins. Unlike the other two P. monodon lectin-like proteins described to date that have one CRD, PmLT has two CRDs. The first CRD contains a QPD motif with specificity for binding galactose, while the second CRD contains a EPN motif for binding mannose. PmLT transcripts can be detected in the hepatopancreas but not in other tissues. Expression studies showed that PmLT mRNA transcript level decreased initially and then gradually increased after whole shrimp or hepatopancreas tissue fragments were treated with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) extract but were not affected by bacteria. Using anti-rPmLT antibody, PmLT was detected only in the hepatopancreas specific F cells (Hpf). In vitro encapsulation assay showed that agarose beads coated with rPmLT were encapsulated by hemocytes indicating a role in innate immune response. In summary, PmLT is produced in the hepatopancreas and may act as a pattern recognition protein for viral pathogens and also activates the innate immune responses of the shrimp to bacteria. The dual-CRD structure of PmLT may assist the recognition of diverse pathogens.

  7. Total protein of whole saliva as a biomarker of anaerobic threshold.

    PubMed

    Bortolini, Miguel Junior Sordi; De Agostini, Guilherme Gularte; Reis, Ismair Teodoro; Lamounier, Romeu Paulo Martins Silva; Blumberg, Jeffrey B; Espindola, Foued Salmen

    2009-09-01

    Saliva provides a convenient and noninvasive matrix for assessing specific physiological parameters, including some biomarkers of exercise. We investigated whether the total protein concentration of whole saliva (TPWS) would reflect the anaerobic threshold during an incremental exercise test. After a warm-up period, 13 nonsmoking men performed a maximum incremental exercise on a cycle ergometer. Blood and stimulated saliva were collected during the test. The TPWS anaerobic threshold (PAT) was determined using the Dmax method. The PAT was correlated with the blood lactate anaerobic threshold (AT; r = .93, p < .05). No significant difference (p = .16) was observed between PAT and AT. Thus, TPWS provides a convenient and noninvasive matrix for determining the anaerobic threshold during incremental exercise tests.

  8. Mapping the Substellar Mass-Luminosity Relation Down to the L/T Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupuy, Trent

    2016-10-01

    Substellar models underpin our theoretical understanding of brown dwarfs and gas-giant exoplanets, so assessing their accuracy is paramount. The past several years have seen progress in testing models thanks to a growing number of dynamical (total) masses for brown dwarf binaries determined via (relative) orbit monitoring from ground-based AO. However, the strongest tests of models require individual masses, particularly for calibrating the mass-luminosity relation. This is poorly constrained over the range of spectral types most influenced by clouds (mid-L to early-T). Given the observed prevalence of clouds in the atmospheres of directly imaged planets, testing models at such temperatures is crucial.We propose a 3-year program to obtain individual masses for a sample of 11 substellar binaries. Our proposal builds on nearly a decade of orbital monitoring from the ground to measure dynamical total masses. Our goal is thus to measure precise mass ratios, utilizing HST's unique wide-field, high-angular resolution astrometric capabilities. We will obtain WFC3-UVIS images capturing our targets and numerous reference stars so that we can measure the relative amount of orbital motion in each component to determine mass ratios. Three of our targets have I-band photocenter orbits measured at USNO and VLT and thus only require one epoch of resolved I-band imaging to unlock individual masses. We will use this first large sample of substellar individual masses to map out the mass-luminosity relation over a wide range of temperatures (1000-2000 K) including the L/T transition. This will become a touchstone sample for tests of ultracool atmospheric models in the era of JWST.

  9. Mapping the Substellar Mass-Luminosity Relation Down to the L/T Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupuy, Trent

    2017-08-01

    Substellar models underpin our theoretical understanding of brown dwarfs and gas-giant exoplanets, so assessing their accuracy is paramount. The past several years have seen progress in testing models thanks to a growing number of dynamical (total) masses for brown dwarf binaries determined via (relative) orbit monitoring from ground-based AO. However, the strongest tests of models require individual masses, particularly for calibrating the mass-luminosity relation. This is poorly constrained over the range of spectral types most influenced by clouds (mid-L to early-T). Given the observed prevalence of clouds in the atmospheres of directly imaged planets, testing models at such temperatures is crucial.We propose a 3-year program to obtain individual masses for a sample of 11 substellar binaries. Our proposal builds on nearly a decade of orbital monitoring from the ground to measure dynamical total masses. Our goal is thus to measure precise mass ratios, utilizing HST's unique wide-field, high-angular resolution astrometric capabilities. We will obtain WFC3-UVIS images capturing our targets and numerous reference stars so that we can measure the relative amount of orbital motion in each component to determine mass ratios. Three of our targets have I-band photocenter orbits measured at USNO and VLT and thus only require one epoch of resolved I-band imaging to unlock individual masses. We will use this first large sample of substellar individual masses to map out the mass-luminosity relation over a wide range of temperatures (1000-2000 K) including the L/T transition. This will become a touchstone sample for tests of ultracool atmospheric models in the era of JWST.

  10. Tracheal Malplacement of the King LT Airway May Be an Important Cause of Prehospital Device Failure.

    PubMed

    Driver, Brian E; Plummer, David; Heegaard, William; Reardon, Robert F

    2016-12-01

    The King LT airway (King Systems, Noblesville, IN) is a popular extraglottic device that is widely used in the prehospital setting. We report a case of tracheal malplacement of the King airway with a severe kink in the distal tube. A 51-year-old unhelmeted motorcyclist collided with a freeway median and was obtunded when paramedics arrived. After bag mask ventilation, a King airway was placed uneventfully and the patient was transported to the emergency department. Because of the concern for an unstable cervical spine injury, a lateral cervical spine radiograph was obtained on arrival. No cervical injury was seen, but the King airway was noted to be malplaced; the King airway passed through the laryngeal inlet and became lodged on the anterior trachea, creating an acute kink between the two balloons. After reviewing the radiograph, ventilations were reassessed and remained adequate. Both balloons were deflated, and the King airway was removed; the patient was orotracheally intubated without complication. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: The King airway is a valuable prehospital airway that can be placed quickly and blindly with high success rates by inexperienced providers; the King airway, however, is not without complication. Ventilation was not impaired in this patient, but tracheal malplacement may be an important cause of prehospital device failure. If a first placement attempt of a King airway device fails, it is reasonable to reattempt King airway placement with a new, unkinked device before abandoning King airway placement. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Bayesian estimation of dose thresholds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groer, P. G.; Carnes, B. A.

    2003-01-01

    An example is described of Bayesian estimation of radiation absorbed dose thresholds (subsequently simply referred to as dose thresholds) using a specific parametric model applied to a data set on mice exposed to 60Co gamma rays and fission neutrons. A Weibull based relative risk model with a dose threshold parameter was used to analyse, as an example, lung cancer mortality and determine the posterior density for the threshold dose after single exposures to 60Co gamma rays or fission neutrons from the JANUS reactor at Argonne National Laboratory. The data consisted of survival, censoring times and cause of death information for male B6CF1 unexposed and exposed mice. The 60Co gamma whole-body doses for the two exposed groups were 0.86 and 1.37 Gy. The neutron whole-body doses were 0.19 and 0.38 Gy. Marginal posterior densities for the dose thresholds for neutron and gamma radiation were calculated with numerical integration and found to have quite different shapes. The density of the threshold for 60Co is unimodal with a mode at about 0.50 Gy. The threshold density for fission neutrons declines monotonically from a maximum value at zero with increasing doses. The posterior densities for all other parameters were similar for the two radiation types.

  12. Homotopy perturbation method with Laplace Transform (LT-HPM) for solving Lane-Emden type differential equations (LETDEs).

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Rajnee; Mishra, Hradyesh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    In this communication, we describe the Homotopy Perturbation Method with Laplace Transform (LT-HPM), which is used to solve the Lane-Emden type differential equations. It's very difficult to solve numerically the Lane-Emden types of the differential equation. Here we implemented this method for two linear homogeneous, two linear nonhomogeneous, and four nonlinear homogeneous Lane-Emden type differential equations and use their appropriate comparisons with exact solutions. In the current study, some examples are better than other existing methods with their nearer results in the form of power series. The Laplace transform used to accelerate the convergence of power series and the results are shown in the tables and graphs which have good agreement with the other existing method in the literature. The results show that LT-HPM is very effective and easy to implement.

  13. D-Lactate transport and metabolism in rat liver mitochondria.

    PubMed

    de Bari, Lidia; Atlante, Anna; Guaragnella, Nicoletta; Principato, Giovanni; Passarella, Salvatore

    2002-07-15

    In the present study we investigated whether isolated rat liver mitochondria can take up and metabolize D-lactate. We found the following: (1) externally added D-lactate causes oxygen uptake by mitochondria [P/O ratio (the ratio of mol of ATP synthesized to mol of oxygen atoms reduced to water during oxidative phosphorylation)=2] and membrane potential (Delta(psi)) generation in processes that are rotenone-insensitive, but inhibited by antimycin A and cyanide, and proton release from coupled mitochondria inhibited by alpha-cyanocinnamate, but not by phenylsuccinate; (2) the activity of the putative flavoprotein (D-lactate dehydrogenase) was detected in inside-out submitochondrial particles, but not in mitochondria and mitoplasts, as it is localized in the matrix phase of the mitochondrial inner membrane; (3) three novel separate translocators exist to mediate D-lactate traffic across the mitochondrial inner membrane: the D-lactate/H(+) symporter, which was investigated by measuring fluorimetrically the rate of endogenous flavin reduction, the D-lactate/oxoacid antiporter (which mediates both the D-lactate/pyruvate and D-lactate/oxaloacetate exchanges) and D-lactate/malate antiporter studied by monitoring photometrically the appearance of the D-lactate counteranions outside mitochondria. The D-lactate translocators, in the light of their different inhibition profiles separate from the monocarboxylate carrier, were found to differ from each other in the V(max) values and in the inhibition and pH profiles and were shown to regulate mitochondrial D-lactate metabolism in vitro. The D-lactate translocators and the D-lactate dehydrogenase could account for the removal of the toxic methylglyoxal from cytosol, as well as for D-lactate-dependent gluconeogenesis.

  14. The Legacy of Genetic Analysis Advances Contemporary Research with Escherichia coli K-12 and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium LT2.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Valley

    2017-04-01

    Escherichia coli K-12 and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium LT2 became standard organisms for genetic analysis during the Truman administration. Half a century later, genetic analysis with these strains had become an art form, interpreted through 23 articles in the ambitious two-volume masterpiece edited by the late Fred Neidhardt and colleagues. These legacy articles now are available through EcoSal Plus , so as to inform and inspire contemporary genetic analyses in these standard organisms and their relatives.

  15. Molecular cloning of a C-type lectin (LvLT) from the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei: early gene down-regulation after WSSV infection.

    PubMed

    Ma, Tracy Hoi Tung; Tiu, Shirley Hiu Kwan; He, Jian-Guo; Chan, Siu-Ming

    2007-08-01

    C-type lectin is one of the pattern-recognition proteins of the non-self innate immune system in the invertebrates. In this study, a lectin-like cDNA (LvLT) of Litopenaeus vannamei was cloned and characterized. LvLT cDNA consists of 1035 nt encoding for a protein with 345 amino acid residues. The deduced LvLT consists of two putative carbohydrate-recognition domains (CRDs) as found in most C-type lectins. The first CRD consists of an amino acid motif (QPD) for the binding of galactose and the other CRDs consist of amino acid motifs (EPN) for the binding of mannose. Except for some conserved amino acid residues, the CRD of LvLT shared an overall low amino acid sequence identity with CRDs of other lectins. Unlike other shrimp lectins, LvLT is expressed only in the hepatopancreas but not in the hemocytes as revealed by RT-PCR. When juvenile shrimp were challenged with shrimp extracts containing white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), the expression levels of LvLT decreased initially in the first 2 h and then increased to a much higher level after 4 h. The results suggest that the initial reduction in LvLT transcript level may be related to the WSSV infection in shrimp.

  16. The agreement between abnormal venous lactate and arterial lactate in the ED: a retrospective chart review.

    PubMed

    Bloom, B; Pott, J; Freund, Y; Grundlingh, J; Harris, T

    2014-06-01

    The evidence for prognostication using lactate is often based on arterial lactate (AL). Arterial sampling is painful and difficult, and carries risks. Studies comparing peripheral venous lactate (PVL) with AL showed little difference but predominantly included patients with normal lactate. The objective of this study was to measure agreement between PVL and AL in patients with elevated venous lactate. This is a retrospective cross-sectional study. ED patients age≥16, attending from October 2010 to June 2011 inclusive, with PVL≥2.0 mmol/L and AL taken within 1 hour. intravenous fluid prior to or between initial venous and arterial sampling. Primary endpoint: agreement between PVL and AL defined as mean difference±95% limits of agreement (LOA). The misclassification rate was assessed. N=232. VL median 3.50 mmol/L, range 2.00 to 15.00 mmol/L. AL median 2.45 mmol/L, range 1.0 to 13.2 mmol/L. The mean difference±SD between PVL and AL for all patients was 1.06±1.30 mmol/L (95%LOA -1.53 to 3.66 mmol/L). Using a cut-off of 2 mmol/L and 4 mmol/L, 36.2% and 17.9% of patients respectively were incorrectly classified as having elevated lactate. We report greater bias between VL and AL with broader LOA than previously documented. This may partly be due to the fact that we studied only patients with abnormal venous values, for whom close agreement would confer greatest clinical significance. The agreement between abnormal PVL and AL is poor and the high rate of misclassification may suggest that PVL is not a good substitute for AL if the venous lactate is abnormal. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Lactate rescues neuronal sodium homeostasis during impaired energy metabolism.

    PubMed

    Karus, Claudia; Ziemens, Daniel; Rose, Christine R

    2015-01-01

    Recently, we established that recurrent activity evokes network sodium oscillations in neurons and astrocytes in hippocampal tissue slices. Interestingly, metabolic integrity of astrocytes was essential for the neurons' capacity to maintain low sodium and to recover from sodium loads, indicating an intimate metabolic coupling between the 2 cell types. Here, we studied if lactate can support neuronal sodium homeostasis during impaired energy metabolism by analyzing whether glucose removal, pharmacological inhibition of glycolysis and/or addition of lactate affect cellular sodium regulation. Furthermore, we studied the effect of lactate on sodium regulation during recurrent network activity and upon inhibition of the glial Krebs cycle by sodium-fluoroacetate. Our results indicate that lactate is preferentially used by neurons. They demonstrate that lactate supports neuronal sodium homeostasis and rescues the effects of glial poisoning by sodium-fluoroacetate. Altogether, they are in line with the proposed transfer of lactate from astrocytes to neurons, the so-called astrocyte-neuron-lactate shuttle.

  18. Mechanisms driving the lactate switch in Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    PubMed

    Hartley, Fiona; Walker, Tracy; Chung, Vicky; Morten, Karl

    2018-03-31

    The metabolism of Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells in a production environment has been extensively investigated. However, a key metabolic transition, the switch from lactate production to lactate consumption, remains enigmatic. Though commonly observed in CHO cultures, the mechanism(s) by which this metabolic shift is triggered is unknown. Despite this, efforts to control the switch have emerged due to the association of lactate consumption with improved cell growth and productivity. This review aims to consolidate current theories surrounding the lactate switch. The influence of pH, NAD + /NADH, pyruvate availability and mitochondrial function on lactate consumption are explored. A hypothesis based on the cellular redox state is put forward to explain the onset of lactate consumption. Various techniques implemented to control the lactate switch, including manipulation of the culture environment, genetic engineering, and cell line selection are also discussed. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Lactate rescues neuronal sodium homeostasis during impaired energy metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Karus, Claudia; Ziemens, Daniel; Rose, Christine R

    2015-01-01

    Recently, we established that recurrent activity evokes network sodium oscillations in neurons and astrocytes in hippocampal tissue slices. Interestingly, metabolic integrity of astrocytes was essential for the neurons' capacity to maintain low sodium and to recover from sodium loads, indicating an intimate metabolic coupling between the 2 cell types. Here, we studied if lactate can support neuronal sodium homeostasis during impaired energy metabolism by analyzing whether glucose removal, pharmacological inhibition of glycolysis and/or addition of lactate affect cellular sodium regulation. Furthermore, we studied the effect of lactate on sodium regulation during recurrent network activity and upon inhibition of the glial Krebs cycle by sodium-fluoroacetate. Our results indicate that lactate is preferentially used by neurons. They demonstrate that lactate supports neuronal sodium homeostasis and rescues the effects of glial poisoning by sodium-fluoroacetate. Altogether, they are in line with the proposed transfer of lactate from astrocytes to neurons, the so-called astrocyte-neuron-lactate shuttle. PMID:26039160

  20. Development of a high-performance composite cathode for LT-SOFC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Byung Wook

    Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) has drawn considerable attention for decades due to its high efficiency and low pollution, which is made possible since chemical energy is directly converted to electrical energy through the system without combustion. However, successful commercialization of SOFC has been delayed due to its high production cost mainly related with using high cost of interconnecting materials and the other structural components required for high temperature operation. This is the reason that intermediate (IT) or low temperature (LT)-SOFC operating at 600~800°C or 650°C and below, respectively, is of particular significance because it allows the wider selection of cheaper materials such as stainless steel for interconnects and the other structural components. Also, extended lifetime and system reliability are expected due to less thermal stress through the system with reduced temperature. More rapid start-up/shut-down procedure is another advantage of lowering the operating temperatures. As a result, commercialization of SOFC will be more viable. However, there exists performance drop with reduced operating temperature due to increased polarization resistances from the electrode electrochemical reactions and decreased electrolyte conductivity. Since ohmic polarization of the electrolyte can be significantly reduced with state-of-the art thin film technology and cathode polarization has more drastic effect on total SOFC electrochemical performance than anode polarization as temperature decreases, development of the cathode with high performance operating at IT or LT range is thus essential. On the other hand, chemical stability of the cathode and its chemical compatibility with the electrolyte should also be considered for cathode development since instability and incompatibility of the cathode will also cause substantial performance loss. Based on requirements of the cathode mentioned above, in this study, several chemico-physical approaches were

  1. Noninvasive determination of anaerobic threshold by monitoring the %SpO2 changes and respiratory gas exchange.

    PubMed

    Nikooie, Roohollah; Gharakhanlo, Reza; Rajabi, Hamid; Bahraminegad, Morteza; Ghafari, Ali

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the validity of noninvasive anaerobic threshold (AT) estimation using %SpO2 (arterial oxyhemoglobin saturation) changes and respiratory gas exchanges. Fifteen active, healthy males performed 2 graded exercise tests on a motor-driven treadmill in 2 separated sessions. Respiratory gas exchanges and heart rate (HR), lactate concentration, and %SpO2 were measured continuously throughout the test. Anaerobic threshold was determined based on blood lactate concentration (lactate-AT), %SpO2 changes (%SpO2-AT), respiratory exchange ratio (RER-AT), V-slope method (V-slope-AT), and ventilatory equivalent for O2 (EqO2-AT). Blood lactate measuring was considered as gold standard assessment of AT and was applied to confirm the validity of other noninvasive methods. The mean O2 corresponding to lactate-AT, %SpO2-AT, RER-AT, V-slope -AT, and EqO2-AT were 2176.6 +/- 206.4, 1909.5 +/- 221.4, 2141.2 +/- 245.6, 1933.7 +/- 216.4, and 1975 +/- 232.4, respectively. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) analysis indicates a significant correlation between 4 noninvasive methods and the criterion method. Blond-Altman plots showed the good agreement between O2 corresponding to AT in each method and lactate-AT (95% confidence interval (CI). Our results indicate that a noninvasive and easy procedure of monitoring the %SpO2 is a valid method for estimation of AT. Also, in the present study, the respiratory exchange ratio (RER) method seemed to be the best respiratory index for noninvasive estimation of anaerobic threshold, and the heart rate corresponding to AT predicted by this method can be used by coaches and athletes to define training zones.

  2. Face verification with balanced thresholds.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shuicheng; Xu, Dong; Tang, Xiaoou

    2007-01-01

    The process of face verification is guided by a pre-learned global threshold, which, however, is often inconsistent with class-specific optimal thresholds. It is, hence, beneficial to pursue a balance of the class-specific thresholds in the model-learning stage. In this paper, we present a new dimensionality reduction algorithm tailored to the verification task that ensures threshold balance. This is achieved by the following aspects. First, feasibility is guaranteed by employing an affine transformation matrix, instead of the conventional projection matrix, for dimensionality reduction, and, hence, we call the proposed algorithm threshold balanced transformation (TBT). Then, the affine transformation matrix, constrained as the product of an orthogonal matrix and a diagonal matrix, is optimized to improve the threshold balance and classification capability in an iterative manner. Unlike most algorithms for face verification which are directly transplanted from face identification literature, TBT is specifically designed for face verification and clarifies the intrinsic distinction between these two tasks. Experiments on three benchmark face databases demonstrate that TBT significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art subspace techniques for face verification.

  3. A Continuous Threshold Expectile Model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Feipeng; Li, Qunhua

    2017-12-01

    Expectile regression is a useful tool for exploring the relation between the response and the explanatory variables beyond the conditional mean. A continuous threshold expectile regression is developed for modeling data in which the effect of a covariate on the response variable is linear but varies below and above an unknown threshold in a continuous way. The estimators for the threshold and the regression coefficients are obtained using a grid search approach. The asymptotic properties for all the estimators are derived, and the estimator for the threshold is shown to achieve root-n consistency. A weighted CUSUM type test statistic is proposed for the existence of a threshold at a given expectile, and its asymptotic properties are derived under both the null and the local alternative models. This test only requires fitting the model under the null hypothesis in the absence of a threshold, thus it is computationally more efficient than the likelihood-ratio type tests. Simulation studies show that the proposed estimators and test have desirable finite sample performance in both homoscedastic and heteroscedastic cases. The application of the proposed method on a Dutch growth data and a baseball pitcher salary data reveals interesting insights. The proposed method is implemented in the R package cthreshER .

  4. 40 CFR 68.115 - Threshold determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Threshold determination. 68.115... § 68.115 Threshold determination. (a) A threshold quantity of a regulated substance listed in § 68.130... process exceeds the threshold. (b) For the purposes of determining whether more than a threshold quantity...

  5. Lactation studies of anticonvulsants: a quality review

    PubMed Central

    van der Meer, Douwe H; Wieringa, Andre; Wegner, Ilse; Wilffert, Bob; ter Horst, Peter G J

    2015-01-01

    AIM The aim of this review was to investigate the quality of the current literature on the transfer of anticonvulsants to breast milk to provide an overview of which anticonvulsants are in need of further research. METHODS We reviewed the quality of the available lactation studies for 19 anticonvulsants against the guidelines of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the International Lactation Consultant Association (ILCA). RESULTS Except for one study on lamotrigine and one case report on gabapentin, no study on anticonvulsants had both the absolute infant dose (AID) and milk to plasma ratio (M : P) correctly assessed. Only one study on carbamazepine, phenytoin and vigabatrin was found that correctly assessed the AID. The main cause for this low number is the lack of essential details in published studies, since 25 of 62 studies were case reports, letters or abstracts. Other major shortcomings were the lack of information on sampling methods, the number of samples in a particular dose interval as well as the low number of study participants. CONCLUSION The quality of the current literature on the transfer of anticonvulsants to breast milk is low, except for lamotrigine, which makes it hard to draw conclusions about the safety of the use of anticonvulsants during the lactation period. Therefore, further research is needed. PMID:25291358

  6. Lactation studies of anticonvulsants: a quality review.

    PubMed

    van der Meer, Douwe H; Wieringa, Andre; Wegner, Ilse; Wilffert, Bob; Ter Horst, Peter G J

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this review was to investigate the quality of the current literature on the transfer of anticonvulsants to breast milk to provide an overview of which anticonvulsants are in need of further research. We reviewed the quality of the available lactation studies for 19 anticonvulsants against the guidelines of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the International Lactation Consultant Association (ILCA). Except for one study on lamotrigine and one case report on gabapentin, no study on anticonvulsants had both the absolute infant dose (AID) and milk to plasma ratio (M : P) correctly assessed. Only one study on carbamazepine, phenytoin and vigabatrin was found that correctly assessed the AID. The main cause for this low number is the lack of essential details in published studies, since 25 of 62 studies were case reports, letters or abstracts. Other major shortcomings were the lack of information on sampling methods, the number of samples in a particular dose interval as well as the low number of study participants. The quality of the current literature on the transfer of anticonvulsants to breast milk is low, except for lamotrigine, which makes it hard to draw conclusions about the safety of the use of anticonvulsants during the lactation period. Therefore, further research is needed. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  7. Maternal Visceral Adiposity by Consistency of Lactation

    PubMed Central

    Catov, Janet; Ness, Roberta; Schwarz, Eleanor Bimla

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the assocation between lactation and maternal visceral adiposity among US women who were on average 7 years postpartum. This cross-sectional analysis included 89 women who gave birth between 1997 and 2002, who did not have preeclampsia, prepregnancy hypertension or prepregnancy diabetes, and enrolled in The Women and Infant Study of Healthy Hearts (WISH). Computed tomography was used to assess abdominal adiposity. History of lactation was self-reported. Visceral adiposity was greater by 36.96 cm2 (95% CI: 20.92,53.01) among mothers who never breastfed than mothers who breastfed for ≥3 months after every birth, even after adjustment for age, parity, years since last birth, site, socioeconomic, lifestyle, psychological, and family history variables, early adult BMI, and current BMI. Similarly, in fully adjusted models, mothers who breastfed any of their children for less than 3 months had 20.38 cm2 (95% CI: 2.70, 38.06) greater visceral adiposity than mothers who consistently breastfed all their children for 3 or more months. This study found that 7 years postpartum visceral fat depots are significantly greater among mothers who lactated for less than 3 months after the birth of each of their children. These results provide a potential physiologic basis for prior findings that women who do not consistently breastfeed are at an increased risk of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and the metabolic syndrome. PMID:21404071

  8. Binding to Gangliosides Containing N-Acetylneuraminic Acid Is Sufficient To Mediate the Immunomodulatory Properties of the Nontoxic Mucosal Adjuvant LT-IIb(T13I) ▿

    PubMed Central

    Nawar, Hesham F.; Berenson, Charles S.; Hajishengallis, George; Takematsu, Hiromu; Mandell, Lorrie; Clare, Ragina L.; Connell, Terry D.

    2010-01-01

    By use of a mouse mucosal immunization model, LT-IIb(T13I), a nontoxic mutant type II heat-labile enterotoxin, was shown to have potent mucosal and systemic adjuvant properties. In contrast to LT-IIb, which binds strongly to ganglioside receptors decorated with either N-acetylneuraminic acid (NeuAc) or N-glycolylneuraminic acid (NeuGc), LT-IIb(T13I) binds NeuAc gangliosides much less well. Rather, LT-IIb(T13I) binds preferentially to NeuGc gangliosides. To determine if the adjuvant properties of LT-IIb(T13I) are altered in the absence of NeuGc ganglioside receptors, experiments were conducted using a Cmah-null mouse line which is deficient in the synthesis of NeuGc gangliosides. Several immunomodulatory properties of LT-IIb(T13I) were shown to be dependent on NeuGc gangliosides. LT-IIb(T13I) had reduced binding activity for NeuGc-deficient B cells and macrophages; binding to NeuGc-deficient T cells and dendritic cells (DC) was essentially undetectable. Treatment of Cmah-null macrophages with LT-IIb(T13I), however, upregulated the transcription of interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-6, IL-17, and gamma interferon (IFN-γ), four cytokines important for promoting immune responses. The production of mucosal IgA and serum IgG against an immunizing antigen was augmented in NeuGc-deficient mice administered LT-IIb(T13I) as a mucosal adjuvant. Notably, NeuGc gangliosides are not expressed in humans. Still, treatment of human monocytes with LT-IIb(T13I) induced the secretion of IL-6, an inflammatory cytokine that mediates differential control of leukocyte activation. These results suggested that NeuAc gangliosides are sufficient to mediate the immunomodulatory properties of LT-IIb(T13I) in mice and in human cells. The nontoxic mutant enterotoxin LT-IIb(T13I), therefore, is potentially a new and safe human mucosal adjuvant. PMID:20392887

  9. [NUCLEAR STRUCTURE IN THE SECRETORY CELLS OF MAMMARY GLANDS IN LACTATING AND NON-LACTATING RATS].

    PubMed

    Tyutina, K V; Skopichev, V G; Bogolyubov, D S; Bogolyubova, I O

    2016-01-01

    The features of structural and functional organization of the main nuclear compartments and distribution of their key molecular components (chromatin-remodeling protein ATRX, RNA polymerase I and II, and the splicing factor SC35) has been studied in the nuclei of mammary gland cells at different functional states. No significant differences between the nuclei of the cells in the lactating and non-lactating mammary glands have been revealed at the ultrastructural level. At the same time, photometric analysis has revealed higher intensity of nucleoplasmic immunofluorescent staining of mammary glands in the lactating animals when antibodies against the proteins ATRX and SC35 were used. Apparently, this observation reflects the changes of the structural and functional status of chromatin as well as the redistribution of splicing factors between the sites of their deposition and transcription.

  10. Importance of measuring lactate levels in children with sepsis.

    PubMed

    Anil, Nisha

    2017-10-10

    Sepsis is a major public health problem as well as one of the leading causes of preventable death in children because of failure to recognise the early signs and symptoms and to resuscitate rapidly. Blood lactate levels are used to assess the severity of sepsis and the effectiveness of resuscitation. Lactate levels are easily obtainable and should be checked in all patients admitted with suspected sepsis within six hours of presentation. The test should be repeated four and eight-hours post-diagnosis of sepsis. For the diagnosis of sepsis, patients' clinical symptoms, along with the combined analysis of partial pressure of oxygen, carbon dioxide and lactate levels, should be used. A multitude of factors can cause elevated lactate levels and so clinicians should use elevated levels cautiously by considering all other aetiologies. This article, which focuses on practice in Australia but makes reference to the UK, discusses the importance of measuring lactate levels in sepsis, the pathophysiology of lactate production, causes of elevated lactate levels, lactate measurement, nursing management of patients with elevated lactate levels, limitations of using lactate as a biomarker for diagnosing sepsis and implications for practice. ©2012 RCN Publishing Company Ltd. All rights reserved. Not to be copied, transmitted or recorded in any way, in whole or part, without prior permission of the publishers.

