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Sample records for lactating dairy cows

  1. Effect of uterine size on fertility of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Baez, Giovanni M; Barletta, Rafael V; Guenther, Jerry N; Gaska, Jerry M; Wiltbank, Milo C

    2016-05-01

    There are multiple reasons for reduced fertility in lactating dairy cows. We hypothesized that one cause of reduced fertility could be the overall size of the reproductive tract, particularly the uterus, given well-established uterine functions in many aspects of the reproductive process. Thus, the objectives of this study were to evaluate the variability in uterine size in primiparous and multiparous dairy cows and to analyze whether there was an association between uterine size and fertility, particularly within a given parity. Lactating Holstein dairy cows (n = 704) were synchronized to receive timed artificial insemination (TAI) on Day 81 ± 3 of lactation by using the Double-Ovsynch protocol (GnRH-7d-PGF-3d-GnRH-7d-GnRH-7d-PGF-56h-GnRH-16h-TAI). At the time of the last injection of PGF, uterine diameter was determined at the greater curvature using ultrasound, uterine length was determined by rectal palpation, and uterine volume was calculated from these two measurements. Blood samples were also taken to measure progesterone to assure synchronization of all cows used in the final analysis (n = 616; primiparous, n = 289; multiparous, n = 327). Primiparous cows had greater percentage pregnant/AI (P/AI) compared to multiparous cows (49.8% vs. 39.1% at 67 days of pregnancy diagnosis, P = 0.009). Diameter, length, and volume of the uterus were larger in multiparous than in primiparous cows (P < 0.001). For multiparous cows, uterine diameter and volume were smaller in cows that became pregnant compared to cows that were not pregnant to the TAI with a similar tendency observed in primiparous cows. Logistic regression and quartile analysis also showed that as uterine volume increased, there was decreased P/AI in either primiparous or multiparous cows. Thus, there is a negative association between uterine size and fertility in lactating dairy cows with a larger uterus associated with reduced fertility, particularly for multiparous cows. Copyright

  2. Short communication: Diurnal feeding pattern of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    DeVries, T J; von Keyserlingk, M A G; Beauchemin, K A

    2003-12-01

    The objectives of this research were to: 1) describe the diurnal variation in feed alley attendance patterns of lactating dairy cows, 2) describe the sources of variation in these patterns, and 3) determine the effects of altering the feed push-up schedule on these patterns. An electronic monitoring system was used to record individual cow presence (6-s resolution) at the feed alley for 24 cows housed in a free-stall barn. Cows were subjected to 2 feeding schedules: 1) baseline schedule, where cows were fed at 0600 and 1515 h and feed was pushed closer to the cows at 1100 and 2130 h; and 2) experimental schedule, where 2 additional feed push-ups at 0030 and 0330 h were added to the baseline schedule. With the data collected from the monitoring system, description of the feed alley attendance patterns on a per minute basis of the group of cows was undertaken. Feed alley attendance was consistently higher during the day and early evening compared with the late night and early morning hours. The greatest percentage of cows attending the feed alley was seen after the delivery of fresh feed and the return from milking. The addition of extra feed push-ups in the early morning hours did little to increase feeding activity. It can be concluded that milking and delivery of fresh feed had a much greater affect on the diurnal pattern of feed alley attendance than did the feed push-ups.

  3. Effect of abomasal ferrous lactate infusion on phosphorus absorption in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Feng, X; Knowlton, K F; Dietrich, A D; Duncan, S

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of ferrous lactate infusion on postruminal P absorption in lactating dairy cows. Four ruminally cannulated lactating cows were used in a 4×4 Latin square design with 14 d per period. Cows were fed a basal diet containing 0.39% P, providing 100% of the calculated P requirement. On d 8 to 14 of each period, each cow was infused with 0, 200, 500, or 1,250mg of Fe/d in the form of ferrous lactate solution (ferrous lactate in 1L of double-distilled water) into the abomasum. Infusate was formulated to approximate 0, 2, 5, or 12.5mg of Fe/L in drinking water with 100L of water intake/d. Total fecal collection was conducted in the last 4 d of each period to measure nutrient digestion and excretion. Dry matter intake, milk yield, and milk composition were not affected by treatment. Digestibility of DM, NDF, and nitrogen decreased linearly with increasing ferrous lactate infusion. Infusion of ferrous lactate did not affect intake and digestibility of total P, inorganic P, or phytate P. In lactating cows, P absorption was not negatively influenced by abomasally infused ferrous lactate up to 1,250mg of Fe/d. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Selenium and Antioxidant Status in Dairy Cows at Different Stages of Lactation.

    PubMed

    Gong, Jian; Xiao, Min

    2016-05-01

    Thirty-five multiparous Holstein cows averaging 550 ± 50 kg of body weight and in 2 to 4 parity were divided into three groups according to lactation stage (group A: nine cows from 4 to 1 weeks prepartum; group B: 11 cows from 1 to 30 days postpartum; group C: 15 cows from 30 to 100 days postpartum). Selenium concentration, malondialdehyde (MDA) level, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity, thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) activity, and total antioxidant status (TAS) in serum were determined to evaluate selenium and antioxidant status in dairy cows at different stages of lactation. The results showed that mean serum selenium concentration, MDA level, and GSH-Px activity of cows in early lactation increased significantly (P < 0.05) when compared with cows in the dry period and peak lactation. Conversely, serum TrxR activity and TAS declined during this period (P < 0.05). The increase of serum MDA level during early lactation indicate that the reactive oxygen species, including lipid hydroperoxides, increase in this period, thus placing the cows at a greater risk of oxidative stress. The significant decrease in TrxR activity that is accompanied with a decrease in TAS during early lactation suggests that dairy cows have low antioxidant defense in this period and TrxR may be an important antioxidant defense mechanism in transition dairy cows.

  5. Metabolism of silage alcohols in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, N B; Storm, A; Raun, B M L; Røjen, B A; Harmon, D L

    2007-03-01

    Dairy cows fed silage are subjected to various alcohols and low molecular weight esters. Four lactating Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulas and permanent indwelling catheters in the hepatic portal vein, hepatic vein, mesenteric vein, and mesenteric artery were used to study the absorption of alcohols into portal blood and the metabolism of feed alcohols in the rumen and splanchnic tissues. The cows were allocated to 4 experimental treatments in a Latin square design. All treatments were formulated as total mixed rations with the same overall nutrient composition, differing by the source of corn silage. Treatments were a control silage and 3 qualities of problematic corn silage (silage with Fusarium toxin, Penicillium-infected silage, and silage with a high propanol content). Feeding was followed by a decreasing ruminal pH, as well as decreasing molar proportions of ruminal acetate and isobutyrate. The ruminal concentrations of total VFA, ethanol, propanol, 2-butanol, ethyl acetate, propyl acetate, glucose, and L-lactate, and molar proportions of propionate, butyrate, isovalerate, valerate, and caproate increased after feeding. Treatments affected ruminal concentrations of propanol, propyl acetate, and butyrate and a strong correlation was observed between ruminal propyl acetate and the molar proportion of butyrate (r = -0.79). Arterial concentrations of ethanol, propanol, propanal, acetone (sum of acetone and acetoacetate), 3-hydroxybutyrate, L-lactate, glutamate, and glutamine increased, and the arterial concentration of glucose decreased after feeding, but no effects of treatment were observed for arterial variables. The postprandial increase in arterial ethanol was maintained for 5 h. The net portal release of ethanol tended to decrease with the treatment with the lowest ethanol content, and the net splanchnic release of ethanol increased after feeding, but overall, the net splanchnic flux of ethanol was not different from zero, in agreement with the

  6. Administration of recombinant bovine somatotropin to dairy cows for four consecutive lactations.

    PubMed

    Huber, J T; Wu, Z; Fontes, C; Sullivan, J L; Hoffman, R G; Hartnell, G F

    1997-10-01

    Effects of long-term administration of recombinant bovine somatotropin (bST) to dairy cows on complete lactational performance [60 (+/- 3) to 284 (+/- 3) d in milk (DIM)] were studied for four consecutive lactations. Beginning on d 60 (+/- 3) postpartum, Holstein cows received biweekly injections (500 mg) of bST (n = 39) or a placebo (control; n = 39) during the first lactation of the study. Cows either continued on the same treatment (n = 26) or were switched to the opposite treatment (n = 29) during the second lactation. Cows that changed treatments were injected for only 16 wk during the second lactation. Six cows per treatment completed four consecutive lactations. Treatment with bST during the first lactation did not have a residual effect on milk yields during the second lactation. Injections of bST during the second lactation increased milk yield 6.5 kg/d from 60 (+/- 3) to 172 DIM. For the four lactations, cows receiving bST yielded 3.7 kg/d (14%) more milk and gained 52 kg (37%) more body weight than did controls. Pretreatment (from 0 to 56 DIM) milk yields in yr 2, 3, and 4 were not affected by previous bST treatment. Milk yield, efficiency of feed utilization, and body weights were enhanced in cows injected with bST for four consecutive lactations. Previous bST treatment did not diminish milk yields in subsequent lactations.

  7. Milk residues and performance of lactating dairy cows administered high doses of monensin.

    PubMed

    Bagg, Randal; Vessie, Gordon H; Dick, C Paul; Duffield, Todd; Wilson, Jeff B; Aramini, Jeff J

    2005-07-01

    Milk residues and performance were evaluated in lactating cows that were fed up to 10 times the recommended dose of monensin. Following an acclimatization period of 14 d, during which cows were fed a standard lactating cow total mixed ration containing 24 ppm monensin, 18 lactating Holstein dairy cows were grouped according to the level of feed intake and then randomly assigned within each group to 1 of 3 challenge rations delivering 72, 144, and 240 ppm monensin. Outcome measurements included individual cow daily feed intakes, daily milk production, body weights, and monensin residues in composite milk samples from each cow. There were no detectable monensin residues (< 0.005 microg/mL) in any of the milk samples collected. Lactating cows receiving a dose of 72 ppm monensin exhibited up to a 20% reduction in dry matter intake, and a 5% to 15% drop in milk production from the pre-challenge period. Cows receiving doses of 144 and 240 ppm monensin exhibited rapid decreases in feed intake of up to 50% by the 2nd d and milk production losses of up to 20% and 30%, respectively, within 4 d. Lactating cows receiving up to 4865 mg monensin per day had no detectable monensin residues (< 0.005 microg/mL) in any of the milk samples collected. Results of this study confirm that food products derived from lactating dairy cattle receiving monensin at recommended levels are safe for human consumption.

  8. Effect of Dietary Forage to Concentrate Ratio on Lactation Performance and Methane Emission from Dairy Cows

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Our objective was to determine the effect of feeding diets with different forage to concentrate ratios (F:C) on performance and methane (CH4) emission from lactating dairy cows. Eight multiparous Holstein cows (means ± standard deviation: 620 ± 38 kg of body weight (BW); 41 ± 34 days in milk (DIM)) ...

  9. Energy content of reduced-fat distillers grains for lactating dairy cows

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Byproducts of ethanol production have become an important source of nutrients for dairy cows in recent years but accurate energy values have yet to be determined. Eight Holstein and 8 Jersey multiparous, lactating cows were used to complete 56 energy balances to determine the energy content of redu...

  10. Leptin, GH, PRL, insulin and metabolic parameters throughout the dry period and lactation in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Accorsi, P A; Govoni, N; Gaiani, R; Pezzi, C; Seren, E; Tamanini, C

    2005-06-01

    Leptin may play a role in the endocrine-metabolic processes that guarantee the physiological course of lactation in dairy cattle. This study was aimed at determining the changes in plasma concentrations of leptin and some of the main hormones and metabolites involved in the lactogenetic process in high-yielding dairy cows throughout lactation; we also wanted to assess whether leptin secretion is subjected to seasonal influences. Blood samples were collected from 23 Italian Friesian dairy cows from the end of a lactation to the ninth month of the subsequent one; in addition, blood was sampled from 47 dairy cows in different phases of lactation during February and July. Plasma concentrations of leptin, growth hormone (GH), insulin, prolactin (PRL), glucose, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and urea were quantified by either validated radioimmunoassay (RIA) or enzymatic colorimetric methods. At the beginning of lactation, GH concentrations significantly increased, while a significant reduction occurred in leptin and insulin. This endocrine condition, such as the significant increase in NEFA plasma concentrations, is indicative of a marked lipid mobilization. In the more advanced stages of lactation, when both energy and protein balances become positive, leptin plasma concentrations increased, whereas GH and NEFA concentrations declined. During the summer months, a significant increase in leptin plasma concentrations, irrespective of the phase of lactation, was observed. Collectively, our findings suggest that, in dairy cows, leptin may represent a 'metabolic signal' of animal's status of fattening and nutritional level; in addition, leptin seems to be influenced by photoperiod and environmental temperature.

  11. Replacing dietary soybean meal with canola meal improves production and efficiency of lactating dairy cows

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Previous research suggested that crude protein (CP) from canola meal (CM) is used more efficiently than CP from solvent soybean meal (SBM) by lactating dairy cows. We tested whether dietary CP content influenced relative effectiveness of equal supplemental CP from either CM or SBM. Fifty lactating H...

  12. Peripartal changes in serum alkaline phosphatase activity and lactate dehydrogenase activity in dairy cows.

    PubMed Central

    Peter, A T; Bosu, W T; MacWilliams, P; Gallagher, S

    1987-01-01

    Peripartal serum alkaline phosphatase activity and lactate dehydrogenase activity were measured in 30 dairy cows in order to examine the association between retained fetal membranes and enzyme activity. Daily blood samples were obtained from pregnant cows, starting 15 days before the expected day of calving until eight days after parturition. Sera from 15 cows which retained fetal membranes longer than 24 hours and 15 cows which shed fetal membranes within six hours after parturition were analyzed for alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase enzyme activities. Mean alkaline phosphatase enzyme activities ranged from 15.93 to 32.6 U/L in retained and nonretained placenta cows. There was a trend towards higher serum alkaline phosphatase activities in retained placenta cows but the differences were not significant among the groups (P greater than 0.05). Mean lactate dehydrogenase activities ranged from 307.2 to 438.86 U/L in nonretained and retained placenta cows. Lactate dehydrogenase enzyme activities in nonretained and retained placenta cows were similar (P greater than 0.05). The alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase enzyme activities peaked at the time of parturition in both groups. However, the differences in alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase activities on different days within non-retained and retained placenta cows were significant (P less than 0.05). Results indicate that prepartal changes in alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase enzyme activities are not predictive of placental retention postpartum. PMID:3453274

  13. Associations of insulin resistance later in lactation on fertility of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Baruselli, P S; Vieira, L M; Sá Filho, M F; Mingoti, R D; Ferreira, R M; Chiaratti, M R; Oliveira, L H; Sales, J N; Sartori, R

    2016-07-01

    The challenge of getting dairy cows pregnant during early lactation is a well-described, worldwide problem. However, specifically in farms with poor reproductive, nutritional, and environmental conditions/management, a low pregnancy rate during early lactation is followed inevitably by an increased number of nonpregnant cows after 150 days in milk, with even more difficulties to achieve pregnancy. Therefore, several studies were designed to understand and develop strategies to mitigate reduced fertility of cows during late lactation. Experiments were performed under tropical regions to determine metabolic status during lactation and association of stage of lactation on oocyte quality and fertility. Lactating cows with extended days not pregnant (e.g.,>150 days in milk) often had systemic metabolic alterations, including development of peripheral insulin resistance and various oocyte alterations, including reduced expression of genes encoding glucose transport proteins, reduced amounts of mtDNA, increased expression of mitochondria-related genes, and increased expression of apoptosis-related genes. Additionally, in vitro embryo production and pregnancy per AI were lower in late- versus early-lactation cows in some but not all studies. Notwithstanding, when a normal embryo was transferred to a cow in late lactation, the pregnancy per transfer was reasonable, reinforcing the assertion that fertility problems in late-lactation cows may be associated with oocyte quality, fertilization, and/or failure of early embryo development. In conclusion, insulin resistance may reduce oocyte competence and consequently fertility in late-lactation dairy cows. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Invited review: palmitic and stearic acid metabolism in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Loften, J R; Linn, J G; Drackley, J K; Jenkins, T C; Soderholm, C G; Kertz, A F

    2014-01-01

    Energy is the most limiting nutritional component in diets for high-producing dairy cows. Palmitic (C16:0) and stearic (C18:0) acids have unique and specific functions in lactating dairy cows beyond a ubiquitous energy source. This review delineates their metabolism and usage in lactating dairy cows from diet to milk production. Palmitic acid is the fatty acid (FA) found in the greatest quantity in milk fat. Dietary sources of C16:0 generally increase milk fat yield and are used as an energy source for milk production and replenishing body weight loss during periods of negative energy balance. Stearic acid is the most abundant FA available to the dairy cow and is used to a greater extent for milk production and energy balance than C16:0. However, C18:0 is also intimately involved in milk fat production. Quantifying the transfer of each FA from diet into milk fat is complicated by de novo synthesis of C16:0 and desaturation of C18:0 to oleic acid in the mammary gland. In addition, incorporation of both FA into milk fat appears to be limited by the cow's requirement to maintain fluidity of milk, which requires a balance between saturated and unsaturated FA. Oleic acid is the second most abundant FA in milk fat and likely the main unsaturated FA involved in regulating fluidity of milk. Because the mammary gland can desaturate C18:0 to oleic acid, C18:0 appears to have a more prominent role in milk production than C16:0. To understand metabolism and utilization of these FA in lactating dairy cows, we reviewed production and milk fat synthesis studies. Additional and longer lactation studies on feeding both FA to lactating dairy cows are required to better delineate their roles in optimizing milk production and milk FA composition and yield.

  15. An attempt to define the sodium requirement of lactating dairy cows in a tropical environment.

    PubMed

    Thiangtum, Wandee; Yawongsa, Adisorn; Schonewille, Jan Thomas; Rukkwamsuk, Theera; Yuangklang, Chalermpon; Verstegen, Martin W A; Hendriks, Wouter H

    2011-10-01

    Lactating dairy cattle in the tropics may require more sodium (Na) owing to the hot and humid climatic conditions. It is unknown whether the current recommendations on Na for lactating cows can be quantitatively used in tropical countries. This study attempted to define the Na requirement of lactating dairy cows under tropical conditions by measuring Na levels in saliva, milk and faeces. The concentrations of Na and potassium (K) in milk, faeces and serum were not affected by dietary treatments. The amount of Na absorbed by cows fed the basal (low-Na) diet containing 0.4 g Na kg(-1) dry matter (DM) was equal to the amount of Na lost in the milk, showing that these animals were fed an Na-deficient ration. This observation was corroborated by salivary Na and K levels, with the cows on the low-Na diet having salivary Na concentrations below 120 mmol L(-1) in combination with salivary K concentrations above 20 mmol L(-1) (P < 0.05). Consumption of a daily ration formulated to contain the current Na requirement set by the NRC appears to provide too much Na for lactating cows under tropical conditions. A tentative value of 1.2 g kg(-1) DM is proposed as the Na requirement for dairy cows under tropical conditions. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Effect of replacing dietary soybean meal with canola meal on production of lactating dairy cows

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Previous research suggested that crude protein (CP) from canola meal (CM) was used more efficiently that CP from solvent soybean meal (SBM) by lactating dairy cows. We wished to test whether CM was more effective than SBM on low CP (14.9% CP) than high CP (16.8% CP) diets and to see if it was advant...

  17. Proteomic analysis of physiological function response to hot summer in liver from lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiangjun; Zhao, Xiaowei; Zhang, Zijun; Zhao, Huiling; Huang, Dongwei; Cheng, Guanglong; Yang, Yongxin

    2017-04-01

    Lactation performance of dairy cattle is susceptible to heat stress. The liver is one of the most crucial organs affected by high temperature in dairy cows. However, the physiological adaption by the liver to hot summer conditions has not been well elucidated in lactating dairy cows. In the present study, proteomic analysis of the liver in dairy cows in spring and hot summer was performed using a label-free method. In total, 127 differentially expressed proteins were identified; most of the upregulated proteins were involved in protein metabolic processes and responses to stimuli, whereas most of the downregulated proteins were related to oxidation-reduction. Pathway analysis indicated that 3 upregulated heat stress proteins (HSP90α, HSP90β, and endoplasmin) were enriched in the NOD-like receptor signaling pathway, whereas several downregulated NADH dehydrogenase proteins were involved in the oxidative phosphorylation pathway. The protein-protein interaction network indicated that several upregulated HSPs (HSP90α, HSP90β, and GRP78) were involved in more interactions than other proteins and were thus considered as central hub nodes. Our findings provide novel insights into the physiological adaption of liver function in lactating dairy cows to natural high temperature. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Integrated Metabolomics Study of the Milk of Heat-stressed Lactating Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Tian, He; Zheng, Nan; Wang, Weiyu; Cheng, Jianbo; Li, Songli; Zhang, Yangdong; Wang, Jiaqi

    2016-01-01

    Heat stress (HS) damages the global dairy industry by reducing milk yields and quality, harming health, and damaging the reproduction of dairy cows, causing huge economic losses each year. However, an understanding of the physiological mechanism of HS lactating dairy cows remains elusive. Here, a metabolomics study using LC-MS and 1H NMR spectroscopy was performed to analyze the metabolomic differences in the milk between HS-free and HS dairy cows, and discover diagnostic biomarkers and changes in the metabolic pathway. A total of 53 discriminating metabolites were significantly up- or down-regulated in the HS group compared with the HS-free group (P < 0.05). These biomarkers were involved in pathways of carbohydrate, amino acid, lipid, and gut microbiome-derived metabolism. Comparing these potential biomarkers with previously identified HS candidate biomarkers in plasma, significant correlations between the levels of lactate, pyruvate, creatine, acetone, β-hydroxybutyrate, trimethylamine, oleic acid, linoleic acid, lysophosphatidylcholine 16:0, and phosphatidylcholine 42:2 in milk and plasma were found, indicating that the blood-milk barrier became leaky and the levels of these 10 biomarkers in milk can reflect HS-induced metabolomic alterations in blood. These novel findings can support more in-depth research to elucidate the milk-based changes in metabolic pathways in HS lactating dairy cows. PMID:27048914

  19. On-farm feeding interventions to increase milk production in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Wanapat, Metha; Foiklang, Suban; Phesatcha, Kampanat; Paoinn, Chainarong; Ampapon, Thiwakorn; Norrapoke, Thitima; Kang, Sungchhang

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of tropical legume (Phaseolus calcaratus) mixed with ruzi grass feeding on the performance of lactating dairy cows. Eighty-eight lactating dairy cows from 22 smallholder dairy farms northeast of Thailand were assigned to respective dietary treatments according to a Randomized Completely Block Design (RCBD). Four cows were selected from each farm and were allocated into two different feeding groups as follows: ruzi grass and P. calcaratus mixed with ruzi grass (1:1 ratio), respectively. All cows were fed with roughage ad libitum with 1:2 ratio of concentrate diet to milk yield. The results revealed that total dry matter intake, ruminal volatile fatty acids, and ammonia nitrogen concentration were enhanced when cows were fed with P. calcaratus mixed with ruzi grass (P < 0.05). Moreover, feeding tropical legume mixed with ruzi grass could increase milk production and milk protein in this study. Importantly, an economical assessment showed that milk income and the profit from milk sale were significantly greater in cows fed the mixture of roughage than those from the non-mixed group. This study concluded that high-quality roughage as tropical legume mixed with ruzi grass at the ratio of 1:1 brought out the remarkable and practical implementation for smallholder dairy farms, and the intervention was practical and deserving of more on-farm intervention.

  20. Associations between milk protein concentration at various stages of lactation and reproductive performance in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Morton, J M; Auldist, M J; Douglas, M L; Macmillan, K L

    2016-12-01

    Milk protein concentration has been positively associated with a range of measures of reproductive performance in dairy cows. These beneficial associations are most likely due to factors affecting both milk protein concentration and reproductive performance possibly being mediated, in part, by energy balance during early lactation. However, it is likely that factors other than energy balance are also involved in these relationships. A retrospective single cohort study was conducted using subsets of data collected from 74 dairy herds with seasonal or split calving patterns. Associations between milk protein concentration at various stages of lactation and reproductive performance in Holstein dairy cows were assessed using random effects logistic regression and survival analysis with milk protein concentration during the cow's breeding period fitted as a time-varying covariate. The beneficial associations between milk protein concentration and each of the 4 selected indices for measuring reproductive performance were evident when milk protein concentration was derived for each 30-d period from calving up to 300d in milk. For the first 150d of lactation the adjusted odds ratios were highest from 31 to 60d and only slightly lower for all periods up to 150d of lactation. Estimated associations for 31 to 60d were stronger than for 0 to 30d. In addition, milk protein concentration during a cow's breeding period was positively associated with the subsequent daily hazard of conception, even after adjusting for milk protein concentration in the cow's first or second month of lactation. Milk protein concentrations from 0 to 30d of lactation were less closely correlated with concentrations measured at subsequent 30-d intervals; correlations were closer between other periods in lactation. These results indicate that the association between milk protein concentration and reproductive performance is partly due to factors other than the extent of negative energy balance in early

  1. Performance of lactating dairy cows fed whole cottonseed coated with gelatinized cornstarch.

    PubMed

    Bernard, J K

    1999-06-01

    The handling characteristics of whole cottonseed are improved by coating with gelatinized cornstarch, but limited information is available on the effects of feeding the coated cottonseed to lactating dairy cows. Thirty-six lactating Jersey cows were used in a crossover design trial with 4-wk experimental periods to evaluate the influence of coating whole cottonseed with 2.5% gelatinized cornstarch on dry matter intake, milk yield, and composition. Cows were fed diets containing 10.2% alfalfa-orchardgrass hay, 45.2% corn silage, 15.0% coated or uncoated whole cottonseed, and 29.6% concentrate for ad libitum consumption. Coating whole cottonseed with gelatinized cornstarch tended to reduce dry matter intake, which averaged 16.2 and 15.9 kg/d for uncoated and coated cottonseed, respectively. Milk yield and composition were similar for uncoated and coated cottonseed. The yield of energy-corrected milk per unit of dry matter consumed was greater with coated cottonseed. Cows fed coated cottonseed gained body weight, but cows fed uncoated cottonseed lost weight. Concentrations of plasma urea were similar among treatments; however, NEFA concentrations were lower for cows fed coated whole cottonseed. Results of this trial indicate that coating whole cottonseed with 2.5% gelatinized cornstarch does not alter its feeding value for lactating dairy cows.

  2. Performance of early-lactation dairy cows as affected by dietary starch and monensin supplementation.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, M M; Yasui, T; Ryan, C M; Mechor, G D; Overton, T R

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of postpartum dietary starch content and monensin supplementation throughout the periparturient period and into early lactation on production performance of dairy cows during early lactation. Prior to parturition, primiparous (n=21) and multiparous (n=49) Holstein cows were fed a common controlled-energy close-up diet with a daily topdress of either 0 or 400mg/d monensin. From d 1 to 21 postpartum, cows were fed a high-starch (HS; 26.2% starch, 34.3% NDF, 22.7% ADF, 15.5% CP) or low-starch (LS; 21.5% starch, 36.9% NDF, 25.2% ADF, 15.4% CP) total mixed ration with a daily topdress of either 0mg/d of monensin or 450mg/d monensin (MON), continuing with prepartum topdress treatment assignment. From d 22 through 63 postpartum, cows were fed HS and continued with their assigned daily topdress. Interactions of starch content and MON supplementation were not significant for any of the variables measured. Cows fed HS from wk 1 to 3 postpartum had higher early-lactation milk yields (starch × week interaction) compared with LS cows, but HS cows also had lower percentages of milk fat, true protein, lactose, and total solids during the same period, resulting in similar yields of energy-corrected milk (ECM) between starch treatments. Cows fed HS had higher early-lactation dry matter intake (DMI; starch × week interaction) and lost less body condition score during wk 1 to 3, contributing to improved energy balance postpartum. No effect of starch treatment was observed on apparent total-tract dry matter or starch digestibilities assessed during d 18 to 19 (±2) postpartum, although cows fed the LS diet had greater apparent total-tract NDF digestibility compared with cows fed the HS diet. Cows fed MON had higher DMI and higher milk yields during the first 9 wk of lactation. However, all cows had similar yields of ECM because of trends for lower milk fat content during early lactation. In part because of similar yields of ECM

  3. Soyhulls as an alternative feed for lactating dairy cows: a review.

    PubMed

    Ipharraguerre, I R; Clark, J H

    2003-04-01

    Dairy producers use soyhulls, a byproduct of soybean processing, to replace either grain or forage in diets of lactating dairy cows. In view of the nutritional and economical value of soyhulls it is anticipated that this practice will continue to increase in popularity among nutritionists and producers of ruminant animals. This paper reviews information regarding the nutritional value of soyhulls and the effects of feeding this alternative feed on ruminal fermentation, nutrient digestion and utilization, and performance of dairy cows. Soyhulls can replace corn grain to supply about 30% of the dry matter (DM) in high-grain diets without negatively affecting either the fermentation or digestion of nutrients in the gastrointestinal tract or the performance of dairy cows. Additionally, data suggest that soyhulls might successfully replace forage to supply < or = 25% of the DM in diets of dairy cows when the supply of effective fiber, which includes a chemical and a physical component, remains adequate after including the hulls. However, caution should be exercised when data from different studies are extrapolated to practical situations because the response to feeding soyhulls appears to be largely affected by the type of carbohydrate being replaced by soyhulls; the amount, type, and physical form of the dietary forage; and the incidence of either negative or positive associative effects before and after the addition of soyhulls to the original diet. Unfortunately, the paucity of data from experiments in which soyhulls constituted more than 25 to 30% of the dietary DM restricts the ability to identify the maximum amount of soyhulls that can be used in diets of dairy cows. Information from studies in which > or = 25 to 30% of dietary DM supplied as either cereal grains or forages are replaced with soyhulls is needed to better understand and predict the production of dairy cows fed diets containing the hulls. This knowledge is essential for maximizing the use of soyhulls

  4. Economic evaluation of stall stocking density of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    De Vries, Albert; Dechassa, Hailegziabher; Hogeveen, Henk

    2016-05-01

    An increase in stall stocking density (SSD), as measured by the number of lactating cows per stall in a freestall barn, reduces cow performance, such as milk yield and fertility, but may increase farm profitability. Our objectives were to calculate effects of varying SSD on profit per stall for a range of effects on cow performances and external farm factors and store results in regression metamodels. The literature on quantified effects of SSD on cow performance that directly affects cash flow was found to be weak. We assumed effects of SSD on milk yield, probability of conception, and probability of culling. External farm factors were probability of insemination, feed price, and milk price. A herd budget-simulation model was used which mimics the performance of cows in a herd and calculates profit per stall per year and other results. The SSD varied from 100 (no overstocking) to 150% (severe overstocking) in steps of 10%. Sensitivity analyses for effects of SSD on cow performance and effects of external farm factors were performed. Three regression metamodels were developed. The first metamodel accurately predicted profitability at 100% SSD for all variations in the external farm factors. Optimal SSD varied from 100 to 150% SSD, depending on the combination of inputs, and was very sensitive to changes in the size of the milk loss and milk and feed prices. Average optimal SSD of all 2,187 combinations of inputs was 120% SSD and average maximum increase in profit was $99/stall per year. Of the 2,187 combinations of inputs, 18% were ascending (maximum increase in profit >150% SSD), 33% were descending (maximum profit at 100% SSD), and 50% had a maximum increase in profit between 100 and 150% SSD. The second metamodel accurately captured changes in profit for all combinations of biological and external inputs and SSD. A third metamodel captured breakeven daily milk losses which would result in the same profit as at 100% SSD given the same external farm factors. In

  5. Influence of lactation on metabolic characteristics and embryo development in postpartum Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Maillo, V; Rizos, D; Besenfelder, U; Havlicek, V; Kelly, A K; Garrett, M; Lonergan, P

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the direct effect of lactation on the ability of the reproductive tract of postpartum dairy cows to support early embryo development. Twenty-one primiparous Holstein heifers were used. Immediately after calving, half of the cows were dried off (i.e., never milked), and the other half entered the milking herd and were milked twice daily. Jugular blood samples were taken twice per week from 15 d before calving to approximately 100 d postpartum to measure nonesterified fatty acids, β-hydroxybutyrate, glucose, insulin, and insulin-like growth factor-I. At the same time, body weight and body condition score were recorded for each cow. At approximately 60 d postpartum (experiment 1), approximately 65 two- to four-cell embryos, produced by in vitro maturation and fertilization, were endoscopically transferred to the oviduct ipsilateral to the corpus luteum of all cows on d 2 of the estrous cycle. Five days later (d 7), the oviduct and uterus were flushed nonsurgically and the number of embryos developing to the blastocyst stage was recorded. At approximately 90 d postpartum (experiment 2), the estrous cycles of the same cows were resynchronized and 15 to 20 in vitro-produced blastocysts were transferred to the uterus of each recipient on d 7. All cows were slaughtered on d 14 to assess embryo survival and dimensions. Body weight and body condition score were significantly different between groups for the entire postpartum period of the study. Concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate were higher and concentrations of glucose, insulin, and insulin-like growth factor-I were lower in lactating compared with nonlactating cows. Embryo recovery rates from lactating and dry cows were similar. In experiment 1, fewer embryos developed to the blastocyst stage in the lactating cows compared with the nonlactating cows. In experiment 2, embryo survival and conceptus dimensions were not different between lactating and

  6. Use of monosodium glutamate by-product in cow diet on performance of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Padunglerk, Achira; Prasanpanich, Somkiert; Kongmun, Phongthorn

    2017-01-01

    Eight multiparous lactating Holstein cows were randomly assigned in a 4 × 4 replicated Latin square design to receive four dietary treatments. The dietary treatments were monosodium glutamate by-product (MSGB) replacement for soybean meal in concentrate at four levels: MSGB replacement at 0, 20, 40 and 60%, respectively. Pangola hay was given on an ad libitum basis. It was found that total dry matter intake, concentrate intake, pangola hay intake and all apparent digestibilities were not different among treatments. Ammonia nitrogen concentration in the rumen at 4 h post-feeding was significantly different, in which the 0% treatment had the highest (P < 0.05) while the 20% treatment had the lowest. Milk fat percentage was the highest (P < 0.05) in the 0% treatment. MSGB replacement at 40% and 60% were shown to be the lowest (P < 0.05) feed cost for milk production, and profitability of milk production was the highest (P < 0.05) for the 60% treatment. Based on this experiment, it could be concluded that MSGB replacement for soybean meal at 20-60% in the feed for dairy cows presented no negative effects on their performances. In addition, it could decrease feed cost 2.9-17.3% and increase milk production profit up to 33.3% in the 60% treatment.

  7. Relationship among blood indicators of lipomobilization and hepatic function during early lactation in high-yielding dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    Muiño, Rodrigo; Pereira, Víctor; Campos, Rómulo; Benedito, José Luis

    2011-01-01

    Blood indicators are used as a tool to diagnose metabolic disorders. The present work was conducted to study the relationships among blood indicators of lipomobilization and hepatic function in high-yielding dairy cows. Two groups of Holstein cows were studied: 27 early lactation cows and 14 mid lactation cows from four different herds with similar husbandry characteristics in Galicia, Spain. Blood samples were obtained to measure beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), triglycerides (TG), and the activity of aspartate transaminase (AST) and gamma-glutamyl transferase. Cows in early lactation had higher levels of BHB and NEFA than mid lactation cows. High lipomobilization (NEFA > 400 µmol/L) was detected in 67% and 7% of early lactation and mid lactation cows, respectively, while subclinical ketosis (BHB > 1.2 mmol/L) was detected in 41% and 28% of the early lactation and lactation cows, respectively. TG concentrations were low in all cows suffering subclinical ketosis and in 61% of the cows with high lipomobilization. During early lactation, 30% of cows suffered hepatic lipidosis as detected by levels of AST. Compromised hepatic function was observed in early lactation cows as shown by lower concentrations of glucose, total protein, and urea. PMID:21897097

  8. Alterations of antioxidant status markers in dairy cows during lactation and in the dry period.

    PubMed

    Omidi, Arash; Fathi, Mohammad Hasan; Parker, Matthew O

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of the study reported in this Research Communication was to evaluate alterations in concentration of total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of plasma, plasma total thiols as markers of oxidative protein damage and malondialdehyde (as a final product of lipid peroxidation) in samples obtained at different stages of the lactation cycle and dry period of dairy cows. We found that TAC was significantly lower in the primiparous cows compared to multiparous cows. This study clearly demonstrates a need for monitoring primiparous cows during the production cycle, especially when they are faced with severe metabolic conditions. Furthermore, TAC may be a sensitive, reliable and useful indicator for measurement of cumulative effects of antioxidants as an addition to metabolic profile tests, which are currently used to analyse dairy cattle health.

  9. Pharmacokinetics of sulphadiazine-trimethoprim in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kaartinen, L; Löhönen, K; Wiese, B; Franklin, A; Pyörälä, S

    1999-01-01

    Five Finnish Ayrshire cows in mid or end-lactation were treated with 40 mg sulphadiazine/kg and 8 mg trimethoprim/kg using intravenous (i.v.), intramuscular (i.m.) and subcutaneous (s.c.) routes. Elimination of sulphadiazine was not affected by the route of administration (median t1/2 4.4-5.0 h) while elimination of trimethoprim was strongly limited by slow absorption from the injection site after s.c. and i.m. administration (median for apparent t1/2 21-25 h) compared to that after i.v. administration (median t1/2 1.2 h; p < 0.05). The median bioavailability of trimethoprim was also decreased, being 37% and 55% after s.c. and i.m. administration, respectively. When i.v. administration was used, trimethoprim concentration exceeded 0.1 mg/l in milk between 0.15-8 h while sulphadiazine concentrations above 2 mg/l were maintained from 0.5-2 h to 8 h. After s.c. and i.m. administration sulphadiazine in milk behaved similar to that after i.v. administration, while trimethoprim time-concentration curves were flat and trimethoprim concentrations were around 0.1 mg/l for an extended period of time (8-12 h). Median Cmax values in milk were only 0.07 mg/l and 0.10 mg/l for s.c. and i.m. administrations, respectively. After s.c. administration, 4 out of 5 cows showed signs of pain. After i.m. administration, 2 of the cows showed clear signs of pain and one had some local tenderness at the site of injection.

  10. Feeding behavior of lactating dairy cows as measured by time-lapse photography.

    PubMed

    Vasilatos, R; Wangsness, P J

    1980-03-01

    Evaluation of feeding behavior of ad libitum-fed lactating dairy cows by time-lapse photography revealed 68% of the total feeding activity occurred between the daylight hours of 0600 and 1800. Cows consumed an average of 12.1 meals/day, each 20.9 min in duration. Only 58% of the total defined meal time actually was spent eating, or 253.6 min/cow per day. Estimated meal size and rate of eating, as well as total daily time spent eating, were greater for cows as compared to animals with lower energy demand. Certain feeding characteristics, such as meal frequency and duration, were variable among animals, suggesting that these behaviors may be characteristics of individual cows. Results by time-lapse photography compared well with direct measurement by weigh-cell apparatus.

  11. Analysis of reproductive performance of lactating cows on large dairy farms using machine learning algorithms.

    PubMed

    Caraviello, D Z; Weigel, K A; Craven, M; Gianola, D; Cook, N B; Nordlund, K V; Fricke, P M; Wiltbank, M C

    2006-12-01

    The fertility of lactating dairy cows is economically important, but the mean reproductive performance of Holstein cows has declined during the past 3 decades. Traits such as first-service conception rate and pregnancy status at 150 d in milk (DIM) are influenced by numerous explanatory factors common to specific farms or individual cows on these farms. Machine learning algorithms offer great flexibility with regard to problems of multicollinearity, missing values, or complex interactions among variables. The objective of this study was to use machine learning algorithms to identify factors affecting the reproductive performance of lactating Holstein cows on large dairy farms. This study used data from farms in the Alta Genetics Advantage progeny-testing program. Production and reproductive records from 153 farms were obtained from on-farm DHI-Plus, Dairy Comp 305, or PCDART herd management software. A survey regarding management, facilities, labor, nutrition, reproduction, genetic selection, climate, and milk production was completed by managers of 103 farms; body condition scores were measured by a single evaluator on 63 farms; and temperature data were obtained from nearby weather stations. The edited data consisted of 31,076 lactation records, 14,804 cows, and 317 explanatory variables for first-service conception rate and 17,587 lactation records, 9,516 cows, and 341 explanatory variables for pregnancy status at 150 DIM. An alternating decision tree algorithm for first-service conception rate classified 75.6% of records correctly and identified the frequency of hoof trimming maintenance, type of bedding in the dry cow pen, type of cow restraint system, and duration of the voluntary waiting period as key explanatory variables. An alternating decision tree algorithm for pregnancy status at 150 DIM classified 71.4% of records correctly and identified bunk space per cow, temperature for thawing semen, percentage of cows with low body condition scores, number of

  12. Effect of concentrate feeding method on the performance of dairy cows in early to mid lactation.

    PubMed

    Purcell, P J; Law, R A; Gordon, A W; McGettrick, S A; Ferris, C P

    2016-04-01

    The objective of the current study was to determine the effects of concentrate feeding method on milk yield and composition, dry matter (DM) intake (DMI), body weight and body condition score, reproductive performance, energy balance, and blood metabolites of housed (i.e., accommodated indoors) dairy cows in early to mid lactation. Eighty-eight multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows were managed on 1 of 4 concentrate feeding methods (CFM; 22 cows per CFM) for the first 21 wk postpartum. Cows on all 4 CFM were offered grass silage plus maize silage (in a 70:30 ratio on a DM basis) ad libitum throughout the study. In addition, cows had a target concentrate allocation of 11 kg/cow per day (from d 13 postpartum) via 1 of 4 CFM, consisting of (1) offered on a flat-rate basis via an out-of-parlor feeding system, (2) offered based on individual cow's milk yields in early lactation via an out-of-parlor feeding system, (3) offered as part of a partial mixed ration (target intake of 5 kg/cow per day) with additional concentrate offered based on individual cow's milk yields in early lactation via an out-of-parlor feeding system, and (4) offered as part of a partial mixed ration containing a fixed quantity of concentrate for each cow in the group. In addition, all cows were offered 1 kg/cow per day of concentrate pellets via an in-parlor feeding system. We detected no effect of CFM on concentrate or total DMI, mean daily milk yield, concentrations and yields of milk fat and protein, or metabolizable energy intakes, requirements, or balances throughout the study. We also found no effects of CFM on mean or final body weight, mean or final body condition score, conception rates to first service, or any of the blood metabolites examined. The results of this study suggest that CFM has little effect on the overall performance of higher-yielding dairy cows in early to mid lactation when offered diets based on conserved forages.

  13. Genetics of alternative definitions of feed efficiency in grazing lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hurley, A M; López-Villalobos, N; McParland, S; Lewis, E; Kennedy, E; O'Donovan, M; Burke, J L; Berry, D P

    2017-07-01

    The objective of the present study was to estimate genetic parameters across lactation for measures of energy balance (EB) and a range of feed efficiency variables as well as to quantify the genetic inter-relationships between them. Net energy intake (NEI) from pasture and concentrate intake was estimated up to 8 times per lactation for 2,481 lactations from 1,274 Holstein-Friesian cows. A total of 8,134 individual feed intake measurements were used. Efficiency traits were either ratio based or residual based; the latter were derived from least squares regression models. Residual energy intake (REI) was defined as NEI minus predicted energy requirements [e.g., net energy of lactation (NEL), maintenance, and body tissue anabolism] or supplied from body tissue mobilization; residual energy production was defined as the difference between actual NEL and predicted NEL based on NEI, maintenance, and body tissue anabolism/catabolism. Energy conversion efficiency was defined as NEL divided by NEI. Random regression animal models were used to estimate residual, additive genetic, and permanent environmental (co)variances across lactation. Heritability across lactation stages varied from 0.03 to 0.36 for all efficiency traits. Within-trait genetic correlations tended to weaken as the interval between lactation stages compared lengthened for EB, REI, residual energy production, and NEI. Analysis of eigenvalues and associated eigenfunctions for EB and the efficiency traits indicate the ability to genetically alter the profile of these lactation curves to potentially improve dairy cow efficiency differently at different stages of lactation. Residual energy intake and EB were moderately to strongly genetically correlated with each other across lactation (genetic correlations ranged from 0.45 to 0.90), indicating that selection for lower REI alone (i.e., deemed efficient cows) would favor cows with a compromised energy status; nevertheless, selection for REI within a holistic

  14. The Use of “Omics” in Lactation Research in Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shanshan; Wang, Quanjuan; Lin, Xiujuan; Jin, Xiaolu; Liu, Lan; Wang, Caihong; Chen, Qiong; Liu, Jianxin; Liu, Hongyun

    2017-01-01

    “Omics” is the application of genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics in biological research. Over the years, tremendous amounts of biological information has been gathered regarding the changes in gene, mRNA and protein expressions as well as metabolites in different physiological conditions and regulations, which has greatly advanced our understanding of the regulation of many physiological and pathophysiological processes. The aim of this review is to comprehensively describe the advances in our knowledge regarding lactation mainly in dairy cows that were obtained from the “omics” studies. The “omics” technologies have continuously been preferred as the technical tools in lactation research aiming to develop new nutritional, genetic, and management strategies to improve milk production and milk quality in dairy cows. PMID:28475129

  15. Lactation performance of dairy cows fed increasing concentrations of wheat dried distillers grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Abdelqader, M M; Oba, M

    2012-07-01

    In Western Canada, dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) is produced from mixtures of corn and wheat at variable ratios, and used as a source of dietary crude protein (CP) in diets of lactating dairy cows. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of increasing dietary allocation of wheat DDGS on dry matter intake, milk production, milk composition, feed efficiency, plasma metabolites, and ruminal fermentation of dairy cows in midlactation. Sixteen multiparous and 16 primiparous lactating Holstein cows were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with 3-wk periods. Dietary treatments were a control diet containing canola meal as the primary protein source (CON) and diets containing increasing concentrations of wheat DDGS in place of corn DDGS (0, 50, and 100% of dietary DDGS allocation). The treatment protein sources supplied approximately 35% of dietary CP. Yields of milk, milk fat, lactose, and energy-corrected milk were greater for diets containing DDGS compared with the CON diet. Although cows fed the DDGS diets tended to have lower CP digestibility compared with those fed the CON diet, concentrations of ruminal ammonia nitrogen, plasma urea nitrogen, and milk urea nitrogen were higher, but milk protein concentration was lower for cows fed the DDGS diets. Although dry matter intake increased linearly as the dietary allocation of wheat DDGS increased, milk yield was not affected, thus decreasing feed efficiency linearly. Feeding increasing levels of wheat DDGS tended to decrease plasma glucose concentration linearly. Plasma Leu concentration decreased linearly and plasma Gln concentration increased linearly as dietary inclusion of wheat DDGS increased. Apparent total-tract digestibility of nutrients except for CP was not affected by dietary treatments. A mixture of wheat and corn DDGS seems to have similar feeding values to both DDGS sources and it can be used as an alternative protein source in diets for lactating dairy cows

  16. Effects of injectable trace mineral supplementation in lactating dairy cows with elevated somatic cell counts.

    PubMed

    Ganda, E K; Bisinotto, R S; Vasquez, A K; Teixeira, A G V; Machado, V S; Foditsch, C; Bicalho, M; Lima, F S; Stephens, L; Gomes, M S; Dias, J M; Bicalho, R C

    2016-09-01

    Objectives of this clinical trial were to evaluate the effects of injectable trace mineral supplementation (ITMS) on somatic cell count (SCC), linear score (LS), milk yield, milk fat and protein contents, subclinical mastitis cure, and incidence of clinical mastitis in cows with elevated SCC. Holstein cows from a commercial dairy farm in New York were evaluated for subclinical mastitis, defined as SCC ≥200×10(3) cells/mL on the test day preceding enrollment. Cows with a history of treatment for clinical mastitis in the current lactation and those pregnant for more than 150d were not eligible for enrollment. Cows fitting inclusion criteria were randomly allocated to 1 of 2 treatment groups. Cows assigned to ITMS (n=306) received 1 subcutaneous injection containing zinc (300mg), manganese (50mg), selenium (25mg), and copper (75mg) at enrollment (d 0). Control cows (CTRL; n=314) received 1 subcutaneous injection of sterile saline solution. Following treatment, visual assessment of milk was performed daily, and cows with abnormal milk (i.e., presence of flakes, clots, or serous milk) were diagnosed with clinical mastitis (CM). Chronic clinical mastitis was defined as cows with 3 or more cases of CM. Milk yield, milk fat and protein contents, SCC, and LS were evaluated once monthly. Additionally, randomly selected animals were sampled to test serum concentrations of selected minerals on d0 and 30 (n=30 cows/treatment). Treatment did not affect serum concentrations of calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, copper, iron, manganese, selenium, and zinc on d30. Injectable supplementation with trace minerals did not improve overall cure of subclinical mastitis (CTRL=42.8 vs. ITMS=46.5%), although a tendency was observed in cows with 3 or more lactations (CTRL=27.1 vs. ITMS=40.0%). Supplementation did not reduce treatment incidence of CM (CTRL=48.2 vs. ITMS=41.7%); however, it tended to reduce the proportion of cows diagnosed with chronic CM (CTRL=16.9 vs. ITMS=12

  17. Drinking behavior of lactating dairy cows and prediction of their water intake.

    PubMed

    Cardot, V; Le Roux, Y; Jurjanz, S

    2008-06-01

    The water intake of 41 lactating dairy cows managed according to current dairy farm practices was individually and continuously monitored to 1) investigate drinking behavior and 2) determine factors affecting water intake. The cows were housed in a free-stall barn and fed once daily with a corn silage and concentrate-based total mixed ration (48% dry matter content; 20.6 +/- 3.3 kg/d of dry matter intake). Cows were milked twice daily, with a yield of 26.5 +/- 5.9 kg/d. The daily free water intake (FWI) was 83.6 +/- 17.1 L, achieved during 7.3 +/- 2.8 drinking bouts. The drinking bout water intake was 12.9 +/- 5.0 L. Almost three-fourths of the FWI occurred during working hours (0600 to 1900 h). Consumption peaks corresponded to feeding and milking times. More than one quarter of the daily FWI was met during the 2 h after each milking. About 75% of the present cows visited the watering point at least once during the 2 h after the evening milking. It is probable that drinking behavior evolved with lactation, but further studies are required to identify the relationship between lactation stage and drinking behavior. The most relevant factors affecting the daily FWI of lactating cows were best combined according to the following predictive equation: (R(2) = 0.45; n = 41 cows, n = 1,837): FWI, L/d = 1.53 x dry matter intake (kg/d) + 1.33 x milk yield (kg/d) + 0.89 x dry matter content (%) + 0.57 x minimum temperature ( degrees C) - 0.30 x rainfall (mm/d) - 25.65. The results obtained using these equations were in agreement with the equations developed by other researchers.

  18. Effect of the prolactin-release inhibitor quinagolide on lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Lacasse, P; Lollivier, V; Bruckmaier, R M; Boisclair, Y R; Wagner, G F; Boutinaud, M

    2011-03-01

    In most mammals, prolactin (PRL) is essential for maintaining lactation, and yet the short-term suppression of PRL during established lactation by bromocriptine has produced inconsistent effects on milk yield in cows and goats. To assess the effect of the long-term inhibition of PRL release in lactating dairy cows, 5 Holstein cows in early lactation received daily intramuscular injections of 1mg of the PRL-release inhibitor quinagolide for 9 wk. Four control cows received the vehicle (water) only. During the last week of the treatments, one udder half was milked once a day (1×) and the other twice a day (2×). Blood samples were harvested at milking in wk -1, 1, 4, and 8. The daily injections of quinagolide reduced milking-induced PRL release but not the basal PRL concentration. Quinagolide induced a faster decline in milk production, which was about 5.3 kg/d lower in the quinagolide-treated cows during the last 4 wk of treatment. During wk 9, the inhibition of milk production by quinagolide was maintained in the udder half that was milked 2× but not in the half milked 1×. Milk production was significantly correlated with the quantity of PRL released at milking. Quinagolide did not affect the release of oxytocin at milking. Serum concentration of insulin-like growth factor-1 was not affected by treatment or correlated with milk production. Serum concentrations of leptin and the calciotropic hormone stanniocalcin were not affected by the treatment. In conclusion, the chronic administration of the PRL-release inhibitor quinagolide decreases milk production in dairy cows. The effect is likely the result of the reduced release of milking-induced PRL and is modulated at the level of the gland by milking frequency.

  19. Supplementation with conjugated linoleic acids extends the adiponectin deficit during early lactation in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shiva P; Häussler, Susanne; Heinz, Johanna F L; Saremi, Behnam; Mielenz, Birgit; Rehage, Jürgen; Dänicke, Sven; Mielenz, Manfred; Sauerwein, Helga

    2014-03-01

    Decreasing insulin sensitivity (IS) in peripheral tissues allows for partitioning nutrients towards the mammary gland. In dairy cows, extensive lipid mobilization and continued insulin resistance (IR) are typical for early lactation. Adiponectin, an adipokine, promotes IS. Supplementation with conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) in rodents and humans reduces fat mass whereby IR and hyperinsulinemia may occur. In dairy cows, CLA reduce milk fat, whereas body fat, serum free fatty acids and leptin are not affected. We aimed to investigate the effects of CLA supplementation on serum and adipose tissue (AT) adiponectin concentrations in dairy cows during the lactation driven and parity modulated changes of metabolism. High yielding cows (n=33) were allocated on day 1 post partum to either 100 g/day of a CLA mixture or a control fat supplement (CON) until day 182 post partum. Blood and subcutaneous (sc) AT (AT) biopsy samples were collected until day 252 post partum to measure adiponectin. Serum adiponectin decreased from day 21 pre partum reaching a nadir at calving and thereafter increased gradually. The distribution of adiponectin molecular weight forms was neither affected by time, parity nor treatment. Cows receiving CLA had decreased serum adiponectin concentrations whereby primiparous cows responded about 4 weeks earlier than multiparous cows. The time course of adiponectin concentrations in sc AT (corrected for residual blood) was similar to serum concentrations, without differences between CLA and CON. CLA supplementation attenuated the post partum increase of circulating adiponectin thus acting towards prolongation of peripartal IR and drain of nutrients towards the mammary gland. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaporative tunnel cooling of dairy cows in the southeast. II: impact on lactation performance.

    PubMed

    Smith, T R; Chapa, A; Willard, S; Herndon, C; Williams, R J; Crouch, J; Riley, T; Pogue, D

    2006-10-01

    Heat stress has a dramatic impact on the dairy industry, reducing production and profitability throughout the southeastern United States. In many regions, management techniques can be used to mitigate the effects of heat stress, but available cooling technologies are often overwhelmed by the conditions of chronic heat stress present in southeastern United States. Although combining tunnel ventilation and evaporative cooling (evaporative tunnel cooling) seems to provide superior cooling for dairy cows, there is a dearth of reports on the impact of this technology on milk production. A model evaporative tunnel cooling facility in northern Mississippi was studied using 2 groups of 10 lactating Holstein cows housed in the tunnel barn and 2 groups of 10 matched herdmates housed in an adjacent naturally ventilated free-stall barn. Two 10-wk trials were performed in 2 yr beginning June 25, 2001, and May 26, 2003, in which cows housed outside were cooled by traditional fans and shade alone (2003) or with sprinklers (2001). In both years, the use of evaporative tunnel cooling decreased exposure to conditions of moderate heat stress by 84%. Cows cooled by evaporative tunnel ventilation increased feed intake by 12 and 11% over cows housed outside in 2001 and 2003, respectively. Evaporative tunnel cooling had no effect on milk composition, but increased milk yield over the 10-wk trial by 2.6 +/- 0.27 and 2.8 +/- 0.19 kg/cow per day in 2001 and 2003, respectively. In addition, somatic cell count was decreased 27 to 49% by evaporative tunnel cooling. Thus, under the range of environmental conditions present, evaporative tunnel cooling reliably reduced exposure to conditions of heat stress and improved milk production of lactating dairy cows during the summer season.

  1. Ammonia-treated alfalfa silage for lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kung, L; Craig, W M; Satter, L D

    1989-10-01

    Alfalfa was treated (3.3% of forage wet weight) with an aqua-NH3 (14% N) mix prior to ensiling in 2 consecutive yr. In the 1st yr, NH3-treated silage containing 30.5% DM was higher in pH, N, NH3N, acetic acid and butyric acid contents, and lower in amino acids, soluble carbohydrates, and lactic acid than two untreated silages having 32.8 and 47.5% DM. Milk composition and DM intake did not differ among treatments when these silages constituted 50% of the dietary DM and were fed to lactating cows. In situ and in vitro, but not in vivo, digestion of NDF was greater for NH3 silage. Dry matter content of NH3-treated silage in the 2nd yr was 36.1% and that of the two untreated silages was 37.8 and 54.9%. Silage N, NH3N, and acetic acid content were greater in treated silage. However, pH and butyric acid content were similar among treatments and lactic acid was greater for treated silage. Similar to findings in the 1st yr, milk production and DM intake were not different among treatments. Adding NH3 to alfalfa decreased proteolysis; however, when DM was low (30.5%), the buffering effect of NH3 apparently resulted in increased clostridial fermentation. This did not occur when silage DM was increased to 36.1%, presumably due to higher osmotic pressure. Ammonia addition enhanced fiber digestibility but had no effect on milk production.

  2. Effect of dietary phosphorus on performance of lactating dairy cows: milk production and cow health.

    PubMed

    Lopez, H; Kanitz, F D; Moreira, V R; Wiltbank, M C; Satter, L D

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to measure cow response to feeding of two dietary concentrations of P, one of which was close to recent National Research Council requirements, and the other of which was well in excess of the requirement. Diets containing 0.37 or 0.57% P (dry basis) were fed to Holstein cows for the first 165 d of lactation, and occasionally longer until cows were confirmed pregnant approximately 60 d after insemination. At calving, cows were randomly assigned to experimental diets. The number of cows completing a minimum of 165 d of lactation was 123 for the 0.37 and 124 for the 0.57% P groups. Cows were housed in a stanchion barn and fed one of two transition diets, each formulated to contain one of the P treatments for the first 3 wk of lactation, and then cows were moved to a free-stall barn where the experimental diets were group fed. Milk production, milk fat, and milk protein averaged 35.1 kg/d, 3.92%, and 2.90% for the 0.37% P diet, and 34.9 kg/d, 3.98%, and 2.91% for the 0.57% P diet. None of these measures were different between treatments. Blood serum P concentrations on d 50 and 100 of lactation averaged 6.1 and 6.2 mg/dL for the 0.37% P diet, and 6.8 and 6.9 mg/dL for the 0.57% P diet. No treatment differences were detected in milk production, cow health, or body condition score.

  3. Relationships between fertility and postpartum changes in body condition and body weight in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, P D; Souza, A H; Amundson, M C; Hackbart, K S; Fuenzalida, M J; Herlihy, M M; Ayres, H; Dresch, A R; Vieira, L M; Guenther, J N; Grummer, R R; Fricke, P M; Shaver, R D; Wiltbank, M C

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between energy status and fertility in dairy cattle was retrospectively analyzed by comparing fertility with body condition score (BCS) near artificial insemination (AI; experiment 1), early postpartum changes in BCS (experiment 2), and postpartum changes in body weight (BW; experiment 3). To reduce the effect of cyclicity status, all cows were synchronized with Double-Ovsynch protocol before timed AI. In experiment 1, BCS of lactating dairy cows (n = 1,103) was evaluated near AI. Most cows (93%) were cycling at initiation of the breeding Ovsynch protocol (first GnRH injection). A lower percentage pregnant to AI (P/AI) was found in cows with lower (≤ 2.50) versus higher (≥ 2.75) BCS (40.4 vs. 49.2%). In experiment 2, lactating dairy cows on 2 commercial dairies (n = 1,887) were divided by BCS change from calving until the third week postpartum. Overall, P/AI at 70-d pregnancy diagnosis differed dramatically by BCS change and was least for cows that lost BCS, intermediate for cows that maintained BCS, and greatest for cows that gained BCS [22.8% (180/789), 36.0% (243/675), and 78.3% (331/423), respectively]. Surprisingly, a difference existed between farms with BCS change dramatically affecting P/AI on one farm and no effect on the other farm. In experiment 3, lactating dairy cows (n = 71) had BW measured weekly from the first to ninth week postpartum and then had superovulation induced using a modified Double-Ovsynch protocol. Cows were divided into quartiles (Q) by percentage of BW change (Q1 = least change; Q4 = most change) from calving until the third week postpartum. No effect was detected of quartile on number of ovulations, total embryos collected, or percentage of oocytes that were fertilized; however, the percentage of fertilized oocytes that were transferable embryos was greater for cows in Q1, Q2, and Q3 than Q4 (83.8, 75.2, 82.6, and 53.2%, respectively). In addition, percentage of degenerated embryos was least for cows in Q1, Q2

  4. Fertility of lactating dairy cows administered recombinant bovine somatotropin during heat stress.

    PubMed

    Jousan, F D; de Castro e Paula, L A; Block, J; Hansen, P J

    2007-01-01

    Administration of recombinant bovine somatotropin (bST) to lactating dairy cows during heat stress increases milk yield, but it also can increase body temperature and may therefore compromise fertility. However, it is possible that bST treatment could increase fertility during heat stress because it has been reported to increase fertility in lactating cows. In addition, bST increases secretion of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) that promotes embryo survival. The purpose of this study was to determine effects of bST on reproductive function in lactating dairy cows during heat stress. The experiment was conducted in southern Georgia from July to November 2005 using lactating Holstein cows (n = 276 for reproductive traits). For first service timed artificial insemination (TAI), cows were presynchronized with 2 injections of PGF(2alpha) given 14 d apart followed by a modified Ovsynch protocol (GnRH and insemination at 72 h following PGF(2alpha) ). Pregnancy was diagnosed by using ultrasonography on d 29 and reconfirmed by palpation between d 45 and 80 post-TAI. Nonpregnant cows were resynchronized with the modified Ovsynch protocol and received a second TAI. Treatment with bST started 1 wk before the start of Ovsynch and continued at 2-wk intervals. Blood samples were collected from a subset of cows to determine IGF-I profiles immediately before the first bST injection, 1 wk later, and at d 35 of bST treatment. Rectal temperatures were assessed on d 29 of bST treatment. Pregnancy rates (d 45 to 80 post-TAI) did not differ between bST and control cows for first- (16.7 vs. 15.2%) or second-service TAI (14.8 vs. 17.2%). Plasma concentrations of IGF-I and milk yield were greater for bST-treated cows following the initiation of bST treatment and bST increased rectal and vaginal temperatures. Body condition score was less for bST-treated cows. In conclusion, treatment with bST during heat stress increased IGF-I concentrations, milk yield over time, and rectal and

  5. Choline and Choline Metabolite Patterns and Associations in Blood and Milk during Lactation in Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Artegoitia, Virginia M.; Middleton, Jesse L.; Harte, Federico M.; Campagna, Shawn R.; de Veth, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Milk and dairy products are an important source of choline, a nutrient essential for human health. Infant formula derived from bovine milk contains a number of metabolic forms of choline, all contribute to the growth and development of the newborn. At present, little is known about the factors that influence the concentrations of choline metabolites in milk. The objectives of this study were to characterize and then evaluate associations for choline and its metabolites in blood and milk through the first 37 weeks of lactation in the dairy cow. Milk and blood samples from twelve Holstein cows were collected in early, mid and late lactation and analyzed for acetylcholine, free choline, betaine, glycerophosphocholine, lysophosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylcholine, phosphocholine and sphingomyelin using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and quantified using stable isotope-labeled internal standards. Total choline concentration in plasma, which was almost entirely phosphatidylcholine, increased 10-times from early to late lactation (1305 to 13,535 µmol/L). In milk, phosphocholine was the main metabolite in early lactation (492 µmol/L), which is a similar concentration to that found in human milk, however, phosphocholine concentration decreased exponentially through lactation to 43 µmol/L in late lactation. In contrast, phosphatidylcholine was the main metabolite in mid and late lactation (188 µmol/L and 659 µmol/L, respectively), with the increase through lactation positively correlated with phosphatidylcholine in plasma (R2 = 0.78). Unlike previously reported with human milk we found no correlation between plasma free choline concentration and milk choline metabolites. The changes in pattern of phosphocholine and phosphatidylcholine in milk through lactation observed in the bovine suggests that it is possible to manufacture infant formula that more closely matches these metabolites profile in human milk. PMID:25157578

  6. Direct and carryover effect of post-grazing sward height on total lactation dairy cow performance.

    PubMed

    Ganche, E; Delaby, L; O'Donovan, M; Boland, T M; Kennedy, E

    2013-08-01

    Grazing pastures to low post-grazing sward heights (PGSH) is a strategy to maximise the quantity of grazed grass in the diet of dairy cows within temperate grass-based systems. Within Irish spring-calving systems, it was hypothesised that grazing swards to very low PGSH would increase herbage availability during early lactation but would reduce dairy cow performance, the effect of which would persist in subsequent lactation performance when compared with cows grazing to a higher PGSH. Seventy-two Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (mean calving date, 12 February) were randomly assigned post-calving across two PGSH treatments (n = 36): 2.7 cm (severe; S1) and 3.5 cm (moderate; M1), which were applied from 10 February to 18 April (period 1; P1). This was followed by a carryover period (period 2; P2) during which cows were randomly reassigned within their P1 treatment across two further PGSH (n = 18): 3.5 cm (severe, SS and MS) and 4.5 cm (moderate, SM and MM) until 30 October. Decreasing PGSH from 3.5 to 2.7 cm significantly decreased milk (-2.3 kg/cow per day), protein (-95 g/day), fat (-143 g/day) and lactose (-109 g/day) yields, milk protein (-1.2 g/kg) and fat (-2.2 g/kg) concentrations and grass dry matter intake (GDMI; -1.7 kg dry matter/cow per day). The severe PGSH was associated with a lower bodyweight (BW) at the end of P1. There was no carryover effect of P1 PGSH on subsequent milk or milk solids yields in P2, but PGSH had a significant carryover effect on milk fat and lactose concentrations. Animals severely restricted at pasture in early spring had a higher BW and slightly higher body condition score in later lactation when compared with M1 animals. During P2, increasing PGSH from 3.5 to 4.5 cm increased milk and milk solids yield as a result of greater GDMI and resulted in higher mean BW and end BW. This study indicates that following a 10-week period of feed restriction, subsequent dairy cow cumulative milk production is unaffected. However, the substantial

  7. Factors of a noninfectious nature affecting fertility after artificial insemination in lactating dairy cows. A review.

    PubMed

    López-Gatius, F

    2012-04-01

    After 80 years of the commercial application of artificial insemination (AI) in the cow, the method still has numerous benefits over natural insemination including worldwide gene improvement. The efficiency of insemination depends, among many other factors, on the delivery of an appropriate number of normal spermatozoa to the appropriate reproductive tract site at the appropriate time of estrus. The metabolic clearance of steroid hormones and pregnancy associated glycoproteins and the negative effects of different types of stress related to high milk production makes the high-producing dairy cow a good animal model for addressing factors affecting fertility. Nevertheless, extensive studies have shown a positive link between high milk production in an individual cow and high fertility. When a cow becomes pregnant, the effect of pregnancy loss on its reproductive cycle is also a topic of interest. This paper reviews the factors of a noninfectious nature that affect the fertility of lactating dairy cows following AI. Special attention is paid to factors related to the cow and its environment and to estrus confirmation at insemination. Pregnancy maintenance during the late embryonic/early fetal period is discussed as a critical step. Finally, the use of Doppler ultrasonography is described as an available research tool for improving our current understanding of the health of the genital structures and conceptus. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Replacing soybean meal for wet brewer's grains or urea on the performance of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Imaizumi, Hugo; Batistel, Fernanda; de Souza, Jonas; Santos, Flávio Augusto Portela

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate the partial replacement of soybean meal (SBM) for wet brewer's grains (WBG) or urea on the performance of lactating dairy cows. The second investigated whether WBG ensiled with corn kept animal performance in low- and high-producing dairy cows compared with WBG. In experiment I, 40 Holstein cows were used in 4 × 4 Latin square design. The treatments comprised WBG or urea as partial replacement for SBM, as follows: control (diet based on SBM and 1 % of urea), 10 % of WBG, 20 % of WBG, and 2 % of urea. Dry matter intake (DMI) was not affected by treatments. WBG increased milk yield linearly, but it decreased with urea. Milk fat content responded quadratically to WBG levels. Milk protein content decreased, while plasma urea nitrogen increased with high urea addition. In experiment II, 42 Holstein cows were divided into two groups according to production levels. Eighteen cows composed the group of low producing, while the high-producing group comprised 24 cows. The experimental design was a crossover with two periods of 14 days. The experimental treatments consisted of feeding WBG or WBG ensiled with ground corn. Regardless of the production level, no difference in milk yield and milk composition between treatments was observed.

  9. Long-term feeding of high zinc sulfate diets to lactating and gestating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Miller, W J; Amos, H E; Gentry, R P; Blackmon, D M; Durrance, R M; Crowe, C T; Fielding, A S; Neathery, M W

    1989-06-01

    Thirty dairy cows, fed a control diet consisting of silage and concentrates, were given either 0, 1000, or 2000 ppm of supplemental Zn (DM basis), from zinc sulfate monohydrate (ZnSO4.H2O) for most of a lactation. Feeding 2000 ppm Zn decreased milk yield and feed intake after several weeks. Some cows were affected more severely than others. Generally, primiparous animals were more tolerant of the high Zn diet than multiparous cows. Milk Zn was materially higher for cows fed 1000 ppm added Zn than controls. With 2000 ppm Zn, milk Zn was elevated further but returned to control values when the high Zn diet was discontinued. Plasma Zn was higher in cows fed supplemental Zn with the increase from 1000 to 2000 greater than that for the first addition. Plasma Cu was lower in cows feed 2000 ppm Zn but milk Cu was not reduced. Milk fat content was not affected, but protein and SNF were reduced by the 12th wk with the 2000 ppm Zn diet. There was no apparent effect on long-term health or performance after the cows were removed from the 2000 ppm Zn diet. Except for lower calf weights with 2000 ppm Zn, reproductive performance was not measurably affected by the dietary treatments. The 1000 ppm added Zn diet had no adverse effect on the cows in any parameter measured.

  10. Relationships between transition period diet, metabolic parameters and fertility in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Pushpakumara, P G A; Gardner, N H; Reynolds, C K; Beever, D E; Wathes, D C

    2003-10-01

    Cows in severe negative energy balance after calving have reduced fertility, mediated by metabolic signals influencing the reproductive system. We hypothesised that transition diet could alter metabolic status after calving, and thus influence fertility. Multiparous dairy cows were assigned to four transition groups 6 weeks pre-calving and fed: (a) basal control diet (n = 10); (b) basal diet plus barley (STARCH, n = 10); (c) basal diet plus Soypass (high protein, HiPROT, n = 11); or (d) no transition management (NoTRANS, n = 9). All cows received the same lactational diet. Blood samples, body weights and condition scores (BCS) were collected weekly. Fertility parameters were monitored using milk progesterone profiles and were not affected by transition diet. Data from all cows were then combined and analysed according to the pattern of post-partum ovarian activity. Cows with low progesterone profiles had significantly lower insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and insulin concentrations accompanied by reduced dry matter intakes (DMIs), BCS and body weight. Cows with prolonged luteal activity (PLA) were older and tended to have lower IGF-I. Analysis based on the calving to conception interval revealed that cows which failed to conceive (9/40) also had reduced IGF-I, BCS and body weight. Fertility was, therefore, decreased in cows which were in poor metabolic status following calving. This was reflected in reduced circulating IGF-I concentrations and compromised both ovarian activity and conception. There was little effect of the transition diets on these parameters.

  11. Comparison of two treatment strategies for cows with metritis in high-risk lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Armengol, Ramon; Fraile, Lorenzo

    2015-05-01

    Acute puerperal metritis (APM) and clinical metritis (CM) are uterine diseases frequently diagnosed in dairy cows. These diseases are responsible for important economic loss because of their effect not only on reproductive performance but also on milk production. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of two different treatments for metritis on dairy cows by measuring their reproductive performance in the next gestation. The end points to measure the reproductive performance included the conception rate at the first artificial insemination, the number of days at conception, and the proportion of nonpregnant cows at over 150 days after beginning milk production. The study was carried out in a high production dairy cow farm located in Lleida (northeast Spain). Recordings of 1044 parturitions of 747 Holstein cows were controlled in this farm from 2009 to 2014. Cows were diagnosed as suffering from metritis (APM or CM) if the following parameters were observed: an abnormally enlarged uterus; a fetid, watery, reddish brown uterine discharge with (APM) or without (CM) fever (>39.5 °C); and presence (APM) or absence (CM) of signs of systemic illness (decreased milk production, dullness, or other signs of toxemia) within 21 days postpartum. Afterwards, cows suffering from metritis (APM or CM) were randomly assigned and balanced to two groups: (1) animals receiving parenteral amoxicillin intramuscularly plus intrauterine infusion with oxytetracycline (P + I group) and (2) animals receiving only parenteral amoxicillin intramuscularly (P group). Furthermore, reproductive performance of cows without metritis was used as reference (control group). Metritis was diagnosed in 27.5% of the total parturitions included in the study (288 of 1044). In particular, metritis was diagnosed in 30.5% (118 of 387) and 25.9% (170 of 657) of parturitions from heifers and multiparous cows, respectively. Reproductive performance was not significantly affected by the parity, the

  12. Increasing estrus expression in the lactating dairy cow.

    PubMed

    Sauls, J A; Voelz, B E; Hill, S L; Mendonça, L G D; Stevenson, J S

    2017-01-01

    Using an activity monitoring system (AMS) equipped with an accelerometer, 2 experiments were conducted to test the hypotheses that (1) enhancing progesterone before inducing luteolysis or (2) exposing cows to estradiol cypionate (ECP) or testosterone propionate (TP) after luteolysis would increase occurrence and intensity of estrus. Our goal was to determine if more cows could be detected in estrus by an AMS compared with other estrus-detection aids. In experiment 1, cows (n=154) were fitted with both an AMS collar and a pressure-sensitive, rump-mounted device (HeatWatch; HW) and assigned to 3 treatments: (1) no CL + progesterone insert (CIDR) for 5d, (2) CL only, or (3) CL + 2 CIDR inserts for 5d to achieve a range in concentrations of progesterone. Prostaglandin F2α was administered to all cows upon CIDR insert removal or its equivalent. Progesterone concentration up to 72h posttreatment was greatest in CL + 2 CIDR, followed by CL only, and no CL + CIDR cows. Estrus occurred 14 to 28h earlier in no CL + CIDR compared with CL-bearing cows. Estrus intensity was greater for CL + 2 CIDR than for CL-only cows. The AMS and HW detected 70 and 59% of cows defined to be in estrus, respectively. In experiment 2, cows (n=203) were equipped with both an AMS and a friction-activated, rump-mounted patch (Estrotect patch) and assigned to receive 1mg of ECP, 2mg of TP, or control 24h after PGF2α. Concentrations of estradiol 24 and 48h after treatment were greater in ECP cows compared with controls. Estrus expression detected by AMS or patches in cows defined to be in estrus tended to be greater or was greater for ECP compared with controls, respectively. Compared with controls and in response to TP or ECP, estrus occurred 8 to 18h earlier and was of greater intensity for ECP cows, respectively. The AMS and patches determined 73 and 76% of cows defined to be in estrus, respectively. Of cows exposed to the AMS, HW, or patches, 70, 61, and 75%, respectively, were detected in

  13. Development and evaluation of models to predict the feed intake of dairy cows in early lactation.

    PubMed

    Shah, M A; Murphy, M R

    2006-01-01

    Inaccurate prediction of dry matter intake (DMI) limits the ability of current models to anticipate the technical and economic consequences of adopting different strategies for production management on individual dairy farms. The objective of the present study was to develop an accurate, robust, and broadly applicable prediction model and to compare it with the current NRC model for dairy cows in early lactation. Among various functions, an exponential model was selected for its best fit to DMI data of dairy cows in early lactation. Daily DMI data (n = 8,547) for 3 groups of Holstein cows (at Illinois, New Hampshire, and Pennsylvania) were used in this study. Cows at Illinois and New Hampshire were fed totally mixed diets for the first 70 d of lactation. At Pennsylvania, data were for the first 63 d postpartum. Data from Illinois cows were used as the developmental dataset, and the other 2 datasets were used for model evaluation and validation. Data for BW, milk yield, and milk composition were only available for Illinois and New Hampshire cows; therefore, only these 2 datasets were used for model comparisons. The exponential model, fitted to the individual cow daily DMI data, explained an average of 74% of the total variation in daily DMI for Illinois data, 49% of the variation for New Hampshire data, 67% of the variation for Pennsylvania data, and 64% of the variation overall. Based on all model selection criteria used in this study, the exponential model for prediction of weekly DMI of individual cows was superior to the current NRC equation. The exponential model explained 85% of the variation in weekly mean DMI compared with 42% for the NRC equation. Compared with the relative prediction error of 6% for the exponential model, that associated with prediction using the NRC equation was 14%. The overall mean square prediction error value for individual cows was 5-fold higher for the NRC equation than for the exponential model (10.4 vs. 2.0 kg2/d2). The

  14. Modification of immune responses and digestive system microbiota of lactating dairy cows by feeding Bovamine(R)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We evaluated the immune modulatory effects as well as effects on productivity of Bovamine® (Lactobacillus acidophilus strain NP51 and Probionibacterium freudenreichii) fed to Holstein and Jersey dairy cows during late lactation (average DIM = 202.44 days on wk-0). Cows were randomized to treatment g...

