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Sample records for lactating dairy cows

  1. Mustard bran in lactating dairy cow diets.

    PubMed

    Maiga, H A; Bauer, M L; Dahlen, C R; Badaruddin, M; Scholljegerdes, E J

    2011-06-01

    . The increased milk yield observed in experiment 1 was not observed in experiment 2. Adding 8% of MB to lactating cow diets had a mixed effect on DMI and milk production. Milk component yields and milk quality were not affected. Feeding this level of MB presents a hemolytic danger to lactating dairy cows. PMID:21605775

  2. Effect of uterine size on fertility of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Baez, Giovanni M; Barletta, Rafael V; Guenther, Jerry N; Gaska, Jerry M; Wiltbank, Milo C

    2016-05-01

    There are multiple reasons for reduced fertility in lactating dairy cows. We hypothesized that one cause of reduced fertility could be the overall size of the reproductive tract, particularly the uterus, given well-established uterine functions in many aspects of the reproductive process. Thus, the objectives of this study were to evaluate the variability in uterine size in primiparous and multiparous dairy cows and to analyze whether there was an association between uterine size and fertility, particularly within a given parity. Lactating Holstein dairy cows (n = 704) were synchronized to receive timed artificial insemination (TAI) on Day 81 ± 3 of lactation by using the Double-Ovsynch protocol (GnRH-7d-PGF-3d-GnRH-7d-GnRH-7d-PGF-56h-GnRH-16h-TAI). At the time of the last injection of PGF, uterine diameter was determined at the greater curvature using ultrasound, uterine length was determined by rectal palpation, and uterine volume was calculated from these two measurements. Blood samples were also taken to measure progesterone to assure synchronization of all cows used in the final analysis (n = 616; primiparous, n = 289; multiparous, n = 327). Primiparous cows had greater percentage pregnant/AI (P/AI) compared to multiparous cows (49.8% vs. 39.1% at 67 days of pregnancy diagnosis, P = 0.009). Diameter, length, and volume of the uterus were larger in multiparous than in primiparous cows (P < 0.001). For multiparous cows, uterine diameter and volume were smaller in cows that became pregnant compared to cows that were not pregnant to the TAI with a similar tendency observed in primiparous cows. Logistic regression and quartile analysis also showed that as uterine volume increased, there was decreased P/AI in either primiparous or multiparous cows. Thus, there is a negative association between uterine size and fertility in lactating dairy cows with a larger uterus associated with reduced fertility, particularly for multiparous cows.

  3. Short communication: Diurnal feeding pattern of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    DeVries, T J; von Keyserlingk, M A G; Beauchemin, K A

    2003-12-01

    The objectives of this research were to: 1) describe the diurnal variation in feed alley attendance patterns of lactating dairy cows, 2) describe the sources of variation in these patterns, and 3) determine the effects of altering the feed push-up schedule on these patterns. An electronic monitoring system was used to record individual cow presence (6-s resolution) at the feed alley for 24 cows housed in a free-stall barn. Cows were subjected to 2 feeding schedules: 1) baseline schedule, where cows were fed at 0600 and 1515 h and feed was pushed closer to the cows at 1100 and 2130 h; and 2) experimental schedule, where 2 additional feed push-ups at 0030 and 0330 h were added to the baseline schedule. With the data collected from the monitoring system, description of the feed alley attendance patterns on a per minute basis of the group of cows was undertaken. Feed alley attendance was consistently higher during the day and early evening compared with the late night and early morning hours. The greatest percentage of cows attending the feed alley was seen after the delivery of fresh feed and the return from milking. The addition of extra feed push-ups in the early morning hours did little to increase feeding activity. It can be concluded that milking and delivery of fresh feed had a much greater affect on the diurnal pattern of feed alley attendance than did the feed push-ups.

  4. Mammary Epithelial Cell Hierarchy in the Dairy Cow Throughout Lactation.

    PubMed

    Perruchot, Marie-Hélène; Arévalo-Turrubiarte, Magdalena; Dufreneix, Florence; Finot, Laurence; Lollivier, Vanessa; Chanat, Eric; Mayeur, Frédérique; Dessauge, Frédéric

    2016-10-01

    The plasticity of the mammary gland relies on adult mammary stem cells (MaSCs) and their progenitors, which give rise to various populations of mammary epithelial cells (MECs). To face global challenges, an in-depth characterization of milk-producing animal mammary gland plasticity is required, to select more sustainable and robust dairy cows. The identification and characterization of MaSC and their progenitors will also provide innovative tools in veterinary/human medicine regarding mammary tissue damage (carcinogenesis, bacterial infections). This study aimed to determine the dynamics of mammary cell populations throughout a lactation cycle. Using mammary biopsies from primiparous lactating dairy cows at 30, 90, 150, and 250 days of lactation, we phenotyped cell populations by flow cytometry. To investigate cell lineages, we used specific cell-surface markers, including CD49f, CD24, EpCAM (epithelial cell adhesion molecule), and CD10. Two cell populations linked to milk production were identified: CD49f(+)/EpCAM(-) (y = 0.88x + 4.42, R(2) = 0.36, P < 0.05) and CD49f(-)/EpCAM(-) (y = -1.15x + 92.44, R(2) = 0.51, P < 0.05) cells. Combining immunostaining analysis, flow cytometry, daily milk production data, and statistical approaches, we defined a stem cell population (CD24(+)/CD49f(+)) and four progenitor cell populations that include bipotent luminal progenitors (CD24(-)/CD49f(+)), lumino-alveolar progenitors (CD24(-)/EpCAM(+)), myoepithelial progenitors (CD24(+)/CD10(-)), and lumino-ductal progenitors (CD49f(-)/EpCAM(+)). Interestingly, we found that the bipotent luminal progenitors (CD24(-)/CD49f(+)) decreased significantly (P < 0.05) during lactation. This study provides the first results of mammary cell lineage, allowing insight into mammary cell plasticity during lactation.

  5. Mammary Epithelial Cell Hierarchy in the Dairy Cow Throughout Lactation.

    PubMed

    Perruchot, Marie-Hélène; Arévalo-Turrubiarte, Magdalena; Dufreneix, Florence; Finot, Laurence; Lollivier, Vanessa; Chanat, Eric; Mayeur, Frédérique; Dessauge, Frédéric

    2016-10-01

    The plasticity of the mammary gland relies on adult mammary stem cells (MaSCs) and their progenitors, which give rise to various populations of mammary epithelial cells (MECs). To face global challenges, an in-depth characterization of milk-producing animal mammary gland plasticity is required, to select more sustainable and robust dairy cows. The identification and characterization of MaSC and their progenitors will also provide innovative tools in veterinary/human medicine regarding mammary tissue damage (carcinogenesis, bacterial infections). This study aimed to determine the dynamics of mammary cell populations throughout a lactation cycle. Using mammary biopsies from primiparous lactating dairy cows at 30, 90, 150, and 250 days of lactation, we phenotyped cell populations by flow cytometry. To investigate cell lineages, we used specific cell-surface markers, including CD49f, CD24, EpCAM (epithelial cell adhesion molecule), and CD10. Two cell populations linked to milk production were identified: CD49f(+)/EpCAM(-) (y = 0.88x + 4.42, R(2) = 0.36, P < 0.05) and CD49f(-)/EpCAM(-) (y = -1.15x + 92.44, R(2) = 0.51, P < 0.05) cells. Combining immunostaining analysis, flow cytometry, daily milk production data, and statistical approaches, we defined a stem cell population (CD24(+)/CD49f(+)) and four progenitor cell populations that include bipotent luminal progenitors (CD24(-)/CD49f(+)), lumino-alveolar progenitors (CD24(-)/EpCAM(+)), myoepithelial progenitors (CD24(+)/CD10(-)), and lumino-ductal progenitors (CD49f(-)/EpCAM(+)). Interestingly, we found that the bipotent luminal progenitors (CD24(-)/CD49f(+)) decreased significantly (P < 0.05) during lactation. This study provides the first results of mammary cell lineage, allowing insight into mammary cell plasticity during lactation. PMID:27520504

  6. Associations of insulin resistance later in lactation on fertility of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Baruselli, P S; Vieira, L M; Sá Filho, M F; Mingoti, R D; Ferreira, R M; Chiaratti, M R; Oliveira, L H; Sales, J N; Sartori, R

    2016-07-01

    The challenge of getting dairy cows pregnant during early lactation is a well-described, worldwide problem. However, specifically in farms with poor reproductive, nutritional, and environmental conditions/management, a low pregnancy rate during early lactation is followed inevitably by an increased number of nonpregnant cows after 150 days in milk, with even more difficulties to achieve pregnancy. Therefore, several studies were designed to understand and develop strategies to mitigate reduced fertility of cows during late lactation. Experiments were performed under tropical regions to determine metabolic status during lactation and association of stage of lactation on oocyte quality and fertility. Lactating cows with extended days not pregnant (e.g.,>150 days in milk) often had systemic metabolic alterations, including development of peripheral insulin resistance and various oocyte alterations, including reduced expression of genes encoding glucose transport proteins, reduced amounts of mtDNA, increased expression of mitochondria-related genes, and increased expression of apoptosis-related genes. Additionally, in vitro embryo production and pregnancy per AI were lower in late- versus early-lactation cows in some but not all studies. Notwithstanding, when a normal embryo was transferred to a cow in late lactation, the pregnancy per transfer was reasonable, reinforcing the assertion that fertility problems in late-lactation cows may be associated with oocyte quality, fertilization, and/or failure of early embryo development. In conclusion, insulin resistance may reduce oocyte competence and consequently fertility in late-lactation dairy cows. PMID:27158130

  7. Energy content of reduced-fat distillers grains for lactating dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Byproducts of ethanol production have become an important source of nutrients for dairy cows in recent years but accurate energy values have yet to be determined. Eight Holstein and 8 Jersey multiparous, lactating cows were used to complete 56 energy balances to determine the energy content of redu...

  8. Effect of Dietary Forage to Concentrate Ratio on Lactation Performance and Methane Emission from Dairy Cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to determine the effect of feeding diets with different forage to concentrate ratios (F:C) on performance and methane (CH4) emission from lactating dairy cows. Eight multiparous Holstein cows (means ± standard deviation: 620 ± 38 kg of body weight (BW); 41 ± 34 days in milk (DIM)) ...

  9. Leptin, GH, PRL, insulin and metabolic parameters throughout the dry period and lactation in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Accorsi, P A; Govoni, N; Gaiani, R; Pezzi, C; Seren, E; Tamanini, C

    2005-06-01

    Leptin may play a role in the endocrine-metabolic processes that guarantee the physiological course of lactation in dairy cattle. This study was aimed at determining the changes in plasma concentrations of leptin and some of the main hormones and metabolites involved in the lactogenetic process in high-yielding dairy cows throughout lactation; we also wanted to assess whether leptin secretion is subjected to seasonal influences. Blood samples were collected from 23 Italian Friesian dairy cows from the end of a lactation to the ninth month of the subsequent one; in addition, blood was sampled from 47 dairy cows in different phases of lactation during February and July. Plasma concentrations of leptin, growth hormone (GH), insulin, prolactin (PRL), glucose, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and urea were quantified by either validated radioimmunoassay (RIA) or enzymatic colorimetric methods. At the beginning of lactation, GH concentrations significantly increased, while a significant reduction occurred in leptin and insulin. This endocrine condition, such as the significant increase in NEFA plasma concentrations, is indicative of a marked lipid mobilization. In the more advanced stages of lactation, when both energy and protein balances become positive, leptin plasma concentrations increased, whereas GH and NEFA concentrations declined. During the summer months, a significant increase in leptin plasma concentrations, irrespective of the phase of lactation, was observed. Collectively, our findings suggest that, in dairy cows, leptin may represent a 'metabolic signal' of animal's status of fattening and nutritional level; in addition, leptin seems to be influenced by photoperiod and environmental temperature.

  10. Replacing dietary soybean meal with canola meal improves production and efficiency of lactating dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous research suggested that crude protein (CP) from canola meal (CM) is used more efficiently than CP from solvent soybean meal (SBM) by lactating dairy cows. We tested whether dietary CP content influenced relative effectiveness of equal supplemental CP from either CM or SBM. Fifty lactating H...

  11. Invited review: palmitic and stearic acid metabolism in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Loften, J R; Linn, J G; Drackley, J K; Jenkins, T C; Soderholm, C G; Kertz, A F

    2014-01-01

    Energy is the most limiting nutritional component in diets for high-producing dairy cows. Palmitic (C16:0) and stearic (C18:0) acids have unique and specific functions in lactating dairy cows beyond a ubiquitous energy source. This review delineates their metabolism and usage in lactating dairy cows from diet to milk production. Palmitic acid is the fatty acid (FA) found in the greatest quantity in milk fat. Dietary sources of C16:0 generally increase milk fat yield and are used as an energy source for milk production and replenishing body weight loss during periods of negative energy balance. Stearic acid is the most abundant FA available to the dairy cow and is used to a greater extent for milk production and energy balance than C16:0. However, C18:0 is also intimately involved in milk fat production. Quantifying the transfer of each FA from diet into milk fat is complicated by de novo synthesis of C16:0 and desaturation of C18:0 to oleic acid in the mammary gland. In addition, incorporation of both FA into milk fat appears to be limited by the cow's requirement to maintain fluidity of milk, which requires a balance between saturated and unsaturated FA. Oleic acid is the second most abundant FA in milk fat and likely the main unsaturated FA involved in regulating fluidity of milk. Because the mammary gland can desaturate C18:0 to oleic acid, C18:0 appears to have a more prominent role in milk production than C16:0. To understand metabolism and utilization of these FA in lactating dairy cows, we reviewed production and milk fat synthesis studies. Additional and longer lactation studies on feeding both FA to lactating dairy cows are required to better delineate their roles in optimizing milk production and milk FA composition and yield.

  12. Gestation and lactation of dairy cows: a role for folic acid?

    PubMed

    Girard, C L; Matte, J J; Tremblay, G F

    1995-02-01

    Twenty-four multiparous and 16 primiparous dairy cows were assigned by parity, BW, and milk production to 20 blocks of 2 cows each. Within each block, the cows were injected weekly with either 0 or 160 mg of folic acid from 45 d after mating to 6 wk after parturition. Supplementary folic acid augmented the placental and colostral transfer of folates to the calf but had no effect on blood hemoglobin, birth weight, or growth and feed intake of the calf during the first 10 wk of life. The supplemental folic acid increased serum folates but had no marked effect on blood hemoglobin and BW of cows. Supplementary folic acid tended to increase milk folates, milk production, and the percentage of milk protein during the last half of the lactation curve but had no effect on milk folates and milk production during the first 6 wk after parturition when the injections of folic acid increased the percentage of milk protein in multiparous cows but had no effect on primiparous cows. The supply of folates by the diet and the synthesis by ruminal microflora is sufficient to prevent folic acid deficiency in dairy cows and to maintain normal gestation and lactation, but not to achieve maximal production of milk and protein in multiparous dairy cows during gestation and lactation.

  13. Liver protein expression in dairy cows with high liver triglycerides in early lactation.

    PubMed

    Sejersen, H; Sørensen, M T; Larsen, T; Bendixen, E; Ingvartsen, K L

    2012-05-01

    Fatty liver is a frequent subclinical health disorder in dairy cows that may lead to disorders related to the liver function. However, the effect of triglyceride (TG) accumulation on liver metabolic pathways is still unclear. The objective was, therefore, to characterize quantitative differences in the liver proteome between early lactation dairy cows with a low or high liver TG content. The liver proteome analysis indicated that a high liver TG content in early lactation dairy cows is associated with increased oxidation of saturated fatty acids, oxidative stress, and urea synthesis and decreased oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids. Furthermore, liver gluconeogenesis is apparently not impaired by an increased liver TG content. Based on correlations between liver proteins and plasma components, we suggest that future studies investigate the sensitivity and specificity of plasma aspartate aminotransferase, β-hydroxybutyrate, total bilirubin, total bile acids, and γ-glutamyltransferase for potential use as blood-based biomarkers for early detection of fatty liver in dairy cows. Our study is the first to study the proteome of dairy cows with naturally occurring fatty liver in early lactation.

  14. Continuous lactation in dairy cows: effect on milk production and mammary nutrient supply and extraction.

    PubMed

    Madsen, T G; Nielsen, M O; Andersen, J B; Ingvartsen, K L

    2008-05-01

    Reports over the past decade have indicated that normal lactational performance can be achieved in genetically superior and high-producing dairy cows, even when the dry period between 2 lactations is omitted. The hypothesis tested in this experiment was that normal lactogenesis I and metabolic function may be achievable in continuously milked high-yielding dairy cows as a result of the genetic selection for lactation performance and hence longevity of mammary epithelial cells. The milk production and mammary nutrient uptake in response to omission of the dry period for cows with an expected peak milk yield higher than 45 kg/d were studied in 28 Holstein dairy cows managed without bovine somatotropin. Performance and metabolic parameters were followed in late gestation and in the following early lactation. Fourteen cows were milked continuously throughout late gestation, and another 14 dairy cows experienced a 7-wk prepartum dry period. Continuous milking during the prepartum period reduced milk production in the following early lactation period by >20%. The reduced milk production could not be readily ascribed to inefficiency of the mechanisms responsible for nutrient uptake by the lactating mammary epithelial cells, nor to systemic endocrine changes. This suggests that lowered mammary nutrient uptake must have been associated with reduced mammary blood flow, metabolic activity, or both, most likely as a result of disturbed lactogenesis I prepartum or lactogenesis II postpartum triggered by as yet unknown local mechanisms. Milk protein content was elevated by 0.4 percentage units in the continuously milked cows. The underlying reason is unknown, but given the current pricing system for milk, it deserves to be further investigated.

  15. Understanding diversity of hepatic metabolism and related adaptations in the early lactating dairy cow.

    PubMed

    van Dorland, H A; Bruckmaier, R M

    2013-08-01

    The onset of lactation in dairy cows represents a major metabolic challenge that involves large adaptations in glucose, fatty acid, and mineral metabolism to support lactation and to avoid metabolic dysfunction. The complex system of adaptation can differ considerably between cows, and may have a genetic base. In the present review, the variation in adaptive reactions in dairy cows is discussed. In these studies, the liver being a key metabolic regulator for understanding the variation in adaptive performance of the dairy cow was the main focus of research. Liver function was evaluated through gene expression measurements; to explain the associated phenotypic variability and to identify descriptors for metabolic robustness in dairy cows. Hence, the identified genes involved act as a connecting link between the genotype encoded on the DNA and the phenotypic expression of the target factors at a protein level. The integration of phenotypic data, including gene expression profiles, and genomic data will facilitate a better characterization of the complex interplay between these levels, and will improve the genetic understanding necessary to unravel a certain trait or multi-trait such as metabolic robustness in dairy cows.

  16. The milk yield response to frequent milking in early lactation of dairy cows is locally regulated.

    PubMed

    Wall, E H; McFadden, T B

    2007-02-01

    Frequent milking during early lactation of dairy cows increases milk production throughout lactation; however, whether this response is regulated systemically via lactogenic hormones, locally in the mammary gland, or both is unknown. We hypothesized that the effects of frequent milking on milk production during early lactation are regulated via local mechanisms. Ten multiparous cows were assigned at parturition to unilateral frequent milking [UFM; twice daily milking of the left udder half (2x), or 4 times daily milking of the right udder half (4x)] for d 1 to 21 of lactation. After treatment, cows were milked twice daily for the remainder of lactation. At the first milking after calving, milk yield from individual quarters was measured to verify that udder halves produced equal amounts of milk prior to treatment. Thereafter, individual quarters were milked on d 3 and 7, weekly for the first 5 wk of lactation, and once every 3 mo for the remainder of lactation. During UFM, cows produced 3.9 +/- 0.7 kg/d more from the side milked 4x than the side milked 2x. Upon cessation of treatment, milk production from the side milked 4x decreased, but remained at 1.8 +/- 0.5 kg/d more than the side milked 2x for the remainder of lactation. After milk yield was corrected to the equivalent of a whole-udder basis, acute milk yield responses to frequent milking were found to be consistent with previous reports. Moreover, we observed greater persistency in the milk yield response, which lasted throughout lactation. We conclude that both immediate and persistent effects on milk production of frequent milking during early lactation are regulated at the level of the mammary gland. Our results demonstrate that UFM is a valid and efficient model for investigating the effects of frequent milking during early lactation in dairy cows.

  17. Economic evaluation of stall stocking density of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    De Vries, Albert; Dechassa, Hailegziabher; Hogeveen, Henk

    2016-05-01

    An increase in stall stocking density (SSD), as measured by the number of lactating cows per stall in a freestall barn, reduces cow performance, such as milk yield and fertility, but may increase farm profitability. Our objectives were to calculate effects of varying SSD on profit per stall for a range of effects on cow performances and external farm factors and store results in regression metamodels. The literature on quantified effects of SSD on cow performance that directly affects cash flow was found to be weak. We assumed effects of SSD on milk yield, probability of conception, and probability of culling. External farm factors were probability of insemination, feed price, and milk price. A herd budget-simulation model was used which mimics the performance of cows in a herd and calculates profit per stall per year and other results. The SSD varied from 100 (no overstocking) to 150% (severe overstocking) in steps of 10%. Sensitivity analyses for effects of SSD on cow performance and effects of external farm factors were performed. Three regression metamodels were developed. The first metamodel accurately predicted profitability at 100% SSD for all variations in the external farm factors. Optimal SSD varied from 100 to 150% SSD, depending on the combination of inputs, and was very sensitive to changes in the size of the milk loss and milk and feed prices. Average optimal SSD of all 2,187 combinations of inputs was 120% SSD and average maximum increase in profit was $99/stall per year. Of the 2,187 combinations of inputs, 18% were ascending (maximum increase in profit >150% SSD), 33% were descending (maximum profit at 100% SSD), and 50% had a maximum increase in profit between 100 and 150% SSD. The second metamodel accurately captured changes in profit for all combinations of biological and external inputs and SSD. A third metamodel captured breakeven daily milk losses which would result in the same profit as at 100% SSD given the same external farm factors. In

  18. Economic evaluation of stall stocking density of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    De Vries, Albert; Dechassa, Hailegziabher; Hogeveen, Henk

    2016-05-01

    An increase in stall stocking density (SSD), as measured by the number of lactating cows per stall in a freestall barn, reduces cow performance, such as milk yield and fertility, but may increase farm profitability. Our objectives were to calculate effects of varying SSD on profit per stall for a range of effects on cow performances and external farm factors and store results in regression metamodels. The literature on quantified effects of SSD on cow performance that directly affects cash flow was found to be weak. We assumed effects of SSD on milk yield, probability of conception, and probability of culling. External farm factors were probability of insemination, feed price, and milk price. A herd budget-simulation model was used which mimics the performance of cows in a herd and calculates profit per stall per year and other results. The SSD varied from 100 (no overstocking) to 150% (severe overstocking) in steps of 10%. Sensitivity analyses for effects of SSD on cow performance and effects of external farm factors were performed. Three regression metamodels were developed. The first metamodel accurately predicted profitability at 100% SSD for all variations in the external farm factors. Optimal SSD varied from 100 to 150% SSD, depending on the combination of inputs, and was very sensitive to changes in the size of the milk loss and milk and feed prices. Average optimal SSD of all 2,187 combinations of inputs was 120% SSD and average maximum increase in profit was $99/stall per year. Of the 2,187 combinations of inputs, 18% were ascending (maximum increase in profit >150% SSD), 33% were descending (maximum profit at 100% SSD), and 50% had a maximum increase in profit between 100 and 150% SSD. The second metamodel accurately captured changes in profit for all combinations of biological and external inputs and SSD. A third metamodel captured breakeven daily milk losses which would result in the same profit as at 100% SSD given the same external farm factors. In

  19. Relationship among blood indicators of lipomobilization and hepatic function during early lactation in high-yielding dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    Muiño, Rodrigo; Pereira, Víctor; Campos, Rómulo; Benedito, José Luis

    2011-01-01

    Blood indicators are used as a tool to diagnose metabolic disorders. The present work was conducted to study the relationships among blood indicators of lipomobilization and hepatic function in high-yielding dairy cows. Two groups of Holstein cows were studied: 27 early lactation cows and 14 mid lactation cows from four different herds with similar husbandry characteristics in Galicia, Spain. Blood samples were obtained to measure beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), triglycerides (TG), and the activity of aspartate transaminase (AST) and gamma-glutamyl transferase. Cows in early lactation had higher levels of BHB and NEFA than mid lactation cows. High lipomobilization (NEFA > 400 µmol/L) was detected in 67% and 7% of early lactation and mid lactation cows, respectively, while subclinical ketosis (BHB > 1.2 mmol/L) was detected in 41% and 28% of the early lactation and lactation cows, respectively. TG concentrations were low in all cows suffering subclinical ketosis and in 61% of the cows with high lipomobilization. During early lactation, 30% of cows suffered hepatic lipidosis as detected by levels of AST. Compromised hepatic function was observed in early lactation cows as shown by lower concentrations of glucose, total protein, and urea. PMID:21897097

  20. Validation of handheld meters to measure blood L-lactate concentration in dairy cows and calves.

    PubMed

    Burfeind, O; Heuwieser, W

    2012-11-01

    In cattle, blood lactate was measured in various conditions such as parturition and dystocia. To our knowledge, to date, no handheld device has been validated for the use in cows and only one handheld device was validated for the use in calves. When determining plasma lactate concentrations blood samples have to be processed carefully. Sodium fluoride was recommended to inhibit glycolysis and to stabilize plasma lactate concentrations during transport. However, its effect on measurements conducted with electrochemical meters has not been studied. The objectives of 3 experiments were to study factors influencing measures of L-lactate in dairy cows (e.g., different anticoagulants, different methods) and to validate a handheld device (Lactate Scout, SensLab GmbH, Leipzig, Germany) to determine L-lactate concentration in dairy cows and calves. In a first approach, blood samples from 49 cows were analyzed by 2 different laboratories. Measures of L-lactate concentration were correlated between the different laboratories in both lithium heparin plasma (r=0.98) and sodium fluoride plasma (r=0.99). In a second approach, these samples were analyzed using 3 methods [Lactate Scout, Biosen C_line (EKF Diagnostics GmbH, Barleben, Germany), and commercial laboratory]. Concentrations of L-lactate measured in lithium heparin did not differ when analyzed with the Lactate Scout (0.99±0.35 mmol/L), the Biosen C_line (0.81±0.26 mmol/L), or the laboratory (1.0±0.36 mmol/L). Concentrations of L-lactate measured in sodium fluoride, however, were higher when analyzed with the Lactate Scout (1.85±0.66 mmol/L) compared with those measured with the Biosen C_line (0.92±0.37 mmol/L) and by the commercial laboratory (0.72±0.45 mmol/L). In the second and third experiments, blood samples from 173 cows and 106 calves were analyzed using the 3 methods (Lactate Scout, Biosen C_line, and commercial laboratory). L-Lactate concentrations measured with the 3 methods were correlated (cows: Lactate

  1. Effect of concentrate feeding method on the performance of dairy cows in early to mid lactation.

    PubMed

    Purcell, P J; Law, R A; Gordon, A W; McGettrick, S A; Ferris, C P

    2016-04-01

    The objective of the current study was to determine the effects of concentrate feeding method on milk yield and composition, dry matter (DM) intake (DMI), body weight and body condition score, reproductive performance, energy balance, and blood metabolites of housed (i.e., accommodated indoors) dairy cows in early to mid lactation. Eighty-eight multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows were managed on 1 of 4 concentrate feeding methods (CFM; 22 cows per CFM) for the first 21 wk postpartum. Cows on all 4 CFM were offered grass silage plus maize silage (in a 70:30 ratio on a DM basis) ad libitum throughout the study. In addition, cows had a target concentrate allocation of 11 kg/cow per day (from d 13 postpartum) via 1 of 4 CFM, consisting of (1) offered on a flat-rate basis via an out-of-parlor feeding system, (2) offered based on individual cow's milk yields in early lactation via an out-of-parlor feeding system, (3) offered as part of a partial mixed ration (target intake of 5 kg/cow per day) with additional concentrate offered based on individual cow's milk yields in early lactation via an out-of-parlor feeding system, and (4) offered as part of a partial mixed ration containing a fixed quantity of concentrate for each cow in the group. In addition, all cows were offered 1 kg/cow per day of concentrate pellets via an in-parlor feeding system. We detected no effect of CFM on concentrate or total DMI, mean daily milk yield, concentrations and yields of milk fat and protein, or metabolizable energy intakes, requirements, or balances throughout the study. We also found no effects of CFM on mean or final body weight, mean or final body condition score, conception rates to first service, or any of the blood metabolites examined. The results of this study suggest that CFM has little effect on the overall performance of higher-yielding dairy cows in early to mid lactation when offered diets based on conserved forages. PMID:26805998

  2. Liver fat content and lipid metabolism in dairy cows during early lactation and during a mid-lactation feed restriction.

    PubMed

    Gross, J J; Schwarz, F J; Eder, K; van Dorland, H A; Bruckmaier, R M

    2013-08-01

    During the transition period, the lipid metabolism of dairy cows is markedly affected by energy status. Fatty liver is one of the main health disorders after parturition. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a negative energy balance (NEB) at 2 stages in lactation [NEB at the onset of lactation postpartum (p.p.) and a deliberately induced NEB by feed restriction near 100 d in milk] on liver triglyceride content and parameters of lipid metabolism in plasma and liver based on mRNA abundance of associated genes. Fifty multiparous dairy cows were studied from wk 3 antepartum to approximately wk 17 p.p. in 2 periods. According to their energy balance in period 1 (parturition to wk 12 p.p.), cows were allocated to a control (CON; n=25) or a restriction group (RES; 70% of energy requirements; n=25) for 3 wk in mid lactation starting at around 100 d in milk (period 2). Liver triglyceride (TG) content, plasma nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), and β-hydroxybutyrate were highest in wk 1 p.p. and decreased thereafter. During period 2, feed restriction did not affect liver TG and β-hydroxybutyrate concentration, whereas NEFA concentration was increased in RES cows as compared with CON cows. Hepatic mRNA abundances of tumor necrosis factor α, ATP citrate lyase, mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase, and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 2 were not altered by lactational and energy status during both experimental periods. The expression of fatty acid synthase was higher in period 2 compared with period 1, but did not differ between RES and CON groups. The mRNA abundance of acetyl-coenzyme A-carboxylase showed a tendency toward higher expression during period 2 compared with period 1. The solute carrier family 27 (fatty acid transporter), member 1 (SLC27A1) was upregulated in wk 1 p.p. and also during feed restriction in RES cows. In conclusion, the present study shows that a NEB has different effects on hepatic lipid metabolism and TG

  3. Exogenous glucagon effects on health and reproductive performance of lactating dairy cows with mild fatty liver.

    PubMed

    Bobe, G; Ametaj, B N; Young, J W; Anderson, L L; Beitz, D C

    2007-12-01

    Severe fatty liver, a metabolic disease of dairy cows in early lactation, results in decreased health and reproductive performance, but can be alleviated by treatment with i.v. injections of glucagon. Mild fatty liver in cows effects on health and reproductive performance were determined by treatment with 14-day s.c. injections of glucagon at 7.5 or 15 mg/day. Multiparous Holstein cows (n=32) were grouped into Normal and Susceptible based on liver triacylglycerol concentrations (>1% liver tissue biopsy wet weight) at day 8 postpartum (day 0=day of parturition). Susceptible cows (n=24) were assigned randomly to three groups and s.c. injected with 0mg glucagon [60 ml 0.15M NaCl] [n=8] (same for Normal cows), 2.5 mg glucagon, or 5 mg glucagon every 8 h for 14 days, beginning day 8 postpartum. Mild fatty liver resulted in an increased number of days with elevated body temperature during the injection period, an increased incidence of mastitis after glucagon treatment, increased days to first estrus and insemination, increased days before conception occurred, and decreased conception rate. In cows with mild fatty liver, glucagon (15 mg/day) decreased the number of days with elevated body temperature and the incidence of mastitis after hormone treatment. From these results, we suggest that mild fatty liver is detrimental to health and reproduction of dairy cows and, furthermore, that exogenous glucagon decreases some of these detrimental effects.

  4. The effects of milk yield and stage of lactation on the partitioning of nutrients in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kirkland, R M; Gordon, F J

    2001-01-01

    The objective of the experiment was to examine, using indirect calorimetry, the effects of milk yield and stage of lactation on the response in milk and body tissue energy, and heat production, to a reduction (decrement) in nutrient intake (assessed as metabolizable energy intake). Eight lactating dairy cows, four representing each of two stages of lactation [either mean initial days in milk (DIM) 158 (SD 6.1) or 414 (SD 51.1)] were used. Each cow underwent four 17-d periods incorporating two physiological states [number of mammary glands milked: either four (periods 1 and 2), or two (periods 3 and 4)], and two levels of metabolizable energy intake within each physiological state [either sufficient to meet requirements for zero tissue balance plus 10 MJ/d (periods 1 and 3)] or these allowances reduced by 20 MJ/d in the subsequent period (periods 2 and 4, respectively). Partitioning was calculated from the changes in metabolizable energy intake, milk energy, tissue energy, and heat production between DIM groups and between four and two gland milking (milk yield) components of the study. Partitioning of the changes in metabolizable energy intake was not influenced by DIM, but milk yield response was greater in the early lactation cows compared with the late group. Cows milked in four glands (higher milk yield) partitioned a significantly greater proportion of decremental changes in metabolizable energy intake to milk energy and less to tissue energy, than when milked in only two glands (lower milk yield). PMID:11210038

  5. Choline and Choline Metabolite Patterns and Associations in Blood and Milk during Lactation in Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Artegoitia, Virginia M.; Middleton, Jesse L.; Harte, Federico M.; Campagna, Shawn R.; de Veth, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Milk and dairy products are an important source of choline, a nutrient essential for human health. Infant formula derived from bovine milk contains a number of metabolic forms of choline, all contribute to the growth and development of the newborn. At present, little is known about the factors that influence the concentrations of choline metabolites in milk. The objectives of this study were to characterize and then evaluate associations for choline and its metabolites in blood and milk through the first 37 weeks of lactation in the dairy cow. Milk and blood samples from twelve Holstein cows were collected in early, mid and late lactation and analyzed for acetylcholine, free choline, betaine, glycerophosphocholine, lysophosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylcholine, phosphocholine and sphingomyelin using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and quantified using stable isotope-labeled internal standards. Total choline concentration in plasma, which was almost entirely phosphatidylcholine, increased 10-times from early to late lactation (1305 to 13,535 µmol/L). In milk, phosphocholine was the main metabolite in early lactation (492 µmol/L), which is a similar concentration to that found in human milk, however, phosphocholine concentration decreased exponentially through lactation to 43 µmol/L in late lactation. In contrast, phosphatidylcholine was the main metabolite in mid and late lactation (188 µmol/L and 659 µmol/L, respectively), with the increase through lactation positively correlated with phosphatidylcholine in plasma (R2 = 0.78). Unlike previously reported with human milk we found no correlation between plasma free choline concentration and milk choline metabolites. The changes in pattern of phosphocholine and phosphatidylcholine in milk through lactation observed in the bovine suggests that it is possible to manufacture infant formula that more closely matches these metabolites profile in human milk. PMID:25157578

  6. Choline and choline metabolite patterns and associations in blood and milk during lactation in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Artegoitia, Virginia M; Middleton, Jesse L; Harte, Federico M; Campagna, Shawn R; de Veth, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Milk and dairy products are an important source of choline, a nutrient essential for human health. Infant formula derived from bovine milk contains a number of metabolic forms of choline, all contribute to the growth and development of the newborn. At present, little is known about the factors that influence the concentrations of choline metabolites in milk. The objectives of this study were to characterize and then evaluate associations for choline and its metabolites in blood and milk through the first 37 weeks of lactation in the dairy cow. Milk and blood samples from twelve Holstein cows were collected in early, mid and late lactation and analyzed for acetylcholine, free choline, betaine, glycerophosphocholine, lysophosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylcholine, phosphocholine and sphingomyelin using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and quantified using stable isotope-labeled internal standards. Total choline concentration in plasma, which was almost entirely phosphatidylcholine, increased 10-times from early to late lactation (1305 to 13,535 µmol/L). In milk, phosphocholine was the main metabolite in early lactation (492 µmol/L), which is a similar concentration to that found in human milk, however, phosphocholine concentration decreased exponentially through lactation to 43 µmol/L in late lactation. In contrast, phosphatidylcholine was the main metabolite in mid and late lactation (188 µmol/L and 659 µmol/L, respectively), with the increase through lactation positively correlated with phosphatidylcholine in plasma (R2 = 0.78). Unlike previously reported with human milk we found no correlation between plasma free choline concentration and milk choline metabolites. The changes in pattern of phosphocholine and phosphatidylcholine in milk through lactation observed in the bovine suggests that it is possible to manufacture infant formula that more closely matches these metabolites profile in human milk.

  7. Factors of a noninfectious nature affecting fertility after artificial insemination in lactating dairy cows. A review.

    PubMed

    López-Gatius, F

    2012-04-01

    After 80 years of the commercial application of artificial insemination (AI) in the cow, the method still has numerous benefits over natural insemination including worldwide gene improvement. The efficiency of insemination depends, among many other factors, on the delivery of an appropriate number of normal spermatozoa to the appropriate reproductive tract site at the appropriate time of estrus. The metabolic clearance of steroid hormones and pregnancy associated glycoproteins and the negative effects of different types of stress related to high milk production makes the high-producing dairy cow a good animal model for addressing factors affecting fertility. Nevertheless, extensive studies have shown a positive link between high milk production in an individual cow and high fertility. When a cow becomes pregnant, the effect of pregnancy loss on its reproductive cycle is also a topic of interest. This paper reviews the factors of a noninfectious nature that affect the fertility of lactating dairy cows following AI. Special attention is paid to factors related to the cow and its environment and to estrus confirmation at insemination. Pregnancy maintenance during the late embryonic/early fetal period is discussed as a critical step. Finally, the use of Doppler ultrasonography is described as an available research tool for improving our current understanding of the health of the genital structures and conceptus. PMID:22153267

  8. Relationships between fertility and postpartum changes in body condition and body weight in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, P D; Souza, A H; Amundson, M C; Hackbart, K S; Fuenzalida, M J; Herlihy, M M; Ayres, H; Dresch, A R; Vieira, L M; Guenther, J N; Grummer, R R; Fricke, P M; Shaver, R D; Wiltbank, M C

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between energy status and fertility in dairy cattle was retrospectively analyzed by comparing fertility with body condition score (BCS) near artificial insemination (AI; experiment 1), early postpartum changes in BCS (experiment 2), and postpartum changes in body weight (BW; experiment 3). To reduce the effect of cyclicity status, all cows were synchronized with Double-Ovsynch protocol before timed AI. In experiment 1, BCS of lactating dairy cows (n = 1,103) was evaluated near AI. Most cows (93%) were cycling at initiation of the breeding Ovsynch protocol (first GnRH injection). A lower percentage pregnant to AI (P/AI) was found in cows with lower (≤ 2.50) versus higher (≥ 2.75) BCS (40.4 vs. 49.2%). In experiment 2, lactating dairy cows on 2 commercial dairies (n = 1,887) were divided by BCS change from calving until the third week postpartum. Overall, P/AI at 70-d pregnancy diagnosis differed dramatically by BCS change and was least for cows that lost BCS, intermediate for cows that maintained BCS, and greatest for cows that gained BCS [22.8% (180/789), 36.0% (243/675), and 78.3% (331/423), respectively]. Surprisingly, a difference existed between farms with BCS change dramatically affecting P/AI on one farm and no effect on the other farm. In experiment 3, lactating dairy cows (n = 71) had BW measured weekly from the first to ninth week postpartum and then had superovulation induced using a modified Double-Ovsynch protocol. Cows were divided into quartiles (Q) by percentage of BW change (Q1 = least change; Q4 = most change) from calving until the third week postpartum. No effect was detected of quartile on number of ovulations, total embryos collected, or percentage of oocytes that were fertilized; however, the percentage of fertilized oocytes that were transferable embryos was greater for cows in Q1, Q2, and Q3 than Q4 (83.8, 75.2, 82.6, and 53.2%, respectively). In addition, percentage of degenerated embryos was least for cows in Q1, Q2

  9. Modification of immune responses and digestive system microbiota of lactating dairy cows by feeding Bovamine(R)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated the immune modulatory effects as well as effects on productivity of Bovamine® (Lactobacillus acidophilus strain NP51 and Probionibacterium freudenreichii) fed to Holstein and Jersey dairy cows during late lactation (average DIM = 202.44 days on wk-0). Cows were randomized to treatment g...

  10. Starch levels on performance, milk composition and energy balance of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Carmo, Carolina Almeida; Batistel, Fernanda; de Souza, Jonas; Martinez, Junio Cesar; Correa, Paulo; Pedroso, Alexandre Mendonça; Santos, Flávio Augusto Portela

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of starch levels in diets with the replacement of citrus pulp for corn on milk yield, milk composition, and energy balance of lactating dairy cows. Twenty-eight multiparous Holstein cows were used in seven 4 × 4 Latin squares conducted concurrently, and each experimental period consisted of 20 days (16 days for adaptation and 4 days for sampling). The experimental treatments comprised four starch levels: 15, 20, 25, and 30% in the diet. The dry matter intake increased linearly with increasing starch levels. The milk yield and 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield showed quadratic response to increasing starch levels. The milk protein content and milk total solids content responded linearly to increasing starch levels. The feed efficiency, milk lactose content, milk urea nitrogen, plasma urea nitrogen, and plasma glucose concentration were not affected by starch levels. The estimated net energy for lactation (NEL) intake increased linearly as the starch level was raised. Although the milk NEL output per kilogram of milk was not affected by starch, the milk NEL output daily responded quadratically to starch levels. In addition, the NEL in body weight gain also responded quadratically to increasing starch levels. The efficiency of energy use for milk yield and the NEL efficiency for production also responded quadratically to increasing starch levels. Diets for mid-lactating dairy cows producing around 30 kg/day of milk should be formulated to provide around 25% starch to optimize performance.

  11. Comparison of two treatment strategies for cows with metritis in high-risk lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Armengol, Ramon; Fraile, Lorenzo

    2015-05-01

    Acute puerperal metritis (APM) and clinical metritis (CM) are uterine diseases frequently diagnosed in dairy cows. These diseases are responsible for important economic loss because of their effect not only on reproductive performance but also on milk production. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of two different treatments for metritis on dairy cows by measuring their reproductive performance in the next gestation. The end points to measure the reproductive performance included the conception rate at the first artificial insemination, the number of days at conception, and the proportion of nonpregnant cows at over 150 days after beginning milk production. The study was carried out in a high production dairy cow farm located in Lleida (northeast Spain). Recordings of 1044 parturitions of 747 Holstein cows were controlled in this farm from 2009 to 2014. Cows were diagnosed as suffering from metritis (APM or CM) if the following parameters were observed: an abnormally enlarged uterus; a fetid, watery, reddish brown uterine discharge with (APM) or without (CM) fever (>39.5 °C); and presence (APM) or absence (CM) of signs of systemic illness (decreased milk production, dullness, or other signs of toxemia) within 21 days postpartum. Afterwards, cows suffering from metritis (APM or CM) were randomly assigned and balanced to two groups: (1) animals receiving parenteral amoxicillin intramuscularly plus intrauterine infusion with oxytetracycline (P + I group) and (2) animals receiving only parenteral amoxicillin intramuscularly (P group). Furthermore, reproductive performance of cows without metritis was used as reference (control group). Metritis was diagnosed in 27.5% of the total parturitions included in the study (288 of 1044). In particular, metritis was diagnosed in 30.5% (118 of 387) and 25.9% (170 of 657) of parturitions from heifers and multiparous cows, respectively. Reproductive performance was not significantly affected by the parity, the

  12. Effects of injectable trace mineral supplementation in lactating dairy cows with elevated somatic cell counts.

    PubMed

    Ganda, E K; Bisinotto, R S; Vasquez, A K; Teixeira, A G V; Machado, V S; Foditsch, C; Bicalho, M; Lima, F S; Stephens, L; Gomes, M S; Dias, J M; Bicalho, R C

    2016-09-01

    Objectives of this clinical trial were to evaluate the effects of injectable trace mineral supplementation (ITMS) on somatic cell count (SCC), linear score (LS), milk yield, milk fat and protein contents, subclinical mastitis cure, and incidence of clinical mastitis in cows with elevated SCC. Holstein cows from a commercial dairy farm in New York were evaluated for subclinical mastitis, defined as SCC ≥200×10(3) cells/mL on the test day preceding enrollment. Cows with a history of treatment for clinical mastitis in the current lactation and those pregnant for more than 150d were not eligible for enrollment. Cows fitting inclusion criteria were randomly allocated to 1 of 2 treatment groups. Cows assigned to ITMS (n=306) received 1 subcutaneous injection containing zinc (300mg), manganese (50mg), selenium (25mg), and copper (75mg) at enrollment (d 0). Control cows (CTRL; n=314) received 1 subcutaneous injection of sterile saline solution. Following treatment, visual assessment of milk was performed daily, and cows with abnormal milk (i.e., presence of flakes, clots, or serous milk) were diagnosed with clinical mastitis (CM). Chronic clinical mastitis was defined as cows with 3 or more cases of CM. Milk yield, milk fat and protein contents, SCC, and LS were evaluated once monthly. Additionally, randomly selected animals were sampled to test serum concentrations of selected minerals on d0 and 30 (n=30 cows/treatment). Treatment did not affect serum concentrations of calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, copper, iron, manganese, selenium, and zinc on d30. Injectable supplementation with trace minerals did not improve overall cure of subclinical mastitis (CTRL=42.8 vs. ITMS=46.5%), although a tendency was observed in cows with 3 or more lactations (CTRL=27.1 vs. ITMS=40.0%). Supplementation did not reduce treatment incidence of CM (CTRL=48.2 vs. ITMS=41.7%); however, it tended to reduce the proportion of cows diagnosed with chronic CM (CTRL=16.9 vs. ITMS=12

  13. Blood metabolites and hormone-based programmed breeding treatments in anovular lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    El-Zarkouny, S Z; Shaaban, M M; Stevenson, J S

    2011-12-01

    The objectives were to (1) compare blood metabolites and reproductive outcomes in lactating dairy cows not inseminated before (early) and after (late) 100 d in milk (DIM) because of prolonged anovulation or anestrus; and (2) evaluate reproductive responses of cows ≤100 DIM to GnRH+PGF(2α) treatments after a fixed-time artificial insemination (AI; Ovsynch) or after induced estrus (Select Synch). In blood samples collected before initiating hormone-based breeding programs, anovular cows ≤ 100 DIM had the greatest serum total protein and globulin concentrations and the lowest tri-iodothyronine concentrations. Anovular and ovular cows >100 DIM had the greatest serum urea concentrations. Ovaries in cows (n=40) >100 DIM were examined by transrectal ultrasonography, and those without a detectable corpus luteum (CL; anovular) were given GnRH and then PGF(2α) 7 d later (Select Synch), whereas cows with a CL (ovular) were given 2 PGF(2α) injections 12 d apart. Cows were inseminated at observed estrus after the second or only PGF(2α) injection. More ovular (79%; 15/19) than anovular cows (24%; 5/21) were detected in estrus. No differences were detected between ovular and anovular cows in DIM at first AI, conception rate to first AI, cumulative pregnancy rates, number of services per conception, or days open. Cows (n=93) ≤100 DIM were assigned randomly to 3 treatments: (1) control (n=20) AI at estrus; (2) GnRH and then PGF(2α) on 7d (Select Synch; n=42) and monitored for signs of estrus for 5d and AI accordingly; or (3) 2 GnRH injections 9 d apart with PGF(2α) given 48 h before second GnRH injection and AI at 16h after the second GnRH injection (Ovsynch; n=31). Among cows ≤100 DIM, controls had more days to first service (149±16 d) than Select Synch cows (117±7 d). Ovsynch cows had the fewest days to first service (84±10 d) compared with control (149±16 d) and Select Synch (117±7 d) cows. Conception rates in control (25%) and Select Synch (26.2%) cows did

  14. Lactational changes in oxytocin release, intramammary pressure and milking characteristics in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Mayer, H; Bruckmaier, R; Schams, D

    1991-05-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate possible changes of milking-related oxytocin release (Expt 1) and of intramammary pressure and milking characteristics (Expt 2) throughout entire lactations in German Braunvieh dairy cows. Mean oxytocin concentrations after stimulation at onset of milking increased from 18.3 +/- 15.9 to 30.7 +/- 24.1 pg/ml in Expt 1 and decreased from 23.9 +/- 17.6 to 15.4 +/- 9.1 pg/ml in Expt 2, respectively, but remained above the level necessary to elicit complete milk ejection in both trials. Premilking baseline intramammary pressure had its maximum in early lactation until about month 4 and then decreased to approximately 50% of its initial level. Ejection pressure followed a similar pattern, but dropped only to approximately 75% of its maximum. This was due to the constant elevation of pressure increase, reaching its highest level in late lactation. Time from commencement of stimulation until maximum pressure exceeded 1 min in almost all instances even in early lactation and increased throughout lactation. Despite the normal decrease of milk yield average milk flow fell only slightly while maximum flow rate remained almost constant. Pressure increase, milk yield and milk flow were not different after 1 min and after extended stimulation. Thus there were no indications of a decreasing sensitivity of the milk ejection reflex during lactation, and milking characteristics were positively affected by intense teat stimulation. Suggestions for practical dairying are made.

  15. The association between lameness, ovarian cysts and fertility in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Melendez, P; Bartolome, J; Archbald, L F; Donovan, A

    2003-02-01

    The objective of this observational study was to evaluate the association between lameness, ovarian cysts, and fertility in lactating dairy cows. Data analysis of historical records from a 3000 Holstein farm was conducted. Sixty-five cows that became lame within 30 days postpartum were used as cases, and 130 nonlame cows served as controls. The outcome variables were incidence of ovarian cysts (OC, %), conception rate at first service (CRFS, %), overall pregnancy rate (PR, %), and calving to first service interval (CFSI, day), Incidence of OC and CRFS were analyzed by logistic regression, PR by survival analysis and CFSI by ANOVA. Lame cows had a lower CRFS (17.5% versus 42.6%) and higher incidence of OC (25.0% versus 11.1%) than controls (Pcows (P>0.05). There was a multicollinearity relationship between lameness and ovarian cysts. The results show that cows that became lame within the first 30 days postpartum were associated with a higher incidence of ovarian cysts, a lower likelihood of pregnancy, and lower fertility than control cows. Because this is an observational study it is not possible to conclude a cause-effect relationship.

  16. Selenium-fertilized forage as a way to supplement lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Séboussi, R; Tremblay, G F; Ouellet, V; Chouinard, P Y; Chorfi, Y; Bélanger, G; Charbonneau, É

    2016-07-01

    Fertilization with Se improves forage organic Se concentration, but comparisons with other forms of Se supplementation in feeding lactating dairy cows are scarce. Our objective was to compare the effect of Se-enriched forages to dietary sources of inorganic and organic Se. Digestibility, retention, and balance were assessed by measuring Se concentrations in feces, urine, milk, and blood. The resulting effect on antioxidant status and lactation performance of dairy cows was also determined. High-Se silages [1.72 mg of Se/kg of dry matter (DM)] were produced following a spring application of 2.5 kg/ha of Selcote Ultra, whereas low-Se silages (0.05 mg of Se/kg of DM) were produced in the Se-unfertilized portion of the same fields. After a 77±17 d period of Se depletion, 33 late-lactation primiparous Holstein cows were blocked and randomly assigned for 43 d to 1 of 4 experimental total mixed rations fed for ad libitum intake in an unbalanced randomized block design. Treatments consisted of 4 diets: control with low-Se silages, without Se supplement (0.12±0.04 mg of Se/kg of DM); ISe with low-Se silages and inorganic Se (0.80±0.14 mg of Se/kg of DM); YSe with low-Se silages and organic Se from yeast (0.70±0.11 mg of Se/kg of DM); and FSe with high-Se silages, without Se supplement (0.79±0.14 mg of Se/kg of DM). Organic Se, either as YSe or FSe, was more available and more effective to increase blood and milk Se concentrations than ISe. Moreover, FSe was more available than YSe, as cows fed FSe excreted 16 and 22% less Se (as percentage of intake) in feces and urine, respectively, had higher Se apparent absorption (17%), retention (37%), and balance (45%), and had greater concentration of Se in serum (16%) and milk (11%) than cows fed YSe. Antioxidant status (whole blood and plasma glutathione peroxidase, and milk thioredoxin reductase and malondialdehyde) was not affected by treatments. Dry matter intake, yield of actual, energy-corrected, and fat-corrected milk

  17. Development and evaluation of equations for prediction of feed intake for lactating Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Roseler, D K; Fox, D G; Chase, L E; Pell, A N; Stone, W C

    1997-05-01

    Improved prediction equations for dry matter intake (DMI) of Holstein cows that consume high energy diets were developed using regression techniques applied to a comprehensive database. The equations for predicting DMI, which were dependent on parity, accounted for the effects of milk yield, milk protein, body weight (BW), BW change, days pregnant, ambient temperature, relative humidity, and night cooling. A simplified prediction equation of DMI for farm application was developed and based on milk protein yield and BW at calving. An ambient temperature and a lag adjustment factor for early lactation were developed to improve accuracy of prediction of DMI of dairy cows in early lactation. The developed equations for DMI were evaluated against six independent data files. These equations accounted for 55 to 98% of the variation of the weekly group DMI of the independent validation data. The remainder of the variation in intake was attributed to diet, management, and undescribed animal factors. The equations developed in this study had a mean proportional bias of 5.6% and a mean square prediction error of 5.45 kg2/d. Predicted intake using the new equations was within 3 to 8% of actual intake. The new equations must be applied to situations in which Holstein dairy cows are fed highly digestible diets because dietary fill effects are not considered in these equations. The relationship of milk protein yield and DMI warrants further investigation.

  18. Differential expression of living mammary epithelial cell subpopulations in milk during lactation in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Baratta, M; Volpe, M G; Nucera, D; Gabai, G; Guzzo, N; Fustini, M; Faustini, M; Martignani, E

    2015-10-01

    Epithelial cells are shed into milk during lactation, and although they generally reflect the cellular characteristics of terminally differentiated luminal cells, previously the detection of more primitive cells was described in human milk where a cell population of epithelial lineage was detected expressing markers typical of progenitor cells. In this investigation, we report the development of flow cytometry analysis to allow multiparametric assessment of mammary epithelial cells observed in milk. Cells collected from milk samples of 10 healthy dairy cows were directly analyzed for 6 different markers: CD45, CD49f, cytokeratin 14, cytokeratin 18, presence of nucleus, and cell viability. Milk samples were collected in 3 different periods of lactation: early lactation (EL=d 0-30), mid-lactation (ML=d 90-120), and late lactation (LL=210-250). Here we identify the differential expression of precursor or differentiated cell markers (or both) in mammary epithelial cells present in bovine milk. Myoepithelial cells, as indicated by cells staining positively for cytokeratin 14(+)/cytokeratin 18(-), were observed to increase from EL to LL with a high correlation with nuclear staining inferring potential proliferative activity. Furthermore, a significant increase in CD49f(+) and cytokeratin 14(+)/cytokeratin 18(+) positive cells was observed in LL. This assay is a sensitive approach for evaluating the variations in the frequency and features of living epithelial cells, whose reciprocal balance may be significant in understanding mammary gland cellular function throughout lactation. These observations suggest that mammary epithelial cell immunophenotypes could be investigated as biomarkers for mammary gland function in dairy cows.

  19. Long-acting insulins alter milk composition and metabolism of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Winkelman, L A; Overton, T R

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of 2 different types of long-acting insulin on milk production, milk composition, and metabolism in lactating dairy cows. Multiparous cows (n=30) averaging 88 d in milk were assigned to one of 3 treatments in a completely randomized design. Treatments consisted of control (C), Humulin-N (H; Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN), and insulin glargine (L). The H and L treatments were administered twice daily at 12-h intervals via subcutaneous injection for 10d. Cows were milked twice daily, and milk composition was determined every other day. Mammary biopsies were conducted on d 11, and mammary proteins extracted from the biopsies were analyzed by Western blot for components of insulin and mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathways. Treatment had no effect on dry matter intake or milk yield. Treatment with both forms of long-acting insulin increased milk protein content and tended to increase milk protein yield over the 10-d treatment period. Analysis of milk N fractions from samples collected on d 10 of treatment suggested that cows administered L tended to have higher yields of milk protein fractions than cows administered H. Milk fat content and yield tended to be increased for cows administered long-acting insulins. Lactose content and yields were decreased by treatment with long-acting insulins. Administration of long-acting insulins, particularly L, tended to shift milk fatty acid composition toward increased short- and medium-chain fatty acids and decreased long-chain fatty acids. Plasma concentrations of glucose and urea N were lower for cows administered long-acting insulins; interactions of treatment and sampling time were indicative of more pronounced effects of L than H on these metabolites. Concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids and insulin were increased in cows administered long-acting insulins. Decreased concentrations of urea N in both plasma and milk suggested more efficient use of N in cows

  20. Long-acting insulins alter milk composition and metabolism of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Winkelman, L A; Overton, T R

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of 2 different types of long-acting insulin on milk production, milk composition, and metabolism in lactating dairy cows. Multiparous cows (n=30) averaging 88 d in milk were assigned to one of 3 treatments in a completely randomized design. Treatments consisted of control (C), Humulin-N (H; Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN), and insulin glargine (L). The H and L treatments were administered twice daily at 12-h intervals via subcutaneous injection for 10d. Cows were milked twice daily, and milk composition was determined every other day. Mammary biopsies were conducted on d 11, and mammary proteins extracted from the biopsies were analyzed by Western blot for components of insulin and mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathways. Treatment had no effect on dry matter intake or milk yield. Treatment with both forms of long-acting insulin increased milk protein content and tended to increase milk protein yield over the 10-d treatment period. Analysis of milk N fractions from samples collected on d 10 of treatment suggested that cows administered L tended to have higher yields of milk protein fractions than cows administered H. Milk fat content and yield tended to be increased for cows administered long-acting insulins. Lactose content and yields were decreased by treatment with long-acting insulins. Administration of long-acting insulins, particularly L, tended to shift milk fatty acid composition toward increased short- and medium-chain fatty acids and decreased long-chain fatty acids. Plasma concentrations of glucose and urea N were lower for cows administered long-acting insulins; interactions of treatment and sampling time were indicative of more pronounced effects of L than H on these metabolites. Concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids and insulin were increased in cows administered long-acting insulins. Decreased concentrations of urea N in both plasma and milk suggested more efficient use of N in cows

  1. Effect of dietary supplementation of rutin on lactation performance, ruminal fermentation and metabolism in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Cui, K; Guo, X D; Tu, Y; Zhang, N F; Ma, T; Diao, Q Y

    2015-12-01

    The effect of long-term dietary supplementation with rutin on the lactation performance, ruminal fermentation and metabolism of dairy cows were investigated in this study. Twenty multiparous Chinese Holstein cows were randomly divided into four groups, and each was offered a basal diet supplemented with 0, 1.5, 3.0 or 4.5 mg rutin/kg of diet. The milk yield of the cows receiving 3.0 and 4.5 mg rutin/kg was higher than that of the control group, and the milk yield was increased by 10.06% and 3.37% (p < 0.05). On the basis of that finding, the cows supplemented with 0 or 3.0 mg rutin/kg of diet were used to investigate the effect of rutin supplementation on blood metabolites and hormone levels. Compared with the control group, the serum blood urea nitrogen (BUN) concentration of the 3.0 mg rutin/kg group is significantly decreased (p < 0.05). In another trial, four adult cows with permanent rumen fistula and duodenal cannulae were attributed in a self-control design to investigate the peak occurrence of rutin and quercetin in different parts of the gastrointestinal tract, ruminal fermentation and microbial population in dairy cows. The cows supplemented with 3.0 mg rutin/kg in the diet differed from the control period. Samples of rumen fluid, duodenal fluid and blood were collected at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 h after morning feeding. Compared to the control group, the pH, ammonia nitrogen concentration, number and protein content of rumen protozoa and blood urea nitrogen were lower, but the concentration of total volatile fatty acid (TVFA), microbial crude protein (MCP) and serum lysozyme content were higher for the cows fed the rutin diets. The addition of 3.0 mg rutin/kg to diets for a long term tended to increase the milk yield and improve the metabolism and digestibility of the dairy cows.

  2. Effects of feeding rumen-degradable valine on milk production in late-lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hultquist, Kayla M; Casper, David P

    2016-02-01

    The study objective was to determine if feeding the rumen-degradable AA Val can increase milk production comparable to recombinant bovine somatotropin (bST). Eight multiparous late-lactating (255±26.4 d in milk) Holstein dairy cows were blocked by milk yield (34.1±8.25 kg/d) and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design with 21-d periods (7 d for dietary adaptation and 14 d for data collection). Treatments were control (CON), a single injection of recombinant bST (rbST), and Val fed at 40 (V40) and 80 g/d (V80). Cows were fed a total mixed ration with a distillers dried grains carrier at 113.4 g/d containing none or added AA. Dry matter intake (21.3, 22.0, 22.8, and 21.5 kg/d for CON, rbST, V40, and V80, respectively) was similar among treatments, except cows receiving V40 had greater dry matter intake than cows receiving V80. Milk yield (22.0, 26.1, 25.2, and 24.9 kg/d), 3.5% fat-corrected milk (22.1, 25.4, 24.4, and 24.3 kg/d), and energy-corrected milk (22.7, 26.1, 25.1, and 24.9 kg/d) were increased at similar amounts for cows receiving rbST, V40, and V80 compared with CON cows. Milk fat percentages (3.51, 3.36, 3.32, and 3.38%) were greatest for CON cows compared with cows receiving V40, whereas cows receiving other treatments were intermediate and similar. Milk protein percentages (3.20, 3.12, 3.15, and 3.13%) were greater for CON cows compared with cows receiving rbST and V40, whereas cows receiving V80 were intermediate and similar. Ruminal isobutyrate (1.19, 1.24, 1.44, and 1.74 mol/100 mol) concentrations were increased for cows receiving V40 and V80 compared with CON and rbST cows, with cows receiving V80 having greater concentrations than cows receiving V40. Plasma growth hormone concentrations (1.78, 1.99, 1.55, and 1.45 ng/mL) were greater for cows receiving rbST compared with cows receiving V40 and V80, whereas CON cows were intermediate and similar. Plasma insulin-like growth factor-1 concentrations (60.4, 106

  3. Effects of feeding rumen-degradable valine on milk production in late-lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hultquist, Kayla M; Casper, David P

    2016-02-01

    The study objective was to determine if feeding the rumen-degradable AA Val can increase milk production comparable to recombinant bovine somatotropin (bST). Eight multiparous late-lactating (255±26.4 d in milk) Holstein dairy cows were blocked by milk yield (34.1±8.25 kg/d) and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design with 21-d periods (7 d for dietary adaptation and 14 d for data collection). Treatments were control (CON), a single injection of recombinant bST (rbST), and Val fed at 40 (V40) and 80 g/d (V80). Cows were fed a total mixed ration with a distillers dried grains carrier at 113.4 g/d containing none or added AA. Dry matter intake (21.3, 22.0, 22.8, and 21.5 kg/d for CON, rbST, V40, and V80, respectively) was similar among treatments, except cows receiving V40 had greater dry matter intake than cows receiving V80. Milk yield (22.0, 26.1, 25.2, and 24.9 kg/d), 3.5% fat-corrected milk (22.1, 25.4, 24.4, and 24.3 kg/d), and energy-corrected milk (22.7, 26.1, 25.1, and 24.9 kg/d) were increased at similar amounts for cows receiving rbST, V40, and V80 compared with CON cows. Milk fat percentages (3.51, 3.36, 3.32, and 3.38%) were greatest for CON cows compared with cows receiving V40, whereas cows receiving other treatments were intermediate and similar. Milk protein percentages (3.20, 3.12, 3.15, and 3.13%) were greater for CON cows compared with cows receiving rbST and V40, whereas cows receiving V80 were intermediate and similar. Ruminal isobutyrate (1.19, 1.24, 1.44, and 1.74 mol/100 mol) concentrations were increased for cows receiving V40 and V80 compared with CON and rbST cows, with cows receiving V80 having greater concentrations than cows receiving V40. Plasma growth hormone concentrations (1.78, 1.99, 1.55, and 1.45 ng/mL) were greater for cows receiving rbST compared with cows receiving V40 and V80, whereas CON cows were intermediate and similar. Plasma insulin-like growth factor-1 concentrations (60.4, 106

  4. Supplementing lactating dairy cows fed high-quality pasture with black wattle (Acacia mearnsii) tannin.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, W M; Clark, C E F; Clark, D A; Waghorn, G C

    2013-11-01

    A reduction in urinary nitrogen (N) excretion from dairy cows fed pasture containing a high N concentration in the dry matter (DM) will have environmental benefits, because losses to soil water and air by leachate and nitrous oxides (N2O) will be reduced. Condensed tannins (CT) reduce digestion of N, and provision as a dietary additive could have nutritional benefits for production, but the amount required and the responses to different sources of CT on milk production have not been defined. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate effects of supplementation with CT extracted from black wattle (Acacia mearnsii De Wild.) on milk production and faecal N concentration by lactating dairy cows grazing a vegetative Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.)-based pasture. In one experiment, CT was administered as a drench, twice daily, to 38 multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows assigned to four treatments; control (CONT, 0 g/day), low CT (LCT, 111 g/day), medium CT (MCT, 222 g/day) and high CT (HCT, 444 g/day), grazing as a single group. The CT supplementation affected milk yield (P < 0.001) with a trend of declining milk yield as CT concentration increased from about 0.6 to about 2.9% of dietary DM. Milk urea nitrogen (MUN) decreased at MCT and HCT levels of supplementation (P < 0.01) but milk fat, CP and lactose percentage were not affected by CT supplementation. The CT supplementation increased N concentration in faeces for LCT and MCT treatments (P < 0.05), suggesting partitioning of dietary N away from urine. When CT was pelleted with grain, in a second experiment and fed twice daily as a supplement at milking, it reduced the acceptability relative to pellets without CT, and tended to lower milk production from 25.4 to 24.5 kg/day, although the decline was not significant (P > 0.05). The diet of cows fed pellets with CT contained about 1.2% CT in the DM but neither milk constituents nor MUN were affected by CT-supplemented grain (P > 0.05). These findings demonstrate

  5. Influence of corn silage hybrid type on lactation performance by Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Akins, M S; Shaver, R D

    2014-12-01

    The primary objective of this study was to determine lactation performance by dairy cows fed nutridense (ND), dual-purpose (DP), or brown midrib (BM) corn silage hybrids at the same concentration in the diets. A secondary objective was to determine lactation performance by dairy cows fed NutriDense corn silage at a higher concentration in the diet. One hundred twenty-eight Holstein and Holstein × Jersey cows (105 ± 38 d in milk) were stratified by breed and parity and randomly assigned to 16 pens of 8 cows each. Pens were then randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments. Three treatment total mixed rations (TMR; DP40, BM40, and ND40) contained 40% of dry matter (DM) from the respective corn silage hybrid and 20% of DM from alfalfa silage. The fourth treatment TMR had ND corn silage as the sole forage at 65% of DM (ND65). A 2-wk covariate adjustment period preceded the treatment period, with all pens receiving a TMR with equal proportions of DP40, BM40, and ND40. Following the covariate period, cows were fed their assigned treatment diets for 11 wk. nutridense corn silage had greater starch and lower neutral detergent fiber (NDF) content than DP or BM, resulting in ND40 having greater energy content (73.2% of total digestible nutrients, TDN) than DP40 or BM40 (71.9 and 71.4% TDN, respectively). Cows fed BM40 had greater milk yield than DP40, whereas ND40 tended to have greater milk yield and had greater protein and lactose yields compared with DP40. No differences in intake, component-corrected milk yields, or feed efficiency were detected between DP40, BM40, and ND40. Milk yield differences may be due to increased starch intake for ND40 and increased digestible NDF intake for BM40 compared with DP40. Intake and milk yield and composition were similar for ND40 compared with BM40, possibly due to counteracting effects of higher starch intake for ND40 and higher digestible NDF intake for BM40. Feeding ND65 reduced intake, and thus milk and component yields, compared with

  6. Prediction of residual feed intake for first-lactation dairy cows using orthogonal polynomial random regression.

    PubMed

    Manafiazar, G; McFadden, T; Goonewardene, L; Okine, E; Basarab, J; Li, P; Wang, Z

    2013-01-01

    Residual Feed Intake (RFI) is a measure of energy efficiency. Developing an appropriate model to predict expected energy intake while accounting for multifunctional energy requirements of metabolic body weight (MBW), empty body weight (EBW), milk production energy requirements (MPER), and their nonlinear lactation profiles, is the key to successful prediction of RFI in dairy cattle. Individual daily actual energy intake and monthly body weight of 281 first-lactation dairy cows from 1 to 305 d in milk were recorded at the Dairy Research and Technology Centre of the University of Alberta (Edmonton, AB, Canada); individual monthly milk yield and compositions were obtained from the Dairy Herd Improvement Program. Combinations of different orders (1-5) of fixed (F) and random (R) factors were fitted using Legendre polynomial regression to model the nonlinear lactation profiles of MBW, EBW, and MPER over 301 d. The F5R3, F5R3, and F5R2 (subscripts indicate the order fitted) models were selected, based on the combination of the log-likelihood ratio test and the Bayesian information criterion, as the best prediction equations for MBW, EBW, and MPER, respectively. The selected models were used to predict daily individual values for these traits. To consider the body reserve changes, the differences of predicted EBW between 2 consecutive days were considered as the EBW change between these days. The smoothed total 301-d actual energy intake was then linearly regressed on the total 301-d predicted traits of MBW, EBW change, and MPER to obtain the first-lactation RFI (coefficient of determination=0.68). The mean of predicted daily average lactation RFI was 0 and ranged from -6.58 to 8.64 Mcal of NE(L)/d. Fifty-one percent of the animals had an RFI value below the mean (efficient) and 49% of them had an RFI value above the mean (inefficient). These results indicate that the first-lactation RFI can be predicted from its component traits with a reasonable coefficient of

  7. Changes of Adipose Tissue Morphology and Composition during Late Pregnancy and Early Lactation in Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Kenéz, Ákos; Kulcsár, Anna; Kluge, Franziska; Benbelkacem, Idir; Hansen, Kathrin; Locher, Lena; Meyer, Ulrich; Rehage, Jürgen; Dänicke, Sven; Huber, Korinna

    2015-01-01

    Dairy cows mobilize large amounts of body fat during early lactation to overcome negative energy balance which typically arises in this period. As an adaptation process, adipose tissues of cows undergo extensive remodeling during late pregnancy and early lactation. The objective of the present study was to characterize this remodeling to get a better understanding of adaptation processes in adipose tissues, affected by changing metabolic conditions including lipid mobilization and refilling as a function of energy status. This was done by determining adipocyte size in histological sections of subcutaneous and retroperitoneal adipose tissue biopsy samples collected from German Holstein cows at 42 days prepartum, and 1, 21, and 100 days postpartum. Characterization of cell size changes was extended by the analysis of DNA, triacylglycerol, and protein content per gram tissue, and β-actin protein expression in the same samples. In both adipose tissue depots cell size was becoming smaller during the course of the study, suggesting a decrease in cellular triacylglycerol content. Results of DNA, triacylglycerol, and protein content, and β-actin protein expression could only partially explain the observed differences in cell size. The retroperitoneal adipose tissue exhibited a greater extent of time-related differences in cell size, DNA, and protein content, suggesting greater dynamics and metabolic flexibility for this abdominal depot compared to the investigated subcutaneous depot. PMID:25978720

  8. Body fat mobilization in early lactation influences methane production of dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    Bielak, A.; Derno, M.; Tuchscherer, A.; Hammon, H. M.; Susenbeth, A.; Kuhla, B.

    2016-01-01

    Long-chain fatty acids mobilized during early lactation of dairy cows are increasingly used as energy substrate at the expense of acetate. As the synthesis of acetate in the rumen is closely linked to methane (CH4) production, we hypothesized that decreased acetate utilization would result in lower ruminal acetate levels and thus CH4 production. Twenty heifers were sampled for blood, rumen fluid and milk, and CH4 production was measured in respiration chambers in week −4, +5, +13 and +42 relative to first parturition. Based on plasma non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentration determined in week +5, animals were grouped to the ten highest (HM; NEFA > 580 μmol) and ten lowest (LM; NEFA < 580 μmol) mobilizing cows. Dry matter intake (DMI), milk yield and ruminal short-chain fatty acids did not differ between groups, but CH4/DMI was lower in HM cows in week +5. There was a negative regression between plasma NEFA and plasma acetate, between plasma NEFA and CH4/DMI and between plasma cholecystokinin and CH4/DMI in week +5. Our data show for the first time that fat mobilization of the host in early lactation is inversely related with ruminal CH4 production and that this effect is not attributed to different DMI. PMID:27306038

  9. Body fat mobilization in early lactation influences methane production of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Bielak, A; Derno, M; Tuchscherer, A; Hammon, H M; Susenbeth, A; Kuhla, B

    2016-01-01

    Long-chain fatty acids mobilized during early lactation of dairy cows are increasingly used as energy substrate at the expense of acetate. As the synthesis of acetate in the rumen is closely linked to methane (CH4) production, we hypothesized that decreased acetate utilization would result in lower ruminal acetate levels and thus CH4 production. Twenty heifers were sampled for blood, rumen fluid and milk, and CH4 production was measured in respiration chambers in week -4, +5, +13 and +42 relative to first parturition. Based on plasma non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentration determined in week +5, animals were grouped to the ten highest (HM; NEFA > 580 μmol) and ten lowest (LM; NEFA < 580 μmol) mobilizing cows. Dry matter intake (DMI), milk yield and ruminal short-chain fatty acids did not differ between groups, but CH4/DMI was lower in HM cows in week +5. There was a negative regression between plasma NEFA and plasma acetate, between plasma NEFA and CH4/DMI and between plasma cholecystokinin and CH4/DMI in week +5. Our data show for the first time that fat mobilization of the host in early lactation is inversely related with ruminal CH4 production and that this effect is not attributed to different DMI. PMID:27306038

  10. Effects of alfalfa silage storage structure and roasting corn on ruminal digestion and microbial CP synthesis in lactating dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of unroasted ground shelled corn (GSC) or roasted GSC (RGSC), when fed with alfalfa, ensiled in bag, bunker, or O2-limiting tower silos on ruminal digestion and microbial protein synthesis in lactating dairy cows. The roasted corn was hea...

  11. Effects of replacing soybean meal with canola meal or treated canola meal on performance of lactating dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Canola meal (CM) has been shown to be a more effective crude protein (CP) source than soybean meal (SBM) for lactating dairy cows. Treating CM may increase its rumen undegradable protein (RUP) fraction and improve the amount of absorbable amino acids. The objective of this study was to evaluate the ...

  12. Relationships between urea dilution measurements and body weight and composition of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Agnew, R E; Yan, T; McCaughey, W J; McEvoy, J D; Patterson, D C; Porter, M G; Steen, R W J

    2005-07-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the potential of the urea dilution technique, coupled with live animal measures to predict the body components of dairy cattle. The study involved 104 lactating Holstein-Friesian cows offered grass silage-based diets. Urea space volume (USV) was calculated from 2 collection periods of blood samples following infusion of urea at 12 (USV12, kg) and 30 (USV30, kg) min after infusion, and then as a proportion of live weight (LW) or empty body weight (EBW). All cows were slaughtered within 2 d of the USV trials. Large ranges existed in EBW and empty body concentrations of water, crude protein (CP), lipid, ash, and gross energy (GE). The USV12 and USV30 were both positively related to LW, EBW, and empty body component weights. The r2 values for USV12 were greater than USV30. The r2 values in the relationships of EBW and empty body composition with USV, however, were smaller than those with LW. Nevertheless, the relationships were improved when both USV and LW were used as predictors, rather than using either alone. Adding milk yield and body condition score as supporting predictors to prediction equations using USV and LW data for EBW, lipid, and GE contents further improved the relationships (r2 = 0.93, 0.66, and 0.77, respectively). Internal evaluation of one-third of the present data using equations developed from two-thirds of the present data indicated that using USV, live weight, and other live animal variables as predictors, rather than using USV alone, considerably improved the prediction accuracy. It was concluded that USV can be used to predict body composition, but the relationships with USV were poorer than those with LW. The USV can only be used as a supporting variable to live weight for prediction of body components in lactating dairy cows.

  13. Precalving and early lactation factors that predict milk casein and fertility in the transition dairy cow.

    PubMed

    Rodney, Rachael M; Hall, Jenianne K; Westwood, Charlotte T; Celi, Pietro; Lean, Ian J

    2016-09-01

    Multiparous Holstein cows (n=82) of either high or low genetic merit (GM) (for milk fat + protein yield) were allocated to 1 of 2 diets in a 2×2 factorial design. Diets differed in the ratio of rumen-undegradable protein (RUP) to rumen-degradable protein (37% RUP vs. 15% RUP) and were fed from 21 d precalving to 150 days in milk. This study evaluated the effects of these diets and GM on concentrations of milk casein (CN) variants and aimed to identify precalving and early lactation variables that predict milk CN and protein yield and composition and fertility of dairy cows. It explored the hypothesis that low milk protein content is associated with lower fertility and extended this hypothesis to also evaluate the association of CN contents with fertility. Yields (kg/d) for CN variants were 0.49 and 0.45 of α-CN, 0.38 and 0.34 of β-CN, 0.07 and 0.06 for κ-CN, and 0.10 and 0.09 of γ-CN for high- and low-RUP diets, respectively. Increased RUP increased milk, CN, and milk protein yields. Increased GM increased milk protein and γ-CN yields and tended to increase milk CN yield. The effects of indicator variables on CN variant yields and concentrations were largely consistent, with higher body weight and α-amino nitrogen resulting in higher yields, but lower concentrations. An increase in cholesterol was associated with decreased CN variant concentrations, and disease lowered CN variant yield. A diet high in RUP increased proportion of first services that resulted in pregnancy from 41 to 58%. Increased precalving metabolizable protein (MP) balance decreased the proportion of first services that resulted in pregnancy when evaluated in a model containing CN percentage, milk protein yield, diet, and GM. This finding suggests that the positive effects of increasing dietary RUP on fertility may be curvilinear because cows with a very positive MP balance before calving were less fertile than those with a lower, but positive, MP balance. Prepartum MP balance was important

  14. Effect of corn silage hybrid and metabolizable protein supply on nitrogen metabolism of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Weiss, W P; Wyatt, D J

    2006-05-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of corn silage hybrid and supply of metabolizable protein (MP) on manure excretion and N metabolism by lactating dairy cows. Eight Holstein cows in midlactation (replicated 4 x 4 Latin square with 21-d periods) were fed 1 of 4 treatments, arranged factorially. Diets contained 55% corn silage made from a dual-purpose hybrid or a brown midrib (BMR) hybrid, and 45% concentrate that contained either a low or high concentration of rumen undegradable protein (altered by the addition of fish meal and treated soybean meal). Crude protein averaged 14.0 and 17.5% and supply of MP averaged 2,360 and 2,990 g/d for the low and high MP treatments (not affected by hybrid). Increasing supply of MP greatly increased urine output and tended to increase total manure output, whereas diets with BMR silage tended to reduce manure output. Increased MP supply increased daily excretion of manure N by 25% (465 vs. 374 g/d), fecal N by 27 g, and urinary N by 64 g. When the effect of N intake was removed, cows fed BMR silage excreted about 15 g/d less N via manure than cows fed the other silage. Rumen ammonia, volatile fatty acid concentrations, and pH were not affected by treatment. Dry matter intake (overall mean = 24.9 kg/d) tended to be increased with increased MP but was not affected by hybrid. Milk production for cows fed BMR was higher than for cows fed the dual-purpose hybrid (36.9 vs. 35.3 kg/d), but because of changes in fat concentration, yield of energy-corrected milk was not affected by treatment. The only interaction observed was increased yield of milk protein when BMR silage was combined with increased supply of MP.

  15. Effects of niacin on milk production and blood parameters in early lactation of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Ghorbani, Behnam; Vahdani, Narges; Zerehdaran, Saeed

    2008-06-15

    To investigate the effects of niacin supplementation in the diet of high producing cows at early lactation, 21 holstein dairy cows were used in this experiment. Animal were assigned in to three groups based on their milk yield and calving date soon after parturition. They were received a basal diet and 0 (group 1), 6 (group 2), 12 (group 3) g of supplementation niacin per day over a 10 weeks experimental period. Milk volume was recorded and milk samples were collected for each cow at two weeks interval for analysis of fat, protein, lactose and SNF (Solid-None Fat). Blood samples were also taken for the measurement of glucose, triglyceride, Beta-hydroxy butyrate and total protein at two weeks intervals. No significant difference were observed between milk yield, milk fat, protein, lactose and SNF content in cows received niacin compared to the control group (p > 0.05). Plasma glucose in groups 2 and 3 compared to the control were higher and this difference were statistically significant (p < 0.05). Blood triglycerides were not significantly affected by niacin supplementation. BHBA were lower in cows received niacin and this difference were significant (p < 0.05). The trend of changes in the amount of blood total protein were identical in all three groups whole the level of this factor was always higher in control group compared to the others groups. Niacin has showed an increase in the level of plasma glucose and a notable decrease in the amount of blood triglyceride, beta-hydroxy butyrate and total protein, which may be due to the effect of this vitamin on the energy metabolism in cows.

  16. Decreased number and bactericidal activity against Staphylococcus aureus of the resident cells in milk of dairy cows during early lactation.