  11. Lactate promotes glutamine uptake and metabolism in oxidative cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Escuredo, Jhudit; Dadhich, Rajesh K; Dhup, Suveera; Cacace, Andrea; Van Hée, Vincent F; De Saedeleer, Christophe J; Sboarina, Martina; Rodriguez, Fabien; Fontenille, Marie-Joséphine; Brisson, Lucie; Porporato, Paolo E; Sonveaux, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Oxygenated cancer cells have a high metabolic plasticity as they can use glucose, glutamine and lactate as main substrates to support their bioenergetic and biosynthetic activities. Metabolic optimization requires integration. While glycolysis and glutaminolysis can cooperate to support cellular proliferation, oxidative lactate metabolism opposes glycolysis in oxidative cancer cells engaged in a symbiotic relation with their hypoxic/glycolytic neighbors. However, little is known concerning the relationship between oxidative lactate metabolism and glutamine metabolism. Using SiHa and HeLa human cancer cells, this study reports that intracellular lactate signaling promotes glutamine uptake and metabolism in oxidative cancer cells. It depends on the uptake of extracellular lactate by monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1). Lactate first stabilizes hypoxia-inducible factor-2α (HIF-2α), and HIF-2α then transactivates c-Myc in a pathway that mimics a response to hypoxia. Consequently, lactate-induced c-Myc activation triggers the expression of glutamine transporter ASCT2 and of glutaminase 1 (GLS1), resulting in improved glutamine uptake and catabolism. Elucidation of this metabolic dependence could be of therapeutic interest. First, inhibitors of lactate uptake targeting MCT1 are currently entering clinical trials. They have the potential to indirectly repress glutaminolysis. Second, in oxidative cancer cells, resistance to glutaminolysis inhibition could arise from compensation by oxidative lactate metabolism and increased lactate signaling. PMID:26636483

  12. Brain lactate metabolism: the discoveries and the controversies

    PubMed Central

    Dienel, Gerald A

    2012-01-01

    Potential roles for lactate in the energetics of brain activation have changed radically during the past three decades, shifting from waste product to supplemental fuel and signaling molecule. Current models for lactate transport and metabolism involving cellular responses to excitatory neurotransmission are highly debated, owing, in part, to discordant results obtained in different experimental systems and conditions. Major conclusions drawn from tabular data summarizing results obtained in many laboratories are as follows: Glutamate-stimulated glycolysis is not an inherent property of all astrocyte cultures. Synaptosomes from the adult brain and many preparations of cultured neurons have high capacities to increase glucose transport, glycolysis, and glucose-supported respiration, and pathway rates are stimulated by glutamate and compounds that enhance metabolic demand. Lactate accumulation in activated tissue is a minor fraction of glucose metabolized and does not reflect pathway fluxes. Brain activation in subjects with low plasma lactate causes outward, brain-to-blood lactate gradients, and lactate is quickly released in substantial amounts. Lactate utilization by the adult brain increases during lactate infusions and strenuous exercise that markedly increase blood lactate levels. Lactate can be an ‘opportunistic', glucose-sparing substrate when present in high amounts, but most evidence supports glucose as the major fuel for normal, activated brain. PMID:22186669

  13. Translucency thresholds for dental materials.

    PubMed

    Salas, Marianne; Lucena, Cristina; Herrera, Luis Javier; Yebra, Ana; Della Bona, Alvaro; Pérez, María M

    2018-05-12

    To determine the translucency acceptability and perceptibility thresholds for dental resin composites using CIEDE2000 and CIELAB color difference formulas. A 30-observer panel performed perceptibility and acceptability judgments on 50 pairs of resin composites discs (diameter: 10mm; thickness: 1mm). Disc pair differences for the Translucency Parameter (ΔTP) were calculated using both color difference formulas (ΔTP 00 ranged from 0.11 to 7.98, and ΔTP ab ranged from 0.01 to 12.79). A Takagi-Sugeno-Kang (TSK) Fuzzy Approximation was used as fitting procedure. From the resultant fitting curves, the 95% confidence intervals were estimated and the 50:50% translucency perceptibility and acceptability thresholds (TPT and TAT) were calculated. Differences between thresholds were statistically analyzed using Student t tests (α=0.05). CIEDE2000 50:50% TPT was 0.62 and TAT was 2.62. Corresponding CIELAB values were 1.33 and 4.43, respectively. Translucency perceptibility and acceptability thresholds were significantly different using both color difference formulas (p=0.01 for TPT and p=0.005 for TAT). CIEDE2000 color difference formula provided a better data fit than CIELAB formula. The visual translucency difference thresholds determined with CIEDE2000 color difference formula can serve as reference values in the selection of resin composites and evaluation of its clinical performance. Copyright © 2018 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. 6-Shogaol has anti-amyloidogenic activity and ameliorates Alzheimer's disease via CysLT1R-mediated inhibition of cathepsin B.

    PubMed

    Na, Ji-Young; Song, Kibbeum; Lee, Ju-Woon; Kim, Sokho; Kwon, Jungkee

    2016-08-12

    Although 6-shogaol, a constituent of ginger, has been reported to have anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects on neuronal cells, the effects of 6-shogaol on Alzheimer's disease (AD) have not yet been investigated. Here we aimed to determine whether 6-shogaol exerts neuroprotective effects against AD. Specifically, we investigated the effects of 6-shogaol on the cysteinyl leukotriene 1 receptor (CysLT1R), a major factor in AD pathogenesis. Moreover, we clarified the relationship between CysLT1R and cathepsin B, a cysteine protease. We used in vitro and in vivo models to determine whether 6-shogaol inhibits CysLT1R/cathepsin B in an amyloid-beta (Aβ; 1-42)-induced model of neurotoxicity. We first confirmed that CysLT1R and cathepsin B are upregulated by Aβ (1-42) and that CysLT1R activation induces cathepsin B. In contrast, we found that 6-shogaol-mediated inhibition of CysLT1R downregulates cathepsin B in both in vitro and in vivo models. Furthermore, we found that 6-shogaol-mediated inhibition of CysLT1R/cathepsin B reduces Aβ deposition in the brain and ameliorates behavioral deficits in APPSw/PS1-dE9 Tg mice. Our results indicate that 6-shogaol is a CysLT1R/cathepsin B inhibitor and is a novel potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of various neurodegenerative diseases, including AD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Alcohol consumption decreases lactate clearance in acutely injured patients☆

    PubMed Central

    Dezman, Zachary D.W.; Comer, Angela C.; Narayan, Mayur; Scalea, Thomas M.; Hirshon, Jon Mark; Smith, Gordon S.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Alcohol, a common risk factor for injury, has direct toxic effects on the liver. The use of lactate clearance has been well described as an indicator of the adequacy of resuscitation in injured patients. We investigated whether acutely injured patients with positive blood alcohol content (+BAC) had less lactate clearance than sober patients. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study of acutely injured patients treated at an urban Level 1 trauma centre between January 2010 and December 2012. Blood alcohol and venous lactate levels were measured on all patients at the time of arrival. Study subjects were patients transported directly from the scene of injury, who had an elevated lactate concentration on arrival (≥3.0 mmol/L) and at least one subsequent lactate measurement within 24 h after admission. Lactate clearance ([Lactate1 − Lactate2]/Lactate1) was calculated for all patients. Chi-squared tests were used to compare values from sober and intoxicated subjects. Lactate clearance was plotted against alcohol levels and stratified by age and Injury Severity Score (ISS). Results Serial lactate concentration measurements were obtained in 3910 patients; 1674 of them had +BAC. Patients with +BAC were younger (mean age: 36.6 [SD 14.7] vs 41.0 [SD 19.9] years [p = 0.0001]), were more often male (83.4% vs 75.9% [p = 0.0001]), had more minor injuries (ISS < 9) (33.8% vs 27.1% [p = 0.0001]), had a lower in-hospital mortality rate (1.4% vs 3.9% [p = 0.0001]), but also had lower average lactate clearance (37.8% vs 47.6% [p = 0.0001]). The lactate clearance of the sober patients (47.6 [SD 33.5]) was twice that of those with +BAC >400 (23.5 [SD 6.5]). Lactate clearance decreased with increasing BAC irrespective of age and ISS. Conclusions In a large group of acutely injured patients, a dose-dependent decrease in lactate clearance was seen in those with elevated BAC. This relationship will cause a falsely elevated lactate reading or prolong lactate

  16. Are arterial, muscle and working limb lactate exchange data obtained on men at altitude consistent with the hypothesis of an intracellular lactate shuttle?

    PubMed

    Brooks, G A

    1999-01-01

    The "Lactate Shuttle" Hypothesis posits that lactate removal requires exchange among producing and consuming cells. The "Intra-cellular Lactate Shuttle" hypothesis posits that lactate exchange occurs among compartments within cells, and that mitochondria are the major sites of cellular lactate disposal. Thus, cells with high mitochondrial densities (cardiocytes, myocytes, hepatocytes) are those which participate in lactate clearance. The model of an Intracellular Lactate Shuttle recognizes that the Keq for LDH is 3.6 x 10(4) M-1; thus, glycolysis results in cytosolic lactate production regardless of the intracellular PO2. The model also requires presence of a mitochondrial monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) that allows uptake of lactate as well as pyruvate, and intra-mitochondrial LDH whose function is linked to the ETC, and which permits lactate-->pyruvate conversion and oxidation. Recently, we have shown that liver, heart and muscle mitochondria readily oxidize lactate and contain LDH and MCT1. Accordingly, we have concluded that lactate is the predominant monocarboxylate oxidized by mitochondria in vivo. The model of an "Intra-cellular Lactate Shuttle" is consistent with many of the observations on men at sea level and altitude. The observations include: oxidation is the primary fate of lactate disposal during rest and exercise; lactate production and oxidation occur simultaneously within resting and working muscle; increasing [lactate]a increases muscle lactate extraction, and that by increasing SaO2 acclimatization reduces blood [lactate].

  17. Thermotactile perception thresholds measurement conditions.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Setsuo; Sakakibara, Hisataka

    2002-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of posture, push force and rate of temperature change on thermotactile thresholds and to clarify suitable measuring conditions for Japanese people. Thermotactile (warm and cold) thresholds on the right middle finger were measured with an HVLab thermal aesthesiometer. Subjects were eight healthy male Japanese students. The effects of posture in measurement were examined in the posture of a straight hand and forearm placed on a support, the same posture without a support, and the fingers and hand flexed at the wrist with the elbow placed on a desk. The finger push force applied to the applicator of the thermal aesthesiometer was controlled at a 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 N. The applicator temperature was changed to 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 degrees C/s. After each measurement, subjects were asked about comfort under the measuring conditions. Three series of experiments were conducted on different days to evaluate repeatability. Repeated measures ANOVA showed that warm thresholds were affected by the push force and the rate of temperature change and that cold thresholds were influenced by posture and push force. The comfort assessment indicated that the measurement posture of a straight hand and forearm laid on a support was the most comfortable for the subjects. Relatively high repeatability was obtained under measurement conditions of a 1 degrees C/s temperature change rate and a 0.5 N push force. Measurement posture, push force and rate of temperature change can affect the thermal threshold. Judging from the repeatability, a push force of 0.5 N and a temperature change of 1.0 degrees C/s in the posture with the straight hand and forearm laid on a support are recommended for warm and cold threshold measurements.

  18. Lactate metabolism and cytosolic NADH reducing equivalents in ovine adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Y T; White, L S; Muir, L A

    1982-01-01

    1. Isolated ovine adipocytes, unlike rat adipose tissue, could utilize lactate at a high rate. 2. When the rate of fatty acid synthesis was attenuated with 5-(tetradecyloxy)-2-furoic acid, a fatty acid synthesis inhibitor, there was a good positive correlation between the rates of lactate oxidation to CO2 and lactate incorporation into fatty acids. 3. Addition of 2,4-dinitrophenol enhanced lactate oxidation to CO2 independent of fatty acid synthesis. Under this condition, estimated cytosolic NADH formation from lactate dehydrogenation exceeded the need of NADH for cytosolic oxaloacetate reduction and for glyceride glycerol formation. 4. Mitochondria isolated from ovine adipocytes oxidized added NADH rapidly in a reconstituted alpha-glycerophosphate shuttle system. 5. It is possible that the ability of ovine adipocytes to utilize lactate may be related to the active alpha-glycerophosphate shuttle for cytosolic NADH reoxidation.

  19. Blood lactate changes in professional Indian divers under hyperbaric conditions

    PubMed Central

    Sikri, Gaurav; Singh, S.P.; Srinivasa, A.B.; Chaudhry, H.B.S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Hyperoxia due to hyperbaric conditions influences lactate metabolism. Previous studies on lactate levels in hyperbaric conditions have reported varied results depending on the depth of evaluation and breathing gas mixture used. Methods This study compared post-exercise blood lactate levels of Indian professional male divers (breathing ambient air under normobaric conditions) with their post-exercise blood lactate levels measured under simulated hyperbaric conditions. Result In the present study, blood lactate levels in divers were found to have decreased significantly during recovery phase of exercise in hyperbaric conditions of dry diving at 2.8 Atmospheres Absolute (ATA) as compared to normobaric conditions. A significant improvement was observed in physical performance in terms of HR max and duration of exercise. Conclusion This study revealed that hyperoxia due to moderate hyperbaric condition leads to improvement in lactate metabolism in muscles and organs (liver and heart) for its removal. PMID:26900221

  20. Lactate induces osteoblast differentiation by stabilization of HIF1α.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yu; Wang, Miaomiao; Feng, Haihua; Peng, Ying; Sun, Jieyun; Qu, Xiuxia; Li, Chunping

    2017-09-05

    Aerobic glycolysis is involved in osteoblast differentiation induced by Wnt signaling or PTH treatment. However, it is still unclear whether lactate, the end product of aerobic glycolysis, plays any role in osteoblast differentiation. Herein we report that in cultures of osteoblast-lineage cells, lactate promoted alkaline phosphatase-positive cell formation, increased the activity of alkaline phosphatase, and induced the expression of osteocalcin. This osteoblast differentiation-inducing effect of lactate can be inhibited by blocking its entry into cells with MCT1 siRNA or inhibitors, and by interfering with its metabolism by using specific siRNAs for LDHB and PDH. Moreover, lactate stabilized HIF1α expression and inhibited HIF1α activity, with BAY87-2243 lowering the osteoblast differentiation-inducing effect of lactate. Thus, these findings reveal an unrecognized role for aerobic glycolysis in osteoblast differentiation via its end product, lactate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Sewage sludge amendment and inoculation with plant-parasitic nematodes do not facilitate the internalization of Salmonella Typhimurium LT2 in lettuce plants.

    PubMed

    Fornefeld, Eva; Baklawa, Mohamed; Hallmann, Johannes; Schikora, Adam; Smalla, Kornelia

    2018-05-01

    Contamination of fruits and vegetables with Salmonella is a serious threat to human health. In order to prevent possible contaminations of fresh produce it is necessary to identify the contributing ecological factors. In this study we investigated whether the addition of sewage sludge or the presence of plant-parasitic nematodes foster the internalization of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium LT2 into lettuce plants, posing a potential threat for human health. Greenhouse experiments were conducted to investigate whether the amendment of sewage sludge to soil or the presence of plant-parasitic nematodes Meloidogyne hapla or Pratylenchus crenatus promote the internalization of S. Typhimurium LT2 from soil into the edible part of lettuce plants. Unexpectedly, numbers of cultivable S. Typhimurium LT2 decreased faster in soil with sewage sludge than in control soil but not in root samples. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis revealed shifts of the soil bacterial communities in response to sewage sludge amendment and time. Infection and proliferation of nematodes inside plant roots were observed but did not influence the number of cultivable S. Typhimurium LT2 in the root samples or in soil. S. Typhimurium LT2 was not detected in the leaf samples 21 and 49 days after inoculation. The results indicate that addition of sewage sludge, M. hapla or P. crenatus to soil inoculated with S. Typhimurium LT2 did not result in an improved survival in soil or internalization of lettuce plants. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Recent Advances in Laplace Transform Analytic Element Method (LT-AEM) Theory and Application to Transient Groundwater Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhlman, K. L.; Neuman, S. P.

    2006-12-01

    Furman and Neuman (2003) proposed a Laplace Transform Analytic Element Method (LT-AEM) for transient groundwater flow. LT-AEM applies the traditionally steady-state AEM to the Laplace transformed groundwater flow equation, and back-transforms the resulting solution to the time domain using a Fourier Series numerical inverse Laplace transform method (de Hoog, et.al., 1982). We have extended the method so it can compute hydraulic head and flow velocity distributions due to any two-dimensional combination and arrangement of point, line, circular and elliptical area sinks and sources, nested circular or elliptical regions having different hydraulic properties, and areas of specified head, flux or initial condition. The strengths of all sinks and sources, and the specified head and flux values, can all vary in both space and time in an independent and arbitrary fashion. Initial conditions may vary from one area element to another. A solution is obtained by matching heads and normal fluxes along the boundary of each element. The effect which each element has on the total flow is expressed in terms of generalized Fourier series which converge rapidly (<20 terms) in most cases. As there are more matching points than unknown Fourier terms, the matching is accomplished in Laplace space using least-squares. The method is illustrated by calculating the resulting transient head and flow velocities due to an arrangement of elements in both finite and infinite domains. The 2D LT-AEM elements already developed and implemented are currently being extended to solve the 3D groundwater flow equation.

  3. Threshold current for fireball generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dijkhuis, Geert C.

    1982-05-01

    Fireball generation from a high-intensity circuit breaker arc is interpreted here as a quantum-mechanical phenomenon caused by severe cooling of electrode material evaporating from contact surfaces. According to the proposed mechanism, quantum effects appear in the arc plasma when the radius of one magnetic flux quantum inside solid electrode material has shrunk to one London penetration length. A formula derived for the threshold discharge current preceding fireball generation is found compatible with data reported by Silberg. This formula predicts linear scaling of the threshold current with the circuit breaker's electrode radius and concentration of conduction electrons.

  4. On computational Gestalt detection thresholds.

    PubMed

    Grompone von Gioi, Rafael; Jakubowicz, Jérémie

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to show some recent developments of computational Gestalt theory, as pioneered by Desolneux, Moisan and Morel. The new results allow to predict much more accurately the detection thresholds. This step is unavoidable if one wants to analyze visual detection thresholds in the light of computational Gestalt theory. The paper first recalls the main elements of computational Gestalt theory. It points out a precision issue in this theory, essentially due to the use of discrete probability distributions. It then proposes to overcome this issue by using continuous probability distributions and illustrates it on the meaningful alignment detector of Desolneux et al.

  5. Thresholds in chemical respiratory sensitisation.

    PubMed

    Cochrane, Stella A; Arts, Josje H E; Ehnes, Colin; Hindle, Stuart; Hollnagel, Heli M; Poole, Alan; Suto, Hidenori; Kimber, Ian

    2015-07-03

    There is a continuing interest in determining whether it is possible to identify thresholds for chemical allergy. Here allergic sensitisation of the respiratory tract by chemicals is considered in this context. This is an important occupational health problem, being associated with rhinitis and asthma, and in addition provides toxicologists and risk assessors with a number of challenges. In common with all forms of allergic disease chemical respiratory allergy develops in two phases. In the first (induction) phase exposure to a chemical allergen (by an appropriate route of exposure) causes immunological priming and sensitisation of the respiratory tract. The second (elicitation) phase is triggered if a sensitised subject is exposed subsequently to the same chemical allergen via inhalation. A secondary immune response will be provoked in the respiratory tract resulting in inflammation and the signs and symptoms of a respiratory hypersensitivity reaction. In this article attention has focused on the identification of threshold values during the acquisition of sensitisation. Current mechanistic understanding of allergy is such that it can be assumed that the development of sensitisation (and also the elicitation of an allergic reaction) is a threshold phenomenon; there will be levels of exposure below which sensitisation will not be acquired. That is, all immune responses, including allergic sensitisation, have threshold requirement for the availability of antigen/allergen, below which a response will fail to develop. The issue addressed here is whether there are methods available or clinical/epidemiological data that permit the identification of such thresholds. This document reviews briefly relevant human studies of occupational asthma, and experimental models that have been developed (or are being developed) for the identification and characterisation of chemical respiratory allergens. The main conclusion drawn is that although there is evidence that the

  6. Magnesium Sulfate Only Slightly Reduces the Shivering Threshold in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Wadhwa, Anupama; Sengupta, Papiya; Durrani, Jaleel; Akça, Ozan; Lenhardt, Rainer; Sessler, Daniel I.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Hypothermia may be an effective treatment for stroke or acute myocardial infarction; however, it provokes vigorous shivering, which causes potentially dangerous hemodynamic responses and prevents further hypothermia. Magnesium is an attractive antishivering agent because it is used for treatment of postoperative shivering and provides protection against ischemic injury in animal models. We tested the hypothesis that magnesium reduces the threshold (triggering core temperature) and gain of shivering without substantial sedation or muscle weakness. Methods: We studied nine healthy male volunteers (18-40 yr) on two randomly assigned treatment days: 1) Control and 2) Magnesium (80 mg·kg-1 followed by infusion at 2 g·h-1). Lactated Ringer's solution (4°C) was infused via a central venous catheter over a period of approximately 2 hours to decrease tympanic membrane temperature ≈1.5°C·h-1. A significant and persistent increase in oxygen consumption identified the threshold. The gain of shivering was determined by the slope of oxygen consumption vs. core temperature regression. Sedation was evaluated using verbal rating score (VRS, 0-10) and bispectral index of the EEG (BIS). Peripheral muscle strength was evaluated using dynamometry and spirometry. Data were analyzed using repeated-measures ANOVA; P<0.05 was statistically significant. Results: Magnesium reduced the shivering threshold (36.3±0.4 [mean±SD] vs. 36.6±0.3°C, P=0.040). It did not affect the gain of shivering (Control: 437±289, Magnesium: 573±370 ml·min-1·°C-1, P=0.344). The magnesium bolus did not produce significant sedation or appreciably reduce muscle strength. Conclusions: Magnesium significantly reduced the shivering threshold; however, due to the modest absolute reduction, this finding is considered to be clinically unimportant for induction of therapeutic hypothermia. PMID:15749735

  7. Caffeine poisoning and lactate rise: an overlooked toxic effect?

    PubMed

    Schmidt, A; Karlson-Stiber, C

    2008-08-01

    Severe caffeine poisoning is rare but associated with a high mortality. The symptoms are mainly attributable to hyperadrenergic stimulation, are relatively well known and described in the literature. Transient rises in plasma lactate levels may occur but are, however, less well described. We present a case of serious caffeine poisoning with a concomitant rise in lactate treated with a non-selective beta-blocker and discuss briefly the symptomatology, the management of caffeine poisoning and the association between lactate and metabolic acidosis.

  8. Enhanced responsiveness to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors during lactation.

    PubMed

    Jury, Nicholas J; McCormick, Betsy A; Horseman, Nelson D; Benoit, Stephen C; Gregerson, Karen A

    2015-01-01

    The physiology of mood regulation in the postpartum is poorly understood despite the fact that postpartum depression (PPD) is a common pathology. Serotonergic mechanisms and their dysfunction are widely presumed to be involved, which has led us to investigate whether lactation induces changes in central or peripheral serotonin (5-HT) systems and related affective behaviors. Brain sections from lactating (day 10 postpartum) and age-matched nulliparous (non-pregnant) C57BL/6J mice were processed for 5-HT immunohistochemistry. The total number of 5-HT immunostained cells and optical density were measured. Lactating mice exhibited lower immunoreactive 5-HT and intensity in the dorsal raphe nucleus when compared with nulliparous controls. Serum 5-HT was quantified from lactating and nulliparous mice using radioimmunoassay. Serum 5-HT concentrations were higher in lactating mice than in nulliparous controls. Affective behavior was assessed in lactating and non-lactating females ten days postpartum, as well as in nulliparous controls using the forced swim test (FST) and marble burying task (MBT). Animals were treated for the preceding five days with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI, citalopram, 5mg/kg/day) or vehicle. Lactating mice exhibited a lower baseline immobility time during the FST and buried fewer marbles during the MBT as compared to nulliparous controls. Citalopram treatment changed these behaviors in lactating mice with further reductions in immobility during the FST and decreased marble burying. In contrast, the same regimen of citalopram treatment had no effect on these behaviors in either non-lactating postpartum or nulliparous females. Our findings demonstrate changes in both central and peripheral 5-HT systems associated with lactation, independent of pregnancy. They also demonstrate a significant interaction of lactation and responsiveness to SSRI treatment, which has important implications in the treatment of PPD. Although recent evidence

  9. Enhanced Responsiveness to Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors during Lactation

    PubMed Central

    Jury, Nicholas J.; McCormick, Betsy A.; Horseman, Nelson D.; Benoit, Stephen C.; Gregerson, Karen A.

    2015-01-01

    The physiology of mood regulation in the postpartum is poorly understood despite the fact that postpartum depression (PPD) is a common pathology. Serotonergic mechanisms and their dysfunction are widely presumed to be involved, which has led us to investigate whether lactation induces changes in central or peripheral serotonin (5-HT) systems and related affective behaviors. Brain sections from lactating (day 10 postpartum) and age-matched nulliparous (non-pregnant) C57BL/6J mice were processed for 5-HT immunohistochemistry. The total number of 5-HT immunostained cells and optical density were measured. Lactating mice exhibited lower immunoreactive 5-HT and intensity in the dorsal raphe nucleus when compared with nulliparous controls. Serum 5-HT was quantified from lactating and nulliparous mice using radioimmunoassay. Serum 5-HT concentrations were higher in lactating mice than in nulliparous controls. Affective behavior was assessed in lactating and non-lactating females ten days postpartum, as well as in nulliparous controls using the forced swim test (FST) and marble burying task (MBT). Animals were treated for the preceding five days with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI, citalopram, 5mg/kg/day) or vehicle. Lactating mice exhibited a lower baseline immobility time during the FST and buried fewer marbles during the MBT as compared to nulliparous controls. Citalopram treatment changed these behaviors in lactating mice with further reductions in immobility during the FST and decreased marble burying. In contrast, the same regimen of citalopram treatment had no effect on these behaviors in either non-lactating postpartum or nulliparous females. Our findings demonstrate changes in both central and peripheral 5-HT systems associated with lactation, independent of pregnancy. They also demonstrate a significant interaction of lactation and responsiveness to SSRI treatment, which has important implications in the treatment of PPD. Although recent evidence

  10. The ventilatory anaerobic threshold is related to, but is lower than, the critical power, but does not explain exercise tolerance at this workrate.

    PubMed

    Okudan, N; Gökbel, H

    2006-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationships between critical power (CP), maximal aerobic power and the anaerobic threshold and whether exercise time to exhaustion and work at the CP can be used as an index in the determination of endurance. An incremental maximal cycle exercise test was performed on 30 untrained males aged 18-22 years. Lactate analysis was carried out on capillary blood samples at every 2 minutes. From gas exchange parameters and heart rate and lactate values, ventilatory anaerobic thresholds, heart rate deflection point and the onset of blood lactate accumulation were calculated. CP was determined with linear work-time method using 3 loads. The subjects exercised until they could no longer maintain a cadence above 24 rpm at their CP and exercise time to exhaustion was determined. CP was lower than the power output corresponding to VO2max, higher than the power outputs corresponding to anaerobic threshold. CP was correlated with VO2max and anaerobic threshold. Exercise time to exhaustion and work at CP were not correlated with VO2max and anaerobic threshold. Because of the correlations of the CP with VO2max and anaerobic threshold and no correlation of exercise time to exhaustion and work at the CP with these parameters, we conclude that exercise time to exhaustion and work at the CP cannot be used as an index in the determination of endurance.

  11. Lactate storm marks cerebral metabolism following brain trauma.

    PubMed

    Lama, Sanju; Auer, Roland N; Tyson, Randy; Gallagher, Clare N; Tomanek, Boguslaw; Sutherland, Garnette R

    2014-07-18

    Brain metabolism is thought to be maintained by neuronal-glial metabolic coupling. Glia take up glutamate from the synaptic cleft for conversion into glutamine, triggering glial glycolysis and lactate production. This lactate is shuttled into neurons and further metabolized. The origin and role of lactate in severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains controversial. Using a modified weight drop model of severe TBI and magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy with infusion of (13)C-labeled glucose, lactate, and acetate, the present study investigated the possibility that neuronal-glial metabolism is uncoupled following severe TBI. Histopathology of the model showed severe brain injury with subarachnoid and hemorrhage together with glial cell activation and positive staining for Tau at 90 min post-trauma. High resolution MR spectroscopy of brain metabolites revealed significant labeling of lactate at C-3 and C-2 irrespective of the infused substrates. Increased (13)C-labeled lactate in all study groups in the absence of ischemia implied activated astrocytic glycolysis and production of lactate with failure of neuronal uptake (i.e. a loss of glial sensing for glutamate). The early increase in extracellular lactate in severe TBI with the injured neurons rendered unable to pick it up probably contributes to a rapid progression toward irreversible injury and pan-necrosis. Hence, a method to detect and scavenge the excess extracellular lactate on site or early following severe TBI may be a potential primary therapeutic measure. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. Analysis of lactate concentrations in canine synovial fluid.

    PubMed

    Proot, J L J; de Vicente, F; Sheahan, D E

    2015-01-01

    To report synovial fluid lactate concentrations in normal and pathological canine joints. Controlled, prospective study. Lactate was measured in synovial fluid using a hand-held meter and the rest of the fluid was sent to a commercial laboratory for analysis. Samples were divided into four groups; group 1: control, group 2: osteoarthritis, group 3: immune-mediated inflammatory arthritis, and group 4: septic arthritis. Statistical analysis was performed to compare lactate concentrations between the four groups and to examine the predictive value of lactate in the diagnosis of septic arthritis. A correlation was sought between synovial fluid lactate and synovial fluid total nucleated cell count and total protein. Seventy-four samples were investigated from 55 dogs. Statistical analysis found that lactate concentrations were significantly higher in the septic arthritis group than in each of the other three groups. No significant correlation could be found between synovial fluid lactate concentrations and synovial fluid total nucleated cell count or synovial fluid total protein. Lactate concentration was found to be a useful predictor of septic arthritis, with a low concentration pointing towards exclusion rather than a high concentration to the diagnosis of septic arthritis. Synovial fluid lactate concentration is not a good marker for osteoarthritis or immune-mediated inflammatory arthritis, but it is significantly increased in septic arthritis and could help the clinician in ruling out this condition in a quick and cost-effective way.