  15. Exploration of the genetic and biological basis of feed efficiency in mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the genetic basis underlying variation in feed efficiency in mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows. A genome-wide association study was performed for residual feed intake (RFI) and related traits using a large data set, consisting of nearly 5,000 cows. It wa...

  16. Starch levels on performance, milk composition and energy balance of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Carmo, Carolina Almeida; Batistel, Fernanda; de Souza, Jonas; Martinez, Junio Cesar; Correa, Paulo; Pedroso, Alexandre Mendonça; Santos, Flávio Augusto Portela

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of starch levels in diets with the replacement of citrus pulp for corn on milk yield, milk composition, and energy balance of lactating dairy cows. Twenty-eight multiparous Holstein cows were used in seven 4 × 4 Latin squares conducted concurrently, and each experimental period consisted of 20 days (16 days for adaptation and 4 days for sampling). The experimental treatments comprised four starch levels: 15, 20, 25, and 30% in the diet. The dry matter intake increased linearly with increasing starch levels. The milk yield and 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield showed quadratic response to increasing starch levels. The milk protein content and milk total solids content responded linearly to increasing starch levels. The feed efficiency, milk lactose content, milk urea nitrogen, plasma urea nitrogen, and plasma glucose concentration were not affected by starch levels. The estimated net energy for lactation (NEL) intake increased linearly as the starch level was raised. Although the milk NEL output per kilogram of milk was not affected by starch, the milk NEL output daily responded quadratically to starch levels. In addition, the NEL in body weight gain also responded quadratically to increasing starch levels. The efficiency of energy use for milk yield and the NEL efficiency for production also responded quadratically to increasing starch levels. Diets for mid-lactating dairy cows producing around 30 kg/day of milk should be formulated to provide around 25% starch to optimize performance.

  17. Effect of frequency of feed delivery on the behavior and productivity of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hart, K D; McBride, B W; Duffield, T F; DeVries, T J

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of feed delivery frequency on the behavioral patterns and productivity of lactating dairy cows. Twelve freestall-housed, lactating Holstein dairy cows, including 6 primiparous (PP) and 6 multiparous (MP), milked 3 ×/d (at 1400, 2200, and 0600 h), were exposed to each of 3 treatments (over 21-d periods) in a replicated Latin square design. Treatments included feed delivery frequency of (1) 1 ×/d (at 1400 h), (2) 2 ×/d (at 1400 and 2200 h), and (3) 3 ×/d (at 1400, 2200, and 0600 h). Milk production as well as feeding, lying, and rumination behaviors were electronically monitored for each animal for the last 7d of each treatment period. Milk samples were collected for the last 3d of each period for milk component analysis. Dry matter intake (DMI) varied with feed delivery frequency, with greatest DMI observed in cows fed 3 ×/d (27.8 kg/d) compared with those fed 2 ×/d (27.0 kg/d) or 1 ×/d (27.4 kg/d). Treatment had no effect on milk yield (41.3 kg/d) or efficiency of production (1.54 kg of milk/kg of DMI). Cows that did not receive delivery of feed following the 2200 h milking (treatment 1) and 0600 h milking (treatments 1 and 2) had lower DMI during the first hour after milking than those that received feed at all milkings (treatment 3). Total feeding time and meal frequency, size, and duration did not vary by treatment, but PP cows consumed smaller meals at a slower rate, resulting in lower DMI compared with MP cows. Primiparous cows consumed 50.1% and 26.1% less dry matter than MP cows during the first meal following the first and second milkings, respectively. Lying time did not vary by treatment, but PP cows spent more time lying (10.3 vs. 8.3h/d) than MP cows. Under 3 ×/d milking schedules, greater feed delivery frequency resulted in greater DMI as a function of increased DMI following the return from milking and the delivery of feed. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published

  18. Development of Hydrotaea aenescens (Diptera: Muscidae) in manure of unweaned dairy calves and lactating cows.

    PubMed

    Hogsette, Jerome A; Farkas, Róbert; Coler, Reginald R

    2002-04-01

    In laboratory studies performed in the United States and Hungary, the dump fly Hydrotaea aenescens (Wiedemann) was reared successfully in manure of 1- to 8-wk-old dairy calves, and in manure from adult lactating dairy cows. Survival in manure collected from 1-wk-old calves was poor (7.2%), better in manure collected from 2- and 3-wk-old calves (53.5%), and best in manure collected from 4- to 8-wk-old calves (71.4%). Survival in cow manure was slightly lower (47.4%) than that in calf manure. Reasons for different rates of development in the United States and in Hungary, and by calf age are discussed as are implications for biological control.

  19. Dietary energy source in dairy cows in early lactation: metabolites and metabolic hormones.

    PubMed

    van Knegsel, A T M; van den Brand, H; Graat, E A M; Dijkstra, J; Jorritsma, R; Decuypere, E; Tamminga, S; Kemp, B

    2007-03-01

    Negative energy balance-related metabolic disorders suggest that the balance between available lipogenic and glucogenic nutrients is important. The objectives of this study were to compare the effects of a glucogenic or a lipogenic diet on liver triacylglycerides (TAG), metabolites, and metabolic hormones in dairy cows in early lactation and to relate metabolite concentrations to the determined energy retention in body mass (ER). Sixteen dairy cows were fed either a lipogenic or glucogenic diet from wk 3 prepartum to wk 9 postpartum (pp) and were housed in climate respiration chambers from wk 2 to 9 pp. Diets were isocaloric (net energy basis). Postpartum, cows fed a lipogenic diet tended to have higher nonesterified fatty acid concentration (NEFA; 0.46 +/- 0.04 vs. 0.37 +/- 0.04 mmol/L) and lower insulin concentration (4.0 +/- 0.5 vs. 5.5 +/- 0.6 microIU/mL). No difference was found in plasma glucose, beta-hydroxybutyrate, insulin-like growth factor-I, and thyroid hormones. Liver TAG was equal between both diets in wk -2 and 2 pp. In wk 4 pp cows fed the glucogenic diet had numerically lower TAG levels, although there was no significant dietary effect. Negative relationships were detected between ER and milk fat and between ER and NEFA. A positive relationship was detected between ER and insulin concentration. Overall, results suggest that insulin plays a regulating role in altering energy partitioning between milk and body tissue. Feeding lactating dairy cows a glucogenic diet decreased mobilization of body fat compared with a lipogenic diet. The relative abundance of lipogenic nutrients, when feeding a more lipogenic diet, is related to more secretion of lipogenic nutrients in milk, lower plasma insulin, and higher plasma NEFA concentration.

  20. Interrelationships between negative energy balance (NEB) and IGF regulation in liver of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Fenwick, Mark A; Fitzpatrick, Richard; Kenny, David A; Diskin, Michael G; Patton, Joseph; Murphy, John J; Wathes, D Claire

    2008-01-01

    In dairy cows, negative energy balance (NEB) during the early post-partum period is associated with major alterations in the growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor (GH-IGF) axis. Since the liver mediates nutrient partitioning during lactation, we aimed to determine how NEB alters the endocrine regulation of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system by investigating the expression of IGF family members and related steroid receptors. On the second day of lactation, cows were allocated to one of two treatments designed to produce mild (MNEB) or severe NEB (SNEB). MNEB cows (n=5) were fed ad lib grass silage supplemented with concentrate and milked x1 daily and SNEB cows (n=6) were restricted in dietary intake and milked x3 daily. Energy balance (EB) status was monitored until the second week of lactation when plasma and liver samples revealed a markedly divergent metabolic profile. At this time, plasma protein and hepatic mRNA for IGF-I was reduced in SNEB cows compared with MNEB cows. Both levels of expression correlated highly when data from all animals was pooled (r=0.963; P<0.01). SNEB cows also exhibited reduced hepatic expression for transcripts encoding IGF-1R, IGF-2R, IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs) -3, -4, -5, -6, acid labile subunit, and receptors for oestrogen (ERalpha) and growth hormone (total GHR and 1A variant), while the expression of IGFBP-2 was elevated. Expression of mRNA for IGF-II, IGFBP-1 and receptors for insulin (A/B) and glucocorticoid (alpha) was unaffected by EB. Results demonstrate that SNEB affects hepatic synthesis of IGF-I, and other components known to modulate the bioavailability and stability of circulating IGF-I.

  1. Influence of mechanical processing on utilization of corn silage by lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Dhiman, T R; Bal, M A; Wu, Z; Moreira, V R; Shaver, R D; Satter, L D; Shinners, K J; Walgenbach, R P

    2000-11-01

    We conducted three experiments to determine the influence of mechanical processing on corn silage utilization by lactating dairy cows. Total mixed rations contained either unprocessed or processed corn silage harvested between 1/4 and 3/4 milk line. In trial 1, 12 multiparous Holstein cows were used in a replicated double switchback design with 21-d periods. Intake of dry matter (DM) was increased 1.2 kg/d by processing, but milk yield was unaffected. Processing did not affect apparent total-tract DM digestibility, but processing tended to lower starch and corn excretion in feces and reduced concentration of sieved corn kernel particles in feces. In trial 2, 42 Holstein cows were used in an 18-wk randomized complete-block design. Intake of DM and milk yield were unaffected by processing, but milk fat percent was increased 0.35 percentage units by processing. Processing tended to increase total-tract digestibility of starch, but reduced organic matter, crude protein, and neutral detergent fiber digestibilities. In trial 3, 30 Holstein cows were used in a 15-wk randomized complete block design. There was no influence of mechanical processing on intake or lactation performance in this trial. Despite indications of increased starch digestion in two trials and increased DM intake in one trial, effects of processing corn silage on lactation performance were minimal with corn silage at the maturity and moisture contents used in these trials.

  2. Incidence of double ovulation during the early postpartum period in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kusaka, Hiromi; Miura, Hiroshi; Kikuchi, Motohiro; Sakaguchi, Minoru

    2017-03-15

    In lactating cattle, the incidence of twin calving has many negative impacts on production and reproduction in dairy farming. In almost all cases, natural twinning in dairy cattle is the result of double ovulation. It has been suggested that the milk production level of cows influences the number of ovulatory follicles. The objective of the present study was to investigate the incidence of double ovulations during the early postpartum period in relation to the productive and reproductive performance of dairy cows. The ovaries of 43 Holstein cows (26 primiparous and 17 multiparous) were ultrasonographically scanned throughout the three postpartum ovulation sequences. The incidence of double ovulation in the unilateral ovaries was 66.7%, with a higher incidence in the right ovary than in the left, whereas that in bilateral ovaries was 33.3%. When double ovulations were counted dividing into each side ovary in which ovulations occurred, the total frequency of ovulations deviated from a 1:1 ratio (60.3% in the right side and 39.7% in the left side, P < 0.05). In multiparous cows, double ovulation occurred more frequently than in primiparous cows (58.8% vs. 11.5% per cow and 30.0% vs. 3.8% per ovulation, respectively P < 0.01). The double ovulators experienced more anovulatory repeated waves of follicles before their first ovulations than the single ovulators, which resulted in an extension of the period from parturition to third ovulation (81.5 days vs. 64.2 days, P < 0.05). In the multiparous cows, the double ovulators exhibited higher peak milk yield (P < 0.01) with lower milk lactose concentration (P < 0.05), indicating the prevalence of a more severe negative energy balance during the postpartum 3-month compared to the multiparous single ovulators. Our results showed that, regardless of their parity, double ovulation had no impact on the reproductive performance of the cows. Two multiparous cows that experienced double ovulation during the early

  3. Stat5a increases lactation of dairy cow mammary gland epithelial cells cultured in vitro.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao Fei; Li, Meng; Li, Qing Zhang; Lu, Li Min; Tong, Hui Li; Gao, Xue Jun

    2012-10-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 5a (Stat5a) transduces signals of extracellular cytokines and growth factors to the nucleus of mammary gland epithelial cells and thereby regulates gene transcription during pregnancy, lactation, and weaning. However, its function on the milk production of dairy cows needs further investigation. In this experiment, the effects of Stat5a on lactation ability of dairy cow mammary gland epithelial cells (DCMECs) were analyzed. Eukaryotic expression vector pcDNA3.1+-stat5a-αS1 was constructed by inserting stat5a gene into the plasmid vector pcDNA3.1+ and replacing CMV promoter with α-S1-casein 5' flanking sequence. The recombinant vector was stably transfected into DCMECs after geneticin (G418) selection. The proliferation and viability of DCMECs, expression of β-casein and stat5a gene, and the content of lactose were detected. The results showed that stat5a gene in eukaryotic expression vector pcDNA3.1+-stat5a-αS1 was highly expressed in DCMECs and could increase the lactation ability of DCMECs. The associativity of Stat5a with nutrients on the lactation ability of DCMECs was also evaluated. Lysine (Lys), methionine (Met), sodium acetate, β-sodium hydroxybutyrate, and glucose all had more positive effects on the lactation function of DCMECs after pcDNA3.1+-stat5a-αS1 transfection. The proliferation and viability of DCMECs, expression of β-casein and stat5a gene, and contents of lactose and triglyceride were detected. The results revealed that nutrients could promote expression of Stat5a gene to increase lactation of DCMECs. These data help to clarify the function of stat5 gene on lactation and gene regulatory networks linking stat5a.

  4. Effect of grass dry matter intake and fat supplementation on progesterone metabolism in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, I A; Dewhurst, R J; Evans, A C O; Lonergan, P; Butler, S T

    2012-09-01

    Progesterone (P4) metabolism in dairy cattle can be manipulated by alterations in dry matter intake and diet composition. Our objectives were to determine the effects of grazing allowance and fat supplementation on P4 metabolism in lactating dairy cows. Forty mid- to late-lactation Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were used in a completely randomized block design, with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Cows were assigned to receive 1 of 2 pasture allowances (ad libitum allowance [AL], 9.5 kg dry matter per day, or restricted allowance [R] 7 kg dry matter per day) and 1 of 2 fat supplementation treatments (750 g per day saturated fat [F] or no fat supplement [NF]). All cows received an additional 4 kg per day of concentrate. Grass dry matter intake (GDMI) was measured 5 wk after the initiation of dietary treatment. Cows were treated with prostaglandin F(2α) (PGF(2α)) to eliminate the endogenous source of P4, and two intravaginal progesterone-releasing devices (CIDR) were inserted into each cow for a period of 8 days. Regular blood samples were taken before and after the removal of the intravaginal progesterone-releasing devices, and analyzed for P4 concentrations. The half-life (t½) and metabolic clearance rate (MCR) of P4 was calculated for each cow. There was no effect of GDMI or fat supplementation on the t½ or MCR of P4. There was a tendency for an interaction between GDMI and fat supplementation on the t½ of P4; cows on the restricted-F diet tended to have a longer P4 t½ than cows on the ad libitum-F diet. It was concluded that greater alterations in GDMI than achieved in the current study are required to change P4 metabolism. A combination of fat supplementation and restricted feeding slows P4 clearance, which may have beneficial implications for fertility. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The effect of the intramammary infusion of Escherichia coli endotoxin on ovulation in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Nugent, Amelia M; Hatler, Thomas B; Silvia, William J

    2002-11-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to determine if intramammary inflammation during the periovulatory period affects the occurrence of ovulation in lactating dairy cows. Ten lactating, cyclic, Holstein dairy cows received 2 injections of prostaglandin F2alpha at eleven-day intervals, to synchronize luteolysis. The day of the second injection was designated as day 0. Ovulation was anticipated to occur 3-5 days later (on days 3-5). Beginning at the morning milking on day 1, cows received intramammary infusions of either Escherichia coli endotoxin (10 microg; n=5) or infusion vehicle (pyrogen free Hank's balanced salt solution; n=5) into 2 quarters immediately after milking. The same quarters were infused after each milking through day 4. Venous blood samples were collected daily from day -1 through 13 for determination of progesterone to monitor luteolysis and formation of a new corpus luteum. Blood samples were also collected at 4-h intervals (days -1 to 2), then at 2-h intervals (days 2 to 5) to measure concentrations of luteinizing hormone. Ovaries were examined ultrasonographically on days -1 through 5 and on day 12 to monitor follicular growth and formation of the corpus luteum. Collectively, these observations were used to determine if and when ovulation occurred. Intramammary infusion of E. coli endotoxin induced an immediate increase in the concentration of somatic cells in milk from treated quarters. However, this treatment had no effect on the occurrence or timing of ovulation. Based on ultrasonography and concentrations of progesterone, four of five cows in each treatment group appeared to have ovulated. Preovulatory surges of LH were detected within the intensive bleeding periods for three cows in each treatment group. The magnitude of the LH surge was reduced in cows receiving endotoxin.

  6. Effect of subluteal concentrations of progesterone on luteinizing hormone and ovulation in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hatler, T B; Hayes, S H; Ray, D L; Reames, P S; Silvia, W J

    2008-09-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine if administration of progesterone within a low, subluteal range (0.1-1.0 ng/mL) blocks the luteinizing hormone (LH) surge (experiments 1 and 2) and ovulation (experiment 2) in lactating dairy cows. In experiment 1, progesterone was administered to cycling, lactating dairy cows during the luteal phase of the estrous cycle using a controlled internal drug release (CIDR) device. CIDRs were pre-incubated in other cows for either 0 (CIDR-0), 14 (CIDR-14) or 28 days (CIDR-28). One group of cows received no CIDRs and served as controls. One day after CIDR insertion, luteolysis was induced by two injections of prostaglandin (PG) F(2alpha) (25 mg) at 12 h intervals. Two days after the first injection, estradiol cypionate (ECP; 3 mg) was injected to induce a LH surge. Concentrations of progesterone after luteolysis were 0.11, 0.45, 0.78 and 1.20 ng/mL for cows treated with no CIDR, CIDR-28, CIDR-14, and CIDR-0, respectively. LH surges were detected in 4/4 controls, 4/5 CIDR-28, 2/5 CIDR-14 and 0/5 CIDR-0 cows following ECP. In experiment 2, progesterone was administered to cycling, lactating, Holstein cows during the luteal phase of the estrous cycle as in experiment 1. Luteolysis was induced as in experiment 1. The occurrence of an endogenous LH surge and ovulation were monitored for 7 days. Concentrations of progesterone after luteolysis were 0.13, 0.30, 0.70 and 1.20 ng/mL for cows treated with no CIDR, CIDR-28, CIDR-14 and CIDR-0, respectively. LH surges and ovulation were detected in 5/5 controls, 3/7 CIDR-28, 0/5 CIDR-14 and 0/5 CIDR-0 cows. It was concluded that low concentrations of progesterone can reduce the ability of either endogenous or exogenous estradiol to induce a preovulatory surge of LH and ovulation.

  7. On the analysis of Canadian Holstein dairy cow lactation curves using standard growth functions.

    PubMed

    López, S; France, J; Odongo, N E; McBride, R A; Kebreab, E; AlZahal, O; McBride, B W; Dijkstra, J

    2015-04-01

    Six classical growth functions (monomolecular, Schumacher, Gompertz, logistic, Richards, and Morgan) were fitted to individual and average (by parity) cumulative milk production curves of Canadian Holstein dairy cows. The data analyzed consisted of approximately 91,000 daily milk yield records corresponding to 122 first, 99 second, and 92 third parity individual lactation curves. The functions were fitted using nonlinear regression procedures, and their performance was assessed using goodness-of-fit statistics (coefficient of determination, residual mean squares, Akaike information criterion, and the correlation and concordance coefficients between observed and adjusted milk yields at several days in milk). Overall, all the growth functions evaluated showed an acceptable fit to the cumulative milk production curves, with the Richards equation ranking first (smallest Akaike information criterion) followed by the Morgan equation. Differences among the functions in their goodness-of-fit were enlarged when fitted to average curves by parity, where the sigmoidal functions with a variable point of inflection (Richards and Morgan) outperformed the other 4 equations. All the functions provided satisfactory predictions of milk yield (calculated from the first derivative of the functions) at different lactation stages, from early to late lactation. The Richards and Morgan equations provided the most accurate estimates of peak yield and total milk production per 305-d lactation, whereas the least accurate estimates were obtained with the logistic equation. In conclusion, classical growth functions (especially sigmoidal functions with a variable point of inflection) proved to be feasible alternatives to fit cumulative milk production curves of dairy cows, resulting in suitable statistical performance and accurate estimates of lactation traits. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Variations in milk somatic cell count and haematologic values of dairy cows during lactation.

    PubMed

    Nikodémusz, E; Bedö, S; Pickler, A; Szép, P

    1994-01-01

    Variations in milk somatic cell count (SCC) and haematologic values were studied in a dairy cow colony of the Holstein-Friesian and Hungarian Red-Spotted breeds (n = 23) from May 1992 to July 1993. Milk and blood samples were taken approximately at monthly intervals and data were assigned into ten lunar months of lactation. After a maximum in month I, SCC dropped abruptly in month II and continued to decline through the subsequent four months, then it again tended to increase through months VII-X. The SCCs varied within the physiological range throughout the lactation period parallel with red blood cells and white blood cells constituting a major segment of the somatic cell population. Positive correlations were recorded between SCC and the blood variables (packed cell volume, red blood cell count, white blood cell count). The lactation pattern of SCC was comparable to previous observations.

  9. Utilization of kura clover-reed canarygrass silage versus alfalfa silage by lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kammes, K L; Heemink, G B H; Albrecht, K A; Combs, D K

    2008-08-01

    The mixture of kura clover (Trifolium ambiguum M. Bieb.) and reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea L.) has proven to be extremely persistent in the northern United States, but information about dairy cow performance on this mixture is lacking. Twenty lactating Holstein cows were used in a crossover design to compare dry matter (DM) intake and milk production from diets containing kura clover-reed canarygrass silage (KRS) or alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) silage (AS). Forages were cut, wilted, ensiled in horizontal plastic bags, and allowed to ferment for at least 50 d before beginning the feeding experiment. The KRS was approximately 40% kura clover and 60% reed canarygrass. Treatments were total mixed rations formulated with either 57% of total DM from 1) AS or 2) KRS. Experimental periods were 28 d, with the first 14 d for diet adaptation and the last 14 d for measurement of intake and milk production. The neutral detergent fiber (NDF) concentrations of AS and KRS were 37.3 and 47.3%, respectively. The fermentation analyses indicated that both silages underwent a restricted fermentation, producing primarily lactic acid and some acetic acid. Dry matter intake (24.2 vs. 22.8 kg) and 4% fat-corrected milk (32.8 vs. 30.9 kg) were significantly higher for cows fed AS than for cows fed KRS. Cows consumed less NDF (6.7 vs. 8.0 kg) and less digestible NDF (3.0 vs. 4.4 kg) when fed AS diets compared with KRS diets, but the pool of ruminally undegraded NDF was similar (3.7 kg) between diets. Cows produced 1.5 kg of milk/kg of DM consumed regardless of the diet, indicating that digestible NDF of KRS was utilized with similar efficiency as the cell wall constituents of AS, but the intake of cows fed KRS may have been limited by rumen fill. Milk fat concentration tended to be higher for cows fed AS, but the milk true protein concentration and yields of fat and protein did not differ by treatment. Milk urea nitrogen content was higher when cows consumed AS (16.4 mg/ d

  10. Differential expression of living mammary epithelial cell subpopulations in milk during lactation in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Baratta, M; Volpe, M G; Nucera, D; Gabai, G; Guzzo, N; Fustini, M; Faustini, M; Martignani, E

    2015-10-01

    Epithelial cells are shed into milk during lactation, and although they generally reflect the cellular characteristics of terminally differentiated luminal cells, previously the detection of more primitive cells was described in human milk where a cell population of epithelial lineage was detected expressing markers typical of progenitor cells. In this investigation, we report the development of flow cytometry analysis to allow multiparametric assessment of mammary epithelial cells observed in milk. Cells collected from milk samples of 10 healthy dairy cows were directly analyzed for 6 different markers: CD45, CD49f, cytokeratin 14, cytokeratin 18, presence of nucleus, and cell viability. Milk samples were collected in 3 different periods of lactation: early lactation (EL=d 0-30), mid-lactation (ML=d 90-120), and late lactation (LL=210-250). Here we identify the differential expression of precursor or differentiated cell markers (or both) in mammary epithelial cells present in bovine milk. Myoepithelial cells, as indicated by cells staining positively for cytokeratin 14(+)/cytokeratin 18(-), were observed to increase from EL to LL with a high correlation with nuclear staining inferring potential proliferative activity. Furthermore, a significant increase in CD49f(+) and cytokeratin 14(+)/cytokeratin 18(+) positive cells was observed in LL. This assay is a sensitive approach for evaluating the variations in the frequency and features of living epithelial cells, whose reciprocal balance may be significant in understanding mammary gland cellular function throughout lactation. These observations suggest that mammary epithelial cell immunophenotypes could be investigated as biomarkers for mammary gland function in dairy cows.

  11. Effects of feeding rumen-degradable valine on milk production in late-lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hultquist, Kayla M; Casper, David P

    2016-02-01

    The study objective was to determine if feeding the rumen-degradable AA Val can increase milk production comparable to recombinant bovine somatotropin (bST). Eight multiparous late-lactating (255±26.4 d in milk) Holstein dairy cows were blocked by milk yield (34.1±8.25 kg/d) and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design with 21-d periods (7 d for dietary adaptation and 14 d for data collection). Treatments were control (CON), a single injection of recombinant bST (rbST), and Val fed at 40 (V40) and 80 g/d (V80). Cows were fed a total mixed ration with a distillers dried grains carrier at 113.4 g/d containing none or added AA. Dry matter intake (21.3, 22.0, 22.8, and 21.5 kg/d for CON, rbST, V40, and V80, respectively) was similar among treatments, except cows receiving V40 had greater dry matter intake than cows receiving V80. Milk yield (22.0, 26.1, 25.2, and 24.9 kg/d), 3.5% fat-corrected milk (22.1, 25.4, 24.4, and 24.3 kg/d), and energy-corrected milk (22.7, 26.1, 25.1, and 24.9 kg/d) were increased at similar amounts for cows receiving rbST, V40, and V80 compared with CON cows. Milk fat percentages (3.51, 3.36, 3.32, and 3.38%) were greatest for CON cows compared with cows receiving V40, whereas cows receiving other treatments were intermediate and similar. Milk protein percentages (3.20, 3.12, 3.15, and 3.13%) were greater for CON cows compared with cows receiving rbST and V40, whereas cows receiving V80 were intermediate and similar. Ruminal isobutyrate (1.19, 1.24, 1.44, and 1.74 mol/100 mol) concentrations were increased for cows receiving V40 and V80 compared with CON and rbST cows, with cows receiving V80 having greater concentrations than cows receiving V40. Plasma growth hormone concentrations (1.78, 1.99, 1.55, and 1.45 ng/mL) were greater for cows receiving rbST compared with cows receiving V40 and V80, whereas CON cows were intermediate and similar. Plasma insulin-like growth factor-1 concentrations (60.4, 106

  12. Substantial Differences between Organ and Muscle Specific Tracer Incorporation Rates in a Lactating Dairy Cow

    PubMed Central

    Burd, Nicholas A.; Hamer, Henrike M.; Pennings, Bart; Pellikaan, Wilbert F.; Senden, Joan M. G.; Gijsen, Annemie P.; van Loon, Luc J. C.

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to produce intrinsically L-[1-13C]phenylalanine labeled milk and beef for subsequent use in human nutrition research. The collection of the various organ tissues after slaughter allowed for us to gain insight into the dynamics of tissue protein turnover in vivo in a lactating dairy cow. One lactating dairy cow received a constant infusion of L-[1-13C]phenylalanine (450 µmol/min) for 96 h. Plasma and milk were collected prior to, during, and after the stable isotope infusion. Twenty-four hours after cessation of the infusion the cow was slaughtered. The meat and samples of the various organ tissues (liver, heart, lung, udder, kidney, rumen, small intestine, and colon) were collected and stored. Approximately 210 kg of intrinsically labeled beef (bone and fat free) with an average L-[1-13C]phenylalanine enrichment of 1.8±0.1 mole percent excess (MPE) was obtained. The various organ tissues differed substantially in L-[1-13C]phenylalanine enrichments in the tissue protein bound pool, the highest enrichment levels were achieved in the kidney (11.7 MPE) and the lowest enrichment levels in the skeletal muscle tissue protein of the cow (between 1.5–2.4 MPE). The estimated protein synthesis rates of the various organ tissues should be regarded as underestimates, particularly for the organs with the higher turnover rates and high secretory activity, due to the lengthened (96 h) measurement period necessary for the production of the intrinsically labeled beef. Our data demonstrates that there are relatively small differences in L-[1-13C]phenylalanine enrichments between the various meat cuts, but substantial higher enrichment values are observed in the various organ tissues. We conclude that protein turnover rates of various organs are much higher when compared to skeletal muscle protein turnover rates in large lactating ruminants. PMID:23826365

  13. Major advances associated with hormone and growth factor regulation of mammary growth and lactation in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Akers, R M

    2006-04-01

    In recent years, the number of researchers interested in mammary development and mammary function in dairy animals has declined. More importantly this cadre of workers has come to rely more than ever on scientists focused on and funded by breast cancer interests to provide fundamental mechanistic and basic cellular insights. Philosophically and practically this is a risky path to better understand, manipulate, and control a national resource as important as the dairy cow. The efficiency, resourcefulness, and dedication of dairy scientists have mirrored the actions of many dairy producers but there are limits. Many of the applications of research, use of bovine somatotropin, management of transition cows, estrus synchronization techniques, and so on, are based on decades-old scientific principles. Specific to dairy, do rodents or breast cancer cell lines adequately represent the dairy cow? Will these results inspire the next series of lactation-related dairy improvements? These are key unanswered questions. Study of the classic mammogenic and lactogenic hormones has served dairy scientists well. But there is an exciting, and bewildering universe of growth factors, transcription factors, receptors, intracellular signaling intermediates, and extracellular molecules that must ultimately interact to determine the size of the mature udder and the functional capacity of mammary gland in the lactating cow. We can only hope that enough scientific, fiscal, and resource scraps fall from the biomedical research banquet table to allow dairy-focused mammary gland research to continue.

  14. Long-term effects of feeding monensin on methane production in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Odongo, N E; Bagg, R; Vessie, G; Dick, P; Or-Rashid, M M; Hook, S E; Gray, J T; Kebreab, E; France, J; McBride, B W

    2007-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the long-term effects of feeding monensin on methane (CH4) production in lactating dairy cows. Twenty-four lactating Holstein dairy cows (1.46 +/- 0.17 parity; 620 +/- 5.9 kg of live weight; 92.5 +/- 2.62 d in milk) housed in a tie-stall facility were used in the study. The study was conducted as paired comparisons in a completely randomized design with repeated measurements in a color-coded, double-blind experiment. The cows were paired by parity and days in milk and allocated to 1 of 2 treatments: 1) the regular milking cow total mixed ration (TMR) with a forage-to-concentrate ratio of 60:40 (control TMR; placebo premix) vs. a medicated TMR (monensin TMR; regular TMR + 24 mg of Rumensin Premix/kg of dry matter) fed ad libitum. The animals were fed and milked twice daily (feeding at 0830 and 1300 h; milking at 0500 and 1500 h) and CH4 production was measured prior to introducing the treatments and monthly thereafter for 6 mo using an open-circuit indirect calorimetry system. Monensin reduced CH4 production by 7% (expressed as grams per day) and by 9% (expressed as grams per kilogram of body weight), which were sustained for 6 mo (mean, 458.7 vs. 428.7 +/- 7.75 g/d and 0.738 vs. 0.675 +/- 0.0141, control vs. monensin, respectively). Monensin reduced milk fat percentage by 9% (3.90 vs. 3.53 +/- 0.098%, control vs. monensin, respectively) and reduced milk protein by 4% (3.37 vs. 3.23 +/- 0.031%, control vs. monensin, respectively). Monensin did not affect the dry matter intake or milk yield of the cows. These results suggest that medicating a 60:40 forage-to-concentrate TMR with 24 mg of Rumensin Premix/kg of dry matter is a viable strategy for reducing CH4 production in lactating Holstein dairy cows.

  15. Stage of lactation and corresponding diets affect in situ protein degradation by dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Schadt, I; Mertens, D R; Van Soest, P J; Azzaro, G; Licitra, G

    2014-12-01

    , in vitro residue CP at 6, 12, and 48h of enzymatic hydrolysis was correlated (r=0.90) with in situ RUP of peak-TMR3, mid-TMR2, and dry-TMR1, respectively. Although confounded within treatments, stage of lactation, diet, and intake appeared to affect CP degradation parameters and RUP. Using kd from nonlactating cows, or the RUP calculated from them, may bias diet evaluation or ration formulation for lactating cows. In addition, enzymatic in vitro predictions of RUP should be measured using incubation times that are appropriate for lactating cows. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Efficacy of extended ceftiofur intramammary therapy for treatment of subclinical mastitis in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Oliver, S P; Gillespie, B E; Headrick, S J; Moorehead, H; Lunn, P; Dowlen, H H; Johnson, D L; Lamar, K C; Chester, S T; Moseley, W M

    2004-08-01

    Little research has focused on treatment of cows with subclinical mastitis during lactation. Ceftiofur is a new broad-spectrum, third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic for veterinary use that inhibits bacterial cell wall synthesis by interfering with enzymes essential for peptidoglycan synthesis. Ceftiofur should be effective against a wide range of contagious and environmental mastitis pathogens. Objectives of the present study were to evaluate the efficacy of ceftiofur for treatment of subclinical mastitis in lactating dairy cows, and to determine if extended therapy regimens enhanced efficacy of ceftiofur. Holstein and Jersey dairy cows (n = 88) from 3 dairy research herds were used. Cows were enrolled in the study based on milk somatic cell counts >400,000/mL and isolation of the same mastitis pathogen in 2 samples obtained 1 wk apart. Cows with one or more intramammary infections (IMI) were blocked by parity and DIM and allocated randomly to 1 of 3 different ceftiofur treatment regimens: 2-d (n = 49 IMI), 5-d (n = 41 IMI), and 8-d (n = 38 IMI) treatment regimens. For all groups, 125 mg of ceftiofur hydrochloride was administered via intramammary infusion. Eighteen cows with 38 IMI were included as an untreated negative control group. A bacteriological cure was defined as a treated infected mammary quarter that was bacteriologically negative for the presence of previously identified bacteria at 14 and 28 d after the last treatment. Efficacy of ceftiofur therapy against all subclinical IMI was 38.8, 53.7, and 65.8% for the 2-, 5-, and 8-d ceftiofur treatment regimens, respectively. Four of 38 (10.5%) IMI in control cows were cured spontaneously without treatment. All 3 ceftiofur treatment regimens were significantly better than the negative control, and the 8-d extended ceftiofur treatment regimen treatment group was significantly better than the standard 2-d treatment group. Pathogen groups had significantly different cure rates from one another. The cure

  17. Effect of dietary supplementation of rutin on lactation performance, ruminal fermentation and metabolism in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Cui, K; Guo, X D; Tu, Y; Zhang, N F; Ma, T; Diao, Q Y

    2015-12-01

    The effect of long-term dietary supplementation with rutin on the lactation performance, ruminal fermentation and metabolism of dairy cows were investigated in this study. Twenty multiparous Chinese Holstein cows were randomly divided into four groups, and each was offered a basal diet supplemented with 0, 1.5, 3.0 or 4.5 mg rutin/kg of diet. The milk yield of the cows receiving 3.0 and 4.5 mg rutin/kg was higher than that of the control group, and the milk yield was increased by 10.06% and 3.37% (p < 0.05). On the basis of that finding, the cows supplemented with 0 or 3.0 mg rutin/kg of diet were used to investigate the effect of rutin supplementation on blood metabolites and hormone levels. Compared with the control group, the serum blood urea nitrogen (BUN) concentration of the 3.0 mg rutin/kg group is significantly decreased (p < 0.05). In another trial, four adult cows with permanent rumen fistula and duodenal cannulae were attributed in a self-control design to investigate the peak occurrence of rutin and quercetin in different parts of the gastrointestinal tract, ruminal fermentation and microbial population in dairy cows. The cows supplemented with 3.0 mg rutin/kg in the diet differed from the control period. Samples of rumen fluid, duodenal fluid and blood were collected at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 h after morning feeding. Compared to the control group, the pH, ammonia nitrogen concentration, number and protein content of rumen protozoa and blood urea nitrogen were lower, but the concentration of total volatile fatty acid (TVFA), microbial crude protein (MCP) and serum lysozyme content were higher for the cows fed the rutin diets. The addition of 3.0 mg rutin/kg to diets for a long term tended to increase the milk yield and improve the metabolism and digestibility of the dairy cows.

  18. Residual feed intake is repeatable for lactating Holstein dairy cows fed high and low starch diets.

    PubMed

    Potts, S B; Boerman, J P; Lock, A L; Allen, M S; VandeHaar, M J

    2015-07-01

    RFI is reasonably repeatable for a wide range of dietary starch levels fed to mid-lactation cows, so that cows that have low RFI when fed high corn diets will likely also have low RFI when fed diets high in nonforage fiber sources. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Elevating serotonin pre-partum alters the Holstein dairy cow hepatic adaptation to lactation

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Samantha R.; Prichard, Allan S.; Maerz, Noah L.; Prichard, Austin P.; Endres, Elizabeth L.; Hernández-Castellano, Lorenzo E.; Akins, Matthew S.; Bruckmaier, Rupert M.

    2017-01-01

    Serotonin is known to regulate energy and calcium homeostasis in several mammalian species. The objective of this study was to determine if pre-partum infusions of 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), the immediate precursor to serotonin synthesis, could modulate energy homeostasis at the level of the hepatocyte in post-partum Holstein and Jersey dairy cows. Twelve multiparous Holstein cows and twelve multiparous Jersey cows were intravenously infused daily for approximately 7 d pre-partum with either saline or 1 mg/kg bodyweight of 5-HTP. Blood was collected for 14 d post-partum and on d30 post-partum. Liver biopsies were taken on d1 and d7 post-partum. There were no changes in the circulating concentrations of glucose, insulin, glucagon, non-esterified fatty acids, or urea nitrogen in response to treatment, although there were decreased beta-hydroxybutyrate concentrations with 5-HTP treatment around d6 to d10 post-partum, particularly in Jersey cows. Cows infused with 5-HTP had increased hepatic serotonin content and increased mRNA expression of the serotonin 2B receptor on d1 and d7 post-partum. Minimal changes were seen in the hepatic mRNA expression of various gluconeogenic enzymes. There were no changes in the mRNA expression profile of cell-cycle progression marker cyclin-dependent kinase 4 or apoptotic marker caspase 3, although proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression tended to be increased in Holstein cows infused with 5-HTP on d1 post-partum. Immunofluorescence assays showed an increased number of CASP3- and Ki67-positive cells in Holstein cows infused with 5-HTP on d1 post-partum. Given the elevated hepatic serotonin content and increased mRNA abundance of 5HTR2B, 5-HTP infusions may be stimulating an autocrine-paracrine adaptation to lactation in the Holstein cow liver. PMID:28922379

  20. Prediction of residual feed intake for first-lactation dairy cows using orthogonal polynomial random regression.

    PubMed

    Manafiazar, G; McFadden, T; Goonewardene, L; Okine, E; Basarab, J; Li, P; Wang, Z

    2013-01-01

    Residual Feed Intake (RFI) is a measure of energy efficiency. Developing an appropriate model to predict expected energy intake while accounting for multifunctional energy requirements of metabolic body weight (MBW), empty body weight (EBW), milk production energy requirements (MPER), and their nonlinear lactation profiles, is the key to successful prediction of RFI in dairy cattle. Individual daily actual energy intake and monthly body weight of 281 first-lactation dairy cows from 1 to 305 d in milk were recorded at the Dairy Research and Technology Centre of the University of Alberta (Edmonton, AB, Canada); individual monthly milk yield and compositions were obtained from the Dairy Herd Improvement Program. Combinations of different orders (1-5) of fixed (F) and random (R) factors were fitted using Legendre polynomial regression to model the nonlinear lactation profiles of MBW, EBW, and MPER over 301 d. The F5R3, F5R3, and F5R2 (subscripts indicate the order fitted) models were selected, based on the combination of the log-likelihood ratio test and the Bayesian information criterion, as the best prediction equations for MBW, EBW, and MPER, respectively. The selected models were used to predict daily individual values for these traits. To consider the body reserve changes, the differences of predicted EBW between 2 consecutive days were considered as the EBW change between these days. The smoothed total 301-d actual energy intake was then linearly regressed on the total 301-d predicted traits of MBW, EBW change, and MPER to obtain the first-lactation RFI (coefficient of determination=0.68). The mean of predicted daily average lactation RFI was 0 and ranged from -6.58 to 8.64 Mcal of NE(L)/d. Fifty-one percent of the animals had an RFI value below the mean (efficient) and 49% of them had an RFI value above the mean (inefficient). These results indicate that the first-lactation RFI can be predicted from its component traits with a reasonable coefficient of

  1. Effects of alfalfa and cereal straw as a forage source on nutrient digestibility and lactation performance in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Wang, B; Mao, S Y; Yang, H J; Wu, Y M; Wang, J K; Li, S L; Shen, Z M; Liu, J X

    2014-12-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the nutrient digestibility and lactation performance when alfalfa was replaced with rice straw or corn stover in the diet of lactating cows. Forty-five multiparous Holstein dairy cows were blocked based on days in milk (164 ± 24.8 d; mean ± standard deviation) and milk yield (29.7 ± 4.7 kg; mean ± standard deviation) and were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments. Diets were isonitrogenous, with a forage-to-concentrate ratio of 45:55 [dry matter (DM) basis] and contained identical concentrate mixtures and 15% corn silage, with different forage sources (on a DM basis): 23% alfalfa hay and 7% Chinese wild rye hay (AH), 30% corn stover (CS), and 30% rice straw (RS). The experiment was conducted over a 14-wk period, with the first 2 wk for adaptation. The DM intake of the cows was not affected by forage source. Yield of milk, milk fat, protein, lactose, and total solids was higher in cows fed diets of AH than diets of RS or CS, with no difference between RS and CS. Contents of milk protein and total solids were higher in AH than in RS, with no difference between CS and AH or RS. Feed efficiency (milk yield/DM intake) was highest for cows fed AH, followed by RS and CS. Cows fed AH excreted more urinary purine derivatives, indicating that the microbial crude protein yield may be higher for the AH diet than for RS and CS, which may be attributed to the higher content of fermentable carbohydrates in AH than in RS and CS. Total-tract apparent digestibilities of all the nutrients were higher in cows fed the AH diet than those fed CS and RS. The concentration of rumen volatile fatty acids was higher in the AH diet than in CS or RS diets, with no difference between CS and RS diets. When the cereal straw was used to replace alfalfa as a main forage source for lactating cows, the shortage of fermented energy may have reduced the rumen microbial protein synthesis, resulting in lower milk protein yield, and lower nutrient digestibility

  2. Estimated antimicrobial dispensing frequency and preferences for lactating cow therapy by Ontario dairy veterinarians.

    PubMed

    Léger, David F; Newby, Nathalie C; Reid-Smith, Richard; Anderson, Neil; Pearl, David L; Lissemore, Kerry D; Kelton, David F

    2017-01-01

    In this cross-sectional study, data were collected from responses to a questionnaire on dispensing frequencies of antimicrobials used by dairy practitioners in Ontario in dairy cattle in 2001. Data were validated through clinical case scenarios. Respondents reported using antimicrobials across all categories of importance to human medicine (medically important, Categories I to III) with a diversity of treatment combinations and routes of administration. Respondents anticipated that a request for direct veterinary supervision by producers was dependent on case severity, highlighting the importance of on-farm diagnostic and treatment protocols. Knowledge of the antimicrobials used in lactating cow therapy, and their frequency and reasons for use, will provide baseline information and contribute to antimicrobial stewardship in this food-animal production sector.

  3. Mammary transcriptome analysis of lactating dairy cows following administration of bovine growth hormone.

    PubMed

    McCoard, S A; Hayashi, A A; Sciascia, Q; Rounce, J; Sinclair, B; McNabb, W C; Roy, N C

    2016-12-01

    The galactopoietic effect of growth hormone (GH) in lactating ruminants is well established; however the mechanisms that mediate these effects are not well understood. The first objective of this study was to determine the effect of GH on the synthesis of the major casein and whey proteins. The second objective was to identify the genes and pathways that may be involved in mediating the effect of GH on milk synthesis. A single subcutaneous injection of a commercially available slow release formulation of GH (Lactatropin®), or physiological saline solution (control) was administered to non-pregnant dairy cows (n=4/group) in mid-late lactation. Milk samples were collected for composition analysis and mammary lobulo-alveolar tissue was collected postmortem 6 days post injection. Gene expression profiles were evaluated using either a 22 000 bovine complementary DNA microarray or quantitative PCR (qPCR), and microarrays were validated by qPCR. The yield of all the major casein and whey proteins was increased 32% to 41% in GH-treated cows, with the exception of α-lactalbumin yield which was elevated by 70% relative to controls. Treatment with GH treatment tended to increase the concentration of α-lactalbumin but had no effect on the concentration of any of the major milk proteins. Messenger RNA (mRNA) abundance of the major whey and casein genes, with the exception of α-s2-casein, was increased in response to GH compared with controls, which is consistent with the positive effect of GH on milk production. Treatment with GH treatment influenced the mRNA abundance of genes involved in cell growth and proliferation, transcriptional and translational regulation, actin cytoskeleton signalling, lipid metabolism and cell death. This study has provided new insights into the cell signalling that may be involved in mediating the effect of GH on milk production in the mammary gland of lactating dairy cows.

  4. Precalving and early lactation factors that predict milk casein and fertility in the transition dairy cow.

    PubMed

    Rodney, Rachael M; Hall, Jenianne K; Westwood, Charlotte T; Celi, Pietro; Lean, Ian J

    2016-09-01

    Multiparous Holstein cows (n=82) of either high or low genetic merit (GM) (for milk fat + protein yield) were allocated to 1 of 2 diets in a 2×2 factorial design. Diets differed in the ratio of rumen-undegradable protein (RUP) to rumen-degradable protein (37% RUP vs. 15% RUP) and were fed from 21 d precalving to 150 days in milk. This study evaluated the effects of these diets and GM on concentrations of milk casein (CN) variants and aimed to identify precalving and early lactation variables that predict milk CN and protein yield and composition and fertility of dairy cows. It explored the hypothesis that low milk protein content is associated with lower fertility and extended this hypothesis to also evaluate the association of CN contents with fertility. Yields (kg/d) for CN variants were 0.49 and 0.45 of α-CN, 0.38 and 0.34 of β-CN, 0.07 and 0.06 for κ-CN, and 0.10 and 0.09 of γ-CN for high- and low-RUP diets, respectively. Increased RUP increased milk, CN, and milk protein yields. Increased GM increased milk protein and γ-CN yields and tended to increase milk CN yield. The effects of indicator variables on CN variant yields and concentrations were largely consistent, with higher body weight and α-amino nitrogen resulting in higher yields, but lower concentrations. An increase in cholesterol was associated with decreased CN variant concentrations, and disease lowered CN variant yield. A diet high in RUP increased proportion of first services that resulted in pregnancy from 41 to 58%. Increased precalving metabolizable protein (MP) balance decreased the proportion of first services that resulted in pregnancy when evaluated in a model containing CN percentage, milk protein yield, diet, and GM. This finding suggests that the positive effects of increasing dietary RUP on fertility may be curvilinear because cows with a very positive MP balance before calving were less fertile than those with a lower, but positive, MP balance. Prepartum MP balance was important

  5. Increased muscle fatty acid oxidation in dairy cows with intensive body fat mobilization during early lactation.

    PubMed

    Schäff, C; Börner, S; Hacke, S; Kautzsch, U; Sauerwein, H; Spachmann, S K; Schweigel-Röntgen, M; Hammon, H M; Kuhla, B

    2013-10-01

    The beginning of lactation requires huge metabolic adaptations to meet increased energy demands for milk production of dairy cows. One of the adaptations is the mobilization of body reserves mainly from adipose tissue as reflected by increased plasma nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations. The capacity of the liver for complete oxidation of NEFA is limited, leading to an increased formation of ketone bodies, reesterification, and accumulation of triglycerides in the liver. As the skeletal muscle also may oxidize fatty acids, it may help to decrease the fatty acid load on the liver. To test this hypothesis, 19 German Holstein cows were weekly blood sampled from 7 wk before until 5 wk after parturition to analyze plasma NEFA concentrations. Liver biopsies were obtained at d 3, 18, and 30 after parturition and, based on the mean liver fat content, cows were grouped to the 10 highest (HI) and 9 lowest (LO). In addition, muscle biopsies were obtained at d -17, 3, and 30 relative to parturition and used to quantify mRNA abundance of genes involved in fatty acid degradation. Plasma NEFA concentrations peaked after parturition and were 1.5-fold higher in HI than LO cows. Muscle carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1α and β mRNA was upregulated in early lactation. The mRNA abundance of muscle peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARG) increased in early lactation and was higher in HI than in LO cows, whereas the abundance of PPARA continuously decreased after parturition. The mRNA abundance of muscle PPARD, uncoupling protein 3, and the β-oxidative enzymes 3-hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A (CoA) dehydrogenase, very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, and 3-ketoacyl-CoA was greatest at d 3 after parturition, whereas the abundance of PPARγ coactivator 1α decreased after parturition. Our results indicate that around parturition, oxidation of fatty acids in skeletal muscle is highly activated, which may contribute to diminish the fatty acid load on the liver. The

  6. Influence of corn silage hybrid type on lactation performance by Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Akins, M S; Shaver, R D

    2014-12-01

    The primary objective of this study was to determine lactation performance by dairy cows fed nutridense (ND), dual-purpose (DP), or brown midrib (BM) corn silage hybrids at the same concentration in the diets. A secondary objective was to determine lactation performance by dairy cows fed NutriDense corn silage at a higher concentration in the diet. One hundred twenty-eight Holstein and Holstein × Jersey cows (105 ± 38 d in milk) were stratified by breed and parity and randomly assigned to 16 pens of 8 cows each. Pens were then randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments. Three treatment total mixed rations (TMR; DP40, BM40, and ND40) contained 40% of dry matter (DM) from the respective corn silage hybrid and 20% of DM from alfalfa silage. The fourth treatment TMR had ND corn silage as the sole forage at 65% of DM (ND65). A 2-wk covariate adjustment period preceded the treatment period, with all pens receiving a TMR with equal proportions of DP40, BM40, and ND40. Following the covariate period, cows were fed their assigned treatment diets for 11 wk. nutridense corn silage had greater starch and lower neutral detergent fiber (NDF) content than DP or BM, resulting in ND40 having greater energy content (73.2% of total digestible nutrients, TDN) than DP40 or BM40 (71.9 and 71.4% TDN, respectively). Cows fed BM40 had greater milk yield than DP40, whereas ND40 tended to have greater milk yield and had greater protein and lactose yields compared with DP40. No differences in intake, component-corrected milk yields, or feed efficiency were detected between DP40, BM40, and ND40. Milk yield differences may be due to increased starch intake for ND40 and increased digestible NDF intake for BM40 compared with DP40. Intake and milk yield and composition were similar for ND40 compared with BM40, possibly due to counteracting effects of higher starch intake for ND40 and higher digestible NDF intake for BM40. Feeding ND65 reduced intake, and thus milk and component yields, compared with

  7. Animal by-products contaminated with Salmonella in the diets of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Bender, J B; Sreevatsan, S; Robinson, R A; Otterby, D

    1997-11-01

    As part of a total mixed ration, two rumen-fistulated dairy cows were fed meat and bone meal that had been artificially contaminated with Salmonella spp. Samples from the rumen, feces, and milk were taken 3 d/wk and cultured for salmonella. Rectal temperatures and rumen pH were also measured at the time of sample collection. Over the 2-mo study, salmonella were intermittently recovered from rumen contents, from feces, and from necropsy specimens of rumen contents, cecal contents, and mesenteric lymph nodes. No excretion of salmonella in milk was detected. An elevated rumen pH was associated with increased isolation of salmonella. No clinical illness was observed for either cow. Meat and bone meal that has been contaminated with low concentrations of salmonella is unlikely to result in clinical illness in healthy adult lactating cows. However, dairy producers should continue to be concerned about feed biosecurity and water contamination of animal by-products to prevent and control contamination by salmonella.

  8. Effects of abomasal vegetable oil infusion on splanchnic nutrient metabolism in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Benson, J A; Reynolds, C K; Aikman, P C; Lupoli, B; Beever, D E

    2002-07-01

    Changes in the metabolism of nutrients by the portal-drained viscera (PDV) and liver may contribute to the reduction in dry matter intake (DMI) and other production responses generally observed in lactating dairy cows fed supplemental long-chain fatty acids (LCFA). In the present study, effects of a 7-d abomasal infusion of vegetable oil on arterial concentration and splanchnic (PDV and liver) metabolism of nutrients were measured in six cows at 55 (early lactation [ELAC]) and 111 (midlactation [MLAC]) d postpartum. Cows were fed for ad libitum DMI at 8-h intervals, and blood samples for measurement of splanchnic metabolism were obtained over 8 h beginning 2 h before feeding at 0830 h. Blood flow for the PDV and liver was increased by oil infusion and was greater in ELAC, despite similar-feed DMI during blood sampling. Increased blood flow in ELAC was associated with greater liver oxygen removal and glucose release that accompanied greater milk yield. In contrast, oil infusion had no effect on splanchnic oxygen use. Greater blood flow during oil infusion may have been due to specific effects of intestinal LCFA supply on PDV blood flow. Net PDV release and liver removal of branched-chain volatile fatty acids (VFA) and ammonia were increased by oil infusion. Net PDV release of longer-chain (4 and 5 C) VFA and NEFA was greater in ELAC, but net PDV flux of other nutrients was not affected by lactation stage, possibly due to the similarity of feed DMI. Oil infusion increased arterial concentration and net PDV release and liver removal of NEFA, and it decreased net liver release and arterial concentration of glucose. Effects of oil infusion on liver glucose release were associated with decreased daily DMI. In ELAC, arterial concentration and net liver removal of NEFA were also increased, but liver release of glucose was greater than in MLAC. Oil infusion and ELAC both increased net liver removal of L-lactate. The resulting decrease in net total splanchnic release of L-lactate

  9. Soil intake of lactating dairy cows in intensive strip grazing systems.

    PubMed

    Jurjanz, S; Feidt, C; Pérez-Prieto, L A; Ribeiro Filho, H M N; Rychen, G; Delagarde, R

    2012-08-01

    Involuntary soil intake by cows on pasture can be a potential route of entry for pollutants into the food chain. Therefore, it appears necessary to know and quantify factors affecting soil intake in order to ensure the food safety in outside rearing systems. Thus, soil intake was determined in two Latin square trials with 24 and 12 lactating dairy cows. In Trial 1, the effect of pasture allowance (20 v. 35 kg dry matter (DM) above ground level/cow daily) was studied for two sward types (pure perennial ryegrass v. mixed perennial ryegrass-white clover) in spring. In Trial 2, the effect of pasture allowance (40 v. 65 kg DM above ground level/cow daily) was studied at two supplementation levels (0 or 8 kg DM of a maize silage-based supplement) in autumn. Soil intake was determined by the method based on acid-insoluble ash used as an internal marker. The daily dry soil intake ranged, between treatments, from 0.17 to 0.83 kg per cow in Trial 1 and from 0.15 to 0.85 kg per cow in Trial 2, reaching up to 1.3 kg during some periods. In both trials, soil intake increased with decreasing pasture allowance, by 0.46 and 0.15 kg in Trials 1 and 2, respectively. In Trial 1, this pasture allowance effect was greater on mixed swards than on pure ryegrass swards (0.66 v. 0.26 kg reduction of daily soil intake between medium and low pasture allowance, respectively). In Trial 2, the pasture allowance effect was similar at both supplementation levels. In Trial 2, supplemented cows ate much less soil than unsupplemented cows (0.20 v. 0.75 kg/day, respectively). Differences in soil intake between trials and treatments can be related to grazing conditions, particularly pre-grazing and post-grazing sward height, determining at least in part the time spent grazing close to the ground. A post-grazing sward height lower than 50 mm can be considered as a critical threshold. Finally, a dietary supplement and a low grazing pressure, that is, high pasture allowance increasing post-grazing sward

  10. Body fat mobilization in early lactation influences methane production of dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    Bielak, A.; Derno, M.; Tuchscherer, A.; Hammon, H. M.; Susenbeth, A.; Kuhla, B.

    2016-01-01

    Long-chain fatty acids mobilized during early lactation of dairy cows are increasingly used as energy substrate at the expense of acetate. As the synthesis of acetate in the rumen is closely linked to methane (CH4) production, we hypothesized that decreased acetate utilization would result in lower ruminal acetate levels and thus CH4 production. Twenty heifers were sampled for blood, rumen fluid and milk, and CH4 production was measured in respiration chambers in week −4, +5, +13 and +42 relative to first parturition. Based on plasma non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentration determined in week +5, animals were grouped to the ten highest (HM; NEFA > 580 μmol) and ten lowest (LM; NEFA < 580 μmol) mobilizing cows. Dry matter intake (DMI), milk yield and ruminal short-chain fatty acids did not differ between groups, but CH4/DMI was lower in HM cows in week +5. There was a negative regression between plasma NEFA and plasma acetate, between plasma NEFA and CH4/DMI and between plasma cholecystokinin and CH4/DMI in week +5. Our data show for the first time that fat mobilization of the host in early lactation is inversely related with ruminal CH4 production and that this effect is not attributed to different DMI. PMID:27306038

  11. Metabolic changes in early lactation and impaired reproductive performance in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Jorritsma, Ruurd; Wensing, Theo; Kruip, Theo A M; Vos, Peter L A M; Noordhuizen, Jos P T M

    2003-01-01

    This review addresses the suggestion that the decline in dairy reproductive performance, as increasingly observed these days, may be due to a hampered process of metabolic adaptation in early lactating cows. In our opinion, adaptation to the negative energy balance is a gradual process. Because almost all cows do adapt in the long run, it is not possible to classify animals as adapted or non-adapted. The use of risk factors is more appropriate in this case and is discussed in this review. Among them are the body condition score and its derivatives, feed intake, the calculated negative energy balance, and metabolic parameters like the plasma concentration of insulin or the triacylglycerol content in the liver. Moreover, factors that play a role in the link between declined reproductive performance and the metabolic situation of the cow during the early lactating period are discussed. Among these are insulin, insulin-like growth factors, leptin, neuropeptide Y, non-esterified fatty acids, thyroïd hormones, urea, and ammonia.

  12. Contribution of the female reproductive tract to low fertility in postpartum lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Rizos, D; Carter, F; Besenfelder, U; Havlicek, V; Lonergan, P

    2010-03-01

    Infertility in dairy cattle is a multifactorial problem that may be linked to follicle development and the quality of the ovulated oocyte, to sperm transport and fertilization, to the reproductive tract environment, or to a combination of these factors. Using a state-of-the-art endoscopic embryo transfer technique, the aim of this study was to compare the ability of the reproductive tract of postpartum dairy cows and nulliparous heifers to support the development of early embryos to the blastocyst stage. Bovine embryos of 2 to 4 cells (n=1,800) were produced by in vitro maturation and fertilization of oocytes derived from the ovaries of slaughtered cattle. The estrus cycles of nulliparous Holstein heifers (n=10) and postpartum Holstein cows (n=8, approximately 60 d postpartum) were synchronized using an 8-d controlled internal drug release device coupled with prostaglandin injection. On d 2, one hundred 2- to 4-cell embryos were endoscopically transferred to the oviduct ipsilateral to the corpus luteum. Five days later, on d 7, the oviduct and uterus were flushed nonsurgically to recover the embryos. The number of embryos developing to the blastocyst stage was recorded immediately at recovery and following overnight culture in vitro. A representative number of blastocysts from heifers and cows were stained to assess cell number. Progesterone concentrations were lower in cows than in heifers on d 5, 6, and 7 (d 7=2.39+/-0.33 vs. 5.34+/-0.77ng/mL, respectively). More embryos were recovered from heifers than cows (79.0+/-7.0 vs. 57.2+/-11.4%). Of the embryos recovered, 33.9+/-3.6% had developed to the blastocyst stage in the heifer oviduct compared with 18.3+/-7.9% in the postpartum cow oviduct. There was no evidence of a difference in blastocyst quality as evidenced by total cell number in the blastocysts (71.2+/-5.7 vs. 67.0+/-5.3, respectively). In conclusion, the reproductive tract of the postpartum lactating dairy cow may be less capable of supporting early

  13. Supplemental dietary protein for grazing dairy cows: effect on pasture intake and lactation performance.

    PubMed

    McCormick, M E; Ward, J D; Redfearn, D D; French, D D; Blouin, D C; Chapa, A M; Fernandez, J M

    2001-04-01

    One hundred twenty-four cows (92 multiparous and 32 primiparous) were used to evaluate the effect of grain supplements containing high crude protein [(22.8% CP, 5.3% rumen undegradable protein (RUP), dry matter basis], moderate CP (16.6% CP, 6.1% RUP), and moderate CP with supplemental RUP (16.2% CP, 10.8% RUP) on lactation performance of Holstein cows rotationally grazing annual ryegrass-oat pastures. Supplemental protein was provided by solvent extracted soybean meal in the high CP and moderate CP supplements and as a corn gluten meal-blood meal mixture (2.8:1) in the moderate CP, high RUP supplement. Cows were blocked according to previous mature milk equivalent production and calving date (partum group; 0 d in milk or postpartum group; 21 to 65 d in milk) and randomly assigned to dietary treatments. Grain was individually fed, at approximately a 1:3 grain to milk ratio, before a.m. and p.m milkings. The study was replicated during two grazing seasons that averaged 199 d. Cows had ad libitum access to bermudagrass hay while on pasture (dry matter intake = 1.3 kg/d). Protein supplementation had no effect on study long pasture dry matter (12.7 +/- 1.0 kg/d) or total dry matter (23.9 +/- 1.2 kg/d) consumption. Protein concentration did not affect actual milk yield of either calving group (high CP vs. moderate CP); however, postpartum group cows receiving high CP grain supplements maintained greater milk fat concentrations (3.34 vs. 3.11%), which led to higher fat-corrected milk (FCM) yields than control cows receiving moderate CP grain diets (30.3 vs. 28.9 kg/d). Crude protein concentration in milk of high CP-supplemented, postpartum group cows was also higher than moderate CP cows (3.42 vs. 3.27%). Additional RUP did not increase FCM yield above that generated by moderate CP grain diets for partum (34.3 vs. 32.9 kg/d) or postpartum-group cows (28.9 vs. 28.2 kg/d). Increasing CP concentration of grain supplement did not affect milk yield of Holstein cows grazing

  14. Lactation performance of mid-lactation dairy cows fed ruminally degradable protein at concentrations lower than national research council recommendations.

    PubMed

    Cyriac, J; Rius, A G; McGilliard, M L; Pearson, R E; Bequette, B J; Hanigan, M D

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether feeding of diets containing lower proportions of ruminally degradable protein (RDP) but with a constant proportion of ruminally undegradable protein (RUP) alters feed intake, milk production and yield, and the apparent efficiency of N utilization by mid-lactation dairy cows. During the covariate period (d 1 to 28), 40 mid-lactation cows (36 Holstein and 4 Jersey x Holstein cross-breds) were fed a common diet formulated to contain 11.3% of diet dry matter (DM) as RDP. During the treatment period (d 29 to 47), cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 diets formulated to contain 11.3, 10.1, 8.8, or 7.6% RDP, whereas ruminally undegradable protein remained constant at 7.1% of DM. All diets contained 47.5% forage and 52.5% concentrate on a DM basis. Dry matter intake was significantly reduced for the 7.6% RDP diet. The lowest RDP content was associated with a trend for reduced milk yield. Dietary RDP had no effect on body weight or milk fat, protein, and lactose contents. Milk protein yield was not affected by RDP level; however, milk fat yield decreased linearly as dietary RDP was reduced. Concentrations of plasma essential amino acids were unaffected, whereas milk urea-N concentrations decreased linearly as dietary RDP content was reduced. The apparent efficiency of N utilization for milk N production increased from 27.7% on the 11.3% RDP diet to 38.6% on the 7.6% RDP diet. The dietary RDP requirement of cows in this study was apparently met between 15.9 and 14.7% dietary crude protein. Milk production was not significantly affected by the 8.8% RDP (15.9% crude protein) diet even though the NRC (2001) model predicted that RDP supply was 87% of that required, suggesting the current NRC recommendations for RDP may be overestimated for mid-lactation dairy cows in this study.

  15. Quantifying body water kinetics and fecal and urinary water output from lactating Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Appuhamy, J A D R N; Wagner-Riddle, C; Casper, D P; France, J; Kebreab, E

    2014-10-01

    Reliable estimates of fresh manure water output from dairy cows help to improve storage design, enhance efficiency of land application, quantify the water footprint, and predict nutrient transformations during manure storage. The objective of the study was to construct a mechanistic, dynamic, and deterministic mathematical model to quantify urinary and fecal water outputs (kg/d) from individual lactating dairy cows. The model contained 4 body water pools: reticulorumen (QRR), post-reticulorumen (QPR), extracellular (QEC), and intracellular (QIC). Dry matter (DM) intake, dietary forage, DM, crude protein, acid detergent fiber and ash contents, milk yield, and milk fat and protein contents, days in milk, and body weight were input variables to the model. A set of linear equations was constructed to determine drinking, feed, and saliva water inputs to QRR and fractional water passage from QRR to QPR. Water transfer via the rumen wall was subjected to changes in QEC and total water input to QRR. Post-reticulorumen water passage was adjusted for DM intake. Metabolic water production and respiratory cutaneous water losses were estimated with functions of heat production in the model. Water loss in urine was driven by absorbed N left after being removed via milk. Model parameters were estimated simultaneously using observed fecal and urinary water output data from lactating Holstein cows (n=670). The model was evaluated with data that were not used for model development and optimization (n=377). The observations in both data sets were related to thermoneutral conditions. The model predicted drinking water intake, fecal, urinary, and total fresh manure water output with root mean square prediction errors as a percentage of average values of 18.1, 15.6, 30.6, and 14.6%, respectively. In all cases, >97% of the prediction error was due to random variability of data. The model can also be used to determine saliva production, heat and metabolic water production, respiratory

  16. Histidine deficiency has a negative effect on lactational performance of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Giallongo, F; Harper, M T; Oh, J; Parys, C; Shinzato, I; Hristov, A N

    2017-04-01

    A 10-wk randomized complete block design experiment with 24 Holstein cows was conducted to investigate the long-term effects of feeding a His-deficient diet on lactational performance of dairy cows. Cows were blocked by days in milk, milk yield, and parity, and randomly assigned to 1 of the following 2 treatments: (1) His-adequate diet [HAD; providing +166 g/d over metabolizable protein (MP) requirements, according to the National Research Council (2001) and digestible His (dHis) supply of 68 g/d, or 2.5% of MP requirements] and (2) His-deficient diet (HDD; +37 g/d over MP requirements and dHis supply of 49 g/d, or 1.9% of MP requirements). Both HAD and HDD were supplemented with rumen-protected (RP) Met and Lys supplying digestible Met and digestible Lys at 2.4 and 2.4% and 7.2 and 7.1% of MP requirements, respectively. At the end of the 10-wk experiment, HDD was supplemented with RPHis (HDD+RPHis; total dHis supply of 61 g/d, or 2.4% of MP requirements) for an additional 9 d. Dry matter intake (DMI; 25.4 and 27.1 kg/d, standard error of the mean = 0.41), yields of milk (37.6 and 40.5 kg/d, standard error of the mean = 0.62), protein and lactose, energy-corrected milk, and milk and plasma urea-N were decreased by HDD compared with HAD. Feed and energy-corrected milk feed efficiencies, milk fat, protein and lactose concentrations, body weight, and body condition score of the cows were not affected by treatment. Apparent total-tract digestibility of dry and organic matter, crude protein, and neutral detergent fiber, and excretion of urinary N and urea-N were decreased by HDD compared with HAD. Concentration of plasma leptin tended to be decreased for HDD compared with HAD. Plasma concentrations of EAA (His, Leu, Lys, Val) and carnosine decreased and total EAA tended to be decreased in cows fed HDD compared with HAD. Muscle concentrations of free His, Leu, and Val decreased and Gly and β-alanine tended to be increased by HDD compared with HAD. Cows fed HDD had a

  17. Inter-relationships among alternative definitions of feed efficiency in grazing lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hurley, A M; López-Villalobos, N; McParland, S; Kennedy, E; Lewis, E; O'Donovan, M; Burke, J L; Berry, D P

    2016-01-01

    International interest in feed efficiency, and in particular energy intake and residual energy intake (REI), is intensifying due to a greater global demand for animal-derived protein and energy sources. Feed efficiency is a trait of economic importance, and yet is overlooked in national dairy cow breeding goals. This is due primarily to a lack of accurate data on commercial animals, but also a lack of clarity on the most appropriate definition of the feed intake and utilization complex. The objective of the present study was to derive alternative definitions of energetic efficiency in grazing lactating dairy cows and to quantify the inter-relationships among these alternative definitions. Net energy intake (NEI) from pasture and concentrate intake was estimated up to 8 times per lactation for 2,693 lactations from 1,412 Holstein-Friesian cows. Energy values of feed were based on the French Net Energy system where 1 UFL is the net energy requirements for lactation equivalent of 1kg of air-dry barley. A total of 8,183 individual feed intake measurements were available. Energy balance was defined as the difference between NEI and energy expenditure. Efficiency traits were either ratio-based or residual-based; the latter were derived from least squares regression models. Residual energy intake was defined as NEI minus predicted energy to fulfill the requirements for the various energy sinks. The energy sinks (e.g., NEL, metabolic live weight) and additional contributors to energy kinetics (e.g., live weight loss) combined, explained 59% of the variation in NEI, implying that REI represented 41% of the variance in total NEI. The most efficient 10% of test-day records, as defined by REI (n=709), on average were associated with a 7.59 UFL/d less NEI (average NEI of the entire population was 16.23 UFL/d) than the least efficient 10% of test-day records based on REI (n=709). Additionally, the most efficient 10% of test-day records, as defined by REI, were associated with

  18. Factors affecting expression of estrus measured by activity monitors and conception risk of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Madureira, A M L; Silper, B F; Burnett, T A; Polsky, L; Cruppe, L H; Veira, D M; Vasconcelos, J L M; Cerri, R L A

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine risk-factors affecting increase in physical activity during estrus and pregnancy per artificial insemination (P/AI) in lactating dairy cows. Cows were monitored continuously by 2 automated activity monitors [a collar-mounted accelerometer (HT; Heatime, SCR Engineers, Netanya, Israel) and a leg-mounted pedometer (BO; Boumatic Heat-seeker-TX, Boumatic Dairy Equipment, Madison, WI)]. When an increase in activity was detected, body condition score (BCS) and blood samples were collected, ovaries were scanned by ultrasonography, and, if the cow was eligible for breeding, artificial insemination was performed. Milk production and health-related data were recorded throughout the experimental period. Pregnancy diagnosis was performed at 42 ± 7 d of gestation. Data were analyzed using Pearson correlation, ANOVA, and logistic regression. A total of 1,099 true events of estrus from 318 lactating Holstein cows were recorded, averaging 3.46 ± 1.1 events per cow. Positive predictive value for estrus episodes detected by the HT and BO systems were 89.6 and 85.5%, respectively. Mean peak activity at estrus (PA) recorded by the HT system was 71.6 ± 20.7 index-value, and 334.3 ± 155.7% relative increase by the BO system. Compared with primiparous, multiparous cows expressed estrus with lower PA (69.3 ± 0.8 vs. 75.9 ± 1.1 index for HT; 323.9 ± 6.0 vs. 354.8 ± 8.48% for BO) and shorter duration (DU; 10.7 ± 0.2 vs. 12.0 ± 0.3 h); DU was measured by HT only. Lower BCS was associated with decreased PA measured by both systems, estrus DU, and P/AI. Peak activity was weakly correlated with milk production on the day of artificial insemination (r = -0.20); however, when categorized into quartiles, the highest-yield cows had lower PA and DU. Follicle diameter was not correlated with PA or DU, but cows with greater concentrations of estradiol had higher PA. Cows with greater PA in both systems had greater P/AI than those with lower PA (36

  19. Effects of replacing soybean meal with canola meal or treated canola meal on performance of lactating dairy cows

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Canola meal (CM) has been shown to be a more effective crude protein (CP) source than soybean meal (SBM) for lactating dairy cows. Treating CM may increase its rumen undegradable protein (RUP) fraction and improve the amount of absorbable amino acids. The objective of this study was to evaluate the ...

  20. Effects of alfalfa silage storage structure and roasting corn on ruminal digestion and microbial CP synthesis in lactating dairy cows

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of unroasted ground shelled corn (GSC) or roasted GSC (RGSC), when fed with alfalfa, ensiled in bag, bunker, or O2-limiting tower silos on ruminal digestion and microbial protein synthesis in lactating dairy cows. The roasted corn was hea...

  1. Impact of spontaneous Neospora caninum infection on pregnancy loss and subsequent pregnancy in grazing lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Pessoa, Gilson Antonio; Martini, Ana Paula; Trentin, Janislene Mach; Dalcin, Vanessa Calderaro; Leonardi, Carlos Eduardo Porciuncula; Vogel, Fernanda Silveira Flôres; de Sá Filho, Manoel Francisco; Rubin, Mara Iolanda Batistella; Silva, Carlos Antonio Mondino

    2016-02-01

    The impact of spontaneous Neospora caninum infection on pregnancy loss and subsequent pregnancy in grazing lactating dairy cows was evaluated. Data from 1273 females (878 multiparous and 395 first-calving cows) from six preselected dairy herds were analyzed. Cows were classified as seropositive (SP) (prevalence, 24%; range, 11%-33%) or seronegative (SN) by indirect immunofluorescence detection of antibodies against N caninum. Seropositive cows (prevalence, 40.0%) presented higher (P < 0.001) incidence of abortion compared with SN cows (prevalence, 4.1%). Neospora caninum DNA was detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction in 44.4% of intact aborted fetuses from SP cows, whereas none was found in those aborted from SN cows. The average daily milk production adjusted to 305 days was lower (P < 0.001) in SP (22.5 ± 0.3 L/day) than in SN cows (24.8 ± 0.2 L/day). Furthermore, SP cows presented greater occurrence of retained placenta (17.1% vs. 6.0%; P < 0.001) and acute postpartum metritis (9.8% vs. 2.4%; P < 0.001). Despite similar pregnancy rates after first postpartum artificial insemination (27.6% vs. 31.8%; P = 0.40), cumulative pregnancy rates during 300 days in milk (94.7% vs. 98.5%; P = 0.005) were greater in SN cows. A reduced (P = 0.0001) Cox proportional hazard of pregnancy rate at 300 days in milk and a longer interval from parturition or abortion to conception (median, 111 vs. 101 days) were observed in SP compared with SN cows. Spontaneous N caninum infection is a significant contributing factor of pregnancy loss and occurrence of uterine disease (i.e., retained placenta and metritis), negatively affecting subsequent pregnancy in grazing lactating dairy cows.