    PubMed

    Dosogne, H; Vangroenweghe, F; Barrio, B; Rainard, P; Burvenich, C

    2001-11-01

    Phagocytic and bactericidal activity of polymorphonuclear neutrophil leukocytes (PMN) isolated from blood and milk, against Staphylococcus aureus, was compared between groups of six healthy dairy cows in early, mid- and late lactation using a bacteriological assay. PMN were isolated from blood with a high degree of purity, but the cells isolated from milk contained variable amounts of macrophages (Mphi) and lymphocytes (L). The results were therefore calculated using the percentage PMN in order to evaluate phagocytosis and killing by PMN only. Blood PMN phagocytosed 82% Staph. aureus and milk PMN 43% on average and there was no significant difference between the different stages of lactation. The bactericidal activity of blood PMN against Staph. aureus was 36+/-8% in early lactation (significantly different from mid lactation, P < 0.05), 64+/-10% in mid lactation and 53+/-6% in late lactation. Milk PMN killed only 6+/-3% Staph. aureus in early lactation (significantly different from mid lactation, P < 0.01), 27+/-3% in mid lactation and 20+/-9% Staph. aureus in late lactation. The ratio of the bactericidal activity of milk to blood PMN was 0.08, 0.43 and 0.22 in early, mid- and late lactation, respectively. In addition to the decreased function. the number of cells in milk (somatic cell count, SCC) was also 60% lower in early lactation than in mid lactation cows (P < 0.01). Our results suggest an impairment of blood and milk-resident PMN bactericidal activity against Staph. aureus and a decreased number of milk-resident PMN in dairy cows at the onset of lactation.

  17. Increased muscle fatty acid oxidation in dairy cows with intensive body fat mobilization during early lactation.

    PubMed

    Schäff, C; Börner, S; Hacke, S; Kautzsch, U; Sauerwein, H; Spachmann, S K; Schweigel-Röntgen, M; Hammon, H M; Kuhla, B

    2013-10-01

    The beginning of lactation requires huge metabolic adaptations to meet increased energy demands for milk production of dairy cows. One of the adaptations is the mobilization of body reserves mainly from adipose tissue as reflected by increased plasma nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations. The capacity of the liver for complete oxidation of NEFA is limited, leading to an increased formation of ketone bodies, reesterification, and accumulation of triglycerides in the liver. As the skeletal muscle also may oxidize fatty acids, it may help to decrease the fatty acid load on the liver. To test this hypothesis, 19 German Holstein cows were weekly blood sampled from 7 wk before until 5 wk after parturition to analyze plasma NEFA concentrations. Liver biopsies were obtained at d 3, 18, and 30 after parturition and, based on the mean liver fat content, cows were grouped to the 10 highest (HI) and 9 lowest (LO). In addition, muscle biopsies were obtained at d -17, 3, and 30 relative to parturition and used to quantify mRNA abundance of genes involved in fatty acid degradation. Plasma NEFA concentrations peaked after parturition and were 1.5-fold higher in HI than LO cows. Muscle carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1α and β mRNA was upregulated in early lactation. The mRNA abundance of muscle peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARG) increased in early lactation and was higher in HI than in LO cows, whereas the abundance of PPARA continuously decreased after parturition. The mRNA abundance of muscle PPARD, uncoupling protein 3, and the β-oxidative enzymes 3-hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A (CoA) dehydrogenase, very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, and 3-ketoacyl-CoA was greatest at d 3 after parturition, whereas the abundance of PPARγ coactivator 1α decreased after parturition. Our results indicate that around parturition, oxidation of fatty acids in skeletal muscle is highly activated, which may contribute to diminish the fatty acid load on the liver. The

  18. Increasing intravenous infusions of glucose improve body condition but not lactation performance in midlactation dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Al-Trad, B; Reisberg, K; Wittek, T; Penner, G B; Alkaassem, A; Gäbel, G; Fürll, M; Aschenbach, J R

    2009-11-01

    . However, serum phosphorus concentration increased after withdrawal of GI, but not SI. Only in GI cows did glycogen content increase or tend to increase linearly in the liver and skeletal muscle. In conclusion, midlactation dairy cows on an energy-balanced diet directed intravenously infused glucose predominantly to body fat reserves rather than increasing lactation performance. This may suggest that the metabolic fate of glucose is modified by metabolic signals, hormonal signals, or both from the portal-drained viscera when absorbed from the intestine.

  19. Impact of spontaneous Neospora caninum infection on pregnancy loss and subsequent pregnancy in grazing lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Pessoa, Gilson Antonio; Martini, Ana Paula; Trentin, Janislene Mach; Dalcin, Vanessa Calderaro; Leonardi, Carlos Eduardo Porciuncula; Vogel, Fernanda Silveira Flôres; de Sá Filho, Manoel Francisco; Rubin, Mara Iolanda Batistella; Silva, Carlos Antonio Mondino

    2016-02-01

    The impact of spontaneous Neospora caninum infection on pregnancy loss and subsequent pregnancy in grazing lactating dairy cows was evaluated. Data from 1273 females (878 multiparous and 395 first-calving cows) from six preselected dairy herds were analyzed. Cows were classified as seropositive (SP) (prevalence, 24%; range, 11%-33%) or seronegative (SN) by indirect immunofluorescence detection of antibodies against N caninum. Seropositive cows (prevalence, 40.0%) presented higher (P < 0.001) incidence of abortion compared with SN cows (prevalence, 4.1%). Neospora caninum DNA was detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction in 44.4% of intact aborted fetuses from SP cows, whereas none was found in those aborted from SN cows. The average daily milk production adjusted to 305 days was lower (P < 0.001) in SP (22.5 ± 0.3 L/day) than in SN cows (24.8 ± 0.2 L/day). Furthermore, SP cows presented greater occurrence of retained placenta (17.1% vs. 6.0%; P < 0.001) and acute postpartum metritis (9.8% vs. 2.4%; P < 0.001). Despite similar pregnancy rates after first postpartum artificial insemination (27.6% vs. 31.8%; P = 0.40), cumulative pregnancy rates during 300 days in milk (94.7% vs. 98.5%; P = 0.005) were greater in SN cows. A reduced (P = 0.0001) Cox proportional hazard of pregnancy rate at 300 days in milk and a longer interval from parturition or abortion to conception (median, 111 vs. 101 days) were observed in SP compared with SN cows. Spontaneous N caninum infection is a significant contributing factor of pregnancy loss and occurrence of uterine disease (i.e., retained placenta and metritis), negatively affecting subsequent pregnancy in grazing lactating dairy cows.

  20. Quantifying body water kinetics and fecal and urinary water output from lactating Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Appuhamy, J A D R N; Wagner-Riddle, C; Casper, D P; France, J; Kebreab, E

    2014-10-01

    Reliable estimates of fresh manure water output from dairy cows help to improve storage design, enhance efficiency of land application, quantify the water footprint, and predict nutrient transformations during manure storage. The objective of the study was to construct a mechanistic, dynamic, and deterministic mathematical model to quantify urinary and fecal water outputs (kg/d) from individual lactating dairy cows. The model contained 4 body water pools: reticulorumen (QRR), post-reticulorumen (QPR), extracellular (QEC), and intracellular (QIC). Dry matter (DM) intake, dietary forage, DM, crude protein, acid detergent fiber and ash contents, milk yield, and milk fat and protein contents, days in milk, and body weight were input variables to the model. A set of linear equations was constructed to determine drinking, feed, and saliva water inputs to QRR and fractional water passage from QRR to QPR. Water transfer via the rumen wall was subjected to changes in QEC and total water input to QRR. Post-reticulorumen water passage was adjusted for DM intake. Metabolic water production and respiratory cutaneous water losses were estimated with functions of heat production in the model. Water loss in urine was driven by absorbed N left after being removed via milk. Model parameters were estimated simultaneously using observed fecal and urinary water output data from lactating Holstein cows (n=670). The model was evaluated with data that were not used for model development and optimization (n=377). The observations in both data sets were related to thermoneutral conditions. The model predicted drinking water intake, fecal, urinary, and total fresh manure water output with root mean square prediction errors as a percentage of average values of 18.1, 15.6, 30.6, and 14.6%, respectively. In all cases, >97% of the prediction error was due to random variability of data. The model can also be used to determine saliva production, heat and metabolic water production, respiratory

  1. Acetone and isopropanol in ruminal fluid and feces of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Sato, Hiroshi; Shiogama, Yumiko

    2010-03-01

    Acetone and its metabolite isopropanol are produced by gut microbes as well as by the host's metabolism. To evaluate the production of acetone and isopropanol in alimentary tracts, a total of 80 pair-samples of feces and ruminal fluid were taken in lactating dairy cows that had been fed silage-containing diets. Acetone and isopropanol were analyzed, together with ethanol and volatile fatty acids (VFAs). Isopropanol was detected in 57 fecal and all the ruminal samples; however, the ruminal isopropanol and ethanol concentrations were distinctly lower than those in the feces. Acetone was detected in 13 fecal and 53 ruminal samples; however, there was no significant difference in acetone concentrations between the feces and the ruminal fluid. The group with higher fecal isopropanol concentration showed higher fecal proportions of acetate accompanied by low proportion of minor VFA, which consisted of isobutyrate and iso- and n-valerate. In the group with higher ruminal isopropanol concentration, ethanol concentration was higher; the ruminal VFA profiles showed only a negligible difference. Fecal and ruminal ethanol concentrations were not affected by feed ethanol. Thus, the colon showed an accelerated alcoholic fermentation compared with the rumen of dairy cows; however, acetone was present at higher frequency in the rumen than in the feces.

  2. Cerebrospinal fluid prohormone processing and neuropeptides stimulating feed intake of dairy cows during early lactation.

    PubMed

    Kuhla, Björn; Laeger, Thomas; Husi, Holger; Mullen, William

    2015-02-01

    After parturition, feed intake of dairy cows increases within the first weeks of lactation, but the molecular mechanisms stimulating or delaying the slope of increase are poorly understood. Some of the molecules controlling feed intake are neuropeptides that are synthesized as propeptides and subsequently processed before they bind to specific receptors in feeding centers of the brain. Cerebrospinal fluid surrounds most of the feed intake regulatory centers and contains numerous neuropeptides. In the present study, we used a proteomic approach to analyze the neuropeptide concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid taken from dairy cows between day -18 and -10, and between day +10 and +20 relative to parturition. We found 13 proteins which were only present in samples taken before parturition, 13 proteins which were only present in samples taken after parturition, and 25 proteins which were commonly present, before and after parturition. Among them, differences in pro-neuropeptide Y, proenkephalin-A, neuroendocrine convertase-2, neurosecretory protein VGF, chromogranin-A, and secretogranin-1 and -3 concentrations relative to parturition highlight propeptides and prohormone processings involved in the control of feed intake and energy homeostasis. Scaffold analysis further emphasized an increased tone of endogenous opioids associated with the postparturient increase of feed intake.

  3. Inter-relationships among alternative definitions of feed efficiency in grazing lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hurley, A M; López-Villalobos, N; McParland, S; Kennedy, E; Lewis, E; O'Donovan, M; Burke, J L; Berry, D P

    2016-01-01

    International interest in feed efficiency, and in particular energy intake and residual energy intake (REI), is intensifying due to a greater global demand for animal-derived protein and energy sources. Feed efficiency is a trait of economic importance, and yet is overlooked in national dairy cow breeding goals. This is due primarily to a lack of accurate data on commercial animals, but also a lack of clarity on the most appropriate definition of the feed intake and utilization complex. The objective of the present study was to derive alternative definitions of energetic efficiency in grazing lactating dairy cows and to quantify the inter-relationships among these alternative definitions. Net energy intake (NEI) from pasture and concentrate intake was estimated up to 8 times per lactation for 2,693 lactations from 1,412 Holstein-Friesian cows. Energy values of feed were based on the French Net Energy system where 1 UFL is the net energy requirements for lactation equivalent of 1kg of air-dry barley. A total of 8,183 individual feed intake measurements were available. Energy balance was defined as the difference between NEI and energy expenditure. Efficiency traits were either ratio-based or residual-based; the latter were derived from least squares regression models. Residual energy intake was defined as NEI minus predicted energy to fulfill the requirements for the various energy sinks. The energy sinks (e.g., NEL, metabolic live weight) and additional contributors to energy kinetics (e.g., live weight loss) combined, explained 59% of the variation in NEI, implying that REI represented 41% of the variance in total NEI. The most efficient 10% of test-day records, as defined by REI (n=709), on average were associated with a 7.59 UFL/d less NEI (average NEI of the entire population was 16.23 UFL/d) than the least efficient 10% of test-day records based on REI (n=709). Additionally, the most efficient 10% of test-day records, as defined by REI, were associated with

  4. Factors affecting expression of estrus measured by activity monitors and conception risk of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Madureira, A M L; Silper, B F; Burnett, T A; Polsky, L; Cruppe, L H; Veira, D M; Vasconcelos, J L M; Cerri, R L A

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine risk-factors affecting increase in physical activity during estrus and pregnancy per artificial insemination (P/AI) in lactating dairy cows. Cows were monitored continuously by 2 automated activity monitors [a collar-mounted accelerometer (HT; Heatime, SCR Engineers, Netanya, Israel) and a leg-mounted pedometer (BO; Boumatic Heat-seeker-TX, Boumatic Dairy Equipment, Madison, WI)]. When an increase in activity was detected, body condition score (BCS) and blood samples were collected, ovaries were scanned by ultrasonography, and, if the cow was eligible for breeding, artificial insemination was performed. Milk production and health-related data were recorded throughout the experimental period. Pregnancy diagnosis was performed at 42 ± 7 d of gestation. Data were analyzed using Pearson correlation, ANOVA, and logistic regression. A total of 1,099 true events of estrus from 318 lactating Holstein cows were recorded, averaging 3.46 ± 1.1 events per cow. Positive predictive value for estrus episodes detected by the HT and BO systems were 89.6 and 85.5%, respectively. Mean peak activity at estrus (PA) recorded by the HT system was 71.6 ± 20.7 index-value, and 334.3 ± 155.7% relative increase by the BO system. Compared with primiparous, multiparous cows expressed estrus with lower PA (69.3 ± 0.8 vs. 75.9 ± 1.1 index for HT; 323.9 ± 6.0 vs. 354.8 ± 8.48% for BO) and shorter duration (DU; 10.7 ± 0.2 vs. 12.0 ± 0.3 h); DU was measured by HT only. Lower BCS was associated with decreased PA measured by both systems, estrus DU, and P/AI. Peak activity was weakly correlated with milk production on the day of artificial insemination (r = -0.20); however, when categorized into quartiles, the highest-yield cows had lower PA and DU. Follicle diameter was not correlated with PA or DU, but cows with greater concentrations of estradiol had higher PA. Cows with greater PA in both systems had greater P/AI than those with lower PA (36

  5. Factors affecting expression of estrus measured by activity monitors and conception risk of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Madureira, A M L; Silper, B F; Burnett, T A; Polsky, L; Cruppe, L H; Veira, D M; Vasconcelos, J L M; Cerri, R L A

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine risk-factors affecting increase in physical activity during estrus and pregnancy per artificial insemination (P/AI) in lactating dairy cows. Cows were monitored continuously by 2 automated activity monitors [a collar-mounted accelerometer (HT; Heatime, SCR Engineers, Netanya, Israel) and a leg-mounted pedometer (BO; Boumatic Heat-seeker-TX, Boumatic Dairy Equipment, Madison, WI)]. When an increase in activity was detected, body condition score (BCS) and blood samples were collected, ovaries were scanned by ultrasonography, and, if the cow was eligible for breeding, artificial insemination was performed. Milk production and health-related data were recorded throughout the experimental period. Pregnancy diagnosis was performed at 42 ± 7 d of gestation. Data were analyzed using Pearson correlation, ANOVA, and logistic regression. A total of 1,099 true events of estrus from 318 lactating Holstein cows were recorded, averaging 3.46 ± 1.1 events per cow. Positive predictive value for estrus episodes detected by the HT and BO systems were 89.6 and 85.5%, respectively. Mean peak activity at estrus (PA) recorded by the HT system was 71.6 ± 20.7 index-value, and 334.3 ± 155.7% relative increase by the BO system. Compared with primiparous, multiparous cows expressed estrus with lower PA (69.3 ± 0.8 vs. 75.9 ± 1.1 index for HT; 323.9 ± 6.0 vs. 354.8 ± 8.48% for BO) and shorter duration (DU; 10.7 ± 0.2 vs. 12.0 ± 0.3 h); DU was measured by HT only. Lower BCS was associated with decreased PA measured by both systems, estrus DU, and P/AI. Peak activity was weakly correlated with milk production on the day of artificial insemination (r = -0.20); however, when categorized into quartiles, the highest-yield cows had lower PA and DU. Follicle diameter was not correlated with PA or DU, but cows with greater concentrations of estradiol had higher PA. Cows with greater PA in both systems had greater P/AI than those with lower PA (36

  6. Comparison of three methods for incorporation of liquid fat into diets for lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Drackley, J K; Grum, D E; McCoy, G C; Klusmeyer, T H

    1994-05-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine whether method of incorporation of tallow (iodine value = 57.7) into a TMR for lactating dairy cows affected DMI, milk production or composition, ruminal characteristics, or nutrient digestibilities. In Experiment 1, 8 Holstein and 8 Jersey cows were fed diets containing 1) control, no fat; 2) fat (5% of DM) added first to the concentrate; 3) fat added first to the haylage; and 4) fat added as the last ingredient in the TMR. The DMI was lower when fat was added last to the TMR; DMI was decreased for Jerseys, but not Holsteins, when fat was added first to the concentrate. Milk production was increased, and milk fat percentage decreased, by fat supplementation, but neither differed among application methods. Milk protein percentage was decreased by fat supplementation but was decreased less when fat was added last to the TMR. Production of milk CP, true protein, and casein protein was greater when fat was first mixed with haylage or added last to the TMR. In Experiment 2, four Holstein cows with ruminal cannulas were fed the same diets. Ruminal fermentation characteristics and apparent total tract digestibilities of DM, OM, CP, NDF, ADF, and ash were not different among diets. Digestibility of total fatty acids was decreased when fat was added first to haylage or last to the TMR. Incorporation method had relatively minor effects on variables.

  7. Rhythms in cholesterol, cholesteryl esters, free fatty acids, and triglycerides in blood of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Bitman, J; Wood, D L; Lefcourt, A M

    1990-04-01

    Blood samples from six lactating dairy cows were analyzed to determine whether circulating neutral lipids exhibit rhythmic variations. Plasma neutral lipids were measured by quantitative TLC on every fourth integrated 15-min blood sample taken over 48-h periods. Cows were housed in an environmental chamber at 20 degrees C with 16 h light:8 h dark (lights on at 0700 h), fed daily at 0900 h, and milked at 0830 and 2000 h. Other variables monitored included: body temperature, ammonia nitrogen, urea nitrogen, glucose, triiodothyronine, thyroxine, somatotropin, insulin, cortisol, and prolactin. Mean concentrations of cholesterol, cholesteryl esters, free fatty acids, and triglycerides were 21.4, 175.4, 3.1, and 6.3 mg/dl, respectively. Visual and power spectral analysis of the pulsatile fluctuations in lipids indicated rhythms with periods of 2 to 3 h. Amplitudes of rhythms for free fatty acids and triglycerides were 60% of mean concentrations and for cholesterol and cholesteryl esters were 20% of mean concentrations. The presence of these rhythms was conserved when data were averaged across time by cow. However, because of nonstationary conditions, rhythms identified by spectral analysis were not statistically significant. There was no evidence of circadian patterns in circulating neutral lipid components. All other metabolic and hormonal variables except cortisol exhibited distinct circadian rhythms. PMID:2345205

  8. Effects of rumen-protected methionine, lysine, and histidine on lactation performance of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Giallongo, F; Harper, M T; Oh, J; Lopes, J C; Lapierre, H; Patton, R A; Parys, C; Shinzato, I; Hristov, A N

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of supplementing a metabolizable protein (MP)-deficient diet with rumen-protected (RP) Met, Lys, and His, individually or combined, on the performance of lactating dairy cows. The experiment was a 9-wk randomized complete block design with 72 Holstein cows. Following a 2-wk covariate period, cows were blocked by days in milk, milk yield, and parity, and randomly assigned to 1 of the following 6 treatments: (1) MP-adequate diet [MPA; +243g/d MP balance, according to the National Research Council (2001) requirements]; (2) MP-deficient diet (MPD; -54g/d MP balance); (3) MPD supplemented with RPMet (MPDM); (4) MPD supplemented with RPLys (MPDL); (5) MPD supplemented with RPHis (MPDH); and (6) MPD supplemented with RPMet, RPLys, and RPHis (MPDMLH). Dry matter intake (DMI), yields of milk and milk components (fat, protein, lactose) and energy-corrected milk (ECM), feed and ECM feed efficiencies, and milk and plasma urea N were decreased by MPD, compared with MPA. Supplementation of the MPD diet with RPLys increased milk protein content and plasma glucose concentration and tended to increase milk urea N. Addition of RPHis tended to increase DMI, increased milk protein concentration, and numerically increased yields of milk fat, protein, and ECM. In addition to the trends for increased DMI and milk fat content, and higher milk protein concentration, supplementation of the 3 RP AA also increased yields of milk fat, protein, and ECM and ECM feed efficiency. Relative to MPA, milk N efficiency tended to be increased by MPD. Concentrations of plasma essential AA (except Met and Thr) were decreased by MPD compared with MPA. Supplementation of RPMet, RPLys, and RPHis increased plasma Met (except for MPDM), Lys, and His concentrations, respectively. Cows fed MPD had lower blood hemoglobin concentration and numerically higher plasma ghrelin than cows fed MPA. Concentration of total saturated fatty acids in milk fat were or

  9. Genetic architecture of feed efficiency in mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to explore the genetic architecture and biological basis of feed efficiency in lactating Holstein cows. In total, 4,918 cows with actual or imputed genotypes for 60,671 SNP had individual feed intake, milk yield, milk composition, and body weight records. Cows were ...

  10. Metabolic Response to Heat Stress in Late-Pregnant and Early Lactation Dairy Cows: Implications to Liver-Muscle Crosstalk.

    PubMed

    Koch, Franziska; Lamp, Ole; Eslamizad, Mehdi; Weitzel, Joachim; Kuhla, Björn

    2016-01-01

    Climate changes lead to rising temperatures during summer periods and dramatic economic losses in dairy production. Modern high-yielding dairy cows experience severe metabolic stress during the transition period between late gestation and early lactation to meet the high energy and nutrient requirements of the fetus or the mammary gland, and additional thermal stress during this time has adverse implications on metabolism and welfare. The mechanisms enabling metabolic adaptation to heat apart from the decline in feed intake and milk yield are not fully elucidated yet. To distinguish between feed intake and heat stress related effects, German Holstein dairy cows were first kept at thermoneutral conditions at 15°C followed by exposure to heat-stressed (HS) at 28°C or pair-feeding (PF) at 15°C for 6 days; in late-pregnancy and again in early lactation. Liver and muscle biopsies and plasma samples were taken to assess major metabolic pathway regulation using real-time PCR and Western Blot. The results indicate that during heat stress, late pregnant cows activate Cahill but reduce Cori cycling, prevent increase in skeletal muscle fatty acid oxidation, and utilize increased amounts of pyruvate for gluconeogenesis, without altering ureagenesis despite reduced plane of nutrition. These homeorhetic adaptations are employed to reduce endogenous heat production while diverting amino acids to the growing fetus. Metabolic adaptation to heat stress in early lactation involves increased long-chain fatty acid degradation in muscle peroxisomes, allowance for muscle glucose utilization but diminished hepatic use of amino acid-derived pyruvate for gluconeogenesis and reduced peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation and ATP production in liver of HS compared to PF cows in early lactation. Consequently, metabolic adaptation to heat stress and reduced feed intake differ between late pregnancy and early lactation of dairy cows to maintain energy supply for fetus development or milk production

  11. Metabolic Response to Heat Stress in Late-Pregnant and Early Lactation Dairy Cows: Implications to Liver-Muscle Crosstalk

    PubMed Central

    Eslamizad, Mehdi; Weitzel, Joachim; Kuhla, Björn

    2016-01-01

    Climate changes lead to rising temperatures during summer periods and dramatic economic losses in dairy production. Modern high-yielding dairy cows experience severe metabolic stress during the transition period between late gestation and early lactation to meet the high energy and nutrient requirements of the fetus or the mammary gland, and additional thermal stress during this time has adverse implications on metabolism and welfare. The mechanisms enabling metabolic adaptation to heat apart from the decline in feed intake and milk yield are not fully elucidated yet. To distinguish between feed intake and heat stress related effects, German Holstein dairy cows were first kept at thermoneutral conditions at 15°C followed by exposure to heat-stressed (HS) at 28°C or pair-feeding (PF) at 15°C for 6 days; in late-pregnancy and again in early lactation. Liver and muscle biopsies and plasma samples were taken to assess major metabolic pathway regulation using real-time PCR and Western Blot. The results indicate that during heat stress, late pregnant cows activate Cahill but reduce Cori cycling, prevent increase in skeletal muscle fatty acid oxidation, and utilize increased amounts of pyruvate for gluconeogenesis, without altering ureagenesis despite reduced plane of nutrition. These homeorhetic adaptations are employed to reduce endogenous heat production while diverting amino acids to the growing fetus. Metabolic adaptation to heat stress in early lactation involves increased long-chain fatty acid degradation in muscle peroxisomes, allowance for muscle glucose utilization but diminished hepatic use of amino acid-derived pyruvate for gluconeogenesis and reduced peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation and ATP production in liver of HS compared to PF cows in early lactation. Consequently, metabolic adaptation to heat stress and reduced feed intake differ between late pregnancy and early lactation of dairy cows to maintain energy supply for fetus development or milk production

  12. Effects of stocking density on behavior, productivity, and comfort indices of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Wang, F X; Shao, D F; Li, S L; Wang, Y J; Azarfar, A; Cao, Z J

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of different stocking densities of 82 (0.82 cows per freestall and feed bin), 100, and 129% on behavior, productivity, and comfort indices of lactating Holstein dairy cows. Twenty-seven lactating cows (15 primiparous and 12 multiparous) were assigned to 1 of the 3 treatments, which were balanced for parity, milk yield, days in milk, and body weight in a 3×3 Latin square design with 14-d periods. After 7 d of adaptation to the treatments, lying time and bouts were recorded at 1-min intervals for 3 d, DMI and feeding time were monitored electronically by feed bins, and rumination time was quantified at 2-h periods for 5 d during each period. The cow comfort index, stall standing index, stall perching index, and stall use index (SUI) were calculated using 10-min scan samples of video recording from d 8 to 10 of each period. Milk yield was recorded from d 8 to 12 and milk composition was determined from composite samples on d 12 in each period. Daily lying time, lying bouts, and bout duration did not differ among the stocking densities. The ratio of lying time ≥12 h/d (the number of cows with daily lying time ≥12 h/d divided by number of cows per pen) was higher for cows housed at 82% stocking density compared with those housed at 100% stocking density, with stocking density of 129% intermediate. Hourly lying time was lower at 100% stocking density compared with 82 and 129% stocking densities during the peak period (2300-0400 h), determined based on diurnal pattern of lying time. Daily dry matter intake, feeding time, and feeding rate were not affected by stocking density. After morning milking, dry matter intake and feeding time was reduced at 129 versus 82% stocking density during peak feeding time (0600-0800 h), determined based on diurnal patterns of feeding behavior. Stocking density had no effect on rumination time, milk yield and milk composition. The ratio of SUI ≥85% (mean of the number of SUI

  13. Effects of stocking density on behavior, productivity, and comfort indices of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Wang, F X; Shao, D F; Li, S L; Wang, Y J; Azarfar, A; Cao, Z J

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of different stocking densities of 82 (0.82 cows per freestall and feed bin), 100, and 129% on behavior, productivity, and comfort indices of lactating Holstein dairy cows. Twenty-seven lactating cows (15 primiparous and 12 multiparous) were assigned to 1 of the 3 treatments, which were balanced for parity, milk yield, days in milk, and body weight in a 3×3 Latin square design with 14-d periods. After 7 d of adaptation to the treatments, lying time and bouts were recorded at 1-min intervals for 3 d, DMI and feeding time were monitored electronically by feed bins, and rumination time was quantified at 2-h periods for 5 d during each period. The cow comfort index, stall standing index, stall perching index, and stall use index (SUI) were calculated using 10-min scan samples of video recording from d 8 to 10 of each period. Milk yield was recorded from d 8 to 12 and milk composition was determined from composite samples on d 12 in each period. Daily lying time, lying bouts, and bout duration did not differ among the stocking densities. The ratio of lying time ≥12 h/d (the number of cows with daily lying time ≥12 h/d divided by number of cows per pen) was higher for cows housed at 82% stocking density compared with those housed at 100% stocking density, with stocking density of 129% intermediate. Hourly lying time was lower at 100% stocking density compared with 82 and 129% stocking densities during the peak period (2300-0400 h), determined based on diurnal pattern of lying time. Daily dry matter intake, feeding time, and feeding rate were not affected by stocking density. After morning milking, dry matter intake and feeding time was reduced at 129 versus 82% stocking density during peak feeding time (0600-0800 h), determined based on diurnal patterns of feeding behavior. Stocking density had no effect on rumination time, milk yield and milk composition. The ratio of SUI ≥85% (mean of the number of SUI

  14. Effects of Replacement of Concentrate Mixture by Broccoli Byproducts on Lactating Performance in Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Yi, X. W.; Yang, F.; Liu, J. X.; Wang, J. K.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of feeding pelletized broccoli byproducts (PBB) on milk yield and milk composition in dairy cows. In Trial 1, an in vitro gas test determined the optimal replacement level of PBB in a concentrate mixture in a mixed substrate with Chinese wild ryegrass hay (50:50, w/w) at levels of 0, 10%, 20%, 30%, or 40% (dry matter basis). When the concentrate was replaced by PBB at a level of 20%, no adverse effects were found on the gas volume or its rate constant during ruminal fermentation. In trial 2, 24 lactating cows (days in milk = 170.4±35; milk yield = 30±3 kg/d; body weight = 580 ±13 kg) were divided into 12 blocks based on day in milk and milk yield and randomly allocated to two dietary treatments: a basic diet with or without PBB replacing 20% of the concentrate mixture. The feeding trial lasted for 56 days; the first week allowed for adaptation to the diet. The milk composition was analyzed once a week. No significant difference in milk yield was observed between the two groups (23.5 vs 24.2 kg). A significant increase was found in milk fat content in the PBB group (p<0.05). Inclusion of PBB did not affect milk protein, lactose, total solids or solids-not-fat (p>0.05). These results indicated that PBB could be included in dairy cattle diets at a suitable level to replace concentrate mixture without any adverse effects on dairy performance. PMID:26323401

  15. Expression of fibroblast growth factor 21 in the liver of dairy cows in the transition period and during lactation.

    PubMed

    Schlegel, G; Ringseis, R; Keller, J; Schwarz, F J; Windisch, W; Eder, K

    2013-10-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) has been identified as a novel hormonal factor involved in the regulation of metabolic adaptations during energy deprivation. The present study aimed to investigate the expression of the FGF21 gene in the liver of dairy cows during the transition from pregnancy to lactation. Therefore, the relative mRNA abundance of FGF21 in liver biopsy samples of 20 dairy cows in late pregnancy (3 weeks pre-partum) and early lactation (1, 5, 14 weeks post-partum) was determined. It was observed that hepatic mRNA abundance of FGF21 at 1 week post-partum was dramatically increased (110-fold) compared to 3 weeks pre-partum (p < 0.001). With progress of lactation, mRNA concentration of FGF21 was declining; nevertheless, mRNA abundance at 5 and 14 weeks post-partum remained 25- and 10-fold increased compared to 3 weeks pre-partum (p < 0.001). Using a gene array technique, it was found that many genes involved in fatty acid oxidation, gluconeogenesis and ketogenesis were up-regulated during early lactation compared to late pregnancy. Moreover, there were positive linear correlations between hepatic mRNA concentration of FGF21 and mRNA concentrations of genes involved in ketogenesis as well as carnitine synthesis and carnitine uptake at various time-points during lactation, indicating that FGF21 could play a role in ketogenesis and carnitine metabolism in the liver of dairy cows (p < 0.05). In overall, the present study shows that expression of the FGF21 gene is strongly up-regulated during the transition period. It is assumed that the up-regulation of FGF21 might play an important role in the adaptation of liver metabolism during early lactation in dairy cows such as in other species.

  16. Active dry Saccharomyces cerevisiae can alleviate the effect of subacute ruminal acidosis in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    AlZahal, O; Dionissopoulos, L; Laarman, A H; Walker, N; McBride, B W

    2014-12-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effect of active dry Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ADSC) supplementation on dry matter intake, milk yield, milk components, ruminal pH, and microbial community during a dietary regimen that leads to subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA). Sixteen multiparous, rumen-cannulated lactating Holstein cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 dietary treatments that included ADSC (Biomate; AB Vista, Marlborough, UK; 8 × 10(10) cfu/head per day) or control. During wk 1 to 6, all cows received a high-forage (HF) diet (77:23, forage:concentrate). Cows were then abruptly switched during wk 7 to a high-grain (HG) diet (49:51, forage:concentrate) and remained on the HG until the end of wk 10. Feed intake and milk yields were recorded daily. Ruminal pH was recorded continuously using an indwelling system for 1 to 2 d per week during the pre-experimental phase, and wk 6, 7, and 10. Ruminal digesta samples were collected at the end of the experiment and analyzed for relative change in microbial communities using real-time quantitative PCR. Cows were considered to have SARA if the duration below pH 5.6 was ≥300 min/d. Ruminal pH during wk 6 (HF plateau) was not different across treatments (15 ± 46 min/d at pH <5.6). The dietary regimen successfully induced SARA during wk 7 (transition from HF to HG diet), and ruminal pH (551 ± 46 min/d at pH <5.6) was not different across treatments. However, cows receiving ADSC had an improved ruminal pH (122 ± 57 vs. 321 ± 53 min/d at pH <5.6) during wk 10 (HG plateau) compared with control. Additionally, cows receiving ADSC had a better dry matter intake (23.3 ± 0.66 vs. 21.6 ± 0.61 kg/d) and 4% fat-corrected milk yield (29.6 ± 1.2 vs. 26.5 ± 1.2 kg/d) than control cows during the HG phase (wk 8 to 10). During HG feeding, cows receiving ADSC had greater total volatile fatty acid and propionate concentrations (175 ± 7.5 vs. 154 ± 7.5 and 117 ± 6.1 vs. 94 ± 5.7 mM for ADSC and control, respectively

  17. Active dry Saccharomyces cerevisiae can alleviate the effect of subacute ruminal acidosis in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    AlZahal, O; Dionissopoulos, L; Laarman, A H; Walker, N; McBride, B W

    2014-12-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effect of active dry Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ADSC) supplementation on dry matter intake, milk yield, milk components, ruminal pH, and microbial community during a dietary regimen that leads to subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA). Sixteen multiparous, rumen-cannulated lactating Holstein cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 dietary treatments that included ADSC (Biomate; AB Vista, Marlborough, UK; 8 × 10(10) cfu/head per day) or control. During wk 1 to 6, all cows received a high-forage (HF) diet (77:23, forage:concentrate). Cows were then abruptly switched during wk 7 to a high-grain (HG) diet (49:51, forage:concentrate) and remained on the HG until the end of wk 10. Feed intake and milk yields were recorded daily. Ruminal pH was recorded continuously using an indwelling system for 1 to 2 d per week during the pre-experimental phase, and wk 6, 7, and 10. Ruminal digesta samples were collected at the end of the experiment and analyzed for relative change in microbial communities using real-time quantitative PCR. Cows were considered to have SARA if the duration below pH 5.6 was ≥300 min/d. Ruminal pH during wk 6 (HF plateau) was not different across treatments (15 ± 46 min/d at pH <5.6). The dietary regimen successfully induced SARA during wk 7 (transition from HF to HG diet), and ruminal pH (551 ± 46 min/d at pH <5.6) was not different across treatments. However, cows receiving ADSC had an improved ruminal pH (122 ± 57 vs. 321 ± 53 min/d at pH <5.6) during wk 10 (HG plateau) compared with control. Additionally, cows receiving ADSC had a better dry matter intake (23.3 ± 0.66 vs. 21.6 ± 0.61 kg/d) and 4% fat-corrected milk yield (29.6 ± 1.2 vs. 26.5 ± 1.2 kg/d) than control cows during the HG phase (wk 8 to 10). During HG feeding, cows receiving ADSC had greater total volatile fatty acid and propionate concentrations (175 ± 7.5 vs. 154 ± 7.5 and 117 ± 6.1 vs. 94 ± 5.7 mM for ADSC and control, respectively

  18. Effects of feeding birdsfoot trefoil hay on neutral detergent fiber digestion, nitrogen utilization efficiency, and lactational performance by dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Christensen, R G; Yang, S Y; Eun, J-S; Young, A J; Hall, J O; MacAdam, J W

    2015-11-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine effects of feeding birdsfoot trefoil hay-based diets in comparison with an alfalfa hay-based diet on N utilization efficiency, ruminal fermentation, and lactational performance by mid-lactation dairy cows. Nine multiparous lactating Holstein cows (131 ± 22.6 d in milk), 3 of which were rumen fistulated, were fed 3 experimental diets in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design with 3 periods of 14 d of adaptation and 7 d of data and sample collection. Within squares, cows were randomly assigned to diets as follows: alfalfa hay-based diet (AHT), alfalfa and birdsfoot trefoil hay-based diet (ABT), and birdsfoot trefoil hay-based diet (BT). Intakes of dry matter and crude protein were similar across treatments, whereas ABT and BT diets resulted in decreased fiber intake compared with AHT. Feeding BT tended to increase neutral detergent fiber digestibility compared with AHT and ABT. Milk yield tended to increase for cows consuming ABT or BT diets. Milk true protein concentration and yield were greater for cows consuming ABT relative to those fed AHT. Concentration of total volatile fatty acids tended to increase by cows fed BT compared with those fed AHT and ABT. Feeding birdsfoot trefoil hay in a total mixed ration resulted in a tendency to decrease acetate proportion, but it tended to increase propionate proportion, leading to a tendency to decrease acetate-to-propionate ratio. Whereas concentration of ammonia-N was similar across treatments, cows offered BT exhibited greater microbial protein yield relative to those fed AHT and ABT. Cows offered birdsfoot trefoil hay diets secreted more milk N than AHT, resulting in improved N utilization efficiency for milk N. The positive effects due to feeding birdsfoot trefoil hay were attributed to enhanced neutral detergent fiber digestion, and thus it could replace alfalfa hay in high-forage dairy diets while improving N utilization efficiencies and maintaining lactational performance

  19. Effects of feeding birdsfoot trefoil hay on neutral detergent fiber digestion, nitrogen utilization efficiency, and lactational performance by dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Christensen, R G; Yang, S Y; Eun, J-S; Young, A J; Hall, J O; MacAdam, J W

    2015-11-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine effects of feeding birdsfoot trefoil hay-based diets in comparison with an alfalfa hay-based diet on N utilization efficiency, ruminal fermentation, and lactational performance by mid-lactation dairy cows. Nine multiparous lactating Holstein cows (131 ± 22.6 d in milk), 3 of which were rumen fistulated, were fed 3 experimental diets in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design with 3 periods of 14 d of adaptation and 7 d of data and sample collection. Within squares, cows were randomly assigned to diets as follows: alfalfa hay-based diet (AHT), alfalfa and birdsfoot trefoil hay-based diet (ABT), and birdsfoot trefoil hay-based diet (BT). Intakes of dry matter and crude protein were similar across treatments, whereas ABT and BT diets resulted in decreased fiber intake compared with AHT. Feeding BT tended to increase neutral detergent fiber digestibility compared with AHT and ABT. Milk yield tended to increase for cows consuming ABT or BT diets. Milk true protein concentration and yield were greater for cows consuming ABT relative to those fed AHT. Concentration of total volatile fatty acids tended to increase by cows fed BT compared with those fed AHT and ABT. Feeding birdsfoot trefoil hay in a total mixed ration resulted in a tendency to decrease acetate proportion, but it tended to increase propionate proportion, leading to a tendency to decrease acetate-to-propionate ratio. Whereas concentration of ammonia-N was similar across treatments, cows offered BT exhibited greater microbial protein yield relative to those fed AHT and ABT. Cows offered birdsfoot trefoil hay diets secreted more milk N than AHT, resulting in improved N utilization efficiency for milk N. The positive effects due to feeding birdsfoot trefoil hay were attributed to enhanced neutral detergent fiber digestion, and thus it could replace alfalfa hay in high-forage dairy diets while improving N utilization efficiencies and maintaining lactational performance

  20. Molecular insights into the mechanisms of liver-associated diseases in early-lactating dairy cows: hypothetical role of endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Ringseis, R; Gessner, D K; Eder, K

    2015-08-01

    The transition period represents the most critical period in the productive life of high-yielding dairy cows due to both metabolic and inflammatory stimuli, which challenge the liver and predispose dairy cows to develop liver-associated diseases such as fatty liver and ketosis. Despite the fact that all high-yielding dairy cows are affected by marked metabolic stress due to a severe negative energy balance (NEB) during early lactation, not all cows develop liver-associated diseases. Although the reason for this is largely unknown, this indicates that the capacity of the liver to cope with metabolic and inflammatory challenges varies between individual high-yielding dairy cows. Convincing evidence exists that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress plays a key role in the development of fatty liver, and it has been recently shown that ER stress occurs in the liver of high-yielding dairy cows. This indicates that ER stress may be involved in the development of liver-associated diseases in dairy cows. The present review shows that the liver of dairy cows during early lactation is exposed to several metabolic and inflammatory challenges, such as non-esterified fatty acids, tumour necrosis factor α, interleukin-1β, reactive oxygen species and lipopolysaccharides, which are known inducers of ER stress. Thus, ER stress may represent a molecular basis for fatty liver development and account for the frequent occurrence of fatty liver and ketosis in high-yielding dairy cows. Interindividual differences between dairy cows in the activation of hepatic stress response pathways, such as nuclear factor E2-related factor 2, which is activated during ER stress and reduces the sensitivity of tissues to oxidative and inflammatory damage, might provide an explanation at the molecular level for differences in the capacity to cope with pathological inflammatory challenges during early lactation and the susceptibility to develop liver-associated diseases between early-lactating dairy cows

  1. Effect of dietary strong ions on chewing activity and milk production in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Mooney, C S; Allen, M S

    2007-12-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine effects of strong ions on chewing activity and short-term lactational performance of dairy cows. Forty multiparous Holstein cows were used in a replicated 5 x 5 Latin square design with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of equimolar treatments for cations (sodium and potassium), anions (chloride and bicarbonate), plus a control diet. Periods were 14 d in length with the last 4 d for data and sample collection. Diets were formulated to 29% neutral detergent figer and 17.5% crude protein. Sodium bicarbonate was included at 1% of dry matter in one treatment diet, and other treatments (sodium chloride, potassium chloride, and potassium bicarbonate) were added to be equimolar to sodium bicarbonate in their respective diets. Chewing activity was recorded every 5 min for the last 24 h of each period. Dry matter intake was not affected by treatment (mean = 27.9 kg/d). Bicarbonate treatments increased yields of milk, milk fat, and fat- and solids-corrected milk compared with chloride treatments, but cation treatments did not affect any measured variable. The 4 ion treatments reduced ruminating time per day when compared with control by decreasing the length of rumination bouts. This effect was not specific to cations or anions suggesting a mechanism related to increased ruminal osmolality.

  2. Evaluation of lower-starch diets for lactating Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Dann, H M; Tucker, H A; Cotanch, K W; Krawczel, P D; Mooney, C S; Grant, R J; Eguchi, T

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this experiment was to measure ruminal and lactational responses of Holstein dairy cows fed diets containing 3 different starch levels: 17.7 (low; LS), 21.0 (medium; MS), or 24.6% (high; HS). Twelve multiparous cows (118 ± 5 d in milk) were assigned randomly to dietary treatment sequence in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design with 3-wk periods. All diets were fed as total mixed rations and contained approximately 30.2% corn silage, 18.5% grass silage, and 5.0% chopped alfalfa hay. Dietary starch content was manipulated by increasing dry ground corn inclusion (% of dry matter) from 3.4 (LS) to 10.1 (MS) and 16.9 (HS) and decreasing inclusion of beet pulp and wheat middlings from 6.7 and 13.4 (LS) to 3.4 and 10.1 (MS) or 0 and 6.8 (HS). In vitro 6-h starch digestibility of the diet increased as nonforage sources of fiber replaced corn grain (% of dry matter; 73.6, HS; 77.3, MS; 82.5, LS) resulting in rumen-fermentable starch content by 14.6, 16.2, and 18.1% for the LS, MS, and HS diets, respectively. Diets had similar neutral detergent fiber from forage and particle size distributions. Dry matter intake, solids-corrected milk yield, and efficiency of solids-corrected milk production were unaffected by diet, averaging 26.5 ± 0.8, 40.8 ± 1.6, and 1.54 ± 0.05 kg/d, respectively. Reducing dietary starch did not affect chewing time (815 ± 23 min/d), mean ruminal pH over 24h (6.06 ± 0.12), acetate-to-propionate ratio (2.4 ± 0.3), or microbial N synthesized in the rumen (585 ± 24 g/d). Total tract organic matter digestibility was higher for HS compared with MS and LS diets (69.2, 67.3, and 67.0%, respectively), but crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, and starch digestibilities were unaffected. As dietary starch content decreased, in vitro ruminal starch fermentability increased and, consequently, the range between HS and LS in rumen-fermentable starch (3.5 percentage units) was less than the range in starch content (6.9 percentage units

  3. Effect of dietary protein content on animal production and blood metabolites of dairy cows during lactation.

    PubMed

    Law, R A; Young, F J; Patterson, D C; Kilpatrick, D J; Wylie, A R G; Mayne, C S

    2009-03-01

    Ninety autumn-calving Holstein dairy cows [45 primiparous and 45 multiparous (mean parity, 3.1)] were allocated to 1 of 3 dietary crude protein (CP) concentrations: 173, 144, or 114 g of CP/kg of DM, from calving until d 150 of lactation. On d 151, half of the animals in each treatment were allocated an alternative dietary protein concentration. Half of the animals receiving 114 g of CP/kg of DM went onto 144 g of CP/kg of DM; half of the animals receiving 144 g of CP/kg of DM went onto 173 g of CP/kg of DM; and half of the animals receiving 173 g of CP/kg of DM went onto 144 g of CP/kg of DM, with the remaining animals staying on their original treatment. This resulted in 6 treatments in the mid to late lactation period: 114/114, 144/144, 173/173, 114/144, 144/173, and 173/144 g of CP/kg of DM. An increase in dietary CP concentration significantly increased milk, fat, and protein yield in early lactation (d 1 to 150). Dry matter intake was also increased with increased dietary protein concentration; however, this was not significant between 144 and 173 g of CP/kg of DM. Increased dietary CP significantly increased plasma urea, albumin, and total protein concentrations but had no significant effect on NEFA, leptin, or IGF-1 concentrations. Decreasing the dietary CP concentration in mid-late lactation (d 151 to 305) from 173 to 144 g/kg of DM had no significant effect on milk yield, dry matter intake, or milk fat and protein yield, compared with animals that remained on 173 g of CP/kg of DM throughout lactation. Increasing dietary CP concentration from 144 to 173 g/kg of DM significantly increased dry matter intake compared with animals that remained on the 144 g of CP/kg of DM throughout lactation. There were no significant dietary treatment effects on live weight or body condition score change throughout the experiment. Results of this study indicate that high protein diets (up to 173 g of CP/kg of DM) improved feed intake and animal performance in early lactation

  4. Dietary supplements of folic acid during lactation: effects on the performance of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Girard, C L; Matte, J J

    1998-05-01

    The present experiment was undertaken to determine the effects of dietary supplements of folic acid administered from 4 wk prepartum to 305 d of lactation on lactational performance. Sixty-three Holstein cows were assigned to 22 blocks of 3 cows according to lactation number, milk production, and body weight (BW). Within each block, cows received 0, 2, or 4 mg of folic acid/kg of BW per d. Dietary supplements of folic acid increased serum and milk folates but affected milk production and composition of primiparous and multiparous cows differently. Supplementary folic acid had little effect on milk production and composition of primiparous cows, except that milk production decreased during the first 100 d of lactation. However, during a complete lactation (3 to 305 d after calving), supplementary folic acid was associated with increased milk production by multiparous cows (8284 +/- 560, 8548 +/- 380, and 8953 +/- 191 kg for cows fed diets supplemented with 0, 2, and 4 mg of folic acid/kg of BW per d, respectively). The percentage of ash in milk was decreased for cows fed the highest amount of dietary folic acid. During the first 100 d of lactation, supplementary folic acid was associated with a lower concentration of nonprotein nitrogen in the milk of multiparous cows. The present study confirms results obtained previously, suggesting that, although the supply of folates from an unsupplemented diet and the ruminal microflora is sufficient to avoid a deficiency in folic acid, supplementary folic acid may increase the milk production of cows in the second lactation or greater.

  5. Rumen degradation and availability of various amounts of liquid methionine hydroxy analog in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Koenig, K M; Rode, L M; Knight, C D; Vázquez-Añón, M

    2002-04-01

    Ruminal escape of various amounts of methionine hydroxy analog [D,L-2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio)-butanoic acid (HMB)] was measured in an experiment designed as a 4 x 4 Latin square using four lactating dairy cows with cannula in the rumen and duodenum. The cows were fed a diet composed of corn silage, alfalfa haylage, rolled barley grain, canola meal, and blood meal, three times per day. The cows were fed the liquid analog each day for 1 wk before the experiment was started. On the day of the experiment, each cow received an intraruminal bolus dose of 0, 25, or 50 g of the liquid analog (Alimet feed supplement, 88% HMB) or 51.2 g of a dry calcium salt of the analog (86% HMB; MHA) mixed with 0.5 kg of ground barley grain. A liquid phase marker (Co-EDTA) was administered as a bolus dose into the rumen at the time of administration of the methionine hydroxy analogs. Rumen and duodenal contents, and blood serum were collected at 0, 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 24 h relative to the time of dosing. Rumen and duodenal samples were analyzed for Co and HMB, and serum was analyzed for free methionine. Fractional rate constants for the passage of the liquid marker (k(p)) and the decline of HMB concentration in the rumen (k(rHMB)) were determined by nonlinear regression. Liquid passage from the rumen was similar among the four analog treatments (0.136 +/- 0.012/h; mean +/- SEM). Ruminal escape of HMB as a percentage of the dose (100% x k(p)/k(rHMB)) did not differ between cows receiving 25, 50, and 51.2 g of the methionine analogs (42.5, 41.0, and 34.9 +/- 9.0%, respectively) and averaged 39.5%. Duodenal appearance of HMB as a percentage also did not differ between cows receiving 25, 50, and 51.2 g of the methionine analogs (16.2, 26.8, and 22.7%, respectively) and averaged 22%. Omasal absorption of HMB was variable ranging from 12.3 to 26.3% and averaged 17.6%. Serum methionine concentration peaked at 3 and 6 h after dosing and increased in proportion to the amount of the analog

  6. Effect of rubber flooring on claw health in lactating dairy cows housed in free-stall barns.

    PubMed

    Vanegas, J; Overton, M; Berry, S L; Sischo, W M

    2006-11-01

    Multiparous dairy cows between 10 to 30 d in milk (DIM) were enrolled in a clinical trial to evaluate the effects of rubber flooring on the development of claw lesions, locomotion scores, clinical lameness, and rates of hoof growth and wear. Two groups of cows were housed in identical free-stall facilities, except that 1 pen (rubber, n = 84) had rubber alley mats covering the entire concrete floor of the pen, whereas cows in the second pen were exposed to concrete flooring (concrete, n = 82) without rubber alley mats. All cows were evaluated 3 times between 10 and 30, 74 and 94, and 110 and 130 DIM for 1) the presence of claw lesions on their rear feet, 2) the occurrence of clinical lameness based on a locomotion score, and 3) rates of claw growth and wear as observed on the dorsal wall of the right lateral claw. No differences between flooring groups at the time of enrollment were detected for lactation number, mean DIM at first examination, body condition score, and proportion of cows with claw lesions at the first examination. Odds of developing claw lesions between examinations were not different for cows exposed to the rubber surface compared with those exposed to concrete. Cows on concrete, however, had greater odds of developing or exacerbating existing heel erosion than cows on rubber flooring. Regardless of the flooring surface, the lateral claw was more likely to develop lesions than the medial claw. Odds of becoming lame by the third examination and the proportion of cows requiring therapeutic hoof trimming because of lameness were greater for concrete-exposed cows than those on rubber. Cows on rubber flooring had decreased claw growth and wear between the first and last examination compared with cows on concrete. Regardless of flooring surface, second-lactation cows had greater wear rates than those in third or greater parities. Results of our study suggest that a soft flooring surface, such as interlocking rubber, is beneficial for hoof health.

  7. Heat- and lignosulfonate-treated canola meal as a source of ruminal undegradable protein for lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Wright, C F; von Keyserlingk, M A G; Swift, M L; Fisher, L J; Shelford, J A; Dinn, N E

    2005-01-01

    This experiment used 18 lactating Holstein cows in a 3 x 3 Latin square replicated 6 times to determine the effectiveness of processing with moist heat or moist heat combined with lignosulfonate (LSO3) for increasing the ruminal undegradable fraction of canola meal for use as a protein supplement for lactating dairy cows. Diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous and contained one of 3 forms of canola meal; untreated canola meal (UCM), heat-treated canola meal (HTCM) or heat-and LSO3-treated canola meal (LSO3CM). Total collection of urine and feces was taken from each cow during the last 5 d of each 42-d experimental period. Milk production was greater for cows fed the LSO3CM diet (36.6 kg/d) than for cows fed the UCM diet (34.8 kg/d) but did not differ from cows fed the HTCM diet (35.3 kg/d). Digestibility of crude protein was lower for cows supplemented with LSO3CM and they had reduced concentrations of ruminal ammonia N, blood urea N, and milk urea N compared with cows supplemented with UCM or HTCM. Dry matter intake and apparent digestibilities of neutral and acid detergent fiber were increased in cows fed the LSO3CM diet. Urinary N excretion (as % of N intake) was reduced in cows fed the LSO3CM diet. These results indicate that moist heat combined with LSO3 treatment of canola meal was effective in increasing the proportion of crude protein digested in the lower digestive tract of lactating cows and was therefore used more effectively as a source of protein than UCM or HTCM.

  8. Resistin in Dairy Cows: Plasma Concentrations during Early Lactation, Expression and Potential Role in Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Reverchon, Maxime; Ramé, Christelle; Cognié, Juliette; Briant, Eric; Elis, Sébastien; Guillaume, Daniel; Dupont, Joëlle

    2014-01-01

    Resistin is an adipokine that has been implicated in energy metabolism regulation in rodents but has been little studied in dairy cows. We determined plasma resistin concentrations in early lactation in dairy cows and investigated the levels of resistin mRNA and protein in adipose tissue and the phosphorylation of several components of insulin signaling pathways one week post partum (1 WPP) and at five months of gestation (5 MG). We detected resistin in mature bovine adipocytes and investigated the effect of recombinant bovine resistin on lipolysis in bovine adipose tissue explants. ELISA showed that plasma resistin concentration was low before calving, subsequently increasing and reaching a peak at 1 WPP, decreasing steadily thereafter to reach pre-calving levels at 6 WPP. Plasma resistin concentration was significantly positively correlated with plasma non esterified fatty acid (NEFA) levels and negatively with milk yield, dry matter intake and energy balance between WPP1 to WPP22. We showed, by quantitative RT-PCR and western blotting, that resistin mRNA and protein levels in adipose tissue were higher at WPP1 than at 5 MG. The level of phosphorylation of several early and downstream insulin signaling components (IRβ, IRS-1, IRS-2, Akt, MAPK ERK1/2, P70S6K and S6) in adipose tissue was also lower at 1 WPP than at 5 MG. Finally, we showed that recombinant bovine resistin increased the release of glycerol and mRNA levels for ATGL (adipose triglyceride lipase) and HSL (hormone-sensitive lipase) in adipose tissue explants. Overall, resistin levels were high in the plasma and adipose tissue and were positively correlated with NEFA levels after calving. Resistin is expressed in bovine mature adipocytes and promotes lipid mobilization in adipose explants in vitro. PMID:24675707

  9. Resistin in dairy cows: plasma concentrations during early lactation, expression and potential role in adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Reverchon, Maxime; Ramé, Christelle; Cognié, Juliette; Briant, Eric; Elis, Sébastien; Guillaume, Daniel; Dupont, Joëlle

    2014-01-01

    Resistin is an adipokine that has been implicated in energy metabolism regulation in rodents but has been little studied in dairy cows. We determined plasma resistin concentrations in early lactation in dairy cows and investigated the levels of resistin mRNA and protein in adipose tissue and the phosphorylation of several components of insulin signaling pathways one week post partum (1 WPP) and at five months of gestation (5 MG). We detected resistin in mature bovine adipocytes and investigated the effect of recombinant bovine resistin on lipolysis in bovine adipose tissue explants. ELISA showed that plasma resistin concentration was low before calving, subsequently increasing and reaching a peak at 1 WPP, decreasing steadily thereafter to reach pre-calving levels at 6 WPP. Plasma resistin concentration was significantly positively correlated with plasma non esterified fatty acid (NEFA) levels and negatively with milk yield, dry matter intake and energy balance between WPP1 to WPP22. We showed, by quantitative RT-PCR and western blotting, that resistin mRNA and protein levels in adipose tissue were higher at WPP1 than at 5 MG. The level of phosphorylation of several early and downstream insulin signaling components (IRβ, IRS-1, IRS-2, Akt, MAPK ERK1/2, P70S6K and S6) in adipose tissue was also lower at 1 WPP than at 5 MG. Finally, we showed that recombinant bovine resistin increased the release of glycerol and mRNA levels for ATGL (adipose triglyceride lipase) and HSL (hormone-sensitive lipase) in adipose tissue explants. Overall, resistin levels were high in the plasma and adipose tissue and were positively correlated with NEFA levels after calving. Resistin is expressed in bovine mature adipocytes and promotes lipid mobilization in adipose explants in vitro. PMID:24675707

  10. Energy content of reduced-fat dried distillers grains with solubles for lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Foth, A J; Brown-Brandl, T; Hanford, K J; Miller, P S; Garcia Gomez, G; Kononoff, P J

    2015-10-01

    Eight Holstein and 8 Jersey multiparous, lactating cows were used to complete 56 energy balances to determine the energy content of reduced-fat dried distillers grains with solubles (RFDDGS). A repeated switchback design was used to compare treatments with and without RFDDGS. Diets consisted of 24.2% corn silage, 18.4% alfalfa hay, 6.94% brome hay with either 22.9% rolled corn or 14.8% soybean meal (control), or 8.95% rolled corn, 28.8% RFDDGS, and 0% soybean meal [Co-P; dry-matter (DM) basis]. The inclusion of RFDDGS did not affect DM intake, averaging 21.4 ± 0.53 kg of DM for all cows, but milk production tended to increase from 29.8 to 30.9 ± 1.46 kg/d for control and Co-P treatments, respectively. Milk fat percentage and energy-corrected milk did not differ between treatments, averaging 4.33 ± 0.14% and 34.1 kg/d, respectively. Milk protein was significantly decreased by the Co-P treatment (3.56 and 3.41 ± 0.08% for control and Co-P treatments), but protein yield was not affected. Milk energies were 1.40 Mcal/d greater with Co-P. Energy lost as methane was reduced by 0.31 Mcal/d with the addition of RFDDGS to the diet. Heat loss averaged 29.9 ± 0.55 Mcal/d and was not different between diets. Average energy retained as tissue energy was -2.99 ± 0.93 Mcal/d and did not differ between treatments. Intake of digestible and metabolizable energy were not different between the control and Co-P treatments, averaging 2.68 and 2.31 Mcal/kg of DM, respectively. The net energy of lactation values of control and Co-P diets were calculated to be 1.43 and 1.47 Mcal/kg of DM, respectively. These energy estimates suggest greater energy content of diets containing RFDDGS than diets containing a mixture of corn and soybean meal in lactating dairy cows.

  11. Association between dry period length and lactation performance, lactation curve, calf birth weight, and dystocia in Holstein dairy cows in Iran.

    PubMed

    Atashi, H; Zamiri, M J; Dadpasand, M

    2013-06-01

    In this study, 65,971 lactations on 41,842 cows in 64 herds were used to determine the association between dry period length (DPL) and lactation performance, lactation curve, calf birth weight, and the incidence of calving difficulty during the subsequent parity in Holstein dairy cows in Iran. The length of the dry period was classified into 7 categories: 0 to 35d, 36 to 50d, 51 to 60d, 61 to 70d, 71 to 85d, 86 to 110d, and 111 to 160d. Cows with the standard DPL (51 to 60d) produced more 305-d milk, fat, and protein over the next lactation compared with those with shorter dry periods. Shorter dry periods (0 to 35d and 36 to 50d) were associated with lower initial milk yield, steeper inclining and declining slopes of the lactation curve, and higher milk persistency compared with dry period length of 51 to 60d. Peak lactation was achieved later in cows with 0- to 35-d and 36- to 50-d dry period length than in those with dry period length of 51 to 60d. We also observed a relationship between DPL and calf birth weight: smaller calf birth weight was recorded with a dry period of 51 to 60d compared with longer dry periods. The incidence of calving difficulty did not differ in cows with 51- to 60-d dry period compared with cows with 0- to 35-d and 36- to 50-d dry periods. In conclusion, the results of this study did not support previous findings that suggested a shorter dry period could be beneficial to dairy production.

  12. Relationships between circulating plasma concentrations and duodenal flows of essential amino acids in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Patton, R A; Hristov, A N; Parys, C; Lapierre, H

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to better define essential AA (EAA) requirements in lactating dairy cows through examination of the relationship between plasma essential AA concentration (p[EAA]) and predicted duodenal flow of essential AA (EAAduo). Our hypothesis was that at a given level of milk protein output, p[EAA] would remain steady in response to increasing EAAduo until the EAA requirement was met, at which point p[EAA] would increase rapidly in response to greater duodenal flow of EAA until p[EAA] reached a plateau as other body processes degraded excess EAA to avoid toxicity. Thus, the requirement of each EAA would be fulfilled when p[EAA] increased rapidly. To investigate this hypothesis, we compiled a literature database that included 102 studies with 420 treatment means that reported p[EAA], dietary nutrient content, body weight, and milk production. A second database was produced to validate relationships developed in the first database and included 32 studies with 98 treatment means. All relationships were evaluated as regression equations with study as a random factor. Breed, days in milk, body weight, and milk protein production had no effect on the plasma concentration of any EAA. Other than metabolizable protein supply, nutritional content of the rations did not affect p[EAA]. Only p[Arg] was affected by parity, with primiparous cows having higher concentrations of Arg than older cows. No break points in the relationship between p[EAA] versus EAAduo were detected as either steep increases or plateaus. Plasma Arg, Ile, Lys, Thr, and Val concentrations were best associated with their respective EAAduo as quadratic equations, whereas His, Leu, Met, and Phe were associated only linearly. Adding a quadratic term improved the adjusted R(2) or decreased the root mean square error marginally (<2.0%). Thus, we conclude that the main effect of EAAduo on p[EAA] is linear. Abomasal or duodenal infusions of Met, Lys, His, Lys+Met, and casein revealed that Met

  13. Chewing activity, saliva production, and ruminal pH of primiparous and multiparous lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Maekawa, M; Beauchemin, K A; Christensen, D A

    2002-05-01

    Four multiparous (MP) and four primiparous (PP) ruminally cannulated lactating Holstein cows were used in a double 4 x 4 Latin square design to study the chewing behavior, saliva production, and ruminal pH of cows in the first or subsequent lactation. Cows were fed one of four diets; three total mixed rations containing 40, 50, or 60% silage (DM basis), and a separate ingredient diet containing 50% concentrate. Dry matter intake was higher for MP cows than for PP cows (19.2 vs. 17.1 kg/d) but not as a percentage of body weight (2.97 +/- 0.06%). Multiparous cows spent more time eating than PP cows (260 vs. 213 min/d, respectively), even after adjustment for dry matter intake (13.8 vs. 12.4 min/kg DM). Multiparous cows also spent more time ruminating per day than PP cows (560 vs. 508 min/d, respectively). Eating salivation rate was not affected by parity, but resting salivation rate was higher for MP cows than for PP. Although MP cows spent more time chewing than PP cows, total daily saliva production was only numerically higher for MP cows because the increase in saliva produced during chewing was accompanied by a decrease in saliva produced during resting. Furthermore, pH profiles tended to be lower for MP cows than for PP cows. Multiparous cows may have a greater risk of incurring acidosis than PP cows because increased salivary secretion associated with increased chewing may not sufficiently compensate the increment of fermentation acids produced in the rumen due to high feed intake.

  14. Effects of dietary Capsicum oleoresin on productivity and immune responses in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Oh, J; Giallongo, F; Frederick, T; Pate, J; Walusimbi, S; Elias, R J; Wall, E H; Bravo, D; Hristov, A N

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated the effect of Capsicum oleoresin in granular form (CAP) on nutrient digestibility, immune responses, oxidative stress markers, blood chemistry, rumen fermentation, rumen bacterial populations, and productivity of lactating dairy cows. Eight multiparous Holstein cows, including 3 ruminally cannulated, were used in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design experiment. Experimental periods were 25 d in duration, including a 14-d adaptation and an 11-d data collection and sampling period. Treatments included control (no CAP) and daily supplementation of 250, 500, or 1,000 mg of CAP/cow. Dry matter intake was not affected by CAP (average 27.0±0.64 kg/d), but milk yield tended to quadratically increase with CAP supplementation (50.3 to 51.9±0.86 kg/d). Capsicum oleoresin quadratically increased energy-corrected milk yield, but had no effect on milk fat concentration. Rumen fermentation variables, apparent total-tract digestibility of nutrients, and N excretion in feces and urine were not affected by CAP. Blood serum β-hydroxybutyrate was quadratically increased by CAP, whereas the concentration of nonesterified fatty acids was similar among treatments. Rumen populations of Bacteroidales, Prevotella, and Roseburia decreased and Butyrivibrio increased quadratically with CAP supplementation. T cell phenotypes were not affected by treatment. Mean fluorescence intensity for phagocytic activity of neutrophils tended to be quadratically increased by CAP. Numbers of neutrophils and eosinophils and the ratio of neutrophils to lymphocytes in peripheral blood linearly increased with increasing CAP. Oxidative stress markers were not affected by CAP. Overall, in the conditions of this experiment, CAP did not affect feed intake, rumen fermentation, nutrient digestibility, T cell phenotypes, and oxidative stress markers. However, energy-corrected milk yield was quadratically increased by CAP, possibly as a result of enhanced mobilization of body fat reserves. In

  15. Effects of dietary Capsicum oleoresin on productivity and immune responses in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Oh, J; Giallongo, F; Frederick, T; Pate, J; Walusimbi, S; Elias, R J; Wall, E H; Bravo, D; Hristov, A N

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated the effect of Capsicum oleoresin in granular form (CAP) on nutrient digestibility, immune responses, oxidative stress markers, blood chemistry, rumen fermentation, rumen bacterial populations, and productivity of lactating dairy cows. Eight multiparous Holstein cows, including 3 ruminally cannulated, were used in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design experiment. Experimental periods were 25 d in duration, including a 14-d adaptation and an 11-d data collection and sampling period. Treatments included control (no CAP) and daily supplementation of 250, 500, or 1,000 mg of CAP/cow. Dry matter intake was not affected by CAP (average 27.0±0.64 kg/d), but milk yield tended to quadratically increase with CAP supplementation (50.3 to 51.9±0.86 kg/d). Capsicum oleoresin quadratically increased energy-corrected milk yield, but had no effect on milk fat concentration. Rumen fermentation variables, apparent total-tract digestibility of nutrients, and N excretion in feces and urine were not affected by CAP. Blood serum β-hydroxybutyrate was quadratically increased by CAP, whereas the concentration of nonesterified fatty acids was similar among treatments. Rumen populations of Bacteroidales, Prevotella, and Roseburia decreased and Butyrivibrio increased quadratically with CAP supplementation. T cell phenotypes were not affected by treatment. Mean fluorescence intensity for phagocytic activity of neutrophils tended to be quadratically increased by CAP. Numbers of neutrophils and eosinophils and the ratio of neutrophils to lymphocytes in peripheral blood linearly increased with increasing CAP. Oxidative stress markers were not affected by CAP. Overall, in the conditions of this experiment, CAP did not affect feed intake, rumen fermentation, nutrient digestibility, T cell phenotypes, and oxidative stress markers. However, energy-corrected milk yield was quadratically increased by CAP, possibly as a result of enhanced mobilization of body fat reserves. In

  16. Single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with thermoregulation in lactating dairy cows exposed to heat stress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dairy cows with increased rectal temperature during heat stress experience lower milk yield and fertility. Given that rectal temperature during heat stress is heritable in dairy cattle, genetic selection for regulation of body temperature should reduce effects of heat stress on production. One goal...

  17. Synchronization of ovulation with human chorionic gonadotropin in lactating dairy cows with ovarian cysts during heat stress.

    PubMed

    Navanukraw, Chainarong; Khanthusaeng, Vilaivan; Kraisoon, Aree; Suwannarit, Duangkamon; Jarassaeng, Chaiwat; Aiumlamai, Suneerat

    2015-06-01

    A study was conducted during hot season to determine the effect of synchronization of ovulation with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) on fertility of lactating dairy cows with ovarian cysts. Non cyclic Holstein dairy cows (n = 80) were stratified by parity and diagnosed as having an ovarian cyst. The cows were further identified as follicular or luteal cysts according to the plasma progesterone (P4) concentration and the cystic image of ultrasonography. Cystic cows were randomly assigned to receive treatments (Ovsynch as the control or Ovsynch plus 3000 IU hCG). All cows were artificially inseminated at 16-18 h after the second gonadotropin releasing hormone injection. Cows supplemented with hCG had a greater number of corpus luteum (1.8 ± 0.2 and 0.8 ± 0.3; P < 0.05) and had greater P4 concentration on day 12 than those control cows (6.3 ± 0.3 and 3.9 ± 0.4 ng/ml; P < 0.05). Concentration of cortisol did not differ between groups of cystic cows. No significant differences were found in overall conception rates between the treatments; however, significantly greater conception rate (P = 0.03) was observed in cows with luteal cysts receiving Ovsynch plus hCG. This study highlights that administration of hCG following the Ovsynch-based timed artificial insemination (AI) is more effective than the control Ovsynch by which the hCG affects corpus luteum (CL) development, P4 concentration, and thus improves conception rate in dairy cows with luteal cysts. PMID:25863956

  18. Comparison of techniques for measurement of rumen pH in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Duffield, T; Plaizier, J C; Fairfield, A; Bagg, R; Vessie, G; Dick, P; Wilson, J; Aramini, J; McBride, B

    2004-01-01

    Subacute rumen acidosis is thought to be a common condition in early lactating dairy cattle; however, diagnosis is difficult. There are currently only two techniques available for measuring rumen pH under field conditions: rumenocentesis and oral stomach tube. Sixteen rumen-fistulated cows were sampled in four sites of the rumen (cranial-ventral, caudal-ventral, central, and cranial-dorsal) with a rumen cannula. Rumen pH results were compared to those obtained at the same time with rumenocentesis and with an oro-ruminal (Geishauser) probe. Rumen fluid was obtained between 6 and 12 wk of lactation. Samples were analyzed for pH, lactate, bicarbonate, sodium, potassium, and chloride. Rumen pH results were also compared to those obtained from 24-h continuous rumen pH measurement using indwelling rumen pH probes. Oro-ruminal probe samples had the highest pH values and the highest bicarbonate concentrations. Rumenocentesis samples had the lowest pH values and the lowest bicarbonate concentrations. Small differences in electrolyte concentrations were noted among rumen fluid collection techniques in the different rumen sites. The highest correlations of rumen pH were obtained between rumenocentesis and rumen cannulation (cranial-ventral), and between rumen cannulation (cranial-ventral) and the 24-h indwelling pH meter. Compared with samples obtained from the cranial-ventral rumen, rumenocentesis was more sensitive than the oro-ruminal probe in the measurement of low rumen pH; both techniques were moderately specific. The most accurate field technique was rumenocentesis. Improved field techniques are required for better on-farm diagnosis of subacute rumen acidosis.

  19. Mid-infrared spectrometry of milk as a predictor of energy intake and efficiency in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    McParland, S; Lewis, E; Kennedy, E; Moore, S G; McCarthy, B; O'Donovan, M; Butler, S T; Pryce, J E; Berry, D P

    2014-09-01

    Interest is increasing in the feed intake complex of individual dairy cows, both for management and animal breeding. However, energy intake data on an individual-cow basis are not routinely available. The objective of the present study was to quantify the ability of routinely undertaken mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy analysis of individual cow milk samples to predict individual cow energy intake and efficiency. Feed efficiency in the present study was described by residual feed intake (RFI), which is the difference between actual energy intake and energy used (e.g., milk production, maintenance, and body tissue anabolism) or supplied from body tissue mobilization. A total of 1,535 records for energy intake, RFI, and milk MIR spectral data were available from an Irish research herd across 36 different test days from 535 lactations on 378 cows. Partial least squares regression analyses were used to relate the milk MIR spectral data to either energy intake or efficiency. The coefficient of correlation (REX) of models to predict RFI across lactation ranged from 0.48 to 0.60 in an external validation data set; the predictive ability was, however, strongest (REX=0.65) in early lactation (<60 d in milk). The inclusion of milk yield as a predictor variable improved the accuracy of predicting energy intake across lactation (REX=0.70). The correlation between measured RFI and measured energy balance across lactation was 0.85, whereas the correlation between RFI and energy balance, both predicted from the MIR spectrum, was 0.65. Milk MIR spectral data are routinely generated for individual cows throughout lactation and, therefore, the prediction equations developed in the present study can be immediately (and retrospectively where MIR spectral data have been stored) applied to predict energy intake and efficiency to aid in management and breeding decisions.

  20. Mid-infrared spectrometry of milk as a predictor of energy intake and efficiency in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    McParland, S; Lewis, E; Kennedy, E; Moore, S G; McCarthy, B; O'Donovan, M; Butler, S T; Pryce, J E; Berry, D P

    2014-09-01

    Interest is increasing in the feed intake complex of individual dairy cows, both for management and animal breeding. However, energy intake data on an individual-cow basis are not routinely available. The objective of the present study was to quantify the ability of routinely undertaken mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy analysis of individual cow milk samples to predict individual cow energy intake and efficiency. Feed efficiency in the present study was described by residual feed intake (RFI), which is the difference between actual energy intake and energy used (e.g., milk production, maintenance, and body tissue anabolism) or supplied from body tissue mobilization. A total of 1,535 records for energy intake, RFI, and milk MIR spectral data were available from an Irish research herd across 36 different test days from 535 lactations on 378 cows. Partial least squares regression analyses were used to relate the milk MIR spectral data to either energy intake or efficiency. The coefficient of correlation (REX) of models to predict RFI across lactation ranged from 0.48 to 0.60 in an external validation data set; the predictive ability was, however, strongest (REX=0.65) in early lactation (<60 d in milk). The inclusion of milk yield as a predictor variable improved the accuracy of predicting energy intake across lactation (REX=0.70). The correlation between measured RFI and measured energy balance across lactation was 0.85, whereas the correlation between RFI and energy balance, both predicted from the MIR spectrum, was 0.65. Milk MIR spectral data are routinely generated for individual cows throughout lactation and, therefore, the prediction equations developed in the present study can be immediately (and retrospectively where MIR spectral data have been stored) applied to predict energy intake and efficiency to aid in management and breeding decisions. PMID:24997658

  1. Effects of dietary starch content and rate of fermentation on methane production in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hatew, B; Podesta, S C; Van Laar, H; Pellikaan, W F; Ellis, J L; Dijkstra, J; Bannink, A

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of starch varying in rate of fermentation and level of inclusion in the diet in exchange for fiber on methane (CH4) production of dairy cows. Forty Holstein-Friesian lactating dairy cows of which 16 were rumen cannulated were grouped in 10 blocks of 4 cows each. Cows received diets consisting of 60% grass silage and 40% concentrate (dry matter basis). Cows within block were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 different diets composed of concentrates that varied in rate of starch fermentation [slowly (S) vs. rapidly (R) rumen fermentable; native vs. gelatinized corn grain] and level of starch (low vs. high; 270 vs. 530g/kg of concentrate dry matter). Results of rumen in situ incubations confirmed that the fractional rate of degradation of starch was higher for R than S starch. Effective rumen degradability of organic matter was higher for high than low starch and also higher for R than S starch. Increased level of starch, but not starch fermentability, decreased dry matter intake and daily CH4 production. Milk yield (mean 24.0±1.02kg/d), milk fat content (mean 5.05±0.16%), and milk protein content (mean 3.64±0.05%) did not differ between diets. Methane expressed per kilogram of fat- and protein-corrected milk, per kilogram of dry matter intake, or as a fraction of gross energy intake did not differ between diets. Methane expressed per kilogram of estimated rumen-fermentable organic matter (eRFOM) was higher for S than R starch-based diets (47.4 vs. 42.6g/kg of eRFOM) and for low than high starch-based diets (46.9 vs. 43.1g/kg of eRFOM). Apparent total-tract digestibility of neutral detergent fiber and crude protein were not affected by diets, but starch digestibility was higher for diets based on R starch (97.2%) compared with S starch (95.5%). Both total volatile fatty acid concentration (109.2 vs. 97.5mM) and propionate proportion (16.5 vs. 15.8mol/100mol) were higher for R starch- compared with S starch

  2. Prediction of phosphorus output in manure and milk by lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Fuentes, G; Appuhamy, J A D R N; Kebreab, E

    2016-01-01

    predicted PMilkC with RMSPE% of 12.7 to 19.6%. Although models using P intake information gave better predictions, P output from lactating dairy cows can also be predicted well without intake using milk yield, milk protein content, body weight, and dietary P, Ca, and total ash contents.

  3. Tomato seeds as a novel by-product feed for lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Cassinerio, C A; Fadel, J G; Asmus, J; Heguy, J M; Taylor, S J; DePeters, E J

    2015-07-01

    Whole tomato seeds, a novel by-product feedstuff, were fed to lactating Holstein cows to determine the nutritive value of whole tomato seeds by replacing whole cottonseed in the total mixed ration. Four primiparous and 4 multiparous Holstein cows were used in a 4×4 Latin square design and fed 1 of 4 total mixed rations. Whole tomato seeds replaced whole cottonseed on a weight-to-weight basis for lipid. The proportion of whole tomato seeds to whole cottonseed in the diets were 100:0, 50:50, 25:75, and 0:100 on a lipid basis. Thus, tomato seeds were 4.0, 2.4, 1.1, and 0% of the ration dry matter, respectively. Milk yield and the concentrations and yields of protein, lactose, and solids-not-fat did not differ for the effect of diet. However, milk fat concentration decreased and milk fat yield tended to decrease as whole tomato seeds replaced whole cottonseed. Intakes of dry matter, lipid, and crude protein did not differ. Whole-tract apparent digestibility of dry matter and ash-free neutral detergent fiber did not differ, but digestibility of total fatty acids and crude protein decreased with increasing proportion of whole tomato seeds. Urea concentration in milk and plasma both decreased with increasing whole tomato seeds. Fecal concentration of linoleic and α-linolenic acids increased with increasing whole tomato seeds, suggesting that seeds were passing out of the digestive tract undigested. The concentrations of C18:2n-6 and C18:3n-3 in milk fat had small increases, but their yields were not different, suggesting that only a small amount of whole-tomato-seed lipid might have been digested postruminally. Amounts of trans C18:1 fatty acids in milk fat were higher with increasing whole cottonseed, which might suggest a shift in rumen biohydrogenation pathways. At the level of feeding used in the current study, whole tomato seeds replaced whole cottonseed in the diet of lactating dairy cows without a change in production.

  4. Effect of anthocyanin-rich corn silage on digestibility, milk production and plasma enzyme activities in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hosoda, Kenji; Eruden, Bayaru; Matsuyama, Hiroki; Shioya, Shigeru

    2012-06-01

    Anthocyanin in purple corn (Zea mays L.) has been reported to show several functional and biological attributes, displaying antioxidant, antiobesity and antidiabetic effects in monogastric animals. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of feeding anthocyanin-rich corn (Zea mays L., Choko C922) silage on digestibility, milk production and plasma enzyme activities in lactating dairy cows. The cows were fed diets based on the control corn or the anthocyanin-rich corn silage (AR treatment) in a crossover design. The anthocyanin-rich corn silage-based diet had a lower starch content, nutrient digestibility and total digestible nutrients content when compared to the control diet. The milk yield, lactose and solids-not-fat contents in the AR-treatment cows were lower than in the control cows. The feeding of the anthocyanin-rich corn silage led to a reduction in aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity and an increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in the plasma. These data suggest that the anthocyanin-rich corn has a lowering effect on AST activity with concomitant enhancement of SOD activity in lactating dairy cows. However, a new variety of anthocyanin-rich corn with good nutritional value is needed for practical use as a ruminant feed. PMID:22694328

  5. Effect of anthocyanin-rich corn silage on digestibility, milk production and plasma enzyme activities in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hosoda, Kenji; Eruden, Bayaru; Matsuyama, Hiroki; Shioya, Shigeru

    2012-06-01

    Anthocyanin in purple corn (Zea mays L.) has been reported to show several functional and biological attributes, displaying antioxidant, antiobesity and antidiabetic effects in monogastric animals. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of feeding anthocyanin-rich corn (Zea mays L., Choko C922) silage on digestibility, milk production and plasma enzyme activities in lactating dairy cows. The cows were fed diets based on the control corn or the anthocyanin-rich corn silage (AR treatment) in a crossover design. The anthocyanin-rich corn silage-based diet had a lower starch content, nutrient digestibility and total digestible nutrients content when compared to the control diet. The milk yield, lactose and solids-not-fat contents in the AR-treatment cows were lower than in the control cows. The feeding of the anthocyanin-rich corn silage led to a reduction in aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity and an increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in the plasma. These data suggest that the anthocyanin-rich corn has a lowering effect on AST activity with concomitant enhancement of SOD activity in lactating dairy cows. However, a new variety of anthocyanin-rich corn with good nutritional value is needed for practical use as a ruminant feed.