  13. Lactation and changes in maternal metabolic risk factors.

    PubMed

    Gunderson, Erica P; Lewis, Cora E; Wei, Gina S; Whitmer, Rachel A; Quesenberry, Charles P; Sidney, Steve

    2007-03-01

    To examine the relationship between duration of lactation and changes in maternal metabolic risk factors. This 3-year prospective study examined changes in metabolic risk factors among lactating women from preconception to postweaning and among nonlactating women from preconception to postdelivery, in comparison with nongravid women. Of 1,051 (490 black, 561 white) women who attended two consecutive study visits in years 7 (1992-1993) and 10 (1995-1996), 942 were nongravid and 109 had one interim birth. Of parous women, 48 (45%) did not lactate, and 61 (55%) lactated and weaned before year 10. The lactated and weaned women were subdivided by duration of lactation into less than 3 months and 3 months or more. Multiple linear regression models estimated mean 3-year changes in metabolic risk factors adjusted for age, race, parity, education, and behavioral covariates. Both parous women who did not lactate and parous women who lactated and weaned gained more weight (+5.6, +4.4 kg) and waist girth (+5.3, +4.9 cm) than nongravid women over the 3-year interval; P<.001. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (+6.7 mg/dL, P<.05) and fasting insulin (+2.6 microunits, P=.06) increased more for parous women who did not lactate than for nongravid and parous women who lactated and weaned. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol decrements for both parous women who did not lactate and parous women who lactated and weaned were 4.0 mg/dL greater than for nongravid women (P<.001). Among parous, lactated and weaned women, lactation for 3 months or longer was associated with a smaller decrement in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (-1.3 mg/dL versus -7.3 mg/dL for less than 3 months; P<.01). Lactation may attenuate unfavorable metabolic risk factor changes that occur with pregnancy, with effects apparent after weaning. As a modifiable behavior, lactation may affect women's future risk of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. II.

  14. Threshold Concepts and Pedagogic Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Jan H. F.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present a brief exposure to the development of the threshold concepts framework (TCF), the intention being to illuminate for interested readers a broader landscape of research activity than that perhaps conveyed by the individual contributions to this special edition. Design/Methodology/Approach: There is…

  15. Crossing Thresholds in Academic Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, Rob

    2013-01-01

    This paper looks at the conceptual thresholds in relation to academic reading which might be crossed by undergraduate English Literature students. It is part of a wider study following 16 students through three years of undergraduate study. It uses theoretical ideas from Bakhtin and Foucault to analyse interviews with English lecturers. It…

  16. I. RENAL THRESHOLDS FOR HEMOGLOBIN IN DOGS

    PubMed Central

    Lichty, John A.; Havill, William H.; Whipple, George H.

    1932-01-01

    We use the term "renal threshold for hemoglobin" to indicate the smallest amount of hemoglobin which given intravenously will effect the appearance of recognizable hemoglobin in the urine. The initial renal threshold level for dog hemoglobin is established by the methods employed at an average value of 155 mg. hemoglobin per kilo body weight with maximal values of 210 and minimal of 124. Repeated daily injections of hemoglobin will depress this initial renal threshold level on the average 46 per cent with maximal values of 110 and minimal values of 60 mg. hemoglobin per kilo body weight. This minimal or depression threshold is relatively constant if the injections are continued. Rest periods without injections cause a return of the renal threshold for hemoglobin toward the initial threshold levels—recovery threshold level. Injections of hemoglobin below the initial threshold level but above the minimal or depression threshold will eventually reduce the renal threshold for hemoglobin to its depression threshold level. We believe the depression threshold or minimal renal threshold level due to repeated hemoglobin injections is a little above the glomerular threshold which we assume is the base line threshold for hemoglobin. Our reasons for this belief in the glomerular threshold are given above and in the other papers of this series. PMID:19870016

  17. Quantifying ecological thresholds from response surfaces

    Treesearch

    Heather E. Lintz; Bruce McCune; Andrew N. Gray; Katherine A. McCulloh

    2011-01-01

    Ecological thresholds are abrupt changes of ecological state. While an ecological threshold is a widely accepted concept, most empirical methods detect them in time or across geographic space. Although useful, these approaches do not quantify the direct drivers of threshold response. Causal understanding of thresholds detected empirically requires their investigation...

  18. Relationship between season, lactation number and incidence of clinical mastitis in different stages of lactation in a Holstein dairy farm.

    PubMed

    Moosavi, Maede; Mirzaei, Abdolah; Ghavami, Mohsen; Tamadon, Amin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the occurrence and duration of clinical mastitis in different seasons, stages of lactation period and parities in a Holstein dairy farm in Iran. A retrospective epidemiological survey from April 2005 to March 2008 was conducted on 884 clinical mastitis cases of 7437 lactations. Data of each case including calendar-date of mastitis onset, days in milk (DIM) of mastitis onset (early: 0-74 DIM; middle: 75-150 DIM, and late ≥ 150 DIM), duration of mastitis, and parity (1, 2, and ≥ 3) were recorded. Based on date of mastitis onset, cases were classified into stages of lactation. Moreover, beginning of mastitis was seasonally categorized. Duration of clinical mastitis after treatment in early lactation was less than late lactation in the first-parity cows (p = 0.005). In early lactation period, the first-parity cows suffered clinical mastitis in days earlier than two other parity groups (p < 0.001). Moreover, in late lactation period, the first-parity cows had clinical mastitis in days later than cows in the third and more parities (p = 0.002). Occurrence of clinical mastitis in summer increased in late lactation period but in winter increased in early lactation period (p = 0.001). In addition, occurrence time of clinical mastitis in summer were in days later than in spring (p = 0.02) and winter (p = 0.03) in early lactation period. In conclusion, occurrence of mastitis in winter and spring during early lactation and in summer during late lactation period were more prevalent especially in lower parities.

  19. Relationship between season, lactation number and incidence of clinical mastitis in different stages of lactation in a Holstein dairy farm

    PubMed Central

    Moosavi, Maede; Mirzaei, Abdolah; Ghavami, Mohsen; Tamadon, Amin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the occurrence and duration of clinical mastitis in different seasons, stages of lactation period and parities in a Holstein dairy farm in Iran. A retrospective epidemiological survey from April 2005 to March 2008 was conducted on 884 clinical mastitis cases of 7437 lactations. Data of each case including calendar-date of mastitis onset, days in milk (DIM) of mastitis onset (early: 0-74 DIM; middle: 75-150 DIM, and late ≥ 150 DIM), duration of mastitis, and parity (1, 2, and ≥ 3) were recorded. Based on date of mastitis onset, cases were classified into stages of lactation. Moreover, beginning of mastitis was seasonally categorized. Duration of clinical mastitis after treatment in early lactation was less than late lactation in the first-parity cows (p = 0.005). In early lactation period, the first-parity cows suffered clinical mastitis in days earlier than two other parity groups (p < 0.001). Moreover, in late lactation period, the first-parity cows had clinical mastitis in days later than cows in the third and more parities (p = 0.002). Occurrence of clinical mastitis in summer increased in late lactation period but in winter increased in early lactation period (p = 0.001). In addition, occurrence time of clinical mastitis in summer were in days later than in spring (p = 0.02) and winter (p = 0.03) in early lactation period. In conclusion, occurrence of mastitis in winter and spring during early lactation and in summer during late lactation period were more prevalent especially in lower parities. PMID:25568687

  20. Pharmacokinetics of Metoprolol During Pregnancy and Lactation

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Rachel J.; Eyal, Sara; Easterling, Thomas R.; Caritis, Steve N.; Venkataraman, Raman; Hankins, Gary; Rytting, Erik; Thummel, Kenneth; Kelly, Edward J.; Risler, Linda; Phillips, Brian; Honaker, Matthew T.; Shen, Danny D.; Hebert, Mary F.

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the steady-state pharmacokinetics of metoprolol during pregnancy and lactation. Serial plasma, urine, and breast milk concentrations of metoprolol and its metabolite, α-hydroxymetoprolol, were measured over 1 dosing interval in women treated with metoprolol (25–750 mg/day) during early pregnancy (n = 4), mid-pregnancy (n = 14), and late pregnancy (n = 15), as well as postpartum (n = 9) with (n = 4) and without (n = 5) lactation. Subjects were genotyped for CYP2D6 loss-of-function allelic variants. Using paired analysis, mean metoprolol apparent oral clearance was significantly higher in mid-pregnancy (361 ± 223 L/h, n = 5, P < .05) and late pregnancy (568 ± 273 L/h, n = 8, P < .05) compared with ≥3 months postpartum (200 ± 131 and 192 ± 98 L/h, respectively). When the comparison was limited to extensive metabolizers (EMs), metoprolol apparent oral clearance was significantly higher during both mid- and late pregnancy (P < .05). Relative infant exposure to metoprolol through breast milk was <1.0% of maternal weight-adjusted dose (n = 3). Because of the large, pregnancy-induced changes in metoprolol pharmacokinetics, if inadequate clinical responses are encountered, clinicians who prescribe metoprolol during pregnancy should be prepared to make aggressive changes in dosage (dose and frequency) or consider using an alternate beta-blocker. PMID:26461463

  1. Comparative studies of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy by Dornier HM3, EDAP LT 01 and Sonolith 2000 devices.

    PubMed

    Tan, E C; Tung, K H; Foo, K T

    1991-08-01

    During a 2-year period extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) was done at our institution in 70 patients with the Dornier HM3, 113 with the EDAP LT 01 and 104 with the Sonolith 2000 lithotriptors. The size and location of stones were comparable in all 3 series, and all treatments were done by the same team of urologists. Complete fragmentation occurred in 79% of the patients treated by the Dornier, 82% treated by the EDAP and 79% treated by the Sonolith devices, with 3-month stone-free rates of 66, 67 and 58%, respectively. Auxiliary procedures were needed in 12% of the patients in the Dornier, 13% in the EDAP and 9% in the Sonolith groups. Repeat treatment was necessary in 4% of the Dornier group, 42% of the EDAP group and 26% of the Sonolith group. Therefore, all 3 lithotriptors are effective in stone disintegration and produce satisfactory results when selection criteria for ESWL are observed. The most significant difference among the 3 lithotriptors is the number of repeat treatments, which reflects the power and energy output of the lithotriptors. In conclusion, the Dornier HM3 device has the advantage of low repeat treatment rate and easier stone localization. The EDAP LT 01 unit has the advantage of lower treatment costs and anesthesia-free treatment with no irradiation. The Sonolith 2000 device has features of the other 2 lithotriptors with a superior ultrasound image.

  2. Evaluation of Metal Halide, Plasma, and LED Lighting Technologies for a Hydrogen Fuel Cell Mobile Light (H 2 LT)

    DOE PAGES

    Miller, L. B.; Donohoe, S. P.; Jones, M. H.; ...

    2015-04-22

    This article reports on the testing and comparison of a prototype hydrogen fuel cell light tower (H2LT) and a conventional diesel-powered metal halide light trailer for use in road maintenance and construction activities. The prototype was originally outfitted with plasma lights and then with light-emitting diode (LED) luminaires. Light output and distribution, lighting energy efficiency (i.e., efficacy), power source thermal efficiency, and fuel costs are compared. The metal halide luminaires have 2.2 and 3.1 times more light output than the plasma and LED luminaires, respectively, but they require more power/lumen to provide that output. The LED luminaires have 1.6 timesmore » better light efficacy than either the metal halide or plasma luminaires. The light uniformity ratios produced by the plasma and LED towers are acceptable. The fuel cell thermal efficiency at the power required to operate the plasma lights is 48%, significantly higher than the diesel generator efficiency of 23% when operating the metal halide lights. Due to the increased efficiency of the fuel cell and the LED lighting, the fuel cost per lumen-hour of the H2LT is 62% of the metal halide diesel light tower assuming a kilogram of hydrogen is twice the cost of a gallon of diesel fuel.« less

  3. Lipoxin A4 stable analogs reduce allergic airway responses via mechanisms distinct from CysLT1 receptor antagonism.

    PubMed

    Levy, Bruce D; Lukacs, Nicholas W; Berlin, Aaron A; Schmidt, Birgitta; Guilford, William J; Serhan, Charles N; Parkinson, John F

    2007-12-01

    Cellular recruitment during inflammatory/immune responses is tightly regulated. The ability to dampen inflammation is imperative for prevention of chronic immune responses, as in asthma. Here we investigated the ability of lipoxin A4 (LXA4) stable analogs to regulate airway responses in two allergen-driven models of inflammation. A 15-epi-LXA4 analog (ATLa) and a 3-oxa-15-epi-LXA4 analog (ZK-994) prevented excessive eosinophil and T lymphocyte accumulation and activation after mice were sensitized and aerosol-challenged with ovalbumin. At <0.5 mg/kg, these LXA4 analogs reduced leukocyte trafficking into the lung by >50% and to a greater extent than equivalent doses of the CysLT1 receptor antagonist montelukast. Distinct from montelukast, ATLa treatment led to marked reductions in cysteinyl leukotrienes, interleukin-4 (IL-4), and IL-10, and both ATLa and ZK-994 inhibited levels of IL-13. In cockroach allergen-induced airway responses, both intraperitoneal and oral administration of ZK-994 significantly reduced parameters of airway inflammation and hyper-responsiveness in a dose-dependent manner. ZK-994 also significantly changed the balance of Th1/Th2-specific cytokine levels. Thus, the ATLa/LXA4 analog actions are distinct from CysLT1 antagonism and potently block both allergic airway inflammation and hyper-reactivity. Moreover, these results demonstrate these analogs' therapeutic potential as new agonists for the resolution of inflammation.

  4. Prolactin regulation of oxytocin neurone activity in pregnancy and lactation.

    PubMed

    Augustine, Rachael A; Ladyman, Sharon R; Bouwer, Gregory T; Alyousif, Yousif; Sapsford, Tony J; Scott, Victoria; Kokay, Ilona C; Grattan, David R; Brown, Colin H

    2017-06-01

    During lactation, prolactin promotes milk synthesis and oxytocin stimulates milk ejection. In virgin rats, prolactin inhibits the activity of oxytocin-secreting neurones. We found that prolactin inhibition of oxytocin neurone activity is lost in lactation, and that some oxytocin neurones were excited by prolactin in lactating rats. The change in prolactin regulation of oxytocin neurone activity was not associated with a change in activation of intracellular signalling pathways known to couple to prolactin receptors. The change in prolactin regulation of oxytocin neurone activity in lactation might allow coordinated activation of both populations of neurones when required for successful lactation. Secretion of prolactin for milk synthesis and oxytocin for milk secretion is required for successful lactation. In virgin rats, prolactin inhibits oxytocin neurones but this effect would be counterproductive during lactation when secretion of both hormones is required for synthesis and delivery of milk to the newborn. Hence, we determined the effects of intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) prolactin on oxytocin neurones in urethane-anaesthetised virgin, pregnant and lactating rats. Prolactin (2 μg) consistently inhibited oxytocin neurones in virgin and pregnant rats (by 1.9 ± 0.4 and 1.8 ± 0.5 spikes s -1 , respectively), but not in lactating rats; indeed, prolactin excited six of 27 oxytocin neurones by >1 spike s -1 in lactating rats but excited none in virgin or pregnant rats (χ 2 2  = 7.2, P = 0.03). Vasopressin neurones were unaffected by prolactin (2 μg) in virgin rats but were inhibited by 1.1 ± 0.2 spikes s -1 in lactating rats. Immunohistochemistry showed that i.c.v. prolactin increased oxytocin expression in virgin and lactating rats and increased signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 phosphorylation to a similar extent in oxytocin neurones of virgin and lactating rats. Western blotting showed that i.c.v. prolactin did not affect

  5. Lactate response to different volume patterns of power clean.

    PubMed

    Date, Anand S; Simonson, Shawn R; Ransdell, Lynda B; Gao, Yong

    2013-03-01

    The ability to metabolize or tolerate lactate and produce power simultaneously can be an important determinant of performance. Current training practices for improving lactate use include high-intensity aerobic activities or a combination of aerobic and resistance training. Excessive aerobic training may have undesired physiological adaptations (e.g., muscle loss, change in fiber types). The role of explosive power training in lactate production and use needs further clarification. We hypothesized that high-volume explosive power movements such as Olympic lifts can increase lactate production and overload lactate clearance. Hence, the purpose of this study was to assess lactate accumulation after the completion of 3 different volume patterns of power cleans. Ten male recreational athletes (age 24.22 ± 1.39 years) volunteered. Volume patterns consisted of 3 sets × 3 repetition maximum (3RM) (low volume [LV]), 3 sets × 6 reps at 80-85% of 3RM (midvolume [MV]), and 3 sets × 9 reps at 70-75% of 3RM (high volume [HV]). Rest period was identical at 2 minutes. Blood samples were collected immediately before and after each volume pattern. The HV resulted in the greatest lactate accumulation (7.43 ± 2.94 mmol·L) vs. (5.27 ± 2.48 and 4.03 ± 1.78 mmol·L in MV and LV, respectively). Mean relative increase in lactate was the highest in HV (356.34%). The findings indicate that lactate production in power cleans is largely associated with volume, determined by number of repetitions, load, and rest interval. High-volume explosive training may impose greater metabolic demands than low-volume explosive training and may improve ability to produce power in the presence of lactate. The role of explosive power training in overloading the lactate clearance mechanism should be examined further, especially for athletes of intermittent sport.

  6. Definitive airway management of patients presenting with a pre-hospital inserted King LT(S)-D laryngeal tube airway: a historical cohort study.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Arun; Garcia-Marcinkiewicz, Annery G; Brown, Daniel R; Brown, Michael J; Diedrich, Daniel A

    2016-03-01

    The King LT(S)-D laryngeal tube (King LT) has gained popularity as a bridge airway for pre-hospital airway management. In this study, we retrospectively reviewed the use of the King LT and its associated airway outcomes at a single Level 1 trauma centre. The data on all adult patients presenting to the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota with a King LT in situ from July 1, 2007 to October 10, 2012 were retrospectively evaluated. Data collected and descriptively analyzed included patient demographics, comorbidities, etiology of respiratory failure, airway complications, subsequent definitive airway management technique, duration of mechanical ventilation, and status at discharge. Forty-eight adult patients met inclusion criteria. The most common etiology for respiratory failure requiring an artificial airway was cardiac arrest [28 (58%) patients] or trauma [9 (19%) patients]. Four of the nine trauma patients had facial trauma. Surgical tracheostomy was the definitive airway management technique in 14 (29%) patients. An airway exchange catheter, direct laryngoscopy, and video laryngoscopy were used in 11 (23%), ten (21%), and ten (21%) cases, respectively. Seven (78%) of the trauma patients underwent surgical tracheostomy compared with seven (18%) of the medical patients. Adverse events associated with King LT use occurred in 13 (27%) patients, with upper airway edema (i.e., tongue engorgement and glottic edema) being most common (19%). In this study of patients presenting to a hospital with a King LT, the majority of airway exchanges required an advanced airway management technique beyond direct laryngoscopy. Upper airway edema was the most common adverse observation associated with King LT use.

  7. Critical Power: An Important Fatigue Threshold in Exercise Physiology.

    PubMed

    Poole, David C; Burnley, Mark; Vanhatalo, Anni; Rossiter, Harry B; Jones, Andrew M

    2016-11-01

    : The hyperbolic form of the power-duration relationship is rigorous and highly conserved across species, forms of exercise, and individual muscles/muscle groups. For modalities such as cycling, the relationship resolves to two parameters, the asymptote for power (critical power [CP]) and the so-called W' (work doable above CP), which together predict the tolerable duration of exercise above CP. Crucially, the CP concept integrates sentinel physiological profiles-respiratory, metabolic, and contractile-within a coherent framework that has great scientific and practical utility. Rather than calibrating equivalent exercise intensities relative to metabolically distant parameters such as the lactate threshold or V˙O2max, setting the exercise intensity relative to CP unifies the profile of systemic and intramuscular responses and, if greater than CP, predicts the tolerable duration of exercise until W' is expended, V˙O2max is attained, and intolerance is manifested. CP may be regarded as a "fatigue threshold" in the sense that it separates exercise intensity domains within which the physiological responses to exercise can (CP) be stabilized. The CP concept therefore enables important insights into 1) the principal loci of fatigue development (central vs. peripheral) at different intensities of exercise and 2) mechanisms of cardiovascular and metabolic control and their modulation by factors such as O2 delivery. Practically, the CP concept has great potential application in optimizing athletic training programs and performance as well as improving the life quality for individuals enduring chronic disease.

  8. A mathematical model for lactate transport to red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Wahl, Patrick; Yue, Zengyuan; Zinner, Christoph; Bloch, Wilhelm; Mester, Joachim

    2011-03-01

    A simple mathematical model for the transport of lactate from plasma to red blood cells (RBCs) during and after exercise is proposed based on our experimental studies for the lactate concentrations in RBCs and in plasma. In addition to the influx associated with the plasma-to-RBC lactate concentration gradient, it is argued that an efflux must exist. The efflux rate is assumed to be proportional to the lactate concentration in RBCs. This simple model is justified by the comparison between the model-predicted results and observations: For all 33 cases (11 subjects and 3 different warm-up conditions), the model-predicted time courses of lactate concentrations in RBC are generally in good agreement with observations, and the model-predicted ratios between lactate concentrations in RBCs and in plasma at the peak of lactate concentration in RBCs are very close to the observed values. Two constants, the influx rate coefficient C (1) and the efflux rate coefficient C (2), are involved in the present model. They are determined by the best fit to observations. Although the exact electro-chemical mechanism for the efflux remains to be figured out in the future research, the good agreement of the present model with observations suggests that the efflux must get stronger as the lactate concentration in RBCs increases. The physiological meanings of C (1) and C (2) as well as their potential applications are discussed.

  9. Blood lactate accumulation in top level swimmers following competition.

    PubMed

    Bonifazi, M; Martelli, G; Marugo, L; Sardella, F; Carli, G

    1993-03-01

    The purposes of this study were to evaluate the significance of blood lactate values after competitions and the blood lactate-swimming speed relationship to swimming performances. Auricular blood samples (N = 421) were collected in 203 top level Italian swimmers (116 males and 87 females) at the end of competitions performed in a 25 m swimming pool. The distribution of all lactate values differed between males and females. The lowest lactate values occurred in swimmers performing the longest distances both in males (1500 m) and females (800 m). In swimmers performing freestyle events a relationship between V-4 mM (swimming speed at 4 mmol/l blood lactate value) and competition velocities was observed, in males, at 200, 400 and 1500 m and, in females, at 400 and 800 m. The predicted velocity corresponding to the competition lactate value assessed by the individual blood lactate-swimming speed relationship was found to be highly related to the actual competition velocity. Results suggest that blood lactate values in swimmers are a useful indication of individual aptitudes.

  10. Zoledronate prevents lactation induced bone loss and results in additional post-lactation bone mass in mice.

    PubMed

    Wendelboe, Mette Høegh; Thomsen, Jesper Skovhus; Henriksen, Kim; Vegger, Jens Bay; Brüel, Annemarie

    2016-06-01

    In rodents, lactation is associated with a considerable and very rapid bone loss, which almost completely recovers after weaning. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the bisphosphonate Zoledronate (Zln) can inhibit lactation induced bone loss, and if Zln interferes with recovery of bone mass after lactation has ceased. Seventy-six 10-weeks-old NMRI mice were divided into the following groups: Baseline, Pregnant, Lactation, Lactation+Zln, Recovery, Recovery+Zln, and Virgin Control (age-matched). The lactation period was 12days, then the pups were removed, and thereafter recovery took place for 28days. Zln, 100μg/kg, was given s.c. on the day of delivery, and again 4 and 8days later. Mechanical testing, μCT, and dynamic histomorphometry were performed. At L4, lactation resulted in a substantial loss of bone strength (-55% vs. Pregnant, p<0.01), BV/TV (-40% vs. Pregnant, p<0.01), and trabecular thickness (Tb.Th) (-29% vs. Pregnant, p<0.001). Treatment with Zln completely prevented lactation induced loss of bone strength, BV/TV, and Tb.Th at L4. Full recovery of micro-architectural and mechanical properties was found 28days after weaning in vehicle-treated mice. Interestingly, the recovery group treated with Zln during the lactation period had higher BV/TV (+45%, p<0.01) and Tb.Th (+16%, p<0.05) compared with virgin controls. Similar results were found at the proximal tibia and femur. This indicates that Zln did not interfere with the bone formation taking place after weaning. On this background, we conclude that post-lactation bone formation is not dependent on a preceding lactation induced bone loss. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Lactate dehydrogenase activity drives hair follicle stem cell activation

    PubMed Central

    Aimee, Flores; John, Schell; Abby, Krall; David, Jelinek; Matilde, Miranda; Melina, Grigorian; Daniel, Braas; White Andrew, C; Jessica, Zhou; Nick, Graham; Thomas, Graeber; Pankaj, Seth; Denis, Evseenko; Hilary, Coller; Jared, Rutter; Heather, Christofk; Lowry William, E

    2017-01-01

    Summary While normally dormant, Hair Follicle Stem Cells (HFSCs) quickly become activated to divide during a new hair cycle. The quiescence of HFSCs is known to be regulated by a number of intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms. Here we provide several lines of evidence to demonstrate that HFSCs utilize glycolytic metabolism and produce significantly more lactate than other cells in the epidermis. Furthermore, lactate generation appears to be critical for the activation of HFSCs as deletion of lactate dehydrogenase (Ldha) prevented their activation. Conversely, genetically promoting lactate production in HFSCs through mitochondrial pyruvate carrier (Mpc1) deletion accelerated their activation and the hair cycle. Finally, we identify small molecules that increase lactate production by stimulating Myc levels or inhibiting Mpc1 carrier activity and can topically induce the hair cycle. These data suggest that HFSCs maintain a metabolic state that allow them to remain dormant and yet quickly respond to appropriate proliferative stimuli. PMID:28812580

  12. [Bone loss in lactating women and post-pregnancy osteoporosis].

    PubMed

    Hirata, Go; Chaki, Osamu

    2011-09-01

    Measurement of the bone mineral density have shown that lactating women had 1 to 3% decrease in bone mineral density. Post pregnancy osteoporosis is rare condition that causes fragile fracture mostly in vertebrae. The bone loss in lactating women is caused by calcium loss, decrease in estrogen level, and increase in PTHrP (parathyroid hormone related protein) level. Some data have shown that extended lactation and amenorrhea had an association with the degree of bone loss. Mostly, the bone loss of the lactating women recovers to the baseline level, soon after the weaning, and there is no long term effect. Post pregnancy osteoporosis should be concerned, when we see a lactating woman with fragile fracture of the vertebrae.

  13. [Pregnancy and lactation-associated osteoporosis].

    PubMed

    Gehlen, M; Lazarescu, A D; Hinz, C; Boncu, B; Schmidt, N; Pfeifer, M; Schwarz-Eywill, M; Pollähne, W; Minne, H W

    2017-04-01

    Pregnancy and lactation-associated osteoporosis (PLO) is a rare form of osteoporosis, which occurs in the last trimester or postpartum. So far 100 cases have been published. The leading symptoms are severe low back pain or less frequently hip pain. Many patients develop postpartum depression due to inability to care for the baby and vertebral fractures. The therapeutic decision has to be made individually but teriparatid and bisphosphonates seem to be the best option. We report the clinical course (16 years) of a 37-year-old patient with PLO, who suffered 6 vertebral fractures. There were severe physical limitations and mental problems caused by the disease. The patient was treated by multimodal therapy including physiotherapy and psychotherapy and bisphosphonates were given. The time between the onset of symptoms and diagnosis was 5 months. No further fractures occurred in the following 16 years. The physical and mental condition significantly improved.

  14. Inflammatory mediators in mastitis and lactation insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Ingman, Wendy V; Glynn, Danielle J; Hutchinson, Mark R

    2014-07-01

    Mastitis is a common inflammatory disease during lactation that causes reduced milk supply. A growing body of evidence challenges the central role of pathogenic bacteria in mastitis, with disease severity associated with markers of inflammation rather than infection. Inflammation in the mammary gland may be triggered by microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) as well as danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) binding to pattern recognition receptors such as the toll-like receptors (TLRs) on the surface of mammary epithelial cells and local immune cell populations. Activation of the TLR4 signalling pathway and downstream nuclear factor kappa B (NFkB) is critical to mediating local mammary gland inflammation and systemic immune responses in mouse models of mastitis. However, activation of NFkB also induces epithelial cell apoptosis and reduced milk protein synthesis, suggesting that inflammatory mediators activated during mastitis promote partial involution. Perturbed milk flow, maternal stress and genetic predisposition are significant risk factors for mastitis, and could lead to a heightened TLR4-mediated inflammatory response, resulting in increased susceptibility and severity of mastitis disease in the context of low MAMP abundance. Therefore, heightened host inflammatory signalling may act in concert with pathogenic or commensal bacterial species to cause both the inflammation associated with mastitis and lactation insufficiency. Here, we present an alternate paradigm to the widely held notion that breast inflammation is driven principally by infectious bacterial pathogens, and suggest there may be other therapeutic strategies, apart from the currently utilised antimicrobial agents, that could be employed to prevent and treat mastitis in women.