  2. Effects of stocking density on behavior, productivity, and comfort indices of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Wang, F X; Shao, D F; Li, S L; Wang, Y J; Azarfar, A; Cao, Z J

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of different stocking densities of 82 (0.82 cows per freestall and feed bin), 100, and 129% on behavior, productivity, and comfort indices of lactating Holstein dairy cows. Twenty-seven lactating cows (15 primiparous and 12 multiparous) were assigned to 1 of the 3 treatments, which were balanced for parity, milk yield, days in milk, and body weight in a 3×3 Latin square design with 14-d periods. After 7 d of adaptation to the treatments, lying time and bouts were recorded at 1-min intervals for 3 d, DMI and feeding time were monitored electronically by feed bins, and rumination time was quantified at 2-h periods for 5 d during each period. The cow comfort index, stall standing index, stall perching index, and stall use index (SUI) were calculated using 10-min scan samples of video recording from d 8 to 10 of each period. Milk yield was recorded from d 8 to 12 and milk composition was determined from composite samples on d 12 in each period. Daily lying time, lying bouts, and bout duration did not differ among the stocking densities. The ratio of lying time ≥12 h/d (the number of cows with daily lying time ≥12 h/d divided by number of cows per pen) was higher for cows housed at 82% stocking density compared with those housed at 100% stocking density, with stocking density of 129% intermediate. Hourly lying time was lower at 100% stocking density compared with 82 and 129% stocking densities during the peak period (2300-0400 h), determined based on diurnal pattern of lying time. Daily dry matter intake, feeding time, and feeding rate were not affected by stocking density. After morning milking, dry matter intake and feeding time was reduced at 129 versus 82% stocking density during peak feeding time (0600-0800 h), determined based on diurnal patterns of feeding behavior. Stocking density had no effect on rumination time, milk yield and milk composition. The ratio of SUI ≥85% (mean of the number of SUI

  3. Intake and nutritive value of florigraze rhizoma peanut silage for lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Staples, C R; Emanuele, S M; Prine, G M

    1997-03-01

    Florigraze rhizoma peanut (Arachis glabrata Benth.) is a very persistent, high quality legume that is well adapted to subtropical and tropical environments. This legume was ensiled and compared with corn silage (Zea mays) as a feedstuff for lactating dairy cows. Twelve Holstein cows, including 4 ruminally fistulated cows (mean, 70 days in milk), were used in an experiment with a 4 x 4 Latin square design replicated three times. Diets were formulated to contain 50% concentrate on a dry matter (DM) basis. Dietary treatments were rhizoma peanut silage and corn silage fed at DM ratios of 0:50, 20:30, 35:15, and 50:0. The dry matter intake, digestibilities of DM and crude protein, and production of milk and fat-corrected milk decreased quadratically as the percentage of legume in the diet increased. Nearly all of the decrease occurred when rhizoma peanut silage was the sole forage in the diet. The organic matter digestibility of the two forage types was similar; however, digestion of crude protein in rhizoma peanut silage was only 45% (calculated using simultaneous equations). Ruminal pH increased, and ammonia and total volatile fatty acid concentrations decreased, as the percentage of rhizoma peanut silage in the diet increased. In situ digestion rate constants for DM of rhizoma peanut silage were twice that of corn silage, but extent of DM digestion was greater for corn silage. Passage rates of concentrates and forage were unaffected by dietary treatments. Rhizoma peanut silage can replace 70% of corn silage in diets containing 50% concentrate without affecting dairy cow performance.

  4. Kinematic gait analysis and lactation performance in dairy cows fed a diet supplemented with zinc, manganese, copper and cobalt.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Satoshi; Ito, Kazuhiko; Suzuki, Kii; Matsushima, Yuki; Watanabe, Izumi; Watanabe, Yutaka; Abiko, Keima; Kamada, Toshihiko; Sato, Kan

    2014-03-01

    This study investigated how supplementation of the diet of dairy cows with trace minerals (zinc, manganese, copper and cobalt) affected kinematic gait parameters and lactation performance. Eight Holstein cows were divided into two groups, with each group receiving a different dietary treatment (control diet, or control diet supplemented with trace minerals) in a two-period crossover design. Kinematic gait parameters were calculated by using image analysis software. Compared to cows fed the control diet, cows that received the trace mineral-supplemented diet exhibited significantly increased walking and stepping rates, and had a shorter stance duration. Feed intake and milk production increased in cows fed the trace mineral-supplemented diet compared with control groups. The plasma manganese concentration was not different in control and experimental cows. In contrast, cobalt was only detected in the plasma of cows fed the supplemented diet. These results provide the first evidence that trace mineral supplementation of the diet of dairy cows affects locomotion, and that the associated gait changes can be detected by using kinematic gait analysis. Moreover, trace mineral supplementation improved milk production and only minimally altered blood and physiological parameters in dairy cows.

  5. Effects of mechanical processing on the nutritive value of barley silage for lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Eun, J-S; Beauchemin, K A; Hong, S-H; Yang, W Z

    2004-12-01

    Mechanical processing of whole crop barley before ensiling may be useful for improving nutrient use by dairy cattle. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of feeding mechanically processed barley silage as the main forage source on lactational performance. Twenty-four Holstein cows, 16 primiparous (187 +/- 52 days in milk) and 8 multiparous (87 +/- 69 days in milk) cows, were used in a completely randomized design with a 2-wk covariate period and a 6-wk treatment period. The 2 treatments were: 1) total mixed ration (TMR) containing regular barley silage (RBS-TMR), and 2) TMR containing mechanically processed barley silage (MPBS-TMR). Barley silage and alfalfa hay supplied 41 and 5% of the dietary dry matter (DM), respectively. Intake, body weight, and milk production were measured during the covariate and treatment periods. In addition, 2 multiparous cows were used for in situ measurements of the ruminal DM and fiber degradation kinetics of the barley silages and TMR. Data were analyzed with repeated measurements using a mixed model that included the covariate adjustment. Feeding MPBS-TMR had no significant effects on DM intake (DMI; 21.7 kg/d), milk yield (33.9 kg/d), or milk composition, with only 4% FCM (fat-corrected milk) yield (29.7 vs. 31.7 kg/d) and milk fat concentration (3.30 vs. 3.57%) showing a numerical improvement. Apparent digestibilities of DM and nutrients were not affected by feeding MPBS-TMR, with the exception of starch digestibility, which tended to increase. Dairy efficiencies calculated as milk yield/DMI or FCM/DMI were not different between treatments. Body weight and body condition score were not affected by treatments. Effective ruminal degradability of DM was similar for both barley silages, indicating that when the silages were ground to remove the effects of mechanical processing, the potential digestion was similar. Mechanical processing of barley silage harvested at a mid-dough stage of maturity resulted in small

  6. Tea saponin reduced methanogenesis in vitro but increased methane yield in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Guyader, J; Eugène, M; Doreau, M; Morgavi, D P; Gérard, C; Martin, C

    2017-03-01

    The effect of tea saponin supplementation in the ruminant diet on methane emissions, rumen fermentation, and digestive processes is still under debate. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of this plant extract on methanogenesis, total-tract digestibility, and lactating performances of dairy cows. The work included 2 independent and successive experiments. First, the effect of 7 tea saponin doses (from 0 to 0.50 g/L) on methane emissions and protozoa concentrations was tested in 2 repeated in vitro batch culture incubations using bovine rumen contents as inoculum and a cereal mixture as substrate. After 18 h of incubation, total gas production and composition as well as rumen fermentation parameters and protozoa concentration were analyzed. Increasing dosage of the plant extract reduced methane production and protozoa concentration, with a maximum reduction of 29% for CH4 (mL/g of substrate) and 51% for protozoa (10(5)/mL). Tea saponin did not affect volatile fatty acids concentration, but marginally decreased total gas production by 5% at the highest dose. Second, a 2-period crossover design experiment was carried out with 8 lactating dairy cows fed a basal diet (54% corn silage, 6% hay, and 40% pelleted concentrates on a dry matter basis) without (control) or with 0.52% tea saponin (TSP). Each experimental period lasted 5 wk. Animals were fed ad libitum during the first 3 wk of the period (wk 1, 2, and 3) and restricted (95% of ad libitum intake) during the last 2 wk (wk 4 and 5). Intake and milk production were recorded daily. Methane emissions were quantified using open chambers (2 d, wk 4). Total-tract digestibility and nitrogen balance were determined from total feces and urine collected separately (5 d, wk 5). Rumen fermentation parameters and protozoa concentration were analyzed from samples taken after morning feeding (1 d, wk 5). Milk production, dry matter intake, and feed efficiency were reduced with TSP (-18, -12, and -8%, respectively

  7. Time required to determine performance variables and production efficiency of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Asher, A; Shabtay, A; Haim, A; Aharoni, Y; Miron, J; Adin, G; Tamir, A; Arieli, A; Halachmi, I; Moallem, U; Orlov, A; Brosh, A

    2014-07-01

    Thirty-five lactating dairy cows throughout weeks of lactation (WOL) 16 to 30 were used to determine optimal time needed for reliable measurement of performance variables, and to classify the cows into high-, medium-, and low-efficiency groups. Individual performance variables [body weight (BW), dry matter intake (DMI), and milk production] were measured daily with a computerized monitoring system. Body condition was visually scored weekly and used to calculate retained or depleted body energy as a result of fat content change (REF). Milk composition was analyzed weekly. Body weight, DMI, and total recovered energy (RE), which represents energy in milk production plus REF, were summarized weekly. Efficiency was calculated as RE/DMI and as residual feed intake (RFI; i.e., the difference between actual and expected DMI), which was calculated from multiple linear regression of DMI dependence on BW(0.75) and RE. Unexpectedly, it was found that BW did not affect DMI and RE/DMI. Changes and relative changes in phenotypic coefficient of variation and correlations among data from shortened tests ranging from 1 wk (WOL 16) to a sequence of 15-wk tests were used to determine optimal test period durations for 5 traits: BW, DMI, RE, RE/DMI, and RFI. Traits were fitted into a mixed model with repeated measures. For each week, the traits were summarized as a sequence of cumulative data, starting from WOL 16 and cumulated over periods that increased in 1-wk steps up to WOL 16 to 29. Weekly cumulations were compared with those for entire test period (WOL 16 to 30). Consistency of each cow's efficiency classification as high, medium, or low was tested by the total-agreement procedure; the kappa index P-value was used. Throughout WOL 16 to 30, the effects of increasing test period duration on between-animal coefficient of variation differed with respect to the various performance variables and RE/DMI: it tended to change with respect to BW, did not change with respect to DMI, and

  8. Associations of herd- and cow-level factors, cow lying behavior, and risk of elevated somatic cell count in free-stall housed lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Watters, M E Alexandrea; Meijer, Karin M A; Barkema, Herman W; Leslie, Kenneth E; von Keyserlingk, Marina A G; Devries, Trevor J

    2013-09-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the risk of intramammary infection in dairy cows is related to lying patterns. The objectives of this study were to quantify the standing and lying behavior of dairy cows milked 3×/d, determine the cow- and herd-level factors associated with these behaviors, and relate these findings to the risk of an elevated somatic cell count (SCC). Five commercial free-stall dairy herds in Eastern Ontario, milking 3×/d, were enrolled in a longitudinal study. Forty Holstein-Friesian cows/herd were randomly selected as focal animals based on days in milk (<200 d) and SCC (<100,000 cells/mL). Farms were followed for 4, 5-week periods. Individual-cow SCC was recorded at the beginning of each period and end of the final period. Elevated SCC (eSCC) was used as an indicator of subclinical mastitis. A new incident eSCC was defined as an individual cow that started the period with a SCC <100,000 cells/mL but whose next SCC exceeded 200,000 cells/mL. Lying behavior was recorded 5d after each milk sampling using data loggers. For these 5d, individual milking times and feeding times were also recorded. On d1 of each recording period 2 trained observers scored focal cows for hygiene and lameness. Throughout the course of the study, cows averaged 11.2h/d of lying time, split into 8.6 lying bouts/d that were on average 84.6 min in length. Later lactation cows had longer daily lying times that were split into fewer lying bouts of longer duration than cows earlier in lactation. Lame cows had longer daily lying times and lying bout durations than non-lame cows. Cows with greater milk yield had lower lying times than lower producing cows. Average post-milking standing time across the study herds was 103 min. Manipulation of feed (feed delivery or push-up) by the stockperson, in the hour before milking or shortly thereafter, resulted in the longest post-milking standing times. Over the study period, 48 new eSCC were detected, resulting in a mean herd incidence rate

  9. Factors influencing intake of high urea-containing rations by lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kertz, A F; Koepke, M K; Davidson, L E; Betz, N L; Norris, J R; Skoch, L V; Cords, B R; Hopkins, D T

    1982-04-01

    In a series of experiments we investigated effects of several factors on intake of urea by lactating dairy cows. Cows given an unfamiliar ingredient or altered moisture in the ration reduced their intake, and this effect was attributed to a newness factor. Addition of urea to a ration may have a similar effect. An experimental design providing both no-choice and two-choice data was devised to minimize the effect of newness. When urea was isolated physically by pellets coated with ground corn, cows selected against urea-containing pellets on a two-choice basis and reduced intake on a no-choice basis. When the choice was between two urea-containing rations, cows preferred the pellets in which urea flavor and odor should have been most evident. Urea odor in the feedbox or urea in the drinking water did not reduce feed intake. Eating rate of a 2.5% urea-containing ration over two daily 30-min feeding periods was about one-half that of a non-urea ration. This effect was evident during the first 5-min eating interval. Administration of urea solution into the rumen prior to feeding a nonurea ration markedly reduced subsequent intake. Reticulum pH and ammonia indicated possible sublethal ammonia toxicity. Intake and eating rate were depressed and reticulum pH was elevated when cows were fed a ration with 2.5% urea versus 1% urea or nonurea rations. Elevated reticulum ammonia occurred on both 1 and 2.5% urea-containing rations. Cows not previously exposed to urea-containing rations reduced intake and eating rate when fed rations with 2.0 and 2.5% urea. Intake reduction was not comparable to that by cows preconditioned to urea rations. Upon third exposure to 2.5% urea in the ration, cows reduced and ceased intake but readily consumed a nonurea ration. Cows require preconditioning to develop a negative aversion to rations containing high urea, perhaps through a mechanism of sublethal ammonia toxicity.

  10. Acetone and isopropanol in ruminal fluid and feces of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Sato, Hiroshi; Shiogama, Yumiko

    2010-03-01

    Acetone and its metabolite isopropanol are produced by gut microbes as well as by the host's metabolism. To evaluate the production of acetone and isopropanol in alimentary tracts, a total of 80 pair-samples of feces and ruminal fluid were taken in lactating dairy cows that had been fed silage-containing diets. Acetone and isopropanol were analyzed, together with ethanol and volatile fatty acids (VFAs). Isopropanol was detected in 57 fecal and all the ruminal samples; however, the ruminal isopropanol and ethanol concentrations were distinctly lower than those in the feces. Acetone was detected in 13 fecal and 53 ruminal samples; however, there was no significant difference in acetone concentrations between the feces and the ruminal fluid. The group with higher fecal isopropanol concentration showed higher fecal proportions of acetate accompanied by low proportion of minor VFA, which consisted of isobutyrate and iso- and n-valerate. In the group with higher ruminal isopropanol concentration, ethanol concentration was higher; the ruminal VFA profiles showed only a negligible difference. Fecal and ruminal ethanol concentrations were not affected by feed ethanol. Thus, the colon showed an accelerated alcoholic fermentation compared with the rumen of dairy cows; however, acetone was present at higher frequency in the rumen than in the feces.

  11. Microbial succession in the gastrointestinal tract of dairy cows from 2 weeks to first lactation

    PubMed Central

    Dill-McFarland, Kimberly A.; Breaker, Jacob D.; Suen, Garret

    2017-01-01

    Development of the dairy calf gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and its associated microbiota are essential for survival and milk production, as this community is responsible for converting plant-based feeds into accessible nutrients. However, little is known regarding the establishment of microbes in the calf GIT. Here, we measured fecal-associated bacterial, archaeal, and fungal communities of dairy cows from 2 weeks to the middle of first lactation (>2 years) as well as rumen-associated communities from weaning (8 weeks) to first lactation. These communities were then correlated to animal growth and health. Although succession of specific operational taxonomic units (OTUs) was unique to each animal, beta-diversity decreased while alpha-diversity increased as animals aged. Calves exhibited similar microbial families and genera but different OTUs than adults, with a transition to an adult-like microbiota between weaning and 1 year of age. This suggests that alterations of the microbiota for improving downstream milk production may be most effective during, or immediately following, the weaning transition. PMID:28098248

  12. Association between somatic cell count during the first lactation and the cumulative milk yield of cows in Irish dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Archer, S C; Mc Coy, F; Wapenaar, W; Green, M J

    2014-01-01

    Reduced potential milk yield is an important component of mastitis costs in dairy cows. The first aim of this study was to assess associations between somatic cell count (SCC) during the first lactation, and cumulative milk yield over the first lactation and subsequent lifetime of cows in Irish dairy herds. The second aim was to assess the association between SCC at 5 to 30d in milk during parity 1 (SCC1), and SCC over the entire first lactation for cows in Irish dairy herds. The data set studied included records from 51,483 cows in 5,900 herds. Somatic cell count throughout the first lactation was summarized using the geometric mean and variance of SCC. Data were analyzed using linear models that included random effects to account for the lack of independence between observations, and herd-level variation in coefficients. Models were developed in a Bayesian framework and parameters were estimated from 10,000 Markov chain Monte Carlo simulations. The final models were a good fit to the data. A 1-unit increase in mean natural logarithm SCC over the first lactation was associated with a median decrease in first lactation and lifetime milk yield of 135 and 1,663kg, respectively. A 1-unit increase in the variance of natural logarithm SCC over the first lactation was associated with a median decrease in lifetime milk yield of 719kg. To demonstrate the context of lifetime milk yield results, microsimulation was used to model the trajectory of individual cows and evaluate the expected outcomes for particular changes in herd-level geometric mean SCC over the first lactation. A 75% certainty of savings of at least €199/heifer in the herd was detected if herd-level geometric mean SCC over the first lactation was reduced from ≥120,000 to ≤72,000cells/mL. The association between SCC1 and SCC over the remainder of the first lactation was highly herd dependent, indicating that control measures for heifer mastitis should be preferentially targeted on an individual

  13. Effects of urea treatment of straw and dietary level of vegetable oil on lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Mapato, Chaowarit; Wanapat, Metha; Cherdthong, Anusorn

    2010-12-01

    Four crossbreds (75% Holstein Friesian) lactating dairy cows were used to evaluate the effects of sunflower oil (SFO) levels and roughage source on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, ruminal fermentation, milk yield, and milk composition. Four milking cows with average liveweight of 410 ± 25 kg and 18 ± 11 days in milk were randomly assigned according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design, in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement, with SFO levels (3% or 6%) in the concentrate and the roughage source [rice straw (RS) or urea-treated RS (UTRS)] being the main factors. Four dietary treatments as (1) 3% SFO + RS, (2) 6% SFO + RS, (3) 3% SFO + UTRS, and (4) 6% SFO + UTRS were offered ad libitum total mixed ration, with a concentrate/roughage ratio of 60:40. The results were found that UTRS as a roughage source significantly increased feed intake, digestibility, concentration of acetic acid in rumen fluid, rumen ammonia-nitrogen, blood-urea nitrogen, milk urea-nitrogen, and milk yield (3.5% fat-corrected milk) compared with cows fed on untreated RS. Supplementation of SFO at 3% in the concentrate-supplemented group having increased dry matter intake, milk fat percentage, and milk yield (3.5% fat-corrected milk) compared with 6% SFO supplementation. However, there were no interaction effects between level of SFO in the concentrate and roughage source in any of the factors studied.

  14. Replacing soybean meal for cottonseed meal on performance of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Imaizumi, Hugo; De Souza, Jonas; Batistel, Fernanda; Santos, Flávio Augusto Portela

    2016-01-01

    Cottonseed meal (CSM) is an alternative source of protein, and previous studies have been shown that it can replace soybean meal (SBM) without decrease animal performance. However, Brazilian CSM has a different chemical composition compared with the usual CSM reported in the literature. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of replacing SBM for Brazilian CSM on performance and energy balance of mid-lactating dairy cows. Forty-two Holstein cows were used in a replicate 3 × 3 Latin square design. Increasing contents of CSM (0, 15, and 30% of dry matter (DM)) were fed in diets to replace SBM. Milk yield and feed efficiency were linearly reduced with the replacement of CSM for SBM (P = 0.001). Milk fat content tended to increase quadratically (P = 0.07) with CSM addition. Replacing SBM for CSM affected milk protein content quadratically (P = 0.05). Milk urea nitrogen and plasma urea nitrogen (PUN) tended to respond quadratically (P = 0.06 and 0.10) when CSM replaced SBM to the diets. Variation in body weight (BW) also responded quadratically as CSM replaced SBM (P = 0.05). Altogether, the findings suggest better performance when cows receive SBM diet compared with the Brazilian CSM diet.

  15. The genetic and biological basis of feed efficiency in mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hardie, L C; VandeHaar, M J; Tempelman, R J; Weigel, K A; Armentano, L E; Wiggans, G R; Veerkamp, R F; de Haas, Y; Coffey, M P; Connor, E E; Hanigan, M D; Staples, C; Wang, Z; Dekkers, J C M; Spurlock, D M

    2017-08-23

    The objective of this study was to identify genomic regions and candidate genes associated with feed efficiency in lactating Holstein cows. In total, 4,916 cows with actual or imputed genotypes for 60,671 single nucleotide polymorphisms having individual feed intake, milk yield, milk composition, and body weight records were used in this study. Cows were from research herds located in the United States, Canada, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom. Feed efficiency, defined as residual feed intake (RFI), was calculated within location as the residual of the regression of dry matter intake (DMI) on milk energy (MilkE), metabolic body weight (MBW), change in body weight, and systematic effects. For RFI, DMI, MilkE, and MBW, bivariate analyses were performed considering each trait as a separate trait within parity group to estimate variance components and genetic correlations between them. Animal relationships were established using a genomic relationship matrix. Genome-wide association studies were performed separately by parity group for RFI, DMI, MilkE, and MBW using the Bayes B method with a prior assumption that 1% of single nucleotide polymorphisms have a nonzero effect. One-megabase windows with greatest percentage of the total genetic variation explained by the markers (TGVM) were identified, and adjacent windows with large proportion of the TGVM were combined and reanalyzed. Heritability estimates for RFI were 0.14 (±0.03; ±SE) in primiparous cows and 0.13 (±0.03) in multiparous cows. Genetic correlations between primiparous and multiparous cows were 0.76 for RFI, 0.78 for DMI, 0.92 for MBW, and 0.61 for MilkE. No single 1-Mb window explained a significant proportion of the TGVM for RFI; however, after combining windows, significance was met on Bos taurus autosome 27 in primiparous cows, and nearly reached on Bos taurus autosome 4 in multiparous cows. Among other genes, these regions contain β-3 adrenergic receptor and the physiological candidate gene

  16. Genetic architecture of feed efficiency in mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to explore the genetic architecture and biological basis of feed efficiency in lactating Holstein cows. In total, 4,918 cows with actual or imputed genotypes for 60,671 SNP had individual feed intake, milk yield, milk composition, and body weight records. Cows were ...

  17. The genetic and biological basis of feed efficiency in mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to characterize the genetic architecture and biological basis of feed efficiency in lactating Holstein cows. In total, 4,916 cows with actual or imputed genotypes for 60,671 SNP had individual feed intake, milk yield, milk composition, and body weight records. Cows we...

  18. Capturing urine while maintaining pasture intake, milk production, and animal welfare of dairy cows in early and late lactation.

    PubMed

    Clark, C E F; McLeod, K L M; Glassey, C B; Gregorini, P; Costall, D A; Betteridge, K; Jago, J G

    2010-05-01

    Capturing urine and spreading it evenly across a paddock reduces the risk of nitrogen loss to the environment. This study investigated the effect of 16h/d removal from pasture on the capture of urination events, milk production, pasture intake, and animal welfare from cows grazing fresh pasture in early and late lactation. Forty-eight Holstein-Friesian cows in early [470+/-47kg of body weight (BW); 35+/-9 days in milk] and late (498+/-43kg of BW; 225+/-23 days in milk) lactation were allocated to 3 treatment groups. Cows had access to pasture for either 4h after each milking (2 x 4), for 8h between morning and afternoon milkings (1 x 8), or for 24h, excluding milking times (control). When not grazing, the 2 x 4 and 1 x 8 groups were confined to a plastic-lined loafing area with a woodchip surface. In early lactation, the proportion of urinations on pasture and laneways was reduced from 89% (control) to 51% (1 x 8) and 54% (2 x 4) of total urinations. The 1 x 8 cows ate less pasture [10.9kg of dry matter (DM)/cow per day] than the control (13.6kg of DM/cow per day) and 2 x 4 (13.0kg of DM/cow per day) cows, which did not differ from each other. The 1 x 8 and 2 x 4 cows produced less milk (21 and 22kg of milk/cow per day, respectively) compared with control cows (24kg of milk/cow per day). There were no differences in BW or body condition score (BCS) change across treatment groups, with all groups gaining BW and BCS during the experimental period. In late lactation, there was no difference in pasture intake (mean=8.8kg of DM/cow per day), milk production (mean=10kg of milk/cow per day), and BW or BCS change (mean=3.7kg and -0.2U/cow per week, respectively) between treatment groups. As in early lactation, urinations on pasture and laneways were reduced from 85% (control) to 56% (1 x 8) and 50% (2 x 4) of total urinations. These findings highlight an opportunity to maintain performance and welfare of grazing cows in early and late lactation while capturing additional

  19. Metabolic Response to Heat Stress in Late-Pregnant and Early Lactation Dairy Cows: Implications to Liver-Muscle Crosstalk

    PubMed Central

    Eslamizad, Mehdi; Weitzel, Joachim; Kuhla, Björn

    2016-01-01

    Climate changes lead to rising temperatures during summer periods and dramatic economic losses in dairy production. Modern high-yielding dairy cows experience severe metabolic stress during the transition period between late gestation and early lactation to meet the high energy and nutrient requirements of the fetus or the mammary gland, and additional thermal stress during this time has adverse implications on metabolism and welfare. The mechanisms enabling metabolic adaptation to heat apart from the decline in feed intake and milk yield are not fully elucidated yet. To distinguish between feed intake and heat stress related effects, German Holstein dairy cows were first kept at thermoneutral conditions at 15°C followed by exposure to heat-stressed (HS) at 28°C or pair-feeding (PF) at 15°C for 6 days; in late-pregnancy and again in early lactation. Liver and muscle biopsies and plasma samples were taken to assess major metabolic pathway regulation using real-time PCR and Western Blot. The results indicate that during heat stress, late pregnant cows activate Cahill but reduce Cori cycling, prevent increase in skeletal muscle fatty acid oxidation, and utilize increased amounts of pyruvate for gluconeogenesis, without altering ureagenesis despite reduced plane of nutrition. These homeorhetic adaptations are employed to reduce endogenous heat production while diverting amino acids to the growing fetus. Metabolic adaptation to heat stress in early lactation involves increased long-chain fatty acid degradation in muscle peroxisomes, allowance for muscle glucose utilization but diminished hepatic use of amino acid-derived pyruvate for gluconeogenesis and reduced peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation and ATP production in liver of HS compared to PF cows in early lactation. Consequently, metabolic adaptation to heat stress and reduced feed intake differ between late pregnancy and early lactation of dairy cows to maintain energy supply for fetus development or milk production

  20. On-farm evaluation of the effect of metabolic diseases on the shape of the lactation curve in dairy cows through the MilkBot lactation model.

    PubMed

    Hostens, M; Ehrlich, J; Van Ranst, B; Opsomer, G

    2012-06-01

    The effects of metabolic diseases (MD) occurring during the transition period on milk production of dairy cows have been evaluated in many different ways, often with conflicting conclusions. The present study used a fitted lactation model to analyze specific aspects of lactation curve shape and magnitude in cows that avoided culling or death in the first 120 d in milk (DIM). Production and health records of 1,946 lactations in a 1-yr follow-up study design were collected from a transition management facility in Germany to evaluate both short- and long-term effects of MD on milk production. Milk production data were fitted with the nonlinear MilkBot lactation model, and health records were used to classify cows as healthy (H), affected by one MD (MD), or by multiple MD (MD+). The final data set contained 1,071 H, 348 MD, and 136 MD+ cows, with distinct incidences of 3.7% twinning, 4.8% milk fever, 3.6% retained placenta, 15.4% metritis, 8.3% ketosis, 2.0% displaced abomasum, and 3.7% mastitis in the first 30 DIM. The model containing all healthy and diseased cows showed that lactations classified as H had milk production that increased faster (lower ramp) and also declined faster (lower persistence) compared with cows that encountered one or more metabolic problems. The level of production (scale) was only lowered in MD+ cows compared with H and MD cows. Although the shape of the lactation curve changed when cows encounter uncomplicated (single) MD or complicated MD (more than one MD), the slower increase to a lower peak seemed to be compensated for by greater persistency, resulting in the overall 305-d milk production only being lowered in MD+ cows. In the individual disease models, specific changes in the shape of the lactation curve were found for all MD except twinning. Milk fever, retained placenta, ketosis, and mastitis mainly affected the lactation curve when accompanied by another MD, whereas metritis and displaced abomasum affected the lactation curve

  1. Acetate Dose-Dependently Stimulates Milk Fat Synthesis in Lactating Dairy Cows.

    PubMed

    Urrutia, Natalie L; Harvatine, Kevin J

    2017-03-22

    Background: Acetate is a short-chain fatty acid (FA) that is especially important to cows because it is the major substrate for de novo FA synthesis. However, the effect of acetate supply on mammary lipid synthesis is not clear.Objective: The objective of this experiment was to determine the effect of increasing acetate supply on milk fat synthesis in lactating dairy cows.Methods: Six multiparous lactating Holstein cows were randomly assigned to treatments in a replicated design to investigate the effect of acetate supply on milk fat synthesis. Treatments were 0 (control), 5, 10, and 15 mol acetate/d continuously infused into the rumen for 4 d. Rumen short-chain FAs, plasma hormones and metabolites, milk fat concentration, and milk FA profile were analyzed on day 4 of each treatment. Polynomial contrasts were used to test the linear and quadratic effects of increasing acetate supply.Results: Acetate increased milk fat yield quadratically (P < 0.01) by 7%, 16%, and 14% and increased milk fat concentration linearly (P < 0.001) by 6%, 9%, and 11% for 5, 10, and 15 mol acetate/d, respectively, compared with the control treatment. Increased milk fat yield predominantly was due to a linear increase in 16-carbon FAs (P < 0.001) and a quadratic increase in de novo synthesized FAs (<16-carbon FAs; P < 0.01), indicating that there was stimulation of de novo synthesis pathways. Apparent transfer of acetate to milk fat was 33.4%, 36.2%, and 20.6% for 5, 10, and 15 mol/d, respectively. Acetate infusion linearly increased the relative concentration of rumen acetate (P < 0.001) before feeding, but not after feeding. Acetate linearly increased plasma ß-hydroxybutyric acid by 29%, 50%, and 78%, respectively, after feeding compared with the control treatment (P < 0.01).Conclusions: Increasing acetate supply to lactating cows increases milk fat synthesis, suggesting that nutritional strategies that increase ruminal acetate absorption would be expected to increase milk fat by

  2. Comparative evaluation of a new lactation curve model for pasture-based Holstein-Friesian dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Adediran, S A; Ratkowsky, D A; Donaghy, D J; Malau-Aduli, A E O

    2012-09-01

    Fourteen lactation models were fitted to average and individual cow lactation data from pasture-based dairy systems in the Australian states of Victoria and Tasmania. The models included a new "log-quadratic" model, and a major objective was to evaluate and compare the performance of this model with the other models. Nine empirical and 5 mechanistic models were first fitted to average test-day milk yield of Holstein-Friesian dairy cows using the nonlinear procedure in SAS. Two additional semiparametric models were fitted using a linear model in ASReml. To investigate the influence of days to first test-day and the number of test-days, 5 of the best-fitting models were then fitted to individual cow lactation data. Model goodness of fit was evaluated using criteria such as the residual mean square, the distribution of residuals, the correlation between actual and predicted values, and the Wald-Wolfowitz runs test. Goodness of fit was similar in all but one of the models in terms of fitting average lactation but they differed in their ability to predict individual lactations. In particular, the widely used incomplete gamma model most displayed this failing. The new log-quadratic model was robust in fitting average and individual lactations, and was less affected by sampled data and more parsimonious in having only 3 parameters, each of which lends itself to biological interpretation.

  3. Molecular insights into the mechanisms of liver-associated diseases in early-lactating dairy cows: hypothetical role of endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Ringseis, R; Gessner, D K; Eder, K

    2015-08-01

    The transition period represents the most critical period in the productive life of high-yielding dairy cows due to both metabolic and inflammatory stimuli, which challenge the liver and predispose dairy cows to develop liver-associated diseases such as fatty liver and ketosis. Despite the fact that all high-yielding dairy cows are affected by marked metabolic stress due to a severe negative energy balance (NEB) during early lactation, not all cows develop liver-associated diseases. Although the reason for this is largely unknown, this indicates that the capacity of the liver to cope with metabolic and inflammatory challenges varies between individual high-yielding dairy cows. Convincing evidence exists that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress plays a key role in the development of fatty liver, and it has been recently shown that ER stress occurs in the liver of high-yielding dairy cows. This indicates that ER stress may be involved in the development of liver-associated diseases in dairy cows. The present review shows that the liver of dairy cows during early lactation is exposed to several metabolic and inflammatory challenges, such as non-esterified fatty acids, tumour necrosis factor α, interleukin-1β, reactive oxygen species and lipopolysaccharides, which are known inducers of ER stress. Thus, ER stress may represent a molecular basis for fatty liver development and account for the frequent occurrence of fatty liver and ketosis in high-yielding dairy cows. Interindividual differences between dairy cows in the activation of hepatic stress response pathways, such as nuclear factor E2-related factor 2, which is activated during ER stress and reduces the sensitivity of tissues to oxidative and inflammatory damage, might provide an explanation at the molecular level for differences in the capacity to cope with pathological inflammatory challenges during early lactation and the susceptibility to develop liver-associated diseases between early-lactating dairy cows

  4. Mid-infrared spectrometry of milk as a predictor of energy intake and efficiency in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    McParland, S; Lewis, E; Kennedy, E; Moore, S G; McCarthy, B; O'Donovan, M; Butler, S T; Pryce, J E; Berry, D P

    2014-09-01

    Interest is increasing in the feed intake complex of individual dairy cows, both for management and animal breeding. However, energy intake data on an individual-cow basis are not routinely available. The objective of the present study was to quantify the ability of routinely undertaken mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy analysis of individual cow milk samples to predict individual cow energy intake and efficiency. Feed efficiency in the present study was described by residual feed intake (RFI), which is the difference between actual energy intake and energy used (e.g., milk production, maintenance, and body tissue anabolism) or supplied from body tissue mobilization. A total of 1,535 records for energy intake, RFI, and milk MIR spectral data were available from an Irish research herd across 36 different test days from 535 lactations on 378 cows. Partial least squares regression analyses were used to relate the milk MIR spectral data to either energy intake or efficiency. The coefficient of correlation (REX) of models to predict RFI across lactation ranged from 0.48 to 0.60 in an external validation data set; the predictive ability was, however, strongest (REX=0.65) in early lactation (<60 d in milk). The inclusion of milk yield as a predictor variable improved the accuracy of predicting energy intake across lactation (REX=0.70). The correlation between measured RFI and measured energy balance across lactation was 0.85, whereas the correlation between RFI and energy balance, both predicted from the MIR spectrum, was 0.65. Milk MIR spectral data are routinely generated for individual cows throughout lactation and, therefore, the prediction equations developed in the present study can be immediately (and retrospectively where MIR spectral data have been stored) applied to predict energy intake and efficiency to aid in management and breeding decisions. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of monensin in lactating dairy cow diets at 2 starch concentrations.

    PubMed

    Akins, M S; Perfield, K L; Green, H B; Bertics, S J; Shaver, R D

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of monensin (M) supplementation on lactation performance of dairy cows fed diets of either reduced (RS) or normal (NS) starch concentrations as total mixed rations. One hundred twenty-eight Holstein and Holstein × Jersey cows (90 ± 33 d in milk) were stratified by breed and parity and randomly assigned to 16 pens of 8 cows each in a randomized controlled trial. Pens were then randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. A 4-wk covariate adjustment period preceded the treatment period, with all pens receiving NS supplemented with 18 g of monensin/t of dry matter (DM). Following the 4-wk covariate adjustment period, cows were fed their assigned treatment diets of NS with M (18 g of monensin/t), NS with 0 g of monensin/t (C), RS with M, or RS with C for 12 wk. Actual starch concentrations for the RS and NS diets were 20.4 and 26.9% (DM basis), respectively. Mean dry matter intake (DMI; 27.0 kg/d) was unaffected by the treatments. Feeding M compared with C and NS compared with RS increased milk yield by 1.3 and 1.5 kg/d per cow, respectively. Milk protein percentage and yield and lactose yield were increased and milk urea nitrogen was decreased for NS compared with RS. Feeding M increased actual and component-corrected milk feed efficiencies (component-corrected milk yield/DMI) and lactose yield and tended to increase milk urea nitrogen compared with C. Milk protein percentage was decreased for M compared with C, but milk fat percentage and yield, protein yield, and lactose percentage were unaffected by M. We observed a tendency for a starch × monensin interaction for milk feed efficiency (actual milk yield/DMI); M tended to increase efficiency more for NS than for RS. Starch and monensin had minimal effects on milk fatty acid composition and yields. Feeding RS decreased milk and protein yields, but component-corrected milk yields and feed efficiencies were similar

  6. Evaluation of solids, nitrogen, and phosphorus excretion models for lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hollmann, M; Knowlton, K F; Hanigan, M D

    2008-03-01

    Monitoring or accurately predicting manure quantities and nutrient concentrations is important for dairy farms facing strict environmental regulations. The objectives of this project were to determine the daily out-flow of manure nutrients from a free-stall barn using mass balance and to compare results with published excretion models. The project was conducted at the free-stall facility housing the lactating cow herd of the Virginia Tech Dairy Center in 2005. The herd consisted of 142 (+/-8.9) Holstein and Jersey cows with a mean body weight of 568 (+/-6.2) kg and average milk yield of 29.8 (+/-1.7) kg/d with 3.18% (+/-0.07) true protein and 3.81% (+/-0.13) milk fat on 18 sampling days. The intakes of dry matter (DM), N, and P were estimated from the formulated ration. Daily consumption averaged 21.7 (+/-0.27) kg of DM with 17.7% (+/-0.26) crude protein and 0.46% (+/-0.03) P. Approximately 110 (+/- 27.9) kg/d of sawdust was used as bedding; its contribution to manure flow was subtracted. The alleys in the free-stall barn were flushed every 6 h with recycled wastewater, and the slurry was collected. On 18 sampling days the volumes and constituents of the flushwater and the flushed manure were determined for a 6-h flush cycle and extrapolated to daily values. Net daily flow of solids and nutrients in manure were calculated as the differences between masses in flushed slurry and flushwater. Nitrogen and P excretion were also calculated from dietary inputs and milk output. The flow was compared with the American Society of Agricultural Engineers' (ASAE) standards. Each cow produced 5.80 kg/d of total solids (remainder after drying at 105 degrees C). The ASAE standard predicted DM (remainder after drying at 60 degrees C) excretion of 8.02 to 8.53 kg/d per cow. Recovery of P amounted to 74.8 g/d per cow. Overall, 102% of intake P was recovered; 75.1% in the manure outflow and 26.9% in milk. About 285 g/d and 148 g/d of N per cow were recaptured in manure and milk

  7. Effect of dietary strong ions on chewing activity and milk production in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Mooney, C S; Allen, M S

    2007-12-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine effects of strong ions on chewing activity and short-term lactational performance of dairy cows. Forty multiparous Holstein cows were used in a replicated 5 x 5 Latin square design with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of equimolar treatments for cations (sodium and potassium), anions (chloride and bicarbonate), plus a control diet. Periods were 14 d in length with the last 4 d for data and sample collection. Diets were formulated to 29% neutral detergent figer and 17.5% crude protein. Sodium bicarbonate was included at 1% of dry matter in one treatment diet, and other treatments (sodium chloride, potassium chloride, and potassium bicarbonate) were added to be equimolar to sodium bicarbonate in their respective diets. Chewing activity was recorded every 5 min for the last 24 h of each period. Dry matter intake was not affected by treatment (mean = 27.9 kg/d). Bicarbonate treatments increased yields of milk, milk fat, and fat- and solids-corrected milk compared with chloride treatments, but cation treatments did not affect any measured variable. The 4 ion treatments reduced ruminating time per day when compared with control by decreasing the length of rumination bouts. This effect was not specific to cations or anions suggesting a mechanism related to increased ruminal osmolality.

  8. Evaluation of lower-starch diets for lactating Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Dann, H M; Tucker, H A; Cotanch, K W; Krawczel, P D; Mooney, C S; Grant, R J; Eguchi, T

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this experiment was to measure ruminal and lactational responses of Holstein dairy cows fed diets containing 3 different starch levels: 17.7 (low; LS), 21.0 (medium; MS), or 24.6% (high; HS). Twelve multiparous cows (118 ± 5 d in milk) were assigned randomly to dietary treatment sequence in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design with 3-wk periods. All diets were fed as total mixed rations and contained approximately 30.2% corn silage, 18.5% grass silage, and 5.0% chopped alfalfa hay. Dietary starch content was manipulated by increasing dry ground corn inclusion (% of dry matter) from 3.4 (LS) to 10.1 (MS) and 16.9 (HS) and decreasing inclusion of beet pulp and wheat middlings from 6.7 and 13.4 (LS) to 3.4 and 10.1 (MS) or 0 and 6.8 (HS). In vitro 6-h starch digestibility of the diet increased as nonforage sources of fiber replaced corn grain (% of dry matter; 73.6, HS; 77.3, MS; 82.5, LS) resulting in rumen-fermentable starch content by 14.6, 16.2, and 18.1% for the LS, MS, and HS diets, respectively. Diets had similar neutral detergent fiber from forage and particle size distributions. Dry matter intake, solids-corrected milk yield, and efficiency of solids-corrected milk production were unaffected by diet, averaging 26.5 ± 0.8, 40.8 ± 1.6, and 1.54 ± 0.05 kg/d, respectively. Reducing dietary starch did not affect chewing time (815 ± 23 min/d), mean ruminal pH over 24h (6.06 ± 0.12), acetate-to-propionate ratio (2.4 ± 0.3), or microbial N synthesized in the rumen (585 ± 24 g/d). Total tract organic matter digestibility was higher for HS compared with MS and LS diets (69.2, 67.3, and 67.0%, respectively), but crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, and starch digestibilities were unaffected. As dietary starch content decreased, in vitro ruminal starch fermentability increased and, consequently, the range between HS and LS in rumen-fermentable starch (3.5 percentage units) was less than the range in starch content (6.9 percentage units

  9. Effect of rubber flooring on claw health in lactating dairy cows housed in free-stall barns.

    PubMed

    Vanegas, J; Overton, M; Berry, S L; Sischo, W M

    2006-11-01

    Multiparous dairy cows between 10 to 30 d in milk (DIM) were enrolled in a clinical trial to evaluate the effects of rubber flooring on the development of claw lesions, locomotion scores, clinical lameness, and rates of hoof growth and wear. Two groups of cows were housed in identical free-stall facilities, except that 1 pen (rubber, n = 84) had rubber alley mats covering the entire concrete floor of the pen, whereas cows in the second pen were exposed to concrete flooring (concrete, n = 82) without rubber alley mats. All cows were evaluated 3 times between 10 and 30, 74 and 94, and 110 and 130 DIM for 1) the presence of claw lesions on their rear feet, 2) the occurrence of clinical lameness based on a locomotion score, and 3) rates of claw growth and wear as observed on the dorsal wall of the right lateral claw. No differences between flooring groups at the time of enrollment were detected for lactation number, mean DIM at first examination, body condition score, and proportion of cows with claw lesions at the first examination. Odds of developing claw lesions between examinations were not different for cows exposed to the rubber surface compared with those exposed to concrete. Cows on concrete, however, had greater odds of developing or exacerbating existing heel erosion than cows on rubber flooring. Regardless of the flooring surface, the lateral claw was more likely to develop lesions than the medial claw. Odds of becoming lame by the third examination and the proportion of cows requiring therapeutic hoof trimming because of lameness were greater for concrete-exposed cows than those on rubber. Cows on rubber flooring had decreased claw growth and wear between the first and last examination compared with cows on concrete. Regardless of flooring surface, second-lactation cows had greater wear rates than those in third or greater parities. Results of our study suggest that a soft flooring surface, such as interlocking rubber, is beneficial for hoof health.

  10. Mitochondrial DNA copy number and biogenesis in different tissues of early- and late-lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Laubenthal, L; Hoelker, M; Frahm, J; Dänicke, S; Gerlach, K; Südekum, K-H; Sauerwein, H; Häussler, S

    2016-02-01

    Energy balance in dairy cows changes during the course of lactation due to alterations in voluntary feed intake and energy required for milk synthesis. To adapt to the demands of lactation, energy metabolism needs to be regulated and coordinated in key organs such as adipose tissue (AT), liver, and mammary gland. Mitochondria are the main sites of energy production in mammalian cells and their number varies depending on age, organ, and physiological condition. The copy number of the mitochondrial genome, the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), reflects the abundance of mitochondria within a cell and is regulated by transcriptional and translational factors. Environmental, physiological, and energetic conditions change during lactation and we thus hypothesized that these changes may influence the mtDNA copy number and the abundance of genes regulating mitochondrial biogenesis. Therefore, we aimed to provide an overview of mitochondrial biogenesis in liver, subcutaneous (sc)AT, mammary gland, and peripheral blood cells during early and late lactation in dairy cows. German Holstein cows (n=21) were fed according to their requirements, and biopsies from scAT, liver, mammary gland, and blood were collected in early and late lactation and assayed for relative mtDNA copy numbers and the mRNA abundance of genes regulating mitochondrial biogenesis, such as nuclear-respiratory factor 1 and 2 (NRF-1, NRF-2), mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1-α (PGC-1α). The number of mtDNA copies increased from early to late lactation in all tissues, whereas that in peripheral blood cells was greater in early compared with late lactation. Moreover, mitochondrial activity enzymes (i.e., citrate synthase and cytochrome c oxidase) increased from early to late lactation in scAT. Comparing the number of mtDNA copies between tissues and blood in dairy cows, the highest mtDNA content was observed in liver. The mRNA abundance of

  11. Effect of climate factors on conception rate of lactating dairy cows in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Villa-Mancera, Abel; Méndez-Mendoza, Maximino; Huerta-Crispín, Rubén; Vázquez-Flores, Felicitas; Córdova-Izquierdo, Alejandro

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between conception rate (CR) and climate variables. Data consisted of 24,380 inseminations of Holstein dairy herd in Hidalgo, Mexico. Weather records, including daily temperature (T), relative humidity (RH), rainfall, wind speed, and solar radiation, were obtained from a nearby weather station. Means for each climatic variable from 2 days before artificial insemination (AI) to the AI day were calculated for each conception date represented in the study. A significant negative correlation was observed between the CR and mean and minimum T, mean and minimum RH, mean and minimum temperature-humidity index (THI), and rainfall. The overall mean CR was 34.3%. The CR in lactating dairy cows followed a seasonal pattern, lower CRs were observed in summer months than during winter (32.1% vs. 36.9%; P<0.01). The variables that had the greatest influence on CR were minimum and maximum T, minimum RH, minimum THI, wind speed, and rainfall.

  12. Pivotal periods for pregnancy loss during the first trimester of gestation in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Wiltbank, Milo C; Baez, Giovanni M; Garcia-Guerra, Alvaro; Toledo, Mateus Z; Monteiro, Pedro L J; Melo, Leonardo F; Ochoa, Julian C; Santos, José E P; Sartori, Roberto

    2016-07-01

    Loss of pregnancy can occur at many different stages of gestation and for a variety of causes but clearly produces a negative impact for reproductive and economic performances of dairy herds. This review describes four pivotal periods for pregnancy loss during the first trimester of gestation and discusses possible causes for pregnancy failure during these periods. The first period occurs during the first week after breeding with lack of fertilization and death of the early embryo producing major losses in pregnancy, particularly under specific environmental and hormonal conditions. In general, 20%-50% of high-producing lactating dairy cows have already experienced pregnancy loss during the first week of gestation with methods to decrease pregnancy loss during this period targeting improved oocyte quality by alleviating heat stress, inflammatory diseases, and body condition loss, and by increasing progesterone concentrations during preovulatory follicle development. The second pivotal period, from Days 8 to 27, encompasses embryo elongation and the classical "maternal recognition of pregnancy" period with losses averaging ∼30% but with surprising variation between farms (25%-41%). Maintenance of the CL of pregnancy is produced by the embryonic signal interferon-tau and alteration in uterine secretory patterns of prostaglandins F2α, E1, and E2. Failures or delays in trophoblast elongation and/or embryonic development result in loss of pregnancy during the second pivotal period possibly due to suboptimal histotroph. The third pivotal period is during the second month of pregnancy, Days 28 to 60, with losses of ∼12% based on a summary of published results from more than 20,000 pregnancies in high-producing dairy cows. Delays or defects in development of the chorioallantoic placentomes or embryo result in CL regression or embryo death during this pivotal period. Finally, a fourth period during the third month of pregnancy has reduced pregnancy losses (∼2

  13. Replacing dietary soybean meal with canola meal improves production and efficiency of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Broderick, Glen A; Faciola, Antonio P; Armentano, Louis E

    2015-08-01

    Previous research suggested that crude protein (CP) from canola meal (CM) was used more efficiently than CP from solvent soybean meal (SBM) by lactating dairy cows. We tested whether dietary CP content influenced relative effectiveness of equal supplemental CP from either CM or SBM. Fifty lactating Holstein cows were blocked by parity and days in milk into 10 squares (2 squares with ruminal cannulas) in a replicated 5×5 Latin square trial. Five squares were fed: (1) low (14.5-14.8%) CP with SBM, (2) low CP with CM, (3) low CP with SBM plus CM, (4) high (16.4-16.7%) CP with SBM, and (5) high CP with CM; the other 5 squares were fed the same diets except with rumen-protected Met plus Lys (RPML) added as Mepron (Degussa Corp., Kennesaw, GA) and AminoShure-L (Balchem Corp., New Hampton, NY), which were assumed to provide 8g/d of absorbed dl-Met and 12g/d of absorbed l-Lys. Diets contained [dry matter (DM) basis] 40% corn silage, 26% alfalfa silage, 14 to 23% corn grain, 2.4% mineral-vitamin premixes, and 29 to 33% neutral detergent fiber. Periods were 3wk (total 15wk), and data from the last week of each period were analyzed using the Mixed procedures of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). The only effects of RPML were increased DM intake and milk urea N (MUN) and urinary N excretion and trends for decreased milk lactose and solids-not-fat concentrations and milk-N:N intake; no significant RPML × protein source interactions were detected. Higher dietary CP increased milk fat yield and tended to increase milk yield but also elevated MUN, urine volume, urinary N excretion, ruminal concentrations of ammonia and branched-chain volatile fatty acids (VFA), lowered milk lactose concentration and milk-N:N intake, and had no effect on milk true protein yield. Feeding CM instead of SBM increased feed intake, yields of milk, energy-corrected milk, and true protein, and milk-N:N intake, tended to increase fat and lactose yields, and reduced MUN, urine volume, and urinary N

  14. Resistin in Dairy Cows: Plasma Concentrations during Early Lactation, Expression and Potential Role in Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Reverchon, Maxime; Ramé, Christelle; Cognié, Juliette; Briant, Eric; Elis, Sébastien; Guillaume, Daniel; Dupont, Joëlle

    2014-01-01

    Resistin is an adipokine that has been implicated in energy metabolism regulation in rodents but has been little studied in dairy cows. We determined plasma resistin concentrations in early lactation in dairy cows and investigated the levels of resistin mRNA and protein in adipose tissue and the phosphorylation of several components of insulin signaling pathways one week post partum (1 WPP) and at five months of gestation (5 MG). We detected resistin in mature bovine adipocytes and investigated the effect of recombinant bovine resistin on lipolysis in bovine adipose tissue explants. ELISA showed that plasma resistin concentration was low before calving, subsequently increasing and reaching a peak at 1 WPP, decreasing steadily thereafter to reach pre-calving levels at 6 WPP. Plasma resistin concentration was significantly positively correlated with plasma non esterified fatty acid (NEFA) levels and negatively with milk yield, dry matter intake and energy balance between WPP1 to WPP22. We showed, by quantitative RT-PCR and western blotting, that resistin mRNA and protein levels in adipose tissue were higher at WPP1 than at 5 MG. The level of phosphorylation of several early and downstream insulin signaling components (IRβ, IRS-1, IRS-2, Akt, MAPK ERK1/2, P70S6K and S6) in adipose tissue was also lower at 1 WPP than at 5 MG. Finally, we showed that recombinant bovine resistin increased the release of glycerol and mRNA levels for ATGL (adipose triglyceride lipase) and HSL (hormone-sensitive lipase) in adipose tissue explants. Overall, resistin levels were high in the plasma and adipose tissue and were positively correlated with NEFA levels after calving. Resistin is expressed in bovine mature adipocytes and promotes lipid mobilization in adipose explants in vitro. PMID:24675707

  15. Particle length of silages affects apparent ruminal synthesis of B vitamins in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Castagnino, D S; Kammes, K L; Allen, M S; Gervais, R; Chouinard, P Y; Girard, C L

    2016-08-01

    Effects of particle length of silages on apparent ruminal synthesis (ARS) and postruminal supply of B vitamins were evaluated in 2 feeding trials. Diets containing alfalfa (trial 1) or orchardgrass (trial 2) silages, chopped to either 19mm (long cut, LC) or 10mm (short cut, SC) theoretical particle length, as the sole forage were offered to ruminally and duodenally cannulated lactating Holstein cows in crossover design experiments. Forages chopped to a theoretical particle length of 19 and 10mm had mean particles sizes of 14.1 and 8.1mm, respectively, in trial 1, and 15.3 and 11.3mm, respectively, in trial 2. Trial 1 was conducted with 13 multiparous cows in two 19-d treatment periods; both diets contained approximately 20% forage neutral detergent fiber (NDF), 25% total NDF, and forage-to-concentrate ratios were approximately 47:53. Trial 2 was conducted with 15 cows in two 18-d treatment periods; both diets contained approximately 23% forage NDF, 28% total NDF, and had a forage-to-concentrate ratio of 50:50. Thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, folates, and vitamin B12 were measured in feed and duodenal content. Daily ARS was calculated as the duodenal flow minus the intake. In trial 1, daily intake of individual B vitamins was increased with the LC diet, but ARS of thiamine, riboflavin, vitamin B6, and folates was reduced. In trial 2, except for folates, intakes of the other B vitamins were decreased with the LC diets, whereas ARS of riboflavin, niacin, and vitamin B6 was increased. Daily ARS of thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, and vitamin B6 were correlated negatively with their intake, suggesting that ruminal bacteria reduced their synthesis when dietary supply increased. Microbial activity could have also reduced degradation of thiamine, riboflavin, and niacin, which is supported by (1) the negative correlation between ARS of these vitamins and ruminal pH or microbial N duodenal flow; and (2) the positive correlation between ARS and ruminal concentrations

  16. Measurement of water kinetics with deuterium oxide in lactating dairy cows

    SciTech Connect

    Odwongo, W.O.; Conrad, H.R.; Staubus, A.E.; Harrison, J.H.

    1985-05-01

    Following intravenous infusion with approximately 300 mg deuterium oxide per kg body weight, blood was drawn from lactating Holsteins (Trial 1, n = 4, and Trial 2, n = 5) at suitable intervals for up to 12 days while the cows were maintained on dietary regimens to which they were well adapted. Time results for deuterium oxide concentration in blood were described best by the three-compartment open model system, which showed that the central, shallow peripheral, and deep peripheral body water compartments contained 27.1, 25.0, and 23.2% body weight in trial 1 and 33.7, 27.1, and 19.9% body weight in trial 2. Total body water estimates averaged 75.3 and 80.7% body weight during trials 1 and 2. Estimates for biological half-life of water were 4.6 and 3.2 days and those for water turnover were 68.9 and 109.7 liters/day, respectively. The data fitted the two-compartment open model system when observations made prior to 25 min post-administration were excluded from the analyses, because the central and shallow peripheral compartments were apparently lumped into one. Blood sampling at 0.5, 1, and 1.5 days following infusion and thereafter at 1-day intervals was adequate for the estimates of the one compartment open model system. Estimates of total body water, water biological half-life, and water turnover were similar for the different models. It is concluded that the three-compartment open model provides greater detail and insight into the water dynamics of lactating dairy cows having regular access to food and water, whereas the two- and one-compartment open model systems provide good approximations only.

  17. Rumen fermentation and production effects of Origanum vulgare L. leaves in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Tekippe, J A; Hristov, A N; Heyler, K S; Cassidy, T W; Zheljazkov, V D; Ferreira, J F S; Karnati, S K; Varga, G A

    2011-10-01

    A lactating cow trial was conducted to study the effects of dietary addition of oregano leaf material (Origanum vulgare L.; OV; 0, control vs. 500 g/d) on ruminal fermentation, methane production, total tract digestibility, manure gas emissions, N metabolism, organoleptic characteristics of milk, and dairy cow performance. Eight primiparous and multiparous Holstein cows (6 of which were ruminally cannulated) were used in a crossover design trial with two 21-d periods. Cows were fed once daily. The OV material was top-dressed and mixed with a portion of the total mixed ration. Cows averaged 80 ± 12.5 d in milk at the beginning of the trial. Rumen pH, concentration of total and individual volatile fatty acids, microbial protein outflow, and microbial profiles were not affected by treatment. Ruminal ammonia-N concentration was increased by OV compared with the control (5.3 vs. 4.3mM). Rumen methane production, which was measured only within 8h after feeding, was decreased by OV. Intake of dry matter (average of 26.6 ± 0.83 kg/d) and apparent total tract digestibly of nutrients did not differ between treatments. Average milk yield, milk protein, lactose, and milk urea nitrogen concentrations were unaffected by treatment. Milk fat content was increased and 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield tended to be increased by OV, compared with the control (3.29 vs. 3.12% and 42.4 vs. 41.0 kg/d, respectively). Fat-corrected (3.5%) milk feed efficiency and milk net energy for lactation (NE(L)) efficiency (milk NE(L) ÷ NE(L) intake) were increased by OV compared with the control (1.64 vs. 1.54 kg/kg and 68.0 vs. 64.4%, respectively). Milk sensory parameters were not affected by treatment. Urinary and fecal N losses, and manure ammonia and methane emissions were unaffected by treatment. Under the current experimental conditions, supplementation of dairy cow diets with 500 g/d of OV increased milk fat concentration, feed and milk NE(L) efficiencies, and tended to increase 3.5% fat

  18. Chewing activity, saliva production, and ruminal pH of primiparous and multiparous lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Maekawa, M; Beauchemin, K A; Christensen, D A

    2002-05-01

    Four multiparous (MP) and four primiparous (PP) ruminally cannulated lactating Holstein cows were used in a double 4 x 4 Latin square design to study the chewing behavior, saliva production, and ruminal pH of cows in the first or subsequent lactation. Cows were fed one of four diets; three total mixed rations containing 40, 50, or 60% silage (DM basis), and a separate ingredient diet containing 50% concentrate. Dry matter intake was higher for MP cows than for PP cows (19.2 vs. 17.1 kg/d) but not as a percentage of body weight (2.97 +/- 0.06%). Multiparous cows spent more time eating than PP cows (260 vs. 213 min/d, respectively), even after adjustment for dry matter intake (13.8 vs. 12.4 min/kg DM). Multiparous cows also spent more time ruminating per day than PP cows (560 vs. 508 min/d, respectively). Eating salivation rate was not affected by parity, but resting salivation rate was higher for MP cows than for PP. Although MP cows spent more time chewing than PP cows, total daily saliva production was only numerically higher for MP cows because the increase in saliva produced during chewing was accompanied by a decrease in saliva produced during resting. Furthermore, pH profiles tended to be lower for MP cows than for PP cows. Multiparous cows may have a greater risk of incurring acidosis than PP cows because increased salivary secretion associated with increased chewing may not sufficiently compensate the increment of fermentation acids produced in the rumen due to high feed intake.

  19. Effects of long-term feeding of genetically modified corn (event MON810) on the performance of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Steinke, K; Guertler, P; Paul, V; Wiedemann, S; Ettle, T; Albrecht, C; Meyer, H H D; Spiekers, H; Schwarz, F J

    2010-10-01

    A long-term study over 25 months was conducted to evaluate the effects of genetically modified corn on performance of lactating dairy cows. Thirty-six dairy cows were assigned to two feeding groups and fed with diets based on whole-crop silage, kernels and whole-crop cobs from Bt-corn (Bt-MON810) or its isogenic not genetically modified counterpart (CON) as main components. The study included two consecutive lactations. There were no differences in the chemical composition and estimated net energy content of Bt-MON810 and CON corn components and diets. CON feed samples were negative for the presence of Cry1Ab protein, while in Bt-MON810 feed samples the Cry1Ab protein was detected. Cows fed Bt-MON810 corn had a daily Cry1Ab protein intake of 6.0 mg in the first lactation and 6.1 mg in the second lactation of the trial. Dry matter intake (DMI) was 18.8 and 20.7 kg/cow per day in the first and the second lactation of the trial, with no treatment differences. Similarly, milk yield (23.8 and 29.0 kg/cow per day in the first and the second lactation of the trial) was not affected by dietary treatment. There were no consistent effects of feeding MON810 or its isogenic CON on milk composition or body condition. Thus, the present long-term study demonstrated the compositional and nutritional equivalence of Bt-MON810 and its isogenic CON.

  20. Effects of dietary starch content and rate of fermentation on methane production in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hatew, B; Podesta, S C; Van Laar, H; Pellikaan, W F; Ellis, J L; Dijkstra, J; Bannink, A

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of starch varying in rate of fermentation and level of inclusion in the diet in exchange for fiber on methane (CH4) production of dairy cows. Forty Holstein-Friesian lactating dairy cows of which 16 were rumen cannulated were grouped in 10 blocks of 4 cows each. Cows received diets consisting of 60% grass silage and 40% concentrate (dry matter basis). Cows within block were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 different diets composed of concentrates that varied in rate of starch fermentation [slowly (S) vs. rapidly (R) rumen fermentable; native vs. gelatinized corn grain] and level of starch (low vs. high; 270 vs. 530g/kg of concentrate dry matter). Results of rumen in situ incubations confirmed that the fractional rate of degradation of starch was higher for R than S starch. Effective rumen degradability of organic matter was higher for high than low starch and also higher for R than S starch. Increased level of starch, but not starch fermentability, decreased dry matter intake and daily CH4 production. Milk yield (mean 24.0±1.02kg/d), milk fat content (mean 5.05±0.16%), and milk protein content (mean 3.64±0.05%) did not differ between diets. Methane expressed per kilogram of fat- and protein-corrected milk, per kilogram of dry matter intake, or as a fraction of gross energy intake did not differ between diets. Methane expressed per kilogram of estimated rumen-fermentable organic matter (eRFOM) was higher for S than R starch-based diets (47.4 vs. 42.6g/kg of eRFOM) and for low than high starch-based diets (46.9 vs. 43.1g/kg of eRFOM). Apparent total-tract digestibility of neutral detergent fiber and crude protein were not affected by diets, but starch digestibility was higher for diets based on R starch (97.2%) compared with S starch (95.5%). Both total volatile fatty acid concentration (109.2 vs. 97.5mM) and propionate proportion (16.5 vs. 15.8mol/100mol) were higher for R starch- compared with S starch

  1. Single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with thermoregulation in lactating dairy cows exposed to heat stress

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dairy cows with increased rectal temperature during heat stress experience lower milk yield and fertility. Given that rectal temperature during heat stress is heritable in dairy cattle, genetic selection for regulation of body temperature should reduce effects of heat stress on production. One goal...

  2. Synchronization of ovulation with human chorionic gonadotropin in lactating dairy cows with ovarian cysts during heat stress.

    PubMed

    Navanukraw, Chainarong; Khanthusaeng, Vilaivan; Kraisoon, Aree; Suwannarit, Duangkamon; Jarassaeng, Chaiwat; Aiumlamai, Suneerat

    2015-06-01

    A study was conducted during hot season to determine the effect of synchronization of ovulation with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) on fertility of lactating dairy cows with ovarian cysts. Non cyclic Holstein dairy cows (n = 80) were stratified by parity and diagnosed as having an ovarian cyst. The cows were further identified as follicular or luteal cysts according to the plasma progesterone (P4) concentration and the cystic image of ultrasonography. Cystic cows were randomly assigned to receive treatments (Ovsynch as the control or Ovsynch plus 3000 IU hCG). All cows were artificially inseminated at 16-18 h after the second gonadotropin releasing hormone injection. Cows supplemented with hCG had a greater number of corpus luteum (1.8 ± 0.2 and 0.8 ± 0.3; P < 0.05) and had greater P4 concentration on day 12 than those control cows (6.3 ± 0.3 and 3.9 ± 0.4 ng/ml; P < 0.05). Concentration of cortisol did not differ between groups of cystic cows. No significant differences were found in overall conception rates between the treatments; however, significantly greater conception rate (P = 0.03) was observed in cows with luteal cysts receiving Ovsynch plus hCG. This study highlights that administration of hCG following the Ovsynch-based timed artificial insemination (AI) is more effective than the control Ovsynch by which the hCG affects corpus luteum (CL) development, P4 concentration, and thus improves conception rate in dairy cows with luteal cysts.

  3. Effects of dietary Capsicum oleoresin on productivity and immune responses in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Oh, J; Giallongo, F; Frederick, T; Pate, J; Walusimbi, S; Elias, R J; Wall, E H; Bravo, D; Hristov, A N

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated the effect of Capsicum oleoresin in granular form (CAP) on nutrient digestibility, immune responses, oxidative stress markers, blood chemistry, rumen fermentation, rumen bacterial populations, and productivity of lactating dairy cows. Eight multiparous Holstein cows, including 3 ruminally cannulated, were used in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design experiment. Experimental periods were 25 d in duration, including a 14-d adaptation and an 11-d data collection and sampling period. Treatments included control (no CAP) and daily supplementation of 250, 500, or 1,000 mg of CAP/cow. Dry matter intake was not affected by CAP (average 27.0±0.64 kg/d), but milk yield tended to quadratically increase with CAP supplementation (50.3 to 51.9±0.86 kg/d). Capsicum oleoresin quadratically increased energy-corrected milk yield, but had no effect on milk fat concentration. Rumen fermentation variables, apparent total-tract digestibility of nutrients, and N excretion in feces and urine were not affected by CAP. Blood serum β-hydroxybutyrate was quadratically increased by CAP, whereas the concentration of nonesterified fatty acids was similar among treatments. Rumen populations of Bacteroidales, Prevotella, and Roseburia decreased and Butyrivibrio increased quadratically with CAP supplementation. T cell phenotypes were not affected by treatment. Mean fluorescence intensity for phagocytic activity of neutrophils tended to be quadratically increased by CAP. Numbers of neutrophils and eosinophils and the ratio of neutrophils to lymphocytes in peripheral blood linearly increased with increasing CAP. Oxidative stress markers were not affected by CAP. Overall, in the conditions of this experiment, CAP did not affect feed intake, rumen fermentation, nutrient digestibility, T cell phenotypes, and oxidative stress markers. However, energy-corrected milk yield was quadratically increased by CAP, possibly as a result of enhanced mobilization of body fat reserves. In

  4. Comparison of maintenance energy requirement and energetic efficiency between lactating Holstein-Friesian and other groups of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Dong, L F; Yan, T; Ferris, C P; McDowell, D A

    2015-02-01

    The objectives of the present study were to investigate the effects of cow group on energy expenditure and utilization efficiency. Data used were collated from 32 calorimetric chamber experiments undertaken from 1992 to 2010, with 823 observations from lactating Holstein-Friesian (HF) cows and 112 observations from other groups of lactating cows including Norwegian (n=50), Jersey × HF (n=46), and Norwegian × HF (n=16) cows. The metabolizable energy (ME) requirement for maintenance (MEm) for individual cows was calculated from heat production (HP) minus energy losses from inefficiencies of ME use for lactation, energy retention, and pregnancy. The efficiency of ME use for lactation (kl) was obtained from milk energy output adjusted to zero energy balance (El(0)) divided by ME available for production. The effects of cow groups were first evaluated using Norwegian cows against HF crossbred cows (F1 hybrid, Jersey × HF and Norwegian × HF). The results indicated no significant difference between the 2 groups in terms of energy digestibility, ratio of ME intake over gross energy intake, MEm (MJ per kg of metabolic body weight, MJ/kg(0.75)), or kl. Consequently, their data were combined (categorized as non-HF cows) and used to compare with those of HF cows. Again, we detected no significant difference in energy digestibility, ratio of ME intake over gross energy intake, MEm (MJ/kg(0.75)), or kl between non-HF and HF cows. The effects were further evaluated using linear regression to examine whether any significant differences existed between HF and non-HF cows in terms of relationships between ME intake and energetic parameters. With a common constant, no significant difference was observed between the 2 groups of cows in coefficients in each set of relationships between ME intake (MJ/kg(0.75)) and MEm (MJ/kg(0.75)), El(0) (MJ/kg(0.75)), HP (MJ/kg(0.75)), MEm:ME intake, El(0):ME intake, or HP:ME intake. However, MEm values (MJ/kg(0.75)) were positively related to ME

  5. Production responses of dairy cows to dietary supplementation with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) during the transition period and early lactation.

    PubMed

    Bernal-Santos, G; Perfield, J W; Barbano, D M; Bauman, D E; Overton, T R

    2003-10-01

    Holstein cows (n = 30) entering second or greater lactation were fed fat supplements (90 g/d of fatty acids) consisting of Ca salts of either palm fatty acid distillate (control) or a mixture of palm fatty acid distillate and mixed isomers of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, 30.4 g/ d) from 2 wk prepartum through 20 wk postpartum to determine whether CLA would inhibit milk fat synthesis during early lactation and, in turn, affect energy metabolism of dairy cows during the transition period and early lactation. Feeding CLA did not affect DMI or plasma concentrations of glucose, nonesterfied fatty acids, or beta-hydroxbutyrate during the prepartum period and did not affect postpartum DMI. Feeding CLA reduced milk fat content by 12.5% during early lactation; however, cows fed CLA tended to produce approximately 3 kg/d more milk during the first 20 wk of lactation. Feeding CLA tended to decrease the contribution of short- and medium-chain (C < or = 16) fatty acids to milk fat. Changes in milk yield, milk fat content, and milk fatty acid composition were not apparent until after the second week of lactation. Yield of 3.5% fat-corrected milk, milk protein content, milk protein composition, and calculated energy balance were not affected by treatment. Postpartum concentrations of glucose, nonesterfied fatty acids, and beta-hydroxbutyrate in plasma and hepatic content of glycogen and triglycerides were similar between treatments. These data imply that with CLA treatment in early lactation, dairy cows decreased milk fat synthesis and appeared to respond by partitioning more nutrients toward milk synthesis rather than improving net energy balance.

  6. Treatment of lactating dairy cows with gonadotropin-releasing hormone before first insemination during summer heat stress.

    PubMed

    Voelz, B E; Rocha, L; Scortegagna, F; Stevenson, J S; Mendonça, L G D

    2016-09-01

    The objectives of the experiments were to compare ovarian responses, pregnancy per artificial insemination, and pattern of insemination of 2 estrus detection-based presynchronization protocols before first artificial insemination (AI) during heat stress. In experiment 1, primiparous lactating dairy cows (n=1,358) from 3 dairies were assigned randomly to 2 treatments at 60±3 (±SD) DIM (study d 0): (1) treatment with 100 µg of GnRH on study d 0 (Gpresynch), or (2) no treatment on study d 0 (control). In experiment 2, multiparous lactating dairy cows (n=1,971) from 3 dairies were assigned randomly to 2 treatments at 49±3 (±SD) DIM (study d 0), similar to experiment 1. In both experiments, PGF2α injections were administered 14 d apart starting on study d 7 for all cows. Cows not inseminated after detection of estrus were submitted to a timed artificial insemination protocol at study d 35. In a subgroup of cows from 2 dairies, concentrations of progesterone were determined from blood samples collected on study d 0 and 7. Furthermore, ovaries were examined by ultrasonography on study d -14, 0, and 7 to determine cyclic status and ovulation in response to GnRH treatment. In experiment 1, progesterone concentration was not different on d 0, but progesterone was increased for Gpresynch compared with control cows on study d 7 (3.6±0.3 vs. 2.7±0.4 ng/mL), respectively. Ovulation risk from study d 0 to 7 was increased for Gpresynch compared with control (50.6 vs. 15.2%). Control cows were inseminated at a faster rate than Gpresynch cows [adjusted hazard ratio (AHR)=0.89, 95% confidence interval=0.80 to 1.00], and the interaction between treatment and dairy affected pregnancy per artificial insemination at 36 and 94 d post-artificial insemination. In experiment 2, concentrations of progesterone did not differ on study d 0 or 7, despite ovulation risk from study d 0 to 7 being greater in Gpresynch than control cows (46.9 vs. 23.8%). The interaction between treatment and

  7. Evaluation of ceftiofur crystalline free acid sterile suspension for control of metritis in high-risk lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, C L; Stanisiewski, E P; Risco, C A; Santos, J E P; Dahl, G E; Chebel, R C; LaGrow, C; Daugherty, C; Bryson, L; Weigel, D; Hallberg, J; Lucas, M J

    2013-03-01

    Two studies were conducted to determine if clinical metritis could be prevented or decreased in at-risk lactating dairy cows by a single treatment with Excede Sterile Suspension (ceftiofur crystalline free acid sterile suspension [CCFA-SS]) administered within 24 hours after an abnormal calving. Study 1 was a preliminary study and study 2 was a clinical trial (designed to confirm the results of study 1). In both studies, abnormal calving was defined as cows that had dystocia (required assistance), twins, abortion, retained fetal membranes for 12 hours or more, or any combination thereof. A randomized block design with cows blocked on order-of-entry within dairy without regard to parity was used in both studies. In study 1, cows that had abnormal calving from six commercial dairies were randomly assigned to either untreated control (N = 122) or 6.6 mg ceftiofur equivalents/kg of body weight sc in the base of the ear (CCFA-SS, N = 121), within 24 hours after calving. Cows with normal calving during the enrollment period received no treatment and were included for observational purposes (N = 122). Health observations and rectal temperatures were recorded daily, and physical examinations were conducted on Days 1 ± 1, 7 ± 2, 14 ± 2, and 21 ± 2, and uterine swabs (for bacterial culture) were collected from a subsample of cows on Days 3 or 4, 7 ± 2, 14 ± 2, and 21 ± 2. These observations were made by treatment-blinded personnel. In study 2, cows with abnormal calving from 12 commercial dairies were assigned to receive either saline (control, N = 247) or CCFA-SS (N = 247) within 24 hours after calving. Health observations and rectal temperatures were recorded daily, and physical examinations were conducted on Days 0 to 2, 7 ± 1, and 14. In study 1, the incidence of metritis on Day 14 ± 2 was 20.2% versus 36.8% for CCFA-SS and control, respectively, with an odds ratio of 2.30 (P < 0.05). In study 2, incidences of metritis on Day 14 were 28.7% versus 43.5% for CCFA

  8. Effects of Combination of Rice Straw with Alfalfa Pellet on Milk Productivity and Chewing Activity in Lactating Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Na, Y. J.; Lee, I. H.; Park, S. S.; Lee, S. R.

    2014-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of diets containing coarse-texture rice straw and small particle size alfalfa pellets as a part of total mixed ration (TMR) on milk productivity and chewing activity in lactating dairy cows. Sixteen multiparous Holstein dairy cows (670±21 kg body weight) in mid-lactation (194.1±13.6 days in milk) were randomly assigned to TMR containing 50% of timothy hay (TH) or TMR containing 20% of rice straw and 30% of alfalfa pellet mixture (RSAP). Geometric mean lengths of TH and RSAP were found to be 5.8 and 3.6, respectively. Dry matter intake, milk yield and milk composition were measured. Moreover, eating and ruminating times were recorded continuously using infrared digital camcorders. Milk yield and milk composition were not detected to have significant differences between TH and RSAP. Dry matter intake (DMI) did not significantly differ for cows fed with TH or RSAP. Although particle size of TH was larger than RSAP, eating, ruminating and total chewing time (min/d or min/kg of DMI) on TH and RSAP were similar. Taken together, our results suggest that using a proper amount of coarse-texture rice straw with high value nutritive alfalfa pellets may stimulate chewing activity in dairy cows without decreasing milk yield and composition even though the quantity of rice straw was 40% of TH. PMID:25050037

  9. Effect of supplemental feeding with glycerol or propylene glycol in early lactation on the fertility of Swedish dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Lomander, H; Gustafsson, H; Frössling, J; Ingvartsen, Kl; Larsen, T; Svensson, C

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this field study was to evaluate the effect of supplemental feeding with glycerol (GLY) or propylene glycol (PG) during early lactation on the fertility of Swedish dairy cows. Within 17 commercial dairy herds, 798 cows were randomized to three groups that were daily fed supplements with 450 g GLY, 300 g PG or nothing (control, C). The supplements were given twice daily during 0-21 days in milk as a top dress on concentrates. Data on calving date, insemination dates, gynaecological examinations, as well as breed, parity and monthly milk yield were collected. From a subset of 308 cows in seven herds, milk samples for progesterone analysis were taken twice weekly and used to determine the time for onset of luteal activity. The effects of supplements on the intervals from calving to first luteal activity (FLA), first AI (FAI) and conception (CON), respectively, were analysed using semi-parametric survival models (Cox proportional hazards models) controlling for the effect of parity, breed, calving season, milk yield and the clustering effect of herd. There was no difference in time to FLA between the cows in group C and in group GLY or PG. No differences in time to FAI or in time to CON were found between cows in group PG and group C. However, cows in the GLY group tended to get their FAI later compared with cows in the control group but without at subsequent delaying of time to CON.