  6. Treatment of lactating dairy cows with gonadotropin-releasing hormone before first insemination during summer heat stress.

    PubMed

    Voelz, B E; Rocha, L; Scortegagna, F; Stevenson, J S; Mendonça, L G D

    2016-09-01

    The objectives of the experiments were to compare ovarian responses, pregnancy per artificial insemination, and pattern of insemination of 2 estrus detection-based presynchronization protocols before first artificial insemination (AI) during heat stress. In experiment 1, primiparous lactating dairy cows (n=1,358) from 3 dairies were assigned randomly to 2 treatments at 60±3 (±SD) DIM (study d 0): (1) treatment with 100 µg of GnRH on study d 0 (Gpresynch), or (2) no treatment on study d 0 (control). In experiment 2, multiparous lactating dairy cows (n=1,971) from 3 dairies were assigned randomly to 2 treatments at 49±3 (±SD) DIM (study d 0), similar to experiment 1. In both experiments, PGF2α injections were administered 14 d apart starting on study d 7 for all cows. Cows not inseminated after detection of estrus were submitted to a timed artificial insemination protocol at study d 35. In a subgroup of cows from 2 dairies, concentrations of progesterone were determined from blood samples collected on study d 0 and 7. Furthermore, ovaries were examined by ultrasonography on study d -14, 0, and 7 to determine cyclic status and ovulation in response to GnRH treatment. In experiment 1, progesterone concentration was not different on d 0, but progesterone was increased for Gpresynch compared with control cows on study d 7 (3.6±0.3 vs. 2.7±0.4 ng/mL), respectively. Ovulation risk from study d 0 to 7 was increased for Gpresynch compared with control (50.6 vs. 15.2%). Control cows were inseminated at a faster rate than Gpresynch cows [adjusted hazard ratio (AHR)=0.89, 95% confidence interval=0.80 to 1.00], and the interaction between treatment and dairy affected pregnancy per artificial insemination at 36 and 94 d post-artificial insemination. In experiment 2, concentrations of progesterone did not differ on study d 0 or 7, despite ovulation risk from study d 0 to 7 being greater in Gpresynch than control cows (46.9 vs. 23.8%). The interaction between treatment and

  7. Hot topic: Early postpartum treatment of commercial dairy cows with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs increases whole-lactation milk yield.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, A J; Ylioja, C M; Vargas, C F; Mamedova, L K; Mendonça, L G; Coetzee, J F; Hollis, L C; Gehring, R; Bradford, B J

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has shown that postpartum administration of the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) sodium salicylate can increase 305-d milk yield in older dairy cattle (parity 3 and greater). However, in this prior work, sodium salicylate was delivered to cows via the drinking water, a method that does not align well with current grouping strategies on commercial dairy farms. The objective of the current study was to replicate these results on a commercial dairy farm with a simplified treatment protocol and to compare sodium salicylate with another NSAID, meloxicam. Dairy cattle in their second lactation and greater (n=51/treatment) were alternately assigned to 1 of 3 treatments at parturition, with treatments lasting for 3d. Experimental treatments began 12 to 36 h after parturition and were (1) 1 placebo bolus on the first day and 3 consecutive daily drenches of sodium salicylate (125 g/cow per day; SAL); (2) 1 bolus of meloxicam (675 mg/cow) and 3 drenches of an equal volume of water (MEL); or (3) 1 placebo bolus and 3 drenches of water (CON). Blood samples were collected on the first day of treatment, immediately following the last day of treatment, and 7d after the last day of treatment; plasma was analyzed for glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), free fatty acids, haptoglobin, and paraoxonase. Milk production, body condition score, reproductive status, and retention in the herd were monitored for 365 d posttreatment, and effects of treatment, parity, days in milk, and interactions were evaluated in mixed effects models. Significance was declared at P<0.05. Whole-lactation milk and protein yields were greater in NSAID-treated cows, although 305-d fat production was not affected. There was a significant interaction of treatment and parity for plasma glucose concentration; MEL increased plasma glucose concentrations compared with CON and SAL in older cows. Sodium salicylate decreased plasma BHB concentration compared with MEL at 7d posttreatment

  8. Effects of Supplemental Levels of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Fermentation Product on Lactation Performance in Dairy Cows under Heat Stress.

    PubMed

    Zhu, W; Zhang, B X; Yao, K Y; Yoon, I; Chung, Y H; Wang, J K; Liu, J X

    2016-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of different supplemental levels of Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product (SCFP; Original XP; Diamond V) on lactation performance in Holstein dairy cows under heat stress. Eighty-one multiparous Holstein dairy cows were divided into 27 blocks of 3 cows each based on milk yield (23.6±0.20 kg/d), parity (2.88±0.91) and day in milk (204±46 d). The cows were randomly assigned within blocks to one of three treatments: 0 (control), 120, or 240 g/d of SCFP mixed with 240, 120, or 0 g of corn meal, respectively. The experiment was carried out during the summer season of 2014, starting from 14 July 2014 and lasting for 9 weeks with the first week as adaption period. During the experimental period, average daily temperature-humidity index (measured at 08:00, 14:00, and 20:00) was above 68, indicating that cows were exposed to heat stress throughout the study. Rectal temperatures tended to decrease linearly (p = 0.07) for cows supplemented with SCFP compared to the control cows at 14:30, but were not different at 06:30 (p>0.10). Dry matter intake was not affected by SCFP supplementation (p>0.10). Milk yield increased linearly (p<0.05) with increasing levels of SCFP. Feed efficiency (milk yield/dry matter intake) was highest (p<0.05) for cows fed 240 g/d SCFP. Cows supplemented with SCFP gained (p<0.01) body weight, while cows in the control lost body weight. Net energy balance also increased linearly (p<0.01) with increasing levels of SCFP. Concentrations of milk urea nitrogen (p<0.01) decreased linearly with increasing levels of SCFP, while no difference (p>0.10) was observed among the treatments in conversion of dietary crude protein to milk protein yield. In summary, supplementation of SCFP alleviated the negative effect of heat stress in lactating Holstein dairy cows and allowed cows to maintain higher milk production, feed efficiency and net energy balance. Effects of SCFP were dose-dependent and

  9. Effects of Supplemental Levels of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Fermentation Product on Lactation Performance in Dairy Cows under Heat Stress

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, W.; Zhang, B. X.; Yao, K. Y.; Yoon, I.; Chung, Y. H.; Wang, J. K.; Liu, J. X.

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of different supplemental levels of Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product (SCFP; Original XP; Diamond V) on lactation performance in Holstein dairy cows under heat stress. Eighty-one multiparous Holstein dairy cows were divided into 27 blocks of 3 cows each based on milk yield (23.6±0.20 kg/d), parity (2.88±0.91) and day in milk (204±46 d). The cows were randomly assigned within blocks to one of three treatments: 0 (control), 120, or 240 g/d of SCFP mixed with 240, 120, or 0 g of corn meal, respectively. The experiment was carried out during the summer season of 2014, starting from 14 July 2014 and lasting for 9 weeks with the first week as adaption period. During the experimental period, average daily temperature-humidity index (measured at 08:00, 14:00, and 20:00) was above 68, indicating that cows were exposed to heat stress throughout the study. Rectal temperatures tended to decrease linearly (p = 0.07) for cows supplemented with SCFP compared to the control cows at 14:30, but were not different at 06:30 (p>0.10). Dry matter intake was not affected by SCFP supplementation (p>0.10). Milk yield increased linearly (p<0.05) with increasing levels of SCFP. Feed efficiency (milk yield/dry matter intake) was highest (p<0.05) for cows fed 240 g/d SCFP. Cows supplemented with SCFP gained (p<0.01) body weight, while cows in the control lost body weight. Net energy balance also increased linearly (p<0.01) with increasing levels of SCFP. Concentrations of milk urea nitrogen (p<0.01) decreased linearly with increasing levels of SCFP, while no difference (p>0.10) was observed among the treatments in conversion of dietary crude protein to milk protein yield. In summary, supplementation of SCFP alleviated the negative effect of heat stress in lactating Holstein dairy cows and allowed cows to maintain higher milk production, feed efficiency and net energy balance. Effects of SCFP were dose-dependent and

  10. Preference and drinking behavior of lactating dairy cows offered water with different concentrations, valences, and sources of iron.

    PubMed

    Genther, O N; Beede, D K

    2013-02-01

    Drinking water can contain high concentrations of Fe, mainly of the ferrous (Fe(2+)) valence. The current recommended upper tolerable concentration of Fe in drinking water for cattle (0.3mg/L) comes from guidelines for human palatability, but cattle may be able to tolerate higher concentrations. Our objective was to determine the effects of varying concentrations of ferrous (Fe(2+)) or ferric (Fe(3+)) iron and Fe salt source on lactating dairy cows' preferences for and drinking behavior of water offered as choices ad libitum. In 4 separate experiments, cows were offered pairs of water treatments for 22-h periods and water intake and drinking behavior were recorded. In experiment 1, treatments were 0, 4, or 8 mg of total recoverable Fe/L from ferrous lactate. Cows exhibited no preference between water with 0 or 4 mg of Fe/L, but water intake was less with 8 compared with 0 or 4 mg of Fe/L. Also, cows spent less time drinking water containing 8 mg of Fe/L. Total time spent drinking correlated positively with water intake when pooled across treatments. In experiment 2, treatments were 0 or 8 mg of Fe/L from either ferrous sulfate (FeSO(4)) or ferric sulfate [Fe(2)(SO(4))(3)]. Water intake did not differ among treatments. In experiment 3, treatments were 0 (control), 12.5, or 8 mg of Fe/L from ferrous chloride (FeCl(2)) or ferric chloride (FeCl(3)), respectively. Again, cows exhibited no preference among treatments. In experiment 4, treatments were 0 or 8 mg of Fe/L from ferrous lactate [Fe(C(3)H(5)O(3))(2)], ferrous sulfate (FeSO(4)), or ferrous chloride (FeCl(2)). Cows preferred to drink water without added Fe, but did not exhibit any preference among waters containing the Fe sources with different anionic moieties. Cows spent less time drinking and drank less frequently when offered water containing 12.5mg of total recoverable Fe/L from ferrous chloride compared with 8.0mg of Fe/L from ferrous lactate or ferrous sulfate. Water intake correlated positively with both

  11. Particle length of silages affects apparent ruminal synthesis of B vitamins in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Castagnino, D S; Kammes, K L; Allen, M S; Gervais, R; Chouinard, P Y; Girard, C L

    2016-08-01

    Effects of particle length of silages on apparent ruminal synthesis (ARS) and postruminal supply of B vitamins were evaluated in 2 feeding trials. Diets containing alfalfa (trial 1) or orchardgrass (trial 2) silages, chopped to either 19mm (long cut, LC) or 10mm (short cut, SC) theoretical particle length, as the sole forage were offered to ruminally and duodenally cannulated lactating Holstein cows in crossover design experiments. Forages chopped to a theoretical particle length of 19 and 10mm had mean particles sizes of 14.1 and 8.1mm, respectively, in trial 1, and 15.3 and 11.3mm, respectively, in trial 2. Trial 1 was conducted with 13 multiparous cows in two 19-d treatment periods; both diets contained approximately 20% forage neutral detergent fiber (NDF), 25% total NDF, and forage-to-concentrate ratios were approximately 47:53. Trial 2 was conducted with 15 cows in two 18-d treatment periods; both diets contained approximately 23% forage NDF, 28% total NDF, and had a forage-to-concentrate ratio of 50:50. Thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, folates, and vitamin B12 were measured in feed and duodenal content. Daily ARS was calculated as the duodenal flow minus the intake. In trial 1, daily intake of individual B vitamins was increased with the LC diet, but ARS of thiamine, riboflavin, vitamin B6, and folates was reduced. In trial 2, except for folates, intakes of the other B vitamins were decreased with the LC diets, whereas ARS of riboflavin, niacin, and vitamin B6 was increased. Daily ARS of thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, and vitamin B6 were correlated negatively with their intake, suggesting that ruminal bacteria reduced their synthesis when dietary supply increased. Microbial activity could have also reduced degradation of thiamine, riboflavin, and niacin, which is supported by (1) the negative correlation between ARS of these vitamins and ruminal pH or microbial N duodenal flow; and (2) the positive correlation between ARS and ruminal concentrations

  12. The effect of milking reinitiation following extended nonmilking periods on lactation in primiparous dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Singh, K; Swanson, K M; Henderson, H V; Erdman, R A; Stelwagen, K

    2015-11-01

    In dairy cows, extended periods of nonmilking results in reduced milk secretion, modifications in milk composition, and eventually involution of the mammary glands. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of extended nonmilking periods on the recovery of milk yield and composition, and levels of prolactin and insulin-like growth factor-I in pasture-fed cows after resuming milking. Pasture-fed, primiparous, nonpregnant, Friesian dairy cows at mid lactation (mean ± standard deviation, 97 ± 2d in milk, 14.0 ± 2.5 L/d) were divided into 3 groups (n=6 per group). The cows were subjected to nonmilking periods of 7, 14, or 28d. Twice-daily milking was resumed for 7d following the nonmilking periods. Milk yield recoveries at the end of the 7-d remilking period were 91, 51, and 29% for the 7, 14, and 28-d nonmilked groups, respectively. The somatic cell count declined to less than 400,000 cells/mL by d 3 and 6 of remilking for the 7- and 14-d-nonmilked groups, respectively, but remained greater than 800,000 cells/mL in the 28-d-nonmilked group through the 7-d remilking period. By d 7 of remilking, the somatic cell count for the 7-d-nonmilked group was not different from pretrial values. Upon remilking, the milk fat content returned to pretrial values for the 7- and 14-d-nonmilked groups, although it remained lower than pretrial for the 28-d-nonmilked group. All 3 nonmilked groups had a higher milk protein content following 7d of remilking, compared with pretrial values. The lactose content returned to pretrial values for the 7-d-nonmilked group but remained lower for the 14- and 28-d-nonmilked groups. Circulating prolactin concentrations increased once remilking was resumed, compared with the pretrial and nonmilking periods. Prolactin concentrations did not majorly differ between the groups, with the levels upon 7d of remilking remaining higher than the pretrial concentrations and the nonmilked periods. Plasma concentrations of insulin-like growth factor

  13. Canola meal replacing distillers grains with solubles for lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Mulrooney, C N; Schingoethe, D J; Kalscheur, K F; Hippen, A R

    2009-11-01

    A study was conducted to determine the response to feeding diets containing canola meal (CM) as a protein supplement in place of all or portions of dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS). Twelve lactating Holstein cows (4 primiparous and 8 multiparous) were fed in a 4 x 4 Latin square design over 4-wk periods. Data were collected wk 3 and 4 of each period. Diets were formulated in which CM was 100, 66, 33, and 0% of the supplemental protein replacing the protein from DDGS. All diets (averaged 15.1% crude protein and 4.5% ether extract) contained 55% forage and 45% concentrate, with the forage being 50% corn silage and 50% alfalfa hay. Dry matter intake (25.4 kg/d) was similar for all diets. Milk production (35.2, 35.8, 34.5, and 34.3 kg/d, respectively, for 100, 66, 33, and 0% CM) was similar for all diets, but tended to be greater with higher proportions of CM. Milk protein concentration (3.04%), fat concentration (3.92%), and fat yield (1.37 kg/d) were similar for all diets, whereas protein yield (1.08, 1.10, 1.05, and 1.03 kg/d, respectively, for 100, 66, 33, and 0% CM) tended to be greater with increasing amounts of CM in the diet. Feed efficiency (1.46 kg of energy-corrected milk/kg of dry matter intake) was similar for all diets. Lysine was the first limiting amino acid for milk protein synthesis when CM or DDGS were fed, whereas methionine was first limiting when the combination diets were fed. Concentrations of ammonia and volatile fatty acids in ruminal contents were similar for all diets. Canola meal is a suitable replacement for DDGS in dairy cow diets.

  14. Study on risk factors and their association with subclinical mastitis in lactating dairy cows in Trinidad.

    PubMed

    Romain, H T; Adesiyun, A A; Webb, L A; Lauckner, F B

    2000-05-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted on dairy farms in eight milking centres in Trinidad to determine the prevalence of risk factors for mastitis and to assess their relationship to occurrence of subclinical mastitis. The California mastitis test (CMT) was used to determine the prevalence of subclinical mastitis by estimating the somatic cell counts in bulk and composite milk. Of a total of 177 dairy farms studied, 121 (68.4%), 39 (22.0%) and 17 (9.6%) practised semi-intensive, extensive and intensive management systems, respectively. A total of 129 (72.9%), 37 (20.9%) and 11 (6.2%) farms milked cows in parlours, stanchions and pasture/out-on-field, respectively. Based on sanitary practices, 40 (22.6%), 123 (69.5%), and 14 (7.9%) farms were classified as good, fair, and poor, respectively, while 76 (42.9%) and 60 (33.9%) farms reported to rarely experience and frequently experience water shortages, respectively. Amongst the 177 farms, only seven (4.0%) used machine-milking primarily, 152 (85.9%) screened for mastitis as a routine, 18 (10.2%) teat dipped, and 49 (27.7%) practised dry cow therapy. To detect mastitis, of 152 farms involved, 20 (13.2%) used the strip cup while only two (1.3%) employed the CMT. Pipe-borne water delivered directly from the hose was the only source of water to 91 (51.4%) farms while seven (4.0%) and eight (4.5%) farms used only well and surface water (ponds and rivers), respectively. Based on bulk milk samples, the farm prevalence of subclinical mastitis was 60.5% (107 of 177) with a range from 33.3% (centre 5H) to 100.0% (centre 2B). The difference was statistically significant (P < 0.01; chi 2). However, using composite milk, the farm prevalence of subclinical mastitis was 52.5% (93 of 177) with a range from 21.2% (centre 5H) to 92.9% (centre 2B) and again, the difference in prevalence was statistically significant (P < 0.001; chi 2). Subclinical mastitis was detected in 150 (45.0%) of 333 lactating cows screened and the range of

  15. Lactation performance of dairy cows fed yeast-derived microbial protein in low- and high-forage diets.

    PubMed

    Manthey, A K; Kalscheur, K F; Garcia, A D; Mjoun, K

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of substituting soybean meal products with yeast-derived microbial protein (YMP) on lactation performance in diets containing 2 forage-to-concentrate ratios. Sixteen Holstein cows (4 primiparous and 12 multiparous) were randomly assigned to multiple 4 × 4 Latin squares with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Diets contained low (LF; 45% of diet DM) or high forage (HF; 65% of diet DM) and YMP at 0 (NYMP) or 2.25% (WYMP) of the diet. The forage mix consisted of 67% corn silage and 33% alfalfa hay on a DM basis. No interactions of forage and YMP were noted for any of the production parameters measured. Feed efficiency (energy-corrected milk/dry matter intake) was greater for cows fed NYMP compared with WYMP. Regardless of the addition of YMP, cows fed LF had greater dry matter intake and produced more milk than cows fed HF. In addition, cows fed LF produced more energy-corrected milk than those fed HF. Milk fat percentage was lower in cows fed LF compared with HF, whereas fat yield was similar between forage concentrations. Fat yield tended to decrease with feeding YMP. Interactions of forage and YMP were observed for propionate concentration, acetate and propionate proportion, and acetate-to-propionate ratio. A tendency for an interaction of forage and YMP was also noted for ruminal pH. Cows fed HF diets had greater ruminal ammonia and butyrate concentrations, as well as proportion of butyrate. Arterial concentrations of Ile, Leu, Met, Thr, and Val were greater in cows fed LF. Cows fed NYMP had greater arterial concentrations of Ile, Lys, Trp, and Val than cows fed WYMP. Substitution of soybean proteins with YMP did not improve performance or feed efficiency of high-producing dairy cows regardless of the forage-to-concentrate ratio of the diet.

  16. Effects of Fusarium mycotoxins in rations with different concentrate proportions on serum haptoglobin and hepatocellular integrity in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, A; Keese, C; Beineke, A; Meyer, U; Starke, A; Sauerwein, H; Dänicke, S; Rehage, J

    2015-10-01

    It was hypothesized that long-term intake of a diet contaminated with deoxynivalenol (DON) and differing in the proportion of concentrate might affect hepatocellular integrity and function as well as biomarkers of systemic inflammation in lactating dairy cows. In Period 1 (11 weeks), 26 lactating German Holstein cows (13 primiparous and 13 pluriparous, 31 days in milk, 522 kg body weight, on average) were divided into two groups and fed diets (50% concentrate) with (MYC, n = 12; on average 5.3 mg DON/kg DM) or without (CON, n = 14) DON contaminations. In Period 2 (16 weeks), each group was further divided into two groups to test whether elevated concentrate proportion as additional burden might enhance the toxicity of DON. The cows in MYC60 (n = 6; 4.6 mg DON/kg DM) and CON60 (n = 7) received the diet with 60% concentrate, while cows in MYC30 (n = 6; 4.4 mg DON/kg DM) and CON30 (n = 7) received the diet with 30% concentrate. Blood samples were taken in biweekly intervals for activities of aspartate amino transferase (AST), glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH) and gamma-glutamyl transferase as well as for concentration of total bilirubin and haptoglobin. Biopsies from liver were collected in week 27 for morphological analyses. No DON effect was found for the variables assessed in blood. The diet with 60% concentrate led to higher activities of AST and GLDH in Period 2. No morphological change was found by both light and electron microscopic analyses of liver samples. Results indicated that long-term intake of DON-contaminated diet over 27 weeks led to neither relevant damages of hepatocytes nor systemic inflammatory responses in lactating dairy cows, even if the dietary concentrate proportion was increased to 60%.

  17. Milk production of dairy cows fed wet corn gluten feed during the dry period and lactation.

    PubMed

    Kononoff, P J; Ivan, S K; Matzke, W; Grant, R J; Stock, R A; Klopfenstein, T J

    2006-07-01

    An experiment was conducted with 36 primiparous and 40 multiparous Holstein cows to examine the effects of feeding wet corn gluten feed (WCGF) on 305-d milk production, dry matter (DM) intake, body condition score (BCS), and health. The experimental treatments included: 1) control--WCGF not fed (n = 27); 2) WCGF-L-cows received diets containing WCGF (38% DM basis) during lactation (n = 23); and 3) WCGF-DL--cows received diets containing WCGF (38% DM basis) during the dry period and lactation (n = 26). During the dry period, cows consuming WCGF were observed to have a significant gain in BCS (0.07 +/- 0.06) compared with a loss in BCS in cows fed the control diet (control = -0.11 +/- 0.06 and WCGF-L = -0.04 +/- 0.06). During lactation, there were no differences by treatment on BCS. Cows consuming WCGF during lactation consumed more feed compared with the control: 25.4, 23.8, and 21.2 +/- 0.76 kg/d for WCGF-L, WCGF-DL, and the control, respectively. Milk production was higher for cows consuming WCGF: 35.0, 34.7, and 31.1 +/- 2.1 kg/d for WCGF-L, WCGF-DL, and the control, respectively. No differences were found in either DM intake or actual milk yield between the WCGF-L and WCGF-DL treatments, indicating that prepartum diets did not influence lactational performance. The WCGF diets resulted in significant reductions in the concentration of milk fat (3.94, 3.74, and 4.15 +/- 0.08% for WCGF-L, WCGF-DL, and the control, respectively), but because total milk yield was increased, there were no differences in total milk fat yield. In addition, 3.5% of fat-corrected milk tended to be affected by diet: 38.9, 36.3, and 34.7 +/- 1.93 kg/d for WCGF-L, WCGF-DL, and the control, respectively. The increasing effect of DM intake and milk yield in cows consuming WCGF resulted in a similar efficiency of 3.5% fat-corrected milk production for all treatments, averaging 1.5 +/- 0.09. Total protein yields were significantly higher for cows consuming WCGF diets during lactation: 1.15, 1

  18. Fatty acid digestibility and lactation performance by dairy cows fed fats varying in degree of saturation.

    PubMed

    Pantoja, J; Firkins, J L; Eastridge, M L

    1996-03-01

    Holstein cows fed fats varying in degree of saturation were used to evaluate lactation performance (35 multiparous and 15 primiparous cows) and fatty acid digestibility (5 cows). Data from wk 2 and 3 of lactation were used for covariable adjustment of data from wk 4 through 19. Diets were a basal diet (control) with no added fat and four diets with 5% added fat from tallow, tallow plus partially hydrogenated tallow in proportions of 2:1 or 1:2, or partially hydrogenated tallow; iodine values were 45, 35, 26, and 16 for the diets with added fat, respectively. Digestibilities of OM, NDF, and N were not affected by fat supplementation (mean of four fat treatments vs. control) or by degree of fat saturation. Fatty acid digestibility was lower for cows fed fat than for those fed the control diet and decreased linearly with increased fat saturation. In both trials, DMI increased linearly as fat saturation increased. In the digestion trial, cows fed fat tended to have lower DMI than those fed the control diet, primarily because of the unsaturated fat. In the production trial, DMI was similar for cows fed the control diet (22.3 kg/d) or the diet with added fat from tallow (22.1 kg/d) and tended to be higher for cows fed the diet containing partially hydrogenated tallow (23.9 kg/d). Milk production was higher for cows fed fat than for cows fed the control diet, but 4% FCM was unaffected. Milk fat and protein percentages were not affected by fat supplementation but increased linearly with increased fat saturation. Mean body condition score of cows increased as fat saturation increased. The lower digestibility of the diet with added fat from partially hydrogenated tallow was offset by higher DMI and percentages of milk fat and protein as fat became more saturated.

  19. Relation of inflammation and liver function with the plasma cortisol response to adrenocorticotropin in early lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Trevisi, E; Bertoni, G; Lombardelli, R; Minuti, A

    2013-09-01

    In this study we examined the relationship between cortisol and inflammatory status in early lactating dairy cows after a stimulation test of the adrenal cortex. Twenty-four cows were grouped into quartiles (6 cows per each quartile) in accordance with the liver activity index (based on plasma concentration of negative acute phase proteins in early lactation); the quartiles were lower (LO; cows with the lowest liver functionality), intermediate lower, intermediate upper, and upper (UP; cows with the highest liver functionality). Each cow was injected i.v. with 20 µg of a synthetic analog of ACTH at 35 d in milk (DIM). Blood samples were taken to assess inflammatory status, and at 0, 30, and 60 min after ACTH challenge to measure total cortisol. The free cortisol fraction was analyzed in the LO and UP quartiles and the bound cortisol fraction was estimated as the difference between total and free cortisol. The LO, in comparison with the other quartiles, suffered a more severe inflammatory status, with the highest values of haptoglobin, reactive oxygen metabolites, and total nitric oxide metabolites and the lowest concentration of direct or indirect markers of negative acute phase proteins. The cows in the LO quartile had the highest values of plasma nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate at 7 DIM, suggesting a more severe body lipid mobilization. The LO quartile cows showed the highest frequency of health problems and the lowest milk yield in the first 35 DIM. Thirty minutes after the ACTH treatment, the concentration of total cortisol was lower in LO in comparison to other groups. Similarly, the bound cortisol fraction was lower in LO versus UP. The adrenal response appeared inversely related with health status after calving (e.g., lower in LO cows, experiencing the most severe inflammatory status). The lower increase in cortisol after the ACTH challenge in cows with greater inflammation (LO quartile) seems a consequence of the lower availability of

  20. Effects of Linseed Oil or Whole Linseed Supplementation on Performance and Milk Fatty Acid Composition of Lactating Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Suksombat, Wisitiporn; Thanh, Lam Phuoc; Meeprom, Chayapol; Mirattanaphrai, Rattakorn

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of linseed oil or whole linseed supplementation on performance and milk fatty acid composition of lactating dairy cows. Thirty six Holstein Friesian crossbred lactating dairy cows were blocked by milking days first and then stratified random balanced for milk yields and body weight into three groups of 12 cows each. The treatments consisted of basal ration (53:47; forage:concentrate ratio, on a dry matter [DM] basis, respectively) supplemented with 300 g/d of palm oil as a positive control diet (PO), or supplemented with 300 g/d of linseed oil (LSO), or supplemented with 688 g/d of top-dressed whole linseed (WLS). All cows were received ad libitum grass silage and individually fed according to the treatments. The experiment lasted for 10 weeks including the first 2 weeks as the adjustment period, followed by 8 weeks of measurement period. The results showed that LSO and WLS supplementation had no effects on total dry matter intake, milk yield, milk composition, and live weight change; however, the animals fed WLS had higher crude protein (CP) intake than those fed PO and LSO (p<0.05). To compare with the control diet, dairy cow’s diets supplemented with LSO and WLS significantly increased milk concentrations of cis-9, trans-11-conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) (p<0.05) and n-3 fatty acids (FA) (p<0.01), particularly, cis-9,12,15-C18:3, C20:5n-3 and C22:6n-3. Supplementing LSO and WLS induced a reduction of medium chain FA, especially, C12:0-C16:0 FA (p<0.05) while increasing the concentration of milk unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) (p<0.05). Milk FA proportions of n-3 FA remarkably increased whereas the ratio of n-6 to n-3 decreased in the cows supplemented with WLS as compared with those fed the control diet and LSO (p<0.01). In conclusion, supplementing dairy cows’ diet based on grass silage with WLS had no effect on milk yield and milk composition; however, trans-9- C18:1, cis-9, trans-11-CLA, n-3 FA and

  1. Response of the Cholesterol Metabolism to a Negative Energy Balance in Dairy Cows Depends on the Lactational Stage

    PubMed Central

    Albrecht, Christiane; Bruckmaier, Rupert M.

    2015-01-01

    The response of cholesterol metabolism to a negative energy balance (NEB) induced by feed restriction for 3 weeks starting at 100 days in milk (DIM) compared to the physiologically occurring NEB in week 1 postpartum (p.p.) was investigated in 50 dairy cows (25 control (CON) and 25 feed-restricted (RES)). Blood samples, liver biopsies and milk samples were taken in week 1 p.p., and in weeks 0 and 3 of feed restriction. Plasma concentrations of total cholesterol (C), phospholipids (PL), triglycerides (TAG), very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-C) and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) increased in RES cows from week 0 to 3 during feed restriction and were higher in week 3 compared to CON cows. In contrast, during the physiologically occurring NEB in week 1 p.p., C, PL, TAG and lipoprotein concentrations were at a minimum. Plasma phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) and lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activities did not differ between week 0 and 3 for both groups, whereas during NEB in week 1 p.p. PLTP activity was increased and LCAT activity was decreased. Milk C concentration was not affected by feed restriction in both groups, whereas milk C mass was decreased in week 3 for RES cows. In comparison, C concentration and mass in milk were elevated in week 1 p.p. Hepatic mRNA abundance of sterol regulatory element-binding factor-2 (SREBF-2), 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A synthase 1 (HMGCS1), 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR), and ATP-binding cassette transporter (ABCA1) were similar in CON and RES cows during feed restriction, but were upregulated during NEB in week 1 p.p. compared to the non-lactating stage without a NEB. In conclusion, cholesterol metabolism in dairy cows is affected by nutrient and energy deficiency depending on the stage of lactation. PMID:26034989

  2. Response of the cholesterol metabolism to a negative energy balance in dairy cows depends on the lactational stage.

    PubMed

    Gross, Josef J; Kessler, Evelyne C; Albrecht, Christiane; Bruckmaier, Rupert M

    2015-01-01

    The response of cholesterol metabolism to a negative energy balance (NEB) induced by feed restriction for 3 weeks starting at 100 days in milk (DIM) compared to the physiologically occurring NEB in week 1 postpartum (p.p.) was investigated in 50 dairy cows (25 control (CON) and 25 feed-restricted (RES)). Blood samples, liver biopsies and milk samples were taken in week 1 p.p., and in weeks 0 and 3 of feed restriction. Plasma concentrations of total cholesterol (C), phospholipids (PL), triglycerides (TAG), very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-C) and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) increased in RES cows from week 0 to 3 during feed restriction and were higher in week 3 compared to CON cows. In contrast, during the physiologically occurring NEB in week 1 p.p., C, PL, TAG and lipoprotein concentrations were at a minimum. Plasma phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) and lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activities did not differ between week 0 and 3 for both groups, whereas during NEB in week 1 p.p. PLTP activity was increased and LCAT activity was decreased. Milk C concentration was not affected by feed restriction in both groups, whereas milk C mass was decreased in week 3 for RES cows. In comparison, C concentration and mass in milk were elevated in week 1 p.p. Hepatic mRNA abundance of sterol regulatory element-binding factor-2 (SREBF-2), 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A synthase 1 (HMGCS1), 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR), and ATP-binding cassette transporter (ABCA1) were similar in CON and RES cows during feed restriction, but were upregulated during NEB in week 1 p.p. compared to the non-lactating stage without a NEB. In conclusion, cholesterol metabolism in dairy cows is affected by nutrient and energy deficiency depending on the stage of lactation. PMID:26034989

  3. Energy content of reduced-fat dried distillers grains with solubles for lactating dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eight Holstein and 8 Jersey multiparous, lactating cows were used to complete 56 energy balances to determine the energy content of reduced-fat distillers grains and solubles (RFDDGS). A repeated switchback design was used to compare treatments with and without RFDDGS. Diets consisted of 24.2% cor...

  4. Effects of Different Protein Supplements on Milk Production and Nutrient Utilization in Lactating Dairy Cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sixteen (8 ruminally cannulated) multiparous and 8 primiparous lactating Holstein cows were used in 6 replicated 4 x 4 Latin squares to test the effects of feeding supplemental protein as urea, solvent soybean meal (SSBM), cottonseed meal (CSM), or canola meal (CM) on milk production, nutrient utili...

  5. Rumen fermentation and production effects of Origanum vulgare L. leaves in lactating dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A lactating cow trial was conducted to study the effects of dietary addition of oregano leaf material (Origanum vulgare L.; 0, control vs. 500 g/d, OV) on ruminal fermentation, methane production, total tract digestibility, manure gas emissions, N metabolism, organoleptic characteristics of milk, an...

  6. Fibrolytic enzymes and parity effects on feeding behavior, salivation, and ruminal pH of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Bowman, G R; Beauchemin, K A; Shelford, J A

    2003-02-01

    Four multiparous and four primiparous lactating dairy cows fitted with ruminal cannulas were used in a duplicated 4 x 4 Latin square design to study the effects of parity and inclusion of a fibrolytic enzyme product (Agribrands International, St. Louis, MO) on feeding and chewing behavior, salivation, and ruminal pH. Diets consisting of rolled barley, barley silage, and alfalfa haylage (55% forage, DM basis) differed in enzyme application: 1) control, 2) enzyme applied to concentrate (45% of TMR), 3) enzyme applied to supplement (4% of TMR), and enzyme applied to a premix (0.2% of TMR). Enzyme supplementation did not alter daily time spent eating or ruminating, but when enzymes were added to the ration daily, saliva production increased, with no difference among enzyme application treatments. Multiparous cows consumed a greater amount of feed, but spent a similar amount of time eating, compared to primiparous cows. Primiparous cows had shorter ruminating episodes, resulting in lower daily ruminating time compared with multiparous cows. Primiparous cows had lower daily saliva output compared with multiparous cows. These results indicate that application of this fibrolytic enzyme product did not alter the physical structure of the feed, as measured by feeding and chewing variables. The increase in total saliva production observed in cows fed enzyme-supplemented diets may be attributed to a physiological response to compensate for the increase in fermentation products during digestion. The increased intake for multiparous cows is attributed to increased eating rate and not to increased time spent eating. The higher DMI of multiparous cows resulted in increased rumination time needed to process the additional feed and increased salivation to buffer the greater production of VFA.

  7. An automated walk-over weighing system as a tool for measuring liveweight change in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, R A; Morton, J M; Beggs, D S; Anderson, G A; Pyman, M F; Mansell, P D; Blackwood, C B

    2013-07-01

    Automated walk-over weighing systems can be used to monitor liveweights of cattle. Minimal literature exists to describe agreement between automated and static scales, and no known studies describe repeatability when used for daily measurements of dairy cows. This study establishes the repeatability of an automated walk-over cattle-weighing system, and agreement with static electronic scales, when used in a commercial dairy herd to weigh lactating cows. Forty-six lactating dairy cows from a seasonal calving, pasture-based dairy herd in southwest Victoria, Australia, were weighed once using a set of static scales and repeatedly using an automated walk-over weighing system at the exit of a rotary dairy. Substantial agreement was observed between the automated and static scales when assessed using Lin's concordance correlation coefficient. Weights measured by the automated walkover scales were within 5% of those measured by the static scales in 96% of weighings. Bland and Altman's 95% limits of agreement were -23.3 to 43.6 kg, a range of 66.9 kg. The 95% repeatability coefficient for automated weighings was 46.3 kg. Removal of a single outlier from the data set increased Lin's concordance coefficient, narrowed Bland and Altman's 95% limits of agreement to a range of 32.5 kg, and reduced the 95% repeatability coefficient to 18.7 kg. Cow misbehavior during walk-over weighing accounted for many of the larger weight discrepancies. The automated walk-over weighing system showed substantial agreement with the static scales when assessed using Lin's concordance correlation coefficient. This contrasted with limited agreement when assessed using Bland and Altman's method, largely due to poor repeatability. This suggests the automated weighing system is inadequate for detecting small liveweight differences in individual cows based on comparisons of single weights. Misbehaviors and other factors can result in the recording of spurious values on walk-over scales. Excluding

  8. Increasing harvest maturity of whole-plant corn silage reduces methane emission of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hatew, B; Bannink, A; van Laar, H; de Jonge, L H; Dijkstra, J

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of increasing maturity of whole-plant corn at harvest on CH4 emissions by dairy cows consuming corn silage (CS) based diets. Whole-plant corn was harvested at a very early [25% dry matter (DM); CS25], early (28% DM; CS28), medium (32% DM; CS32), and late (40% DM; CS40) stage of maturity. In a randomized block design, 28 lactating Holstein-Friesian dairy cows, of which 8 were fitted with rumen cannula, received 1 of 4 dietary treatments designated as T25, T28, T32, and T40 to reflect the DM contents at harvest. Treatments consisted of (DM basis) 75% CS, 20% concentrate, and 5% wheat straw. Feed intake, digestibility, milk production and composition, energy and N balance, and CH4 production were measured during a 5-d period in climate respiration chambers after an adaptation to the diet for 12 d. Corn silage starch content varied between 275 (CS25) and 385 (CS40) g/kg of DM. Treatments did not affect DM intake (DMI), milk yield, or milk contents. In situ ruminal fractional degradation rate of starch decreased linearly from 0.098 to 0.059/h as maturity increased from CS25 to CS40. Apparent total-tract digestibility of DM, organic matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, crude fat, starch, and gross energy (GE) decreased linearly with maturity. Treatments did not affect ruminal pH, volatile fatty acids, and ammonia concentrations, and volatile fatty acids molar proportions. The concentration of C18:3n-3 in milk fat decreased linearly, and the concentration of C18:2n-6 and the n-6:n-3 ratio increased linearly with maturity. A quadratic response occurred for the total saturated fatty acid concentration and total monounsaturated fatty acid concentration in milk fat. Methane production relative to DMI (21.7, 23.0, 21.0, and 20.1g/kg) and relative to GE intake (0.063, 0.067, 0.063, and 0.060 MJ/MJ; values for T25, T28, T32, and T40, respectively) decreased linearly with maturity. Also, CH4 emission relative

  9. Modification of digestive system microbiome of lactating dairy cows by feeding Bovamine: effect on ruminal fermentation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated the immune modulatory effects as well as effects on productivity of Bovamine® (Lactobacillus acidophilus strain NP51 and Probionibacterium freudenreichii) on the digestive system microbiome of dairy cattle during late lactation (average DIM = 202). To unveil the underlying mechanisms, ...

  10. TRIENNIAL LACTATION SYMPOSIUM: Nutrigenomics in dairy cows: Nutrients, transcription factors, and techniques.

    PubMed

    Bionaz, M; Osorio, J; Loor, J J

    2015-12-01

    Nutrigenomics in dairy cows is a relatively new area of research. It is defined as the study of the genomewide influences of nutrition altering the expression of genes. Dietary compounds affect gene expression directly or indirectly via interactions with transcription factors. Among those, the most relevant for nutrigenomics are ligand-dependent nuclear receptors, especially peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) and liver X receptor. Among other transcription factors, a prominent nutrigenomic role is played by the sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP1). Data from studies on dairy cows using gene expression and gene reporters among the main molecular methods used to study nutrigenomics in dairy cows are indicative of a network of multiple transcription factors at play in controlling the nutrigenomic responses. Fatty acids, AA, and level of feed and energy intake have the strongest nutrigenomic potential. The effect of 10,12 CLA on depressing milk fat synthesis via inhibition of SREBP1 was among the first and likely the best-known nutrigenomic example in dairy cows. Although long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) are clearly the most potent, a nutrigenomic role for short-chain fatty acids is emerging. Available data indicate that saturated compared with unsaturated LCFA have a more potent nutrigenomic effect in vitro, likely through PPAR. In vivo, the effect of saturated LCFA is more modest, with contrasting effects among tissues. Nutrigenomic effects of AA are emerging, particularly for the regulation of milk protein synthesis-associated genes. The level of energy in the diet has a strong and broad nutrigenomic effect and appears to "prime" tissue metabolism, particularly liver. We are at the frontier of the nutrigenomics era in ruminants and initial data strongly indicate that this scientific branch (and spinoffs such as nutriepigenomics) can play a critical role in future strategies to better feed dairy cattle. PMID:26641164

  11. TRIENNIAL LACTATION SYMPOSIUM: Nutrigenomics in dairy cows: Nutrients, transcription factors, and techniques.

    PubMed

    Bionaz, M; Osorio, J; Loor, J J

    2015-12-01

    Nutrigenomics in dairy cows is a relatively new area of research. It is defined as the study of the genomewide influences of nutrition altering the expression of genes. Dietary compounds affect gene expression directly or indirectly via interactions with transcription factors. Among those, the most relevant for nutrigenomics are ligand-dependent nuclear receptors, especially peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) and liver X receptor. Among other transcription factors, a prominent nutrigenomic role is played by the sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP1). Data from studies on dairy cows using gene expression and gene reporters among the main molecular methods used to study nutrigenomics in dairy cows are indicative of a network of multiple transcription factors at play in controlling the nutrigenomic responses. Fatty acids, AA, and level of feed and energy intake have the strongest nutrigenomic potential. The effect of 10,12 CLA on depressing milk fat synthesis via inhibition of SREBP1 was among the first and likely the best-known nutrigenomic example in dairy cows. Although long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) are clearly the most potent, a nutrigenomic role for short-chain fatty acids is emerging. Available data indicate that saturated compared with unsaturated LCFA have a more potent nutrigenomic effect in vitro, likely through PPAR. In vivo, the effect of saturated LCFA is more modest, with contrasting effects among tissues. Nutrigenomic effects of AA are emerging, particularly for the regulation of milk protein synthesis-associated genes. The level of energy in the diet has a strong and broad nutrigenomic effect and appears to "prime" tissue metabolism, particularly liver. We are at the frontier of the nutrigenomics era in ruminants and initial data strongly indicate that this scientific branch (and spinoffs such as nutriepigenomics) can play a critical role in future strategies to better feed dairy cattle.

  12. Productivity and energy partition of late lactation dairy cows during heat exposure.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyoung Hoon; Kim, Do-Hyung; Oh, Young-Kyoon; Lee, Sung-Sill; Lee, Hyun-Jeong; Kim, Dong-Woon; Seol, Yong-Joo; Kimura, Nobuhiro

    2010-02-01

    Three late-lactation Holstein cows were used to determine the effects of environmental temperature on performance and energy partitioning. Each cow was housed in a respiratory chamber for 30 consecutive days and exposed to three different conditions of environmental temperature: (i) 20 degrees C and 20 degrees C (20 degrees C), (ii) 25 degrees C and 20 degrees C (25 degrees C), (iii) 30 degrees C and 25 degrees C (30 degrees C) during the day and night, respectively. The temperature was switched in an interval of 10 days. Humidity in the chamber was maintained at 55-65% through the entire experimental period. The daily mean as well as morning and evening rectal temperatures of Holstein cows increased linearly (P < 0.05) as chamber temperature increased. There was a significant linear reduction in dry matter (DM) intake (P < 0.05) and an increase in DM digestibility (P < 0.05). The response in milk yield, however, was not affected by heat stress. There were no significant differences among treatments for intake energy, heat production, net energy for lactation and net energy for gain. This results of this study disagreed with the assumption that late lactation cows gave priority to increasing body tissue at the expense of milk production under thermal stress.

  13. The effects of subacute ruminal acidosis on sodium bicarbonate-supplemented water intake for lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Cottee, G; Kyriazakis, I; Widowski, T M; Lindinger, M I; Cant, J P; Duffield, T F; Osborne, V R; McBride, B W

    2004-07-01

    Four multiparous ruminally fistulated Holstein dairy cows were used in an 8-wk experiment utilizing a repeated measures block design to determine the effects of subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) on supplemented water intake. Animals were subjected to SARA, which was induced by replacing 25% of the ad libitum intake of the total mixed ration (dry matter basis) with 50:50 wheat:barley pellets utilizing a grain challenge model. Cows had free choice from 2 water bowls. One bowl contained water with sodium bicarbonate (SB) supplemented at 2.5 g/L. The other bowl contained unsupplemented water. Ruminal pH was monitored continuously during the trial using indwelling pH probes. The induction of SARA reduced daily mean ruminal pH and increased the duration when ruminal pH was below 6. The total mixed ration intake by the cows decreased during the SARA periods. The overall preference for SB-supplemented water did not change, as the preference ratio was similar during the control and SARA periods. During the period of greatest ruminal pH depression, total water intake was higher during the SARA periods than during the control periods. During SARA, there was no difference in the preference of a SB water source to unsupplemented water. During the period of day with the most severe ruminal pH depression, the lactating dairy cows subjected to SARA increased their total water intake. PMID:15328239

  14. Feeding protein supplements in alfalfa hay-based lactation diets improves nutrient utilization, lactational performance, and feed efficiency of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Neal, K; Eun, J-S; Young, A J; Mjoun, K; Hall, J O

    2014-12-01

    Due to the increasing cost of soybean meal and concerns of excess N being excreted into the environment, new protein supplements have been developed. Two products that have shown potential in increasing N utilization efficiency are slow-release urea (SRU; Optigen; Alltech Inc., Nicholasville, KY) and ruminal-escape protein derived from yeast (YMP; DEMP; Alltech Inc.). The objective of this study was to assess the effects of feeding these 2 supplements in alfalfa hay-based [45.7% of forage dietary dry matter (DM)] dairy diets on nutrient utilization, feed efficiency, and lactational performance of dairy cows. Twelve multiparous dairy cows were used in a triple 4 × 4 Latin square design with one square consisting of ruminally cannulated cows. Treatments included (1) control, (2) SRU-supplemented total mixed ration (SRUT), (3) YMP-supplemented total mixed ration (YMPT), and (4) SRU- and YMP-supplemented total mixed ration (SYT). The control consisted only of a mixture of soybean meal and canola meal in a 50:50 ratio. The SRU and the YMP were supplemented at 0.49 and 1.15% DM, respectively. The experiment consisted of 4 periods lasting 28 d each (21 d of adaptation and 7 d of sampling). Cows fed YMPT and SYT had decreased intake of DM, and all supplemented treatments had lower crude protein intake compared with those fed the control. Milk yield tended to have the greatest increase in YMPT compared with the control (41.1 vs. 39.7 kg/d) as well as a tendency for increased milk fat and protein yields. Feed efficiencies based on yields of milk, 3.5% fat-corrected milk, and energy-corrected milk increased at 10 to 16% due to protein supplementation. Cows fed protein supplements partitioned less energy toward body weight gain, but tended to partition more energy toward milk production. Efficiency of use of feed N to milk N increased by feeding SRUT and YMPT, and milk N-to-manure N ratio increased with YMPT. Overall results from this experiment indicate that replacing the

  15. Residual feed intake is repeatable for lactating Holstein dairy cows fed high and low starch diets.

    PubMed

    Potts, S B; Boerman, J P; Lock, A L; Allen, M S; VandeHaar, M J

    2015-07-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is a tool to quantify feed efficiency in livestock and is commonly used to assess feed efficiency independent of production level, body weight (BW), or BW change. Lactating Holstein cows (n=109; 44 primiparous and 65 multiparous), averaging (mean ± standard deviation, SD) 665±77kg of BW, 42±9kg of milk/d, and 120±30 d postpartum, were fed diets of high (HI) or low (LO) starch content in 4 crossover experiments with two 28-d treatment periods. The LO diets were ~40% neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and ~14% starch and the HI diets were ~26% NDF and ~30% starch. Individual dry matter intake (DMI) of a cow was modeled as a function of milk energy output, metabolic BW, body energy change, and fixed effects of parity, experiment, cohort nested within experiment, and diet nested within cohort and experiment; RFI for each cow was the residual error term. Cows were classified as high (>0.5 SD of the mean), medium (±0.5 SD of the mean), or low (<-0.5 SD of the mean) RFI. On average, for the linear model used to determine RFI for individual cows, each unit increase in milk energy output, metabolic BW, or body energy gain was associated with 0.35, 0.09, or 0.05kg increase in DMI, respectively. When compared with LO diets, HI diets increased energy partitioning to body energy gain and tended to increase DMI. The correlation between RFI when cows were fed HI diets and RFI when cows were fed LO diets was 0.73 and was similar across each parity and experiment. Fifty-six percent of cows maintained the same RFI classification (high, medium, or low RFI) and only 4 of 109 cows changed from high RFI to low RFI or vice versa when diets were changed. Milk:feed, income over feed cost, and DMI were also highly repeatable (r=0.72, 0.84, and 0.92, respectively). We achieved significant changes in milk yield and component concentration as well as energy partitioning between HI and LO diets and still determined RFI to be repeatable across diets. We conclude that

  16. Residual feed intake is repeatable for lactating Holstein dairy cows fed high and low starch diets.

    PubMed

    Potts, S B; Boerman, J P; Lock, A L; Allen, M S; VandeHaar, M J

    2015-07-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is a tool to quantify feed efficiency in livestock and is commonly used to assess feed efficiency independent of production level, body weight (BW), or BW change. Lactating Holstein cows (n=109; 44 primiparous and 65 multiparous), averaging (mean ± standard deviation, SD) 665±77kg of BW, 42±9kg of milk/d, and 120±30 d postpartum, were fed diets of high (HI) or low (LO) starch content in 4 crossover experiments with two 28-d treatment periods. The LO diets were ~40% neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and ~14% starch and the HI diets were ~26% NDF and ~30% starch. Individual dry matter intake (DMI) of a cow was modeled as a function of milk energy output, metabolic BW, body energy change, and fixed effects of parity, experiment, cohort nested within experiment, and diet nested within cohort and experiment; RFI for each cow was the residual error term. Cows were classified as high (>0.5 SD of the mean), medium (±0.5 SD of the mean), or low (<-0.5 SD of the mean) RFI. On average, for the linear model used to determine RFI for individual cows, each unit increase in milk energy output, metabolic BW, or body energy gain was associated with 0.35, 0.09, or 0.05kg increase in DMI, respectively. When compared with LO diets, HI diets increased energy partitioning to body energy gain and tended to increase DMI. The correlation between RFI when cows were fed HI diets and RFI when cows were fed LO diets was 0.73 and was similar across each parity and experiment. Fifty-six percent of cows maintained the same RFI classification (high, medium, or low RFI) and only 4 of 109 cows changed from high RFI to low RFI or vice versa when diets were changed. Milk:feed, income over feed cost, and DMI were also highly repeatable (r=0.72, 0.84, and 0.92, respectively). We achieved significant changes in milk yield and component concentration as well as energy partitioning between HI and LO diets and still determined RFI to be repeatable across diets. We conclude that

  17. Gastrointestinal metabolism of phytoestrogens in lactating dairy cows fed silages with different botanical composition.

    PubMed

    Njåstad, K M; Adler, S A; Hansen-Møller, J; Thuen, E; Gustavsson, A-M; Steinshamn, H

    2014-12-01

    Dietary phytoestrogens are metabolized or converted in the gastrointestinal tract of ruminants, only limited knowledge exists on the extent and location of this conversion in vivo. The objective of this study was to quantify the gastro-intestinal metabolism of phytoestrogens in lactating dairy cows fed silages with different botanical composition. Four lactating rumen cannulated Norwegian Red cattle were assigned to a 4 × 4 Latin square with 1 cow per treatment period of 3 wk. The 4 treatment silages were prepared from grasslands with different botanical compositions: organically managed short-term timothy (Phleum pratense L.) and red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) ley (2 yr old: ORG-SG); organically managed long-term grassland with a high proportion of unsown species (6 yr old; ORG-LG); conventionally managed perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) ley (CON-PR); and conventionally managed timothy ley (CON-TI). The herbages were cut, wilted, and preserved with additive in round bales, fed as a mix of the first and third cut at 90% of ad libitum intake, and contributed to 70% of the total dry matter intake. Milk, feed, omasal digesta, urine, and feces were collected at the end of each period and analyzed for the concentrations of phytoestrogens by using a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry technique. Concentration of total isoflavones was highest in ORG-SG and lowest in CON-TI silage, whereas the content of total lignans was highest in the grass silages. The isoflavones were extensively metabolized in the rumen on all diets, and the recovery of formononetin and daidzein in omasum, mainly as equol, averaged 0.11 mg/mg. The apparent intestinal metabolism was less severe as, on average, 0.29 mg/mg of the omasal flow was recovered in feces. The plant lignans were also strongly degraded in the rumen. However, the flow of lignans to omasum and excretion in feces were, on average, 7.2- and 5.2-fold higher, respectively, than the intake of the plant lignans

  18. Effects of planting date on fiber digestibility of whole-crop barley and productivity of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Chow, L O; Baron, V S; Corbett, R; Oba, M

    2008-04-01

    Objectives of the study were to evaluate the effect of planting date on in vitro neutral detergent fiber digestibility (IVFD) of whole-crop barley (Hordeum vulgare) and its effects on productivity of lactating dairy cows. Two cultivars of barley were planted on May 5 (BM) and June 7 (BJ), 2005 at the Edmonton Research Station, University of Alberta. They were harvested at late-dough stage on July 26 and August 25, respectively, for BM and BJ and ensiled. The BJ had greater 30-h IVFD (61.2 vs. 51.9%) and crude protein concentration (12.4 vs. 8.7%) at harvest compared with BM. Thirty lactating cows, including 6 ruminally cannulated cows, in mid to late lactation (183 +/- 71.7 d in milk; mean +/- standard deviation) were fed diets containing BM or BJ at 58.5% of dietary DM in a crossover design with 19-d periods. The dietary neutral detergent fiber concentration was 30.6 and 28.8% for BM and BJ diets, respectively. Dry matter intake and milk yield were not affected by treatment and averaged 20.2 and 27.2 kg/ d, respectively. The lack of responses could have been attributed to the low-energy demands for cows used in this experiment; ruminal physical fill might not have limited dry matter intake. However, cows fed BJ had greater total tract dry matter digestibility (68.9 vs. 66.1%) and tended to increase body weight gain (864 vs. 504 g/d) compared with those fed BM. Delaying the planting date of barley altered its growing environment and affected nutrient composition and IVFD of whole-crop barley and energy availability to animals. Further research is needed to confirm if the planting date consistently affects nutrient composition and IVFD of barley at harvest.

  19. Investigation of the persistence of closantel residues in bovine milk following lactating-cow and dry-cow treatments and its migration into dairy products.

    PubMed

    Power, Clare; Sayers, Riona; O'Brien, Bernadette; Clancy, Clare; Furey, Ambrose; Jordan, Kieran; Danaher, Martin

    2013-09-11

    Closantel is a veterinary drug used to treat liver fluke in cattle and sheep. A provisional maximum residue limit (MRL) of 45 μg/kg in milk has been set by the European Union. The purpose of this study was to investigate the persistence of closantel residues in milk and the migration of residues into milk products. Following dry-cow treatment, residues ranged from undetectable to 8.7 μg/kg at the first milking. Following lactating-cow treatment, residues detected ranged from 278 to 482 μg/kg at day 1 post-treatment and were detectable above the MRL for 52 days and detectable for 198 days. At day 2 and day 23 post-treatment, the milk was collected and dairy products manufactured. Closantel residues concentrated in the cheese, butter, and skim milk powder. The results indicate that closantel is best used as a dry-cow treatment.

  20. Metabolic Heat Stress Adaption in Transition Cows: Differences in Macronutrient Oxidation between Late-Gestating and Early-Lactating German Holstein Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Derno, Michael; Otten, Winfried; Mielenz, Manfred; Nürnberg, Gerd

    2015-01-01

    High ambient temperatures have severe adverse effects on biological functions of high-yielding dairy cows. The metabolic adaption to heat stress was examined in 14 German Holsteins transition cows assigned to two groups, one heat-stressed (HS) and one pair-fed (PF) at the level of HS. After 6 days of thermoneutrality and ad libitum feeding (P1), cows were challenged for 6 days (P2) by heat stress (temperature humidity index (THI) = 76) or thermoneutral pair-feeding in climatic chambers 3 weeks ante partum and again 3 weeks post-partum. On the sixth day of each period P1 or P2, oxidative metabolism was analyzed for 24 hours in open circuit respiration chambers. Water and feed intake, vital parameters and milk yield were recorded. Daily blood samples were analyzed for glucose, β-hydroxybutyric acid, non-esterified fatty acids, urea, creatinine, methyl histidine, adrenaline and noradrenaline. In general, heat stress caused marked effects on water homeorhesis with impairments of renal function and a strong adrenergic response accompanied with a prevalence of carbohydrate oxidation over fat catabolism. Heat-stressed cows extensively degraded tissue protein as reflected by the increase of plasma urea, creatinine and methyl histidine concentrations. However, the acute metabolic heat stress response in dry cows differed from early-lactating cows as the prepartal adipose tissue was not refractory to lipolytic, adrenergic stimuli, and the rate of amino acid oxidation was lower than in the postpartal stage. Together with the lower endogenous metabolic heat load, metabolic adaption in dry cows is indicative for a higher heat tolerance and the prioritization of the nutritional requirements of the fast-growing near-term fetus. These findings indicate that the development of future nutritional strategies for attenuating impairments of health and performance due to ambient heat requires the consideration of the physiological stage of dairy cows. PMID:25938406

  1. Lactation performance and feeding behavior of dairy cows supplemented via automatic feeders with soy hulls or barley based pellets.

    PubMed

    Miron, J; Nikbachat, M; Zenou, A; Ben-Ghedalia, D; Solomon, R; Shoshani, E; Halachmi, I; Livshin, N; Antler, A; Maltz, E

    2004-11-01

    The potential of soy hulls to replace barley grain in pellets supplemented to lactating cows was measured in automatic concentrate feeders (ACF). Thirty-six cows were divided into 2 equal groups and fed 1 of the 2 experimental pellet supplements individually for 7 wk. All cows were group-fed a basic mixture along the feeding lane (~64% of dietary DM) plus a pelleted additive containing 50% barley or soy hulls as barley replacer, fed individually to each cow via the ACF in 6 feeding windows. Extent and rate of in vitro DM digestibility were similar for both types of pellets; however, NDF content and digestibility were higher in the soy hulls pellets. Average number of rewarded cow visits at the ACF, pellets intake per meal, and accumulated intake of pellets (8.64 kg/d DM) were similar in the 2 experimental groups. Most pellets were consumed during day and night in the first 2 h after feeding windows were opened. Total visits per day in the ACF and the maximal interval between visits were similar for the 2 pellets, indicating similar attractiveness to the cow. Predicted intake of the basic mixture was similar in both groups (14.8 to 15.1 kg of DM/d). Higher milk fat content was observed in the soy hulls-fed cows, whereas higher milk protein content was found in the barley-fed cows. Milk yield was similar in both groups. Data suggest that replacement of barley pellets with soy hulls pellets may slightly enhance milk fat while reducing milk protein production for dairy herds using automatic milking systems.

  2. Repeatability of metabolic responses to a nutrient deficiency in early and mid lactation and implications for robustness of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Gross, J J; Bruckmaier, R M

    2015-12-01

    Nutrient partitioning toward the mammary gland during insufficient energy and nutrient supply is a strategy to ensure survival of the offspring in mammalian species. This homeorhetic priority of the mammary gland is also present in the modern dairy cow, in particular in early lactation. However, despite similar metabolic loads, the adaptive response to a given metabolic load varies considerably among animals. The aim of this study was to investigate if individual cows respond in a consistent manner to a negative energy balance (NEB) in early and mid lactation. Twenty-five dairy cows experienced the usual NEB after parturition and were subjected to a second 3-wk NEB induced by feed restriction in mid lactation. Animals were retrospectively ranked according to their highest plasma nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentration in wk 1 to 4 postpartum. The animals with the 33% highest and 33% lowest values were selected and classified either as the high response (HR) or low response (LR) group. Before parturition, no differences in the studied parameters, dry matter intake, energy balance, concentrations of glucose, NEFA, β-hydroxybutyrate, cholesterol, triglycerides, growth hormone, and insulin-like growth factor-1, were detected between LR and HR. After parturition, milk yield and energy-corrected milk yield was higher for HR compared with LR in wk 2 to 14 and wk 1 to 6, respectively. During feed restriction in wk 15 to 17 postpartum, no differences in energy-corrected milk between LR and HR were found. Energy balance was more negative in HR during the NEB in early lactation, but not different from LR during feed restriction in mid lactation. Although plasma concentrations of glucose, growth hormone, triglycerides, and cholesterol showed group differences in early lactation, but not during feed restriction, the plasma concentrations of NEFA, β-hydroxybutyrate, and insulin-like growth factor-1 in HR changed repeatedly to a greater extent during the NEB at the 2

  3. Repeatability of metabolic responses to a nutrient deficiency in early and mid lactation and implications for robustness of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Gross, J J; Bruckmaier, R M

    2015-12-01

    Nutrient partitioning toward the mammary gland during insufficient energy and nutrient supply is a strategy to ensure survival of the offspring in mammalian species. This homeorhetic priority of the mammary gland is also present in the modern dairy cow, in particular in early lactation. However, despite similar metabolic loads, the adaptive response to a given metabolic load varies considerably among animals. The aim of this study was to investigate if individual cows respond in a consistent manner to a negative energy balance (NEB) in early and mid lactation. Twenty-five dairy cows experienced the usual NEB after parturition and were subjected to a second 3-wk NEB induced by feed restriction in mid lactation. Animals were retrospectively ranked according to their highest plasma nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentration in wk 1 to 4 postpartum. The animals with the 33% highest and 33% lowest values were selected and classified either as the high response (HR) or low response (LR) group. Before parturition, no differences in the studied parameters, dry matter intake, energy balance, concentrations of glucose, NEFA, β-hydroxybutyrate, cholesterol, triglycerides, growth hormone, and insulin-like growth factor-1, were detected between LR and HR. After parturition, milk yield and energy-corrected milk yield was higher for HR compared with LR in wk 2 to 14 and wk 1 to 6, respectively. During feed restriction in wk 15 to 17 postpartum, no differences in energy-corrected milk between LR and HR were found. Energy balance was more negative in HR during the NEB in early lactation, but not different from LR during feed restriction in mid lactation. Although plasma concentrations of glucose, growth hormone, triglycerides, and cholesterol showed group differences in early lactation, but not during feed restriction, the plasma concentrations of NEFA, β-hydroxybutyrate, and insulin-like growth factor-1 in HR changed repeatedly to a greater extent during the NEB at the 2

  4. Comparison of hepatic adaptation in extreme metabolic phenotypes observed in early lactation dairy cows on-farm.

    PubMed

    van Dorland, H A; Graber, M; Kohler, S; Steiner, A; Bruckmaier, R M

    2014-08-01

    The aim was to study the variation in metabolic responses in early-lactating dairy cows (n = 232) on-farm that were pre-selected for a high milk fat content (>45 g/l) and a high fat/protein ratio in milk (>1.5) in their previous lactation. Blood was assayed for concentrations of metabolites and hormones. Liver was measured for mRNA abundance of 25 candidate genes encoding enzymes and receptors involved in gluconeogenesis (6), fatty acid β-oxidation (6), fatty acid and triglyceride synthesis (5), cholesterol synthesis (4), ketogenesis (2) and the urea cycle (2). Two groups of cows were formed based on the plasma concentrations of glucose, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and β-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA) (GRP+, high metabolic load; glucose <3.0 mm, NEFA >300 μm and BHBA >1.0 mm, n = 30; GRP-, low metabolic load; glucose >3.0 mm, NEFA <300 μm and BHBA <1.0 mm, n = 30). No differences were found between GRP+ and GRP- for the milk yield at 3 weeks post-partum, but milk fat content was higher (p < 0.01) for GRP+ than for GRP-. In week 8 post-partum, milk yield was higher in GRP+ in relation to GRP- (37.5 vs. 32.5 kg/d; p < 0.01). GRP+ in relation to GRP- had higher (p < 0.001) NEFA and BHBA and lower glucose, insulin, IGF-I, T3 , T4 concentrations (p < 0.01). The mRNA abundance of genes related to gluconeogenesis, fatty acid β-oxidation, fatty acid and triglyceride synthesis, cholesterol synthesis and the urea cycle was different in GRP+ compared to GRP- (p < 0.05), although gene transcripts related to ketogenesis were similar between GRP+ and GRP-. In conclusion, high metabolic load post-partum in dairy cows on-farm corresponds to differences in the liver in relation to dairy cows with low metabolic load, even though all cows were pre-selected for a high milk fat content and fat/protein ratio in milk in their previous lactation.

  5. Influence of intramammary infusion of calcium on the calcium status of periparturient lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Aslam, M; Tucker, W B

    1998-07-01

    Sixteen multiparous pregnant cows (14 Holsteins and 2 Jerseys) were arranged in a randomized complete block design and assigned to intramammary infusion of Ca (8 cows) or intramammary infusion of distilled, deionized water (8 cows). Beginning 1 wk before expected calving, plasma Ca concentration was monitored daily until calving. Immediately after the first milking postpartum, an initial (0-h) blood sample was collected via a jugular catheter; then 40 ml of either a 50% Ca borogluconate solution containing 1.6 g of Ca or 40 ml of distilled, deionized water were infused in the right forequarter of the udder. Changes in plasma Ca concentration were monitored every 10 min for the 1st h and then hourly thereafter until the next milking. This infusion and sampling protocol was applied for three consecutive milkings (36 h). Milk Ca concentration from individual quarters for each milking also was monitored. Cows infused with water had lower milk Ca concentration in the infused quarter than in the uninfused quarters during the third and fourth milkings postpartum. Milk Ca for cows infused with Ca was higher in infused quarters than in uninfused quarters at the second milking postpartum. However, this difference lessened during the third milking and was reversed during the fourth milking. Plasma Ca concentration of control cows decreased toward the end of each 12-h sampling interval but was much more stable for cows infused with Ca. The enhanced ability of cows infused with Ca to maintain plasma Ca concentration postpartum might translate into improved transition from nonlactating to lactating diets and could potentially reduce the incidence of metabolic disorders during the periparturient period. However, this response and potential side effects, such as the possibility that mastitis could accompany intramammary infusion of Ca, should be evaluated further before adopting this procedure.

  6. Effect of saturated fatty acid supplementation on production and metabolism indices in heat-stressed mid-lactation dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Wang, J P; Bu, D P; Wang, J Q; Huo, X K; Guo, T J; Wei, H Y; Zhou, L Y; Rastani, R R; Baumgard, L H; Li, F D

    2010-09-01

    Experimental objectives were to determine the effects of supplemental saturated fatty acids on production, body temperature indices, and some aspects of metabolism in mid-lactation dairy cows experiencing heat stress. Forty-eight heat-stressed Holstein cows were allocated into 3 groups (n=16/group) according to a completely randomized block design. Three treatment diets consisted of supplemental saturated fatty acids (SFA) at 0 (SFA0), 1.5 (SFA1.5), or 3.0% (SFA3) of dry matter (DM) for 10 wk. Diets were isonitrogenous (crude protein=16.8%) and contained 1.42, 1.46, and 1.49 Mcal of net energy for lactation/kg of DM for the SFA0, SFA1.5 and SFA3 diets, respectively. The average temperature-humidity index at 0700, 1400 and 2200 h was 72.2, 84.3, and 76.6, respectively. Rectal temperatures at 1400 h were decreased with fat supplementation. Treatment did not affect dry matter intake (20.1+/-0.02 kg/d), body condition score (2.72+/-0.04), body weight (627+/-16.1 kg), or calculated energy balance (1.32+/-0.83 Mcal/d). Saturated fatty acid supplementation increased milk yield, milk fat content, and total milk solids. Increasing fat supplementation decreased plasma nonesterified fatty acids (8%) but had no effect on other energetic metabolites or hormones. In summary, supplemental SFA improved milk yield and milk fat content and yield and reduced peak rectal temperatures in mid-lactation heat-stressed dairy cows. This demonstrates the remarkable amount of metabolic heat that is "saved" by energetically replacing fermentable carbohydrates with supplemental SFA.

  7. Use of inline measures of l-lactate dehydrogenase for classification of posttreatment mammary Staphylococcus aureus infection status in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, C Hildebrandt; Kristensen, A R; Østergaard, S; Bennedsgaard, T W

    2016-10-01

    An automated method for determining whether dairy cows with subclinical mammary infections recover after antibiotic treatment would be a useful tool in dairy production. For that purpose, inline l-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) measurements was modeled using a dynamic linear model; the variance parameters were estimated using the expectation-maximization algorithm. The method used to classify cows as infected or uninfected was based on a multiprocess Kalman filter. Two learning data sets were created: infected and uninfected. The infected data set consisted of records from 48 cows with subclinical Staphylococcus aureus infection from 4 herds collected in 2010. The uninfected data set came from 35 uninfected cows collected during 2013 from 2 herds. Bacteriological culturing was used as gold standard. To test the model, we collected data from the 48 infected cows 50 d after antibiotic treatment. As a result of the treatment, this test data set consisted of 25 cows that still had a subclinical infection and 23 cows that were recovered. Model sensitivity was 36.0% and specificity was 82.6%. To a large extent, l-lactate dehydrogenase reflected the cow's immune response to the presence of pathogens in the udder. However, cows that were classified correctly before treatment had a better chance of correct classification after treatment. This indicated a variation between cows in immune response to subclinical mammary infection that may complicate the detection of subclinically infected cows and determination of recovery. PMID:27522431

  8. Single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with thermoregulation in lactating dairy cows exposed to heat stress.

    PubMed

    Dikmen, S; Wang, X-z; Ortega, M S; Cole, J B; Null, D J; Hansen, P J

    2015-12-01

    Dairy cows with increased rectal temperature experience lower milk yield and fertility. Rectal temperature during heat stress is heritable, so genetic selection for body temperature regulation could reduce effects of heat stress on production. One aim of the study was to validate the relationship between genotype and heat tolerance for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) previously associated with resistance to heat stress. A second aim was to identify new SNPs associated with heat stress resistance. Thermotolerance was assessed in lactating Holsteins during the summer by measuring rectal temperature (a direct measurement of body temperature regulation; n = 435), respiration rate (an indirect measurement of body temperature regulation, n = 450) and sweating rate (the major evaporative cooling mechanism in cattle, n = 455). The association between genotype and thermotolerance was evaluated for 19 SNPs previously associated with rectal temperature from a genomewide analysis study (GWAS), four SNPs previously associated with change in milk yield during heat stress from GWAS, 2 candidate gene SNPs previously associated with rectal temperature and respiration rate during heat stress (ATPA1A and HSP70A) and 66 SNPs in genes previously shown to be associated with reproduction, production or health traits in Holsteins. For SNPs previously associated with heat tolerance, regions of BTA4, BTA6 and BTA24 were associated with rectal temperature; regions of BTA6 and BTA24 were associated with respiration rate; and regions of BTA5, BTA26 and BTA29 were associated with sweating rate. New SNPs were identified for rectal temperature (n = 12), respiration rate (n = 8) and sweating rate (n = 3) from among those previously associated with production, reproduction or health traits. The SNP that explained the most variation were PGR and ASL for rectal temperature, ACAT2 and HSD17B7 for respiration rate, and ARL6IP1 and SERPINE2 for sweating rate. ARL6IP1 was associated with all three

  9. Wet brewers grains for lactating dairy cows during hot, humid weather.

    PubMed

    West, J W; Ely, L O; Martin, S A

    1994-01-01

    Twenty lactating Jersey cows were offered diets containing 0, 15, or 30% wet brewers grains or 30% wet brewers grains plus liquid brewers' yeast during hot, humid weather. The DMI was not different, even though diets with 30% wet brewers grains contained only 35.5% DM and approximately 50 versus 36.8% NDF for the control diet. Yields of milk and FCM did not differ for cows offered the control diet versus wet brewers grains or diets with 15 versus 30% wet brewers grains, but milk yield for diets with 30% wet brewers grains was greater with added liquid brewers' yeast than without it. Milk fat percentage was not different, but milk protein percentage was lower, for diets with wet brewers grains than for controls and for 30% wet brewers grains than for 15% wet brewers grains. Serum urea N was lower for control cows than for cows receiving the diets with wet brewers grains. Feed cost per cow was lower for wet brewers grains versus the control diet, and income over feed cost was greater for diets with 30 versus 15% wet brewers grains. Large quantities of wet brewers grains can be added to the diet during hot weather without depressing DMI.

  10. Effects of diet forage proportion on maintenance energy requirement and the efficiency of metabolizable energy use for lactation by lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Dong, L F; Ferris, C P; McDowell, D A; Yan, T

    2015-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine the effect of dietary forage proportion (FP) on metabolizable energy (ME) requirement for maintenance (MEm) and the efficiency of ME use for lactation (kl) in lactating dairy cows. Data used were derived from 32 calorimetric chamber experiments undertaken at our institute between 1992 and 2010, including data from 818 Holstein-Friesian cows (HF), 50 Norwegian Red cows, and 62 crossbred cows (Jersey × HF or Norwegian Red × HF). Animals were offered forage-only rations (n=66) or forage and concentrate rations (n=864) with FP ranging from 18 to 100% (dry matter basis). The effect of FP was evaluated by dividing the whole data set into 4 groups according to the FP ranges, categorized as FP <30%, FP=30 to 59%, FP=60 to 99%, and FP=100%. The MEm for individual cows was calculated from heat production minus energy losses from inefficiencies of ME use for lactation, energy retention and pregnancy, and kl was obtained from milk energy output adjusted to zero energy balance (El(0)) divided by ME available for production. Increasing FP significantly reduced ME intake and milk energy output, although the differences between the 2 low FP groups were not significant. However, increasing FP significantly increased the ratio of heat production over ME intake and MEm (MJ/kg(0.75)), with the exception that the increases did not reach significance in heat production/ME intake between FP <30% and FP=30 to 59%, or in MEm between FP=60 to 99% and FP=100%. However, the FP had no significant effect on the kl values, which were similar among the 4 groups of cows. The effect of FP was also evaluated using the linear mixed regression technique relating El(0) to ME intake. The results demonstrated that with a common regression coefficient (slope), the regression constants (intercepts) taken as net energy requirement for maintenance significantly increased with increasing FP. However, the increase between the 2 high FP groups did not research

  11. Management practices associated with conception rate and service rate of lactating Holstein cows in large, commercial dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Schefers, J M; Weigel, K A; Rawson, C L; Zwald, N R; Cook, N B

    2010-04-01

    Data from lactating Holstein cows in herds that participate in a commercial progeny testing program were analyzed to explain management factors associated with herd-average conception and service rates on large commercial dairies. On-farm herd management software was used as the source of data related to production, reproduction, culling, and milk quality for 108 herds. Also, a survey regarding management, facilities, nutrition, and labor was completed on 86 farms. A total of 41 explanatory variables related to management factors and conditions that could affect conception and service rate were considered in this study. Models explaining conception and service rates were developed using a machine learning algorithm for constructing model trees. The most important explanatory variables associated with conception rate were the percentage of repeated inseminations between 4 and 17 d post-artificial insemination, stocking density in the breeding pen, length of the voluntary waiting period, days at pregnancy examination, and somatic cell score. The most important explanatory variables associated with service rate were the number of lactating cows per breeding technician, use of a resynchronization program, utilization of soakers in the holding area during the summer, and bunk space per cow in the breeding pen. The aforementioned models explained 35% and 40% of the observed variation in conception rate and service rate, respectively, and underline the association of herd-level management factors not strictly related to reproduction with herd reproductive performance.