  15. Pharmacokinetics of metoprolol during pregnancy and lactation.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Rachel J; Eyal, Sara; Easterling, Thomas R; Caritis, Steve N; Venkataraman, Raman; Hankins, Gary; Rytting, Erik; Thummel, Kenneth; Kelly, Edward J; Risler, Linda; Phillips, Brian; Honaker, Matthew T; Shen, Danny D; Hebert, Mary F

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the steady-state pharmacokinetics of metoprolol during pregnancy and lactation. Serial plasma, urine, and breast milk concentrations of metoprolol and its metabolite, α-hydroxymetoprolol, were measured over 1 dosing interval in women treated with metoprolol (25-750 mg/day) during early pregnancy (n = 4), mid-pregnancy (n = 14), and late pregnancy (n = 15), as well as postpartum (n = 9) with (n = 4) and without (n = 5) lactation. Subjects were genotyped for CYP2D6 loss-of-function allelic variants. Using paired analysis, mean metoprolol apparent oral clearance was significantly higher in mid-pregnancy (361 ± 223 L/h, n = 5, P < .05) and late pregnancy (568 ± 273 L/h, n = 8, P < .05) compared with ≥3 months postpartum (200 ± 131 and 192 ± 98 L/h, respectively). When the comparison was limited to extensive metabolizers (EMs), metoprolol apparent oral clearance was significantly higher during both mid- and late pregnancy (P < .05). Relative infant exposure to metoprolol through breast milk was <1.0% of maternal weight-adjusted dose (n = 3). Because of the large, pregnancy-induced changes in metoprolol pharmacokinetics, if inadequate clinical responses are encountered, clinicians who prescribe metoprolol during pregnancy should be prepared to make aggressive changes in dosage (dose and frequency) or consider using an alternate beta-blocker. © 2015, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  16. Color difference thresholds in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Paravina, Rade D; Ghinea, Razvan; Herrera, Luis J; Bona, Alvaro D; Igiel, Christopher; Linninger, Mercedes; Sakai, Maiko; Takahashi, Hidekazu; Tashkandi, Esam; Perez, Maria del Mar

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this prospective multicenter study was to determine 50:50% perceptibility threshold (PT) and 50:50% acceptability threshold (AT) of dental ceramic under simulated clinical settings. The spectral radiance of 63 monochromatic ceramic specimens was determined using a non-contact spectroradiometer. A total of 60 specimen pairs, divided into 3 sets of 20 specimen pairs (medium to light shades, medium to dark shades, and dark shades), were selected for psychophysical experiment. The coordinating center and seven research sites obtained the Institutional Review Board (IRB) approvals prior the beginning of the experiment. Each research site had 25 observers, divided into five groups of five observers: dentists-D, dental students-S, dental auxiliaries-A, dental technicians-T, and lay persons-L. There were 35 observers per group (five observers per group at each site ×7 sites), for a total of 175 observers. Visual color comparisons were performed using a viewing booth. Takagi-Sugeno-Kang (TSK) fuzzy approximation was used for fitting the data points. The 50:50% PT and 50:50% AT were determined in CIELAB and CIEDE2000. The t-test was used to evaluate the statistical significance in thresholds differences. The CIELAB 50:50% PT was ΔEab  = 1.2, whereas 50:50% AT was ΔEab  = 2.7. Corresponding CIEDE2000 (ΔE00 ) values were 0.8 and 1.8, respectively. 50:50% PT by the observer group revealed differences among groups D, A, T, and L as compared with 50:50% PT for all observers. The 50:50% AT for all observers was statistically different than 50:50% AT in groups T and L. A 50:50% perceptibility and ATs were significantly different. The same is true for differences between two color difference formulas ΔE00 /ΔEab . Observer groups and sites showed high level of statistical difference in all thresholds. Visual color difference thresholds can serve as a quality control tool to guide the selection of esthetic dental materials, evaluate clinical performance, and

  17. Bedding material affects mechanical thresholds, heat thresholds and texture preference

    PubMed Central

    Moehring, Francie; O’Hara, Crystal L.; Stucky, Cheryl L.

    2015-01-01

    It has long been known that the bedding type animals are housed on can affect breeding behavior and cage environment. Yet little is known about its effects on evoked behavior responses or non-reflexive behaviors. C57BL/6 mice were housed for two weeks on one of five bedding types: Aspen Sani Chips® (standard bedding for our institute), ALPHA-Dri®, Cellu-Dri™, Pure-o’Cel™ or TEK-Fresh. Mice housed on Aspen exhibited the lowest (most sensitive) mechanical thresholds while those on TEK-Fresh exhibited 3-fold higher thresholds. While bedding type had no effect on responses to punctate or dynamic light touch stimuli, TEK-Fresh housed animals exhibited greater responsiveness in a noxious needle assay, than those housed on the other bedding types. Heat sensitivity was also affected by bedding as animals housed on Aspen exhibited the shortest (most sensitive) latencies to withdrawal whereas those housed on TEK-Fresh had the longest (least sensitive) latencies to response. Slight differences between bedding types were also seen in a moderate cold temperature preference assay. A modified tactile conditioned place preference chamber assay revealed that animals preferred TEK-Fresh to Aspen bedding. Bedding type had no effect in a non-reflexive wheel running assay. In both acute (two day) and chronic (5 week) inflammation induced by injection of Complete Freund’s Adjuvant in the hindpaw, mechanical thresholds were reduced in all groups regardless of bedding type, but TEK-Fresh and Pure-o’Cel™ groups exhibited a greater dynamic range between controls and inflamed cohorts than Aspen housed mice. PMID:26456764

  18. A comparative analysis of physiological responses at submaximal workloads during different laboratory simulations of field cycling.

    PubMed

    Kenny, G P; Reardon, F D; Marion, A; Thoden, J S

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationships between heart rate (fc), oxygen consumption (VO2), peak force and average force developed at the crank in response to submaximal exercise employing a racing bicycle which was attached to an ergometer (RE), ridden on a treadmill (TC) and ridden on a 400-m track (FC). Eight male trained competitive cyclists rode at three pre-determined work intensities set at a proportion of their maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max): (1) below lactate threshold [work load that produces a VO2 which is 10% less than the lactate threshold VO2 (sub-LT)], (2) lactate threshold VO2 (LT), and (3) above lactate threshold [workload that produces a VO2 which is 10% greater than lactate threshold VO2 (supra-LT)], and equated across exercise modes on the basis of fc. Voltage signals from the crank arm were recorded as FM signals for subsequent representation of peak and average force. Open circuit VO2 measurements were done in the field by Douglas bag gas collection and in the laboratory by automated gas collection and analysis. fc was recorded with a telemeter (Polar Electro Sport Tester, PE3000). Significant differences (P < 0.05) were observed: (1) in VO2 between FC and both laboratory conditions at sub-LT intensity and LT intensities, (2) in peak force between FC and TC at sub-LT intensity, (3) in average force between FC and RE at sub-LT. No significant differences were demonstrated at supra-LT intensity for VO2. Similarly no significant differences were observed in peak and average force for either LT or supra-LT intensities. These data indicate that equating work intensities on the basis of fc measured in laboratory conditions would overestimate the VO2 which would be generated in the field and conversely, that using fc measured in the laboratory to establish field work intensity would underestimate mechanical workload experienced in the field.

  19. [Interest of lactate micro-dosage in scalp and umbilical cord in cases of abnormal fetal heart rate during labor. Prospective study on 162 patients].

    PubMed

    Paris, A; Maurice-Tison, S; Coatleven, F; Vandenbossche, F; Dallay, D; Horovitz, J

    2012-06-01

    To compare the interest of lactate microanalysis with pH measurement (Gold Standard procedure) in cord blood and fetal scalp blood samples for the assessment of abnormal fetal heart rate (FHR) during labour. A prospective observational study conducted from July 1st 2007 till March 31st 2008 on 162 patients with abnormal FHR during labour. Sampling failure for scalp lactate was less than 1 % compared to a failure of 10.5 % for scalp pH (P<0.001). There was a good correlation between pH and lactates in fetal scalp blood samples and in cord blood samples, between lactate in the last fetal scalp sample and in cord blood. When there was umbilical acidosis (pH≤7.15 or lactate≥5mmol/L), Apgar score at 5 minutes was significantly lower than when there was no acidosis (4.66±3.59 versus 8.35±2.73 for pH ; 6.6±3.77 versus 8.45±2.58 for lactate). The specificity of the lactate in the umbilical cord artery (≥5 mmol/laws) was 76.4 % for predicting an Apgar score at 5 minutes less than 7 ; 79.7 % for predicting the need for immediate neonatal care ; 77.3 % for predicting an hospital stay in neonatal unit. These figures were generally worse but close to those found for a threshold value of umbilical artery pH≤7.15. The values of lactate in cord blood and fetal scalp blood samples were comparable to pH values (Gold standard procedure). This method is easy to perform and is an attractive alternative to pH for monitoring fetal asphyxia. It is our opinion that the combination of the two methods is of interest. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Exploring the Use of the LT3480 (RH3480) Circuit as Low-Power, Low-Voltage Solar Array Regulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrigos, A.; Lizan, J. L.; Blanes, J. M.; Gutierrez, R.

    2014-08-01

    With the advent of PoL technology, several commercial integrated switching regulators already have their space- qualified versions. Apart of PoL and secondary supply applications, other functions can be explored using those integrated circuits. In this work, the Solar Array Regulator function is analyzed using the commercial LT3480 circuit, which has the space counterpart (RH3480) commercialized by MSK and named MSK5058RH and later MSK5031 (but not rad-hard). Input voltage regulation, taper charge, protection functions and module parallelization are studied and verified experimentally in a low-voltage, low-power MPPT battery bus configuration. Potential users of this approach are micro and nano-satellites power systems.

  1. Analysis of stone fragility in vitro and in vivo with piezoelectric shock waves using the EDAP LT-01.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y H; Grenabo, L; Hedelin, H; Pettersson, S; Wikholm, G; Zachrisson, B F

    1993-04-01

    A total of 100 whole stones was fragmented in vitro at 3-minute intervals with piezoelectric shock waves using the EDAP LT-01 device until all fragments were less than 2 mm. Larger stones and stones with a high computerized tomography attenuation needed longer treatments for fragmentation. Smoothly bulging stones with an even structure according to plain x-ray films were also more resistant to the shock wave treatment. Calcium oxalate monohydrate stones were not more difficult to break than other types of calculi. Stone fragments from 100 patients after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy were also analyzed. The average size of the fragments collected was less than 1 mm. Larger stones produced larger fragments and required more treatment sessions.

  2. Discovery of a Visual T-dwarf Triple System and Binarity at the L/T Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radigan, Jacqueline; Jayawardhana, Ray; Lafrenière, David; Dupuy, Trent J.; Liu, Michael C.; Scholz, Alexander

    2013-11-01

    We present new high contrast imaging of eight L/T transition brown dwarfs (BDs) using the NIRC2 camera on the Keck II telescope. One of our targets, the T3.5 dwarf 2MASS J08381155+1511155, was resolved into a hierarchal triple with projected separations of 2.5 ± 0.5 AU and 27 ± 5 AU for the BC and A(BC) components, respectively. Resolved OSIRIS spectroscopy of the A(BC) components confirms that all system members are T dwarfs. The system therefore constitutes the first triple T-dwarf system ever reported. Using resolved photometry to model the integrated-light spectrum, we infer spectral types of T3 ± 1, T3 ± 1, and T4.5 ± 1 for the A, B, and C components, respectively. The uniformly brighter primary has a bluer J - Ks color than the next faintest component, which may reflect a sensitive dependence of the L/T transition temperature on gravity, or alternatively divergent cloud properties among components. Relying on empirical trends and evolutionary models we infer a total system mass of 0.034-0.104 M ⊙ for the BC components at ages of 0.3-3 Gyr, which would imply a period of 12-21 yr assuming the system semimajor axis to be similar to its projection. We also infer differences in effective temperatures and surface gravities between components of no more than ~150 K and ~0.1 dex. Given the similar physical properties of the components, the 2M0838+15 system provides a controlled sample for constraining the relative roles of effective temperature, surface gravity, and dust clouds in the poorly understood L/T transition regime. For an age of 3 Gyr we estimate a binding energy of ~20 × 1041 erg for the wide A(BC) pair, which falls above the empirical minimum found for typical BD binaries, and suggests that the system may have been able to survive a dynamical ejection during formation. Combining our imaging survey results with previous work we find an observed binary fraction of 4/18 or 22_{-8}^{+10}% for unresolved spectral types of L9-T4 at separations >~ 0

  3. Molecular modeling, simulation and virtual screening of MurD ligase protein from Salmonella typhimurium LT2.

    PubMed

    Samal, Himanshu Bhusan; Das, Jugal Kishore; Mahapatra, Rajani Kanta; Suar, Mrutyunjay

    2015-01-01

    The Mur enzymes of the peptidoglycan biosynthesis pathway constitute ideal targets for the design of new classes of antimicrobial inhibitors in Gram-negative bacteria. We built a homology model of MurD of Salmonella typhimurium LT2 using MODELLER (9v12) software. 'The homology model was subjected to energy minimization by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation study with GROMACS software for a simulation time of 20 ns in water environment. The model was subjected for virtual screening study from the Zinc Database using Dockblaster software. Inhibition assay for the best inhibitor, 3-(amino methyl)-n-(4-methoxyphenyl) aniline, by flow cytometric analysis revealed the effective inhibition of peptidoglycan biosynthesis. Results from this study provide new insights for the molecular understanding and development of new antibacterial drugs against the pathogen. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Arterial versus venous lactate: a measure of sepsis in children.

    PubMed

    Samaraweera, Sahan Asela; Gibbons, Berwyck; Gour, Anami; Sedgwick, Philip

    2017-08-01

    This study assessed the agreement between arterial and venous blood lactate and pH levels in children with sepsis. This retrospective, three-year study involved 60 PICU patients, with data collected from electronic or paper patient records. The inclusion criteria comprised of children (≤17 years old) with sepsis and those who had a venous blood gas taken first with an arterial blood gas taken after within one hour. The lactate and pH values measured through each method were analysed. There is close agreement between venous and arterial lactate up to 2 mmol/L. As this value increases, this agreement becomes poor. The limits of agreement (LOA) are too large (±1.90 mmol/L) to allow venous and arterial lactate to be used interchangeably. The mean difference and LOA between both methods would be much smaller if derived using lactate values under 2.0 mmol/L. There is close agreement between arterial and venous pH (MD = -0.056, LOA ± 0.121). However, due to extreme variations in pH readings during sepsis, pH alone is an inadequate marker. A venous lactate ≤2 mmol/L can be used as a surrogate for arterial lactate during early management of sepsis in children. However, if the value exceeds 2 mmol/L, an arterial sample must confirm the venous result. What is known: • In children with septic shock, a blood gas is an important test to show the presence of acidosis and high lactic acid. Hyperlactataemia on admission is an early predictor of outcome and is associated with a greater mortality risk. • An arterial sample is the standard for lactate measurement, however getting a sample may be challenging in the emergency department or a general paediatric ward. Venous samples are quicker and easier to obtain. Adult studies generally advise caution in replacing venous lactate values for the arterial standard, whilst paediatric studies are limited in this area. What is new: • This is the first study assessing the agreement between arterial and peripheral venous

  5. Chemopreventive potential of in vitro fermented nuts in LT97 colon adenoma and primary epithelial colon cells.

    PubMed

    Schlörmann, Wiebke; Lamberty, Julia; Lorkowski, Stefan; Ludwig, Diana; Mothes, Henning; Saupe, Christian; Glei, Michael

    2017-05-01

    Due to their beneficial nutritional profile the consumption of nuts contributes to a healthy diet and might reduce colon cancer risk. To get closer insights into potential mechanisms, the chemopreventive potential of different in vitro fermented nut varieties regarding the modulation of genes involved in detoxification (CAT, SOD2, GSTP1, GPx1) and cell cycle (p21, cyclin D2) as well as proliferation and apoptosis was examined in LT97 colon adenoma and primary epithelial colon cells. Fermentation supernatants (FS) of nuts significantly induced mRNA expression of CAT (up to 4.0-fold), SOD2 (up to 2.5-fold), and GSTP1 (up to 2.3-fold), while GPx1 expression was significantly reduced by all nut FS (0.8 fold on average). Levels of p21 mRNA were significantly enhanced (up to 2.6-fold), whereas all nut FS significantly decreased cyclin D2 expression (0.4-fold on average). In primary epithelial cells, expression of CAT (up to 3.5-fold), GSTP1 (up to 3.0-fold), and GPx1 (up to 3.9-fold) was increased, whereas p21 and cyclin D2 levels were not influenced. Nut FS significantly inhibited growth of LT97 cells and increased levels of early apoptotic cells (8.4% on average) and caspase 3 activity (4.6-fold on average), whereas caspase 3 activity was not modulated in primary colon cells. The differential modulation of genes involved in detoxification and cell cycle together with an inhibition of proliferation and induction of apoptosis in adenoma cells might contribute to chemopreventive effects of nuts regarding colon cancer. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Characterization and Validation of the LT-SYS Copper Assay on a Roche Cobas 8000 c502 Analyzer.

    PubMed

    Kraus, F Bernhard; Mischereit, Marlies; Eller, Christoph; Ludwig-Kraus, Beatrice

    2017-02-01

    Validation of the LT-SYS quantitative in vitro copper assay on a Roche Cobas 8000 c502 analyzer and comparison with a BIOMED assay on a Roche Cobas Mira analyzer. Imprecision and bias were quantified at different concentration levels (serum and plasma) over a 20-day period. Linearity was assessed covering a range from 4.08 µmol/L to 33.8 µmol/L. Limit of blank (LoB) and limit of detection (LoD) were established based on a total of 120 blank and low-level samples. The method comparison was based on 58 plasma samples. Within-run imprecision ranged from 0.7% to 1.2% and within-laboratory imprecision from 1.4% to 3.3%. Relative bias for the 2 serum pools with known target values was less than 2.5%. The assay did not deviate from linearity over the tested measuring range. LoB and LoD were 0.12 µmol/L and 0.23 µmol/L, respectively. The method comparison revealed an average deviation of 11.5% (2.016 µmol/L), and the linear regression fit was y = 1.464 + 0.795x. The LT-SYS copper assay characterized in this study showed a fully acceptable performance with good degrees of imprecision and bias, no deviation from linearity in the relevant measuring rangem, and very low LoB and LoD. © American Society for Clinical Pathology, 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Association between the electromyographic fatigue threshold and ventilatory threshold.

    PubMed

    Camata, T V; Lacerda, T R; Altimari, L R; Bortolloti, H; Fontes, E B; Dantas, J L; Nakamura, F Y; Abrão, T; Chacon-Mikahil, M P T; Moraes, A C

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is to verify the coincidence between the occurrence of the electromyographic fatigue threshold (EMGth) and the ventilatory threshold (Vth) in an incremental test in the cyclosimulator, as well as to compare the calculation of the RMS from the EMG signal using different time windows. Thirteen male cyclists (73.7 +/- 12.4 kg and 174.3 +/- 6.2 cm) performed a ramp incremental test (TI) in a cyclosimulator until voluntary exhaustion. Before the start of each TI subjects had the active bipolar electrodes placed over the superficial muscles of the quadriceps femoris (QF) of the right leg: rectus femoris (RF), vastus medialis (VM) and vastus lateralis (VL). The paired student's t test, pearson's correlation coefficient and the analysis method described by Bland and Altman for the determination of the concordance level were used for statistical analysis. The significance level adopted was P < 0.05. Although no significant differences were found between Vth and the EMGth calculated from windows of 2, 5, 10, 30 and 60 seconds in the studied muscles, it is suggested that the EMGth values determined from the calculation of the RMS curve with windows of 5 and 10 seconds seem to be more appropriate for the calculation of the RMS curve and determination of EMGth from visual inspection.

  8. Clonal Relatedness of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) Strains Expressing LT and CS17 Isolated from Children with Diarrhoea in La Paz, Bolivia

    PubMed Central

    Rodas, Claudia; Klena, John D.; Nicklasson, Matilda; Iniguez, Volga; Sjöling, Åsa

    2011-01-01

    Background Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a major cause of traveller's and infantile diarrhoea in the developing world. ETEC produces two toxins, a heat-stable toxin (known as ST) and a heat-labile toxin (LT) and colonization factors that help the bacteria to attach to epithelial cells. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we characterized a subset of ETEC clinical isolates recovered from Bolivian children under 5 years of age using a combination of multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis, virulence typing, serotyping and antimicrobial resistance test patterns in order to determine the genetic background of ETEC strains circulating in Bolivia. We found that strains expressing the heat-labile (LT) enterotoxin and colonization factor CS17 were common and belonged to several MLST sequence types but mainly to sequence type-423 and sequence type-443 (Achtman scheme). To further study the LT/CS17 strains we analysed the nucleotide sequence of the CS17 operon and compared the structure to LT/CS17 ETEC isolates from Bangladesh. Sequence analysis confirmed that all sequence type-423 strains from Bolivia had a single nucleotide polymorphism; SNPbol in the CS17 operon that was also found in some other MLST sequence types from Bolivia but not in strains recovered from Bangladeshi children. The dominant ETEC clone in Bolivia (sequence type-423/SNPbol) was found to persist over multiple years and was associated with severe diarrhoea but these strains were variable with respect to antimicrobial resistance patterns. Conclusion/Significance The results showed that although the LT/CS17 phenotype is common among ETEC strains in Bolivia, multiple clones, as determined by unique MLST sequence types, populate this phenotype. Our data also appear to suggest that acquisition and loss of antimicrobial resistance in LT-expressing CS17 ETEC clones is more dynamic than acquisition or loss of virulence factors. PMID:22140423

  9. Clonal relatedness of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains expressing LT and CS17 isolated from children with diarrhoea in La Paz, Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Rodas, Claudia; Klena, John D; Nicklasson, Matilda; Iniguez, Volga; Sjöling, Asa

    2011-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a major cause of traveller's and infantile diarrhoea in the developing world. ETEC produces two toxins, a heat-stable toxin (known as ST) and a heat-labile toxin (LT) and colonization factors that help the bacteria to attach to epithelial cells. In this study, we characterized a subset of ETEC clinical isolates recovered from Bolivian children under 5 years of age using a combination of multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis, virulence typing, serotyping and antimicrobial resistance test patterns in order to determine the genetic background of ETEC strains circulating in Bolivia. We found that strains expressing the heat-labile (LT) enterotoxin and colonization factor CS17 were common and belonged to several MLST sequence types but mainly to sequence type-423 and sequence type-443 (Achtman scheme). To further study the LT/CS17 strains we analysed the nucleotide sequence of the CS17 operon and compared the structure to LT/CS17 ETEC isolates from Bangladesh. Sequence analysis confirmed that all sequence type-423 strains from Bolivia had a single nucleotide polymorphism; SNP(bol) in the CS17 operon that was also found in some other MLST sequence types from Bolivia but not in strains recovered from Bangladeshi children. The dominant ETEC clone in Bolivia (sequence type-423/SNP(bol)) was found to persist over multiple years and was associated with severe diarrhoea but these strains were variable with respect to antimicrobial resistance patterns. The results showed that although the LT/CS17 phenotype is common among ETEC strains in Bolivia, multiple clones, as determined by unique MLST sequence types, populate this phenotype. Our data also appear to suggest that acquisition and loss of antimicrobial resistance in LT-expressing CS17 ETEC clones is more dynamic than acquisition or loss of virulence factors.

  10. Effects of acute hypoxia on the determination of anaerobic threshold using the heart rate-work rate relationships during incremental exercise tests.

    PubMed

    Ozcelik, O; Kelestimur, H

    2004-01-01

    Anaerobic threshold which describes the onset of systematic increase in blood lactate concentration is a widely used concept in clinical and sports medicine. A deflection point between heart rate-work rate has been introduced to determine the anaerobic threshold non-invasively. However, some researchers have consistently reported a heart rate deflection at higher work rates, while others have not. The present study was designed to investigate whether the heart rate deflection point accurately predicts the anaerobic threshold under the condition of acute hypoxia. Eight untrained males performed two incremental exercise tests using an electromagnetically braked cycle ergometer: one breathing room air and one breathing 12 % O2. The anaerobic threshold was estimated using the V-slope method and determined from the increase in blood lactate and the decrease in standard bicarbonate concentration. This threshold was also estimated by in the heart rate-work rate relationship. Not all subjects exhibited a heart rate deflection. Only two subjects in the control and four subjects in the hypoxia groups showed a heart rate deflection. Additionally, the heart rate deflection point overestimated the anaerobic threshold. In conclusion, the heart rate deflection point was not an accurate predictor of anaerobic threshold and acute hypoxia did not systematically affect the heart rate-work rate relationships.

  11. Biochemical and structural characterization of Cryptosporidium parvum Lactate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Cook, William J; Senkovich, Olga; Hernandez, Agustin; Speed, Haley; Chattopadhyay, Debasish

    2015-03-01

    The protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium parvum causes waterborne diseases worldwide. There is no effective therapy for C. parvum infection. The parasite depends mainly on glycolysis for energy production. Lactate dehydrogenase is a major regulator of glycolysis. This paper describes the biochemical characterization of C. parvum lactate dehydrogenase and high resolution crystal structures of the apo-enzyme and four ternary complexes. The ternary complexes capture the enzyme bound to NAD/NADH or its 3-acetylpyridine analog in the cofactor binding pocket, while the substrate binding site is occupied by one of the following ligands: lactate, pyruvate or oxamate. The results reveal distinctive features of the parasitic enzyme. For example, C. parvum lactate dehydrogenase prefers the acetylpyridine analog of NADH as a cofactor. Moreover, it is slightly less sensitive to gossypol inhibition compared with mammalian lactate dehydrogenases and not inhibited by excess pyruvate. The active site loop and the antigenic loop in C. parvum lactate dehydrogenase are considerably different from those in the human counterpart. Structural features and enzymatic properties of C. parvum lactate dehydrogenase are similar to enzymes from related parasites. Structural comparison with malate dehydrogenase supports a common ancestry for the two genes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Lactate Profile During Greco-Roman Wrestling Matchx

    PubMed Central

    Karnincic, Hrvoje; Tocilj, Zoran; Uljevic, Ognjen; Erceg, Marko

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine and compare lactate profile of two groups of Greco-Roman wrestlers with different competences and training experience. Study was conducted on 10 wrestles that were members of Croatian national team and 10 wrestlers that were members of Wrestling club Split. Lactate samples were collected at four intervals during control fights that were held according to international wrestling rules of World wrestling federation FILA. Values of lactate increased as competition progressed, and they were highest at the end of the match for both groups of wrestlers. According to this study there were no significant differences in lactate between two groups at the end of the match, while significant differences were noted during the match. The information about lactate profile presented in this study can be used by coaches and wrestlers to develop condition programs. Key Points There were no significant differences in lactate concentrations at the end of the match between two proficiency levels of wrestlers. More proficient (elite) wrestlers raise lactates gradually through the wrestling match while less proficient (club) wrestlers raise it abruptly at the end of the first bout. Both groups of wrestlers are unable to sustain same level of activity through the match suggesting that they are utilizing too much energy from anaerobic glycolysis. PMID:24474881

  13. Cow's milk quality and energy value during different lactation stages.

    PubMed

    Salamończyk, Ewa

    2013-01-01

    The quality of dairy products, raw milk in particular, depends on many factors. Low bacterial and somatic cell counts are basic determinants of the appropriate raw milk quality. The objective of the work was to assess the effect of selected factors, that is, the age of cows and their daily milk performance, on cytological quality (somatic cell count) and energy value of milk produced at individual stages of lactation. Somatic cell count and energy value of cow's milk were assessed. A total of 229 792 milk samples were examined. Data for analysis were taken from milk records of 350 dairy herds. It was demonstrated that, of all the lactations studied, the fi rst lactation (from calving to the 100th day of lactation) was characterised by the highest daily milk performance (25.1 kg) and the lowest somatic cell count (356 thous./1 ml), fat, protein and dry matter contents (4.06, 2.96 and 12.41%, respectively) and milk calorific value (732 kcal/kg). The highest energy value was recorded in cow's milk produced towards the end of lactation, that is from day 300 till the end of lactation (842 kcal/kg). High milk calorific value in late lactation and high fat and protein contents were accompanied by low raw milk quality.

  14. Lactate transport and receptor actions in cerebral malaria

    PubMed Central

    Mariga, Shelton T.; Kolko, Miriam; Gjedde, Albert; Bergersen, Linda H.

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral malaria (CM), caused by Plasmodium falciparum infection, is a prevalent neurological disorder in the tropics. Most of the patients are children, typically with intractable seizures and high mortality. Current treatment is unsatisfactory. Understanding the pathogenesis of CM is required in order to identify therapeutic targets. Here, we argue that cerebral energy metabolic defects are probable etiological factors in CM pathogenesis, because malaria parasites consume large amounts of glucose metabolized mostly to lactate. Monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) mediate facilitated transfer, which serves to equalize lactate concentrations across cell membranes in the direction of the concentration gradient. The equalizing action of MCTs is the basis for lactate’s role as a volume transmitter of metabolic signals in the brain. Lactate binds to the lactate receptor GPR81, recently discovered on brain cells and cerebral blood vessels, causing inhibition of adenylyl cyclase. High levels of lactate delivered by the parasite at the vascular endothelium may damage the blood–brain barrier, disrupt lactate homeostasis in the brain, and imply MCTs and the lactate receptor as novel therapeutic targets in CM. PMID:24904266

  15. Ultra-low threshold polariton condensation

    SciTech Connect

    Steger, Mark; Fluegel, Brian; Alberi, Kirstin

    Here, we demonstrate the condensation of microcavity polaritons with a very sharp threshold occurring at a two orders of magnitude pump intensity lower than previous demonstrations of condensation. The long cavity lifetime and trapping and pumping geometries are crucial to the realization of this low threshold. Polariton condensation, or 'polariton lasing' has long been proposed as a promising source of coherent light at a lower threshold than traditional lasing, and these results indicate some considerations for optimizing designs for lower thresholds.

  16. NETWORK SYNTHESIS OF CASCADED THRESHOLD ELEMENTS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    A threshold function is a switching function which can be stimulated by a single, simplified, idealized neuron, or threshold element. In this report... threshold functions are examined in the context of abstract set theory and linear algebra for the purpose of obtaining practical synthesis procedures...for networks of threshold elements. A procedure is described by which, for any given switching function, a cascade network of these elements can be

  17. Ultra-low threshold polariton condensation

    DOE PAGES

    Steger, Mark; Fluegel, Brian; Alberi, Kirstin; ...