  10. Effects of substitution of different levels of steam-flaked corn for finely ground corn on lactation and digestion in early lactation dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Zhong, R Z; Li, J G; Gao, Y X; Tan, Z L; Ren, G P

    2008-10-01

    Eight multiparous Holstein cows, 4 of them fitted with rumen cannulas, were used to test the effects of substitution of steam-flaked corn (SFC) for equal amounts of finely ground corn (FGC) in diets on feed intake and digestion, blood metabolites, and lactation performance in early lactation dairy cows. Cows were fed 4 diets in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design. The fistulated cows formed 1 replicate. Each experimental period lasted for 3 wk. The 4 diets contained 0, 10, 20, or 40% SFC and 40, 30, 20, or 0% FGC (dry matter basis), respectively. The milk protein content and yield, milk solid nonfat content and yield, plasma glucose concentration, and dry matter intake increased as the proportion of SFC increased in diets. Apparent total tract digestibilities of dry matter, organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, and average ruminal fluid NH(3)-N concentration decreased with increasing levels of SFC. The ruminal fluid pH was not affected by the substitution of SFC for FGC. The 20% SFC substitution improved digestion of crude protein, yield of fat-corrected milk, milk lactose content, fat, and fat yield. The 40% SFC substitution increased urea concentration in both plasma and milk. It was concluded that 20% of SFC substitution for FGC appeared to be an appropriate level in diet for early lactation dairy cows.

  11. Effects of linseed oil or whole linseed supplementation on performance and milk Fatty Acid composition of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Suksombat, Wisitiporn; Thanh, Lam Phuoc; Meeprom, Chayapol; Mirattanaphrai, Rattakorn

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of linseed oil or whole linseed supplementation on performance and milk fatty acid composition of lactating dairy cows. Thirty six Holstein Friesian crossbred lactating dairy cows were blocked by milking days first and then stratified random balanced for milk yields and body weight into three groups of 12 cows each. The treatments consisted of basal ration (53:47; forage:concentrate ratio, on a dry matter [DM] basis, respectively) supplemented with 300 g/d of palm oil as a positive control diet (PO), or supplemented with 300 g/d of linseed oil (LSO), or supplemented with 688 g/d of top-dressed whole linseed (WLS). All cows were received ad libitum grass silage and individually fed according to the treatments. The experiment lasted for 10 weeks including the first 2 weeks as the adjustment period, followed by 8 weeks of measurement period. The results showed that LSO and WLS supplementation had no effects on total dry matter intake, milk yield, milk composition, and live weight change; however, the animals fed WLS had higher crude protein (CP) intake than those fed PO and LSO (p<0.05). To compare with the control diet, dairy cow's diets supplemented with LSO and WLS significantly increased milk concentrations of cis-9, trans-11-conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) (p<0.05) and n-3 fatty acids (FA) (p<0.01), particularly, cis-9,12,15-C18:3, C20:5n-3 and C22:6n-3. Supplementing LSO and WLS induced a reduction of medium chain FA, especially, C12:0-C16:0 FA (p<0.05) while increasing the concentration of milk unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) (p<0.05). Milk FA proportions of n-3 FA remarkably increased whereas the ratio of n-6 to n-3 decreased in the cows supplemented with WLS as compared with those fed the control diet and LSO (p<0.01). In conclusion, supplementing dairy cows' diet based on grass silage with WLS had no effect on milk yield and milk composition; however, trans-9- C18:1, cis-9, trans-11-CLA, n-3 FA and UFA

  12. Production and calving traits of Montbeliarde × Holstein and Viking Red × Holstein cows compared with pure Holstein cows during first lactation in 8 commercial dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Hazel, A R; Heins, B J; Hansen, L B

    2017-02-22

    Montbeliarde (MO) × Holstein (HO) and Viking Red (VR) × HO crossbred cows were compared with pure HO cows in 8 large, high-performance dairy herds. All cows were either 2-breed crossbred or pure HO cows that calved for the first time from December 2010 to April 2014. Best Prediction was used to calculate 305-d milk, fat, and protein production, as well as somatic cell score, and 513 MO × HO, 540 VR × HO, and 978 HO cows were analyzed for production in first lactation. Calving difficulty was scored from 1 (no assistance) to 5 (extreme difficulty). The analysis of calving traits included 493 MO × HO, 504 VR × HO, and 971 HO cows at first calving. Age at first calving was similar for breed groups, and the herds calved both crossbred (23.8 mo) and HO (23.9 mo) cows at young ages. The MO × HO crossbred cows had +3% higher production of 305-d fat plus protein production (actual basis, not mature equivalent) than the HO cows, and the VR × HO were similar to the HO cows for fat plus protein production. Breed groups did not differ for SCS during first lactation. The VR-sired 3-breed crossbred calves (from MO × HO dams) were similar to pure HO calves for calving difficulty; however, MO-sired male calves born to VR × HO dams had a mean score that was +0.5 points higher for calving difficulty than pure HO male calves. The 3-breed crossbred calves from both MO × HO (4%) and VR × HO (5%) first-lactation dams had a much lower stillbirth rate compared with pure HO calves (9%) from first-lactation dams.

  13. Prediction of phosphorus output in manure and milk by lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Fuentes, G; Appuhamy, J A D R N; Kebreab, E

    2016-01-01

    predicted PMilkC with RMSPE% of 12.7 to 19.6%. Although models using P intake information gave better predictions, P output from lactating dairy cows can also be predicted well without intake using milk yield, milk protein content, body weight, and dietary P, Ca, and total ash contents.

  14. Effect of anthocyanin-rich corn silage on digestibility, milk production and plasma enzyme activities in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hosoda, Kenji; Eruden, Bayaru; Matsuyama, Hiroki; Shioya, Shigeru

    2012-06-01

    Anthocyanin in purple corn (Zea mays L.) has been reported to show several functional and biological attributes, displaying antioxidant, antiobesity and antidiabetic effects in monogastric animals. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of feeding anthocyanin-rich corn (Zea mays L., Choko C922) silage on digestibility, milk production and plasma enzyme activities in lactating dairy cows. The cows were fed diets based on the control corn or the anthocyanin-rich corn silage (AR treatment) in a crossover design. The anthocyanin-rich corn silage-based diet had a lower starch content, nutrient digestibility and total digestible nutrients content when compared to the control diet. The milk yield, lactose and solids-not-fat contents in the AR-treatment cows were lower than in the control cows. The feeding of the anthocyanin-rich corn silage led to a reduction in aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity and an increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in the plasma. These data suggest that the anthocyanin-rich corn has a lowering effect on AST activity with concomitant enhancement of SOD activity in lactating dairy cows. However, a new variety of anthocyanin-rich corn with good nutritional value is needed for practical use as a ruminant feed.

  15. Effects on nutrient digestion of wheat processing and methods of tallow addition to the diets of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Espindola, M S; DePeters, E J; Fadel, J G; Zinn, R A; Perez-Monti, H

    1997-06-01

    Five multiparous Holstein cows in midlactation that were fitted with ruminal and duodenal cannulas were used in a 3 x 5 incomplete Latin square. The objective of this study was to examine the effects on nutrient digestion of wheat processing and method of tallow addition to the diets of lactating dairy cows. Diets consisted of 45% forage and 55% concentrate, and each diet contained 20% wheat and 2% tallow (as-fed basis). Treatments were dry-rolled wheat with tallow added to the concentrate, steam-rolled wheat with tallow added to the concentrate, and steam-rolled wheat with tallow added first to the wheat. The dry matter intake; digestion of starch, fiber, and fatty acids; ammonia N concentration; and molar proportions of volatile fatty acids in ruminal fluid were not affected by treatments. The apparent digestibility in the total tract of organic matter and nitrogenous compounds was significantly higher for the steam-rolled treatment with tallow added first to the wheat. Mean ruminal fluid pH was similar across treatments; however, cows fed the diet containing steam-rolled wheat with tallow added first to the wheat had the smallest pH change from 0 to 2 h postfeeding. Milk yield did not differ, regardless of cow diet. Method of tallow addition had marked effects on the apparent digestibility of organic matter and N in the total tract of lactating dairy cows.

  16. Genetic parameters for fertility of dairy heifers and cows at different parities and relationships with production traits in first lactation.

    PubMed

    Tiezzi, F; Maltecca, C; Cecchinato, A; Penasa, M; Bittante, G

    2012-12-01

    .295). Infertility after first calving caused a strong elongation of the lactation, and LL was negatively correlated with fertility of cows after second calving, so that LL can itself be regarded as a measure of fertility. Lactation milk yield depends on both pMY and LL, and, as such, is a cause and consequence of (in)fertility. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Tomato seeds as a novel by-product feed for lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Cassinerio, C A; Fadel, J G; Asmus, J; Heguy, J M; Taylor, S J; DePeters, E J

    2015-07-01

    Whole tomato seeds, a novel by-product feedstuff, were fed to lactating Holstein cows to determine the nutritive value of whole tomato seeds by replacing whole cottonseed in the total mixed ration. Four primiparous and 4 multiparous Holstein cows were used in a 4×4 Latin square design and fed 1 of 4 total mixed rations. Whole tomato seeds replaced whole cottonseed on a weight-to-weight basis for lipid. The proportion of whole tomato seeds to whole cottonseed in the diets were 100:0, 50:50, 25:75, and 0:100 on a lipid basis. Thus, tomato seeds were 4.0, 2.4, 1.1, and 0% of the ration dry matter, respectively. Milk yield and the concentrations and yields of protein, lactose, and solids-not-fat did not differ for the effect of diet. However, milk fat concentration decreased and milk fat yield tended to decrease as whole tomato seeds replaced whole cottonseed. Intakes of dry matter, lipid, and crude protein did not differ. Whole-tract apparent digestibility of dry matter and ash-free neutral detergent fiber did not differ, but digestibility of total fatty acids and crude protein decreased with increasing proportion of whole tomato seeds. Urea concentration in milk and plasma both decreased with increasing whole tomato seeds. Fecal concentration of linoleic and α-linolenic acids increased with increasing whole tomato seeds, suggesting that seeds were passing out of the digestive tract undigested. The concentrations of C18:2n-6 and C18:3n-3 in milk fat had small increases, but their yields were not different, suggesting that only a small amount of whole-tomato-seed lipid might have been digested postruminally. Amounts of trans C18:1 fatty acids in milk fat were higher with increasing whole cottonseed, which might suggest a shift in rumen biohydrogenation pathways. At the level of feeding used in the current study, whole tomato seeds replaced whole cottonseed in the diet of lactating dairy cows without a change in production.

  18. Hot topic: Early postpartum treatment of commercial dairy cows with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs increases whole-lactation milk yield.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, A J; Ylioja, C M; Vargas, C F; Mamedova, L K; Mendonça, L G; Coetzee, J F; Hollis, L C; Gehring, R; Bradford, B J

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has shown that postpartum administration of the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) sodium salicylate can increase 305-d milk yield in older dairy cattle (parity 3 and greater). However, in this prior work, sodium salicylate was delivered to cows via the drinking water, a method that does not align well with current grouping strategies on commercial dairy farms. The objective of the current study was to replicate these results on a commercial dairy farm with a simplified treatment protocol and to compare sodium salicylate with another NSAID, meloxicam. Dairy cattle in their second lactation and greater (n=51/treatment) were alternately assigned to 1 of 3 treatments at parturition, with treatments lasting for 3d. Experimental treatments began 12 to 36 h after parturition and were (1) 1 placebo bolus on the first day and 3 consecutive daily drenches of sodium salicylate (125 g/cow per day; SAL); (2) 1 bolus of meloxicam (675 mg/cow) and 3 drenches of an equal volume of water (MEL); or (3) 1 placebo bolus and 3 drenches of water (CON). Blood samples were collected on the first day of treatment, immediately following the last day of treatment, and 7d after the last day of treatment; plasma was analyzed for glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), free fatty acids, haptoglobin, and paraoxonase. Milk production, body condition score, reproductive status, and retention in the herd were monitored for 365 d posttreatment, and effects of treatment, parity, days in milk, and interactions were evaluated in mixed effects models. Significance was declared at P<0.05. Whole-lactation milk and protein yields were greater in NSAID-treated cows, although 305-d fat production was not affected. There was a significant interaction of treatment and parity for plasma glucose concentration; MEL increased plasma glucose concentrations compared with CON and SAL in older cows. Sodium salicylate decreased plasma BHB concentration compared with MEL at 7d posttreatment

  19. Effects of Supplemental Levels of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Fermentation Product on Lactation Performance in Dairy Cows under Heat Stress

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, W.; Zhang, B. X.; Yao, K. Y.; Yoon, I.; Chung, Y. H.; Wang, J. K.; Liu, J. X.

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of different supplemental levels of Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product (SCFP; Original XP; Diamond V) on lactation performance in Holstein dairy cows under heat stress. Eighty-one multiparous Holstein dairy cows were divided into 27 blocks of 3 cows each based on milk yield (23.6±0.20 kg/d), parity (2.88±0.91) and day in milk (204±46 d). The cows were randomly assigned within blocks to one of three treatments: 0 (control), 120, or 240 g/d of SCFP mixed with 240, 120, or 0 g of corn meal, respectively. The experiment was carried out during the summer season of 2014, starting from 14 July 2014 and lasting for 9 weeks with the first week as adaption period. During the experimental period, average daily temperature-humidity index (measured at 08:00, 14:00, and 20:00) was above 68, indicating that cows were exposed to heat stress throughout the study. Rectal temperatures tended to decrease linearly (p = 0.07) for cows supplemented with SCFP compared to the control cows at 14:30, but were not different at 06:30 (p>0.10). Dry matter intake was not affected by SCFP supplementation (p>0.10). Milk yield increased linearly (p<0.05) with increasing levels of SCFP. Feed efficiency (milk yield/dry matter intake) was highest (p<0.05) for cows fed 240 g/d SCFP. Cows supplemented with SCFP gained (p<0.01) body weight, while cows in the control lost body weight. Net energy balance also increased linearly (p<0.01) with increasing levels of SCFP. Concentrations of milk urea nitrogen (p<0.01) decreased linearly with increasing levels of SCFP, while no difference (p>0.10) was observed among the treatments in conversion of dietary crude protein to milk protein yield. In summary, supplementation of SCFP alleviated the negative effect of heat stress in lactating Holstein dairy cows and allowed cows to maintain higher milk production, feed efficiency and net energy balance. Effects of SCFP were dose-dependent and

  20. Effects of Supplemental Levels of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Fermentation Product on Lactation Performance in Dairy Cows under Heat Stress.

    PubMed

    Zhu, W; Zhang, B X; Yao, K Y; Yoon, I; Chung, Y H; Wang, J K; Liu, J X

    2016-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of different supplemental levels of Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product (SCFP; Original XP; Diamond V) on lactation performance in Holstein dairy cows under heat stress. Eighty-one multiparous Holstein dairy cows were divided into 27 blocks of 3 cows each based on milk yield (23.6±0.20 kg/d), parity (2.88±0.91) and day in milk (204±46 d). The cows were randomly assigned within blocks to one of three treatments: 0 (control), 120, or 240 g/d of SCFP mixed with 240, 120, or 0 g of corn meal, respectively. The experiment was carried out during the summer season of 2014, starting from 14 July 2014 and lasting for 9 weeks with the first week as adaption period. During the experimental period, average daily temperature-humidity index (measured at 08:00, 14:00, and 20:00) was above 68, indicating that cows were exposed to heat stress throughout the study. Rectal temperatures tended to decrease linearly (p = 0.07) for cows supplemented with SCFP compared to the control cows at 14:30, but were not different at 06:30 (p>0.10). Dry matter intake was not affected by SCFP supplementation (p>0.10). Milk yield increased linearly (p<0.05) with increasing levels of SCFP. Feed efficiency (milk yield/dry matter intake) was highest (p<0.05) for cows fed 240 g/d SCFP. Cows supplemented with SCFP gained (p<0.01) body weight, while cows in the control lost body weight. Net energy balance also increased linearly (p<0.01) with increasing levels of SCFP. Concentrations of milk urea nitrogen (p<0.01) decreased linearly with increasing levels of SCFP, while no difference (p>0.10) was observed among the treatments in conversion of dietary crude protein to milk protein yield. In summary, supplementation of SCFP alleviated the negative effect of heat stress in lactating Holstein dairy cows and allowed cows to maintain higher milk production, feed efficiency and net energy balance. Effects of SCFP were dose-dependent and

  1. Cholesterol metabolism, transport, and hepatic regulation in dairy cows during transition and early lactation.

    PubMed

    Kessler, E C; Gross, J J; Bruckmaier, R M; Albrecht, C

    2014-09-01

    The transition from the nonlactating to the lactating state represents a critical period for dairy cow lipid metabolism because body reserves have to be mobilized to meet the increasing energy requirements for the initiation of milk production. The purpose of this study was to provide a comprehensive overview on cholesterol homeostasis in transition dairy cows by assessing in parallel plasma, milk, and hepatic tissue for key factors of cholesterol metabolism, transport, and regulation. Blood samples and liver biopsies were taken from 50 multiparous Holstein dairy cows in wk 3 antepartum (a.p.), wk 1 postpartum (p.p.), wk 4 p.p., and wk 14 p.p. Milk sampling was performed in wk 1, 4, and 14 p.p. Blood and milk lipid concentrations [triglycerides (TG), cholesterol, and lipoproteins], enzyme activities (phospholipid transfer protein and lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase) were analyzed using enzymatic assays. Hepatic gene expression patterns of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMGC) synthase 1 (HMGCS1) and HMGC reductase (HMGCR), sterol regulatory element-binding factor (SREBF)-1 and -2, microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTTP), ATP-binding cassette transporter (ABC) A1 and ABCG1, liver X receptor (LXR) α and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) α and γ were measured using quantitative RT-PCR. Plasma TG, cholesterol, and lipoprotein concentrations decreased from wk 3 a.p. to a minimum in wk 1 p.p., and then gradually increased until wk 14 p.p. Compared with wk 4 p.p., phospholipid transfer protein activity was increased in wk 1 p.p., whereas lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase activity was lowest at this period. Total cholesterol concentration and mass, and cholesterol concentration in the milk fat fraction decreased from wk 1 p.p. to wk 4 p.p. Both total and milk fat cholesterol concentration were decreased in wk 4 p.p. compared with wk 1 and 14 p.p. The mRNA abundance of genes involved in cholesterol synthesis (SREBF-2, HMGCS1, and

  2. Effects of dietary forage sources on rumen microbial protein synthesis and milk performance in early lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Zhu, W; Fu, Y; Wang, B; Wang, C; Ye, J A; Wu, Y M; Liu, J-X

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary forage sources on milk performance, rumen microbial protein synthesis, and N utilization in early lactation dairy cows. Twelve primiparous Chinese Holstein dairy cows (45 ± 6.0 DIM) were used in a 3 × 3 Latin square design. Diets were isonitrogenous and isocaloric, with a forage-to-concentrate ratio of 45:55 [dry matter (DM) basis] and contained similar concentrate mixtures. Different forage sources were then added (on a DM basis): 21% corn silage, 19% corn stover, and 5% alfalfa hay (CS); 19% corn silage, 21% Chinese wild rye hay and 5% alfalfa hay (CWR); or 19% corn silage, 9% Chinese wild rye hay, and 17% alfalfa hay (AH). Each period lasted for 21 d, with the first 14 d for an adaptation period. Dry matter intake was not affected by the source of dietary forage. Milk yield was higher for cows fed AH than those fed CS, with an intermediate value for CWR. Milk protein content was higher in the cows fed AH compared with CWR (3.02 vs. 2.92%), with CS (2.95%) at an intermediate position. The contents of milk fat and lactose were not different among the treatments. However, milk efficiency (milk yield/DM intake) was higher for cows fed AH than those fed CS, with those fed CWR intermediate. Cows fed AH had higher microbial protein yield and metabolizable protein than those fed CS or CWR. The concentrations of urea N in the urine, blood, and milk were decreased for cows fed AH, indicating an increased N conversion. The results indicated that corn stover could replace Chinese wild rye grass in the diets for lactating cows and that a high proportion of alfalfa hay in the diet is beneficial for milk protein production by increasing microbial protein yield. This can be attributed to the improving the supply of rumen-available energy.

  3. Preference and drinking behavior of lactating dairy cows offered water with different concentrations, valences, and sources of iron.

    PubMed

    Genther, O N; Beede, D K

    2013-02-01

    Drinking water can contain high concentrations of Fe, mainly of the ferrous (Fe(2+)) valence. The current recommended upper tolerable concentration of Fe in drinking water for cattle (0.3mg/L) comes from guidelines for human palatability, but cattle may be able to tolerate higher concentrations. Our objective was to determine the effects of varying concentrations of ferrous (Fe(2+)) or ferric (Fe(3+)) iron and Fe salt source on lactating dairy cows' preferences for and drinking behavior of water offered as choices ad libitum. In 4 separate experiments, cows were offered pairs of water treatments for 22-h periods and water intake and drinking behavior were recorded. In experiment 1, treatments were 0, 4, or 8 mg of total recoverable Fe/L from ferrous lactate. Cows exhibited no preference between water with 0 or 4 mg of Fe/L, but water intake was less with 8 compared with 0 or 4 mg of Fe/L. Also, cows spent less time drinking water containing 8 mg of Fe/L. Total time spent drinking correlated positively with water intake when pooled across treatments. In experiment 2, treatments were 0 or 8 mg of Fe/L from either ferrous sulfate (FeSO(4)) or ferric sulfate [Fe(2)(SO(4))(3)]. Water intake did not differ among treatments. In experiment 3, treatments were 0 (control), 12.5, or 8 mg of Fe/L from ferrous chloride (FeCl(2)) or ferric chloride (FeCl(3)), respectively. Again, cows exhibited no preference among treatments. In experiment 4, treatments were 0 or 8 mg of Fe/L from ferrous lactate [Fe(C(3)H(5)O(3))(2)], ferrous sulfate (FeSO(4)), or ferrous chloride (FeCl(2)). Cows preferred to drink water without added Fe, but did not exhibit any preference among waters containing the Fe sources with different anionic moieties. Cows spent less time drinking and drank less frequently when offered water containing 12.5mg of total recoverable Fe/L from ferrous chloride compared with 8.0mg of Fe/L from ferrous lactate or ferrous sulfate. Water intake correlated positively with both

  4. Effects of feeding birdsfoot trefoil hay on neutral detergent fiber digestion, nitrogen utilization efficiency, and lactational performance by dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Christensen, R G; Yang, S Y; Eun, J-S; Young, A J; Hall, J O; MacAdam, J W

    2015-11-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine effects of feeding birdsfoot trefoil hay-based diets in comparison with an alfalfa hay-based diet on N utilization efficiency, ruminal fermentation, and lactational performance by mid-lactation dairy cows. Nine multiparous lactating Holstein cows (131 ± 22.6 d in milk), 3 of which were rumen fistulated, were fed 3 experimental diets in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design with 3 periods of 14 d of adaptation and 7 d of data and sample collection. Within squares, cows were randomly assigned to diets as follows: alfalfa hay-based diet (AHT), alfalfa and birdsfoot trefoil hay-based diet (ABT), and birdsfoot trefoil hay-based diet (BT). Intakes of dry matter and crude protein were similar across treatments, whereas ABT and BT diets resulted in decreased fiber intake compared with AHT. Feeding BT tended to increase neutral detergent fiber digestibility compared with AHT and ABT. Milk yield tended to increase for cows consuming ABT or BT diets. Milk true protein concentration and yield were greater for cows consuming ABT relative to those fed AHT. Concentration of total volatile fatty acids tended to increase by cows fed BT compared with those fed AHT and ABT. Feeding birdsfoot trefoil hay in a total mixed ration resulted in a tendency to decrease acetate proportion, but it tended to increase propionate proportion, leading to a tendency to decrease acetate-to-propionate ratio. Whereas concentration of ammonia-N was similar across treatments, cows offered BT exhibited greater microbial protein yield relative to those fed AHT and ABT. Cows offered birdsfoot trefoil hay diets secreted more milk N than AHT, resulting in improved N utilization efficiency for milk N. The positive effects due to feeding birdsfoot trefoil hay were attributed to enhanced neutral detergent fiber digestion, and thus it could replace alfalfa hay in high-forage dairy diets while improving N utilization efficiencies and maintaining lactational performance

  5. Effects of continuous milking during the dry period or once daily milking in the first 4 weeks of lactation on metabolism and productivity of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Schlamberger, G; Wiedemann, S; Viturro, E; Meyer, H H D; Kaske, M

    2010-06-01

    The objective was to compare the effects of 3 management systems in high-yielding dairy cows on metabolic profiles and milk production. Thirty-six multiparous Brown Swiss cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups (n=12 cows/group): the control (C) group, in which cows were dried off 56 d before calving and milked twice daily throughout next lactation (305 d); the once daily milking (ODM) group, in which cows were dried off 56 d before calving and milked once daily for the first 4 wk of lactation and twice daily for the remaining lactation; and the continuous milking (CM) group, in which cows were milked twice daily until calving and also during the subsequent lactation. Serum glucose concentrations decreased between wk 1 and 4 exclusively in C cows. Serum concentrations of NEFA and BHBA in the first 4 wk of lactation were highest in C cows compared with ODM and CM cows. Decreased backfat thickness during early lactation and reduction of body condition score were markedly more pronounced in C cows compared with ODM and CM cows. Mean lactational milk yield of C cows [11,310+/-601 kg of energy-corrected milk (ECM)/305 d] was approximately 16% higher compared with ODM cows (9,531+/-477 kg of ECM/305 d) and CM cows (9,447+/-310 kg of ECM/305 d). The lactation curve of CM cows compared with C cows was characterized by a similar time of peak yield (wk 3), a reduced peak yield, and no obvious differences in persistency. Mean percentage of milk protein was significantly higher for CM cows (3.91%) compared with C cows (3.52%). In contrast, once daily milking was accompanied by a reduced and significantly delayed peak yield (wk 8) compared with the control treatment, whereas persistency was better and milk protein (3.79%) was higher in ODM cows than in C cows. In conclusion, continuous milking and once daily milking, targeting the interval before or after calving, respectively, substantially reduced the metabolic challenge of fresh cows and improved milk protein

  6. Effect of intrauterine dextrose on reproductive performance of lactating dairy cows diagnosed with purulent vaginal discharge under certified organic management.

    PubMed

    Maquivar, M G; Barragan, A A; Velez, J S; Bothe, H; Schuenemann, G M

    2015-06-01

    The objectives of the study were to assess responses to treatments (clinical cure and resumption of estrous cycles) of cows with purulent vaginal discharge (PVD) that received intrauterine infusion of a hypertonic solution of 50% dextrose (DEX) or untreated control (CON) cows and the subsequent pregnancy per artificial insemination (PAI) in cows with and without PVD. Cows (n=2,852) from 2 dairy herds were screened for PVD using the gloved hand technique at exam 1 [26±3 d in milk (DIM)]. Cows with vaginal discharge scores of 2 or 3 (0-3 scale) were stratified by parity and randomly allocated into 1 of 2 treatment groups: (1) intrauterine infusion (~200 mL) of 50% DEX solution (n=456), or (2) untreated control animals (CON, n=491). Fourteen days posttherapy (40±3 DIM), cows with PVD were re-examined at exam 2 (40±3 DIM) to assess the response to treatments. All cows were subjected to the same reproductive program, which consisted of estrus detection twice daily (using tail chalking and visual observation) for the first 5 artificial inseminations; then, open lactating cows were turned out with bulls. Cows displaying signs of standing estrus underwent AI and no reproductive hormones were used. Pregnancy diagnosis (PD) was performed via transrectal palpation at 40±3 d post-AI. The risk of culling within 14 d posttherapy was not different among treatment groups. Cows with PVD had greater cervical diameter at exam 1 and decreased PAI compared with cows without PVD. Treatment with DEX increased the proportion of cows with clear vaginal discharge (clinical cure) and cyclicity 14 d posttherapy compared with CON cows. Pregnancy per AI for DEX (29.2±2%) cows was significantly greater than that for CON (22.5±2%) cows. Cows without PVD had a greater proportion of cycling cows (65.6%) and PAI (37%) with reduced pregnancy losses (5.7%) compared with DEX or CON cows. The use of intrauterine DEX alone improved reproductive performance of cows with PVD.

  7. The transcriptome of the endometrium and placenta is associated with pregnancy development but not lactation status in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Moore, Stephen G; McCabe, Matthew S; Green, Jacob C; Newsom, Emily M; Lucy, Matthew C

    2017-07-01

    Infertility in lactating dairy cows is explained partially by the metabolic state associated with high milk production. The hypothesis was that lactating and nonlactating cows would differ in endometrial and placental transcriptomes during early pregnancy (day 28 to 42) and this difference would explain the predisposition for lactating cows to have embryonic loss at that time. Cows were either milked or not milked after calving. Reproductive [endometrium (caruncular and intercaruncular) and placenta] and liver tissues were collected on day 28, 35, and 42 of pregnancy. The hypothesis was rejected because no effect of lactation on mRNA abundance within reproductive tissues was found. Large differences within liver demonstrated the utility of the model to test an effect of lactation on tissue gene expression. Major changes in gene expression in reproductive tissues across time were found. Greater activation of the transcriptome for the recruitment and activation of macrophages was found in the endometrium and placenta. Changes in glucose metabolism between day 28 and 42 included greater mRNA abundance of rate-limiting genes for gluconeogenesis in intercaruncular endometrium and evidence for the establishment of aerobic glycolysis (Warburg effect) in the placenta. Temporal changes were predicted to be controlled by CSF1, PDGFB, TGFB1, and JUN. Production of nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species by macrophages was identified as a mechanism to promote angiogenesis in the endometrium. Reported differences in pregnancy development for lactating vs. nonlactating cows could be explained by systemic glucose availability to the conceptus and appeared to be independent of the endometrial and placental transcriptomes. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Society for the Study of Reproduction. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Performance and metabolic profile of dairy cows during a lactational and deliberately induced negative energy balance with subsequent realimentation.

    PubMed

    Gross, J; van Dorland, H A; Bruckmaier, R M; Schwarz, F J

    2011-04-01

    Homeorhetic and homeostatic controls in dairy cows are essential for adapting to alterations in physiological and environmental conditions. To study the different mechanisms during adaptation processes, effects of a deliberately induced negative energy balance (NEB) by feed restriction near 100 d in milk (DIM) on performance and metabolic measures were compared with lactation energy deficiency after parturition. Fifty multiparous cows were studied in 3 periods (1=early lactation up to 12 wk postpartum; 2=feed restriction for 3 wk beginning at 98±7 DIM with a feed-restricted and control group; and 3=a subsequent realimentation period for the feed-restricted group for 8 wk). In period 1, despite NEB in early lactation [-42 MJ of net energy for lactation (NE(L))/d, wk 1 to 3] up to wk 9, milk yield increased from 27.5±0.7 kg to a maximum of 39.5±0.8 kg (wk 6). For period 2, the NEB was induced by individual limitation of feed quantity and reduction of dietary energy density. Feed-restricted cows experienced a greater NEB (-63 MJ of NEL/d) than did cows in early lactation. Feed-restricted cows in period 2 showed only a small decline in milk yield of -3.1±1.1 kg and milk protein content of -0.2±0.1% compared with control cows (30.5±1.1 kg and 3.8±0.1%, respectively). In feed-restricted cows (period 2), plasma glucose was lower (-0.2±0.0 mmol/L) and nonesterified fatty acids higher (+0.1±0.1 mmol/L) compared with control cows. Compared with the NEB in period 1, the decreases in body weight due to the deliberately induced NEB (period 2) were greater (56±4 vs. 23±3 kg), but decreases in body condition score (0.16±0.03 vs. 0.34±0.04) and muscle diameter (2.0±0.4 vs. 3.5±0.4 mm) were lesser. The changes in metabolic measures in period 2 were marginal compared with the adjustments directly after parturition in period 1. Despite the greater induced energy deficiency at 100 DIM than the early lactation NEB, the metabolic load experienced by the dairy cows was not

  9. Prognostic value of plasma L-lactate concentration measured cow-side with a portable clinical analyzer in Holstein dairy cattle with abomasal disorders.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Monica D; Nydam, Daryl V; Perkins, Gillian A; Mitchell, Hilda M; Divers, Thomas J

    2006-01-01

    L-Lactate has been used as a prognostic indicator for ill humans and animals. A portable analyzer that measures L-lactate could help veterinarians decide to proceed with correction of a displaced abomasum. The likelihood of a dairy cow with a displaced abomasum remaining in the herd can be predicted by lactate concentration and other variables. Thirty-four healthy early-lactation dairy cows, and 131 cows with abomasal displacements (DA) presented to Cornell University, Ithaca, NY. Plasma L-lactate was measured using a commercial analyzer (i-STAT). A cow had a positive outcome (PO) if she remained in the herd 30 days after surgical correction of the displaced abomasum and a negative outcome (NO) if she was culled or died in that time. A multivariable model with physical examination and clinicopathologic variables for predicting NO for cows with right-sided abomasal displacements was constructed. The median plasma L-lactate was 0.54 mM/L (interquartile range, 0.42-0.74) in healthy lactating Holstein cows. In cows with right-sided displaced abomasa, median plasma L-lactate concentrations were higher in cows with NO (5.88 mM/L) versus PO (3.23 mM/L) (P = .002). In a multivariable model, which identified chloride, heart rate, and L-lactate as the best fitting variables for cows with right-sided displacements, the probability of NO increased as L-lactate increased. Plasma L-lactate concentration might be a useful predictor of productive outcomes in cows with right-sided abomasal disorders.

  10. Effects of feeding dry glycerin to early postpartum Holstein dairy cows on lactational performance and metabolic profiles.

    PubMed

    Chung, Y-H; Rico, D E; Martinez, C M; Cassidy, T W; Noirot, V; Ames, A; Varga, G A

    2007-12-01

    Effects of feeding a dry glycerin product (minimal 65% of food grade glycerol, dry powder) to 39 multiparous Holstein dairy cows (19 control and 20 glycerin-supplemented; lactation number = 2.2 +/- 1.3 SD) on feed intake, milk yield and composition, and blood metabolic profiles were investigated. Dry glycerin was fed at 250 g/d as a top dressing (corresponding to 162.5 g of glycerol/d) to the common lactating total mixed ration from parturition to 21 d postpartum. Individual milk was sampled from 2 consecutive milkings weekly and analyzed for components. Blood was sampled from the coccygeal vein at 4, 7, 14, and 21 (+/-0.92, pooled SD) d in milk and analyzed for urea nitrogen, glucose, insulin, nonesterified fatty acids, and beta-hydroxybutyrate. Urine was tested for the acetoacetate level weekly by using Ketostix. Average feed intake, milk yield and components, blood metabolites, and serum insulin concentrations were not affected by dry glycerin supplementation. Glycerin-supplemented cows experienced a more positive energy status (higher concentrations of plasma glucose, lower concentrations of plasma beta-hydroxybutyrate, and lower concentrations of urine ketones), which was observed during the second week of lactation, suggesting that energy availability may have been improved. This glucogenic effect of dry glycerin did not result in an increase in feed intake or milk yield during the first 3 wk of lactation, likely because of the relatively less negative energy status of cows transitioning into lactation. The tendency toward higher milk yield for glycerin-supplemented cows during wk 6 of lactation (52 vs. 46 kg/d) after the supplementation period (dry glycerin was terminated at wk 3 of lactation) suggested a potential benefit of dry glycerin on subsequent milk production, perhaps through changes in metabolism, which requires further investigation.

  11. Effects of feeding propylene glycol on dry matter intake, lactation performance, energy balance and blood metabolites in early lactation dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Liu, Q; Wang, C; Yang, W Z; Zhang, W W; Yang, X M; He, D C; Dong, K H; Huang, Y X

    2009-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate effects of feeding propylene glycol (PG) on feed intake, milk yield and milk composition, blood metabolites and energy balance in Holstein dairy cows from 1 to 63 days in milk. Thirty-two multiparous cows, blocked by lactation number, previous 305-day milk production and expected calving date, were arranged into four groups in a randomized block design. Treatments were: control, low PG, medium PG and high PG with 0, 150, 300 and 450 ml PG per cow per day, respectively. The supplement of food grade PG (0.998 g/g PG) was hand-mixed into the top one-third of the daily ration. Cows were fed ad libitum a total mixed ration consisting of forage and concentrate (50 : 50, dry matter basis). Feed intake, milk yield and milk components were not affected (P > 0.05) by PG supplementation. Overall, body weight (BW) loss tended (P < 0.08) to be linearly reduced, and energy status was linearly improved with increasing PG supplementation. Concentrations of glucose in plasma were higher for cows fed PG relative to control (55.6 v. 58.9 mg/dl) and linearly increased (P < 0.01) with increasing PG supplementation. Plasma concentrations of non-esterified fatty acids and beta-hydroxybutyrate were linearly increased, but urine acetoacetate concentration was quadratically changed with the highest for control diet and the lowest for 450 ml/day of PG. These results indicated that supplementation of PG in the early lactating cow diets had minimal effects on feed intake and milk production, but may potentially reduce contents of milk fat and milk protein. Supplementation of early lactating dairy cow diets with PG is beneficial in terms of improving energy status and reducing BW loss.

  12. Alternatives to linear analysis of energy balance data from lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kebreab, E; France, J; Agnew, R E; Yan, T; Dhanoa, M S; Dijkstra, J; Beever, D E; Reynolds, C K

    2003-09-01

    The current energy requirements system used in the United Kingdom for lactating dairy cows utilizes key parameters such as metabolizable energy intake (MEI) at maintenance (MEm), the efficiency of utilization of MEI for 1) maintenance, 2) milk production (kl), 3) growth (kg), and the efficiency of utilization of body stores for milk production (kt). Traditionally, these have been determined using linear regression methods to analyze energy balance data from calorimetry experiments. Many studies have highlighted a number of concerns over current energy feeding systems particularly in relation to these key parameters, and the linear models used for analyzing. Therefore, a database containing 652 dairy cow observations was assembled from calorimetry studies in the United Kingdom. Five functions for analyzing energy balance data were considered: straight line, two diminishing returns functions, (the Mitscherlich and the rectangular hyperbola), and two sigmoidal functions (the logistic and the Gompertz). Meta-analysis of the data was conducted to estimate kg and kt. Values of 0.83 to 0.86 and 0.66 to 0.69 were obtained for kg and kt using all the functions (with standard errors of 0.028 and 0.027), respectively, which were considerably different from previous reports of 0.60 to 0.75 for kg and 0.82 to 0.84 for kt. Using the estimated values of kg and kt, the data were corrected to allow for body tissue changes. Based on the definition of kl as the derivative of the ratio of milk energy derived from MEI to MEI directed towards milk production, MEm and kl were determined. Meta-analysis of the pooled data showed that the average kl ranged from 0.50 to 0.58 and MEm ranged between 0.34 and 0.64 MJ/kg of BW0.75 per day. Although the constrained Mitscherlich fitted the data as good as the straight line, more observations at high energy intakes (above 2.4 MJ/kg of BW0.75 per day) are required to determine conclusively whether milk energy is related to MEI linearly or not.

  13. Influence of dietary sodium and potassium bicarbonate and total potassium on heat-stressed lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Schneider, P L; Beede, D K; Wilcox, C J; Collier, R J

    1984-11-01

    Objectives were to study effects of heat stress, 0 or .85% sodium bicarbonate, 0 or 1.0% potassium bicarbonate, and 1.0 or 1.5% total dietary potassium on production and physiological responses of dairy cows. Eighteen lactating Holsteins were assigned to shade (control) or no shade (heat stress) lots continuously for three consecutive 35-day periods and to different dietary treatments each period. Basal diet was 25% cottonseed hulls and 75% concentrate. Daytime and nighttime feed intake and production were measured the last 2 wk of each period, and milk and blood were sampled the final day of each period. Black globe temperature, rectal temperature, respiration rate, and blood pH were higher in no shade. Daytime intake was 132% greater in shade, nighttime intake was not different between environments. Milk production was about 19% greater for evening and morning milkings in shade. Daytime intake, daytime and nighttime milk production were higher with sodium bicarbonate. Potassium bicarbonate reduced intake and production. Higher total dietary potassium increased total daily milk production. Lactating cows appear adept at withstanding environmental and dietary challenges to acid-base homeostasis. Supplementation of sodium bicarbonate and 1.5% dietary potassium, but not potassium bicarbonate, were beneficial to lactating dairy cows.

  14. Effect of complementation of cattle cooling systems with feedline soakers on lactating dairy cows in a desert environment.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, X A; Smith, J F; Bradford, B J; Harner, J P; Oddy, A

    2011-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted on a commercial dairy farm in eastern Saudi Arabia to investigate the effects of Korral Kool (KK; Korral Kool Inc., Mesa, AZ) cattle cooling systems complemented with feedline soakers on core body temperature (CBT) of dairy cows. In both experiments, cows had access to KK 24h/d. In the first experiment, 7 primiparous and 6 multiparous lactating Holstein dairy cows were assigned to 1 of 2 pens, which were assigned randomly to treatment sequence over 4 d in a switchback design. Soakers were on (ON24) or off (OFF24) for 24h/d. For the second experiment, 20 multiparous lactating Holstein cows were assigned randomly to 1 of 2 pens, which were assigned randomly to treatment sequence in a switchback design. This experiment lasted 4 d and feedline soakers alternately remained off or were on (ON12) for 12h/d. In experiment 1, average ambient temperature was 30 ± 0.9°C and average relative humidity was 44 ± 14% (mean ± SD). Feedline soakers complementing KK systems for 24 h/d decreased the mean CBT of lactating dairy cows compared with KK systems alone (38.80 vs. 38.98 ± 0.061°C, respectively). A significant treatment by time interaction was found. The greatest treatment effects occurred at 2100 h; treatment means at this time were 39.26 and 38.85 ± 0.085°C for OFF24 and ON24 treatments, respectively. In experiment 2, average ambient temperature was 35 ± 1.5°C and average relative humidity was 33 ± 16%. Feedline soakers running for 12 h/d significantly decreased the mean 24-h CBT from 39.16 to 38.99 ± 0.084°C. Treatment by time interaction was also significant; the greatest treatment effects occurred at 1500 h, when ON12 reduced CBT from 39.38 to 38.81 ± 0.088°C. These results demonstrate that complementing the KK system with feedline soakers decreased the CBT of dairy cows housed in desert environments. However, the combined systems were not sufficient to lower CBT to normal temperatures in this extreme environment.

  15. Ryegrass or alfalfa silage as the dietary forage for lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Broderick, G A; Koegel, R G; Walgenbach, R P; Kraus, T J

    2002-07-01

    Renewed interest exists in using grass forages to dilute the higher crude protein (CP) and lower digestible fiber present in legumes fed to lactating dairy cows. A 3 x 3 Latin square feeding study with 4-wk periods was conducted with 24 Holstein cows to compare ryegrass silage, either untreated control or macerated (intensively conditioned) before ensiling, with alfalfa silage as the sole dietary forage. Ryegrass silages averaged [dry matter (DM) basis] 18.4% CP, 50% neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and 10% indigestible acid detergent fiber (ADF) (control) and 16.6% CP, 51% NDF, and 12% indigestible ADF (macerated). Alfalfa silage was higher in CP (21.6%) and lower in NDF (44%) but higher in indigestible ADF (26%). A lower proportion of the total N in macerated ryegrass silage was present as nonprotein N than in control ryegrass and alfalfa silages. Diets were formulated to contain 41% DM from either rye-grass silage, or 51% DM from alfalfa silage, plus high moisture corn, and protein concentrates. Diets averaged 17.5% CP and 28 to 29% NDF. The shortfall in CP on ryegrass was made up by feeding 7.6% more soybean meal. Intake and milk yields were similar on control and macerated ryegrass; however, DM intake was 8.3 kg/d greater on the alfalfa diet. Moreover, feeding the alfalfa diet increased BW gain (0.48 kg/d) and yield of milk (6.1 kg/d), FCM (6.8 kg/d), fat (0.26 kg/d), protein (0.25 kg/d), lactose (0.35 kg/d), and SNF (0.65 kg/d) versus the mean of the two ryegrass diets. Both DM efficiency (milk/DM intake) and N efficiency (milk-N/N-intake) were 27% greater, and apparent digestibility was 16% greater for DM and 53% greater for NDF and ADF, on the ryegrass diets. However, apparent digestibility of digestible ADF was greater on alfalfa (96%) than on ryegrass (average = 91%). Also, dietary energy content (estimated as net energy of lactation required for maintenance, milk yield, and weight gain) per unit of digested DM was similar for all three diets. Results of

  16. Incomplete Milking in Early Lactation Does Not Affect Dairy Cows Resting Behaviors: Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Krug, Catarina; DeVries, Trevor J; Roy, Jean-Philippe; Dubuc, Jocelyn; Dufour, Simon

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of incomplete milking during the first 5 days of lactation on the resting behavior of commercial dairy cows. The hypothesis was that the elevated intramammary pressure resulting from milk retained in the udder in incompletely milked cows could lead to a change in lying behavior. This study was a randomized controlled trial in which cows from two farms were randomly allocated into a treatment (n = 18) or a control group (n = 14). Cows in the treatment group were milked incompletely (10-14 L/days) during the first 5 days of lactation, while cows in the control group were milked as usually done on farm. Resting behaviors were recorded with a data logger. Linear mixed models were used to quantify the effects of treatment group on three dependent variables measured between 2 and 14 days in milk: daily duration of lying time (h/d), lying bout frequency (bouts/day), and mean duration of lying bouts (min/bout). There was no significant effect of treatment on lying time. However, the effect of treatment on frequency of lying bouts and on mean lying bout duration varied by parity level. Incompletely milked cows in second parity had a higher number of lying bouts (11.9 vs. 9.2 bouts/day) and shorter mean lying bout duration (57.8 min/bout vs. 66.7 min) than control cows. In third parity or more, the opposite happened. Therefore, our results suggest that an incomplete milking may be slightly problematic for second parity cows and, possibly, slightly beneficial for older cows. Whether the differences observed resulted from a biologic process (discomfort due to the incomplete milking) or from random error will have to be determined by future research.

  17. Responses to Starch Infusion on Milk Synthesis in Low Yield Lactating Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Yang; Yang, Zhanshan; Guo, Yongqing; Li, Shengli; Cao, Zhijun

    2015-01-01

    The effect of starch infusion on production, metabolic parameters and relative mRNA abundance was investigated in low yield lactating cows from 86 days in milk. Six Holstein cows fitted with permanent ruminal cannulas were arranged into one of two complete 3×3 Latin squares and infused with a starch solution containing 800 grams starch for 16 days. The three treatments were: i) ruminal and abomasal infusion with water (Control); ii) ruminal infusion with cornstarch solution and abomasal infusion with water (Rumen); iii) ruminal infusion with water and abomasal infusion with cornstarch solution (Abomasum). There were no significant differences (p>0.05) among the three treatments with low yield lactating cows in feed and energy intake, milk yield and composition, plasma metabolism, or even on gene expression. However, cows receiving starch through rumen performed better than directly through the abomasum during the glucose tolerance test procedure with a higher area under the curve (AUC; p = 0.08) and shorter half-time (t1/2; p = 0.11) of plasma insulin, therefore, it increased glucose disposal, which stated a lipid anabolism other than mobilization after energy supplementation. In conclusion, extra starch infusion at concentration of 800 g/d did not enhance energy supplies to the mammary gland and improve the lactating performance in low yield lactating cows. PMID:26194224

  18. Increasing harvest maturity of whole-plant corn silage reduces methane emission of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hatew, B; Bannink, A; van Laar, H; de Jonge, L H; Dijkstra, J

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of increasing maturity of whole-plant corn at harvest on CH4 emissions by dairy cows consuming corn silage (CS) based diets. Whole-plant corn was harvested at a very early [25% dry matter (DM); CS25], early (28% DM; CS28), medium (32% DM; CS32), and late (40% DM; CS40) stage of maturity. In a randomized block design, 28 lactating Holstein-Friesian dairy cows, of which 8 were fitted with rumen cannula, received 1 of 4 dietary treatments designated as T25, T28, T32, and T40 to reflect the DM contents at harvest. Treatments consisted of (DM basis) 75% CS, 20% concentrate, and 5% wheat straw. Feed intake, digestibility, milk production and composition, energy and N balance, and CH4 production were measured during a 5-d period in climate respiration chambers after an adaptation to the diet for 12 d. Corn silage starch content varied between 275 (CS25) and 385 (CS40) g/kg of DM. Treatments did not affect DM intake (DMI), milk yield, or milk contents. In situ ruminal fractional degradation rate of starch decreased linearly from 0.098 to 0.059/h as maturity increased from CS25 to CS40. Apparent total-tract digestibility of DM, organic matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, crude fat, starch, and gross energy (GE) decreased linearly with maturity. Treatments did not affect ruminal pH, volatile fatty acids, and ammonia concentrations, and volatile fatty acids molar proportions. The concentration of C18:3n-3 in milk fat decreased linearly, and the concentration of C18:2n-6 and the n-6:n-3 ratio increased linearly with maturity. A quadratic response occurred for the total saturated fatty acid concentration and total monounsaturated fatty acid concentration in milk fat. Methane production relative to DMI (21.7, 23.0, 21.0, and 20.1g/kg) and relative to GE intake (0.063, 0.067, 0.063, and 0.060 MJ/MJ; values for T25, T28, T32, and T40, respectively) decreased linearly with maturity. Also, CH4 emission relative

  19. Expression of fibroblast growth factor 21 in the liver of dairy cows in the transition period and during lactation.

    PubMed

    Schlegel, G; Ringseis, R; Keller, J; Schwarz, F J; Windisch, W; Eder, K

    2013-10-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) has been identified as a novel hormonal factor involved in the regulation of metabolic adaptations during energy deprivation. The present study aimed to investigate the expression of the FGF21 gene in the liver of dairy cows during the transition from pregnancy to lactation. Therefore, the relative mRNA abundance of FGF21 in liver biopsy samples of 20 dairy cows in late pregnancy (3 weeks pre-partum) and early lactation (1, 5, 14 weeks post-partum) was determined. It was observed that hepatic mRNA abundance of FGF21 at 1 week post-partum was dramatically increased (110-fold) compared to 3 weeks pre-partum (p < 0.001). With progress of lactation, mRNA concentration of FGF21 was declining; nevertheless, mRNA abundance at 5 and 14 weeks post-partum remained 25- and 10-fold increased compared to 3 weeks pre-partum (p < 0.001). Using a gene array technique, it was found that many genes involved in fatty acid oxidation, gluconeogenesis and ketogenesis were up-regulated during early lactation compared to late pregnancy. Moreover, there were positive linear correlations between hepatic mRNA concentration of FGF21 and mRNA concentrations of genes involved in ketogenesis as well as carnitine synthesis and carnitine uptake at various time-points during lactation, indicating that FGF21 could play a role in ketogenesis and carnitine metabolism in the liver of dairy cows (p < 0.05). In overall, the present study shows that expression of the FGF21 gene is strongly up-regulated during the transition period. It is assumed that the up-regulation of FGF21 might play an important role in the adaptation of liver metabolism during early lactation in dairy cows such as in other species. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Lactation performance of dairy cows fed yeast-derived microbial protein in low- and high-forage diets.

    PubMed

    Manthey, A K; Kalscheur, K F; Garcia, A D; Mjoun, K

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of substituting soybean meal products with yeast-derived microbial protein (YMP) on lactation performance in diets containing 2 forage-to-concentrate ratios. Sixteen Holstein cows (4 primiparous and 12 multiparous) were randomly assigned to multiple 4 × 4 Latin squares with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Diets contained low (LF; 45% of diet DM) or high forage (HF; 65% of diet DM) and YMP at 0 (NYMP) or 2.25% (WYMP) of the diet. The forage mix consisted of 67% corn silage and 33% alfalfa hay on a DM basis. No interactions of forage and YMP were noted for any of the production parameters measured. Feed efficiency (energy-corrected milk/dry matter intake) was greater for cows fed NYMP compared with WYMP. Regardless of the addition of YMP, cows fed LF had greater dry matter intake and produced more milk than cows fed HF. In addition, cows fed LF produced more energy-corrected milk than those fed HF. Milk fat percentage was lower in cows fed LF compared with HF, whereas fat yield was similar between forage concentrations. Fat yield tended to decrease with feeding YMP. Interactions of forage and YMP were observed for propionate concentration, acetate and propionate proportion, and acetate-to-propionate ratio. A tendency for an interaction of forage and YMP was also noted for ruminal pH. Cows fed HF diets had greater ruminal ammonia and butyrate concentrations, as well as proportion of butyrate. Arterial concentrations of Ile, Leu, Met, Thr, and Val were greater in cows fed LF. Cows fed NYMP had greater arterial concentrations of Ile, Lys, Trp, and Val than cows fed WYMP. Substitution of soybean proteins with YMP did not improve performance or feed efficiency of high-producing dairy cows regardless of the forage-to-concentrate ratio of the diet.

  1. Short communication: Effect of feed barrier design on the behavior of loose-housed lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Endres, M I; DeVries, T J; von Keyserlingk, M A G; Weary, D M

    2005-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of 2 feed barrier systems on feeding and social behavior of dairy cows. Forty-eight lactating Holstein cows were subjected to each of 2 treatments in a cross-over design. The treatments were 2 types of feed-line barriers: 1) post-and-rail, and 2) headlock. Time-lapse video was used to quantify the feeding behavior and incidence of aggressive displacements of the cows at the feed bunk. Average daily feeding time did not differ when cows used the headlock barrier compared with the post-and-rail barrier. However, there were certain changes in feeding time during periods of peak feeding activity: cows that had lower feeding times relative to group mates when using the post-and-rail barrier showed more similar feeding times to group mates when using the headlock barrier. There were 21% fewer displacements at the feed bunk when cows accessed feed by the headlock barrier compared with the post-and-rail barrier. These results suggest that using a headlock barrier reduces aggression at the feed bunk and improves access to feed for socially subordinate cows during peak feeding periods.

  2. Response of plasma cortisol and progesterone after ACTH challenge in ovariectomized lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Chikako; Nakao, Toshihiko

    2005-02-01

    Shortened and weakened estrous expressions could be one of the causes of poor heat detection rate. Non-specific acute stresses are assumed to depress expression of estrus by an increase of plasma progesterone which may originate from the adrenal cortex. The objective of the present study was to examine whether the adrenal cortex can secrete significant amounts of progesterone in response to exogenous adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in lactating cows. Four cows had estrus synchronized and were ovariectomized in the luteal phase. The cows were given 25 IU ACTH through an indwelling catheter 5 h after catheterization. Blood samples were collected at an interval of 30 min. In 3 of the 4 cows, plasma progesterone concentrations increased significantly 0.5-1.5 h after the first ACTH challenge with a mean peak value of 4.2 +/- 0.4 (S.D.) ng/ml. A similar response was also observed after the second ACTH challenge. Peak plasma progesterone concentrations in the 3 cows after first ACTH challenge were comparable with the progesterone values in the luteal phase of each cow. The results suggest that lactating cows have the capability to secrete a significant amount of progesterone from the adrenal cortex.

  3. Type of cottonseed and level of gossypol in diets of lactating dairy cows: plasma gossypol, health, and reproductive performance.

    PubMed

    Santos, J E P; Villasenor, M; Robinson, P H; DePeters, E J; Holmberg, C A

    2003-03-01

    Objectives were to determine effects of altering gossypol intake by feeding whole linted Upland (WUP) or a 1:2 blend of WUP and cracked Pima (BUPCP) cottonseed on plasma gossypol (PG) concentrations, reproduction, and health of Holstein cows. Cows, 813, on three dairy farms were assigned to one of two diets starting at 13 +/- 11 d in milk for a 170-d experiment. Diets contained 717 and 951 mg of free gossypol/kg of dry matter from WUP and BUPCP, respectively. Concentrations of PG, as well as the proportion of total gossypol (TG) as the minus isomer were higher for cows fed BUPCP vs cows fed WUP. Conception rate at the first postpartum artificial insemination did not differ between treatments. However, cows consuming the higher gossypol diet had reduced subsequent conception rates and a lower pregnancy rate. Incidence of abortions increased in the higher gossypol diet, and cows that aborted or remained open had higher PG concentrations. Increasing PG concentrations resulted in reduced conception rates and extended days open. The probability of conception after the first artificial insemination declined at a decreasing rate as the plasma TG increased. Incidence of health disorders were unaffected by gossypol intake and PG concentrations. Similarly, gossypol intake and PG concentrations had no effect on culling or mortality. Six cows died in each diet, and none had postmortem signs compatible with gossypol toxicity. Consumption of a high gossypol diet for 170 d had no effect on health of lactating dairy cows, but it increased PG concentrations and impaired reproductive performance.

  4. Feeding nitrate and docosahexaenoic acid affects enteric methane production and milk fatty acid composition in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Klop, G; Hatew, B; Bannink, A; Dijkstra, J

    2016-02-01

    An experiment was conducted to study potential interaction between the effects of feeding nitrate and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6 n-3) on enteric CH4 production and performance of lactating dairy cows. Twenty-eight lactating Holstein dairy cows were grouped into 7 blocks of 4 cows. Within blocks, cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments: control (CON; urea as alternative nonprotein N source to nitrate), NO3 [21 g of nitrate/kg of dry matter (DM)], DHA (3 g of DHA/kg of DM and urea as alternative nonprotein N source to nitrate), or NO3 + DHA (21 g of nitrate/kg of DM and 3 g of DHA/kg of DM, respectively). Cows were fed a total mixed ration consisting of 21% grass silage, 49% corn silage, and 30% concentrates on a DM basis. Feed additives were included in the concentrates. Cows assigned to a treatment including nitrate were gradually adapted to the treatment dose of nitrate over a period of 21 d during which no DHA was fed. The experimental period lasted 17 d, and CH4 production was measured during the last 5d in climate respiration chambers. Cows produced on average 363, 263, 369, and 298 g of CH4/d on CON, NO3, DHA, and NO3 + DHA treatments, respectively, and a tendency for a nitrate × DHA interaction effect was found where the CH4-mitigating effect of nitrate decreased when combined with DHA. This tendency was not obtained for CH4 production relative to dry matter intake (DMI) or to fat- and protein corrected milk (FPCM). The NO3 treatment decreased CH4 production irrespective of the unit in which it was expressed, whereas DHA did not affect CH4 production per kilogram of DMI, but resulted in a higher CH4 production per kilogram of fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM) production. The FPCM production (27.9, 24.7, 24.2, and 23. 8 kg/d for CON, NO3, DHA, and NO3 + DHA, respectively) was lower for DHA-fed cows because of decreased milk fat concentration. The proportion of saturated fatty acids in milk fat was decreased by DHA, and the proportion of

  5. Low doses of bovine somatotropin enhance conceptus development and fertility in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Eduardo S; Bruno, Ralph G S; Farias, Alexandre M; Hernández-Rivera, Juan A; Gomes, Gabriel C; Surjus, Ricardo; Becker, Luis F V; Birt, Alyssa; Ott, Troy L; Branen, Josh R; Sasser, R Garth; Keisler, Duane H; Thatcher, William W; Bilby, Todd R; Santos, José E P

    2014-01-01

    Objectives were to evaluate the effects of administering either one or two low doses of slow-release recombinant bovine somatotropin (bST) on hormone concentrations, conceptus development, and fertility in dairy cows. Cows from two farms were detected in estrus on or after 50 days postpartum (n = 1483), inseminated, and enrolled in the study (Day 0). Within farm, cows were blocked by parity and assigned randomly to receive a single placebo injection at insemination (control), a single injection with 325 mg of bST at insemination (S-bST), or two injections with 325 mg of bST administered on Days 0 and 14 (T-bST). From a subset of cows, blood was collected twice weekly from Day 0 to 42 for determination of hormone concentrations and on Day 19 for isolation of leucocytes and analysis of transcript abundance of selected interferon-stimulated genes. Pregnancy was diagnosed on Days 31 and 66, and ultrasonographic morphometry of the conceptus was performed on Days 34 and 48 in a subset of cows. Cows that received T-bST had increased plasma concentrations of GH and IGF1 for 4 wk, increased mRNA expression of ISG15 and RTP4 in leukocytes, earlier rise in the pregnancy-specific protein B in plasma of pregnant cows, increased conceptus size, and enhanced fertility. Cows that received S-bST had increased concentrations of GH and IGF1 for only 2 wk and it was insufficient to alter conceptus development and fertility. In conclusion, supplementation with low doses of bST during the pre- and peri-implantation periods enhanced conceptus development, reduced embryonic losses, and improved fertility in dairy cows.

  6. Supplements of vitamins B9 and B12 affect hepatic and mammary gland gene expression profiles in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Ouattara, Bazoumana; Bissonnette, Nathalie; Duplessis, Melissa; Girard, Christiane L

    2016-08-15

    A combined supplement of vitamins B9 and B12 was reported to increase milk and milk component yields of dairy cows without effect on feed intake. The present study was undertaken to verify whether this supplementation positively modifies the pathways involved in milk and milk component synthesis. Thus, by studying the transcriptome activity in these tissues, the effect of supplements of both vitamins on the metabolism of both liver and mammary gland, was investigated. For this study, 24 multiparous Holstein dairy cows were assigned to 6 blocks of 4 animals each according to previous 305-day milk production. Within each block, cows were randomly assigned to weekly intramuscular injections of 5 mL of either saline 0.9 % NaCl, 320 mg of vitamin B9, 10 mg of vitamin B12 or a combination of both vitamins (B9 + B12). The experimental period began 3 weeks before the expected calving date and lasted 9 weeks of lactation. Liver and mammary biopsies were performed on lactating dairy cows 64 ± 3 days after calving. Samples from both tissues were analyzed by microarray and qPCR to identify genes differentially expressed in hepatic and mammary tissues. Microarray analysis identified 47 genes in hepatic tissue and 16 genes in the mammary gland whose expression was modified by the vitamin supplements. Gene ontology (GO) categorizes genes in non-overlapping domains of molecular biology. Panther is one of the online GO resources used for gene function classification. It classifies the 63 genes according to Molecular Function, Biological Process and Protein Class. Most of the biological processes modulated by the vitamin supplements were associated to developmental process, protein metabolic process, transport and response to inflammation. In the liver, most of the genes modulated by the vitamin treatments involved protein metabolic process while developmental process appeared to be more affected by the treatments in mammary gland. Out of 25 genes analysed by qPCR, 7

  7. Response of the Cholesterol Metabolism to a Negative Energy Balance in Dairy Cows Depends on the Lactational Stage

    PubMed Central

    Albrecht, Christiane; Bruckmaier, Rupert M.

    2015-01-01

    The response of cholesterol metabolism to a negative energy balance (NEB) induced by feed restriction for 3 weeks starting at 100 days in milk (DIM) compared to the physiologically occurring NEB in week 1 postpartum (p.p.) was investigated in 50 dairy cows (25 control (CON) and 25 feed-restricted (RES)). Blood samples, liver biopsies and milk samples were taken in week 1 p.p., and in weeks 0 and 3 of feed restriction. Plasma concentrations of total cholesterol (C), phospholipids (PL), triglycerides (TAG), very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-C) and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) increased in RES cows from week 0 to 3 during feed restriction and were higher in week 3 compared to CON cows. In contrast, during the physiologically occurring NEB in week 1 p.p., C, PL, TAG and lipoprotein concentrations were at a minimum. Plasma phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) and lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activities did not differ between week 0 and 3 for both groups, whereas during NEB in week 1 p.p. PLTP activity was increased and LCAT activity was decreased. Milk C concentration was not affected by feed restriction in both groups, whereas milk C mass was decreased in week 3 for RES cows. In comparison, C concentration and mass in milk were elevated in week 1 p.p. Hepatic mRNA abundance of sterol regulatory element-binding factor-2 (SREBF-2), 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A synthase 1 (HMGCS1), 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR), and ATP-binding cassette transporter (ABCA1) were similar in CON and RES cows during feed restriction, but were upregulated during NEB in week 1 p.p. compared to the non-lactating stage without a NEB. In conclusion, cholesterol metabolism in dairy cows is affected by nutrient and energy deficiency depending on the stage of lactation. PMID:26034989

  8. Response of the cholesterol metabolism to a negative energy balance in dairy cows depends on the lactational stage.

    PubMed

    Gross, Josef J; Kessler, Evelyne C; Albrecht, Christiane; Bruckmaier, Rupert M

    2015-01-01

    The response of cholesterol metabolism to a negative energy balance (NEB) induced by feed restriction for 3 weeks starting at 100 days in milk (DIM) compared to the physiologically occurring NEB in week 1 postpartum (p.p.) was investigated in 50 dairy cows (25 control (CON) and 25 feed-restricted (RES)). Blood samples, liver biopsies and milk samples were taken in week 1 p.p., and in weeks 0 and 3 of feed restriction. Plasma concentrations of total cholesterol (C), phospholipids (PL), triglycerides (TAG), very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-C) and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) increased in RES cows from week 0 to 3 during feed restriction and were higher in week 3 compared to CON cows. In contrast, during the physiologically occurring NEB in week 1 p.p., C, PL, TAG and lipoprotein concentrations were at a minimum. Plasma phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) and lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activities did not differ between week 0 and 3 for both groups, whereas during NEB in week 1 p.p. PLTP activity was increased and LCAT activity was decreased. Milk C concentration was not affected by feed restriction in both groups, whereas milk C mass was decreased in week 3 for RES cows. In comparison, C concentration and mass in milk were elevated in week 1 p.p. Hepatic mRNA abundance of sterol regulatory element-binding factor-2 (SREBF-2), 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A synthase 1 (HMGCS1), 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR), and ATP-binding cassette transporter (ABCA1) were similar in CON and RES cows during feed restriction, but were upregulated during NEB in week 1 p.p. compared to the non-lactating stage without a NEB. In conclusion, cholesterol metabolism in dairy cows is affected by nutrient and energy deficiency depending on the stage of lactation.

  9. Effects of feeding forage soybean silage on milk production, nutrient digestion, and ruminal fermentation of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Bello-Pérez, E; Mustafa, A F; Seguin, P

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the feeding value of forage soybean silage (SS) for dairy cows relative to a fourth-cut alfalfa silage (AS). Forage soybean was harvested at full pod stage. Two isonitrogenous diets were formulated with a 48:52 forage:concentrate ratio. Soybean silage and AS constituted 72% of the forage in each diet, with corn silage constituting the remaining 28%. Twenty Holsteins cows in early lactation were used in a switchback design. Four lactating Holsteins cows fitted with ruminal cannulas were used to determine the effects of dietary treatments on ruminal fermentation parameters and in vivo total tract nutrient utilization. Relative to AS, SS contained 15, 28, and 25% more neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, and crude protein, respectively. Dry matter intake (23.5 vs. 25.1 kg/d) and milk yield (35.5 vs. 37.2 kg/d) were lower for cows fed SS than for those fed AS. However, energy-corrected milk and milk efficiency were similar for both dietary treatments. Milk protein, lactose, and total solids concentrations were not influenced by dietary treatments (average 3.0, 4.7, and 12.6%, respectively). However, cows fed SS produced milk with greater milk fat (3.8 vs. 3.6%) and milk urea nitrogen concentrations (15.6 vs. 14.3 mg/dL) compared with cows fed AS. Ruminal pH was lower, whereas ruminal NH3-N concentration was greater in cows fed SS than in cows fed AS. Total tract digestibilities of dry matter, crude protein, and neutral detergent fiber were not influenced by silage type. We concluded that forage SS, when compared with AS, had a negative impact on feed intake and milk yield, whereas energy-corrected milk, milk efficiency, and total tract nutrient digestion were similar.

  10. The effect of lactation number, stage, length, and milking frequency on milk yield in Korean Holstein dairy cows using automatic milking system

    PubMed Central

    Vijayakumar, Mayakrishnan; Park, Ji Hoo; Ki, Kwang Seok; Lim, Dong Hyun; Kim, Sang Bum; Park, Seong Min; Jeong, Ha Yeon; Park, Beom Young; Kim, Tae Il

    2017-01-01

    Objective The aim of the current study was to describe the relationship between milk yield and lactation number, stage, length and milking frequency in Korean Holstein dairy cows using an automatic milking system (AMS). Methods The original data set consisted of observations from April to October 2016 of 780 Holstein cows, with a total of 10,751 milkings. Each time a cow was milked by an AMS during the 24 h, the AMS management system recorded identification numbers of the AMS unit, the cow being milking, date and time of the milking, and milk yield (kg) as measured by the milk meters installed on each AMS unit, date and time of the lactation, lactation stage, milking frequency (NoM). Lactation stage is defined as the number of days milking per cows per lactation. Milk yield was calculated per udder quarter in the AMS and was added to 1 record per cow and trait for each milking. Milking frequency was measured the number of milkings per cow per 24 hour. Results From the study results, a significant relationship was found between the milk yield and lactation number (p<0.001), with the maximum milk yield occurring in the third lactation cows. We recorded the highest milk yield, in a greater lactation length period of early stage (55 to 90 days) at a 4× milking frequency/d, and the lowest milk yield was observed in the later stage (>201 days) of cows. Also, milking frequency had a significant influence on milk yield (p<0.001) in Korean Holstein cows using AMS. Conclusion Detailed knowledge of these factors such as lactation number, stage, length, and milking frequency associated with increasing milk yield using AMS will help guide future recommendations to producers for maximizing milk yield in Korean Dairy industries. PMID:28423887

  11. Rumen fermentation and production effects of Origanum vulgare L. leaves in lactating dairy cows

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A lactating cow trial was conducted to study the effects of dietary addition of oregano leaf material (Origanum vulgare L.; 0, control vs. 500 g/d, OV) on ruminal fermentation, methane production, total tract digestibility, manure gas emissions, N metabolism, organoleptic characteristics of milk, an...

  12. Energy content of reduced-fat dried distillers grains with solubles for lactating dairy cows

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Eight Holstein and 8 Jersey multiparous, lactating cows were used to complete 56 energy balances to determine the energy content of reduced-fat distillers grains and solubles (RFDDGS). A repeated switchback design was used to compare treatments with and without RFDDGS. Diets consisted of 24.2% cor...

  13. An automated walk-over weighing system as a tool for measuring liveweight change in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, R A; Morton, J M; Beggs, D S; Anderson, G A; Pyman, M F; Mansell, P D; Blackwood, C B

    2013-07-01

    Automated walk-over weighing systems can be used to monitor liveweights of cattle. Minimal literature exists to describe agreement between automated and static scales, and no known studies describe repeatability when used for daily measurements of dairy cows. This study establishes the repeatability of an automated walk-over cattle-weighing system, and agreement with static electronic scales, when used in a commercial dairy herd to weigh lactating cows. Forty-six lactating dairy cows from a seasonal calving, pasture-based dairy herd in southwest Victoria, Australia, were weighed once using a set of static scales and repeatedly using an automated walk-over weighing system at the exit of a rotary dairy. Substantial agreement was observed between the automated and static scales when assessed using Lin's concordance correlation coefficient. Weights measured by the automated walkover scales were within 5% of those measured by the static scales in 96% of weighings. Bland and Altman's 95% limits of agreement were -23.3 to 43.6 kg, a range of 66.9 kg. The 95% repeatability coefficient for automated weighings was 46.3 kg. Removal of a single outlier from the data set increased Lin's concordance coefficient, narrowed Bland and Altman's 95% limits of agreement to a range of 32.5 kg, and reduced the 95% repeatability coefficient to 18.7 kg. Cow misbehavior during walk-over weighing accounted for many of the larger weight discrepancies. The automated walk-over weighing system showed substantial agreement with the static scales when assessed using Lin's concordance correlation coefficient. This contrasted with limited agreement when assessed using Bland and Altman's method, largely due to poor repeatability. This suggests the automated weighing system is inadequate for detecting small liveweight differences in individual cows based on comparisons of single weights. Misbehaviors and other factors can result in the recording of spurious values on walk-over scales. Excluding

  14. Short communication: Noninvasive indicators to identify lactating dairy cows with a greater risk of subacute rumen acidosis.

    PubMed

    Gao, X; Oba, M

    2015-08-01

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate if milk urea nitrogen (MUN) and milk fat content could be used as the noninvasive indicator to identify cows with greater or lower risk of subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA). Our hypothesis was that cows with lower MUN and milk fat content would have greater risk of SARA, whereas cows with higher MUN and milk fat content would have lower risk of SARA. In the screening study, 35 late-lactating Holstein cows (DIM=250±71.1; BW=601±45.4kg) were fed a high-grain diet containing 35% forage and 65% concentrate mix ad libitum for 21 d. Concentration of MUN ranged from 5.7 to 13.9Mg/dL among the 35 cows, and the average milk fat content was 3.5%. Then, 5 cows with highest MUN concentrations with milk fat higher than 3.5% were selected as animals that presumably have low risk of SARA, and 5 cows with lowest MUN concentrations with milk fat less than 3.5% were selected as animals that presumably have high risk of SARA. These 10 animals were ruminally cannulated during the subsequent dry period. As 1 low-risk cow was culled due to fatty liver, 9 animals (DIM=122±33.2; BW=615±49.1kg) were used in the subsequent study in the following lactation. All cows were fed a high-grain diet consisting of 35% forage and 65% concentrate mix ad libitum for 21 d. Ruminal pH was measured every 30 s for 72 h. Minimum (5.75 vs. 5.30) and mean ruminal pH (6.35 vs. 6.04) was higher for low- compared with high-risk animals. In addition, duration of rumen pH below 5.8 was shorter in low-risk animals (52.5 vs. 395min/d). These results suggested that MUN and milk fat content in late-lactating cows fed a high-grain diet may be used to identify cows that have higher or lower risk of SARA. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Influence of corn silage particle length on the performance of lactating dairy cows fed supplemental tallow.

    PubMed

    Onetti, S G; Shaver, R D; Bertics, S J; Grummer, R R

    2003-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if the length of chop of processed corn silage influences the impact of supplemental fat on rumen fermentation and performance of dairy cows. We hypothesized that increasing forage particle length may alleviate the interference of fat on rumen fermentation. Sixteen Holstein cows averaging 120 d in milk were used in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design with 21-d periods. Treatments were arranged as a 2 x 2 factorial with 0 or 2% tallow (dry matter basis), and corn silage harvested at either 19 or 32 mm theoretical length of cut. The forage:concentrate ratio was 50:50, and diets were formulated to contain 18% crude protein and 32% neutral detergent fiber (dry matter basis). Cows were allowed ad libitum consumption of diets that were fed twice daily as a total mixed ration. Fat supplemented cows had lower dry matter intake and produced less milk fat relative to nonsupplemented cows. No effect of corn silage particle length was observed for dry matter intake and milk fat production. Proportion of trans-10 C18:1 and of trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid was highest in milk fat of cows fed 2% supplemental tallow. Rumen pH was not affected by feeding tallow, and tended to be highest for cows eating the 32-mm theoretical length of chop corn silage diets. No effect of treatments was observed for rumen acetate-to-propionate ratio or rumen ammonia concentration. In this study, tallow supplementation had a negative impact on performance of dairy cows regardless of the corn silage particle length. Feeding tallow increased formation of trans-fatty acids in the rumen in the absence of significant changes in the rumen environment.

  16. Human and bovine lactoferrins in the milk of recombinant human lactoferrin-transgenic dairy cows during lactation.

    PubMed

    Hyvönen, Paula; Suojala, Leena; Haaranen, Johanna; von Wright, Atte; Pyörälä, Satu

    2006-04-01

    Seven Friesian human lactoferrin (hLf)-transgenic primiparous dairy cows expressing recombinant hLf (rhLf) in their milk were included in the study. After calving, concentrations of rhLf and bovine LF (bLf) in the milk, somatic cell count and milk yield were determined. The concentration of rhLf was found to be constant, about 2.9 mg/mL, throughout the early lactation period of 3 months. The concentration of bLf in colostrum was higher after calving, but decreased rapidly during the first days of lactation. The mean concentration of bLf was 0.15 mg/mL, but concentrations varied between cows from 0.07 mg/mL to 0.26 mg/mL. Based on that, it may be possible to improve the non-specific host defence mechanism in the mammary gland of dairy cows by enhancing the content of rhLf in the milk.