  12. Performance of lactating dairy cows fed varying levels of total mixed ration and pasture.

    PubMed

    Vibart, Ronaldo E; Fellner, Vivek; Burns, Joseph C; Huntington, Gerald B; Green, James T

    2008-11-01

    Two, 8-week experiments, each using 30 lactating Holstein cows, were conducted to examine performance of animals offered combinations of total mixed ration (TMR) and high-quality pasture. Experiment 1 was initiated in mid October 2004 and Experiment 2 was initiated in late March 2005. Cows were assigned to either a 100% TMR diet (100:00, no access to pasture) or one of the following three formulated partial mixed rations (PMR) targeted at (1) 85% TMR and 15% pasture, (2) 70% TMR and 30% pasture and (3) 55% TMR and 45% pasture. Based on actual TMR and pasture intake, the dietary TMR and pasture proportions of the three PMR in Experiment 1 were 79% TMR and 21% pasture (79:21), 68% TMR and 32% pasture (68:32), and 59% TMR and 41% pasture (59:41), respectively. Corresponding proportions in Experiment 2 were 89% TMR and 11% pasture (89:11), 79% TMR and 21% pasture (79:21) and 65% TMR and 35% pasture (65:35), respectively. Reducing the proportion of TMR in the diets increased pasture consumption of cows on all PMR, but reduced total dry matter intake compared with cows on 100:00. An increase in forage from pasture increased the concentration of conjugated linoleic acids and decreased the concentration of saturated fatty acids in milk. Although milk and milk protein yields from cows grazing spring pastures (Experiment 2) increased with increasing intakes of TMR, a partial mixed ration that was composed of 41% pasture grazed in the fall (Experiment 1) resulted in a similar overall lactation performance with increased feed efficiency compared to an all-TMR ration. PMID:18701000

  13. Evaluation of systematic breeding programs for lactating dairy cows: a review.

    PubMed

    Nebel, R L; Jobst, S M

    1998-04-01

    Observing cows in estrus and inseminating them at the optimum time are necessary steps for effective reproductive management of a dairy herd. However, larger herd sizes can lead to reproductive inefficiency and decreased profits on dairy farms. Synchronization of estrus behavior through pharmacological control has been used to improve reproductive efficiency. Methods of synchronizing estrus were originally devised to decrease the time spent detecting estrus; however, systematic breeding programs are now being used for convenience and efficiency in reproductive management. Systematic breeding programs provide an organized approach for administering artificial insemination (AI) at first service. Moreover, reproductive management is based on a methodical approach for the entire herd rather than for the individual cow. Targeted Breeding (Pharmacia-Upjohn, Kalamazoo, MI) consists of a series of three PGF2 alpha injections at 14-d intervals. For convenience, injections are usually given one day a week to all cows that surpass the specified target date. The PGF2 alpha injections may be continued until detection of estrus and AI or fixed-time AI. Ovsynch consists of a GnRH injection at a random stage of the estrous cycle, followed by PGF2 alpha 7 d later, a second GnRH injection 36 to 48 h after PGF2 alpha, and timed AI. Research has shown that both Ovsynch and Targeted Breeding can improve reproductive performance over that of traditional programs. PMID:9594406

  14. Supplementation of progesterone via controlled internal drug release inserts during ovulation synchronization protocols in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Chebel, R C; Al-Hassan, M J; Fricke, P M; Santos, J E P; Lima, J R; Martel, C A; Stevenson, J S; Garcia, R; Ax, R L

    2010-03-01

    Our objective was to determine the effect of exogenous progesterone (P4) during a timed artificial insemination (TAI) protocol on pregnancies per AI (P/AI) in dairy cows not previously detected in estrus. Lactating cows (n=3,248) from 7 commercial dairy herds were submitted to a presynchronization protocol (2 injections of PGF(2alpha) 14 d apart; Presynch), and cows in estrus after the second PGF(2alpha) received AI (EDAI; n=1,583). Cows not inseminated by 12 to 14 d after the second PGF(2alpha) injection were submitted to a TAI protocol (GnRH on d 0, PGF(2alpha) on d 7, and GnRH+TAI 72h after PGF(2alpha)). At onset of the TAI protocol, cows were balanced by parity and days in milk and assigned randomly to receive no exogenous P4 (control, n=803) or a controlled internal drug release (CIDR) insert containing 1.38g of P4 from d 0 to 7 (CIDR, n=862). Blood samples were collected at the second PGF(2alpha) injection of the Presynch and on the day of the first GnRH injection of the TAI protocol for P4 determination. When P4 in both samples was <1 ng/mL, cows were classified as anovular, whereas cows having at least 1 sample >or=1 ng/mL were classified as cyclic. Concentration of P4 at 11 to 14 d after AI was determined in a subgroup of cows (n=453) from 2 herds. Pregnancy was diagnosed at 40+/-5 and 65+/-5 d after AI. Proportion of cows inseminated on estrus after the second PGF(2alpha) injection of the Presynch protocol differed among herds (range=26.7 to 59.8%). Overall P/AI for EDAI cows at 40+/-5 and 65+/-5 d were 36.2 and 33.7%, respectively, and pregnancy loss was 8.8%. Proportion of cyclic cows at the onset of the TAI protocol differed among herds (range from 66.5 to 86.3%), but did not differ between treatments (control=72.4%, CIDR=74.1%). Treatment affected P/AI at 40+/-5 (control=33.3%, CIDR=38.1%) and 65+/-5 (control=30.0%, CIDR=35.1%) d after AI but did not affect pregnancy loss (8.6%). Cyclic cows had greater P/AI at 40+/-5 (38.2 vs. 29.3%) and 65+/-5 d (35

  15. Effects of 3-nitrooxypropanol on methane emission, digestion, and energy and nitrogen balance of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, C K; Humphries, D J; Kirton, P; Kindermann, M; Duval, S; Steinberg, W

    2014-01-01

    The objective was to measure effects of 3-nitrooxypropanol (3 NP) on methane production of lactating dairy cows and any associated changes in digestion and energy and N metabolism. Six Holstein-Friesian dairy cows in mid-lactation were fed twice daily a total mixed ration with maize silage as the primary forage source. Cows received 1 of 3 treatments using an experimental design based on two 3 × 3 Latin squares with 5-wk periods. Treatments were a control placebo or 500 or 2,500 mg/d of 3 NP delivered directly into the rumen, via the rumen fistula, in equal doses before each feeding. Measurements of methane production and energy and N balance were obtained during wk 5 of each period using respiration calorimeters and digestion trials. Measurements of rumen pH (48 h) and postprandial volatile fatty acid and ammonia concentrations were made at the end of wk 4. Daily methane production was reduced by 3 NP, but the effects were not dose dependent (reductions of 6.6 and 9.8% for 500 and 2,500 mg/d, respectively). Dosing 3 NP had a transitory inhibitory effect on methane production, which may have been due to the product leaving the rumen in liquid outflow or through absorption or metabolism. Changes in rumen concentrations of volatile fatty acids indicated that the pattern of rumen fermentation was affected by both doses of the product, with a decrease in acetate:propionate ratio observed, but that acetate production was inhibited by the higher dose. Dry matter, organic matter, acid detergent fiber, N, and energy digestibility were reduced at the higher dose of the product. The decrease in digestible energy supply was not completely countered by the decrease in methane excretion such that metabolizable energy supply, metabolizable energy concentration of the diet, and net energy balance (milk plus tissue energy) were reduced by the highest dose of 3 NP. Similarly, the decrease in N digestibility at the higher dose of the product was associated with a decrease in body N

  16. Evaluation of conductive cooling of lactating dairy cows under controlled environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, X A; Smith, J F; Rojano, F; Choi, C Y; Bruer, J; Steele, T; Schuring, N; Allen, J; Collier, R J

    2015-03-01

    Cooling systems used to reduce heat stress in dairy operations require high energy, water usage, or both. Steady increases in electricity costs and reduction of water availability and an increase in water usage regulations require evaluation of passive cooling systems to cool cows and reduce use of water and electricity. A study was conducted to evaluate the use of heat exchangers buried 25 cm below the surface as components in a conductive system for cooling cows. Six cows were housed in environmentally controlled rooms with tie-stall beds, which were equipped with a heat exchanger and filled with 25 cm of either sand or dried manure. Beds were connected to supply and return lines and individually controlled. Two beds (one per each kind of bedding material) constituted a control group (water off), and the other 4 (2 sand and 2 dried manure) used water at 7°C passing through the heat exchangers (water on). The experiment was divided in 2 periods of 40 d, and each period involved 3 repetitions of 3 different climates (hot and dry, thermo neutral, and hot and humid). Each cow was randomly assigned to a different treatment after each repetition was over. Sand bedding remained cooler than dried manure bedding in all environments and at all levels of cooling (water on or off). Bed temperatures were lower and heat flux higher during the bed treatment with sand and water on. We also detected a reduction in core body temperatures, respiration rates, rectal temperatures, and skin temperatures of those cows during the sand and water on treatment. Feed intake and milk yield numerically increased during the bed treatment with sand and water on for all climates. No major changes were observed in the lying time of cows or the composition of the milk produced. We conclude that use of heat exchangers is a viable adjunct to systems that employ fans, misters, and evaporative cooling methods to mitigate effects of heat stress on dairy cows. Sand was superior to dried manure as a

  17. Effect of tannins and saponins in Samanea saman on rumen environment, milk yield and milk composition in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Anantasook, N; Wanapat, M; Cherdthong, A; Gunun, P

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of tannins and saponins in Samanea saman on rumen fermentation, milk yield and milk composition in lactating dairy cows. Four multiparous early-lactating dairy cows (Holstein-Friesian cross-bred, 75%) with an initial body weight (BW) of 405 ± 40 kg and 36 ± 8 day in milk were randomly assigned to receive dietary treatments according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design. The four dietary treatments were unsupplemented (control), supplemented with rain tree pod (S. saman) meal (RPM) at 60 g/kg, supplemented with palm oil (PO) at 20 g/kg, and supplemented with RPM at 60 g/kg and PO at 20 g/kg (RPO), of total dry matter (DM) intake. Cows were fed with concentrate diets at a ratio of concentrate to milk yield of 1:2, and chopped 30 g/kg of urea-treated rice straw was fed ad libitum. The RPM contained condensed tannins and crude saponins at 88 and 141 g/kg of DM respectively. It was found that supplementation with RPM and/or PO to dairy cows diets did not show negative effect on ruminal pH, blood urea nitrogen and milk urea nitrogen concentration (p > 0.05). However, supplementation with RPM resulted in lower ammonia nitrogen (NH3 -N) concentration (p < 0.05). In addition, propionic acid and milk production increased while acetic acid, acetic to propionic ratio, methane production, methanogens and protozoal population decreased with RPM and/or PO supplementation. Furthermore, addition of PO and RPO in the diets increased milk fat while supplementation of RPM resulted in greater milk protein and Fibrobacter succinogenes numbers (p < 0.05). The population of Ruminococcus flavefaciens and Ruminococcus albus were not affected by any treatments. The findings on the present study showed that supplementation with RPM and RPO to diets of cows improved the rumen environment and increased milk yield, content of milk protein and milk fat.

  18. Effect of tannins and saponins in Samanea saman on rumen environment, milk yield and milk composition in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Anantasook, N; Wanapat, M; Cherdthong, A; Gunun, P

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of tannins and saponins in Samanea saman on rumen fermentation, milk yield and milk composition in lactating dairy cows. Four multiparous early-lactating dairy cows (Holstein-Friesian cross-bred, 75%) with an initial body weight (BW) of 405 ± 40 kg and 36 ± 8 day in milk were randomly assigned to receive dietary treatments according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design. The four dietary treatments were unsupplemented (control), supplemented with rain tree pod (S. saman) meal (RPM) at 60 g/kg, supplemented with palm oil (PO) at 20 g/kg, and supplemented with RPM at 60 g/kg and PO at 20 g/kg (RPO), of total dry matter (DM) intake. Cows were fed with concentrate diets at a ratio of concentrate to milk yield of 1:2, and chopped 30 g/kg of urea-treated rice straw was fed ad libitum. The RPM contained condensed tannins and crude saponins at 88 and 141 g/kg of DM respectively. It was found that supplementation with RPM and/or PO to dairy cows diets did not show negative effect on ruminal pH, blood urea nitrogen and milk urea nitrogen concentration (p > 0.05). However, supplementation with RPM resulted in lower ammonia nitrogen (NH3 -N) concentration (p < 0.05). In addition, propionic acid and milk production increased while acetic acid, acetic to propionic ratio, methane production, methanogens and protozoal population decreased with RPM and/or PO supplementation. Furthermore, addition of PO and RPO in the diets increased milk fat while supplementation of RPM resulted in greater milk protein and Fibrobacter succinogenes numbers (p < 0.05). The population of Ruminococcus flavefaciens and Ruminococcus albus were not affected by any treatments. The findings on the present study showed that supplementation with RPM and RPO to diets of cows improved the rumen environment and increased milk yield, content of milk protein and milk fat. PMID:24814291

  19. Supplementation of dairy cow diets with calcium salts of long-chain fatty acids and nicotinic acid in early lactation.

    PubMed

    Erickson, P S; Murphy, M R; Clark, J H

    1992-04-01

    Forty multiparous Holstein cows were assigned to one of four treatments 15 d postpartum according to milk yield during wk 2 postpartum to examine the effects of supplementing niacin, Ca salts of long-chain fatty acids, and their interaction. Treatments were control, niacin (12 g/d), Ca salts of long-chain fatty acids (3% of dietary DM), or a combination of niacin and Ca salts. On d 99 postpartum, all cows were fed the control treatment for 2 wk to evaluate residual effects. Milk and FCM yields, blood plasma NEFA and beta-hydroxybutyrate concentrations, and apparent total tract hemicellulose digestibility were increased; milk protein percentage, milk SNF percentage, and blood plasma glucose concentrations were reduced by treatments containing the Ca soaps. Niacin supplementation increased milk protein content and yield but reduced blood plasma beta-hydroxybutyrate concentration. During the residual period, in which all cows received the control treatment, milk yield and plasma NEFA concentration remained elevated, milk protein and SNF contents remained depressed, and milk fat content was reduced for cows previously supplemented with Ca salts of long-chain fatty acids. Methionine and phenylalanine uptakes by the mammary gland were enhanced by niacin supplementation. Results indicated that dairy cattle in early lactation yielded more milk when their diets were supplemented with Ca salts of long-chain fatty acids and that niacin supplementation increased milk protein content and yield.

  20. Effect of prepartum administration of recombinant bovine somatotropin on health and performance of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Gohary, K; LeBlanc, S J; Lissemore, K D; Overton, M W; Von Massow, M; Duffield, T F

    2014-10-01

    A double-blind, randomized clinical trial was conducted in 5 commercial dairy herds in southern Ontario with 1,362 cows enrolled to evaluate the effect of prepartum administration of recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) on health and performance. Cows were randomly assigned to receive either 325 mg of sometribove zinc suspension (n=680) or a placebo injection (n=682; control) subcutaneously every 14 d until calving. Treatments started 28 to 22 d before expected calving, with a maximum of 3 treatments per cow. Serum samples taken at the time of enrollment, 1 wk before calving, and weekly for 3 wk after calving were analyzed for nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), glucose, aspartate aminotransferase, calcium, and haptoglobin. Diseases were recorded by farm staff. Incidences of clinical ketosis, clinical mastitis, displaced abomasum, metritis, retained placenta, milk fever, and lameness were similar between groups. Body condition score was lower for treated than for control cows at 3 wk after calving (3.13 and 3.17, respectively). Serum NEFA tended to be higher for treated than for control cows by 0.01 mmol/L. Overall BHBA was not different between groups, but BHBA for treated cows was higher in wk 1 after calving (750 and 698 μmol/L, respectively) and tended to be higher in wk 2 after calving (779 and 735 μmol/L, respectively). Incidence of hyperketonemia was similar between groups. Treated cows had higher serum glucose compared with control cows (2.8 and 2.7 mmol/L, respectively). We detected no differences in serum aspartate aminotransferase, calcium, or haptoglobin between groups. Milk yield was recorded daily for each cow for 63 d, and did not differ between groups (37.1 ± 0.5 kg and 36.7 ± 0.5 kg, respectively) but we detected a tendency for treated cows to produce 0.8 kg/d more milk than control cows in wk 1 after calving. We observed no difference between groups in the time from calving to first insemination or the probability of

  1. The value of different fat supplements as sources of digestible energy for lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Weiss, W P; Pinos-Rodríguez, J M; Wyatt, D J

    2011-02-01

    The effects of fat supplements that differed in fatty acid composition (chain length and degree of saturation) and chemical form (free fatty acids, Ca salts of fatty acids, and triacylglyceride) on digestible energy (DE) concentration of the diet and DE intake by lactating cows were measured. Holstein cows were fed a control diet [2.9% of dry matter (DM) as long-chain fatty acids] or 1 of 3 diets with 3% added fatty acids (that mainly replaced starch). The 3 fat supplements were (1) mostly saturated (C18:0) free fatty acids (SFA), (2) Ca-salts of fatty acids (CaFA), and (3) triacylglyceride high in C16:0 fatty acids (TAG). Cows fed CaFA (22.8 kg/d) consumed less DM than cows fed the control (23.6 kg/d) and TAG (23.8 kg/d) diets but similar to cows fed SFA (23.2 kg/d). Cows fed fat produced more fat-corrected milk than cows fed the control diet (38.2 vs. 41.1 kg/d), mostly because of increased milk fat percentage. No differences in yields of milk or milk components were observed among the fat-supplemented diets. Digestibility of DM, energy, carbohydrate fractions, and protein did not differ between diets. Digestibility of long-chain fatty acids was greatest for the CaFA diet (76.3%), intermediate for the control and SFA diets (70.3%), and least for the TAG diet (63.3%). Fat-supplemented diets had more DE (2.93 Mcal/kg) than the control diet (2.83 Mcal/kg), and DE intake by cows fed supplemented diets was 1.6 Mcal/d greater than by cows fed the control, but no differences were observed among the supplements. Because the inclusion rate of supplemental fats is typically low, large differences in fatty acid digestibility may not translate into altered DE intake because of small differences in DM intake or digestibility of other nutrients.

  2. Effect of feeding different sources of rumen-protected methionine on milk production and N-utilization in lactating dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objectives of this study were to quantify production responses of lactating dairy cows to supplying absorbable Met as isopropyl-2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio)-butanoic acid (HMBi), or rumen-protected Met (RPM, Smartamine® M) fed with or without 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio)-butanoic acid (HMB), and to determin...

  3. Incremental amounts of Ascophyllum nodosum meal do not improve animal performance but increase milk iodine output in early lactation dairy cows fed high-forage diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of incremental amounts of Ascophyllum nodosum meal (ANOD) on milk production, milk composition including fatty acids and I, blood metabolites, and nutrient intake and digestibility in early lactation dairy cows fed high-forage diets. Twelve ...

  4. Corn silage hybrid type and quality of alfalfa hay affect dietary nitrogen utilization by early lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Holt, M S; Neal, K; Eun, J-S; Young, A J; Hall, J O; Nestor, K E

    2013-10-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of corn silage (CS) hybrids and quality of alfalfa hay (AH) in high-forage dairy diets on N utilization, ruminal fermentation, and lactational performance by early-lactating dairy cows. Eight multiparous Holstein cows were used in a duplicated 4 × 4 Latin square experiment with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of dietary treatments. The 8 cows (average days in milk = 23 ± 11.2) were surgically fitted with ruminal cannula, and the 2 squares were conducted simultaneously. Within square, cows were randomly assigned to a sequence of 4 diets: conventional CS (CCS) or brown midrib CS (BMR) was combined with fair-quality AH [FAH: 46.7% neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and 18.4% crude protein (CP)] or high-quality AH (HAH: 39.2% NDF and 20.7% CP) to form 4 treatments: CCS with FAH, CCS with HAH, BMR with FAH, and BMR with HAH. Diets were isonitrogenous across treatments, averaging 15.9% CP. Each period lasted a total of 21 d, with 14 d for treatment adaptation and 7d for data collection and sampling. Intake of DM and milk yield did not differ in response to CS hybrids or AH quality. Although feeding BMR-based diets decreased urinary N output by 24%, it did not affect fecal N output. Feeding HAH decreased urinary N output by 15% but increased fecal N output by 20%. Nitrogen efficiency [milk N (g/d)/intake N (g/d)] tended to increase for BMR treatments. Ruminal ammonia-N concentration was lower for cows fed BMR-based diets than for those fed CCS-based diets but was not affected by quality of AH. Feeding BMR-based diets or HAH decreased milk urea N concentration by 23 or 15%, respectively, compared with CCS-based diets or FAH. Total volatile fatty acid concentration increased with HAH but was not influenced by CS hybrids. Feeding BMR-based diets decreased urinary N-to-fecal N ratio (UN:FN), and it was further reduced by feeding HAH. Although cows fed the BMR-based diets tended to increase milk N-to-manure N ratio, the

  5. Effect of offering dairy cows diets differing in phosphorus concentration over four successive lactations: 1. Food intake, milk production, tissue changes and blood metabolites.

    PubMed

    Ferris, C P; Patterson, D C; McCoy, M A; Kilpatrick, D J

    2010-04-01

    The loss of phosphates from dairy farms contributes to the eutrophication of waterways. Whilst reducing the phosphorus (P) content of dairy cow diets has the potential to help reduce phosphate losses, diets containing inadequate dietary P may have a negative effect on cow health and performance. To address this issue, 100 winter-calving Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were offered diets containing either 'high' or 'low' levels of dietary P. The experiment was conducted over a 4-year period, with 80 primiparous cows commencing the study in year 1, while a further 20 primiparous cows commenced the study in year 2. Rations offered during the winter comprised grass silage, maize silage (70 : 30 dry matter (DM) basis, approximately) and concentrates (10.0 to 12.0 kg/cow per day). During the summer periods in years 1 and 2, half of the cows grazed both day and night, while the remaining cows grazed by day, and were housed by night and offered grass silage. During years 3 and 4, all cows grazed both day and night during the summer period. Concentrate feed levels during the summer periods were 3.0 to 4.0 kg/cow per day. Different dietary P levels were achieved by offering concentrates containing either high or low P levels during the winter period (approximately 7.0 or 4.4 g P/kg DM respectively), and during the summer period (approximately 6.8 or 3.6 g P/kg DM, respectively). Total ration P levels averaged 4.9 and 3.6 g P/kg DM for the 'high' and 'low' P winter diets respectively, and 4.2 and 3.6 g P/kg DM for the 'high' and 'low' P summer diets respectively. A total of 95, 70, 50 and 22 cows completed each of lactations 1 to 4 respectively. Dietary P level had no significant effect on food intake, milk output or milk composition (P > 0.05). Plasma P concentrations were significantly lower with cows offered the 'low' P diet in each of lactations 1 to 4 (P < 0.05). In each of lactations 3 and 4, cows offered the 'low' P diet tended to have lower condition scores and live

  6. Evaluation of different energy feeding systems with production data from lactating dairy cows offered grass silage-based diets.

    PubMed

    Yan, T; Agnew, R E; Murphy, J J; Ferris, C P; Gordon, F J

    2003-04-01

    A set of data from 838 lactating dairy cows, drawn from 12 long-term feeding studies (at least 8 wk/period), was used to evaluate the energy feeding systems for dairy cows currently adopted in Australia, France, The Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The animals were offered mixed diets of concentrates, forage [grass silages (n = 33) and corn silages (n = 5)] ad libitum. Data used in the present evaluation were either measured [dry matter (DM) intake, milk production and live weight], measured/estimated [dietary metabolizable energy (ME) concentration] or estimated [milk energy output and live weight change (LWC)]. The mean-square prediction error (MSPE) was used for the evaluation. Total ME intake, milk yields, and LWC varied from 91 to 338 MJ/d, 7.7 to 48.9, and -1.23 to 1.73 kg/d, respectively. Australian and French systems predicted total energy requirement and milk yield relatively well, while British, Dutch and American systems underpredicted total energy requirement by proportionately 0.06, 0.04, and 0.03, respectively; and overpredicted milk yield by 0.09, 0.06, and 0.04. The Agricultural and Food Research Council (AFRC) each produced a relatively larger error of the bias (predicted - actual data) over the total MSPE for ME requirement and milk yield and a relatively smaller error of random than other systems. However, an addition of proportionately 0.05 to the total predicted ME requirement of AFRC, as suggested in this system and currently used in the UK, indicated the prediction accuracy of ME requirement and milk yield is similar to Australian and French systems. Nevertheless, all the systems had a poor prediction of LWC. For each system, the total prediction error (total MSPE) was mainly derived from the line (slope; 0.49 to 0.64 of total MSPE), while less derived from the random (0.20 to 0.48 of total MSPE), indicating a large variation between the predicted and actual LWC existed among individual cows. The residual plots of the

  7. Effects of varying rates of tallgrass prairie hay and wet corn gluten feed on productivity of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Rezac, D J; Grigsby, K N; Bello, N M; Bradford, B J

    2012-02-01

    Productivity of lactating dairy cows fed diets with wet corn gluten feed (WCGF, Sweet Bran, Cargill Inc., Blair, NE) as the primary energy substrate and prairie hay as the primary source of physically effective neutral detergent fiber (peNDF) was assessed relative to a control diet. Forty-eight Holstein cows, 100 to 250 d in milk, were randomly assigned to 1 of 6 pens and pens were randomly assigned to treatment sequence in a replicated 3×3 Latin square. Treatments were a control diet with 18% alfalfa, 18% corn silage, 33% WCGF, and 15% forage NDF (CON); a diet with 20% tallgrass prairie hay, 46% WCGF, and 13% forage NDF (TPH20); and a diet with 14% tallgrass prairie hay, 56% WCGF, and 9% forage NDF (TPH14). Midway through period 2, TPH14 was discontinued due to the high prevalence of diarrhea among cows on that treatment. Data from period 2 for TPH14 pens were discarded, and the pens that had been assigned to TPH14 for period 3 were randomly assigned to the other 2 treatments. Pen-level data were analyzed using linear mixed models, including the random effects of period and pen and the fixed effect of treatment. For animal-level data, additional random effects were introduced to account for subsampling. No evidence for treatment effects was apparent on dry matter intake. Least squares mean milk yields were 36.2, 34.6, and 35.2 kg/d for CON, TPH20, and TPH14, respectively, and were not significantly different. Milk fat concentration was higher for CON and TPH20 than for TPH14, with means of 3.48, 3.41, and 2.82%, respectively. Fat yield was significantly greater for CON compared with TPH20 and TPH14. Milk urea nitrogen was greatest for TPH20 and TPH14 and least for CON, consistent with differences in dietary protein content. Efficiencies, expressed as energy-corrected milk divided by dry matter intake, were 1.47, 1.42, and 1.24 for CON, TPH20, and TPH14, respectively, and were not significantly different. These data indicate that TPH14 did not provide adequate pe

  8. Vaccination of lactating dairy cows for the prevention of aflatoxin B1 carry over in milk.

    PubMed

    Polonelli, Luciano; Giovati, Laura; Magliani, Walter; Conti, Stefania; Sforza, Stefano; Calabretta, Alessandro; Casoli, Claudio; Ronzi, Paola; Grilli, Ester; Gallo, Antonio; Masoero, Francesco; Piva, Gianfranco

    2011-01-01

    The potential of anaflatoxin B(1) (AnAFB(1)) conjugated to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) as a vaccine (AnAFB(1)-KLH) in controlling the carry over of the aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) metabolite aflatoxin M(1) (AFM(1)) in cow milk is reported. AFB(1) is the most carcinogenic compound in food and foodstuffs amongst aflatoxins (AFs). AnAFB(1) is AFB(1) chemically modified as AFB(1)-1(O-carboxymethyl) oxime. In comparison to AFB(1), AnAFB(1) has proven to be non-toxic in vitro to human hepatocarcinoma cells and non mutagenic to Salmonella typhimurium strains. AnAFB(1)-KLH was used for immunization of cows proving to induce a long lasting titer of anti-AFB(1) IgG antibodies (Abs) which were cross reactive with AFB(1), AFG(1), and AFG(2). The elicited anti-AFB(1) Abs were able to hinder the secretion of AFM(1) into the milk of cows continuously fed with AFB(1). Vaccination of lactating animals with conjugated AnAFB(1) may represent a solution to the public hazard constituted by milk and cheese contaminated with AFs.

  9. Technical note: Validation of sensor-recorded lying bouts in lactating dairy cows using a 2-sensor approach.

    PubMed

    Kok, A; van Knegsel, A T M; van Middelaar, C E; Hogeveen, H; Kemp, B; de Boer, I J M

    2015-11-01

    Lying behavior is a relevant indicator for the evaluation of cow welfare. Lying can be recorded automatically by data loggers attached to one of the hind legs of a cow. A threshold for the duration of a lying bout (LB) record is required, however, to discard false records caused by horizontal leg movements, such as scratching. Previously determined thresholds for similar sensors ranged from 25s to 4min. We aimed to validate LB recorded by the IceQube sensor (with IceManager software; IceRobotics, South Queensferry, UK) and to determine a threshold to distinguish true from false LB records in lactating dairy cows. A novel method of validation, which does not require time-consuming behavioral observations, was used to generate a larger data set with potentially more incidental short LB records. Both hind legs of 28 lactating dairy cows were equipped with an IceQube sensor for a period of 6d and used as each other's validation. Classification of LB records as true (actual LB) or false (recorded while standing) was based on 3 assumptions. First, all standing records (absence of LB records) were assumed to occur while standing. Second, false LB records due to short leg movements could not occur in both hind legs simultaneously. Third, true LB only occurred if the LB records of the paired sensors coincided. False LB records constituted 4% of the records. Based on a maximum accuracy of 0.99, a minimum duration of LB records of 33 s was determined, implying a sensitivity of 0.99 and a specificity of 0.98. Applying this threshold of 33 s hardly affected estimates of daily lying time, but improved estimates of frequency and mean duration of LB for individual cows. The importance of distinguishing short LB was demonstrated specifically for detection of calving. The 2-sensor approach, using sensor outputs on both hind legs as each other's validation, is a time-efficient method to validate LB records that can be applied to different sensors and husbandry conditions.

  10. Randomized clinical trial of a calcium supplement for improvement of health in dairy cows in early lactation.

    PubMed

    Miltenburg, Cynthia L; Duffield, Todd F; Bienzle, Dorothee; Scholtz, Elizabeth L; LeBlanc, Stephen J

    2016-08-01

    Prophylactic Ca supplementation immediately after calving is a common strategy to prevent clinical and subclinical hypocalcemia in parturient dairy cows. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of prophylactic administration of an injected Ca supplement on blood Ca concentration at 24 and 48h after treatment, incidence risk of clinical disease and culling, milk production in early lactation, and probability of pregnancy at first insemination. Cows without signs of visible milk fever (n=984) from 7 farms were blocked by parity and randomly assigned to receive either Ca gluconate (35% wt/vol) in combination with Ca glucoheptonate (10% wt/vol; TheraCalcium, Vétoquinol Canada Inc., Lavaltrie, Quebec) or a placebo (medication vehicle solution with no Ca) at first contact with each cow after calving and again 12 to 24h later. Each dose was 120mL injected subcutaneously over 2 sites. Total serum Ca concentration (tCa) was measured from coccygeal blood samples before (time 0) and 24 and 48h after first treatment in a subsample of cows (n=129). Blood β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations were measured from all cows twice between 3 and 16d in milk at weekly visits and cows were evaluated for vaginal discharge once between 28 and 42d in milk. Disease events, production data from the first 3 Dairy Herd Improvement milk tests, reproduction, and culling data were collected from each herd. For cows that had received 1 injection of Ca before the blood sample at 24h (n=95), tCa was significantly higher in the treated cows: mean ± standard error, 2.03±0.03 versus 1.90±0.03mmol/L, accounting for tCa at time of enrollment and a treatment by tCa at enrollment interaction. At 48h, no significant difference was found in tCa between treatment and control (mean ± SE, 2.12±0.02 and 2.10±0.03mmol/L, respectively). Cows treated with the Ca product were significantly less likely to have received intravenous, subcutaneous, or oral supplemental Ca for exhibiting clinical signs

  11. Ruminal bacterial community composition in dairy cows is dynamic over the course of two lactations and correlates with feed efficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A group of 14 Holstein cows of similar age were followed through the course of their first two lactation cycles. During each lactation cycle, ruminal solids and liquids, milk samples and production data, and feed consumption data were collected for each cow during Early (76-82 days in milk, DIM), Mi...

  12. Is the temperature-humidity index the best indicator of heat stress in lactating dairy cows in a subtropical environment?

    PubMed

    Dikmen, S; Hansen, P J

    2009-01-01

    Several temperature-humidity indexes (THI) have been used to estimate the degree of thermal stress experienced by dairy cows. The present objectives were to develop equations using meteorological variables that predicted rectal temperature of lactating cows in a subtropical environment and compare the goodness of fit of these equations to those using 8 different THI. Rectal temperature was measured between 1500 and 1700 h in 1,280 lactating Holstein cows in north central Florida between August and December. Meteorological data recorded in the barn where cows were located included dry bulb temperature (T(db)), relative humidity (RH), dew point temperature, and wind speed. Wet bulb temperature was calculated. In the first series of analyses, regression analysis was used to model rectal temperature using the meteorological variables as well as THI. The r(2) using T(db) (0.41) was slightly less than for models using all but one THI (r(2) between 0.42 and 0.43). The r(2) for equations using T(db) could be improved by adding RH (r(2) = 0.43) or RH and RH(2) (r(2) = 0.44) to the model. In the second analysis, regression analysis was performed using forward selection, backward elimination, and stepwise selection procedures with the meteorological variables. All models gave a similar goodness of fit (r(2) = 0.44). An analysis of variance with rectal temperature as a class variable was performed to determine the least squares means of meteorological measurements associated with hyperthermia. A T(db) of 29.7 degrees C was associated with rectal temperature of 39 degrees C, and a T(db) of 31.4 degrees C was associated with rectal temperature of 39.5 degrees C. In conclusion, T(db) is nearly as good a predictor of rectal temperatures of lactating Holsteins in a subtropical environment as THI. Estimates of values of meteorological variables associated with specific rectal temperatures should prove valuable in relating environmental conditions to the magnitude of hyperthermia

  13. Mitigation of enteric methane emissions through improving efficiency of energy utilization and productivity in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Yan, T; Mayne, C S; Gordon, F G; Porter, M G; Agnew, R E; Patterson, D C; Ferris, C P; Kilpatrick, D J

    2010-06-01

    The data set used in the present study was obtained from 20 energy metabolism studies involving 579 lactating dairy cows (511 Holstein-Friesian, 36 Norwegian Red, and 32 Jersey-Holstein crossbreds) varying in genetic merit, lactation number, stage of lactation, and live weight. These cows were offered diets based on grass silage (n=550) or fresh grass (n=29), and their energy intake and outputs, including methane energy (CH(4)-E), were measured in indirect open-circuit respiration calorimeter chambers. The objective was to use these data to evaluate relationships between CH(4)-E output and a range of factors in animal production and energetic efficiency in lactating dairy cows under normal feeding regimens. The CH(4)-E as a proportion of milk energy output (E(l)), E(l) adjusted to zero energy balance (E(l(0))), or intakes of gross energy (GE), digestible energy (DE), or metabolizable energy (ME) was significantly related to a wide range of variables associated with milk production (E(l) and E(l(0))) and energy parameters (energy intake, metabolizability, partitioning, and utilization efficiencies). Three sets of linear relationships were developed with experimental effects removed. The CH(4)-E/GE intake (r(2)=0.50-0.62) and CH(4)-E/E(l) (r(2)=0.41-0.68) were reduced with increasing feeding level, E(l)/metabolic body weight (MBW; kg(0.75)), E(l(0))/MBW, GE intake/MBW, DE intake/MBW, and ME intake/MBW. Increasing dietary ME/DE decreased CH(4)-E/E(l) (r(2)=0.46) and CH(4)-E/GE intake (r(2)=0.72). Dietary ME concentration and ME/GE were also negatively related to CH(4)-E/GE intake (r(2)=0.47). However, increasing heat production/ME intake increased CH(4)-E as a proportion of E(l) (r(2)=0.41), E(l(0)) (r(2)=0.67) and energy intake (GE, DE, and ME; r(2)=0.62 and 0.70). These proportional CH(4)-E variables were reduced with increasing ratios of E(l)/ME intake and E(l(0))/ME intake and efficiency of ME use for lactation (r(2)=0.49-0.70). Fitting CH(4)-E/E(l) or CH(4)-E

  14. Effects of nitrogen fertilisation rate and maturity of grass silage on methane emission by lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Warner, D; Hatew, B; Podesta, S C; Klop, G; van Gastelen, S; van Laar, H; Dijkstra, J; Bannink, A

    2016-01-01

    Grass silage is typically fed to dairy cows in temperate regions. However, in vivo information on methane (CH(4)) emission from grass silage of varying quality is limited. We evaluated the effect of two rates of nitrogen (N) fertilisation of grassland (low fertilisation (LF), 65 kg of N/ha; and high fertilisation (HF), 150 kg of N/ha) and of three stages of maturity of grass at cutting: early maturity (EM; 28 days of regrowth), mid maturity (MM; 41 days of regrowth) and late maturity (LM; 62 days of regrowth) on CH(4) production by lactating dairy cows. In a randomised block design, 54 lactating Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (168±11 days in milk; mean±standard error of mean) received grass silage (mainly ryegrass) and compound feed at 80 : 20 on dry matter basis. Cows were adapted to the diet for 12 days and CH(4) production was measured in climate respiration chambers for 5 days. Dry matter intake (DMI; 14.9±0.56 kg/day) decreased with increasing N fertilisation and grass maturity. Production of fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM; 24.0±1.57 kg/day) decreased with advancing grass maturity but was not affected by N fertilisation. Apparent total-tract feed digestibility decreased with advancing grass maturity but was unaffected by N fertilisation except for an increase and decrease in N and fat digestibility with increasing N fertilisation, respectively. Total CH(4) production per cow (347±13.6 g/day) decreased with increasing N fertilisation by 4% and grass maturity by 6%. The smaller CH(4) production with advancing grass maturity was offset by a smaller FPCM and lower feed digestibility. As a result, with advancing grass maturity CH(4) emission intensity increased per units of FPCM (15.0±1.00 g CH(4)/kg) by 31% and digestible organic matter intake (33.1±0.78 g CH(4)/kg) by 15%. In addition, emission intensity increased per units of DMI (23.5±0.43 g CH(4)/kg) by 7% and gross energy intake (7.0±0.14% CH(4)) by 9%, implying an increased loss of dietary

  15. Ovarian structures and uterine environment are associated with phenotypic and genetic merit for performance in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, A M; Ryan, D P; Carthy, T R; Evans, R D; Berry, D P

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the association between detailed reproductive phenotypes for cows categorized as divergent for phenotypic and genetic performance. The hypothesis was that higher yielding animals, either phenotypically or genetically, would have compromised ovarian and uterine reproductive performance. Detailed reproductive traits including multiple ovulations, cystic ovarian structures, corpus luteum (CL) presence, and uterine environment were available on 9675 ultrasound records from 8174 dairy lactating cows, calved between 10 and 70 days. Cows were categorized, within parity, into low, average, or high for each of the performance traits. There was a greater likelihood of multiple ovulations in cows with greater phenotypic yields (odds ratio: 1.53-1.81) and greater genetic merit for yield (odds ratio: 1.31-1.59) relative to lower performing contemporaries. After adjustment for genetic merit, a similar trend of increased odds (odds ratio: 1.29-1.87) of multiple ovulations in higher yielding cows was observed compared with the lowest yielding category. There was no association between either phenotypic milk composition or genetic merit for milk composition with the likelihood of multiple ovulations. The likelihood of cystic ovarian structures was highest in cows with greatest phenotypic milk yields (odds ratio: 2.75-3.24), greater genetic merit for milk yield (odds ratio: 1.30-1.51), and even after adjustment for genetic merit there was a greater likelihood of cystic ovarian structures in cows with the highest milk yields (odds ratio: 2.71-2.95), compared with cows in the lowest category for each of the milk traits. Cows with average phenotypic milk yields were more likely to have a CL, compared with the lowest yielding category (odds ratio: 1.20-1.23), and these associations remained after adjustment for genetic merit of the trait. The likelihood of CL presence was highest in cows with the lowest genetic merit for milk. Lower fat

  16. Effect of farm and simulated laboratory cold environmental conditions on the performance and physiological responses of lactating dairy cows supplemented with bovine somatotropin (BST)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, B. A.; Johnson, H. D.; Li, R.; Collier, R. J.

    1990-09-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of bovine somatotropin (BST) supplementation in twelve lactating dairy cows maintained in cold environmental conditions. Six cows were injected daily with 25 mg of BST; the other six were injected with a control vehicle. Cows were maintained under standard dairy management during mid-winter for 30 days. Milk production was recorded twice daily, and blood samples were taken weekly. Animals were then transferred to environmentally controlled chambers and exposed to cycling thermoneutral (15° to 20° C) and cycling cold (-5° to +5° C) temperatures for 10 days in a split-reversal design. Milk production, feed and water intake, body weights and rectal temperatures were monitored. Blood samples were taken on days 1, 3, 5, 8 and 10 of each period and analyzed for plasma triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), cortisol, insulin and prolactin. Under farm conditions, BST-treated cows produced 11% more milk than control-treated cows and in environmentally controlled chambers produced 17.4% more milk. No differences due to BST in feed or water intake, body weights or rectal temperatures were found under laboratory conditions. Plasma T3 and insulin increased due to BST treatment while no effect was found on cortisol, prolactin or T4. The results showed that the benefits of BST supplementation in lactating dairy cows were achieved under cold environmental conditions.

  17. Kinetics of phosphate absorption in lactating dairy cows after enteral administration of sodium phosphate or calcium phosphate salts.

    PubMed

    Grünberg, Walter; Dobbelaar, Paul; Breves, Gerhard

    2013-09-28

    Hypophosphataemia is frequently encountered in dairy cows during early lactation. Although supplementation of P is generally recommended, controversy exists over the suitability of oral P supplementation in animals with decreased or absent rumen motility. Since the effects of transruminal P absorption and the reticular groove reflex on the absorption kinetics of P are not well understood, it is unclear in how far treatment efficacy of oral P supplementation is affected by decreased rumen motility. Phosphate absorption was studied in six phosphate-depleted dairy cows fitted with rumen cannulas and treated with test solutions containing either NaH2PO4 or CaHPO4 with acetaminophen. Each animal was treated orally, intraruminally and intra-abomasally in randomised order. Absorption kinetics of P were studied and compared with the absorption kinetics of acetaminophen, a marker substance only absorbed from the small intestine. Intra-abomasal treatment with NaH2PO4 resulted in the most rapid and highest peaks in plasma inorganic P (Pi) concentration. Oral and intraruminal administration of NaH2PO4 resulted in similar increases in plasma Pi concentration from 4 to 7 h in both groups. Treatment with NaH2PO4 caused more pronounced peaks in plasma Pi concentration compared with CaHPO4. Neither transruminal P absorption nor the reticular groove reflex affected P absorption kinetics as determined by comparing plasma concentration–time curves of P and acetaminophen after administration of 1M-phosphate salt solutions. It is concluded that oral treatment with NaH2PO4 but not CaHPO4 is effective in supplementing P in hypophosphataemic cows with adequate rumen motility. Decreased rumen motility is likely to hamper the efficacy of oral phosphate treatment.

  18. Canola Oil in Lactating Dairy Cow Diets Reduces Milk Saturated Fatty Acids and Improves Its Omega-3 and Oleic Fatty Acid Content.

    PubMed

    Welter, Katiéli Caroline; Martins, Cristian Marlon de Magalhães Rodrigues; de Palma, André Soligo Vizeu; Martins, Mellory Martinson; Dos Reis, Bárbara Roqueto; Schmidt, Bárbara Laís Unglaube; Saran Netto, Arlindo

    2016-01-01

    To produce milk that is healthier for human consumption, the present study evaluated the effect of including canola oil in the diet of dairy cows on milk production and composition as well as the nutritional quality of this milk fat. Eighteen Holstein cows with an average daily milk yield of 22 (± 4) kg/d in the middle stage of lactation were used. The cows were distributed in 6 contemporary 3x3 Latin squares consisting of 3 periods and 3 treatments: control diet (without oil), 3% inclusion of canola oil in the diet and 6% inclusion of canola oil in the diet (dry matter basis). The inclusion of 6% canola oil in the diet of lactating cows linearly reduced the milk yield by 2.51 kg/d, short-chain fatty acids (FA) by 41.42%, medium chain FA by 27.32%, saturated FA by 20.24%, saturated/unsaturated FA ratio by 39.20%, omega-6/omega-3 ratio by 39.45%, and atherogenicity index by 48.36% compared with the control treatment. Moreover, with the 6% inclusion of canola oil in the diet of cows, there was an increase in the concentration of long chain FA by 45.91%, unsaturated FA by 34.08%, monounsaturated FA by 40.37%, polyunsaturated FA by 17.88%, milk concentration of omega-3 by 115%, rumenic acid (CLA) by 16.50%, oleic acid by 44.87% and h/H milk index by 94.44% compared with the control treatment. Thus, the inclusion of canola oil in the diet of lactating dairy cows makes the milk fatty acid profile nutritionally healthier for the human diet; however, the lactating performance of dairy cows is reduce. PMID:27015405

  19. Canola Oil in Lactating Dairy Cow Diets Reduces Milk Saturated Fatty Acids and Improves Its Omega-3 and Oleic Fatty Acid Content

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    To produce milk that is healthier for human consumption, the present study evaluated the effect of including canola oil in the diet of dairy cows on milk production and composition as well as the nutritional quality of this milk fat. Eighteen Holstein cows with an average daily milk yield of 22 (± 4) kg/d in the middle stage of lactation were used. The cows were distributed in 6 contemporary 3x3 Latin squares consisting of 3 periods and 3 treatments: control diet (without oil), 3% inclusion of canola oil in the diet and 6% inclusion of canola oil in the diet (dry matter basis). The inclusion of 6% canola oil in the diet of lactating cows linearly reduced the milk yield by 2.51 kg/d, short-chain fatty acids (FA) by 41.42%, medium chain FA by 27.32%, saturated FA by 20.24%, saturated/unsaturated FA ratio by 39.20%, omega-6/omega-3 ratio by 39.45%, and atherogenicity index by 48.36% compared with the control treatment. Moreover, with the 6% inclusion of canola oil in the diet of cows, there was an increase in the concentration of long chain FA by 45.91%, unsaturated FA by 34.08%, monounsaturated FA by 40.37%, polyunsaturated FA by 17.88%, milk concentration of omega-3 by 115%, rumenic acid (CLA) by 16.50%, oleic acid by 44.87% and h/H milk index by 94.44% compared with the control treatment. Thus, the inclusion of canola oil in the diet of lactating dairy cows makes the milk fatty acid profile nutritionally healthier for the human diet; however, the lactating performance of dairy cows is reduce. PMID:27015405

  20. Canola Oil in Lactating Dairy Cow Diets Reduces Milk Saturated Fatty Acids and Improves Its Omega-3 and Oleic Fatty Acid Content.

    PubMed

    Welter, Katiéli Caroline; Martins, Cristian Marlon de Magalhães Rodrigues; de Palma, André Soligo Vizeu; Martins, Mellory Martinson; Dos Reis, Bárbara Roqueto; Schmidt, Bárbara Laís Unglaube; Saran Netto, Arlindo

    2016-01-01

    To produce milk that is healthier for human consumption, the present study evaluated the effect of including canola oil in the diet of dairy cows on milk production and composition as well as the nutritional quality of this milk fat. Eighteen Holstein cows with an average daily milk yield of 22 (± 4) kg/d in the middle stage of lactation were used. The cows were distributed in 6 contemporary 3x3 Latin squares consisting of 3 periods and 3 treatments: control diet (without oil), 3% inclusion of canola oil in the diet and 6% inclusion of canola oil in the diet (dry matter basis). The inclusion of 6% canola oil in the diet of lactating cows linearly reduced the milk yield by 2.51 kg/d, short-chain fatty acids (FA) by 41.42%, medium chain FA by 27.32%, saturated FA by 20.24%, saturated/unsaturated FA ratio by 39.20%, omega-6/omega-3 ratio by 39.45%, and atherogenicity index by 48.36% compared with the control treatment. Moreover, with the 6% inclusion of canola oil in the diet of cows, there was an increase in the concentration of long chain FA by 45.91%, unsaturated FA by 34.08%, monounsaturated FA by 40.37%, polyunsaturated FA by 17.88%, milk concentration of omega-3 by 115%, rumenic acid (CLA) by 16.50%, oleic acid by 44.87% and h/H milk index by 94.44% compared with the control treatment. Thus, the inclusion of canola oil in the diet of lactating dairy cows makes the milk fatty acid profile nutritionally healthier for the human diet; however, the lactating performance of dairy cows is reduce.

  1. Determination of the median toxic dose of type C botulism in lactating dairy cows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moeller, R.B.; Puschner, B.; Walker, R.L.; Rocke, T.; Galey, F.D.; Cullor, J.S.; Ardans, A.A.

    2003-01-01

    Because of the difficulty in identifying botulinum toxin in cattle, it is hypothesized that cattle are sensitive to levels of toxin below the detection limits of current diagnostic techniques (the mouse protection bioassay and the immunostick enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA] for type C botulinum toxin). Using an up-down method for toxicologic testing, the median toxic dose (MTD50) for cattle was determined. Four lactating Holstein cows were dosed at 0.125 or 0.25 ng/kg with Clostridium botulinum type C toxin and failed to develop clinical signs of botulism during the 7-day observation period. Three cows given 0.50 ng/kg of toxin developed clinical signs of botulism. From these results, the MTD50 was calculated at 0.388 ng/kg (3.88 mouse lethal doses/kg) using the trim-logit method. These results suggest that cattle are 12.88 times more sensitive to type C botulinum toxin than a mouse on a per kilogram weight basis. The mouse protection bioassay and the immunostick ELISA for type C botulinum toxin failed to identify the presence of the toxin in the serum, blood, and milk samples taken from all 7 animals.

  2. Effects of forage family on apparent ruminal synthesis of B vitamins in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Castagnino, D S; Seck, M; Beaudet, V; Kammes, K L; Voelker Linton, J A; Allen, M S; Gervais, R; Chouinard, P Y; Girard, C L

    2016-03-01

    Effects of forage family (legume vs. grass) on apparent ruminal synthesis (ARS) and postruminal supply of B vitamins were evaluated in 2 experiments. Diets containing either alfalfa (AL) or orchardgrass (OG) silages as the sole forage were offered to ruminally and duodenally cannulated lactating Holstein cows in crossover design experiments. Experiment 1 compared diets containing AL and OG [~23% forage neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and ~27% total NDF] offered to 8 cows in two 15-d treatment periods. Experiment 2 compared diets containing AL and OG (~25% forage NDF and ~30% total NDF) offered to 13 cows in two 18-d treatment periods. Thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, folates, and vitamin B12 were analyzed in feeds and duodenal digesta. Apparent ruminal synthesis was calculated as the duodenal flow of each vitamin minus its intake. Forage family affected B vitamin intakes, duodenal flow, and ARS. In both experiments, AL diets increased vitamin B6 and decreased folate intakes. In experiment 1, riboflavin and niacin intakes were greater with the OG diet, whereas in experiment 2 thiamin intake was greater but riboflavin intake was smaller with the OG diet. In spite of the low contribution of either silage to the dietary folate content, folate intake was greater with OG diets than AL due to the difference in soybean meal contribution between diets. Niacin and folate ARS were not affected by the forage family. Duodenal microbial nitrogen flow was positively correlated with ARS of riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, folates, and vitamin B12, but tended to be negatively correlated with thiamin ARS. Apparent ruminal synthesis of folates and vitamin B12 appear to be related to microbial biomass activity. Changes in nutrient composition of the diets likely affected the microbial population in the rumen and their B vitamin metabolism. PMID:26774713

  3. Effects of forage family on apparent ruminal synthesis of B vitamins in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Castagnino, D S; Seck, M; Beaudet, V; Kammes, K L; Voelker Linton, J A; Allen, M S; Gervais, R; Chouinard, P Y; Girard, C L

    2016-03-01

    Effects of forage family (legume vs. grass) on apparent ruminal synthesis (ARS) and postruminal supply of B vitamins were evaluated in 2 experiments. Diets containing either alfalfa (AL) or orchardgrass (OG) silages as the sole forage were offered to ruminally and duodenally cannulated lactating Holstein cows in crossover design experiments. Experiment 1 compared diets containing AL and OG [~23% forage neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and ~27% total NDF] offered to 8 cows in two 15-d treatment periods. Experiment 2 compared diets containing AL and OG (~25% forage NDF and ~30% total NDF) offered to 13 cows in two 18-d treatment periods. Thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, folates, and vitamin B12 were analyzed in feeds and duodenal digesta. Apparent ruminal synthesis was calculated as the duodenal flow of each vitamin minus its intake. Forage family affected B vitamin intakes, duodenal flow, and ARS. In both experiments, AL diets increased vitamin B6 and decreased folate intakes. In experiment 1, riboflavin and niacin intakes were greater with the OG diet, whereas in experiment 2 thiamin intake was greater but riboflavin intake was smaller with the OG diet. In spite of the low contribution of either silage to the dietary folate content, folate intake was greater with OG diets than AL due to the difference in soybean meal contribution between diets. Niacin and folate ARS were not affected by the forage family. Duodenal microbial nitrogen flow was positively correlated with ARS of riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, folates, and vitamin B12, but tended to be negatively correlated with thiamin ARS. Apparent ruminal synthesis of folates and vitamin B12 appear to be related to microbial biomass activity. Changes in nutrient composition of the diets likely affected the microbial population in the rumen and their B vitamin metabolism.

  4. Intake, milk production, ruminal, and feed efficiency responses to dietary cation-anion difference by lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Iwaniuk, M E; Erdman, R A

    2015-12-01

    Previous meta-analyses of the effects of dietary cation anion difference (DCAD; mEq/kg; Na + K - Cl - S) in lactating dairy cow diets used studies conducted after the development of the DCAD concept. Dietary buffers, such as NaHCO3 and K2CO3, increase DCAD and have been used in lactating dairy cow diets for several decades. However, most published studies on buffer feeding were conducted before the development of the DCAD concept. Our objective was to determine the intake, milk production, ruminal, and feed efficiency responses to DCAD using previous studies with dietary buffer addition and more recent studies that focused on DCAD as dietary treatments. The database consisted of 43 articles that were published between 1965 and 2011. The studies included 196 dietary treatments and 89 treatment comparisons with a range in DCAD from -68 to 811mEq/kg of diet DM, with the vast majority between 0 and 500mEq/kg of diet DM. For studies that lacked analyses of one or more of the dietary strong ions (Na, K, Cl, or S), ion percentages were estimated from ingredient composition using the 2001 dairy National Research Council software. Two basic models were used to evaluate DCAD responses using the NLMIXED procedure in SAS 9.2 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC): (1) a simple linear model, Y=A + B × (DCAD), where A=intercept and B=the increment (slope) in performance per unit DCAD (mEq/kg of diet DM); and (2) a nonlinear model, Y=A + M[1 - e((K × DCAD))], where M=maximal increment in performance from DCAD and K=the rate constant. In both models, study was designated as the random effect. The DCAD effects best described by the linear model included milk fat percent, fat yield, ruminal pH, NDF digestibility, and feed efficiency [3.5% fat-corrected milk (FCM; kg)/dry matter intake (DMI; kg)] where a 100mEq/kg increase in DCAD resulted in respective increases of 0.10%, 36g/d, 0.032 pH units, 1.5% NDF digestibility, and 0.013 FCM/DMI units. The DMI, milk yield, and 3.5% FCM were best

  5. Short communication: plasma concentration of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide may regulate milk energy production in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Relling, A E; Crompton, L A; Loerch, S C; Reynolds, C K

    2014-01-01

    In dairy cows, an increase in plasma concentration of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) is associated with an increase in metabolizable energy intake, but the role of GIP in energy partitioning of dairy cattle is not certain. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between plasma GIP concentrations and energy partitioning toward milk production. Four mid-lactation, primiparous, rumen-fistulated Holstein-Friesian cows were fed a control diet of 55% forage and 45% concentrate [dry matter (DM) basis] in a 4×4 Latin square design with 4-wk periods. The 4 treatments were (1) control diet fed at 1000 and 1600h, and (2) once-daily (1000h) feeding, (3) twice-daily (1000 and 1600h) feeding, and (4) 4 times/d (1000, 1600, 2200 and 0400h) feeding of the control diet plus 1 dose (1.75kg on a DM basis at 0955h) into the rumen of supplemental vegetable proteins (Amino Green; SCA NuTec Ltd., Thirsk, UK). Measurements of respiratory exchange and energy balance were obtained over 4d during the last week of each period while cows were housed in open-circuit respiration chambers. Blood was collected from the jugular vein every 30min for 12h, using indwelling catheters, starting at 0800h on d 20 of each period. Plasma GIP concentration was measured in samples pooled over each 5 consecutive blood samplings. The relationships between plasma GIP, DM intake, heat production, respiratory quotient (RQ), milk yield, and milk energy output were analyzed using linear correlation procedures, with metabolizable intake as a partial variant. Plasma GIP concentration was not correlated with heat production, or milk yield, but was positively correlated with milk energy yield (correlation coefficient=0.67) and negatively correlated with RQ (correlation coefficient=-0.72). The correlations between GIP with RQ and milk energy output do not imply causality, but support a role for GIP in the regulation of energy metabolism in dairy cows.

  6. Effect of variable water intake as mediated by dietary potassium carbonate supplementation on rumen dynamics in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Fraley, S E; Hall, M B; Nennich, T D

    2015-05-01

    Water is a critical nutrient for dairy cows, with intake varying with environment, production, and diet. However, little work has evaluated the effects of water intake on rumen parameters. Using dietary potassium carbonate (K2CO3) as a K supplement to increase water intake, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of K2CO3 supplementation on water intake and on rumen parameters of lactating dairy cows. Nine ruminally cannulated, late-lactation Holstein cows (207±12d in milk) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments in a replicated 3×3 Latin square design with 18-d periods. Dietary treatments (on a dry matter basis) were no added K2CO3 (baseline dietary K levels of 1.67% dietary K), 0.75% added dietary K, and 1.5% added dietary K. Cows were offered treatment diets for a 14-d adaption period followed by a 4-d collection period. Ruminal total, liquid, and dry matter digesta weights were determined by total rumen evacuations conducted 2h after feeding on d 4 of the collection period. Rumen fluid samples were collected to determine pH, volatile fatty acids, and NH3 concentrations, and Co-EDTA was used to determine fractional liquid passage rate. Milk samples were collected twice daily during the collection period. Milk, milk fat, and protein yields showed quadratic responses with greatest yields for the 0.75% added dietary K treatment. Dry matter intake showed a quadratic response with 21.8kg/d for the 0.75% added dietary K treatment and 20.4 and 20.5kg/d for control and the 1.5% added dietary K treatment, respectively. Water intake increased linearly with increasing K2CO3 supplementation (102.4, 118.4, and 129.3L/d) as did ruminal fractional liquid passage rate in the earlier hours after feeding (0.118, 0.135, and 0.141 per hour). Total and wet weights of rumen contents declined linearly and dry weight tended to decline linearly as dietary K2CO3 increased, suggesting that the increasing water intake and fractional liquid passage rate with increasing

  7. Availability to lactating dairy cows of methionine added to soy lecithins and mixed with a mechanically extracted soybean meal.

    PubMed

    Brake, D W; Titgemeyer, E C; Brouk, M J; Macgregor, C A; Smith, J F; Bradford, B J

    2013-05-01

    We evaluated a product containing methionine mixed with soy lecithins and added to a mechanically extracted soybean meal (meSBM-Met). Lactational responses of cows, plasma methionine concentrations, and in vitro degradation of methionine were measured. Twenty-five Holstein cows were used in a replicated 5 × 5 Latin square design and fed a diet designed to be deficient in methionine or the same diet supplemented either with 4.2 or 8.3g/d of supplemental methionine from a ruminally protected source or with 2.7 or 5.3g/d of supplemental methionine from meSBM-Met. All diets were formulated to provide adequate amounts of metabolizable lysine. Concentration of milk true protein was greater when methionine was provided by the ruminally protected methionine than by meSBM-Met, but milk protein yield was not affected by treatment. Milk yields and concentrations and yields of fat, lactose, solids-not-fat, and milk urea nitrogen were not affected by supplemental methionine. Body condition scores increased linearly when methionine from meSBM-Met was supplemented, but responses were quadratic when methionine was provided from a ruminally protected source. Nitrogen retention was not affected by supplemental methionine. Plasma methionine increased linearly when methionine was supplemented from a ruminally protected source, but plasma methionine concentrations did not differ from the control when supplemental methionine from meSBM-Met was provided. In vitro degradation of supplemental methionine from meSBM-Met was complete within 3h. Data suggest that meSBM-Met provides negligible amounts of metabolizable methionine to dairy cows, and this is likely related to extensive ruminal destruction of methionine; however, cow body condition may be improved by ruminally available methionine provided by meSBM-Met.

  8. RNA-seq analysis of differential gene expression in liver from lactating dairy cows divergent in negative energy balance

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The liver is central to most economically important metabolic processes in cattle. However, the changes in expression of genes that drive these processes remain incompletely characterised. RNA-seq is the new gold standard for whole transcriptome analysis but so far there are no reports of its application to analysis of differential gene expression in cattle liver. We used RNA-seq to study differences in expression profiles of hepatic genes and their associated pathways in individual cattle in either mild negative energy balance (MNEB) or severe negative energy balance (SNEB). NEB is an imbalance between energy intake and energy requirements for lactation and body maintenance. This aberrant metabolic state affects high-yielding dairy cows after calving and is of considerable economic importance because of its negative impact on fertility and health in dairy herds. Analysis of changes in hepatic gene expression in SNEB animals will increase our understanding of NEB and contribute to the development of strategies to circumvent it. Results RNA-seq analysis was carried out on total RNA from liver from early post partum Holstein Friesian cows in MNEB (n = 5) and SNEB (n = 6). 12,833 genes were deemed to be expressed (>4 reads per gene per animal), 413 of which were shown to be statistically significantly differentially expressed (SDE) at a false discovery rate (FDR) of 0.1% and 200 of which were SDE (FDR of 0.1%) with a ≥2-fold change between MNEB and SNEB animals. GOseq/KEGG pathway analysis showed that SDE genes with ≥2- fold change were associated (P <0.05) with 9 KEGG pathways. Seven of these pathways were related to fatty acid metabolism and unexpectedly included ‘Steroid hormone biosynthesis’, a process which mainly occurs in the reproductive organs rather than the liver. Conclusions RNA-seq analysis showed that the major changes at the level of transcription in the liver of SNEB cows were related to fat metabolism. 'Steroid hormone

  9. Short communication: Feeding red clover cut in the afternoon or morning to late-lactation dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Antaya, N T; Berthiaume, R; Tremblay, G F; Brito, A F

    2015-10-01

    Forages cut in the afternoon (p.m.) generally yield a higher concentration of nonstructural carbohydrates (NSC) than those cut in the morning (a.m.). We aimed to compare the effects of p.m.-cut red clover baleage (p.m.-RC) versus a.m.-cut RC baleage (a.m.-RC) on milk yield, concentrations and yields of milk components, and apparent total-tract digestibility of nutrients in late-lactation Holstein cows. Twelve multiparous and 2 primiparous Holstein cows received a total mixed ration containing, on a dry matter (DM) basis, 65% p.m.-RC or a.m.-RC plus 35% concentrate in a crossover design with 14 d for diet adaptation and 7 d for data and sample collection. One RC field was split in 2 with the first half cut in the afternoon (1600 h) and the second half in the following morning (0600 h). The p.m.-RC and a.m.-RC contained (% of DM): 12.6 versus 9.43% NSC in samples collected before the beginning of the experiment and 7.49 versus 7.79% NSC in samples collected during the sampling periods (i.e., d 14 to 21). The total mixed rations averaged 18.2 and 17.5% NSC for the p.m.-RC and a.m.-RC, respectively. Feeding p.m.-RC or a.m.-RC did not improve feed intake or milk yield and composition in late-lactation dairy cows. However, milk urea N and plasma urea N were both lowest in cows offered p.m.-RC. With the exception of the apparent total-tract digestibility of DM, which was highest in cows fed p.m.-RC, no other changes in nutrient digestibility were observed. Similarly, no treatment effect was observed for the urinary excretion of N and purine derivatives. Further research is needed to better understand NSC losses during storage and the associated effects on baleage quality and animal performance.

  10. Effect of yeast culture on milk production and metabolic and reproductive performance of early lactation dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    Kalmus, Piret; Orro, Toomas; Waldmann, Andres; Lindjärv, Raivo; Kask, Kalle

    2009-01-01

    Background The main objective of this study was to estimate the effect of supplementation with Saccaromyces cerevisiae (SC) (Yea-Sacc® 1026) on milk production, metabolic parameters and the resumption of ovarian activity in early lactation dairy cows. Methods The experiment was conducted during 2005/2006 in a commercial tied-house farm with an average of 200 milking Estonian Holstein Friesian cows. The late pregnant multiparous cows (n = 46) were randomly divided into two groups; one group received 10 g yeast culture from two weeks before to 14 weeks after calving. The groups were fed a total mixed ration with silages and concentrates. Milk recording data and blood samples for plasma metabolites were taken. Resumption of luteal activity was determined using milk progesterone (P4) measurements. Uterine bacteriology and ovarian ultrasonography (US) were performed and body condition scores (BCS) and clinical disease occurrences were recorded. For analysis, the statistical software Stata 9.2 and R were used to compute Cox proportional hazard and linear mixed models. Results The average milk production per cow did not differ between the groups (32.7 ± 6.4 vs 30.7 ± 5.3 kg/day in the SC and control groups respectively), but the production of milk fat (P < 0.001) and milk protein (P < 0.001) were higher in the SC group. There was no effect of treatment on BCS. The analysis of energy-related metabolites in early lactation showed no significant differences between the groups. In both groups higher levels of β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) appeared from days 14 to 28 after parturition and the concentration of non-esterfied fatty acid (NEFA) was higher from days 1–7 post partum (PP). According to US and P4 results, all cows in both groups ovulated during the experimental period. The resumption of ovarian activity (first ovulations) and time required for elimination of bacteria from the uterus did not differ between the groups. Conclusion Supplementation with SC had an effect on

  11. A new perspective on management of reproduction in dairy cows: the need for detailed metabolic information, an improved selection index and extended lactation.

    PubMed

    Kadokawa, Hiroya; Martin, Graeme B

    2006-02-01

    For lactating dairy cows, we need management tools, that are "clean, green and ethical", cost-effective and easy to use. Specific tools are needed for artificial insemination (AI) after oestrus detection within a few months of calving, and for managing the complex nutritional requirements of cows between successive calvings. Assessment of energy deficit by measurement of body condition score (BCS) has been useful in the past but we now need more sophisticated ways to measure the relationship between adipose tissue and fertility. For this reason, we have focused our attention on the cells of the adipose tissue, the adipocytes, and the role of the hormone that they produce, leptin. This hormone affects pulsatile LH release and, in dairy cows, it seems to be linked to the first postpartum ovulation. Adipocytes are always sensing energy status and they control leptin secretion dynamically, so blood leptin concentrations can change acutely, even when there is no detectable change in BCS. Leptin secretion seems to be determined by the secretory activity of each adipocyte as well as the total mass of adipocytes in the body of the animal (as measured by BCS). The strong relationship between BCS, leptin concentration and reproductive function in dairy cows suggests that we should reconsider the interval of the recovery from prepartum and postpartum damages, the need for high milk yields at the last lactation causing the dry-off stress and the subsequent troubles. We should also re-assess the current drive to reduce calving interval because milk yields during the early stages of lactation are economically very important but high yields seem to cause several metabolic and reproductive disorders in modern dairy cows. In general, the thinking has been that calving interval must be short because short intervals are more profitable. However, if we remember that main product from dairy cows is milk and that a short calving interval is very difficult without reproductive problems

  12. Fecal and urinary lignans, intrafollicular estradiol, and endometrial receptors in lactating dairy cows fed diets supplemented with hydrogenated animal fat, flaxseed or sunflower seed.

    PubMed

    Thangavelu, Govindarajan; Colazo, Marcos Germán; Oba, Masahito; Dyck, Michael Kane; Okine, Erasmus Kojo; Ambrose, Divakar Justus

    2008-12-01

    We hypothesized that the inclusion of flaxseed in the diets of lactating dairy cows will increase urinary and fecal concentrations of the lignans, secoisolariciresinol diglycoside (SDG), enterolactone and enterodiol, reduce intrafollicular concentrations of IGF-I and estradiol, and subsequently reduce estradiol and oxytocin receptor expression in the endometrium. To test this hypothesis, 27 cycling, lactating Holstein cows were assigned to 1 of 3 diets supplemented with saturated fatty acids (SAT), flax (FLX), or sunflower (SUN) seed. Rations were formulated to provide 750 g supplemental fat/cow/d in all dietary groups. Ovulation (Day 0) was synchronized, and 5 d later, follicles>8 mm were ablated by an ultrasound-guided procedure in all cows. Samples of blood (Days 0 to 14), follicular fluid (Day 5 and 15), endometrium (Day 15), as well as urine and feces were collected in a subset of the animals. The fecal concentrations of SDG and enterodiol were higher (P<0.05) in cows fed FLX than in those fed SAT or SUN. Enterodiol increased (P<0.05) in urine samples of cows fed FLX, compared to those of cows fed SUN. However, follicular estradiol concentrations on Day 5 and 15 and endometrial concentrations of estradiol and oxytocin receptors on Day 15 did not differ among the dietary groups. Mean plasma progesterone concentrations were higher (P<0.05) in cows fed FLX and SUN than in those fed SAT. In summary, a diet supplemented with flaxseed increased the concentrations of SDG and enterodiol in feces, as hypothesized, but did not alter intrafollicular concentrations of IGF-I or estradiol, or endometrial populations of oxytocin or estrogen receptors in lactating dairy cows.

  13. Corn grain and liquid feed as nonfiber carbohydrate sources in diets for lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Eastridge, M L; Lefeld, A H; Eilenfeld, A M; Gott, P N; Bowen, W S; Firkins, J L

    2011-06-01

    Interactions of sources and processing methods for nonstructural carbohydrates may affect the efficiency of animal production. Five rumen-cannulated cows in late lactation were placed in a 5 × 5 Latin square design and fed experimental diets for 2 wk. In the production trial, 54 cows were fed the experimental diets for 12 wk beginning at d 60 in milk. Diets contained 24% corn silage and 22% hay, averaging 20% alfalfa and 2% grass but being adjusted as needed to maintain dietary concentrations of 36% neutral detergent fiber. The control diet contained steam-flaked corn (SFC) and the other diets contained either finely (FGC; 0.8 mm) or coarsely ground corn (CGC; 1.9 mm), factorialized with or without 3.5% liquid feed (LF). The LF diets provided 1.03% of dietary dry matter as supplemental sugar. The FGC decreased rumen pH and concentration of NH(3)N compared with CGC. The SFC and FGC tended to increase the molar percentage of ruminal propionate and decrease the acetate:propionate ratio. The LF increased molar percentage of ruminal butyrate with FGC but not CGC. The LF tended to decrease starch digestibility with the CGC but not with the FGC. As expected, the SFC and FGC increased total tract starch digestibility. The DMI and milk yield were similar among dietary treatments. Compared with ground corn diets, the SFC tended to decrease milk fat percentage; thus, 3.5% fat-corrected milk and feed efficiency were decreased with SFC. The LF decreased milk protein percentage but had no effect on milk protein yield. The SFC compared with dry ground corn decreased the concentration of milk urea nitrogen. Sugar supplementation using LF appeared to be more beneficial with FGC than CGC. Increasing the surface area by finely grinding corn is important for starch digestibility and optimal utilization of nutrients.

  14. Is there a relationship between genetic merit and enteric methane emission rate of lactating Holstein-Friesian dairy cows?

    PubMed

    Dong, L F; Yan, T; Ferris, C P; McDowell, D A; Gordon, A

    2015-11-01

    The present study was undertaken to examine the effect of cow genetic merit on enteric methane (CH4) emission rate. The study used a data set from 32 respiration calorimeter studies undertaken at this Institute between 1992 and 2010, with all studies involving lactating Holstein-Friesian dairy cows. Cow genetic merit was defined as either profit index (PIN) or profitable lifetime index (PLI), with these two United Kingdom genetic indexes expressing the expected improvement in profit associated with an individual cow, compared with the population average. While PIN is based solely on milk production, PLI includes milk production and a number of other functional traits including health, fertility and longevity. The data set had a large range in PIN (n=736 records, -£30 to +£63) and PLI (n=548 records, -£131 to +£184), days in milk (18 to 354), energy corrected milk yield (16.0 to 45.6 kg/day) and CH(4) emission (138 to 598 g/day). The effect of cow genetic merit (PIN or PLI) was evaluated using ANOVA and linear mixed modelling techniques after removing the effects of a number of animal and diet factors. The ANOVA was undertaken by dividing each data set of PIN and PLI into three sub-groups (PIN:£15, PLI:£67) with these being categorised as low, medium and high genetic merit. Within the PIN and PLI data sets there was no significant differences among the three sub-groups in terms of CH(4) emission per kg feed intake or per kg energy corrected milk yield, or CH(4) energy (CH(4)-E) output as a proportion of energy intake. Linear regression using the whole PIN and PLI data sets also demonstrated that there was no significant relationship between either PIN or PLI, and CH(4) emission per kg of feed intake or CH(4)-E output as a proportion of energy intake. These results indicate that cow genetic merit (PIN or PLI) has little effect on enteric CH(4) emissions as a proportion of feed intake. Instead enteric CH(4) production may mainly relate to total feed intake and

  15. Crushed sunflower, flax, or canola seeds in lactating dairy cow diets: effects on methane production, rumen fermentation, and milk production.

    PubMed

    Beauchemin, K A; McGinn, S M; Benchaar, C; Holtshausen, L

    2009-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of reducing enteric methane production from dairy cows by incorporating into the diet various sources of long-chain FA varying in their degree of saturation and ruminal availability. The experiment was conducted as a crossover design with 16 lactating dairy cows maintained in 2 groups and fed 4 dietary treatments in four 28-d periods. Eight ruminally cannulated primiparous cows (96 +/- 18 d in milk) were assigned to group 1 and 8 multiparous cows (130 +/- 31 d in milk) were assigned to group 2. The dietary treatments were: 1) a commercial source of calcium salts of long-chain fatty acids (CTL), 2) crushed sunflower seeds (SS), 3) crushed flaxseed (FS), and 4) crushed canola seed (CS). The oilseeds added 3.1 to 4.2% fat to the diet (DM basis). All 3 oilseed treatments decreased methane production (g/d) by an average of 13%. When corrected for differences in dry matter intake (DMI), compared with CTL, methane production (g/kg of DM intake) was decreased by feeding FS (-18%) or CS (-16%) and was only numerically decreased (-10%) by feeding SS. However, compared with the CTL, feeding SS or FS lowered digestible DMI by 16 and 9%, respectively, because of lowered digestibility. Thus, only CS lowered methane per unit of digestible DM intake. Feeding SS and CS decreased rumen protozoal counts, but there were no treatment effects on mean ruminal pH or total volatile fatty acid concentration. Milk efficiency (3.5% fat corrected milk/DMI), milk yield, and component yield and concentrations were not affected by oilseed treatments. The study shows that adding sources of long-chain fatty acids to the diet in the form of processed oilseeds can be an effective means of reducing methane emissions. However, for some oilseeds such as SS or FS, the reduction in methane can be at the expense of diet digestibility. The use of crushed CS offers a means of mitigating methane without negatively affecting diet digestibility, and

  16. Herbage intake and milk production of late-lactation dairy cows offered a second-year chicory crop during summer.

    PubMed

    Muir, S K; Ward, G N; Jacobs, J L

    2015-12-01

    Chicory (Cichorum intybus L.) is a summer-active forage herb which has been proposed as an option to increase summer feed supply, increase dry matter intake, nutrient intake, and milk yield from nonirrigated dairy production systems in southern Australia. Dry matter intake, nutrient intake, milk yield, and yield of milk fat and protein of predominantly Holstein-Friesian dairy cows in late lactation consuming 3 herbage-based diets (4 replicates per treatment) were measured. The 3 grazed herbages were second-year chicory (CHIC) and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.; PRG) monocultures and a mixed sward (~50:50) of chicory and perennial ryegrass (MIX). All diets (CHIC, PRG, and MIX) were supplemented with alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) hay (5.5kg of DM/cow per day) and an energy-based concentrate pellet (4.0kg of DM/cow per day). There were no significant differences in milk yield (12.0 to 12.6kg/d across the treatments) or the yield of milk fat (539 to 585g/d) and milk protein (433 to 447g/d) between the 3 herbage-based diets. No differences in DMI (17.9 to 19.2kg/d) or estimated metabolizable energy intake (173 to 185MJ/d) were noted between treatments. Estimated metabolizable energy concentrations in the forages on offer were lower in CHIC than PRG (7.6 vs. 8.2MJ/kg of dry matter), but the concentration in consumed herbage was not different (9.1 vs. 9.2MJ/kg of dry matter); as such, potential for increased milk yield in cows offered CHIC was limited. Increased concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids was observed in chicory herbage compared with perennial ryegrass. This was associated with increased milk conjugated linoleic acid and milk polyunsaturated fatty acids when chicory formed part of the diet (CHIC compared to PRG and MIX). Chicory could be used as an alternative to perennial ryegrass in summer; however, the developmental stage of chicory will influence concentrations of metabolizable energy and neutral detergent fiber and, therefore, intake and milk

  17. Herbage intake and milk production of late-lactation dairy cows offered a second-year chicory crop during summer.

    PubMed

    Muir, S K; Ward, G N; Jacobs, J L

    2015-12-01

    Chicory (Cichorum intybus L.) is a summer-active forage herb which has been proposed as an option to increase summer feed supply, increase dry matter intake, nutrient intake, and milk yield from nonirrigated dairy production systems in southern Australia. Dry matter intake, nutrient intake, milk yield, and yield of milk fat and protein of predominantly Holstein-Friesian dairy cows in late lactation consuming 3 herbage-based diets (4 replicates per treatment) were measured. The 3 grazed herbages were second-year chicory (CHIC) and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.; PRG) monocultures and a mixed sward (~50:50) of chicory and perennial ryegrass (MIX). All diets (CHIC, PRG, and MIX) were supplemented with alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) hay (5.5kg of DM/cow per day) and an energy-based concentrate pellet (4.0kg of DM/cow per day). There were no significant differences in milk yield (12.0 to 12.6kg/d across the treatments) or the yield of milk fat (539 to 585g/d) and milk protein (433 to 447g/d) between the 3 herbage-based diets. No differences in DMI (17.9 to 19.2kg/d) or estimated metabolizable energy intake (173 to 185MJ/d) were noted between treatments. Estimated metabolizable energy concentrations in the forages on offer were lower in CHIC than PRG (7.6 vs. 8.2MJ/kg of dry matter), but the concentration in consumed herbage was not different (9.1 vs. 9.2MJ/kg of dry matter); as such, potential for increased milk yield in cows offered CHIC was limited. Increased concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids was observed in chicory herbage compared with perennial ryegrass. This was associated with increased milk conjugated linoleic acid and milk polyunsaturated fatty acids when chicory formed part of the diet (CHIC compared to PRG and MIX). Chicory could be used as an alternative to perennial ryegrass in summer; however, the developmental stage of chicory will influence concentrations of metabolizable energy and neutral detergent fiber and, therefore, intake and milk

  18. Crushed sunflower, flax, or canola seeds in lactating dairy cow diets: effects on methane production, rumen fermentation, and milk production.

    PubMed

    Beauchemin, K A; McGinn, S M; Benchaar, C; Holtshausen, L

    2009-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of reducing enteric methane production from dairy cows by incorporating into the diet various sources of long-chain FA varying in their degree of saturation and ruminal availability. The experiment was conducted as a crossover design with 16 lactating dairy cows maintained in 2 groups and fed 4 dietary treatments in four 28-d periods. Eight ruminally cannulated primiparous cows (96 +/- 18 d in milk) were assigned to group 1 and 8 multiparous cows (130 +/- 31 d in milk) were assigned to group 2. The dietary treatments were: 1) a commercial source of calcium salts of long-chain fatty acids (CTL), 2) crushed sunflower seeds (SS), 3) crushed flaxseed (FS), and 4) crushed canola seed (CS). The oilseeds added 3.1 to 4.2% fat to the diet (DM basis). All 3 oilseed treatments decreased methane production (g/d) by an average of 13%. When corrected for differences in dry matter intake (DMI), compared with CTL, methane production (g/kg of DM intake) was decreased by feeding FS (-18%) or CS (-16%) and was only numerically decreased (-10%) by feeding SS. However, compared with the CTL, feeding SS or FS lowered digestible DMI by 16 and 9%, respectively, because of lowered digestibility. Thus, only CS lowered methane per unit of digestible DM intake. Feeding SS and CS decreased rumen protozoal counts, but there were no treatment effects on mean ruminal pH or total volatile fatty acid concentration. Milk efficiency (3.5% fat corrected milk/DMI), milk yield, and component yield and concentrations were not affected by oilseed treatments. The study shows that adding sources of long-chain fatty acids to the diet in the form of processed oilseeds can be an effective means of reducing methane emissions. However, for some oilseeds such as SS or FS, the reduction in methane can be at the expense of diet digestibility. The use of crushed CS offers a means of mitigating methane without negatively affecting diet digestibility, and

  19. Effects of whole-plant corn silage hybrid type on intake, digestion, ruminal fermentation, and lactation performance by dairy cows through a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Ferraretto, L F; Shaver, R D

    2015-04-01

    Understanding the effect of whole-plant corn silage (WPCS) hybrids in dairy cattle diets may allow for better decisions on hybrid selection by dairy producers, as well as indicate potential strategies for the seed corn industry with regard to WPCS hybrids. Therefore, the objective of this study was to perform a meta-analysis using literature data on the effects of WPCS hybrid type on intake, digestibility, rumen fermentation, and lactation performance by dairy cows. The meta-analysis was performed using a data set of 162 treatment means from 48 peer-reviewed articles published between 1995 and 2014. Hybrids were divided into 3 categories before analysis. Comparative analysis of WPCS hybrid types differing in stalk characteristics were in 4 categories: conventional, dual-purpose, isogenic, or low-normal fiber digestibility (CONS), brown midrib (BMR), hybrids with greater NDF but lower lignin (%NDF) contents or high in vitro NDF digestibility (HFD), and leafy (LFY). Hybrid types differing in kernel characteristics were in 4 categories: conventional or yellow dent (CONG), NutriDense (ND), high oil (HO), and waxy. Genetically modified (GM) hybrids were compared with their genetically similar non-biotech counterpart (ISO). Except for lower lignin content for BMR and lower starch content for HFD than CONS and LFY, silage nutrient composition was similar among hybrids of different stalk types. A 1.1 kg/d greater intake of DM and 1.5 and 0.05 kg/d greater milk and protein yields, respectively, were observed for BMR compared with CONS and LFY. Likewise, DMI and milk yield were greater for HFD than CONS, but the magnitude of the difference was smaller. Total-tract NDF digestibility was greater, but starch digestibility was reduced, for BMR and HFD compared with CONS or LFY. Silage nutrient composition was similar for hybrids of varied kernel characteristics, except for lower CP and EE content for CONG than ND and HO. Feeding HO WPCS to dairy cows decreased milk fat content

  20. Effect of feeding macerated alfalfa silage on nutrient digestibility and milk yield in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Broderick, G A; Koegel, R G; Mauries, M J; Schneeberger, E; Kraus, T J

    1999-11-01

    Five feeding studies were conducted with 141 lactating Holstein cows comparing macerated and control alfalfa silage harvested at two cuttings in each of 2 yr. Overall, silage made from macerated alfalfa contained more ash (suggesting improved soil contamination); greater fiber and lower nonprotein nitrogen (NPN) content suggested greater fermentation in the silo. In a digestion study, two diets were fed containing [dry matter (DM) basis] 72% of either control or macerated second-cutting alfalfa. Apparent digestibility of neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber (ADF) was increased by maceration, and similar changes in digestibility were observed with Yb or indigestible ADF as marker; indigestible ADF was used as a marker in later studies. Lactation trials were conducted with first- and second-cutting alfalfa from each year. In each study, diets were formulated from alfalfa silage plus concentrate based on processed high moisture ear corn; mean compositions were (DM basis): negative control (61% control alfalfa silage), macerated (61% macerated alfalfa silage), and positive control (50% control alfalfa silage). All diets contained 2% crude protein from either roasted soybeans or low-solubles fish meal; soybean meal was added to make the positive control isonitrogenous (but not equal in ruminal undergraded protein). Milk yield was greater on macerated than negative control in two of four trials but not different in the other two trials. Yields of milk and milk components were not different between macerated and positive control in one of four trials. Versus the negative control, milk fat synthesis was depressed on macerated alfalfa in one trial. Overall performance on macerated versus negative control indicated greater apparent digestibility of organic matter (OM), greater yield of milk, protein, and solids not fat, but lower milk fat content. Yields of milk and milk components were greater overall on positive control versus macerated. Estimation of net

  1. Absorption and elimination of a prostaglandin F analog, fenprostalene, in lactating dairy cows

    SciTech Connect

    Tomlinson, R.V.; Spires, H.R.; Bowen, J.L.

    1985-08-01

    Pharmacokinetic characteristics of the prostaglandin F2 alpha analog, fenprostalene, were studied in five lactating Holstein cows. Blood samples, milk, urine, and feces were collected for up to 7 d following a single subcutaneous injection of 1 mg of 13,14-hydrogen-3-fenprostalene in polyethylene glycol-400. The maximum concentration of tritium in plasma was observed 4 h after injection and declined by 48 h. Likewise, milk contained .53 ngeq/ml fenprostalene at 4 h and the concentration declined with a fractional disappearance rate of .069 X h to less than .03 ngeq/ml by 48 h. Milk was a very minor route of elimination of fenprostalene. Recovery of tritium in urine accounted for 55% of the total dose and recovery in feces accounted for an additional 43%. Residues from fenprostalene at 7 d after injection were less than .1 ppb in all edible tissues. Differences in the molecular structure, formulation, and route of injection of fenprostalene resulted in a slower rate of absorption and elimination of this analog than previously reported for other prostaglandin products. Nonetheless, the percentage of the injected dose of fenprostalene secreted in milk was not increased appreciably, and no persistent tissue residues of fenprostalene were observed.

  2. Effects of lauric acid on ruminal protozoal numbers and fermentation pattern and milk production in lactating dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate lauric acid (LA) as a practical agent to suppress ruminal protozoa (RP), and to assess the effects of RP suppression on fermentation patterns and milk production in dairy cows. In experiment 1, six Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulae were used in ...

  3. Once-daily milking during late lactation in pasture-fed dairy cows has minor effects on feed intake, body condition score gain, and hepatic gene expression.