    2017-03-13

    Here, we demonstrate the condensation of microcavity polaritons with a very sharp threshold occurring at a two orders of magnitude pump intensity lower than previous demonstrations of condensation. The long cavity lifetime and trapping and pumping geometries are crucial to the realization of this low threshold. Polariton condensation, or 'polariton lasing' has long been proposed as a promising source of coherent light at a lower threshold than traditional lasing, and these results indicate some considerations for optimizing designs for lower thresholds.

  18. THRESHOLD LOGIC SYNTHESIS OF SEQUENTIAL MACHINES.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The application of threshold logic to the design of sequential machines is the subject of this research. A single layer of threshold logic units in...advantages of fewer components because of the use of threshold logic, along with very high-speed operation resulting from the use of only a single layer of...logic. In some instances, namely for asynchronous machines, the only delay need be the natural delay of the single layer of threshold elements. It is

  19. Normal lactate concentration range in the neonatal brain.

    PubMed

    Tomiyasu, Moyoko; Aida, Noriko; Shibasaki, Jun; Tachibana, Yasuhiko; Endo, Mamiko; Nozawa, Kumiko; Shimizu, Eiji; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Obata, Takayuki

    2016-11-01

    Lactate peaks are occasionally observed during in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) scans of the neonatal brain, even in healthy patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate the normal range of neonatal brain lactate concentration, as a definitive normal range would be clinically valuable. Using a clinical 3T scanner (echo/repetition times, 30/5000ms), single-voxel MRS data were obtained from the basal ganglia (BG) and centrum semiovale (CS) in 48 healthy neonates (postconceptional age (PCA), 30-43weeks), nine infants (age, 1-12months old), and 20 children (age, 4-15years). Lactate concentrations were calculated using an MRS signal quantification program, LCModel. Correlations between regional lactate concentration and PCA (neonates), or age (all subjects) were investigated. Absolute lactate concentrations of the BG and CS were as follows: neonates, 0.77mM (0-2.02) [median (range)] and 0.77 (0-1.42), respectively; infants, 0.38 (0-0.79) and 0.49 (0.17-1.17); and children, 0.17 (0-0.76) and 0.22 (0-0.80). Overall, subjects' lactate concentrations decreased significantly with age (Spearman: BG, n=61, ρ=-0.38, p=0.003; CS, n=68, ρ=-0.57, p<0.001). However, during the neonatal period no correlations were detected between lactate concentration in either region and PCA. We determined normal ranges of neonatal lactate concentration, which may prove useful for diagnostic purposes. Further studies regarding changes in brain lactate concentration during development would help clarify the reasons for higher concentrations observed during the neonatal period, and contribute to improvements in diagnoses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Cerebrospinal fluid lactate and pyruvate concentrations and their ratio.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wan-Ming; Natowicz, Marvin R

    2013-05-01

    Determinations of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) lactate and pyruvate concentrations and CSF lactate:pyruvate (L/P) ratios are important in several clinical settings, yet published normative data have significant limitations. We sought to determine a large dataset of stringently-defined normative data for CSF lactate and pyruvate concentrations and CSF L/P ratios. We evaluated data from 627 patients who had determinations of CSF lactate and/or CSF pyruvate from 2001 to 2011 at the Cleveland Clinic. Inclusion in the normal reference population required normal CSF cell counts, glucose and protein and routine serum chemistries and absence of progressive brain disorder, epilepsy, or seizure within 24h. Brain MRI, if done, showed no evidence of tumor, acute changes or basal ganglia abnormality. CSF cytology, CSF alanine and immunoglobulin levels, and oligoclonal band analysis were required to be normal, if done. Various inclusion/exclusion criteria were compared. 92 patients fulfilled inclusion/exclusion criteria for a reference population. The 95% central intervals (2.5%-97.5%) for CSF lactate and pyruvate levels were 1.01-2.09mM and 0.03-0.15mM, respectively, and 9.05-26.37 for CSF L/P. There were no significant gender-related differences of CSF lactate or pyruvate concentrations or of CSF L/P. Weak positive correlations between the concentration of CSF lactate or pyruvate and age were noted. Using stringent inclusion/exclusion criteria, we determined normative data for CSF lactate and pyruvate concentrations and CSF L/P ratios in a large, well-characterized reference population. Normalcy of routine CSF and blood analytes are the most important parameters in determining reference intervals for CSF lactate and pyruvate. Copyright © 2012 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Lack of activity of 15-epi-lipoxin A₄ on FPR2/ALX and CysLT1 receptors in interleukin-8-driven human neutrophil function.

    PubMed

    Planagumà, A; Domenech, T; Jover, I; Ramos, I; Sentellas, S; Malhotra, R; Miralpeix, M

    2013-08-01

    Neutrophil recruitment and survival are important control points in the development and resolution of inflammatory processes. 15-epi-lipoxin (LX)A interaction with formyl peptide receptor 2 (FPR2)/ALX receptor is suggested to enhance anti-inflammatory neutrophil functions and mediate resolution of airway inflammation. However, it has been reported that 15-epi-LXA₄ analogues can also bind to cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 1 (CysLT1) and that the CysLT1 antagonist MK-571 binds to FPR2/ALX, so cross-reactivity between FPR2/ALX and CysLT1 ligands cannot be discarded. It is not well established whether the resolution properties reported for 15-epi-LXA4 are mediated through FPR2/ALX, or if other receptors such as CysLT1 may also be involved. Evaluation of specific FPR2/ALX ligands and CysLT1 antagonists in functional biochemical and cellular assays were performed to establish a role for both receptors in 15-epi-LXA₄-mediated signalling and function. In our study, a FPR2/ALX synthetic peptide (WKYMVm) and a small molecule FPR2/ALX agonist (compound 43) induced FPR2/ALX-mediated signalling, enhancing guanosine triphosphate-gamma (GTPγ) binding and decreasing cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels, whereas 15-epi-LXA₄ was inactive. Furthermore, 15-epi-LXA4 showed neither binding affinity nor signalling towards CysLT1. In neutrophils, 15-epi-LXA₄ showed a moderate reduction of interleukin (IL)-8-mediated neutrophil chemotaxis but no effect on neutrophil survival was observed. In addition, CysLT1 antagonists were inactive in FPR2/ALX signalling or neutrophil assays. In conclusion, 15-epi-LXA₄ is not a functional agonist or an antagonist of FPR2/ALX or CysLT1, shows no effect on IL-8-induced neutrophil survival and produces only moderate inhibition in IL-8-mediated neutrophil migration. Our data do not support an anti-inflammatory role of 15-epi-LXA₄- FPR2/ALX interaction in IL-8-induced neutrophil inflammation. © 2013 British Society for Immunology.

  2. Mode of action of cupping--local metabolism and pain thresholds in neck pain patients and healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Emerich, M; Braeunig, M; Clement, H W; Lüdtke, R; Huber, R

    2014-02-01

    Cupping worldwide has been part of traditional medicine systems and is in the western world used as CAM therapy mainly for treating pain syndromes. The mode of action is up to now unclear. In order to investigate its mechanism we measured in parallel metabolic changes in the tissue under the cupping glass and pressure pain thresholds. In 12 volunteers (6 healthy subjects and 6 patients with chronic neck pain) a microdialysis system was implanted subcutaneously on both sides (left and right) above the trapezius muscle. After baseline measures cupping was performed at one randomly selected side (left or right), the other side served as control. Every 20 min during baseline measures and for 280 min after cupping, microdialysis probes for detection of lactate, pyruvate, glucose and glycerin were taken. In addition, pain thresholds were measured before and after cupping with algometry. Cupping resulted in a strong increase of lactate (beginning 160 min after cupping until the end of the measurements) and the lactate/pyruvate ratio, indicating an anaerobe metabolism in the surrounding tissue. Baseline pain thresholds were non-significantly lower in neck pain patients compared to healthy controls and slightly increased immediately after cupping (p<0.05 compared to baseline close to the area of cupping in healthy subjects and on the foot in neck pain patients). After 280 min no more significant changes of pain thresholds were detected. Cupping induces >280 min lasting anaerobe metabolism in the subcutaneous tissue and increases immediate pressure pain thresholds in some areas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Compositional threshold for Nuclear Waste Glass Durability

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, Albert A.; Farooqi, Rahmatullah; Hrma, Pavel R.

    2013-04-24

    Within the composition space of glasses, a distinct threshold appears to exist that separates "good" glasses, i.e., those which are sufficiently durable, from "bad" glasses of a low durability. The objective of our research is to clarify the origin of this threshold by exploring the relationship between glass composition, glass structure and chemical durability around the threshold region.

  4. Threshold Concepts in Finance: Student Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoadley, Susan; Kyng, Tim; Tickle, Leonie; Wood, Leigh N.

    2015-01-01

    Finance threshold concepts are the essential conceptual knowledge that underpin well-developed financial capabilities and are central to the mastery of finance. In this paper we investigate threshold concepts in finance from the point of view of students, by establishing the extent to which students are aware of threshold concepts identified by…

  5. 40 CFR 98.231 - Reporting threshold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reporting threshold. 98.231 Section 98...) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems § 98.231 Reporting threshold. (a) You... § 98.232(i) emit 25,000 metric tons of CO2 equivalent or more per year. (b) For applying the threshold...

  6. 40 CFR 98.441 - Reporting threshold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reporting threshold. 98.441 Section 98...) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Geologic Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide § 98.441 Reporting threshold. (a... amount of CO2 for long-term containment in subsurface geologic formations. There is no threshold. (b...

  7. 40 CFR 98.91 - Reporting threshold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reporting threshold. 98.91 Section 98...) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Electronics Manufacturing § 98.91 Reporting threshold. (a) You must... year emission threshold in § 98.2(a)(2), follow the requirements of § 98.2(b), with one exception...

  8. 49 CFR 80.13 - Threshold criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Threshold criteria. 80.13 Section 80.13... § 80.13 Threshold criteria. (a) To be eligible to receive Federal credit assistance under this part, a project shall meet the following five threshold criteria: (1) The project shall be consistent with the...

  9. 40 CFR 68.115 - Threshold determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Threshold determination. 68.115 Section 68.115 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Regulated Substances for Accidental Release Prevention § 68.115 Threshold determination. (a) A threshold...

  10. 40 CFR 68.115 - Threshold determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Threshold determination. 68.115 Section 68.115 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Regulated Substances for Accidental Release Prevention § 68.115 Threshold determination. (a) A threshold...

  11. 40 CFR 68.115 - Threshold determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Threshold determination. 68.115 Section 68.115 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Regulated Substances for Accidental Release Prevention § 68.115 Threshold determination. (a) A threshold...

  12. 40 CFR 68.115 - Threshold determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Threshold determination. 68.115 Section 68.115 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Regulated Substances for Accidental Release Prevention § 68.115 Threshold determination. (a) A threshold...

  13. 40 CFR 98.361 - Reporting threshold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reporting threshold. 98.361 Section 98...) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Manure Management § 98.361 Reporting threshold. Livestock facilities must report GHG emissions under this subpart if the facility meets the reporting threshold as defined in 98...

  14. 49 CFR 80.13 - Threshold criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Threshold criteria. 80.13 Section 80.13... § 80.13 Threshold criteria. (a) To be eligible to receive Federal credit assistance under this part, a project shall meet the following five threshold criteria: (1) The project shall be consistent with the...

  15. 40 CFR 98.121 - Reporting threshold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reporting threshold. 98.121 Section 98...) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Fluorinated Gas Production § 98.121 Reporting threshold. You must report...). To calculate GHG emissions for comparison to the 25,000 metric ton CO2e per year emission threshold...

  16. 40 CFR 98.361 - Reporting threshold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reporting threshold. 98.361 Section 98...) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Manure Management § 98.361 Reporting threshold. Livestock facilities must report GHG emissions under this subpart if the facility meets the reporting threshold as defined in 98...

  17. Blood lactate levels in 31 female dogs with pyometra

    PubMed Central

    Hagman, Ragnvi; Reezigt, Bert Jan; Bergström Ledin, Hanna; Karlstam, Erika

    2009-01-01

    Background Canine pyometra is a life-threatening disease common in countries where spaying of dogs is not routinely performed. The disease is associated with endotoxemia, sepsis, systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and a 3–4% mortality rate. Blood lactate analysis is clinically valuable in predicting prognosis and survival, evaluating tissue perfusion and treatment response in human and veterinary critical care settings. The aims of the present study were to investigate 1) the blood lactate levels of female dogs with pyometra by a hand-held analyser and 2) if these levels are related with the clinical status or other biochemical or hematological disorders. Methods In total 31 female dogs with pyometra admitted for surgical ovariohysterectomy and 16 healthy female control dogs were included in the present study. A complete physical examination including SIRS-status determination was performed. Blood samples for lactate concentrations, hematological and biochemical parameters, acid-base and blood gas analysis and other laboratory parameters were collected and subsequently analysed. The diagnosis pyometra was verified with histopathological examination of the uterus and ovaries. Increased hospitalisation length and presence of SIRS were used as indicators of outcome. Results In the pyometra group the median blood lactate level was 1,6 mmol l-1 (range <0.8–2.7 mmol l-1). In the control group the median lactate level was 1,2 mmol l-1 (range <0.8–2.1 mmol l-1). Of the 31 bitches 19 (61%) fulfilled 2 or more criteria for SIRS at inclusion, 10 bitches (32%) fulfilled 3 of the SIRS criteria whereas none accomplished more than 3 criteria. Lactate levels did not differ significantly between the pyometra and control group, or between the SIRS positive and SIRS negative dogs with pyometra. Increased lactate concentration (>2.5 mmol l-1) was demonstrated in one female dog with pyometra (3%), and was not associated with longer hospitalisation or presence of SIRS

  18. CD147 Required for Corneal Endothelial Lactate Transport

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shimin; Nguyen, Tracy T.; Bonanno, Joseph A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. CD147/basigin is a chaperone for lactate:H+ cotransporters (monocarboxylate transporters) MCT1 and MCT4. We tested the hypothesis that MCT1 and -4 in corneal endothelium contribute to lactate efflux from stroma to anterior chamber and that silencing CD147 expression would cause corneal edema. Methods. CD147 was silenced via small interfering ribonucleic acid (siRNA) transfection of rabbit corneas ex vivo and anterior chamber lenti-small hairpin RNA (shRNA) pseudovirus in vivo. CD147 and MCT expression was examined by Western blot, RT-PCR, and immunofluorescence. Functional effects were examined by measuring lactate-induced cell acidification, corneal lactate efflux, [lactate], central cornea thickness (CCT), and Azopt (a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor) sensitivity. Results. In ex vivo corneas, 100 nM CD147 siRNA reduced CD147, MCT1, and MCT4 expression by 85%, 79%, and 73%, respectively, while MCT2 expression was unaffected. CD147 siRNA decreased lactate efflux from 3.9 ± 0.81 to 1.5 ± 0.37 nmol/min, increased corneal [lactate] from 19.28 ± 7.15 to 56.73 ± 8.97 nmol/mg, acidified endothelial cells (pHi = 6.83 ± 0.07 vs. 7.19 ± 0.09 in control), and slowed basolateral lactate-induced acidification from 0.0034 ± 0.0005 to 0.0012 ± 0.0005 pH/s, whereas apical acidification was unchanged. In vivo, CD147 shRNA increased CCT by 28.1 ± 0.9 μm at 28 days; Azopt increased CCT to 24.4 ± 3.12 vs. 12.0 ± 0.48 μm in control, and corneal [lactate] was 47.63 ± 6.29 nmol/mg in shCD147 corneas and 17.82 ± 4.93 nmol/mg in paired controls. Conclusions. CD147 is required for the expression of MCT1 and MCT4 in the corneal endothelium. Silencing CD147 slows lactate efflux, resulting in stromal lactate accumulation and corneal edema, consistent with lactate efflux as a significant component of the corneal endothelial pump. PMID:24970254

  19. CD147 required for corneal endothelial lactate transport.

    PubMed

    Li, Shimin; Nguyen, Tracy T; Bonanno, Joseph A

    2014-06-26

    CD147/basigin is a chaperone for lactate:H(+) cotransporters (monocarboxylate transporters) MCT1 and MCT4. We tested the hypothesis that MCT1 and -4 in corneal endothelium contribute to lactate efflux from stroma to anterior chamber and that silencing CD147 expression would cause corneal edema. CD147 was silenced via small interfering ribonucleic acid (siRNA) transfection of rabbit corneas ex vivo and anterior chamber lenti-small hairpin RNA (shRNA) pseudovirus in vivo. CD147 and MCT expression was examined by Western blot, RT-PCR, and immunofluorescence. Functional effects were examined by measuring lactate-induced cell acidification, corneal lactate efflux, [lactate], central cornea thickness (CCT), and Azopt (a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor) sensitivity. In ex vivo corneas, 100 nM CD147 siRNA reduced CD147, MCT1, and MCT4 expression by 85%, 79%, and 73%, respectively, while MCT2 expression was unaffected. CD147 siRNA decreased lactate efflux from 3.9 ± 0.81 to 1.5 ± 0.37 nmol/min, increased corneal [lactate] from 19.28 ± 7.15 to 56.73 ± 8.97 nmol/mg, acidified endothelial cells (pHi = 6.83 ± 0.07 vs. 7.19 ± 0.09 in control), and slowed basolateral lactate-induced acidification from 0.0034 ± 0.0005 to 0.0012 ± 0.0005 pH/s, whereas apical acidification was unchanged. In vivo, CD147 shRNA increased CCT by 28.1 ± 0.9 μm at 28 days; Azopt increased CCT to 24.4 ± 3.12 vs. 12.0 ± 0.48 μm in control, and corneal [lactate] was 47.63 ± 6.29 nmol/mg in shCD147 corneas and 17.82 ± 4.93 nmol/mg in paired controls. CD147 is required for the expression of MCT1 and MCT4 in the corneal endothelium. Silencing CD147 slows lactate efflux, resulting in stromal lactate accumulation and corneal edema, consistent with lactate efflux as a significant component of the corneal endothelial pump. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  20. Epidemic threshold in directed networks.

    PubMed

    Li, Cong; Wang, Huijuan; Van Mieghem, Piet

    2013-12-01

    Epidemics have so far been mostly studied in undirected networks. However, many real-world networks, such as the online social network Twitter and the world wide web, on which information, emotion, or malware spreads, are directed networks, composed of both unidirectional links and bidirectional links. We define the directionality ξ as the percentage of unidirectional links. The epidemic threshold τ(c) for the susceptible-infected-susceptible (SIS) epidemic is lower bounded by 1/λ(1) in directed networks, where λ(1), also called the spectral radius, is the largest eigenvalue of the adjacency matrix. In this work, we propose two algorithms to generate directed networks with a given directionality ξ. The effect of ξ on the spectral radius λ(1), principal eigenvector x(1), spectral gap (λ(1)-|λ(2)|), and algebraic connectivity μ(N-1) is studied. Important findings are that the spectral radius λ(1) decreases with the directionality ξ, whereas the spectral gap and the algebraic connectivity increase with the directionality ξ. The extent of the decrease of the spectral radius depends on both the degree distribution and the degree-degree correlation ρ(D). Hence, in directed networks, the epidemic threshold is larger and a random walk converges to its steady state faster than that in undirected networks with the same degree distribution.

  1. Computational gestalts and perception thresholds.

    PubMed

    Desolneux, Agnès; Moisan, Lionel; Morel, Jean-Michel

    2003-01-01

    In 1923, Max Wertheimer proposed a research programme and method in visual perception. He conjectured the existence of a small set of geometric grouping laws governing the perceptual synthesis of phenomenal objects, or "gestalt" from the atomic retina input. In this paper, we review this set of geometric grouping laws, using the works of Metzger, Kanizsa and their schools. In continuation, we explain why the Gestalt theory research programme can be translated into a Computer Vision programme. This translation is not straightforward, since Gestalt theory never addressed two fundamental matters: image sampling and image information measurements. Using these advances, we shall show that gestalt grouping laws can be translated into quantitative laws allowing the automatic computation of gestalts in digital images. From the psychophysical viewpoint, a main issue is raised: the computer vision gestalt detection methods deliver predictable perception thresholds. Thus, we are set in a position where we can build artificial images and check whether some kind of agreement can be found between the computationally predicted thresholds and the psychophysical ones. We describe and discuss two preliminary sets of experiments, where we compared the gestalt detection performance of several subjects with the predictable detection curve. In our opinion, the results of this experimental comparison support the idea of a much more systematic interaction between computational predictions in Computer Vision and psychophysical experiments.

  2. Epidemic threshold in directed networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Cong; Wang, Huijuan; Van Mieghem, Piet

    2013-12-01

    Epidemics have so far been mostly studied in undirected networks. However, many real-world networks, such as the online social network Twitter and the world wide web, on which information, emotion, or malware spreads, are directed networks, composed of both unidirectional links and bidirectional links. We define the directionality ξ as the percentage of unidirectional links. The epidemic threshold τc for the susceptible-infected-susceptible (SIS) epidemic is lower bounded by 1/λ1 in directed networks, where λ1, also called the spectral radius, is the largest eigenvalue of the adjacency matrix. In this work, we propose two algorithms to generate directed networks with a given directionality ξ. The effect of ξ on the spectral radius λ1, principal eigenvector x1, spectral gap (λ1-λ2), and algebraic connectivity μN-1 is studied. Important findings are that the spectral radius λ1 decreases with the directionality ξ, whereas the spectral gap and the algebraic connectivity increase with the directionality ξ. The extent of the decrease of the spectral radius depends on both the degree distribution and the degree-degree correlation ρD. Hence, in directed networks, the epidemic threshold is larger and a random walk converges to its steady state faster than that in undirected networks with the same degree distribution.

  3. Threshold temperature optical fibre sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stasiewicz, K. A.; Musial, J. E.

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents a new approach to manufacture a threshold temperature sensor based on a biconical optical fibre taper. The presented sensor employs the influence of variable state of concentration of some isotropic materials like wax or paraffin. Application of the above- mentioned materials is an attempt to prove that there is a possibility to obtain a low-cost, repeatable and smart sensor working as an in-line element. Optical fibre taper was obtained from a standard single mode fibre (SMF28®) by using a low pressure gas burner technique. The diameter of the manufactured tapers was 6.0 ± 0.5 μm with the length of elongation equal to 30.50 ± 0.16 mm. The applied technology allowed to produce tapers with the losses of 0.183 ± 0.015 dB. Application of materials with different temperature transition points made it possible to obtain the threshold work at the temperatures connected directly with their conversion temperature. External materials at the temperatures above their melting points do not influence the propagation losses. For each of them two types of the protection area and position of the optical fibre taper were applied.

  4. Asymmetric Waveforms Decrease Lethal Thresholds in High Frequency Irreversible Electroporation Therapies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sano, Michael B.; Fan, Richard E.; Xing, Lei

    2017-01-01

    Irreversible electroporation (IRE) is a promising non-thermal treatment for inoperable tumors which uses short (50-100 μs) high voltage monopolar pulses to disrupt the membranes of cells within a well-defined volume. Challenges with IRE include complex treatment planning and the induction of intense muscle contractions. High frequency IRE (H-FIRE) uses bursts of ultrashort (0.25-5 μs) alternating polarity pulses to produce more predictable ablations and alleviate muscle contractions associated with IRE. However, H-FIRE generally ablates smaller volumes of tissue than IRE. This study shows that asymmetric H-FIRE waveforms can be used to create ablation volumes equivalent to standard IRE treatments. Lethal thresholds (LT) of 505 V/cm and 1316 V/cm were found for brain cancer cells when 100 μs IRE and 2 μs symmetric H-FIRE waveforms were used. In contrast, LT as low as 536 V/cm were found for 2 μs asymmetric H-FIRE waveforms. Reversible electroporation thresholds were 54% lower than LTs for symmetric waveforms and 33% lower for asymmetric waveforms indicating that waveform symmetry can be used to tune the relative sizes of reversible and irreversible ablation zones. Numerical simulations predicted that asymmetric H-FIRE waveforms are capable of producing ablation volumes which were 5.8-6.3x larger than symmetric H-FIRE waveforms indicating that in vivo investigation of asymmetric waveforms is warranted.

  5. Asymmetric Waveforms Decrease Lethal Thresholds in High Frequency Irreversible Electroporation Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Sano, Michael B.; Fan, Richard E.; Xing, Lei

    2017-01-01

    Irreversible electroporation (IRE) is a promising non-thermal treatment for inoperable tumors which uses short (50–100 μs) high voltage monopolar pulses to disrupt the membranes of cells within a well-defined volume. Challenges with IRE include complex treatment planning and the induction of intense muscle contractions. High frequency IRE (H-FIRE) uses bursts of ultrashort (0.25–5 μs) alternating polarity pulses to produce more predictable ablations and alleviate muscle contractions associated with IRE. However, H-FIRE generally ablates smaller volumes of tissue than IRE. This study shows that asymmetric H-FIRE waveforms can be used to create ablation volumes equivalent to standard IRE treatments. Lethal thresholds (LT) of 505 V/cm and 1316 V/cm were found for brain cancer cells when 100 μs IRE and 2 μs symmetric H-FIRE waveforms were used. In contrast, LT as low as 536 V/cm were found for 2 μs asymmetric H-FIRE waveforms. Reversible electroporation thresholds were 54% lower than LTs for symmetric waveforms and 33% lower for asymmetric waveforms indicating that waveform symmetry can be used to tune the relative sizes of reversible and irreversible ablation zones. Numerical simulations predicted that asymmetric H-FIRE waveforms are capable of producing ablation volumes which were 5.8–6.3x larger than symmetric H-FIRE waveforms indicating that in vivo investigation of asymmetric waveforms is warranted. PMID:28106146

  6. Prednisone Pharmacokinetics During Pregnancy and Lactation.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Rachel J; Easterling, Thomas R; Caritis, Steve N; Venkataramanan, Raman; Umans, Jason G; Ahmed, Mahmoud S; Clark, Shannon; Kantrowitz-Gordon, Ira; Hays, Karen; Bennett, Brooke; Honaker, Matthew T; Thummel, Kenneth E; Shen, Danny D; Hebert, Mary F

    2018-05-07

    To evaluate the steady-state pharmacokinetics of prednisone and its metabolite prednisolone in pregnant and lactating female subjects, 19 subjects received prednisone (4-40 mg/day orally) in early (n = 3), mid (n = 9), and late (n = 13) pregnancy as well as postpartum with (n = 2) and without (n = 5) lactation. Serial blood and urine samples were collected over 1 dosing interval. Prednisone and its metabolite, prednisolone, steady-state noncompartmental pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated. During pregnancy, prednisone apparent oral clearance increased with dose (35.1 ± 11.4 L/h with 5 mg, 52.6 ± 5.2 L/h with 10 mg, and 64.3 ± 6.9 L/h with 20 mg, P = .001). Similarly, unbound prednisone apparent oral clearance increased with dose. In addition, prednisolone renal clearance increased with dose (0.3 ± 0.3 L/h with 5 mg, 0.5 ± 0.4 L/h with 10 mg, and 1.3 ± 1.1 L/h with 20 mg, P = .002). Higher prednisone (r = 0.57, P ≤ .05) and prednisolone (r = 0.75, P ≤ .05) concentrations led to a higher percentage of unbound drug. Breast-milk/plasma area under the concentration-time curve ratios were 0.5-0.6 for prednisone and 0.02-0.03 for prednisolone. Relative infant doses were 0.35% to 0.53% and 0.09% to 0.18%, for prednisone and prednisolone, respectively. Prednisone and prednisolone exhibit dose- and concentration-dependent pharmacokinetics during pregnancy, and infant exposure to these agents via breast milk is minimal. © 2018, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  7. Comparative transcriptome analysis reveals different molecular mechanisms of Bacillus coagulans 2-6 response to sodium lactate and calcium lactate during lactic acid production.

    PubMed

    Qin, Jiayang; Wang, Xiuwen; Wang, Landong; Zhu, Beibei; Zhang, Xiaohua; Yao, Qingshou; Xu, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Lactate production is enhanced by adding calcium carbonate or sodium hydroxide during fermentation. However, Bacillus coagulans 2-6 can produce more than 180 g/L L-lactic acid when calcium lactate is accumulated, but less than 120 g/L L-lactic acid when sodium lactate is formed. The molecular mechanisms by which B. coagulans responds to calcium lactate and sodium lactate remain unclear. In this study, comparative transcriptomic methods based on high-throughput RNA sequencing were applied to study gene expression changes in B. coagulans 2-6 cultured in non-stress, sodium lactate stress and calcium lactate stress conditions. Gene expression profiling identified 712 and 1213 significantly regulated genes in response to calcium lactate stress and sodium lactate stress, respectively. Gene ontology assignments of the differentially expressed genes were performed. KEGG pathway enrichment analysis revealed that 'ATP-binding cassette transporters' were significantly affected by calcium lactate stress, and 'amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolism' was significantly affected by sodium lactate stress. It was also found that lactate fermentation was less affected by calcium lactate stress than by sodium lactate stress. Sodium lactate stress had negative effect on the expression of 'glycolysis/gluconeogenesis' genes but positive effect on the expression of 'citrate cycle (TCA cycle)' genes. However, calcium lactate stress had positive influence on the expression of 'glycolysis/gluconeogenesis' genes and had minor influence on 'citrate cycle (TCA cycle)' genes. Thus, our findings offer new insights into the responses of B. coagulans to different lactate stresses. Notably, our RNA-seq dataset constitute a robust database for investigating the functions of genes induced by lactate stress in the future and identify potential targets for genetic engineering to further improve L-lactic acid production by B. coagulans.