  17. Feeding protein supplements in alfalfa hay-based lactation diets improves nutrient utilization, lactational performance, and feed efficiency of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Neal, K; Eun, J-S; Young, A J; Mjoun, K; Hall, J O

    2014-12-01

    Due to the increasing cost of soybean meal and concerns of excess N being excreted into the environment, new protein supplements have been developed. Two products that have shown potential in increasing N utilization efficiency are slow-release urea (SRU; Optigen; Alltech Inc., Nicholasville, KY) and ruminal-escape protein derived from yeast (YMP; DEMP; Alltech Inc.). The objective of this study was to assess the effects of feeding these 2 supplements in alfalfa hay-based [45.7% of forage dietary dry matter (DM)] dairy diets on nutrient utilization, feed efficiency, and lactational performance of dairy cows. Twelve multiparous dairy cows were used in a triple 4 × 4 Latin square design with one square consisting of ruminally cannulated cows. Treatments included (1) control, (2) SRU-supplemented total mixed ration (SRUT), (3) YMP-supplemented total mixed ration (YMPT), and (4) SRU- and YMP-supplemented total mixed ration (SYT). The control consisted only of a mixture of soybean meal and canola meal in a 50:50 ratio. The SRU and the YMP were supplemented at 0.49 and 1.15% DM, respectively. The experiment consisted of 4 periods lasting 28 d each (21 d of adaptation and 7 d of sampling). Cows fed YMPT and SYT had decreased intake of DM, and all supplemented treatments had lower crude protein intake compared with those fed the control. Milk yield tended to have the greatest increase in YMPT compared with the control (41.1 vs. 39.7 kg/d) as well as a tendency for increased milk fat and protein yields. Feed efficiencies based on yields of milk, 3.5% fat-corrected milk, and energy-corrected milk increased at 10 to 16% due to protein supplementation. Cows fed protein supplements partitioned less energy toward body weight gain, but tended to partition more energy toward milk production. Efficiency of use of feed N to milk N increased by feeding SRUT and YMPT, and milk N-to-manure N ratio increased with YMPT. Overall results from this experiment indicate that replacing the

  18. Modification of digestive system microbiome of lactating dairy cows by feeding Bovamine: effect on ruminal fermentation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We evaluated the immune modulatory effects as well as effects on productivity of Bovamine® (Lactobacillus acidophilus strain NP51 and Probionibacterium freudenreichii) on the digestive system microbiome of dairy cattle during late lactation (average DIM = 202). To unveil the underlying mechanisms, ...

  19. TRIENNIAL LACTATION SYMPOSIUM: Nutrigenomics in dairy cows: Nutrients, transcription factors, and techniques.

    PubMed

    Bionaz, M; Osorio, J; Loor, J J

    2015-12-01

    Nutrigenomics in dairy cows is a relatively new area of research. It is defined as the study of the genomewide influences of nutrition altering the expression of genes. Dietary compounds affect gene expression directly or indirectly via interactions with transcription factors. Among those, the most relevant for nutrigenomics are ligand-dependent nuclear receptors, especially peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) and liver X receptor. Among other transcription factors, a prominent nutrigenomic role is played by the sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP1). Data from studies on dairy cows using gene expression and gene reporters among the main molecular methods used to study nutrigenomics in dairy cows are indicative of a network of multiple transcription factors at play in controlling the nutrigenomic responses. Fatty acids, AA, and level of feed and energy intake have the strongest nutrigenomic potential. The effect of 10,12 CLA on depressing milk fat synthesis via inhibition of SREBP1 was among the first and likely the best-known nutrigenomic example in dairy cows. Although long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) are clearly the most potent, a nutrigenomic role for short-chain fatty acids is emerging. Available data indicate that saturated compared with unsaturated LCFA have a more potent nutrigenomic effect in vitro, likely through PPAR. In vivo, the effect of saturated LCFA is more modest, with contrasting effects among tissues. Nutrigenomic effects of AA are emerging, particularly for the regulation of milk protein synthesis-associated genes. The level of energy in the diet has a strong and broad nutrigenomic effect and appears to "prime" tissue metabolism, particularly liver. We are at the frontier of the nutrigenomics era in ruminants and initial data strongly indicate that this scientific branch (and spinoffs such as nutriepigenomics) can play a critical role in future strategies to better feed dairy cattle.

  20. Meta-analysis of the effects of sometribove zinc suspension on the production and health of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    St-Pierre, Normand R; Milliken, George A; Bauman, Dale E; Collier, Robert J; Hogan, Joseph S; Shearer, Jan K; Smith, K Larry; Thatcher, William W

    2014-09-01

    To provide an updated evaluation of the efficacy and safety of sometribove zinc suspension (rbST-Zn), a form of recombinant bovine somatotropin, in lactating dairy cows. Meta-analysis. 26 studies published in peer-reviewed journals or reviewed by a regulatory agency. To be included, a study had to involve the use of the rbST-Zn formulation available to US producers in accordance with the label instructions for treatment initiation (57 to 70 days postpartum), dose (500 mg, q 14 d), and route (SC). For cows treated with rbST-Zn, mean milk, 3.5% fat-corrected milk, fat, and protein yields were increased by 4.00, 4.04, 0.144, and 0.137 kg/d (8.8, 8.89, 0.32, and 0.30 lb/d), respectively; however, the concentration of milk components did not change. Pregnancy proportion for the first 2 breeding cycles was increased by 5.4%, and pregnancy proportion for the duration of the trial was reduced by 5.5% for rbST-Zn-treated cows, compared with proportions for untreated cows. Mean body condition score (1 to 5 scale) was reduced by 0.06 points during the period of rbST-Zn use for treated cows. Administration of rbST-Zn had no effect on milk somatic cell count, the number of days to pregnancy, or inseminations per pregnancy; rates of fetal loss, twins, cystic ovaries, clinical lameness, lameness lesions, or traumatic lesions of the integumentary system; and odds of clinical mastitis or culling. Results indicated that rbST-Zn administration to dairy cows effectively increases milk production with no adverse effects on cow health and well-being.

  1. Feed-derived volatile basic nitrogen increases reactive oxygen species production of blood leukocytes in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Tsunoda, Ei; Gross, Josef J; Kawashima, Chiho; Bruckmaier, Rupert M; Kida, Katsuya; Miyamoto, Akio

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated over 9 months the changes of fermentative quality of total mixed rations (TMR) containing grass silage (GS) as a major component, associated with changes in the volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) levels in an experimental dairy farm. Effects of VBN levels in TMR on metabolic parameters, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and conception rates for dairy cows were analyzed. According to VBN levels in TMR during survey periods, three distinct phases were identified; phase A with low VBN; phase B with high VBN; and phase C with mid-VBN. Metabolic parameters in blood were all within normal range. However, during phases B and C, nitrogen metabolic indices such as blood urea nitrogen and milk urea nitrogen showed higher levels compared to those in phase A, and a simultaneous increase in ROS production by blood PMNs and the load on hepatic function in metabolic parameters was observed in the cows with a lower conception rate. This suggests that feeding TMR with elevated VBN levels due to poor fermented GS results in stimulation of ROS production by PMNs by ammonia, and negatively affects metabolism and reproductive performance in lactating dairy cow. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  2. Effect of zinc methionine or zinc sulfate supplementation on milk production and composition of milk in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Sobhanirad, Saeid; Carlson, Dorthe; Bahari Kashani, Reza

    2010-07-01

    Eighteen lactating dairy cows were used to compare the effects of organic and inorganic Zn supplements on milk production and chemical composition of milk. Animals received three diets in a randomized block design: basal diet with no supplemental Zn (control, 42 mg Zn/kg), basal diet plus 500 mg Zn/kg of dry matter (DM) as zinc sulfate monohydrate (ZnS) and basal diet plus 500 mg Zn/kg of DM as zinc methionine (ZnM). Results showed that milk and fat-corrected milk yield in dairy cows were not significantly affected by Zn source although a numerical increase was observed. The percentages of protein, lactose, fat, solid nonfat, total solid, and density of milk were not significantly different between treatments. However, dairy cows that received ZnM tended to produce more milk and fat-corrected milk with a lower somatic cell count as compared to controls. The zinc concentration in milk in the ZnM and ZnS groups was higher (P < 0.05) than in milk from the control group, but there were no significant differences between ZnS and ZnM groups.

  3. Influences of season, parity, lactation, udder area, milk yield, and clinical symptoms on intramammary infection in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Z; Li, X P; Yang, F; Luo, J Y; Wang, X R; Liu, L H; Li, H S

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influences of season, parity, lactation, udder area, milk yield, and clinical symptoms on bacterial intramammary infection (IMI) in dairy cows. A total of 2,106 mastitis pathogens in 12 species were isolated from 125 dairy farms distributed in 30 different cities in China, and the information about these factors was recorded at the same time. Mastitis pathogens were isolated from 63.43% of the milk samples, whereas Streptococcus agalactiae accounted for 38.61% of all pathogens, followed by Str. dysgalactiae (28.16%), Staphylococcus aureus (19.10%), Escherichia coli (6.90%), and other pathogens (7.23%). According to our investigation, IMI was more common in spring with the isolation rate of pathogens at 81.04%, and lowest in winter (52.34%). Cows were more likely to be infected by environmental pathogens (E. coli or Str. uberis) in summer, in rear quarters and in cows with higher daily milk yield or lower somatic cell count. In addition, Str. dysgalactiae exhibited a higher prevalence with increased parity. Different clinical symptoms of quarters with bacterial IMI were seen in this study, and mastitis pathogens were isolated from healthy quarters. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Adipose tissue remodeling in late-lactation dairy cows during feed-restriction-induced negative energy balance.

    PubMed

    Contreras, G Andres; Thelen, Kyan; Schmidt, Sarah E; Strieder-Barboza, Clarissa; Preseault, Courtney L; Raphael, William; Kiupel, Matti; Caron, John; Lock, Adam L

    2016-12-01

    Excessive rates of demand lipolysis in the adipose tissue (AT) during periods of negative energy balance (NEB) are associated with increased susceptibility to disease and limited lactation performance. Lipolysis induces a remodeling process within AT that is characterized by an inflammatory response, cellular proliferation, and changes in the extracellular matrix (ECMT). The adipose tissue macrophage (ATM) is a key component of the inflammatory response. Infiltration of ATM-forming cellular aggregates was demonstrated in transition cows, suggesting that ATM trafficking and phenotype changes may be associated with disease. However, it is currently unknown if ATM infiltration occurs in dairy cows only during NEB states related to the transition period or also during NEB-induced lipolysis at other stages of lactation. The objective of this study was to evaluate changes in ATM trafficking and inflammatory phenotypes, and the expression of genetic markers of AT remodeling in healthy late-lactation cows during feed restriction-induced NEB. After a 14-d (d -14 to d -1) preliminary period, Holstein cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 feeding protocols, ad libitum (AL) or feed restriction (FR), for 4 d (d 1-4). Caloric intake was reduced in FR to achieve a targeted energy balance of -15 Mcal/d of net energy for lactation. Omental and subcutaneous AT samples were collected laparoscopically to harvest stromal vascular fraction (SVF) cells on d -3 and 4. The FR induced a NEB of -14.1±0.62 Mcal/d of net energy for lactation, whereas AL cows remained in positive energy balance (3.2±0.66 Mcal/d of NEL). The FR triggered a lipolytic response reflected in increased plasma nonesterified fatty acids (0.65±0.05 mEq/L on d 4), enhanced phosphorylation of hormone sensitive lipase, and reduced adipocyte diameter. Flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry analysis revealed that on d 4, FR cows had increased numbers of CD172a(+), an ATM (M1 and M2) surface marker, cells in SVF that were

  5. A comparison of adrenal gland function in lactating dairy cows with or without ovarian follicular cysts.

    PubMed

    Silvia, William J; McGinnis, Angela S; Hatler, T Ben

    2005-03-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine if adrenal secretion of steroids differed between cows that formed ovarian follicular cysts and normal cycling cows. In experiment 1, lactating Jersey and Holstein cows were diagnosed as having ovarian follicular cysts (follicle diameter >or=20 mm) by rectal palpation. Following diagnosis, ovaries were examined by transrectal ultrasonography three times weekly to detect subsequent ovulation (n=8) or new cyst formation (n=9). Venous blood samples were collected daily to quantify circulating concentrations of cortisol and progesterone. The average concentration of cortisol during the 10-day period prior to ovulation was not different from the concentration prior to the formation of a new cyst. In experiment 2, secretion of cortisol and progesterone was examined in cows with ovarian follicular cysts (n=4) and cyclic, control cows in the follicular phase of the estrous cycle (n=4). An adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenge was administered to cystic cows 4-7 days after new cyst formation and to cyclic cows in the follicular phase of the cycle (36 h after induction of luteolysis). Jugular venous blood samples were collected at -60, -30, 0, +10, +20, +30, +60, +90, +120, +180, +240, +300 and +360 minutes relative to ACTH administration. A rapid increase in both cortisol and progesterone was observed immediately following administration of ACTH in each treatment group. Peak concentrations of both steroids were achieved within 60 minutes after administration of ACTH. Concentrations of cortisol and progesterone did not differ between cystic and cyclic cows. In summary, no differences in adrenal function were detected between normal cycling cows and cows with ovarian follicular cysts.

  6. Dietary forage concentration affects the feed sorting behavior of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Devries, T J; Beauchemin, K A; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2007-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether the amount of forage in a total mixed ration influences feed sorting by cows and whether the extent of this sorting changes as they adapt to a new diet. Six lactating Holstein cows, individually fed once per day, were provided each of 2 diets in a crossover design (dry matter basis): 1) a higher forage diet (HF; 62.3% forage), and 2) a lower forage diet (LF; 50.7% forage). Dry matter intake, feeding behavior, and sorting activity were monitored for each cow on each diet for 7 d. Fresh feed and orts were sampled daily for each cow and subjected to neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and particle size analysis. The particle size separator contained 2 screens (18 and 9 mm) and a bottom pan, resulting in 3 fractions (long, medium, and short). Sorting activity [for each fraction, NDF and physically effective NDF (peNDF)] was calculated as the actual intake expressed as a percentage of the predicted intake. Overall, sorting activity was greatest on the LF diet, with cows sorting for short particles but against long particles, medium particles, NDF, and peNDF. On the HF diet, cows sorted against long particles, NDF, and peNDF and sorted for short particles. Treatment x day interactions occurred for sorting for short particles and against peNDF, indicating that it took cows 1 d to adjust their sorting behavior to the LF diet. Cows on the LF diet consumed more dry matter but spent less time feeding, which resulted in a greater intake rate compared with cows on the HF diet. These results indicate that cows rapidly adjust their sorting behavior when subjected to a dietary change, and they exhibit more sorting for short particles and against long particles, NDF, and peNDF when fed an LF diet.

  7. Prevalence and risk factors of subclinical mastitis in lactating dairy cows in north and south regions of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Sarker, Swapan Chandra; Parvin, Mst Sonia; Rahman, A K M Anisur; Islam, Md Taohidul

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify the potential risk factors for subclinical mastitis (SCM) in lactating dairy cows in Bangladesh. A cross-sectional study was carried out on randomly selected 212 smallholder dairy farms of Sadar upazilas of Rangpur, Mymensingh, and Satkhira districts of Bangladesh during January to October 2011. The direct interview using a structured questionnaire and physical examination of the cows were done to collect data on 15 variables. Milk samples collected from study cows were subjected to California Mastitis Test (CMT). The diagnosis of SCM was based on the results of CMT and physical examination of udder and milk. The bivariable followed by multivariable analysis was done using SPSS 17.0. Of the total cows examined, 20.2 % had subclinical mastitis. In bivariable analysis, eight risk factors were identified. However, in the final model of multivariable analysis, four potential risk factors were identified. These were history of previous clinical mastitis (odds ratio (OR) 10.51, p<0.001), pendulous type of udder (OR 2.26, p=0.008), no grass feeding (OR 1.84, p=0.039), and body condition score (BCS) 2.5 or less (OR 7.25, p=0.054). Four different factors were significantly associated with the occurrence of subclinical mastitis, which need to be considered in the control of the disease. However, particular emphasis should be given on grass feeding and BCS because these traits can be modified or improved to allow prevention of SCM.

  8. Nutritional evaluation of transgenic cottonseed in the ration of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Mohanta, Ranjan K; Singhal, Kamal K; Tyagi, Amrish K; Rajput, Y S; Prasad, Shiv

    2010-03-01

    The effects of feeding transgenic (Bt) whole cottonseed (WCS) were studied in lactating cows. Twenty multiparous crossbred cows (Karan Swiss x Karan Fries) in early lactation were given a concentrate mixture containing 40% crushed delinted non-transgenic (non-Bt) WCS, 2 kg wheat straw and green fodder ad lib for a 15-day adaptation period. Thereafter, the cows were divided in two similar groups of 10 each on the basis of milk yield, body weight (BW) and date of calving. The non-Bt control group continued on same ration, while for the Bt group the non-Bt WCS was replaced by transgenic WCS, in a feeding trial of four weeks. The diets provided a minimum of 2 kg cottonseed/cow/d. Mean DMI/100 kg BW and milk yield of non-Bt and Bt groups was 3.48 and 3.45 kg and 11.4 and 12.0 kg/d, respectively. Intake of nutrients, digestibility, milk production and body condition score (BCS) did not differ between the groups (P > 0.05), but BW gain was higher (P < 0.05) in the Bt group than the non-Bt group, probably as a result of hoof problem in two cows of non-Bt group, which when compared excluding two animals from each group did not differ significantly (P > 0.05). Transgenic protein (Cry1C) was not detected in the weekly milk samples or in blood plasma at the end of the experiment, showing that delinted WCS containing Cry1C protein can safely be fed to lactating cows.

  9. Ovulation timing and conception risk after automated activity monitoring in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, J S; Hill, S L; Nebel, R L; DeJarnette, J M

    2014-07-01

    Using 1 market-available activity monitor, 3 experiments were conducted in dairy cows to determine timing of ovulation, compare within-herd conception risk of cows inseminated based on activity monitors versus timed artificial insemination (AI), and determine conception risk of cows inseminated at various intervals after achieving an activity threshold. In experiment 1, ovaries were scanned every 3h by transrectal ultrasonography to determine the time of ovulation beginning 14 ± 0.5 h after the achieved activity threshold (n=132) or first standing event (n=59), or both (n=59). Progesterone at the first ovarian scan (0.1 ± 0.01 ng/mL) and ovarian structures [1 or 2 preovulatory-sized follicles (16.5 ± 0.2 mm)] confirmed that 88.6% of cows identified by activity were in estrus. The remaining 15 cows (11.4%) with a corpus luteum and elevated progesterone concentration (5.3 ± 0.5 ng/mL) were classified as false positives. The average interval from first standing event to ovulation (n=59) differed slightly from the interval after the achieved threshold (26.4 ± 0.7 vs. 24.6 ± 0.7 h, respectively). In 97 cows fitted with activity monitors, that interval was 25.7 ± 0.4 h. In experiment 2, the conception risk in 394 cows in 1 herd fitted with activity monitors was compared with that of 413 cows submitted to a timed AI program through 3 AI services. Days to first AI were reduced in cows fitted with activity monitors, and conception risk after activity threshold was less than that for timed AI at first service because of differing days in milk at first AI. Both median and mean days to pregnancy, however, were reduced in activity-group cows by 10 and 24 d, respectively, compared with timed AI cows. In experiment 3, 4,019 cows in 19 herds were inseminated after achieving the activity threshold. Conception risk was determined for cows inseminated at various intervals after the achieved activity threshold. A curvilinear conception risk curve peaked at 47.9% for primiparous

  10. Investigation of the persistence of closantel residues in bovine milk following lactating-cow and dry-cow treatments and its migration into dairy products.

    PubMed

    Power, Clare; Sayers, Riona; O'Brien, Bernadette; Clancy, Clare; Furey, Ambrose; Jordan, Kieran; Danaher, Martin

    2013-09-11

    Closantel is a veterinary drug used to treat liver fluke in cattle and sheep. A provisional maximum residue limit (MRL) of 45 μg/kg in milk has been set by the European Union. The purpose of this study was to investigate the persistence of closantel residues in milk and the migration of residues into milk products. Following dry-cow treatment, residues ranged from undetectable to 8.7 μg/kg at the first milking. Following lactating-cow treatment, residues detected ranged from 278 to 482 μg/kg at day 1 post-treatment and were detectable above the MRL for 52 days and detectable for 198 days. At day 2 and day 23 post-treatment, the milk was collected and dairy products manufactured. Closantel residues concentrated in the cheese, butter, and skim milk powder. The results indicate that closantel is best used as a dry-cow treatment.

  11. Effects of diet forage proportion on maintenance energy requirement and the efficiency of metabolizable energy use for lactation by lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Dong, L F; Ferris, C P; McDowell, D A; Yan, T

    2015-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine the effect of dietary forage proportion (FP) on metabolizable energy (ME) requirement for maintenance (MEm) and the efficiency of ME use for lactation (kl) in lactating dairy cows. Data used were derived from 32 calorimetric chamber experiments undertaken at our institute between 1992 and 2010, including data from 818 Holstein-Friesian cows (HF), 50 Norwegian Red cows, and 62 crossbred cows (Jersey × HF or Norwegian Red × HF). Animals were offered forage-only rations (n=66) or forage and concentrate rations (n=864) with FP ranging from 18 to 100% (dry matter basis). The effect of FP was evaluated by dividing the whole data set into 4 groups according to the FP ranges, categorized as FP <30%, FP=30 to 59%, FP=60 to 99%, and FP=100%. The MEm for individual cows was calculated from heat production minus energy losses from inefficiencies of ME use for lactation, energy retention and pregnancy, and kl was obtained from milk energy output adjusted to zero energy balance (El(0)) divided by ME available for production. Increasing FP significantly reduced ME intake and milk energy output, although the differences between the 2 low FP groups were not significant. However, increasing FP significantly increased the ratio of heat production over ME intake and MEm (MJ/kg(0.75)), with the exception that the increases did not reach significance in heat production/ME intake between FP <30% and FP=30 to 59%, or in MEm between FP=60 to 99% and FP=100%. However, the FP had no significant effect on the kl values, which were similar among the 4 groups of cows. The effect of FP was also evaluated using the linear mixed regression technique relating El(0) to ME intake. The results demonstrated that with a common regression coefficient (slope), the regression constants (intercepts) taken as net energy requirement for maintenance significantly increased with increasing FP. However, the increase between the 2 high FP groups did not research

  12. Metabolic Heat Stress Adaption in Transition Cows: Differences in Macronutrient Oxidation between Late-Gestating and Early-Lactating German Holstein Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Derno, Michael; Otten, Winfried; Mielenz, Manfred; Nürnberg, Gerd

    2015-01-01

    High ambient temperatures have severe adverse effects on biological functions of high-yielding dairy cows. The metabolic adaption to heat stress was examined in 14 German Holsteins transition cows assigned to two groups, one heat-stressed (HS) and one pair-fed (PF) at the level of HS. After 6 days of thermoneutrality and ad libitum feeding (P1), cows were challenged for 6 days (P2) by heat stress (temperature humidity index (THI) = 76) or thermoneutral pair-feeding in climatic chambers 3 weeks ante partum and again 3 weeks post-partum. On the sixth day of each period P1 or P2, oxidative metabolism was analyzed for 24 hours in open circuit respiration chambers. Water and feed intake, vital parameters and milk yield were recorded. Daily blood samples were analyzed for glucose, β-hydroxybutyric acid, non-esterified fatty acids, urea, creatinine, methyl histidine, adrenaline and noradrenaline. In general, heat stress caused marked effects on water homeorhesis with impairments of renal function and a strong adrenergic response accompanied with a prevalence of carbohydrate oxidation over fat catabolism. Heat-stressed cows extensively degraded tissue protein as reflected by the increase of plasma urea, creatinine and methyl histidine concentrations. However, the acute metabolic heat stress response in dry cows differed from early-lactating cows as the prepartal adipose tissue was not refractory to lipolytic, adrenergic stimuli, and the rate of amino acid oxidation was lower than in the postpartal stage. Together with the lower endogenous metabolic heat load, metabolic adaption in dry cows is indicative for a higher heat tolerance and the prioritization of the nutritional requirements of the fast-growing near-term fetus. These findings indicate that the development of future nutritional strategies for attenuating impairments of health and performance due to ambient heat requires the consideration of the physiological stage of dairy cows. PMID:25938406

  13. Gastrointestinal metabolism of phytoestrogens in lactating dairy cows fed silages with different botanical composition.

    PubMed

    Njåstad, K M; Adler, S A; Hansen-Møller, J; Thuen, E; Gustavsson, A-M; Steinshamn, H

    2014-12-01

    Dietary phytoestrogens are metabolized or converted in the gastrointestinal tract of ruminants, only limited knowledge exists on the extent and location of this conversion in vivo. The objective of this study was to quantify the gastro-intestinal metabolism of phytoestrogens in lactating dairy cows fed silages with different botanical composition. Four lactating rumen cannulated Norwegian Red cattle were assigned to a 4 × 4 Latin square with 1 cow per treatment period of 3 wk. The 4 treatment silages were prepared from grasslands with different botanical compositions: organically managed short-term timothy (Phleum pratense L.) and red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) ley (2 yr old: ORG-SG); organically managed long-term grassland with a high proportion of unsown species (6 yr old; ORG-LG); conventionally managed perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) ley (CON-PR); and conventionally managed timothy ley (CON-TI). The herbages were cut, wilted, and preserved with additive in round bales, fed as a mix of the first and third cut at 90% of ad libitum intake, and contributed to 70% of the total dry matter intake. Milk, feed, omasal digesta, urine, and feces were collected at the end of each period and analyzed for the concentrations of phytoestrogens by using a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry technique. Concentration of total isoflavones was highest in ORG-SG and lowest in CON-TI silage, whereas the content of total lignans was highest in the grass silages. The isoflavones were extensively metabolized in the rumen on all diets, and the recovery of formononetin and daidzein in omasum, mainly as equol, averaged 0.11 mg/mg. The apparent intestinal metabolism was less severe as, on average, 0.29 mg/mg of the omasal flow was recovered in feces. The plant lignans were also strongly degraded in the rumen. However, the flow of lignans to omasum and excretion in feces were, on average, 7.2- and 5.2-fold higher, respectively, than the intake of the plant lignans

  14. Epigenetic Regulation of miR-29s Affects the Lactation Activity of Dairy Cow Mammary Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Bian, Yanjie; Lei, Yu; Wang, Chunmei; Wang, Jie; Wang, Lina; Liu, Lili; Liu, Lixin; Gao, Xuejun; Li, Qingzhang

    2015-09-01

    Milk is important for human nutrition, and enhanced milk quality has become a major selection criterion for the genetic improvement of livestock. Epigenetic modifications have been shown to be involved in mammary gland development; but the mechanisms underlying their effects remain unknown. MicroRNAs are involved in the regulation of milk synthesis and in mammary gland development. Our study is the first to investigate the roles of miR-29s and epigenetic regulation in dairy cow mammary epithelial cells (DCMECs). Our results show that miR-29s regulate the DNA methylation level by inversely targeting both DNMT3A and DNMT3B in DCMECs. The inhibition of miR-29s caused global DNA hypermethylation and increased the methylation levels of the promoters of important lactation-related genes, including casein alpha s1 (CSN1S1), E74-like factor 5 (ElF5), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 (SREBP1), and glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1). The inhibition of miR-29s reduced the secretion of lactoprotein, triglycerides (TG) and lactose by DCMECs. Moreover, the treatment of DCMECs with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza-dC) decreased the methylation levels of the miR-29b promoter and increased the expression of miR-29b. The link between miR-29s and DNMT3A/3B enhances our understanding of the roles of miRNAs in mammary gland function, and our data will inform more experimentally oriented studies to identify new mechanisms of regulating lactation. We present new insights regarding the epigenetic regulation of lactation performance. Improved understanding of the molecular basis of lactation will aid in the development of strategies for optimizing milk quality in dairy cows and modifying the lactation performance of offspring.

  15. Lactational response of dairy cows to change of degradability of dietary protein and organic matter.

    PubMed

    Aharoni, Y; Arieli, A; Tagari, H

    1993-11-01

    The effect of variable degradability of both OM and CP, incorporated at a constant ratio in diets of high yielding dairy cows (35 kg/d), was studied under commercial dairy herd conditions. Two diets containing 17% CP were formulated, including high (70%) and low (65%) protein degradability. The ratio of rumen-degradable OM to degradable protein was adjusted to 5:1 in both diets. Cows were assigned to treatments based on equal milk yield prior to trial, parity, and DIM. The trial lasted 7 wk: a reference week (wk 0), in which both groups were fed the high degradability diet, was followed by 6 experimental wk, in which group 1 was fed the high degradability diet and group 2 the low degradability diet. Cows on the low degradability diet consumed 1.2 kg more DM and yielded 1.5 kg/d more milk, .055 kg/d more milk protein, and .196 kg/d more milk fat. Percentages of milk protein (3.06 and 3.03) were similar, but fat (3.67 and 3.28) was higher for cows fed the low degradability diet. The results suggest that, when diets were formulated to balance rumen degradability of both OM and CP, 65% rather than 70% degradability of CP was advantageous for yields of milk and milk components.

  16. Effect of diet on populations of three species of ruminal cellulolytic bacteria in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Weimer, P J; Waghorn, G C; Odt, C L; Mertens, D R

    1999-01-01

    The effects of four contrasting diets were determined on populations of three species of ruminal cellulolytic bacteria (Ruminococcus albus, Ruminococcus flavefaciens, and Fibrobacter succinogenes) using oligonucleotide probes to rRNA. Diets based on alfalfa silage or corn silage as the primary fiber source were formulated to contain either 24 or 32% neutral detergent fiber measured after alpha-amylase treatment. The diets were fed twice daily to four ruminally fistulated, lactating Holstein cows in a trial using a Latin square design. The cows fed the alfalfa silage diets had higher dry matter intakes and milk production and smaller pH fluctuations than did cows fed the corn silage diets (0.3 vs. 0.8 units). The total populations of the three cellulolytic species at 3 h after feeding ranged from 0.3 to 3.9% of the bacterial domain; R. albus was generally the most abundant of the three species. The data are in general agreement with population assessments obtained by some traditional methods of culture enumeration. Although diet and individual cows had major effects on ruminal pH and volatile fatty acid concentrations and on milk production and composition, differences in cellulolytic populations that were attributable to individual cows were larger than those attributable to diet, suggesting that each cow maintained a unique assemblage of cellulolytic species.

  17. Evaluation of Coarsely Ground Wheat as a Replacement for Ground Corn in the Diets of Lactating Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Y. Q.; Zou, Y.; Cao, Z. J.; Xu, X. F.; Yang, Z. S.; Li, S. L.

    2013-01-01

    Eight multiparous Holstein cows (569±47 kg of BW; 84±17 DIM) were used to evaluate the effects of different levels of coarsely ground wheat (CGW) as replacements for ground corn (GC) in diets on feed intake and digestion, ruminal fermentation, lactation performance, and plasma metabolites profiles in dairy cows. The cows were settled in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design with 3-wk treatment periods; four cows in one of the replicates were fitted with rumen cannulas. The four diets contained 0, 9.6, 19.2, and 28.8% CGW and 27.9, 19.2, 9.6, and 0% GC on dry matter (DM) basis, respectively. Increasing dietary levels of CGW, daily DM intake tended to increase quadratically (p = 0.07); however, apparent digestibility of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) were significantly decreased (p<0.01) in cows fed the 28.8% CGW diets. Ruminal pH remained in the normal physiological range for all dietary treatments at all times, except for the 28.8% CGW diets at 6 h after feeding; moreover, increasing dietary levels of CGW, the daily mean ruminal pH decreased linearly (p = 0.01). Increasing the dietary levels of CGW resulted in a linear increase in ruminal propionate (p<0.01) and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) (p = 0.06) concentration, while ruminal acetate: propionate decreased linearly (p = 0.03) in cows fed the 28.8% CGW diets. Milk production was not affected by diets; however, percentage and yield of milk fat decreased linearly (p = 0.02) when the level of CGW was increased. With increasing levels of dietary CGW, concentrations of plasma beta-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA) (p = 0.07) and cholesterol (p<0.01) decreased linearly, whereas plasma glucose (p = 0.08), insulin (p = 0.02) and urea nitrogen (p = 0.02) increased linearly at 6 h after the morning feeding. Our results indicate that CGW is a suitable substitute for GC in the diets of dairy cows and that it may be included up to a level of 19.2% of DM without adverse effects on feed intake and digestion

  18. Effects of 3-nitrooxypropanol on methane emission, digestion, and energy and nitrogen balance of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, C K; Humphries, D J; Kirton, P; Kindermann, M; Duval, S; Steinberg, W

    2014-01-01

    The objective was to measure effects of 3-nitrooxypropanol (3 NP) on methane production of lactating dairy cows and any associated changes in digestion and energy and N metabolism. Six Holstein-Friesian dairy cows in mid-lactation were fed twice daily a total mixed ration with maize silage as the primary forage source. Cows received 1 of 3 treatments using an experimental design based on two 3 × 3 Latin squares with 5-wk periods. Treatments were a control placebo or 500 or 2,500 mg/d of 3 NP delivered directly into the rumen, via the rumen fistula, in equal doses before each feeding. Measurements of methane production and energy and N balance were obtained during wk 5 of each period using respiration calorimeters and digestion trials. Measurements of rumen pH (48 h) and postprandial volatile fatty acid and ammonia concentrations were made at the end of wk 4. Daily methane production was reduced by 3 NP, but the effects were not dose dependent (reductions of 6.6 and 9.8% for 500 and 2,500 mg/d, respectively). Dosing 3 NP had a transitory inhibitory effect on methane production, which may have been due to the product leaving the rumen in liquid outflow or through absorption or metabolism. Changes in rumen concentrations of volatile fatty acids indicated that the pattern of rumen fermentation was affected by both doses of the product, with a decrease in acetate:propionate ratio observed, but that acetate production was inhibited by the higher dose. Dry matter, organic matter, acid detergent fiber, N, and energy digestibility were reduced at the higher dose of the product. The decrease in digestible energy supply was not completely countered by the decrease in methane excretion such that metabolizable energy supply, metabolizable energy concentration of the diet, and net energy balance (milk plus tissue energy) were reduced by the highest dose of 3 NP. Similarly, the decrease in N digestibility at the higher dose of the product was associated with a decrease in body N

  19. Stocking density, milking duration, and lying times of lactating cows on Canadian freestall dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Charlton, G L; Haley, D B; Rushen, J; de Passillé, A M

    2014-05-01

    Lying time is an important measure of cow comfort, and the lying behavior of dairy cattle can now be recorded automatically with the use of accelerometers. To assess the effect that stall stocking density and the time that cows spend away from the home pen being milked has on the lying behavior of Holstein cattle, a total of 111 commercial freestall dairy farms were visited in Canada. Accelerometers were used to automatically record the lying behavior of 40 focal cows per farm. Total duration of lying, lying bout frequency, and the mean duration of lying bouts were calculated. Pen population was the total number of cows in the pen. To calculate stall stocking density (%) the number of cows in the pen and the number of useable stalls were counted and multiplied by 100, and the length × width of the pen was divided by the number of cows in the pen to calculate area/cow (m(2)). Time away from the pen per day was recorded from when the first cow in each pen was taken out of the home pen for milking until the last cow returned to the home pen after milking, and this time was multiplied by daily milking frequency. The median value for lying duration at the farm level was 10.6h/d, with 10.5 lying bouts/d, and a median lying bout duration of 1.2h. Stall stocking density ranged from 52.2 to 160.0%, with very few farms (7%) stocking at greater than 120%. Although stall stocking density was not significantly correlated with lying behavior, the results showed that no farm with stocking density greater that 100% achieved an average herd lying duration of 12h/d or higher, whereas 21.6% of farms with a stocking density of 100% or less did achieve the target lying time of ≥ 12 h/d, as recommended by the Canadian Code of Practice (χ(2)=4.86, degrees of freedom = 1). Area/cow (m(2)) was not correlated with any aspect of lying behavior, but regardless of space per cow, pen population was correlated with daily frequency and duration of lying bouts. As the number of cows in the pen

  20. Effect of the temperature-humidity index on body temperature and conception rate of lactating dairy cows in southwestern Japan.

    PubMed

    Nabenishi, Hisashi; Ohta, Hiroshi; Nishimoto, Toshihumi; Morita, Tetsuo; Ashizawa, Koji; Tsuzuki, Yasuhiro

    2011-09-01

    In the present study, we investigated the relationship between the temperature-humidity index (THI) and the conception rate of lactating dairy cows in southwestern Japan, one of the hottest areas of the country. We also investigated the relationship between measurement of the vaginal temperature of lactating dairy cows as their core body temperature at one-hour intervals for 25 consecutive days in hot (August-September, n=6) and cool (January-February, n=5) periods and their THI. Furthermore, we discussed the above relationship using these vaginal temperatures, the conception rates and the THI. As a result, when the conception rates from day 2 to 0 before AI were classified into day 2, 1 and 0 groups by the six maximum THI values in each group (mTHI; <61, 61-65, 66-70, 71-75, 76-80, >80), only the conception rate for the mTHI over 80 at 1 day before AI group was significantly lower (P<0.05) than the other groups. The conception rate for days 15 to 17, but not days 19 to 22 and 30 to 35, after AI in the cows that experienced average mTHI over 80 (amTHI>80) was significantly lower (P<0.05) than that of the cows that did not experience amTHI>80. There was a significant positive correlation (P<0.01) between the mTHI and the mean daily vaginal temperature, but not during the cool period. When the mTHI reached 69, the vaginal temperature started to increase. As for the relationship between the conception rates and vaginal temperatures for all mTHI classes, in the mTHI>80 at 1 day before AI group, the vaginal temperature increased by 0.6 C from 38.7 C, resulting in a reduction of 11.6% in the conception rate from 40.5%. In conclusion, these results suggest that one of the causes of the fall in conception rate of lactating dairy cows during the summer season in southwestern Japan may be an increase in their core body temperature with a higher mTHI than the critical mTHI of 69 at 1 day before AI.

  1. Efficacy of oral potassium chloride administration in treating lactating dairy cows with experimentally induced hypokalemia, hypochloremia, and alkalemia.

    PubMed

    Constable, P D; Hiew, M W H; Tinkler, S; Townsend, J

    2014-03-01

    Hypokalemia occurs commonly in lactating dairy cows. The objectives of this study were to determine (1) whether a 24-h oral KCl dose of 0.4 g/kg of body weight (BW) was effective and safe in hypokalemic cattle; (2) whether potassium was best administered as 2 large doses or multiple smaller doses over a 24-h period; and (3) the effect of oral KCl administration on plasma Mg concentration and urine Mg excretion in fasted lactating dairy cattle. Plasma K and Cl concentrations were decreased, and blood pH increased, in 15 lactating Holstein-Friesian cows by administering 2 intramuscular (i.m.) 10-mg injections of isoflupredone acetate 24h apart followed by 2 i.m. injections of furosemide (1mg/kg of BW) 8h apart and by decreasing feed intake. Cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups with 5 cows/group: untreated control (group C); oral administration of KCl at 0.05 g/kg of BW 8 times at 3-h intervals (group K3); and oral administration of KCl at 0.2g/kg of BW twice at 12-h intervals (group K12). A 24-h KCl dose rate of 0.4 g/kg of BW increased plasma and milk K concentration and plasma Cl concentration, and corrected the metabolic alkalosis and alkalemia, with no clinically significant difference between 2 large doses (group K12) or multiple small doses (group K3) of KCl over 24 h. Oral KCl administration decreased peripheral fat mobilization in cattle with experimentally induced hypokalemia, as measured by changes in plasma nonesterified fatty acid concentration, and slightly augmented the fasting-induced decrease in plasma Mg concentration. Our findings support recommendations for a 24-h oral KCl dose of 0.4 g/kg of BW for treating moderately hypokalemic cattle. Additional Mg may need to be administered to inappetant lactating dairy cattle being treated with oral KCl to minimize K-induced decreases in magnesium absorption.

  2. Responses by lactating cows in commercial dairy herds to recombinant bovine somatotropin.

    PubMed

    Thomas, J W; Erdman, R A; Galton, D M; Lamb, R C; Arambel, M J; Olson, J D; Madsen, K S; Samuels, W A; Peel, C J; Green, G A

    1991-03-01

    Cows (890) in 15 US herds were assigned randomly in equal numbers to control or bST injections (500 mg in a prolonged-release form every 14 d for 12 wk) within three stages of lactation (57 to 100, 101 to 140, and 141 to 189 d postpartum) and two parity groups (primiparous and multiparous). Yield and milk composition were monitored 1 d/wk for 16 wk including 2 wk pretreatment and 2 wk posttreatment. Increases in milk and FCM due to bST injections were less at 57 to 100 d than at 101 to 189 d postpartum (milk 3.6 vs. 5.5; FCM 3.9 vs. 6.1 kg/d per cow), and increases in milk and FCM were more for multiparous than for primiparous cows (milk 5.5 vs. 4.2; FCM 6.0 vs. 4.7 kg/d cow). Temporarily, concentration of milk fat increased and protein decreased; later, concentrations for control and injected cows were similar. Postinjection milk fat concentration decreased, but milk protein concentration increased temporarily. The net increase in milk (and FCM) varied significantly among herds from 2.9 to 7.6 kg/d per cow (mean, 4.9 kg). Responses in FCM were similar over a wide range of pretreatment yields. A great variety of feed ingredients were fed as total mixed rations, and nutrient concentrations varied greatly. The SCC were similar before, during, and after treatment, but increase in FCM of injected cows exhibited a negative correlation with pretreatment SCC. Changes in body condition score of sometribove-injected cows varied among herds (.25 to -.45) and averaged -.02 compared with .07 for controls. There was no pattern in incidence of mastitis during sometribove injections.

  3. Repeatability of metabolic responses to a nutrient deficiency in early and mid lactation and implications for robustness of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Gross, J J; Bruckmaier, R M

    2015-12-01

    Nutrient partitioning toward the mammary gland during insufficient energy and nutrient supply is a strategy to ensure survival of the offspring in mammalian species. This homeorhetic priority of the mammary gland is also present in the modern dairy cow, in particular in early lactation. However, despite similar metabolic loads, the adaptive response to a given metabolic load varies considerably among animals. The aim of this study was to investigate if individual cows respond in a consistent manner to a negative energy balance (NEB) in early and mid lactation. Twenty-five dairy cows experienced the usual NEB after parturition and were subjected to a second 3-wk NEB induced by feed restriction in mid lactation. Animals were retrospectively ranked according to their highest plasma nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentration in wk 1 to 4 postpartum. The animals with the 33% highest and 33% lowest values were selected and classified either as the high response (HR) or low response (LR) group. Before parturition, no differences in the studied parameters, dry matter intake, energy balance, concentrations of glucose, NEFA, β-hydroxybutyrate, cholesterol, triglycerides, growth hormone, and insulin-like growth factor-1, were detected between LR and HR. After parturition, milk yield and energy-corrected milk yield was higher for HR compared with LR in wk 2 to 14 and wk 1 to 6, respectively. During feed restriction in wk 15 to 17 postpartum, no differences in energy-corrected milk between LR and HR were found. Energy balance was more negative in HR during the NEB in early lactation, but not different from LR during feed restriction in mid lactation. Although plasma concentrations of glucose, growth hormone, triglycerides, and cholesterol showed group differences in early lactation, but not during feed restriction, the plasma concentrations of NEFA, β-hydroxybutyrate, and insulin-like growth factor-1 in HR changed repeatedly to a greater extent during the NEB at the 2

  4. Effect of microbial inoculants on the nutritive value of corn silage for lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kung, L; Chen, J H; Kreck, E M; Knutsen, K

    1993-12-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of microbial inoculation on the composition and nutritive value of corn silage for lactating cows. In Experiment 1, forage was untreated or treated at ensiling with Pioneer 1174 or Ecosyl silage inoculants. Forage was offered for free choice consumption, and concentrate was fed by a computerized feeder. Treatment with 1174 inoculant had little effect on silage composition and no effect on cow performance. Silage treated with Ecosyl inoculant had greater lactic acid content, but also greater acetic acid and ammonia N contents. Production of 3.5% FCM was greatest from cows fed silage treated with Ecosyl. In Experiment 2, silage was untreated or treated with Ecosyl and fed in a TMR. Inoculation had no effect on silage composition but increased 3.5% FCM production and DMI as length of time on treatment increased. Microbial inoculation can improve the nutritive value of corn silage for lactating cows even if changes in fermentation end products are minimal.

  5. Splanchnic metabolism of dairy cows during the transition from late gestation through early lactation.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, C K; Aikman, P C; Lupoli, B; Humphries, D J; Beever, D E

    2003-04-01

    Blood flow and net nutrient fluxes for portal-drained viscera (PDV) and liver (total splanchnic tissues) were measured at 19 and 9 d prepartum and at 11, 21, 33, and 83 d in milk (DIM) in 5 multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows. Cows were fed a grass silage-based gestation ration initially and a corn silage-based lactation ration peripartum and postpartum. Meals were fed at 8-h intervals and hourly (n = 8) measures of splanchnic metabolism were started before (0730 h and 0830 h) feeding at 0830 h. Dry matter intakes (DMI) at 19 and 9 d prepartum were not different. Metabolism changes measured from 19 to 9 d prepartum were lower arterial insulin and acetate, higher arterial nonesterified fatty acids and increased net liver removal of glycerol. After calving, PDV and liver blood flow and oxygen consumption more than doubled as DMI and milk yield increased, but 85 and 93% of the respective increases in PDV and liver blood flow at 83 DIM had occurred by 11 DIM. Therefore, factors additional to DMI must also contribute to increased blood flow in early lactation. Most postpartum changes in net PDV and liver metabolism could be attributed to increases in DMI and digestion or increased milk yield and tissue energy loss. Glucose release was increasingly greater than calculated requirements as DIM increased, presumably as tissue energy balance increased. Potential contributions of lactate, alanine, and glycerol to liver glucose synthesis were greatest at 11 DIM but decreased by 83 DIM. Excluding alanine, there was no evidence of an increased contribution of amino acids to liver glucose synthesis is required in early lactation. Increased net liver removal of propionate (69%), lactate (20%), alanine (8%), and glycerol (4%) can account for increased liver glucose release in transition cows from 9 d before to 11 d after calving.

  6. Corn silage hybrid type and quality of alfalfa hay affect dietary nitrogen utilization by early lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Holt, M S; Neal, K; Eun, J-S; Young, A J; Hall, J O; Nestor, K E

    2013-10-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of corn silage (CS) hybrids and quality of alfalfa hay (AH) in high-forage dairy diets on N utilization, ruminal fermentation, and lactational performance by early-lactating dairy cows. Eight multiparous Holstein cows were used in a duplicated 4 × 4 Latin square experiment with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of dietary treatments. The 8 cows (average days in milk = 23 ± 11.2) were surgically fitted with ruminal cannula, and the 2 squares were conducted simultaneously. Within square, cows were randomly assigned to a sequence of 4 diets: conventional CS (CCS) or brown midrib CS (BMR) was combined with fair-quality AH [FAH: 46.7% neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and 18.4% crude protein (CP)] or high-quality AH (HAH: 39.2% NDF and 20.7% CP) to form 4 treatments: CCS with FAH, CCS with HAH, BMR with FAH, and BMR with HAH. Diets were isonitrogenous across treatments, averaging 15.9% CP. Each period lasted a total of 21 d, with 14 d for treatment adaptation and 7d for data collection and sampling. Intake of DM and milk yield did not differ in response to CS hybrids or AH quality. Although feeding BMR-based diets decreased urinary N output by 24%, it did not affect fecal N output. Feeding HAH decreased urinary N output by 15% but increased fecal N output by 20%. Nitrogen efficiency [milk N (g/d)/intake N (g/d)] tended to increase for BMR treatments. Ruminal ammonia-N concentration was lower for cows fed BMR-based diets than for those fed CCS-based diets but was not affected by quality of AH. Feeding BMR-based diets or HAH decreased milk urea N concentration by 23 or 15%, respectively, compared with CCS-based diets or FAH. Total volatile fatty acid concentration increased with HAH but was not influenced by CS hybrids. Feeding BMR-based diets decreased urinary N-to-fecal N ratio (UN:FN), and it was further reduced by feeding HAH. Although cows fed the BMR-based diets tended to increase milk N-to-manure N ratio, the

  7. Absorption and intermediary metabolism of purines and pyrimidines in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Stentoft, Charlotte; Røjen, Betina Amdisen; Jensen, Søren Krogh; Kristensen, Niels B; Vestergaard, Mogens; Larsen, Mogens

    2015-02-28

    About 20 % of ruminal microbial N in dairy cows derives from purines and pyrimidines; however, their intermediary metabolism and contribution to the overall N metabolism has sparsely been described. In the present study, the postprandial patterns of net portal-drained viscera (PDV) and hepatic metabolism were assessed to evaluate purine and pyrimidine N in dairy cows. Blood was sampled simultaneously from four veins with eight hourly samples from four multi-catheterised Holstein cows. Quantification of twenty purines and pyrimidines was performed with HPLC-MS/MS, and net fluxes were estimated across the PDV, hepatic tissue and total splanchnic tissue (TSP). Concentration differences between veins of fifteen purine and pyrimidine nucleosides (NS), bases (BS) and degradation products (DP) were different from zero (P≤ 0·05), resulting in the net PDV releases of purine NS (0·33-1·3 mmol/h), purine BS (0·0023-0·018 mmol/h), purine DP (7·0-7·8 mmol/h), pyrimidine NS (0·30-2·8 mmol/h) and pyrimidine DP (0·047-0·77 mmol/h). The hepatic removal of purine and pyrimidine was almost equivalent to the net PDV release, resulting in no net TSP release. One exception was uric acid (7·9 mmol/h) from which a large net TSP release originated from the degradation of purine NS and BS. A small net TSP release of the pyrimidine DP β-alanine and β-aminoisobutyric acid (-0·032 to 0·37 mmol/h) demonstrated an outlet of N into the circulating N pool. No effect of time relative to feeding was observed (P>0·05). These data indicate that considerable amounts of N are lost in the dairy cow due to prominent intermediary degradation of purines, but that pyrimidine N is reusable to a larger extent.

  8. Effect of prepartum administration of recombinant bovine somatotropin on health and performance of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Gohary, K; LeBlanc, S J; Lissemore, K D; Overton, M W; Von Massow, M; Duffield, T F

    2014-10-01

    A double-blind, randomized clinical trial was conducted in 5 commercial dairy herds in southern Ontario with 1,362 cows enrolled to evaluate the effect of prepartum administration of recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) on health and performance. Cows were randomly assigned to receive either 325 mg of sometribove zinc suspension (n=680) or a placebo injection (n=682; control) subcutaneously every 14 d until calving. Treatments started 28 to 22 d before expected calving, with a maximum of 3 treatments per cow. Serum samples taken at the time of enrollment, 1 wk before calving, and weekly for 3 wk after calving were analyzed for nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), glucose, aspartate aminotransferase, calcium, and haptoglobin. Diseases were recorded by farm staff. Incidences of clinical ketosis, clinical mastitis, displaced abomasum, metritis, retained placenta, milk fever, and lameness were similar between groups. Body condition score was lower for treated than for control cows at 3 wk after calving (3.13 and 3.17, respectively). Serum NEFA tended to be higher for treated than for control cows by 0.01 mmol/L. Overall BHBA was not different between groups, but BHBA for treated cows was higher in wk 1 after calving (750 and 698 μmol/L, respectively) and tended to be higher in wk 2 after calving (779 and 735 μmol/L, respectively). Incidence of hyperketonemia was similar between groups. Treated cows had higher serum glucose compared with control cows (2.8 and 2.7 mmol/L, respectively). We detected no differences in serum aspartate aminotransferase, calcium, or haptoglobin between groups. Milk yield was recorded daily for each cow for 63 d, and did not differ between groups (37.1 ± 0.5 kg and 36.7 ± 0.5 kg, respectively) but we detected a tendency for treated cows to produce 0.8 kg/d more milk than control cows in wk 1 after calving. We observed no difference between groups in the time from calving to first insemination or the probability of

  9. Single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with thermoregulation in lactating dairy cows exposed to heat stress.

    PubMed

    Dikmen, S; Wang, X-z; Ortega, M S; Cole, J B; Null, D J; Hansen, P J

    2015-12-01

    Dairy cows with increased rectal temperature experience lower milk yield and fertility. Rectal temperature during heat stress is heritable, so genetic selection for body temperature regulation could reduce effects of heat stress on production. One aim of the study was to validate the relationship between genotype and heat tolerance for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) previously associated with resistance to heat stress. A second aim was to identify new SNPs associated with heat stress resistance. Thermotolerance was assessed in lactating Holsteins during the summer by measuring rectal temperature (a direct measurement of body temperature regulation; n = 435), respiration rate (an indirect measurement of body temperature regulation, n = 450) and sweating rate (the major evaporative cooling mechanism in cattle, n = 455). The association between genotype and thermotolerance was evaluated for 19 SNPs previously associated with rectal temperature from a genomewide analysis study (GWAS), four SNPs previously associated with change in milk yield during heat stress from GWAS, 2 candidate gene SNPs previously associated with rectal temperature and respiration rate during heat stress (ATPA1A and HSP70A) and 66 SNPs in genes previously shown to be associated with reproduction, production or health traits in Holsteins. For SNPs previously associated with heat tolerance, regions of BTA4, BTA6 and BTA24 were associated with rectal temperature; regions of BTA6 and BTA24 were associated with respiration rate; and regions of BTA5, BTA26 and BTA29 were associated with sweating rate. New SNPs were identified for rectal temperature (n = 12), respiration rate (n = 8) and sweating rate (n = 3) from among those previously associated with production, reproduction or health traits. The SNP that explained the most variation were PGR and ASL for rectal temperature, ACAT2 and HSD17B7 for respiration rate, and ARL6IP1 and SERPINE2 for sweating rate. ARL6IP1 was associated with all three

  10. Selection of barley grain affects ruminal fermentation, starch digestibility, and productivity of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Silveira, C; Oba, M; Yang, W Z; Beauchemin, K A

    2007-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of 2 lots of barley grain cultivars differing in expected ruminal starch degradation on dry matter (DM) intake, ruminal fermentation, ruminal and total tract digestibility, and milk production of dairy cows when provided at 2 concentrations in the diet. Four primiparous ruminally cannulated (123 +/- 69 d in milk; mean +/- SD) and 4 multiparous ruminally and duodenally cannulated (46 +/- 14 d in milk) cows were used in a 4 x 4 Latin Square design with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments with 16-d periods. Primiparous and multiparous cows were assigned to different squares. Treatments were 2 dietary starch concentrations (30 vs. 23% of dietary DM) and 2 lots of barley grain cultivars (Xena vs. Dillon) differing in expected ruminal starch degradation. Xena had higher starch concentration (58.7 vs. 50.0%) and greater in vitro 6-h starch digestibility (78.0 vs. 73.5%) compared with Dillon. All experimental diets were formulated to supply 18.3% crude protein and 20.0% forage neutral detergent fiber. Dry matter intake and milk yield were not affected by treatment. Milk fat concentration (3.55 vs. 3.29%) was greater for cows fed Dillon compared with Xena, but was not affected by dietary starch concentration. Ruminal starch digestion was greater for cows fed high-starch diets compared with those fed low-starch diets (4.55 vs. 2.49 kg/d), and tended to be greater for cows fed Xena compared with those fed Dillon (3.85 vs. 3.19 kg/d). Ruminal acetate concentration was lower, and propionate concentration was greater, for cows fed Xena or high-starch diets compared with cows fed Dillon or low-starch diets, respectively. Furthermore, cows fed Xena or high-starch diets had longer duration that ruminal pH was below 5.8 (6.6 vs. 4.0 and 6.4 vs. 4.2 h/d) and greater total tract starch digestibility (94.3 vs. 93.0 and 94.3 vs. 93.0%) compared with cows fed Dillon or low-starch diets, respectively. These results

  11. Effect of recombinant bovine somatotropin and a shortened or no dry period on the performance of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Klusmeyer, T H; Fitzgerald, A C; Fabellar, A C; Ballam, J M; Cady, R A; Vicini, J L

    2009-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of altering dry period length in multiparous dairy cows (n = 341) on milk production for a full lactation (294 d). The study used 3 commercial herds in the western United States. Cows producing greater than 8,400 kg of mature-equivalent milk were assigned to treatments 60 d before their due dates. The 4 treatments were 1) 60-d dry period, label use of recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST; 60d-L); 2) 32-d dry period, label use of rbST (32d-L); 3) 0-d dry period, label use of rbST (0d-L); and 4) 0-d dry period, continuous use of rbST (0d-C). Cows with shortened dry periods produced 625, 1,000, and 1,042 kg of milk during the prepartum period for treatments 2 to 4, respectively. During the postpartum period, cows on the 32d-L treatment produced similar amounts of milk compared with the 60d-L treatment (11,490 vs. 11,968 kg, respectively). However, cows on the 0d-L (10,316 kg) and 0d-C (10,195 kg) treatments produced significantly lower amounts of milk during the postpartum period compared with the 60d-L treatment. Total milk production from the prepartum and postpartum periods was not altered significantly and was 11,974, 12,112, 11,310, and 11,230 kg for treatments 1 to 4, respectively. The concentrations of beta-hydroxybutyrate and nonesterified fatty acids in serum after calving were decreased for cows on the 32d-L, 0d-L, and 0d-C treatments compared with cows on the 60d-L treatment, which may indicate improved metabolic status.

  12. Lactation and digestion in dairy cows fed ensiled total mixed ration containing steam-flaked or ground rice grain.

    PubMed

    Miyaji, Makoto; Matsuyama, Hiroki

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effect of feeding ensiled total mixed ration (TMR) containing steam-flaked (SF) or ground brown rice (Oryza satira L.; BR) on feed intake, lactation performance, digestion, ruminal fermentation and nitrogen (N) utilization in dairy cows. Eight multiparous Holstein cows were used in a crossover design with two dietary treatments: diets containing either SF or fine ground (FG) BR at 24% of dietary dry matter. Dietary treatment did not affect dry matter intake or milk yield and composition. The whole-tract digestibility of organic matter and fiber decreased, and the digestibility of starch increased with the replacement of SF with FG in ensiled TMR, but these differences were small between diets. Crude protein digestibility was not different between diets. The processing method of BR did not affect ruminal pH, total volatile acid concentration, or volatile fatty acid proportion in cows. The N intake, milk N secretion, fecal and urinary N excretion and N retention were not influenced by dietary treatment. These results show that feeding ensiled TMR containing FG instead of SF reduces fiber digestibility but has little impact on lactation and N utilization when diets contained 24% on a dry matter basis.

  13. Performance of lactating dairy cows fed varying levels of total mixed ration and pasture.

    PubMed

    Vibart, Ronaldo E; Fellner, Vivek; Burns, Joseph C; Huntington, Gerald B; Green, James T

    2008-11-01

    Two, 8-week experiments, each using 30 lactating Holstein cows, were conducted to examine performance of animals offered combinations of total mixed ration (TMR) and high-quality pasture. Experiment 1 was initiated in mid October 2004 and Experiment 2 was initiated in late March 2005. Cows were assigned to either a 100% TMR diet (100:00, no access to pasture) or one of the following three formulated partial mixed rations (PMR) targeted at (1) 85% TMR and 15% pasture, (2) 70% TMR and 30% pasture and (3) 55% TMR and 45% pasture. Based on actual TMR and pasture intake, the dietary TMR and pasture proportions of the three PMR in Experiment 1 were 79% TMR and 21% pasture (79:21), 68% TMR and 32% pasture (68:32), and 59% TMR and 41% pasture (59:41), respectively. Corresponding proportions in Experiment 2 were 89% TMR and 11% pasture (89:11), 79% TMR and 21% pasture (79:21) and 65% TMR and 35% pasture (65:35), respectively. Reducing the proportion of TMR in the diets increased pasture consumption of cows on all PMR, but reduced total dry matter intake compared with cows on 100:00. An increase in forage from pasture increased the concentration of conjugated linoleic acids and decreased the concentration of saturated fatty acids in milk. Although milk and milk protein yields from cows grazing spring pastures (Experiment 2) increased with increasing intakes of TMR, a partial mixed ration that was composed of 41% pasture grazed in the fall (Experiment 1) resulted in a similar overall lactation performance with increased feed efficiency compared to an all-TMR ration.

  14. Effect of feeding according to energy balance on performance, nutrient excretion, and feeding behavior of early lactation dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Maltz, E; Barbosa, L F; Bueno, P; Scagion, L; Kaniyamattam, K; Greco, L F; De Vries, A; Santos, J E P

    2013-08-01

    compared with controls at 6 wk, but not 13 wk postpartum. Apparent digestibility of nutrients, composition of rumen fluid, mean and low rumen pH, and estimated rumen microbial N synthesis remained mostly unaltered by treatments. Although precision cows produced more milk true protein, measures of efficiency of dietary N use were not influenced by treatment. On wk 13 postpartum, precision cows consumed a diet with longer NDF particles, which resulted in a tendency for greater intake of NDF >8mm because of less sorting against the long particles than control cows. Meal pattern differed with treatment, and precision cows consumed feed more sparsely throughout the day, spent more time ruminating lying, and had similar meal duration (mean of 36.3 min/meal) compared with control cows, but smaller meal size (3.33 vs. 3.64 kg/meal). Results from the current study indicate that allocating dietary resources according to the individual needs of cows based on energy balance improves lactation performance compared with feeding a single total mixed ration, despite similar average nutrient intake between treatments. Improvements in performance are likely related to allocation of calories based on the needs of the cow and on shifts of feeding behavior that might favor intake of smaller meals. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Response of lactating dairy cows to degree of steam-flaked barley grain in low-forage diets.

    PubMed

    Safaei, Kh; Ghorbani, G R; Alikhani, M; Sadeghi-Sefidmazgi, A; Yang, W Z

    2016-09-25

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of processing method (grinding vs. steam flaking) and increasing densities of steam-flaked barley grain on dry matter intake (DMI), rumen pH and fermentation characteristics, digestibility of dry matter in the total digestive tract (DDTT), and milk production of dairy cows. Eight multiparous mid-lactation Holstein cows averaging 103 ± 24 DIM, 44.5 ± 4.7 kg milk/day and weighing 611 ± 43 kg at the start of the experiment were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with 21-day periods. Cows were fed diets consisting of (DM basis) 23.8% corn silage, 13.5% chopped alfalfa hay and 62.7% concentrate. The dietary treatments were either ground barley (GB) using a hammer mill or steam-flaked barley (SFB) - varying density at 390, 340 or 290 g/l. Processing method (GB vs. SFB) did not affect DMI (23.6 kg/day on average), DDTT (71.0% on average), milk yield (43.4 kg/day on average), milk components, rumen pH and molar proportions of acetate, propionate, butyrate and sorting activity. Ruminal isovalerate concentration tended (p = 0.06) to be higher for cows fed GB than those fed SFB-based diets. Decreasing the density of SFB from 390, 340 to 290 g/l tended to linearly increase DMI (p = 0.09), decrease total solids percentage of milk (p = 0.10) and linearly decreased milk urea nitrogen (12.8, 12.4 and 12.1 mg/dl; p = 0.04); also, the sorting index (SI) of the particles retained on the 19.0-mm sieve without affecting the SI of the particles retained on 8.0-mm, 1.18-mm or passed through 1.18-mm sieve (p = 0.05). These results indicated the limited effects of processing method (grinding vs. steam flaking) and densities of SFB (390, 290 or 290 g/l) on cows' performance and feed utilization for dairy cows fed low-forage diets. Therefore, both processing methods could be recommended under current feeding conditions of dairy cows.

  16. Evaluation of conductive cooling of lactating dairy cows under controlled environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, X A; Smith, J F; Rojano, F; Choi, C Y; Bruer, J; Steele, T; Schuring, N; Allen, J; Collier, R J

    2015-03-01

    Cooling systems used to reduce heat stress in dairy operations require high energy, water usage, or both. Steady increases in electricity costs and reduction of water availability and an increase in water usage regulations require evaluation of passive cooling systems to cool cows and reduce use of water and electricity. A study was conducted to evaluate the use of heat exchangers buried 25 cm below the surface as components in a conductive system for cooling cows. Six cows were housed in environmentally controlled rooms with tie-stall beds, which were equipped with a heat exchanger and filled with 25 cm of either sand or dried manure. Beds were connected to supply and return lines and individually controlled. Two beds (one per each kind of bedding material) constituted a control group (water off), and the other 4 (2 sand and 2 dried manure) used water at 7°C passing through the heat exchangers (water on). The experiment was divided in 2 periods of 40 d, and each period involved 3 repetitions of 3 different climates (hot and dry, thermo neutral, and hot and humid). Each cow was randomly assigned to a different treatment after each repetition was over. Sand bedding remained cooler than dried manure bedding in all environments and at all levels of cooling (water on or off). Bed temperatures were lower and heat flux higher during the bed treatment with sand and water on. We also detected a reduction in core body temperatures, respiration rates, rectal temperatures, and skin temperatures of those cows during the sand and water on treatment. Feed intake and milk yield numerically increased during the bed treatment with sand and water on for all climates. No major changes were observed in the lying time of cows or the composition of the milk produced. We conclude that use of heat exchangers is a viable adjunct to systems that employ fans, misters, and evaporative cooling methods to mitigate effects of heat stress on dairy cows. Sand was superior to dried manure as a

  17. Effect of essential oils on ruminal fermentation and lactation performance of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Tekippe, J A; Tacoma, R; Hristov, A N; Lee, C; Oh, J; Heyler, K S; Cassidy, T W; Varga, G A; Bravo, D

    2013-01-01

    Three experiments (Exp.) were conducted to study the effects of dietary addition of an essential oil product (EO) based on eugenol and cinnamaldehyde (0, control, or 525 mg/d of Xtract 6965; Pancosma SA, Geneva, Switzerland) on ruminal fermentation, total-tract digestibility, manure gas emissions, N losses, and dairy cow performance. In Exp. 1 and 3, the EO supplement was added to the vitamin-mineral premix. In Exp. 2, EO was top-dressed. Experiments 1 and 2 were crossover designs with 20 multiparous Holstein cows each (including 4 and 8 ruminally cannulated cows, respectively) and consisted of two 28-d periods. Intake of dry matter did not differ between treatments. Most ruminal fermentation parameters were unaffected by EO. Concentrations of ammonia (Exp. 1), isobutyrate (Exp. 1 and 2), and isovalerate (Exp. 1) were increased by EO compared with the control. Apparent total-tract digestibility of nutrients was similar between treatments, except total-tract digestibility of neutral-detergent fiber, which was increased or tended to be increased by EO in Exp. 1 and 2. Manure emissions of ammonia and methane were unaffected by EO. Blood plasma and milk urea-N concentrations and urinary N losses were increased by EO compared with the control in Exp. 1, but not in Exp. 2. Average milk yield, 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield, and milk fat, protein, and lactose concentrations were unaffected by treatment. Urinary excretion of purine derivatives, a marker for microbial protein production in the rumen, was greater in cows receiving the EO diet in Exp. 1, but not in Exp. 2. In Exp. 3, 120 Holstein cows were grouped in pens of 20 cows/pen in a 12-wk experiment to study production effects of EO. Dry matter intake, milk yield (a trend for a slight decrease with EO), milk components, milk urea N, and feed efficiency were similar between treatments. Results from these studies indicate that supplementing dairy cows with 525 mg/d of Xtract 6965 had moderate effects on ruminal

  18. Multivariate and univariate analysis of energy balance data from lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Moraes, L E; Kebreab, E; Strathe, A B; Dijkstra, J; France, J; Casper, D P; Fadel, J G

    2015-06-01

    The objectives of the study were to develop a multivariate framework for analyzing energy balance data from lactating cows and investigate potential changes in maintenance requirements and partial efficiencies of energy utilization by lactating cows over the years. The proposed model accounted for the fact that metabolizable energy intake, milk energy output, and tissue energy balance are random variables that interact mutually. The model was specified through structural equations implemented in a Bayesian framework. The structural equations, along with a model traditionally used to estimate energetic parameters, were fitted to a large database of indirect calorimetry records from lactating cows. Maintenance requirements and partial efficiencies for both models were similar to values reported in the literature. In particular, the estimated parameters (with 95% credible interval in parentheses) for the proposed model were: net energy requirement for maintenance equal to 0.36 (0.34, 0.38) MJ/kg of metabolic body weight·day; the efficiency of utilizing dietary energy for milk production and tissue gain were 0.63 (0.61, 0.64) and 0.70 (0.68, 0.72), respectively; the efficiency of utilizing body stores for milk production was 0.89 (0.87, 0.91). Furthermore, additional analyses were conducted for which energetic parameters were allowed to depend on the decade in which studies were conducted. These models investigated potential changes in maintenance requirements and partial efficiencies over the years. Canonical correlation analysis was used to investigate the association between changes in energetic parameters with additional dietary and animal characteristics available in the database. For both models, net energy requirement for maintenance and the efficiency of utilizing dietary energy for milk production and tissue gain increased in the more recent decades, whereas the efficiency of utilizing body stores for milk production remained unchanged. The increase in

  19. Short communication: Casein hydrolysate and whey proteins as excipients for cyanocobalamin to increase intestinal absorption in the lactating dairy cow.

    PubMed

    Artegoitia, V M; de Veth, M J; Harte, F; Ouellet, D R; Girard, C L

    2015-11-01

    Bioavailability of vitamin B12 is low in humans and animals. Improving vitamin B12 absorption is important for optimal performance in dairy cows and for increasing vitamin B12 concentrations in milk for human consumption. However, when supplemented in the diet, 80% of synthetic vitamin B12, cyanocobalamin (CN-CBL), is degraded in the rumen of dairy cows and only 25% of the amount escaping destruction in the rumen disappears from the small intestine between the duodenal and ileal cannulas. In pigs, vitamin B12 from milk is more efficiently absorbed than synthetic CN-CBL. The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of casein hydrolysate and whey proteins as excipients for CN-CBL to increase portal-drained viscera (PDV) flux of the vitamin in lactating dairy cows. Four multiparous lactating Holstein cows (237 ± 17 DIM) equipped with a rumen cannula and catheters in the portal vein and a mesenteric artery were used in a randomized Youden square design. They were fed every 2 h to maintain steady digesta flow. On experimental days, they received a postruminal bolus of (1) CN-CBL alone (0.1 g), (2) CN-CBL (0.1 g) + casein hydrolysate (10 g), or (3) CN-CBL (0.1 g) + whey proteins (10 g). Starting 30 min after the bolus, blood samples were taken simultaneously from the 2 catheters every 15 min during the first 2 h and then every 2 h until 24 h postbolus. Milk yield, DMI, and vitamin B12 portal-arterial difference and PDV flux were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS. Milk yield and DMI were not affected by treatments. The portal-arterial difference of vitamin B12 during the 24-h period following the bolus of vitamin was greater when the vitamin was given in solution with casein hydrolysate (2.9 ± 4.6 pg/mL) than alone (-17.5 ± 5.2 pg/mL) or with whey protein (-13.4 ± 4.2 pg/mL). The treatment effects were similar for the PDV flux. The present results suggest that CN-CBL given with casein hydrolysate increases vitamin B12 absorption as compared with

  20. Effect of tannins and saponins in Samanea saman on rumen environment, milk yield and milk composition in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Anantasook, N; Wanapat, M; Cherdthong, A; Gunun, P

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of tannins and saponins in Samanea saman on rumen fermentation, milk yield and milk composition in lactating dairy cows. Four multiparous early-lactating dairy cows (Holstein-Friesian cross-bred, 75%) with an initial body weight (BW) of 405 ± 40 kg and 36 ± 8 day in milk were randomly assigned to receive dietary treatments according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design. The four dietary treatments were unsupplemented (control), supplemented with rain tree pod (S. saman) meal (RPM) at 60 g/kg, supplemented with palm oil (PO) at 20 g/kg, and supplemented with RPM at 60 g/kg and PO at 20 g/kg (RPO), of total dry matter (DM) intake. Cows were fed with concentrate diets at a ratio of concentrate to milk yield of 1:2, and chopped 30 g/kg of urea-treated rice straw was fed ad libitum. The RPM contained condensed tannins and crude saponins at 88 and 141 g/kg of DM respectively. It was found that supplementation with RPM and/or PO to dairy cows diets did not show negative effect on ruminal pH, blood urea nitrogen and milk urea nitrogen concentration (p > 0.05). However, supplementation with RPM resulted in lower ammonia nitrogen (NH3 -N) concentration (p < 0.05). In addition, propionic acid and milk production increased while acetic acid, acetic to propionic ratio, methane production, methanogens and protozoal population decreased with RPM and/or PO supplementation. Furthermore, addition of PO and RPO in the diets increased milk fat while supplementation of RPM resulted in greater milk protein and Fibrobacter succinogenes numbers (p < 0.05). The population of Ruminococcus flavefaciens and Ruminococcus albus were not affected by any treatments. The findings on the present study showed that supplementation with RPM and RPO to diets of cows improved the rumen environment and increased milk yield, content of milk protein and milk fat.

  1. Effects of supplementing condensed tannin extract on intake, digestion, ruminal fermentation, and milk production of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Dschaak, C M; Williams, C M; Holt, M S; Eun, J-S; Young, A J; Min, B R

    2011-05-01

    A lactation experiment was conducted to determine the influence of quebracho condensed tannin extract (CTE) on ruminal fermentation and lactational performance of dairy cows. The cows were fed a high forage (HF) or a low forage (LF) diet with a forage-to-concentrate ratio of 59:41 or 41:59 on a dry matter (DM) basis, respectively. Eight multiparous lactating Holstein cows (62 ± 8.8 d in milk) were used. The design of the experiment was a double 4 × 4 Latin square with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments, and each period lasted 21 d (14 d of treatment adaptation and 7 d of data collection and sampling). Four dietary treatments were tested: HF without CTE, HF with CTE (HF+CTE), LF without CTE, and LF with CTE (LF+CTE). Commercial quebracho CTE was added to the HF+CTE and the LF+CTE at a rate of 3% of dietary DM. Intake of DM averaged 26.7 kg/d across treatments, and supplementing CTE decreased intakes of DM and nutrients regardless of forage level. Digestibilities of DM and nutrients were not affected by CTE supplementation. Milk yield averaged 35.3 kg/d across treatments, and yields of milk and milk component were not influenced by CTE supplementation. Negative effects of CTE supplementation on feed intake resulted in increased feed efficiency (milk yield/DM intake). Although concentration of milk urea N (MUN) decreased by supplementing CTE in the diets, efficiency of N use for milk N was not affected by CTE supplementation. Feeding the LF diet decreased ruminal pH (mean of 6.47 and 6.33 in HF and LF, respectively). However, supplementation of CTE in the diets did not influence ruminal pH. Supplementing CTE decreased total volatile fatty acid concentration regardless of level of forage. With CTE supplementation, molar proportions of acetate, propionate, and butyrate increased in the HF diet, but not in the LF diet, resulting in interactions between forage level and CTE supplementation. Concentration of ammonia-N tended to decrease with supplementation of

  2. The value of different fat supplements as sources of digestible energy for lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Weiss, W P; Pinos-Rodríguez, J M; Wyatt, D J

    2011-02-01

    The effects of fat supplements that differed in fatty acid composition (chain length and degree of saturation) and chemical form (free fatty acids, Ca salts of fatty acids, and triacylglyceride) on digestible energy (DE) concentration of the diet and DE intake by lactating cows were measured. Holstein cows were fed a control diet [2.9% of dry matter (DM) as long-chain fatty acids] or 1 of 3 diets with 3% added fatty acids (that mainly replaced starch). The 3 fat supplements were (1) mostly saturated (C18:0) free fatty acids (SFA), (2) Ca-salts of fatty acids (CaFA), and (3) triacylglyceride high in C16:0 fatty acids (TAG). Cows fed CaFA (22.8 kg/d) consumed less DM than cows fed the control (23.6 kg/d) and TAG (23.8 kg/d) diets but similar to cows fed SFA (23.2 kg/d). Cows fed fat produced more fat-corrected milk than cows fed the control diet (38.2 vs. 41.1 kg/d), mostly because of increased milk fat percentage. No differences in yields of milk or milk components were observed among the fat-supplemented diets. Digestibility of DM, energy, carbohydrate fractions, and protein did not differ between diets. Digestibility of long-chain fatty acids was greatest for the CaFA diet (76.3%), intermediate for the control and SFA diets (70.3%), and least for the TAG diet (63.3%). Fat-supplemented diets had more DE (2.93 Mcal/kg) than the control diet (2.83 Mcal/kg), and DE intake by cows fed supplemented diets was 1.6 Mcal/d greater than by cows fed the control, but no differences were observed among the supplements. Because the inclusion rate of supplemental fats is typically low, large differences in fatty acid digestibility may not translate into altered DE intake because of small differences in DM intake or digestibility of other nutrients.