    PubMed

    Grala, T M; Handley, R R; Roche, J R; Walker, C G; Phyn, C V C; Kay, J K

    2016-04-01

    Milking cows once daily (1×) is a management practice occasionally used during mid/late lactation in pasture-based systems. It has been postulated that 1× milking will reduce dry matter intake (DMI) and increase body condition score (BCS) gain; however, this has not been quantified. Lactating, pregnant Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (n=52) were allocated to either 1× or twice-daily (2×) milking in mid-January (summer, 175d in milk). To obtain accurate DMI measurements, cows underwent 4 periods in a Calan gate indoor feeding facility, interspersed with grazing outdoors. Milk production, body weight (BW), and BCS were recorded 2 wk before treatment start (-2 wk) and weekly thereafter. Blood variables were recorded at -2 wk and weekly when indoors. Liver was biopsied at -2, 2, and 10 wk, and hepatic gene expression measured using quantitative PCR. Milking cows 1× tended to lower DMI (17.8 vs. 18.2 kg of dry matter), but increased BCS gain (0.36 vs. 0.13 BCS units) and BW (546 vs. 533 kg) at wk 12 relative to 2×. The greater BCS and BW of cows milked 1× compared with 2× were reflected in lower plasma concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids and lower transcription of genes involved in the oxidation of fatty acids, indicating reduced release and processing of fatty acids. Cows milked 1× produced 20% less milk, and although milk fat and protein concentrations were increased relative to cows milked 2×, yields of fat and protein were 14 and 17% less, respectively. The reduction in milk production with 1× milking (14.1 vs. 16.8 kg/cow per d energy-corrected milk) was accompanied by increases in blood concentrations of glucose and insulin, with a concurrent decrease in the transcription of the insulin receptor and gluconeogenic genes. These results indicate a coordinated response to reduce glucose production due to decreased mammary demand. Expression of 2 genes linked to inflammation and adipokine signaling was reduced in cows milked 1× and may indicate a lower

  4. Once-daily milking during late lactation in pasture-fed dairy cows has minor effects on feed intake, body condition score gain, and hepatic gene expression.

    PubMed

    Grala, T M; Handley, R R; Roche, J R; Walker, C G; Phyn, C V C; Kay, J K

    2016-04-01

    Milking cows once daily (1×) is a management practice occasionally used during mid/late lactation in pasture-based systems. It has been postulated that 1× milking will reduce dry matter intake (DMI) and increase body condition score (BCS) gain; however, this has not been quantified. Lactating, pregnant Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (n=52) were allocated to either 1× or twice-daily (2×) milking in mid-January (summer, 175d in milk). To obtain accurate DMI measurements, cows underwent 4 periods in a Calan gate indoor feeding facility, interspersed with grazing outdoors. Milk production, body weight (BW), and BCS were recorded 2 wk before treatment start (-2 wk) and weekly thereafter. Blood variables were recorded at -2 wk and weekly when indoors. Liver was biopsied at -2, 2, and 10 wk, and hepatic gene expression measured using quantitative PCR. Milking cows 1× tended to lower DMI (17.8 vs. 18.2 kg of dry matter), but increased BCS gain (0.36 vs. 0.13 BCS units) and BW (546 vs. 533 kg) at wk 12 relative to 2×. The greater BCS and BW of cows milked 1× compared with 2× were reflected in lower plasma concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids and lower transcription of genes involved in the oxidation of fatty acids, indicating reduced release and processing of fatty acids. Cows milked 1× produced 20% less milk, and although milk fat and protein concentrations were increased relative to cows milked 2×, yields of fat and protein were 14 and 17% less, respectively. The reduction in milk production with 1× milking (14.1 vs. 16.8 kg/cow per d energy-corrected milk) was accompanied by increases in blood concentrations of glucose and insulin, with a concurrent decrease in the transcription of the insulin receptor and gluconeogenic genes. These results indicate a coordinated response to reduce glucose production due to decreased mammary demand. Expression of 2 genes linked to inflammation and adipokine signaling was reduced in cows milked 1× and may indicate a lower

  5. Low degradable protein supply to increase nitrogen efficiency in lactating dairy cows and reduce environmental impacts at barn level.

    PubMed

    Edouard, N; Hassouna, M; Robin, P; Faverdin, P

    2016-02-01

    Generally, <30% of dairy cattle's nitrogen intake is retained in milk. Large amounts of nitrogen are excreted in manure, especially in urine, with damaging impacts on the environment. This study explores the effect of lowering dietary degradable nitrogen supplies--while maintaining metabolisable protein--on dairy cows' performance, nitrogen use efficiency and gas emissions (NH3, N2O, CH4) at barn level with tied animals. Two dietary N concentrations (CP: 12% DM for LowN; 18% DM for HighN) were offered to two groups of three lactating dairy cows in a split-plot design over four periods of 2 weeks. Diets were formulated to provide similar metabolisable protein supply, with degradable N either in deficit or in excess (PDIN of 84 and 114 g/kg DM for LowN and HighN, respectively). Cows ingested 0.8 kg DM/day less on the LowN diet, which was also 2.5% less digestible. Milk yield and composition were not significantly affected. N exported in milk was 5% lower (LowN: 129 g N/day; HighN: 136 g N/day; P<0.001) but milk protein yield was not significantly affected (LowN: 801 g/day; HighN: 823 g/day; P=0.10). Cows logically ingested less nitrogen on the LowN diet (LowN: 415 g N/day; HighN: 626 g N/day; P<0.001) resulting in a higher N use efficiency (N milk/N intake; LowN: 0.31; HighN: 0.22; P<0.001). N excreted in urine was almost four times lower on the LowN diet (LowN: 65 g N/day; HighN: 243 g N/day; P<0.001) while urinary urea N concentration was eightfold lower (LowN: 4.6 g/l; HighN: 22.9 g/l; P<0.001). Ammonia emission (expressed in g/h in order to remove periods of the day with potential interferences with volatile molecules from feed) was also lower on the LowN diet (LowN: 1.03 g/h per cow; HighN: 1.25 g/h per cow; P<0.05). Greenhouse gas emissions (N2O and CH4) at barn level were not significantly affected by the amount of dietary N. Offering low amounts of degradable protein with suitable metabolisable protein amounts to cattle improved nitrogen use efficiency and

  6. Low degradable protein supply to increase nitrogen efficiency in lactating dairy cows and reduce environmental impacts at barn level.

    PubMed

    Edouard, N; Hassouna, M; Robin, P; Faverdin, P

    2016-02-01

    Generally, <30% of dairy cattle's nitrogen intake is retained in milk. Large amounts of nitrogen are excreted in manure, especially in urine, with damaging impacts on the environment. This study explores the effect of lowering dietary degradable nitrogen supplies--while maintaining metabolisable protein--on dairy cows' performance, nitrogen use efficiency and gas emissions (NH3, N2O, CH4) at barn level with tied animals. Two dietary N concentrations (CP: 12% DM for LowN; 18% DM for HighN) were offered to two groups of three lactating dairy cows in a split-plot design over four periods of 2 weeks. Diets were formulated to provide similar metabolisable protein supply, with degradable N either in deficit or in excess (PDIN of 84 and 114 g/kg DM for LowN and HighN, respectively). Cows ingested 0.8 kg DM/day less on the LowN diet, which was also 2.5% less digestible. Milk yield and composition were not significantly affected. N exported in milk was 5% lower (LowN: 129 g N/day; HighN: 136 g N/day; P<0.001) but milk protein yield was not significantly affected (LowN: 801 g/day; HighN: 823 g/day; P=0.10). Cows logically ingested less nitrogen on the LowN diet (LowN: 415 g N/day; HighN: 626 g N/day; P<0.001) resulting in a higher N use efficiency (N milk/N intake; LowN: 0.31; HighN: 0.22; P<0.001). N excreted in urine was almost four times lower on the LowN diet (LowN: 65 g N/day; HighN: 243 g N/day; P<0.001) while urinary urea N concentration was eightfold lower (LowN: 4.6 g/l; HighN: 22.9 g/l; P<0.001). Ammonia emission (expressed in g/h in order to remove periods of the day with potential interferences with volatile molecules from feed) was also lower on the LowN diet (LowN: 1.03 g/h per cow; HighN: 1.25 g/h per cow; P<0.05). Greenhouse gas emissions (N2O and CH4) at barn level were not significantly affected by the amount of dietary N. Offering low amounts of degradable protein with suitable metabolisable protein amounts to cattle improved nitrogen use efficiency and

  7. Feeding glycerol-enriched yeast culture improves lactation performance, energy status, and hepatic gluconeogenic enzyme expression of dairy cows during the transition period.

    PubMed

    Ye, G; Liu, J; Liu, Y; Chen, X; Liao, S F; Huang, D; Huang, K

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of feeding glycerol-enriched yeast culture (GY) on feed intake, lactation performance, blood metabolites, and expression of some key hepatic gluconeogenic enzymes in dairy cows during the transition period. Forty-four multiparous transition Holstein cows were blocked by parity, previous 305-d mature equivalent milk yield, and expected calving date and randomly allocated to 4 dietary treatments: Control (no additive), 2 L/d of GY (75.8 g/L glycerol and 15.3 g/L yeast), 150 g/d of glycerol (G; 0.998 g/g glycerol), and 1 L/d of yeast culture (Y; 31.1 g/L yeast). All additives were top-dressed and hand mixed into the upper one-third of the total mixed ration in the morning from -14 to +28 d relative to calving. Results indicated that the DMI, NE intake, change of BCS, and milk yields were not affected by the treatments ( > 0.05). Supplementation of GY or Y increased milk fat percentages, milk protein percentages, and milk protein yields relative to the Control or G group ( < 0.05). Cows fed GY or G had higher glucose levels and lower β-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA) and NEFA levels in plasma than cows fed the Control ( < 0.05) and had lower NEFA levels than cows fed Y ( < 0.05). On 14 d postpartum, cows fed GY or G had higher enzyme activities, mRNA, and protein expression of cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK-C; < 0.05); higher enzyme activities ( < 0.05) and a tendency toward higher mRNA expression ( < 0.10) of glycerol kinase (GK); and a tendency toward higher enzyme activities of pyruvate carboxylase (PC) in the liver ( < 0.10) when compared with cows fed Control or Y. The enzyme activities, mRNA, and protein expression of PEPCK-C, PC, and GK did not differ between cows fed GY and G ( > 0.10). In conclusion, dietary GY or Y supplementation increased the milk fat and protein content of the cows in early lactation and GY or G supplementation improved the energy status as indicated by greater plasma glucose and

  8. Effect of corn silage hybrids differing in starch and neutral detergent fiber digestibility on lactation performance and total-tract nutrient digestibility by dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Ferraretto, L F; Fonseca, A C; Sniffen, C J; Formigoni, A; Shaver, R D

    2015-01-01

    Selection for hybrids with greater starch and NDF digestibility may be beneficial for dairy producers. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of feeding a TMR containing a floury-leafy corn silage hybrid (LFY) compared with a brown midrib corn silage hybrid (BMR) for intake, lactation performance, and total-tract nutrient digestibility in dairy cows. Ninety-six multiparous Holstein cows, 105±31d in milk at trial initiation, were stratified by DIM and randomly assigned to 12 pens of 8 cows each. Pens were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments, BMR or LFY, in a completely randomized design; a 2-wk covariate period with cows fed a common diet followed by a 14-wk treatment period with cows fed their assigned treatment diet. Starch digestibilities, in situ, in vitro, and in vivo, were greater for LFY compared with BMR; the opposite was observed for NDF digestibility. Cows fed BMR consumed 1.7kg/d more dry matter than LFY. Although, actual-, energy-, and solids-corrected milk yields were greater for BMR than LFY, feed conversions (kg of milk or component-corrected milk per kg of DMI) did not differ. Fat-corrected milk and milk fat yield were similar, as milk fat content was greater for cows fed LFY (4.05%) than BMR (3.83%). Cows fed BMR had lower milk urea nitrogen concentration, but greater milk protein and lactose yields compared with LFY. Body weight change and condition score were unaffected by treatment. Total-tract starch digestibility was greater for cows fed the LFY corn silage; however, dry matter intake and milk and protein yields were greater for cows fed the BMR corn silage. Although total-tract starch digestibility was greater for cows fed the LFY corn silage, feed efficiency was not affected by hybrid type due to greater dry matter intake and milk and protein yields by cows fed the BMR corn silage.

  9. Capturing urine while maintaining pasture intake, milk production, and animal welfare of dairy cows in early and late lactation.

    PubMed

    Clark, C E F; McLeod, K L M; Glassey, C B; Gregorini, P; Costall, D A; Betteridge, K; Jago, J G

    2010-05-01

    Capturing urine and spreading it evenly across a paddock reduces the risk of nitrogen loss to the environment. This study investigated the effect of 16h/d removal from pasture on the capture of urination events, milk production, pasture intake, and animal welfare from cows grazing fresh pasture in early and late lactation. Forty-eight Holstein-Friesian cows in early [470+/-47kg of body weight (BW); 35+/-9 days in milk] and late (498+/-43kg of BW; 225+/-23 days in milk) lactation were allocated to 3 treatment groups. Cows had access to pasture for either 4h after each milking (2 x 4), for 8h between morning and afternoon milkings (1 x 8), or for 24h, excluding milking times (control). When not grazing, the 2 x 4 and 1 x 8 groups were confined to a plastic-lined loafing area with a woodchip surface. In early lactation, the proportion of urinations on pasture and laneways was reduced from 89% (control) to 51% (1 x 8) and 54% (2 x 4) of total urinations. The 1 x 8 cows ate less pasture [10.9kg of dry matter (DM)/cow per day] than the control (13.6kg of DM/cow per day) and 2 x 4 (13.0kg of DM/cow per day) cows, which did not differ from each other. The 1 x 8 and 2 x 4 cows produced less milk (21 and 22kg of milk/cow per day, respectively) compared with control cows (24kg of milk/cow per day). There were no differences in BW or body condition score (BCS) change across treatment groups, with all groups gaining BW and BCS during the experimental period. In late lactation, there was no difference in pasture intake (mean=8.8kg of DM/cow per day), milk production (mean=10kg of milk/cow per day), and BW or BCS change (mean=3.7kg and -0.2U/cow per week, respectively) between treatment groups. As in early lactation, urinations on pasture and laneways were reduced from 85% (control) to 56% (1 x 8) and 50% (2 x 4) of total urinations. These findings highlight an opportunity to maintain performance and welfare of grazing cows in early and late lactation while capturing additional

  10. Performance and nitrogen use efficiency in mid-lactation dairy cows fed timothy cut in the afternoon or morning.

    PubMed

    Brito, A F; Tremblay, G F; Bertrand, A; Castonguay, Y; Bélanger, G; Michaud, R; Lafrenière, C; Martineau, R; Berthiaume, R

    2016-07-01

    concentrations of AA were mostly unaffected by treatments. However, ruminal valerate (1.01 versus 1.17 mol/100 mol) and plasma Gly (172 versus 188 µM) were lowest with feeding p.m.-cut TIM. Overall, feeding mid-lactation dairy cows a total mixed ration that consisted of p.m.-cut timothy baleage and silage significantly increased dry matter intake and yields of milk, milk fat, and milk protein.

  11. Performance and nitrogen use efficiency in mid-lactation dairy cows fed timothy cut in the afternoon or morning.

    PubMed

    Brito, A F; Tremblay, G F; Bertrand, A; Castonguay, Y; Bélanger, G; Michaud, R; Lafrenière, C; Martineau, R; Berthiaume, R

    2016-07-01

    concentrations of AA were mostly unaffected by treatments. However, ruminal valerate (1.01 versus 1.17 mol/100 mol) and plasma Gly (172 versus 188 µM) were lowest with feeding p.m.-cut TIM. Overall, feeding mid-lactation dairy cows a total mixed ration that consisted of p.m.-cut timothy baleage and silage significantly increased dry matter intake and yields of milk, milk fat, and milk protein. PMID:27085409

  12. Comparative evaluation of alternative forages to grass silage in the diet of early lactation dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Burke, F; Murphy, J J; O'Donovan, M A; O'Mara, F P; Kavanagh, S; Mulligan, F J

    2007-02-01

    Fifty-six autumn-calving Holstein-Friesian cows, blocked on the basis of days in milk (27.6 +/- 10.65 d), lactation number (3.1 +/- 2.21), and preexperimental milk yield (28.4 +/- 6.69 kg) were used to examine the effects of replacing 330 g/kg of dry matter (DM) of first-cut perennial ryegrass silage with either fermented whole-crop wheat (WCW), urea-treated processed WCW, or corn silage on subsequent feed intake, milk production, and efficiency of nitrogen utilization. The DM (g/kg), crude protein (CP, g/kg of DM) and in vitro DM digestibility (g/kg) of the forages were 204, 179, and 762 for grass silage; 389, 90, and 711 for fermented WCW; 795, 141, and 768 for urea-treated processed WCW; and 346, 93, and 783 for corn silage, respectively. Four forage treatments were evaluated as follows: 1) grass silage as the sole forage (GS); 2) a mixture of grass silage and fermented WCW silage, (F-WCW); 3) a mixture of grass silage and urea-treated processed WCW, (UP-WCW); and 4) a mixture of grass silage and corn silage (CS). In all cases, the alternative forages comprised 67% of the forage mix on a DM basis. Isonitrogenous diets were formulated by offering all cows 8 kg of concentrate as fed, formulated to different CP concentrations. Cows were offered these diets from 28 to 104 d in milk. Total DM intake and milk yield were greater on UP-WCW (20.0 and 30.2 kg/d) and CS (18.3 and 33.2 kg/d) than on GS (13.5 and 26.5 kg/d). Although DM intake was greater on F-WCW (17.1 kg/d) than on GS, milk yield was not significantly greater (+2.7 kg/d). Milk protein concentration was greater on F-WCW (30.5 g/kg), UP-WCW (31.3 g/kg), and CS (30.7 g/kg) than on GS (28.5 g/kg). However, there was no difference between treatments in milk fat or lactose concentrations. Body weight change was greater for cows offered GS (-0.27 kg/d) than for those offered UP-WCW (-0.01 kg/d) and CS (+0.05 kg/d) but not compared with those offered F-WCW (-0.06 kg/d). There was no effect of treatment on plasma

  13. Effects of dry period length and dietary energy source on metabolic status and hepatic gene expression of dairy cows in early lactation.

    PubMed

    Chen, J; Gross, J J; van Dorland, H A; Remmelink, G J; Bruckmaier, R M; Kemp, B; van Knegsel, A T M

    2015-02-01

    In a prior study, we observed that cows with a 0-d dry period had greater energy balance and lower milk production compared with cows with a 30- or 60-d dry period in early lactation. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the influence of dry period length on metabolic status and hepatic gene expression in cows fed a lipogenic or glucogenic diet in early lactation. Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (n=167) were assigned randomly to 3×2 factorial design with 3 dry period lengths (n=56, 55, and 56 for 0-, 30-, and 60-d dry, respectively) and 2 early lactation diets (n=84 and 83 for glucogenic and lipogenic diet, respectively). Cows were fed a glucogenic or lipogenic diet from 10d before the expected calving date and onward. The main ingredient for a glucogenic concentrate was corn, and the main ingredients for a lipogenic concentrate were sugar beet pulp, palm kernel, and rumen-protected palm oil. Blood was sampled weekly from 95 cows from wk 3 precalving to wk 8 postcalving. Liver samples were collected from 76 cows in wk -2, 2, and 4 relative to calving. Liver samples were analyzed for triacylglycerol concentrations and mRNA expression of 12 candidate genes. Precalving, cows with a 0-d dry period had greater plasma β-hydroxybutyrate, urea, and insulin concentrations compared with cows with a 30- or 60-d dry period. Postcalving, cows with a 0-d dry period had lower liver triacylglycerol and plasma nonesterified fatty acids concentrations (0.20, 0.32, and 0.36mmol/L for 0-, 30-, and 60-d dry period, respectively), greater plasma glucose, insulin-like growth factor-I, and insulin (24.38, 14.02, and 11.08µIU/mL for 0-, 30-, and 60-d dry period, respectively) concentrations, and lower hepatic mRNA expression of pyruvate carboxylase, compared with cows with a 30- or 60-d dry period. Plasma urea and β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations were greater in cows fed a lipogenic diet compared with cows fed a glucogenic diet. In conclusion, cows with a 0-d dry period had

  14. Uterine, ovarian, and production responses of lactating dairy cows to increasing dietary concentrations of menhaden fish meal.

    PubMed

    Mattos, R; Staples, C R; Williams, J; Amorocho, A; McGuire, M A; Thatcher, W W

    2002-04-01

    The primary objective was to determine whether the dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic (EPA, C20:5, n-3) and docosahexaenoic (DHA, C22:6, n-3), present in fish meal (FM) can attenuate uterine secretion of PGF2alpha in response to a challenge with estradiol and oxytocin in lactating dairy cows. Cycling multiparous cows (n = 32) were fed diets containing 0 (OFM), 2.6 (2.6FM), 5.2 (5.2FM), or 7.8% menhaden FM (7.8FM). The diet consisting of 7.8FM also contained fish oil (0.28% of dietary dry matter) to increase intake of EPA and DHA. Average dry matter intake was 24.9 kg/d and unaffected by diet. Combined intakes of EPA and DHA averaged 0, 12.8, 24.1, and 54.0 g/d from the OFM, 2.6FM, 5.2FM, and 7.8FM diets, respectively. At 30 to 34 d after initiation of dietary treatments, cows received an i.m. injection of 100 microg of GnRH followed by i.m. administration of 25 and 15 mg of PGF2alpha after 7 and 8 d, respectively. Synchronous ovulation was induced by an injection of 3000 IU of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) given 24 h later on d 9. Subsequent luteal phase increases in plasma progesterone concentrations did not differ (0.88 ng/ml per day). At 15 d after hCG injection, cows were injected with estradiol-17beta (3 mg, i.v.) at 0900 h and oxytocin (100 IU, i.v.) at 1300 h. Plasma PGF2alpha metabolite concentrations after oxytocin injection were reduced in cows fed diets containing FM compared with those fed OFM. Milk production (39.1 kg/d) and concentrations of fat, protein, or urea nitrogen in milk were not affected by diet. Feeding fish meal and fish oil containing eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid reduced the proportion of n-6 fatty acids and increased that of n-3 fatty acids in milk in a dose-responsive manner. PMID:12018420

  15. Effect of dietary energy source and level on nutrient digestibility, rumen microbial protein synthesis, and milk performance in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Zhou, X Q; Zhang, Y D; Zhao, M; Zhang, T; Zhu, D; Bu, D P; Wang, J Q

    2015-10-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effects of dietary energy source and level on intake, digestion, rumen microbial protein synthesis, and milk production in lactating dairy cows, using corn stover as a forage source. Eight multiparous Holstein cows, 4 of which were fitted with rumen cannulas, were evaluated in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design, with each period lasting 21 d. The cows were randomly assigned into 4 treatment groups: low-energy (LE) ground corn (GC), LE steam-flaked corn (SFC), high-energy (HE) GC, and HE SFC. Changes to ruminal energy degradation rates were induced by feeding the cows diets of either finely ground corn or SFC as components of diets with the same total energy level. Milk yield, milk protein content and yield, and milk lactose yield all increased in response to higher levels of dietary energy, whereas contents of milk fat and lactose were unaffected. Cows fed HE diets had a higher crude microbial protein yield and total-tract apparent digestibility than those receiving LE diets. Milk yield, milk protein yield, and microbial protein yield were also higher when SFC replaced GC as the main energy source for lactating cows fed LE diets. These results suggest that an increased dietary energy level and ruminal degradation rate are beneficial to milk protein production, which we suggest is due to increased yields of microbial proteins, when cows are fed corn stover as a dietary forage source.

  16. Rumen microorganisms, methane production, and microbial protein synthesis affected by mangosteen peel powder supplement in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Polyorach, Sineenart; Wanapat, Metha; Cherdthong, Anusorn; Kang, Sungchhang

    2016-03-01

    Four crossbred dairy cows (50 % Holstein-Friesian × 50 % Thai native), 404 ± 50.0 kg of body weight (4 years old) and 90 ± 5 day in milk with daily milk production of 9 ± 2.0 kg/day, were randomly assigned according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design to study the effect of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) peel powder (MSP) supplementation on rumen microorganisms, methane production, and microbial protein synthesis fed concentrate containing yeast fermented cassava chip protein (YEFECAP). The treatments were different levels of MSP supplementation at 0, 100, 200, and 300 g/head/day. Rice straw was used as a roughage source fed ad libitum, and concentrate containing YEFECAP at 200 g/kg concentrate was offered corresponding to concentrate-to-milk-yield ratio at 1:2. A quantitative real-time PCR approach was used to determine the population densities of ruminal microorganisms. The results revealed that supplementation of MSP did not affect on Fibrobactor succinogenes, Ruminococcus flavefaciens, and Ruminococcus albus (P > 0.05). However, total bacteria was linearly increased (P < 0.01) while methanogens and protozoal population were linearly decreased (P < 0.01) with increasing level of MSP supplementation. Increasing level of MSP supplement could decrease rumen methane production from 27.5 to 23.7 mmol/100 ml(3). Furthermore, cows that received MSP at 300 g/head/day had the highest microbial crude protein and efficiency of rumen microbial N synthesis (416.8 g/day and 16.2 g/kg organic matter truly digested in the rumen (OMDR), respectively). In conclusion, supplementation of MSP at 300 g/head/day with YEFECAP as a protein source in the concentrate mixture revealed an enhancement of rumen fermentation and methane reduction in lactating dairy cows.

  17. Feeding, production, and efficiency of Holstein-Friesian, Jersey, and mixed-breed lactating dairy cows in commercial Danish herds.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, T; Jensen, C; Østergaard, S; Weisbjerg, M R; Aaes, O; Nielsen, N I

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to compare efficiency measures, milk production, and feed intake for lactating cows in commercial herds using different breeds and production and milking systems. To accomplish this, we used all feed evaluations made by the Danish extension service during the period November 2012 to April 2013 for 779 herds, of which 508 were Holstein-Friesian (HOL); 100 were Jersey (JER); and 171 herds were a mixture of these 2 breeds, other dairy breeds, and crossbreeds (OTH). The annually recorded, herd-average energy-corrected milk (ECM) yield was 8,716kg (JER) and 9,606kg (HOL); and average herd size was 197 cows (HOL) and 224 cows (JER). All cows were fed a total mixed or partial mixed ration supplemented with concentrate from feeding stations, housed in loose housing systems with a slatted floor, and milked in either a parlor milking unit or an automatic milking system. Energy efficiency was calculated as net energy efficiency defined as total energy demand as a percentage of energy intake and as residual feed intake defined as energy intake (net energy for lactation; NEL) minus energy requirement. Production efficiency was expressed as kilograms of ECM per kilogram of dry matter intake (DMI), kilograms of ECM per 10 MJ of net energy intake (NEL), kilograms of ECM per 100kg of BW, and kilograms of DMI per 100kg of BW. Environmental efficiency was expressed by the nitrogen efficiency calculated as N in milk and meat as a percentage of N in intake, and as enteric emission of methane expressed as kilograms of ECM per megajoule of CH4. Mean milk yield for lactating cows was 30.4kg of ECM in HOL and 3kg less in JER, with OTH herds in between. Mean NEL intake was 122 MJ in JER, increasing to 147 MJ in HOL, whereas ration energy density between breeds did not differ (6.4-6.5 MJ of NEL per kg of DMI). The NEL intake and DMI explained 56 and 47%, respectively, of variation in production (ECM) for HOL herds but only 44 and 27% for JER. Jersey had a

  18. Temporal changes in plasma concentrations of hormones and metabolites in pasture-fed dairy cows during extended lactation.

    PubMed

    Marett, L C; Auldist, M J; Grainger, C; Wales, W J; Blache, D; Macmillan, K L; Leury, B J

    2011-10-01

    This experiment measured variations in plasma concentrations of metabolic hormones and metabolites in cows undergoing extended lactations of up to 670 d at 2 planes of nutrition. Thirty-seven Holstein-Friesian cows that calved in late winter were selected for varying milk yield and then managed for a lactation of 670 d by delaying breeding until approximately 450 d in milk (DIM). Cows grazed fresh pasture supplemented with pasture silage or hay and crushed wheat or triticale grain. Dietary intake was reduced by approximately 1.8 kg (dry matter) grain/cow per day for 19 of the cows from 300 DIM until the end of lactation to assess the effect of restricted energy intake on the persistency of milk production. Samples of blood were collected monthly from each cow to measure plasma concentrations of selected hormones and metabolites. Dietary restriction beyond 300 DIM reduced yields of milk, protein, and fat, but did not alter the proportion of cows reaching the 670-d lactation target. Dietary restriction had no effect on cow BW or plasma concentrations of any hormones or metabolites. Overall, blood plasma concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-I, leptin, and glucose were elevated from 301 to 600 DIM compared with 0 to 300 DIM, whereas concentrations of growth hormone and nonesterified fatty acids were lower after 300 DIM. Plasma concentrations of insulin and prolactin were unaffected by stage of lactation, but prolactin concentrations increased during summer. These changes were consistent with a decrease in milk yield and an increase in the partitioning of nutrients to body tissue gain, primarily adipose tissue, throughout the later stages of the extended lactation. Cows that continued milking beyond 600 DIM had increased plasma concentrations of growth hormone and decreased concentrations of glucose and leptin compared with cows that milked <600 DIM. These differences, coupled with reduced body weight gain, indicated an increased priority for nutrient

  19. Effects of lauric and myristic acids on ruminal fermentation, production, and milk fatty acid composition in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hristov, A N; Lee, C; Cassidy, T; Long, M; Heyler, K; Corl, B; Forster, R

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this experiment were to investigate the effects of lauric (LA) and myristic (MA) acids on ruminal fermentation, production, and milk fatty acid (FA) profile in lactating dairy cows and to identify the FA responsible for the methanogen-suppressing effect of coconut oil. The experiment was conducted as a replicated 3×3 Latin square. Six ruminally cannulated cows (95±26.4 DIM) were subjected to the following treatments: 240 g/cow per day each of stearic acid (SA, control), LA, or MA. Experimental periods were 28 d and cows were refaunated between periods. Lauric acid reduced protozoal counts in the rumen by 96%, as well as acetate, total VFA, and microbial N outflow from the rumen, compared with SA and MA. Ruminal methane production was not affected by treatment. Dry matter intake was reduced 35% by LA compared with SA and MA, which resulted in decreased milk yield. Milk fat content also was depressed by LA compared with SA and MA. Treatment had no effect on milk protein content. All treatments increased milk concentration of the respective treatment FA. Concentration of C12:0 was more than doubled by LA, and C14:0 was increased (45%) by MA compared with SA. Concentration of milk FAC16 FA and MUFA were increased, by LA compared with the other treatments. In this study, LA had profound effects on ruminal fermentation, mediated through inhibited microbial populations, and decreased DMI, milk yield, and milk fat content. Despite the significant decrease in protozoal counts, however, LA had no effect on ruminal methane production. Thus, the antimethanogenic effect of coconut oil, observed in related studies, is likely due to total FA application level, the additive effect of LA and MA, or a combination of both. Both LA and MA

  20. Effects of forage type and extruded linseed supplementation on methane production and milk fatty acid composition of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Livingstone, K M; Humphries, D J; Kirton, P; Kliem, K E; Givens, D I; Reynolds, C K

    2015-06-01

    Replacing dietary grass silage (GS) with maize silage (MS) and dietary fat supplements may reduce milk concentration of specific saturated fatty acids (SFA) and can reduce methane production by dairy cows. The present study investigated the effect of feeding an extruded linseed supplement on milk fatty acid (FA) composition and methane production of lactating dairy cows, and whether basal forage type, in diets formulated for similar neutral detergent fiber and starch, altered the response to the extruded linseed supplement. Four mid-lactation Holstein-Friesian cows were fed diets as total mixed rations, containing either high proportions of MS or GS, both with or without extruded linseed supplement, in a 4×4 Latin square design experiment with 28-d periods. Diets contained 500 g of forage/kg of dry matter (DM) containing MS and GS in proportions (DM basis) of either 75:25 or 25:75 for high MS or high GS diets, respectively. Extruded linseed supplement (275 g/kg ether extract, DM basis) was included in treatment diets at 50 g/kg of DM. Milk yields, DM intake, milk composition, and methane production were measured at the end of each experimental period when cows were housed in respiration chambers. Whereas DM intake was higher for the MS-based diet, forage type and extruded linseed had no significant effect on milk yield, milk fat, protein, or lactose concentration, methane production, or methane per kilogram of DM intake or milk yield. Total milk fat SFA concentrations were lower with MS compared with GS-based diets (65.4 vs. 68.4 g/100 g of FA, respectively) and with extruded linseed compared with no extruded linseed (65.2 vs. 68.6 g/100 g of FA, respectively), and these effects were additive. Concentrations of total trans FA were higher with MS compared with GS-based diets (7.0 vs. 5.4 g/100 g of FA, respectively) and when extruded linseed was fed (6.8 vs. 5. 6g/100 g of FA, respectively). Total n-3 FA were higher when extruded linseed was fed compared with no

  1. Milk production, milk composition, live weight change and milk Fatty Acid composition in lactating dairy cows in response to whole linseed supplementation.

    PubMed

    Suksombat, Wisitiporn; Meeprom, Chayapol; Mirattanaphrai, Rattakorn

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of whole linseed supplementation on performances and milk fatty acid composition of dairy cows. Thirty six Holstein Friesian crossbred lactating dairy cows were blocked by milking days first and then stratified random balanced for milk yields and body weight into three groups of 12 cows each. The control group received 300 g of palm oil. The second group was supplemented with 344 g/d of top-dressed whole linseed plus 150 g of palm oil and the third group was supplemented with 688 g/d of top-dressed whole linseed. All cows also received ad libitum grass silage (Brachiaria ruziziensis), had free access to clean water and were individually housed in a free-stall unit and individually fed according to treatments. Residual feeds were collected on 2 consecutive days weekly and at the end of the experiment. Feed samples were pooled to make representative samples for proximate and detergent analyses. Daily milk yields were recorded. Milk samples were collected on 2 consecutive days weekly. Live weights were recorded at the start and at the end of the experiment. Milk samples were taken on d 56 of the experiment and subjected to milk fatty acid composition. The results showed no statistical significant differences in intakes, live weight change, milk yields and milk compositions, however, C18:1, C18:3 and unsaturated FAs were increased while saturated FAs were reduced by whole linseed supplementation. It is recommended that the addition of 300 g/d oil from whole linseed could be beneficial to lactating dairy cows in early lactation. PMID:25049891

  2. Short communication: Factors affecting hair cortisol concentrations in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Burnett, Tracy A; Madureira, Augusto M L; Silper, Bruna F; Nadalin, Audrey; Tahmasbi, Abdolmansour; Veira, Douglas M; Cerri, Ronaldo L A

    2014-12-01

    Cortisol has long been used as a marker of the stress response in animals. Cortisol can be analyzed from different media, most notably from the blood, saliva, and feces; however, the collection of cortisol from some of these media requires invasive procedures or excessive handling of the animals. Furthermore, it is not possible to capture long-term increases in circulating concentrations of cortisol from the blood, saliva, or feces. Hair cortisol has been found to be a reliable alternative for measuring chronic stress. With this emerging measure, appropriate sampling methodology must be developed and validated. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of hair color, sampling location, and processing method on cortisol concentrations in hair from lactating black and white Holstein cows (n=18). Furthermore, we aimed to measure the hair growth rates at different body locations (n=12) and test hair cortisol levels when resampled over short intervals (n=37). Both black- and white-colored hair was collected from the shoulder, top line, hip, and tail switch of Holsteins; due to breed characteristics only white hair was harvested from the tail switch. All samples were cleaned with water and isopropanol, and then ground in a ball mill or finely cut with scissors once dry. Cortisol was extracted with methanol before being measured using a commercially available ELISA kit. Concentrations of cortisol were greater in white than in black hair (7.8 ± 1.1 vs. 3.8 ± 1.1 pg/mg). When only white samples were analyzed, hair from the tail switch had more cortisol than hair from the shoulder (11.0 ± 1.2 vs. 6.2 ± 1.2 pg/mg), whereas no difference was found when compared with the hip and top line. Samples ground with a ball mill had greater concentrations of cortisol extracted than those minced with scissors (10.4 ± 1.2 vs. 4.7 ± 1.2 pg/mg). The growth rate of hair was significantly greater at the tail switch compared with the hip and shoulder (0.51 ± 0.05 vs. 0.04 ± 0

  3. Short communication: Factors affecting hair cortisol concentrations in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Burnett, Tracy A; Madureira, Augusto M L; Silper, Bruna F; Nadalin, Audrey; Tahmasbi, Abdolmansour; Veira, Douglas M; Cerri, Ronaldo L A

    2014-12-01

    Cortisol has long been used as a marker of the stress response in animals. Cortisol can be analyzed from different media, most notably from the blood, saliva, and feces; however, the collection of cortisol from some of these media requires invasive procedures or excessive handling of the animals. Furthermore, it is not possible to capture long-term increases in circulating concentrations of cortisol from the blood, saliva, or feces. Hair cortisol has been found to be a reliable alternative for measuring chronic stress. With this emerging measure, appropriate sampling methodology must be developed and validated. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of hair color, sampling location, and processing method on cortisol concentrations in hair from lactating black and white Holstein cows (n=18). Furthermore, we aimed to measure the hair growth rates at different body locations (n=12) and test hair cortisol levels when resampled over short intervals (n=37). Both black- and white-colored hair was collected from the shoulder, top line, hip, and tail switch of Holsteins; due to breed characteristics only white hair was harvested from the tail switch. All samples were cleaned with water and isopropanol, and then ground in a ball mill or finely cut with scissors once dry. Cortisol was extracted with methanol before being measured using a commercially available ELISA kit. Concentrations of cortisol were greater in white than in black hair (7.8 ± 1.1 vs. 3.8 ± 1.1 pg/mg). When only white samples were analyzed, hair from the tail switch had more cortisol than hair from the shoulder (11.0 ± 1.2 vs. 6.2 ± 1.2 pg/mg), whereas no difference was found when compared with the hip and top line. Samples ground with a ball mill had greater concentrations of cortisol extracted than those minced with scissors (10.4 ± 1.2 vs. 4.7 ± 1.2 pg/mg). The growth rate of hair was significantly greater at the tail switch compared with the hip and shoulder (0.51 ± 0.05 vs. 0.04 ± 0

  4. An isotope dilution model for partitioning phenylalanine and tyrosine uptake by the mammary gland of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Crompton, L A; France, J; Reynolds, C K; Mills, J A N; Hanigan, M D; Ellis, J L; Bannink, A; Bequette, B J; Dijkstra, J

    2014-10-21

    An isotope dilution model for partitioning phenylalanine and tyrosine uptake by the mammary gland of the lactating dairy cow is constructed and solved in the steady state. The model contains four intracellular and four extracellular pools and conservation of mass principles are applied to generate the fundamental equations describing the behaviour of the system. The experimental measurements required for model solution are milk secretion and plasma flow rate across the gland in combination with phenylalanine and tyrosine concentrations and plateau isotopic enrichments in arterial and venous plasma and free and protein bound milk during a constant infusion of [1-(13)C]phenylalanine and [2,3,5,6-(2)H]tyrosine tracer. If assumptions are made, model solution enables determination of steady state flows for phenylalanine and tyrosine inflow to the gland, outflow from it and bypass, and flows representing the synthesis and degradation of constitutive protein and phenylalanine hydroxylation. The model is effective in providing information about the fates of phenylalanine and tyrosine in the mammary gland and could be used as part of a more complex system describing amino acid metabolism in the whole ruminant.

  5. Comparison of maintenance energy requirement and energetic efficiency between lactating Holstein-Friesian and other groups of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Dong, L F; Yan, T; Ferris, C P; McDowell, D A

    2015-02-01

    The objectives of the present study were to investigate the effects of cow group on energy expenditure and utilization efficiency. Data used were collated from 32 calorimetric chamber experiments undertaken from 1992 to 2010, with 823 observations from lactating Holstein-Friesian (HF) cows and 112 observations from other groups of lactating cows including Norwegian (n=50), Jersey × HF (n=46), and Norwegian × HF (n=16) cows. The metabolizable energy (ME) requirement for maintenance (MEm) for individual cows was calculated from heat production (HP) minus energy losses from inefficiencies of ME use for lactation, energy retention, and pregnancy. The efficiency of ME use for lactation (kl) was obtained from milk energy output adjusted to zero energy balance (El(0)) divided by ME available for production. The effects of cow groups were first evaluated using Norwegian cows against HF crossbred cows (F1 hybrid, Jersey × HF and Norwegian × HF). The results indicated no significant difference between the 2 groups in terms of energy digestibility, ratio of ME intake over gross energy intake, MEm (MJ per kg of metabolic body weight, MJ/kg(0.75)), or kl. Consequently, their data were combined (categorized as non-HF cows) and used to compare with those of HF cows. Again, we detected no significant difference in energy digestibility, ratio of ME intake over gross energy intake, MEm (MJ/kg(0.75)), or kl between non-HF and HF cows. The effects were further evaluated using linear regression to examine whether any significant differences existed between HF and non-HF cows in terms of relationships between ME intake and energetic parameters. With a common constant, no significant difference was observed between the 2 groups of cows in coefficients in each set of relationships between ME intake (MJ/kg(0.75)) and MEm (MJ/kg(0.75)), El(0) (MJ/kg(0.75)), HP (MJ/kg(0.75)), MEm:ME intake, El(0):ME intake, or HP:ME intake. However, MEm values (MJ/kg(0.75)) were positively related to ME

  6. pH Dynamics and Bacterial Community Composition in the Rumen of Lactating Dairy Cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of pH dynamics on ruminal bacterial community composition (BCC) was studied in 8 ruminally cannulated Holstein cows fitted with indwelling electrodes that recorded pH at 10-min intervals over a 2.4-d period. Cows were fed a silage-based TMR supplemented with monensin. Ruminal samples wer...

  7. pH Dynamics and Bacterial Community Composition in the Rumen of Lactating Dairy Cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The influence of pH dynamics on ruminal bacterial community composition was studied in 8 ruminally cannulated Holstein cows fitted with indwelling electrodes that recorded pH at 10-min intervals over a 3-d period. Cows were fed a silage-based TMR supplemented with monensin. Ruminal samples were col...

  8. Plasma ceramides are elevated in overweight Holstein dairy cows experiencing greater lipolysis and insulin resistance during the transition from late pregnancy to early lactation.

    PubMed

    Rico, J E; Bandaru, V V R; Dorskind, J M; Haughey, N J; McFadden, J W

    2015-11-01

    Insulin resistance is a homeorhetic adaptation to parturition in dairy cows transitioning from late pregnancy to early lactation. An increase in prepartum adiposity can predispose periparturient cows to greater lipolysis and insulin resistance, thus increasing the risk for metabolic disease. Mechanisms mediating the development of insulin resistance in overweight peripartal dairy cows may depend on ceramide metabolism. The sphingolipid ceramide accumulates in plasma and tissues of overweight monogastric animals, and facilitates saturated fatty acid-induced insulin resistance. Considering this evidence, we hypothesized that plasma ceramides would be elevated in periparturient dairy cattle and that these sphingolipids would correlate with the magnitude of lipolysis and insulin resistance. To test our central hypothesis, multiparous Holstein cows were allocated into 2 groups according to their body condition score (BCS) at d -30 prepartum: lean (BCS <3.0; n=10) or overweight (BCS >4.0; n=11). Blood samples were collected at d -45, -30, -15, and -7, relative to expected parturition, and at d 4 postpartum. Plasma glucose, insulin, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentrations were measured, and insulin sensitivity was estimated. The concentrations of individual plasma ceramide and glycosylated ceramide were determined using liquid chromatography-based mass spectrometry. Results demonstrated that greater adiposity was associated with a greater loss in body condition during late pregnancy. Overweight cows had greater circulating concentrations of glucose, insulin, and NEFA, and lower insulin sensitivity relative to lean cows. We detected 30 different sphingolipids across 6 lipid classes with acyl chains ranging from 16 to 26 carbons. The most abundant plasma sphingolipids detected were C24:0-ceramide, C24:0-monohexosylceramide, and C16:0-lactosylceramide. Plasma concentrations of total ceramide and monohexosylceramide increased as

  9. Ryegrass pasture combined with partial total mixed ration reduces enteric methane emissions and maintains the performance of dairy cows during mid to late lactation.

    PubMed

    Dall-Orsoletta, Aline C; Almeida, João Gabriel R; Carvalho, Paulo C F; Savian, Jean V; Ribeiro-Filho, Henrique M N

    2016-06-01

    The inclusion of grazed pasture in dairy feeding systems based on a total mixed ration (TMR) reduces feed costs, benefits herd health, and reduces environmental impact. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of ryegrass pasture combined with a partial TMR on enteric methane emissions, dry matter intake (DMI), and performance of dairy cows from mid to late lactation. The experimental treatments included 100% TMR (control), partial TMR + 6h of continuous grazing (0900-1500 h), and partial TMR + 6h of grazing that was divided into 2 periods of 3h each that took place after milking (0900-1200 h; 1530-1830 h). Twelve F1 cows (Holstein × Jersey; 132±44 DIM) were divided into 6 lots and distributed in a 3×3 Latin square design with 3 periods of 21 d (15 d of adaptation and 6 d of evaluation). Ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) pasture was used, and the TMR was composed of 80% corn silage, 18% soybean meal, and 2% mineral and vitamin mixture, based on dry matter. The same mixture was used for cows with access to pasture. The total DMI, milk production, and 4% fat-corrected milk were similar for all cows; however, the pasture DMI (7.4 vs. 6.0kg/d) and grazing period (+ 40 min/d) were higher in cows that had access to pasture for 2 periods of 3h compared with those that grazed for a continuous 6-h period. Methane emission was higher (656 vs. 547g/d) in confined cows than in those that received partial TMR + pasture. The inclusion of annual ryegrass pasture in the diet of dairy cows maintained animal performance and reduced enteric methane emissions. The percentage of grazed forage in the cows' diet increased when access to pasture was provided in 2 periods after the morning and afternoon milking. PMID:27016830

  10. Effects of fatty acid supplements on milk yield and energy balance of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Harvatine, K J; Allen, M S

    2006-03-01

    Saturated and unsaturated fatty acid supplements (FS) were evaluated for effects on yield of milk and milk components, concentration of milk components including milk fatty acid profile, and energy balance. Eight ruminally and duodenally cannulated cows and 8 noncannulated cows were used in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design experiment with 21-d periods. Treatments were control and a linear substitution of 2.5% fatty acids from saturated FS (SAT; prilled, hydrogenated free fatty acids) for partially unsaturated FS (UNS; calcium soaps of long-chain fatty acids). The SAT treatment did not change milk fat concentration, but UNS linearly decreased milk fat in cannulated cows and tended to decrease milk fat in noncannulated cows compared with control. Milk fat depression with UNS corresponded to increased concentrations of trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid and trans C18:1 fatty acids in milk. Milk fat profile was similar for SAT and control, but UNS decreased concentration of short- and medium-chain FA. Digestible energy intake tended to decrease linearly with increasing unsaturated FS in cannulated and noncannulated cows. Increasing unsaturated FS linearly increased empty body weight and net energy gain in cannulated cows, whereas increasing saturated FS linearly increased plasma insulin. Efficiency of conversion of digestible energy to milk tended to decrease linearly with increasing unsaturated FS for cannulated cows only. Addition of SAT provided little benefit to production and energy balance, whereas UNS decreased energy intake and milk energy yield.

  11. The effect of high and low levels of supplementation on milk production, nitrogen utilization efficiency, and milk protein fractions in late-lactation dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Reid, M; O'Donovan, M; Murphy, J P; Fleming, C; Kennedy, E; Lewis, E

    2015-08-01

    To fill the feed deficit in the autumn/late lactation period in a seasonal grazing system, supplementation is required. This study aimed to investigate the use of baled grass silage or concentrate as supplementation to grazing dairy cows in late lactation. Eighty-four grass-based spring-calving dairy cows, averaging 212d in milk, were allocated to 1 of 6 treatments [high grass allowance (HG), low grass allowance (LG), grass with a low concentrate allocation (GCL), grass with a low grass silage allocation (GSL), grass with a high concentrate allocation (GCH), and grass with a high grass silage allocation (GSH)] to measure the effects of using baled grass silage or concentrate as supplements to grazed grass. Effects on intake, milk yield, milk composition and N fractions, and N utilization efficiency were measured. Treatments HG and LG received 17 and 14kg of dry matter (DM) grass/cow per d, respectively. Treatments GCL and GSL were offered 14kg of DM grass/cow per d and 3kg of DM of supplementation/cow per d. Treatments GCH and GSH were offered 11kg of DM grass/cow per d and 6kg of DM of supplementation/cow per d. Milk yield was greatest in the GCH treatment and milk solids yield was greatest in both concentrate-supplemented treatments. The HG and LG treatments excreted a greater quantity of N as a proportion of N intake than the supplemented treatments. The HG treatment also excreted the greatest total quantity of N. This indicates an improvement in N utilization efficiency when supplementation is offered compared with grazing only. Offering 6kg of DM of either grass silage or concentrate as supplementation decreased milk true protein concentration compared with offering a grass-only diet. This suggests that increasing the proportion of supplementation relative to grass may negatively affect milk processability, which is associated with milk true protein concentration.

  12. Experimental Staphylococcus aureus intramammary challenge in late lactation dairy cows: quarter and cow effects determining the probability of infection.

    PubMed

    Schukken, Y H; Leslie, K E; Barnum, D A; Mallard, B A; Lumsden, J H; Dick, P C; Vessie, G H; Kehrli, M E

    1999-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors at the quarter and cow level that determine whether a quarter remains infected after an intramammary challenge with Staphylococcus aureus Newbould 305. A total of 135 cows were studied. Information on animal characteristics, cow-conformation, cow somatic cell count (SCC), and bacteriology, blood vitamin E levels, serology for retro-viral infections, bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency-carrier status, and the presence of bovine lymphocyte antigens class I alleles was collected on each animal. All quarters of all cows were then challenged with Staphylococcus aureus Newbould 305. The challenge with S. aureus Newbould 305 resulted in 28 cows (20.7%) that did not establish infection in any of the quarters, 21 (15.6%) cows had 1 quarter infected, 35 (25.9%) had 2 quarters infected, 24 (17.8%) had 3 quarters infected, and 27 (20.0%) had all quarters infected. A higher prechallenge SCC decreased the risk of infection. An infection with Corynebacterium bovis prior to challenge decreased the risk of S.aureus infection. Of the bovine lymphocyte antigen alleles, the presence of the W20A allele proved to be significantly associated with a decreased risk of infection. No other factors proved to be significant. PMID:10575606

  13. Effects of different polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementations during the postpartum periods of early lactating dairy cows on milk yield, metabolic responses, and reproductive performances.

    PubMed

    Dirandeh, E; Towhidi, A; Zeinoaldini, S; Ganjkhanlou, M; Ansari Pirsaraei, Z; Fouladi-Nashta, A

    2013-02-01

    In spite of the difficulties in delivering PUFA to ruminants, studies have generally indicated that the PUFA of the omega-6 (linoleic acid) and omega-3 [α-linolenic acid; eicosapentaenoic (EPA), C20:5 omega-3; docosahexaenoic (DHA), C22:6 omega-3] families are the most beneficial to improving reproduction in cows. The objectives were to determine if a diet enriched in α-linolenic acid (omega-3) or linoleic acid (omega-6) would influence milk production and composition, metabolic status, and reproductive performance in lactating dairy cows. High-yielding multiparous Holstein dairy cows (n = 120) with no overt clinical illnesses were blocked according to calving date and parity. Cows were assigned randomly to be fed 1) soybean whole roast (Soy, omega-6, n = 40) or 2) linseed (Lin, omega-3, n = 40) or 3) palm oil as a source of SFA (PO, n = 40) from calving until first heat after 40 d postpartum (dpp), and then half of the cows in each treatment group were switched to receive either Lin or SFA (PO) from first heat after d 40 to 120 dpp. Blood was collected from a subsample of cows. Blood was collected at 14 d intervals for 12 wk, starting on the day of calving. Results showed milk yield and DMI were not affected. Milk compositions were similar (P > 0.08) among diets, except concentration and yield of milk fat percentage, which was less in cows fed Lin (P < 0.05). Uterine involution in cows fed Soy occurred earlier (P < 0.05). Diets affected day to first estrus and day to first insemination in cows (P < 0.05). There were no differences among treatments for percent heat detection, percent pregnancy per first insemination, and percent conception per AI at estrus. Also, there is a trend of pregnancy by 120 d, which is 66.7% for the Lin group vs. 50.91% for the PO group (P < 0.08). Of the 4 pregnancy losses, 2 occurred in PO-PO group and 2 occurred in Soy-PO group, and none occurred in the other 4 treatments. In conclusion, our study showed feeding omega-6 fatty acids

  14. Effect of precalving and postcalving dietary energy level on performance and blood metabolite concentrations of dairy cows throughout lactation.

    PubMed

    Law, R A; Young, F J; Patterson, D C; Kilpatrick, D J; Wylie, A R G; Ingvarsten, K L; Hameleers, A; McCoy, M A; Mayne, C S; Ferris, C

    2011-02-01

    The effects of the level of energy intake (high E and low E) offered before and after calving on body condition score at calving, production performance, and energy status in the first 250 d of lactation were evaluated in a 2 × 2 factorial design experiment involving 80 Holstein-Friesian dairy animals (40 primiparous and 40 multiparous). From d 80 until d 21 precalving, primiparous animals were offered either high or low pasture allowances. Thereafter, these animals were housed and had ad libitum access to a high energy density diet (high E) or restricted access [6 kg of dry matter (DM) per d] to a low energy density diet (low E), respectively, until calving. From d 100 until d 42 precalving, multiparous animals were offered either ad libitum or restricted (10 kg of DM/d) access to a late lactation diet, and thereafter, had ad libitum access to a high E diet or restricted access (7 kg of DM complete diet/d) to a low E diet, respectively, until calving. The forage to concentrate (F:C) ratios (DM basis) of these high E and low E diets [d 42 (d 21 in primiparous animals) until calving] were 64:36 and 83:17, respectively. Cows offered high E and low E precalving diets were allocated to either a high E or low E postcalving diet [F:C ratio (DM basis) of 30:70 and 70:30, respectively] and remained on these diets until d 250 of lactation. Multiparous animals offered a high E diet precalving had a significantly higher body condition score at calving than those offered the low E diet precalving. This effect was not evident in primiparous animals. Precalving diet had no significant effect on plasma nonesterified fatty acid concentrations during the last 3 wk precalving in primi- or multiparous animals. Primiparous animals offered a high E diet precalving had significantly higher postcalving plasma concentrations of nonesterified fatty acid, suggesting greater mobilization of body reserves. Primi- and multiparous animals offered a high E diet postcalving had a significantly

  15. Thermal comfort and lactation yields of dairy cows grazed on farms in a pasture-based feed system in eastern New South Wales, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dragovich, D.

    1981-06-01

    A temperature-humidity index (THI) was used to associate varying degrees of “thermal comfort” for livestock with milk yields from dairy herds in eastern New South Wales. A pasture-based feed system was used on farms in the various environments occurring between 28°S and 37°S Lat. Low dairy cow productivity was registered in high-stress (high THI) areas, where the indirect effects of climate on pasture quality and availability compounded the direct stress on livestock; districts recording high lactation yields were located in low-stress areas, as anticipated by the biometeorological index. Fluctuations in lactation yields at THI values between the high and low stress areas were explained in terms of rainfall and temperature effects on pasture species and pasture growth patterns.

  16. Natural occurrence of aflatoxins (B₁ and M₁) in feed, plasma and raw milk of lactating dairy cows in Beja, Tunisia, using ELISA.

    PubMed

    Abbès, Samir; Salah-Abbès, Jalila Ben; Bouraoui, Yousra; Oueslati, Sarra; Oueslati, Ridha

    2012-01-01

    Beja is an agricultural area in northwest Tunisia. It contributes to national needs by offering cereals and milk to the market for human and animal consumption. A small number of studies on mycotoxin occurrence in feedstuffs and raw milk from lactating dairy cows in this region are available. Therefore, 226 samples were collected from farms and local markets during November 2008 until April 2010. Samples consisted of 112 raw cow milk, 56 blood from lactating cows and 58 feed destined for dairy cows. Plasma and feed were analysed for aflatoxin B₁ (AFB₁). Milk samples were analysed for aflatoxin M₁ (AFM₁). All samples were treated using a simultaneous methanolic-aqueous extraction, followed by immunoaffinity column clean-ups and were investigated by competitive enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA). Recoveries were 80%-95% and 81%-92% for AFB₁ and AFM₁, respectively, while the limit of detection (LOD) was 0.01 µg/kg or µg/l for both mycotoxins. Results revealed the presence of AFB₁ in 84.4% of the feed samples (mean 18.7 ± 1.4 µg/kg), and 39.2% of the plasma-examined samples (median 7.1 ± 1.0 µg/l) were found to be contaminated at levels higher than the Tunisian and the European Union (EU) limit for dairy animals, which are 20 and 5 µg/kg in animal feed, respectively. AFM₁ was detected in 60.7% of the cow raw milk samples examined (median 13.6 ± 1.4 µg/l). Contaminated levels were higher than the EU limit of 0.05 µg/l. It was concluded that more precaution should be taken on hygiene controls in order to prevent fungal contamination.

  17. Lying times of lactating cows on dairy farms with automatic milking systems and the relation to lameness, leg lesions, and body condition score.

    PubMed

    Westin, R; Vaughan, A; de Passillé, A M; DeVries, T J; Pajor, E A; Pellerin, D; Siegford, J M; Vasseur, E; Rushen, J

    2016-01-01

    Lying down and resting are important for optimal cow health, welfare, and production. In comparison with free stall farms with a milking parlor, farms with automated milking systems (AMS) may place less constraint on how long cows can lie down. However, few studies report lying times on AMS farms. The aims of this study were to describe the variation in lying times of dairy cows in AMS farms and to understand how much of the variation in individual lying times is related to cow-level factors, including lameness, the presence of hock and knee lesions, and body condition score (BCS). We visited 36 farms in Canada (Quebec: n = 10; Ontario: n = 10; British Columbia: n = 4; and Alberta: n = 5), and the United States (Michigan: n = 7). Gait scores, presence of hock and knee lesions, and BCS were recorded for 40 Holstein cows from each herd. Parity and days in milk were retrieved from farm records. Lying time was recorded across 4d using accelerometers (n = 1,377). Multivariable analysis was performed. Of scored cows, 15.1% were lame (i.e., obviously limping; 203 of 1,348 cows). Knee lesions were found in 27.1% (340 of 1,256 cows) and hock lesions were found in 30.8% (421 of 1,366 cows) of the animals. Daily lying time varied among cows. Cows spent a median duration of 11.4 h/d lying down (25th-75th percentile = 9.7-12.9 h), with a lying bout frequency of 9.5 bouts/d (25th-75th percentile = 7.5-12 bouts/d) and a median bout duration of 71 min (25th-75th percentile = 58-87 min/bout). Lameness was associated with cows lying down for 0.6 h/d longer in fewer, longer bouts. Increased lying time was also associated with increased parity, later stage of lactation and higher BCS. Older cows (parity ≥ 3) spent about 0.5 h/d more lying down compared with parity 1 cows, and cows with BCS ≥ 3.5 lay down on average 1 h/d longer than cows with BCS ≤ 2.25. Hock lesions were associated with shorter lying times in univariable models, but no associations were found in the

  18. Lying times of lactating cows on dairy farms with automatic milking systems and the relation to lameness, leg lesions, and body condition score.

    PubMed

    Westin, R; Vaughan, A; de Passillé, A M; DeVries, T J; Pajor, E A; Pellerin, D; Siegford, J M; Vasseur, E; Rushen, J

    2016-01-01

    Lying down and resting are important for optimal cow health, welfare, and production. In comparison with free stall farms with a milking parlor, farms with automated milking systems (AMS) may place less constraint on how long cows can lie down. However, few studies report lying times on AMS farms. The aims of this study were to describe the variation in lying times of dairy cows in AMS farms and to understand how much of the variation in individual lying times is related to cow-level factors, including lameness, the presence of hock and knee lesions, and body condition score (BCS). We visited 36 farms in Canada (Quebec: n = 10; Ontario: n = 10; British Columbia: n = 4; and Alberta: n = 5), and the United States (Michigan: n = 7). Gait scores, presence of hock and knee lesions, and BCS were recorded for 40 Holstein cows from each herd. Parity and days in milk were retrieved from farm records. Lying time was recorded across 4d using accelerometers (n = 1,377). Multivariable analysis was performed. Of scored cows, 15.1% were lame (i.e., obviously limping; 203 of 1,348 cows). Knee lesions were found in 27.1% (340 of 1,256 cows) and hock lesions were found in 30.8% (421 of 1,366 cows) of the animals. Daily lying time varied among cows. Cows spent a median duration of 11.4 h/d lying down (25th-75th percentile = 9.7-12.9 h), with a lying bout frequency of 9.5 bouts/d (25th-75th percentile = 7.5-12 bouts/d) and a median bout duration of 71 min (25th-75th percentile = 58-87 min/bout). Lameness was associated with cows lying down for 0.6 h/d longer in fewer, longer bouts. Increased lying time was also associated with increased parity, later stage of lactation and higher BCS. Older cows (parity ≥ 3) spent about 0.5 h/d more lying down compared with parity 1 cows, and cows with BCS ≥ 3.5 lay down on average 1 h/d longer than cows with BCS ≤ 2.25. Hock lesions were associated with shorter lying times in univariable models, but no associations were found in the

  19. Effect of variable water intake as mediated by dietary potassium carbonate supplementation on rumen dynamics in lactating dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water is a critical nutrient for dairy cows, with intake varying with environment, production, and diet. However, little work has evaluated the effects of water intake on rumen parameters. Using dietary potassium carbonate (Kcarb) as a K supplement to increase water intake, the objective of this stu...

  20. Associations between several aspects of heifer development and dairy cow survivability to second lactation.

    PubMed

    Bach, A

    2011-02-01

    A data set from 7,768 Holstein heifers born between 2004 and 2006, including growth rates from birth until first calving; age and body weight at insemination; and incidence of diarrhea, navel infections, and bovine respiratory disease (BRD) was used to evaluate potential associations between these factors and the odds of completing the first lactation. All heifers were raised in a contract heifer operation (Rancho Las Nieves, Mallen, Spain) and returned to their herds of origin (133 herds in total) before calving. Dates of death were provided by the Subdirección General de Explotaciones y Sistemas de Trazabilidad de los Recursos Agrícolas y Ganaderos from the Ministry of Environment, and Rural and Marine Areas of the Spanish government. At the time of analysis, 2,571 (33.1%) animals out of the 7,768 considered had died. In total, 655 (8.4%) heifers did not finish first lactation, and 31.5% of these left the herd within the first 50 DIM. Also, 4.8% of heifers aborted and were rebred. Data were analyzed using a mixed-effects logistic regression and survival analysis for dichotomous variables and a mixed-effects model for continuous ones. Incidence of diarrhea or navel infection was not associated with the chances of finishing the first lactation. Heifers that completed first lactation had a lesser average age at first calving (724 ± 2 d) than those that did not (737 ± 3 d). Heifers that reached second lactation grew (0.8 ± 0.04 kg/d) more between 12 and 65 d of age than those that did not (0.7 ± 0.04 kg/d). As conception rate decreased, chances of leaving the herd before completing the first lactation increased. The number of AI services needed per conception as a nulliparous heifer was negatively associated with survivorship to second lactation. Heifers that experienced an abortion were 2.73 ± 0.52 times more likely to leave the herd before completing the first lactation (but also calved with a much older age at first calving). Heifers that experienced 4 or

  1. Effects of corn-based diet starch content and neutral detergent fiber source on lactation performance, digestibility, and bacterial protein flow in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Fredin, S M; Akins, M S; Ferraretto, L F; Shaver, R D

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of corn-based dietary starch content and source of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) on lactation performance, nutrient digestion, bacterial protein flow, and ruminal parameters in lactating dairy cows. Eight ruminally cannulated multiparous Holstein cows averaging 193±11d in milk were randomly assigned to treatments in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design with 21-d periods. Treatment diets were high corn grain (HCG; 38% corn silage, 19% dry ground corn, and 4% soy hulls), high soy hulls (HSH; 38% corn silage, 11% dry ground corn, and 13% soy hulls), high corn silage (HCS; 50% corn silage, 6% dry ground corn, and 4% soy hulls), and low corn silage (LCS; 29% corn silage, 15% corn, and 19% soy hulls). The HCG, HSH, HCS, and LCS diets contained 29, 23, 24, and 22% starch; 27, 32, 30, and 32% total NDF; and 21, 21, 25, and 17% forage NDF (dry matter basis), respectively. Mean dry matter intake and milk yield were unaffected by treatment. Cows fed LCS had reduced milk fat content compared with HSH and HCS. The concentration of milk urea nitrogen was greater for cows fed HCS compared with the other treatments. Total-tract digestion of NDF was reduced for cows fed the HCG diet. Total-tract starch digestion was increased for cows fed the HSH and HCS compared with HCG and LCS diets. Bacterial protein flow was unaffected by treatment. Ruminal ammonia concentration was reduced in cows fed the HCG and LCS diets compared with the HCS diet. Ruminal propionate increased and the acetate:propionate ratio decreased in cows fed the LCS diet compared with the HCS diet. Ruminal pH was greater for cows fed the HCS diet compared with cows fed the LCS diet. Diet digestibility and performance of mid- to late-lactation cows fed reduced-starch diets by partially replacing corn grain with soy hulls or corn silage was similar to or improved compared with cows fed a normal-starch diet. PMID:25465633

  2. Effects of corn-based diet starch content and corn particle size on lactation performance, digestibility, and bacterial protein flow in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Fredin, S M; Ferraretto, L F; Akins, M S; Bertics, S J; Shaver, R D

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of dietary starch content in corn-based diets and corn particle size on lactation performance, nutrient digestibility, and bacterial protein flow in dairy cows using the omasal and reticular sampling technique. Eight ruminally cannulated lactating multiparous Holstein cows were used in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Treatments were fine (FG; mean particle size=552µm) and coarse (CG; 1,270µm) ground dry shelled corn in normal- (NS) and reduced- (RS) starch diets fed as total mixed rations. The NS and RS rations contained 27 and 18% starch (dry matter basis), respectively, and were formulated by partially replacing corn with soy hull pellets. Mean dry matter intake was unaffected by treatment (23.2kg/d). Cows fed NS diets produced 1.9kg/d more milk and 0.06kg/d more milk protein compared with cows fed RS diets. Cows fed NSFG and RSCG diets produced more fat-corrected milk than did cows fed NSCG and RSFG diets. Milk urea concentration was decreased for cows fed NS diets (12.4mg/dL) compared with RS diets (13.5mg/dL). Ruminal digestibility of neutral detergent fiber (NDF; % of NDF intake) determined by the omasal sampling technique was increased in cows fed RS diets compared with NS diets (43.4 vs. 34.9%), and total-tract digestibility of NDF (% of NDF intake) was increased in cows fed RS diets compared with those fed NS diets (50.1 vs. 43.1%). Ruminal digestibility of starch (% of starch intake) determined by the omasal sampling technique was greater in cows fed NS diets compared with those fed RS diets (85.6 vs. 81.6%). Total-tract starch digestion was increased in cows fed RS diets compared with those fed NS diets (96.9 vs. 94.6%) and in cows fed FG diets compared with those fed CG diets (98.0 vs. 93.5%). Bacterial protein flow was unaffected by treatment. The omasal and reticular sampling techniques resulted in similar treatment effects for nutrient flow

  3. Effects of transient changes in silage dry matter concentration on lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    McBeth, L R; St-Pierre, N R; Shoemaker, D E; Weiss, W P

    2013-06-01

    Transient changes in the dry matter (DM) concentration of silages often occur, which will cause transient changes in the ration. To determine the effects of a transient change in silage DM, 24 Holstein cows (116 d in milk) were used in an 8 replicated 3×3 Latin square design with 21-d periods. Treatments were (1) control, (2) unbalanced (UNBAL), and (3) balanced (BAL). The control diet was designed to have a consistent day-to-day forage:concentrate ratio of 55:45 on a DM basis. The UNBAL and BAL diets were the same as the control diet for most of the period except during two 3-d bouts when water was added to the silage (simulating a rain event) to cause a 10-percentage unit decrease in silage DM concentration. During the bouts, the UNBAL diet was the same as that of the control on an as-fed basis, but on a DM basis, the forage:concentrate ratio decreased to 49:51, which reduced dietary concentrations of DM (63.9 vs. 66.2%) and forage NDF (21.0 vs. 23.6%), and increased starch (30.4 vs. 28.4%). The BAL treatment corrected for the change in silage DM by an increase in the inclusion of wet silage and had the same composition as the control diet on a DM basis, except for ration DM (66.2 vs. 63.9%). Over the 21-d period, treatment did not affect DM intake (DMI; 24.0 kg/d); however, DMI of cows on the UNBAL and BAL treatments tended to decrease during the wet bouts, especially during the second bout. The day following both bouts, DMI of cows fed BAL and UNBAL diets were greater than that of cows fed the control diet, which contributed to the lack of a treatment effect on DMI over the entire period. Milk production was greater for the UNBAL than control cows (39.8 vs. 39.3 kg/d) over the 21-d period. That difference was largely caused by increased milk yield during the first bout by cows on the UNBAL diet. Over the 21-d period, milk yield did not differ between control and BAL cows. Some small differences in milk fat and protein concentrations (≤ 0.1 percentage units

  4. Effects of transient changes in silage dry matter concentration on lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    McBeth, L R; St-Pierre, N R; Shoemaker, D E; Weiss, W P

    2013-06-01

    Transient changes in the dry matter (DM) concentration of silages often occur, which will cause transient changes in the ration. To determine the effects of a transient change in silage DM, 24 Holstein cows (116 d in milk) were used in an 8 replicated 3×3 Latin square design with 21-d periods. Treatments were (1) control, (2) unbalanced (UNBAL), and (3) balanced (BAL). The control diet was designed to have a consistent day-to-day forage:concentrate ratio of 55:45 on a DM basis. The UNBAL and BAL diets were the same as the control diet for most of the period except during two 3-d bouts when water was added to the silage (simulating a rain event) to cause a 10-percentage unit decrease in silage DM concentration. During the bouts, the UNBAL diet was the same as that of the control on an as-fed basis, but on a DM basis, the forage:concentrate ratio decreased to 49:51, which reduced dietary concentrations of DM (63.9 vs. 66.2%) and forage NDF (21.0 vs. 23.6%), and increased starch (30.4 vs. 28.4%). The BAL treatment corrected for the change in silage DM by an increase in the inclusion of wet silage and had the same composition as the control diet on a DM basis, except for ration DM (66.2 vs. 63.9%). Over the 21-d period, treatment did not affect DM intake (DMI; 24.0 kg/d); however, DMI of cows on the UNBAL and BAL treatments tended to decrease during the wet bouts, especially during the second bout. The day following both bouts, DMI of cows fed BAL and UNBAL diets were greater than that of cows fed the control diet, which contributed to the lack of a treatment effect on DMI over the entire period. Milk production was greater for the UNBAL than control cows (39.8 vs. 39.3 kg/d) over the 21-d period. That difference was largely caused by increased milk yield during the first bout by cows on the UNBAL diet. Over the 21-d period, milk yield did not differ between control and BAL cows. Some small differences in milk fat and protein concentrations (≤ 0.1 percentage units

  5. Effects of Different Protein Supplements on Omasal Nutrient Flow and Microbial Protein Synthesis in Lactating Dairy Cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eight ruminally cannulated Holstein cows that were part of a larger lactation trial were used in 2 replicated 4 x 4 Latin squares to quantify effects of supplementing protein as urea, solvent soybean meal (SSBM), cottonseed meal (CSM), or canola meal (CM) on omasal nutrient flows and microbial prote...

  6. Shedding of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis into milk and colostrum of naturally infected dairy cows over complete lactation cycles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The primary mode of transmission of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is fecal-oral. However, MAP is also shed into the milk and colostrum of infected cows. The objective of this study was to identify if an association exists between stage of MAP infection and days in lactation with ...

  7. Massive vulvar edema in 2 prepartum dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Soon Hon; Gilbert, Robert O

    2014-05-01

    Two late gestation Holstein cows about to begin the third lactation developed massive vulvar edema. These were the only affected animals in the herd of 500 milking cows. The vulvar edema spontaneously regressed postpartum for both cows. Massive vulvar swelling is seldom observed in dairy cows in advanced pregnancy and is not described in the literature.

  8. Once-daily milking during a feed deficit decreases milk production but improves energy status in early lactating grazing dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kay, J K; Phyn, C V C; Rius, A G; Morgan, S R; Grala, T M; Roche, J R

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of milking frequency (MF) at 2 feeding levels (FL) on milk production, body condition score, and metabolic indicators of energy status in grazing dairy cows during early lactation. Multiparous Holstein-Friesian and Holstein-Friesian × Jersey cows (n=120) grazed pasture and were milked twice daily (2×) from calving until 34 ± 6 d in milk (mean ± standard deviation). Cows were then allocated to 1 of 4 treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Treatments consisted of 2 FL: adequately fed [AF; 14.3 kg dry matter intake (DMI)/cow per d] or underfed (UF; 8.3 kg of DMI/cow per d) and 2 MF: 2× or once daily (1×). Treatments were imposed for 3 wk. After the treatment period, all cows were offered a generous pasture allowance (grazing residuals >1,600 kg of dry matter/ha) and milked 2×. During the 3-wk treatment period, we observed an interaction between FL and MF for energy-corrected milk (ECM), such that the decrease due to 1× milking was greater in AF than in UF cows (20 and 14% decrease, respectively). No interactions were found posttreatment. Cows previously UF produced 7% less ECM than AF cows during wk 4 to 12; however, no subsequent effect was observed of the previous underfeeding. Cows previously milked 1× produced 5% less ECM during wk 4 to 12, and differences remained during wk 13 to 23. During the 3-wk treatment period, UF cows lost 0.2 body condition score units (1-10 scale) and this was not affected by 1× milking. During the treatment period, UF cows had lower plasma glucose, insulin, and insulin-like growth factor I, and greater nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations than AF cows. Cows milked 1× had greater plasma glucose, insulin, and insulin-like growth factor I, and lower nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations compared with cows milked 2×. In conclusion, energy status was improved by 1× milking; however, when UF cows were milked 1

  9. The endometrial expression of prostaglandin cascade components in lactating dairy cows fed different polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Dirandeh, E; Towhidi, A; Pirsaraei, Z Ansari; Saberifar, T; Akhlaghi, A; Roodbari, A Rezaei

    2015-01-15

    Feeding n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) increases the endometrial percentages of linoleic and arachidonic acids (AA), enhances the synthesis of prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α), and improves uterine health. In contrary, the n-3 PUFA, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid may play pivotal roles by suppressing the synthesis of uterine PGF2α, a component being centrally involved in the control of the bovine estrous cycle and in early embryo survival. The objectives of the present study were to determine the effect of feeding a diet enriched in either α-linolenic acid (n-3) or linolenic acid (n-6) on the uterine expression of genes related to prostaglandin cascade and uterine release of PGF2α (measured as 13, 14-dihydro-15-keto PGF2α [PGFM]). From calving to 60 days in milk, cows (n = 24) were fed isonitrogenous, isocaloric, and isolipidic diets that differed in the ratio of n-3/n-6 PUFA. Treatments including palm oil ([PLM]; saturated FA, n = 8), soybean whole roast ([SOY]; n-6, n = 8), and linseed extruded ([LIN]; n-3, n = 8). At 30 days in milk, the ovulatory cycles of cows were synchronized using 2 injections of PGF2α with a 14-day interval. On day 15 postovulation, cows were injected with oxytocin and blood samples were collected to monitor the uterine release of PGF2α (measured as PGFM) and uterine endometrial biopsies were prepared to evaluate the expression of genes related to prostaglandin cascade (prostaglandin F synthase [PGFS], prostaglandin E synthase [PGES], prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase-2 [PGHS-2]), phospholipase A2 (PLA2), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors [PPAR]). Results showed that uterine endometrial PPAR-δ genes were higher in cows fed LIN (3.17-fold) compared with cows fed PLM or SOY (P < 0.05). The messenger RNA (mRNA) level of PGES in the LIN group was threefold as high as those found in SOY and PLM diets (P < 0.05). The mean relative gene expression of PLA2 and PGFS was increased in animals fed the SOY diet (2

  10. Associations of cytological endometritis with energy metabolism and inflammation during the periparturient period and early lactation in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Yasui, T; McCann, K; Gilbert, R O; Nydam, D V; Overton, T R

    2014-05-01

    Multiparous Holstein cows (n=108) were used to determine the associations of cytological endometritis (CE) with plasma nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) as markers of energy metabolism, calculated energy balance (EB), and plasma haptoglobin (Hp) as a marker of inflammation during the periparturient period and early lactation. Evaluation of endometrial cytology by low-volume uterine lavage was conducted on 1d between 40 and 60 d postcalving. The incidence of CE among cows sampled was 40%. The area under the curve (AUC) was calculated for both NEFA and BHBA using data collected from 3 wk before to 3 wk after parturition. Data for NEFA and BHBA AUC were stratified into prepartum (wk -3 to parturition) and postpartum (parturition to wk +3) for statistical analysis. Prepartum AUC for neither NEFA nor BHBA was associated with subsequent CE; however, cows that subsequently developed CE tended to have higher postpartum AUC for NEFA and had higher postpartum AUC for BHBA. Consistent with the results for plasma NEFA and BHBA, calculated EB during the prepartum period was not different in cows that did or did not develop CE; however, cows with CE had lower EB during the 6-wk postpartum period compared with cows without CE. Analysis of EB by week (wk -3 to -1 before calving and wk +1 to +6 postcalving) indicated that EB in cows with CE was lower at wk +1, +2, and +3 and tended to be lower at wk +6 than cows without CE. Plasma Hp concentrations were analyzed from wk +1 to +8 of lactation; concentrations of Hp were not different during either wk +1 or the entire postpartum period between cows that did or did not develop CE. These results suggest that lower energy status during the first 3 wk postpartum, but not necessarily systemic inflammation, is associated with subsequent development of CE. PMID:24612816

  11. Differences in the Rumen Methanogen Populations of Lactating Jersey and Holstein Dairy Cows under the Same Diet Regimen▿†

    PubMed Central

    King, Erin E.; Smith, Rachel P.; St-Pierre, Benoit; Wright, André-Denis G.

    2011-01-01

    In the dairy cattle industry, Holstein and Jersey are the breeds most commonly used for production. They differ in performance by various traits, such as body size, milk production, and milk composition. With increased concerns about the impact of agriculture on climate change, potential differences in other traits, such as methane emission, also need to be characterized further. Since methane is produced in the rumen by methanogenic archaea, we investigated whether the population structure of methanogen communities would differ between Holsteins and Jerseys. Breed-specific rumen methanogen 16S rRNA gene clone libraries were constructed from pooled PCR products obtained from lactating Holstein and Jersey cows, generating 180 and 185 clones, respectively. The combined 365 sequences were assigned to 55 species-level operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Twenty OTUs, representing 85% of the combined library sequences, were common to both breeds, while 23 OTUs (36 sequences) were found only in the Holstein library and 12 OTUs (18 sequences) were found only in the Jersey library, highlighting increased diversity in the Holstein library. Other differences included the observation that sequences with species-like sequence identity to Methanobrevibacter millerae were represented more highly in the Jersey breed, while Methanosphaera-related sequences and novel uncultured methanogen clones were more frequent in the Holstein library. In contrast, OTU sequences with species-level sequence identity to Methanobrevibacter ruminantium were represented similarly in both libraries. Since the sampled animals were from a single herd consisting of two breeds which were fed the same diet and maintained under the same environmental conditions, the differences we observed may be due to differences in host breed genetics. PMID:21705541

  12. Ruminal Bacterial Community Composition in Dairy Cows Is Dynamic over the Course of Two Lactations and Correlates with Feed Efficiency.

    PubMed

    Jewell, Kelsea A; McCormick, Caroline A; Odt, Christine L; Weimer, Paul J; Suen, Garret

    2015-07-01

    Fourteen Holstein cows of similar ages were monitored through their first two lactation cycles, during which ruminal solids and liquids, milk samples, production data, and feed consumption data were collected for each cow during early (76 to 82 days in milk [DIM]), middle (151 to 157 DIM), and late (251 to 257 DIM) lactation periods. The bacterial community of each ruminal sample was determined by sequencing the region from V6 to V8 of the 16S rRNA gene using 454 pyrosequencing. Gross feed efficiency (GFE) for each cow was calculated by dividing her energy-corrected milk by dry matter intake (ECM/DMI) for each period of both lactation cycles. Four pairs of cows were identified that differed in milk production efficiency, as defined by residual feed intake (RFI), at the same level of ECM production. The most abundant phyla detected for all cows were Bacteroidetes (49.42%), Firmicutes (39.32%), Proteobacteria (5.67%), and Tenericutes (2.17%), and the most abundant genera included Prevotella (40.15%), Butyrivibrio (2.38%), Ruminococcus (2.35%), Coprococcus (2.29%), and Succiniclasticum (2.28%). The bacterial microbiota between the first and second lactation cycles were highly similar, but with a significant correlation between total community composition by ruminal phase and specific bacteria whose relative sequence abundances displayed significant positive or negative correlation with GFE or RFI. These data suggest that the ruminal bacterial community is dynamic in terms of membership and diversity and that specific members are associated with high and low milk production efficiency over two lactation cycles.

  13. Ruminal Bacterial Community Composition in Dairy Cows Is Dynamic over the Course of Two Lactations and Correlates with Feed Efficiency.