  8. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Different Molecular Mechanisms of Bacillus coagulans 2-6 Response to Sodium Lactate and Calcium Lactate during Lactic Acid Production

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Jiayang; Wang, Xiuwen; Wang, Landong; Zhu, Beibei; Zhang, Xiaohua; Yao, Qingshou; Xu, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Lactate production is enhanced by adding calcium carbonate or sodium hydroxide during fermentation. However, Bacillus coagulans 2-6 can produce more than 180 g/L L-lactic acid when calcium lactate is accumulated, but less than 120 g/L L-lactic acid when sodium lactate is formed. The molecular mechanisms by which B. coagulans responds to calcium lactate and sodium lactate remain unclear. In this study, comparative transcriptomic methods based on high-throughput RNA sequencing were applied to study gene expression changes in B. coagulans 2-6 cultured in non-stress, sodium lactate stress and calcium lactate stress conditions. Gene expression profiling identified 712 and 1213 significantly regulated genes in response to calcium lactate stress and sodium lactate stress, respectively. Gene ontology assignments of the differentially expressed genes were performed. KEGG pathway enrichment analysis revealed that ‘ATP-binding cassette transporters’ were significantly affected by calcium lactate stress, and ‘amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolism’ was significantly affected by sodium lactate stress. It was also found that lactate fermentation was less affected by calcium lactate stress than by sodium lactate stress. Sodium lactate stress had negative effect on the expression of ‘glycolysis/gluconeogenesis’ genes but positive effect on the expression of ‘citrate cycle (TCA cycle)’ genes. However, calcium lactate stress had positive influence on the expression of ‘glycolysis/gluconeogenesis’ genes and had minor influence on ‘citrate cycle (TCA cycle)’ genes. Thus, our findings offer new insights into the responses of B. coagulans to different lactate stresses. Notably, our RNA-seq dataset constitute a robust database for investigating the functions of genes induced by lactate stress in the future and identify potential targets for genetic engineering to further improve L-lactic acid production by B. coagulans. PMID:25875592

  9. Bisphenol S Alters the Lactating Mammary Gland and Nursing Behaviors in Mice Exposed During Pregnancy and Lactation.

    PubMed

    LaPlante, Charlotte D; Catanese, Mary C; Bansal, Ruby; Vandenberg, Laura N

    2017-10-01

    High doses of estrogenic pharmaceuticals were once prescribed to women to halt lactation. Yet, the effects of low-level xenoestrogens on lactation remain poorly studied. We investigated the effects of bisphenol S (BPS), an estrogen receptor (ER) agonist, on the lactating mammary gland; the arcuate nucleus, a region of the hypothalamus important for neuroendocrine control of lactational behaviors; and nursing behavior in CD-1 mice. Female mice were exposed to vehicle, 2 or 200 µg BPS/kg/d from pregnancy day 9 until lactational day (LD) 20, and tissues were collected on LD21. Tissues were also collected from a second group at LD2. BPS exposure significantly reduced the fraction of the mammary gland comprised of lobules, the milk-producing units, on LD21, but not LD2. BPS also altered expression of Esr1 and ERα in the mammary gland at LD21, consistent with early involution. In the arcuate nucleus, no changes were observed in expression of signal transducer and activator of transcription 5, a marker of prolactin signaling, or ERα, suggesting that BPS may act directly on the mammary gland. However, observations of nursing behavior collected during the lactational period revealed stage-specific effects on both pup and maternal nursing behaviors; BPS-treated dams spent significantly more time nursing later in the lactational period, and BPS-treated pups were less likely to initiate nursing. Pup growth and development were also stunted. These data indicate that low doses of BPS can alter lactational behaviors and the maternal mammary gland. Together, they support the hypothesis that pregnancy and lactation are sensitive to low-dose xenoestrogen exposures. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society.

  10. Imperfect asymmetry of life: earth microbial communities prefer D-lactate but can use L-lactate also.

    PubMed

    Moazeni, Faegheh; Zhang, Gaosen; Sun, Henry J

    2010-05-01

    Asymmetrical utilization of chiral compounds has been sought on Mars as evidence for biological activity. This method was recently validated in glucose. Earth organisms utilize D-glucose, not L-glucose, a perfect asymmetry. In this study, we tested the method in lactate and found utilization of both enantiomers. Soil-, sediment-, and lake-borne microbial communities prefer D-lactate but can consume L-lactate if given extra time to acclimate. This situation is termed imperfect asymmetry. Future life-detection mission investigators need to be aware of imperfect asymmetry so as not to miss relatively subtle signs of life.

  11. Defining lactation acuity to improve patient safety and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Mannel, Rebecca

    2011-05-01

    While substantial evidence exists identifying risks factors associated with premature weaning from breastfeeding, there are no previously published definitions of patient acuity in the lactation field. This article defines evidence-based levels of lactation acuity based on maternal and infant characteristics. Patient acuity, matching severity of illness to intensity of care required, is an important determinant of patient safety and outcomes. It is often used as part of a patient classification system to determine staffing needs and acceptable workloads in health care settings. As acuity increases, more resources, including more skilled clinicians, are needed to provide optimal care. Developing an evidence-based definition of lactation acuity can help to standardize terminology, more effectively distribute health care staff resources, encourage research to verify the validity and reliability of lactation acuity, and potentially improve breastfeeding initiation and duration rates.

  12. Pregnant & Lactating Populations Research - NCS Dietary Assessment Literature Review

    Cancer.gov

    Identifying and studying additional biomarkers of energy and nutrient intake will advance validation efforts and lead to a better understanding of the biases and sources of measurement error in dietary assessment instruments in pregnant or lactating populations.

  13. Lack of Influence of the Menstrual Cycle on Blood Lactate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamont, Linda S.

    1986-01-01

    Nine healthy women were tested before, during, and after exercise during the follicular and luteal phases of their menstrual cycles to determine the effect of menstruation on blood lactate levels. Findings are discussed. (Author/MT)

  14. Effects of mother's dietary exposure to acesulfame-K in Pregnancy or lactation on the adult offspring's sweet preference.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gen-Hua; Chen, Meng-Ling; Liu, Si-Si; Zhan, Yue-Hua; Quan, Ying; Qin, Yu-Mei; Deng, Shao-Ping

    2011-11-01

    This study investigates whether mother's exposure to the artificial sweetener acesulfame-K (AK) during pregnancy or lactation affected her adult offspring's sweet preference. It was found that mother's dietary exposure to AK in pregnancy or lactation decreased the preference thresholds for AK and sucrose solutions in the adult offspring, whereas the preference pattern and the most preferred concentration for AK or sucrose solution were unchanged. Furthermore, the preference scores in the exposure groups were increased significantly when compared with the control group at a range of concentrations for AK or sucrose solution. The existence of AK and its dynamic changes within 24 h in amniotic fluid during pregnancy or in mother's milk during lactation after a single oral infusion of AK solution were revealed by the methods of reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Our data suggest that AK can be ingested by the prenatal or postnatal mice through their mother's amniotic fluid or breast milk, producing a long-dated function on the adult's sweet preference.

  15. Hyperon threshold and stellar radii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, Luiz; Menezes, Debora

    2018-05-01

    We study how the Λ hyperon threshold influences the radius of the canonical 1.4 Msolar neutron star in the light of the measurements found in the recent literature. We show that the onset of a new degree of freedom not only causes the well known reduction of the maximum mass, but also compacts the neutron stars with high central density. With the help of the strange mesons phi and σ*, we show that it is possible to simulate very compact neutron stars keeping realistic hyperon potentials, UΛ(n0)= ‑28 MeV and UΛΛ(n0/5) in agreement with recents measurements. In the end we generalize these results showing that the onset of a yet not known dark matter particle with mass of 1.04 GeV is able to produce simultaneously a 2 Msolar neutron star and a canonical one with a radius of only 11.62 km.

  16. Self-calibrating threshold detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, J. R.; Huang, M. Y. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A self calibrating threshold detector comprises a single demodulating channel which includes a mixer having one input receiving the incoming signal and another input receiving a local replica code. During a short time interval, an incorrect local code is applied to the mixer to incorrectly demodulate the incoming signal and to provide a reference level that calibrates the noise propagating through the channel. A sample and hold circuit is coupled to the channel for storing a sample of the reference level. During a relatively long time interval, the correct replica code provides an output level which ranges between the reference level and a maximum level that represents incoming signal presence and synchronism with the replica code. A summer substracts the stored sample reference from the output level to provide a resultant difference signal indicative of the acquisition of the expected signal.

  17. Epidemic thresholds for bipartite networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández, D. G.; Risau-Gusman, S.

    2013-11-01

    It is well known that sexually transmitted diseases (STD) spread across a network of human sexual contacts. This network is most often bipartite, as most STD are transmitted between men and women. Even though network models in epidemiology have quite a long history now, there are few general results about bipartite networks. One of them is the simple dependence, predicted using the mean field approximation, between the epidemic threshold and the average and variance of the degree distribution of the network. Here we show that going beyond this approximation can lead to qualitatively different results that are supported by numerical simulations. One of the new features, that can be relevant for applications, is the existence of a critical value for the infectivity of each population, below which no epidemics can arise, regardless of the value of the infectivity of the other population.

  18. Lactate dehydrogenase activity is inhibited by methylmalonate in vitro.

    PubMed

    Saad, Laura O; Mirandola, Sandra R; Maciel, Evelise N; Castilho, Roger F

    2006-04-01

    Methylmalonic acidemia (MMAemia) is an inherited metabolic disorder of branched amino acid and odd-chain fatty acid metabolism, involving a defect in the conversion of methylmalonyl-coenzyme A to succinyl-coenzyme A. Systemic and neurological manifestations in this disease are thought to be associated with the accumulation of methylmalonate (MMA) in tissues and biological fluids with consequent impairment of energy metabolism and oxidative stress. In the present work we studied the effect of MMA and two other inhibitors of mitochondrial respiratory chain complex II (malonate and 3-nitropropionate) on the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in tissue homogenates from adult rats. MMA potently inhibited LDH-catalyzed conversion of lactate to pyruvate in liver and brain homogenates as well as in a purified bovine heart LDH preparation. LDH was about one order of magnitude less sensitive to inhibition by MMA when catalyzing the conversion of pyruvate to lactate. Kinetic studies on the inhibition of brain LDH indicated that MMA inhibits this enzyme competitively with lactate as a substrate (K (i)=3.02+/-0.59 mM). Malonate and 3-nitropropionate also strongly inhibited LDH-catalyzed conversion of lactate to pyruvate in brain homogenates, while no inhibition was observed by succinate or propionate, when present in concentrations of up to 25 mM. We propose that inhibition of the lactate/pyruvate conversion by MMA contributes to lactate accumulation in blood, metabolic acidemia and inhibition of gluconeogenesis observed in patients with MMAemia. Moreover, the inhibition of LDH in the central nervous system may also impair the lactate shuttle between astrocytes and neurons, compromising neuronal energy metabolism.

  19. Freezing cytorrhysis and critical temperature thresholds for photosystem II in the peat moss Sphagnum capillifolium.

    PubMed

    Buchner, Othmar; Neuner, Gilbert

    2010-07-01

    Leaflets of Sphagnum capillifolium were exposed to temperatures from -5 degrees C to +60 degrees C under controlled conditions while mounted on a microscope stage. The resultant cytological response to these temperature treatments was successfully monitored using a light and fluorescence microscope. In addition to the observable cytological changes during freezing cytorrhysis and heat exposure on the leaflets, the concomitant critical temperature thresholds for inactivation of photosystem II (PS II) were studied using a micro fibre optic and a chlorophyll fluorometer mounted to the microscope stage. Chlorophyllous cells of S. capillifolium showed extended freezing cytorrhysis immediately after ice nucleation at -1.1 degrees C in the water in which the leaflets were submersed during the measurement. The occurrence of freezing cytorrhysis, which was visually manifested by cell shrinkage, was highly dynamic and was completed within 2 s. A total reduction of the mean projected diameter of the chloroplast containing area during freezing cytorrhysis from 8.9 to 3.8 microm indicates a cell volume reduction of approximately -82%. Simultaneous measurement of chlorophyll fluorescence of PS II was possible even through the frozen water in which the leaf samples were submersed. Freezing cytorrhysis was accompanied by a sudden rise of basic chlorophyll fluorescence. The critical freezing temperature threshold of PS II was identical to the ice nucleation temperature (-1.1 degrees C). This is significantly above the temperature threshold at which frost damage to S. capillifolium leaflets occurs (-16.1 degrees C; LT(50)) which is higher than observed in most higher plants from the European Alps during summer. High temperature thresholds of PS II were 44.5 degrees C which is significantly below the heat tolerance of chlorophyllous cells (49.9 degrees C; LT(50)). It is demonstrated that light and fluorescence microscopic techniques combined with simultaneous chlorophyll fluorescence

  20. Effects of doping on ferroelectric properties and leakage current behavior of KNN-LT-LS thin films on SrTiO3 substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abazari, M.; Safari, A.

    2009-05-01

    We report the effects of Ba, Ti, and Mn dopants on ferroelectric polarization and leakage current of (K0.44Na0.52Li0.04)(Nb0.84Ta0.1Sb0.06)O3 (KNN-LT-LS) thin films deposited by pulsed laser deposition. It is shown that donor dopants such as Ba2+, which increased the resistivity in bulk KNN-LT-LS, had an opposite effect in the thin film. Ti4+ as an acceptor B-site dopant reduces the leakage current by an order of magnitude, while the polarization values showed a slight degradation. Mn4+, however, was found to effectively suppress the leakage current by over two orders of magnitude while enhancing the polarization, with 15 and 23 μC/cm2 remanent and saturated polarization, whose values are ˜70% and 82% of the reported values for bulk composition. This phenomenon has been associated with the dual effect of Mn4+ in KNN-LT-LS thin film, by substituting both A- and B-site cations. A detailed description on how each dopant affects the concentrations of vacancies in the lattice is presented. Mn-doped KNN-LT-LS thin films are shown to be a promising candidate for lead-free thin films and applications.

  1. Tectonic Origin of Serpentinites on Syros, Greece: Geochemical Signatures of Seafloor Serpentinization Preserved in the HP/LT Subduction Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raia, N. H.; Cooperdock, E. H. G.; Barnes, J.; Stockli, D. F.; Schwarzenbach, E. M.

    2016-12-01

    Serpentinized ultramafic rocks are commonly found in exhumed HP/LT subduction complexes, but their tectonic origins (i.e., setting of serpentinization) are difficult to decipher due to extensive alteration. Growing literature and geochemical datasets demonstrate that immobile elements (REE, HFSE) in serpentinites can retain magmatic signatures indicative of the tectonic setting of parent peridotite, while fluid-mobile elements and stable isotopic signatures shed light on the fluids causing serpentinization. This study combines whole-rock trace and major element geochemistry, stable isotope (δD and δO) analyses with petrographic observation to determine the tectonic origin of ultramafic rocks in the HP/LT Aegean subduction complex. The best-preserved HP rocks of the Cycladic Blueschist Unit (CBU) are found on Syros, Greece, where serpentinized ultramafic rocks within the CBU are closely associated with metamorphosed remnants of subducted oceanic crust. All samples are completely serpentinized, lacking relict pyroxene or spinel grains, with typical assemblages consisting of serpentine, talc, chlorite, magnetite, and minor carbonate. The serpentinizing fluid was characterized using stable isotopes. δD and δO values of bulk-rock serpentinite powders and chips, respectively, suggest seafloor serpentinites hydrated by seawater at low T, typical of alteration at mid-ocean ridges and hyper-extended margins (δD = -64 to -33‰ and δO = 5.2 to 9.0‰). To fingerprint a tectonic origin, whole rock serpentinite REE patterns are compared to a global database of whole rock serpentinite analyses from fore-arc mantle wedge, mid-ocean ridge, and hyper-extended margin tectonic settings. Whole rock major element, trace element, and REE analyses are consistent with limited melt extraction, flat REE patterns (LaN/SmN = 0.2-2.6, SmN/YbN = 0.3-3.5; N= C1 normalized), and do not show pronounced Eu anomalies. These data are consistent with abyssal peridotites derived from hyper

  2. Bioconversion of methane to lactate by an obligate methanotrophic bacterium

    DOE PAGES

    Henard, Calvin A.; Smith, Holly; Dowe, Nancy; ...

    2016-02-23

    Methane is the second most abundant greenhouse gas (GHG), with nearly 60% of emissions derived from anthropogenic sources. Microbial conversion of methane to fuels and value-added chemicals offers a means to reduce GHG emissions, while also valorizing this otherwise squandered high-volume, high-energy gas. However, to date, advances in methane biocatalysis have been constrained by the low-productivity and limited genetic tractability of natural methane-consuming microbes. Here, leveraging recent identification of a novel, tractable methanotrophic bacterium, Methylomicrobium buryatense, we demonstrate microbial biocatalysis of methane to lactate, an industrial platform chemical. Heterologous overexpression of a Lactobacillus helveticus L-lactate dehydrogenase in M. buryatense resultedmore » in an initial titer of 0.06 g lactate/L from methane. Cultivation in a 5 L continuously stirred tank bioreactor enabled production of 0.8 g lactate/L, representing a 13-fold improvement compared to the initial titer. The yields (0.05 g lactate/g methane) and productivity (0.008 g lactate/L/h) indicate the need and opportunity for future strain improvement. Additionally, real-time analysis of methane utilization implicated gas-to-liquid transfer and/or microbial methane consumption as process limitations. This work opens the door to develop an array of methanotrophic bacterial strain-engineering strategies currently employed for biocatalytic sugar upgrading to “green” chemicals and fuels.« less

  3. Bioconversion of methane to lactate by an obligate methanotrophic bacterium

    SciTech Connect

    Henard, Calvin A.; Smith, Holly; Dowe, Nancy

    Methane is the second most abundant greenhouse gas (GHG), with nearly 60% of emissions derived from anthropogenic sources. Microbial conversion of methane to fuels and value-added chemicals offers a means to reduce GHG emissions, while also valorizing this otherwise squandered high-volume, high-energy gas. However, to date, advances in methane biocatalysis have been constrained by the low-productivity and limited genetic tractability of natural methane-consuming microbes. Here, leveraging recent identification of a novel, tractable methanotrophic bacterium, Methylomicrobium buryatense, we demonstrate microbial biocatalysis of methane to lactate, an industrial platform chemical. Heterologous overexpression of a Lactobacillus helveticus L-lactate dehydrogenase in M. buryatense resultedmore » in an initial titer of 0.06 g lactate/L from methane. Cultivation in a 5 L continuously stirred tank bioreactor enabled production of 0.8 g lactate/L, representing a 13-fold improvement compared to the initial titer. The yields (0.05 g lactate/g methane) and productivity (0.008 g lactate/L/h) indicate the need and opportunity for future strain improvement. Additionally, real-time analysis of methane utilization implicated gas-to-liquid transfer and/or microbial methane consumption as process limitations. This work opens the door to develop an array of methanotrophic bacterial strain-engineering strategies currently employed for biocatalytic sugar upgrading to “green” chemicals and fuels.« less

  4. A novel mode of lactate metabolism in strictly anaerobic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Weghoff, Marie Charlotte; Bertsch, Johannes; Müller, Volker

    2015-03-01

    Lactate is a common substrate for major groups of strictly anaerobic bacteria, but the biochemistry and bioenergetics of lactate oxidation is obscure. The high redox potential of the pyruvate/lactate pair of E0 ' = -190 mV excludes direct NAD(+) reduction (E0 ' = -320 mV). To identify the hitherto unknown electron acceptor, we have purified the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) from the strictly anaerobic, acetogenic bacterium Acetobacterium woodii. The LDH forms a stable complex with an electron-transferring flavoprotein (Etf) that exhibited NAD(+) reduction only when reduced ferredoxin (Fd(2-) ) was present. Biochemical analyses revealed that the LDH/Etf complex of A. woodii uses flavin-based electron confurcation to drive endergonic lactate oxidation with NAD(+) as oxidant at the expense of simultaneous exergonic electron flow from reduced ferredoxin (E0 ' ≈ -500 mV) to NAD(+) according to: lactate + Fd(2-)  + 2 NAD(+)  → pyruvate + Fd + 2 NADH. The reduced Fd(2-) is regenerated from NADH by a sequence of events that involves conversion of chemical (ATP) to electrochemical ( Δ μ ˜ Na + ) and finally redox energy (Fd(2-) from NADH) via reversed electron transport catalysed by the Rnf complex. Inspection of genomes revealed that this metabolic scenario for lactate oxidation may also apply to many other anaerobes. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Bioconversion of methane to lactate by an obligate methanotrophic bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Henard, Calvin A.; Smith, Holly; Dowe, Nancy; Kalyuzhnaya, Marina G.; Pienkos, Philip T.; Guarnieri, Michael T.

    2016-01-01

    Methane is the second most abundant greenhouse gas (GHG), with nearly 60% of emissions derived from anthropogenic sources. Microbial conversion of methane to fuels and value-added chemicals offers a means to reduce GHG emissions, while also valorizing this otherwise squandered high-volume, high-energy gas. However, to date, advances in methane biocatalysis have been constrained by the low-productivity and limited genetic tractability of natural methane-consuming microbes. Here, leveraging recent identification of a novel, tractable methanotrophic bacterium, Methylomicrobium buryatense, we demonstrate microbial biocatalysis of methane to lactate, an industrial platform chemical. Heterologous overexpression of a Lactobacillus helveticus L-lactate dehydrogenase in M. buryatense resulted in an initial titer of 0.06 g lactate/L from methane. Cultivation in a 5 L continuously stirred tank bioreactor enabled production of 0.8 g lactate/L, representing a 13-fold improvement compared to the initial titer. The yields (0.05 g lactate/g methane) and productivity (0.008 g lactate/L/h) indicate the need and opportunity for future strain improvement. Additionally, real-time analysis of methane utilization implicated gas-to-liquid transfer and/or microbial methane consumption as process limitations. This work opens the door to develop an array of methanotrophic bacterial strain-engineering strategies currently employed for biocatalytic sugar upgrading to “green” chemicals and fuels. PMID:26902345

  6. Purification of heavy metal loaded wastewater from electroplating industry under synthesis of delafossite (ABO2) by "Lt-delafossite process".

    PubMed

    John, Melanie; Heuss-Aßbichler, Soraya; Ullrich, Aladin; Rettenwander, Daniel

    2016-09-01

    In this study we present a new, environmental friendly and economic method, called Lt-delafossite process to treat industrial wastewater (initial Cu(2+)-concentrations of 1-15.6 g/l) by subsequent synthesis of nano-crystalline (doped) delafossite (CuFeO2) solely by precipitation and ageing at temperatures between 50 °C and 90 °C. The reached water purification rates are exclusively ≥99.99% for both wastewater models and wastewaters from electroplating industry. We succeeded to synthesize a mixture of 3R and 2H delafossite at 50 °C after 90 h and ≥70 °C after 16 h of ageing directly from industrial wastewater without any additional phases. In all cases green rust (GR), a Fe(II-III) layered double hydroxysulphate, Cu2O (cuprite) and Fe10O14(OH)2 (ferrihydrite) precipitates first. During ageing of the residues the metastable phases transform to delafossite. The residues are characterized by XRD, FTIR, SEM, TEM, VFTB and Mößbauer measurements. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Radiation pressure excitation of Low Temperature Atomic Force & Magnetic Force Microscope (LT-AFM/MFM) for Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karci, Ozgur; Celik, Umit; Oral, Ahmet; NanoMagnetics Instruments Ltd. Team; Middle East Tech Univ Team

    2015-03-01

    We describe a novel method for excitation of Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) cantilevers by means of radiation pressure for imaging in an AFM for the first time. Piezo excitation is the most common method for cantilever excitation, but it may cause spurious resonance peaks. A fiber optic interferometer with 1310 nm laser was used both to measure the deflection of cantilever and apply a force to the cantilever in a LT-AFM/MFM from NanoMagnetics Instruments. The laser power was modulated at the cantilever`s resonance frequency by a digital Phase Lock Loop (PLL). The force exerted by the radiation pressure on a perfectly reflecting surface by a laser beam of power P is F = 2P/c. We typically modulate the laser beam by ~ 800 μW and obtain 10nm oscillation amplitude with Q ~ 8,000 at 2.5x10-4 mbar. The cantilever's stiffness can be accurately calibrated by using the radiation pressure. We have demonstrated performance of the radiation pressure excitation in AFM/MFM by imaging a hard disk sample between 4-300K and Abrikosov vortex lattice in BSCCO single crystal at 4K to for the first time.

  8. Prevalence and incidence of intramammary infections in lactating dairy goats.

    PubMed

    McDougall, S; Malcolm, D; Prosser, Cg

    2014-05-01

    To determine the prevalence of intramammary infection (IMI) of lactating dairy goats between 0 and 4 days postpartum, the prevalence and incidence rate of new IMI at Weeks 2, 14 and 27 of lactation, and the relationship between herd-level prevalence of IMI and bulk tank somatic cell count (BTSCC). Milk samples were collected from 8% of a herd (total 624 does) from 18 dairy goat herds in the Waikato region of New Zealand, for bacteriology and somatic cell count (SCC) determination, from both glands within 4 days of kidding (Week 0) and again at Weeks 2, 14 and 27. Prevalence of IMI was determined at each time point and incidence rate calculated for Weeks 0-2, 2-14, and 14-27. Greenwood and Reed-Frost models were compared for estimation of the transmission parameter for all pathogens, and for Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS) and Corynebacterium spp. separately. Bacteria were isolated from 1,122/4,814 (23.3%) glands, with CNS (13.4%) and Corynebacterium spp. (7.3%) being the most common isolates. Prevalence of any IMI increased with stage of lactation, varied among herds, and increased with age (all p<0.05). Incidence rate was 80, 24 and 7 new IMI/10,000 gland days for Weeks 0-2, 2-14 and 14-27, respectively. Incidence rate for any IMI increased with age and with the presence of an IMI in the contralateral gland, and varied among herds (p<0.001). The transmission of each pathogen was better modelled assuming contagiousness (Reed-Frost models), than not (Greenwood models). At gland level, IMI increased SCC at all stages of lactation (p<0.001). The gland prevalence of IMI within herds was positively associated with ln BTSCC at Week 2 (p=0.02), but not Weeks 14 or 27 (p>0.05). Prevalence of IMI increased with stage of lactation, but the highest incidence rate of new IMI occurred in early lactation. Models accounting for the contagious nature of infection fitted better than those not accounting for contagiousness. BTSCC was only associated

  9. Evaluation of anaerobic threshold in non-pregnant and pregnant rats.

    PubMed

    Netto, Aline Oliveira; Macedo, Nathália C D; Gallego, Franciane Q; Sinzato, Yuri K; Volpato, Gustavo T; Damasceno, Débora C

    2017-01-01

    Several studies present different methodologies and results about intensity exercise, and many of them are performed in male rats. However, the impact of different type, intensity, frequency and duration of exercise on female rats needs more investigation. From the analysis of blood lactate concentration during lactate minimum test (LacMin) in the swimming exercise, the anaerobic threshold (AT) was identified, which parameter is defined as the transition point between aerobic and anaerobic metabolism. LacMin test is considered a good indicator of aerobic conditioning and has been used in prescription of training in different exercise modalities. However, there is no evidence of LacMin test in female rats. The objective was to determine AT in non-pregnant and pregnant Wistar rats. The LacMin test was performed and AT defined for mild exercise intensity was from a load equivalent to 1% of body weight (bw), moderate exercise as carrying 4% bw and severe intensity as carrying 7% bw. In pregnant rats, the AT was reached at a lower loading from 5.0% to 5.5% bw, while in non-pregnant the load was from 5.5% to 6.0% bw. Thus, this study was effective to identify exercise intensities in pregnant and non-pregnant rats using anaerobic threshold by LacMin test.

  10. Efficient threshold for volumetric segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burdescu, Dumitru D.; Brezovan, Marius; Stanescu, Liana; Stoica Spahiu, Cosmin; Ebanca, Daniel

    2015-07-01

    Image segmentation plays a crucial role in effective understanding of digital images. However, the research on the existence of general purpose segmentation algorithm that suits for variety of applications is still very much active. Among the many approaches in performing image segmentation, graph based approach is gaining popularity primarily due to its ability in reflecting global image properties. Volumetric image segmentation can simply result an image partition composed by relevant regions, but the most fundamental challenge in segmentation algorithm is to precisely define the volumetric extent of some object, which may be represented by the union of multiple regions. The aim in this paper is to present a new method to detect visual objects from color volumetric images and efficient threshold. We present a unified framework for volumetric image segmentation and contour extraction that uses a virtual tree-hexagonal structure defined on the set of the image voxels. The advantage of using a virtual tree-hexagonal network superposed over the initial image voxels is that it reduces the execution time and the memory space used, without losing the initial resolution of the image.

  11. Exhaustive Thresholds and Resistance Checkpoints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Easton, Charles; Khuzadi, Mbuyi

    2008-01-01

    Once deployed, all intricate systems that operate for a long time (such as an airplane or chemical processing plant) experience degraded performance during operational lifetime. These can result from losses of integrity in subsystems and parts that generally do not materially impact the operation of the vehicle (e.g., the light behind the button that opens the sliding door of the minivan). Or it can result from loss of more critical parts or subsystems. Such losses need to be handled quickly in order to avoid loss of personnel, mission, or part of the system itself. In order to manage degraded systems, knowledge of its potential problem areas and the means by which these problems are detected should be developed during the initial development of the system. Once determined, a web of sensors is employed and their outputs are monitored with other system parameters while the system is in preparation or operation. Just gathering the data is only part of the story. The interpretation of the data itself and the response of the system must be carefully developed as well to avoid a mishap. Typically, systems use a test-threshold-response paradigm to process potential system faults. However, such processing sub-systems can suffer from errors and oversights of a consistent type, causing system aberrant behavior instead of expected system and recovery operations. In our study, we developed a complete checklist for determining the completeness of a fault system and its robustness to common processing and response difficulties.

  12. Critical Power: An Important Fatigue Threshold in Exercise Physiology

    PubMed Central

    Poole, David C.; Burnley, Mark; Vanhatalo, Anni; Rossiter, Harry B.; Jones, Andrew M.