  3. Effects of bedding with recycled sand on lying behaviors, udder hygiene, and preference of lactating Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kull, J A; Ingle, H D; Black, R A; Eberhart, N L; Krawczel, P D

    2017-09-01

    Effects of bedding with recycled sand and season on lying behaviors, hygiene, and preferences of late-lactation Holstein cows were studied. It was hypothesized that recycled sand will decrease lying time and increase hygiene scores due to increased moisture content and organic matter, and thus a preference for the control sand will be evident. Cows (n = 64) were divided into 4 groups (n = 8 per group) per season. In summer (August to September), cows were balanced by days in milk (268.1 ± 11.9 d) and parity (2.0 ± 0.2). In winter (January to February), mean DIM was 265.5 ± 34.1 d. Cows were assigned to 1 of 2 treatments using a crossover design with each treatment lasting 7 d (no-choice phase): bedding with recycled sand (RS; n = 32) or control (CO; clean sand; n = 32). Stocking density was maintained at 100%. The choice phase allowed cows to have access to either treatment with stocking density at 50%. Accelerometers recorded daily lying time, number of lying bouts per day, lying bout duration (min/bout), and total steps per day. Teat swabs, milk, sand samples, and udder hygiene scores were collected on d 0, 3, and 7 of each experimental week. Samples were cultured for streptococci, staphylococci, and gram-negative bacteria. Video data were used to assess bedding preferences. All data were analyzed using the MIXED and GLIMMIX procedures of SAS 9.4 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). Lying time was not affected by treatment, but cows did take more steps during winter. Bacterial counts were elevated for cows on recycled sand. A preference was observed for clean sand during the summer, but no preference was observed for sand during the winter. Regardless of bedding, the most commonly observed behavior was lying in the stalls, which suggested either bedding might be suitable. Caution should be used with this interpretation of preference, as sand was recycled only once. This limited reclamation was still sufficient to potentially alter the composition of sand, driving

  4. Relationships between body condition score change, prior mid-lactation phenotypic residual feed intake, and hyperketonemia onset in transition dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Rathbun, Francesca M; Pralle, Ryan S; Bertics, Sandra J; Armentano, Louis E; Cho, K; Do, C; Weigel, Kent A; White, Heather M

    2017-05-01

    Extensive efforts have been made to identify more feed-efficient dairy cows, yet it is unclear how selection for feed efficiency will influence metabolic health. The objectives of this research were to determine the relationships between residual feed intake (RFI), a measure of feed efficiency, body condition score (BCS) change, and hyperketonemia (HYK) incidence. Blood and milk samples were collected twice weekly from cows 5 to 18 d postcalving for a total of 4 samples. Hyperketonemia was diagnosed at a blood β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) ≥1.2 mmol/L and cows were treated upon diagnosis. Dry period, calving, and final blood sampling BCS was recorded. Prior mid-lactation production, body weight, body weight change, and dry matter intake (DMI) data were used to determine RFI phenotype, calculated as the difference between observed DMI and predicted DMI. The maximum BHB concentration (BHBmax) for each cow was used to group cows into HYK or not hyperketonemic. Lactation number, BCS, and RFI data were analyzed with linear and quadratic orthogonal contrasts. Of the 570 cows sampled, 19.7% were diagnosed with HYK. The first positive HYK test occurred at 9 ± 0.9 d postpartum and the average BHB concentration at the first positive HYK test was 1.53 ± 0.14 mmol/L. In the first 30 d postpartum, HYK-positive cows had increased milk yield and fat concentration, decreased milk protein concentration, and decreased somatic cell count. Cows with a dry BCS ≥4.0, or that lost 1 or more BCS unit across the transition to lactation period, had greater BHBmax than cows with lower BCS. Prior-lactation RFI did not alter BHBmax. Avoiding over conditioning of dry cows and subsequent excessive fat mobilization during the transition period may decrease HYK incidence; however, RFI during a prior lactation does not appear to be associated with HYK onset. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of dietary modifications of calcium and magnesium on reducing solubility of phosphorus in feces from lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Herrera, D; Harris, W G; Nair, V D; Josan, M; Staples, C R

    2010-06-01

    Unintentional movement of P from dairy cow manure to off-farm locations has been an environmental concern for some time. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of increasing the dietary concentration and solubility of Ca and the dietary concentration of Mg on lactation performance and solubility of fecal P from lactating dairy cows receiving diets formulated to the same concentration of P (0.38% of dry matter). Eight dietary treatments were evaluated in a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial arrangement involving 2 dietary sources of Ca (CaCO(3) having a moderate solubility of Ca vs. CaCl(2) having an excellent solubility of Ca) and 2 dietary concentrations of Ca (average of 0.64 and 0.95% of dry matter) and Mg (0.25 and 0.4% of dry matter). Twenty-four multiparous cows in mid lactation were fed the 8 diets in three 21-d periods. Dry matter intake and milk production were measured daily, and milk composition was measured on the last 6 milkings of each period. Fecal samples were collected twice a day during the last 5 d of each period, composited within cow, dried at 55 degrees C, and subjected to 10 successive water extractions, and soluble P, Ca, and Mg were determined. Excretion of fecal P (g/d) was correlated positively with intake of P but not with intake of Ca or Mg. A smaller proportion of fecal P was extracted when dietary concentration of Ca increased (37.5 vs. 47.7%) and when CaCl(2) instead of CaCO(3) was fed (40.3 vs. 44.9%). Feeding more Mg reduced water-soluble P in feces but only when CaCO(3) and not CaCl(2) was fed. Increasing the amount of soluble Ca in the diet produced a relatively stable Ca-phosphate compound (hydroxylapatite) in ashed fecal samples, whereas feeding less soluble Ca resulted in a more soluble P phase (Mg-substituted whitlockite). Energy-dispersive X-ray elemental spectroscopy in conjunction with scanning electron microscopy showed spatial association between Ca-Mg and P. A reduction of approximately 5 g of soluble P/cow per d was

  6. Randomized clinical trial of a calcium supplement for improvement of health in dairy cows in early lactation.

    PubMed

    Miltenburg, Cynthia L; Duffield, Todd F; Bienzle, Dorothee; Scholtz, Elizabeth L; LeBlanc, Stephen J

    2016-08-01

    Prophylactic Ca supplementation immediately after calving is a common strategy to prevent clinical and subclinical hypocalcemia in parturient dairy cows. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of prophylactic administration of an injected Ca supplement on blood Ca concentration at 24 and 48h after treatment, incidence risk of clinical disease and culling, milk production in early lactation, and probability of pregnancy at first insemination. Cows without signs of visible milk fever (n=984) from 7 farms were blocked by parity and randomly assigned to receive either Ca gluconate (35% wt/vol) in combination with Ca glucoheptonate (10% wt/vol; TheraCalcium, Vétoquinol Canada Inc., Lavaltrie, Quebec) or a placebo (medication vehicle solution with no Ca) at first contact with each cow after calving and again 12 to 24h later. Each dose was 120mL injected subcutaneously over 2 sites. Total serum Ca concentration (tCa) was measured from coccygeal blood samples before (time 0) and 24 and 48h after first treatment in a subsample of cows (n=129). Blood β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations were measured from all cows twice between 3 and 16d in milk at weekly visits and cows were evaluated for vaginal discharge once between 28 and 42d in milk. Disease events, production data from the first 3 Dairy Herd Improvement milk tests, reproduction, and culling data were collected from each herd. For cows that had received 1 injection of Ca before the blood sample at 24h (n=95), tCa was significantly higher in the treated cows: mean ± standard error, 2.03±0.03 versus 1.90±0.03mmol/L, accounting for tCa at time of enrollment and a treatment by tCa at enrollment interaction. At 48h, no significant difference was found in tCa between treatment and control (mean ± SE, 2.12±0.02 and 2.10±0.03mmol/L, respectively). Cows treated with the Ca product were significantly less likely to have received intravenous, subcutaneous, or oral supplemental Ca for exhibiting clinical signs

  7. Effect of feeding different sources of rumen-protected methionine on milk production and N-utilization in lactating dairy cows

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Objectives of this study were to quantify production responses of lactating dairy cows to supplying absorbable Met as isopropyl-2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio)-butanoic acid (HMBi), or rumen-protected Met (RPM, Smartamine® M) fed with or without 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio)-butanoic acid (HMB), and to determin...

  8. Incremental amounts of Ascophyllum nodosum meal do not improve animal performance but increase milk iodine output in early lactation dairy cows fed high-forage diets

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of incremental amounts of Ascophyllum nodosum meal (ANOD) on milk production, milk composition including fatty acids and I, blood metabolites, and nutrient intake and digestibility in early lactation dairy cows fed high-forage diets. Twelve ...

  9. Analysis of production responses to changing crude protein levels in lactating dairy cow diets when evaluated in continuous or change-over experimental designs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to evaluate by meta-analysis the effect of experimental design on the production response functions obtained when changing crude protein levels in lactating dairy cow diets. The final database of studies that met the selection criteria contained 55 publications with 2...

  10. Climate, lactation, and treatment factors influence faecal shedding of Escherichia coli O157 pathotypes in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Stenkamp-Strahm, C; McCONNEL, C; Rao, S; Magnuson, R; Hyatt, D R; Linke, L

    2017-01-01

    Among pathogens shed by cattle, Escherichia coli O157 ranks highest in those causing human illness. To date, prevalence and risk factors for O157 shedding have been assessed in feedlot, but not dairy cattle. The study aimed to determine prevalence levels and risk factors for O157 atypical enteropathogenic E. coli (aEPEC) and enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) shedding in dairy cattle. Dairy cattle (n = 899) within the first 21 days of lactation were sampled monthly over the course of 1 year, on three dry lot dairies surrounding Fort Collins, CO. During visits multiple factors were measured (disease history, pharmaceutical use, climate measures, etc.), and cattle faeces were collected and assessed for presence of O157 and virulence genes. Logistic regression analysis was performed using O157 outcomes and measured factors. Prevalence of O157 aEPEC was 3·7%, while EHEC was 3·0%. Many potential risk factors were highly correlated, and used to build separate multivariable models. An increase in humidity was positively associated with aEPEC, while fluid faeces and history of disease showed a negative association. Meanwhile, an increase in temperature and antibiotic treatment was positively associated with EHEC, while more days in milk, higher hygiene score and cow contact were negatively associated. These results may guide mitigation strategies that reduce O157 shedding, and contamination of the human food chain.

  11. The effect of Zataria multiflora extract on the clinical endometritis and reproductive indices in lactating Holstein dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    Hajibemani, Abolfazl; Mirzaei, Abdolah; Rowshan Ghasrodashti, Abbas; Memarzadeh, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, the effect of intrauterine infusion of Zataria multiflora extract on the clinical endometritis was investigated. Vaginal examination, transrectal palpation and ultrasonography were used to inspect the genital tract at 30-40 days in milk and two weeks later the same approach was applied. Cows with clinical endometritis were randomly divided into three treatment groups: Z. multiflora extract (n = 56), penicillin + streptomycin (pen + strep, n = 55), and placebo (n = 20). Cervical cytology, reagent strip test and cell counting by means of Neubauer hemocytometer were carried out in both examinations. Clinical cure rate of cows with endometritis of score 1 were 45.5, 34.5 and 53.6% in placebo, pen + strep and Z. multiflora, respectively. Clinical cure rate of cows with endometritis of score 2, 3 were 66.7, 84.6 and 56.0% in placebo, pen + strep and Z. multiflora, respectively. Overall, proportions of successfully treated cows were 55.0, 58.2 and 54.7% in placebo, pen + strep and Z. multiflora, respectively (p > 0.05). In placebo, none of the parameters were significantly different between first and second examination, while we found the significant differences in percentage of neutrophils and leukocyte esterase activity in other groups (p < 0.05). First service conception rate of cows was higher in Z. multiflora compared to other groups; however, this difference was not significant. In conclusion, pen + strep and Z. multiflora extract can be effective on the clinical endometritis and may improve reproductive performance. The extract of Z. multiflora can be useful as an alternative therapy for treatment of clinical endometritis in lactating dairy cows. PMID:28144422

  12. The effect of Zataria multiflora extract on the clinical endometritis and reproductive indices in lactating Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hajibemani, Abolfazl; Mirzaei, Abdolah; Rowshan Ghasrodashti, Abbas; Memarzadeh, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, the effect of intrauterine infusion of Zataria multiflora extract on the clinical endometritis was investigated. Vaginal examination, transrectal palpation and ultrasonography were used to inspect the genital tract at 30-40 days in milk and two weeks later the same approach was applied. Cows with clinical endometritis were randomly divided into three treatment groups: Z. multiflora extract (n = 56), penicillin + streptomycin (pen + strep, n = 55), and placebo (n = 20). Cervical cytology, reagent strip test and cell counting by means of Neubauer hemocytometer were carried out in both examinations. Clinical cure rate of cows with endometritis of score 1 were 45.5, 34.5 and 53.6% in placebo, pen + strep and Z. multiflora, respectively. Clinical cure rate of cows with endometritis of score 2, 3 were 66.7, 84.6 and 56.0% in placebo, pen + strep and Z. multiflora, respectively. Overall, proportions of successfully treated cows were 55.0, 58.2 and 54.7% in placebo, pen + strep and Z. multiflora, respectively (p > 0.05). In placebo, none of the parameters were significantly different between first and second examination, while we found the significant differences in percentage of neutrophils and leukocyte esterase activity in other groups (p < 0.05). First service conception rate of cows was higher in Z. multiflora compared to other groups; however, this difference was not significant. In conclusion, pen + strep and Z. multiflora extract can be effective on the clinical endometritis and may improve reproductive performance. The extract of Z. multiflora can be useful as an alternative therapy for treatment of clinical endometritis in lactating dairy cows.

  13. Effects of feeding a high-fiber byproduct feedstuff as a substitute for barley grain on rumen fermentation and productivity of dairy cows in early lactation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Y; Oba, M

    2014-03-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate effects of partial substitution of dietary grain with wheat dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) on dry matter intake (DMI), sorting behavior, rumen fermentation, apparent total-tract nutrient digestibility, plasma metabolites, and milk production of dairy cows in early lactation. Sixty-one Holstein cows, including 13 ruminally cannulated cows, were blocked by parity and calving date and assigned to 1 of 2 experimental diets immediately after calving until 12 wk in lactation. The control (CON) diet contained 43% barley silage, 17.3% dry-rolled barley grain, and 39.7% concentrate mix on a dry matter basis, and wheat DDGS replaced dry-rolled barley grain in the DDGS diet. Dietary starch content was 29.2 and 19.1% for CON and DDGS diets, respectively. Despite the 10-percentage-unit difference in dietary starch content, cows fed the DDGS diet did not increase ruminal pH. A significant treatment by parity interaction was observed for DMI; feeding the DDGS diet decreased DMI of multiparous cows compared with CON (20.1 vs. 21.3 kg/d) but increased that of primiparous cows (16.2 vs. 14.7 kg/d). Although milk yield was not affected by treatment, cows fed the DDGS diet had lower apparent total-tract digestibility of starch compared with CON (81.9 vs. 91.2%) and tended to have higher plasma concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids (173 vs. 143 mEq/L). High-fiber byproduct feedstuffs such as wheat DDGS can be used as a partial substitute for grains in diets of dairy cows in early lactation but the substitution may not mitigate rumen acidosis problems and may decrease energy intake of multiparous cows in early lactation. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation of a point-of-care electrochemical meter to detect subclinical ketosis and hypoglycaemia in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Zakian, A; Tehrani-Sharif, M; Mokhber-Dezfouli, M R; Nouri, M; Constable, P D

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate and validate a hand-held electrochemical meter (Precision Xtra®) as a screening test for subclinical ketosis and hypoglycaemia in lactating dairy cattle. Method comparison study using a convenience sample. Blood samples were collected into plain tubes from the coccygeal vessels of 181 Holstein cows at 2-4 weeks of lactation during summer in Iran. Blood β-hydroxybutyrate concentration (BHB) and glucose concentration were immediately measured by the electrochemical meter after applying 20 μL of blood to the reagent strip. Passing-Bablok regression and Bland-Altman plots were used to determine the accuracy of the meter against laboratory reference methods (BHB dehydrogenase and glucose oxidase). Serum BHB ranged from 0.1 to 7.3 mmol/L and serum glucose ranged from 0.9 to 5.1 mmol/L. Passing-Bablok regression analysis indicated that the electrochemical meter and reference methods were linearly related for BHB and glucose, with a slope estimate that was not significantly different from 1.00. Clinically minor, but statistically significant, differences were present for the intercept value for Passing-Bablok regression analysis for BHB and glucose, and bias estimates in the Bland-Altman plots for BHB and glucose. The electrochemical meter provided a clinically useful method to detect subclinical ketosis and hypoglycaemia in lactating dairy cows. Compared with other method validation studies using the meter, we attributed the improved performance of the electrochemical meter to application of a fixed volume of blood (20 μL) to the reagent strip, use of the meter in hot ambient conditions and use of glucose oxidase as the reference method for glucose analysis. © 2017 Australian Veterinary Association.

  15. Associations between several aspects of heifer development and dairy cow survivability to second lactation.

    PubMed

    Bach, A

    2011-02-01

    more BRD cases before first calving had 1.87 ± 0.14 greater odds of not completing the first lactation than those that never experienced BRD. These results show potential to forecast future heifer success in finishing the first lactation based on average daily gain early in life, incidence of BRD, reproductive performance (conception and abortion rates), and age at first calving. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Lactation and body composition responses to fat and protein supplies during the dry period in under-conditioned dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Jaurena, G; Moorby, J M

    2017-02-01

    An experiment was designed to study the effect of precalving supplementation with protein (Pr) and rumen-inert fat (F) on body composition and subsequent milk production and composition. Forty Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were allocated to 1 of 4 dietary treatments in the dry period (DP) based on a first-cut ryegrass silage, with 6 mature (in their third or greater pregnancy) and 4 young (in their second pregnancy) cows per treatment. These were low Pr, low F (silage alone); low Pr, high F (silage with 10% rumen-inert fat, mixed on a dry matter basis); high Pr, low F [silage with 5% high-protein corn gluten meal (CGM)]; and high Pr, high F (silage with 5% CGM and 10% rumen-inert fat). All the diets were individually offered ad libitum and dry matter intake (DMI) was recorded daily during the DP. After calving, all cows received ryegrass silage plus 8 kg/d of a commercial dairy concentrate. During the DP, DMI was higher for mature than for young cows. All animals recovered body condition score (0.13 units/wk, 1-5 scale), reaching a maximum score of 2.4 some days before calving. Precalving maximum muscle longissimus dorsi (LD) depth was greater for mature (47.5 mm) than for young cows (45.7 mm), and milk fat concentration was also higher for mature than for young cows (40.2 and 39.0 g/kg, respectively). Supplementation with CGM increased maximum LD depth (from 45.9 to 47.6 mm), calf birth weight (low Pr = 43.2, high Pr = 46.3 kg), and milk crude protein concentration (from 30.8 to 31.6 g/kg). Fat supplementation in the DP of the mature cows increased maximum back fat depth (from 3.6 to 4.5 mm), milk yield (low F = 26.3, high F = 28.7 kg/d), and Pr yields (low F = 837, high F = 899 g/d). Inclusion of F in the DP diets reduced casein concentration in milk at wk 3 of lactation from 26.3 to 24.5 g/kg. Milk CP yield was also increased by CGM supplementation when compared within cows receiving F-supplemented silages (low Pr, high F = 832 g/d; high Pr, high F= 877 g/d). It

  17. Effects of rumen-protected Capsicum oleoresin on productivity and responses to a glucose tolerance test in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Oh, J; Harper, M; Giallongo, F; Bravo, D M; Wall, E H; Hristov, A N

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effects of rumen-protected Capsicum oleoresin (RPC) supplementation on feed intake, milk yield and composition, nutrient utilization, fecal microbial ecology, and responses to a glucose tolerance test in lactating dairy cows. Nine multiparous Holstein cows were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design balanced for residual effects with three 28-d periods. Each period consisted of 14 d for adaptation and 14 d for data collection and sampling. Treatments were 0 (control), 100, and 200 mg of RPC/cow per day. They were mixed with a small portion of the total mixed ration and top-dressed. Glucose tolerance test was conducted once during each experimental period by intravenous administration of glucose at a rate of 0.3 g/kg of body weight. Dry matter intake was not affected by RPC. Milk yield tended to increase for RPC treatments compared to the control. Feed efficiency was linearly increased by RPC supplementation. Concentrations of fat, true protein, and lactose in milk were not affected by RPC. Apparent total-tract digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, and crude protein was linearly increased, and fecal nitrogen excretion was linearly decreased by RPC supplementation. Rumen-protected Capsicum oleoresin did not affect the composition of fecal bacteria. Glucose concentration in serum was not affected by RPC supplementation post glucose challenge. However, compared to the control, RPC decreased serum insulin concentration at 5, 10, and 40 min post glucose challenge. The area under the insulin concentration curve was also decreased 25% by RPC. Concentration of nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate in serum were not affected by RPC following glucose administration. In this study, RPC tended to increase milk production and increased feed efficiency in dairy cows. In addition, RPC decreased serum insulin concentration during the glucose tolerance test, but glucose concentration was not affected

  18. Relationship between proteolysis in the silo and efficiency of utilization of dietary protein by lactating dairy cows

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ensiling is used widely to conserve forages for feeding to dairy cows. However, the protein in hay-crop silages is particularly susceptible to microbial breakdown in the rumen, and utilization of protein in alfalfa and grass silages by dairy cows is particularly poor. Dependent on maturity, hay-crop...

  19. Effects of cobalt supplementation and vitamin B12 injections on lactation performance and metabolism of Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Akins, M S; Bertics, S J; Socha, M T; Shaver, R D

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine lactation performance and metabolism of primiparous and multiparous dairy cows fed different levels and sources (inorganic and organic) of Co or given weekly vitamin B(12) injections. Forty-five primi- and multiparous cows at 60 d prepartum were blocked by expected calving date, and randomly assigned to 1 of 5 treatments in a randomized complete block design with treatments starting at 60 d prepartum. The 5 treatments were (1) no supplemental dietary Co (control, CON), (2) 25mg/d of supplemental dietary Co from Co carbonate (CoCarb), (3) 25mg/d of supplemental dietary Co from Co glucoheptonate (LCoGH), (4) 75 mg/d of supplemental dietary Co from Co glucoheptonate (HCoGH), and (5) CON diet plus weekly 10mg i.m. of vitamin B(12) injections (IB12). Cows remained on their respective treatment until 150 d after calving. Cobalt concentrations (mg/kg of dry matter) in the lactating diets were 1.0, 1.9, 2.3, and 5.1 for CON/IB12, CoCarb, LCoGH, and HCoGH, respectively. Dry matter intake, body weight, and body condition score were not affected by treatment. The LCoGH treatment tended to have greater milk yield than CoCarb, and CON had similar milk yields to the mean of LCoGH and HCoGH. Cobalt supplementation or the use of vitamin B(12) injections did not influence plasma or liver measures of energy metabolism. Injections of vitamin B(12) increased plasma, liver, and milk vitamin B(12) contents. Dietary Co addition did not affect plasma vitamin B(12) concentrations; however, it did increase milk vitamin B(12) concentrations throughout lactation and liver vitamin B(12) at calving with no effect of source or level of Co. Folate status of cows in the study was low and possibly limited the effect of improved vitamin B(12) status on lactation performance. Overall, Co supplementation (inorganic and organic) or vitamin B(12) injections improved measures of vitamin B(12) status, but not lactation performance compared with CON possibly due

  20. Physiological and production responses to feeding schedule in lactating dairy cows exposed to short-term, moderate heat stress.

    PubMed

    Ominski, K H; Kennedy, A D; Wittenberg, K M; Moshtaghi Nia, S A

    2002-04-01

    The objective of this research was to characterize the production responses of lactating dairy cows during and after short-term, moderate heat exposure, and to determine whether evening (p.m.) feeding would alleviate the associated production losses. In a two-period, cross-over design, eight mature lactating cows were fed a total mixed ration at either 0830 or 2030 h. Each 15-d period consisted of a 5-d thermoneutral phase, a 5-d heat stress phase and a 5-d thermoneutral recovery phase. Mean daily vaginal temperature and respiration rate increased by 0.6 +/- 0.04 degrees C and 27 +/- 1.3 breaths/min, respectively, during short-term heat exposure. Daily dry matter intake, milk yield and solids-not-fat were depressed by 1.4 +/- 0.13 kg, 1.7 +/- 0.32 kg and 0.07 +/- 0.023%, respectively, during heat exposure. During the recovery phase, dry matter intake remained depressed, milk protein declined by 0.05 +/- 0.020%, and daily milk yield exhibited a further decline of 1.2 +/- 0.32 kg. Time of feeding had no effect on vaginal temperature, respiration rate, dry matter intake, water intake, milk yield, fat-corrected milk, protein percent, solids-non-fat percent or somatic cell count during heat exposure or during the recovery period that followed. Fat percent was, however, significantly lower in p.m.-fed animals. These data indicate that short-term, moderate heat stress, which occurs during the spring and summer months in Canada and the Northern United States, will significantly decrease production in the lactating cow. Shifting from morning to evening feeding did not alleviate production losses associated with this type of heat stress.

  1. Effect of different levels of rapidly degradable carbohydrates calculated by a simple rumen model on performance of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Doorenbos, J; Martín-Tereso, J; Dijkstra, J; van Laar, H

    2017-07-01

    Aggregating rumen degradation characteristics of different carbohydrate components into the term modeled rapidly degradable carbohydrates (mRDC) can simplify diet formulation by accounting for differences in rate and extent of carbohydrate degradation within and between feedstuffs. This study sought to evaluate responses of lactating dairy cows to diets formulated with increasing levels of mRDC, keeping the supply of other nutrients as constant as possible. The mRDC content of feedstuffs was calculated based on a simple rumen model including soluble, washable, and nonwashable but potentially degradable fractions, as well as the fractional degradation and passage rates, of sugar, starch, neutral detergent fiber, and other carbohydrates. The mRDC term effectively represents the total amount of carbohydrates degraded in the rumen within 2 h after ingestion. Fifty-two lactating Holstein cows (of which 4 were rumen fistulated) were assigned to 4 treatments in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Treatments were fed as a total mixed ration consisting of 25.4% corn silage, 23.1% grass silage, 11.6% grass hay, and 39.9% concentrate on a dry matter basis. Differences in mRDC were created by exchanging nonforage neutral detergent fiber-rich ingredients (mainly sugar beet pulp) with starch-rich ingredients (mainly wheat) and by exchanging corn (slowly degradable starch) with wheat (rapidly degradable starch) in the concentrate, resulting in 4 treatments that varied in dietary mRDC level of 167, 181, 194, or 208 g/kg of dry matter. Level of mRDC did not affect dry matter intake. Fat- and protein-corrected milk production and milk fat and lactose yield were greatest at 181 mRDC and decreased with further increases in mRDC. Milk protein yield and concentration increased with increasing mRDC level. Mean rumen pH and diurnal variation in ruminal pH did not differ between treatments. Total daily meal time and number of visits per meal were smaller at 181 and 194 mRDC. Despite milk

  2. MicroRNA-152 Regulates DNA Methyltransferase 1 and Is Involved in the Development and Lactation of Mammary Glands in Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jie; Bian, Yanjie; Wang, Zhuoran; Li, Dan; Wang, Chunmei; Li, Qingzhang; Gao, Xuejun

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non-coding, endogenous regulatory RNAs that function by controlling gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Using small RNA sequencing and qRT-PCR techniques, we found that the expression of miR-152 was significantly increased during lactation in the mammary glands of dairy cows producing high quality milk compared with that in cows producing low quality milk. Furthermore, DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1), which is a target of miR-152, was inversely correlated with the expression levels of miR-152 in the mammary glands of dairy cows. Dairy cow mammary epithelial cells (DCMECs) were used as in vitro cell models to study the function of miR-152. The forced expression of miR-152 in DCMECs resulted in a marked reduction of DNMT1 at both mRNA and protein levels. This in turn led to a decrease in global DNA methylation and increased the expression of two lactation-related genes, serine/threonine protein kinase Akt (Akt) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (Pparγ). In contrast, inhibition of miR-152 showed the opposite results. By using an electronic Coulter counter (CASY-TT) and flow cytometer, we discovered that miR-152 enhanced the viability and multiplication capacity of DCMECs. In conclusion, miR-152 plays an important role in the development and lactation processes in the mammary glands of dairy cows. Our data provide insights into dairy cow mammary gland development and lactation. PMID:24987964

  3. Evaluation of different energy feeding systems with production data from lactating dairy cows offered grass silage-based diets.

    PubMed

    Yan, T; Agnew, R E; Murphy, J J; Ferris, C P; Gordon, F J

    2003-04-01

    A set of data from 838 lactating dairy cows, drawn from 12 long-term feeding studies (at least 8 wk/period), was used to evaluate the energy feeding systems for dairy cows currently adopted in Australia, France, The Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The animals were offered mixed diets of concentrates, forage [grass silages (n = 33) and corn silages (n = 5)] ad libitum. Data used in the present evaluation were either measured [dry matter (DM) intake, milk production and live weight], measured/estimated [dietary metabolizable energy (ME) concentration] or estimated [milk energy output and live weight change (LWC)]. The mean-square prediction error (MSPE) was used for the evaluation. Total ME intake, milk yields, and LWC varied from 91 to 338 MJ/d, 7.7 to 48.9, and -1.23 to 1.73 kg/d, respectively. Australian and French systems predicted total energy requirement and milk yield relatively well, while British, Dutch and American systems underpredicted total energy requirement by proportionately 0.06, 0.04, and 0.03, respectively; and overpredicted milk yield by 0.09, 0.06, and 0.04. The Agricultural and Food Research Council (AFRC) each produced a relatively larger error of the bias (predicted - actual data) over the total MSPE for ME requirement and milk yield and a relatively smaller error of random than other systems. However, an addition of proportionately 0.05 to the total predicted ME requirement of AFRC, as suggested in this system and currently used in the UK, indicated the prediction accuracy of ME requirement and milk yield is similar to Australian and French systems. Nevertheless, all the systems had a poor prediction of LWC. For each system, the total prediction error (total MSPE) was mainly derived from the line (slope; 0.49 to 0.64 of total MSPE), while less derived from the random (0.20 to 0.48 of total MSPE), indicating a large variation between the predicted and actual LWC existed among individual cows. The residual plots of the

  4. Meta-analysis of lactation performance in dairy cows receiving supplemental dietary methionine sources or postruminal infusion of methionine.

    PubMed

    Zanton, G I; Bowman, G R; Vázquez-Añón, M; Rode, L M

    2014-11-01

    The objectives of our study were to evaluate the productive response to methionine supplementation in lactating dairy cows and to define a relationship between metabolizable Met (MP Met) intake and production. A database of 64 papers meeting the selection criteria was developed evaluating postruminally infused dl-methionine (9 papers with 18 control diets and 35 treatment comparisons), 2-hydroxy-4-methylthio butanoic acid (HMTBa) provided as either a liquid or Ca salt form (17 papers with 34 control diets and 46 treatment comparisons), Mepron (Evonik Industries, Essen, Germany; 18 papers with 35 control diets and 42 treatment comparisons), and Smartamine (Adisseo Inc., Antony, France; 20 papers with 30 control diets and 39 treatment comparisons). Dietary ingredients and their accompanying nutritional compositions as described in the reports were entered into the Cornell-Penn-Miner software to model the diets and to predict nutrients that were not reported in the original publication. Data were analyzed using a weighted analysis of response to supplementation compared with the intraexperiment control, as well as through a regression analysis to changing dietary MP Met. Data included in the analysis were from experiments published between 1970 and 2011 with cows supplemented with between 3.5 and 67.9 g of Met or its equivalent from HMTBa. Cows supplemented with Smartamine consumed more, whereas cows supplemented with Mepron consumed less DM compared with controls. Milk yield did not significantly respond to Met supplementation, although it tended to increase for cows supplemented with HMTBa and Mepron. Milk protein yield was increased due to supplementation from all sources or from infusion, and protein concentration was greater for all supplements or infusion of dl-Met, except for cows supplemented with HMTBa. Irrespective of Met source, milk protein yield increased 2.23 g of protein/g of MP Met until reaching the breakpoint. Milk fat yield was increased for Mepron

  5. Pharmacokinetics of progesterone in lactating dairy cows: gaining some insights into the metabolism from kinetic modeling.

    PubMed

    Turino, L N; Mariano, R N; Cabrera, M I; Scándolo, D E; Maciel, M G; Grau, R J A

    2010-03-01

    Progesterone pharmacokinetics were analyzed for plasma hormone concentrations ranging from linear to saturated metabolism in lactating Holstein cows with differing daily milk yields. The adequacy of 2-coupled first-order (bi-exponential equation), hyperbolic (Michaelis-Menten equation), and sigmoidal (Hill equation) kinetic models to describe the experimental progesterone pharmacokinetic profiles was examined on a statistical basis. After nonlinear regression and statistical analysis of the data-fitting capability, a simple one-compartment model based on Hill equation proved to be most adequate. This model indicates an enzyme-catalyzed metabolism of progesterone involving cooperative substrate-binding sites, resulting from allosteric effects that yield a sigmoidal saturation rate curve. Kinetic parameters were estimated for 2 groups of lactating Holstein cows with different daily milk yields. We found, for the first time, a remarkable quantitative agreement of the Hill coefficient value with that reported in pharmacokinetic studies involving cytochrome P450, family 3, subfamily A (CYP3A)-mediated reactions in other mammals, humans included. It seems that positive cooperativity makes enzymes much more sensitive to plasma progesterone concentration, and their activities can undergo significant changes in a narrow range of concentration as characteristic of sigmoidal behavior. Therefore, the values of classical pharmacokinetic parameters, such as the elimination constant, half-life, and clearance rate, were found to be highly dependent on the plasma progesterone concentration.

  6. Short communication: Apparent ruminal synthesis of B vitamins in lactating dairy cows fed Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product.

    PubMed

    Castagnino, D S; Ying, Y; Allen, M S; Gervais, R; Chouinard, P Y; Girard, C L

    2017-10-01

    Apparent ruminal synthesis and duodenal flow of thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, folates, and vitamin B12 were evaluated in an experiment using 15 ruminally and duodenally cannulated lactating Holstein cows fed a basal diet, according to a crossover design, supplemented or not with 56 g/d of Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product. Duration of the treatment period was 28 d. The basal ration had 28% neutral detergent fber, 30% starch and 16.5% crude protein; forages were corn silage (67% of forage dry matter) and alfalfa silage (33% of forage dry matter). Concentrations of B vitamins were analyzed in feed and duodenal digesta. Apparent ruminal synthesis of each B vitamin was calculated as the duodenal flow minus the intake. Under the present experimental conditions, a dietary supplement of Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product had no effect apparent synthesis of B vitamins in the rumen or on the amounts of these vitamins reaching the duodenum and available for absorption by the dairy cow. Crown Copyright © 2017 Published by FASS and Elsevier Inc. on behalf of the American Dairy Science Association®. All rights reserved.

  7. Application of liquid semen technology improves conception rate of sex-sorted semen in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Xu, Z Z

    2014-11-01

    The objective was to compare reproductive performance of liquid sex-sorted (SS) semen with that of conventional (CON) semen in lactating dairy cows. Between 2011 and 2013, commercial dairy herds (n = 101, 203, and 253 for 2011, 2012, and 2013, respectively) with predominantly Holstein-Friesian cows were enrolled in a contract mating program to produce surplus heifers for export using liquid SS semen. During the spring mating period, each herd was allocated with liquid SS semen at 50% of its daily requirement and the remaining daily requirement was allocated with CON liquid semen. Sperm for producing SS semen was sorted by Sexing Technologies NZ Ltd. (Hamilton, New Zealand) and then packaged using the liquid semen technology of LIC (Hamilton, New Zealand) at a dose of 1 × 10(6) sperm. Artificial insemination (AI) with liquid SS semen was carried out between 43 and 46 h after collection. Conventional semen straws contained 1.25 × 10(6), 1.75 × 10(6), or 2 × 10(6) sperm for semen to be used on d 1, 2, or 3 after collection, respectively. Only CON inseminations on the same days as when SS semen was used were included in the comparison. Herd managers biased usage of SS semen toward cows with a longer postpartum interval before the mating start date (64.0 vs. 62.8 d), cows of higher genetic merit (NZ$107.0 vs. NZ$98.4), younger cows (5.1 vs. 5.2 yr), and cows in which they had more confidence of being genuinely in estrus as measured by a lower percentage of short returns between 1 and 17 d (5.3 vs. 7.5%). After adjusting for these factors, the estimated difference in nonreturn rate between AI with SS and CON semen over the 3 seasons was -3.8 percentage points (SS = 70.2% vs. CON = 74.0%; SS/CON = 94.9%). The estimated maximum difference in calving rate per AI between SS and CON semen was -3.1 percentage points for 2011 (SS = 51.2% vs. CON = 54.3%; SS/CON = 94.3%) and -3.0 percentage points for 2012 (SS = 49.7% vs. CON = 52.6%; SS/CON = 94.5%). Calving data for 2013

  8. Ethyl-cellulose rumen-protected methionine enhances performance during the periparturient period and early lactation in Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Batistel, F; Arroyo, J M; Bellingeri, A; Wang, L; Saremi, B; Parys, C; Trevisi, E; Cardoso, F C; Loor, J J

    2017-09-01

    The onset of lactation in dairy cows is characterized by severe negative energy and protein balance. Increasing Met availability during this time may improve milk production, hepatic lipid metabolism, and immune function. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of feeding ethyl-cellulose rumen-protected methionine (RPM; Mepron, Evonik Nutrition and Care GmbH, Hanau-Wolfgang, Germany) on the performance of dairy cows during prepartum and early-lactation periods. Sixty multiparous Holstein cows were used in a block design and assigned to either a control or an ethyl-cellulose RPM diet. Ethyl-cellulose RPM was supplied from -28 to 60 d relative to parturition at a rate of 0.09% and 0.10% of dry matter during the prepartum and postpartum periods, respectively. That rate ensured that the ratio of Lys to Met in metabolizable protein was close to 2.8:1. Cows fed ethyl-cellulose RPM had dry matter intakes (DMI) that were 1.2 kg/d greater during the prepartum period and consequently had overall greater cumulative DMI than cows in the control group. Compared with controls, during the fresh period (1-30 d in milk; DIM) feeding ethyl-cellulose RPM increased DMI by 1.7 kg/d, milk yield by 4.1 kg/d, fat yield by 0.17 kg/d, milk protein yield by 0.20 kg/d, 3.5% fat-corrected milk by 4.3 kg/d, and energy-corrected milk by 4.4 kg/d. Although ethyl-cellulose RPM supplementation increased milk protein content by 0.16 percentage units compared with the control during the fresh period, no differences were observed for milk fat, lactose, and milk urea nitrogen concentration. During the high-producing period (31-60 DIM), cows fed ethyl-cellulose RPM increased DMI and milk yield by 1.45 and 4.4 kg/d, respectively. Ethyl-cellulose RPM also increased fat yield by 0.19 kg/d, milk protein yield by 0.17 kg/d, 3.5% fat-corrected milk by 4.7 kg/d, and energy-corrected milk by 4.8 kg/d compared with controls. Ethyl-cellulose RPM supplementation reduced plasma fatty acids in the fresh

  9. Rapeseed or linseed supplements in grass-based diets: effects on dairy performance of Holstein cows over 2 consecutive lactations.

    PubMed

    Lerch, S; Ferlay, A; Pomiès, D; Martin, B; Pires, J A A; Chilliard, Y

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of long-term supplementation with different oilseeds rich in 18:1 cis-9 or 18:3n-3 fatty acids on dairy cow performance over 2 consecutive lactations. This trial involved 58 Holstein cows during the first year and 35 during the second year. During the first 5 wk of the first year, all of the cows were fed the same diet; after a 4-wk transition period, the cows received 1 of 5 treatments for 2 consecutive lactations, including the dry period. Their basal diet was supplemented or not with extruded linseeds or with different forms of rapeseeds: extruded seeds, cold-pressed fat-rich meal, or whole unprocessed seeds. Oilseed amount was calculated to provide 2.5 to 3.0% additional oil in ration dry matter. Cows were fed a grass-based diet (75% grass silage and 25% hay) during indoor periods and grazed during outdoor periods. For the first year of experimentation, oilseed supplementation had no effect on milk, fat, protein, and lactose yields, body weight, or body condition score compared with the control treatment (no oilseed supplementation). During the indoor period, extruded linseed tended to decrease dry matter intake (-1.5 kg/d), whereas all of the oilseed treatments decreased milk protein content without changing protein yield. Cold-pressed fat-rich rapeseed meal decreased milk protein content independently of the period (-0.29 and -0.19 g/100 g for indoor and outdoor periods, respectively), and whole unprocessed rapeseed increased milk fat content during the outdoor period (+0.53 g/100 g compared with the control treatment). During the second year of experimentation, the effects of oilseed supplementation during the outdoor period were similar to those observed during the first outdoor period, but the effects of oilseed supplementation differed between the 2 indoor periods. This was likely due to changes in forage quality and composition and percentage in the ration of the concentrate mixtures. Thus, the effects of

  10. Vaccination of Lactating Dairy Cows for the Prevention of Aflatoxin B1 Carry Over in Milk

    PubMed Central

    Polonelli, Luciano; Giovati, Laura; Magliani, Walter; Conti, Stefania; Sforza, Stefano; Calabretta, Alessandro; Casoli, Claudio; Ronzi, Paola; Grilli, Ester; Gallo, Antonio; Masoero, Francesco; Piva, Gianfranco

    2011-01-01

    The potential of anaflatoxin B1 (AnAFB1) conjugated to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) as a vaccine (AnAFB1-KLH) in controlling the carry over of the aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) metabolite aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in cow milk is reported. AFB1 is the most carcinogenic compound in food and foodstuffs amongst aflatoxins (AFs). AnAFB1 is AFB1 chemically modified as AFB1-1(O-carboxymethyl) oxime. In comparison to AFB1, AnAFB1 has proven to be non-toxic in vitro to human hepatocarcinoma cells and non mutagenic to Salmonella typhimurium strains. AnAFB1-KLH was used for immunization of cows proving to induce a long lasting titer of anti-AFB1 IgG antibodies (Abs) which were cross reactive with AFB1, AFG1, and AFG2. The elicited anti-AFB1 Abs were able to hinder the secretion of AFM1 into the milk of cows continuously fed with AFB1. Vaccination of lactating animals with conjugated AnAFB1 may represent a solution to the public hazard constituted by milk and cheese contaminated with AFs. PMID:22053212

  11. Fertility, survival, and conformation of Montbéliarde × Holstein and Viking Red × Holstein crossbred cows compared with pure Holstein cows during first lactation in 8 commercial dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Hazel, A R; Heins, B J; Hansen, L B

    2017-08-23

    Montbéliarde (MO) × Holstein (HO) and Viking Red (VR) × HO crossbred cows were compared with pure HO cows in 8 large, high-performance dairy herds in Minnesota. All cows calved for the first time from December 2010 to April 2014. Fertility and survival traits were calculated from records of insemination, pregnancy diagnosis, calving, and disposal that were recorded via management software. Body condition score and conformation were subjectively scored once during early lactation by trained evaluators. The analysis of survival to 60 d in milk included 536 MO × HO, 560 VR × HO, and 1,033 HO cows during first lactation. Cows analyzed for other fertility, survival, and conformation traits had up to 13% fewer cows available for analysis. The first service conception rate of the crossbred cows (both types combined) increased 7%, as did the conception rate across the first 5 inseminations, compared with the HO cows during first lactation. Furthermore, the combined crossbred cows (2.11 ± 0.05) had fewer times bred than HO cows (2.30 ± 0.05) and 10 fewer d open compared with their HO herdmates. Across the 8 herds, breed groups did not differ for survival to 60 d in milk; however, the superior fertility of the crossbred cows allowed an increased proportion of the combined crossbreds (71 ± 1.5%) to calve a second time within 14 mo compared with the HO cows (63 ± 1.5%). For survival to second calving, the combined crossbred cows had 4% superior survival compared with the HO cows. The MO × HO and VR × HO crossbred cows both had increased body condition score (+0.50 ± 0.02 and +0.25 ± 0.02, respectively) but shorter stature and less body depth than HO cows. The MO × HO cows had less set to the hock and a steeper foot angle than the HO cows, and the VR × HO cows had more set to the hock with a similar foot angle to the HO cows. The combined crossbred cows had less udder clearance from the hock than HO cows, more width between both front and rear teats, and longer

  12. Using brown midrib 6 dwarf forage sorghum silage and fall-grown oat silage in lactating dairy cow rations.

    PubMed

    Harper, M T; Oh, J; Giallongo, F; Lopes, J C; Roth, G W; Hristov, A N

    2017-07-01

    Double cropping and increasing crop diversity could improve dairy farm economic and environmental sustainability. In this experiment, corn silage was partially replaced with 2 alternative forages, brown midrib-6 brachytic dwarf forage sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) or fall-grown oat (Avena sativa) silage, in the diet of lactating dairy cows. We investigated the effect on dry matter (DM) intake, milk yield (MY), milk components and fatty acid profile, apparent total-tract nutrient digestibility, N utilization, enteric methane emissions, and income over feed cost. We analyzed the in situ DM and neutral detergent fiber disappearance of the alternative forages versus corn silage and alfalfa haylage. Sorghum was grown in the summer and harvested in the milk stage. Oats were grown in the fall and harvested in the boot stage. Compared with corn silage, neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber concentrations were higher in the alternative forages. Lignin content was highest for sorghum silage and similar for corn silage and oat silage. The alternative forages had less than 1% starch compared with the approximately 35% starch in the corn silage. Ruminal in situ DM effective degradability was similar, although statistically different, for corn silage and oat silage, but lower for sorghum silage. Diets with the alternative forages were fed in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design experiment with three 28-d periods and 12 Holstein cows. The control diet contained 44% (DM basis) corn silage. In the other 2 diets, sorghum or oat silages were included at 10% of dietary DM, replacing corn silage. Sorghum silage inclusion decreased DM intake, MY, and milk protein content but increased milk fat and maintained energy-corrected MY similar to the control. Oat silage had no effect on DM intake, MY, or milk components compared to the control. The oat silage diet increased apparent total-tract digestibility of dietary nutrients, except starch, whereas the sorghum diet slightly

  13. Blood lactate concentration as diagnostic predictors of uterine necrosis and its outcome in dairy cows with uterine torsion

    PubMed Central

    MURAKAMI, Takashi; NAKAO, Shigeru; SATO, Yohei; NAKADA, Satoshi; SATO, Akane; MUKAI, Shuhei; KOBAYASHI, Masanori; YAMADA, Yutaka; KAWAKAMI, Eiichi

    2017-01-01

    In order to determine blood lactate concentrations (bLac) and their validity as a diagnostic marker in bovine uterine torsion, blood samples were taken from 54 Holstein cows with uterine torsion before the correction of torsion. bLac in a group of cows with and without uterine necrosis were 15.0 and 3.0 mmol/l, respectively (P<0.01). Moreover, bLac in a group of dead or culled dams and in that of survived dams were 10.2 and 3.1 mmol/l, respectively (P<0.01). Furthermore, the proposed diagnostic cutoffs for bLac based on ROC analysis for detection of uterine necrosis and poor prognosis in dams were set at >5.0 and >6.5 mmol/l, respectively. These findings suggest that in dairy cows with uterine torsion, an increase in bLac is a diagnostic predictor of uterine necrosis as well as poor prognosis in dams. PMID:28163266

  14. Whole cottonseeds or a combination of soybeans and soybeans hulls in the diets of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Abel-Caines, S F; Grant, R J; Haddad, S G

    1997-07-01

    Whole raw soybeans and soybean hulls were evaluated as a dietary replacement for whole cottonseed as determined by rumination and total chewing activity, milk fat percentage, and efficiency of 4% fat-corrected milk (FCM) production. Twenty-six Holstein dairy cows (14 multiparous; 35 +/- 12 d of lactation) were assigned randomly to one of two total mixed rations (TMR) for 15 wk. The whole cottonseed TMR and the soybean plus soybean hull TMR contained 40% of a 45:55 mixture of alfalfa and corn silages (dry matter basis) and either 15% cottonseed or 15% soybeans, 8% soybean hulls, and 0.7% sodium bicarbonate. Both TMR provided 60% of dietary neutral detergent fiber from forage. The TMR, fed twice daily, were isonitrogenous (17.5% crude protein) and equal in neutral detergent fiber (30%). The TMR had no effect on dry matter intake (24.8 kg/d). The cottonseed TMR stimulated greater rumination and total chewing activity. Although milk production was greater for cows fed the cottonseed TMR (35.7 vs. 34.1 kg/d), milk fat production was unaffected by TMR (3.72%). The efficiency of 4% FCM production was similar for cows fed the cottonseed and soybean plus soybean hull TMR (1.33), and both TMR resulted in a positive net energy balance (10.9 Mcal/d). A combination of soybeans, soybean hulls, and sodium bicarbonate was an effective alternative to whole cottonseed as measured by the efficiency of FCM production.

  15. Carryover effect of postpartum inflammatory diseases on developmental biology and fertility in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, E S; Gomes, G; Greco, L F; Cerri, R L A; Vieira-Neto, A; Monteiro, P L J; Lima, F S; Bisinotto, R S; Thatcher, W W; Santos, J E P

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this series of studies was to investigate the effects of inflammatory diseases occurring before breeding on the developmental biology and reproductive responses in dairy cows. Data from 5 studies were used to investigate different questions associating health status before breeding and reproductive responses. Health information for all studies was composed of the incidence of retained fetal membranes, metritis, mastitis, lameness, and respiratory and digestive problems from parturition until the day of breeding. Retained placenta and metritis were grouped as uterine disease (UTD). Mastitis, lameness, digestive and respiratory problems were grouped as nonuterine diseases (NUTD). Study 1 evaluated the effect of disease before artificial insemination (AI), anovulation before synchronization of the estrous cycle, and low body condition score at AI on pregnancy per AI, as well as their potential interactions or additive effects. Study 2 investigated the effect of site of inflammation (UTD vs. NUTD) and time of occurrence relative to preantral or antral stages of ovulatory follicle development, and the effect of UTD and NUTD on fertility responses of cows bred by AI or by embryo transfer. Study 3 evaluated the effect of disease on fertilization and embryonic development to the morula stage. Study 4 evaluated the effect of disease on preimplantation conceptus development as well as secretion of IFN-τ and transcriptome. Study 5 investigated the effect of diseases before AI on the transcript expression of interferon-stimulated genes in peripheral blood leukocytes during peri-implantation stages of conceptus development after first AI postpartum. Altogether, these studies demonstrated that inflammatory disease before breeding reduced fertilization of oocytes and development to morula, and impaired early conceptus development to elongation stages and secretion of IFN-τ in the uterine lumen. Diseases caused inflammation-like changes in transcriptome of

  16. Accuracy of a cow-side test for the diagnosis of hyperketonemia and hypoglycemia in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Macmillan, K; López Helguera, I; Behrouzi, A; Gobikrushanth, M; Hoff, B; Colazo, M G

    2017-06-27

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of a cow-side device (FreeStyle Precision Neo™) to diagnose ketosis and hypoglycemia based on measures of blood β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) and glucose. Eleven commercial dairy farms were visited and blood samples were taken from Holstein cows between 2 and 14days in milk, yielding 441 samples for BHBA analysis and 308 samples for glucose analysis. Concentrations of BHBA and glucose were measured in two ways, 1) using the cow-side device with whole blood immediately after sampling and 2) serum samples analyzed with a standard laboratory assay (Animal Health Laboratory, University of Guelph, Canada). The accuracy of the device was determined by comparing the results to the laboratory method as well as the ability to diagnose ketosis (BHBA ≥1.2mmol/L) and hypoglycemia (glucose <2.5mmol/L). The concordance correlation coefficient (CCC), Bland-Altman plot and Kappa coefficient were calculated to evaluate agreement between the 2 methods using SAS (version 9.3). The CCC was 0.92 for BHBA and 0.56 for glucose measurements. The 95% confidence intervals of the Bland-Altman plot encompassed 97% and 95% of the mean difference between methods for BHBA and glucose measurements, respectively. The Kappa coefficients were 0.78 for BHBA and 0.23 for glucose measurements. These results indicate that the cow-side device is accurate for rapid measurement of blood BHBA and diagnosis of ketosis on farms but is not accurate for measurement of blood glucose concentrations and diagnosis of hypoglycemia. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Effect of increasing dietary nonfiber carbohydrate with starch, sucrose, or lactose on rumen fermentation and productivity of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Gao, X; Oba, M

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate effects of increasing dietary nonfiber carbohydrate (NFC) with starch, sucrose, or lactose on rumen fermentation, volatile fatty acid absorption, and milk production of lactating dairy cows. Twenty-eight multiparous, lactating Holstein cows (141 ± 50 d in milk; 614 ± 53 kg of body weight) including 8 ruminally cannulated cows were used in this study. Cows were assigned to 4 dietary treatments in a 4 × 4 Latin square design with 21-d periods. The treatments were control [27% starch and 4% sugar on a dry matter (DM) basis], a high-NFC diet by increasing dietary starch content (STA; 32% starch and 4% sugar on a DM basis), and 2 more high-NFC diets by increasing dietary sugar content (27% starch and 9% sugar on a DM basis) in which sucrose (SUC) or lactose (LAC) was supplemented. Dry matter intake was greater for cows fed high-NFC diets compared with control diet (27.1 vs. 26.3 kg/d), but rumen pH and milk production did not differ between cows fed control and high-NFC diets. However, cows fed high-disaccharide diets had lower mean rumen pH than those fed STA diet (6.19 vs. 6.32). Although molar proportion of butyrate was greater for high-disaccharide treatments than STA treatment (15.2 vs. 13.7 mol/100 mol), absorption rate of volatile fatty acid in the rumen was not affected by treatment. In addition, cows fed high-disaccharide diets had higher energy-corrected milk yield than cows fed STA diet (39.6 vs. 38.0 kg/d). Dry matter intake did not differ between cows fed 2 high-disaccharide diets. Although cows fed the SUC diet had lower molar proportion of butyrate in the rumen compared with those fed the LAC diet (14.4 vs. 15.9 mol/100 mol), the SUC diet did not decrease rumen pH. In addition, cows fed the SUC diet had lower nutrient digestibility of organic matter than did those fed the LAC diet (59.7 vs. 64.4%), but milk component yields did not differ between the 2 high-disaccharide diet treatments. The results of the

  18. EFFECT OF ALFALFA SILAGE STORAGE STRUCTURE AND ROASTING CORN ON PRODUCTION AND RUMINAL METABOLISM OF LACTATING DAIRY COWS

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A study was conducted to determine if feeding roasted corn as principal concentrate source, would improve production and nutrient utilization when supplemented to lactating cows fed one of 3 different alfalfa silages (AS). Forty-two lactating Holstein cows, including 6 fitted with ruminal cannulas, ...

  19. EFFECT OF ALFALFA SILAGE STORAGE STRUCTURE AND ROASTING CORN ON PRODUCTION AND RUMINAL METABOLISM OF LACTATING DAIRY COWS

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to determine if feeding roasted corn as principal concentrate source, would improve production and nutrient utilization when supplemented to lactating cows fed one of 3 different alfalfa silages (AS). Forty-two lactating Holstein cows (6 fitted with ruminal cannulas) ...

  20. Ruminal bacterial community composition in dairy cows is dynamic over the course of two lactations and correlates with feed efficiency

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A group of 14 Holstein cows of similar age were followed through the course of their first two lactation cycles. During each lactation cycle, ruminal solids and liquids, milk samples and production data, and feed consumption data were collected for each cow during Early (76-82 days in milk, DIM), Mi...

  1. Abrupt changes in forage dry matter of one to three days affect intake and milk yield in lactating dairy cows

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Our objective was to determine the effects of one-, two-, and three-day changes in forage dry matter (DM) on lactating cow performance and yield regardless of stage of lactation or parity. Data was compiled from two independent studies to predict overall cow performance. Study A (fall 2009) early la...

  2. Evaluation of two doses of ceftiofur crystalline free acid sterile suspension for treatment of metritis in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, C L; Stanisiewski, E; Lucas, M J; Cornell, C P; Watkins, J; Bryson, L; Tena, J K S; Hallberg, J; Chenault, J R

    2012-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate efficacy of a 2-dose regimen of ceftiofur crystalline free acid sterile suspension (CCFA-SS) for treatment of acute metritis in lactating dairy cows under field conditions and to provide additional safety and injection site tolerance data for injections at the base of the ear. Cows at 15 dairies with rectal temperature ≥ 39.5°C and fetid uterine discharge ≤ 10 d postcalving were randomly assigned by blocks of 2, based on order of entry and without regard to parity, to treatment with saline (1.5 mL/45.5 kg of body weight, n=509) or CCFA-SS (6.6 mg of ceftiofur equivalents/kg of body weight, n=514). Treatments were administered by subcutaneous injection in the posterior aspect of the ear where it attaches to the head; the first dose was administered on study d 0 and the second dose was administered in the contra lateral ear on study d 3. Rectal temperatures were recorded on study d 1 to 4 and 5 or 6 and cows were clinically evaluated daily from study d 1 to 13. Cows that exhibited increased adverse clinical signs of poor health or complications associated with metritis were categorized as a treatment failure and administered escape therapy. Each cow received a veterinary physical examination on study d 5 or 6 to determine if she should be removed from the study and on study d 14 to determine clinical cure or failure to cure. Clinical cure was defined as rectal temperature <39.5°C and non-fetid and purulent or mucopurulent discharge on study d 14 and no escape therapy administered. The injection procedure was scored after each injection (study d 0 and 3) and injection sites and ear carriage were scored on study d 5 or 6, 14, and 57±3. Of the 1,023 cows enrolled, 7 were completely censored due to protocol deviations and 34 were removed for protocol deviations or medical conditions not related to metritis. Clinical cure rate was higher for CCFA-SS than for saline (74.3 vs. 55.3%) and rectal temperatures for each of

  3. Effect of variable water intake as mediated by dietary potassium carbonate supplementation on rumen dynamics in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Fraley, S E; Hall, M B; Nennich, T D

    2015-05-01

    Water is a critical nutrient for dairy cows, with intake varying with environment, production, and diet. However, little work has evaluated the effects of water intake on rumen parameters. Using dietary potassium carbonate (K2CO3) as a K supplement to increase water intake, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of K2CO3 supplementation on water intake and on rumen parameters of lactating dairy cows. Nine ruminally cannulated, late-lactation Holstein cows (207±12d in milk) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments in a replicated 3×3 Latin square design with 18-d periods. Dietary treatments (on a dry matter basis) were no added K2CO3 (baseline dietary K levels of 1.67% dietary K), 0.75% added dietary K, and 1.5% added dietary K. Cows were offered treatment diets for a 14-d adaption period followed by a 4-d collection period. Ruminal total, liquid, and dry matter digesta weights were determined by total rumen evacuations conducted 2h after feeding on d 4 of the collection period. Rumen fluid samples were collected to determine pH, volatile fatty acids, and NH3 concentrations, and Co-EDTA was used to determine fractional liquid passage rate. Milk samples were collected twice daily during the collection period. Milk, milk fat, and protein yields showed quadratic responses with greatest yields for the 0.75% added dietary K treatment. Dry matter intake showed a quadratic response with 21.8kg/d for the 0.75% added dietary K treatment and 20.4 and 20.5kg/d for control and the 1.5% added dietary K treatment, respectively. Water intake increased linearly with increasing K2CO3 supplementation (102.4, 118.4, and 129.3L/d) as did ruminal fractional liquid passage rate in the earlier hours after feeding (0.118, 0.135, and 0.141 per hour). Total and wet weights of rumen contents declined linearly and dry weight tended to decline linearly as dietary K2CO3 increased, suggesting that the increasing water intake and fractional liquid passage rate with increasing

  4. Production and nitrogen utilization in lactating dairy cows fed ground field peas with or without ruminally protected lysine and methionine.

    PubMed

    Pereira, A B D; Whitehouse, N L; Aragona, K M; Schwab, C S; Reis, S F; Brito, A F

    2017-08-01

    Previous research has shown that cows fed ≥24% of the diet dry matter (DM) as field peas decreased milk yield as well as concentration and yield of milk protein, possibly due to reduced DM intake and limited supply of Lys and Met. Twelve multiparous and 4 primiparous lactating Holstein cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 diets in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. The diets contained (DM basis) 34.8% corn silage, 15.2% grass-legume silage, 5.9% roasted soybean, 2.4% mineral-vitamin premix, 2.0% alfalfa pellets, and either (1) 36% ground corn, 2.4% soybean meal, and 1.3% urea (UR), (2) 29.7% ground corn, 9.8% soybean meal, 0.13% ruminally protected (RP) Lys, and 0.07% RP-Met (CSBAA), (3) 25% ground field peas, 12.3% ground corn, and 2.4% soybean meal (FP), or (4) FP supplemented with 0.15% RP-Lys and 0.05% RP-Met (FPAA). Our objective was to test the effects of FP versus UR, FPAA versus CSBAA, and FPAA versus FP on milk yield and composition, N utilization, nutrient digestibility, ruminal fermentation profile, and plasma concentration of AA. Milk yield did not differ across diets. Compared with cows fed UR, those fed FP had greater DM intake, concentration and yield of milk true protein, apparent total-tract digestibility of fiber, urinary excretion of purine derivatives, and concentrations of total volatile fatty acids in the rumen and Lys in plasma, and less milk urea N and ruminal NH3-N. The concentration of milk urea N, as well as the concentration and yield of milk fat increased in cows fed FPAA versus CSBAA. Moreover, cows fed FPAA had greater ruminal concentration of total volatile fatty acids, increased proportions of acetate and isobutyrate, and decreased proportions of propionate and valerate than those fed CSBAA. The plasma concentrations of His, Leu, and Phe decreased, whereas plasma Met increased and plasma Lys tended to increase in cows fed FPAA versus CSBAA. Concentration of milk true protein, but not yield, was increased in cows fed FPAA

  5. Response profiles of enteric methane emissions and lactational performance during habituation to dietary coconut oil in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hollmann, M; Powers, W J; Fogiel, A C; Liesman, J S; Beede, D K

    2013-03-01

    Dietary coconut oil (CNO) can reduce dry matter intake (DMI), enteric methane (eCH(4)) emissions, and milk fat yield of lactating cows. The goals of this research were to examine responses to different CNO concentrations during the habituation period (34-d) and to evaluate temporal patterns of DMI, eCH(4), and milk fat yield. Treatment diets contained (dry basis): 0.0% (CNO0), 1.3% (CNO1.3), 2.7% (CNO2.7), 3.3% (CNO3.3), or 4.0% CNO (CNO4). In experiment 1, 12 primi- or small secundiparous cows were housed in individual, environmentally controlled rooms and fed CNO0, CNO1.3, CNO2.7, or CNO4. Measurements included DMI, eCH(4), and milk yield and composition. Due to a precipitous drop in DMI (26%), cows fed CNO4 were replaced with cows fed CNO3.3 following d 10. Dietary CNO of 2.7% or more reduced eCH(4) emissions. Reduction was greater with increased CNO and during the first than the second half of the day. Simultaneously, decline in DMI of cows fed CNO2.7, CNO3.3, or CNO4 was increasingly precipitous with increased CNO concentration. Total-tract neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibility during wk 5 was reduced in cows fed CNO2.7 or CNO3.3, which in part explained concomitantly reduced eCH(4)/DMI. In addition, milk fat yield was depressed at an increasing rate in cows fed CNO2.7, CNO3.3, and CNO4. In experiment 2, DMI was measured individually in 12 multiparous cows during habituation to CNO0, CNO1.3, CNO2.7, or CNO3.3 for 21 d before relocation to individual, environmentally controlled rooms. Dietary CNO2.7 or CNO3.3 reduced DMI by d 4 and total-tract NDF digestibility during wk 5. Relocation to individual rooms was associated with a 15% reduction in DMI, which was not affected by treatment. Results showed that 2.7% or more dietary CNO reduced eCH(4) and DMI, caused milk fat depression, and decreased NDF digestibility. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Ovarian structures and uterine environment are associated with phenotypic and genetic merit for performance in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, A M; Ryan, D P; Carthy, T R; Evans, R D; Berry, D P

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the association between detailed reproductive phenotypes for cows categorized as divergent for phenotypic and genetic performance. The hypothesis was that higher yielding animals, either phenotypically or genetically, would have compromised ovarian and uterine reproductive performance. Detailed reproductive traits including multiple ovulations, cystic ovarian structures, corpus luteum (CL) presence, and uterine environment were available on 9675 ultrasound records from 8174 dairy lactating cows, calved between 10 and 70 days. Cows were categorized, within parity, into low, average, or high for each of the performance traits. There was a greater likelihood of multiple ovulations in cows with greater phenotypic yields (odds ratio: 1.53-1.81) and greater genetic merit for yield (odds ratio: 1.31-1.59) relative to lower performing contemporaries. After adjustment for genetic merit, a similar trend of increased odds (odds ratio: 1.29-1.87) of multiple ovulations in higher yielding cows was observed compared with the lowest yielding category. There was no association between either phenotypic milk composition or genetic merit for milk composition with the likelihood of multiple ovulations. The likelihood of cystic ovarian structures was highest in cows with greatest phenotypic milk yields (odds ratio: 2.75-3.24), greater genetic merit for milk yield (odds ratio: 1.30-1.51), and even after adjustment for genetic merit there was a greater likelihood of cystic ovarian structures in cows with the highest milk yields (odds ratio: 2.71-2.95), compared with cows in the lowest category for each of the milk traits. Cows with average phenotypic milk yields were more likely to have a CL, compared with the lowest yielding category (odds ratio: 1.20-1.23), and these associations remained after adjustment for genetic merit of the trait. The likelihood of CL presence was highest in cows with the lowest genetic merit for milk. Lower fat

  7. Effects of nitrogen fertilisation rate and maturity of grass silage on methane emission by lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Warner, D; Hatew, B; Podesta, S C; Klop, G; van Gastelen, S; van Laar, H; Dijkstra, J; Bannink, A

    2016-01-01

    Grass silage is typically fed to dairy cows in temperate regions. However, in vivo information on methane (CH(4)) emission from grass silage of varying quality is limited. We evaluated the effect of two rates of nitrogen (N) fertilisation of grassland (low fertilisation (LF), 65 kg of N/ha; and high fertilisation (HF), 150 kg of N/ha) and of three stages of maturity of grass at cutting: early maturity (EM; 28 days of regrowth), mid maturity (MM; 41 days of regrowth) and late maturity (LM; 62 days of regrowth) on CH(4) production by lactating dairy cows. In a randomised block design, 54 lactating Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (168±11 days in milk; mean±standard error of mean) received grass silage (mainly ryegrass) and compound feed at 80 : 20 on dry matter basis. Cows were adapted to the diet for 12 days and CH(4) production was measured in climate respiration chambers for 5 days. Dry matter intake (DMI; 14.9±0.56 kg/day) decreased with increasing N fertilisation and grass maturity. Production of fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM; 24.0±1.57 kg/day) decreased with advancing grass maturity but was not affected by N fertilisation. Apparent total-tract feed digestibility decreased with advancing grass maturity but was unaffected by N fertilisation except for an increase and decrease in N and fat digestibility with increasing N fertilisation, respectively. Total CH(4) production per cow (347±13.6 g/day) decreased with increasing N fertilisation by 4% and grass maturity by 6%. The smaller CH(4) production with advancing grass maturity was offset by a smaller FPCM and lower feed digestibility. As a result, with advancing grass maturity CH(4) emission intensity increased per units of FPCM (15.0±1.00 g CH(4)/kg) by 31% and digestible organic matter intake (33.1±0.78 g CH(4)/kg) by 15%. In addition, emission intensity increased per units of DMI (23.5±0.43 g CH(4)/kg) by 7% and gross energy intake (7.0±0.14% CH(4)) by 9%, implying an increased loss of dietary

  8. A study of methods for evaluating the success of the transition period in early-lactation dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Lukas, J M; Reneau, J K; Wallace, R L; De Vries, A

    2015-01-01

    Three transition monitors were developed in this study that serve on 2 levels: the individual cow level and the herd level. On the first level they screen all cows for potential onset of postparturient health disorders and could be used to trigger implementation of more specific diagnostic initiatives. On the second level they can be used within herd to monitor the implementation of transition protocols and evaluate the transition management on the farm, signaling potential problems before clinical disease onset. The performance of 3 transition monitors based on daily milk yield (MY) within the first 7d in milk was evaluated in 3 herds with differing transition management intensity. The 3 monitors considered were increase in MY (LINE), average MY (MY7), and the difference between MY7 and expected MY (transition success measure, TSM). Transition monitors were evaluated not only as within-herd predictors of individual cow transition problems but also as indicators of herd transition management failures by relating their value with probability of early-lactation health disorders, culling, and treatment cost. Analysis of logistic models, correlations, and sensitivity and specificity estimates identified TSM as the most reliable measure of transition failure on both the individual cow level as well as the farm level across all study herds, with best performance achieved in herds with the most intensive postpartum cow management. As evaluated by logistic regression models, TSM was able to successfully predict the probability of a cow remaining healthy for the first 21d of lactation (c-statistic between 0.68 and 0.78), and probability of culling by 100d in milk (c-statistic between 0.73 and 0.86). Total cost of treatment by 21d in milk also showed the strongest correlation with TSM, with correlation coefficients ranging between 0.2 and 0.4. Statistical-process control cumulative sum charts for TSM designed to monitor postpartum management process in the herd identified

  9. Effect of farm and simulated laboratory cold environmental conditions on the performance and physiological responses of lactating dairy cows supplemented with bovine somatotropin (BST)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, B. A.; Johnson, H. D.; Li, R.; Collier, R. J.

    1990-09-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of bovine somatotropin (BST) supplementation in twelve lactating dairy cows maintained in cold environmental conditions. Six cows were injected daily with 25 mg of BST; the other six were injected with a control vehicle. Cows were maintained under standard dairy management during mid-winter for 30 days. Milk production was recorded twice daily, and blood samples were taken weekly. Animals were then transferred to environmentally controlled chambers and exposed to cycling thermoneutral (15° to 20° C) and cycling cold (-5° to +5° C) temperatures for 10 days in a split-reversal design. Milk production, feed and water intake, body weights and rectal temperatures were monitored. Blood samples were taken on days 1, 3, 5, 8 and 10 of each period and analyzed for plasma triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), cortisol, insulin and prolactin. Under farm conditions, BST-treated cows produced 11% more milk than control-treated cows and in environmentally controlled chambers produced 17.4% more milk. No differences due to BST in feed or water intake, body weights or rectal temperatures were found under laboratory conditions. Plasma T3 and insulin increased due to BST treatment while no effect was found on cortisol, prolactin or T4. The results showed that the benefits of BST supplementation in lactating dairy cows were achieved under cold environmental conditions.

  10. Kinetics of phosphate absorption in lactating dairy cows after enteral administration of sodium phosphate or calcium phosphate salts.

    PubMed

    Grünberg, Walter; Dobbelaar, Paul; Breves, Gerhard

    2013-09-28

    Hypophosphataemia is frequently encountered in dairy cows during early lactation. Although supplementation of P is generally recommended, controversy exists over the suitability of oral P supplementation in animals with decreased or absent rumen motility. Since the effects of transruminal P absorption and the reticular groove reflex on the absorption kinetics of P are not well understood, it is unclear in how far treatment efficacy of oral P supplementation is affected by decreased rumen motility. Phosphate absorption was studied in six phosphate-depleted dairy cows fitted with rumen cannulas and treated with test solutions containing either NaH2PO4 or CaHPO4 with acetaminophen. Each animal was treated orally, intraruminally and intra-abomasally in randomised order. Absorption kinetics of P were studied and compared with the absorption kinetics of acetaminophen, a marker substance only absorbed from the small intestine. Intra-abomasal treatment with NaH2PO4 resulted in the most rapid and highest peaks in plasma inorganic P (Pi) concentration. Oral and intraruminal administration of NaH2PO4 resulted in similar increases in plasma Pi concentration from 4 to 7 h in both groups. Treatment with NaH2PO4 caused more pronounced peaks in plasma Pi concentration compared with CaHPO4. Neither transruminal P absorption nor the reticular groove reflex affected P absorption kinetics as determined by comparing plasma concentration–time curves of P and acetaminophen after administration of 1M-phosphate salt solutions. It is concluded that oral treatment with NaH2PO4 but not CaHPO4 is effective in supplementing P in hypophosphataemic cows with adequate rumen motility. Decreased rumen motility is likely to hamper the efficacy of oral phosphate treatment.

  11. Effect of dietary crude protein level and degradability on ruminal fermentation and nitrogen utilization in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hristov, A N; Etter, R P; Ropp, J K; Grandeen, K L

    2004-11-01

    The objectives of this experiment were to investigate the effects of two ruminally degradable protein (RDP) levels in diets containing similar ruminally undegradable protein (RUP) and metabolizable protein (MP) concentrations on ruminal fermentation, digestibility, and transfer of ruminal ammonia N into milk protein in dairy cows. Four ruminally and duodenally cannulated Holstein cows were allocated to two dietary treatments in a crossover design. The diets (adequate RDP [ARDP] and high RDP [HRDP]), had similar concentrations of RUP and MP, but differed in CP/RDP content. Ruminal ammonia was labeled with 15N and secretion of tracer in milk protein was determined for a period of 120 h. Ammonia concentration in the rumen tended to be greater (P = 0.06) with HRDP than with ARDP. Microbial N flow to the duodenum, ruminal digestibility of dietary nutrients, DMI, milk yield, fat content, and protein content and yield were not statistically different between diets. There was a tendency (P = 0.07) for increased urinary N excretion, and blood plasma and milk urea N concentrations were greater (P = 0.002 and P = 0.01, respectively) with HRDP compared with ARDP. Milk N efficiency was decreased (P = 0.01) by the HRDP diet. The cumulative secretion of ammonia 15N into milk protein, as a proportion of 15N dosed intraruminally, was greater (P = 0.003) with ARDP than with HRDP. The proportions of bacterial protein originating from ammonia N and milk protein originating from bacterial or ammonia N averaged 43, 61, and 26% and were not affected by diet. This experiment indicated that excess RDP in the diet of lactating dairy cows could not be efficiently utilized for microbial protein synthesis and was largely lost through urinary N excretion. At a similar MP supply, increased CP or RDP concentration of the diet would result in decreased efficiency of conversion of dietary N into milk protein and less efficient use of ruminal ammonia N for milk protein syntheses.

  12. Effect of dietary chromium supplementation on productive and reproductive performance of early lactating dairy cows under heat stress.

    PubMed

    Soltan, M A

    2010-04-01

    One hundred and twenty early lactating Holstein dairy cows were assigned to investigate the effect of dietary chromium (Cr) supplementation (0 or 6 mg Cr/head/day from organic preparation) on the productive and reproductive performance as well as on some blood serum parameters under heat stress (35-40 degrees C). Cows received treatment from 3 weeks pre-partum through 12 weeks post-partum. Chromium supplemented diet had lower body weight loss and improved dry matter intake with consequent reduction in the energy balance deficits during the first period after calving when compared with the control group. Chromium supplementation increased (p < 0.05) milk yield by 6.7%, 12.3% and 16.5% at 4, 8 and 12 weeks post-partum, respectively, whereas milk composition and milk to feed ratio were unaffected (p > 0.05) when compared with the control. Moreover, dietary Cr supplementation had no effect (p > 0.05) on blood serum glucose, calcium and phosphorus concentrations. A reduction (p < 0.05) of non-esterified fatty acids at 1 week pre-partum, 2 and 4 weeks post-partum was also observed. Serum insulin concentration increased whereas cortisol concentration decreased, when compared with the control group, throughout the whole experimental period. Also Cr supplementation showed a trend towards improving reproductive performance as indicated by increased percentage of pregnant cows in the first 28 days of breeding. It could be concluded that dietary Cr supplementation at level of 6 mg/head/day may offer a potential protective management practice to lessen the effect of heat stress in dairy cattle.