    PubMed

    Jewell, Kelsea A; McCormick, Caroline A; Odt, Christine L; Weimer, Paul J; Suen, Garret

    2015-07-01

    Fourteen Holstein cows of similar ages were monitored through their first two lactation cycles, during which ruminal solids and liquids, milk samples, production data, and feed consumption data were collected for each cow during early (76 to 82 days in milk [DIM]), middle (151 to 157 DIM), and late (251 to 257 DIM) lactation periods. The bacterial community of each ruminal sample was determined by sequencing the region from V6 to V8 of the 16S rRNA gene using 454 pyrosequencing. Gross feed efficiency (GFE) for each cow was calculated by dividing her energy-corrected milk by dry matter intake (ECM/DMI) for each period of both lactation cycles. Four pairs of cows were identified that differed in milk production efficiency, as defined by residual feed intake (RFI), at the same level of ECM production. The most abundant phyla detected for all cows were Bacteroidetes (49.42%), Firmicutes (39.32%), Proteobacteria (5.67%), and Tenericutes (2.17%), and the most abundant genera included Prevotella (40.15%), Butyrivibrio (2.38%), Ruminococcus (2.35%), Coprococcus (2.29%), and Succiniclasticum (2.28%). The bacterial microbiota between the first and second lactation cycles were highly similar, but with a significant correlation between total community composition by ruminal phase and specific bacteria whose relative sequence abundances displayed significant positive or negative correlation with GFE or RFI. These data suggest that the ruminal bacterial community is dynamic in terms of membership and diversity and that specific members are associated with high and low milk production efficiency over two lactation cycles. PMID:25934629

  14. Ruminal Bacterial Community Composition in Dairy Cows Is Dynamic over the Course of Two Lactations and Correlates with Feed Efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Jewell, Kelsea A.; McCormick, Caroline A.; Odt, Christine L.; Weimer, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    Fourteen Holstein cows of similar ages were monitored through their first two lactation cycles, during which ruminal solids and liquids, milk samples, production data, and feed consumption data were collected for each cow during early (76 to 82 days in milk [DIM]), middle (151 to 157 DIM), and late (251 to 257 DIM) lactation periods. The bacterial community of each ruminal sample was determined by sequencing the region from V6 to V8 of the 16S rRNA gene using 454 pyrosequencing. Gross feed efficiency (GFE) for each cow was calculated by dividing her energy-corrected milk by dry matter intake (ECM/DMI) for each period of both lactation cycles. Four pairs of cows were identified that differed in milk production efficiency, as defined by residual feed intake (RFI), at the same level of ECM production. The most abundant phyla detected for all cows were Bacteroidetes (49.42%), Firmicutes (39.32%), Proteobacteria (5.67%), and Tenericutes (2.17%), and the most abundant genera included Prevotella (40.15%), Butyrivibrio (2.38%), Ruminococcus (2.35%), Coprococcus (2.29%), and Succiniclasticum (2.28%). The bacterial microbiota between the first and second lactation cycles were highly similar, but with a significant correlation between total community composition by ruminal phase and specific bacteria whose relative sequence abundances displayed significant positive or negative correlation with GFE or RFI. These data suggest that the ruminal bacterial community is dynamic in terms of membership and diversity and that specific members are associated with high and low milk production efficiency over two lactation cycles. PMID:25934629

  15. Longitudinal Profiling of the Tissue-Specific Expression of Genes Related with Insulin Sensitivity in Dairy Cows during Lactation Focusing on Different Fat Depots

    PubMed Central

    Saremi, Behnam; Winand, Sarah; Friedrichs, Paula; Kinoshita, Asako; Rehage, Jürgen; Dänicke, Sven; Häussler, Susanne; Breves, Gerhard; Mielenz, Manfred; Sauerwein, Helga

    2014-01-01

    In dairy cows the milk associated energy output in early lactation exceeds the input via voluntary feed intake. To spare glucose for mammary lactose synthesis, peripheral insulin sensitivity (IS) is reduced and fat mobilization is stimulated. For these processes a link between IS and the endocrine functions of adipose tissue (AT) is likely; we thus aimed to characterise the mRNA expression from bovine AT derived proteins and receptors that are related to IS according to the literature in metabolically active tissues plus systemic IS throughout lactation. Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) reduce milk fat thus decreasing the milk drain of energy and potentially dampening lipolysis, but may also affect IS. Subcutaneous (s.c.) AT and liver from pluriparous cows receiving either control fat or CLA supplement (100 g/day from 1 to 182 days in milk each) were biopsied covering week −3 to 36 relative to parturition. In an additional trial with primiparous cows treated analogously and slaughtered on days in milk 1, 42 or 105, samples from liver, udder, skeletal muscle and 3 visceral and 3 s.c. AT were obtained and assayed for mRNA abundance of adiponectin, its receptors, leptin, leptin receptor, PPARγ, PPARγ2, IL-6, and TNF-α. In pluriparous animals, the mRNA abundance of most of the target genes decreased after parturition in s.c. AT but increased in liver. In primiparous cows, AT depot specific differences were mostly related to retroperitoneal AT; adiponectin receptor 1 and TNF-α were affected predominantly. CLA effects in primiparous cows were largely limited to decreased PPARγ2 mRNA abundance in udder tissue. In pluriparous cows, insulin secretion was increased by CLA resulting in decreased systemic IS but without consistent changes in tissue target mRNA abundance. The temporal gene expression profiles from the adipokines and related receptors support their coactive function in adapting to the needs of lactation. PMID:24465964

  16. Reproductive performance of lactating dairy cows managed for first service using timed artificial insemination with or without detection of estrus using an activity-monitoring system.

    PubMed

    Fricke, P M; Giordano, J O; Valenza, A; Lopes, G; Amundson, M C; Carvalho, P D

    2014-05-01

    Lactating dairy cows (n=1,025) on a commercial dairy farm were randomly assigned at 10 ± 3 d in milk (DIM) to 1 of 3 treatments for submitting cows to first artificial insemination (AI) and were fitted with activity-monitoring tags (Heatime; SCR Engineers Ltd., Netanya, Israel) at 24 ± 3 DIM. Cows (n=339) in treatment 1 were inseminated based on increased activity from the end of the voluntary waiting period (50 DIM) until submission to an Ovsynch protocol; cows without increased activity from 21 to 65 DIM began an Ovsynch protocol at 65 ± 3 DIM, whereas cows without increased activity from 21 to 50 DIM but not from 51 to 79 DIM began an Ovsynch protocol at 79 ± 3 DIM. Cows (n=340) in treatment 2 were inseminated based on activity after the second PGF2α injection of a Presynch-Ovsynch protocol at 50 DIM, and cows without increased activity began an Ovsynch protocol at 65 ± 3 DIM. Cows (n=346) in treatment 3 were monitored for activity after the second PGF2α injection of a Presynch-Ovsynch protocol, but all cows received timed AI (TAI) at 75 ± 3 DIM after completing the Presynch-Ovsynch protocol. The activity-monitoring system detected increased activity in 56, 69, and 70% of cows in treatments 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Treatment-2 cows had the fewest average days to first AI (62.5), treatment-3 cows had the most average days to first AI (74.9), and treatment-1 cows had intermediate average days to first AI (67.4). Treatment-1 and -2 cows in which inseminations occurred as a combination between increased activity and TAI had fewer overall pregnancies per AI (P/AI) 35 d after AI (32% for both treatments) compared with treatment-3 cows, all of which received TAI after completing the Presynch-Ovsynch protocol (40%). Based on survival analysis, although the rate at which cows were inseminated differed among treatments, treatment did not affect the proportion of cows pregnant by 300 DIM. Thus, use of an activity-monitoring system to inseminate cows based on

  17. Cardiac autonomic activity has a circadian rhythm in summer but not in winter in non-lactating pregnant dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kovács, Levente; Kézér, Fruzsina Luca; Ruff, Ferenc; Szenci, Ottó

    2016-03-01

    This investigation was conducted to examine circadian and seasonal rhythms of heart rate and heart rate variability (HRV) by means of hour-by-hour recordings over 24h in a large population of non-lactating Holstein-Friesian pregnant cows [N=56, summer (June-July); N=61, winter (November-December)]. Data were collected during a 5-day period from each animal. Besides parameters of cardiac autonomic function [the high-frequency (HF) component of HRV and the ratio between the low-frequency (LF) and the HF components (LF/HF ratio)], the RR triangular index and Lmax were calculated. A clear circadian profile was observed for every parameter in summer. Heart rate elevated gradually with the course of the day from 7:00 to 17:00 o'clock and then slightly decreased from 18:00 to 6:00. Sympathovagal balance shifted towards sympathetic dominance during the daytime (increased LF/HF ratio), whereas parasympathetic activity was predominant during the night (increased HF). Lmax reflected a chaotic behavior of heart rate fluctuations during the afternoon in summer. Decreased values of RR triangular index indicated a sensitive period for cows between 14:00 and 16:00 o'clock in summer. During winter, except for the RR triangular (RRtri) index reflecting a high overall variability in R-R intervals between 12:00 and 23:00 o'clock, heart rate and HRV showed no periodicity over the 24-h period. The results suggest an impaired cardiac autonomic function during daytime in summer. HF, Lmax and RRtri index showed seasonal differences for both daytime and nighttime. Heart rate was higher in summer than in winter during the daytime, whereas the LF/HF ratio was higher in winter during the nighttime. Circadian and seasonal rhythms of cardiovascular function are presumably related to the differing temperature, and animal activity associated with summer and winter. As all of the investigated parameters are commonly used in bovine HRV research, these findings have practical implications for

  18. Glucose supplementation stimulates peripheral branched-chain amino acid catabolism in lactating dairy cows during essential amino acid infusions.

    PubMed

    Nichols, K; Kim, J J M; Carson, M; Metcalf, J A; Cant, J P; Doelman, J

    2016-02-01

    To determine how glucose modulates protein synthesis when essential AA are in abundant supply, 5 early-lactation, rumen-fistulated Holstein dairy cows were fed a diet containing 6.95 MJ/kg of net energy for lactation and 12.4% crude protein and abomasally infused for 5 d with saline, 844 or 1,126 g/d of a complete essential AA mix, with and without the inclusion of 1,000 g/d of glucose, in a 5×5 Latin square design. Infusion of essential AA increased milk yield by 4.1 kg/d, milk protein by 256 g/d, milk fat by 95 g/d, and milk urea nitrogen by 70% compared with saline, with no differences between the level of essential AA infusion. The addition of glucose to essential AA infusate did not stimulate milk protein yield or concentration, but reduced milk urea nitrogen by 17% and decreased milk fat yield. Arterial concentrations of total essential AA increased 3- to 4-fold, mammary clearance decreased 61%, and mammary uptake of essential AA increased 65% in response to essential AA infusion. Arterial branched-chain AA concentrations declined 29% in response to glucose and mammary clearance increased 48%, but mammary AA uptake was unchanged. Essential AA infusion increased plasma 3-methylhistidine by 50% and reduced muscle branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase kinase abundance by 14%, indicating stimulation of muscle protein turnover and branched-chain AA catabolism, respectively. Glucose had no further effect on muscle branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase kinase abundance but decreased mRNA expression of branched chain aminotransferase 1. Lack of further increases in plasma 3-methylhistidine or greater stimulation of muscle branched-chain AA catabolism indicates that muscle protein degradation was unchanged with glucose but that accretion may have been stimulated. The decrease in circulating branched-chain AA concentrations and nitrogen excretion in response to glucose suggests that surplus essential AA were redirected to peripheral, extra-mammary tissues.

  19. Effect of niacin supplementation on rumen fermentation characteristics and nutrient flow at the duodenum in lactating dairy cows fed a diet with a negative rumen nitrogen balance.

    PubMed

    Aschemann, Martina; Lebzien, Peter; Hüther, Liane; Südekum, Karl-Heinz; Dänicke, Sven

    2012-08-01

    The aim of the present experiment was to ascertain if a daily niacin supplementation of 6 g/cow to lactating dairy cow diets can compensate for the decrease in rumen microbial fermentation due to a negative rumen nitrogen balance (RNB). A total of nine ruminally and duodenally fistulated lactating multiparous German Holstein cows was used. The diets consisted of 10 kg dry matter (DM) maize silage and 7 kg DM concentrate and differed as follows: (i) Diet RNB- (n = 6) with energy and utilisable crude protein (CP) at the duodenum (uCP) according to the average requirement of the animals, but with a negative RNB (-0.41 g N/MJ metabolisable energy [ME]); (ii) Diet RNB0 (n = 7) with energy, uCP, and RNB (0.08 g N/MJ ME) according to the average requirement of the animals; and (iii) Diet NA (nicotinic acid; n = 5), which was the same diet as RNB-, but supplemented with 6 g niacin/d. The negative RNB affected the rumen fermentation pattern and reduced ammonia content in rumen fluid and the daily duodenal flows of microbial CP (MP) and uCP. Niacin supplementation increased the apparent ruminal digestibility of neutral detergent fibre. The efficiency of microbial protein synthesis per unit of rumen degradable CP was higher, whereby the amount of MP reaching the duodenum was unaffected by niacin supplementation. The number of protozoa in rumen fluid was higher in NA treatment. The results indicated a more efficient use of rumen degradable N due to changes in the microbial population in the rumen when niacin was supplemented to diets deficient in RNB for lactating dairy cows. PMID:22924176

  20. Effect of niacin supplementation on rumen fermentation characteristics and nutrient flow at the duodenum in lactating dairy cows fed a diet with a negative rumen nitrogen balance.

    PubMed

    Aschemann, Martina; Lebzien, Peter; Hüther, Liane; Südekum, Karl-Heinz; Dänicke, Sven

    2012-08-01

    The aim of the present experiment was to ascertain if a daily niacin supplementation of 6 g/cow to lactating dairy cow diets can compensate for the decrease in rumen microbial fermentation due to a negative rumen nitrogen balance (RNB). A total of nine ruminally and duodenally fistulated lactating multiparous German Holstein cows was used. The diets consisted of 10 kg dry matter (DM) maize silage and 7 kg DM concentrate and differed as follows: (i) Diet RNB- (n = 6) with energy and utilisable crude protein (CP) at the duodenum (uCP) according to the average requirement of the animals, but with a negative RNB (-0.41 g N/MJ metabolisable energy [ME]); (ii) Diet RNB0 (n = 7) with energy, uCP, and RNB (0.08 g N/MJ ME) according to the average requirement of the animals; and (iii) Diet NA (nicotinic acid; n = 5), which was the same diet as RNB-, but supplemented with 6 g niacin/d. The negative RNB affected the rumen fermentation pattern and reduced ammonia content in rumen fluid and the daily duodenal flows of microbial CP (MP) and uCP. Niacin supplementation increased the apparent ruminal digestibility of neutral detergent fibre. The efficiency of microbial protein synthesis per unit of rumen degradable CP was higher, whereby the amount of MP reaching the duodenum was unaffected by niacin supplementation. The number of protozoa in rumen fluid was higher in NA treatment. The results indicated a more efficient use of rumen degradable N due to changes in the microbial population in the rumen when niacin was supplemented to diets deficient in RNB for lactating dairy cows.

  1. Expression of genes involved in hepatic carnitine synthesis and uptake in dairy cows in the transition period and at different stages of lactation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In rodents and pigs, it has shown that carnitine synthesis and uptake of carnitine into cells are regulated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARA), a transcription factor which is physiologically activated during fasting or energy deprivation. Dairy cows are typically in a negative energy balance during early lactation. We investigated the hypothesis that genes of carnitine synthesis and uptake in dairy cows are enhanced during early lactation. Results mRNA abundances of PPARA and some of its classical target genes and genes involved in carnitine biosynthesis [trimethyllysine dioxygenase (TMLHE), 4-N-trimethylaminobutyraldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH9A1), γ-butyrobetaine dioxygenase (BBOX1)] and uptake of carnitine [novel organic cation transporter 2 (SLC22A5)] as well as carnitine concentrations in liver biopsy samples of 20 dairy cows in late pregnancy (3 wk prepartum) and early lactation (1 wk, 5 wk, 14 wk postpartum) were determined. From 3 wk prepartum to 1 wk postpartum, mRNA abundances of PPARΑ and several PPARΑ target genes involved in fatty acid uptake, fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis in the liver were strongly increased. Simultaneously, mRNA abundances of enzymes of carnitine synthesis (TMLHE: 10-fold; ALDH9A1: 6-fold; BBOX1: 1.8-fold) and carnitine uptake (SLC22A5: 13-fold) and the concentration of carnitine in the liver were increased from 3 wk prepartum to 1 wk postpartum (P < 0.05). From 1 wk to 5 and 14 wk postpartum, mRNA abundances of these genes and hepatic carnitine concentrations were declining (P < 0.05). There were moreover positive correlations between plasma concentrations of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and hepatic carnitine concentrations at 1 wk, 5 wk and 14 wk postpartum (P < 0.05). Conclusions The results of this study show for the first time that the expression of hepatic genes of carnitine synthesis and cellular uptake of carnitine is enhanced in dairy cows during early lactation. These changes

  2. Effects of monensin and starch level in early lactation diets on indices of immune function in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Yasui, T; McCarthy, M M; Ryan, C M; Gilbert, R O; Felippe, M J B; Mechor, G D; Overton, T R

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary starch level and monensin on immune function. Prior to parturition, primiparous (n=21) and multiparous (n=49) Holstein cows were fed a common controlled energy close-up diet with a daily topdress of either 0 or 400 mg/d monensin. From 1 to 21 d in milk (DIM), cows were fed a high-starch (HS; 26.2% starch) or low-starch (LS; 21.5% starch) total mixed ration with a daily topdress of either 0 or 450 mg of monensin/d continuing with prepartum topdress assignment. From 22 through 63 DIM, all cows were fed HS and continued with assigned topdress treatment until 63 DIM. Endometrial cytology and whole-blood immune function were assessed at 8 DIM and on 1 d between 40 and 60 DIM. At 8 DIM, cows fed HS had an increased percentage (%) of phagocytic monocytes and tended to have a greater phagocytosis index (% of positive cells × mean fluorescence intensity) in monocytes compared with cows fed LS. At 8 DIM, cows fed HS also tended to have a higher percentage of monocytes involved in oxidative burst and a higher monocyte oxidative burst index compared with LS cows. At 8 DIM, blood polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) isolated from cows fed monensin during the periparturient period tended to have higher PMN glycogen content compared with control cows. At 40 to 60 DIM, the incidence of cytological endometritis as diagnosed by uterine cytology was not affected by dietary treatment. However, at 40 to 60 DIM, cows fed monensin had an increased percentage of Escherichia coli-stimulated PMN, tended to have a greater percentage of monocytes involved in oxidative burst, and tended to have an increased E. coli-stimulated monocyte oxidative burst index. At 40 to 60 DIM, blood PMN isolated from cows fed HS during early lactation had higher PMN glycogen content compared with cows fed LS during early lactation. Overall, results suggest that feeding higher starch diets postpartum and peripartal supplementation with monensin may

  3. Effect of core body temperature, time of day, and climate conditions on behavioral patterns of lactating dairy cows experiencing mild to moderate heat stress.

    PubMed

    Allen, J D; Hall, L W; Collier, R J; Smith, J F

    2015-01-01

    Cattle show several responses to heat load, including spending more time standing. Little is known about what benefit this may provide for the animals. Data from 3 separate cooling management trials were analyzed to investigate the relationship between behavioral patterns in lactating dairy cows experiencing mild to moderate heat stress and their body temperature. Cows (n=157) were each fitted with a leg data logger that measured position and an intravaginal data logger that measures core body temperature (CBT). Ambient conditions were also collected. All data were standardized to 5-min intervals, and information was divided into several categories: when standing and lying bouts were initiated and the continuance of each bout (7,963 lying and 6,276 standing bouts). In one location, cows were continuously subjected to heat-stress levels according to temperature-humidity index (THI) range (THI≥72). The THI range for the other 2 locations was below and above a heat-stress threshold of 72 THI. Overall and regardless of period of day, cows stood up at greater CBT compared with continuing to stand or switching to a lying position. In contrast, cows lay down at lower CBT compared with continuing to lie or switching to a standing position, and lying bouts lasted longer when cows had lower CBT. Standing bouts also lasted longer when cattle had greater CBT, and they were less likely to lie down (less than 50% of lying bouts initiated) when their body temperature was over 38.8°C. Also, cow standing behavior was affected once THI reached 68. Increasing CBT decreased lying duration and increased standing duration. A CBT of 38.93°C marked a 50% likelihood a cow would be standing. This is the first physiological evidence that standing may help cool cows and provides insight into a communally observed behavioral response to heat.

  4. Effect of changes in diet energy density on feed intake, milk yield and metabolic parameters in dairy cows in early lactation.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, N I; Friggens, N C; Larsen, T; Andersen, J B; Nielsen, M O; Ingvartsen, K L

    2007-03-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to investigate how early lactating cows adjust their metabolism and production to acute, but moderate changes in the energy density of the diet. Sixty dairy cows were randomly assigned to one of four treatments: two change-over groups (HNH and NHN) and two control groups (HHH and NNN), where H and N refer to a high and normal energy density in the total mixed ration (TMR), respectively. The experimental period covered the first 9 weeks post calving, which was split up in three 3-week periods. Thus, cows assigned to HNH or NHN shifted TMR in weeks 4 and 7 after calving while cows assigned to HHH or NNN were fed the same TMR for all 9 weeks. Results from cows on treatment HNH were compared with group HHH while cows on treatment NHN were compared with group NNN. When the diet changed from N to H and H to N, cows increased and decreased their dry-matter intake (DMI), respectively compared with control groups. Cows adjusted milk yield accordingly to changes in DMI, although not always significantly. Energy-corrected milk yield was not significantly affected by any of the changes in the energy density of the diet but generally showed same tendencies as milk yield. Non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), beta-hydroxybutyrate in blood and milk and triacylglycerol and glycogen content in the liver were not significantly affected by changes in the energy density of the diet, except from NEFA at one change. Glucose increased more when the diet changed from N to H and increased less when the diet changed from H to N, compared with control groups, although not always significantly. Collectively, these results suggest that cows adjust their DMI and partly milk yield according to the energy density of the diet and therefore only limited effects were observed in physiological parameters. PMID:22444331

  5. An investigation of the effects of ketoprofen following rumen fistulation surgery in lactating dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    Newby, Nathalie C.; Tucker, Cassandra B.; Pearl, David L.; LeBlanc, Stephen J.; Leslie, Ken E.; von Keyserlingk, Marina A.G.; Duffield, Todd F.

    2014-01-01

    Post-operative pain management following rumen surgery is not common practice. We examined the effect of providing the pain medication ketoprofen to dairy cattle following the first stage of a rumen cannulation surgery, which involves an incision in the body wall and exteriorizing and clamping the rumen. The results of this study provide clear evidence that the first stage of the surgery was painful and ketoprofen at the time of and 24 h following surgery, alleviated some, but not all, of the post-surgical pain. Pain mitigation should be included when performing flank surgery in cattle. PMID:24790229

  6. An investigation of the effects of ketoprofen following rumen fistulation surgery in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Newby, Nathalie C; Tucker, Cassandra B; Pearl, David L; LeBlanc, Stephen J; Leslie, Ken E; von Keyserlingk, Marina A G; Duffield, Todd F

    2014-05-01

    Post-operative pain management following rumen surgery is not common practice. We examined the effect of providing the pain medication ketoprofen to dairy cattle following the first stage of a rumen cannulation surgery, which involves an incision in the body wall and exteriorizing and clamping the rumen. The results of this study provide clear evidence that the first stage of the surgery was painful and ketoprofen at the time of and 24 h following surgery, alleviated some, but not all, of the post-surgical pain. Pain mitigation should be included when performing flank surgery in cattle.

  7. Postpartum levels of 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α in plasma and milk phospholipid fractions as biomarker of oxidative stress in first-lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Vernunft, A; Viergutz, T; Plinski, C; Weitzel, J M

    2014-08-01

    F2-isoprostanes such as 8-iso-prostaglandin F2 (8-iso-PGF2α) are formed by free radical-catalyzed mechanisms from membrane phospholipids and from low density lipoproteins through peroxidation of arachidonic acid. Esterified 8-iso-PGF2α is cleaved by phospholipases, circulates in blood and is excreted as putatively harmful oxidatively modified lipid via the kidney into urine. In this study we demonstrate that 8-iso-PGF2α concentrations in plasma samples from heifers are higher (p<0.005) compared to those from first-lactating dairy cows at 71 days postpartum. Furthermore, plasma 8-iso-PGF2α concentrations vary with ovarian activity and differ in response to luteolytic initiation as well as activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis between heifers and first-lactating cows. Sustainable concentrations of 8-iso-PGF2α (50-150 pg/ml) are detectable in the phospholipid fraction of milk, suggesting milk as an additional excretion route for 8-isoprostanes. Plasma levels largely paralleled levels in milk (p<0.001). Plasma phospholipid 8-iso-PGF2α concentrations in cyclic cows decreased (p<0.05) from day 38 to day 71 postpartum, whereas milk phospholipid 8-iso-PGF2α rather increased (p<0.05). Cyclic cows tend to have higher 8-isoprostane levels compared to acyclic animals. In contrast to lipohydroperoxides, concentration of 8-iso-PGF2α were not correlated with milk yield (p>0.05). Our data indicate 8-iso-PGF2α may be a novel biomarker of oxidative stress in dairy cow, which is detectable in blood as well as in milk.

  8. The effect of G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) on lactation and on proliferation of mammary epithelial cells from dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hou, Xiaoming; Hu, Hongliu; Lin, Ye; Qu, Bo; Gao, Xuejun; Li, Qingzhang

    2016-07-01

    Milk protein is an important component of milk and a nutritional source for human consumption. To better understand the molecular events underlying synthesis of milk proteins, the global gene expression patterns in mammary glands of dairy cow with high-quality milk (>3% milk protein; >3.5% milk fat) and low-quality milk (<3% milk protein; <3.5% milk fat) were examined via digital gene expression study. A total of 139 upregulated and 66 downregulated genes were detected in the mammary tissues of lactating cows with high-quality milk compared with the tissues of cows with low-quality milk. A pathway enrichment study of these genes revealed that the top 5 pathways that were differentially affected in the tissues of cows with high- versus low-quality milk involved metabolic pathways, cancer, cytokine-cytokine receptor interactions, regulation of the actin cytoskeleton, and insulin signaling. We also found that the G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) was one of the most highly upregulated genes in lactating mammary tissue with low-quality milk compared with tissue with high-quality milk. The knockdown of GRK2 in cultured bovine mammary epithelial cells enhanced CSN2 expression and activated signaling molecules related to translation, including protein kinase B, mammalian target of rapamycin, and p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1), whereas overexpression of GRK2 had the opposite effects. However, expression of genes involved in the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway was positively regulated by GRK2. Therefore, GRK2 seems to act as a negative mediator of milk-protein synthesis via the protein kinase B-mammalian target of rapamycin signaling axis. Furthermore, GRK2 may negatively control milk-protein synthesis by activating the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in dairy cow mammary epithelial cells. PMID:27132107

  9. Effect of nitrogen fertilization rate and regrowth interval of grass herbage on methane emission of zero-grazing lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Warner, D; Podesta, S C; Hatew, B; Klop, G; van Laar, H; Bannink, A; Dijkstra, J

    2015-05-01

    Dairy cattle farming in temperate regions often relies on grass herbage (GH)-based diets but the effect of several grass management options on enteric CH4 emission has not been fully investigated yet. We investigated the combined effect of N fertilization rate and length of regrowth period of GH (predominantly ryegrass) on CH4 emission from lactating dairy cows. In a randomized block design, 28 lactating Holstein-Friesian dairy cows received a basal diet of GH and compound feed [85:15; dry matter (DM) basis]. Treatments consisted of GH cut after 3 or 5 weeks of regrowth, after receiving either a low (20kg of N/ha) or a high (90kg of N/ha) fertilization rate after initial cut. Feed intake, digestibility, milk production and composition, N and energy balance, and CH4 emission were measured during a 5-d period in climate respiration chambers after an adaptation to the diet for 12d. Cows were restricted-fed during measurements and mean DM intake was 15.0±0.16kg/d. Herbage crude protein content varied between 76 and 161g/kg of DM, and sugar content between 186 and 303g/kg of DM. Fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM) and feed digestibility increased with increased N fertilization rates and a shorter regrowth interval. Increasing the N fertilization rate increased daily CH4 emission per cow (+10%) and per unit of DM intake (+9%), tended to increase the fraction of gross energy intake emitted as CH4 (+7%), and (partly because of the low crude protein content for the low fertilized GH) only numerically reduced CH4 per unit of FPCM. The longer regrowth interval increased CH4 emission per unit of FPCM (+14%) compared with the shorter regrowth interval, but did not affect CH4 emission expressed in any other unit. With increasing N fertilization CH4 emission decreased per unit of digestible neutral detergent fiber intake (-13%) but not per unit of digestible organic matter intake. There was no interaction of the effect of N fertilization rate and regrowth interval on CH4

  10. Replacing corn silage with different forage millet silage cultivars: effects on milk yield, nutrient digestion, and ruminal fermentation of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Brunette, T; Baurhoo, B; Mustafa, A F

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of dietary replacement of corn silage (CS) with 2 cultivars of forage millet silages [i.e., regular millet (RM) and sweet millet (SM)] on milk production, apparent total-tract digestibility, and ruminal fermentation characteristics of dairy cows. Fifteen lactating Holstein cows were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square experiment and fed (ad libitum) a high-forage total mixed ration (68:32 forage:concentrate ratio). Dietary treatments included CS (control), RM, and SM diets. Experimental silages constituted 37% of each diet DM. Three ruminally fistulated cows were used to determine the effect of dietary treatments on ruminal fermentation and total-tract nutrient utilization. Relative to CS, RM and SM silages contained 36% more crude protein, 66% more neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and 88% more acid detergent fiber. Cows fed CS consumed more dry matter (DM; 24.4 vs. 22.7 kg/d) and starch (5.7 vs. 3.7 kg/d), but less NDF (7.9 vs. 8.7 kg/d) than cows fed RM or SM. However, DM, starch and NDF intakes were not different between forage millet silage types. Feeding RM relative to CS reduced milk yield (32.7 vs. 35.2 kg/d), energy-corrected milk (35.8 vs. 38.0 kg/d) and SCM (32.7 vs. 35.3 kg/d). However, cows fed SM had similar milk, energy-corrected milk, and solids-corrected milk yields than cows fed CS or RM. Milk efficiency was not affected by dietary treatments. Milk protein concentration was greatest for cows fed CS, intermediate for cows fed SM, and lowest for cows fed RM. Milk concentration of solids-not-fat was lesser, whereas milk urea nitrogen was greater for cows fed RM than for those fed CS. However, millet silage type had no effect on milk solids-not-fat and milk urea nitrogen levels. Concentrations of milk fat, lactose and total solids were not affected by silage type. Ruminal pH and ruminal NH3-N were greater for cows fed RM and SM than for cows fed CS. Total-tract digestibility of DM (average=67.9%), NDF (average=53

  11. Short communication: Effect of dietary manipulation of crude protein content and nonfibrous-to-fibrous-carbohydrate ratio on energy balance in early-lactation dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Whelan, S J; Mulligan, F J; Gath, V; Flynn, B; Pierce, K M

    2014-11-01

    Disparities between nutrient intake and demand often result in a state of negative energy balance (EB) in the early-lactation dairy cow. Reducing dietary crude protein (CP) content and providing glucogenic nutrients may overcome this issue. This study evaluates whether or not offering a diet lower in CP and higher in nonfiber carbohydrates (LP-NFC) can improve EB and the metabolic status of the early-lactation dairy cow compared with a diet higher in CP and fibrous carbohydrates (HP-FC). Twenty Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were assigned to 1 of 2 dietary treatments in a randomized block design. Diets were isoenergetic (6.57 MJ of net energy for lactation) and formulated to contain 15% CP and 6% starch (HP-FC), or 12% CP and 28% starch (LP-NFC) and were offered for the first 63 d of lactation. Intake and milk yield were determined daily, whereas milk and blood samples, weights, and body condition scores were collected weekly. Intakes (mean ± standard errors of the mean, SEM) of dry matter (17.4 ± 0.6 kg/d) and energy (113.0 ± 4.6 MJ of net energy for lactation) were not different between treatments. However, the HP-FC group had a higher milk yield (31.8 vs. 28.9 ± 1.4 kg/d) and a lower EB compared with the LP-NFC group. Blood urea N concentration (3.5 vs. 1.8 ± 0.2 mmol/L) was higher, whereas bilirubin (6.0 vs. 6.7 ± 0.2 mmol/L) and β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations (0.7 vs. 0.8 ± 0.05 mmol/L) were lower in the HP-FC group compared with the LP-NFC group. These data suggest that EB can be improved during early lactation through the manipulation of milk output by offering a lower CP, higher NFC diet.

  12. Effects of crude protein level in concentrate supplements on animal performance and nitrogen utilization of lactating dairy cows fed fresh-cut perennial grass.

    PubMed

    Hynes, D N; Stergiadis, S; Gordon, A; Yan, T

    2016-10-01

    Nitrogen pollution of air and ground water from grazing cattle is of increasing concern. Although several studies have investigated mitigation strategies for nitrogen output from dairy cows fed conserved forages and concentrates, similar research on fresh-cut grass in addition to production parameters is limited. The current study, using 3dietary treatments and incorporating 2 genotypes, was designed to evaluate the effects of concentrate crude protein (CP) levels on animal production and nitrogen utilization efficiency (NUE) in lactating dairy cows. Twelve multiparous cows (6 Holstein and 6 Holstein × Swedish Red) were used in a changeover study with three 25-d periods and 3 diet treatments. Low, medium and high CP concentrate [14.1, 16.1, and 18.1%, respectively, dry matter (DM) basis] diets were fed at 32.8% DM intake combined with good-quality zero-grazed perennial ryegrass (18.2% CP, DM basis). Each period consisted of an adaptation phase (18d) housed as a single group, a 1-d adaptation phase in individual stalls, and a 6-d measurement phase with feed intake and feces, urine, and milk output recorded. We observed no significant interaction between cow genotype and concentrate CP level on any animal performance or NUE parameter. Total DM intake, milk yield and composition, and NUE were not affected by dietary treatment. However, increasing concentrate CP level increased (1) N intake by 42g/d and excretion in urine and manure by 38 and 40g/d, respectively, and (2) the ratio of urine N over manure N. Feeding high CP rather than low CP concentrate increased milk urea N (MUN) content by 3.6mg/dL and total MUN output by 1.08g/d. Crossbred cows had lower grass DM intake, total DM intake, total N intake, and energy-corrected milk yield. However, cow genotype had no significant effect on NUE or MUN parameters. Equations have been developed to predict urine N excretion using MUN output as a sole predictor or in combination with dietary CP level. The present study

  13. Effects of crude protein level in concentrate supplements on animal performance and nitrogen utilization of lactating dairy cows fed fresh-cut perennial grass.

    PubMed

    Hynes, D N; Stergiadis, S; Gordon, A; Yan, T

    2016-10-01

    Nitrogen pollution of air and ground water from grazing cattle is of increasing concern. Although several studies have investigated mitigation strategies for nitrogen output from dairy cows fed conserved forages and concentrates, similar research on fresh-cut grass in addition to production parameters is limited. The current study, using 3dietary treatments and incorporating 2 genotypes, was designed to evaluate the effects of concentrate crude protein (CP) levels on animal production and nitrogen utilization efficiency (NUE) in lactating dairy cows. Twelve multiparous cows (6 Holstein and 6 Holstein × Swedish Red) were used in a changeover study with three 25-d periods and 3 diet treatments. Low, medium and high CP concentrate [14.1, 16.1, and 18.1%, respectively, dry matter (DM) basis] diets were fed at 32.8% DM intake combined with good-quality zero-grazed perennial ryegrass (18.2% CP, DM basis). Each period consisted of an adaptation phase (18d) housed as a single group, a 1-d adaptation phase in individual stalls, and a 6-d measurement phase with feed intake and feces, urine, and milk output recorded. We observed no significant interaction between cow genotype and concentrate CP level on any animal performance or NUE parameter. Total DM intake, milk yield and composition, and NUE were not affected by dietary treatment. However, increasing concentrate CP level increased (1) N intake by 42g/d and excretion in urine and manure by 38 and 40g/d, respectively, and (2) the ratio of urine N over manure N. Feeding high CP rather than low CP concentrate increased milk urea N (MUN) content by 3.6mg/dL and total MUN output by 1.08g/d. Crossbred cows had lower grass DM intake, total DM intake, total N intake, and energy-corrected milk yield. However, cow genotype had no significant effect on NUE or MUN parameters. Equations have been developed to predict urine N excretion using MUN output as a sole predictor or in combination with dietary CP level. The present study

  14. Plasma concentrations of PGFM and uterine and ovarian responses in early lactation dairy cows fed omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Dirandeh, E; Towhidi, A; Pirsaraei, Z Ansari; Hashemi, F Adib; Ganjkhanlou, M; Zeinoaldini, S; Roodbari, A Rezaei; Saberifar, T; Petit, H V

    2013-07-15

    A total of 120 dairy cows were assigned randomly to three diets to determine the effects of omega-6 or omega-3 fatty acid (FA) supplementation on uterine diseases, ovarian responses, and blood concentrations of estradiol, progesterone, and PGFM in lactating Holstein dairy cows. Diets contained either protected palm oil (C), extruded linseed (L), or roasted whole soybeans (S), and they were fed from calving to Day 70 postpartum. Estrous cycles were synchronized and ovarian follicular development was monitored daily for an entire cycle. There were no differences among diets in the incidence of lameness, mastitis, or metritis, but the incidence of clinical endometritis was lower (P < 0.05) in cows fed S (0%) compared with cows fed C (28.2%) and L (20.5%). Uterine involution in cows fed S occurred 3.77 and 2.78 days earlier, respectively, than in those fed C and L. The PGFM response 60 minutes after an oxytocin challenge was highest for cows fed S and lowest for cows fed L. Mean plasma progesterone concentration on Day 15 of the synchronized cycle was higher in cows fed S (14.5 ng/mL) and L (15.0 ng/mL) than in those fed C (12.0 ng/mL). The ovulatory follicle on Day 21 of the estrous cycle (estrous = Day 0) was larger in cows fed S (16.1 ± 0.9 mm) and L (15.7 ± 0.7 mm) compared with cows fed C (13.2 ± 0.87 mm; P = 0.02) but there were no significant differences between cows fed diets S and L. The mean number of small and medium follicles and diameter of subordinate follicle were similar among diets. In conclusion, feeding a source of omega-6 FA can be a strategy to improve uterine health after calving, although a source of omega-3 FA such as L should be fed after uterine involution to decrease PGF2α secretion.

  15. Rumen bacterial communities shift across a lactation in Holstein, Jersey and Holstein × Jersey dairy cows and correlate to rumen function, bacterial fatty acid composition and production parameters.

    PubMed

    Bainbridge, Melissa L; Cersosimo, Laura M; Wright, André-Denis G; Kraft, Jana

    2016-05-01

    Rumen bacteria form a dynamic, complex, symbiotic relationship with their host, degrading forages to provide volatile fatty acids (VFA) and other substrates as energy to the animal. The objectives were to characterize rumen bacteria in three genetic lines of primiparous dairy cattle, Holstein (HO, n = 7), Jersey (JE, n = 8), and HO × JE crossbreeds (CB, n = 7) across a lactation [3, 93, 183 and 273 days in milk (DIM)] and correlate these factors with VFA, bacterial cell membrane fatty acids (FA), and animal production (i.e. milk yield). This study employed Illumina MiSeq (v. 3) to investigate rumen bacterial communities and gas-liquid chromatography/mass spectroscopy to identify bacterial membrane FA. Lactation stage had a prominent effect on rumen bacterial communities, whereas genetics had a lesser effect on rumen bacteria. The FA composition of bacterial cell membranes was affected by both lactation stage and genetics. Few correlations existed between VFA and bacterial communities; however, moderate correlations occurred between milk yield, protein percentage, fat yield and rumen bacterial communities. Positive correlations were found between branched-chain FA (BCFA) in bacterial cell membranes and bacterial genera. In conclusion, bacterial communities and their FA compositions are more affected by stage of lactation than by genetics of dairy cow. PMID:26985012

  16. Effect of feeding according to energy balance on performance, nutrient excretion, and feeding behavior of early lactation dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Maltz, E; Barbosa, L F; Bueno, P; Scagion, L; Kaniyamattam, K; Greco, L F; De Vries, A; Santos, J E P

    2013-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate 2 feeding strategies for early lactation cows on performance and efficiency of nutrient utilization. Fifty-eight Holsteins cows were blocked by parity and production during the pretreatment period and then randomly assigned at 21 d postpartum to a control diet [n=29; 16.2% crude protein, 1.64 Mcal of net energy for lactation (NE(L)), 22% starch, and 19% forage neutral detergent fiber (NDF)] or a diet with caloric density manipulated weekly (precision diet; n=29; 16.2% crude protein; 1.59 to 1.68 NE(L); 18 to 26% starch; and 16 to 22% forage NDF) to promote a calculated positive energy balance of 5 Mcal/day. Diets were fed as total mixed rations and precision cows had their diets adjusted individually once a week, by feeding additional grain supplementation from 0 to 25% of daily dry matter (DM) offered, according to the energy balance of the preceding week. Energy balance was calculated daily and then averaged weekly. The study lasted from wk 3 to 19 postpartum, and nutrient digestibility, rumen fluid composition, urinary output, estimates of microbial protein synthesis, and feeding behavior were evaluated between wk 9 and 13 postpartum. Compared with controls, precision cows had similar DM intake (24.3 kg/d), but NE(L) intake tended to be greater primarily between wk 4 and 8 postpartum. Yields of milk (45.2 vs. 41.9 kg/d), milk components, 3.5% fat-corrected milk (44.0 vs. 40.8 kg/d), and energy-corrected milk (43.4 vs. 40.2) were all greater for precision than control cows, resulting in greater energy-corrected milk production per kilogram of diet DM consumed (1.79 vs. 1.72). Precision cows produced more milk calories per kilogram of metabolic weight (0.227 vs. 0.213 Mcal of NE(L)/kg), although the amount of consumed calories partitioned into milk (82.3%) and measures of energy status did not differ between treatments throughout the study. Glucose concentrations were greater throughout the day in precision cows

  17. Changes in milk oxidative stress biomarkers in lactating dairy cows with ovulatory and an-ovulatory oestrous cycles.

    PubMed

    Talukder, S; Kerrisk, K L; Gabai, G; Fukutomi, A; Celi, P

    2015-07-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate changes in milk profiles of oxidative stress (OS) biomarkers in dairy cows with ovulatory and an-ovulatory oestrous cycles. Thirty healthy, cycling Holstein cows averaging 60±17 days in milk, and producing 33±6kg of milk per day (the week before commencing the study) were enrolled in this study. Composite milk samples were collected thrice weekly and assayed for the following OS biomarkers: lipoperoxides (LPO), biological advanced potential, superoxide dismutase (SOD), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), ceruloplasmin, glutathione (GSH), β-carotene and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px). Milk samples were also tested for fat and protein composition and the fat:protein ratio (FPR) was categorized as low (≤1.31), medium (1.32-1.56) and high (>1.57) to evaluate their main effect and the interaction effect of FPR and the week of study on OS using linear mixed models with cow identification being a random factor. Cows with ovulatory oestrous cycles (n=20) presented significantly greater SOD levels than cows that did not ovulate ((n=10; P<0.05). On the other hand, LPO, GSH-Px and GSH concentrations were lower in ovulated cows compared to the an-ovulated cows (P<0.05). The highest level of LPO and AOPP were noted at prooestrus phase while β-carotene presented the lowest value at that phase of oestrous cycle. It could be postulated that the elevated level of milk SOD and the observed lower level of LPO, GSH-Px and GSH in ovulating cows may be an essential event preceding the ovulatory response.

  18. Expression of target genes of nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 in the liver of dairy cows in the transition period and at different stages of lactation.

    PubMed

    Gessner, D K; Schlegel, G; Keller, J; Schwarz, F J; Ringseis, R; Eder, K

    2013-02-01

    In the liver of dairy cows, the production of cytokines is enhanced during the periparturient phase, which in turn leads to inflammation and an impairment of hepatic function. Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a redox-sensitive transcription factor that controls the transcription of genes encoding various antioxidative and cytoprotective proteins. In the present study, we investigated the hypothesis that Nrf2 is activated in the liver of dairy cows during the periparturient phase to protect the liver against the deleterious effects of cytokines and reactive oxygen species. Therefore, we determined relative mRNA abundances of TNF (encoding tumor necrosis factor-α), various acute phase proteins and several Nrf2 target genes in liver biopsy samples of 20 dairy cows at each time point from 3 wk antepartum to 1, 5, and 14 wk postpartum. We observed an increase in mRNA abundances of TNF and acute-phase proteins [serum amyloid A 3 (SAA3), haptoglobin (HP), and C-reactive protein (CRP)] from 3 wk antepartum to 1 wk postpartum, indicative of a proinflammatory condition. Messenger RNA abundances of various Nrf2 target genes with antioxidative or cytoprotective functions [glutathione peroxidase 3 (GPX3); microsomal glutathione S-transferase 3 (MGST3); superoxide dismutase (SOD1); catalase (CAT); metallothioneins 1A, 1E, and 2A (MT1A, MT1E, and MT2A, respectively); NAD(P)H dehydrogenase, quinone 1 (NQO1); heme oxygenase 2 (HMOX2); and UDP glucuronosyltransferase 1 family, polypeptide A1 (UGT1A1)] were also greatly increased from 3 wk antepartum to 1 wk postpartum. From 1 wk postpartum to later lactation, mRNA abundances of all the Nrf2-target genes considered declined but remained at levels that were higher than those in 3 wk antepartum. No correlations were found, however, between plasma concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids or β-hydroxybutyrate and mRNA abundances of Nrf2 target genes, indicating that a negative energy balance might not have been the main

  19. Effect of offering dairy cows diets differing in phosphorus concentration over four successive lactations: 2. Health, fertility, bone phosphorus reserves and nutrient utilisation.

    PubMed

    Ferris, C P; McCoy, M A; Patterson, D C; Kilpatrick, D J

    2010-04-01

    This experiment examined the long-term effects of offering diets containing low levels of dietary phosphorus (P) on dairy cow health, fertility and bone composition, and the effect of dietary P level on nutrient utilisation. One hundred winter-calving Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were offered diets containing either 'high' or 'low' levels of dietary P over a 4-year period. Rations offered during the winter included grass silage, maize silage (70 : 30 dry matter (DM) basis, approximately) and concentrates (10.0 to 12.0 kg/cow per day). During the summer periods in years 1 and 2, half of the cows grazed both day and night, while the remaining cows grazed by day, and were housed by night and offered grass silage. During years 3 and 4, all cows grazed both day and night during the summer period. Concentrate feed levels during the summer periods were 3.0 to 4.0 kg/cow per day. Different dietary P levels were achieved by offering concentrates containing either high or low P levels during the winter period (approximately 7.0 or 4.4 g P/kg DM, respectively) and during the summer period (approximately 6.8 or 3.6 g P/kg DM, respectively). Total ration P levels averaged 4.9 and 3.6 g P/kg DM for the high and low P winter diets, respectively, and 4.2 and 3.6 g P/kg DM for the high and low P summer diets, respectively. A total of 95, 70, 50 and 22 cows completed each of lactations from 1 to 4, respectively. Neither the incidence of lameness or mastitis, or milk somatic cell count, were affected by dietary P level (P > 0.05), while none of the fertility parameters recorded in any of lactations from 1 to 4 was affected by the dietary P level (P > 0.05). Dietary P level had no effect on the specific gravity, ash or calcium content of rib cortical bone cores (n = 78 cows), while the P content of cortical bone (g/kg fresh, g/kg DM and mg/ml fresh bone) was lower with cows offered low P diets (P < 0.05). Dietary P level had no significant effect on the digestibility of either the DM

  20. Supplementation with whole cottonseed causes long-term reduction of methane emissions from lactating dairy cows offered a forage and cereal grain diet.

    PubMed

    Grainger, C; Williams, R; Clarke, T; Wright, A-D G; Eckard, R J

    2010-06-01

    The objective of our work was to supplement a forage and cereal diet of lactating dairy cows with whole cottonseed (WCS) for 12 wk and to determine whether the expected reduction in CH(4) would persist. A secondary objective was to determine the effect of supplementing the diet with WCS on milk yield and rumen function over the 12-wk feeding period. Fifty lactating cows were randomly allocated to 1 of 2 diets (control or WCS). The 2 separate groups were each offered, on average, 4.2 kg of DM/cow per day of alfalfa hay (a.m.) and 6.6 kg of DM/cow per day of ryegrass silage (p.m.) on the ground in bare paddocks each day for 12 wk. Cows in each group were also individually offered dietary supplements for 12 wk in a feed trough at milking times of 5.4 kg of DM/cow per day of cracked wheat grain and 0.5 kg of DM/cow per day of cottonseed meal (control) or 2.8 kg of DM/cow per day of cracked wheat grain and 2.61 kg of DM/cow per day of WCS. The 2 diets were formulated to be similar in their concentrations of CP and ME, but the WCS diet was designed to have a higher fat concentration. Samples of rumen fluid were collected per fistula from the rumen approximately 4 h after grain feeding in the morning. Samples were taken from 8 cows (4 cows/diet) on 2 consecutive days in wk 2 of the covariate and wk 3, 6, 10, and 12 of treatment and analyzed for volatile fatty acids, ammonia-N, methanogens, and protozoa. The reduction in CH(4) emissions (g/d) because of WCS supplementation increased from 13% in wk 3 to 23% in wk 12 of treatment. Similarly, the reduction in CH(4) emissions (g/kg of DMI) increased from 5.1% in wk 3 to 14.5% in wk 12 of treatment. It was calculated that the average reduction in CH(4) emissions over the 12-wk period was 2.9% less CH(4) per 1% added fat, increasing from 1.5% in wk 3 to 4.4% less CH(4) in wk 12. There was no effect of WCS supplementation on rumen ammonia-N, rumen volatile fatty acids, rumen methanogens, and rumen protozoa. On average over the 12

  1. Short communication: Species group-specific predictors at the cow and quarter level for intramammary infection with coagulase-negative staphylococci in dairy cattle throughout lactation.

    PubMed

    De Visscher, A; Piepers, S; Supré, K; Haesebrouck, F; De Vliegher, S

    2015-08-01

    Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are frequently isolated from quarters with subclinical mastitis, teat apices, and the cows' environment. Virulence, ecology, epidemiological behavior, and effect on udder health vary between different CNS species. Staphylococcus chromogenes, Staph. simulans, and Staph. xylosus are frequently present in milk and have a more substantial effect on quarter milk somatic cell count than other species. Therefore, these species are considered the "more relevant" CNS. As species-specific factors associated with CNS intramammary infection (IMI) have not yet been identified and susceptibility for IMI differs between cows and quarters, this study aimed to identify predictors for CNS IMI at the cow and quarter level (some of them changing over time) with a specific focus on the aforementioned more relevant CNS. Precise data were available from a longitudinal study (3,052 observations from 344 quarters from 86 dairy cows belonging to 3 commercial dairy herds). All CNS were molecularly identified to the species level, and multivariable, multilevel logistic regression models taking into account the longitudinal nature of the data, were fit to study the likelihood of infection. Staphylococcus chromogenes, Staph. xylosus, and Staph. cohnii were the most frequently isolated species from CNS IMI in older cows, whereas Staph. chromogenes, Staph. xylosus, and Staph. simulans were the main species found in IMI in heifers. Quarters from heifers (as opposed to multiparous cows), from heifers and multiparous cows in third or fourth month in lactation (as opposed to early lactation, <60 d in milk), and with an increasing quarter milk SCC were more likely to be infected with the more relevant CNS species. Quarter milk SCC was identified as the sole statistically significant predictor for IMI with other CNS species, although the size of the effect was lower [odds ratio of 1.6 (1.4-1.9) vs. 2.1 (1.8-2.5)] than the effect for IMI with the more relevant CNS

  2. Tocopherols and tocotrienols in serum and liver of dairy cows receiving conjugated linoleic acids or a control fat supplement during early lactation.

    PubMed

    Sadri, H; Dänicke, S; Meyer, Ulrich; Rehage, J; Frank, J; Sauerwein, H

    2015-10-01

    The fat-soluble vitamin E comprises the 8 structurally related compounds (congeners) α-, β-, γ-, and δ-tocopherol (with a saturated side chain) and α-, β-, γ-, and δ-tocotrienol (with a 3-fold unsaturated side chain). Little is known regarding the blood and liver concentrations of the 8 vitamin E congeners during the transition from pregnancy to lactation in dairy cows. We thus quantified tocopherols (T) and tocotrienols (T3) in serum and liver and hepatic expression of genes involved in vitamin E metabolism in pluriparous German Holstein cows during late gestation and early lactation and investigated whether dietary supplementation (from d 1 in milk) with conjugated linoleic acids (CLA; 100g/d; each 12% of trans-10,cis-12 and cis-9,trans-11 CLA; n=11) altered these compared with control-fat supplemented cows (CTR; n=10). Blood samples and liver biopsies were collected on d -21, 1, 21, 70, and 105 (liver only) relative to calving. In both groups, the serum concentrations of αT, γT, βT3, and δT3 increased from d -21 to d 21 and remained unchanged between d 21 and 70, but were unaffected by CLA. The concentrations of the different congeners of vitamin E in liver did not differ between the CTR and the CLA groups. In both groups, the concentrations of the vitamin E forms in liver changed during the course of the study. The hepatic mRNA abundance of genes controlling vitamin E status did not differ between groups, but α-tocopherol transfer protein and tocopherol-associated protein mRNA increased with time of lactation in both. In conclusion, the concentrations of vitamin E congeners and the expression of genes related to vitamin E status follow characteristic time-related changes during the transition from late gestation to early lactation but are unaffected by CLA supplementation at the dosage used.

  3. The effect of internal teat sealant products (Teatseal and Orbeseal) on intramammary infection, clinical mastitis, and somatic cell counts in lactating dairy cows: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Rabiee, A R; Lean, I J

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of internal teat sealant products containing bismuth subnitrate (Teatseal and Orbeseal; Pfizer Animal Health, West Ryde, Australia) when used alone, or in the presence of antibiotic dry cow therapy (ADCT), before or at drying off on the incidence of new intramammary infections (IMI), clinical mastitis, and milk somatic cell count (SCC) during lactation. The literature search identified 18 English-language publications on the use of Teatseal in dairy cattle. A total of 12 studies with 17 subtrials or comparisons including 13 positive control subtrials (internal teat sealant and ADCT vs. ADCT) and 4 negative control subtrials (internal teat sealant vs. untreated) examining IMI were included in the analysis. Internal teat sealants, alone or in the presence of ADCT, reduced the risk of acquiring new IMI after calving by 25% [risk ratio (RR)=0.75; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.67 to 0.83]. Internal teat sealants reduced the risk of IMI by 73% compared with untreated cows (RR=0.27; 95% CI: 0.13 to 0.55). The results of both meta-analyses of IMI, with positive and negative controls, were heterogeneous [I(2) (a statistic that describes the proportion of total variation in study effect estimates that is due to heterogeneity)=65.4 and 92.1%]. No farm or cow factors studied significantly contributed to the heterogeneity of the results. A total of 16 studies (21 subtrials), including 14 positive control subtrials and 7 negative control subtrials, examining clinical mastitis were included in the analysis. Internal teat sealants alone and in the presence of ADCT reduced the risk of clinical mastitis after calving in lactating cows by 29% (RR=0.71; 95% CI: 0.62 to 0.82), and 48% (RR=0.52; 95% CI: 0.37 to 0.75), respectively. The results of the meta-analysis on clinical mastitis with positive controls were homogeneous (I(2)=33.6%), whereas the results of studies with negative controls were heterogeneous (I(2)=60.4%). No farm

  4. Effect of biotin and pantothenic acid on performance and concentrations of avidin-binding substances in blood and milk of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Gonzalo; Brown, Alston N; Teets, Christy L

    2015-09-01

    We hypothesized that pantothenic acid reduces the absorption of biotin in lactating dairy cows. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the plausible interaction between biotin and pantothenic acid on production performance and concentration of avidin-binding substances (ABS), an indicator of biotin concentration, in blood and milk of lactating dairy cows. Eight primiparous and 16 multiparous Holstein cows were assigned to 1 of 4 diet sequences in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design with 18-d periods. Cows were housed in a freestall barn and fed once daily (0730 h) by means of a Calan gate system (American Calan Inc., Northwood, NH). Treatments consisted of a control diet that contained no B-vitamins, a biotin diet that contained 0.87 mg of biotin per kilogram of dry matter (DM), a pantothenic acid diet that contained 21 mg of pantothenic acid per kilogram of DM, and a biotin plus pantothenic acid diet that contained 0.87 mg of biotin and 21 mg of calcium pantothenic acid per kilogram of DM. Four different concentrates were prepared in a commercial feed mill. These concentrates were mixed with corn silage and grass hay and delivered ad libitum as a total mixed ration. Biotin supplementation did not affect DM intake, milk yield, or milk fat, protein, lactose, and milk-urea-nitrogen concentrations. Fat, protein, and lactose yields were not affected by treatments. The fat-to-protein ratio was <1 and similar among all treatments. Biotin supplementation did not increase the concentration of ABS in plasma. The supplementation of pantothenic acid did not affect the concentration of ABS in plasma when either supplemented alone or in combination with biotin. Biotin supplementation increased the concentration of ABS in milk relative to control. Contrary to our hypothesis, the supplementation of pantothenic acid did not decrease the concentration of ABS in milk relative to the control. When cows were supplemented with both biotin and pantothenic acid, the

  5. Incremental amounts of Ascophyllum nodosum meal do not improve animal performance but do increase milk iodine output in early lactation dairy cows fed high-forage diets.

    PubMed

    Antaya, N T; Soder, K J; Kraft, J; Whitehouse, N L; Guindon, N E; Erickson, P S; Conroy, A B; Brito, A F

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of incremental amounts of Ascophyllum nodosum meal (ANOD) on milk production, milk composition including fatty acids and I, blood metabolites, and nutrient intake and digestibility in early lactation dairy cows fed high-forage diets. Twelve multiparous Jersey cows averaging (mean±standard deviation) 40±21 d in milk and 464±35 kg of body weight and 4 primiparous Jersey cows averaging 75±37 d in milk and 384±17kg of body weight were randomly assigned to treatment sequences in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design. Each period lasted 21 d with 14 d for diet adaptation and 7 d for data and sample collection. Cows were fed a total mixed ration (64:36 forage-to-concentrate ratio) supplemented (as fed) with 0, 57, 113, or 170 g/d of ANOD. Milk yield as well as concentrations and yields of milk components (fat, protein, lactose, milk urea N) were not affected by increasing dietary amounts of ANOD. Concentration (from 178 to 1,370 µg/L) and yield (from 2.8 to 20.6 mg/d) of milk I increased linearly in cows fed incremental amounts of ANOD as a result of the high concentration of I (820 mg/kg of dry matter) in ANOD. Overall, only minor changes were observed in the proportion of milk fatty acids with ANOD supplementation. Quadratic trends were observed for dry matter intake and total-tract digestibilities of organic matter and neutral detergent fiber, whereas negative linear trends were observed for serum concentration of cortisol and crude protein digestibility with ANOD supplementation. Serum concentrations of triiodothyronine and thyroxine were not affected by ANOD supplementation and averaged 1.1 and 48.4 ng/mL, respectively. However, feeding increasing amounts of ANOD linearly reduced the plasma concentration of nonesterified fatty acids (from 164 to 132 mEq/L). Quadratic effects were found for the total-tract digestibility of ADF and urinary output of purine derivatives, suggesting that ANOD supplementation

  6. Incremental amounts of Ascophyllum nodosum meal do not improve animal performance but do increase milk iodine output in early lactation dairy cows fed high-forage diets.

    PubMed

    Antaya, N T; Soder, K J; Kraft, J; Whitehouse, N L; Guindon, N E; Erickson, P S; Conroy, A B; Brito, A F

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of incremental amounts of Ascophyllum nodosum meal (ANOD) on milk production, milk composition including fatty acids and I, blood metabolites, and nutrient intake and digestibility in early lactation dairy cows fed high-forage diets. Twelve multiparous Jersey cows averaging (mean±standard deviation) 40±21 d in milk and 464±35 kg of body weight and 4 primiparous Jersey cows averaging 75±37 d in milk and 384±17kg of body weight were randomly assigned to treatment sequences in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design. Each period lasted 21 d with 14 d for diet adaptation and 7 d for data and sample collection. Cows were fed a total mixed ration (64:36 forage-to-concentrate ratio) supplemented (as fed) with 0, 57, 113, or 170 g/d of ANOD. Milk yield as well as concentrations and yields of milk components (fat, protein, lactose, milk urea N) were not affected by increasing dietary amounts of ANOD. Concentration (from 178 to 1,370 µg/L) and yield (from 2.8 to 20.6 mg/d) of milk I increased linearly in cows fed incremental amounts of ANOD as a result of the high concentration of I (820 mg/kg of dry matter) in ANOD. Overall, only minor changes were observed in the proportion of milk fatty acids with ANOD supplementation. Quadratic trends were observed for dry matter intake and total-tract digestibilities of organic matter and neutral detergent fiber, whereas negative linear trends were observed for serum concentration of cortisol and crude protein digestibility with ANOD supplementation. Serum concentrations of triiodothyronine and thyroxine were not affected by ANOD supplementation and averaged 1.1 and 48.4 ng/mL, respectively. However, feeding increasing amounts of ANOD linearly reduced the plasma concentration of nonesterified fatty acids (from 164 to 132 mEq/L). Quadratic effects were found for the total-tract digestibility of ADF and urinary output of purine derivatives, suggesting that ANOD supplementation

  7. Effect of technical cashew nut shell liquid on rumen methane emission and lactation performance of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Branco, A F; Giallongo, F; Frederick, T; Weeks, H; Oh, J; Hristov, A N

    2015-06-01

    Technical-grade cashew nut shell liquid (TCNSL) is a by-product of the cashew nut industry in tropical countries, and is known to exhibit a wide range of biological activities, including inhibitory effect against gram-positive bacteria. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of TCNSL (73.3% cardanol, 16.4% cardol, and 3.0% methylcardol) on rumen methane emission, nutrient digestibility, dry matter intake, and milk yield and composition in dairy cows. Eight multiparous Holstein cows were used in a crossover design trial with two 21-d experimental periods. The diet was based on corn silage and alfalfa haylage and was formulated to meet or exceed the energy and metabolizable protein requirements of the cows. Treatments were control (no TCNSL supplementation) or 30 g/cow per day of TCNSL. Rumen carbon dioxide emission was not affected by TCNSL. Treatment had no effect on methane emission (542 vs. 511±35.3 g/cow per day, respectively) and methane emission intensity (15.0 vs. 13.9±0.58 g/kg of energy-corrected milk, respectively) and tended to decrease methane emission per kilogram of dry matter intake (20.2 vs. 18.6±1.04 g/kg, respectively). Dry matter intake (average 26.9±1.00 kg/d), milk yield (40.0±1.73 kg/d), and milk composition were not different between treatments. The TCNSL had no effect on N losses in urine and feces and total-tract apparent digestibility of nutrients, except digestibility of neutral detergent fiber tended to be increased compared with the control. Plasma urea and glucose concentrations were not affected by TCNSL. Concentration of milk C18:0 tended to be decreased (17%) by TCNSL compared with the control. In this study, TCNSL did not alter absolute methane emission in the rumen, but tended to decrease it by 8% per kilogram of dry matter intake. The TCNSL had no effect on milk yield and composition in dairy cows. PMID:25795493

  8. Effect of technical cashew nut shell liquid on rumen methane emission and lactation performance of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Branco, A F; Giallongo, F; Frederick, T; Weeks, H; Oh, J; Hristov, A N

    2015-06-01

    Technical-grade cashew nut shell liquid (TCNSL) is a by-product of the cashew nut industry in tropical countries, and is known to exhibit a wide range of biological activities, including inhibitory effect against gram-positive bacteria. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of TCNSL (73.3% cardanol, 16.4% cardol, and 3.0% methylcardol) on rumen methane emission, nutrient digestibility, dry matter intake, and milk yield and composition in dairy cows. Eight multiparous Holstein cows were used in a crossover design trial with two 21-d experimental periods. The diet was based on corn silage and alfalfa haylage and was formulated to meet or exceed the energy and metabolizable protein requirements of the cows. Treatments were control (no TCNSL supplementation) or 30 g/cow per day of TCNSL. Rumen carbon dioxide emission was not affected by TCNSL. Treatment had no effect on methane emission (542 vs. 511±35.3 g/cow per day, respectively) and methane emission intensity (15.0 vs. 13.9±0.58 g/kg of energy-corrected milk, respectively) and tended to decrease methane emission per kilogram of dry matter intake (20.2 vs. 18.6±1.04 g/kg, respectively). Dry matter intake (average 26.9±1.00 kg/d), milk yield (40.0±1.73 kg/d), and milk composition were not different between treatments. The TCNSL had no effect on N losses in urine and feces and total-tract apparent digestibility of nutrients, except digestibility of neutral detergent fiber tended to be increased compared with the control. Plasma urea and glucose concentrations were not affected by TCNSL. Concentration of milk C18:0 tended to be decreased (17%) by TCNSL compared with the control. In this study, TCNSL did not alter absolute methane emission in the rumen, but tended to decrease it by 8% per kilogram of dry matter intake. The TCNSL had no effect on milk yield and composition in dairy cows.

  9. Effects of urea formaldehyde condensation polymer treatment of flaxseed on ruminal digestion and lactation in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, A; Yuan, K; Armendariz, C K; Highland, G; Bello, N M; Winowiski, T; Drouillard, J S; Titgemeyer, E C; Bradford, B J

    2013-06-01

    Flaxseed is a potent source of the n-3 fatty acid α-linolenic acid (ALA), yet most ALA is lost during ruminal biohydrogenation when ground flaxseed is fed to ruminants. Heat processing and urea formaldehyde condensation polymer (UFCP) treatment of flaxseed were investigated as possible means of protecting ALA from ruminal degradation. Ground flaxseed (GF), heated ground flaxseed (HGF), or UFCP-treated ground flaxseed (UFCPGF) were incubated for 0, 4, 8, and 12h in 4 ruminally cannulated multiparous lactating Holstein cows. Compared with GF, HGF and UFCPGF decreased ruminal disappearance of dry matter, crude protein, and ALA. Pepsin-digestible protein remaining after 12h of ruminal incubation was greater for UFCPGF and HGF than for GF. Twenty-four lactating Holstein cows (207 ± 37 d in milk, 668 ± 66 kg of body weight, and 1.33 ± 0.56 lactations) were then used in a randomized complete block design experiment with a basal feeding period to assess effects of flaxseed treatment on ALA enrichment of plasma and milk as well as lactational performance. No evidence existed that supplementation of HGF and UFCPGF affected dry matter intake, milk fat content, milk protein content, or energy-corrected milk yield, but UFCPGF marginally decreased milk yield compared with HGF. Plasma concentration of ALA was not affected by treatment. Concentrations of n-3 fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acids in milk fat were increased by UFCPGF relative to HGF, but ALA yield was not affected. Taken together, in situ results suggest that heat-treated flaxseed, with or without UFCP treatment, slowed ruminal disappearance of ALA. Feeding UFCP-treated flaxseed failed to alter ALA content of plasma or milk ALA yield relative to heating alone.

  10. Response profiles of enteric methane emissions and lactational performance during habituation to dietary coconut oil in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hollmann, M; Powers, W J; Fogiel, A C; Liesman, J S; Beede, D K

    2013-03-01

    Dietary coconut oil (CNO) can reduce dry matter intake (DMI), enteric methane (eCH(4)) emissions, and milk fat yield of lactating cows. The goals of this research were to examine responses to different CNO concentrations during the habituation period (34-d) and to evaluate temporal patterns of DMI, eCH(4), and milk fat yield. Treatment diets contained (dry basis): 0.0% (CNO0), 1.3% (CNO1.3), 2.7% (CNO2.7), 3.3% (CNO3.3), or 4.0% CNO (CNO4). In experiment 1, 12 primi- or small secundiparous cows were housed in individual, environmentally controlled rooms and fed CNO0, CNO1.3, CNO2.7, or CNO4. Measurements included DMI, eCH(4), and milk yield and composition. Due to a precipitous drop in DMI (26%), cows fed CNO4 were replaced with cows fed CNO3.3 following d 10. Dietary CNO of 2.7% or more reduced eCH(4) emissions. Reduction was greater with increased CNO and during the first than the second half of the day. Simultaneously, decline in DMI of cows fed CNO2.7, CNO3.3, or CNO4 was increasingly precipitous with increased CNO concentration. Total-tract neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibility during wk 5 was reduced in cows fed CNO2.7 or CNO3.3, which in part explained concomitantly reduced eCH(4)/DMI. In addition, milk fat yield was depressed at an increasing rate in cows fed CNO2.7, CNO3.3, and CNO4. In experiment 2, DMI was measured individually in 12 multiparous cows during habituation to CNO0, CNO1.3, CNO2.7, or CNO3.3 for 21 d before relocation to individual, environmentally controlled rooms. Dietary CNO2.7 or CNO3.3 reduced DMI by d 4 and total-tract NDF digestibility during wk 5. Relocation to individual rooms was associated with a 15% reduction in DMI, which was not affected by treatment. Results showed that 2.7% or more dietary CNO reduced eCH(4) and DMI, caused milk fat depression, and decreased NDF digestibility. PMID:23312999

  11. Effect of 2-hydroxy-4-methylthio-butanoic acid on ruminal fermentation, bacterial distribution, digestibility, and performance of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Lee, C; Oh, J; Hristov, A N; Harvatine, K; Vazquez-Anon, M; Zanton, G I

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this experiment was to test the effect of a Met analog, 2-hydroxy-4-methylthio-butanoic acid (HMTBa), on ruminal fermentation and microbial protein synthesis, nutrient digestibility, urinary N losses, and performance of dairy cows. Eight multiparous lactating Holstein dairy cows were assigned to 4 levels of HMTBa [0 (control), 0.05, 0.10, and 0.15% (dry matter basis)] in a replicated 4×4 Latin square trial. Experimental periods were 28 d, including 21 d for adaptation. Ruminal ammonia and microbial N were labeled through a 6-d intraruminal infusion of (15)NH4Cl, and microbial protein synthesis in the rumen was estimated using the reticular sampling technique. Treatment had no effect on dry matter intake (28.4 to 29.8kg/d), milk yield (44.1 to 45.3kg/d), feed efficiency, and milk composition. Total-tract apparent digestibility of nutrients was generally not affected by treatment, except digestibility of crude protein and starch decreased quadratically with HMTBa supplementation. Fecal, but not urinary, and total excreta N losses were increased quadratically by HMTBa. Ruminal pH, ammonia concentration, protozoal counts, and the major volatile fatty acids were not affected by treatment. Microbial N outflow from the rumen was linearly increased by HMTBa. 2-Hydroxy-4-methylthio-butanoic acid linearly increased the proportion of Fecalibacterium and quadratically decreased the proportion of Eubacterium in ruminal contents. Of the individual bacterial species, HMTBa increased or tended to increase Prevotella loescheii and Prevotella oralis. 2-Hydroxy-4-methylthio-butanoic acid linearly increased the concentration (and yield) of 15:0 in milk fat. In the conditions of this crossover experiment, HMTBa had no effect on feed intake and performance of dairy cows, decreased dietary crude protein digestibility, and increased microbial N outflow from the rumen.

  12. Expression of estrus improves fertility and decreases pregnancy losses in lactating dairy cows that receive artificial insemination or embryo transfer.

    PubMed

    Pereira, M H C; Wiltbank, M C; Vasconcelos, J L M

    2016-03-01

    The objective was to evaluate if expression of estrus by dairy cattle altered fertility in timed artificial insemination (AI; n=5,430) or timed embryo transfer (ET; n=2,003) programs that used estradiol and progesterone (P4) to synchronize ovulation. Ovarian ultrasonography was performed on d 0 (time of AI) and 7 to determine ovulatory follicle diameter and ovulation. Only cows with a visible corpus luteum on d 7 were used in this study. At the time of controlled internal drug release removal, all cows received a tail-head device for detection of estrus and were considered in estrus when the paint of the device was completely removed by d 0. Circulating P4 concentrations were evaluated on d 7. Pregnancies per AI (P/AI) or ET (P/ET) were determined by ultrasonography on d 32 and 60. At d-32 pregnancy diagnosis, cows with expression of estrus had increased P/AI [no estrus=25.5% (222/846) vs. estrus=38.9% (1,785/4,584)] and P/ET [no estrus=32.7% (193/606) vs. estrus=46.2% (645/1,397)]. Similarly, at d-60 pregnancy diagnosis, expression of estrus increased P/AI [no estrus=20.1% (179/846) vs. estrus=33.3% (1,530/4,584)] and P/ET [no estrus=25.1% (150/606) vs. estrus=37.5% (525/1,397)]. Pregnancy loss was lower in cows that expressed estrus in timed AI [TAI; no estrus=20.1% (43/222) vs. estrus 14.4% (255/1,785)] and timed ET [TET; no estrus=22.7% (43/193) vs. estrus=18.6% (120/645)] compared with cows with no estrus. Independent of expression of estrus cows ovulating either too small or too large of follicles had lower P/AI. No effect of ovulatory follicle diameter on P/ET was noted in cows that expressed estrus; although, cows that did not express estrus tended to have lower P/ET if they ovulated larger follicles. In cows that showed estrus, follicle diameter did not affect pregnancy loss, but cows that did not show estrus and ovulated larger follicles tended to have greater pregnancy loss after TAI and had greater pregnancy loss on TET. A positive effect of d-7 P4

  13. Effects of increasing levels of grain supplementation on rumen environment and lactation performance of dairy cows grazing grass-legume pasture.

    PubMed

    Reis, R B; Combs, D K

    2000-12-01

    The impact of supplemental energy on nutrient utilization, fiber digestion, rumen fermentation, and lactation performance was evaluated in dairy cows grazing pastures composed of brome, orchardgrass, red clover, and alfalfa. Three amounts [0, 5, and 10 kg dry matter (DM)/d] of ground dry shelled corn-based concentrate were supplemented to nine rumen cannulated Holstein cows in a 3 x 3 Latin square replicated three times. Cows were on average 84+/-13 d in milk and producing 41.6+/-5.9 kg of milk/d at the beginning of the study. An increase in amounts of concentrate in the diets was associated with an increase in milk production, solids-corrected milk, and concentrations of milk protein and SNF. Milk fat percentage and milk urea nitrogen concentration decreased linearly with supplementation. Milk production and protein percentage were 21.8, 26.8, and 30.4 kg/d, and 2.85, 2.95, and 3.05% for the increasing levels of concentrate, respectively. Intake and digestibility of DM and organic matter (OM) increased as grain supplementation increased. Ruminal pH and total volatile fatty acid concentration (VFA) were not affected by supplementation or the amount of concentrate. Ruminal ammonia concentration was reduced by supplementation, presumably due to a decrease in N intake and greater use of ammonia-N for rumen microbial protein synthesis. Rumen fermentation varied throughout the day, with lower mean pH and higher VFA concentrations at night. Supplementation increased total OM intake, decreased forage OM intake, and increased the proportion of OM that was digested in the intestines. Total DM intake by grazing dairy cows can be increased using ground dry shelled corn-based concentrate without causing negative effects on forage digestion.

  14. Effect of dietary sugar concentration and sunflower seed supplementation on lactation performance, ruminal fermentation, milk fatty acid profile, and blood metabolites of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Razzaghi, A; Valizadeh, R; Naserian, A A; Mesgaran, M Danesh; Carpenter, A J; Ghaffari, M H

    2016-05-01

    Previous research has shown that both sunflower seed (SF) and sucrose (SC) supplementation can result in variation in milk fat concentration and composition, possibly due to altered fermentation patterns and biohydrogenation of fatty acids in the rumen. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of different sugar concentrations with or without SF supplementation on lactation performance, ruminal fermentation, and milk fatty acid profile in lactating dairy cows. Eight multiparous Holstein dairy cows (body weight=620±15kg, 60±10 d in milk, mean ± standard deviation) were randomly assigned to treatments in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Each 21-d period consisted of a 14-d diet adaptation period and 7-d collection period. Dairy cows were fed 1 of the following 4 diets: (1) no additional SC without SF supplementation (NSC-SF), (2) no additional SC with SF supplementation (NSC+SF), (3) SC without SF supplementation (SC-SF), and (4) SC with SF supplementation (SC+SF). The diets contained the same amount of forages (corn silage and alfalfa hay). Four isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were formulated by replacing corn grain with SC and SF and balanced using change in proportions of canola meal and sugar beet pulp. No interaction was detected between SC and SF supplementation with respect to dry matter intake, milk yield, and composition. A tendency was found for an interaction between inclusion of SC and SF on energy-corrected milk with the highest amount in the SC-SF diet. Ruminal pH and the molar proportion of acetate were affected by SC inclusion, with an increase related to the SC-SF diet. Diets containing SF decreased the concentrations of short-chain fatty acids (4:0 to 10:0) and medium-chain fatty acids (12:0 to 16:0) in milk fat. The addition of SC tended to decrease the concentration of total trans-18:1. These data provide evidence that exchanging SC for corn at 4% of dietary dry matter

  15. Effect of dietary sugar concentration and sunflower seed supplementation on lactation performance, ruminal fermentation, milk fatty acid profile, and blood metabolites of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Razzaghi, A; Valizadeh, R; Naserian, A A; Mesgaran, M Danesh; Carpenter, A J; Ghaffari, M H

    2016-05-01

    Previous research has shown that both sunflower seed (SF) and sucrose (SC) supplementation can result in variation in milk fat concentration and composition, possibly due to altered fermentation patterns and biohydrogenation of fatty acids in the rumen. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of different sugar concentrations with or without SF supplementation on lactation performance, ruminal fermentation, and milk fatty acid profile in lactating dairy cows. Eight multiparous Holstein dairy cows (body weight=620±15kg, 60±10 d in milk, mean ± standard deviation) were randomly assigned to treatments in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Each 21-d period consisted of a 14-d diet adaptation period and 7-d collection period. Dairy cows were fed 1 of the following 4 diets: (1) no additional SC without SF supplementation (NSC-SF), (2) no additional SC with SF supplementation (NSC+SF), (3) SC without SF supplementation (SC-SF), and (4) SC with SF supplementation (SC+SF). The diets contained the same amount of forages (corn silage and alfalfa hay). Four isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were formulated by replacing corn grain with SC and SF and balanced using change in proportions of canola meal and sugar beet pulp. No interaction was detected between SC and SF supplementation with respect to dry matter intake, milk yield, and composition. A tendency was found for an interaction between inclusion of SC and SF on energy-corrected milk with the highest amount in the SC-SF diet. Ruminal pH and the molar proportion of acetate were affected by SC inclusion, with an increase related to the SC-SF diet. Diets containing SF decreased the concentrations of short-chain fatty acids (4:0 to 10:0) and medium-chain fatty acids (12:0 to 16:0) in milk fat. The addition of SC tended to decrease the concentration of total trans-18:1. These data provide evidence that exchanging SC for corn at 4% of dietary dry matter

  16. Stay-green ranking and maturity of corn hybrids: 2. Effects on the performance of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Arriola, K G; Kim, S C; Staples, C R; Adesogan, A T

    2012-02-01

    To address producer concerns that feeding high stay-green (SG) corn hybrids is associated with decreased performance and health problems in dairy cows, this study examined how the performance of cows was affected by feeding hybrids with contrasting SG rankings and maturities. Two near-isogenic corn hybrids with high (HSG; Croplan Genetics 691, Croplan Genetics, St. Paul, MN) and low (LSG; Croplan Genetics 737) SG rankings were grown on separate halves of a 10-ha field, harvested at 27% (maturity 1) or 35% (maturity 2) dry matter (DM) and ensiled in bag silos for 84 and 77 d, respectively. A further treatment involved addition of water (15 L/t) to the HSG maturity 1 hybrid during packing to compound the potential negative effects of excess water in the HSG hybrid. Each of the resulting silages was included in a total mixed ration consisting of 35, 55, and 10% (DM basis) of corn silage, concentrate, and alfalfa hay, respectively. In experiment 1, the total mixed ration was fed for ad libitum consumption twice daily to 30 Holstein cows (92±18 d in milk). This experiment had a completely randomized design and consisted of two 28-d periods, each with 14 d for adaptation and 14 d for sample collection. In experiment 2, the ruminal fermentation of the diets was measured using 5 ruminally cannulated cows on the last day of three 15-d periods. Ruminal contraction rate (2.28±0.14 contractions/min), milk yield (36.7±1.3 kg/d), yield of milk protein (1.1±0.03 kg/d), and concentration of milk protein (2.9±0.03%) were not affected by treatment. Feeding diets containing HSG instead of LSG reduced intake of crude protein (CP) and neutral detergent fiber, digestibility of neutral detergent fiber, and concentrations of ruminal total volatile fatty acids (VFA) and milk fat when the hybrids were harvested at 27% DM but not 35% DM. Across maturity stages, feeding diets containing HSG instead of LSG decreased DM and CP digestibility, increased rectal temperature and plasma

  17. Effects of varying dietary ratios of corn silage to alfalfa silage on digestion of neutral detergent fiber in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Lopes, F; Cook, D E; Combs, D K

    2015-09-01

    An in vivo study was performed to test an in vitro procedure and model that predicts total-tract neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibility for lactating dairy cattle. Corn silage (CS) and alfalfa silage (AS) were used as forages for this study. These forages had similar NDF composition, but fiber in the CS contained less indigestible NDF compared with AS (35.5 and 47.8% of indigestible NDF, respectively). The in vitro method estimated rate of digestion of alfalfa potentially digestible NDF to be approximately 2 times faster than CS fiber (6.11 and 3.21%/h, respectively). Four diets were formulated containing different proportions of CS to AS: 100CS:0AS, 67CS:33AS, 33CS:67AS, and 0CS:100AS, as percentage of diet DM basis. The objective was to construct diets that contained approximately similar levels of NDF but with different pool sizes and rates of digestion of potentially digestible NDF. Diets were fed to 8 ruminally cannulated, multiparous, lactating dairy cows in a replicated 4×4 Latin square with 21-d periods. Total-tract fiber digestibility and fiber digestion kinetic parameters observed in vivo were compared with the values predicted by the in vitro assay and model. Total-tract NDF digestibility coefficients were similar (41.8 and 40.6% of total NDF) for the in vitro and in vivo methods, respectively. As the proportion of dietary alfalfa increased, the digestibility of NDF increased. The rate of digestion of potentially digestible NDF predicted from the in vitro assay was also similar to what was observed in vivo. Results suggest that the in vitro total-tract NDF digestibility model could be used to predict rate of fiber digestion and NDF digestibility for lactating dairy cattle.