    2016-01-01

    The hyperbolic form of the power-duration relationship is rigorous and highly conserved across species, forms of exercise and individual muscles/muscle groups. For modalities such as cycling, the relationship resolves to two parameters, the asymptote for power (critical power, CP) and the so-called W′ (work doable above CP), which together predict the tolerable duration of exercise above CP. Crucially, the CP concept integrates sentinel physiological profiles - respiratory, metabolic and contractile - within a coherent framework that has great scientific and practical utility. Rather than calibrating equivalent exercise intensities relative to metabolically distant parameters such as the lactate threshold or V̇O2 max, setting the exercise intensity relative to CP unifies the profile of systemic and intramuscular responses and, if greater than CP, predicts the tolerable duration of exercise until W′ is expended, V̇O2 max is attained, and intolerance is manifested. CP may be regarded as a ‘fatigue threshold’ in the sense that it separates exercise intensity domains within which the physiological responses to exercise can (CP) be stabilized. The CP concept therefore enables important insights into 1) the principal loci of fatigue development (central vs. peripheral) at different intensities of exercise, and 2) mechanisms of cardiovascular and metabolic control and their modulation by factors such as O2 delivery. Practically, the CP concept has great potential application in optimizing athletic training programs and performance as well as improving the life quality for individuals enduring chronic disease. PMID:27031742

  13. Disposable electrochemiluminescent biosensor for lactate determination in saliva.

    PubMed

    Ballesta Claver, J; Valencia Mirón, M C; Capitán-Vallvey, L F

    2009-07-01

    An electrochemiluminescence-based disposable biosensor for lactate is characterized. The lactate recognition system is based on lactate oxidase (LOx) and the transduction system consists of luminol. All the needed reagents, luminol, LOx, BSA, electrolyte and buffer have been immobilized by a Methocel membrane placed on the working electrode of the screen-printed electrochemical cell. The measurement of the electrochemiluminescence (ECL) is made possible via a photocounting head when 50 microl of sample is placed into the screen-printed cell with a circular container containing the disposable sensing membrane. The compositions of the membrane and reaction conditions have been optimized to obtain adequate sensitivity. The disposable biosensor responds to lactate after 20 s when two 1 s pulses at 0.5 V are applied to obtain the analytical parameter, the ECL initial rate. The linearized double logarithmic dependence for lactate shows a dynamic range from 10(-5) to 5 x 10(-4) M with a detection limit of 5 x 10(-6) M and a sensor-to-sensor repeatability, as relative standard deviation, RSD, of 3.30% at the medium level of the range. The ECL disposable biosensor was applied to the analysis of lactate in human saliva as an alternative procedure for obtaining the lactate level in a non-invasive way. Interferences coming from components of saliva were studied and eliminated in a simple way that was easy to handle. The procedure was validated for use in human saliva, comparing the results against an enzymatic reference procedure. The proposed method is quick, inexpensive, selective and sensitive and uses conventional ECL instrumentation.

  14. A study of Lusitano mare lactation curve with Wood's model.

    PubMed

    Santos, A S; Silvestre, A M

    2008-02-01

    Milk yield and composition data from 7 nursing Lusitano mares (450 to 580 kg of body weight and 2 to 9 parities) were used in this study (5 measurements per mare for milk yield and 8 measurements for composition). Wood's lactation model was used to describe milk fat, protein, and lactose lactation curves. Mean values for the concentration of major milk components across the lactation period (180 d) were 5.9 g/kg of fat, 18.4 g/kg of protein, and 60.8 g/kg of lactose. Milk fat and protein (g/kg) decreased and lactose (g/kg) increased during the 180 d of lactation. Curves for milk protein and lactose yields (g) were similar in shape to the milk yield curve; protein yield peaked at 307 g on d 10 and lactose peaked at 816 g on d 45. The fat (g) curve was different in shape compared with milk, protein, and lactose yields. Total production of the major milk constituents throughout the 180 d of lactation was estimated to be 12.0, 36.1, and 124 kg for fat, protein, and lactose, respectively. The algebraic model fitted by a nonlinear regression procedure to the data resulted in reasonable prediction curves for milk yield (R(a)(2) of 0.89) and the major constituents (R(a)(2) ranged from 0.89 to 0.95). The lactation curves of major milk constituents in Lusitano mares were similar, both in shape and values, to those found in other horse breeds. The established curves facilitate the estimation of milk yield and variation of milk constituents at different stages of lactation for both nursing and dairy mares, providing important information relative to weaning time and foal supplementation.

  15. Vitamin D levels among pregnant and lactating women.

    PubMed

    Sharif, Saima; Farasat, Tasnim; Shoaib, Hamna; Saqib, Muhammad; Fazal, Sabiha

    2013-12-01

    To assess the serum level of vitamin D in pregnant and lactating women. Case-control study. Gynaecological Unit 1 of Jinnah Hospital, Lahore, from December 2010 to May 2011. A total of 100 women comprised of three groups: pregnant (n = 40), lactating (n = 40) and control (n = 20) groups. The information regarding age, educational level, socioeconomic status, exposure to sunlight and dietary vitamin D intake were collected through self-structured questionnaire. Serum concentration of vitamin D was measured by ELISA and serum calcium and phosphate levels were measured by chemistry analyzer. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS (version 13). The values were considered significant at 0.05 level of significance. The mean serum vitamin D level in the pregnant and lactating mothers was 26.5 ± 17.1 nmol/L and 21.4 ± 16.3 nmol/L respectively and in control group was 33.8 ± 21.1 nmol/L. The mean calcium level in the pregnant, lactating and control group was 10.3 ± 1.2 mg/dL, 9.7 ± 1.3 mg/dL and 9.7 ± 1.3 mg/dL respectively. The mean phosphate in pregnant was 3.2 ± 0.76 mg/dl, in lactating was 3.3 ± 0.76 mg/dl and in control was 3.5 ± 0.92 mg/dl. Significant difference (p = 0.041 and p = 0.037 respectively) in the serum levels of vitamin D and calcium was observed among the pregnant and lactating women as compared to control group. Low serum vitamin D concentration was observed in lactating women and pregnant women as compared to control group.

  16. Raised serum lactate: a marker of necrotizing fasciitis?

    PubMed

    Murphy, George; Markeson, Daniel; Choa, Robert; Armstrong, Anthony

    2013-12-01

    Distinguishing necrotizing fasciitis from non-necrotizing soft-tissue infections remains a difficult clinical judgement call, with a paucity of diagnostic aids to the clinician. The aim of this study was to assess raised serum lactate as a point-of-care test to aid in differentiating necrotizing from non-necrotizing soft tissue infections. The authors performed a post-hoc analysis of a prospectively compiled database. All patients referred to a single surgeon (A.P.A.) as suspected cases of necrotizing fasciitis at one hospital between September 2000 and September 2010 were included. Serum lactate at presentation was recorded, along with demographic and outcome data. Using histological evidence of tissue necrosis as the 'gold standard', patients were divided into those with or without necrotizing fasciitis, and their serum lactate at presentation compared. Fifty three patients met the inclusion criteria. Twenty eight had histologically proven necrosis, 25 did not. Serum lactate (mean±SD) was 4.1±1.62 mmol/l in the necrotizing fasciitis group and 1.8±0.46 mmol/l in the non-necrotizing fasciitis group (p≤0.0001). A serum lactate level above 2.0 mmol/l had a sensitivity of 1.00 and a specificity of 0.76 for necrotizing fasciitis in this series. In this series of patients with suspected necrotizing soft tissue infection, serum lactate levels above 2.0 mmol/l at presentation were strongly associated with the presence of tissue necrosis. Although no test can be relied upon in isolation, our results suggest that serum lactate is a promising adjunct to the diagnosis of necrotizing infection, which could help to expedite appropriate management. Copyright © 2013 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A study of FM threshold extension techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arndt, G. D.; Loch, F. J.

    1972-01-01

    The characteristics of three postdetection threshold extension techniques are evaluated with respect to the ability of such techniques to improve the performance of a phase lock loop demodulator. These techniques include impulse-noise elimination, signal correlation for the detection of impulse noise, and delta modulation signal processing. Experimental results from signal to noise ratio data and bit error rate data indicate that a 2- to 3-decibel threshold extension is readily achievable by using the various techniques. This threshold improvement is in addition to the threshold extension that is usually achieved through the use of a phase lock loop demodulator.

  18. Free ferulic acid uptake in lactating cows.

    PubMed

    Soberon, M A; Cherney, J H; Liu, R H; Ross, D A; Cherney, D J R

    2012-11-01

    Ferulic acid (FRA), a phenolic compound with antioxidant and anticancer activities, naturally occurs in plants as a lignin precursor. Many veins of research have been devoted to releasing FRA from the lignin complex to improve digestibility of ruminant feeds. Thus, the objective of this research was to investigate the transfer of a given dosage of the free form of FRA into the milk of dairy cattle. Six mid- to late-lactation Holstein cows at the Cornell Research Farm (Harford, NY) were given 14-d adaptation to diet and stall position. Ad libitum access to a total mixed ration based on haylage and maize silage (31.1% neutral detergent fiber containing 5.52 mg of FRA/g) was provided during the study. A crossover design was implemented so that each cow alternated weekly between FRA-dosed and control. On d 1, jugular cannulas and urine catheters were placed in all cows. On d 2, FRA-dosed cows received a single dosage of 150 g of pure FRA powder at 0830 h via their fistula (n=4) or a balling gun for nonfistulated cows (n=2). Plasma, urine, feces, feed, orts, milk, and rumen fluid were sampled intensively for the next 36 h and analyzed for FRA concentration. On d 8, the cows crossed over and the experiment was repeated. When compared with the control, FRA administration did not have an effect on dry matter intake, milk yield, milk fat yield, milk protein yield, somatic cell count, or neutral detergent fiber content of orts and feces. The concentration of FRA in the feces did not change as a result of FRA dosage. As expected, FRA concentration increased dramatically upon FRA dosage and decreased over time until returning to basal levels in rumen fluid (4 h after dosage), plasma (5.5 h after dosage), urine (10 h after dosage), and milk (14 h after dosage). Baseline values for FRA in urine and rumen fluid were variable among cows and had an effect on FRA concentration in FRA-dosed cows. From this study, it is observed that orally ingested FRA can be transported into the

  19. Development of an anaerobic threshold (HRLT, HRVT) estimation equation using the heart rate threshold (HRT) during the treadmill incremental exercise test

    PubMed Central

    Ham, Joo-ho; Park, Hun-Young; Kim, Youn-ho; Bae, Sang-kon; Ko, Byung-hoon

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to develop a regression model to estimate the heart rate at the lactate threshold (HRLT) and the heart rate at the ventilatory threshold (HRVT) using the heart rate threshold (HRT), and to test the validity of the regression model. [Methods] We performed a graded exercise test with a treadmill in 220 normal individuals (men: 112, women: 108) aged 20–59 years. HRT, HRLT, and HRVT were measured in all subjects. A regression model was developed to estimate HRLT and HRVT using HRT with 70% of the data (men: 79, women: 76) through randomization (7:3), with the Bernoulli trial. The validity of the regression model developed with the remaining 30% of the data (men: 33, women: 32) was also examined. [Results] Based on the regression coefficient, we found that the independent variable HRT was a significant variable in all regression models. The adjusted R2 of the developed regression models averaged about 70%, and the standard error of estimation of the validity test results was 11 bpm, which is similar to that of the developed model. [Conclusion] These results suggest that HRT is a useful parameter for predicting HRLT and HRVT. PMID:29036765

  20. Development of an anaerobic threshold (HRLT, HRVT) estimation equation using the heart rate threshold (HRT) during the treadmill incremental exercise test.

    PubMed

    Ham, Joo-Ho; Park, Hun-Young; Kim, Youn-Ho; Bae, Sang-Kon; Ko, Byung-Hoon; Nam, Sang-Seok

    2017-09-30

    The purpose of this study was to develop a regression model to estimate the heart rate at the lactate threshold (HRLT) and the heart rate at the ventilatory threshold (HRVT) using the heart rate threshold (HRT), and to test the validity of the regression model. We performed a graded exercise test with a treadmill in 220 normal individuals (men: 112, women: 108) aged 20-59 years. HRT, HRLT, and HRVT were measured in all subjects. A regression model was developed to estimate HRLT and HRVT using HRT with 70% of the data (men: 79, women: 76) through randomization (7:3), with the Bernoulli trial. The validity of the regression model developed with the remaining 30% of the data (men: 33, women: 32) was also examined. Based on the regression coefficient, we found that the independent variable HRT was a significant variable in all regression models. The adjusted R2 of the developed regression models averaged about 70%, and the standard error of estimation of the validity test results was 11 bpm, which is similar to that of the developed model. These results suggest that HRT is a useful parameter for predicting HRLT and HRVT. ©2017 The Korean Society for Exercise Nutrition

  1. Targeting the lactate transporter MCT1 in endothelial cells inhibits lactate-induced HIF-1 activation and tumor angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Sonveaux, Pierre; Copetti, Tamara; De Saedeleer, Christophe J; Végran, Frédérique; Verrax, Julien; Kennedy, Kelly M; Moon, Eui Jung; Dhup, Suveera; Danhier, Pierre; Frérart, Françoise; Gallez, Bernard; Ribeiro, Anthony; Michiels, Carine; Dewhirst, Mark W; Feron, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    Switching to a glycolytic metabolism is a rapid adaptation of tumor cells to hypoxia. Although this metabolic conversion may primarily represent a rescue pathway to meet the bioenergetic and biosynthetic demands of proliferating tumor cells, it also creates a gradient of lactate that mirrors the gradient of oxygen in tumors. More than a metabolic waste, the lactate anion is known to participate to cancer aggressiveness, in part through activation of the hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) pathway in tumor cells. Whether lactate may also directly favor HIF-1 activation in endothelial cells (ECs) thereby offering a new druggable option to block angiogenesis is however an unanswered question. In this study, we therefore focused on the role in ECs of monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) that we previously identified to be the main facilitator of lactate uptake in cancer cells. We found that blockade of lactate influx into ECs led to inhibition of HIF-1-dependent angiogenesis. Our demonstration is based on the unprecedented characterization of lactate-induced HIF-1 activation in normoxic ECs and the consecutive increase in vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) expression. Furthermore, using a variety of functional assays including endothelial cell migration and tubulogenesis together with in vivo imaging of tumor angiogenesis through intravital microscopy and immunohistochemistry, we documented that MCT1 blockers could act as bona fide HIF-1 inhibitors leading to anti-angiogenic effects. Together with the previous demonstration of MCT1 being a key regulator of lactate exchange between tumor cells, the current study identifies MCT1 inhibition as a therapeutic modality combining antimetabolic and anti-angiogenic activities.

  2. Changes in dietary intake and body weight in lactating and non-lactating women: prospective study in northern coastal Croatia.

    PubMed

    Dujmović, Mihela; Kresić, Greta; Mandić, Milena L; Kenjerić, Daniela; Cvijanović, Olga

    2014-03-01

    Postpartum weight retention is a risk factor for the development of midlife obesity. Since dietary intake and breastfeeding practice could be promoters of weight loss during postpartum, the objective of this study was to investigate their influence on weight retention during six months postpartum. The study sample consisted of 83 lactating and 76 non-lactating Croatian women who were examined at three measurement waves: at 1 month +/- 1 week, 3 months +/- 1 week and 6 months +/- 1 week postpartum. At each measurement wave, two consecutive 24-hour dietary recalls were collected, and body weight measurements were made. Both groups had a daily energy intake lower by about 25% than recommended. Although both groups continuously decreased energy and macronutrient intake, lactating women had energy intake higher by 205 kcal (p = 0.048) and 370 kcal (p < 0.001) after one and three months, respectively. At six months postpartum lactating women had a higher intake of fat (p = 0.036) but a lower intake of protein (p = 0.009) compared with non-lactating mothers. After six months, lactating women retained 101.9% of pre-pregnancy weight, which was significantly less than the percentage of weight retained among non-lactating women (p = 0.014). Multiple regression analysis showed that weight retention were predicted by: type of feeding (beta = -0.281; p <0.001), and time since parturition (beta = -0.151; p < 0.001), while gestational weight gain (P = 0.491; p < 0.001), energy intake (b = 0.157; p < 0.001) and energy derived from fat (beta = 0.122; p = 0.035) were positive predictors. We concluded that the dietary intake of Croatian women and breastfeeding practice over six months significantly influence their weight loss.

  3. Targeting the Lactate Transporter MCT1 in Endothelial Cells Inhibits Lactate-Induced HIF-1 Activation and Tumor Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Sonveaux, Pierre; Copetti, Tamara; De Saedeleer, Christophe J.; Végran, Frédérique; Verrax, Julien; Kennedy, Kelly M.; Moon, Eui Jung; Dhup, Suveera; Danhier, Pierre; Frérart, Françoise; Gallez, Bernard; Ribeiro, Anthony; Michiels, Carine

    2012-01-01

    Switching to a glycolytic metabolism is a rapid adaptation of tumor cells to hypoxia. Although this metabolic conversion may primarily represent a rescue pathway to meet the bioenergetic and biosynthetic demands of proliferating tumor cells, it also creates a gradient of lactate that mirrors the gradient of oxygen in tumors. More than a metabolic waste, the lactate anion is known to participate to cancer aggressiveness, in part through activation of the hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) pathway in tumor cells. Whether lactate may also directly favor HIF-1 activation in endothelial cells (ECs) thereby offering a new druggable option to block angiogenesis is however an unanswered question. In this study, we therefore focused on the role in ECs of monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) that we previously identified to be the main facilitator of lactate uptake in cancer cells. We found that blockade of lactate influx into ECs led to inhibition of HIF-1-dependent angiogenesis. Our demonstration is based on the unprecedented characterization of lactate-induced HIF-1 activation in normoxic ECs and the consecutive increase in vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) expression. Furthermore, using a variety of functional assays including endothelial cell migration and tubulogenesis together with in vivo imaging of tumor angiogenesis through intravital microscopy and immunohistochemistry, we documented that MCT1 blockers could act as bona fide HIF-1 inhibitors leading to anti-angiogenic effects. Together with the previous demonstration of MCT1 being a key regulator of lactate exchange between tumor cells, the current study identifies MCT1 inhibition as a therapeutic modality combining antimetabolic and anti-angiogenic activities. PMID:22428047

  4. Lactation curves of dairy camels in an intensive system.

    PubMed

    Musaad, Abdelgadir; Faye, Bernard; Nikhela, Abdelmoneim Abu

    2013-04-01

    Weekly milk records of 47 she-camels in a multibreed dairy camel herd were collected for over a period of 5 years. A total of 72 lactation curves were defined, and relationships with parity, calving season, lactation length, milk production level, following lactations, and dam weight were analyzed. Overall mean values were milk yield up to 12 months, 1,970 ± 790 l; lactation length, 12.5 months; persistency, 94.7 %; weekly peak yield, 50.7 l; monthly peak yield, 220 ± 90 l; and the number of weeks to reach peak yield, 28. The highest productivity was recorded in summer with a weekly mean of 48.2 ± 19.4 l, compared with 34.1 ± 16.3 l in winter. The highest average yield recorded was for camels at sixth parity, whereas the highest weekly peak was at eighth parity, and highest persistency at fifth parity. Camels that calved during the cold months (November to February) were most productives, with the highest persistency, peak yield, and longest lactation length. Four types of curves were identified corresponding to different parities and milk yield levels. Based on these data, specific models for camels are proposed.

  5. Metabolic engineering of Methanosarcina acetivorans for lactate production from methane.

    PubMed

    McAnulty, Michael J; Poosarla, Venkata Giridhar; Li, Jine; Soo, Valerie W C; Zhu, Fayin; Wood, Thomas K

    2017-04-01

    We previously demonstrated anaerobic conversion of the greenhouse gas methane into acetate using an engineered archaeon that produces methyl-coenzyme M reductase (Mcr) from unculturable microorganisms from a microbial mat in the Black Sea to create the first culturable prokaryote that reverses methanogenesis and grows anaerobically on methane. In this work, we further engineered the same host with the goal of converting methane into butanol. Instead, we discovered a process for converting methane to a secreted valuable product, L-lactate, with sufficient optical purity for synthesizing the biodegradable plastic poly-lactic acid. We determined that the 3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase (Hbd) from Clostridium acetobutylicum is responsible for lactate production. This work demonstrates the first metabolic engineering of a methanogen with a synthetic pathway; in effect, we produce a novel product (lactate) from a novel substrate (methane) by cloning the three genes for Mcr and one for Hbd. We further demonstrate the utility of anaerobic methane conversion with an increased lactate yield compared to aerobic methane conversion to lactate. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 852-861. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Blood lactate concentration at selected of olympic modes weightlifting.

    PubMed

    Gupta, S; Goswami, A

    2001-04-01

    This study highlights the blood lactate response of weightlifters (N = 5) in two modes of olympic lifts: Snatch (SN) and Clean & Jerk (CJ), during three types of training namely (1) one repetition lift (ORL), (2) Multiple set session (MSS) and (3) one set session (OSS). In ORL, 30, 40, 50, and 60 kg, each of one repetition only, were lifted with an interval of 5 min between two consecutive loads. Both MSS and OSS consisted of 6 sets of lift: 50% x 6 (i.e. 50% of 1 Repetition Maximum x 6 repetitions), 60% x 5, 70% x 4, 80% x 3, 90% x 2, and 100% x 1. In MSS, 3 to 3.5 min interval was given between two successive sets whereas in OSS the interval was approximately 24 hours. Lactate levels were very low (< 3.5 mM) in ORL. In MSS, lactate reached peak at an intermediate set, but, it was maximum at the first set and then declined gradually in OSS. In most of the cases, however, lactate were significantly higher in CJ than SN. The study concludes that: (a) anaerobic glycolysis is not stimulated considerably when the lifting time is only 4-5 sec, (b) repetition of lift plays more important role, than intensity, in lactate production, (c) CJ is more strenuous than SN for a given %RM.

  7. Postprandial plasma D-lactate concentrations after yogurt ingestion.

    PubMed

    de Vrese, M; Barth, C A

    1991-06-01

    The risk of D-lactic acidosis after consumption of yogurt was investigated in seven healthy volunteers. After ingestion of yogurt containing 1.06 mmol/kg body weight, D-lactic acid postprandial plasma D-lactate concentrations increased from 0.070 +/- 0.020 to a maximum of 0.200 +/- 0.010 mmol/l within 60 min. That was half the maximum concentration after the equivalent amount of D-lactate in the form of an aqueous solution of DL-lactate. The shape of the postprandial plasma D-lactate peak was flatter, but much broader after yogurt than after the aqueous solution, the peak areas being equal. When 0.64 mmol/kg body weight D-lactate were consumed as yogurt, plasma concentrations amounted to 0.086 +/- 0.030 mmol/l. Signs of a mild, transient, compensated metabolic acidosis, which was apparent in case of the aqueous lactic acid solution did not occur in case of yogurt. It is concluded that the consumption of foods containing D-lactic acid gives no reason for concern in healthy adults.

  8. The Availability of Information on Induced Lactation in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Rahim, Norsyamlina Che Abdul; Sulaiman, Zaharah; Ismail, Tengku Alina Tengku

    2017-08-01

    Induced lactation is a method of stimulating the production of breast milk in women who have not gone through the process of pregnancy. Recent advances in technology have given such women the opportunity to breastfeed adopted children. Previous studies conducted in Western countries have explored the breastfeeding of adopted children, as well as the experiences, successes and challenges of this process. However, research on procedures for breastfeeding adopted children is lacking in Malaysia. The authors have therefore reviewed literature related to induced lactation in Malaysia to fill this gap. Of the 30 related articles identified, 19 described the breastfeeding practices and experiences of adoptive mothers in Malaysia. Out of 19 articles, there were four journal articles, five circulars and regulations, two books, two post-graduate theses, four blogs posts and forum discussions, and two online newspaper articles. Medical information relating to induced lactation procedures was also reviewed, showing that there was a lack of scientific studies focusing on induced lactation practices among adoptive mothers. Information on religious, specifically Islamic, perspectives on breastfeeding and child adoption laws was gathered from websites, social networks, blogs, magazines and online news sources. In consideration of recent advancements in medical technology and the dire need among Malaysians, it is crucial that evidence-based, accurate and reliable information on induced lactation is made available to professionals and other individuals in this country.

  9. The Availability of Information on Induced Lactation in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Rahim, Norsyamlina Che Abdul; Sulaiman, Zaharah; Ismail, Tengku Alina Tengku

    2017-01-01

    Induced lactation is a method of stimulating the production of breast milk in women who have not gone through the process of pregnancy. Recent advances in technology have given such women the opportunity to breastfeed adopted children. Previous studies conducted in Western countries have explored the breastfeeding of adopted children, as well as the experiences, successes and challenges of this process. However, research on procedures for breastfeeding adopted children is lacking in Malaysia. The authors have therefore reviewed literature related to induced lactation in Malaysia to fill this gap. Of the 30 related articles identified, 19 described the breastfeeding practices and experiences of adoptive mothers in Malaysia. Out of 19 articles, there were four journal articles, five circulars and regulations, two books, two post-graduate theses, four blogs posts and forum discussions, and two online newspaper articles. Medical information relating to induced lactation procedures was also reviewed, showing that there was a lack of scientific studies focusing on induced lactation practices among adoptive mothers. Information on religious, specifically Islamic, perspectives on breastfeeding and child adoption laws was gathered from websites, social networks, blogs, magazines and online news sources. In consideration of recent advancements in medical technology and the dire need among Malaysians, it is crucial that evidence-based, accurate and reliable information on induced lactation is made available to professionals and other individuals in this country. PMID:28951685

  10. Development and preclinical evaluation of safety and immunogenicity of an oral ETEC vaccine containing inactivated E. coli bacteria overexpressing colonization factors CFA/I, CS3, CS5 and CS6 combined with a hybrid LT/CT B subunit antigen, administered alone and together with dmLT adjuvant.

    PubMed

    Holmgren, J; Bourgeois, L; Carlin, N; Clements, J; Gustafsson, B; Lundgren, A; Nygren, E; Tobias, J; Walker, R; Svennerholm, A-M

    2013-05-07

    A first-generation oral inactivated whole-cell enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) vaccine, comprising formalin-killed ETEC bacteria expressing different colonization factor (CF) antigens combined with cholera toxin B subunit (CTB), when tested in phase III studies did not significantly reduce overall (generally mild) ETEC diarrhea in travelers or children although it reduced more severe ETEC diarrhea in travelers by almost 80%. We have now developed a novel more immunogenic ETEC vaccine based on recombinant non-toxigenic E. coli strains engineered to express increased amounts of CF antigens, including CS6 as well as an ETEC-based B subunit protein (LCTBA), and the optional combination with a nontoxic double-mutant heat-labile toxin (LT) molecule (dmLT) as an adjuvant. Two test vaccines were prepared under GMP: (1) A prototype E. coli CFA/I-only formalin-killed whole-cell+LCTBA vaccine, and (2) A "complete" inactivated multivalent ETEC-CF (CFA/I, CS3, CS5 and CS6 antigens) whole-cell+LCTBA vaccine. These vaccines, when given intragastrically alone or together with dmLT in mice, were well tolerated and induced strong intestinal-mucosal IgA antibody responses as well as serum IgG and IgA responses to each of the vaccine CF antigens as well as to LT B subunit (LTB). Both mucosal and serum responses were further enhanced (adjuvanted) when the vaccines were co-administered with dmLT. We conclude that the new multivalent oral ETEC vaccine, both alone and especially in combination with the dmLT adjuvant, shows great promise for further testing in humans. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Lactate is a preferential oxidative energy substrate over glucose for neurons in culture.

    PubMed

    Bouzier-Sore, Anne-Karine; Voisin, Pierre; Canioni, Paul; Magistretti, Pierre J; Pellerin, Luc

    2003-11-01

    The authors investigated concomitant lactate and glucose metabolism in primary neuronal cultures using 13C- and 1H-NMR spectroscopy. Neurons were incubated in a medium containing either [1-13C]glucose and different unlabeled lactate concentrations, or unlabeled glucose and different [3-13C]lactate concentrations. Overall, 13C-NMR spectra of cellular extracts showed that more 13C was incorporated into glutamate when lactate was the enriched substrate. Glutamate 13C-enrichment was also found to be much higher in lactate-labeled than in glucose-labeled conditions. When glucose and lactate concentrations were identical (5.5 mmol/L), relative contributions of glucose and lactate to neuronal oxidative metabolism amounted to 21% and 79%, respectively. Results clearly indicate that when neurons are in the presence of both glucose and lactate, they preferentially use lactate as their main oxidative substrate.

  12. Evolution of Enzymatic Activities int he Enolase Superfamily: L-Talarate/Galactarate Dehydratase from Salmonella typhimurium LT2

    SciTech Connect

    Yew,W.; Fedorov, A.; Fedorov, E.

    2007-01-01

    We assigned L-talarate dehydratase (TalrD) and galactarate dehydratase (GalrD) functions to a group of orthologous proteins in the mechanistically diverse enolase superfamily, focusing our characterization on the protein encoded by the Salmonella typhimurium LT2 genome (GI:16766982; STM3697). Like the homologous mandelate racemase, L-fuconate dehydratase, and D-tartrate dehydratase, the active site of TalrD/GalrD contains a general acid/base Lys 197 at the end of the second {beta}-strand in the ({beta}/{alpha}){sub 7}{beta}-barrel domain, Asp 226, Glu 252, and Glu 278 as ligands for the essential Mg{sup 2+} at the ends of the third, fourth, and fifth {sup {beta}}-strands, a general acid/base His 328-Aspmore » 301 dyad at the ends of the seventh and sixth {beta}-strands, and an electrophilic Glu 348 at the end of the eighth {beta}-strand. We discovered the function of STM3697 by screening a library of acid sugars; it catalyzes the efficient dehydration of both L-talarate (k{sub cat} = 2.1 s{sup -1}, k{sub cat}/K{sub m} = 9.1 x 10{sup 3} M{sup -1} s{sup -1}) and galactarate (k{sub cat} = 3.5 s{sup -1}, k{sub cat}/K{sub m} = 1.1 x 10{sup 4} M{sup -1} s{sup -1}). Because L-talarate is a previously unknown metabolite, we demonstrated that S. typhimurium LT2 can utilize L-talarate as carbon source. Insertional disruption of the gene encoding STM3697 abolishes this phenotype; this disruption also diminishes, but does not eliminate, the ability of the organism to utilize galactarate as carbon source. The dehydration of L-talarate is accompanied by competing epimerization to galactarate; little epimerization to L-talarate is observed in the dehydration of galactarate. On the basis of (1) structures of the wild type enzyme complexed with L-lyxarohydroxamate, an analogue of the enolate intermediate, and of the K197A mutant complexed with L-glucarate, a substrate for exchange of the {alpha}-proton, and (2) incorporation of solvent deuterium into galactarate in competition

  13. The clinical diagnostic significance of cerebrospinal fluid D-lactate for bacterial meningitis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zengqiang; Wang, Yumin; Zeng, Aibing; Chen, Lijiang; Wu, Ruihao; Chen, Bicheng; Chen, Mengquan; Bo, Jinshuang; Zhang, Hu; Peng, Qian; Lu, Jianxin; Meng, Qing H

    2012-10-09

    To study the clinical and laboratory significance of D‐lactate in the diagnosis of bacterial meningitis (BM). The levels of D‐lactate, L‐lactate, IL-6, IL-8, and other biochemical markers were determined in 83 CSF samples from different types of meningitis and the controls. The CSF values of D‐lactate, L‐lactate, IL-6, IL-8, erythrocytes, leukocytes, and protein were higher in patients with BM than those in the controls and patients with viral meningitis. The levels of D‐lactate, L‐lactate, IL-6, and erythrocytes in the BM group were higher than those in the tuberculous meningitis group. At the cutoff 12.8 μmol/l, D‐lactate showed the diagnostic sensitivity of 94.7%. D‐lactate gave the area under the curve (AUC) 0.905, which was higher than those of other markers. Using multiple marker detection, the AUC reached 0.956, which was the highest among all the parameters. Pearson correlation analysis revealed that D‐lactate was positively correlated to IL-6 and L‐lactate (r=0.727, 0.789 and P=0.000, 0.000, respectively). THE CSF concentrations of D‐lactate are significantly increased in the presence of BM. Measurement of D‐lactate provides a rapid diagnosis and differential diagnosis for BM. Combination of D‐lactate with other biochemical markers improves the specificity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Astrobiology Training in Lava Tubes (ATiLT): Characterizing coralloid speleothems in basaltic lava tubes as a Mars analogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, J.; Leveille, R. J.; Douglas, P.