  13. Effect of prolonged duration therapy of subclinical mastitis in lactating dairy cows using penethamate hydriodide.

    PubMed

    Steele, N; McDougall, S

    2014-01-01

    using penethamate hydriodide in dairy cows resulted in a higher bacteriological cure proportion, a lower proportion of glands infected post-treatment, and a reduced SCC. Cure proportion was reduced in older cows, and for glands infected with S. aureus, especially when resistant to penicillin. This study demonstrated that bacteriological cure of subclinical intramammary infections can be increased by increasing the duration of therapy, but a number of cow and pathogen factors also affected the probability of cure.

  14. A comparison of ruminal or reticular digesta sampling as an alternative to sampling from the omasum of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Fatehi, F; Krizsan, S J; Gidlund, H; Huhtanen, P

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to develop and compare techniques for determining nutrient flow based on digesta samples collected from the reticulum or rumen of lactating dairy cows with estimates generated by the omasal sampling technique. Pre-experimental method development suggested, after comparing with the particle size distribution of feces, application of primary sieving of ruminal and reticular digesta from lactating cows through an 11.6-mm sieve, implying that digesta particles smaller than this were eligible to flow out of the rumen. For flow measurements at the different sampling sites 4 multiparous, lactating Nordic Red cows fitted with ruminal cannulas were used in a Latin square design with 4 dietary treatments, in which crimped barley was replaced with 3 incremental levels of protein supplementation of canola meal. Digesta was collected from the rumen, reticulum, and omasum to represent a 24-h feeding cycle. Nutrient flow was calculated using the reconstitution system based on Cr, Yb, and indigestible neutral detergent fiber and using (15)N as microbial marker. Large and small particles and the fluid phase were recovered from digesta collected at all sampling sites. Bacterial samples were isolated from the digesta collected from the omasum. Several differences existed for digesta composition, nutrient flows, and estimates of ruminal digestibility among the 3 different sampling sites. Sampling site × diet interactions were not significant. The estimated flows of DM, potentially digestible neutral detergent fiber, nonammonia N, and microbial N were significantly different between all sampling sites. However, the difference between DM flow based on sampling from the reticulum and the omasum was small (0.13kg/d greater in the omasum). The equality between the reticulum and the omasum as sampling sites was supported by the following regression: omasal DM flow=0.37 (±0.649) + 0.94 (±0.054) reticular DM flow (R(2)=0.96 and root mean square error=0.438kg

  15. Bovine somatotropin increases hepatic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase mRNA in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Velez, J C; Donkin, S S

    2004-05-01

    Somatotropin (ST) increases milk production and through coordinated changes in hepatic glucose synthesis and amino acid metabolism in dairy cows. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of ST on hepatic mRNA expression for phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and pyruvate carboxylase (PC), enzymes that are critical to the synthesis of glucose in liver and hepatic mRNA expression for carbamylphosphate synthetase I (CPS-I), argininosuccinate synthetase (AS), and ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC), critical enzymes of the urea cycle. Eighteen cows were randomly allocated to 2 treatment groups and received either recombinant bovine ST (Posilac; Monsanto, St. Louis, MO) or saline injections at 14-d intervals during a 42-d period. Expression of mRNA was determined using Northern blot analysis. Nuclei, isolated from liver biopsy samples, were used to determine effects of ST on transcription rate of PEPCK. Milk production was increased with ST (37.3 vs. 35.1+/-0.6 kg/ d). Plasma NEFA was increased with ST (299 vs. 156+/-34 microM). There were no differences in the expression of CPS-I, AS, and OTC mRNA with ST. Expression of PEPCK and IGF-I mRNA were increased with ST but PC mRNA was unchanged. The data indicate increased PEPCK mRNA in cows given ST and indicates a greater capacity for gluconeogenesis from gluconeogenic precursors that form oxaloacetate. The effects of ST to elevate PEPCK mRNA expression require chronic administration and involve increased transcription of the PEPCK gene.

  16. Comparison of reticular and rectal core body temperatures in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Bewley, J M; Einstein, M E; Grott, M W; Schutz, M M

    2008-12-01

    The Phase IV Cattle Temperature Monitoring System (CTMS; Phase IV Engineering Inc., Boulder, CO) marketed by MaGiiX (MaGiiX Inc., Post Falls, ID) uses a passive bolus equipped with a temperature sensor, a panel reader placed at a parlor entrance or exit to query the bolus, and a software package to collect, analyze, and view data. The biologically inert bolus resides in the cow's reticulum and is queried each time the cow passes the reader. Reticular temperature (RETT) and rectal temperature (RECT) were recorded simultaneously in the milking parlor exit lane in 4 consecutive milkings in each of 4 seasons, totaling 16 measurements per cow. The RETT were obtained by using the phase IV CTMS, whereas the RECT were obtained manually with a GLA M750 thermometer (GLA Agricultural Electronics, San Luis Obispo, CA). Data were edited to remove RETT likely to have been affected by a recent drinking bout. For the 2,042 observations used in analyses, means (+/-SD) were 39.28 (+/-0.41), 38.83 (+/-0.36), and 0.45 (+/-0.33) for RETT, RECT, and the difference between RETT and RECT, respectively. The RETT and RECT were strongly correlated (r = 0.645). The relationship between RETT and RECT varied by season, milking, housing system, and parity. Because dairy producers and veterinarians are accustomed to viewing rectal temperatures, equations to adjust reticular temperatures to a rectal-based scale may increase the utility of the phase IV CTMS. The resulting conversion equations were RECT = 19.23 + 0.496(RETT) for the a.m. milking and RECT = 15.88 + 0.587(RETT) for the p.m. milking.

  17. Canola Oil in Lactating Dairy Cow Diets Reduces Milk Saturated Fatty Acids and Improves Its Omega-3 and Oleic Fatty Acid Content

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    To produce milk that is healthier for human consumption, the present study evaluated the effect of including canola oil in the diet of dairy cows on milk production and composition as well as the nutritional quality of this milk fat. Eighteen Holstein cows with an average daily milk yield of 22 (± 4) kg/d in the middle stage of lactation were used. The cows were distributed in 6 contemporary 3x3 Latin squares consisting of 3 periods and 3 treatments: control diet (without oil), 3% inclusion of canola oil in the diet and 6% inclusion of canola oil in the diet (dry matter basis). The inclusion of 6% canola oil in the diet of lactating cows linearly reduced the milk yield by 2.51 kg/d, short-chain fatty acids (FA) by 41.42%, medium chain FA by 27.32%, saturated FA by 20.24%, saturated/unsaturated FA ratio by 39.20%, omega-6/omega-3 ratio by 39.45%, and atherogenicity index by 48.36% compared with the control treatment. Moreover, with the 6% inclusion of canola oil in the diet of cows, there was an increase in the concentration of long chain FA by 45.91%, unsaturated FA by 34.08%, monounsaturated FA by 40.37%, polyunsaturated FA by 17.88%, milk concentration of omega-3 by 115%, rumenic acid (CLA) by 16.50%, oleic acid by 44.87% and h/H milk index by 94.44% compared with the control treatment. Thus, the inclusion of canola oil in the diet of lactating dairy cows makes the milk fatty acid profile nutritionally healthier for the human diet; however, the lactating performance of dairy cows is reduce. PMID:27015405

  18. Canola Oil in Lactating Dairy Cow Diets Reduces Milk Saturated Fatty Acids and Improves Its Omega-3 and Oleic Fatty Acid Content.

    PubMed

    Welter, Katiéli Caroline; Martins, Cristian Marlon de Magalhães Rodrigues; de Palma, André Soligo Vizeu; Martins, Mellory Martinson; Dos Reis, Bárbara Roqueto; Schmidt, Bárbara Laís Unglaube; Saran Netto, Arlindo

    2016-01-01

    To produce milk that is healthier for human consumption, the present study evaluated the effect of including canola oil in the diet of dairy cows on milk production and composition as well as the nutritional quality of this milk fat. Eighteen Holstein cows with an average daily milk yield of 22 (± 4) kg/d in the middle stage of lactation were used. The cows were distributed in 6 contemporary 3x3 Latin squares consisting of 3 periods and 3 treatments: control diet (without oil), 3% inclusion of canola oil in the diet and 6% inclusion of canola oil in the diet (dry matter basis). The inclusion of 6% canola oil in the diet of lactating cows linearly reduced the milk yield by 2.51 kg/d, short-chain fatty acids (FA) by 41.42%, medium chain FA by 27.32%, saturated FA by 20.24%, saturated/unsaturated FA ratio by 39.20%, omega-6/omega-3 ratio by 39.45%, and atherogenicity index by 48.36% compared with the control treatment. Moreover, with the 6% inclusion of canola oil in the diet of cows, there was an increase in the concentration of long chain FA by 45.91%, unsaturated FA by 34.08%, monounsaturated FA by 40.37%, polyunsaturated FA by 17.88%, milk concentration of omega-3 by 115%, rumenic acid (CLA) by 16.50%, oleic acid by 44.87% and h/H milk index by 94.44% compared with the control treatment. Thus, the inclusion of canola oil in the diet of lactating dairy cows makes the milk fatty acid profile nutritionally healthier for the human diet; however, the lactating performance of dairy cows is reduce.

  19. Performance of lactating dairy cows fed alfalfa or red clover silage as the sole forage.

    PubMed

    Broderick, G A; Walgenbach, R P; Sterrenburg, E

    2000-07-01

    Three Latin square trials, with 20 (two trials) or 24 (one trial) multiparous lactating Holstein cows (four in each trial with ruminal cannulae), compared the feeding value of red clover and alfalfa silages harvested over 3 yr. Overall, the forages contained similar amounts of neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber; however, red clover silage contained more hemicellulose, less ash and crude protein (CP), and only 67% as much nonprotein N, as a proportion of total N, as did alfalfa silage. Diets were formulated with equal dry matter (DM) from alfalfa or red clover silage and contained on average 65% forage, 33 or 30% ground high moisture ear corn, and 0 or 3% low soluble fishmeal (DM basis). Diets fed in the Latin squares contained (mean dietary CP): 1) alfalfa (17.8% CP); 2) red clover (15.1% CP); 3) alfalfa plus fishmeal (19.6% CP); and 4) red clover plus fishmeal (16.9% CP). Although performance varied somewhat among trials, overall statistical analysis showed that replacing alfalfa with red clover reduced yields of milk, fat-corrected milk, fat, protein, lactose, and SNF; these effects were related to the 1.2 kg/d lower DM intake for cows fed red clover. Replacing alfalfa with red clover improved body weight gain and reduced concentrations of milk and blood urea and ruminal NH3. Apparent digestibility of DM, organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, and hemicellulose all were greater when red clover was fed. There were no significant forage x fishmeal interactions for DM intake and yield of milk and milk components, indicating that supplementation with rumen undegradable protein gave similar increases in production on both forages. Net energy of lactation (NE(L)), estimated from maintenance, mean milk yield, and body weight change, in alfalfa and red clover silage were, respectively, 1.25 and 1.38 Mcal NE(L)/kg of DM, indicating 10% greater NE(L) in red clover.

  20. Response of lactating dairy cows to various densities of sorghum grain.

    PubMed

    Santos, F A; Huber, J T; Theurer, C B; Swingle, R S; Simas, J M

    1997-06-01

    To examine the effects of various densities of sorghum grain resulting in graded levels of ruminally degradable starch on lactational performance, 32 lactating Holstein cows (90 d in milk [DIM]) were assigned to four treatments for 58 d. Diets contained 37% alfalfa hay, 3% cottonseed hulls, 10% whole cottonseed, 6% soybean meal, 5% of a molasses-mineral-vitamin supplement, and 39% sorghum grain. Treatments were dry-rolled sorghum (DRS) at 643 g/L or stream-flaked sorghum (SF) at 437, 360, and 283 g/L. Dry matter intake was highest for DRS followed by SF360, with the linear (P < .01) and cubic (P < .05) effects significant. The linear decrease in milk (P < .05) and 3.5% fat corrected milk (FCM, P < .025) with decreased density of sorghum was because of large decreases on SF283. Steam-flaking increased total tract digestibilities of DM, OM, CP, starch, and ADF when compared with dry-rolling. Efficiency of conversion of feed DM to FCM and feed CP to milk protein were greater for sorghum flaked at 437 and 360 g/L than for DRS or the 283 g/L flake. The 283 g/L flake decreased DMI, milk yield, and milk fat percentage. Addition of buffer (1% NaHCO3) tended to ameliorate the decrease in DMI. These data show greater efficiency of feed utilization and conversion of feed CP to milk protein in cows fed sorghum grain flaked at 437 and 360 g/L compared with those fed dry-rolled sorghum or that flaked at 283 g/L.

  1. Comparison of barley and sorghum grain processed at different densities for lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Santos, F A; Huber, J T; Theurer, C B; Swingle, R S; Wu, Z; Simas, J M; Chen, K H; Chan, S C; Santos, J; DePeters, E J

    1997-09-01

    To vary ruminally degradable starch, sorghum grain was dry-rolled or steam-flaked to different densities and compared with dry-rolled barley in total mixed diets fed to 40 lactating cows (111 d of lactation) assigned to five dietary treatments. Diets contained (percentage of dry matter) 35% alfalfa hay, 4.1% cottonseed hulls, 10% whole cottonseed, 2% fish meal, 4% soybean meal, and 4.9% of a molasses, mineral, and vitamin supplement. Treatments were 40% sorghum grain either dry-rolled or steam-processed at flake densities of 437, 360, and 283 g/L. A fifth diet containing 42% dry-rolled barley was fed. Cows were blocked according to pretreatment (14 d) milk yield and received experimental diets for 56 d. Increasing ruminal starch degradability by including steam-flaked sorghum grain or barley in the diet did not increase milk yield or milk protein percentage and yield, as was shown in eight previous studies. Steam-flaked sorghum or dry-rolled barley in the diet decreased dry matter intake, resulting in a 10 to 19% higher efficiency of conversion of feed dry matter to milk than that for dry-rolled sorghum. Milk urea N was decreased, and milk casein yield tended to be increased, by steam-flaking sorghum at the moderate density compared with dry-rolling or fine flaking. Dietary protein was more efficiently converted to milk protein and casein from flaked sorghum and dry-rolled barley than from dry-rolled sorghum. In this study, increasing ruminal starch degradability resulted in higher feed efficiency and lower feed intakes, bu optimal flake densities for steam-processed sorghum gain to maximize milk and milk protein yield were not clarified.

  2. Increasing length of an estradiol and progesterone timed artificial insemination protocol decreases pregnancy losses in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Pereira, M H C; Rodrigues, A D P; De Carvalho, R J; Wiltbank, M C; Vasconcelos, J L M

    2014-03-01

    Our hypothesis was that increasing the length of an estradiol and progesterone (P4) timed artificial insemination (TAI) protocol would improve pregnancy per artificial insemination (P/AI). Lactating Holstein cows (n=759) yielding 31 ± 0.30 kg of milk/d with a detectable corpus luteum (CL) at d -11 were randomly assigned to receive TAI (d 0) following 1 of 2 treatments: (8d) d -10 = controlled internal drug release (CIDR) and 2.0mg of estradiol benzoate, d -3 = PGF2α(25mg of dinoprost tromethamine), d -2 = CIDR removal and 1.0mg of estradiol cypionate, d 0 = TAI; or (9 d) d -11 = CIDR and estradiol benzoate, d -4 = PGF2α, d -2 CIDR removal and estradiol cypionate, d 0 TAI. Cows were considered to have their estrous cycle synchronized in response to the protocol by the absence of a CL at artificial insemination (d 0) and presence of a CL on d 7. Pregnancy diagnoses were performed on d 32 and 60. The ovulatory follicle diameter at TAI (d 0) did not differ between treatments (14.7 ± 0.39 vs. 15.0 ± 0.40 mm for 8 and 9 d, respectively). The 9 d cows tended to have greater P4 concentrations on d 7 in synchronized cows (3.14 ± 0.18 ng/mL) than the 8d cows (3.05 ± 0.18 ng/mL). Although the P/AI at d 32 [45 (175/385) vs. 43.9% (166/374) for 8d and 9 d, respectively] and 60 [38.1 (150/385) vs. 40.4% (154/374) for 8d and 9 d, respectively] was not different, the 9 d cows had lower pregnancy losses [7.6% (12/166)] than 8d cows [14.7% (25/175)]. The cows in the 9 d program were more likely to be detected in estrus [72.0% (269/374)] compared with 8d cows [62% (240/385)]. Expression of estrus improved synchronization [97.4 (489/501) vs. 81% (202/248)], P4 concentrations at d 7 (3.22 ± 0.16 vs. 2.77 ± 0.17 ng/mL), P/AI at d 32 [51.2 (252/489) vs. 39.4% (81/202)], P/AI at d 60 [46.3 (230/489) vs. 31.1% (66/202)], and decreased pregnancy loss [9.3 (22/252) vs. 19.8% (15/81)] compared with cows that did not show estrus, respectively. Cows not detected in estrus with small

  3. Determination of the median toxic dose of type C botulism in lactating dairy cows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moeller, R.B.; Puschner, B.; Walker, R.L.; Rocke, T.; Galey, F.D.; Cullor, J.S.; Ardans, A.A.

    2003-01-01

    Because of the difficulty in identifying botulinum toxin in cattle, it is hypothesized that cattle are sensitive to levels of toxin below the detection limits of current diagnostic techniques (the mouse protection bioassay and the immunostick enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA] for type C botulinum toxin). Using an up-down method for toxicologic testing, the median toxic dose (MTD50) for cattle was determined. Four lactating Holstein cows were dosed at 0.125 or 0.25 ng/kg with Clostridium botulinum type C toxin and failed to develop clinical signs of botulism during the 7-day observation period. Three cows given 0.50 ng/kg of toxin developed clinical signs of botulism. From these results, the MTD50 was calculated at 0.388 ng/kg (3.88 mouse lethal doses/kg) using the trim-logit method. These results suggest that cattle are 12.88 times more sensitive to type C botulinum toxin than a mouse on a per kilogram weight basis. The mouse protection bioassay and the immunostick ELISA for type C botulinum toxin failed to identify the presence of the toxin in the serum, blood, and milk samples taken from all 7 animals.

  4. Dairy cow disability weights.

    PubMed

    McConnel, Craig S; McNeil, Ashleigh A; Hadrich, Joleen C; Lombard, Jason E; Garry, Franklyn B; Heller, Jane

    2017-08-01

    expected impact whereas other diseases elicited a wider breadth of impact. This was particularly apparent with respect to calving trauma, lameness and musculoskeletal injury, all of which could be redefined using gradients of severity or accounting for sequelae. These disability weight distributions serve as an initial step in the development of the disease-adjusted lactation (DALact) metric. They will be used to assess the time lost due to dynamic phases of dairy cow diseases and injuries. Prioritizing health interventions based on time expands the discussion of animal health to view profits and losses in light of the quality and length of life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of decreasing dietary phosphorus supply on net recycling of inorganic phosphate in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Puggaard, L; Kristensen, N B; Sehested, J

    2011-03-01

    Five ruminally cannulated lactating Holstein cows, fitted with permanent indwelling catheters in the mesenteric vein, hepatic vein, portal vein, and an artery were used to study intestinal absorption and net recycling of inorganic phosphate (P(i)) to the gastrointestinal tract. Treatments were low P (LP; 2.4 g of P/kg of DM) and high P (HP; 3.4 g of P/kg of DM). The dietary total P (tP) concentrations were obtained by replacing 0.50% calcium carbonate in the LP diet with 0.50% monocalcium phosphate in the HP diet. Diets were fed for 14 d and cows were sampled on d 14 in each period. Cows were fed restrictively, resulting in equal dry matter intakes as well as milk, fat, and protein yields between treatments. Net P(i) recycling (primarily salivary) was estimated as the difference between net portal plasma flux (net absorption of P(i)) and apparently digested tP (feed - fecal tP difference). Phosphorus intake, apparently digested tP, and fecal tP excretion decreased with LP. An effect of decreased tP intake on net portal plasma flux of P(i) could not be detected. However, despite numerically minute net fluxes across the liver, the net splanchnic flux of P(i) was less in LP compared with that in HP. Though arterial plasma P(i) concentration decreased, net P(i) recycling was not decreased when tP intake was decreased, and recycling of P(i) was maintained at the expense of deposition of P(i) in bones. Data are not consistent with salivary P(i) secretion being the primary regulator of P(i) homeostasis at low tP intakes. On the contrary, maintaining salivary P(i) recycling at low tP intakes indicates that rumen function was prioritized at the expense of bone P reserves.

  6. Effects of the method of conservation of timothy on nitrogen metabolism in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Martineau, R; Lapierre, H; Ouellet, D R; Pellerin, D; Berthiaume, R

    2007-06-01

    Six ruminally and duodenally cannulated lactating primiparous Holstein cows were used to study the effects of different methods of conservation of timothy on N metabolism. Cows were assigned randomly to 2 replicated 3 x 3 Latin squares (35-d periods). Because of missing data from 2 cows, data were analyzed as a 3 x 4 Youden square. Diets contained a similar concentrate (44% of total ration on a dry matter basis) plus first-cut timothy conserved as hay, or as restrictively (formic) or extensively fermented silage (inoc). Crude protein contents were 10.4, 13.6, and 14.8% for hay, formic, and inoc, respectively. Hay and formic had a high soluble carbohydrate content (> or =8.0% of dry matter) and formic and inoc had a high soluble protein content (> or =8.0% of dry matter). Haying and restricting fermentation resulted in increased efficiency of partition to milk N (30.9, 28.2, 24.7% of N intake for hay, formic, and inoc, respectively). Despite a 14% lower N intake with hay, no effects of treatments were detected on microbial protein synthesis and apparent intestinal digestion of essential AA. Haying reduced feed protein degradation in the rumen, whereas this effect was not observed when restricting fermentation in the silage. Haying and restricting fermentation induced a lipogenic fermentation pattern in the rumen (4.55, 4.23, and 3.78 ratio of acetate to propionate for hay, formic, and inoc), but no effects on milk fat yield and plasma glucose were observed. Whole-body protein metabolism was unaffected by treatments.

  7. Effects of forage family on apparent ruminal synthesis of B vitamins in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Castagnino, D S; Seck, M; Beaudet, V; Kammes, K L; Voelker Linton, J A; Allen, M S; Gervais, R; Chouinard, P Y; Girard, C L

    2016-03-01

    Effects of forage family (legume vs. grass) on apparent ruminal synthesis (ARS) and postruminal supply of B vitamins were evaluated in 2 experiments. Diets containing either alfalfa (AL) or orchardgrass (OG) silages as the sole forage were offered to ruminally and duodenally cannulated lactating Holstein cows in crossover design experiments. Experiment 1 compared diets containing AL and OG [~23% forage neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and ~27% total NDF] offered to 8 cows in two 15-d treatment periods. Experiment 2 compared diets containing AL and OG (~25% forage NDF and ~30% total NDF) offered to 13 cows in two 18-d treatment periods. Thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, folates, and vitamin B12 were analyzed in feeds and duodenal digesta. Apparent ruminal synthesis was calculated as the duodenal flow of each vitamin minus its intake. Forage family affected B vitamin intakes, duodenal flow, and ARS. In both experiments, AL diets increased vitamin B6 and decreased folate intakes. In experiment 1, riboflavin and niacin intakes were greater with the OG diet, whereas in experiment 2 thiamin intake was greater but riboflavin intake was smaller with the OG diet. In spite of the low contribution of either silage to the dietary folate content, folate intake was greater with OG diets than AL due to the difference in soybean meal contribution between diets. Niacin and folate ARS were not affected by the forage family. Duodenal microbial nitrogen flow was positively correlated with ARS of riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, folates, and vitamin B12, but tended to be negatively correlated with thiamin ARS. Apparent ruminal synthesis of folates and vitamin B12 appear to be related to microbial biomass activity. Changes in nutrient composition of the diets likely affected the microbial population in the rumen and their B vitamin metabolism.

  8. Acute phase response in lactating dairy cows during hyperinsulinemic hypoglycaemic and hyperinsulinemic euglycaemic clamps and after intramammary LPS challenge.

    PubMed

    De Matteis, L; Bertoni, G; Lombardelli, R; Wellnitz, O; Van Dorland, H A; Vernay, M C M B; Bruckmaier, R M; Trevisi, E

    2016-04-14

    The link between energy availability, turnover of energy substrates and the onset of inflammation in dairy cows is complex and poorly investigated. To clarify this, plasma inflammatory variables were measured in mid-lactating dairy cows allocated to three groups: hyperinsulinemic hypoglycaemic clamp, induced by insulin infusion (HypoG, n = 5); hyperinsulinemic euglycaemic clamp, induced by insulin and glucose infusion (EuG; n = 6); control, receiving a saline solution infusion (NaCl; n = 6). At 48 h after the start of i.v. infusions, two udder quarters per cow were challenged with 200 μg of E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Individual blood samples were taken before clamps, before LPS challenge (i.e. 48 h after clamps) and 6.5 h after. At 48 h, positive acute phase proteins (posAPP) did not differ among groups, whereas albumin and cholesterol (index of lipoproteins), negative APP (negAPP), were lower (p < 0.05) in EuG compared to NaCl and HypoG. The concentration of IL-6 was greater in EuG (p < 0.05) but only vs. HypoG. At 6.5 h following LPS challenge, IL-6 increased in the NaCl and EuG clamps (p < 0.05), while TNF-α increased (p < 0.05) in the EuG only. Among the posAPP, haptoglobin markedly increased in EuG (p < 0.05), but not in NaCl (p = 0.76) and in HypoG; ceruloplasmin tended to decline during LPS challenge, the reduction was significant when all animals were considered (p < 0.05). Conversely, all the negAPP showed a marked reduction 6.5 h after LPS challenge in the three groups. In conclusion, EuG caused an inflammatory status after 48-h infusion (i.e. decrease of negAPP) and induced a quicker acute phase response (e.g. marked rise of TNF-α, IL-6) after the intramammary LPS challenge. These data suggest that the simultaneous high availability of glucose and insulin at the tissue-level makes dairy cows more susceptible to inflammatory events. In contrast, HypoG seems to attenuate the inflammatory response.

  9. Intake, milk production, ruminal, and feed efficiency responses to dietary cation-anion difference by lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Iwaniuk, M E; Erdman, R A

    2015-12-01

    Previous meta-analyses of the effects of dietary cation anion difference (DCAD; mEq/kg; Na + K - Cl - S) in lactating dairy cow diets used studies conducted after the development of the DCAD concept. Dietary buffers, such as NaHCO3 and K2CO3, increase DCAD and have been used in lactating dairy cow diets for several decades. However, most published studies on buffer feeding were conducted before the development of the DCAD concept. Our objective was to determine the intake, milk production, ruminal, and feed efficiency responses to DCAD using previous studies with dietary buffer addition and more recent studies that focused on DCAD as dietary treatments. The database consisted of 43 articles that were published between 1965 and 2011. The studies included 196 dietary treatments and 89 treatment comparisons with a range in DCAD from -68 to 811mEq/kg of diet DM, with the vast majority between 0 and 500mEq/kg of diet DM. For studies that lacked analyses of one or more of the dietary strong ions (Na, K, Cl, or S), ion percentages were estimated from ingredient composition using the 2001 dairy National Research Council software. Two basic models were used to evaluate DCAD responses using the NLMIXED procedure in SAS 9.2 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC): (1) a simple linear model, Y=A + B × (DCAD), where A=intercept and B=the increment (slope) in performance per unit DCAD (mEq/kg of diet DM); and (2) a nonlinear model, Y=A + M[1 - e((K × DCAD))], where M=maximal increment in performance from DCAD and K=the rate constant. In both models, study was designated as the random effect. The DCAD effects best described by the linear model included milk fat percent, fat yield, ruminal pH, NDF digestibility, and feed efficiency [3.5% fat-corrected milk (FCM; kg)/dry matter intake (DMI; kg)] where a 100mEq/kg increase in DCAD resulted in respective increases of 0.10%, 36g/d, 0.032 pH units, 1.5% NDF digestibility, and 0.013 FCM/DMI units. The DMI, milk yield, and 3.5% FCM were best

  10. Effect of abomasal pectin infusion on digestion and nitrogen balance in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Gressley, T F; Armentano, L E

    2005-11-01

    Two experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that increasing carbohydrate fermentation in the large intestine would increase intestinal conversion of blood urea N to microbial protein, thereby reducing urinary N output. In experiment 1, 3 multiparous Holstein cows were used in an incomplete 4 x 4 Latin square with 14-d periods. Cows were fed the same basal diet and treatments were the abomasal infusion of 0, 0.5, or 1 kg/d of citrus pectin, or the addition of 1 kg/d of molasses to the basal diet. Experiment 2 used 6 cows in a double reversal design with four 21-d periods. Cows were fed one basal diet and treatments were the abomasal infusion of either 0 or 1 kg/d of pectin. In experiment 1, pectin infusion linearly decreased basal ration intake from 25.0 to 23.2 kg/d. This was prevented in experiment 2 by restricted feeding, and basal ration intake was 22.2 kg/d. Abomasal pectin caused numeric decreases in total tract apparent digestibility of neutral detergent fiber and neutral detergent solubles in experiment 1 and significantly decreased starch digestibility in experiment 2, suggesting that pectin may have reduced postruminal nutrient digestibility. Pectin infusion did not affect milk yield but decreased milk fat percentage from 3.69 to 3.53% in experiment 2. Increasing abomasal pectin tended to decrease urinary N and increase fecal N in experiment 1 and these effects were significant in experiment 2. For both experiments, urinary N decreased 26 g/d, approximately 10% of daily urine N output. Abomasal pectin did not affect fecal pH or DM content; however, in experiment 2, pectin decreased fecal ammonia from 19.8 to 13.4 mmol/kg of DM and increased fecal purines from 13.8 to 15.8 mmol/kg of DM. In both experiments, excretion of fecal purines was increased from 15 g/d for 0 kg/d pectin to 18 g/d for 1 kg/d pectin, although this increase was only significant in experiment 2. These results suggest that manipulating dairy diets to increase postruminal

  11. Using post-grazing sward height to impose dietary restrictions of varying duration in early lactation: its effects on spring-calving dairy cow production.

    PubMed

    Crosse, M; O'Donovan, M; Boland, T M; Delaby, L; Ganche, E; Kennedy, E

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the immediate and carryover effects of imposing two post-grazing sward heights (PGSH) for varying duration during early lactation on sward characteristics and dairy cow production. The experiment was a randomised block design with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments. A total of 80 spring-calving (mean calving date - 6 February) dairy cows were randomly assigned, pre-calving, to one of the two (n=40) PGSH treatments - S (2.7 cm) and M (3.5 cm) - from 13 February to 18 March, 2012 (P1). For the subsequent 5-week period (P2: 19 March to 22 April, 2012), half the animals from each P1 treatment remained on their treatment, whereas the other half of the animals switched to the opposing treatment. Following P2, all cows were managed similarly for the remainder of the lactation (P3: 23 April to 4 November, 2012) to measure the carryover effect. Milk production, BW and body condition score were measured weekly, and grass dry matter intake (GDMI) was measured on four occasions - approximately weeks 5, 10, 15 and 20 of lactation. Sward utilisation (above 2.7 cm; P1 and P2) was significantly improved by reducing the PGSH from 3.5 (0.83) to 2.7 cm (0.96). There was no effect of PGSH on cumulative annual grass dry matter (DM) production (15.3 t DM/ha). Grazing to 2.7 cm reduced GDMI by 1.7 and 0.8 kg DM/cow in P1 and P2, respectively, when compared with 3.5 cm (13.3 and 14.0 kg/cow per day, respectively). Cows grazing to 2.7 cm for both P1 and P2 (SS) tended to have reduced cumulative 10-week milk yield (-105 kg) and milk solids yield (-9 kg) when compared with cows grazing to 3.5 cm for both periods (MM; 1608 and 128 kg/cow, respectively). Treatments that alternated PGSH at the end of P1, SM and MS had intermediate results. There was no interaction between P1 and P2 treatments. There was also no carryover effect of early lactation grazing regime on milk and milk solids production in P3, given the reduction in early lactation

  12. RNA-seq analysis of differential gene expression in liver from lactating dairy cows divergent in negative energy balance.

    PubMed

    McCabe, Matthew; Waters, Sinéad; Morris, Dermot; Kenny, David; Lynn, David; Creevey, Chris

    2012-05-20

    The liver is central to most economically important metabolic processes in cattle. However, the changes in expression of genes that drive these processes remain incompletely characterised. RNA-seq is the new gold standard for whole transcriptome analysis but so far there are no reports of its application to analysis of differential gene expression in cattle liver. We used RNA-seq to study differences in expression profiles of hepatic genes and their associated pathways in individual cattle in either mild negative energy balance (MNEB) or severe negative energy balance (SNEB). NEB is an imbalance between energy intake and energy requirements for lactation and body maintenance. This aberrant metabolic state affects high-yielding dairy cows after calving and is of considerable economic importance because of its negative impact on fertility and health in dairy herds. Analysis of changes in hepatic gene expression in SNEB animals will increase our understanding of NEB and contribute to the development of strategies to circumvent it. RNA-seq analysis was carried out on total RNA from liver from early post partum Holstein Friesian cows in MNEB (n = 5) and SNEB (n = 6). 12,833 genes were deemed to be expressed (>4 reads per gene per animal), 413 of which were shown to be statistically significantly differentially expressed (SDE) at a false discovery rate (FDR) of 0.1% and 200 of which were SDE (FDR of 0.1%) with a ≥ 2-fold change between MNEB and SNEB animals. GOseq/KEGG pathway analysis showed that SDE genes with ≥ 2- fold change were associated (P <0.05) with 9 KEGG pathways. Seven of these pathways were related to fatty acid metabolism and unexpectedly included 'Steroid hormone biosynthesis', a process which mainly occurs in the reproductive organs rather than the liver. RNA-seq analysis showed that the major changes at the level of transcription in the liver of SNEB cows were related to fat metabolism. 'Steroid hormone biosynthesis', a process that normally occurs

  13. Performance and nitrogen use efficiency in mid-lactation dairy cows fed timothy cut in the afternoon or morning.

    PubMed

    Brito, A F; Tremblay, G F; Bertrand, A; Castonguay, Y; Bélanger, G; Michaud, R; Lafrenière, C; Martineau, R; Berthiaume, R

    2016-07-01

    concentrations of AA were mostly unaffected by treatments. However, ruminal valerate (1.01 versus 1.17 mol/100 mol) and plasma Gly (172 versus 188 µM) were lowest with feeding p.m.-cut TIM. Overall, feeding mid-lactation dairy cows a total mixed ration that consisted of p.m.-cut timothy baleage and silage significantly increased dry matter intake and yields of milk, milk fat, and milk protein. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Relationships between early-life growth, intake, and birth season with first-lactation performance of Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Chester-Jones, H; Heins, B J; Ziegler, D; Schimek, D; Schuling, S; Ziegler, B; de Ondarza, M B; Sniffen, C J; Broadwater, N

    2017-03-08

    The objective was to determine the relationships between early-life parameters [including average daily gain (ADG), body weight (BW), milk replacer intake, starter intake, and birth season] and the first-lactation performance of Holstein cows. We collected data from birth years 2004 to 2012 for 2,880 Holstein animals. Calves were received from 3 commercial dairy farms and enrolled in 37 different calf research trials at the University of Minnesota Southern Research and Outreach Center from 3 to 195 d. Upon trial completion, calves were returned to their respective farms. Milk replacer options included varying protein levels and amounts fed, but in the majority of studies, calves were fed a milk replacer containing 20% crude protein and 20% fat at 0.57 kg/calf daily. Most calves (93%) were weaned at 6 wk. Milk replacer dry matter intake, starter intake, ADG, and BW at 6 wk were 21.5 ± 2.2 kg, 17.3 ± 7.3 kg, 0.53 ± 0.13 kg/d, and 62.4 ± 6.8 kg, respectively. Average age at first calving and first-lactation 305-d milk yield were 715 ± 46.5 d and 10,959 ± 1,527 kg, respectively. We conducted separate mixed-model analyses using the REML model-fitting protocol of JMP (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC) to determine the effect of early-life BW or ADG, milk replacer and starter intake, and birth season on first-lactation 305-d milk, fat, and true protein yield. Greater BW and ADG at 6 wk resulted in increased first-lactation milk and milk component yields. Intake of calf starter at 8 wk had a significant positive relationship with first-lactation 305-d yield of milk and milk components. Milk replacer intake, which varied very little in this data set, had no effect on first-lactation 305-d yield of milk and milk components. Calves born in the fall and winter had greater starter intake, BW, and ADG at 8 wk. However, calves born in the summer had a higher 305-d milk yield during their first lactation than those born in the fall and winter. Improvements were modest, and

  15. Fecal and urinary lignans, intrafollicular estradiol, and endometrial receptors in lactating dairy cows fed diets supplemented with hydrogenated animal fat, flaxseed or sunflower seed.

    PubMed

    Thangavelu, Govindarajan; Colazo, Marcos Germán; Oba, Masahito; Dyck, Michael Kane; Okine, Erasmus Kojo; Ambrose, Divakar Justus

    2008-12-01

    We hypothesized that the inclusion of flaxseed in the diets of lactating dairy cows will increase urinary and fecal concentrations of the lignans, secoisolariciresinol diglycoside (SDG), enterolactone and enterodiol, reduce intrafollicular concentrations of IGF-I and estradiol, and subsequently reduce estradiol and oxytocin receptor expression in the endometrium. To test this hypothesis, 27 cycling, lactating Holstein cows were assigned to 1 of 3 diets supplemented with saturated fatty acids (SAT), flax (FLX), or sunflower (SUN) seed. Rations were formulated to provide 750 g supplemental fat/cow/d in all dietary groups. Ovulation (Day 0) was synchronized, and 5 d later, follicles>8 mm were ablated by an ultrasound-guided procedure in all cows. Samples of blood (Days 0 to 14), follicular fluid (Day 5 and 15), endometrium (Day 15), as well as urine and feces were collected in a subset of the animals. The fecal concentrations of SDG and enterodiol were higher (P<0.05) in cows fed FLX than in those fed SAT or SUN. Enterodiol increased (P<0.05) in urine samples of cows fed FLX, compared to those of cows fed SUN. However, follicular estradiol concentrations on Day 5 and 15 and endometrial concentrations of estradiol and oxytocin receptors on Day 15 did not differ among the dietary groups. Mean plasma progesterone concentrations were higher (P<0.05) in cows fed FLX and SUN than in those fed SAT. In summary, a diet supplemented with flaxseed increased the concentrations of SDG and enterodiol in feces, as hypothesized, but did not alter intrafollicular concentrations of IGF-I or estradiol, or endometrial populations of oxytocin or estrogen receptors in lactating dairy cows.

  16. Performance of lactating dairy cows fed silage and grain from a maize hybrid with the cry1F trait versus its nonbiotech counterpart.

    PubMed

    Faust, M; Smith, B; Rice, D; Owens, F; Hinds, M; Dana, G; Hunst, P

    2007-12-01

    Effects of feeding grain and maize silage from a non-Bt maize and a variety of Bt maize that contains cry1F (event TC1507, event DAS-Ø15Ø7-1), a gene that provides maize with insect resistance, on the health and performance of dairy cows were evaluated. In a crossover trial, 20 lactating Holstein cows were assigned to each of 2 dietary treatment groups and fed diets containing whole-plant maize silage plus maize grain from TC1507 or its near-isoline counterpart (control). Each period of the crossover trial lasted 28 d and was preceded by a 7-d adjustment period. To minimize variability due to stage of lactation, 2 blocks of 10 cows at 90 to 130 d of lactation at the start of the trial were used. Within each dietary treatment, 10 cows were from each of 2 genetic selection lines (high and average fat plus protein predicted transmitting ability). Diets were formulated to be isocaloric and isonitrogenous. Dry matter intake and daily production of milk, fat, protein, lactose, nonfat solids, and total solids did not differ between cows fed the TC1507 diet and cows fed the control diet. Furthermore, milk from cows in different dietary treatment groups did not differ in milk urea nitrogen concentration or somatic cell count. For milk fat percentage, a significant dietary treatment by genetic group interaction was detected although overall yield of milk and solids-corrected milk did not differ with diet. Physical measures of cow health including body weight, body condition score, temperature, pulse, and respiration rate were collected weekly; dietary treatment group means for these measures were not different. Blood chemistry and hematological analyses were conducted using blood samples collected from cows before the start of the trial and at the end of each period. Overall, the TC1507 and control groups did not differ in any of these indices of health status. Further, hematological profiles for cows in the dietary treatment groups were not different. In summary, no

  17. Corn grain and liquid feed as nonfiber carbohydrate sources in diets for lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Eastridge, M L; Lefeld, A H; Eilenfeld, A M; Gott, P N; Bowen, W S; Firkins, J L

    2011-06-01

    Interactions of sources and processing methods for nonstructural carbohydrates may affect the efficiency of animal production. Five rumen-cannulated cows in late lactation were placed in a 5 × 5 Latin square design and fed experimental diets for 2 wk. In the production trial, 54 cows were fed the experimental diets for 12 wk beginning at d 60 in milk. Diets contained 24% corn silage and 22% hay, averaging 20% alfalfa and 2% grass but being adjusted as needed to maintain dietary concentrations of 36% neutral detergent fiber. The control diet contained steam-flaked corn (SFC) and the other diets contained either finely (FGC; 0.8 mm) or coarsely ground corn (CGC; 1.9 mm), factorialized with or without 3.5% liquid feed (LF). The LF diets provided 1.03% of dietary dry matter as supplemental sugar. The FGC decreased rumen pH and concentration of NH(3)N compared with CGC. The SFC and FGC tended to increase the molar percentage of ruminal propionate and decrease the acetate:propionate ratio. The LF increased molar percentage of ruminal butyrate with FGC but not CGC. The LF tended to decrease starch digestibility with the CGC but not with the FGC. As expected, the SFC and FGC increased total tract starch digestibility. The DMI and milk yield were similar among dietary treatments. Compared with ground corn diets, the SFC tended to decrease milk fat percentage; thus, 3.5% fat-corrected milk and feed efficiency were decreased with SFC. The LF decreased milk protein percentage but had no effect on milk protein yield. The SFC compared with dry ground corn decreased the concentration of milk urea nitrogen. Sugar supplementation using LF appeared to be more beneficial with FGC than CGC. Increasing the surface area by finely grinding corn is important for starch digestibility and optimal utilization of nutrients.

  18. Transcriptome difference and potential crosstalk between liver and mammary tissue in mid-lactation primiparous dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Bu, Dengpan; Bionaz, Massimo; Wang, Mengzhi; Nan, Xuemei; Ma, Lu; Wang, Jiaqi

    2017-01-01

    Liver and mammary gland are among the most important organs during lactation in dairy cows. With the purpose of understanding both the different and the complementary roles and the crosstalk of those two organs during lactation, a transcriptome analysis was performed on liver and mammary tissues of 10 primiparous dairy cows in mid-lactation. The analysis was performed using a 4×44K Bovine Agilent microarray chip. The transcriptome difference between the two tissues was analyzed using SAS JMP Genomics using ANOVA with a false discovery rate correction (FDR). The analysis uncovered >9,000 genes differentially expressed (DEG) between the two tissues with a FDR<0.001. The functional analysis of the DEG uncovered a larger metabolic (especially related to lipid) and inflammatory response capacity in liver compared with mammary tissue while the mammary tissue had a larger protein synthesis and secretion, proliferation/differentiation, signaling, and innate immune system capacity compared with the liver. A plethora of endogenous compounds, cytokines, and transcription factors were estimated to control the DEG between the two tissues. Compared with mammary tissue, the liver transcriptome appeared to be under control of a large array of ligand-dependent nuclear receptors and, among endogenous chemical, fatty acids and bacteria-derived compounds. Compared with liver, the transcriptome of the mammary tissue was potentially under control of a large number of growth factors and miRNA. The in silico crosstalk analysis between the two tissues revealed an overall large communication with a reciprocal control of lipid metabolism, innate immune system adaptation, and proliferation/differentiation. In summary the transcriptome analysis confirmed prior known differences between liver and mammary tissue, especially considering the indication of a larger metabolic activity in liver compared with the mammary tissue and the larger protein synthesis, communication, and proliferative

  19. Transcriptome difference and potential crosstalk between liver and mammary tissue in mid-lactation primiparous dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    Bu, Dengpan; Bionaz, Massimo; Wang, Mengzhi; Nan, Xuemei; Ma, Lu; Wang, Jiaqi

    2017-01-01

    Liver and mammary gland are among the most important organs during lactation in dairy cows. With the purpose of understanding both the different and the complementary roles and the crosstalk of those two organs during lactation, a transcriptome analysis was performed on liver and mammary tissues of 10 primiparous dairy cows in mid-lactation. The analysis was performed using a 4×44K Bovine Agilent microarray chip. The transcriptome difference between the two tissues was analyzed using SAS JMP Genomics using ANOVA with a false discovery rate correction (FDR). The analysis uncovered >9,000 genes differentially expressed (DEG) between the two tissues with a FDR<0.001. The functional analysis of the DEG uncovered a larger metabolic (especially related to lipid) and inflammatory response capacity in liver compared with mammary tissue while the mammary tissue had a larger protein synthesis and secretion, proliferation/differentiation, signaling, and innate immune system capacity compared with the liver. A plethora of endogenous compounds, cytokines, and transcription factors were estimated to control the DEG between the two tissues. Compared with mammary tissue, the liver transcriptome appeared to be under control of a large array of ligand-dependent nuclear receptors and, among endogenous chemical, fatty acids and bacteria-derived compounds. Compared with liver, the transcriptome of the mammary tissue was potentially under control of a large number of growth factors and miRNA. The in silico crosstalk analysis between the two tissues revealed an overall large communication with a reciprocal control of lipid metabolism, innate immune system adaptation, and proliferation/differentiation. In summary the transcriptome analysis confirmed prior known differences between liver and mammary tissue, especially considering the indication of a larger metabolic activity in liver compared with the mammary tissue and the larger protein synthesis, communication, and proliferative

  20. Relationship between endogenous progesterone and follicular dynamics in lactating dairy cows with ovarian follicular cysts.

    PubMed

    Hatler, T B; Hayes, S H; Laranja da Fonseca, L F; Silvia, W J

    2003-07-01

    Two experiments were conducted to examine circulating concentrations of progesterone (P4) in cows with ovarian follicular cysts (OFCs) and to relate differing levels of P4 to subsequent follicular events. In experiment 1, peripheral concentrations of P4 were determined in cows diagnosed with OFCs. Nonpregnant, lactating Holstein and Jersey cows (n = 32) were diagnosed as having OFCs by rectal palpation. Ovarian follicular cysts were then examined by transrectal ultrasonography to confirm the presence of OFCs (follicle diameter, >/=17 mm; absence of luteal tissue). At confirmation, a blood sample was collected for quantification of P4. The concentration of P4 at confirmation was classified as low (<0.1 ng/ml), intermediate (0.1-1.0 ng/ml), or high (1.0-2.0 ng/ml). More OFCs were associated with intermediate (66%) than with either low (28%) or high (6%) concentrations of P4. In experiment 2, the fate of follicles (diameter, >/=10 mm) that formed in the presence of an OFC was determined and related to circulating concentrations of P4 during follicular development. Follicles (n = 59) that formed in the presence of an OFC ovulated (n = 19), formed a cyst (n = 30), or underwent normal growth and regression (NGR; n = 10). Endogenous P4 in the 7-day period during follicular development was classified as low (if P4 dropped to <0.1 ng/ml for 1 day or longer), intermediate (if P4 averaged between 0.1 and 1.0 ng/ml and never dropped to <0.1 ng/ml), or high (if P4 averaged >1.0 ng/ml and never dropped to <0.1 ng/ml). In the presence of intermediate P4, 75% of observed follicles formed cysts, compared with 10% that ovulated and 15% that experienced NGR. In the presence of low P4, 53%, 41%, and 6% of follicles ovulated, formed a follicular cyst, or experienced NGR, respectively. Thus, an association between intermediate P4 and the formation of OFCs was established.

  1. Crushed sunflower, flax, or canola seeds in lactating dairy cow diets: effects on methane production, rumen fermentation, and milk production.

    PubMed

    Beauchemin, K A; McGinn, S M; Benchaar, C; Holtshausen, L

    2009-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of reducing enteric methane production from dairy cows by incorporating into the diet various sources of long-chain FA varying in their degree of saturation and ruminal availability. The experiment was conducted as a crossover design with 16 lactating dairy cows maintained in 2 groups and fed 4 dietary treatments in four 28-d periods. Eight ruminally cannulated primiparous cows (96 +/- 18 d in milk) were assigned to group 1 and 8 multiparous cows (130 +/- 31 d in milk) were assigned to group 2. The dietary treatments were: 1) a commercial source of calcium salts of long-chain fatty acids (CTL), 2) crushed sunflower seeds (SS), 3) crushed flaxseed (FS), and 4) crushed canola seed (CS). The oilseeds added 3.1 to 4.2% fat to the diet (DM basis). All 3 oilseed treatments decreased methane production (g/d) by an average of 13%. When corrected for differences in dry matter intake (DMI), compared with CTL, methane production (g/kg of DM intake) was decreased by feeding FS (-18%) or CS (-16%) and was only numerically decreased (-10%) by feeding SS. However, compared with the CTL, feeding SS or FS lowered digestible DMI by 16 and 9%, respectively, because of lowered digestibility. Thus, only CS lowered methane per unit of digestible DM intake. Feeding SS and CS decreased rumen protozoal counts, but there were no treatment effects on mean ruminal pH or total volatile fatty acid concentration. Milk efficiency (3.5% fat corrected milk/DMI), milk yield, and component yield and concentrations were not affected by oilseed treatments. The study shows that adding sources of long-chain fatty acids to the diet in the form of processed oilseeds can be an effective means of reducing methane emissions. However, for some oilseeds such as SS or FS, the reduction in methane can be at the expense of diet digestibility. The use of crushed CS offers a means of mitigating methane without negatively affecting diet digestibility, and

  2. Herbage intake and milk production of late-lactation dairy cows offered a second-year chicory crop during summer.

    PubMed

    Muir, S K; Ward, G N; Jacobs, J L

    2015-12-01

    Chicory (Cichorum intybus L.) is a summer-active forage herb which has been proposed as an option to increase summer feed supply, increase dry matter intake, nutrient intake, and milk yield from nonirrigated dairy production systems in southern Australia. Dry matter intake, nutrient intake, milk yield, and yield of milk fat and protein of predominantly Holstein-Friesian dairy cows in late lactation consuming 3 herbage-based diets (4 replicates per treatment) were measured. The 3 grazed herbages were second-year chicory (CHIC) and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.; PRG) monocultures and a mixed sward (~50:50) of chicory and perennial ryegrass (MIX). All diets (CHIC, PRG, and MIX) were supplemented with alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) hay (5.5kg of DM/cow per day) and an energy-based concentrate pellet (4.0kg of DM/cow per day). There were no significant differences in milk yield (12.0 to 12.6kg/d across the treatments) or the yield of milk fat (539 to 585g/d) and milk protein (433 to 447g/d) between the 3 herbage-based diets. No differences in DMI (17.9 to 19.2kg/d) or estimated metabolizable energy intake (173 to 185MJ/d) were noted between treatments. Estimated metabolizable energy concentrations in the forages on offer were lower in CHIC than PRG (7.6 vs. 8.2MJ/kg of dry matter), but the concentration in consumed herbage was not different (9.1 vs. 9.2MJ/kg of dry matter); as such, potential for increased milk yield in cows offered CHIC was limited. Increased concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids was observed in chicory herbage compared with perennial ryegrass. This was associated with increased milk conjugated linoleic acid and milk polyunsaturated fatty acids when chicory formed part of the diet (CHIC compared to PRG and MIX). Chicory could be used as an alternative to perennial ryegrass in summer; however, the developmental stage of chicory will influence concentrations of metabolizable energy and neutral detergent fiber and, therefore, intake and milk

  3. Effects of a combination of feed additives on methane production, diet digestibility, and animal performance in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    van Zijderveld, S M; Fonken, B; Dijkstra, J; Gerrits, W J J; Perdok, H B; Fokkink, W; Newbold, J R

    2011-03-01

    Two experiments were conducted to assess the effects of a mixture of dietary additives on enteric methane production, rumen fermentation, diet digestibility, energy balance, and animal performance in lactating dairy cows. Identical diets were fed in both experiments. The mixture of feed additives investigated contained lauric acid, myristic acid, linseed oil, and calcium fumarate. These additives were included at 0.4, 1.2, 1.5, and 0.7% of dietary dry matter, respectively (treatment ADD). Experimental fat sources were exchanged for a rumen inert source of fat in the control diet (treatment CON) to maintain isolipidic rations. Cows (experiment 1, n=20; experiment 2, n=12) were fed restricted amounts of feed to avoid confounding effects of dry matter intake on methane production. In experiment 1, methane production and energy balance were studied using open-circuit indirect calorimetry. In experiment 2, 10 rumen-fistulated animals were used to measure rumen fermentation characteristics. In both experiments animal performance was monitored. The inclusion of dietary additives decreased methane emissions (g/d) by 10%. Milk yield and milk fat content tended to be lower for ADD in experiment 1. In experiment 2, milk production was not affected by ADD, but milk fat content was lower. Fat- and protein-corrected milk was lower for ADD in both experiments. Milk urea nitrogen content was lowered by ADD in experiment 1 and tended to be lower in experiment 2. Apparent total tract digestibility of fat, but not that of starch or neutral detergent fiber, was higher for ADD. Energy retention did not differ between treatments. The decrease in methane production (g/d) was not evident when methane emission was expressed per kilogram of milk produced. Feeding ADD resulted in increases of C12:0 and C14:0 and the intermediates of linseed oil biohydrogenation in milk in both experiments. In experiment 2, ADD-fed cows tended to have a decreased number of protozoa in rumen fluid when

  4. Short communication: reference values for blood parameters in Holstein dairy cows: effects of parity, stage of lactation, and season of production.

    PubMed

    Cozzi, G; Ravarotto, L; Gottardo, F; Stefani, A L; Contiero, B; Moro, L; Brscic, M; Dalvit, P

    2011-08-01

    Confidence intervals for blood parameters used for nutritional and metabolic profile testing in cattle were calculated for clinically normal lactating Holstein cows, taking into account the effects of parity, stage of lactation, and season. Blood samples were collected from 740 cows in 33 Italian dairy herds according to a predefined protocol. Herds were visited during summer and the following winter, sampling 12 lactating cows at each visit (4 primiparous and 8 multiparous). Six cows were selected from the early-lactation group (days in milk: 10 to 89) and the other 6 were selected from the mid-lactation group (days in milk: 90 to 215). Cow selection criteria excluded animals clinically exposed to periparturient diseases as well as animals not considered in good health by a veterinary clinical examination. For each blood variable, outliers were identified and discarded. Data were then analyzed for their Gaussian distribution and variables with not normal distribution were log-transformed to adjust for lack of normality. Herd mean values were calculated for each blood parameter according to 3 main classification factors: parity (primiparous vs. multiparous), stage of lactation (early vs. mid) and season of production (summer vs. winter). The resulting data set was statistically analyzed using a mixed model with the fixed effects of these factors, their interactions, and the random effect of herd. General 95% confidence intervals were calculated for blood variables that showed a relevant herd variance component such as albumin, triglycerides, aspartate, urea, glucose, alanine aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, direct and total bilirubin, calcium, magnesium, and potassium. For the remaining parameters, specific confidence intervals were calculated for each level of the significant main factors. Parity affected blood concentration of total protein, globulin, creatinine, alkaline phosphatase, gamma glutamyl transferase, creatinine kinase, and phosphorus. Blood

  5. Effects of lauric acid on ruminal protozoal numbers and fermentation pattern and milk production in lactating dairy cows

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate lauric acid (LA) as a practical agent to suppress ruminal protozoa (RP), and to assess the effects of RP suppression on fermentation patterns and milk production in dairy cows. In experiment 1, six Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulae were used in ...

  6. Effects of whole-plant corn silage hybrid type on intake, digestion, ruminal fermentation, and lactation performance by dairy cows through a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Ferraretto, L F; Shaver, R D

    2015-04-01

    Understanding the effect of whole-plant corn silage (WPCS) hybrids in dairy cattle diets may allow for better decisions on hybrid selection by dairy producers, as well as indicate potential strategies for the seed corn industry with regard to WPCS hybrids. Therefore, the objective of this study was to perform a meta-analysis using literature data on the effects of WPCS hybrid type on intake, digestibility, rumen fermentation, and lactation performance by dairy cows. The meta-analysis was performed using a data set of 162 treatment means from 48 peer-reviewed articles published between 1995 and 2014. Hybrids were divided into 3 categories before analysis. Comparative analysis of WPCS hybrid types differing in stalk characteristics were in 4 categories: conventional, dual-purpose, isogenic, or low-normal fiber digestibility (CONS), brown midrib (BMR), hybrids with greater NDF but lower lignin (%NDF) contents or high in vitro NDF digestibility (HFD), and leafy (LFY). Hybrid types differing in kernel characteristics were in 4 categories: conventional or yellow dent (CONG), NutriDense (ND), high oil (HO), and waxy. Genetically modified (GM) hybrids were compared with their genetically similar non-biotech counterpart (ISO). Except for lower lignin content for BMR and lower starch content for HFD than CONS and LFY, silage nutrient composition was similar among hybrids of different stalk types. A 1.1 kg/d greater intake of DM and 1.5 and 0.05 kg/d greater milk and protein yields, respectively, were observed for BMR compared with CONS and LFY. Likewise, DMI and milk yield were greater for HFD than CONS, but the magnitude of the difference was smaller. Total-tract NDF digestibility was greater, but starch digestibility was reduced, for BMR and HFD compared with CONS or LFY. Silage nutrient composition was similar for hybrids of varied kernel characteristics, except for lower CP and EE content for CONG than ND and HO. Feeding HO WPCS to dairy cows decreased milk fat content

  7. Effects of dietary forage source and amount of forage addition on intake, milk yield, and digestion for lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    West, J W; Hill, G M; Gates, R N; Mullinix, B G

    1997-08-01

    Lactating cows were used to determine the effects of increasing forage content from alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) hay or Tifton 85 bermudagrass (Cynodon sp.) hay or Tifton 85 bermudagrass (Cynodon sp.) hay on dry matter intake (DMI), milk yield, and nutrient digestion. Forage proportions and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) content of diets were (dry basis) 1) 45% corn (Zea mays L.) silage (control), 33.5% NDF; 2) 15% bermudagrass hay and 30% corn silage, 39.5% NDF; 3) 30% bermudagrass hay and 15% corn silage, 46.6% NDF; 4) 15% alfalfa hay and 30% corn silage, 35.5% NDF; or 5) 30% alfalfa hay and 15% corn silage, 33.5% NDF. The DMI was greater with alfalfa diets than with bermudagrass diets, with low hay diets than with high hay diets, and with the control diet than with the hay diets. Digestibility of NDF in bermudagrass diets was greater than that in alfalfa diets, in high hay diets than in low hay diets, and in hay diets than in the control diet. In vitro NDF digestion was most rapid for bermudagrass hay, intermediate for corn silage, and slowest for alfalfa hay. Results suggest that NDF from bermudagrass was digested more completely and rapidly than was NDF from corn silage or alfalfa, which improved the rate of passage despite the high NDF content of diets containing bermudagrass. Milk yield followed trends for DMI. The control diet and diets containing alfalfa elicited the greatest DMI and milk yield, but DMI per 100 kg of body weight for Holsteins was equal for diets containing either bermudagrass or alfalfa. High quality bermudagrass can be used in rations for lactating dairy cows.

  8. Effect of corn silage hybrids differing in starch and neutral detergent fiber digestibility on lactation performance and total-tract nutrient digestibility by dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Ferraretto, L F; Fonseca, A C; Sniffen, C J; Formigoni, A; Shaver, R D

    2015-01-01

    Selection for hybrids with greater starch and NDF digestibility may be beneficial for dairy producers. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of feeding a TMR containing a floury-leafy corn silage hybrid (LFY) compared with a brown midrib corn silage hybrid (BMR) for intake, lactation performance, and total-tract nutrient digestibility in dairy cows. Ninety-six multiparous Holstein cows, 105±31d in milk at trial initiation, were stratified by DIM and randomly assigned to 12 pens of 8 cows each. Pens were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments, BMR or LFY, in a completely randomized design; a 2-wk covariate period with cows fed a common diet followed by a 14-wk treatment period with cows fed their assigned treatment diet. Starch digestibilities, in situ, in vitro, and in vivo, were greater for LFY compared with BMR; the opposite was observed for NDF digestibility. Cows fed BMR consumed 1.7kg/d more dry matter than LFY. Although, actual-, energy-, and solids-corrected milk yields were greater for BMR than LFY, feed conversions (kg of milk or component-corrected milk per kg of DMI) did not differ. Fat-corrected milk and milk fat yield were similar, as milk fat content was greater for cows fed LFY (4.05%) than BMR (3.83%). Cows fed BMR had lower milk urea nitrogen concentration, but greater milk protein and lactose yields compared with LFY. Body weight change and condition score were unaffected by treatment. Total-tract starch digestibility was greater for cows fed the LFY corn silage; however, dry matter intake and milk and protein yields were greater for cows fed the BMR corn silage. Although total-tract starch digestibility was greater for cows fed the LFY corn silage, feed efficiency was not affected by hybrid type due to greater dry matter intake and milk and protein yields by cows fed the BMR corn silage.

  9. Once-daily milking during late lactation in pasture-fed dairy cows has minor effects on feed intake, body condition score gain, and hepatic gene expression.

    PubMed

    Grala, T M; Handley, R R; Roche, J R; Walker, C G; Phyn, C V C; Kay, J K

    2016-04-01

    Milking cows once daily (1×) is a management practice occasionally used during mid/late lactation in pasture-based systems. It has been postulated that 1× milking will reduce dry matter intake (DMI) and increase body condition score (BCS) gain; however, this has not been quantified. Lactating, pregnant Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (n=52) were allocated to either 1× or twice-daily (2×) milking in mid-January (summer, 175d in milk). To obtain accurate DMI measurements, cows underwent 4 periods in a Calan gate indoor feeding facility, interspersed with grazing outdoors. Milk production, body weight (BW), and BCS were recorded 2 wk before treatment start (-2 wk) and weekly thereafter. Blood variables were recorded at -2 wk and weekly when indoors. Liver was biopsied at -2, 2, and 10 wk, and hepatic gene expression measured using quantitative PCR. Milking cows 1× tended to lower DMI (17.8 vs. 18.2 kg of dry matter), but increased BCS gain (0.36 vs. 0.13 BCS units) and BW (546 vs. 533 kg) at wk 12 relative to 2×. The greater BCS and BW of cows milked 1× compared with 2× were reflected in lower plasma concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids and lower transcription of genes involved in the oxidation of fatty acids, indicating reduced release and processing of fatty acids. Cows milked 1× produced 20% less milk, and although milk fat and protein concentrations were increased relative to cows milked 2×, yields of fat and protein were 14 and 17% less, respectively. The reduction in milk production with 1× milking (14.1 vs. 16.8 kg/cow per d energy-corrected milk) was accompanied by increases in blood concentrations of glucose and insulin, with a concurrent decrease in the transcription of the insulin receptor and gluconeogenic genes. These results indicate a coordinated response to reduce glucose production due to decreased mammary demand. Expression of 2 genes linked to inflammation and adipokine signaling was reduced in cows milked 1× and may indicate a lower

  10. Absorption and elimination of a prostaglandin F analog, fenprostalene, in lactating dairy cows

    SciTech Connect

    Tomlinson, R.V.; Spires, H.R.; Bowen, J.L.

    1985-08-01

    Pharmacokinetic characteristics of the prostaglandin F2 alpha analog, fenprostalene, were studied in five lactating Holstein cows. Blood samples, milk, urine, and feces were collected for up to 7 d following a single subcutaneous injection of 1 mg of 13,14-hydrogen-3-fenprostalene in polyethylene glycol-400. The maximum concentration of tritium in plasma was observed 4 h after injection and declined by 48 h. Likewise, milk contained .53 ngeq/ml fenprostalene at 4 h and the concentration declined with a fractional disappearance rate of .069 X h to less than .03 ngeq/ml by 48 h. Milk was a very minor route of elimination of fenprostalene. Recovery of tritium in urine accounted for 55% of the total dose and recovery in feces accounted for an additional 43%. Residues from fenprostalene at 7 d after injection were less than .1 ppb in all edible tissues. Differences in the molecular structure, formulation, and route of injection of fenprostalene resulted in a slower rate of absorption and elimination of this analog than previously reported for other prostaglandin products. Nonetheless, the percentage of the injected dose of fenprostalene secreted in milk was not increased appreciably, and no persistent tissue residues of fenprostalene were observed.

  11. Effects of fatty acid supplements on ruminal and total tract nutrient digestion in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Harvatine, K J; Allen, M S

    2006-03-01

    Saturated and unsaturated fatty acid supplements (FS) were evaluated for effects on ruminal digestion kinetics, and ruminal and postruminal nutrient digestion. Eight early lactation ruminally and duodenally cannulated cows (77 +/- 12 days in milk, mean +/- SD) were used in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design experiment with 21-d periods. Treatments were control and a linear substitution of 2.5% fatty acids from supplemented saturated FS (SAT; prilled, hydrogenated free fatty acids) for partially unsaturated FS (UNS; calcium soaps of long-chain fatty acids). All rations contained identical forage and concentrate components including 37.2% forage and 13.5% cottonseed. Saturated FS linearly decreased ruminal digestibility of dry matter and organic matter and linearly decreased ruminal neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibility. The reduction in ruminal NDF digestibility was because of a linear decrease in digestion rate and a linear increase in passage rate of potentially digestible NDF with increasing saturated FS. Total tract digestibility of NDF was not different between treatments because of compensatory postruminal digestion. Ruminal fatty acid and C18 fatty acid digestibility tended to increase linearly with increasing unsaturated FS, and postruminal C18 fatty acid digestibility decreased with increasing saturated FS. Saturated FS linearly decreased ruminal organic matter digestibility and decreased intestinal long-chain fatty acid digestibility, although differences in fatty acid digestibility may be partially explained by fatty acid intake.

  12. Effect of dietary dry matter concentration on the sorting behavior of lactating dairy cows fed a total mixed ration.

    PubMed

    Miller-Cushon, E K; DeVries, T J

    2009-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether addition of water to a high-moisture total mixed ration reduces feed sorting by dairy cattle. Twelve lactating Holstein cows, individually fed once per day, were tested on 2 diets in a crossover design with 21-d periods. Diets had the same dietary composition and differed only in dry matter content, which was reduced by the addition of water. Treatment diets were 1) dry (57.6% DM) and 2) wet (47.9% DM). Dry matter intake (DMI) and milk production were monitored for each animal for the last 7 d of both treatment periods. For the final 3 d of each period, milk samples were taken for composition analysis and fresh feed and orts were sampled for particle size analysis. The particle size separator had 3 screens (19, 8, and 1.18 mm) and a bottom pan, resulting in 4 fractions (long, medium, short, fine). Sorting was calculated as the actual intake of each particle size fraction expressed as a percentage of the predicted intake of that fraction. Contrary to the hypothesis, cows sorted the wet diet more extensively than the dry diet. Sorting of the dry diet was limited to a tendency to refuse short particles, whereas the wet diet was sorted against long particles and for short and fine particles. Water addition reduced DMI, neutral detergent fiber intake, and starch intake of cows on the wet diet. Increased sorting on the wet diet resulted in a tendency for decreased concentration of dietary neutral detergent fiber consumed and also resulted in increased starch concentration of the diet consumed. Milk production and components were unaffected by treatment. Our results suggest that water addition to high-moisture total mixed rations, containing primarily haylage and silage forage sources, may not be an effective method to reduce sorting. Furthermore, water addition may negatively affect DMI and encourage sorting, resulting in the consumption of a ration with different nutrient composition than intended.

  13. Feeding glycerol-enriched yeast culture improves lactation performance, energy status, and hepatic gluconeogenic enzyme expression of dairy cows during the transition period.

    PubMed

    Ye, G; Liu, J; Liu, Y; Chen, X; Liao, S F; Huang, D; Huang, K

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of feeding glycerol-enriched yeast culture (GY) on feed intake, lactation performance, blood metabolites, and expression of some key hepatic gluconeogenic enzymes in dairy cows during the transition period. Forty-four multiparous transition Holstein cows were blocked by parity, previous 305-d mature equivalent milk yield, and expected calving date and randomly allocated to 4 dietary treatments: Control (no additive), 2 L/d of GY (75.8 g/L glycerol and 15.3 g/L yeast), 150 g/d of glycerol (G; 0.998 g/g glycerol), and 1 L/d of yeast culture (Y; 31.1 g/L yeast). All additives were top-dressed and hand mixed into the upper one-third of the total mixed ration in the morning from -14 to +28 d relative to calving. Results indicated that the DMI, NE intake, change of BCS, and milk yields were not affected by the treatments ( > 0.05). Supplementation of GY or Y increased milk fat percentages, milk protein percentages, and milk protein yields relative to the Control or G group ( < 0.05). Cows fed GY or G had higher glucose levels and lower β-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA) and NEFA levels in plasma than cows fed the Control ( < 0.05) and had lower NEFA levels than cows fed Y ( < 0.05). On 14 d postpartum, cows fed GY or G had higher enzyme activities, mRNA, and protein expression of cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK-C; < 0.05); higher enzyme activities ( < 0.05) and a tendency toward higher mRNA expression ( < 0.10) of glycerol kinase (GK); and a tendency toward higher enzyme activities of pyruvate carboxylase (PC) in the liver ( < 0.10) when compared with cows fed Control or Y. The enzyme activities, mRNA, and protein expression of PEPCK-C, PC, and GK did not differ between cows fed GY and G ( > 0.10). In conclusion, dietary GY or Y supplementation increased the milk fat and protein content of the cows in early lactation and GY or G supplementation improved the energy status as indicated by greater plasma glucose and

  14. Short-term increases in stocking density affect the lying and social behavior, but not the productivity, of lactating Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Krawczel, P D; Klaiber, L B; Butzler, R E; Klaiber, L M; Dann, H M; Mooney, C S; Grant, R J

    2012-08-01

    Reduced access to resources because of increased stocking density may have a detrimental effect on the behavior of the lactating dairy cow. The objective of this study was to determine the short-term responses in behavior, productivity, fecal cortisol metabolites, and udder and leg hygiene of lactating Holstein dairy cows housed at stocking densities of 100 (1 cow per freestall and headlock), 113, 131, and 142%. Multiparous cows (n=92) and primiparous cows (n=44) were assigned to 1 of 4 pens (34 cows per pen) in a 4-row freestall barn. Pens were balanced for parity, milk production, and days in milk. Stocking densities were imposed for 14 d using a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Time spent feeding and time spent ruminating were quantified by 24 h of direct observation of focal cows (n=12 per pen) beginning at 0800 h on d 11 of each period. Data loggers recorded lying behavior (time and bouts) from the same focal cows per pen at 1-min intervals during the final 5 d of each period. Fecal cortisol metabolites were quantified from samples collected on d 13 and 14 of each period from the same focal cows. Displacements from the feed barrier were recorded on a pen basis after 9 milkings over the last 4 d of each period. Productivity was assessed on a pen basis from milk yield (recorded from d 10 to 14 of each period) and milk components (quantified from composite samples collected on d 12 of each period). Milk composition was further analyzed for milk fatty acid profiles, which were determined from a subset (n=6 per pen) of the focal cows. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS, with the pen (n=4 per treatment, except displacements where n=3 per treatment) as the experimental unit. Feeding and ruminating (h/d) did not differ among treatments. Lying time was reduced at stocking densities of 131 and 142%, relative to 100 or 113%. Lying bouts were not affected by treatment. Stocking densities of 131 and 142% reduced the percentage of time cows spent ruminating

  15. Low degradable protein supply to increase nitrogen efficiency in lactating dairy cows and reduce environmental impacts at barn level.