  18. Effects of synchronization treatments on ovarian follicular dynamics, corpus luteum growth, and circulating steroid hormone concentrations in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Herlihy, M M; Crowe, M A; Diskin, M G; Butler, S T

    2012-02-01

    Lactating dairy cows (n=57) ≥45 d postpartum at first service were enrolled in a randomized complete block design study to evaluate treatments to synchronize estrus and ovulation. At 10 d before artificial insemination (AI), animals were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments: (1) d -10 GnRH (GnRH1; 10 μg of buserelin, i.m.) and controlled internal drug release insert [CIDR, 1.38 g of progesterone (P4)]; d -3 PGF(2α) (PGF; 25 mg of dinoprost, i.m.); d -2 CIDR out; and AI at observed estrus (CIDR_OBS); (2) same as CIDR_OBS, but GnRH (GnRH2) 36 h after CIDR out and timed AI (TAI) 18 h later (CIDR_TAI); or (3) same as CIDR_TAI, but no CIDR (Ovsynch). Transrectal ultrasound was used to assess follicle size before ovulation and on d 4, 8, and 15 after the presumptive day of estrus (d 0) to measure the corpus luteum (CL). Blood samples were collected to determine concentrations of estradiol (E2; d -10, -9, -3, -2, -1, and 0) and P4 (d -10, -9, -2, -1, 0, 1, 4, 6, 8, 11, and 15). No treatment differences were observed in either circulating concentrations of P4 or the ovulatory response to GnRH1 at the onset of synchronization treatments. Circulating concentrations of P4 were greater for CIDR_OBS and CIDR_TAI compared with Ovsynch at 24 h after CIDR insertion (5.34 and 4.98 vs. 1.75 ng/mL) and immediately before CIDR removal (1.65 and 1.48 vs. 0.40 ng/mL). Peak circulating concentrations of E2 were greater for CIDR_OBS compared with Ovsynch (3.85 vs. 2.39 pg/mL), but CIDR_TAI (2.82 pg/mL) did not differ from either CIDR_OBS or Ovsynch. The interval from PGF injection to peak circulating E2 did not differ between CIDR_TAI and Ovsynch (52.1 vs. 49.8 h). Both CIDR_TAI and Ovsynch, however, had shorter intervals from PGF injection to peak circulating E2 concentrations compared with CIDR_OBS (67.8 h). The diameter of the dominant follicle before ovulation was greater for CIDR_OBS compared with Ovsynch (18.5 vs. 16.0 mm) but CIDR_TAI (17.1 mm) did not differ from either of

  19. Effect of extending the interval from Presynch to initiation of Ovsynch in a Presynch-Ovsynch protocol on fertility of timed artificial insemination services in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Giordano, J O; Thomas, M J; Catucuamba, G; Curler, M D; Wijma, R; Stangaferro, M L; Masello, M

    2016-01-01

    The specific objective of this study was to determine if increasing the interval between the Presynch and Ovsynch portion of the Presynch-Ovsynch protocol (Presynch: PGF2α-14 d-PGF2α and Ovsynch: GnRH-7 d-PGF2α-56 h-GnRH-16-20 h-timed artificial insemination) from 12 to 14 d would reduce the fertility of lactating dairy cows not detected in estrus after Presynch that receive timed artificial insemination (TAI). Cows from 4 commercial dairy farms (n=3,165) were blocked by parity (primiparous vs. multiparous) and randomly assigned to a 12 (PSOv14-12; n=1,566) or 14 d (PSOv14-14; n=1,599) interval between the second PGF2α (PGF) injection of Presynch (P2) and the beginning of Ovsynch. Cows detected in estrus any time between P2 and the day of the TAI were inseminated (AIED group). From a subgroup of cows (177 and 150 in PSOv14-12 and PSOv14-14, respectively), ovarian parameters and ovulation were evaluated through determination of concentrations of progesterone (P4) in blood and transrectal ultrasonography at the time of the first GnRH (GnRH1) and the PGF injection of Ovsynch. Overall, 52.8% (n=1,671) of the cows were AIED, whereas 47.2% (n=1,494) received TAI. For cows that received TAI, pregnancies per artificial insemination 39 d after artificial insemination were similar for PSOv14-12 (36.3%) and PSOv14-14 (36.0%) but were greater for primiparous (41.5%) than multiparous cows (33.6%). Pregnancy loss from 39 to 105 d after artificial insemination was similar for PSOv14-12 (4.8%) and PSOv14-14 (8.6%), for primiparous (6.4%) and multiparous cows (7.0%), but a tendency for a treatment by parity interaction was observed. Both treatments had a similar proportion of cows with a follicle ≥ 10 mm and similar follicle size at GnRH1; however, the ovulatory response to GnRH was greater for PSOv14-12 (62.2%) than PSOv14-14 (46.4%). A greater proportion of cows with a functional corpus luteum (75.3 vs. 65.6%) and greater concentrations of P4 (3.9 vs. 3.3 ng/mL) at GnRH1 in

  20. Effects of replacing grass silage with forage pearl millet silage on milk yield, nutrient digestion, and ruminal fermentation of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Brunette, T; Baurhoo, B; Mustafa, A F

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of dietary replacement of grass silage (GS) with forage millet silages that were harvested at 2 stages of maturity [i.e., vegetative stage and dough to ripe seed (mature) stage] on milk production, apparent total-tract digestibility, and ruminal fermentation characteristics of dairy cows. Fifteen lactating Holstein cows were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square experiment and fed (ad libitum) a total mixed ration (60:40 forage:concentrate ratio). Dietary treatments included control (GS), vegetative millet silage (EM), and mature millet silage (MM) diets. Experimental silages comprised 24% of dietary dry matter (DM). Soybean meal and slow-release urea were added in millet diets to balance for crude protein (CP). Three additional ruminally fistulated cows were used to determine the effect of treatments on ruminal fermentation and total-tract nutrient utilization. Cows fed the GS diet consumed more DM (22.9 vs. 21.7 ± 1.02 kg/d) and CP (3.3 vs. 3.1 ± 0.19 kg/d), and similar starch (4.9 ± 0.39 kg/d) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF; 8.0 ± 0.27 kg/d) compared with cows fed the MM diet. Replacing the EM diet with the MM diet did not affect DM, NDF, or CP intakes. Cows fed the MM diet produced less milk (26.1 vs. 29.1 ± 0.79 kg/d), energy-corrected milk (28.0 vs.30.5 ± 0.92 kg/d), and 4% fat-corrected milk (26.5 vs. 28.3 ± 0.92 kg/d) yields than cows fed the GS diet. However, cows fed diets with EM and GS produced similar yields of milk, energy-corrected milk, and 4% fat-corrected milk. Feed efficiency (milk yield:DM intake) was greater only for cows fed the GS diet than those fed the MM diet. Milk protein yield and concentration were greater among cows fed the GS diet compared with those fed the EM or MM diets. Milk fat and lactose concentrations were not influenced by diet. However, milk urea N was lower for cows fed the GS diet than for those fed the MM diet. Ruminal NH3-N was greater for cows fed the EM diet than for

  1. Alfalfa baleage with increased concentration of nonstructural carbohydrates supplemented with a corn-based concentrate did not improve production and nitrogen utilization in early lactation dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Brito, A F; Tremblay, G F; Bertrand, A; Castonguay, Y; Bélanger, G; Michaud, R; Lafrenière, C; Martineau, R; Berthiaume, R

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of feeding alfalfa baleage with different concentrations of nonstructural carbohydrates (NSC) supplemented with a common corn-based concentrate on performance, ruminal fermentation profile, N utilization, and omasal flow of nutrients in dairy cows during early lactation. Ten multiparous (8 ruminally cannulated) and 8 primiparous Holstein cows were randomly assigned to treatments (high- or low-NSC diet) in a crossover design. The difference in NSC concentration between the 2 alfalfa baleages fed from d14 to 21 averaged 14 g of NSC/kg of dry matter (DM). Forages and concentrate were offered in separate meals with forages fed once and concentrate offered 3 times daily. Except for the molar proportion of valerate, which was lowest in cows fed the high-NSC diet, no other changes in ruminal fermentation were observed. Omasal flows of most nitrogenous fractions, including bacterial nonammonia N and AA, were not affected by treatments. Apparent ruminal digestibilities of neutral and acid detergent fiber and N were lowest, whereas that of total ethanol-soluble carbohydrates was highest when feeding the high-NSC diet. Postruminal digestibilities of DM, organic matter, fiber, and N were highest in cows fed the high-NSC diet, resulting in no difference in total-tract digestibilities. Total-tract digestibility of total ethanol-soluble carbohydrates was highest in cows fed the high-NSC diet, but that of starch did not differ across treatments. Although milk yield and total DM intake did not differ between treatments, yields of milk fat and 4% fat-corrected milk decreased significantly in cows fed the high-NSC diet. Milk concentration of urea N was lowest, and that of ruminal NH3-N highest, in cows fed the high-NSC diet. Plasma urea N concentration tended to be decreased in cows fed the high-NSC diet, but concentrations of AA were not affected by treatments, with the exception of Asp and Cys, both of which were lowest in

  2. Effect of concentrate crude protein level on grass silage intake, milk yield and nutrient utilisation by dairy cows in early lactation.

    PubMed

    Kokkonen, T; Tesfa, A Tsehai; Tuori, M; Yrjänen, S; Syrjälä-Qvist, L

    2002-06-01

    Twenty-one multiparous dairy cows were fed concentrates containing three levels (119, 154 and 191 g/kg DM) of crude protein (CP) during the first ten weeks of lactation. Part of the grain and molassed sugar beat pulp was substituted with 0% (RSM0), 15% (RSM15) or 30% (RSM30) repeseed meal. Wilted grass silage was fed ad libitum after calving. The average response between RSM0 and RSM15 was +1.66 kg milk/d per percentage unit change in concentrate CP content. No further response occurred between RSM15 and RSM30. The positive effect of RSM inclusion was seen throughout the experimental period and was associated with increased plasma non esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and decreased plasma insulin concentration one week after calving, and higher efficiency of metabolisable energy utilisation for milk production. Digestibility of the diet remained unaffected. Milk and plasma urea tended to increase with RSM30 indicating excessive supply of rumen degradable protein. Because of the limited potential of cows to compensate for a deficit in feed protein supply by mobilising tissue protein, a substantial milk yield response can be achieved with a moderate level of protein supplementation during early lactation.

  3. Effect of Cassava Hay and Rice Bran Oil Supplementation on Rumen Fermentation, Milk Yield and Milk Composition in Lactating Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Lunsin, R.; Wanapat, M.; Rowlinson, P.

    2012-01-01

    Four crossbred (75% Holstein Friesian) lactating dairy cows, with an average live weight of 418±5 kg and 36±10 d in milk were randomly assigned according to a 2×2 factorial arrangement in a 4×4 Latin square design to evaluate the effects of cassava hay (CH) and rice bran oil (RBO) on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, ruminal fermentation, milk yield, and milk composition. Factor A was non-supplementation or supplementation with CH in the concentrate. Factor B was supplementation with RBO at 0% or 4% in the concentrate mixture. The four dietary treatments were (T1) control (Concentrate with non-CH plus 0% RBO; C), (T2) Concentrate with CH plus 0% RBO (CH), (T3) Concentrate with non-CH plus 4% RBO (RBO), and (T4) Concentrate with CH plus 4% RBO (CHRBO). The cows were offered concentrate, at a ratio of concentrate to milk production of 1:2, and urea-lime treated rice straw was fed ad libitum. Urea-lime treated rice straw involved 2.5 g urea and 2.5 g Ca(OH)2 (purchased as hydrated lime) in 100 ml water, the relevant volume of solution was sprayed onto a 100 g air-dry (91% DM) straw, and then covering the stack with a plastic sheet for a minimum of 10 d before feeding directly to animals. The CH based concentrate resulted in significantly higher roughage intake and total DM intake expressed as a percentage of BW (p<0.05). Ruminal pH, NH3-N, BUN and total VFA did not differ among treatments, while RBO supplementation increased propionate, but decreased acetate concentration (p<0.05). Furthermore, the population of total ruminal bacteria was significantly lower on the RBO diet (p<0.05). In contrast, the total ruminal bacteria and cellulolytic bacteria on the CH diet were higher than on the other treatments. Supplementation with CH increased (p<0.05) F. succinogens and R. flavefaciens populations, whereas the populations of B. fibrisolvens and M. elsdenii were increased on the RBO diet. In addition, supplementation with CH and RBO had no effect on milk production

  4. Effect of cassava hay and rice bran oil supplementation on rumen fermentation, milk yield and milk composition in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Lunsin, R; Wanapat, M; Rowlinson, P

    2012-10-01

    Four crossbred (75% Holstein Friesian) lactating dairy cows, with an average live weight of 418±5 kg and 36±10 d in milk were randomly assigned according to a 2×2 factorial arrangement in a 4×4 Latin square design to evaluate the effects of cassava hay (CH) and rice bran oil (RBO) on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, ruminal fermentation, milk yield, and milk composition. Factor A was non-supplementation or supplementation with CH in the concentrate. Factor B was supplementation with RBO at 0% or 4% in the concentrate mixture. The four dietary treatments were (T1) control (Concentrate with non-CH plus 0% RBO; C), (T2) Concentrate with CH plus 0% RBO (CH), (T3) Concentrate with non-CH plus 4% RBO (RBO), and (T4) Concentrate with CH plus 4% RBO (CHRBO). The cows were offered concentrate, at a ratio of concentrate to milk production of 1:2, and urea-lime treated rice straw was fed ad libitum. Urea-lime treated rice straw involved 2.5 g urea and 2.5 g Ca(OH)2 (purchased as hydrated lime) in 100 ml water, the relevant volume of solution was sprayed onto a 100 g air-dry (91% DM) straw, and then covering the stack with a plastic sheet for a minimum of 10 d before feeding directly to animals. The CH based concentrate resulted in significantly higher roughage intake and total DM intake expressed as a percentage of BW (p<0.05). Ruminal pH, NH3-N, BUN and total VFA did not differ among treatments, while RBO supplementation increased propionate, but decreased acetate concentration (p<0.05). Furthermore, the population of total ruminal bacteria was significantly lower on the RBO diet (p<0.05). In contrast, the total ruminal bacteria and cellulolytic bacteria on the CH diet were higher than on the other treatments. Supplementation with CH increased (p<0.05) F. succinogens and R. flavefaciens populations, whereas the populations of B. fibrisolvens and M. elsdenii were increased on the RBO diet. In addition, supplementation with CH and RBO had no effect on milk production

  5. TNFα Altered Inflammatory Responses, Impaired Health and Productivity, but Did Not Affect Glucose or Lipid Metabolism in Early-Lactation Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Mamedova, Laman K.; Sordillo, Lorraine M.; Bradford, Barry J.

    2013-01-01

    Inflammation may be a major contributing factor to peripartum metabolic disorders in dairy cattle. We tested whether administering an inflammatory cytokine, recombinant bovine tumor necrosis factor-α (rbTNFα), affects milk production, metabolism, and health during this period. Thirty-three Holstein cows (9 primiparous and 24 multiparous) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments at parturition. Treatments were 0 (Control), 1.5, or 3.0 µg/kg body weight rbTNFα, which were administered once daily by subcutaneous injection for the first 7 days of lactation. Statistical contrasts were used to evaluate the treatment and dose effects of rbTNFα administration. Plasma TNFα concentrations at 16 h post-administration tended to be increased (P<0.10) by rbTNFα administration, but no dose effect (P>0.10) was detected; rbTNFα treatments increased (P<0.01) concentrations of plasma haptoglobin. Most plasma eicosanoids were not affected (P>0.10) by rbTNFα administration, but 6 out of 16 measured eicosanoids changed (P<0.05) over the first week of lactation, reflecting elevated inflammatory mediators in the days immediately following parturition. Dry matter and water intake, milk yield, and milk fat and protein yields were all decreased (P<0.05) by rbTNFα treatments by 15 to 18%. Concentrations of plasma glucose, insulin, β-hydroxybutyrate, non-esterified fatty acids, triglyceride, 3-methylhistidine, and liver triglyceride were unaffected (P>0.10) by rbTNFα treatment. Glucose turnover rate was unaffected (P = 0.18) by rbTNFα administration. The higher dose of rbTNFα tended to increase the risk of cows developing one or more health disorders (P = 0.08). Taken together, these results indicate that administration of rbTNFα daily for the first 7 days of lactation altered inflammatory responses, impaired milk production and health, but did not significantly affect liver triglyceride accumulation or nutrient metabolism in dairy cows. PMID:24260367

  6. Fate of dietary perchlorate in lactating dairy cows: Relevance to animal health and levels in the milk supply.

    PubMed

    Capuco, A V; Rice, C P; Baldwin, R L; Bannerman, D D; Paape, M J; Hare, W R; Kauf, A C W; McCarty, G W; Hapeman, C J; Sadeghi, A M; Starr, J L; McConnell, L L; Van Tassell, C P

    2005-11-01

    Perchlorate is a goitrogenic anion that competitively inhibits the sodium iodide transporter and has been detected in forages and in commercial milk throughout the U.S. The fate of perchlorate and its effect on animal health were studied in lactating cows, ruminally infused with perchlorate for 5 weeks. Milk perchlorate levels were highly correlated with perchlorate intake, but milk iodine was unaffected, and there were no demonstrable health effects. We provide evidence that up to 80% of dietary perchlorate was metabolized, most likely in the rumen, which would provide cattle with a degree of refractoriness to perchlorate. Data presented are important for assessing the environmental impact on perchlorate concentrations in milk and potential for relevance to human health.

  7. Fate of dietary perchlorate in lactating dairy cows: Relevance to animal health and levels in the milk supply

    PubMed Central

    Capuco, A. V.; Rice, C. P.; Baldwin, R. L.; Bannerman, D. D.; Paape, M. J.; Hare, W. R.; Kauf, A. C. W.; McCarty, G. W.; Hapeman, C. J.; Sadeghi, A. M.; Starr, J. L.; McConnell, L. L.; Van Tassell, C. P.

    2005-01-01

    Perchlorate is a goitrogenic anion that competitively inhibits the sodium iodide transporter and has been detected in forages and in commercial milk throughout the U.S. The fate of perchlorate and its effect on animal health were studied in lactating cows, ruminally infused with perchlorate for 5 weeks. Milk perchlorate levels were highly correlated with perchlorate intake, but milk iodine was unaffected, and there were no demonstrable health effects. We provide evidence that up to 80% of dietary perchlorate was metabolized, most likely in the rumen, which would provide cattle with a degree of refractoriness to perchlorate. Data presented are important for assessing the environmental impact on perchlorate concentrations in milk and potential for relevance to human health. PMID:16260728

  8. Rumen fermentation and microbial population in lactating dairy cows receiving diets containing oilseeds rich in C-18 fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Ivan, M; Petit, H V; Chiquette, J; Wright, A-D G

    2013-04-14

    Sixteen Holstein rumen-cannulated primiparous milking dairy cows were fed a control diet (CN) based on maize silage and soyabean meal during a 4-week period before the start of a 21-d experiment with oilseeds containing high concentration of linoleic acid (Linola™) or linolenic acid (NuLin™). Thereafter, four cows received ad libitum one of each of four dietary treatments comprising of CN, Linola (LN), NuLin (NL) and LN/NL (50/50 % combination). Each LN, NL and LN/NL treatment contained 6 % oil of DM. Rumen digesta samples were collected on days 6, 11, 16 and 21 and milk samples on days 13, 15 and 17. There were no effects (P>0.05) of the oilseeds on pH and concentrations of NH3-N and total volatile fatty acids, while the acetate:propionate ratio was decreased (P< 0.05). The oilseeds also decreased (P< 0.05) protozoa and increased (P< 0.1) total cellulolytic bacteria in rumen fluid, especially when containing high dietary linoleic acid (P< 0.05). The milk protein concentration was increased (P< 0.1) by the dietary linoleic acid, which produced most beneficial results. It was concluded that supplements of linoleic acid in diets of ruminants might contribute to better digestion of dietary fibre and increased quality of milk.

  9. Content and Composition of Branched-Chain Fatty Acids in Bovine Milk Are Affected by Lactation Stage and Breed of Dairy Cow.

    PubMed

    Bainbridge, Melissa L; Cersosimo, Laura M; Wright, André-Denis G; Kraft, Jana

    2016-01-01

    Dairy products contain bioactive fatty acids (FA) and are a unique dietary source of an emerging class of bioactive FA, branched-chain fatty acids (BCFA). The objective of this study was to compare the content and profile of bioactive FA in milk, with emphasis on BCFA, among Holstein (HO), Jersey (JE), and first generation HO x JE crossbreeds (CB) across a lactation to better understand the impact of these factors on FA of interest to human health. Twenty-two primiparous cows (n = 7 HO, n = 7 CB, n = 8 JE) were followed across a lactation. All cows were fed a consistent total mixed ration (TMR) at a 70:30 forage to concentrate ratio. Time points were defined as 5 days in milk (DIM), 95 DIM, 185 DIM, and 275 DIM. HO and CB had a higher content of n-3 FA at 5 DIM than JE and a lower n-6:n-3 ratio. Time point had an effect on the n-6:n-3 ratio, with the lowest value observed at 5 DIM and the highest at 185 DIM. The content of vaccenic acid was highest at 5 DIM, yet rumenic acid was unaffected by time point or breed. Total odd and BCFA (OBCFA) were higher in JE than HO and CB at 185 and 275 DIM. Breed affected the content of individual BCFA. The content of iso-14:0 and iso-16:0 in milk was higher in JE than HO and CB from 95 to 275 DIM. Total OBCFA were affected by time point, with the highest content in milk at 275 DIM. In conclusion, HO and CB exhibited a higher content of several bioactive FA in milk than JE. Across a lactation the greatest content of bioactive FA in milk occurred at 5 DIM and OBCFA were highest at 275 DIM. PMID:26930646

  10. Content and Composition of Branched-Chain Fatty Acids in Bovine Milk Are Affected by Lactation Stage and Breed of Dairy Cow

    PubMed Central

    Bainbridge, Melissa L.; Cersosimo, Laura M.; Wright, André-Denis G.; Kraft, Jana

    2016-01-01

    Dairy products contain bioactive fatty acids (FA) and are a unique dietary source of an emerging class of bioactive FA, branched-chain fatty acids (BCFA). The objective of this study was to compare the content and profile of bioactive FA in milk, with emphasis on BCFA, among Holstein (HO), Jersey (JE), and first generation HO x JE crossbreeds (CB) across a lactation to better understand the impact of these factors on FA of interest to human health. Twenty-two primiparous cows (n = 7 HO, n = 7 CB, n = 8 JE) were followed across a lactation. All cows were fed a consistent total mixed ration (TMR) at a 70:30 forage to concentrate ratio. Time points were defined as 5 days in milk (DIM), 95 DIM, 185 DIM, and 275 DIM. HO and CB had a higher content of n-3 FA at 5 DIM than JE and a lower n-6:n-3 ratio. Time point had an effect on the n-6:n-3 ratio, with the lowest value observed at 5 DIM and the highest at 185 DIM. The content of vaccenic acid was highest at 5 DIM, yet rumenic acid was unaffected by time point or breed. Total odd and BCFA (OBCFA) were higher in JE than HO and CB at 185 and 275 DIM. Breed affected the content of individual BCFA. The content of iso-14:0 and iso-16:0 in milk was higher in JE than HO and CB from 95 to 275 DIM. Total OBCFA were affected by time point, with the highest content in milk at 275 DIM. In conclusion, HO and CB exhibited a higher content of several bioactive FA in milk than JE. Across a lactation the greatest content of bioactive FA in milk occurred at 5 DIM and OBCFA were highest at 275 DIM. PMID:26930646

  11. Content and Composition of Branched-Chain Fatty Acids in Bovine Milk Are Affected by Lactation Stage and Breed of Dairy Cow.

    PubMed

    Bainbridge, Melissa L; Cersosimo, Laura M; Wright, André-Denis G; Kraft, Jana

    2016-01-01

    Dairy products contain bioactive fatty acids (FA) and are a unique dietary source of an emerging class of bioactive FA, branched-chain fatty acids (BCFA). The objective of this study was to compare the content and profile of bioactive FA in milk, with emphasis on BCFA, among Holstein (HO), Jersey (JE), and first generation HO x JE crossbreeds (CB) across a lactation to better understand the impact of these factors on FA of interest to human health. Twenty-two primiparous cows (n = 7 HO, n = 7 CB, n = 8 JE) were followed across a lactation. All cows were fed a consistent total mixed ration (TMR) at a 70:30 forage to concentrate ratio. Time points were defined as 5 days in milk (DIM), 95 DIM, 185 DIM, and 275 DIM. HO and CB had a higher content of n-3 FA at 5 DIM than JE and a lower n-6:n-3 ratio. Time point had an effect on the n-6:n-3 ratio, with the lowest value observed at 5 DIM and the highest at 185 DIM. The content of vaccenic acid was highest at 5 DIM, yet rumenic acid was unaffected by time point or breed. Total odd and BCFA (OBCFA) were higher in JE than HO and CB at 185 and 275 DIM. Breed affected the content of individual BCFA. The content of iso-14:0 and iso-16:0 in milk was higher in JE than HO and CB from 95 to 275 DIM. Total OBCFA were affected by time point, with the highest content in milk at 275 DIM. In conclusion, HO and CB exhibited a higher content of several bioactive FA in milk than JE. Across a lactation the greatest content of bioactive FA in milk occurred at 5 DIM and OBCFA were highest at 275 DIM.

  12. Effects of dietary cation-anion difference and potassium to sodium ratio on lactating dairy cows in hot weather.

    PubMed

    Wildman, C D; West, J W; Bernard, J K

    2007-02-01

    Forty-two lactating Holstein cows 188 +/- 59 d in milk were used in an 8-wk randomized complete block trial with a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement of treatments. The objective was to determine the effects of high dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) and K:Na ratio on milk yield and composition and blood acid-base chemistry. Treatments included DCAD concentrations of 45 or 60 mEq (Na + K -Cl)/100 g of feed dry matter and K:Na ratios of 2:1, 3:1, or 4:1. Mean DCAD values were later determined to be 41 and 58. Dry matter intake was similar across treatments. Yield of milk and energy corrected milk were lower for the 3:1 K:Na ratio compared with 2:1 and 4:1 ratios. Blood urea N was lower for the highest DCAD, suggesting that DCAD possibly reduced protein degradation or altered protein metabolism and retention. Mean temperature-humidity index was 75.6 for the duration of the trial, exceeding the critical value of 72 for all weeks during the treatment period. Cows maintained relatively normal body temperature with mean a.m. and p.m. body temperature of 38.5 and 38.7 degrees C, respectively. These body temperatures suggest that cows were not subject to extreme heat stress due to good environmental control. Results of this trial indicate that the greatest effect on milk yield occurs when either Na or K is primarily used to increase DCAD, with the lowest yield of energy-corrected milk at a 3:1 K:Na ratio (27.1 kg/d) compared with ratios of 2:1 (29.3 kg/d) and 4:1 (28.7 kg/d). Results also suggest that greater DCAD improves ruminal N metabolism or N utilization may be more efficient with a high DCAD.

  13. Restricting daily time at pasture at low and high pasture allowance: effects on pasture intake and behavioral adaptation of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Ramírez, E; Peyraud, J L; Delagarde, R

    2009-07-01

    In pasture-based dairy systems, daily time at pasture is restricted during several periods of the year. The aim of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of restricting time at pasture on milk yield, pasture dry matter (DM) intake, and grazing behavior of dairy cows according to pasture allowance (PA), which partly defines pasture availability. The experiment was carried out in spring on strip-grazed perennial ryegrass pastures. The 6 treatments consisted of 3 durations of daily time at pasture [U: unrestricted day and night grazing (22 h at pasture); R9: 1 grazing session restricted to 9 h between the 2 milkings; R5: 2 grazing sessions of 2.75 h after each milking) compared at low and high PA (13 and 24 kg of DM/d per cow >5 cm, respectively). Eighteen mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows were used according to a 6 x 4 incomplete Latin square design replicated 3 times with four 14-d periods. Pasture DM intake was measured by the ytterbium-fecal index method and grazing behavior from portable devices. On average, restricting time at pasture from U to R (mean of R5 + R9) decreased pasture intake by 2.9 kg of DM, milk yield by 1.3 kg, and milk protein concentration by 0.11%, and increased milk fat concentration by 0.20%. Pasture intake and milk yield did not differ significantly between R9 and R5. The reduction of pasture intake and milk yield with decreasing time at pasture was greater at high compared with low PA. Grazing times were 536, 414, and 305 min, representing proportions of time spent grazing of 0.40, 0.77, and 0.93 for treatments U, R9, and R5, respectively. The reduction of grazing time with decreasing time at pasture was greater at high compared with low PA. Pasture intake rate greatly increased with decreasing time at pasture, but mainly on R5 (29.8, 31.6, and 42.1 g of DM/min for U, R9, and R5, respectively). The effect of time at pasture on pasture intake rate was unaffected by PA. In conclusion, the effect of restriction of time at pasture on

  14. Effects of supplemental potassium and sodium chloride salts on ruminal turnover rates, acid-base and mineral status of lactating dairy cows during heat stress.

    PubMed

    Schneider, P L; Beede, D K; Wilcox, C J

    1988-01-01

    Effects of added dietary sodium and potassium chloride salts on ruminal turnover rates, acid-base balance and mineral status of lactating dairy cows experiencing a nycterohemeral cycle of heat stress were examined. Black globe-humidity index in the chambers averaged 94 during the daytime and 68 during the nighttime. Four ruminally cannulated multiparous Holstein cows in mid-lactation were confined in climatic chambers for a single-reversal experiment consisting of two 17-d periods. To the basal diet (50% corn silage: 50% concentrate, which contained .97% potassium, .19% sodium and .20% chloride), 1.25% sodium chloride plus 1.85% potassium chloride were added, making the high mineral treatment (1.93% potassium, 68% sodium and 1.85% chloride). Liquid dilution rates from the rumen were measured by chromium-ethylenediaminetetraacetate disappearance. Turnover rates of solids were determined by appearance of ytterbium in feces. Ruminal contents, arterial blood and urine were collected hourly for 26 h. Grab samples of feces were sampled over 6 d. Dry matter intakes and milk yields were not affected by the diets (averaging 17.8 and 21.1 kg/d, respectively). Cows fed the high mineral diet drank 17% more water (P less than .01). Tests for homogeneity of regression were utilized to compare chromium disappearance and ytterbium appearance data, which were best described by second-order polynomial functions. Increased ruminal chromium disappearance (P less than .01) and decreased total volatile fatty acid concentrations (P less than .01) suggested faster liquid dilution rates with high mineral diet, but turnover rates of solids were not affected. Urinary potassium secretion compensated for the high potassium content of the high mineral diet without an alkalogenic effect on acid-base status. Lower urine pH and higher urine ammonium concentrations during cool hours suggested that the high chloride content of the high mineral diet had an acidogenic effect. The results are

  15. Prediction of methane emission from lactating dairy cows using milk fatty acids and mid-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    van Gastelen, Sanne; Dijkstra, Jan

    2016-09-01

    Enteric methane (CH4 ) production is among the main targets of greenhouse gas mitigation practices for the dairy industry. A simple, robust and inexpensive measurement technique applicable on a large scale to estimate CH4 emission from dairy cattle would therefore be valuable. Milk fatty acids (MFA) are related to CH4 production because of the common biochemical pathway between CH4 and fatty acids in the rumen. A summary of studies that investigated the predictive power of MFA composition for CH4 emission indicated good potential, with predictive power ranging between 47% and 95%. Until recently, gas chromatography (GC) was the principal method used to determine the MFA profile, but GC is unsuitable for routine analysis. This has led to the application of mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy. The major advantages of using MIR spectroscopy to predict CH4 emission include its simplicity and potential practical application at large scale. Disadvantages include the inability to predict important MFA for CH4 prediction, and the moderate predictive power for CH4 emission. It may not be sufficient to predict CH4 emission based on MIR alone. Integration with other factors, like feed intake, nutrient composition of the feed, parity, and lactation stage may improve the prediction of CH4 emission using MIR spectra. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:26996655

  16. Effects of partial replacement of corn and alfalfa silage with tall fescue hay on total-tract digestibility and lactation performance in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Bender, R W; Lopes, F; Cook, D E; Combs, D K

    2016-07-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the effects of replacing either corn or alfalfa silage with tall fescue hay on total-tract neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibility and lactation performance in dairy cows. Twenty-four primiparous (75±35 d in milk) and 40 multiparous (68±19 d in milk) Holstein cows were blocked by parity and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatment groups in a pen equipped with 32 feeding gates to record intake by cow. Each gate was randomly assigned to 1 treatment group; thus, each cow had access to all 8 gates within the respective treatment and cow was the experimental unit. Treatments were formulated to replace either corn silage (CS) or alfalfa silage (AS) with tall fescue hay (TF) as follows (DM basis): 33% AS and 67% CS (control; 33AS67CS), 60% TF and 40% AS (60TF40AS), 60% TF and 40% CS (60TF40CS), and 33% TF and 67% CS (33TF67CS). The experiment was a 7-wk continuous lactation trial with a 2-wk covariate period. Milk production did not differ among treatments and averaged 40.4 kg/d. Fat yield and concentration and protein yield and concentration did not differ among treatments and averaged 1.58 kg/d, 3.94%, 1.28 kg/d, and 3.15%, respectively. Dry matter intake was greater for 33AS67CS (24.5 kg/d) compared with 60TF40CS (22.1 kg/d) and 33TF67CS (22.7 kg/d), and tended to be greater than 60TF40AS (23.2 kg/d). In vivo total-tract dry matter digestibility did not differ among treatments and averaged 66.2%. In vivo total-tract NDF digestibility was lower for 33AS67CS (37.8%) compared with 60TF40AS (44.4%) and 33TF67CS (45.3%), and similar to 60TF40CS (42.4%). In vivo total-tract NDF digestibility and an estimate of in situ total-tract NDF digestibility were similar between techniques across all treatment diets (42.3 vs. 42.6%, respectively). Inclusion of tall fescue grass hay increased the total-tract NDF digestibility of the diet and has the potential to replace corn silage and alfalfa silage and maintain milk production if economically feasible

  17. Effects of partial replacement of corn and alfalfa silage with tall fescue hay on total-tract digestibility and lactation performance in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Bender, R W; Lopes, F; Cook, D E; Combs, D K

    2016-07-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the effects of replacing either corn or alfalfa silage with tall fescue hay on total-tract neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibility and lactation performance in dairy cows. Twenty-four primiparous (75±35 d in milk) and 40 multiparous (68±19 d in milk) Holstein cows were blocked by parity and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatment groups in a pen equipped with 32 feeding gates to record intake by cow. Each gate was randomly assigned to 1 treatment group; thus, each cow had access to all 8 gates within the respective treatment and cow was the experimental unit. Treatments were formulated to replace either corn silage (CS) or alfalfa silage (AS) with tall fescue hay (TF) as follows (DM basis): 33% AS and 67% CS (control; 33AS67CS), 60% TF and 40% AS (60TF40AS), 60% TF and 40% CS (60TF40CS), and 33% TF and 67% CS (33TF67CS). The experiment was a 7-wk continuous lactation trial with a 2-wk covariate period. Milk production did not differ among treatments and averaged 40.4 kg/d. Fat yield and concentration and protein yield and concentration did not differ among treatments and averaged 1.58 kg/d, 3.94%, 1.28 kg/d, and 3.15%, respectively. Dry matter intake was greater for 33AS67CS (24.5 kg/d) compared with 60TF40CS (22.1 kg/d) and 33TF67CS (22.7 kg/d), and tended to be greater than 60TF40AS (23.2 kg/d). In vivo total-tract dry matter digestibility did not differ among treatments and averaged 66.2%. In vivo total-tract NDF digestibility was lower for 33AS67CS (37.8%) compared with 60TF40AS (44.4%) and 33TF67CS (45.3%), and similar to 60TF40CS (42.4%). In vivo total-tract NDF digestibility and an estimate of in situ total-tract NDF digestibility were similar between techniques across all treatment diets (42.3 vs. 42.6%, respectively). Inclusion of tall fescue grass hay increased the total-tract NDF digestibility of the diet and has the potential to replace corn silage and alfalfa silage and maintain milk production if economically feasible

  18. Association between antral follicle count and reproductive measures in New Zealand lactating dairy cows maintained in a pasture-based production system.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Marcelo F; Sanderson, Neil; Quirke, Laurel D; Lawrence, Stephen B; Juengel, Jennifer L

    2016-02-01

    The antral follicle count (AFC) in cattle is consistent throughout the estrous cycle of individual cows, and cows with a lower AFC have lower fertility. We assessed the AFC at random stages of the estrous cycle, examined the correlation between AFC classifications, and determined the relationship between the most rapid and practical laboratory-based AFC classification (AFC of follicles of ≥ 2 mm in diameter) and fertility measures in New Zealand lactating dairy cows. Cows detected in estrus (n = 202) or not (n = 239) during the first 4 weeks of the breeding season were subjected to ultrasonography and classified as having a high, medium, or low AFC at the time of scanning (on-site classification). Images from ultrasound scanning were recorded onto video for accurate follicle counting in an imaging laboratory. A strong association (P < 0.05) between the AFC of follicles with a diameter of 2 mm or greater and fertility was observed. Cows with a high AFC had a shorter (P < 0.05) interval from calving to conception by artificial insemination (AI; 82.4 ± 1.6 vs. 87.3 ± 1.2 days) and greater pregnancy rates (PRs; i.e., PR to the first AI [68.1% vs. 45.3%], 6-week PR [81.9% vs. 67.3%], and overall PR [91.3% vs. 79.7%]) than cows with a low AFC. The AFC was positively associated (P < 0.0001) with age. Progesterone concentrations during diestrus were greater (P < 0.05) in high-AFC cows (7.6 ± 0.3 ng/mL) than in low-AFC cows (6.5 ± 0.3 ng/mL), whether these were pregnant (7.7 ± 0.3 ng/mL) or not (6.3 ± 0.2 ng/mL). A rapid on-site scoring system determined that cows classified as having a high AFC had a shorter (P < 0.05) interval from calving to the first AI (76.5 ± 1.7 vs. 82.3 ± 1.9 days) and were more likely to show estrus (P < 0.01; 56.8% vs. 36.4%) and have a CL at the beginning of the breeding season (P < 0.01; 93.4% vs. 79.6%) than cows with a low on-site AFC. Collectively, we have confirmed an association between AFC2 and fertility, and these results

  19. Efficacy of liquid feeds varying in concentration and composition of fat, nonprotein nitrogen, and nonfiber carbohydrates for lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Firkins, J L; Oldick, B S; Pantoja, J; Reveneau, C; Gilligan, L E; Carver, L

    2008-05-01

    In trial 1, we evaluated the efficacy of a liquid feed (LF) containing cane molasses and corn steep liquor as carriers of suspended white grease (WG) without or with urea (U) or with soybean lipid (SL; a byproduct of soybean processing) compared with roasted soybeans plus tallow blended into respective concentrates in a 16-wk lactation study. The dry matter intake (DMI) and milk production for LF diets were either similar to or greater than respective controls, although SL decreased milk fat percentage. In trial 2, we compared LF without fat to LF plus WG or SL and also evaluated the dose response to increasing amount of LF + WG in a 16-wk lactation trial in which the LF products were added to respective total mixed rations. The DMI was increased and then decreased (quadratic response) with increasing LF + WG without a linear response. However, production of milk, protein, and fat increased linearly with corresponding quadratic responses, which we interpret to be a result of a limiting returns response from DMI and density of net energy for lactation. When LF plus SL was fed, milk fat percentage and yield decreased compared with the comparable amount of LF + WG. In a 12-wk lactation study (trial 3), we added 3.25 or 6.5% of the dry matter as LF (a different but generally similar product than the previous trials and without fat) to diets formulated to maintain comparable ruminal nonstructural carbohydrate digestibility by adding soybean hulls to decrease nonfiber carbohydrates (NFC) concentration; the 6.5% LF diet was without or with Rumensin (11.5 g/909 kg of dry matter). When 3.25% LF was added but NFC was decreased from 40 to 37%, cows increased DMI and production of milk fat. Adding Rumensin decreased DMI but maintained milk fat yield compared with its 6.25% LF control without Rumensin. In trials 1 and 3, apparent total tract nutrient digestibility was not affected by treatment. In conclusion, feeding LF at about 5% (trial 2, which contained WG, 1.6% added sugar

  20. Comparison between lactating and non-lactating dairy cows on follicular growth and corpus luteum development, and endocrine patterns of ovarian steroids and luteinizing hormone in the estrous cycles.

    PubMed

    Endo, Natsumi; Nagai, Kiyosuke; Tanaka, Tomomi; Kamomae, Hideo

    2012-10-01

    The dynamics of ovarian follicle, corpus luteum (CL), and peripheral plasma ovarian steroids were compared between lactating and non-lactating cows, and a possible association of pulsatile luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion with the dynamics was examined. Lactating (n=5) and non-lactating (n=5) cows were monitored daily for follicle and CL throughout two consecutive estrous cycles (Day 0: day of ovulation). Blood samples were collected daily and at 15 min intervals for 8h on Days 2, 4, 6, 8, and 14 of the second cycle. Lactating cows had larger CL (25.4 ± 1.8mm vs. 23.5 ± 1.5mm, P<0.01) and greater progesterone concentrations (4.6 ± 1.0ng/ml vs. 3.9 ± 0.9 ng/ml, P<0.01) during mid-luteal phase compared with non-lactating cows. Maximal diameters of the first wave dominant follicle (17.2 ± 1.8mm vs. 15.5 ± 0.8mm) and the ovulatory follicle (17.9 ± 1.2mm vs. 15.2 ± 0.8mm) were greater (P<0.05) in lactating cows than in non-lactating cows during the estrous cycles with two follicular waves, but no significant differences were detected between the groups during the estrous cycles with three follicular waves. Plasma estradiol concentrations did not differ between the groups throughout the experiment. Lactating cows had more LH pulses from Days 2 to 14 than non-lactating cows. These results imply that differences in ovarian dynamics may exist between lactating and non-lactating cows, for which the increased number of LH pulses observed in lactating cows may have responsibility.

  1. Mineral concentrations in diets, water, and milk and their value in estimating on-farm excretion of manure minerals in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Castillo, A R; St-Pierre, N R; Silva del Rio, N; Weiss, W P

    2013-05-01

    Thirty-nine commercial dairies in Merced County, California were enrolled in the present study to (1) compare lactating cow mineral intakes (via drinking water and total mixed ration) to the National Research Council (NRC) requirements, (2) evaluate the association between dietary concentrations of minerals with and without drinking water and adjusted for mineral concentrations in milk, and (3) compare 4 different methods to estimate excretion of minerals using either assays or estimations of milk mineral outputs and total daily mineral intake per cow with or without minerals coming from drinking water. Dairies were selected to represent a range of herd milk yields and a range of water mineral contents. Samples of total mixed ration, drinking water, and bulk tank milk were taken on 2 different days, 3 to 7d apart in each farm. Across-farm medians and percentile distributions were used to analyze results. The herd median milk yield interquartile ranged (10th to 90th percentile) from less than 25 to more than 39 kg/d and the concentration of total solids in water interquartile ranged from less than 200 to more than 1,490 mg/L. Including drinking water minerals in the diets increased dietary concentrations by <4% for all minerals except for Na and Cl, which increased by 9.3 and 6.5%, respectively. Concentrations of P and K in milk were essentially the same as the NRC value to estimate lactation requirements. However, NRC milk values of Ca, Cl, and Zn were 10 to 20% greater than dairy farm values; and Na, Cu, Fe, and Mn were no less than 36% below NRC values. Estimated excretion of minerals via manure varied substantially across farms. Farms in the 10th percentile did have 2 to 3 times less estimated mineral excretions than those in the 90th percentile (depending on the mineral). Although including water minerals increased excretion of most minerals, the actual median effect of Ca, Mg, S, Cu, Fe, and Mn was less than 5%, and about 8% for Na and Cl. Replacing assayed

  2. Rubber Flooring Impact on Health of Dairy Cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Use of rubber flooring in dairies has become popular because of perceived cow comfort. The objective of this longitudinal study was to evaluate locomotion, health, production, and immunity over the first 180d of each of the 1st and 2nd lactations of cows assigned to free-stall housing with either r...

  3. Rubber Flooring Impact on Production and Herdlife of Dairy Cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Use of rubber flooring in dairies has become popular because of perceived cow comfort. The overall objective of this longitudinal study was to evaluate production, reproduction, and retention of first and second lactations of cows assigned to either rubber (RUB) or concrete (CON) flooring at the fe...

  4. Machine learning algorithms for the prediction of conception success to a given insemination in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hempstalk, K; McParland, S; Berry, D P

    2015-08-01

    The ability to accurately predict the conception outcome for a future mating would be of considerable benefit for producers in deciding what mating plan (i.e., expensive semen or less expensive semen) to implement for a given cow. The objective of the present study was to use herd- and cow-level factors to predict the likelihood of conception success to a given insemination (i.e., conception outcome not including embryo loss); of particular interest in the present study was the usefulness of milk mid-infrared (MIR) spectral data in augmenting the accuracy of the prediction model. A total of 4,341 insemination records with conception outcome information from 2,874 lactations on 1,789 cows from 7 research herds for the years 2009 to 2014 were available. The data set was separated into a calibration data set and a validation data set using either of 2 approaches: (1) the calibration data set contained records from all 7 farms for the years 2009 to 2011, inclusive, and the validation data set included data from the 7 farms for the years 2012 to 2014, inclusive, or (2) the calibration data set contained records from 5 farms for all 6 yr and the validation data set contained information from the other 2 farms for all 6 yr. The prediction models were developed with 8 different machine learning algorithms in the calibration data set using standard 10-times 10-fold cross-validation and also by evaluating in the validation data set. The area under curve (AUC) for the receiver operating curve varied from 0.487 to 0.675 across the different algorithms and scenarios investigated. Logistic regression was generally the best-performing algorithm. The AUC was generally inferior for the external validation data sets compared with the calibration data sets. The inclusion of milk MIR in the prediction model generally did not improve the accuracy of prediction. Despite the fair AUC for predicting conception outcome under the different scenarios investigated, the model provided a

  5. Exchanging physically effective neutral detergent fiber does not affect chewing activity and performance of late-lactation dairy cows fed corn and sugarcane silages.

    PubMed

    Sá Neto, A; Bispo, A W; Junges, D; Bercht, A K; Zopollatto, M; Daniel, J L P; Nussio, L G

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether replacing the physically effective neutral detergent fiber (peNDF) of corn silage with sugarcane silage peNDF would affect performance in dairy cows. Twenty-four late-lactation Holstein cows were assigned to eight 3 × 3 Latin squares with 21-d periods. The dietary treatments were (1) 25% peNDF of corn silage, (2) 25% peNDF of sugarcane silage, and (3) 12.5% peNDF of corn silage + 12.5% peNDF of sugarcane silage. The physical effectiveness factors (pef) were assumed to be 1 for corn silage and 1.2 for sugarcane silage, as measured previously by bioassay. Thus, peNDF was calculated as neutral detergent fiber (NDF) × pef. The concentrate ingredients were finely ground corn, soybean meal, pelleted citrus pulp, and mineral-vitamin premix. Dry matter intake (22.5 ± 0.63 kg/d), 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield (28.8 ± 1.13 kg/d), milk composition (fat, protein, lactose, urea, casein, free fatty acids, and somatic cell count), and blood metabolites (glucose, insulin, and nonesterified fatty acids) were unaffected by the treatments. The time spent eating, ruminating, or chewing was also similar among the diets, as was particle-sorting behavior. By contrast, chewing per kilogram of forage NDF intake was higher for the sugarcane silage (137 min/kg) than the corn silage diet (116 min/kg), indicating the greater physical effectiveness of sugarcane fiber. Based on chewing behavior (min/d), the estimated pef of sugarcane silage NDF were 1.28 in the corn silage plus sugarcane silage diet and 1.29 in the sugarcane silage diet. Formulating dairy rations of equal peNDF content allows similar performance if corn and sugarcane silages are exchanged.

  6. Effect of niacin supplementation on digestibility, nitrogen utilisation and milk and blood variables in lactating dairy cows fed a diet with a negative rumen nitrogen balance.

    PubMed

    Aschemann, Martina; Lebzien, Peter; Hüther, Liane; Döll, Susanne; Südekum, Karl-Heinz; Dänicke, Sven

    2012-06-01

    The aim of the present experiment was to determine if a niacin supplementation of 6 g/d to lactating dairy cow diets can compensate negative effects of a rumen nitrogen balance (RNB) deficit. A total of nine ruminally and duodenally fistulated lactating multiparous German Holstein cows were successively assigned to one of three diets consisting of 10 kg maize silage (dry matter [DM] basis) and 7 kg DM concentrate: Diet RNB- (n = 6) with energy and utilisable crude protein at the duodenum (uCP) according to the average requirement of the animals but with a negative RNB (-0.41 g N/MJ metabolisable energy [ME]); Diet RNB0 (n = 7) with energy, uCP and a RNB (0.08 g N/MJ ME) according to the average requirement of the animals and, finally, Diet NA (n = 5), which was the same diet as RNB-, but supplemented with 6 g niacin/d. Samples of milk were taken on two consecutive days, blood samples were taken on one day pre- and post-feeding and faeces and urine were collected completely over five consecutive days. The negative RNB reduced milk and blood urea content and apparent total tract digestibility of DM, organic matter (OM) and neutral detergent fibre (NDF). Also N excretion with urine, the total N excreted with urine and faeces and the N balance were reduced when the RNB was negative. Supplementation of niacin elevated plasma glucose concentration after feeding and the N balance increased. Supplementing the diet with a negative RNB with niacin led to a more efficient use of dietary N thereby avoiding the negative effects of the negative RNB on the digestibility of DM, OM and NDF. PMID:22724166

  7. The association of detection method, season, and lactation stage on identification of fecal shedding in Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis infectious dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Laurin, Emilie L; Chaffer, Marcelo; McClure, J Trenton; McKenna, Shawn L B; Keefe, Greg P

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the causative organism of Johne's disease. Although fecal culture is considered the standard diagnostic test, the long incubation times, costs, and intermittent shedding of MAP hinder efficient screening programs based on culture results. The primary objectives of this study were to determine the detection ability of solid culture, broth culture, and real-time PCR (qPCR) for MAP in fecal samples and to assess how shedding patterns of MAP in feces vary with lactation stage and season. This knowledge could improve the use of these diagnostic assays in Johne's management programs. For this study, 51 MAP-infectious cows from 7 Atlantic Canadian dairy farms had fecal samples collected monthly over a 12-mo period. Samples were analyzed for MAP bacterial load via solid culture, broth culture, and qPCR. For all fecal samples, 46% [95% confidence interval (CI): 40 to 51%] were positive by solid culture, 55% (95% CI: 50 to 60%) by broth culture, and 78% (95% CI: 73 to 82%) by qPCR. Sensitivity of qPCR was numerically higher in the dry and postpartum lactation periods, and qPCR detection in summer and fall was 85% of that in winter and spring. Furthermore, culture-determined moderate or light shedding categories generally corresponded to qPCR cycle threshold values <35, but heavy shedding categories corresponded to qPCR values <29. Direct fecal qPCR is a MAP detection method that is quick and less costly than culture techniques, and it avoids the use of decontamination steps that could decrease numbers of bacteria in a sample below the detection limit. This study indicates that, for known MAP-positive cows, fecal qPCR had high sensitivity of MAP detection, thereby supporting the use of direct fecal qPCR as part of a Johne's herd control program.

  8. Effect of niacin supplementation on digestibility, nitrogen utilisation and milk and blood variables in lactating dairy cows fed a diet with a negative rumen nitrogen balance.

    PubMed

    Aschemann, Martina; Lebzien, Peter; Hüther, Liane; Döll, Susanne; Südekum, Karl-Heinz; Dänicke, Sven

    2012-06-01

    The aim of the present experiment was to determine if a niacin supplementation of 6 g/d to lactating dairy cow diets can compensate negative effects of a rumen nitrogen balance (RNB) deficit. A total of nine ruminally and duodenally fistulated lactating multiparous German Holstein cows were successively assigned to one of three diets consisting of 10 kg maize silage (dry matter [DM] basis) and 7 kg DM concentrate: Diet RNB- (n = 6) with energy and utilisable crude protein at the duodenum (uCP) according to the average requirement of the animals but with a negative RNB (-0.41 g N/MJ metabolisable energy [ME]); Diet RNB0 (n = 7) with energy, uCP and a RNB (0.08 g N/MJ ME) according to the average requirement of the animals and, finally, Diet NA (n = 5), which was the same diet as RNB-, but supplemented with 6 g niacin/d. Samples of milk were taken on two consecutive days, blood samples were taken on one day pre- and post-feeding and faeces and urine were collected completely over five consecutive days. The negative RNB reduced milk and blood urea content and apparent total tract digestibility of DM, organic matter (OM) and neutral detergent fibre (NDF). Also N excretion with urine, the total N excreted with urine and faeces and the N balance were reduced when the RNB was negative. Supplementation of niacin elevated plasma glucose concentration after feeding and the N balance increased. Supplementing the diet with a negative RNB with niacin led to a more efficient use of dietary N thereby avoiding the negative effects of the negative RNB on the digestibility of DM, OM and NDF.

  9. Effect of dietary ratio of Na:K on feed intake, milk production, and mineral metabolism in mid-lactation dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hu, W; Kung, L

    2009-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of altering the dietary ratio of Na:K while keeping the dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) constant, on dry matter (DM) intake, milk production, and mineral metabolism in lactating dairy cows. Fifteen mid-lactation Holstein cows averaging 160 d in milk were used in a replicated 3 x 3 Latin square design with treatments varying in the molar ratio of Na:K (0.21, 0.53, and 1.06). Diets contained A) 0.25% Na and 2.00% K, B) 0.50% Na and 1.60% K, or C) 0.75% Na and 1.20% K (on a DM basis), and all contained the same DCAD of 33 mEq (Na + K - Cl - S)/100 g of DM. There was a quadratic effect of the ratio of Na:K on DM intake (28.4, 27.5, and 28.3 kg/d for diets A, B, and C, respectively). The ratio of Na:K did not affect milk yield (average 39.2 kg/d), milk composition (average 3.60% fat; 3.01% protein; and 8.62% solids-not-fat), or coccygeal venous plasma concentrations of HCO(3)(-) (average 29.3 mEq/L), Na(+) (average 136.7 mEq/L), K(+) (average 4.53 mEq/L), Cl(-) (average 97.5 mEq/L), Ca (average 10.06 mg/dL), and Mg (average 2.49 mg/dL), and urinary pH (average 8.38) and ratio of Cl(-):creatinine (average 4.35). The ratios of urinary Na(+):creatinine (1.80, 4.21, and 7.42), Ca:creatinine (0.035, 0.041, and 0.064), and Mg:creatinine (0.53, 0.60, and 0.77) increased linearly with increasing ratios of Na:K, whereas the ratio of urinary K(+):creatinine decreased linearly as the ratio of Na:K increased (22.4, 15.9, and 10.3). Milk production and composition of mid-lactation cows was similar among dietary ratios of Na:K with the same DCAD of 33 mEq/100 g of DM.

  10. Dietary forage and nonfiber carbohydrate contents influence B-vitamin intake, duodenal flow, and apparent ruminal synthesis in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Schwab, E C; Schwab, C G; Shaver, R D; Girard, C L; Putnam, D E; Whitehouse, N L

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to quantify intakes, duodenal flows, and ruminal apparent synthesis (AS) of B-vitamins in lactating dairy cows fed diets varying in forage and nonfiber carbohydrate (NFC) contents. Eight (4 primiparous and 4 multiparous) ruminally and duodenally cannulated Holstein cows were assigned to 4 dietary treatments in a replicated 21-d period, 4 x 4 Latin square design with a 2 x 2 factorial treatment arrangement. Diets, fed as TMR, contained (DM basis) 2 levels of forage (35 and 60%) and 2 levels of NFC (30 and 40%). The forage portion of the diets contained 50% corn silage, 33% alfalfa hay, and 17% grass hay. Soybean hulls and beet pulp (2:1) and corn meal and ground barley (2:1) were included to achieve desired NFC concentrations. No supplemental B-vitamins were fed. B-vitamin AS was calculated as the amount of a specific B-vitamin flowing to the duodenum minus its daily orts-corrected intake. Dry matter and organic matter intakes were higher for cows fed the 35% forage diets and the 40% NFC diets. Increasing dietary forage content decreased ruminal AS of pyridoxine, folic acid, and B12. Increasing dietary NFC content increased ruminal AS of nicotinic acid, nicotinamide, niacin, pyridoxal, B6, and folic acid but decreased AS of B12. Across diets, amounts of B-vitamins synthesized were highest for niacin, followed by riboflavin, B12, thiamin, B6, and folic acid. Biotin AS values were negative for all diets, suggesting either no ruminal synthesis or that destruction by ruminal microflora was greater than synthesis. B-vitamin intake, duodenal flow, and ruminal synthesis are influenced by dietary forage and NFC contents.

  11. Dietary forage and nonfiber carbohydrate contents influence B-vitamin intake, duodenal flow, and apparent ruminal synthesis in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Schwab, E C; Schwab, C G; Shaver, R D; Girard, C L; Putnam, D E; Whitehouse, N L

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to quantify intakes, duodenal flows, and ruminal apparent synthesis (AS) of B-vitamins in lactating dairy cows fed diets varying in forage and nonfiber carbohydrate (NFC) contents. Eight (4 primiparous and 4 multiparous) ruminally and duodenally cannulated Holstein cows were assigned to 4 dietary treatments in a replicated 21-d period, 4 x 4 Latin square design with a 2 x 2 factorial treatment arrangement. Diets, fed as TMR, contained (DM basis) 2 levels of forage (35 and 60%) and 2 levels of NFC (30 and 40%). The forage portion of the diets contained 50% corn silage, 33% alfalfa hay, and 17% grass hay. Soybean hulls and beet pulp (2:1) and corn meal and ground barley (2:1) were included to achieve desired NFC concentrations. No supplemental B-vitamins were fed. B-vitamin AS was calculated as the amount of a specific B-vitamin flowing to the duodenum minus its daily orts-corrected intake. Dry matter and organic matter intakes were higher for cows fed the 35% forage diets and the 40% NFC diets. Increasing dietary forage content decreased ruminal AS of pyridoxine, folic acid, and B12. Increasing dietary NFC content increased ruminal AS of nicotinic acid, nicotinamide, niacin, pyridoxal, B6, and folic acid but decreased AS of B12. Across diets, amounts of B-vitamins synthesized were highest for niacin, followed by riboflavin, B12, thiamin, B6, and folic acid. Biotin AS values were negative for all diets, suggesting either no ruminal synthesis or that destruction by ruminal microflora was greater than synthesis. B-vitamin intake, duodenal flow, and ruminal synthesis are influenced by dietary forage and NFC contents. PMID:16357281

  12. Effect of gonadotropin-releasing hormone or prostaglandin F(2α)-based estrus synchronization programs for first or subsequent artificial insemination in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Bruno, R G S; Farias, A M; Hernández-Rivera, J A; Navarrette, A E; Hawkins, D E; Bilby, T R

    2013-03-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effects of GnRH or PGF(2α)-based synchronization and resynchronization programs on fertility in lactating dairy cows. For experiment 1, cows (n=1,521) were presynchronized with 2 injections of PGF given at 36 and 50 DIM and assigned to 1 of 3 protocols: Ovsynch [OVS; n=552; GnRH injection, PGF(2α) injection 7 d later, GnRH injection 56 h later, and timed artificial insemination (TAI) 16 h later] beginning at 14 d after presynchronization (PS), GnRH-GnRH-PGF(2α)-GnRH (GGPG; n=402) treatment with a GnRH injection given 7 d after PS and OVS 7 d later, or PGF(2α)-GnRH-PGF(2α)-GnRH (P7GPG; n=567) treatment with a PGF(2α) injection given 7 d after PS and OVS beginning 7 d later. Experiment 2 cows (n=2,327) were assigned to 1 of 3 resynchronization protocols 7 d before nonpregnancy diagnosis (NPD): GGPG cows (n=458) received a GnRH injection at enrollment and OVS at NPD; P7GPG cows (n=940) received a PGF(2α) injection at NPD and OVS 7 d later; and P11GPG cows (n=929) received a PGF(2α) injection 3 d after NPD and OVS 11 d later. In both experiments, cows were artificially inseminated upon estrus detection (ED). In experiment 1, 52.3% of cows were artificially inseminated upon ED, with GGPG having reduced ED (GGPG=46.8 vs. OVS=50.7 and P7GPG=57.7%). Treatments did not affect overall pregnancy per artificial insemination (P/AI) at 36 and 66 d after AI (OVS=34.1 and 32.3, P7GPG=34.6 and 31.9, and GGPG=31.3 and 28.1%, respectively) or pregnancy loss but cows artificially inseminated upon ED had higher P/AI than cows undergoing TAI (ED cows=37.9 vs. TAI cows=28.8%). Treatment did not affect P/AI for cows artificially inseminated upon ED or TAI at 36 and 66 d after AI (OVS=34.1 and 32.3, P7GPG=34.6 and 31.9, and GGPG=31.3 and 28.1%). Median days in milk at first AI was affected by treatment (P7GPG=59 vs. OVS=68 and GGPG=68 d). In experiment 2, GGPG reduced ED (GGPG=23.3 vs. P7GPG=74.9 and P11GPG=79.6%). Treatment did not affect overall

  13. The use of hormonal treatments to improve the reproductive performance of lactating dairy cows in feedlot or pasture-based management systems.

    PubMed

    Lucy, M C; McDougall, S; Nation, D P

    2004-07-01

    Hormonal interventions have been used to increase the probability of estrous detection and insemination, and to increase pregnancy rates of dairy cattle under a variety of management systems. The present review addresses the basic principles of hormonal intervention and presents typical examples that illustrate the methodology. The hormones used to control the estrous cycle mimic the reproductive hormones found within the normal cow. Most estrous synchronization systems employ a method for controlling follicular wave development, promoting ovulation in anestrous cows, regressing the corpus luteum in cyclic cows, and synchronizing estrus and (or) ovulation at the end of treatment. A wide range of reproductive systems are in place on dairy farms. In most herds, a non-intervention period is practiced where postpartum cows are observed estrus estrus. Cows not observed in estrus are then treated. A number of studies in pasture-based and confinement systems have demonstrated net benefits of whole-herd synchronization. Despite the advantages of whole-herd reproductive programs, their uptake has been inconsistent globally. The benefits of a timed artificial insemination (AI) system increase under conditions of poor estrous detection rate and poor conception rate. The unpopular nature of timed AI programs in pasture-fed cows relates to high rates of estrous detection and conception for pasture-based dairying. Regardless of production system, some cows must be re-inseminated because they are not pregnant after first insemination. The presence of "phantom cows" (non-pregnant cows that do not return to estrus) creates a serious reproductive challenge for both pasture-based and confinement-style operations. Early pregnancy diagnosis and second insemination timed AI may reduce the effects of phantom cows on dairy herds. Fundamental research into anestrous, the hormonal control of the estrous cycle, and early pregnancy detection should elucidate new methods that can be used to

  14. Effect of conjugated linoleic acid supplementation on body composition, body fat mobilization, protein accretion, and energy utilization in early lactation dairy cows.

    PubMed

    von Soosten, D; Meyer, U; Piechotta, M; Flachowsky, G; Dänicke, S

    2012-03-01

    the 42-CON and 11.5 MJ/d in the 42-CLA group. The HP was unchanged for the 42-CON and 42-CLA group with 123.0 and 116.9 MJ/d, respectively. From 1 until 105 DIM, the protein accretion was 4.3 kg and the daily energy retention in body protein was 1.0 MJ higher for CLA-supplemented cows. The HP was decreased in this period for the 105-CLA group (115.5 MJ/d) as compared with the 105-CON group (125.9 MJ/d). Overall, the trend for a decreased body mass mobilization suggested a protective effect of CLA supplementation against excessive use of body reserves within 42 DIM. Continuous CLA supplementation until 105 DIM increased protein accretion. The effects on body mass mobilization and protein accretion in combination with the decreased HP in the CLA-fed cows suggested a more efficient utilization of metabolizable energy in CLA-supplemented early lactation dairy cows.

  15. Effect of microencapsulated sodium butyrate in the close-up diet on performance of dairy cows in the early lactation period.

    PubMed

    Kowalski, Z M; Górka, P; Flaga, J; Barteczko, A; Burakowska, K; Oprządek, J; Zabielski, R

    2015-05-01

    Two trials were conducted to determine the effect of sodium butyrate microencapsulated within triglyceride matrix (Na-butyrate) in the close-up period on performance of dairy cows and rumen papillae development. In trial 1, 26 Holstein-Friesian cows were randomly allocated to 2 groups (13 cows/group) and fed prepartum a total mixed ration (TMR) without or with 300g of Na-butyrate/d from 30 d before expecting calving to parturition. After calving, the same lactational TMR without Na-butyrate was offered to both treatments. Dry matter intake and milk yield were monitored daily to 60 d in milk, and body condition of cows was scored on d 30, 21, and 4 before parturition and d 14, 31, and 60 after parturition. On d 15, 10, and 5 before parturition blood samples were collected from 6 cows randomly chosen from each group and analyzed for plasma β-hydroxybutyrate and nonesterified fatty acids concentrations. No differences in dry matter (DM) intake, milk yield, body condition score, or plasma β-hydroxybutyrate and nonesterified fatty acids concentrations was observed between treatments; however, in the last 5 d before parturition the cows receiving Na-butyrate ate 1.7kg of DM/d more, on average, as compared with control cows. In trial 2, 12 Holstein-Friesian growing bulls (404±48; body weight ± SD) were used to determine the effect of Na-butyrate inclusion in the diet on rumen papillae development. Bulls were randomly allocated to 2 groups (6 bulls/group) and fed TMR without or with 2% (on a dry matter basis) of Na-butyrate for 21 d. At the end of the study, bulls were killed and rumen fluid and rumen tissue samples from dorsal and ventral sac of the rumen were collected. No effect of Na-butyrate supplementation on BW of bulls and DMI during the trial period was observed. Sodium butyrate supplementation increased total short-chain fatty acid concentration in the rumen but had no effect on rumen pH, molar proportions of short-chain fatty acids, and NH3-N concentration

  16. Integrating spot short-term measurements of carbon emissions and backward dietary energy partition calculations to estimate intake in lactating dairy cows fed ad libitum or restricted.

    PubMed

    Pereira, A B D; Utsumi, S A; Dorich, C D; Brito, A F

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to use spot short-term measurements of CH4 (QCH4) and CO2 (QCO2) integrated with backward dietary energy partition calculations to estimate dry matter intake (DMI) in lactating dairy cows. Twelve multiparous cows averaging 173±37d in milk and 4 primiparous cows averaging 179±27d in milk were blocked by days in milk, parity, and DMI (as a percentage of body weight) and, within each block, randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: ad libitum intake (AL) or restricted intake (RI=90% DMI) according to a crossover design. Each experimental period lasted 22d with 14d for treatments adaptation and 8d for data and sample collection. Diets contained (dry matter basis): 40% corn silage, 12% grass-legume haylage, and 48% concentrate. Spot short-term gas measurements were taken in 5-min sampling periods from 15 cows (1 cow refused sampling) using a portable, automated, open-circuit gas quantification system (GreenFeed, C-Lock Inc., Rapid City, SD) with intervals of 12h between the 2daily samples. Sampling points were advanced 2h from a day to the next to yield 16 gas samples per cow over 8d to account for diurnal variation in QCH4 and QCO2. The following equations were used sequentially to estimate DMI: (1) heat production (MJ/d)=(4.96 + 16.07 ÷ respiratory quotient) × QCO2; respiratory quotient=0.95; (2) metabolizable energy intake (MJ/d)=(heat production + milk energy) ± tissue energy balance; (3) digestible energy (DE) intake (MJ/d)=metabolizable energy + CH4 energy + urinary energy; (4) gross energy (GE) intake (MJ/d)=DE + [(DE ÷ in vitro true dry matter digestibility) - DE]; and (5) DMI (kg/d)=GE intake estimated ÷ diet GE concentration. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC) and Fit Model procedure in JMP (α=0.05; SAS Institute Inc.). Cows significantly differed in DMI measured (23.8 vs. 22.4kg/d for AL and RI, respectively). Dry matter intake estimated using QCH4 and QCO2 coupled with

  17. Integrating spot short-term measurements of carbon emissions and backward dietary energy partition calculations to estimate intake in lactating dairy cows fed ad libitum or restricted.

    PubMed

    Pereira, A B D; Utsumi, S A; Dorich, C D; Brito, A F

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to use spot short-term measurements of CH4 (QCH4) and CO2 (QCO2) integrated with backward dietary energy partition calculations to estimate dry matter intake (DMI) in lactating dairy cows. Twelve multiparous cows averaging 173±37d in milk and 4 primiparous cows averaging 179±27d in milk were blocked by days in milk, parity, and DMI (as a percentage of body weight) and, within each block, randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: ad libitum intake (AL) or restricted intake (RI=90% DMI) according to a crossover design. Each experimental period lasted 22d with 14d for treatments adaptation and 8d for data and sample collection. Diets contained (dry matter basis): 40% corn silage, 12% grass-legume haylage, and 48% concentrate. Spot short-term gas measurements were taken in 5-min sampling periods from 15 cows (1 cow refused sampling) using a portable, automated, open-circuit gas quantification system (GreenFeed, C-Lock Inc., Rapid City, SD) with intervals of 12h between the 2daily samples. Sampling points were advanced 2h from a day to the next to yield 16 gas samples per cow over 8d to account for diurnal variation in QCH4 and QCO2. The following equations were used sequentially to estimate DMI: (1) heat production (MJ/d)=(4.96 + 16.07 ÷ respiratory quotient) × QCO2; respiratory quotient=0.95; (2) metabolizable energy intake (MJ/d)=(heat production + milk energy) ± tissue energy balance; (3) digestible energy (DE) intake (MJ/d)=metabolizable energy + CH4 energy + urinary energy; (4) gross energy (GE) intake (MJ/d)=DE + [(DE ÷ in vitro true dry matter digestibility) - DE]; and (5) DMI (kg/d)=GE intake estimated ÷ diet GE concentration. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC) and Fit Model procedure in JMP (α=0.05; SAS Institute Inc.). Cows significantly differed in DMI measured (23.8 vs. 22.4kg/d for AL and RI, respectively). Dry matter intake estimated using QCH4 and QCO2 coupled with

  18. Dietary inclusion of diallyl disulfide, yucca powder, calcium fumarate, an extruded linseed product, or medium-chain fatty acids does not affect methane production in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    van Zijderveld, S M; Dijkstra, J; Perdok, H B; Newbold, J R; Gerrits, W J J

    2011-06-01

    Two similar experiments were conducted to assess the effect of diallyl disulfide (DADS), yucca powder (YP), calcium fumarate (CAFU), an extruded linseed product (UNSAT), or a mixture of capric and caprylic acid (MCFA) on methane production, energy balance, and dairy cow performance. In experiment 1, a control diet (CON1) and diets supplemented with 56 mg of DADS/kg of dry matter (DM), 3g of YP/kg of DM, or 25 g of CAFU/kg of DM were evaluated. In experiment 2, an inert saturated fat source in the control diet (CON2) was exchanged isolipidically for an extruded linseed source (100g/kg of DM; UNSAT) or a mixture of C8:0 and C10:0 (MCFA; 20.3g/kg of DM). In experiment 2, a higher inclusion level of DADS (200mg/kg of DM) was also tested. Both experiments were conducted using 40 lactating Holstein-Friesian dairy cows. Cows were adapted to the diet for 12 d and were subsequently kept in respiration chambers for 5 d to evaluate methane production, diet digestibility, energy balance, and animal performance. Feed intake was restricted to avoid confounding effects of possible differences in ad libitum feed intake on methane production. Feed intake was, on average, 17.5 and 16.6 kg of DM/d in experiments 1 and 2, respectively. None of the additives reduced methane production in vivo. Methane production in experiment 1 was 450, 453, 446, and 423 g/d for CON1 and the diets supplemented with DADS, YP, and CAFU, respectively. In experiment 2, methane production was 371, 394, 388, and 386 g/d for CON2 and the diets supplemented with UNSAT, MCFA, and DADS, respectively. No effects of the additives on energy balance or neutral detergent fiber digestibility were observed. The addition of MCFA increased milk fat content (5.38% vs. 4.82% for control) and fat digestibility (78.5% vs. 59.8% for control), but did not affect milk yield or other milk components. The other products did not affect milk yield or composition. Results from these experiments emphasize the need to confirm methane

  19. A meta-analysis of the effects of feeding yeast culture produced by anaerobic fermentation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on milk production of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Poppy, G D; Rabiee, A R; Lean, I J; Sanchez, W K; Dorton, K L; Morley, P S

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to use meta-analytic methods to estimate the effect of a commercially available yeast culture product on milk production and other production measures in lactating dairy cows using a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Sixty-one research publications (published journal articles, published abstracts, and technical reports) were identified through a review of literature provided by the manufacturer and a search of published literature using 6 search engines. Thirty-six separate studies with 69 comparisons met the criteria for inclusion in the meta-analysis. The fixed-effect meta-analysis showed substantial heterogeneity for milk yield, energy-corrected milk, 3.5% fat-corrected milk, milk fat yield, and milk protein yield. Sub-group analysis of the data showed much less heterogeneity in peer-reviewed studies versus non-peer-reviewed abstracts and technical reports, and tended to show higher, but not significantly different, treatment effects. A random-effects meta-analysis showed estimated raw mean differences between treated and untreated cattle reported in peer-reviewed publications of 1.18 kg/d [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.55 to 1.81], 1.61 kg/d (95% CI: 0.92 to 2.29), and 1.65 kg/d (95% CI: 0.97 to 2.34) for milk yield, 3.5% fat-corrected milk, and energy-corrected milk, respectively. Milk fat yield and milk protein yield for peer-reviewed studies showed an increase in the raw mean difference of 0.06 kg/d (95% CI: 0.01 to 0.10) and 0.03 kg/d (95% CI: 0.00 to 0.05), respectively. Estimated raw mean dry matter intake of the peer-reviewed studies during early lactation (<70 d in milk) and not-early lactation were 0.62 kg/d (95% CI: 0.21 to 1.02) and a decrease of 0.78 kg/d (95% CI: -1.36 to -0.21), respectively. These findings provide strong evidence that this commercially available yeast culture product provides significant improvement in several important milk production outcomes as evaluated in production settings

  20. Effects of Dexamethasone and Insulin Alone or in Combination on Energy and Protein Metabolism Indicators and Milk Production in Dairy Cows in Early Lactation – A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Sami, Mehrdad; Mohri, Mehrdad; Seifi, Hesam A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study investigated the effects of dexamethasone and insulin, when administered at 3rd or 10th day of lactation on energy and protein metabolism in dairy cows. Materials and Methods Two hundred Holstein cows were enrolled in a randomized controlled clinical trial. The cows were randomly assigned to receive 1 of 4 treatments at 3 or 10 days in milk: control group, 10-mL i.m. injection of sterile water, group insulin, s.c. injection of 100 units of insulin, group dexamethasone, i.m. injection of 20 mg of dexamethasone, group insulin plus dexamethasone, i.m. injection of 20 mg of dexamethasone and 100 units of insulin. The cows randomly assigned to receive the treatments on 3 or 10 days of lactation. Serum samples obtained at the time of enrollment, time of treatment and at 2, 4, 7 and 14 days after intervention. The sera were analyzed for β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), glucose, cholesterol, albumin, urea, and aspartate amino transferase (AST). Data were analyzed using a repeated measures mixed model that accounted for the effects of parity, body condition score, dystocia, retained placenta, metritis and the random effect of cow. Results There was no significant interaction of group of treatment and time of intervention (day 3 or 10 post-partum) on serum components. Cows that received insulin or dexamethasone alone or in combination, had lower BHBA 2 days after treatment compared with control cows, whereas concentrations of NEFA, were unaffected suggesting that glucocorticoids lipolytic effects do not appear to be important in healthy cows. AST activities significantly reduced in cows that received dexamethasone with or without insulin at 2 and 4 days after treatment. Albumin and urea concentrations 2 days after treatment were higher for cows that received dexamethasone only or dexamethasone plus insulin compared with control and Ins received cows. There were no treatment effects on test-day milk production, milk fat and

  1. The effect of cation source and dietary cation-anion difference on rumen ion concentrations in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Catterton, T L; Erdman, R A

    2016-08-01

    Many studies have focused on the influence of dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) on animal performance but few have examined the effect of DCAD on the rumen ionic environment. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of DCAD, cation source (Na vs. K), and anion source (Cl vs. bicarbonate or carbonate) on rumen environment and fermentation. The study used 5 rumen-fistulated dairy cows and 5 dietary treatments that were applied using a 5×5 Latin square design with 2-wk experimental periods. Treatments consisted of (1) the basal total mixed ration (TMR); (2) the basal TMR plus 340mEq/kg of Na (dry matter basis) using NaCl; (3) the basal TMR plus 340mEq/kg of K using KCl; (4) the basal TMR plus 340mEq/kg of Na using NaHCO3; and (5) the basal TMR plus 340mEq/kg of K using K2CO3. On the last day of each experimental period, rumen samples were collected and pooled from 5 different locations at 0, 1.5, 3, 4.5, 6, 9, and 12h postfeeding for measurement of rumen pH and concentrations of strong ions and volatile fatty acids (VFA). Dietary supplementation of individual strong ions increased the corresponding rumen ion concentration. Rumen Na was decreased by 24mEq/L when K was substituted for Na in the diet, but added dietary Na had no effect on rumen K. Rumen Cl was increased by 10mEq/L in diets supplemented with Cl. Cation source had no effect on rumen pH or total VFA concentration. Increased DCAD increased rumen pH by 0.10 pH units and increased rumen acetate by 4mEq/L but did not increase total VFA. This study demonstrated that rumen ion concentrations can be manipulated by dietary ion concentrations. If production and feed efficiency responses to DCAD and ionophores in the diet are affected by rumen Na and K concentrations, then manipulating dietary Na and K could be used either to enhance or diminish those responses. PMID:27289159

  2. Effects of feeding increasing levels of wet corn gluten feed on production and ruminal fermentation in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Mullins, C R; Grigsby, K N; Anderson, D E; Titgemeyer, E C; Bradford, B J

    2010-11-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of increasing dietary inclusion rates of wet corn gluten feed (WCGF; Sweet Bran; Cargill Inc., Blair, NE) on milk production and rumen parameters. Four primiparous and 4 multiparous ruminally cannulated Holstein cows averaging 90±13 d in milk (mean ± SD) were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 sequences in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square experiment with 28-d periods. Treatments were diets containing 0, 11, 23, and 34% WCGF on a dry matter basis; alfalfa hay, corn silage, corn grain, soybean meal, expeller soybean meal, and mineral supplements were varied to maintain similar nutrient concentrations across diets. Performance and measures of ruminal fermentation were monitored. Linear and quadratic effects of increasing WCGF inclusion rate were assessed using mixed-model analysis. Increasing dietary WCGF linearly increased dry matter intake (26.7, 25.9, 29.3, and 29.7 kg/d for 0, 11, 23, and 34% WCGF, respectively) and milk production (36.8, 37.0, 40.1, and 38.9 kg/d). Concentrations of milk components did not differ among treatments; however, protein and lactose yields increased linearly and fat yield tended to increase linearly when more WCGF was fed. This led to greater production of energy-corrected milk (38.2, 38.8, 41.7, and 40.4 kg/d) and solids-corrected milk (35.2, 35.7, 38.5, and 37.2 kg/d), but efficiency of production linearly decreased. Increased WCGF in the diet tended to linearly decrease ruminal pH (6.18, 6.12, 6.14, and 5.91), possibly because mean particle size was below typical recommendations for all diets, and diets with greater proportions of WCGF had a smaller mean particle size. Ruminal acetate concentration decreased linearly and propionate increased linearly as WCGF inclusion rate increased. Treatments had a quadratic effect on ammonia concentration, with greater concentrations for the 0 and 34% WCGF diets. In situ digestibility of soybean hulls showed a significant diet-by-time interaction, and

  3. Abomasal infusion of casein, starch and soybean oil differentially affect plasma concentrations of gut peptides and feed intake in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Relling, Alejandro E; Reynolds, Christopher K

    2008-07-01

    The effects of specific nutrients on secretion and plasma concentrations of gut peptides (glucagon-like peptide-1((7-36)) amide (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), and cholecystokinin-8 (CCK)) differ across species, but are not reported for cattle. Our objective was to determine acute (hours) and chronic (1 week) effects of increased abomasal supply of protein, carbohydrate, or fat to the small intestine on dry matter intake (DMI) and plasma concentrations of GLP-1, GIP, CCK, and insulin. Four mid-lactation Holstein cows were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design experiment. Treatments were 7-day abomasal infusions of water, soybean oil (500 g/d), corn starch (1100 g/d), or casein (800 g/d). Jugular vein plasma was obtained over 7h at the end of the first and last day of infusions. Oil infusion decreased DMI on day 7, but total metabolizable energy (ME) supply (diet plus infusate) did not differ from water infusion. Casein and starch infusion had no effect on feed DMI; thus, ME supply increased. Decreased DMI on day 7 of oil infusion was accompanied by increased plasma GLP-1 concentration, but decreased plasma CCK concentration. Increased plasma GIP concentration was associated with increased ME supply on day 7 of casein and starch infusion. Casein infusion tended to increase plasma CCK concentration on both days of sampling, and increased plasma GLP-1 and insulin concentration on day 1 of infusion. The present data indicate a sustained elevation of plasma concentration of GLP-1, but not CCK, may contribute to the reduced DMI observed in dairy cows provided supplemental fat.