    2017-12-01

    Coralloid speleothems or cave corals are small mineralised nodes that can take a variety of forms, and which develop through groundwater seepage and water-rock interaction in caves. They are found commonly on Earth in a plethora of caves, including lava tubes. Since lava tubes have been identified on the surface of Mars from remotely sensed images, there has been interest in studying Earth's lava tube systems as an analogue for understanding Martian lava environments. If cave minerals were found on Mars, they could indicate past or present water-rock interaction in the Martian subsurface. Martian lava tubes could also provide insights into habitable subsurface environments as well as conditions favourable for the synthesis and preservation of biosignatures. One of the aims of the Astrobiology Training in Lava Tubes (ATiLT) project is to analyze biosignatures and paleoenvironmental indicators in secondary cave minerals, which will be looked at in-situ and compared to collected field samples. In this study, secondary mineralization in lava cave systems from Lava Beds National Monument, CA is examined. In the field, coralloid speleothems have been observed growing on all surfaces of the caves, including cave ceilings, floors, walls and overhangs. They are also observed growing adjacent to biofilms, which sometimes fill in the cracks of the coralloid nodes. Preliminary results show the presence of opal, calcite, quartz and other minor minerals in the speleothems. This study seeks to understand the formation mechanism and source of these secondary minerals, as well as determine their possible relation to the biofilms. This will be done through the analysis of the water chemistry, isotope geochemistry and microscale mineralogy.

  15. Tectonic origin of serpentinites on Syros, Greece: Geochemical signatures of abyssal origin preserved in a HP/LT subduction complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooperdock, Emily H. G.; Raia, Natalie H.; Barnes, Jaime D.; Stockli, Daniel F.; Schwarzenbach, Esther M.

    2018-01-01

    This study combines whole rock trace and major element geochemistry, and stable isotope (δD and δ18O) analyses with petrographic observations to deduce the origin and tectonic setting of serpentinization of ultramafic blocks from the exhumed HP/LT Aegean subduction complex on Syros, Greece. Samples are completely serpentinized and are characterized by mineral assemblages that consist of variable amounts of serpentine, talc, chlorite, and magnetite. δD and δ18O values of bulk rock serpentinite powders and chips (δD = - 64 to - 33‰ and δ18O = + 5.2 to + 9.0‰) reflect hydration by seawater at temperatures < 250 °C in an oceanic setting pre-subduction, or by fluids derived from dehydrating altered oceanic crust during subduction. Fluid-mobile elements corroborate the possibility of initial serpentinization by seawater, followed by secondary fluid-rock interactions with a sedimentary source pre- or syn-subduction. Whole rock major element, trace element, and REE analyses record limited melt extraction, exhibit flat REE patterns, and do not show pronounced Eu anomalies. The geochemical signatures preserved in these serpentinites argue against a mantle wedge source, as has been previously speculated for ultramafic rocks on Syros. Rather, the data are consistent with derivation from abyssal peridotites in a hyper-extended margin setting or mid-ocean ridge and fracture zone environment. In either case, the data suggest an extensional and/or oceanic origin associated with the Cretaceous opening of the Pindos Ocean and not a subduction-related derivation from the mantle wedge.

  16. Optimal thresholds for the estimation of area rain-rate moments by the threshold method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Short, David A.; Shimizu, Kunio; Kedem, Benjamin

    1993-01-01

    Optimization of the threshold method, achieved by determination of the threshold that maximizes the correlation between an area-average rain-rate moment and the area coverage of rain rates exceeding the threshold, is demonstrated empirically and theoretically. Empirical results for a sequence of GATE radar snapshots show optimal thresholds of 5 and 27 mm/h for the first and second moments, respectively. Theoretical optimization of the threshold method by the maximum-likelihood approach of Kedem and Pavlopoulos (1991) predicts optimal thresholds near 5 and 26 mm/h for lognormally distributed rain rates with GATE-like parameters. The agreement between theory and observations suggests that the optimal threshold can be understood as arising due to sampling variations, from snapshot to snapshot, of a parent rain-rate distribution. Optimal thresholds for gamma and inverse Gaussian distributions are also derived and compared.

  17. Experimental evidence of a pathogen invasion threshold

    PubMed Central

    Krkošek, Martin

    2018-01-01

    Host density thresholds to pathogen invasion separate regions of parameter space corresponding to endemic and disease-free states. The host density threshold is a central concept in theoretical epidemiology and a common target of human and wildlife disease control programmes, but there is mixed evidence supporting the existence of thresholds, especially in wildlife populations or for pathogens with complex transmission modes (e.g. environmental transmission). Here, we demonstrate the existence of a host density threshold for an environmentally transmitted pathogen by combining an epidemiological model with a microcosm experiment. Experimental epidemics consisted of replicate populations of naive crustacean zooplankton (Daphnia dentifera) hosts across a range of host densities (20–640 hosts l−1) that were exposed to an environmentally transmitted fungal pathogen (Metschnikowia bicuspidata). Epidemiological model simulations, parametrized independently of the experiment, qualitatively predicted experimental pathogen invasion thresholds. Variability in parameter estimates did not strongly influence outcomes, though systematic changes to key parameters have the potential to shift pathogen invasion thresholds. In summary, we provide one of the first clear experimental demonstrations of pathogen invasion thresholds in a replicated experimental system, and provide evidence that such thresholds may be predictable using independently constructed epidemiological models. PMID:29410876

  18. The Threshold Level--For Schools?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauerbach, Gerda

    1979-01-01

    Comments on the document "Threshold Level for Modern Language Learning Schools" (J. A. Van Ek, Strasbourg, 1976) and its appropriateness as a description of learning goals for the first years of foreign language teaching. Criticizes particularly the "reduced learning" concept, on which the threshold projects are based. (IFS/WGA)

  19. Network Motif Basis of Threshold Responses

    EPA Science Inventory

    There has been a long-running debate over the existence of thresholds for adverse effects. The difficulty stems from two fundamental challenges: (i) statistical analysis by itself cannot prove the existence of a threshold, i.e., a dose below which there is no effect; and (ii) the...

  20. STIMULUS AND TRANSDUCER EFFECTS ON THRESHOLD

    PubMed Central

    Flamme, Gregory A.; Geda, Kyle; McGregor, Kara; Wyllys, Krista; Deiters, Kristy K.; Murphy, William J.; Stephenson, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study examined differences in thresholds obtained under Sennheiser HDA200 circumaural earphones using pure tone, equivalent rectangular noise bands, and 1/3 octave noise bands relative to thresholds obtained using Telephonics TDH-39P supra-aural earphones. Design Thresholds were obtained via each transducer and stimulus condition six times within a 10-day period. Study Sample Forty-nine adults were selected from a prior study to represent low, moderate, and high threshold reliability. Results The results suggested that (1) only small adjustments were needed to reach equivalent TDH-39P thresholds, (2) pure-tone thresholds obtained with HDA200 circumaural earphones had reliability equal to or better than those obtained using TDH-39P earphones, (3) the reliability of noise-band thresholds improved with broader stimulus bandwidth and was either equal to or better than pure-tone thresholds, and (4) frequency-specificity declined with stimulus bandwidths greater than one Equivalent Rectangular Band, which could complicate early detection of hearing changes that occur within a narrow frequency range. Conclusions These data suggest that circumaural earphones such as the HDA200 headphones provide better reliability for audiometric testing as compared to the TDH-39P earphones. These data support the use of noise bands, preferably ERB noises, as stimuli for audiometric monitoring. PMID:25549164

  1. Applying Threshold Concepts to Finance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoadley, Susan; Wood, Leigh N.; Tickle, Leonie; Kyng, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate and identify threshold concepts that are the essential conceptual content of finance programmes. Design/Methodology/Approach: Conducted in three stages with finance academics and students, the study uses threshold concepts as both a theoretical framework and a research methodology. Findings: The…

  2. 24 CFR 954.104 - Performance thresholds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Performance thresholds. 954.104... DEVELOPMENT INDIAN HOME PROGRAM Applying for Assistance § 954.104 Performance thresholds. Applicants must have... HOME program must have performed adequately. In cases of previously documented deficient performance...

  3. 24 CFR 954.104 - Performance thresholds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Performance thresholds. 954.104... DEVELOPMENT INDIAN HOME PROGRAM Applying for Assistance § 954.104 Performance thresholds. Applicants must have... HOME program must have performed adequately. In cases of previously documented deficient performance...

  4. 40 CFR 98.311 - Reporting threshold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reporting threshold. 98.311 Section 98.311 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Titanium Dioxide Production § 98.311 Reporting threshold. You must report GHG emissions under this subpart if your...

  5. 40 CFR 98.61 - Reporting threshold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reporting threshold. 98.61 Section 98.61 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Aluminum Production § 98.61 Reporting threshold. You must report GHG...

  6. 40 CFR 98.61 - Reporting threshold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reporting threshold. 98.61 Section 98.61 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Aluminum Production § 98.61 Reporting threshold. You must report GHG emissions under this subpart if your facility...

  7. 40 CFR 98.281 - Reporting threshold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reporting threshold. 98.281 Section 98.281 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Silicon Carbide Production § 98.281 Reporting threshold. You must report...

  8. 40 CFR 98.291 - Reporting threshold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reporting threshold. 98.291 Section 98.291 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Soda Ash Manufacturing § 98.291 Reporting threshold. You must report GHG emissions under this subpart if your...

  9. 40 CFR 98.251 - Reporting threshold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reporting threshold. 98.251 Section 98.251 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Petroleum Refineries § 98.251 Reporting threshold. You must report GHG emissions under this subpart if your...

  10. 40 CFR 98.81 - Reporting threshold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reporting threshold. 98.81 Section 98.81 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Cement Production § 98.81 Reporting threshold. You must report GHG emissions under this subpart if your facility...

  11. 40 CFR 98.81 - Reporting threshold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reporting threshold. 98.81 Section 98.81 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Cement Production § 98.81 Reporting threshold. You must report GHG...

  12. 40 CFR 98.251 - Reporting threshold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reporting threshold. 98.251 Section 98.251 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Petroleum Refineries § 98.251 Reporting threshold. You must report GHG...

  13. 40 CFR 98.151 - Reporting threshold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reporting threshold. 98.151 Section 98.151 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING HCFC-22 Production and HFC-23 Destruction § 98.151 Reporting threshold. You must report GHG emissions under this...

  14. 40 CFR 98.381 - Reporting threshold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reporting threshold. 98.381 Section 98.381 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Suppliers of Coal-based Liquid Fuels § 98.381 Reporting threshold. Any supplier of coal-to-liquid products who...

  15. 40 CFR 98.301 - Reporting threshold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reporting threshold. 98.301 Section 98.301 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Electrical Transmission and Distribution Equipment Use § 98.301 Reporting threshold. (a) You must report GHG...

  16. 40 CFR 98.201 - Reporting threshold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reporting threshold. 98.201 Section 98.201 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Magnesium Production § 98.201 Reporting threshold. You must report GHG emissions under this subpart if your...

  17. 40 CFR 98.81 - Reporting threshold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reporting threshold. 98.81 Section 98.81 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Cement Production § 98.81 Reporting threshold. You must report GHG...

  18. 40 CFR 98.201 - Reporting threshold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reporting threshold. 98.201 Section 98.201 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Magnesium Production § 98.201 Reporting threshold. You must report GHG...

  19. 40 CFR 98.211 - Reporting threshold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reporting threshold. 98.211 Section 98.211 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Miscellaneous Uses of Carbonate § 98.211 Reporting threshold. You must...

  20. 40 CFR 98.351 - Reporting threshold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reporting threshold. 98.351 Section 98.351 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Industrial Wastewater Treatment § 98.351 Reporting threshold. You must report GHG emissions under this subpart if...

  1. Intelligence and Creativity: Over the Threshold Together?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welter, Marisete Maria; Jaarsveld, Saskia; van Leeuwen, Cees; Lachmann, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Threshold theory predicts a positive correlation between IQ and creativity scores up to an IQ level of 120 and no correlation above this threshold. Primary school children were tested at beginning (N = 98) and ending (N = 70) of the school year. Participants performed the standard progressive matrices (SPM) and the Test of Creative…

  2. 11 CFR 9036.1 - Threshold submission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Threshold submission. 9036.1 Section 9036.1 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION CAMPAIGN FUND: PRESIDENTIAL PRIMARY MATCHING FUND REVIEW OF MATCHING FUND SUBMISSIONS AND CERTIFICATION OF PAYMENTS BY COMMISSION § 9036.1 Threshold submission. (a) Time for submission...

  3. 40 CFR 98.61 - Reporting threshold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reporting threshold. 98.61 Section 98.61 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Aluminum Production § 98.61 Reporting threshold. You must report GHG emissions under this subpart if your facility...

  4. 40 CFR 98.231 - Reporting threshold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reporting threshold. 98.231 Section 98.231 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems § 98.231 Reporting threshold. (a) You must report GHG emissions under this...

  5. 40 CFR 98.111 - Reporting threshold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reporting threshold. 98.111 Section 98.111 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Ferroalloy Production § 98.111 Reporting threshold. You must report GHG...

  6. 40 CFR 98.451 - Reporting threshold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reporting threshold. 98.451 Section 98.451 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... threshold. You must report GHG emissions under this subpart if your facility contains an electrical...

  7. 40 CFR 98.181 - Reporting threshold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reporting threshold. 98.181 Section 98.181 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Lead Production § 98.181 Reporting threshold. You must report GHG...

  8. 40 CFR 98.201 - Reporting threshold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reporting threshold. 98.201 Section 98.201 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Magnesium Production § 98.201 Reporting threshold. You must report GHG emissions under this subpart if your...

  9. 40 CFR 98.121 - Reporting threshold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reporting threshold. 98.121 Section 98.121 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Fluorinated Gas Production § 98.121 Reporting threshold. You must report GHG emissions under this subpart if your...

  10. 40 CFR 98.341 - Reporting threshold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reporting threshold. 98.341 Section 98.341 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Municipal Solid Waste Landfills § 98.341 Reporting threshold. You must...

  11. 40 CFR 98.61 - Reporting threshold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reporting threshold. 98.61 Section 98.61 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Aluminum Production § 98.61 Reporting threshold. You must report GHG emissions under this subpart if your facility...

  12. 40 CFR 98.281 - Reporting threshold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reporting threshold. 98.281 Section 98.281 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Silicon Carbide Production § 98.281 Reporting threshold. You must report GHG emissions under this subpart if your...

  13. 40 CFR 98.331 - Reporting threshold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reporting threshold. 98.331 Section 98.331 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Zinc Production § 98.331 Reporting threshold. You must report GHG emissions under this subpart if your facility...

  14. 40 CFR 98.391 - Reporting threshold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reporting threshold. 98.391 Section 98.391 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Suppliers of Petroleum Products § 98.391 Reporting threshold. Any supplier of petroleum products who meets the...

  15. 40 CFR 98.161 - Reporting threshold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reporting threshold. 98.161 Section 98.161 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Hydrogen Production § 98.161 Reporting threshold. You must report GHG emissions under this subpart if your facilit...

  16. 40 CFR 98.291 - Reporting threshold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reporting threshold. 98.291 Section 98.291 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Soda Ash Manufacturing § 98.291 Reporting threshold. You must report GHG emissions under this subpart if your...

  17. 40 CFR 98.231 - Reporting threshold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reporting threshold. 98.231 Section 98.231 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems § 98.231 Reporting threshold. (a) You must report GHG emissions under this...

  18. 40 CFR 98.271 - Reporting threshold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reporting threshold. 98.271 Section 98.271 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Pulp and Paper Manufacturing § 98.271 Reporting threshold. You must...

  19. 40 CFR 98.331 - Reporting threshold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reporting threshold. 98.331 Section 98.331 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Zinc Production § 98.331 Reporting threshold. You must report GHG emissions under this subpart if your facility...

  20. 40 CFR 98.301 - Reporting threshold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reporting threshold. 98.301 Section 98.301 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Electrical Transmission and Distribution Equipment Use § 98.301 Reporting threshold. (a) You must report GHG...

  1. 40 CFR 98.171 - Reporting threshold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reporting threshold. 98.171 Section 98.171 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Iron and Steel Production § 98.171 Reporting threshold. You must report GHG emissions under this subpart if your...

  2. 40 CFR 98.211 - Reporting threshold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reporting threshold. 98.211 Section 98.211 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Miscellaneous Uses of Carbonate § 98.211 Reporting threshold. You must report GHG emissions from miscellaneous use...

  3. 40 CFR 98.151 - Reporting threshold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reporting threshold. 98.151 Section 98.151 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING HCFC-22 Production and HFC-23 Destruction § 98.151 Reporting threshold. You must report GHG emissions under this...

  4. 40 CFR 98.391 - Reporting threshold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reporting threshold. 98.391 Section 98.391 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Suppliers of Petroleum Products § 98.391 Reporting threshold. Any...

  5. 40 CFR 98.411 - Reporting threshold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reporting threshold. 98.411 Section 98.411 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Suppliers of Industrial Greenhouse Gases § 98.411 Reporting threshold. Any supplier of industrial greenhouse gases...

  6. 40 CFR 98.91 - Reporting threshold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reporting threshold. 98.91 Section 98.91 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Electronics Manufacturing § 98.91 Reporting threshold. (a) You must report GHG emissions under this subpart if...

  7. 40 CFR 98.191 - Reporting threshold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reporting threshold. 98.191 Section 98.191 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Lime Manufacturing § 98.191 Reporting threshold. You must report GHG emissions under this subpart if your facility...

  8. 40 CFR 98.71 - Reporting threshold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reporting threshold. 98.71 Section 98.71 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Ammonia Manufacturing § 98.71 Reporting threshold. You must report GHG emissions under this subpart if your facility...

  9. 40 CFR 98.351 - Reporting threshold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reporting threshold. 98.351 Section 98.351 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Industrial Wastewater Treatment § 98.351 Reporting threshold. You must report GHG emissions under this subpart if...

  10. 40 CFR 98.381 - Reporting threshold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reporting threshold. 98.381 Section 98.381 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Suppliers of Coal-based Liquid Fuels § 98.381 Reporting threshold. Any...

  11. 40 CFR 98.471 - Reporting threshold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reporting threshold. 98.471 Section 98.471 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Injection of Carbon Dioxide § 98.471 Reporting threshold. (a) You must report under this subpart if your facility...

  12. 11 CFR 9036.1 - Threshold submission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Threshold submission. 9036.1 Section 9036.1 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION CAMPAIGN FUND: PRESIDENTIAL PRIMARY MATCHING FUND REVIEW OF MATCHING FUND SUBMISSIONS AND CERTIFICATION OF PAYMENTS BY COMMISSION § 9036.1 Threshold submission. (a) Time for submission...

  13. 40 CFR 98.31 - Reporting threshold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reporting threshold. 98.31 Section 98.31 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING General Stationary Fuel Combustion Sources § 98.31 Reporting threshold. You must report GHG emissions under this...

  14. 40 CFR 98.151 - Reporting threshold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reporting threshold. 98.151 Section 98.151 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING HCFC-22 Production and HFC-23 Destruction § 98.151 Reporting threshold...

  15. 40 CFR 98.291 - Reporting threshold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reporting threshold. 98.291 Section 98.291 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Soda Ash Manufacturing § 98.291 Reporting threshold. You must report GHG emissions under this subpart if your...

  16. 40 CFR 98.251 - Reporting threshold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reporting threshold. 98.251 Section 98.251 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Petroleum Refineries § 98.251 Reporting threshold. You must report GHG...

  17. 11 CFR 9036.1 - Threshold submission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Threshold submission. 9036.1 Section 9036.1 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION CAMPAIGN FUND: PRESIDENTIAL PRIMARY MATCHING FUND REVIEW OF MATCHING FUND SUBMISSIONS AND CERTIFICATION OF PAYMENTS BY COMMISSION § 9036.1 Threshold submission. (a) Time for submission...

  18. 40 CFR 98.311 - Reporting threshold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reporting threshold. 98.311 Section 98.311 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Titanium Dioxide Production § 98.311 Reporting threshold. You must report...

  19. 40 CFR 98.421 - Reporting threshold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reporting threshold. 98.421 Section 98.421 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Suppliers of Carbon Dioxide § 98.421 Reporting threshold. Any supplier of CO2 who meets the requirements of § 98.2...

  20. 40 CFR 98.221 - Reporting threshold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reporting threshold. 98.221 Section 98.221 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Nitric Acid Production § 98.221 Reporting threshold. You must report GHG emissions under this subpart if your...

  1. 40 CFR 98.471 - Reporting threshold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reporting threshold. 98.471 Section 98.471 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Injection of Carbon Dioxide § 98.471 Reporting threshold. (a) You must...

  2. 11 CFR 9036.1 - Threshold submission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Threshold submission. 9036.1 Section 9036.1 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION CAMPAIGN FUND: PRESIDENTIAL PRIMARY MATCHING FUND REVIEW OF MATCHING FUND SUBMISSIONS AND CERTIFICATION OF PAYMENTS BY COMMISSION § 9036.1 Threshold submission. (a) Time for submission...

  3. 40 CFR 98.81 - Reporting threshold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reporting threshold. 98.81 Section 98.81 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Cement Production § 98.81 Reporting threshold. You must report GHG emissions under this subpart if your facility...

  4. 40 CFR 98.321 - Reporting threshold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reporting threshold. 98.321 Section 98.321 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Underground Coal Mines § 98.321 Reporting threshold. You must report GHG emissions under this subpart if your...

  5. 40 CFR 98.271 - Reporting threshold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reporting threshold. 98.271 Section 98.271 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Pulp and Paper Manufacturing § 98.271 Reporting threshold. You must...

  6. 40 CFR 98.171 - Reporting threshold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reporting threshold. 98.171 Section 98.171 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Iron and Steel Production § 98.171 Reporting threshold. You must report...

  7. 40 CFR 98.311 - Reporting threshold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reporting threshold. 98.311 Section 98.311 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Titanium Dioxide Production § 98.311 Reporting threshold. You must report GHG emissions under this subpart if your...

  8. 40 CFR 98.111 - Reporting threshold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reporting threshold. 98.111 Section 98.111 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Ferroalloy Production § 98.111 Reporting threshold. You must report GHG...

  9. 49 CFR 80.13 - Threshold criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Threshold criteria. 80.13 Section 80.13 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation CREDIT ASSISTANCE FOR SURFACE TRANSPORTATION PROJECTS § 80.13 Threshold criteria. (a) To be eligible to receive Federal credit assistance under this part, a project shall meet the following five...

  10. 40 CFR 98.241 - Reporting threshold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reporting threshold. 98.241 Section 98.241 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Petrochemical Production § 98.241 Reporting threshold. You must report...

  11. 40 CFR 98.331 - Reporting threshold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reporting threshold. 98.331 Section 98.331 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Zinc Production § 98.331 Reporting threshold. You must report GHG emissions under this subpart if your facility...

  12. 40 CFR 98.191 - Reporting threshold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reporting threshold. 98.191 Section 98.191 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Lime Manufacturing § 98.191 Reporting threshold. You must report GHG...

  13. 40 CFR 98.141 - Reporting threshold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reporting threshold. 98.141 Section 98.141 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Glass Production § 98.141 Reporting threshold. You must report GHG emissions under this subpart if your facility...

  14. 40 CFR 98.301 - Reporting threshold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reporting threshold. 98.301 Section 98.301 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... threshold. (a) You must report GHG emissions from an electric power system if the total nameplate capacity...

  15. 40 CFR 98.311 - Reporting threshold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reporting threshold. 98.311 Section 98.311 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Titanium Dioxide Production § 98.311 Reporting threshold. You must report...

  16. 40 CFR 98.181 - Reporting threshold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reporting threshold. 98.181 Section 98.181 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Lead Production § 98.181 Reporting threshold. You must report GHG emissions under this subpart if your facility...

  17. 40 CFR 98.251 - Reporting threshold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reporting threshold. 98.251 Section 98.251 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Petroleum Refineries § 98.251 Reporting threshold. You must report GHG emissions under this subpart if your...

  18. 40 CFR 98.141 - Reporting threshold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reporting threshold. 98.141 Section 98.141 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Glass Production § 98.141 Reporting threshold. You must report GHG emissions under this subpart if your facility...

  19. 40 CFR 98.51 - Reporting threshold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reporting threshold. 98.51 Section 98.51 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Adipic Acid Production § 98.51 Reporting threshold. You must report GHG emissions under this subpart if your facilit...

  20. 40 CFR 98.141 - Reporting threshold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reporting threshold. 98.141 Section 98.141 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Glass Production § 98.141 Reporting threshold. You must report GHG...

  1. 40 CFR 98.241 - Reporting threshold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reporting threshold. 98.241 Section 98.241 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Petrochemical Production § 98.241 Reporting threshold. You must report GHG emissions under this subpart if your...

  2. 40 CFR 98.221 - Reporting threshold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reporting threshold. 98.221 Section 98.221 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Nitric Acid Production § 98.221 Reporting threshold. You must report GHG...

  3. 40 CFR 98.191 - Reporting threshold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reporting threshold. 98.191 Section 98.191 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Lime Manufacturing § 98.191 Reporting threshold. You must report GHG...

  4. 40 CFR 98.211 - Reporting threshold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reporting threshold. 98.211 Section 98.211 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Miscellaneous Uses of Carbonate § 98.211 Reporting threshold. You must...

  5. 40 CFR 98.291 - Reporting threshold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reporting threshold. 98.291 Section 98.291 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Soda Ash Manufacturing § 98.291 Reporting threshold. You must report GHG...

  6. 40 CFR 98.281 - Reporting threshold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reporting threshold. 98.281 Section 98.281 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Silicon Carbide Production § 98.281 Reporting threshold. You must report GHG emissions under this subpart if your...

  7. 40 CFR 98.191 - Reporting threshold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reporting threshold. 98.191 Section 98.191 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Lime Manufacturing § 98.191 Reporting threshold. You must report GHG emissions under this subpart if your facility...

  8. 40 CFR 98.231 - Reporting threshold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reporting threshold. 98.231 Section 98.231 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems § 98.231 Reporting threshold. (a) You must report GHG emissions under this...

  9. 40 CFR 98.421 - Reporting threshold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reporting threshold. 98.421 Section 98.421 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Suppliers of Carbon Dioxide § 98.421 Reporting threshold. Any supplier of CO2 who meets the requirements of § 98.2...

  10. 40 CFR 98.71 - Reporting threshold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reporting threshold. 98.71 Section 98.71 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Ammonia Manufacturing § 98.71 Reporting threshold. You must report GHG emissions under this subpart if your facility...

  11. 40 CFR 98.441 - Reporting threshold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reporting threshold. 98.441 Section 98.441 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Geologic Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide § 98.441 Reporting threshold. (a) You must report under this subpart if...

  12. 40 CFR 98.421 - Reporting threshold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reporting threshold. 98.421 Section 98.421 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Suppliers of Carbon Dioxide § 98.421 Reporting threshold. Any supplier of...

  13. 40 CFR 98.441 - Reporting threshold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reporting threshold. 98.441 Section 98.441 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Geologic Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide § 98.441 Reporting threshold. (a) You must report under this subpart if...

  14. 40 CFR 98.341 - Reporting threshold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reporting threshold. 98.341 Section 98.341 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Municipal Solid Waste Landfills § 98.341 Reporting threshold. You must report GHG emissions under this subpart if...

  15. 40 CFR 98.211 - Reporting threshold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reporting threshold. 98.211 Section 98.211 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Miscellaneous Uses of Carbonate § 98.211 Reporting threshold. You must report GHG emissions from miscellaneous use...

  16. 40 CFR 98.241 - Reporting threshold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reporting threshold. 98.241 Section 98.241 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Petrochemical Production § 98.241 Reporting threshold. You must report...

  17. 40 CFR 98.61 - Reporting threshold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reporting threshold. 98.61 Section 98.61 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Aluminum Production § 98.61 Reporting threshold. You must report GHG...

  18. 40 CFR 98.341 - Reporting threshold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reporting threshold. 98.341 Section 98.341 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Municipal Solid Waste Landfills § 98.341 Reporting threshold. You must report GHG emissions under this subpart if...

  19. 40 CFR 98.351 - Reporting threshold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reporting threshold. 98.351 Section 98.351 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Industrial Wastewater Treatment § 98.351 Reporting threshold. You must report GHG emissions under this subpart if...

  20. 40 CFR 98.471 - Reporting threshold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reporting threshold. 98.471 Section 98.471 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Injection of Carbon Dioxide § 98.471 Reporting threshold. (a) You must report under this subpart if your facility...