    PubMed

    Edouard, N; Hassouna, M; Robin, P; Faverdin, P

    2016-02-01

    Generally, <30% of dairy cattle's nitrogen intake is retained in milk. Large amounts of nitrogen are excreted in manure, especially in urine, with damaging impacts on the environment. This study explores the effect of lowering dietary degradable nitrogen supplies--while maintaining metabolisable protein--on dairy cows' performance, nitrogen use efficiency and gas emissions (NH3, N2O, CH4) at barn level with tied animals. Two dietary N concentrations (CP: 12% DM for LowN; 18% DM for HighN) were offered to two groups of three lactating dairy cows in a split-plot design over four periods of 2 weeks. Diets were formulated to provide similar metabolisable protein supply, with degradable N either in deficit or in excess (PDIN of 84 and 114 g/kg DM for LowN and HighN, respectively). Cows ingested 0.8 kg DM/day less on the LowN diet, which was also 2.5% less digestible. Milk yield and composition were not significantly affected. N exported in milk was 5% lower (LowN: 129 g N/day; HighN: 136 g N/day; P<0.001) but milk protein yield was not significantly affected (LowN: 801 g/day; HighN: 823 g/day; P=0.10). Cows logically ingested less nitrogen on the LowN diet (LowN: 415 g N/day; HighN: 626 g N/day; P<0.001) resulting in a higher N use efficiency (N milk/N intake; LowN: 0.31; HighN: 0.22; P<0.001). N excreted in urine was almost four times lower on the LowN diet (LowN: 65 g N/day; HighN: 243 g N/day; P<0.001) while urinary urea N concentration was eightfold lower (LowN: 4.6 g/l; HighN: 22.9 g/l; P<0.001). Ammonia emission (expressed in g/h in order to remove periods of the day with potential interferences with volatile molecules from feed) was also lower on the LowN diet (LowN: 1.03 g/h per cow; HighN: 1.25 g/h per cow; P<0.05). Greenhouse gas emissions (N2O and CH4) at barn level were not significantly affected by the amount of dietary N. Offering low amounts of degradable protein with suitable metabolisable protein amounts to cattle improved nitrogen use efficiency and

  16. Effect of feeding fresh or conditioned red clover on milk fatty acids and nitrogen utilization in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Lee, M R F; Theobald, V J; Tweed, J K S; Winters, A L; Scollan, N D

    2009-03-01

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) in conditioned red clover (ensiled or cut and crushed) reduces both proteolysis and lipolysis in the herbage, which has led to increases in N use efficiency and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content of milk when offered to dairy cows. In damaged plant cells, PPO is activated and binds protein through the formation of protein-bound phenols. This study investigated a) whether freshly cut red clover could increase N use efficiency and milk PUFA concentrations in dairy cows or whether PPO enzymes require prior activation before feeding to elicit a response, and b) apparent whole-tract amino acid digestibility to help determine the effect of PPO on amino acid utilization. Six multiparous Holstein x Friesian dairy cows in mid-lactation were allocated at random to 1 of 3 dietary treatments in a 3 x 3 Latin square: a control treatment of grass (low PPO, G); red clover (high PPO, RC), and conditioned red clover (high fully activated PPO, CRC). The CRC herbage was cut and chopped in the field and then transported with the G and RC herbages to the animal house. Each period consisted of a 2-wk adaptation to diet and a week of measuring dietary effects (N balance and milk collection). The PPO activity was greatest in the RC treatment as fed, whereas activation of latent PPO enzyme and protein-bound phenol levels were greatest in the CRC diet. Dry matter and total fatty acid intakes were comparable across treatments (18.8 kg/d and 550 g/d, respectively). Milk yields and total fatty acid content were similar across treatments (32.6 kg/d and 34.8 mg/mL, respectively). Cows offered either RC or CRC had greater levels of protein, C18 PUFA and total long-chain PUFA in their milk than animals offered grass with no difference between RC and CRC. Nitrogen intakes, and output in milk, urine, and feces were greater in cows offered the 2 red clover treatments than G, with no difference between RC and CRC. However, there were no differences in N use efficiency

  17. Blood flow and nutrient exchange across the liver and gut of the dairy cow. Effects of lactation and fasting.

    PubMed

    Lomax, M A; Baird, G D

    1983-05-01

    The rate of blood flow in the portal and hepatic veins, and the net exchange across the gut and liver of volatile fatty acids (VFA), glucose, lactate, pyruvate, amino acids, ketone bodies, glycerol, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and oxygen, were measured in lactating and non-lactating cows (a) in the normal, fed state and (b) before, during and after 6 d of fasting. Blood flow rate through the liver was 52% higher in normal, fed, lactating cows as compared with non-lactating cows, and was decreased by fasting in both groups of cows. Portal blood flow rate increased with an increase in metabolizable energy (ME) intake. Lactating, as compared with non-lactating, cows exhibited lower arterial concentrations of glucose and lactate, higher net portal outputs of VFA and ketone bodies, a higher net hepatic output of glucose, and higher net hepatic uptake of propionate and lactate. The splanchnic outputs of acetate, glucose and hydroxybutyrate were all apparently greater in the lactating cows. Fasting caused a rapid decrease in the blood concentrations of the VFA and an increase in those of glycerol and NEFA. The portal, i.e. gut, outputs of VFA, lactate, ketone bodies, alanine and (serine + threonine), and the portal uptake of O2, were all decreased by fasting. Fasting for 6 h also decreased the hepatic output of glucose and acetate by 77 and 95% respectively, increased the hepatic uptake of pyruvate, glycerol and NEFA, and doubled hepatic ketone-body output. The splanchnic output of acetate and glucose and the splanchnic uptake of O2 were also decreased by fasting. The net portal outputs of VFA, lactate and hydroxybutyrate, and the net hepatic output of glucose, were all correlated with ME intake in fed and fasted cows. Hepatic glucose output was also correlated with milk yield. The net hepatic uptake of gluconeogenic precursors measured in this study could account for net hepatic glucose output in the fasted cows, but not in the fed cows. The net hepatic uptake of

  18. Plasma-based proteomics reveals immune response, complement and coagulation cascades pathway shifts in heat-stressed lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Min, Li; Cheng, Jianbo; Zhao, Shengguo; Tian, He; Zhang, Yangdong; Li, Songli; Yang, Hongjian; Zheng, Nan; Wang, Jiaqi

    2016-09-02

    Heat stress (HS) has an enormous economic impact on the dairy industry. In recent years, many researchers have investigated changes in the gene expression and metabolomics profiles in dairy cows caused by HS. However, the proteomics profiles of heat-stressed dairy cows have not yet been completely elucidated. We compared plasma proteomics from HS-free and heat-stressed dairy cows using an iTRAQ labeling approach. After the depletion of high abundant proteins in the plasma, 1472 proteins were identified. Of these, 85 proteins were differentially abundant in cows exposed to HS relative to HS-free. Database searches combined with GO and KEGG pathway enrichment analyses revealed that many components of the complement and coagulation cascades were altered in heat-stressed cows compared with HS-free cows. Of these, many factors in the complement system (including complement components C1, C3, C5, C6, C7, C8, and C9, complement factor B, and factor H) were down-regulated by HS, while components of the coagulation system (including coagulation factors, vitamin K-dependent proteins, and fibrinogens) were up-regulated by HS. In conclusion, our results indicate that HS decreases plasma levels of complement system proteins, suggesting that immune function is impaired in dairy cows exposed to HS. Though many aspects of heat stress (HS) have been extensively researched, relatively little is known about the proteomics profile changes that occur during heat exposure. In this work, we employed a proteomics approach to investigate differential abundance of plasma proteins in HS-free and heat-stressed dairy cows. Database searches combined with GO and KEGG pathway enrichment analyses revealed that HS resulted in a decrease in complement components, suggesting that heat-stressed dairy cows have impaired immune function. In addition, through integrative analyses of proteomics and previous metabolomics, we showed enhanced glycolysis, lipid metabolic pathway shifts, and nitrogen

  19. Effects of postbreeding gonadotropin treatments on conception rates of lactating dairy cows subjected to timed artificial insemination or embryo transfer in a tropical environment.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, J L M; Sá Filho, O G; Justolin, P L T; Morelli, P; Aragon, F L; Veras, M B; Soriano, S

    2011-01-01

    The objective of experiment 1 was to evaluate the effects of treatments with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) or GnRH 7 d after induced ovulation on reproductive performance of lactating dairy cows submitted to timed artificial insemination (TAI) or timed embryo transfer (TET). A total of 834 potential breedings were used from 661 lactating Holstein cows (37.3±0.3 kg of milk/d). Cows had ovulation synchronized and were assigned randomly to receive TAI on d 0 or TET on d 7. Within each group, cows were assigned randomly to receive on d 7 no additional treatment (control; nTAI=156; nTET=126), a 100 μg i.m. injection of GnRH (nTAI=155; nTET=124), or a 2,500 IU i.m. injection of hCG (nTAI=151; nTET=122). Postbreeding treatment affected the percentages of pregnant cows at TET on d 28 (control: 38.1%; GnRH: 52.4%; hCG: 45.1%) and on d 60 (control: 32.5%; GnRH: 41.1%; hCG: 38.5%), but postbreeding treatment did not affect percentages of pregnant cows at TAI on d 28 (control: 30.1%; GnRH: 32.2%; hCG: 32.4%) or on d 60 (control: 25.6%; GnRH: 27.1%; hCG: 29.8%). The objective of experiment 2 was to evaluate the effect of a treatment with GnRH 7 d after TET on reproductive performance of lactating dairy cows that received a previous GnRH treatment at TET. A total of 285 potential breedings were used from 257 lactating Holstein cows (35.1±0.8 kg of milk/d). Cows had ovulation synchronized and were assigned for TET on d 7. Immediately after TET, all cows were treated with a 100 μg i.m. injection of GnRH. On d 14, cows were assigned randomly to receive (G7-14; n=147) or not (G7; n=138) an additional injection of GnRH. Pregnancy diagnosis were performed on d 28 and 60. The additional treatment with GnRH on d 14 did not affect the percentages of pregnant cows on d 28 (G7: 48.5%; G7-14: 42.9%) or on d 60 (G7: 39.8%; G7-14: 37.4%). In conclusion, treatment with GnRH or hCG 7 d after induced ovulation increased conception rates in lactating dairy cows submitted to TET, but not

  20. Relationship of severity of subacute ruminal acidosis to rumen fermentation, chewing activities, sorting behavior, and milk production in lactating dairy cows fed a high-grain diet.

    PubMed

    Gao, X; Oba, M

    2014-05-01

    The objectives of the current study were to evaluate the variation in severity of subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) among lactating dairy cows fed a high-grain diet and to determine factors characterizing animals that are tolerant to high-grain diets. Sixteen ruminally cannulated late-lactating dairy cows (days in milk=282 ± 33.8; body weight=601 ± 75.9 kg) were fed a high-grain diet consisting of 35% forage and 65% concentrate mix. After 17 d of diet adaptation, chewing activities were monitored for a 24-h period and ruminal pH was measured every 30s for 72 h. Acidosis index, defined as the severity of SARA (area of pH <5.8) divided by dry matter intake (DMI), was determined for individual animals to assess the severity of SARA normalized for a feed intake level. Although all cows were fed the same diet, minimum pH values ranged from 5.16 to 6.04, and the acidosis index ranged from 0.0 to 10.9 pH · min/kg of DMI. Six cows with the lowest acidosis index (0.04 ± 0.61 pH · min/kg) and 4 with the highest acidosis index (7.67 ± 0.75 pH · min/kg) were classified as animals that were tolerant and susceptible to the high-grain diet, respectively. Total volatile fatty acid concentration and volatile fatty acid profile were not different between the groups. Susceptible animals sorted against long particles, whereas tolerant animals did not (sorting index=87.6 vs. 97.9, respectively). However, the tolerant cows had shorter total chewing time (35.8 vs. 45.1 min/kg of DMI). In addition, although DMI, milk yield, and milk component yields did not differ between the groups, milk urea nitrogen concentration was higher for tolerant cows compared with susceptible cows (12.8 vs. 8.6 mg/dL), which is possibly attributed to less organic matter fermentation in the rumen of tolerant cows. These results suggest that a substantial variation exists in the severity of SARA among lactating dairy cows fed the same high-grain diet, and that cows tolerant to the high-grain diet might be

  1. Effects of forage type and extruded linseed supplementation on methane production and milk fatty acid composition of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Livingstone, K M; Humphries, D J; Kirton, P; Kliem, K E; Givens, D I; Reynolds, C K

    2015-06-01

    Replacing dietary grass silage (GS) with maize silage (MS) and dietary fat supplements may reduce milk concentration of specific saturated fatty acids (SFA) and can reduce methane production by dairy cows. The present study investigated the effect of feeding an extruded linseed supplement on milk fatty acid (FA) composition and methane production of lactating dairy cows, and whether basal forage type, in diets formulated for similar neutral detergent fiber and starch, altered the response to the extruded linseed supplement. Four mid-lactation Holstein-Friesian cows were fed diets as total mixed rations, containing either high proportions of MS or GS, both with or without extruded linseed supplement, in a 4×4 Latin square design experiment with 28-d periods. Diets contained 500 g of forage/kg of dry matter (DM) containing MS and GS in proportions (DM basis) of either 75:25 or 25:75 for high MS or high GS diets, respectively. Extruded linseed supplement (275 g/kg ether extract, DM basis) was included in treatment diets at 50 g/kg of DM. Milk yields, DM intake, milk composition, and methane production were measured at the end of each experimental period when cows were housed in respiration chambers. Whereas DM intake was higher for the MS-based diet, forage type and extruded linseed had no significant effect on milk yield, milk fat, protein, or lactose concentration, methane production, or methane per kilogram of DM intake or milk yield. Total milk fat SFA concentrations were lower with MS compared with GS-based diets (65.4 vs. 68.4 g/100 g of FA, respectively) and with extruded linseed compared with no extruded linseed (65.2 vs. 68.6 g/100 g of FA, respectively), and these effects were additive. Concentrations of total trans FA were higher with MS compared with GS-based diets (7.0 vs. 5.4 g/100 g of FA, respectively) and when extruded linseed was fed (6.8 vs. 5. 6g/100 g of FA, respectively). Total n-3 FA were higher when extruded linseed was fed compared with no

  2. Effects of concentrate crude protein content on nutrient digestibility, energy utilization, and methane emissions in lactating dairy cows fed fresh-cut perennial grass.

    PubMed

    Hynes, D N; Stergiadis, S; Gordon, A; Yan, T

    2016-11-01

    Although many studies have investigated mitigation strategies for methane (CH4) output from dairy cows fed a wide variety of diets, research on the effects of concentrate crude protein (CP) content on CH4 emissions from dairy cows offered fresh grass is limited. The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of cow genotype and concentrate CP level on nutrient digestibility, energy utilization, and CH4 emissions in dairy cows offered fresh-grass diets. Twelve multiparous lactating dairy cows (6 Holstein and 6 Holstein × Swedish Red) were blocked into 3 groups for each breed and assigned to a low-, medium-, or high-CP concentrate diet [14.1, 16.1, and 18.1% CP on a dry matter (DM) basis, respectively], in a 3-period changeover study (25d per period). Total diets contained (DM basis) 32.8% concentrates and 67.2% perennial ryegrass, which was harvested daily. All measurements were undertaken during the final 6d of each period: digestibility measurements for 6d and calorimetric measurements in respiration chambers for 3d. Feed intake and milk production data were reported in a previous paper. We observed no significant interaction between concentrate CP level and cow genotype on any parameter. Concentrate CP level had no significant effect on any energy utilization parameter, except for urinary energy output, which was positively related to concentrate CP level. Similarly, concentrate CP content had no effect on CH4 emission (g/d), CH4 per kg feed intake, or nutrient digestibility. Cross breeding of Holstein cows significantly reduced gross energy, digestible energy, and metabolizable energy intake, heat production, and milk energy output. However, cow genotype had no significant effect on energy utilization efficiency or CH4 parameters. Furthermore, the present study yielded a value for gross energy lost as CH4 (5.6%) on fresh grass-based diets that was lower than the widely accepted value of 6.5%. The present findings indicate that reducing concentrate CP

  3. Ruminally protected lysine and methionine for lactating dairy cows fed a diet designed to meet requirements for microbial and postruminal protein.

    PubMed

    Robinson, P H; Fredeen, A H; Chalupa, W; Julien, W E; Sato, H; Fujieda, T; Suzuki, H

    1995-03-01

    Dairy cows, 20 at each of two sites, were used to determine responses to ruminally protected Lys and Met in a full lactation study. Cows were fed corn silage twice daily for ad libitum intake and a concentrate four times daily in proportion to milk production. At Truro, cows were fed 2.7 kg/d of alfalfa and timothy hay DM at 0600 and at 1500 h. At Fredericton, cows were fed 2.7 kg of timothy silage DM at 0600 h and 2.7 kg of alfalfa hay DM at 1500 h. Diets were designed to meet, but not to exceed, recommendations for ruminally degradable CP and intestinally digestible protein. Ten cows at each site were fed ruminally protected L-Lys.HCl (19 g/d) and DL-Met (6.5 g/d). Cows fed AA at each site produced more milk, lactose, protein, and fat; milk protein and fat percentages were also higher. No time x treatment interactions occurred for any production parameter. In spite of similar production responses between sites, cows fed AA consumed more DM at Truro, but those at Fredericton did not. Thus, gross efficiency of utilization of dietary N for milk N was increased with AA at Fredericton but not at Truro. However, considering the increased intake of CP by cows fed AA at Truro, an event that would have been expected to depress efficiency of utilization of dietary N, the lack of difference at Truro between treatments can be interpreted as an improvement, relative to expectations, because of AA feeding. High producing dairy cows fed a diet that was adequate in CP responded to ruminally protected Lys and Met primarily with increased production of milk protein and fat throughout the full lactation.

  4. Lipopolysaccharide derived from the digestive tract activates inflammatory gene expression and inhibits casein synthesis in the mammary glands of lactating dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kai; Chang, Guangjun; Xu, Tianle; Xu, Lei; Guo, Junfei; Jin, Di; Shen, Xiangzhen

    2016-01-01

    To meet the nutrition requirements of lactation, dairy cows are usually fed a high concentrate diet (HC). However, high-grain feeding causes subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA), a metabolic disorder that causes milk protein depression. This study aimed to investigate the effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) released in the rumen on inflammatory gene expression and casein synthesis in mammary glands of lactating dairy cows fed a HC diet. We found that milk protein was significantly decreased in the HC group after 15 weeks of feeding. Overall, LPS concentrations in the rumen fluid, lacteal artery and vein were increased in the HC group. Transcriptome microarray was used to evaluate alterations in the signaling pathway in mammary glands. Signaling pathways involved in inflammatory responses were activated, whereas those involved in protein synthesis were inhibited in the HC group. mRNA expression involved in inflammatory responses, including that of TLR4, NF-кB and pro-inflammatory genes, was increased in the HC group, while αs1-casein (CSN1S1), β-casein (CSN2), mTOR and S6K gene expression were decreased. Moreover, protein expression was consistent with the corresponding gene expression. After feeding with an HC diet, LPS derived from the rumen increased inflammatory gene expression and inhibited casein synthesis in the mammary glands of lactating dairy cows fed a HC diet. PMID:26893357

  5. Effect of glucogenic vs. lipogenic diets on energy balance, blood metabolites, and reproduction in primiparous and multiparous dairy cows in early lactation.

    PubMed

    van Knegsel, A T M; van den Brand, H; Dijkstra, J; van Straalen, W M; Jorritsma, R; Tamminga, S; Kemp, B

    2007-07-01

    Increasing the availability of glucogenic nutrients relative to lipogenic nutrients has been hypothesized to decrease the production of milk fat, to improve the energy balance (EB), and to decrease the incidence and severity of metabolic and reproductive disorders in dairy cows in early lactation. Therefore, our objective was to evaluate the effects of a glucogenic, lipogenic, or mixed diet on EB, plasma metabolites and metabolic hormones, liver triacylglycerides (TAG), and reproductive variables in high-producing dairy cows in early lactation. Cows (n = 114) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 diets and were fed either a mainly lipogenic diet, a mainly glucogenic diet, or a mixture of both diets (50:50 dry matter basis) from wk 3 before the expected calving date until 9 wk postpartum. Diets were isocaloric (net energy basis) and equal in intestinal digestible protein. Dry matter intake, net energy intake, milk yield, and milk protein percentage did not differ among diets. Milk lactose percentage was less for cows fed the lipogenic diet. Milk fat percentage was less for multiparous cows fed the glucogenic diet compared with cows fed the mixed or lipogenic diet (3.69 vs. 4.02 vs. 4.22 +/- 0.07%, respectively). The calculated EB was less negative for multiparous cows fed the glucogenic diet compared with cows fed the mixed or lipogenic diet [-33 vs. -125 vs. -89 +/- 21 kJ/(kg(0.75) x d), respectively]. Postpartum, the glucogenic diet decreased plasma nonesterified fatty acids, beta-hydroxybutyrate, and liver TAG concentrations and increased insulin concentration in multiparous cows. The glucogenic diet tended to decrease the number of days until first milk progesterone rise in multiparous cows compared with the mixed or lipogenic diet (20.4 vs. 24.4 vs. 26.4 +/- 2.1 d, respectively). Diet had no effect on any of the above-mentioned variables in primiparous cows, except that milk lactose percentage was greater for primiparous cows fed the glucogenic diet. We concluded

  6. Effect of Alfalfa Silage Storage Structure and Rumen-Protected Methionine on Production in Lactating Dairy Cows

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to determine whether production and nutrient utilization differed when lactating cows were fed diets based on 1 of 3 sources of alfalfa silage (AS) and whether performance was altered by feeding rumen-protected Met (RPM; fed as Mepron). Thirty-six lactating Holstein c...

  7. Models to Estimate Lactation Curves of Milk Yield and Somatic Cell Count in Dairy Cows at the Herd Level for the Use in Simulations and Predictive Models

    PubMed Central

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Kirkeby, Carsten; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Halasa, Tariq; Toft, Nils; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo

    2016-01-01

    Typically, central milk recording data from dairy herds are recorded less than monthly. Over-fitting early in lactation periods is a challenge, which we explored in different ways by reducing the number of parameters needed to describe the milk yield and somatic cell count of individual cows. Furthermore, we investigated how the parameters of lactation models correlate between parities and from dam to offspring. The aim of the study was to provide simple and robust models for cow level milk yield and somatic cell count for fitting to sparse data to parameterize herd- and cow-specific simulation of dairy herds. Data from 610 Danish Holstein herds were used to determine parity traits in milk production regarding milk yield and somatic cell count of individual cows. Parity was stratified in first, second, and third and higher for milk, and first to sixth and higher for somatic cell count. Fitting of herd level parameters allowed for cow level lactation curves with three, two, or one parameters per lactation. Correlations of milk yield and somatic cell count were estimated between lactations and between dam and offspring. The shape of the lactation curves varied markedly between farms. The correlation between lactations for milk yield and somatic cell count was 0.2–0.6 and significant on more than 95% of farms. The variation in the daily milk yield was observed to be a source of variation to the somatic cell count, and the total somatic cell count was less correlated with the milk production than somatic cells per milliliter. A positive correlation was found between relative levels of the total somatic cell count and the milk yield. The variation of lactation and somatic cell count curves between farms highlights the importance of a herd level approach. The one-parameter per cow model using a herd level curve allows for estimating the cow production level from first the recording in the parity, while a two-parameter model requires more recordings for a credible

  8. Effect of dietary energy source and level on nutrient digestibility, rumen microbial protein synthesis, and milk performance in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Zhou, X Q; Zhang, Y D; Zhao, M; Zhang, T; Zhu, D; Bu, D P; Wang, J Q

    2015-10-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effects of dietary energy source and level on intake, digestion, rumen microbial protein synthesis, and milk production in lactating dairy cows, using corn stover as a forage source. Eight multiparous Holstein cows, 4 of which were fitted with rumen cannulas, were evaluated in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design, with each period lasting 21 d. The cows were randomly assigned into 4 treatment groups: low-energy (LE) ground corn (GC), LE steam-flaked corn (SFC), high-energy (HE) GC, and HE SFC. Changes to ruminal energy degradation rates were induced by feeding the cows diets of either finely ground corn or SFC as components of diets with the same total energy level. Milk yield, milk protein content and yield, and milk lactose yield all increased in response to higher levels of dietary energy, whereas contents of milk fat and lactose were unaffected. Cows fed HE diets had a higher crude microbial protein yield and total-tract apparent digestibility than those receiving LE diets. Milk yield, milk protein yield, and microbial protein yield were also higher when SFC replaced GC as the main energy source for lactating cows fed LE diets. These results suggest that an increased dietary energy level and ruminal degradation rate are beneficial to milk protein production, which we suggest is due to increased yields of microbial proteins, when cows are fed corn stover as a dietary forage source.

  9. Effects of transition diets varying in dietary energy density on lactation performance and ruminal parameters of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Rabelo, E; Rezende, R L; Bertics, S J; Grummer, R R

    2003-03-01

    Forty cows and twenty heifers were used to study the effects of dietary energy density during late gestation and early lactation on lactation performance and ruminal parameters. A 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments was used. During prepartum (-28 d to calving), animals were fed a low energy density diet [DL; 1.58 Mcal of net energy for lactation (NE(L))/kg, 40% neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and 38% nonfiber carbohydrate (NFC)] or a high energy diet (DH; 1.70 Mcal NE(L)/kg, 32% NDF and 44% NFC). After calving, half of the cows from each prepartum treatment group were assigned to a low energy density diet (L; 1.57 Mcal NE(L)/kg, 30% NDF and 41% NFC) or a high energy density diet (H; 1.63 Mcal NE(L)/kg, 25% NDF and 47% NFC) until d 20 postpartum. After d 20, all cows were fed H until d 70. Animals fed DH had 19.8% greater dry matter intake (DMI; % of body weight) and 21.5% greater energy intake than animals fed DL prepartum and the response was greater for cows compared to heifers. Animals fed DH had lower ruminal pH compared to animals fed DL, but no major changes in volatile fatty acid concentrations were observed. Effects of dietary energy density during prepartum on postpartum production responses were dependent on parity. Primiparous cows fed DL had higher 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield and milk fat production and percentage during the first 10 wk of lactation than those fed DH. Prepartum diet did not affect lactation performance of multiparous cows. Cows fed H had higher DMI and energy intake for the first 20 d of lactation compared to cows fed L. Diets did not affect DMI after the third wk of lactation. Milk production increased faster for cows fed H compared to cows fed L. Animals fed DL-L sequence of treatments tended to have the lowest energy intake during the first 10 wk of lactation. Prepartum treatments did not affect ruminal fermentation characteristics postpartum. Cows fed H had lower ruminal pH and higher propionate concentrations than cows fed L

  10. Source of supplemental dietary copper, zinc, and manganese affects fecal microbial relative abundance in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Faulkner, M J; Wenner, B A; Solden, L M; Weiss, W P

    2017-02-01

    Appropriate trace mineral supplementation can improve immune response and hoof health in cattle and at much higher rates of supplementation to swine and poultry can alter microbial colonization of the gut, resulting in improved gut health. Diet can influence fecal microbial excretion in cattle, and the fecal microbiome may serve as a means for assessing gastrointestinal microbial changes. We hypothesized that feeding diets that differed in source of supplemental Cu, Zn, or Mn would alter the relative abundance of fecal microbes in lactating dairy cattle and that organic Zn would have the greatest effect. Twenty-four cows were fed diets devoid of supplemental Cu, Zn, and Mn for a 16-d preliminary phase (basal diet provided 9, 29, and 32 mg/kg of Cu, Zn, and Mn, respectively), and then were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatment diets (n = 8 cows/treatment): one group of cows was fed supplemental Cu, Zn, and Mn from sulfate minerals; the second group was fed glycinate minerals; and the third group was fed Cu and Mn sulfate with glycinate Zn. Assayed total dietary concentrations were approximately 21, 73, and 72 mg/kg for Cu, Zn, and Mn, respectively. Milk production (averaged 38.8 kg/d), DMI (averaged 25.8 kg/d), and milk components were not affected by treatment. Fecal DNA was extracted, amplified using a universal primer targeting the V4-V5 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene, and sequenced to compare microbial community composition between treatments. Relative abundances of Treponema species-level operational taxonomic units (OTU) were less for animals fed Cu and Mn sulfate with glycinate Zn compared with sulfates alone, but were similar to animals fed glycinate mineral sources. Relative abundances for exclusive glycinate mineral and sulfate mineral treatments were similar. Treponema OTU and cultured representatives are often associated with bovine digital dermatitis. These data may provide an additional link between organic Zn supplementation and improved

  11. Short communication: Effect of fatty acid supplements on apparent ruminal synthesis of B vitamins in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Castagnino, D S; Harvatine, K J; Allen, M S; Gervais, R; Chouinard, P Y; Girard, C L

    2017-10-01

    The effect of fat supplements (FS) providing different proportions of saturated (SFA) and unsaturated (UFA) fatty acids on supply, apparent ruminal synthesis (ARS), and duodenal flow (DF) of some B vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, folates, and vitamin B12) were evaluated in an experiment using 8 ruminally and duodenally cannulated lactating Holstein cows. The experiment was a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with 21-d treatment periods. The 4 treatments were a control diet without fatty acid supplement and 3 diets with 2.5% additional fatty acids from supplements containing (1) SFA, (2) an intermediate mixture of SFA and UFA, or (3) UFA. All diets were served as a total mixed ration once daily at 115% of the expected intake. B-vitamin concentrations were analyzed in feed and duodenal digesta. Apparent ruminal synthesis of each B vitamin was calculated as the DF minus the intake. B-vitamin concentrations were similar among the 4 treatments; consequently, daily intake of the vitamins followed the same pattern as dry matter intake. Adding FS decreased B-vitamin intakes (except vitamin B12), as did increasing the proportion of UFA. Riboflavin and niacin DF and ARS, expressed as total daily amount or per unit of dry matter intake, were not affected by FS, but increasing the proportion of UFA decreased riboflavin and niacin DF and ARS. Fat supplements decreased DF of vitamin B6, expressed either as total daily amount or per unit of dry matter intake. No treatment effects were observed on total daily folate DF and ARS. However, when expressed per unit of dry matter intake, folate DF and ARS were greater when cows were fed FS and they increased linearly with the proportion of UFA in the supplement. Inclusion of fat supplements into the dairy cow diet had a limited effect on the fate of most B vitamins in the rumen although increasing the proportion of UFA in the FS linearly decreased apparent synthesis of riboflavin and niacin in the rumen and the

  12. Rumen microorganisms, methane production, and microbial protein synthesis affected by mangosteen peel powder supplement in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Polyorach, Sineenart; Wanapat, Metha; Cherdthong, Anusorn; Kang, Sungchhang

    2016-03-01

    Four crossbred dairy cows (50 % Holstein-Friesian × 50 % Thai native), 404 ± 50.0 kg of body weight (4 years old) and 90 ± 5 day in milk with daily milk production of 9 ± 2.0 kg/day, were randomly assigned according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design to study the effect of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) peel powder (MSP) supplementation on rumen microorganisms, methane production, and microbial protein synthesis fed concentrate containing yeast fermented cassava chip protein (YEFECAP). The treatments were different levels of MSP supplementation at 0, 100, 200, and 300 g/head/day. Rice straw was used as a roughage source fed ad libitum, and concentrate containing YEFECAP at 200 g/kg concentrate was offered corresponding to concentrate-to-milk-yield ratio at 1:2. A quantitative real-time PCR approach was used to determine the population densities of ruminal microorganisms. The results revealed that supplementation of MSP did not affect on Fibrobactor succinogenes, Ruminococcus flavefaciens, and Ruminococcus albus (P > 0.05). However, total bacteria was linearly increased (P < 0.01) while methanogens and protozoal population were linearly decreased (P < 0.01) with increasing level of MSP supplementation. Increasing level of MSP supplement could decrease rumen methane production from 27.5 to 23.7 mmol/100 ml(3). Furthermore, cows that received MSP at 300 g/head/day had the highest microbial crude protein and efficiency of rumen microbial N synthesis (416.8 g/day and 16.2 g/kg organic matter truly digested in the rumen (OMDR), respectively). In conclusion, supplementation of MSP at 300 g/head/day with YEFECAP as a protein source in the concentrate mixture revealed an enhancement of rumen fermentation and methane reduction in lactating dairy cows.

  13. Nutrient digestibility of diets with different fiber to starch ratios when fed to lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Beckman, J L; Weiss, W P

    2005-03-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine whether increasing the dietary neutral detergent fiber (NDF):starch ratio affected NDF digestibility when diets were formulated to have equal in situ NDF digestibility. Six lactating Holstein cows were fed 1 of 3 diets in a replicated 3 x 3 Latin square. All diets had 41.5% of the dry matter (DM) as corn silage but the concentration of corn grain varied from 23.3 to 34.8% and the NDF:starch ratios were 0.74, 0.95, and 1.27. As corn grain increased, the concentration of a mixture of 54% soyhulls and 46% cottonseed hulls decreased. The soyhull:cottonseed hull mixture had the same in situ NDF digestibility as the corn silage. All diets had 18% forage NDF but starch concentration varied from 25.4 to 33.3% and NDF varied from 24.7 to 32.2%. Intake tended to increase as the NDF:starch ratio increased. Total tract digestibility (measured by total collection of feces and urine) of dry matter and energy decreased linearly as the NDF:starch ratio increased, but NDF digestibility was not affected by treatment. Retention of N increased linearly as the NDF:starch ratio increased. As dietary NDF:starch ratio increased, ruminal pH was not affected, but the concentration of total volatile fatty acids (VFA) decreased and the VFA profile was altered by diet. Consistent with the observed changes in ruminal VFA, milk fat percentage increased with increasing dietary NDF:starch. Intake of digestible energy and output of energy in milk and body weight change was not affected by treatment.

  14. Meta-analysis of factors that affect the utilization efficiency of phosphorus in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Klop, G; Ellis, J L; Bannink, A; Kebreab, E; France, J; Dijkstra, J

    2013-06-01

    development of mechanistic models on P metabolism in lactating dairy cattle. Factors to consider in future research and modeling efforts regarding efficiency of P use include the effects of dietary neutral detergent fiber, crude protein, starch, variation in P content of milk, and effects of P resorption from bone and body tissues during early lactation.

  15. Feeding, production, and efficiency of Holstein-Friesian, Jersey, and mixed-breed lactating dairy cows in commercial Danish herds.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, T; Jensen, C; Østergaard, S; Weisbjerg, M R; Aaes, O; Nielsen, N I

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to compare efficiency measures, milk production, and feed intake for lactating cows in commercial herds using different breeds and production and milking systems. To accomplish this, we used all feed evaluations made by the Danish extension service during the period November 2012 to April 2013 for 779 herds, of which 508 were Holstein-Friesian (HOL); 100 were Jersey (JER); and 171 herds were a mixture of these 2 breeds, other dairy breeds, and crossbreeds (OTH). The annually recorded, herd-average energy-corrected milk (ECM) yield was 8,716kg (JER) and 9,606kg (HOL); and average herd size was 197 cows (HOL) and 224 cows (JER). All cows were fed a total mixed or partial mixed ration supplemented with concentrate from feeding stations, housed in loose housing systems with a slatted floor, and milked in either a parlor milking unit or an automatic milking system. Energy efficiency was calculated as net energy efficiency defined as total energy demand as a percentage of energy intake and as residual feed intake defined as energy intake (net energy for lactation; NEL) minus energy requirement. Production efficiency was expressed as kilograms of ECM per kilogram of dry matter intake (DMI), kilograms of ECM per 10 MJ of net energy intake (NEL), kilograms of ECM per 100kg of BW, and kilograms of DMI per 100kg of BW. Environmental efficiency was expressed by the nitrogen efficiency calculated as N in milk and meat as a percentage of N in intake, and as enteric emission of methane expressed as kilograms of ECM per megajoule of CH4. Mean milk yield for lactating cows was 30.4kg of ECM in HOL and 3kg less in JER, with OTH herds in between. Mean NEL intake was 122 MJ in JER, increasing to 147 MJ in HOL, whereas ration energy density between breeds did not differ (6.4-6.5 MJ of NEL per kg of DMI). The NEL intake and DMI explained 56 and 47%, respectively, of variation in production (ECM) for HOL herds but only 44 and 27% for JER. Jersey had a

  16. Replacing alfalfa hay with dry corn gluten feed and Chinese wild rye grass: Effects on rumen fermentation, rumen microbial protein synthesis, and lactation performance in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hao, X Y; Gao, H; Wang, X Y; Zhang, G N; Zhang, Y G

    2017-04-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate nutrient digestibility, rumen microbial protein synthesis, and lactation performance when a portion of alfalfa was replaced with combinations of dry corn gluten feed (DCGF) and Chinese wild rye grass in the diet of lactating cows. Six multiparous and 3 primiparous Chinese Holsteins were arranged in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square experiment for 21-d periods. The animals were fed 1 of 3 treatment diets during each period: (1) 0% DCGF (0DCGF); (2) 6.5% DCGF (7DCGF); and (3) 11% DCGF (11DCGF). Diets were isonitrogenous, and a portion of alfalfa hay was replaced with DCGF and Chinese wild rye grass, with similar concentrate mixtures and corn silage contents. The dry matter intake was greater for 11DCGF (21.9 kg/d) than for 0DCGF (20.7 kg/d) or 7DCGF (21.2 kg/d). The treatment diets did not result in difference in milk production, fat and lactose concentration, or yield. Compared with 0DCGF, the ration containing 11% DCGF improved the milk protein concentration. Dry matter and neutral detergent fiber digestibility was greater for 7DCGF (62.7% and 45.6%) and 11DCGF (63.1% and 47.2%) than for 0DCGF (59.4% and 42.3%), and the nitrogen digestibility was similar for the 3 treatments. The concentration of rumen volatile fatty acids was higher in cows fed the 11DCGF diet than in those fed the 0DCGF diet, with no difference between the 7DCGF and 11DCGF diets. The estimated microbial crude protein yield was greater for the 11DCGF diet (1985.1 g/d) than for the 0DCGF diet (1745.0 g/d), with no difference between the 0DCGF and 7DCGF diets. Thus, it appears that feeding DCGF and Chinese wild rye grass in combination can effectively replace a portion of alfalfa hay in the rations of lactating dairy cows.

  17. Lying times of lactating cows on dairy farms with automatic milking systems and the relation to lameness, leg lesions, and body condition score.

    PubMed

    Westin, R; Vaughan, A; de Passillé, A M; DeVries, T J; Pajor, E A; Pellerin, D; Siegford, J M; Vasseur, E; Rushen, J

    2016-01-01

    Lying down and resting are important for optimal cow health, welfare, and production. In comparison with free stall farms with a milking parlor, farms with automated milking systems (AMS) may place less constraint on how long cows can lie down. However, few studies report lying times on AMS farms. The aims of this study were to describe the variation in lying times of dairy cows in AMS farms and to understand how much of the variation in individual lying times is related to cow-level factors, including lameness, the presence of hock and knee lesions, and body condition score (BCS). We visited 36 farms in Canada (Quebec: n = 10; Ontario: n = 10; British Columbia: n = 4; and Alberta: n = 5), and the United States (Michigan: n = 7). Gait scores, presence of hock and knee lesions, and BCS were recorded for 40 Holstein cows from each herd. Parity and days in milk were retrieved from farm records. Lying time was recorded across 4d using accelerometers (n = 1,377). Multivariable analysis was performed. Of scored cows, 15.1% were lame (i.e., obviously limping; 203 of 1,348 cows). Knee lesions were found in 27.1% (340 of 1,256 cows) and hock lesions were found in 30.8% (421 of 1,366 cows) of the animals. Daily lying time varied among cows. Cows spent a median duration of 11.4 h/d lying down (25th-75th percentile = 9.7-12.9 h), with a lying bout frequency of 9.5 bouts/d (25th-75th percentile = 7.5-12 bouts/d) and a median bout duration of 71 min (25th-75th percentile = 58-87 min/bout). Lameness was associated with cows lying down for 0.6 h/d longer in fewer, longer bouts. Increased lying time was also associated with increased parity, later stage of lactation and higher BCS. Older cows (parity ≥ 3) spent about 0.5 h/d more lying down compared with parity 1 cows, and cows with BCS ≥ 3.5 lay down on average 1 h/d longer than cows with BCS ≤ 2.25. Hock lesions were associated with shorter lying times in univariable models, but no associations were found in the

  18. Temporal changes in plasma concentrations of hormones and metabolites in pasture-fed dairy cows during extended lactation.

    PubMed

    Marett, L C; Auldist, M J; Grainger, C; Wales, W J; Blache, D; Macmillan, K L; Leury, B J

    2011-10-01

    This experiment measured variations in plasma concentrations of metabolic hormones and metabolites in cows undergoing extended lactations of up to 670 d at 2 planes of nutrition. Thirty-seven Holstein-Friesian cows that calved in late winter were selected for varying milk yield and then managed for a lactation of 670 d by delaying breeding until approximately 450 d in milk (DIM). Cows grazed fresh pasture supplemented with pasture silage or hay and crushed wheat or triticale grain. Dietary intake was reduced by approximately 1.8 kg (dry matter) grain/cow per day for 19 of the cows from 300 DIM until the end of lactation to assess the effect of restricted energy intake on the persistency of milk production. Samples of blood were collected monthly from each cow to measure plasma concentrations of selected hormones and metabolites. Dietary restriction beyond 300 DIM reduced yields of milk, protein, and fat, but did not alter the proportion of cows reaching the 670-d lactation target. Dietary restriction had no effect on cow BW or plasma concentrations of any hormones or metabolites. Overall, blood plasma concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-I, leptin, and glucose were elevated from 301 to 600 DIM compared with 0 to 300 DIM, whereas concentrations of growth hormone and nonesterified fatty acids were lower after 300 DIM. Plasma concentrations of insulin and prolactin were unaffected by stage of lactation, but prolactin concentrations increased during summer. These changes were consistent with a decrease in milk yield and an increase in the partitioning of nutrients to body tissue gain, primarily adipose tissue, throughout the later stages of the extended lactation. Cows that continued milking beyond 600 DIM had increased plasma concentrations of growth hormone and decreased concentrations of glucose and leptin compared with cows that milked <600 DIM. These differences, coupled with reduced body weight gain, indicated an increased priority for nutrient

  19. Ryegrass pasture combined with partial total mixed ration reduces enteric methane emissions and maintains the performance of dairy cows during mid to late lactation.

    PubMed

    Dall-Orsoletta, Aline C; Almeida, João Gabriel R; Carvalho, Paulo C F; Savian, Jean V; Ribeiro-Filho, Henrique M N

    2016-06-01

    The inclusion of grazed pasture in dairy feeding systems based on a total mixed ration (TMR) reduces feed costs, benefits herd health, and reduces environmental impact. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of ryegrass pasture combined with a partial TMR on enteric methane emissions, dry matter intake (DMI), and performance of dairy cows from mid to late lactation. The experimental treatments included 100% TMR (control), partial TMR + 6h of continuous grazing (0900-1500 h), and partial TMR + 6h of grazing that was divided into 2 periods of 3h each that took place after milking (0900-1200 h; 1530-1830 h). Twelve F1 cows (Holstein × Jersey; 132±44 DIM) were divided into 6 lots and distributed in a 3×3 Latin square design with 3 periods of 21 d (15 d of adaptation and 6 d of evaluation). Ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) pasture was used, and the TMR was composed of 80% corn silage, 18% soybean meal, and 2% mineral and vitamin mixture, based on dry matter. The same mixture was used for cows with access to pasture. The total DMI, milk production, and 4% fat-corrected milk were similar for all cows; however, the pasture DMI (7.4 vs. 6.0kg/d) and grazing period (+ 40 min/d) were higher in cows that had access to pasture for 2 periods of 3h compared with those that grazed for a continuous 6-h period. Methane emission was higher (656 vs. 547g/d) in confined cows than in those that received partial TMR + pasture. The inclusion of annual ryegrass pasture in the diet of dairy cows maintained animal performance and reduced enteric methane emissions. The percentage of grazed forage in the cows' diet increased when access to pasture was provided in 2 periods after the morning and afternoon milking.

  20. Short communication: Factors affecting hair cortisol concentrations in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Burnett, Tracy A; Madureira, Augusto M L; Silper, Bruna F; Nadalin, Audrey; Tahmasbi, Abdolmansour; Veira, Douglas M; Cerri, Ronaldo L A

    2014-12-01

    Cortisol has long been used as a marker of the stress response in animals. Cortisol can be analyzed from different media, most notably from the blood, saliva, and feces; however, the collection of cortisol from some of these media requires invasive procedures or excessive handling of the animals. Furthermore, it is not possible to capture long-term increases in circulating concentrations of cortisol from the blood, saliva, or feces. Hair cortisol has been found to be a reliable alternative for measuring chronic stress. With this emerging measure, appropriate sampling methodology must be developed and validated. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of hair color, sampling location, and processing method on cortisol concentrations in hair from lactating black and white Holstein cows (n=18). Furthermore, we aimed to measure the hair growth rates at different body locations (n=12) and test hair cortisol levels when resampled over short intervals (n=37). Both black- and white-colored hair was collected from the shoulder, top line, hip, and tail switch of Holsteins; due to breed characteristics only white hair was harvested from the tail switch. All samples were cleaned with water and isopropanol, and then ground in a ball mill or finely cut with scissors once dry. Cortisol was extracted with methanol before being measured using a commercially available ELISA kit. Concentrations of cortisol were greater in white than in black hair (7.8 ± 1.1 vs. 3.8 ± 1.1 pg/mg). When only white samples were analyzed, hair from the tail switch had more cortisol than hair from the shoulder (11.0 ± 1.2 vs. 6.2 ± 1.2 pg/mg), whereas no difference was found when compared with the hip and top line. Samples ground with a ball mill had greater concentrations of cortisol extracted than those minced with scissors (10.4 ± 1.2 vs. 4.7 ± 1.2 pg/mg). The growth rate of hair was significantly greater at the tail switch compared with the hip and shoulder (0.51 ± 0.05 vs. 0.04 ± 0

  1. Short communication: Added value of rumination time for the prediction of dry matter intake in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Clément, P; Guatteo, R; Delaby, L; Rouillé, B; Chanvallon, A; Philipot, J M; Bareille, N

    2014-10-01

    The objective of the current study was to quantify the change in the prediction of dry matter intake (DMI) resulting from the inclusion of rumination time (RT) in the 2001 National Research Council (NRC) DMI prediction model. Forty-one Holstein cows fed the same total mixed ration were involved in a 10-wk study. Individual DMI were measured daily. The accuracy and precision of the original NRC prediction model, based on body weight, fat-corrected milk, and week of lactation as independent variables, was compared with the accuracy and precision of the same model with RT as an additional independent variable. The RT estimate was significant in the model developed but had a low value (0.031 kg/h). Root mean square prediction errors were very similar in the 2 models (1.70 and 1.68 kg/d) as were the other indicators (R(2), linear bias, random error, and concordance correlation coefficient) selected to compare the models in this study. These results indicate no gain in DMI prediction precision or accuracy when RT is included in the NRC model. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of intramuscular injections of vitamin B12 on lactation performance of dairy cows fed dietary supplements of folic acid and rumen-protected methionine.

    PubMed

    Girard, C L; Matte, J J

    2005-02-01

    The experiment was undertaken to determine the effects of i.m. injections of vitamin B(12) on lactational performance of primiparous dairy cows fed dietary supplements of folic acid and rumen-protected methionine from 4 to 18 wk of lactation. Fourteen primiparous Holstein cows were assigned to 7 blocks of 2 cows each, according to milk production during the third week of lactation. All cows were fed a basal diet supplemented daily with rumen-protected methionine (18 g of supplement, to bring the estimated supply of methionine to 2.2% of metabolizable protein) plus folic acid (4 mg per kg of BW). Within each block, the cows received a weekly i.m. injection (2 mL) of saline or 10 mg of vitamin B(12). Milk production was recorded daily. Milk and blood were sampled every 2 wk. Supplementary vitamin B(12) increased energy-corrected milk from 25.8 to 29.0 (SE 1.6) kg/d, as well as milk yields of solids [3.52 to 3.90 (SE 0.22) kg/d], fat [0.87 to 1.01 (SE 0.06) kg/d], and lactose [1.48 to 1.64 (SE 0.11) kg/d]. Supplementation also increased concentrations and amounts of vitamin B(12) secreted in milk but had no significant effect on dry matter intake and concentrations and amounts of folates in milk. Packed cell volume, blood hemoglobin, and serum vitamin B(12) were increased by supplementary vitamin B(12), whereas serum methylmalonic acid was decreased. Serum concentrations of sulfur amino acids were unchanged by treatment. These findings support the hypothesis that, in early lactation, supply of vitamin B(12) was not optimal and limited the lactation performance of the cows.

  3. pH Dynamics and Bacterial Community Composition in the Rumen of Lactating Dairy Cows

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The influence of pH dynamics on ruminal bacterial community composition was studied in 8 ruminally cannulated Holstein cows fitted with indwelling electrodes that recorded pH at 10-min intervals over a 3-d period. Cows were fed a silage-based TMR supplemented with monensin. Ruminal samples were col...

  4. pH Dynamics and Bacterial Community Composition in the Rumen of Lactating Dairy Cows

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The effect of pH dynamics on ruminal bacterial community composition (BCC) was studied in 8 ruminally cannulated Holstein cows fitted with indwelling electrodes that recorded pH at 10-min intervals over a 2.4-d period. Cows were fed a silage-based TMR supplemented with monensin. Ruminal samples wer...

  5. Plasma ceramides are elevated in overweight Holstein dairy cows experiencing greater lipolysis and insulin resistance during the transition from late pregnancy to early lactation.

    PubMed

    Rico, J E; Bandaru, V V R; Dorskind, J M; Haughey, N J; McFadden, J W

    2015-11-01

    Insulin resistance is a homeorhetic adaptation to parturition in dairy cows transitioning from late pregnancy to early lactation. An increase in prepartum adiposity can predispose periparturient cows to greater lipolysis and insulin resistance, thus increasing the risk for metabolic disease. Mechanisms mediating the development of insulin resistance in overweight peripartal dairy cows may depend on ceramide metabolism. The sphingolipid ceramide accumulates in plasma and tissues of overweight monogastric animals, and facilitates saturated fatty acid-induced insulin resistance. Considering this evidence, we hypothesized that plasma ceramides would be elevated in periparturient dairy cattle and that these sphingolipids would correlate with the magnitude of lipolysis and insulin resistance. To test our central hypothesis, multiparous Holstein cows were allocated into 2 groups according to their body condition score (BCS) at d -30 prepartum: lean (BCS <3.0; n=10) or overweight (BCS >4.0; n=11). Blood samples were collected at d -45, -30, -15, and -7, relative to expected parturition, and at d 4 postpartum. Plasma glucose, insulin, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentrations were measured, and insulin sensitivity was estimated. The concentrations of individual plasma ceramide and glycosylated ceramide were determined using liquid chromatography-based mass spectrometry. Results demonstrated that greater adiposity was associated with a greater loss in body condition during late pregnancy. Overweight cows had greater circulating concentrations of glucose, insulin, and NEFA, and lower insulin sensitivity relative to lean cows. We detected 30 different sphingolipids across 6 lipid classes with acyl chains ranging from 16 to 26 carbons. The most abundant plasma sphingolipids detected were C24:0-ceramide, C24:0-monohexosylceramide, and C16:0-lactosylceramide. Plasma concentrations of total ceramide and monohexosylceramide increased as

  6. Replacing alfalfa silage with tannin-containing birdsfoot trefoil silage in total mixed rations for lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Broderick, G A; Grabber, J H; Muck, R E; Hymes-Fecht, U C

    2017-05-01

    Two lactation trials were conducted comparing the feeding value of silages made from birdsfoot trefoil (BFT, Lotus corniculatus L.) that had been selected for low (BFTL), medium (BFTM), and high (BFTH) levels of condensed tannins (CT) to an alfalfa silage (AS) when fed as the principal forage in total mixed rations. Diets also included corn silage, high-moisture shelled corn, soybean meal, soy hulls, and supplemental fat. In trial 1, 32 lactating Holstein cows were blocked by days in milk, assigned to treatment sequences in 8 balanced 4 × 4 Latin squares, and fed 50% dietary dry matter from AS or 1 of 3 BFT silages containing 0.6, 1.2, or 1.7% CT. Diets averaged 17.5 to 19.5% crude protein and 26% neutral detergent fiber on a dry matter basis. Data were collected over the last 2 wk of each 4-wk period. Intakes were 1.3 to 2.8 kg of dry matter/d greater on BFT than on AS and cows gained 0.5 kg of body weight/d on BFT diets while losing 0.14 kg of body weight/d on the AS diet; this resulted in greater milk per dry matter intake (DMI) on AS. Linear effects indicated true protein yield and milk urea nitrogen declined with increasing CT concentration and quadratic effects indicated DMI, energy-corrected milk, and fat yield were increased at intermediate CT concentration. True protein yield and apparent N-efficiency were greater, and milk urea nitrogen lower, on all BFT diets than on AS. In trial 2, 50 lactating Holstein cows were fed a covariate AS diet for 2 wk and then blocked by parity and days in milk and randomly assigned to 1 of 5 diets that were fed continuously for 12 wk. Diets contained (dry matter basis) 48% AS, 16% AS plus 32% of 1 of 3 BFT silages with 0.5, 0.8, or 1.5% CT, or 48% of an equal mixture of each BFT silage. Diets averaged 16.5% crude protein and 30% neutral detergent fiber. Intake and milk yield tended to be lower on AS than BFT, but body weight gains averaged 0.6 kg/d on all diets. Cows fed any of the BFT silages had reduced milk urea nitrogen

  7. Lipopolysaccharide derived from the digestive tract triggers an inflammatory response in the uterus of mid-lactating dairy cows during SARA.

    PubMed

    Bilal, Muhammad Shahid; Abaker, Juma Ahamed; Ul Aabdin, Zain; Xu, Tianle; Dai, Hongyu; Zhang, Kai; Liu, Xinxin; Shen, Xiangzhen

    2016-12-12

    The aims of the current study were to evaluate the inflammatory response in cow uterus and to explore the molecular mechanism triggered by high concentrate-induced subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) in mid-lactating dairy cows. Twelve mid-lactating Holstein cows with an average weight of 455 kg were allocated into two groups subjected to two diets for 18-weeks either a low-concentrate (LC) group containing 4:6 (NDF: NFC) and a high-concentrate (HC) group containing 6:4 (non-forage carbohydrates, NFC): (neutral detergent fiber, NDF) ratio based on dry matter. The HC group showed lower ruminal pH and higher lipopolysaccharide (LPS) concentrations in both the rumen and peripheral plasma compared to the LC group. The LPS concentrations in the rumen fluid and the peripheral plasma were found significantly increased in the HC group compared to the LC group. The concentrations of IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-6 were significantly higher in the HC group compared to the LC group. The uterus of SARA cows revealed elevated mRNA concentrations of nuclear transcription factors and pro-inflammatory cytokines, which confirmed the presence of inflammation. The occurrence of uterine inflammation was further validated by the increased protein expression of NF-κB-p65 and its active phosphorylated variant in the uterus of SARA cows. Similarly, the inflammatory genes TLR4, LBP, MyD88, TRAF-6, NF-κB, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α and IL-1β were significantly upregulated in the uterus of the HC versus the LC group. Therefore, the results indicated that LPS derived from the rumen triggered the genes associated with inflammation in the uterus of mid-lactating dairy cows fed a high-concentrate diet, causing endometritis.

  8. Effect of forage particle length on rumen fermentation, sorting and chewing activity of late-lactation and non-lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Suarez-Mena, F X; Zanton, G I; Heinrichs, A J

    2013-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of varying forage particle length on chewing activity, sorting behavior, rumen pH and rumen fill in late lactation and dry dairy cattle, fed rations with similar physically effective NDF but different mean particle length. Treatments consisted of three diets differing only in geometric mean length of forage: hay (5.40, 8.96 and 77.90 mm, for short (S), medium (M) and long (L) diets, respectively) for Experiment 1 (E1), and straw (10.16, 24.68 and 80.37 mm) for S, M and L diets, respectively, for Experiment 2 (E2). Hay or straw comprised the sole source of forage (50% and 75% of ration dry matter (DM) for E1 and E2, respectively). Both experiments used three rumen cannulated Holstein dairy cows, in late lactation for E1 and dry in E2, with 3 × 3 Latin square designs with 14 day periods. In E1, DM intake (DMI; 18.3 ± 2.1 kg/day; mean ± s.e.), pH (6.4 ± 0.1), time spent eating (280 ± 22.5 min/day), time spent ruminating (487 ± 17 min/day), and total time spent chewing (767 ± 34 min/day) were not different, whereas eating minutes per kilogram of DMI and NDF intake (NDFI) tended to increase linearly as forage length increased. Rumen digesta volume (l; 113.3 S, 117.8 M and 114.4 L ± 17.1) had a quadratic response, and rumen digesta weight tended to respond quadratically; however, differences were numerically small. In E2, DMI (8.3 ± 1.3 kg/day), pH (6.7 ± 0.1), time spent eating (236 ± 23.5 min/day), time spent ruminating (468 ± 45.2 min/day), total time spent chewing (704 ± 67.7 min/day) and minutes per kilogram NDFI were not different, whereas minutes per kilogram of DMI had a trend for a quadratic effect. Rumen digesta volume (111 ± 18.8 l) and weight (103 ± 17.4 kg) were not different. In both experiments, cows sorted against longer particles as determined by a particle length selection index; this behavior increased linearly as particle length increased. Greater forage particle length increased

  9. Preference and behavior of lactating dairy cows given free access to pasture at two herbage masses and two distances.

    PubMed

    Motupalli, P R; Sinclair, L A; Charlton, G L; Bleach, E C; Rutter, S M

    2014-11-01

    A number of factors influence dairy cow preference to be indoors or at pasture. The study reported here investigated whether herbage mass and distance affects preference and if continuously housed cows exhibited behavioral and production differences compared to cows that had free access to pasture. Dairy cows (n = 16) were offered a free choice of being in cubicle housing (1.5 cubicles/cow) or at pasture with a high (3,000 ± 200 kg DM/ha) vs. low (1,800 ± 200 kg DM/ha) herbage mass. A control group (n = 16) was confined to cubicle housing for the duration of the study. Each herbage mass was offered at either a near (38 m) or far (254 m) distance in a 2 × 2 factorial crossover design to determine motivation to access pasture. Overall, dairy cows expressed a partial preference to be at pasture, spending 68.7% of their time at pasture. This was not affected (P > 0.05) by herbage mass. Both grass intake (P = 0.001) and grazing time (P = 0.039) was greater when cows were offered the high herbage mass. Neither total mixed ration intake (P > 0.05) nor milk yield (P > 0.05) was affected by herbage mass or distance. Additionally, no interaction existed between herbage mass and distance (P > 0.05). Distance affected preference: overall time on pasture was greater at the near distance (P = 0.002); however, nighttime use was not affected by distance (P = 0.184). Housed cows produced less milk than free-choice cows and this was potentially due to a combination of decreased lying time in housed cows (P < 0.001) and grass intake (1.22 kg/d) in free-choice cows. This study shows that herbage mass is not a major factor driving dairy cow preference for pasture, but distance does affect preference for pasture during the day. Additionally, there are clear production and welfare benefits for providing cows with a choice to be at pasture or cubicle housing over being continuously housed. Further research is necessary to quantify the effect of lying time on milk yields.

  10. Effects of fatty acid supplements on milk yield and energy balance of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Harvatine, K J; Allen, M S

    2006-03-01

    Saturated and unsaturated fatty acid supplements (FS) were evaluated for effects on yield of milk and milk components, concentration of milk components including milk fatty acid profile, and energy balance. Eight ruminally and duodenally cannulated cows and 8 noncannulated cows were used in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design experiment with 21-d periods. Treatments were control and a linear substitution of 2.5% fatty acids from saturated FS (SAT; prilled, hydrogenated free fatty acids) for partially unsaturated FS (UNS; calcium soaps of long-chain fatty acids). The SAT treatment did not change milk fat concentration, but UNS linearly decreased milk fat in cannulated cows and tended to decrease milk fat in noncannulated cows compared with control. Milk fat depression with UNS corresponded to increased concentrations of trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid and trans C18:1 fatty acids in milk. Milk fat profile was similar for SAT and control, but UNS decreased concentration of short- and medium-chain FA. Digestible energy intake tended to decrease linearly with increasing unsaturated FS in cannulated and noncannulated cows. Increasing unsaturated FS linearly increased empty body weight and net energy gain in cannulated cows, whereas increasing saturated FS linearly increased plasma insulin. Efficiency of conversion of digestible energy to milk tended to decrease linearly with increasing unsaturated FS for cannulated cows only. Addition of SAT provided little benefit to production and energy balance, whereas UNS decreased energy intake and milk energy yield.

  11. Effect of intrauterine dextrose or antibiotic therapy on reproductive performance of lactating dairy cows diagnosed with clinical endometritis.

    PubMed

    Brick, T A; Schuenemann, G M; Bas, S; Daniels, J B; Pinto, C R; Rings, D M; Rajala-Schultz, P J

    2012-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the responses to treatments (clinical cure and cow survival 14 d posttherapy) of cows with clinical endometritis (CE) that received intrauterine infusion of a hypertonic solution of 50% dextrose (DEX) or subcutaneous ceftiofur crystalline free acid (CCFA) and subsequent pregnancy per artificial insemination (P/AI) in cows with CE compared with cows without CE. Cows (n=760) from 2 dairy herds were screened for CE using vaginoscopy and measurement of cervix diameters [exam 1; 26±3 d in milk (DIM)]. Cows with vaginal discharge scores of 2 or 3 (scale 0-3) were stratified by parity and randomly allocated into 1 of 3 treatment groups: (1) intrauterine infusion (∼200 mL) of 50% DEX solution (n=79); (2) 6.6 mg/kg single-dose of subcutaneous administration of CCFA (n=75); or (3) untreated control animals (CON, n=83). Fourteen days posttherapy (at 40±3 DIM), cows with CE were re-examined (exam 2; 40±3 DIM) to assess the response to treatments. All cows were presynchronized with 2 injections of PGF(2α) given 14 d apart (starting at 26±3 DIM) followed by Ovsynch (OV; GnRH-7 d-PGF-56 h-GnRH 16 h-timed-AI) 12 to 14 d later. Cows displaying signs of standing estrus any time during the protocol were inseminated, whereas the remaining cows were subjected to timed AI 16 h after the second GnRH of OV. Pregnancy diagnosis was performed via transrectal ultrasonography at 39±3d post-AI followed by pregnancy reconfirmation 30 d after the first pregnancy diagnosis. Uterine swabs revealed that Arcanobacterium pyogenes and Escherichia coli were the most predominant bacteria isolated at the time of treatments. Mortality within 14 d posttherapy was not different among treatment groups. Cows with CE had greater cervical diameter at exam 1 and decreased P/AI compared with cows without CE. Treatment with CCFA or DEX increased the proportion of cows with clear vaginal discharge (score 0; clinical cure) 14 d posttherapy compared with CON cows

  12. The effect of high and low levels of supplementation on milk production, nitrogen utilization efficiency, and milk protein fractions in late-lactation dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Reid, M; O'Donovan, M; Murphy, J P; Fleming, C; Kennedy, E; Lewis, E

    2015-08-01

    To fill the feed deficit in the autumn/late lactation period in a seasonal grazing system, supplementation is required. This study aimed to investigate the use of baled grass silage or concentrate as supplementation to grazing dairy cows in late lactation. Eighty-four grass-based spring-calving dairy cows, averaging 212d in milk, were allocated to 1 of 6 treatments [high grass allowance (HG), low grass allowance (LG), grass with a low concentrate allocation (GCL), grass with a low grass silage allocation (GSL), grass with a high concentrate allocation (GCH), and grass with a high grass silage allocation (GSH)] to measure the effects of using baled grass silage or concentrate as supplements to grazed grass. Effects on intake, milk yield, milk composition and N fractions, and N utilization efficiency were measured. Treatments HG and LG received 17 and 14kg of dry matter (DM) grass/cow per d, respectively. Treatments GCL and GSL were offered 14kg of DM grass/cow per d and 3kg of DM of supplementation/cow per d. Treatments GCH and GSH were offered 11kg of DM grass/cow per d and 6kg of DM of supplementation/cow per d. Milk yield was greatest in the GCH treatment and milk solids yield was greatest in both concentrate-supplemented treatments. The HG and LG treatments excreted a greater quantity of N as a proportion of N intake than the supplemented treatments. The HG treatment also excreted the greatest total quantity of N. This indicates an improvement in N utilization efficiency when supplementation is offered compared with grazing only. Offering 6kg of DM of either grass silage or concentrate as supplementation decreased milk true protein concentration compared with offering a grass-only diet. This suggests that increasing the proportion of supplementation relative to grass may negatively affect milk processability, which is associated with milk true protein concentration.

  13. Effect of core body temperature, time of day, and climate conditions on behavioral patterns of lactating dairy cows experiencing mild to moderate heat stress.

    PubMed

    Allen, J D; Hall, L W; Collier, R J; Smith, J F

    2015-01-01

    Cattle show several responses to heat load, including spending more time standing. Little is known about what benefit this may provide for the animals. Data from 3 separate cooling management trials were analyzed to investigate the relationship between behavioral patterns in lactating dairy cows experiencing mild to moderate heat stress and their body temperature. Cows (n=157) were each fitted with a leg data logger that measured position and an intravaginal data logger that measures core body temperature (CBT). Ambient conditions were also collected. All data were standardized to 5-min intervals, and information was divided into several categories: when standing and lying bouts were initiated and the continuance of each bout (7,963 lying and 6,276 standing bouts). In one location, cows were continuously subjected to heat-stress levels according to temperature-humidity index (THI) range (THI≥72). The THI range for the other 2 locations was below and above a heat-stress threshold of 72 THI. Overall and regardless of period of day, cows stood up at greater CBT compared with continuing to stand or switching to a lying position. In contrast, cows lay down at lower CBT compared with continuing to lie or switching to a standing position, and lying bouts lasted longer when cows had lower CBT. Standing bouts also lasted longer when cattle had greater CBT, and they were less likely to lie down (less than 50% of lying bouts initiated) when their body temperature was over 38.8°C. Also, cow standing behavior was affected once THI reached 68. Increasing CBT decreased lying duration and increased standing duration. A CBT of 38.93°C marked a 50% likelihood a cow would be standing. This is the first physiological evidence that standing may help cool cows and provides insight into a communally observed behavioral response to heat. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Influence of methionine supply on the response of lactational performance of dairy cows to supplementary folic acid and vitamin B12.

    PubMed

    Preynat, A; Lapierre, H; Thivierge, M C; Palin, M F; Matte, J J; Desrochers, A; Girard, C L

    2009-04-01

    supplement of folic acid and vitamin B(12) on lactational performance of dairy cows were not due to an improvement in methyl groups supply, because RPM supplement, a source of preformed methyl groups, did not alter the cow responsiveness to vitamin supplements.

  15. Machine learning algorithms for the prediction of conception success to a given insemination in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hempstalk, K; McParland, S; Berry, D P

    2015-08-01

    The ability to accurately predict the conception outcome for a future mating would be of considerable benefit for producers in deciding what mating plan (i.e., expensive semen or less expensive semen) to implement for a given cow. The objective of the present study was to use herd- and cow-level factors to predict the likelihood of conception success to a given insemination (i.e., conception outcome not including embryo loss); of particular interest in the present study was the usefulness of milk mid-infrared (MIR) spectral data in augmenting the accuracy of the prediction model. A total of 4,341 insemination records with conception outcome information from 2,874 lactations on 1,789 cows from 7 research herds for the years 2009 to 2014 were available. The data set was separated into a calibration data set and a validation data set using either of 2 approaches: (1) the calibration data set contained records from all 7 farms for the years 2009 to 2011, inclusive, and the validation data set included data from the 7 farms for the years 2012 to 2014, inclusive, or (2) the calibration data set contained records from 5 farms for all 6 yr and the validation data set contained information from the other 2 farms for all 6 yr. The prediction models were developed with 8 different machine learning algorithms in the calibration data set using standard 10-times 10-fold cross-validation and also by evaluating in the validation data set. The area under curve (AUC) for the receiver operating curve varied from 0.487 to 0.675 across the different algorithms and scenarios investigated. Logistic regression was generally the best-performing algorithm. The AUC was generally inferior for the external validation data sets compared with the calibration data sets. The inclusion of milk MIR in the prediction model generally did not improve the accuracy of prediction. Despite the fair AUC for predicting conception outcome under the different scenarios investigated, the model provided a

  16. Manageable risk factors associated with the lactational incidence, elimination, and prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus intramammary infections in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Dufour, S; Dohoo, I R; Barkema, H W; Descôteaux, L; Devries, T J; Reyher, K K; Roy, J-P; Scholl, D T

    2012-03-01

    Staphylococcus aureus intramammary infections (IMI) are a major cause of mastitis on farms worldwide. Incidence and elimination rates are the key determinants of prevalence of Staph. aureus, and risk factors associated with these rates must be identified, prioritized, and controlled to obtain long-term reduction in prevalence. The objectives of this study were to identify manageable risk factors associated with the lactational incidence, elimination, and prevalence of Staph. aureus IMI. A cohort of 90 Canadian dairy farms was recruited and followed in 2007 and 2008. Quarter milk samples were collected repeatedly from a selection of cows, and bacteriological culture was realized to assess incidence, elimination, and prevalence of Staph. aureus IMI. Practices used on farms were measured using direct observations and a validated questionnaire. A linear regression model was used to explore the relationship between herd IMI prevalence and incidence and elimination rates. Multilevel logistic regression models were used to compute measures of associations between practices used on farms and IMI incidence, elimination, and prevalence. The herd incidence rate was the most important predictor of herd IMI prevalence: a reduction of the incidence rate equivalent to its interquartile range (0.011 new IMI/quarter-month) was associated with a prevalence reduction of 2.2 percentage points; in comparison, an equivalent increase of the elimination rate by its interquartile range (0.36 eliminated IMI/quarter-month) resulted in a prevalence reduction of 0.4 percentage points. Postmilking teat disinfection and blanket dry-cow therapy were already implemented by most herds. Most of the practices associated with Staph. aureus IMI incidence were related to milking procedures. Among these, wearing gloves during milking showed desirable associations with IMI incidence, elimination, and prevalence. Similarly, adequate teat-end condition and use of premilking teat disinfection were associated

  17. Reproductive performance of lactating dairy cows managed for first service using timed artificial insemination with or without detection of estrus using an activity-monitoring system.

    PubMed

    Fricke, P M; Giordano, J O; Valenza, A; Lopes, G; Amundson, M C; Carvalho, P D

    2014-05-01

    Lactating dairy cows (n=1,025) on a commercial dairy farm were randomly assigned at 10 ± 3 d in milk (DIM) to 1 of 3 treatments for submitting cows to first artificial insemination (AI) and were fitted with activity-monitoring tags (Heatime; SCR Engineers Ltd., Netanya, Israel) at 24 ± 3 DIM. Cows (n=339) in treatment 1 were inseminated based on increased activity from the end of the voluntary waiting period (50 DIM) until submission to an Ovsynch protocol; cows without increased activity from 21 to 65 DIM began an Ovsynch protocol at 65 ± 3 DIM, whereas cows without increased activity from 21 to 50 DIM but not from 51 to 79 DIM began an Ovsynch protocol at 79 ± 3 DIM. Cows (n=340) in treatment 2 were inseminated based on activity after the second PGF2α injection of a Presynch-Ovsynch protocol at 50 DIM, and cows without increased activity began an Ovsynch protocol at 65 ± 3 DIM. Cows (n=346) in treatment 3 were monitored for activity after the second PGF2α injection of a Presynch-Ovsynch protocol, but all cows received timed AI (TAI) at 75 ± 3 DIM after completing the Presynch-Ovsynch protocol. The activity-monitoring system detected increased activity in 56, 69, and 70% of cows in treatments 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Treatment-2 cows had the fewest average days to first AI (62.5), treatment-3 cows had the most average days to first AI (74.9), and treatment-1 cows had intermediate average days to first AI (67.4). Treatment-1 and -2 cows in which inseminations occurred as a combination between increased activity and TAI had fewer overall pregnancies per AI (P/AI) 35 d after AI (32% for both treatments) compared with treatment-3 cows, all of which received TAI after completing the Presynch-Ovsynch protocol (40%). Based on survival analysis, although the rate at which cows were inseminated differed among treatments, treatment did not affect the proportion of cows pregnant by 300 DIM. Thus, use of an activity-monitoring system to inseminate cows based on

  18. Lactational response of dairy cows to diets varying in ruminal solubilities of carbohydrate and crude protein.

    PubMed

    Casper, D P; Schingoethe, D J

    1989-04-01

    Sixty high producing Holstein cows were randomly assigned in a 3 x 2 factorial to evaluate three sources of carbohydrates that differed in solubility and degradability (corn, barley, and dried whey) with two sources of CP solubility (soybean meal and urea) during wk 4 through 14 postpartum. Total mixed diets, formulated to be isonitrogenous at 16% CP, contained (DM basis) 40% corn silage, 10% chopped alfalfa hay, and 50% of the respective concentrate mix. Milk production (32.8, 31.5, and 31.3 kg/d) was highest for cows fed corn, whereas 4% FCM (30.0, 27.9, and 29.5 kg/d) was similar for cows fed corn and dried whey and lower for cows fed barley. Percentages of fat (3.37, 3.36, and 3.51) and protein (3.05, 3.00, and 2.98) were similar for cows fed all carbohydrate sources. Solubility of protein (soybean meal versus urea) did not affect production of milk (32.2 and 31.5 kg/d) and 4% FCM (29.4, and 28.9 kg/d). Intake of DM was lowest for cows fed barley (20.4, 18.8, and 20.5 kg/d), and intakes were similar (19.9 and 19.9 kg/d) for cows fed soybean meal and urea. Providing sources of carbohydrates in the diet that are more soluble and degradable (i.e., barley or dried whey) did not give the expected increase in utilization of a highly soluble CP source (urea) for milk production.

  19. Early lactation feed intake and milk yield responses of dairy cows offered grass silages harvested at early maturity stages.

    PubMed

    Randby, A T; Weisbjerg, M R; Nørgaard, P; Heringstad, B

    2012-01-01

    The main objective was to evaluate the potential of grass silages of very high quality to support a high milk yield with a low or moderate, or even without concentrate supplementation. Production responses to increased levels of concentrate supplementation with 3 primary growth grass silages differing in digestibility were studied using 66 Norwegian Red dairy cows. Roundbale silage was produced from a timothy-dominated sward at very early (H1), early (H2), and normal (H3) stages of crop maturity. Crops were rapidly wilted (<24h) and a formic acid-based additive was applied. All silages were restrictedly fermented. Silage digestible organic matter in dry matter (DM) values were 747, 708, and 647 g/kg of DM for H1, H2, and H3, respectively. Dietary treatments were fed in a 3×3 factorial arrangement of the 3 silages supplemented with 3 concentrate levels (4, 8, and 12 kg/d) and, additionally, H1 was offered without concentrates and H3 with 16 kg/d, giving a total of 11 diets. Cows, blocked according to parity and calving date, were introduced to the experiment before calving and kept in the experiment until wk 16 of lactation. Silage was offered ad libitum in loose housing and concentrate was available in automatic feed stations. Intake of grass silage when fed as the sole feed was 16.9 kg of DM on average for lactation wk 1 to 16. When H1 was supplemented with 4 or 8 kg of concentrates, silage DM intake did not change, but total DM intake increased to 20.6 and 23.7 kg/d, respectively. Energy-corrected milk (ECM) yield increased from 23.4 kg when H1 was offered without concentrate supplement to 29.1 and 32.8 kg when supplemented with 4 or 8 kg concentrate, respectively. None of the other diets equaled the yield obtained by H1 plus 8 kg of concentrate. Feed intake and yield of cows offered H3 plus 4 kg of concentrates were strongly constrained by high dietary fiber concentration. They consumed 16.5 g of neutral detergent fiber/kg of body weight and spent more time

  20. Effects of growth hormone-releasing factor (GRF), somatostatin (SRIF) and glucose on growth hormone (GH) secretion in lactating dairy cows

    SciTech Connect

    Sartin, J.L.; Kemppainen, R.J.; Cummins, K.A.

    1986-03-01

    Lactation in dairy cows is associated with increased GH concentrations and high milk production. This study was begun to examine hypothalamic and pituitary sensitivity to GH secretory stimuli. In experiment 1, cows (nonlactating, NL; days 30 and 90 postpartum, pp) fitted with jugular cannulas were administered GRF (n = 10; .08 or .4 ug/kg BW) on successive days or were administered a loading dose of glucose and infused with the same .56 mmol/kg dose for 20 min. In experiment 2, cows (n = 5; days 5 and 30 pp) were infused with saline or SRIF (.2 or .8 mg/kg). After 15 min of infusion, cows were injected with GRF (.1 ug/kg). Plasma was collected and assayed for GH by radioimmunoassay. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance. In experiment 1, glucose had no effect on GH in NL or day 90 cows but increased GH in day 30 cows (p < .05). GRF stimulated GH in all groups but no dose effect was seen at day 30. There was a greater GRF effect at day 90 than in NL cows (p < .05). In experiment 2, GRF had a greater effect at day 30 than day 5 (p < .05). SRIF at both doses slightly blocked GRF actions at day 30 but only the .8 dose blocked GRF actions at day 5 (p < .05). Greater pulses of SRIF with greater sensitivity to suppression by glucose in early lactation could explain the glucose and GRF data. Increased pituitary sensitivity to SRIF but lower SRIF levels may be present in late lactation.

  1. Effect of variable water intake as mediated by dietary potassium carbonate supplementation on rumen dynamics in lactating dairy cows

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Water is a critical nutrient for dairy cows, with intake varying with environment, production, and diet. However, little work has evaluated the effects of water intake on rumen parameters. Using dietary potassium carbonate (Kcarb) as a K supplement to increase water intake, the objective of this stu...

  2. Effects of corn-based diet starch content and corn particle size on lactation performance, digestibility, and bacterial protein flow in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Fredin, S M; Ferraretto, L F; Akins, M S; Bertics, S J; Shaver, R D

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of dietary starch content in corn-based diets and corn particle size on lactation performance, nutrient digestibility, and bacterial protein flow in dairy cows using the omasal and reticular sampling technique. Eight ruminally cannulated lactating multiparous Holstein cows were used in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Treatments were fine (FG; mean particle size=552µm) and coarse (CG; 1,270µm) ground dry shelled corn in normal- (NS) and reduced- (RS) starch diets fed as total mixed rations. The NS and RS rations contained 27 and 18% starch (dry matter basis), respectively, and were formulated by partially replacing corn with soy hull pellets. Mean dry matter intake was unaffected by treatment (23.2kg/d). Cows fed NS diets produced 1.9kg/d more milk and 0.06kg/d more milk protein compared with cows fed RS diets. Cows fed NSFG and RSCG diets produced more fat-corrected milk than did cows fed NSCG and RSFG diets. Milk urea concentration was decreased for cows fed NS diets (12.4mg/dL) compared with RS diets (13.5mg/dL). Ruminal digestibility of neutral detergent fiber (NDF; % of NDF intake) determined by the omasal sampling technique was increased in cows fed RS diets compared with NS diets (43.4 vs. 34.9%), and total-tract digestibility of NDF (% of NDF intake) was increased in cows fed RS diets compared with those fed NS diets (50.1 vs. 43.1%). Ruminal digestibility of starch (% of starch intake) determined by the omasal sampling technique was greater in cows fed NS diets compared with those fed RS diets (85.6 vs. 81.6%). Total-tract starch digestion was increased in cows fed RS diets compared with those fed NS diets (96.9 vs. 94.6%) and in cows fed FG diets compared with those fed CG diets (98.0 vs. 93.5%). Bacterial protein flow was unaffected by treatment. The omasal and reticular sampling techniques resulted in similar treatment effects for nutrient flow

  3. Feed degradability, rumen fermentation and blood metabolites in response to essential oil addition to fistulated non-lactating dairy cow diets.

    PubMed

    Suksombat, Wisitiporn; Nanon, Atitthan; Meeprom, Chayapol; Lounglawan, Pipat

    2017-02-09

    The effects of essential oils (EOs) on ruminal nutrient disappearance, rumen fermentation and blood metabolites in fistulated non-lactating dairy cows were studied. Four fistulated non-lactaing dairy cows were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design; the experiment consisted of four periods of 21 days in each period, with the first 14 days for adaptation followed by 7 days of measurement period. Animals were fed 3 kg/day of 21% crude protein (CP) concentrate and ad libitum corn silage. Treatments were: (i) control; (ii) 2 mL Allicin/cow/day; (iii) 2 mL zingiberene/cow/day; and (iv) 2 mL citral/cow/day. The results demonstrated that EOs increased dry matter and neutral detergent fiber degradabilities at 48 and 72 h, but had no effect on acid detergent fiber and CP degradabilities. EOs did not change ruminal pH, ammonia nitrogen, protozoa, volatile fatty acid concentrations and blood glucose but reduced blood urea nitrogen at 4 h.

  4. Effects of corn-based diet starch content and neutral detergent fiber source on lactation performance, digestibility, and bacterial protein flow in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Fredin, S M; Akins, M S; Ferraretto, L F; Shaver, R D

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of corn-based dietary starch content and source of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) on lactation performance, nutrient digestion, bacterial protein flow, and ruminal parameters in lactating dairy cows. Eight ruminally cannulated multiparous Holstein cows averaging 193±11d in milk were randomly assigned to treatments in a replicated 4×4 Latin squ