  4. Effect of dietary cation-anion difference on ruminal metabolism, total apparent digestibility, blood and renal acid-base regulation in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Martins, C M M R; Arcari, M A; Welter, K C; Gonçalves, J L; Santos, M V

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) on ruminal fermentation, total apparent digestibility, blood and renal metabolism of lactating dairy cows. Sixteen Holstein cows were distributed in four contemporary 4×4 Latin Square designs, which consisted of four periods of 21 days and four treatments according to DCAD: +290; +192; +98 and -71 milliequivalent (mEq)/kg dry matter (DM). Ruminal pH and concentrations of acetic and butyric acid increased linearly according to the increase of DCAD. Similarly, NDF total apparent digestibility linearly increased by 6.38% when DCAD increased from -71 to 290 mEq/kg DM [Y=65.90 (SE=2.37)+0.0167 (SE=0.0068)×DCAD (mEq/kg DM)]. Blood pH was also increased according to DCAD, which resulted in reduction of serum concentrations of Na, K and ionic calcium (iCa). To maintain the blood acid-base homeostasis, renal metabolism played an important role in controlling serum concentrations of Na and K, since the Na and K urinary excretion increased linearly by 89.69% and 46.06%, respectively, from -71 to 290 mEq/kg DM. Changes in acid-base balance of biological fluids may directly affect the mineral composition of milk, as milk concentrations of Na, K, iCa and chlorides were reduced according to blood pH increased. Thus, it can be concluded that the increase of DCAD raises the pH of ruminal fluid, NDF total apparent digestibility, and blood pH, and decreases the milk concentration of cationic minerals, as well as the efficiency of Na utilization to milk production.

  5. Fertilization and early embryonic development in heifers and lactating cows in summer and lactating and dry cows in winter.

    PubMed

    Sartori, R; Sartor-Bergfelt, R; Mertens, S A; Guenther, J N; Parrish, J J; Wiltbank, M C

    2002-11-01

    Two experiments in two seasons evaluated fertilization rate and embryonic development in dairy cattle. Experiment 1 (summer) compared lactating Holstein cows (n = 27; 97.3 +/- 4.1 d postpartum [dppl; 40.0 +/- 1.5 kg milk/d) to nulliparous heifers (n = 28; 11 to 17 mo old). Experiment 2 (winter) compared lactating cows (n = 27; 46.4 +/- 1.6 dpp; 45.9 +/- 1.4 kg milk/d) to dry cows (n = 26). Inseminations based on estrus included combined semen from four high-fertility bulls. Embryos and oocytes recovered 5 d after ovulation were evaluated for fertilization, embryo quality (1 = excellent to 5 = degenerate), nuclei/embryo, and accessory sperm. In experiment 1, 21 embryos and 17 unfertilized oocytes (UFO) were recovered from lactating cows versus 32 embryos and no UFO from heifers (55% vs. 100% fertilization). Embryos from lactating cows had inferior quality scores (3.8 +/- 0.4 vs. 2.2 +/- 0.3), fewer nuclei/embryo (19.3 +/- 3.7 vs. 36.8 +/- 3.0) but more accessory sperm (37.3 +/- 5.8 vs. 22.4 +/- 5.5/embryo) than embryos from heifers. Sperm were attached to 80% of UFO (17.8 +/- 12.1 sperm/UFO). In experiment 2, lactating cows yielded 36 embryos and 5 UFO versus 34 embryos and 4 UFO from dry cows (87.8 vs. 89.5% fertilization). Embryo quality from lactating cows was inferior to dry cows (3.1 +/- 0.3 vs. 2.2 +/- 0.3), but embryos had similar numbers of nuclei (27.2 +/- 2.7 vs. 30.6 +/- 2.1) and accessory sperm (42.0 +/- 9.4 vs. 36.5 +/- 6.3). From 53% of the flushings from lactating cows and 28% from dry cows, only nonviable embryos were collected. Thus, embryos of lactating dairy cows were detectably inferior to embryos from nonlactating females as early as 5 d after ovulation, with a surprisingly high percentage of nonviable embryos. In addition, fertilization rate was reduced only in summer, apparently due to an effect of heat stress on the oocyte. PMID:12487447

  6. Fertilization and early embryonic development in heifers and lactating cows in summer and lactating and dry cows in winter.

    PubMed

    Sartori, R; Sartor-Bergfelt, R; Mertens, S A; Guenther, J N; Parrish, J J; Wiltbank, M C

    2002-11-01

    Two experiments in two seasons evaluated fertilization rate and embryonic development in dairy cattle. Experiment 1 (summer) compared lactating Holstein cows (n = 27; 97.3 +/- 4.1 d postpartum [dppl; 40.0 +/- 1.5 kg milk/d) to nulliparous heifers (n = 28; 11 to 17 mo old). Experiment 2 (winter) compared lactating cows (n = 27; 46.4 +/- 1.6 dpp; 45.9 +/- 1.4 kg milk/d) to dry cows (n = 26). Inseminations based on estrus included combined semen from four high-fertility bulls. Embryos and oocytes recovered 5 d after ovulation were evaluated for fertilization, embryo quality (1 = excellent to 5 = degenerate), nuclei/embryo, and accessory sperm. In experiment 1, 21 embryos and 17 unfertilized oocytes (UFO) were recovered from lactating cows versus 32 embryos and no UFO from heifers (55% vs. 100% fertilization). Embryos from lactating cows had inferior quality scores (3.8 +/- 0.4 vs. 2.2 +/- 0.3), fewer nuclei/embryo (19.3 +/- 3.7 vs. 36.8 +/- 3.0) but more accessory sperm (37.3 +/- 5.8 vs. 22.4 +/- 5.5/embryo) than embryos from heifers. Sperm were attached to 80% of UFO (17.8 +/- 12.1 sperm/UFO). In experiment 2, lactating cows yielded 36 embryos and 5 UFO versus 34 embryos and 4 UFO from dry cows (87.8 vs. 89.5% fertilization). Embryo quality from lactating cows was inferior to dry cows (3.1 +/- 0.3 vs. 2.2 +/- 0.3), but embryos had similar numbers of nuclei (27.2 +/- 2.7 vs. 30.6 +/- 2.1) and accessory sperm (42.0 +/- 9.4 vs. 36.5 +/- 6.3). From 53% of the flushings from lactating cows and 28% from dry cows, only nonviable embryos were collected. Thus, embryos of lactating dairy cows were detectably inferior to embryos from nonlactating females as early as 5 d after ovulation, with a surprisingly high percentage of nonviable embryos. In addition, fertilization rate was reduced only in summer, apparently due to an effect of heat stress on the oocyte.

  7. Temporary alterations to postpartum milking frequency affect whole-lactation milk production and the energy status of pasture-grazed dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Phyn, C V C; Kay, J K; Rius, A G; Morgan, S R; Roach, C G; Grala, T M; Roche, J R

    2014-11-01

    This study investigated the immediate and long-term effects of temporary alterations to postpartum milking frequency (MF) on milk production, body condition score (BCS), and indicators of energy status in pasture-grazed cows supplemented with concentrates. Multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows (n = 150) were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 groups at calving: milked twice daily (2 ×) throughout lactation (control), or milked either once daily (1 ×) or 3 times daily (3 ×) for 3 or 6 wk immediately postpartum, and then 2 × for the remainder of lactation. During wk 1 to 3 postpartum, cows milked 1 × produced 15% less milk and 17% less energy-corrected milk (ECM) than cows milked 2 ×. This immediate production loss increased to 20% less milk and 22% less ECM during wk 4 to 6 postpartum for cows that remained on 1 × milking; these animals also produced less than 1 × cows switched to 2 × milking after 3 wk. During wk 8 to 32, when all cows were milked 2 ×, those previously milked 1 × had sustained reductions in milk (-6%) and ECM (-8%) yields, which were not affected by the duration of reduced postpartum MF. In contrast, cows milked 3 × postpartum had 7% greater milk yields during wk 1 to 6 compared with 2 × controls, irrespective of the duration of increased MF. Milk yields also remained numerically greater (+5%) during wk 8 to 32 in cows previously milked 3 ×. Nevertheless, yields of ECM were not increased by 3 × milking, because of lower milk fat and protein contents that persisted for the rest of lactation. In addition, indicators of cow energy status reflected an increasing state of negative energy balance with increasing MF. Cows milked 1 × postpartum had greater plasma glucose and lower plasma nonesterified fatty acid concentrations during the reduced MF, and plasma glucose remained lower for 2 wk after cows had switched to 2 × milking. Moreover, BCS was improved relative to 2 × controls from wk 5 to 6. In contrast, cows milked 3 × had lower plasma

  8. Lactation responses and amino acid utilization of dairy cows fed low-fat distillers dried grains with solubles with or without rumen-protected lysine supplementation.

    PubMed

    Paz, H A; Kononoff, P J

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of feeding different amounts of low-fat distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in diets with or without supplementation of rumen-protected Lys (RPL) on lactation responses and AA utilization. Eight multiparous Holstein cows averaging 188 ± 13 DIM were assigned to a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Dietary treatments were as follows: (1) 15% low-fat DDGS, (2) 15% low-fat DDGS plus RPL, (3) 30% low-fat DDGS, and (4) 30% low-fat DDGS plus RPL. Periods lasted 21 d, with the last 3 d for data collection. Basal diets (without RPL) were formulated using the Cornell-Penn-Miner Dairy model [Cornell University (Ithaca, NY), University of Pennsylvania (Philadelphia), and the W. H. Miner Agricultural Research Institute (Chazy, NY)] to be isonitrogenous (16.9% crude protein) and isocaloric (2.63 Mcal/kg) and inclusion of low-fat DDGS increased at the expense of corn and soybean meal. Inclusion rate of low-fat DDGS and RPL supplementation had no effect on dry matter intake and milk yield, averaging 25.3 ± 0.97 kg/d and 26.9 ± 1.94 kg/d, respectively (means ± standard error of the means). Milk fat and lactose concentrations were unaffected by treatments but milk protein concentration decreased in cows fed treatments with 30% low-fat DDGS compared with those fed treatments with 15% low-fat DDGS (3.49 vs. 3.40 ± 0.12%). Updated predictions from the Cornell-Penn-Miner Dairy model showed a decrease of 25 g of metabolizable protein Lys in cows fed treatments with 30% low-fat DDGS. Compared with cows fed treatments with 15% low-fat DDGS, cows fed treatments with 30% low-fat DDGS had a marked increase in extraction efficiency (49.4 vs. 61.4 ± 2.51%) and a tendency to increase milk protein concentration (3.41 vs. 3.48 ± 0.12%) with RPL supplementation, which supported that Lys supply was inadequate. Despite differences observed in milk protein concentration, milk protein

  9. Acid-base parameters and steroid concentrations in pre-ovulatory follicles and plasma of lactating dairy cows with spontaneous and synchronized oestrus or follicular cyst.

    PubMed

    Hussein, H A; Boryczko, Z; Bostedt, H

    2013-10-01

    The study aimed to compare the acid-base balance and steroid concentrations between follicular fluids (FF) of pre-ovulatory follicles derived from a spontaneous oestrus (SO), synchronized or induced oestrus (IO) and follicular cysts (CYS) and between FF and blood in dairy cows. Forty-two dairy cows were included in this study. The animals were allocated to three groups: SO (n = 23); IO (n = 11) using GnRH at day 0 and day 9 and PGF2 α at day 7; and animals with CYS (n = 10). The follicular fluids (FF) were aspirated from the cyst/pre-ovulatory follicles (∅ ≥ 15 mm) after SO and after second GnRH dose in IO by transvaginal ultrasound-guided ovum pick-up technique. Blood samples (BL) were collected in heparinized vacutainer tubes. The oxygen tension (pO2) in FF of IO was higher (p < 0.05) than in SO and CYS groups. There were negative correlations (p < 0.001, r = -0.89) between FF and blood pO2. The carbon dioxide tension (pCO2) and lactate level in FF of CYS group were higher (p < 0.05) than in SO and IO groups. There were negative correlations (p < 0.01, r = -0.73) between blood and FF pO2. Oestradiol-17β concentration in pre-ovulatory follicles and plasma of the SO group was higher (p < 0.001) than in IO and CYS groups. Progesterone concentration in pre-ovulatory follicles and plasma of the SO and IO groups was lower (p < 0.01) than in CYS group. Plasma androstenedione concentration in SO and IO groups was higher (p < 0.05) than in CYS group. In conclusion, acid-base parameters, E2 and P4 levels in the follicular fluid of both IO and CYS groups were deviated greatly from the physiological level (disturbances of intrafollicular/intracystic environment), which may affect the quality of both the oocyte and the granulosa cells.

  10. Efficacy of in vitro embryo transfer in lactating dairy cows using fresh or vitrified embryos produced in a novel embryo culture medium.

    PubMed

    Block, J; Bonilla, L; Hansen, P J

    2010-11-01

    Objectives were to determine whether pregnancy success could be improved in lactating cows with timed embryo transfer when embryos were produced in vitro using a medium designed to enhance embryo development and survival after cryopreservation. In experiment 1, embryos (n=569 to 922) were cultured in either modified synthetic oviduct fluid or a serum-free medium, Block-Bonilla-Hansen-7 (BBH7). Development to the blastocyst stage was recorded at d 7, and selected blastocysts (n=79 to 114) were vitrified using open pulled straws. Culture of embryos in BBH7 increased development to the blastocyst stage (41.9±2.0 vs. 14.7±2.0%) and advanced blastocyst stages (expanded, hatching, hatched; 31.1±1.3 vs. 6.4±1.3%) at d 7 and resulted in higher hatching rates at 24h postwarming compared with embryos cultured in modified synthetic oviduct fluid (59.0±0.5 vs. 26.7±0.5%). In experiment 2, embryos were produced using X-sorted semen and cultured in BBH7. At d 7 after insemination, embryos were transferred fresh or following vitrification. Lactating Holstein cows were either subjected to timed artificial insemination (TAI) on the day of presumptive ovulation or used as embryo recipients 7 d later. Embryo recipients received an embryo if a corpus luteum was present. The percentage of cows pregnant at d 32, 46, and 76 of gestation was higher among cows that received fresh embryos compared with TAI cows or cows that received vitrified embryos. At d 76, for example, the proportion and percentage pregnant was 47/150 (31.3%) for cows subjected to TAI, 48/95 (50.5%) for cows receiving fresh embryos, and 39/141 (27.7%) for cows receiving a vitrified embryo. No difference was observed in the percentage of cows pregnant among TAI cows and those that received vitrified embryos. There was a service or transfer number × treatment interaction because differences in pregnancy rate between embryo transfer recipients and cows bred by TAI were greater for cows with more than 3 services or

  11. Synchronization of lactating dairy cows with prostaglandin F2 alpha: insemination on observed oestrus versus timed artificial insemination.

    PubMed

    Tenhagen, B A; Drillich, M; Heuwieser, W

    2000-12-01

    The effect of two insemination policies after synchronization of oestrus on reproductive performance in two groups of cows was investigated. Oestrus was synchronized by two treatments with prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha) at a 14-day interval. Cows in Group 1 (n = 234) were inseminated twice on appointment 66 and 90 h after the second treatment. Cows in Group 2 (n = 222) were intensively watched for signs of oestrus after the synchronization protocol and inseminated on observed oestrus. Cows with abnormal discharge after synchronization were excluded from breeding and inseminated later during the study period. Service rate within 1 week after synchronization was higher in Group 1 than in Group 2 (89.3 versus 67.1%). Conception rates on first service did not differ between groups (33.2 versus 30.0%). Days to first service and days open were shorter in Group 1 (P < 0.05). The number of cows culled for infertility did not differ between the groups. Endometritis 14-20 days post-partum decreased the percentage of cows pregnant at the end of the study period in both groups but did not have a significant effect on conception rates and days open. It is concluded that additional inseminations required in the timed artificial insemination protocol were economically justified by the reduction in days open in comparison with insemination on observed oestrus after synchronization.

  12. Analysis of production responses to changing crude protein levels in lactating dairy cow diets when evaluated in continuous or change-over experimental designs.

    PubMed

    Zanton, G I

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate by meta-analysis the effect of experimental design on the production response functions obtained when changing crude protein (CP) levels in lactating dairy cow diets. The final database of studies meeting the selection criteria contained 55 publications with 23 classified as using a continuous (80 diets) and 34 classified as using a change-over (173 diets) experimental design (2 publications reported results from trials using both designs). Mixed model, weighted analysis of covariance was conducted on production measures in response to CP including the continuous covariates year of publication and average days in milk (DIM) and the discrete classification covariate of experimental design. The model was evaluated for curvilinearity in the response to CP, variance heterogeneity, and coincidence in the response between experimental designs, with P<0.05 indicating significant effects and P<0.15 indicating trends. On average, cows in experiments using continuous designs had a lower initial DIM, were on treatment longer, and produced a greater yield of milk and milk protein than cows in experiments using change-over designs. Production responses to increasing CP were increased dry matter intake (DMI), milk and component yield, and feed efficiency (milk Mcal/kg of DMI), and decreased milk N:intake N. Response in milk yield and feed efficiency to increased CP interacted with experimental design where continuous experiments had greater milk yield and feed efficiency response at higher levels of CP. Interaction between CP and design effects on yield of milk protein and fat or milk N:intake N did not approach significance. The database is limited by the lower number of continuous studies and the differences in average DIM between designs; nevertheless, it is concluded that DMI, milk protein yield, milk fat yield, and milk N:intake N responses to CP did not depend on experimental design. Response of milk yield and feed efficiency to

  13. Efficacy of a 5-day extended therapy program during lactation with cephapirin sodium in dairy cows chronically infected with Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Jean-Philippe; DesCôteaux, Luc; DuTremblay, Denis; Beaudry, Francis; Elsener, Johanne

    2009-01-01

    This study determined the efficacy of a 5-day extended therapy with cephapirin sodium in dairy cows chronically infected with Staphylococcus aureus. Chronically infected cows selected from 14 dairy herds in the St-Hyacinthe region, Québec were randomly allocated to a group of 31 cows treated for 5 consecutive days with 200 mg of cephapirin per quarter BID or a group of 30 untreated control cows. Bacteriological cure was determined by 3 negative bacterial cultures at 10, 24, and 31 days after treatment. The cow cure rates were 25.8% (8/31) in the treated cows and 3.3% (1/30) in the control group (P = 0.013). The quarter cure rates at first sampling post-treatment were 77.6% (38/49) and 18% (9/50) in the treated and the control groups, respectively (P < 0.0001). A 5-day extended therapy with cephapirin is effective in treating cows chronically infected with S. aureus. PMID:20190974

  14. Efficacy of a 5-day extended therapy program during lactation with cephapirin sodium in dairy cows chronically infected with Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Roy, Jean-Philippe; DesCôteaux, Luc; DuTremblay, Denis; Beaudry, Francis; Elsener, Johanne

    2009-12-01

    This study determined the efficacy of a 5-day extended therapy with cephapirin sodium in dairy cows chronically infected with Staphylococcus aureus. Chronically infected cows selected from 14 dairy herds in the St-Hyacinthe region, Québec were randomly allocated to a group of 31 cows treated for 5 consecutive days with 200 mg of cephapirin per quarter BID or a group of 30 untreated control cows. Bacteriological cure was determined by 3 negative bacterial cultures at 10, 24, and 31 days after treatment. The cow cure rates were 25.8% (8/31) in the treated cows and 3.3% (1/30) in the control group (P = 0.013). The quarter cure rates at first sampling post-treatment were 77.6% (38/49) and 18% (9/50) in the treated and the control groups, respectively (P < 0.0001). A 5-day extended therapy with cephapirin is effective in treating cows chronically infected with S. aureus.

  15. Substitution rate and milk yield response to corn silage supplementation of late-lactation dairy cows grazing low-mass pastures at 2 daily allowances in autumn.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Prieto, L A; Peyraud, J L; Delagarde, R

    2011-07-01

    Feed costs in dairy production systems may be decreased by extending the grazing season to periods such as autumn when grazing low-mass pastures is highly probable. The aim of this autumn study was to determine the effect of corn silage supplementation [0 vs. 8 kg of dry matter (DM) of a mixture 7:1 of corn silage and soybean meal] on pasture intake (PI), milk production, and grazing behavior of dairy cows grazing low-mass ryegrass pastures at 2 daily pasture allowances (PA; low PA=18 vs. high PA=30 kg of DM/cow above 2.5 cm). Twelve multiparous Holstein cows were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design with 14-d periods. Pre-grazing pasture mass and pre-grazing plate meter pasture height averaged 1.8 t of DM/ha (above 2.5 cm) and 6.3 cm, respectively. The quality of the offered pasture (above 2.5 cm) was low because of dry conditions before and during the experiment (crude protein=11.5% of DM; net energy for lactation=5.15 MJ/kg of DM; organic matter digestibility=61.9%). The interaction between PA and supplementation level was significant for PI but not for milk production. Supplementation decreased PI from 11.6 to 7.6 kg of DM/d at low PA and from 13.1 to 7.3 kg of DM/d at high PA. The substitution rate was, therefore, lower at low than at high PA (0.51 vs. 0.75). Pasture intake increased with increasing PA in unsupplemented treatments, and was not affected by PA in supplemented treatments. Milk production averaged 13.5 kg/d and was greater at high than at low PA (+1.4 kg/d) and in supplemented than unsupplemented treatments (+5.2 kg/d). Milk fat concentration averaged 4.39% and was similar between treatments. Milk protein concentration increased from 3.37 to 3.51% from unsupplemented to supplemented treatments, and did not vary according to PA. Grazing behavior parameters were only affected by supplementation. On average, daily grazing time decreased (539 vs. 436 min) and daily ruminating time increased (388 vs. 486 min) from 0 to 8 kg of supplement DM. The PI

  16. Use of increasing doses of a degradable Deslorelin implant to enhance uterine involution in postpartum lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Silvestre, F T; Risco, C A; Lopez, M; de Sá, M J S; Bilby, T R; Thatcher, W W

    2009-12-01

    Holstein cows received, subcutaneously 1 (1DESL, n=15) or 2 (2DESL, n=12) degradable implant containing 2.1mg of the GnRH agonist Deslorelin or no implant (CON, n=18) within 1.5 days postpartum (dpp). Previous pregnant (PPH) and non-pregnant (PNPH) uterine horns were determined by palpation per rectum. Cows were examined by ultrasonography at 8dpp, 15dpp, 22dpp, 29dpp, and 36dpp (S.E.=1 day) to record ovarian structures, cervical diameter, uterine horns cross-section and lumen diameters, myometrial and endometrial widths. Uterine tone was recorded before ultrasonography. Vaginoscopy was conducted just after ultrasonography for cervical discharge score. At 44dpp cows were inserted with a CIDR followed 7 days later by its removal and injection of PGF(2alpha) 8h later, followed by the Ovsynch 10 days after for timed artificial insemination (TAI). Plasma was analyzed for PGFM daily from parturition to 14dpp and for P(4) trice weekly until 44dpp. Additionally, strategic blood samples were collected during the synchronization protocol to determine whether estrous cyclicity was occurring and ovulation status before and after TAI, respectively. Cows in 1DESL and 2DESL groups had more class 1 follicles (P<0.01), less class 2 (P<0.01) and class 3 follicles (P<0.01) compared with CON. First increase of P(4), indicative of ovulation, occurred in CON (55.5%) cows at 28dpp (S.E.=9 days) and in 1DESL (13.3%) treated cows at 43dpp (S.E.=3). Plasma concentrations of P(4) were suppressed completely in all 2DESL-treated cows before initiation of estrous synchronization. Diameters of PPH (P<0.01), PNPH (P<0.01), uterine horn lumens (P<0.01) were less in the 1DESL and 2DESL groups with greater uterine tone (P=0.07). Frequency distribution of cervical discharge categories did not differ among groups. Proportion of cows with estrous cycles and having ovulations was less (P<0.01) in DESL implant cows compared with CON that was to a greater (P<0.01) extent in the 2DESL. Treatment with

  17. Comparison of sweet white lupin seeds with soybean meal as a protein supplement for lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Guillaume, B; Otterby, D E; Linn, J G; Stern, M D; Johnson, D G

    1987-11-01

    Data were from 45 Holstein cows (23 multiparous, 22 primiparous) assigned by calving date and parity within groups to one of two isonitrogenous (16% crude protein) diets. The diets were 50% forages (corn silage, alfalfa silage) and 50% concentrate, dry basis. In diet A, soybean meal supplied 34.2% of total crude protein; in diet B, ground sweet white lupin seeds provided 37.9% of total crude protein. Cows were fed once daily during the experimental period (d 4 to 116 postpartum). Cows fed lupins consumed significantly less dry matter, produced 1.8 kg/d less milk (but not significantly different), and had lower milk protein percent. Milk fat and total solids percents were similar. Reasons for reduced intake of cows fed lupins were not evident. Traces of alkaloids (.005% dry basis) were present in diet B. Combined results of in vitro continuous culture fermentation and in situ degradation measurements indicated that crude protein from lupins was more degradable than that of soybean meal. Poor performances of cows fed lupins could be partly due to a reduced true protein supply to the small intestine.

  18. The high producing dairy cow and its reproductive performance

    PubMed Central

    Dobson, H; Smith, RF; Royal, MD; Knight, CH; Sheldon, IM

    2009-01-01

    Contents: Intensive genetic selection has resulted in modern dairy cow with very high milk yields but reduced fertility, due mainly to an increase in postpartum clinical problems, poor expression of oestrus, defective oocytes/embryos and uterine infections. It is a challenge to get enough food into these cows to meet the high demands of peak milk yields in early lactation and the animals require considerable veterinary attention in the early period after calving. Both genetic and management changes to increase the persistency of lactations would reduce the number and intensity of clinical risk periods throughout a cow's life without compromising milk output. PMID:17688598

  19. Metagenomic assessment of the functional potential of the rumen microbiome in Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Pitta, Dipti W; Indugu, Nagaraju; Kumar, Sanjay; Vecchiarelli, Bonnie; Sinha, Rohini; Baker, Linda D; Bhukya, Bhima; Ferguson, James D

    2016-04-01

    The microbial ecology of the rumen microbiome is influenced by the diet and the physiological status of the dairy cow and can have tremendous influence on the yield and components of milk. There are significant differences in milk yields between first and subsequent lactations of dairy cows, but information on how the rumen microbiome changes as the dairy cow gets older has received little attention. We characterized the rumen microbiome of the dairy cow for phylogeny and functional pathways by lactation group and stage of lactation using a metagenomics approach. Our findings revealed that the rumen microbiome was dominated by Bacteroidetes (70%), Firmicutes (15-20%) and Proteobacteria (7%). The abundance of Firmicutes and Proteobacteria were independently influenced by diet and lactation. Bacteroidetes contributed to a majority of the metabolic functions in first lactation dairy cows while the contribution from Firmicutes and Proteobacteria increased incrementally in second and third lactation dairy cows. We found that nearly 70% of the CAZymes were oligosaccharide breaking enzymes which reflect the higher starch and fermentable sugars in the diet. The results of this study suggest that the rumen microbiome continues to evolve as the dairy cow advances in lactations and these changes may have a significant role in milk production.

  20. Metagenomic assessment of the functional potential of the rumen microbiome in Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Pitta, Dipti W; Indugu, Nagaraju; Kumar, Sanjay; Vecchiarelli, Bonnie; Sinha, Rohini; Baker, Linda D; Bhukya, Bhima; Ferguson, James D

    2016-04-01

    The microbial ecology of the rumen microbiome is influenced by the diet and the physiological status of the dairy cow and can have tremendous influence on the yield and components of milk. There are significant differences in milk yields between first and subsequent lactations of dairy cows, but information on how the rumen microbiome changes as the dairy cow gets older has received little attention. We characterized the rumen microbiome of the dairy cow for phylogeny and functional pathways by lactation group and stage of lactation using a metagenomics approach. Our findings revealed that the rumen microbiome was dominated by Bacteroidetes (70%), Firmicutes (15-20%) and Proteobacteria (7%). The abundance of Firmicutes and Proteobacteria were independently influenced by diet and lactation. Bacteroidetes contributed to a majority of the metabolic functions in first lactation dairy cows while the contribution from Firmicutes and Proteobacteria increased incrementally in second and third lactation dairy cows. We found that nearly 70% of the CAZymes were oligosaccharide breaking enzymes which reflect the higher starch and fermentable sugars in the diet. The results of this study suggest that the rumen microbiome continues to evolve as the dairy cow advances in lactations and these changes may have a significant role in milk production. PMID:26700882

  1. Effects of feeding different amounts of supplemental glycerol on ruminal environment and digestibility of lactating dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of increasing amounts of dietary glycerol on rumen environment, blood metabolites, and nutrient digestibility. Six rumen cannulated Holstein cows averaging 56 ± 18 DIM and 38.0 ± 8.2 kg/d of milk were used in the study. Experimental design was a replicat...

  2. Effect of duration and level of supplementation of diets of lactating dairy cows with selenized yeast on selenium concentrations in milk and blood after the withdrawal of supplementation.

    PubMed

    Stockdale, C R; Gill, H S

    2011-05-01

    Cows' milk containing elevated concentrations of Se provides a rich nutritional source of this essential element for meeting daily nutritional requirements or providing health benefits in humans with low immune function or at risk of cancer. An experiment involving either 2 or 6 wk of dietary supplementation with Se yeast (with the yeast supplying about 30, 40, and 60 mg of Se/d for cows supplemented for 2 wk, and about 20, 30, 40, and 60 mg of Se/d for cows supplemented for 6 wk), and 21 wk of monitoring of Se status after the withdrawal of supplementation, was undertaken between September 2008 and April 2009 using 35 multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows. Using milk and blood Se concentrations as surrogates, the research examined the time taken for Se build-up in tissue due to supplementation of lactating dairy cows with Se yeast to dissipate back to normal levels. At the end of Se supplementation, a significant relationship was found between milk Se concentration and Se intake, whereby milk Se concentration had increased by 4.5 μg of Se/kg of milk for each mg of Se eaten per day, but no effect of duration of supplementation on this relationship was observed. At the same time, both Se intake and duration of supplementation affected blood Se concentration; it increased by 3.6 μg of Se/kg of blood for each mg of Se eaten per day, and was 86 μg of Se/kg higher after 6 wk compared with 2 wk of supplementation. After the withdrawal of Se supplementation, milk Se concentrations responded quickly to the change in the quantity of Se consumed, and again, duration of supplementation had no effect on the response, but any effect that Se intake had on milk Se had completely dissipated by 4 wk. In contrast to milk, blood Se concentrations continued to be affected by both amount and duration of Se supplementation for at least 4 mo after the withdrawal of supplementation, although by 5 mo the effects of the previous supplementation treatments had virtually disappeared. The slow

  3. Administration of Exogenous Growth Hormone Is Associated with Changes in Plasma and Intracellular Mammary Amino Acid Profiles and Abundance of the Mammary Gland Amino Acid Transporter SLC3A2 in Mid-Lactation Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Sciascia, Quentin L.; Pacheco, David; McCoard, Susan A.

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to (1) identify changes in plasma and mammary intracellular amino acid (AA) profiles in dairy cows treated with growth hormone (GH), and (2) evaluate the expression of mammary gland genes involved in the transport of AA identified in (1). Eight non-pregnant (n = 4 per group) lactating dairy cows were treated with a single subcutaneous injection of either a slow-release formulation of commercially available GH (Lactotropin 500 mg) or physiological saline solution. Six days after treatment, cows were milked and blood collected from the jugular vein for the analysis of free AA in the plasma. Cows were euthanized and mammary tissue harvested. Treatment with GH increased milk, protein, fat and lactose yields, with no effect on dry matter intake. Plasma concentrations of lysine and group I AA decreased significantly, and arginine, methionine, tyrosine and arginine-family AA tended to decrease in GH-treated cows. Concentrations of intracellular glycine, serine and glutamate increased significantly, with a trend for decreased arginine observed in the mammary gland of GH-treated cows. A trend for increased concentrations of intracellular total AA, NEAA and arginine-family AA were observed in the mammary gland of GH-treated cows. Variance in the concentration of plasma methionine, tyrosine, valine, alanine, ornithine, BCAA, EAA was significantly different between treatments. Variance in the concentration of intracellular lysine, valine, glutamine, EAA and group II was significantly different between treatments. AA changes were associated with increased mRNA abundance of the mammary gland AA transporter SLC3A2. We propose that these changes occur to support increased milk protein and fatty acid production in the mammary gland of GH-treated cows via potential mTOR pathway signaling. PMID:26226162

  4. Conceptus development and transcriptome at preimplantation stages in lactating dairy cows of distinct genetic groups and estrous cyclic statuses.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, E S; Monteiro, A P A; Bisinotto, R S; Lima, F S; Greco, L F; Ealy, A D; Thatcher, W W; Santos, J E P

    2016-06-01

    The objectives were to compare development and transcriptome of preimplantation conceptuses 15 d after synchronized ovulation and artificial insemination (AI) according to the genetic background of the cow and estrous cyclicity at the initiation of the synchronization program. On d 39±3 postpartum, Holstein cows that were anovular (HA; n=10), Holstein cows that were estrous cyclic (HC; n=25), and Jersey/Holstein crossbred cows that were estrous cyclic (CC; n=25) were randomly selected in a grazing herd and subjected to the Ovsynch protocol. All cows were inseminated on d 49±3 postpartum, which was considered study d 0. Blood was sampled and analyzed for concentrations of progesterone, estradiol, insulin, and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) on study d -10, -3, -1, 7, and 15 relative to AI. On study d 15, uteri were flushed and recovered fluid had IFN-τ concentrations measured and subjected to metabolomic analysis. Morphology of the recovered conceptuses was evaluated, and mRNA was extracted and subjected to transcriptome microarray analysis. Compared with HC, CC presented greater concentrations of progesterone and estradiol in plasma, with corpora lutea and preovulatory follicles of similar size. Conceptuses from CC were larger, tended to secrete greater amounts of IFN-τ, and had greater transcript expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), an important transcription factor that coordinates lipid metabolism and elongation at preimplantation development. In addition, pregnant CC had greater concentrations of anandamide in the uterine flush, which might be important for elongation of the conceptus and early implantation. Conceptuses from HA were also longer and secreted greater amounts of IFN-τ than conceptuses from HC, likely because of the distinct progesterone profiles before and after AI. Nonetheless, anovular cows had reduced concentrations of IGF-1 in plasma, and their conceptuses presented remarkable transcriptomic

  5. Nutritional value of raw soybeans, extruded soybeans, roasted soybeans and tallow as fat sources in early lactating dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    Amanlou, H.; Maheri-Sis, N.; Bassiri, S.; Mirza-Aghazadeh, A.; Salamatdust, R.; Moosavi, A.; Karimi, V.

    2012-01-01

    Thirty multiparous Holstein cows (29.8 ± 4.01days in milk; 671.6 ± 31.47 kg of body weight) were used in a completely randomized design to compare nutritional value of four fat sources including tallow, raw soybeans, extruded soybeans and roasted soybeans for 8 weeks. Experimental diets were a control containing 27.4 % alfalfa silage, 22.5% corn silage, and 50.1% concentrate, and four diets with either tallow, raw soybean, extruded soybean, or roasted soybean added to provide 1.93% supplemental fat. Dry matter and NEL intakes were similar among treatments, while cows fed fat diets had significantly (P<0.05) high NEL intakes when compared to control with no fat. Supplemental fat, whether tallow or full fat soybeans increased milk production (1.89-2.45 kg/d; P<0.01) and FCM production (1.05-2.79; P<0.01). Milk fat yield and percentage of cows fed fat-supplemented diets were significantly (P<0.01 and P<0.05 respectively) higher than control. Between fat-supplemented diets, roasted soybean caused highest milk fat yield and extruded soybean caused lowest milk fat yield. There was no significant effect of supplemental fat on the milk protein and lactose content and yield. Feed efficiency of fat-supplemented diets was significantly (P<0.01) higher than control. Body weight, body weight change and BCS (body condition score) of cows, as well as energy balance and energy efficiency were similar between treatments. In conclusion, while there was no significant effect of fat sources on production response of cows, fat originating from heat-treated soybean help to minimize imported RUP (rumen undegradable protein) sources level as fish meal in comparison with tallow and raw soybean oil. In the Current study, there was no statistical significance among nutritional values of oil from extruded soybeans and roasted soybeans. PMID:26623299

  6. Relative excretion of nitrogen from alfalfa silage, corn silage, corn grain, and soybean meal in urine and feces by lactating dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The main objective of this trial is to determine the partitioning of nitrogen (N) from different feed ingredients in milk, feces, and urine. This abstract focuses on relative excretion of N in feces and urine. Twelve multiparous late-lactation Holstein cows (means±SD; 264±18 days in milk) were fed a...

  7. Effects of energy density in close-up diets and postpartum supplementation of extruded full-fat soybean on lactation performance and metabolic and hormonal status of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian; Su, Huawei; Wang, Fuwei; Cao, Zhijun; Li, Shengli

    2015-10-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of energy density (ED) in the close-up period and supplementation of extruded full-fat soybean (ESB) during the first 4 wk after parturition on intake, body weight (BW), metabolic status, and performance of dairy cows. Fifty-seven Chinese Holstein cows with similar parity, previous 305-d milk yield, and expected calving date were dried off at -60 d relative to parturition and fed the standard herd dry-cow diet until -21 d relative to parturition. Energy density at low (LED, 1.25 Mcal/kg), medium (MED, 1.41 Mcal/kg) or high (HED, 1.55 Mcal/kg) levels of the close-up diets and postpartum supplementation of ESB at 0 kg/d (control, CON) or 1.5 kg/d (TRT) were used in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement. All cows received the same CON diet from wk 5 to wk 8. As ED increased in the close-up diet, cows had higher dry matter intake and gained more BW and body condition score, and consequently were in improved energy balance status during the prepartum period, but lost more BW and more body condition score during the first 8 wk of lactation. Compared with LED cows, HED cows had higher blood concentrations of insulin and glucose, and lower nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) prepartum, but had lower insulin concentration, higher leptin concentration and tended to have higher NEFA concentration postpartum. Milk production was not affected by the prepartum ED, although HED cows produced approximately 2 kg/d less milk than MED and LED cows during early lactation. Postpartum ESB supplementation elevated blood glucagon concentration regardless of prepartum ED during the first 4 wk of lactation. Interactive effects between prepartum ED and postpartum ESB supplementation were observed in blood concentrations of insulin, NEFA, bilirubin, total protein, albumin, and globulin. During early lactation, TRT decreased globulin concentrations in MED cows, and reduced NEFA and bilirubin concentrations in HED cows. Compared with CON, TRT cows

  8. Effects of fat saturation and source of fiber on site of nutrient digestion and milk production by lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Pantoja, J; Firkins, J L; Eastridge, M L; Hull, B L

    1994-08-01

    Six primiparous cannulated cows were assigned to six treatments in a 6 x 6 Latin square design to evaluate the effects of degree of fat saturation and amount and source of effective fiber on site of nutrient digestion and milk production. Cows were fed for ad libitum intake a control diet with no added fat or diets with 5% added fat from saturated tallow, tallow, or animal-vegetable fat; the diets with animal-vegetable fat had 40% forage, 40% forage plus 20% soyhulls, or 60% forage. Ruminal acetate:propionate was higher when soyhulls replaced forage NDF because of the higher digestibility of soyhulls in the rumen and total tract. Ruminal digestion of NDF was decreased as unsaturation of fat increased. True and apparent efficiencies of bacterial protein synthesis were increased as fat unsaturation increased, probably because of reduced recycling of microbial N in the rumen. The digestibility of fatty acids in the small intestine was higher in cows fed no fat than in those fed fat and was reduced as fat unsaturation decreased, primarily because of the saturated tallow. Dry matter intake was decreased 14% by increased fat unsaturation. All fat supplements depressed milk protein percentage. Production of 4% FCM tended to decrease linearly as unsaturation of fat increased. In diets with 5% added fat, a degree of saturation between saturated tallow and tallow (iodine values of 18 and 62) appears to be optimum for fatty acid digestibility and DMI.

  9. Bioavailability of quercetin from its aglycone and its glucorhamnoside rutin in lactating dairy cows after intraduodenal administration.

    PubMed

    Gohlke, A; Ingelmann, C J; Nürnberg, G; Starke, A; Wolffram, S; Metges, C C

    2013-04-01

    Because of their health-promoting properties, flavonoids are used in feed supplements for ruminants, although scientific evidence for their efficacy in vivo is limited. It has been shown recently that bioavailability of quercetin is low after ruminal administration in cows because of degradation by the ruminal microbiota. It is unknown whether quercetin could be absorbed from the small intestine in ruminants if degradation is prevented; therefore, we investigated the bioavailability of quercetin after duodenal administration in 6 German Holstein cows. On 88 ± 3 d in milk, each cow received equivalent doses of quercetin [9, 18, or 27 mg of quercetin equivalents (QE)/kg of body weight] either as quercetin aglycone (QA) or as its glucorhamnoside rutin (RU). In addition, 2 control studies with duodenal administration of NaCl solution (0.9%) were conducted per cow to examine concentrations of flavonoids in plasma during regular feeding. Blood samples were collected at defined time intervals over a period of 24h before and after administration of the test compounds. A washout period of 2d was applied between the runs to avoid possible carryover effects. Concentrations of plasma quercetin aglycone and its metabolites isorhamnetin, tamarixetin, and kaempferol were measured after treatment with glucuronidase/sulfatase by HPLC with fluorescence detection. After administration of RU, levels of plasma quercetin did not increase above baseline, irrespective of dose administered. After duodenal administration of QA, the plasma concentration of QA and its methylated metabolites clearly increased above baseline. The maximal plasma concentrations of total flavonols (about 2h after application) increased in a dose-dependent manner but showed high interindividual variability (range 368.8 to 983.3 nmol/L at 27 mg of QE/kg of body weight) but peak time did not differ. Preadministration baseline values of total flavonols were reached again 3 to 4h after QA administration. The

  10. Effects of corn silage hybrids and dietary nonforage fiber sources on feed intake, digestibility, ruminal fermentation, and productive performance of lactating Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Holt, M S; Williams, C M; Dschaak, C M; Eun, J-S; Young, A J

    2010-11-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of corn silage hybrids and nonforage fiber sources (NFFS) in high forage diets formulated with high dietary proportions of alfalfa hay (AH) and corn silage (CS) on ruminal fermentation and productive performance by early lactating dairy cows. Eight multiparous Holstein cows (4 ruminally fistulated) averaging 36±6.2 d in milk were used in a duplicated 4 × 4 Latin square design experiment with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Cows were fed 1 of 4 dietary treatments during each of the four 21-d replicates. Treatments were (1) conventional CS (CCS)-based diet without NFFS, (2) CCS-based diet with NFFS, (3) brown midrib CS (BMRCS)-based diet without NFFS, and (4) BMRCS-based diet with NFFS. Diets were isonitrogenous and isocaloric. Sources of NFFS consisted of ground soyhulls and pelleted beet pulp to replace a portion of AH and CS in the diets. In vitro 30-h neutral detergent fiber (NDF) degradability was greater for BMRCS than for CCS (42.3 vs. 31.2%). Neither CS hybrids nor NFFS affected intake of dry matter (DM) and nutrients. Digestibility of N, NDF, and acid detergent fiber tended to be greater for cows consuming CCS-based diets. Milk yield was not influenced by CS hybrids and NFFS. However, a tendency for an interaction between CS hybrids and NFFS occurred, with increased milk yield due to feeding NFFS with the BMRCS-based diet. Yields of milk fat and 3.5% fat-corrected milk decreased when feeding the BMRCS-based diet, and a tendency existed for an interaction between CS hybrids and NFFS because milk fat concentration further decreased by feeding NFFS with BMRCS-based diet. Although feed efficiency (milk/DM intake) was not affected by CS hybrids and NFFS, an interaction was found between CS hybrids and NFFS because feed efficiency increased when NFFS was fed only with BMRCS-based diet. Total volatile fatty acid production and individual molar proportions were not affected by diets. Dietary

  11. Effect of progesterone (P(4)) intravaginal device (CIDR) to reduce embryonic loss and to synchronize return to oestrus of previously timed inseminated lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Alnimer, Mufeed A; Lubbadeh, Wadie F

    2008-08-01

    A study on postpartum dairy cows was done to evaluate the effect of using progesterone intravaginal device (CIDR) to synchronize return to oestrus of previously timed inseminated (TAI) cows and to evaluate embryo survival and pregnancy rate in the return to oestrus cows. All cows were subjected to TAI program. On Day 14 after AI, cows were assigned randomly into two groups: treated group (CTAI; n=126) and control group (TAI; n=172). Every cow in the CTAI group received CIDR device for 7 days. Cows were observed for oestrus after CIDR removal in the first period (Days 21-28). Cows, which did not show oestrus, were retreated with CIDR on Day 28 for 7 days and they were observed for oestrus after CIDR removal in the second period (Days 35-42). Pregnancy was diagnosed on Days 28, 45 and 90 after AI. In the first period, more cows in the CTAI group showed oestrus within 2.4 days after CIDR removal compared to cows within 4 days in the control. In the second period, more cows in the CTAI group showed oestrus within 4.5 days compared to cows within 3.7 days in the control. Pregnancy rates on Day 28 were not different between both groups. Pregnancy rates on Days 45 and 90 were higher for cows in the CTAI (42.1+/-5.3%, P=0.028 and 38.9+/-5.2%, P=0.020) compared to that in the TAI group (35.5+/-3.9% and 31.9+/-3.8%). Moreover, pregnancy rates were lower for multiparous cows (34.2+/-4.1, P=0.017 and 30.2+/-3.9%, P=0.008) compared to primiparous cows (42.7+/-5.2% and 39.9+/-5.1%) on Days 45 and 90, respectively. Pregnancy losses between Days 28-45 and 45-90 tended to be lower for the CTAI group and primiparous cows compared to the TAI group and multiparous cows. Pregnancy rates of first (P=0.020), second, third and up to fourth AI were higher (P=0.001) for the CTAI group (38.9+/-0.05%, 78.6+/-0.05%, 92.1+/-0.04%, 93.6+/-3.71%) compared to that for the TAI group (31.9+/-0.03%, 54.1+/-0.04%, 68.0+/-0.03%, 81.4+/-2.75%, respectively). Days open for pregnant cows were similar in

  12. The effects of calcium hydroxide-treated whole-plant and fractionated corn silage on intake, digestion, and lactation performance in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Cook, D E; Bender, R W; Shinners, K J; Combs, D K

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this trial was to evaluate, in dairy cattle, the effects of calcium hydroxide treatment of whole-plant corn and a treatment applied to the bottom stalk fraction of the corn plant, achieved by harvesting corn in 2 crop streams. The treatments were calcium hydroxide-treated corn silage (TRTCS), toplage supplemented with calcium hydroxide-treated stalklage (TPL), a positive control of brown midrib corn silage (BMR), and a negative control of conventional whole-plant corn silage (WPCS). The toplage was harvested at a height of 82 cm with 2 of the 6 rows set as ear-snapping to incorporate higher tissues into the stalklage. Stalklage was harvested at 12 cm, and other corn silages were harvested at 27 cm. Sixteen pens, each with 8 Holstein cows averaging 70±25 d in milk and 46±11 kg of milk d(-1), were assigned 4 per treatment in a completely randomized design. The diet was approximately 40% corn silage, 20% alfalfa silage, and 40% concentrate on a dry matter basis. A 2-wk covariate period with conventional corn silage was followed by an 8-wk treatment period in which the 4 corn silage treatments were the only effective difference in diets. Cows fed TPL and TRTCS consumed more (1.9 and 1.4 kg of organic matter d(-1), respectively) than did cows fed WPCS. Milk yield was greater for cows fed BMR, TPL, and TRTCS. Cows fed BMR and TPL produced 2.9 and 2.7 kg d(-1), respectively, more energy-corrected milk (ECM) than cows fed WPCS, and cows fed TRTCS had the greatest ECM production (4.8 kg of ECM d(-1) greater than cows fed WPCS). No differences in body weight or body condition scored were observed. Milk fat concentration was similar among treatments and milk protein concentration was reduced for TRTCS. Starch and neutral detergent fiber digestibility were greater for cows fed TRTCS.

  13. The effects of calcium hydroxide-treated whole-plant and fractionated corn silage on intake, digestion, and lactation performance in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Cook, D E; Bender, R W; Shinners, K J; Combs, D K

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this trial was to evaluate, in dairy cattle, the effects of calcium hydroxide treatment of whole-plant corn and a treatment applied to the bottom stalk fraction of the corn plant, achieved by harvesting corn in 2 crop streams. The treatments were calcium hydroxide-treated corn silage (TRTCS), toplage supplemented with calcium hydroxide-treated stalklage (TPL), a positive control of brown midrib corn silage (BMR), and a negative control of conventional whole-plant corn silage (WPCS). The toplage was harvested at a height of 82 cm with 2 of the 6 rows set as ear-snapping to incorporate higher tissues into the stalklage. Stalklage was harvested at 12 cm, and other corn silages were harvested at 27 cm. Sixteen pens, each with 8 Holstein cows averaging 70±25 d in milk and 46±11 kg of milk d(-1), were assigned 4 per treatment in a completely randomized design. The diet was approximately 40% corn silage, 20% alfalfa silage, and 40% concentrate on a dry matter basis. A 2-wk covariate period with conventional corn silage was followed by an 8-wk treatment period in which the 4 corn silage treatments were the only effective difference in diets. Cows fed TPL and TRTCS consumed more (1.9 and 1.4 kg of organic matter d(-1), respectively) than did cows fed WPCS. Milk yield was greater for cows fed BMR, TPL, and TRTCS. Cows fed BMR and TPL produced 2.9 and 2.7 kg d(-1), respectively, more energy-corrected milk (ECM) than cows fed WPCS, and cows fed TRTCS had the greatest ECM production (4.8 kg of ECM d(-1) greater than cows fed WPCS). No differences in body weight or body condition scored were observed. Milk fat concentration was similar among treatments and milk protein concentration was reduced for TRTCS. Starch and neutral detergent fiber digestibility were greater for cows fed TRTCS. PMID:27157570

  14. Short communication: amino acid supplementation and stage of lactation alter apparent utilization of nutrients by blood neutrophils from lactating dairy cows in vitro

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Glutamine is the preferred AA used by polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) during the inflammatory response. However, the effect of other AA on bovine PMN response during inflammation and how this is altered by stage of lactation has not been fully elucidated. The objective of this study was to dete...

  15. Effects on milk urea concentration, urine output, and drinking water intake from incremental doses of potassium bicarbonate fed to mid-lactation dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, T; Rustas, B-O

    2014-07-01

    Large variation exists in the potassium content of dairy cow feeds and also within a feed type due to soil type and fertilization. Increased ration K concentration causes a subsequent increase in urinary volume and could be expected to also lower milk urea concentration. Six multiparous mid-lactation Swedish Red dairy cows, all fitted with rumen cannulas, were subjected to 3 different levels of K intake in a Latin square experiment with three 2-wk periods to evaluate the effects on concentrations of milk urea and rumen ammonia, urinary output, and drinking water intake. The treatments were achieved by K supplementation on top of a low-K basal ration fed at individual allowances fixed throughout the experiment. The basal ration, consumed at 20.2 kg of dry matter (DM)/d, provided 165 g of crude protein/kg of DM and consisted of grass silage, concentrates, and urea in the proportions 39.3:60.0:0.7 on a DM basis. Potassium bicarbonate supplementation was 0, 616, and 1,142 g/d, respectively, to give total ration K concentrations that were low (LO; 12 g/kg of DM), medium (MED; 23 g/kg of DM), or high (HI; 32 g/kg of DM). Production and composition of milk was not affected by treatment. A linear effect on milk urea concentration was detected, being 4.48, 4.18, and 3.77 mM for LO, MED, and HI, respectively, and a linear tendency for rumen ammonia concentration with 6.65, 6.51, and 5.84 mg of NH₃-N/dL for LO, MED, and HI, respectively. Milk urea concentration peaked about 3h after the rumen ammonia peak from the morning feeding, at a level 1.3mM over the baseline. Urinary urea excretion declined linearly (105, 103, and 98 g of urea-N/d for LO, MED, and HI, respectively). Linear increases occurred in urinary output (0.058 ± 0.001 kg of urine/g of K intake; no intercept; coefficient of determination=0.997) and drinking water intake (65.9 ± 2.02 + 0.069 ± 0.004 kg of water/g of K intake; coefficient of determination=0.95). Urinary K concentration leveled off at 12.4 g

  16. Effects on milk urea concentration, urine output, and drinking water intake from incremental doses of potassium bicarbonate fed to mid-lactation dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, T; Rustas, B-O

    2014-07-01

    Large variation exists in the potassium content of dairy cow feeds and also within a feed type due to soil type and fertilization. Increased ration K concentration causes a subsequent increase in urinary volume and could be expected to also lower milk urea concentration. Six multiparous mid-lactation Swedish Red dairy cows, all fitted with rumen cannulas, were subjected to 3 different levels of K intake in a Latin square experiment with three 2-wk periods to evaluate the effects on concentrations of milk urea and rumen ammonia, urinary output, and drinking water intake. The treatments were achieved by K supplementation on top of a low-K basal ration fed at individual allowances fixed throughout the experiment. The basal ration, consumed at 20.2 kg of dry matter (DM)/d, provided 165 g of crude protein/kg of DM and consisted of grass silage, concentrates, and urea in the proportions 39.3:60.0:0.7 on a DM basis. Potassium bicarbonate supplementation was 0, 616, and 1,142 g/d, respectively, to give total ration K concentrations that were low (LO; 12 g/kg of DM), medium (MED; 23 g/kg of DM), or high (HI; 32 g/kg of DM). Production and composition of milk was not affected by treatment. A linear effect on milk urea concentration was detected, being 4.48, 4.18, and 3.77 mM for LO, MED, and HI, respectively, and a linear tendency for rumen ammonia concentration with 6.65, 6.51, and 5.84 mg of NH₃-N/dL for LO, MED, and HI, respectively. Milk urea concentration peaked about 3h after the rumen ammonia peak from the morning feeding, at a level 1.3mM over the baseline. Urinary urea excretion declined linearly (105, 103, and 98 g of urea-N/d for LO, MED, and HI, respectively). Linear increases occurred in urinary output (0.058 ± 0.001 kg of urine/g of K intake; no intercept; coefficient of determination=0.997) and drinking water intake (65.9 ± 2.02 + 0.069 ± 0.004 kg of water/g of K intake; coefficient of determination=0.95). Urinary K concentration leveled off at 12.4 g

  17. Feeding rumen-protected gamma-aminobutyric acid enhances the immune response and antioxidant status of heat-stressed lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jianbo; Zheng, Nan; Sun, Xianzhi; Li, Songli; Wang, Jiaqi; Zhang, Yangdong

    2016-08-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of rumen-protected gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on immune function and antioxidant status in heat-stressed dairy cows. Sixty Holstein dairy cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments according to a completely randomized block design. The treatments consisted of 0 (control), 40, 80, or 120mg of GABA/kg DM from rumen-protected GABA. The trial lasted 10 weeks. The average temperature-humidity indices at 0700, 1400 and 2200h were 78.4, 80.2 and 78.7, respectively. Rectal temperatures decreased linearly at 0700, 1400, and 2200h with increasing GABA. As the GABA increased, the immunoglobulin (Ig) A and IgG contents and the proportions of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes increased linearly (P<0.05), whereas concentrations of interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) decreased linearly (P<0.05). The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione-peroxidase (GSH-PX) and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) increased linearly (P<0.05), whereas malondialdehyde (MDA) content decreased linearly (P<0.05) with increasing GABA. These results indicate that rumen-protected GABA supplementation to heat-stressed dairy cows can improve their immune function and antioxidant activity. PMID:27503722

  18. Factors associated with colostral specific gravity in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Morin, D E; Constable, P D; Maunsell, F P; McCoy, G C

    2001-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to identify factors associated with colostral specific gravity in dairy cows, as measured by a commercially available hydrometer (Colostrometer). Colostral specific gravity was measured in 1085 first-milking colostrum samples from 608 dairy cows of four breeds on a single farm during a 5-yr period. Effects of breed, lactation number, and month and year of calving on colostral specific gravity were determined, as were correlations between colostral specific gravity, nonlactating period length, and 305-d yields of milk, protein, and fat. For 75 multiparous Holstein cows, relationships between colostral specific gravity, colostral IgG1, protein, and fat concentrations, and season of calving were determined. Colostral specific gravity values were lower for Brown Swiss and Ayrshire cows than for Jersey and Holstein cows, and lower for cows entering first or second lactation than third or later lactations. Month of calving markedly affected colostral specific gravity values, with highest values occurring in autumn and lowest values in summer. In multiparous Holstein cows, colostral specific gravity was more strongly correlated with colostral protein concentration (r = 0.76) than IgG1 concentration (r = 0.53), and colostral protein concentration varied seasonally (higher in autumn than summer). Our results demonstrate that colostral specific gravity more closely reflects colostral protein concentration than IgG1 concentration and is markedly influenced by month of calving. These results highlight potential limitations of using colostral specific gravity as an indicator of IgG1 concentration.

  19. Factors associated with colostral specific gravity in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Morin, D E; Constable, P D; Maunsell, F P; McCoy, G C

    2001-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to identify factors associated with colostral specific gravity in dairy cows, as measured by a commercially available hydrometer (Colostrometer). Colostral specific gravity was measured in 1085 first-milking colostrum samples from 608 dairy cows of four breeds on a single farm during a 5-yr period. Effects of breed, lactation number, and month and year of calving on colostral specific gravity were determined, as were correlations between colostral specific gravity, nonlactating period length, and 305-d yields of milk, protein, and fat. For 75 multiparous Holstein cows, relationships between colostral specific gravity, colostral IgG1, protein, and fat concentrations, and season of calving were determined. Colostral specific gravity values were lower for Brown Swiss and Ayrshire cows than for Jersey and Holstein cows, and lower for cows entering first or second lactation than third or later lactations. Month of calving markedly affected colostral specific gravity values, with highest values occurring in autumn and lowest values in summer. In multiparous Holstein cows, colostral specific gravity was more strongly correlated with colostral protein concentration (r = 0.76) than IgG1 concentration (r = 0.53), and colostral protein concentration varied seasonally (higher in autumn than summer). Our results demonstrate that colostral specific gravity more closely reflects colostral protein concentration than IgG1 concentration and is markedly influenced by month of calving. These results highlight potential limitations of using colostral specific gravity as an indicator of IgG1 concentration. PMID:11352170

  20. Genetic evaluation of dairy cow livability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Predicted transmitting abilities (PTA) for cow livability (LIV) were developed to measure a cow's ability to stay alive while on the farm, whereas PTA for productive life (PL) measures a cow's ability to avoid either dying on the farm or being culled. About 20% of dairy cows die instead of being sol...

  1. Feed intake is related to changes in plasma nonesterified fatty acid concentration and hepatic acetyl CoA content following feeding in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Piantoni, P; Ylioja, C M; Allen, M S

    2015-10-01

    The relationship between hepatic acetyl CoA (AcCoA) content and dry matter intake (DMI) was evaluated using 28 multiparous Holstein cows; 14 were early postpartum (PP; 12.6 ± 3.8 d in milk) and 14 were late-lactation cows (LL; 269 ± 30 d in milk). Cows were fed once daily, and DMI was determined for the first 4h after feeding. Liver and blood samples were collected before feeding and 4h after feeding. Feed intake over the 4-h period ranged from 3.7 to 9.6 kg of dry matter and was similar for the 2 stages of lactation. Before feeding, hepatic AcCoA content was greater for PP compared with LL cows (34.4 vs. 12.5 nmol/g), and decreased over the 4h after feeding for PP only (28.7 vs. 34.4 nmol/g). The range for change in AcCoA over the 4-h period was wide for both PP (-24.3 to 10.4 nmol/g) and LL (-5.7 to 16.1 nmol/g), and was related negatively to DMI at 4h for both PP (R(2) = 0.55) and LL (R(2) = 0.31). The reduction in plasma NEFA concentration over the 4-h period was greater for PP than LL cows (-681 vs. -47 µEq/L), and was related to DMI at 4h for both PP and LL (both R(2) = 0.38). Greater DMI among cows over the first 4h after feeding might have been from a sharper reduction in supply of AcCoA in the liver for oxidation during meals because of the reduction in plasma NEFA concentration. Consistent with this is that the change in AcCoA was positively related to the reduction in plasma NEFA concentration for PP cows (R(2) = 0.31). However, change in plasma NEFA concentration was not related to change in hepatic AcCoA in LL cows, indicating that the pool of AcCoA in LL cows is not as dependent on NEFA flux to the liver as that of PP cows. Further research is required to determine production and fate of AcCoA within the timeframe of meals and the effects of feeding on energy charge in hepatic tissue.

  2. Responses to increasing amounts of high-oleic sunflower fatty acids infused into the abomasum of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Drackley, J K; Overton, T R; Ortiz-Gonzalez, G; Beaulieu, A D; Barbano, D M; Lynch, J M; Perkins, E G

    2007-11-01

    Increasing the oleic acid (18:1 cis-9) content of milk fat might be desirable to meet consumer concerns about dietary healthfulness and for certain manufacturing applications. The extent to which milk fat could be enriched with oleic acid is not known. Increasing the intestinal supply of polyunsaturated fatty acids decreases dry matter intake (DMI) in cows, but the effects of oleic acid have not been quantified. In a crossover design, 4 multiparous Holstein cows were abomasally infused with increasing amounts (0, 250, 500, 750, or 1,000 g/d) of free fatty acids from high-oleic sunflower oil (HOSFA) or with carrier alone. Continuous infusions (20 to 22 h/d) were for 7 d at each amount. Infusions were homogenates of HOSFA with 240 g/d of meat solubles and 11.2 g/d of Tween 80; controls received carrier only. The HOSFA contained (by wt) 2.4% 16:0, 1.8% 18:0, 91.4% 18:1 cis-9, and 2.4% 18:2. The DMI decreased linearly (range 22.0 to 5.8 kg/d) as the infused amount of HOSFA increased. Apparent total tract digestibilities of dry matter, organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, and energy decreased as the infusion increased to 750 g/d and then increased when 1,000 g/d was infused. Digestibility of total fatty acids increased linearly as infused fatty acids increased. Yields of milk, fat, true protein, casein, and total solids decreased quadratically as infused amounts increased; decreases were greatest when 750 or 1,000 g/d of HOSFA were infused. Concentrations of fat and total solids increased at the higher amounts of HOSFA. The volume mean diameter of milk fat droplets and the diameter below which 90% of the volume of milk fat is contained both increased as HOSFA infusion increased. Concentrations of short-chain fatty acids, 12:0, 14:0, and 16:0 in milk fat decreased linearly as HOSFA increased. The concentration of 18:1 cis-9 (19.4 to 57.4% of total fatty acids) increased linearly as HOSFA infusion increased. Concentrations of 18:1 cis-9 in blood triglyceride

  3. Pregnancy outcomes after change in dose delivery of prostaglandin F₂α and time of gonadotropin-releasing hormone injection in a 5-day timed artificial insemination program in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, J S; Pulley, S L; Hill, S L

    2014-12-01

    We demonstrated that 50mg of PGF₂α on d 6 successfully induced luteolysis in lactating dairy cows enrolled in a traditional 5-d Ovsynch-72 program [GnRH injection 5 d before (d 0; GnRH-1) and 56 (p.m. on d 7; GnRH-2) or 72 h (d 8; GnRH-2) after a 25-mg injection of PGF₂α (d 5 and 6 after GnRH injection); timed artificial insemination (AI) on d 8]. Our current objective was to determine pregnancy outcomes in lactating dairy cows after a 50-mg injection of PGF₂α on d 6 or a 25-mg injection of PGF₂α on d 5 and 6 in a 5-d Ovsynch program. Cows in herd 1 diagnosed not pregnant between 30 and 36 d since last AI were enrolled to receive either a 50-mg injection of PGF₂α on d 6 (1 × 50; n=134) or a 25-mg injection of PGF₂α on d 5 and 6 (2 × 25; n=139) after GnRH-1 (d 0), with GnRH-2 at 72 h after PGF₂α injection (d 5), concurrent with timed AI (d 8). Cows in herd 2 diagnosed not pregnant between 34 and 40 d were treated similarly: even-tagged cows received the 2 × 25 (n=422) treatment, and odd-tagged cows received the 1 × 50 (n=450) treatment, except that GnRH-2 was administered at 56 h. Blood collected from cows in herd 1 at d 0, 5, 6, and 8 was assayed for progesterone. Luteolysis was defined to occur when progesterone concentration was ≥1 ng/mL on d 5, and 72 h later (d 8) was either <0.5 ng/mL or <1 ng/mL. Progesterone concentrations did not differ between treatments on pretreatment d 0 and 5, but were greater in 1 × 50 than 2 × 25 cows on d 6 (4.7 ± 0.2 vs. 1.1 ± 0.2 ng/mL) and d 8 (0.43 ± 0.04 vs. 0.19 ± 0.04 ng/mL), respectively. Luteolysis was greater in the 2 × 25 versus 1 × 50 treatment when the cut point was 0.5 ng/mL, whereas no difference was detected when the cut point was <1 ng/mL on d 8. Lack of complete luteolysis was greater in cows classified as early cycle on d 0 or having a new corpus luteum after d 0 because progesterone concentration was greater on d 5 and 6 than for cows classified as late cycle on d 0 or cows

  4. Calving traits, milk production, body condition, fertility, and survival of Holstein-Friesian and Norwegian Red dairy cattle on commercial dairy farms over 5 lactations.

    PubMed

    Ferris, C P; Patterson, D C; Gordon, F J; Watson, S; Kilpatrick, D J

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare calving traits, BCS, milk production, fertility, and survival of Holstein-Friesian (HF) and Norwegian Red (NR) dairy cattle in moderate-concentrate input systems. The experiment was conducted on 19 commercial Northern Ireland dairy farms, and involved 221 HF cows and 221 NR cows. Cows completed 5 lactations during the experiment, unless they died or were culled or sold. Norwegian Red cows had a lower calving difficulty score than HF cows when calving for the first and second time, but not for the third and fourth time. At first calving, the incidence of stillbirths for NR cows was 4%, compared with 13% for HF cows, whereas no difference existed between breeds in the proportion of calves born alive when calving for the second time. When calving for the first time, NR cows had a poorer milking temperament than HF cows, whereas milking temperament was unaffected by breed following the second calving. Holstein-Friesian cows had a higher full-lactation milk yield than NR cows, whereas NR cows produced milk with a higher milk fat and protein content. Full-lactation fat + protein yield was unaffected by genotype. Norwegian Red cows had a lower somatic cell score than HF cows during all lactations. Although NR cattle had a higher BCS than the HF cows during lactations 1 and 2, no evidence existed that the 2 genotypes either lost or gained body condition at different rates. Conception rates to first artificial insemination were higher with the NR cows during lactations 1 to 4 (57.8 vs. 40.9%, respectively), with 28.5% of HF cows and 11.8% of NR cows culled as infertile before lactation 6. A greater percentage of NR cows calved for a sixth time compared with HF cows (27.2 vs. 16.3%, respectively). In general, NR cows outperformed HF cows in traits that have been historically included in the NR breeding program. PMID:24952782

  5. Calving traits, milk production, body condition, fertility, and survival of Holstein-Friesian and Norwegian Red dairy cattle on commercial dairy farms over 5 lactations.

    PubMed

    Ferris, C P; Patterson, D C; Gordon, F J; Watson, S; Kilpatrick, D J

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare calving traits, BCS, milk production, fertility, and survival of Holstein-Friesian (HF) and Norwegian Red (NR) dairy cattle in moderate-concentrate input systems. The experiment was conducted on 19 commercial Northern Ireland dairy farms, and involved 221 HF cows and 221 NR cows. Cows completed 5 lactations during the experiment, unless they died or were culled or sold. Norwegian Red cows had a lower calving difficulty score than HF cows when calving for the first and second time, but not for the third and fourth time. At first calving, the incidence of stillbirths for NR cows was 4%, compared with 13% for HF cows, whereas no difference existed between breeds in the proportion of calves born alive when calving for the second time. When calving for the first time, NR cows had a poorer milking temperament than HF cows, whereas milking temperament was unaffected by breed following the second calving. Holstein-Friesian cows had a higher full-lactation milk yield than NR cows, whereas NR cows produced milk with a higher milk fat and protein content. Full-lactation fat + protein yield was unaffected by genotype. Norwegian Red cows had a lower somatic cell score than HF cows during all lactations. Although NR cattle had a higher BCS than the HF cows during lactations 1 and 2, no evidence existed that the 2 genotypes either lost or gained body condition at different rates. Conception rates to first artificial insemination were higher with the NR cows during lactations 1 to 4 (57.8 vs. 40.9%, respectively), with 28.5% of HF cows and 11.8% of NR cows culled as infertile before lactation 6. A greater percentage of NR cows calved for a sixth time compared with HF cows (27.2 vs. 16.3%, respectively). In general, NR cows outperformed HF cows in traits that have been historically included in the NR breeding program.

  6. The effect of dietary cation-anion difference concentration and cation source on milk production and feed efficiency in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Iwaniuk, M E; Weidman, A E; Erdman, R A

    2015-03-01

    Feed costs currently account for 55% or more of the total cost of milk production in US dairy herds, and dairy producers are looking for strategies to improve feed efficiency [FE; 3.5% fat-corrected milk (FCM) per dry matter (DM) intake]. Increasing dietary cation-anion difference [DCAD; Na+K-Cl (mEq/kg of DM)] has been shown to increase milk production, FCM, and FE. However, the optimal DCAD concentration for maximal FE has yet to be determined. The objectives of this research were to test the effects of DCAD concentration and cation source on dairy FE. Sixty Holstein dairy cows (20 cows per experiment) were used in three 4×4 Latin square design experiments with 3-wk experimental periods. In experiments 1 and 2, we tested the effect of DCAD concentration: cows were fed a basal diet containing ~250 mEq/kg of DM DCAD that was supplemented with potassium carbonate at 0, 50, 100, and 150 mEq/kg of DM or 0, 125, 250, and 375 mEq/kg of DM in experiments 1 and 2, respectively. In experiment 3, we tested the effect of cation source: sodium sesquicarbonate replaced 0, 33, 67, and 100% of the supplemental potassium carbonate (150 mEq/kg of DM DCAD). The DCAD concentration had no effect on milk production, milk protein concentration, or milk protein yield in experiments 1 and 2. Dry matter intake was not affected by DCAD concentration in experiment 1 or by cation source in experiment 3. However, DMI increased linearly with increasing DCAD in experiment 2. We detected a linear increase in milk fat concentration and yield with increasing DCAD in experiments 1 and 2 and by substituting sodium sesquicarbonate for potassium carbonate in experiment 3. Increased milk fat concentration with increasing DCAD led to increases in 3.5% FCM in experiments 1 and 2. Maximal dairy FE was achieved at a DCAD concentration of 426 mEq/kg of DM in experiments 1 and 2 and by substituting Na for K in experiment 3. The results of these experiments suggest that both DCAD concentration and the cation

  7. Effects of soybean meal or canola meal on milk production and methane emissions in lactating dairy cows fed grass silage-based diets.

    PubMed

    Gidlund, H; Hetta, M; Krizsan, S J; Lemosquet, S; Huhtanen, P

    2015-11-01

    This study evaluated the effects of soybean meal (SBM) and heat-moisture-treated canola meal (TCM) on milk production and methane emissions in dairy cows fed grass silage-based diets. Twenty-eight Swedish Red cows were used in a cyclic change-over experiment with 4 periods of 21 d and with treatments in 2 × 4 factorial arrangement (however, the control diet without supplementary protein was not fed in replicate). The diets were fed ad libitum as a total mixed ration containing 600 g/kg of grass silage and 400 g/kg of concentrates on a dry matter (DM) basis. The concentrate without supplementary protein consisted of crimped barley and premix (312 and 88 g/kg of DM), providing 130 g of dietary crude protein (CP)/kg of DM. The other 6 concentrates were formulated to provide 170, 210, or 250 g of CP/kg of DM by replacing crimped barley with incremental amounts of SBM (50, 100, or 150 g/kg of diet DM) or TCM (70, 140, or 210 g/kg of diet DM). Feed intake was not influenced by dietary CP concentration, but tended to be greater in cows fed TCM diets compared with SBM diets. Milk and milk protein yield increased linearly with dietary CP concentration, with greater responses in cows fed TCM diets compared with SBM diets. Apparent N efficiency (milk N/N intake) decreased linearly with increasing dietary CP concentration and was lower for cows fed SBM diets than cows fed TCM diets. Milk urea concentration increased linearly with increased dietary CP concentration, with greater effects in cows fed SBM diets than in cows fed TCM diets. Plasma concentrations of total AA and essential AA increased with increasing dietary CP concentration, but no differences were observed between the 2 protein sources. Plasma concentrations of Lys, Met, and His were similar for both dietary protein sources. Total methane emissions were not influenced by diet, but emissions per kilogram of DM intake decreased quadratically, with the lowest value observed in cows fed intermediate levels of protein

  8. Effects of soybean meal or canola meal on milk production and methane emissions in lactating dairy cows fed grass silage-based diets.

    PubMed

    Gidlund, H; Hetta, M; Krizsan, S J; Lemosquet, S; Huhtanen, P

    2015-11-01

    This study evaluated the effects of soybean meal (SBM) and heat-moisture-treated canola meal (TCM) on milk production and methane emissions in dairy cows fed grass silage-based diets. Twenty-eight Swedish Red cows were used in a cyclic change-over experiment with 4 periods of 21 d and with treatments in 2 × 4 factorial arrangement (however, the control diet without supplementary protein was not fed in replicate). The diets were fed ad libitum as a total mixed ration containing 600 g/kg of grass silage and 400 g/kg of concentrates on a dry matter (DM) basis. The concentrate without supplementary protein consisted of crimped barley and premix (312 and 88 g/kg of DM), providing 130 g of dietary crude protein (CP)/kg of DM. The other 6 concentrates were formulated to provide 170, 210, or 250 g of CP/kg of DM by replacing crimped barley with incremental amounts of SBM (50, 100, or 150 g/kg of diet DM) or TCM (70, 140, or 210 g/kg of diet DM). Feed intake was not influenced by dietary CP concentration, but tended to be greater in cows fed TCM diets compared with SBM diets. Milk and milk protein yield increased linearly with dietary CP concentration, with greater responses in cows fed TCM diets compared with SBM diets. Apparent N efficiency (milk N/N intake) decreased linearly with increasing dietary CP concentration and was lower for cows fed SBM diets than cows fed TCM diets. Milk urea concentration increased linearly with increased dietary CP concentration, with greater effects in cows fed SBM diets than in cows fed TCM diets. Plasma concentrations of total AA and essential AA increased with increasing dietary CP concentration, but no differences were observed between the 2 protein sources. Plasma concentrations of Lys, Met, and His were similar for both dietary protein sources. Total methane emissions were not influenced by diet, but emissions per kilogram of DM intake decreased quadratically, with the lowest value observed in cows fed intermediate levels of protein

  9. The effect of hybrid type and dietary proportions of corn silage on the lactation performance of high-producing dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Lim, J M; Nestor, K E; Kung, L

    2015-02-01

    We evaluated the effects of corn silage hybrids [control vs. brown midrib (BMR)] and the proportion of corn silage in rations on the performance of high-producing dairy cows. The chemical composition of the corn silages was similar except for lignin, which was higher in the control hybrid [3.09%, dry matter (DM) basis] compared with the BMR hybrid (2.19%). The 30-h in vitro neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibility was also higher (62.8% of NDF) in the BMR hybrid than in the control hybrid (52.2%). Twenty-seven Holstein cows were fed 1 of 3 diets comprising 62% forage and 38% concentrate (DM basis) containing 35% (DM basis) corn silage from the control hybrid (NLO), 35% of the BMR hybrid (BLO), or 50% of the BMR (BHI). Cows were fed the diets in a replicated 3×3 Latin square design with 28-d periods. Intake of DM was similar among treatments but milk production was greater for cows fed BLO (50.1kg/d) and BHI (51.1kg/d) than for NLO (47.9kg/d). Milk fat percentage was lower for cows fed BHI (3.37%) than for those fed BLO (3.55%) and NLO (3.56%) but yield of milk fat was similar among treatments. Yield and percentage of milk protein was higher for cows in BHI compared with NLO. The concentration of milk urea N was lower in cows fed BHI (14.0mg/dL) than in those fed NLO (14.7mg/dL) and intermediate for BLO (14.5mg/dL). The yield of 3.5% fat-corrected milk was higher in cows fed BLO (50.2kg/d) than in NLO (48.2kg/d) and was intermediate for BHI (49.8kg/d). The total-tract digestibility of dietary DM, organic matter, starch, and crude protein was lower for cows in NLO compared with the other treatments. The total-tract digestibility of NDF was highest for BHI (54.4%), intermediate for BLO (50.9%), and lowest for NLO (43.2%). We conclude that BMR corn silage can be included in rations at moderate and high proportions of a total ration, resulting in high levels of milk production.

  10. Effect of concentrate level and feeding management on chewing activities, saliva production, and ruminal pH of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Maekawa, M; Beauchemin, K A; Christensen, D A

    2002-05-01

    Eight ruminally cannulated lactating Holstein cows were used in a double 4 x 4 Latin square to determine the effects of 1) proportion of barley silage [40, 50, and 60% of dry matter (DM)] in the diet, and 2) feeding a total mixed ration (TMR) compared with separate ingredients (SI) on chewing activities, saliva production, and ruminal pH. Although cows fed SI were offered a diet containing 50% silage, they actually consumed a diet containing 43% silage (DM basis). Dry matter intake and milk yield were similar for all diets (18.2 kg of DM/d and 27.2 kg/d, respectively). Cows fed the 40% silage TMR spent more time eating than cows fed SI (243 vs. 198 min/d), but rumination time was similar (546 min/d). Eating time was similar among the TMR diets, but rumination time increased from 498 to 516 and 584 min/d as silage in the TMR increased from 40 to 50, and then to 60%, respectively. The secretion of saliva per gram of feed was 4.43, 3.18, and 1.19 ml/g of DM with consumption of silage, TMR, and concentrate, respectively. Resting salivation rate was similar for all diets (101 ml/min). Regardless of the diet, cows secreted 239 +/- 17 L/d of saliva, and ruminal pH was below 5.8 for 10 h/d. Results indicated increased chewing time did not increase total daily saliva secretion because increased eating and ruminating saliva was associated with decreased resting saliva. Feeding SI increased the risk of acidosis, because cows ate a higher proportion of concentrate than intended.

  11. Effect of substituting brown rice for corn on lactation and digestion in dairy cows fed diets with a high proportion of grain.

    PubMed

    Miyaji, M; Matsuyama, H; Hosoda, K

    2014-02-01

    The effects of the substitution of brown rice (Oryza sativa L.; BR) for corn (Zea mays L.) in ensiled total mixed ration (TMR) that had a high proportion of grain on feed intake, lactation performance, ruminal fermentation, digestion, and N utilization were evaluated. Nine multiparous Holstein cows (51 ± 9 d in milk) were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design with 3 dietary treatments: a diet containing 0, 20, or 40% steam-flaked BR and 40, 20, or 0% steam-flaked corn (dry matter basis). Cows were fed ad libitum an ensiled TMR consisting of 40.7% alfalfa silage, 11.8% grass silage, 7.1% soybean meal, and 40.0% steam-flaked grain (dry matter basis). The ensiled TMR was prepared by baling fresh TMR, and then sealed by a bale wrapper and stored outdoors at 5 to 30 °C for over 6 mo. Dry matter intake and milk yield were lower for cows fed 40% BR than for cows fed 40% corn. The ruminal pH and total volatile fatty acid concentrations were not affected by dietary treatment. The ruminal ammonia-N concentration decreased as the percentage of BR in the diets was elevated. The proportion of acetate decreased, and that of propionate and butyrate increased with the increasing levels of BR. Plasma urea-N concentrations was lower and glucose and insulin concentrations were higher for cows fed 40% BR than for cows fed 40% corn. The whole-tract apparent digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, and starch increased, and the digestibility of neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber decreased with the increasing BR level in the diet, with no dietary effect on crude protein digestion. As a proportion of N intake, the urinary N excretion was lower and the retention of N was higher for cows fed 40% BR than for cows fed 40% corn, with no dietary effect observed on N secretion in milk and fecal N excretion. These results show that substituting BR for corn decreases urinary N losses and improves N utilization, but causes adverse effects on milk production when cows

  12. Economic and environmental feasibility of a perennial cow dairy farm.

    PubMed

    Rotz, C A; Zartman, D L; Crandall, K L

    2005-08-01

    More efficient and economical production systems are needed to improve the sustainability of dairy farms. One concept to consider is using perennial cows. Perennial cows are those that maintain a relatively high milk production for >or=2 yr without going through the typical dry period followed by calving. Farm records show that some cows have produced over 20 kg/d after 4 yr of continuous lactation. A farm simulation model was used to evaluate the long-term performance, environmental impact, and economics of a conceptual perennial cow production system on a typical dairy farm in Pennsylvania. Compared with a traditional 100-cow farm with replacement heifers produced on the farm, a perennial herd of 100 cows and purchased replacements provided environmental benefit but sustained a substantial economic loss. However, increasing the perennial herd to 128 cows better utilized the feed produced on the farm. Compared with the traditional 100-cow farm, use of the perennial 128-cow herd reduced supplemental protein and mineral feed purchases by 38%, increased annual milk sales by 21%, reduced nitrogen losses by 17%, maintained a phosphorus balance, and increased annual net return to farm management by 3200 dollars. A traditional 120-cow dairy farm with purchased replacements also used a similar amount of farm-produced feed. Compared with this option, the farm with 128 perennial cows reduced protein and mineral feed purchases by 36%, maintained similar an